Note: This page contains sample records for the topic microsatellite paternity analysis from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Microsatellite analysis of paternity and reproduction in Arctic grizzly bears.  

PubMed

We report data from analyses of microsatellite loci of 30 grizzly bear family groups which demonstrate that each cub in a litter can be sired independently, and we derive estimates of maximum reproductive success for males, from an Arctic population in northwestern Alaska that is minimally affected by human activities. These analyses were made possible by the use of single-locus primers that amplified both of an individual's alleles at eight microsatellite loci and by detailed knowledge of maternal/offspring relationships that allowed the identification of paternal alleles. No single male was responsible for more than approximately 11% of known offspring, and no more than 49% of breeding-age males successfully bred. These data contribute to an understanding of the genetic and demographic basis of male reproductive success, which is of vital importance in the maintenance of small, isolated grizzly bear populations. PMID:7657992

Craighead, L; Paetkau, D; Reynolds, H V; Vyse, E R; Strobeck, C

1995-01-01

2

Paternity analysis using microsatellite markers to identify pollen donors in an olive grove.  

PubMed

Olive (Olea europaea L.) is a wind-pollinated, allogamous species that is generally not considered to be self-compatible. In addition, cross-incompatibilities exist between cultivars that can result in low fruit set if compatible pollinisers are not planted nearby. In this study, microsatellite markers were used to identify 17 genotypes that were potential pollen donors in a commercial olive orchard. DNA typing with the same primers was also applied to 800 olive embryos collected from five cultivars in the grove over 2 years of study. Pollen donors for the cultivars Barnea, Corregiola, Kalamata, Koroneiki, and Mission were estimated by paternity analysis, based on the parental contribution of alleles in the genotypes of the embryos. The exclusion probability for the marker set was 0.998 and paternity was assigned on the basis of the 'most likely method'. Different pollen donors were identified for each of the maternal cultivars indicating that cross-compatibilities and incompatibilities varied between the genotypes studied. Cross-pollination was the principal method of fertilization, as selfing was only observed in two of the embryos studied and both of these were from the cultivar Mission. This is the first report where these techniques have been applied to survey the pollination patterns in an olive grove. The results indicate that careful planning in orchard design is required for efficient pollination between olive cultivars. PMID:16133312

Mookerjee, Sonali; Guerin, Jenny; Collins, Graham; Ford, Chris; Sedgley, Margaret

2005-10-01

3

Paternity analysis in Excel.  

PubMed

Paternity analysis using microsatellite information is a well-studied subject. These markers are ideal for parentage studies and fingerprinting, due to their high-discrimination power. This type of data is used to assign paternity, to compute the average selfing and outcrossing rates and to estimate the biparental inbreeding. There are several public domain programs that compute all this information from data. Most of the time, it is necessary to export data to some sort of format, feed it to the program and import the output to an Excel book for further processing. In this article we briefly describe a program referred from now on as Paternity Analysis in Excel (PAE), developed at IST and IBET (see the acknowledgments) that computes paternity candidates from data, and other information, from within Excel. In practice this means that the end user provides the data in an Excel sheet and, by pressing an appropriate button, obtains the results in another Excel sheet. For convenience PAE is divided into two modules. The first one is a filtering module that selects data from the sequencer and reorganizes it in a format appropriate to process paternity analysis, assuming certain conventions for the names of parents and offspring from the sequencer. The second module carries out the paternity analysis assuming that one parent is known. Both modules are written in Excel-VBA and can be obtained at the address (www.math.ist.utl.pt/~fmd/pa/pa.zip). They are free for non-commercial purposes and have been tested with different data and against different software (Cervus, FaMoz, and MLTR). PMID:17928093

Rocheta, Margarida; Dionísio, F Miguel; Fonseca, Luís; Pires, Ana M

2007-12-01

4

Paternity analysis using microsatellite markers to identify pollen donors in an olive grove  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive (Olea europaea L.) is a wind-pollinated, allogamous species that is generally not considered to be self-compatible. In addition, cross-incompatibilities exist between cultivars that can result in low fruit set if compatible pollinisers are not planted nearby. In this study, microsatellite markers were used to identify 17 genotypes that were potential pollen donors in a commercial olive orchard. DNA typing

Sonali Mookerjee; Jenny Guerin; Graham Collins; Chris Ford; Margaret Sedgley

2005-01-01

5

DNA microsatellites in domesticated dogs: Application in paternity disputes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsatellite sequences, like minisatellites, are a class of polymorphic DNA fragments that are randomly distributed throughout\\u000a mammalian genome. Although they express significantly lower variation than minisatellites, they have potential to be used\\u000a in paternity disputes. However, the inherently lower variability together with the more genetically homogeneous nature of\\u000a pedigree dogs due to the major inbreeding, raised doubts about the effectiveness

Irena Zajc; Jeff Sampson

1996-01-01

6

Multiple paternity assessed using microsatellite markers, in green turtles Chelonia mydas (Linnaeus, 1758) of Ascension Island, South Atlantic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paternity was determined for three clutches and up to 20 offspring per clutch in the green turtle (Chelonia mydas) from Ascension Island, South Atlantic, using microsatellite markers. All three clutches were sired by at least two different males. The results were compared with those of previous studies of multiple paternity in turtles. No significant difference among studies was observed in

J. S. Ireland; A. C. Broderick; F. Glen; B. J. Godley; G. C. Hays; P. L. M. Lee; D. O. F. Skibinski

2003-01-01

7

Microsatellite Evidence for High Frequency of Multiple Paternity in the Marine Gastropod Rapana venosa  

PubMed Central

Background Inferring of parentage in natural populations is important in understanding the mating systems of a species, which have great effects on its genetic structure and evolution. Muricidae, a large group (approximately 1,600 species) of marine gastropods, are poorly investigated in patterns of multiple paternity and sperm competition based on molecular techniques. The veined Rapa whelk, Rapana venosa, a commercially important muricid species with internal fertilization, is an ideal species to study the occurrence and frequency of multiple paternity and to facilitate understanding of their reproductive strategies. Methodology/Principal Findings We developed five highly polymorphic microsatellites in R. venosa and applied them to identify multiple paternity in 19 broods (1381 embryos) collected from Dandong, China. Multiple paternity was detected in 17 (89.5%) of 19 broods. The number of sires per brood ranged from 1 to 7 (4.3 on average). Of the 17 multiply sired broods, 16 (94.1%) were significantly skewed from equal paternal contributions, and had a dominant sire which was also dominant in each assayed capsule. Conclusions Our results indicate that a high level of multiple paternity occurs in the wild population of R. venosa. Similar patterns of multiple paternity in the 2–6 assayed capsules from each brood imply that fertilization events within the body of a female occur mostly (but not entirely) as random draws from a “well-but-not-perfectly blended sperm pool” of her several mates. Strongly skewed distributions of fertilization success among sires also suggest that sperm competition and/or cryptic female choice might be important for post-copulatory paternity biasing in this species.

Liu, Jin-Xian

2014-01-01

8

Philippine population database at nine microsatellite loci for forensic and paternity applications.  

PubMed

Allele frequency distributions for a Filipino population from the National Capital Region (NCR) were determined for eight STR loci: HUMF13A01, HUMFES/FPS, HUMvWA, HUMFOLP23, HUMD8S306, HUMCSFIPO, HUMTPOX and HUMTHO1; and a VNTR locus: D1S80. Statistical analysis showed that the nine loci showed no deviations from Hardy-Weinberg and linkage equilibrium rules. The average power of paternity exclusion for the nine loci is 0.9962 and the discriminating power is 1-2 x 10(-9). The data obtained from this study will be used as reference data for forensic DNA typing in the Philippines. PMID:10376334

Halos, S C; Chu, J Y; Ferreon, A C; Magno, M M

1999-04-12

9

Pollen flow in the wildservice tree, Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz. I. Evaluating the paternity analysis procedure in continuous populations.  

PubMed

The joint development of polymorphic molecular markers and paternity analysis methods provides new approaches to investigate ongoing patterns of pollen flow in natural plant populations. However, paternity studies are hindered by false paternity assignment and the nondetection of true fathers. To gauge the risk of these two types of errors, we performed a simulation study to investigate the impact on paternity analysis of: (i) the assumed values for the size of the breeding male population (NBMP), and (ii) the rate of scoring error in genotype assessment. Our simulations were based on microsatellite data obtained from a natural population of the entomophilous wild service tree, Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz. We show that an accurate estimate of NBMP is required to minimize both types of errors, and we assess the reliability of a technique used to estimate NBMP based on parent-offspring genetic data. We then show that scoring errors in genotype assessment only slightly affect the assessment of paternity relationships, and conclude that it is generally better to neglect the scoring error rate in paternity analyses within a nonisolated population. PMID:14629357

Oddou-Muratorio, S; Houot, M-L; Demesure-Musch, B; Austerlitz, F

2003-12-01

10

Multiple paternal origins of domestic cattle revealed by Y-specific interspersed multilocus microsatellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we show how Y-specific interspersed multilocus microsatellites, which are loci that yield several amplified bands differing in size from the same male individual and PCR reaction, are a powerful source of information for tracing the history of cattle. Our results confirm the existence of three main groups of sires, which are separated by evolutionary time and clearly

Lucía Pérez-Pardal; Luis J. Royo; Albano Beja-Pereira; Shanyuan Chen; Rodolfo J. C. Cantet; Amadou Traoré; Ino Curik; J Sölkner; R Bozzi; I Fernández; I Álvarez; J P Gutiérrez; E Gómez; F A Ponce de León; Félix Goyache

2010-01-01

11

[Analysis of microsatellite alteration in colorectal cancer].  

PubMed

We investigated the possible correlation between the microsatellite alterations (replication error: RER, and loss of heterozygosity: LOH) and clinicopathologic factors and survival in colorectal cancer. A total of 78 colorectal cancers was examined for microsatellite alteration at three microsatellite loci containing D2S123, D18S58 and C117-703. RER is considered positive when at least one microsatellite locus is detected. RER was positive in 28.2%, and the respective positivity was 12.8%, 15.3% and 11.5%. The positivity of LOH was 6.4%, 10.3% and 19.2%, in that order. RER-positive cancers were more significantly found in the proximal colon than the distal colorectum. Node-negative colorectal cancers were more noted in RER (+)-positive cancers. Multivariate analysis showed that LOH in D18S58 locus and RER in CI17-703 locus were independent prognostic factors. PMID:9589050

Mizunuma, H; Takita, K; Ooki, S; Onda, M; Ando, Y; Yoshida, T; Tsuchiya, A; Abe, R

1998-04-01

12

Microsatellite analysis of kinkajou social organization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kinkajou social groups generally consist of one adult female, two males, one subadult and one juvenile. Based on analysis of variation in 11 microsatellite loci, we assess the degree of kinship within and between four social groups totaling 25 kinkajous. We use exclusion and likelihood analyses to assign parents for seven of the eight offspring sampled, five with ? ?

R. W. Kays; J. L. Gittleman; R. K. Wayne

2000-01-01

13

Multiple paternal origins of domestic cattle revealed by Y-specific interspersed multilocus microsatellites.  

PubMed

In this study, we show how Y-specific interspersed multilocus microsatellites, which are loci that yield several amplified bands differing in size from the same male individual and PCR reaction, are a powerful source of information for tracing the history of cattle. Our results confirm the existence of three main groups of sires, which are separated by evolutionary time and clearly predate domestication. These three groups are consistent with the haplogroups previously identified by Götherström et al. (2005) using five Y-specific segregating sites: Y1 and Y2 in taurine (Bos taurus) cattle and Y3 in zebu (Bos indicus) cattle. The zebu cattle cluster clearly originates from a domestication process that was geographically and temporally separated from that of taurine clusters. Our analyses further suggest that: (i) introgression of wild sire genetic material into domesticated herds may have a significant role in the formation of modern cattle, including the formation of the Y1 haplogroup; (ii) a putative domestication event in Africa probably included local Y2-like wild sires; (iii) the West African zebu cattle Y-chromosome may have partially originated from an ancient introgression of humped cattle into Africa; and (iv) the high genetic similarity among Asian zebu sires is consistent with a single domestication process. PMID:20332805

Pérez-Pardal, L; Royo, L J; Beja-Pereira, A; Chen, S; Cantet, R J C; Traoré, A; Curik, I; Sölkner, J; Bozzi, R; Fernández, I; Alvarez, I; Gutiérrez, J P; Gómez, E; Ponce de León, F A; Goyache, F

2010-12-01

14

A molecular analysis of African lion (Panthera leo) mating structure and extra-group paternity in Etosha National Park.  

PubMed

The recent incorporation of molecular methods into analyses of social and mating systems has provided evidence that mating patterns often differ from those predicted by group social organization. Based on field studies and paternity analyses at a limited number of sites, African lions are predicted to exhibit a strict within-pride mating system. Extra-group paternity has not been previously reported in African lions; however, observations of extra-group associations among lions inhabiting Etosha National Park in Namibia suggest deviation from the predicted within-pride mating pattern. We analysed variation in 14 microsatellite loci in a population of 164 African lions in Etosha National Park. Genetic analysis was coupled with demographic and observational data to examine pride structure, relatedness and extra-group paternity (EGP). EGP was found to occur in 57% of prides where paternity was analysed (n = 7), and the overall rate of EGP in this population was 41% (n = 34). Group sex ratio had a significant effect on the occurrence of EGP (P < 0.05), indicating that variation in pride-level social structure may explain intergroup variation in EGP. Prides with a lower male-to-female ratio were significantly more likely to experience EGP in this population. The results of this study challenge the current models of African lion mating systems and provide evidence that social structure may not reflect breeding structure in some social mammals. PMID:23495802

Lyke, M M; Dubach, J; Briggs, M B

2013-05-01

15

Microsatellite analysis in organelle genomes of Chlorophyta  

PubMed Central

Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) or microsatellites constitute a significant portion of genomes however; their significance in organellar genomes has not been completely understood. The availability of organelle genome sequences allows us to understand the organization of SSRs in their genic and intergenic regions. In the present work, SSRs were identified and categorized in 14 mitochondrial and 22 chloroplast genomes of algal species belonging to Chlorophyta. Based on the study, it was observed that number of SSRs in non-coding region were more as compared to coding region and frequency of mononucleotides repeats were highest followed by dinucleotides in both mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes. It was also observed that maximum number of SSRs was found in genes encoding for beta subunit of RNA polymerase in chloroplast genomes and NADH dehydrogenase in mitochondrial genomes. This is the first and original report on whole genomes sequence analysis of organellar genomes of green algae.

Kuntal, Himani; Sharma, Vinay; Daniell, Henry

2012-01-01

16

Microsatellite analysis in organelle genomes of Chlorophyta.  

PubMed

Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) or microsatellites constitute a significant portion of genomes however; their significance in organellar genomes has not been completely understood. The availability of organelle genome sequences allows us to understand the organization of SSRs in their genic and intergenic regions. In the present work, SSRs were identified and categorized in 14 mitochondrial and 22 chloroplast genomes of algal species belonging to Chlorophyta. Based on the study, it was observed that number of SSRs in non-coding region were more as compared to coding region and frequency of mononucleotides repeats were highest followed by dinucleotides in both mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes. It was also observed that maximum number of SSRs was found in genes encoding for beta subunit of RNA polymerase in chloroplast genomes and NADH dehydrogenase in mitochondrial genomes. This is the first and original report on whole genomes sequence analysis of organellar genomes of green algae. PMID:22493532

Kuntal, Himani; Sharma, Vinay; Daniell, Henry

2012-01-01

17

Analysis of two 47,XXX males reveals X-Y interchange and maternal or paternal nondisjunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two cases of 47,XXX males were studied, one of which has been published previously (Bigozzi et al. 1980). Analysis of X-linked restriction fragment length polymorphisms revealed that in this case, one X chromosome was of paternal and two were of maternal origin, whereas in the other case, two X chromosomes were of paternal and one of maternal origin. Southern blot

G. Scherer; W. Schempp; M. Fraccaro; E. Bausch; V. Bigozzi; P. Maraschio; E. Montali; G. Simoni; U. Wolf

1989-01-01

18

Network analysis of human Y microsatellite haplotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the utility of Y chromosome micro- satellites for studying human male-lineage evolution, we typed samples from three populations for five tetranucleotide repeats and an Alu insertion poly- morphism. We found very high levels of haplotype diversity and evidence that most mutations involve the gain or loss of only one repeat unit, implying that any given microsatellite haplotype may

Gillian Cooper; William Amos; Dorota Hoffman; David C. Rubinsztein

1996-01-01

19

Establishing paternity in whooping cranes (Grus Americana) by DNA analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

DNA fingerprinting was used to study paternity and genetic variability within a captive flock of Whooping Cranes (Grus americana). Fingerprint patterns for 42 individuals were obtained by digesting genomic crane DNAs with HaeIII followed by electrophoresis, blotting, and hybridization to the M13 minisatellite probe. Despite finding reduced levels of genetic variation in the Whooping Crane due to a population 'bottleneck,' these polymorphisms were successfully used to determine paternity in six of seven cases of captive propagation where the maternal-offspring relationship was known, but where the sire was unknown. These determinations of paternity are required for effective genetic management of. the crane flock. These results also revealed a number of heterozygous minisatellite loci that will be valuable in future assessments of genetic variability in this endangered species.

Longmire, J.L.; Gee, G.F.; Hardekopf, C.L.; Mark, G.A.

1992-01-01

20

Microsatellite analysis of relationships within cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum).  

PubMed

The potential of microsatellite markers for use in genetical studies in potato (Solanum tuberosum) was evaluated. Database searches revealed that microsatellite sequences were present in the non-coding regions of 24 potato genes. Twenty-two sets of primers were designed and products successfully amplified using 19 primer pairs. These were tested against a panel of 18 tetraploid potato cultivars. Four pairs of primers designed to amplify microsatellites from tomato were also used. Seven (including 2 of the tomato sequences) failed to reveal any variation in the accessions tested. Sixteen primer pairs did reveal polymorphism, detecting between 2 and 19 alleles at each locus. Of these, 3 gave rise to complex band patterns, suggesting that multiple polymorphic loci were being amplified using a single primer pair. Heterozygosity values ranged from 0.408 to 0.921. Phenetic analysis of the derived information allowed a dendrogram to be constructed depicting the relationships between the 18 potato cultivars. The potential of microsatellite markers for genetic analysis and satutory applications in potato is discussed in the context of these results. Furthermore, the potential of 'crossspecies amplification' is highlighted as an additional source of microsatellite markers for genetic research in potato. PMID:24166639

Provan, J; Powell, W; Waugh, R

1996-06-01

21

Possible pitfalls in motherless paternity analysis with related putative fathers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, more and more paternity cases are carried out investigating only child and putative father, mostly for economical or private reasons. Usually, reliable results can be obtained and the putative father can be included or ruled out with a high certainty. Considerable problems might arise when a relative of the biological father is investigated as being the putative father. In

Nicole von Wurmb-Schwark; Victoria Mályusz; Eva Simeoni; Eberhard Lignitz; Micaela Poetsch

2006-01-01

22

Automation of genetic linkage analysis using florescent microsatellite markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automation of the typing of genetic markers offers advantages of speed, accuracy, and cost in the mapping of genetic traits and the construction of high-resolution linkage maps. The authors have developed an automated linkage analysis system by (i) using a robotic pipettor to set up polymerase chain reactions (PCR) to amplify microsatellites with incorporation of a single fluorescent label; (ii)

D. C. Mansfield; A. F. Brown; D. K. Green

1994-01-01

23

Genetic analysis of two common carp broodstocks by RAPD and microsatellite markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The whole broodstock of two Hungarian common carp farms—80 and 196 individuals—was analyzed by using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assay and microsatellite analysis. Ten polymorphic RAPD markers and four microsatellites were selected to genotype both of the stocks. As expected, microsatellite analysis revealed more detailed information on genetic diversities than RAPD assay. Results obtained with both types of DNA

Richárd Bártfai; Sándor Egedi; Gen Hua Yue; Balázs Kovács; Béla Urbányi; Gizella Tamás; László Horváth; László Orbán

2003-01-01

24

The Y chromosome in forensic analysis and paternity testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The male specificity of the human Y chromosome makes it potentially useful in forensic studies and paternity testing, and\\u000a markers are now available which will allow its usefulness to be assessed in practice. However, while it can be used confidently\\u000a for exclusions, the unusual properties of the Y mean that inclusions will be very difficult to make: haplotypes are confined

M. A. Jobling; A. Pandya; C. Tyler-Smith

1997-01-01

25

Prenatal and newborn paternity testing with DNA analysis.  

PubMed

In rape against youthful girls which yields pregnancy after the abortion DNA examinations can be performed from the aborted foetal material to provide evidence of paternity of the suspect. In our present work we demonstrate six cases: four of them are rape cases and two where the mother abandoned her newborn baby. These cases proved that DNA-STR profiles can be determined from foetus after the abortion and perpetrator of a rape can be found. Due to our result we suggest that not only placenta but also bloody vernix caseosa is useful tissue for identifying the putative mother because vernix caseosa can be the carrier of the mother's blood. PMID:15694732

Csete, K; Beer, Zs; Varga, T

2005-01-17

26

Paternal uniparental disomy for chromosome 1 revealed by molecular analysis of a patient with pycnodysostosis.  

PubMed Central

Molecular analysis of a patient affected by the autosomal recessive skeletal dysplasia, pycnodysostosis (cathepsin K deficiency; MIM 265800), revealed homozygosity for a novel missense mutation (A277V). Since the A277V mutation was carried by the patient's father but not by his mother, who had two normal cathepsin K alleles, paternal uniparental disomy was suspected. Karyotyping of the patient and of both parents was normal, and high-resolution cytogenetic analyses of chromosome 1, to which cathepsin K is mapped, revealed no abnormalities. Evaluation of polymorphic DNA markers spanning chromosome 1 demonstrated that the patient had inherited two paternal chromosome 1 homologues, whereas alleles for markers from other chromosomes were inherited in a Mendelian fashion. The patient was homoallelic for informative markers mapping near the chromosome 1 centromere, but he was heteroallelic for markers near both telomeres, establishing that the paternal uniparental disomy with partial isodisomy was caused by a meiosis II nondisjunction event. Phenotypically, the patient had normal birth height and weight, had normal psychomotor development at age 7 years, and had only the usual features of pycnodysostosis. This patient represents the first case of paternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 1 and provides conclusive evidence that paternally derived genes on human chromosome 1 are not imprinted.

Gelb, B D; Willner, J P; Dunn, T M; Kardon, N B; Verloes, A; Poncin, J; Desnick, R J

1998-01-01

27

Paternal uniparental disomy for chromosome 1 revealed by molecular analysis of a patient with pycnodysostosis.  

PubMed

Molecular analysis of a patient affected by the autosomal recessive skeletal dysplasia, pycnodysostosis (cathepsin K deficiency; MIM 265800), revealed homozygosity for a novel missense mutation (A277V). Since the A277V mutation was carried by the patient's father but not by his mother, who had two normal cathepsin K alleles, paternal uniparental disomy was suspected. Karyotyping of the patient and of both parents was normal, and high-resolution cytogenetic analyses of chromosome 1, to which cathepsin K is mapped, revealed no abnormalities. Evaluation of polymorphic DNA markers spanning chromosome 1 demonstrated that the patient had inherited two paternal chromosome 1 homologues, whereas alleles for markers from other chromosomes were inherited in a Mendelian fashion. The patient was homoallelic for informative markers mapping near the chromosome 1 centromere, but he was heteroallelic for markers near both telomeres, establishing that the paternal uniparental disomy with partial isodisomy was caused by a meiosis II nondisjunction event. Phenotypically, the patient had normal birth height and weight, had normal psychomotor development at age 7 years, and had only the usual features of pycnodysostosis. This patient represents the first case of paternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 1 and provides conclusive evidence that paternally derived genes on human chromosome 1 are not imprinted. PMID:9529353

Gelb, B D; Willner, J P; Dunn, T M; Kardon, N B; Verloes, A; Poncin, J; Desnick, R J

1998-04-01

28

Meta-analysis of Paternal Age and Schizophrenia Risk in Male Versus Female Offspring  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Advanced paternal age (APA) is a reported risk factor for schizophrenia in the offspring. We performed a meta-analysis of this association, considering the effect of gender and study design. Methods: We identified articles by searching Pub Med, PsychInfo, ISI, and EMBASE, and the reference lists of identified studies. Previously unpublished data from the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort (NFBC 1966) study were also included. Results: There were 6 cohort studies and 6 case–control studies that met the inclusion criteria. In both study designs, there was a significant increase in risk of schizophrenia in the offspring of older fathers (?30) compared to a reference paternal age of 25–29, with no gender differences. The relative risk (RR) in the oldest fathers (?50) was 1.66 [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.46–1.89, P < 0.01]. A significant increase in risk was also found for younger fathers (<25) in males (RR?=?1.08, 95% CI: 1.02–1.14, P?=?0.01) but not females (RR?=?1.04, 95% CI: 0.97–1.14, P?=?0.28). The population attributable risk percentage (PAR%) was 10% for paternal age ?30 and 5% for paternal age <25. Discussion: Both APA (?30) and younger paternal age (<25) increase the risk of schizophrenia; younger paternal age may be associated with an increased risk in males but not females. This risk factor increases the risk of schizophrenia as much as any single candidate gene of risk. The mechanism of these associations is not known and may differ for older and younger fathers.

Miller, Brian; Messias, Erick; Miettunen, Jouko; Alaraisanen, Antti; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riita; Koponen, Hannu; Rasanen, Pirkko; Isohanni, Matti; Kirkpatrick, Brian

2011-01-01

29

Analysis of new microsatellite markers developed from reported sequences of Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, were selected from GenBank to identify simple sequence repeats (SSRs) or microsatellites. A bioinformatic analysis of 11111 ESTs identified 751 SSR-containing ESTs, including 440 dinucleotide, 254 trinucleotide, 53 tetranucleotide, 95 pentanucleotide and 40 hexanucleotide microsatellites respectively. The CA/TG and GA/TC repeats were the most abundant microsatellites. AT-rich types were predominant among trinucleotide and tetranucleotide microsatellites. PCR primers were designed to amplify 10 identified microsatellites loci. The PCR results from eight pairs of primers showed polymorphisms in wild populations. In 30 wild individuals, the mean observed and expected heterozygosities of these 8 polymorphic SSRs were 0.71 and 0.83 respectively and the average PIC value was 0.8. These microsatellite markers should prove to be a useful addition to the microsatellite markers that are now available for this species.

Yu, Haiyang; Jiang, Liming; Chen, Wei; Wang, Xubo; Wang, Zhigang; Zhang, Quanqi

2010-12-01

30

Microsatellite Instability Confounds Engraftment Analysis of Hematopoietic Stem-cell Transplantation.  

PubMed

Polymorphic short tandem-repeat, or microsatellite, loci have been widely used to analyze chimerism status after allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. In molecular diagnostic laboratories, it is recommended to calculate mixed chimerism for at least 2 informative loci and to avoid microsatellite loci on chromosomes with copy number changes. In this report, we show that microsatellite instability observed in 2 patients with acute leukemia may confound chimerism analysis. Interpretation errors may occur even if 2 to 3 loci are analyzed because of length variation in multiple microsatellite loci. Although microsatellite loci with length variation should not be selected for chimerism analysis, the presence of microsatellite instability, like copy number alteration because of aberrant chromosomes, provides evidence of recurrent or residual cancer cells after hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. PMID:24569786

Tseng, Li-Hui; Tang, Jih-Luh; Haley, Lisa; Beierl, Katie; Gocke, Christopher D; Eshleman, James R; Lin, Ming-Tseh

2014-07-01

31

Analysis of new microsatellite markers developed from reported sequences of Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, were selected from GenBank to identify simple sequence repeats (SSRs) or microsatellites. A bioinformatic analysis of 11111\\u000a ESTs identified 751 SSR-containing ESTs, including 440 dinucleotide, 254 trinucleotide, 53 tetranucleotide, 95 pentanucleotide\\u000a and 40 hexanucleotide microsatellites respectively. The CA\\/TG and GA\\/TC repeats were the most abundant microsatellites. AT-rich\\u000a types were predominant

Haiyang Yu; Liming Jiang; Wei Chen; Xubo Wang; Zhigang Wang; Quanqi Zhang

2010-01-01

32

Automation of genetic linkage analysis using florescent microsatellite markers  

SciTech Connect

Automation of the typing of genetic markers offers advantages of speed, accuracy, and cost in the mapping of genetic traits and the construction of high-resolution linkage maps. The authors have developed an automated linkage analysis system by (i) using a robotic pipettor to set up polymerase chain reactions (PCR) to amplify microsatellites with incorporation of a single fluorescent label; (ii) using an automated sequencing apparatus for detection of the PCR products; (iii) sizing alleles automatically by the use of internal and external standards; (iv) iteratively filtering out nonallelic fragments and checking for Mendelian consistency; (v) calculating the probabilities of selected genotypes; and (vi) automatically formatting the results for input to linkage analysis programs. The method provides accurate sizing of alleles, minimizes the risk of error during manual reading and transcription of data, and increases the throughput of reliable data. It brings any consistencies or ambiguities in the data to the attention of the user and facilitates examination of the raw data. The ALF/ALP system, together with new, optimized microsatellite sets, particularly tetranucleotide repeats, is likely to be well-suited to fully automatic genetic linkage analysis. 32 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Mansfield, D.C.; Brown, A.F.; Green, D.K. [Western General Hospital, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)] [and others] [Western General Hospital, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); and others

1994-11-15

33

Paternity and relatedness in wild chimpanzee communities  

PubMed Central

The genetic structure of three contiguous wild chimpanzee communities in West Africa was examined to determine the extent to which the community, the mixed-sex social unit of chimpanzees, represents a closed reproductive unit. An analysis of paternity for 41 offspring resulted in 34 cases of paternity assignment to an adult male belonging to the same community. Among the 14 offspring for which all potential within-community fathers have been tested, one likely case of extra-group paternity (EGP) has been identified, suggesting an incidence of EGP of 7%. This more extensive analysis contradicts a previous genetic study of the Taď chimpanzees that inferred 50% extra-group fathers. We suggest, based on direct comparison of results for 33 individuals at 1 microsatellite locus and direct comparison of paternity assignments for 11 offspring, that the error rate in the previous study was too high to produce accurate genotypes and assignments of paternity and hence caused the false inference of a high rate of EGP. Thus, the community is the primary but not exclusive unit for reproduction in wild chimpanzees, and females do not typically reproduce with outside males. Despite the inferred low level of gene flow from extra-community males, relatedness levels among the community males are not significantly higher than among community females, and the distribution of genetic relationships within the group suggests that, rather than a primarily male-bonded social structure, the group is bonded through relationships between males and females. Kinship may explain cooperative behaviors directed against other communities, but is unlikely to explain the high levels of affiliation and cooperation seen for male within-community interactions.

Vigilant, Linda; Hofreiter, Michael; Siedel, Heike; Boesch, Christophe

2001-01-01

34

Analysis of microsatellite markers in the genome of the plant pathogen Ceratocystis fimbriata.  

PubMed

Ceratocystis fimbriata sensu lato represents a complex of cryptic and commonly plant pathogenic species that are morphologically similar. Species in this complex have been described using morphological characteristics, intersterility tests and phylogenetics. Microsatellite markers have been useful to study the population structure and origin of some species in the complex. In this study we sequenced the genome of C. fimbriata. This provided an opportunity to mine the genome for microsatellites, to develop new microsatellite markers, and map previously developed markers onto the genome. Over 6000 microsatellites were identified in the genome and their abundance and distribution was determined. Ceratocystis fimbriata has a medium level of microsatellite density and slightly smaller genome when compared with other fungi for which similar microsatellite analyses have been performed. This is the first report of a microsatellite analysis conducted on a genome sequence of a fungal species in the order Microascales. Forty-seven microsatellite markers have been published for population genetic studies, of which 35 could be mapped onto the C. fimbriata genome sequence. We developed an additional ten microsatellite markers within putative genes to differentiate between species in the C. fimbriata s.l. complex. These markers were used to distinguish between 12 species in the complex. PMID:23931120

Simpson, Melissa C; Wilken, P Markus; Coetzee, Martin P A; Wingfield, Michael J; Wingfield, Brenda D

2013-01-01

35

Microsatellite analysis of population structure in the shortfin mako ( Isurus oxyrinchus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsatellite analysis of the shortfin mako shark (Isurus oxyrinchus) revealed very weak evidence of popu- lation structure. Samples collected from the North Atlantic, South Atlantic, North Pacific, South Pacific, and Atlantic, and Pacific coasts of South Africa were screened at four microsatellite loci. Multilocus measures of population subdivi - sion were much lower than expected (FST = 0.0014, P =

Aaron W. Schrey; Edward J. Heist

2003-01-01

36

Parentage analysis with genetic markers in natural populations. I. The expected proportion of offspring with unambiguous paternity  

SciTech Connect

Recent studies indicate that polymorphic genetic markers are potentially helpful in resolving genealogical relationships among individuals in a natural population. Genetic data provide opportunities for paternity exclusion when genotypic incompatibilities are observed among individuals, and the present investigation examines the resolving power of genetic markers in unambiguous positive determination of paternity. Under the assumption that the mother for each offspring in a population is unambiguously known, an analytical expression for the fraction of males excluded from paternity is derived for the case where males and females may be derived from two different gene pools. This theoretical formulation can also be used to predict the fraction of births for each of which all but one male can be excluded from paternity. The authors show that even when the average probability of exclusion approaches unity, a substantial fraction of births yield equivocal mother-father-offspring determinations. The number of loci needed to increase the frequency of unambiguous determinations to a high level is beyond the scope of current electrophoretic studies in most species. Applications of this theory to electrophoretic data on Chamaelirium luteum (L.) shows that in 2255 offspring derived from 273 males and 70 females, only 57 triplets could be unequivocally determined with eight polymorphic protein loci, even though the average combined exclusionary power of these loci was 73%. The authors demonstrate that genetic paternity analysis in natural populations cannot be reliably based on exclusionary principles alone.

Chakraborty, R.; Meagher, T.R.; Smouse, P.E.

1988-03-01

37

Genetic variation analysis of the Bali street dog using microsatellites  

PubMed Central

Background Approximately 800,000 primarily feral dogs live on the small island of Bali. To analyze the genetic diversity in this population, forty samples were collected at random from dogs in the Denpasar, Bali region and tested using 31 polymorphic microsatellites. Australian dingoes and 28 American Kennel Club breeds were compared to the Bali Street Dog (BSD) for allelic diversity, heterozygosities, F-statistics, GST estimates, Nei's DA distance and phylogenetic relationships. Results The BSD proved to be the most heterogeneous, exhibiting 239 of the 366 total alleles observed across all groups and breeds and had an observed heterozygosity of 0.692. Thirteen private alleles were observed in the BSD with an additional three alleles observed only in the BSD and the Australian dingo. The BSD was related most closely to the Chow Chow with a FST of 0.088 and also with high bootstrap support to the Australian dingo and Akita in the phylogenetic analysis. Conclusions This preliminary study into the diversity and relationship of the BSD to other domestic and feral dog populations shows the BSD to be highly heterogeneous and related to populations of East Asian origin. These results indicate that a viable and diverse population of dogs existed on the island of Bali prior to its geographic isolation approximately 12,000 years ago and has been little influenced by domesticated European dogs since that time.

Irion, Dawn N; Schaffer, Alison L; Grant, Sherry; Wilton, Alan N; Pedersen, Niels C

2005-01-01

38

Analysis of microsatellite instability in colorectal carcinoma by microfluidic-based chip electrophoresis.  

PubMed

Microsatellite analysis is an important tool in clinical research and molecular diagnostics because microsatellite instability (MSI) occurs frequently in various types of cancer. Approximately 10-15% of colorectal, gastric and endometrial carcinomas are associated with MSI, and this has an impact on clinical prognosis. The microsatellite loci Bat25, Bat26, D2S123, D5S346 and D17S250, recommended by the Bethesda guidelines, were analysed by microfluidic-based on-chip electrophoresis in 40 cases of colon carcinoma with known MSI status. In all cases, microfluidic separation of the PCR amplicons resulted in highly resolved, distinct patterns of each of the five microsatellite loci. Detection of MSI could be demonstrated by microsatellite-loci-associated, well-defined deviations in the electropherogram profiles of tumour and non-tumour material, and confirmed the classification of MSI cases performed by conventional technology. In conclusion, microfluidic chip technology is a simple and reliable approach for MSI detection that allows label-free and very fast analysis of microsatellite amplicons. PMID:18641409

Odenthal, M; Barta, N; Lohfink, D; Drebber, U; Schulze, F; Dienes, H P; Baldus, S E

2009-09-01

39

Analysis of microsatellite instability in colorectal carcinoma by microfluidic-based chip electrophoresis  

PubMed Central

Microsatellite analysis is an important tool in clinical research and molecular diagnostics because microsatellite instability (MSI) occurs frequently in various types of cancer. Approximately 10–15% of colorectal, gastric and endometrial carcinomas are associated with MSI, and this has an impact on clinical prognosis. The microsatellite loci Bat25, Bat26, D2S123, D5S346 and D17S250, recommended by the Bethesda guidelines, were analysed by microfluidic-based on-chip electrophoresis in 40 cases of colon carcinoma with known MSI status. In all cases, microfluidic separation of the PCR amplicons resulted in highly resolved, distinct patterns of each of the five microsatellite loci. Detection of MSI could be demonstrated by microsatellite-loci-associated, well-defined deviations in the electropherogram profiles of tumour and non-tumour material, and confirmed the classification of MSI cases performed by conventional technology. In conclusion, microfluidic chip technology is a simple and reliable approach for MSI detection that allows label-free and very fast analysis of microsatellite amplicons.

Odenthal, M; Barta, N; Lohfink, D; Drebber, U; Schulze, F; Dienes, H P; Baldus, S E

2009-01-01

40

Paternal age related schizophrenia (PARS): latent subgroups detected by k-means clustering analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Paternal age related schizophrenia (PARS) has been proposed as a subgroup of schizophrenia with distinct etiology, pathophysiology and symptoms. This study uses a k-means clustering analysis approach to generate hypotheses about differences between PARS and other cases of schizophrenia. Methods We studied PARS (operationally defined as not having any family history of schizophrenia among first and second-degree relatives and fathers’ age at birth ?35 years) in a series of schizophrenia cases recruited from a research unit. Data were available on demographic variables, symptoms (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale; PANSS), cognitive tests (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—Revised; WAIS-R) and olfaction (University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test; UPSIT). We conducted a series of k-means clustering analyses to identify clusters of cases containing high concentrations of PARS. Results Two analyses generated clusters with high concentrations of PARS cases. The first analysis (N=136; PARS=34) revealed a cluster containing 83% PARS cases, in which the patients showed a significant discrepancy between verbal and performance intelligence. The mean paternal and maternal ages were 41 and 33, respectively. The second analysis (N=123; PARS=30) revealed a cluster containing 71% PARS cases, of which 93% were females; the mean age of onset of psychosis, at 17.2, was significantly early. Conclusions These results strengthen the evidence that PARS cases differ from other patients with schizophrenia. Hypothesis-generating findings suggest that features of PARS may include a discrepancy between verbal and performance intelligence, and in females, an early age of onset. These findings provide a rationale for separating these phenotypes from others in future clinical, genetic and pathophysiologic studies of schizophrenia and in considering responses to treatment.

Lee, Hyejoo; Malaspina, Dolores; Ahn, Hongshik; Perrin, Mary; Opler, Mark G.; Kleinhaus, Karine; Harlap, Susan; Goetz, Raymond; Antonius, Daniel

2011-01-01

41

Microsatellite Gene Diversity Analysis in Landlocked Arctic Char from Maine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using six microsatellite loci, we characterized the 12 remaining populations of Arctic char Salvelinus alpinus naturally occurring in Maine. More specifically, we challenged the hy- potheses based on previous analyses with other markers that (1) Arctic char from Floods Pond (known locally as silver char) represent a distinct evolutionary lineage and (2) all other Arctic char populations from Maine belong

Louis Bernatchez; James G. Rhydderch; Frederick W. Kircheis

2002-01-01

42

Microsatellites in Different Eukaryotic Genomes: Survey and Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the abundance of microsatellites with repeated unit lengths of 1-6 base pairs in several eukaryotic taxonomic groups: primates, rodents, other mammals, nonmammalian vertebrates, arthropods, Caenorhabditis elegans, plants, yeast, and other fungi. Distribution of simple sequence repeats was compared between exons, introns, and intergenic regions. Tri- and hexanucleotide repeats prevail in protein-coding exons of all taxa, whereas the dependence

Gabor Toth; Zoltan Gaspari; Jerzy Jurka

2000-01-01

43

Application of Microsatellite Markers in Conservation Genetics and Fisheries Management: Recent Advances in Population Structure Analysis and Conservation Strategies  

PubMed Central

Microsatellites are the most popular and versatile genetic marker with myriads of applications in population genetics, conservation biology, and evolutionary biology. These are the arrays of DNA sequences, consisting of tandemly repeating mono-, di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide units, which are distributed throughout the genomes of most eukaryotic species. Microsatellites are codominant in nature, highly polymorphic, easily typed, and Mendelian inherited, all properties which make them very suitable for the study of population structure and pedigree analysis and capable of detecting differences among closely related species. PCR for microsatellites can be automated for identifying simple sequence repeat polymorphism. Small amount of blood samples or alcohol preserved tissue is adequate for analyzing them. Most of the microsatellites are noncoding, and therefore variations are independent of natural selection. These properties make microsatellites ideal genetic markers for conservation genetics and fisheries management. This review addresses the applications of microsatellite markers in conservation genetics and recent advances in population structure analysis in the context of fisheries management.

Abdul-Muneer, P. M.

2014-01-01

44

[Paternity process in the adolescence].  

PubMed

This qualitative study aimed at learning the masculine conception of paternity and understanding the masculine strategies to cope the legal, social and affective pressures of this process. The collection of information was done through semi-structured interview with eight adolescents from Porto Alegre - RS, Brasil, ranging between 15 and 19 years old, who experienced paternity. The interpretation and analysis were based on the content analysis. From the analysis of these youngsters' reports the following categories have emerged: Adolescents Relationship; Paternity and Gender; and, Meaning of Being a Father. The attentive look to paternity in adolescence brings to light the comprehension of issues regarding the masculine exclusion in objective life experiences marked by the commitment with paternity. PMID:20339754

Luz, Ana Maria Hecker; Berni, Neiva Iolanda de Oliveira

2010-01-01

45

Microsatellite instability analysis: a multicenter study for reliability and quality control.  

PubMed

The molecular biology section of the Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer study group-Germany, instituted a multicenter study to test the reliability and quality of microsatellite instability (MSI) analysis. Eight laboratories compared MSI analyses performed on 10 matched pairs of normal and tumor DNA from patients with colorectal carcinomas. A variety of techniques were applied to the detection of microsatellite changes: (a) silver and ethidium bromide staining of polyacrylamide gels; (b) radioactive labeling; and (c) automated fluorescence detection. The identification of highly unstable tumors and tumors without MSI was achieved in high concordance. However, the interpretation of the band patterns resulted in divergent classifications at several microsatellite marker loci for a large fraction of this tumor/normal panel. The data on more than 30 primers per case suggest that the enlargement of the microsatellite panel to more than 10 loci does not influence the results. In this study, cases with MSI in less than 10% of loci were classified as microsatellite stable, whereas MSI was diagnosed in cases with more than 40% of all markers unstable. We propose that a panel of five microsatellite loci consisting of repeats with different lengths should be analyzed in an initial analysis. When less than two marker loci display shifts in the microsatellite bands from tumor DNA, the panel should be enlarged to include an additional set of five marker loci. The number of marker loci analyzed as well as the number of unstable marker loci found should always be identified. These criteria should result in reports of MSI that are more comparable between studies. PMID:9354434

Bocker, T; Diermann, J; Friedl, W; Gebert, J; Holinski-Feder, E; Karner-Hanusch, J; von Knebel-Doeberitz, M; Koelble, K; Moeslein, G; Schackert, H K; Wirtz, H C; Fishel, R; Rüschoff, J

1997-11-01

46

Microsatellite analysis of Kangayam cattle (Bos indicus) of Tamilnadu  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessment of genetic variability in Kangayam breed of cattle in Tamilnadu, South India was carried out using 25 bovine microsatellite markers. The mean number of alleles was 4.04 ± 0.09 with a range of 2 to 6 and the allele size ranged from 94 to 300 bp. The frequency distribution of alleles in the breed was from 0.0104 to 0.9167.

S. M. K. Karthickeyan; S. N. Sivaselvam; R. Selvam; P. Thangaraju

47

Microsatellite analysis of Toxoplasma gondii shows considerable polymorphism structured into two main clonal groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies on Toxoplasma gondii population structure, based essentially on multilocus restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis or on multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, indicated that T. gondii comprises three clonal lineages. These studies showed a weak polymorphism of the markers (2–4 alleles by locus). In this study, we used eight microsatellite markers to type 84 independent isolates from humans and animals. Two

Daniel Ajzenberg; Anne-Laure Bańuls; Michel Tibayrenc; Marie Laure Dardé

2002-01-01

48

Genetic and functional analysis of neuronatin in mice with maternal or paternal duplication of distal Chr 2.  

PubMed

Functional differences between parental genomes are due to differential expression of parental alleles of imprinted genes. Neuronatin (Nnat) is a recently identified paternally expressed imprinted gene that is initially expressed in the rhombomeres and pituitary gland and later more widely in the central and peripheral nervous system mainly in postmitotic and differentiating neuroepithelial cells. Nnat maps to distal chromosome (Chr) 2, which contains an imprinting region that causes morphological abnormalities and early neonatal lethality. More detailed mapping analysis of Nnat showed that it is located between the T26H and T2Wa translocation breakpoints which is, surprisingly, proximal to the reported imprinting region between the T2Wa and T28H translocation breakpoints, suggesting that there may be two distinct imprinting regions on distal chromosome 2. To investigate the potential role of Nnat, we compared normal embryos with those which were PatDp.dist2.T26H (paternal duplication/maternal deficiency of chromosome 2 distal to the translocation breakpoint T26H) and MatDp.dist2.T26H. Expression of Nnat was detected in the PatDp.dist2.T26H embryos, where both copies of Nnat are paternally inherited, and normal embryos but no expression was detected in the MatDp.dist2.T26H embryos with the two maternally inherited copies. The differential expression of Nnat was supported by DNA methylation analysis with the paternally inherited alleles being unmethylated and the maternal alleles fully methylated. Although experimental embryos appeared grossly similar phenotypically in the structures where expression of Nnat was detected, differences in folding of the cerebellum were observed in neonates, and other more subtle developmental or behavioral effects due to gain or loss of Nnat cannot be ruled out. PMID:9331332

Kikyo, N; Williamson, C M; John, R M; Barton, S C; Beechey, C V; Ball, S T; Cattanach, B M; Surani, M A; Peters, J

1997-10-01

49

[Genetic diversity in goat breeds based on microsatellite analysis].  

PubMed

Fluorescence PCR was applied to investigate the genetic diversities of 9 indigenous Chinese goat breeds and 1 exotic breed with 10 microsatellite DNA markers recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the International Livestock Research Institute of Animal Genetics, which provide data for the preservation and utilization of indigenous goat breeds genetic resource. We found that the 7 breeds were high polymorphic while 3 breeds were moderate polymorphic. We also detected 119 alleles, and the effective allele number ranged from 1.4641 to 9.2911. The average heterozygosity of loci and breeds respectively varied from 0.2618 to 0.7672 and from 0.5196 to 0.7024. As well as SRCRSP23 site and Hexi cashmere goat had the highest average heterozygosity. Then we analyzed the phylogenetic trees (NJ and UPGMA), and found both of them were generally in accordance with their original breeding history and localities. PMID:20684301

Xu, Limei; Liu, Chousheng; Zhang, Liping; Wang, Zhigang; Han, Xu; Li, Xiaoxia; Chang, Shuang

2010-05-01

50

Molecular Characterization of Herpes Simplex Virus 2 Strains by Analysis of Microsatellite Polymorphism  

PubMed Central

The complete 154-kbp linear double-stranded genomic DNA sequence of herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2), consisting of two extended regions of unique sequences bounded by a pair of inverted repeat elements, was published in 1998 and since then has been widely employed in a wide range of studies. Throughout the HSV-2 genome are scattered 150 microsatellites (also referred to as short tandem repeats) of 1- to 6-nucleotide motifs, mainly distributed in noncoding regions. Microsatellites are considered reliable markers for genetic mapping to differentiate herpesvirus strains, as shown for cytomegalovirus and HSV-1. The aim of this work was to characterize 12 polymorphic microsatellites within the HSV-2 genome by use of 3 multiplex PCR assays in combination with length polymorphism analysis for the rapid genetic differentiation of 56 HSV-2 clinical isolates and 2 HSV-2 laboratory strains (gHSV-2 and MS). This new system was applied to a specific new HSV-2 variant recently identified in HIV-1-infected patients originating from West Africa. Our results confirm that microsatellite polymorphism analysis is an accurate tool for studying the epidemiology of HSV-2 infections.

Ait-Arkoub, Zaina; Voujon, Delphine; Deback, Claire; Abrao, Emiliana P.; Agut, Henri; Boutolleau, David

2013-01-01

51

Genetic relationships among wheat genotypes, as revealed by microsatellite markers and pedigree analysis.  

PubMed

Genetic relationships among 20 elite wheat genotypes were studied using microsatellite markers and pedigree analysis. A total of 93 polymorphic bands were obtained with 25 microsatellite primer pairs. Coefficient of parentage (COP) values were calculated using parentage information at the expansion level of 5. The pedigree-based similarity (mean 0.115, range 0.00-0.53) was lower than the similarity assessed using microsatellite markers (mean 0.70, range 0.47-0.91). Similarity estimates were used to construct dendrograms by using the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA). Clustering of genotypes in respect of marker-based similarity revealed two groups. Genotype PBW442 diverged and appeared as distinct from all other genotypes in both marker-based and pedigree-based analysis. The correlation of COP values with genetic similarity values based on microsatellite markers is low (r = 0.285, p < 0.05). The results indicate a need to develop wheat varieties with a diverse genetic background and to incorporate new variability into the existing wheat gene pool. PMID:16278510

Sud, Suman; Bains, Navtej Singh; Nanda, Govinder Singh

2005-01-01

52

Development of microsatellite markers from an enriched genomic library for genetic analysis of melon (Cucumis melo L.)  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the great advances in genomic technology observed in several crop species, the availability of molecular tools such as microsatellite markers has been limited in melon (Cucumis melo L.) and cucurbit species. The development of microsatellite markers will have a major impact on genetic analysis and breeding of melon, especially on the generation of marker saturated genetic maps and implementation of marker assisted breeding programs. Genomic microsatellite enriched libraries can be an efficient alternative for marker development in such species. Results Seven hundred clones containing microsatellite sequences from a Tsp-AG/TC microsatellite enriched library were identified and one-hundred and forty-four primer pairs designed and synthesized. When 67 microsatellite markers were tested on a panel of melon and other cucurbit accessions, 65 revealed DNA polymorphisms among the melon accessions. For some cucurbit species, such as Cucumis sativus, up to 50% of the melon microsatellite markers could be readily used for DNA polymophism assessment, representing a significant reduction of marker development costs. A random sample of 25 microsatellite markers was extracted from the new microsatellite marker set and characterized on 40 accessions of melon, generating an allelic frequency database for the species. The average expected heterozygosity was 0.52, varying from 0.45 to 0.70, indicating that a small set of selected markers should be sufficient to solve questions regarding genotype identity and variety protection. Genetic distances based on microsatellite polymorphism were congruent with data obtained from RAPD marker analysis. Mapping analysis was initiated with 55 newly developed markers and most primers showed segregation according to Mendelian expectations. Linkage analysis detected linkage between 56% of the markers, distributed in nine linkage groups. Conclusions Genomic library microsatellite enrichment is an efficient procedure for marker development in melon. One-hundred and forty-four new markers were developed from Tsp-AG/TC genomic library. This is the first reported attempt of successfully using enriched library for microsatellite marker development in the species. A sample of the microsatellite markers tested proved efficient for genetic analysis of melon, including genetic distance estimates and identity tests. Linkage analysis indicated that the markers developed are dispersed throughout the genome and should be very useful for genetic analysis of melon.

Ritschel, Patricia Silva; Lins, Tulio Cesar de Lima; Tristan, Rodrigo Lourenco; Buso, Glaucia Salles Cortopassi; Buso, Jose Amauri; Ferreira, Marcio Elias

2004-01-01

53

Paternity analysis in special fatherless cases without direct testing of alleged father.  

PubMed

The ability to establish the biological father, in which the father of a person is not available, named "reverse paternity determination", is based on the determination of STR alleles in mother and her child, other children and brothers of the alleged father, and deduction of genetic constitution of the father by the basis of genetic laws. Presented herein are two cases of reverse paternity determinations. Mother and parenthood DNA was isolated from 300 microl of fresh blood collected into tubes containing the EDTA, using Wizard Genomic DNA purification kit (Promega). DNA amplification was performed using GenePrint STR System (CTT, FFv, and Silver STR III multiplex) (Promega). Amplification results were read on 0.4 mm thick sequencing size polyacrilamide gel (4% for CTT and FFv, and 6% for Silver STR III). Gels were silver stained using Silver Sequence DNA Staining Reagents (Promega). Possible alleles of the alleged father for the loci CSF1PO, TPOX, TH01, F13A01, FESFPS, vWA, D16S539, D7S820, D13S317, LPL, F13B, and HPRTB were established by the selection from alleles determined in mother and parenthood, as to as obligate alleles with which the alleged father contributes to the genetic constitution of investigated child. Probability of paternity was calculated using population data on STR allele frequencies for Romanian population established by our laboratory. These are the first cases of litigious reverse paternity determinations in Romania. PMID:15639566

Mixich, Francisc; Ioana, Mihai; Mixich, Vlad A

2004-12-01

54

Validation of short tandem repeat analysis for the investigation of cases of disputed paternity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study details validation of two separate multiplex STR systems for use in paternity investigations. These are the Second Generation Multiplex (SGM) developed by the UK Forensic TM Science Service and the PowerPlex 1 multiplex commercially available from Promega Inc. (Madison, WI, USA). These multiplexes contain 12 different STR systems (two are duplicated in the two systems). Population databases from

J. A. Thomson; V. Pilotti; P. Stevens; K. L. Ayres; P. G. Debenham

1999-01-01

55

Thermal fatigue analysis of solar panel structure for micro-satellite applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal fatigue analysis based on 2D finite difference and 3D finite element methods is carried out to study the performance\\u000a of solar panel structure during micro-satellite life time. Solar panel primary structure consists of honeycomb structure and\\u000a composite laminates. The 2D finite difference (I-DEAS) model yields predictions of the temperature profile during one orbit.\\u000a Then, 3D finite element analysis (ANSYS)

Gasser Farouk Abdelal; Ayman Atef

2008-01-01

56

Microsatellite Analysis of Olive Fly Populations in the Mediterranean Indicates a Westward Expansion of the Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bactrocera oleae is the major insect pest of the olive fruit. Twelve microsatellite loci isolated from the genome of this insect were used in a Mediterranean-wide population analysis. These loci were highly polymorphic with a mean number of alleles per locus of 10.42 and a mean effective number of alleles of 2.76. The analysis was performed on a sample of

A. A. Augustinos; Z. Mamuris; E. E. Stratikopoulos; S. D’Amelio; A. Zacharopoulou; K. D. Mathiopoulos

2005-01-01

57

An evaluation of sequence tagged microsatellite site markers for genetic analysis within Citrus and related species.  

PubMed

Microsatellites, also called sequence tagged microsatellite sites (STMSs), have become important markers for genome analysis but are currently little studied in plants. To assess the value of STMSs for analysis within the Citrus plant species, two example STMSs were isolated from an intergeneric cross between rangpur lime (Citrus x limonia Osbeck) and trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.). Unique flanking primers were constructed for polymerase chain reaction amplification both within the test cross and across a broad range of citrus and related species. Both loci showed length variation between test cross parents with alleles segregating in a Mendelian fashion to progeny. Amplification across species showed the STMS flanking primers to be conserved in every genome tested. The traits of polymorphism, inheritance, and conservation across species mean that STMS markers are ideal for genome mapping within Citrus, which contains high levels of genetic variability. PMID:7774802

Kijas, J M; Fowler, J C; Thomas, M R

1995-04-01

58

Mosaic analysis and tumor induction in zebrafish by microsatellite instability-mediated stochastic gene expression  

PubMed Central

Mosaic analysis, in which two or more populations of cells with differing genotypes are studied in a single animal, is a powerful approach to study developmental mechanisms and gene function in vivo. Over recent years, several genetic methods have been developed to achieve mosaicism in zebrafish, but despite their advances, limitations remain and different approaches and further refinements are warranted. Here, we describe an alternative approach for creating somatic mosaicism in zebrafish that relies on the instability of microsatellite sequences during replication. We placed the coding sequences of various marker proteins downstream of a microsatellite and out-of-frame; in vivo frameshifting into the proper reading frame results in expression of the protein in random individual cells that are surrounded by wild-type cells. We optimized this approach for the binary Gal4-UAS expression system by generating a driver line and effector lines that stochastically express Gal4-VP16 or UAS:H2A-EGFP and self-maintaining UAS:H2A-EGFP-Kaloop, respectively. To demonstrate the utility of this system, we stochastically expressed a constitutively active form of the human oncogene H-RAS and show the occurrence of hyperpigmentation and sporadic tumors within 5 days. Our data demonstrate that inducing somatic mosaicism through microsatellite instability can be a valuable approach for mosaic analysis and tumor induction in Danio rerio.

Koole, Wouter; Tijsterman, Marcel

2014-01-01

59

Genome-wide survey and analysis of microsatellites in the Pacific oyster genome: abundance, distribution, and potential for marker development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microsatellites are a ubiquitous component of the eukaryote genome and constitute one of the most popular sources of molecular markers for genetic studies. However, no data are currently available regarding microsatellites across the entire genome in oysters, despite their importance to the aquaculture industry. We present the first genome-wide investigation of microsatellites in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas by analysis of the complete genome, resequencing, and expression data. The Pacific oyster genome is rich in microsatellites. A total of 604 653 repeats were identified, in average of one locus per 815 base pairs (bp). A total of 12 836 genes had coding repeats, and 7 332 were expressed normally, including genes with a wide range of molecular functions. Compared with 20 different species of animals, microsatellites in the oyster genome typically exhibited 1) an intermediate overall frequency; 2) relatively uniform contents of (A)n and (C)n repeats and abundant long (C)n repeats (?24 bp); 3) large average length of (AG)n repeats; and 4) scarcity of trinucleotide repeats. The microsatellite-flanking regions exhibited a high degree of polymorphism with a heterozygosity rate of around 2.0%, but there was no correlation between heterozygosity and microsatellite abundance. A total of 19 462 polymorphic microsatellites were discovered, and dinucleotide repeats were the most active, with over 26% of loci found to harbor allelic variations. In all, 7 451 loci with high potential for marker development were identified. Better knowledge of the microsatellites in the oyster genome will provide information for the future design of a wide range of molecular markers and contribute to further advancements in the field of oyster genetics, particularly for molecular-based selection and breeding.

Wang, Jiafeng; Qi, Haigang; Li, Li; Zhang, Guofan

2014-01-01

60

Single paternity of clutches in American Woodcock  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Based on behavioral observations, the mating system of American Woodcock has been variously described as monogamous, a dispersed lek, or resource defense polygyny. Males perform elaborate mating displays that attract females to their display sites where copulations occur. We used microsatellite markers, developed for Ruffs (Philomachus pugnax), to assess paternity in American Woodcock. In 3 yr, we collected blood samples from 21 females and broods and 90 males. We found no evidence of multiple paternity within broods; paternity in all broods could be explained by 1 father. For 8 broods, we were able to infer probable fathers from males we sampled in the field. All 8 broods were found close to the singing site of the male or males that matched as possible fathers. Two males may have fathered 2 broods each, suggesting that polygyny may be a component of the woodcock mating system.

Ziel, H.; McAuley, D.G.; Rhymer, J.M.

2000-01-01

61

Comparison of microsatellites and amplified fragment length polymorphism markers for parentage analysis.  

PubMed

This study compares the properties of dominant markers, such as amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs), with those of codominant multiallelic markers, such as microsatellites, in reconstructing parentage. These two types of markers were used to search for both parents of an individual without prior knowledge of their relationships, by calculating likelihood ratios based on genotypic data, including mistyping. Experimental data on 89 oak trees genotyped for six microsatellite markers and 159 polymorphic AFLP loci were used as a starting point for simulations and tests. Both sets of markers produced high exclusion probabilities, and among dominant markers those with dominant allele frequencies in the range 0.1-0.4 were more informative. Such codominant and dominant markers can be used to construct powerful statistical tests to decide whether a genotyped individual (or two individuals) can be considered as the true parent (or parent pair). Gene flow from outside the study stand (GFO), inferred from parentage analysis with microsatellites, overestimated the true GFO, whereas with AFLPs it was underestimated. As expected, dominant markers are less efficient than codominant markers for achieving this, but can still be used with good confidence, especially when loci are deliberately selected according to their allele frequencies. PMID:10964223

Gerber, S; Mariette, S; Streiff, R; Bodénčs, C; Kremer, A

2000-08-01

62

New microsatellite loci for the mandarin fish Siniperca chuatsi and their application in population genetic analysis.  

PubMed

The mandarin fish is a popular fresh water food fish in China. Fifty-three polymorphic microsatellite markers were isolated through construction of an enriched library of genomic DNA of Siniperca chuatsi (Percichthyidae). We found 2 to 7 alleles per locus. The observed and expected heterozygosity values varied from 0.059 to 1.000 and from 0.305 to 0.818, respectively. The polymorphic information content value varied from 0.255 to 0.782. Twelve microsatellite loci deviated significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium after Bonferroni's correction. These markers were evaluated in five species of sinipercine fish; 98% of the 265 locus/taxon combinations tested gave cross-amplification. Eight polymorphic microsatellite markers were randomly selected for genetic characterization of three S. chuatsi populations. The Ganjiang River and Yuanjiang River populations had moderate levels of genetic diversity, while the Mudanjiang River population had a relatively low level genetic diversity. Genetic distance-based cluster analysis showed clustering of the Ganjiang River and Yuanjiang River populations in a single group and the Mudanjiang River population in a separate group. Based on these results, we suggest that S. chuatsi from the Yangtze River watershed are distinct from the Mudanjiang River population. These SSR markers will be useful for diversity, mapping and marker assisted studies of S. chuatsi and other sinipercine fishes. PMID:24535883

Tian, C X; Liang, X-F; Yang, M; Dou, Y Q; Zheng, H Z; Cao, L; Yuan, Y C; Zhao, C

2014-01-01

63

Application of microsatellite markers in conservation genetics and fisheries management: recent advances in population structure analysis and conservation strategies.  

PubMed

Microsatellites are the most popular and versatile genetic marker with myriads of applications in population genetics, conservation biology, and evolutionary biology. These are the arrays of DNA sequences, consisting of tandemly repeating mono-, di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide units, which are distributed throughout the genomes of most eukaryotic species. Microsatellites are codominant in nature, highly polymorphic, easily typed, and Mendelian inherited, all properties which make them very suitable for the study of population structure and pedigree analysis and capable of detecting differences among closely related species. PCR for microsatellites can be automated for identifying simple sequence repeat polymorphism. Small amount of blood samples or alcohol preserved tissue is adequate for analyzing them. Most of the microsatellites are noncoding, and therefore variations are independent of natural selection. These properties make microsatellites ideal genetic markers for conservation genetics and fisheries management. This review addresses the applications of microsatellite markers in conservation genetics and recent advances in population structure analysis in the context of fisheries management. PMID:24808959

Abdul-Muneer, P M

2014-01-01

64

Sheep Linkage Mapping: Nineteen Linkage Groups Derived from the Analysis of Paternal Half-Sib Families  

PubMed Central

Nineteen linkage groups containing a total of 52 markers have been identified in the sheep genome after typing large paternal half-sib families. The linkage groups range in size from 2 markers showing no recombination to a group containing 6 markers covering approximately 30 cM of the sheep genome. Thirteen of the groups have been assigned to a sheep chromosome. Three groups contain markers from bovine syntenic groups U2, U7 and U29, and one other group contains a marker that has been mapped only in humans. The remaining three groups are unassigned. This information will provide a useful foundation for a genetic linkage map of sheep.

Crawford, A. M.; Montgomery, G. W.; Pierson, C. A.; Brown, T.; Dodds, K. G.; Sunden, SLF.; Henry, H. M.; Ede, A. J.; Swarbrick, P. A.; Berryman, T.; Penty, J. M.; Hill, D. F.

1994-01-01

65

A triploid partial mole placenta from paternal isodisomy with a diploid fetus derived from one sperm and one oocyte may have caused angiogenic imbalance leading to preeclampsia-like symptoms at 19 weeks of gestation.  

PubMed

Partial hydatidiform mole with a normal fetus is extremely rare. A 30-year-old woman presented at 19 weeks gestation with clinical manifestations of severe preeclampsia. The fetus revealed a normal 46,XX karyotype and the placenta revealed triploid 69,XXX from paternal isodisomy. Microsatellite analysis revealed that the fetus and the triploid partial mole were derived from one sperm and one oocyte, followed by duplication of paternal chromosomes in only a trophectodermal cell. The maternal serum levels of angiogenic factors were extremely high compared with those reported in preeclampsia, suggesting an angiogenic imbalance may have caused preeclampsia-like symptoms before 20 weeks of gestation. PMID:23628506

Yoneda, N; Shiozaki, A; Miura, K; Yonezawa, R; Takemura, K; Yoneda, S; Masuzaki, H; Saito, S

2013-07-01

66

Genetic Diversity and Geographic Population Structure of Bovine Neospora caninum Determined by Microsatellite Genotyping Analysis  

PubMed Central

The cyst-forming protozoan parasite Neosporacaninum is one of the main causes of bovine abortion worldwide and is of great economic importance in the cattle industry. Recent studies have revealed extensive genetic variation among N. caninum isolates based on microsatellite sequences (MSs). MSs may be suitable molecular markers for inferring the diversity of parasite populations, molecular epidemiology and the basis for phenotypic variations in N. caninum, which have been poorly defined. In this study, we evaluated nine MS markers using a panel of 11 N. caninum-derived reference isolates from around the world and 96 N. caninum bovine clinical samples and one ovine clinical sample collected from four countries on two continents, including Spain, Argentina, Germany and Scotland, over a 10-year period. These markers were used as molecular tools to investigate the genetic diversity, geographic distribution and population structure of N. caninum. Multilocus microsatellite genotyping based on 7 loci demonstrated high levels of genetic diversity in the samples from all of the different countries, with 96 microsatellite multilocus genotypes (MLGs) identified from 108 N. caninum samples. Geographic sub-structuring was present in the country populations according to pairwise FST. Principal component analysis (PCA) and Neighbor Joining tree topologies also suggested MLG segregation partially associated with geographical origin. An analysis of the MLG relationships, using eBURST, confirmed that the close genetic relationship observed between the Spanish and Argentinean populations may be the result of parasite migration (i.e., the introduction of novel MLGs from Spain to South America) due to cattle movement. The eBURST relationships also revealed genetically different clusters associated with the abortion. The presence of linkage disequilibrium, the co-existence of specific MLGs to individual farms and eBURST MLG relationships suggest a predominant clonal propagation for Spanish N. caninum MLGs in cattle.

Regidor-Cerrillo, Javier; Diez-Fuertes, Francisco; Garcia-Culebras, Alicia; Moore, Dadin P.; Gonzalez-Warleta, Marta; Cuevas, Carmen; Schares, Gereon; Katzer, Frank; Pedraza-Diaz, Susana; Mezo, Mercedes; Ortega-Mora, Luis M.

2013-01-01

67

Microsatellite instability analysis in uterine cavity washings to detect endometrial cancer in lynch syndrome.  

PubMed

Aim: To assess the feasibility of Microsatellite Instability (MSI) analysis in uterine cavity washings for detecting endometrial cancer in Lynch syndrome. Materials and Methods: This was a proof-of-concept study in Lynch syndrome patients, scheduled for hysterectomy. At the beginning of surgical procedure, uterine cavity washings were performed, and sent for MSI analysis. Pathological examination of the uterus was associated with mismatch repair protein expression and MSI analysis. Results; Nine patients were included in the study. Uterine cavity washings were feasible and interpretable in all cases. Final histological report identified 2 endometrial cancers and 7 benign specimens. There was no atypical hyperplasia. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of MSI analysis in uterine washings reached 100% in all cases. Concordance of MSI presence or absence was absolute between uterine washings and final histology. Conclusion; MSI analysis in uterine cavity washings may be a promising screening tool for Lynch syndrome-associated endometrial cancer diagnosis. PMID:24922696

Bats, Anne-Sophie; Blons, Helene; Narjoz, Celine; LE Frere-Belda, Marie-Aude; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Lecuru, Fabrice

2014-06-01

68

Analysis of tetraploid Elymus species using wheat microsatellite markers and RAPD markers.  

PubMed

An analysis of Amplification fragment polymorphism of DNA from 27 accessions of 19 tetraploid Elymus species was carried out using 18 wheat microsatellite (WMS) primer pairs and 10 decamer primers. Ten WMS primer pairs produced multiple polymorphism on all accessions tested. Two independent phenograms, one based on WMS-PCR and one on RAPDs, separated the 19 tetraploid species into two main groups, viz., the SH genome species group and the SY genome species group. The results coincide with the genomic classification of these species and hence support previous studies showing that Elymus is not a monophyletic genus. The assays indicated that accessions within a species cluster together, which concurs with the morphological classification. Interspecific and intraspecific polymorphisms were detected by the WMS-PCR and RAPD analyses. Variation was observed among accessions of Elymus caninus. The WMS-PCR detected a much higher level of polymorphism than the RAPD analysis. WMSs seem to be more efficient markers than RAPD markers for studying the population diversity of Elymus species. The potential of cross-species amplification of microsatellite markers as an additional source for genetic analysis and applications in Elymus is discussed in the context of these results. PMID:18464866

Sun, G L; Salomon, B; Bothmer, R

1997-12-01

69

Analysis of Microsatellite Variation in Drosophila melanogaster with Population-Scale Genome Sequencing  

PubMed Central

Genome sequencing technologies promise to revolutionize our understanding of genetics, evolution, and disease by making it feasible to survey a broad spectrum of sequence variation on a population scale. However, this potential can only be realized to the extent that methods for extracting and interpreting distinct forms of variation can be established. The error profiles and read length limitations of early versions of next-generation sequencing technologies rendered them ineffective for some sequence variant types, particularly microsatellites and other tandem repeats, and fostered the general misconception that such variants are inherently inaccessible to these platforms. At the same time, tandem repeats have emerged as important sources of functional variation. Tandem repeats are often located in and around genes, and frequent mutations in their lengths exert quantitative effects on gene function and phenotype, rapidly degrading linkage disequilibrium between markers and traits. Sensitive identification of these variants in large-scale next-gen sequencing efforts will enable more comprehensive association studies capable of revealing previously invisible associations. We present a population-scale analysis of microsatellite repeats using whole-genome data from 158 inbred isolates from the Drosophila Genetics Reference Panel, a collection of over 200 extensively phenotypically characterized isolates from a single natural population, to uncover processes underlying repeat mutation and to enable associations with behavioral, morphological, and life-history traits. Analysis of repeat variation from next-generation sequence data will also enhance studies of genome stability and neurodegenerative diseases.

Fondon, John W.; Martin, Andy; Richards, Stephen; Gibbs, Richard A.; Mittelman, David

2012-01-01

70

Evaluation of bull prolificacy on commercial beef cattle ranches using DNA paternity analysis.  

PubMed

SNP-based DNA testing was used to assign paternity to 5,052 calves conceived in natural service multisire breeding pastures from 3 commercial ranches in northern California representing 15 calf crops over 3 yr. Bulls present for 60 to 120 d at a 25:1 cow to bull ratio in both fall and spring breeding seasons in ?40 ha or smaller fenced breeding pastures sired a highly variable (P < 0.001) number of calves (Ncalf), ranging from 0 (4.4% of bulls present in any given breeding season) to 64 calves per bull per breeding season, with an average of 18.9 ± 13.1. There was little variation in Ncalf among ranches (P = 0.90), years (P = 0.96), and seasons (P = 0.94). Bulls varied widely (P < 0.01) in the average individual 205-d adjusted weaning weight (I205) of progeny, and I205 varied between years (P < 0.01) and seasons (P < 0.01) but not ranches (P = 0.29). The pattern for cumulative total 205-d adjusted weaning weight of all progeny sired by a bull (T205) was highly correlated to Ncalf, with small differences between ranches (P = 0.35), years (P = 0.66), and seasons (P = 0.20) but large differences (P < 0.01) between bulls, ranging from an average of 676 to 8,838 kg per bull per calf crop. The peak Ncalf occurred at about 5 yr of age for bulls ranging from 2 to 11 yr of age. Weekly conception rates as assessed by date of calving varied significantly and peaked at wk 3 of the calving season. The distribution of calves born early in the calving season was disproportionately skewed toward the highly prolific bulls. The DNA paternity testing of the subset of those calves born in wk 3 of the calving season was highly predictive of overall bull prolificacy and may offer a reduced-cost DNA-based option for assessing prolificacy. Prolificacy of young bulls in their first breeding season was positively linearly related (P < 0.05) to subsequent breeding seasons, explaining about 20% of the subsequent variation. Prolificacy was also positively linearly related (P < 0.05) to scrotal circumference (SC) EPD for Angus bulls that had SC EPD Beef Improvement Federation accuracies greater than 0.05. Varying prolificacy of herd bulls has implications for the genetic composition of replacement heifers, with the genetics of those bulls siring an increased number of calves being disproportionately represented in the early-born replacement heifer pool. PMID:24753384

Van Eenennaam, A L; Weber, K L; Drake, D J

2014-06-01

71

Certainty of paternity covaries with paternal care in birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Male investment in parental care has been hypothesized to be affected or not to be affected by their certainty of paternity, depending on the particular assumptions of theoretical models. We used data on paternal care and extra-pair paternity from 52 bird species to determine whether male parental care was related to certainity of paternity. Paternal care was measured as

A. P. Mřller; T. R. Birkhead

1993-01-01

72

Geographic structure of Plasmodium vivax: microsatellite analysis of parasite populations from Sri Lanka, Myanmar, and Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Genetic diversity and population structure of Plasmodium vivax parasites can predict the origin and spread of novel variants within a population enabling population specific malaria control measures. We analyzed the genetic diversity and population structure of 425 P. vivax isolates from Sri Lanka, Myanmar, and Ethiopia using 12 trinucleotide and tetranucleotide microsatellite markers. All three parasite populations were highly polymorphic with 3-44 alleles per locus. Approximately 65% were multiple-clone infections. Mean genetic diversity (H(E)) was 0.7517 in Ethiopia, 0.8450 in Myanmar, and 0.8610 in Sri Lanka. Significant linkage disequilibrium was maintained. Population structure showed two clusters (Asian and African) according to geography and ancestry. Strong clustering of outbreak isolates from Sri Lanka and Ethiopia was observed. Predictive power of ancestry using two-thirds of the isolates as a model identified 78.2% of isolates accurately as being African or Asian. Microsatellite analysis is a useful tool for mapping short-term outbreaks of malaria and for predicting ancestry. PMID:20133999

Gunawardena, Sharmini; Karunaweera, Nadira D; Ferreira, Marcelo U; Phone-Kyaw, Myatt; Pollack, Richard J; Alifrangis, Michael; Rajakaruna, Rupika S; Konradsen, Flemming; Amerasinghe, Priyanie H; Schousboe, Mette L; Galappaththy, Gawrie N L; Abeyasinghe, Rabindra R; Hartl, Daniel L; Wirth, Dyann F

2010-02-01

73

DNA fingerprinting and phylogenetic analysis of WNIN rat strain and its obese mutants using microsatellite markers.  

PubMed

Wistar is the oldest rat strain to be introduced in biomedical research, and various stocks of this strain are maintained in laboratories across the globe. The Wistar strain maintained in our facilities is 85 years old and is not typed genetically so far. Recently, two obese mutant rat strains evolved from this stock, one with euglycemia and the other with impaired glucose tolerance. These mutant rat strains, along with the parental Wistar stock and two other rat strains maintained in our facilities (WKY and F-344), were subjected to PCR-based DNA fingerprinting using microsatellite markers to evolve molecular signatures unique to them. Of the 96 markers screened, we identified a marker, leukosianin, that shows polymorphism between the strains tested and thus appears to be quite useful for rat strain identification. Also, the microsatellite data generated were subjected to hierarchical cluster analysis to generate a dendrogram and to estimate the phylogenetic closeness and distance between the rat strains tested. It was observed that the Wistar strain and its mutants maintained in our facility are genetically distinct and phylogenetically separate from the other two standard strains WKY and F-344. PMID:17221298

Kiran, Kumar B; Vijaya, Bhanu N; Vishnuvardhan, Rao M; Giridharan, Nappanveettil

2007-02-01

74

Genetic diversity of Leishmania donovani/infantum complex in China through microsatellite analysis.  

PubMed

The Leishmania strains from different epidemic areas in China were assessed for their genetic relationship. Twenty-nine strains of Leishmania infantum isolated from 1950 to 2001 were subjected to multilocus microsatellite typing (MLMT) using 14 highly polymorphic microsatellite markers. Twenty-two MLMT profiles were recognized among the 29 L. infantum strains, which differed from one another in 13 loci. Bayesian model-based and distance-based analysis of the data inferred two main populations in China. Sixteen strains belonged to one population, which also comprised previously characterized strains of L. infantum non-MON1 and Leishmania donovani. The parasites within this population are assignable to a distinct cluster that is clearly separable from the populations of L. donovani elsewhere, i.e. India, Sri Lanka and East Africa, and L. infantum non-MON1 from Europe. The remaining 13 Chinese strains grouped together with strains of L. infantum MON1 into another population, but formed a separate cluster which genetically differs from the populations of L. infantum MON1 from Europe, the Middle East, Central Asia and North Africa. The existence of distinct groups of L. infantum MON1 and non-MON1/L. donovani suggests that the extant parasites in China may have been restricted there, but not recently introduced from elsewhere. PMID:24480049

Alam, Mohammad Zahangir; Nakao, Ryo; Sakurai, Tatsuya; Kato, Hirotomo; Qu, Jing-Qi; Chai, Jun-Jie; Chang, Kwang Poo; Schönian, Gabriele; Katakura, Ken

2014-03-01

75

Analysis of olive fly invasion in California based on microsatellite markers.  

PubMed

The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the main pest of the olive fruit and its expansion is exclusively restricted to the cultivation zone of the olive tree. Even though olive production has a century-old history in California, the olive fly was first detected in the Los Angeles area in 1998. Within 5 years of the first observation, the insect was reported from all olive cultivation areas of the state. Field-collected flies from five locations in California and another from Israel were analyzed on the basis of microsatellite polymorphisms in 10 microsatellite loci. These results were integrated with those of a previous study of olive fly populations around the European part of the Mediterranean basin. The analysis pointed to the eastern part of the Mediterranean as the putative source of the observed invasion. Moreover, samples from California were quite different from Mediterranean samples implying the participation of phenomena such as genetic drift during the invasion and expansion of the olive fly in California. PMID:19107137

Zygouridis, N E; Augustinos, A A; Zalom, F G; Mathiopoulos, K D

2009-04-01

76

Microsatellites in Brassica unigenes: relative abundance, marker design, and use in comparative physical mapping and genome analysis.  

PubMed

Microsatellites present in the transcribed regions of the genome have the potential to reveal functional diversity. Unigene sequence databases are the sources of such genic microsatellites with unique flanking sequences and genomic locations even in complex polyploids. The present study was designed to assay the unigenes of Brassica napus and B. rapa for various microsatellite repeats, and to design markers and use them in comparative genome analysis and study of evolution. The average frequency of microsatellites in Brassica unigenes was one in every 7.25 kb of sequence, as compared with one in every 8.57 kb of sequence in Arabidopsis thaliana. Trinucleotide motifs coding for serine and the dinucleotide motif GA were most abundant. We designed 2374 and 347 unigene-based microsatellite (UGMS) markers including 541 and 58 class I types in B. napus and B. rapa, respectively, and evaluated their use across diverse species and genera. Most of these markers (93.3%) gave successful amplification of target microsatellite motifs, which was confirmed by sequencing. Interspecific polymorphism between B. napus and B. rapa detected in silico for the UGMS markers was 4.16 times higher in 5' untranslated regions than in coding sequences. Physical anchoring of Brassica UGMS markers on the A. thaliana genome indicated their significance in studying the evolutionary history of A. thaliana genomic duplications in relation to speciation. Comparative physical mapping identified 85% of Brassica unigenes as single copy and gave clues for the presence of conserved primordial gene order. Complex chromosomal rearrangements such as inversions, tandem and segmental duplications, and insertions/deletions were evident between A. thaliana and B. rapa genomes. The results obtained have encouraging implications for the use of UGMS markers in comparative genome analysis and for understanding evolutionary complexities in the family Brassicaceae. PMID:20130749

Parida, Swarup K; Yadava, Devendra K; Mohapatra, Trilochan

2010-01-01

77

Measurement of DNA copy number at microsatellite loci using quantitative PCR analysis.  

PubMed

This report describes the development and validation of quantitative microsatellite analysis (QuMA) for rapid measurement of relative DNA sequence copy number. In QuMA, the copy number of a test locus relative to a pooled reference is assessed using quantitative, real-time PCR amplification of loci carrying simple sequence repeats. Use of simple sequence repeats is advantageous because of the large numbers that are mapped precisely. In addition, all markers are informative because QuMA does not require that they be polymorphic. The utility of QuMA is demonstrated in assessment of the extent of deletions of chromosome 2 in leukemias arising in radiation-sensitive inbred SJL mice and in analysis of the association of increased copy number of the putative oncogene ZNF217 with reduced survival duration in ovarian cancer patients. PMID:11034080

Ginzinger, D G; Godfrey, T E; Nigro, J; Moore, D H; Suzuki, S; Pallavicini, M G; Gray, J W; Jensen, R H

2000-10-01

78

Microsatellite analysis of olive fly populations in the Mediterranean indicates a westward expansion of the species.  

PubMed

Bactrocera oleae is the major insect pest of the olive fruit. Twelve microsatellite loci isolated from the genome of this insect were used in a Mediterranean-wide population analysis. These loci were highly polymorphic with a mean number of alleles per locus of 10.42 and a mean effective number of alleles of 2.76. The analysis was performed on a sample of 671 flies collected from nineteen locations around the European part of the Mediterranean basin. Despite the high level of gene flow across the Mediterranean, results support the notion of a differentiation of three subpopulations: one of the Iberian Peninsula, one of Greece and Italy and one of Cyprus. In addition, the gradual decrease of heterozygosity from the Eastern to the Western part of the Mediterranean indicates a westward expansion of the species. PMID:16247695

Augustinos, A A; Mamuris, Z; Stratikopoulos, E E; D'Amelio, S; Zacharopoulou, A; Mathiopoulos, K D

2005-11-01

79

Polymorphism in ornamental and common carp strains ( Cyprinus carpio L.) as revealed by AFLP analysis and a new set of microsatellite markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-seven new microsatellite markers were generated and applied, together with the AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) technique using two different enzyme combinations, to the genetic analysis of two carp species, Cyprinus carpio L. and Ctenopharyngodon idella. The extent of polymorphism and the genetic relationships between nine carp populations were studied. The incidence of microsatellites containing CA and CT motifs was

L. David; P. Rajasekaran; J. Fang; J. Hillel; U. Lavi

2001-01-01

80

Comparative analysis of polymorphism and chromosomal location of tomato microsatellite markers isolated from different sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously isolated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) microsatellite markers were mainly clustered in the centromeric heterochromatin and not located in euchromatic regions.\\u000a To achieve a more-uniform distribution of microsatellite markers for genome mapping purposes, a set of tomato microsatellite\\u000a markers containing dinucleotide simple sequence repeats were developed by screening genomic libraries enriched for single-copy\\u000a sequences, and screening the tomato EST database. The

T. Areshchenkova; M. W. Ganal

2002-01-01

81

The impact of extensive clonal growth on fine-scale mating patterns: a full paternity analysis of a lily-of-the-valley population (Convallaria majalis)  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The combination of clonality and a mating system promoting outcrossing is considered advantageous because outcrossing avoids the fitness costs of selfing within clones (geitonogamy) while clonality assures local persistence and increases floral display. The spatial spread of genetically identical plants (ramets) may, however, also decrease paternal diversity (the number of sires fertilizing a given dam) and fertility, particularly towards the centre of large clumped clones. This study aimed to quantify the impact of extensive clonal growth on fine-scale paternity patterns in a population of the allogamous Convallaria majalis. Methods A full analysis of paternity was performed by genotyping all flowering individuals and all viable seeds produced during a single season using AFLP. Mating patterns were examined and the spatial position of ramets was related to the extent of multiple paternity, fruiting success and seed production. Key Results The overall outcrossing rate was high (91 %) and pollen flow into the population was considerable (27 %). Despite extensive clonal growth, multiple paternity was relatively common (the fraction of siblings sharing the same father was 0·53 within ramets). The diversity of offspring collected from reproductive ramets surrounded by genetically identical inflorescences was as high as among offspring collected from ramets surrounded by distinct genets. There was no significant relationship between the similarity of the pollen load received by two ramets and the distance between them. Neither the distance of ramets with respect to distinct genets nor the distance to the genet centre significantly affected fruiting success or seed production. Conclusions Random mating and considerable pollen inflow most probably implied that pollen dispersal distances were sufficiently high to mitigate local mate scarcity despite extensive clonal spread. The data provide no evidence for the intrusion of clonal growth on fine-scale plant mating patterns.

Vandepitte, Katrien; De Meyer, Tim; Jacquemyn, Hans; Roldan-Ruiz, Isabel; Honnay, Olivier

2013-01-01

82

Patterns of multiple paternity within and between annual reproduction cycles of the fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra) under natural conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated patterns of paternity in a population of the fire salamander Salamandra salamandra in Germany under fully natural conditions. Pregnant females were caught after hibernation in their natural habitat and their offspring were genotyped with different sets of microsatellite loci to assess paternity. Each female was marked with a transponder and released at the same place where it

S. Steinfartz; K. Stemshorn; D. Kuesters; D. Taut

83

Microsatellite instability analysis in hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer using the Bethesda consensus panel of microsatellite markers in the absence of proband normal tissue  

PubMed Central

Background Hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer (HNPCC) is an autosomal dominant syndrome predisposing to the early development of various cancers including those of colon, rectum, endometrium, ovarium, small bowel, stomach and urinary tract. HNPCC is caused by germline mutations in the DNA mismatch repair genes, mostly hMSH2 or hMLH1. In this study, we report the analysis for genetic counseling of three first-degree relatives (the mother and two sisters) of a male who died of colorectal adenocarcinoma at the age of 23. The family fulfilled strict Amsterdam-I criteria (AC-I) with the presence of extracolonic tumors in the extended pedigree. We overcame the difficulty of having a proband post-mortem non-tumor tissue sample for MSI testing by studying the alleles carried by his progenitors. Methods Tumor MSI testing is described as initial screening in both primary and metastasis tumor tissue blocks, using the reference panel of 5 microsatellite markers standardized by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) for the screening of HNPCC (BAT-25, BAT-26, D2S123, D5S346 and D17S250). Subsequent mutation analysis of the hMLH1 and hMSH2 genes was performed. Results Three of five microsatellite markers (BAT-25, BAT-26 and D5S346) presented different alleles in the proband's tumor as compared to those inherited from his parents. The tumor was classified as high frequency microsatellite instability (MSI-H). We identified in the HNPCC family a novel germline missense (c.1864C>A) mutation in exon 12 of hMSH2 gene, leading to a proline 622 to threonine (p.Pro622Thr) amino acid substitution. Conclusion This approach allowed us to establish the tumor MSI status using the NCI recommended panel in the absence of proband's non-tumor tissue and before sequencing the obligate carrier. According to the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD) and the International Society for Gastrointestinal Hereditary Tumors (InSiGHT) Database this is the first report of this mutation.

Chialina, Sergio G; Fornes, Claudia; Landi, Carolina; de La Vega Elena, Carlos D; Nicolorich, Maria V; Dourisboure, Ricardo J; Solano, Angela; Solis, Edita A

2006-01-01

84

System Performance Analysis of Three Dimensional Reaction Wheel for the Attitude Control of Microsatellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a novel attitude control device which is called three dimensional reaction wheel (3DRW). 3DRW consists of only one levitated spherical mass which can rotate around arbitrary axes. This leads to the reduction of the weight and volume of the device as compared to existing reaction wheel. Furthermore, this device has no mechanical contact between rotor and stator, so the failure caused by the mechanical contact would be reduced. In this paper, the results of the analysis and experiment on the dynamics and control of 3DRW are shown. In the experiments of the rotation control, the air bearing system is used. Using this device, the characteristics of rotation of the spherical mass are obtained. To verify the feasibility of the concept of 3DRW, the experiments of angular velocity feedback control are carried out. The results of experiments are applied to the numerical simulation of the attitude control for microsatellites, and the feasibility of 3DRW is verified.

Shirasawa, Yoji; Tsuda, Yuichi

85

Genetic diversity analysis of oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, in Yellow River using microsatellite marker.  

PubMed

To assess the genetic status of this species, the genetic diversity of wild Macrobrachium nipponense from seven geographic locations in the Yellow River basin were investigated using 20 polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci. The genetic diversity between populations was indicated by the mean number of alleles per locus and mean observed heterozygosity (H) and the expected H, which was arranged from 2 to 10, from 0.4705 to 0.5731, and from 0.5174 to 0.6146, respectively. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium analysis indicated that a deficiency of heterozygotes existed in all seven populations. Both the F(ST) and AMOVA analyses showed that there is significant difference on population differentiation among populations. The UPGMA clustering tree demonstrated that their close relationship is consistent with their geographic proximity. The data suggest that this Yellow River population has a wide genetic base that is suitable for breeding. PMID:24301938

Qiao, H; Lv, D; Jiang, S F; Sun, S M; Gong, Y S; Xiong, Y W; Jin, S B; Fu, H T

2013-01-01

86

Potential Errors with Rapid Analysis Techniques: Partial Duplication 21q Resulting from a Paternal Paracentric Insertion Uncovered in Chorionic Villus Sampling by Fluorescence in situ Hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on partial duplication 21q resulting from a paternal insertion identified during prenatal diagnosis. While performing interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (I-FISH), we were able to identify 3 signals of the LSI 21 Spectrum Orange probe with chorionic villus sampling. Using standard cytogenetic analysis, I-FISH and GTG banding, structural aberrations in 21q in the parents and in the fetus

N. Ehrhardt; A. Kujat; R. Faber; L.-C. Horn; U. G. Froster

2009-01-01

87

Genetic linkage analysis of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis using human chromosome 21 microsatellite DNA markers.  

PubMed

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS: Lou Gehrig's Disease) is a lethal neurodegenerative disease of upper and lower motorneurons in the brain and spinal cord. We previously reported linkage of a gene for familial ALS (FALS) to human chromosome 21 using 4 restriction fragment length polymorphism DNA markers [Siddique et al.: N Engl J Med 324:1381-1384, 1991] and identified disease-associated mutations in the superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1 gene in some ALS families [Rosen et al.: Nature 362:59-62, 1993]. We report here the genetic linkage data that led us to examine the SOD-1 gene for mutations. We also report a new microsatellite DNA marker for D21S63, derived from the cosmid PW517 [VanKeuren et al.: Am J Hum Genet 38:793-804, 1986]. Ten microsatellite DNA markers, including the new marker D21S63, were used to reinvestigate linkage of FALS to chromosome 21. Genetic linkage analysis performed with 13 ALS families for these 10 DNA markers confirmed the presence of a FALS gene on chromosome 21. The highest total 2-point LOD score for all families was 4.33, obtained at a distance of 10 cM from the marker D21S223. For 5 ALS families linked to chromosome 21, a peak 2-point LOD score of 5.94 was obtained at the DNA marker D21S223. A multipoint score of 6.50 was obtained with the markers D21S213, D21S223, D21S167, and FALS for 5 chromosome 21-linked ALS families. The haplotypes of these families for the 10 DNA markers revealed recombination events that further refined the location of the FALS gene to a segment of approximately 5 megabases (Mb) between D21S213 and D21S219.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7913294

Rosen, D R; Sapp, P; O'Regan, J; McKenna-Yasek, D; Schlumpf, K S; Haines, J L; Gusella, J F; Horvitz, H R; Brown, R H

1994-05-15

88

Paternity testing and behavioral ecology: a case study of jaguars (Panthera onca) in Emas National Park, Central Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used microsatellite loci to test the paternity of two male jaguars involved in an infanticide event recorded during a long-term monitoring program of this species. Seven microsatellite primers originally developed for domestic cats and previously selected for Panthera onca were used. In order to deal with uncertainty in the mother's genotypes for some of the loci, 10000 values of

Thannya Nascimento Soares; Mariana P. C. Telles; Lucileide V. Resende; Leandro Silveira; Anah Tereza A. Jácomo; Ronaldo G. Morato; José Alexandre F. Diniz-Filho; Eduardo Eizirik; Rosana P. V. Brondani; Claudio Brondani

2006-01-01

89

Preferential Paternal Origin of Microdeletions Caused by Prezygotic Chromosome or Chromatid Rearrangements in Sotos Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Sotos syndrome (SoS) is characterized by pre- and postnatal overgrowth with advanced bone age; a dysmorphic face with macrocephaly and pointed chin; large hands and feet; mental retardation; and possible susceptibility to tumors. It has been shown that the major cause of SoS is haploinsufficiency of the NSD1 gene at 5q35, because the majority of patients had either a common microdeletion including NSD1 or a truncated type of point mutation in NSD1. In the present study, we traced the parental origin of the microdeletions in 26 patients with SoS by the use of 16 microsatellite markers at or flanking the commonly deleted region. Deletions in 18 of the 20 informative cases occurred in the paternally derived chromosome 5, whereas those in the maternally derived chromosome were found in only two cases. Haplotyping analysis of the marker loci revealed that the paternal deletion in five of seven informative cases and the maternal deletion in one case arose through an intrachromosomal rearrangement, and two other cases of the paternal deletion involved an interchromosomal event, suggesting that the common microdeletion observed in SoS did not occur through a uniform mechanism but preferentially arose prezygotically.

Miyake, Noriko; Kurotaki, Naohiro; Sugawara, Hirobumi; Shimokawa, Osamu; Harada, Naoki; Kondoh, Tatsuro; Tsukahara, Masato; Ishikiriyama, Satoshi; Sonoda, Tohru; Miyoshi, Yoko; Sakazume, Satoru; Fukushima, Yoshimitsu; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Nagai, Toshiro; Kawame, Hiroshi; Kurosawa, Kenji; Touyama, Mayumi; Shiihara, Takashi; Okamoto, Nobuhiko; Nishimoto, Junji; Yoshiura, Ko-ichiro; Ohta, Tohru; Kishino, Tatsuya; Niikawa, Norio; Matsumoto, Naomichi

2003-01-01

90

High prevalence of multiple paternity in the invasive crayfish species, Procambarus clarkii  

PubMed Central

Reproductive strategy is a central feature of the ecology of invasive species as it determines the potential for population increase and range expansion. The red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, has invaded many countries and caused serious problems in freshwater ecosystems. However, little is known about the effects of environmental conditions on crayfish paternity and offspring traits in the wild. We studied these reproductive characteristics of P. clarkii in wild populations from two different habitats (ponds and ditches) in three locations with different environmental conditions in China. Genotyping of 1,436 offspring and 30 mothers of 30 broods was conducted by using four microsatellites. An analysis of genotyping results revealed that gravid females were the exclusive mother of the progeny they tended. Twenty-nine of 30 mothers had mated with multiple (2-4) males, each of which contributed differently to the number of offspring in a brood. The average number of fathers per brood and the number of offspring per brood were similar (P > 0.05) among six sampling sites, indicating that in P. clarkii multiple paternity and offspring number per brood are independent of environmental conditions studied. Indirect benefits from increasing the genetic diversity of broods, male and sperm competition, and cryptic female choice are a possible explanation for the high level multiple paternity and different contribution of fathers to offspring in this species.

Yue, Gen Hua; Li, Jia Le; Wang, Chun Ming; Xia, Jun Hong; Wang, Gen Lin; Feng, Jian Bing

2010-01-01

91

Microsatellite analysis of Damask rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) accessions from various regions in Iran reveals multiple genotypes  

PubMed Central

Background Damask roses (Rosa damascena Mill.) are mainly used for essential oil production. Previous studies have indicated that all production material in Bulgaria and Turkey consists of only one genotype. Nine polymorphic microsatellite markers were used to analyze the genetic diversity of 40 accessions of R. damascena collected across major and minor rose oil production areas in Iran. Results All microsatellite markers showed a high level of polymorphism (5–15 alleles per microsatellite marker, with an average of 9.11 alleles per locus). Cluster analysis of genetic similarities revealed that these microsatellites identified a total of nine different genotypes. The genotype from Isfahan province, which is the major production area, was by far the most common genotype (27/40 accessions). It was identical to the Bulgarian genotype. Other genotypes (each represented by 1–4 accessions) were collected from minor production areas in several provinces, notably in the mountainous Northwest of Iran. Conclusion This is the first study that uncovered genetic diversity within Damask rose. Our results will guide new collection activities to establish larger collections and manage the Iranian Damask rose genetic resources. The genotypes identified here may be directly useful for breeding.

Babaei, Alireza; Tabaei-Aghdaei, Seyed Reza; Khosh-Khui, Morteza; Omidbaigi, Reza; Naghavi, Mohammad Reza; Esselink, Gerhard D; Smulders, Marinus JM

2007-01-01

92

Fractional paternity assignment: theoretical development and comparison to other methods.  

PubMed

There has recently been a burgeoning interest in the analysis of paternity patterns for natural populations because of its relevance to population genetic phenomena such as the distance between successful mates, relative male reproductive success and gene flow. In this paper we develop a method of analyzing populational patterns of paternity, the fractional paternity method, and compare its performance to two other commonly used methods of paternity analysis (simple exclusion and the most-likely methods). We show that the fractional method is the most accurate method for determining populational patterns of paternity because it assigns paternity to all progeny examined, and because it avoids biases inherent in the other paternity analysis methods when model assumptions are met. In particular, it avoids a systematic bias of the most-likely paternity assignment method, which has a tendency to over-assign paternity of progeny to certain male parents with a greater than average number of homozygous marker loci. We also demonstrate the effect of linkage of some of the marker loci on paternity assignment, showing how the knowledge of the linkage phase of male and female parents in the population can significantly improve the accuracy of the estimates of populational patterns of paternity. Knowledge of the linkage phase of individuals in a population is usually unknown and difficult to assess without progeny testing, which involves considerable labor. However, we show how the linkage phase of hermaphroditic individuals in a population can be obtained in conjunction with the paternity analysis if progeny can be obtained from each hermaphroditic individual in the population, thereby avoiding the problem of traditional progeny testing. Applications of the fractional paternity approach developed herein should contribute significantly to our understanding of the mating patterns in, and hence the evolution of, natural populations. PMID:24232200

Devlin, B; Roeder, K; Ellstrand, N C

1988-09-01

93

Paternity fraud and compensation for misattributed paternity  

PubMed Central

Claims for reimbursement of child support, the reversal of property settlements and compensation can arise when misattributed paternity is discovered. The ethical justifications for such claims seem to be related to the financial cost of bringing up children, the absence of choice about taking on these expenses, the hard work involved in child rearing, the emotional attachments that are formed with children, the obligation of women to make truthful claims about paternity, and the deception involved in infidelity. In this paper it is argued that there should not be compensation for infidelity and that reimbursement is appropriate where the claimant has made child support payments but has not taken on the social role of father. Where the claimant's behaviour suggests a social view of fatherhood, on the other hand, claims for compensation are less coherent. Where the genetic model of fatherhood dominates, the “other” man (the woman's lover and progenitor of the children) might also have a claim for the loss of the benefits of fatherhood. It is concluded that claims for reimbursement and compensation in cases of misattributed paternity produce the same distorted and thin view of what it means to be a father that paternity testing assumes, and underscores a trend that is not in the interests of children.

Draper, Heather

2007-01-01

94

Paternity fraud and compensation for misattributed paternity.  

PubMed

Claims for reimbursement of child support, the reversal of property settlements and compensation can arise when misattributed paternity is discovered. The ethical justifications for such claims seem to be related to the financial cost of bringing up children, the absence of choice about taking on these expenses, the hard work involved in child rearing, the emotional attachments that are formed with children, the obligation of women to make truthful claims about paternity, and the deception involved in infidelity. In this paper it is argued that there should not be compensation for infidelity and that reimbursement is appropriate where the claimant has made child support payments but has not taken on the social role of father. Where the claimant's behaviour suggests a social view of fatherhood, on the other hand, claims for compensation are less coherent. Where the genetic model of fatherhood dominates, the "other" man (the woman's lover and progenitor of the children) might also have a claim for the loss of the benefits of fatherhood. It is concluded that claims for reimbursement and compensation in cases of misattributed paternity produce the same distorted and thin view of what it means to be a father that paternity testing assumes, and underscores a trend that is not in the interests of children. PMID:17664309

Draper, Heather

2007-08-01

95

Pacific Rim Population Structure of Chinook Salmon as Determined from Microsatellite Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pacific Rim population structure of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha was examined with a survey of microsatellite variation. Variation at 13 microsatellite loci was surveyed for over 52,000 Chinook salmon sampled from over 320 localities ranging from Russia to California. The genetic differentiation index (FST) over all populations and loci was 0.063; individual locus values ranged from 0.026 to 0.130.

Terry D. Beacham; Kimberly L. Jonsen; Janine Supernault; Michael Wetklo; Langtuo Deng; Natalia Varnavskaya

2006-01-01

96

Conceptual Mission Analysis for RS MicroSatellite: EgyptIris-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental micro-satellite project accepts a number of characteristics typically denounced in commercial spacecraft development. These include acceptance of high risk, little component redundancy of the experiments, low-precision control, non-optimal designs, and limited mission duration. It is proposed to use a micro-satellite as a platform for the research and development of micro system technology to enhance the knowledge infrastructure of

A. M. Elhady

2007-01-01

97

Genetic components in contemporary Faroe Islands Cattle as revealed by microsatellite analysis.  

PubMed

The gene pool of indigenous Faroe Islands Cattle is strongly affected by crossing with Norwegian Red. In this study, the genetic structure in 191 animals representing five North European cattle breeds (Faroe Islands, Icelandic, Blacksided Troender, Western Fjord and Norwegian Red) and the genetic admixture in the contemporary Faroe Islands Cattle at the population and individual level were evaluated using 20 polymorphic microsatellite loci. Only 6.7% of the total genetic variation could be attributed to the differences amongst the breeds. The factorial correspondence analysis based on all allele frequencies could hardly reveal a divergence between Faroe Islands Cattle and Norwegian Red. In addition, a Neighbor-Net tree constructed to examine the allocation of individuals of Faroe Islands Cattle and Norwegian Red provided a detailed interrelationship network for all the 72 animals. An estimation of the population admixture proportion showed a strong genetic contribution by Norwegian Red (47.3%) in the contemporary Faroe Islands Cattle. On the other hand, individual admixture analysis demonstrated that only seven of the individual Faroe Islands Cattle analysed, which also showed more traditional colour patterns, could be assigned to the Faroe Islands Cattle cluster, probably representing the breed's remaining purebred animals. Strategies for preserving the original native genes in Faroe Islands Cattle should be considered in order to prevent the breed from becoming extinct and to strengthen the breed's capability in future breeding programmes. PMID:16191039

Li, M H; Sternbauer, K; Haahr, P T; Kantanen, J

2005-10-01

98

Microsatellite and Minisatellite Analysis of Leptosphaeria maculans in Australia Reveals Regional Genetic Differentiation.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT The population genetic structure of the fungal pathogen Leptosphaeria maculans was determined in Australia using six microsatellite and two minisatellite markers. Ascospores were sampled from Brassica napus stubble in disease nurseries and commercial fields in different sites over 2 years. The 13 subpopulations of L. maculans exhibited high gene (H = 0.393 to 0.563) and genotypic diversity, with 357 haplotypes identified among 513 isolates. Although the majority of genetic variation was distributed within subpopulations (85%), 10% occurred between the regions of eastern and Western Australia, and 5% within regions. F(ST) analysis of subpopulation pairs also showed the east-west genetic differentiation, whereas factorial correspondence analysis separated Western Australian subpopulations from eastern ones. Bayesian model-based population structure analyses of multilocus haplotypes inferred three distinct populations, one in Western Australia and an admixture of two in eastern Australia. These two regions are separated by 1,200 km of arid desert that may act as a natural barrier to gene flow, resulting in differentiation by random genetic drift. The genetic differentiation of L. maculans isolates between eastern and Western Australia means that these regions can be treated as different management units, and reinforces the need for widespread disease nurseries in each region to screen breeding lines against a range of genetic and pathogenic populations of L. maculans. PMID:18943938

Hayden, Helen L; Cozijnsen, Anton J; Howlett, Barbara J

2007-07-01

99

Population structure and covariate analysis based on pairwise microsatellite allele matching frequencies.  

PubMed

We describe a general model for pairwise microsatellite allele matching probabilities. The model can be used for analysis of population substructure, and is particularly focused on relating genetic correlation to measurable covariates. The approach is intended for cases when the existence of subpopulations is uncertain and a priori assignment of samples to hypothesized subpopulations is difficult. Such a situation arises, for example, with western Arctic bowhead whales, where genetic samples are available only from a possibly mixed migratory assemblage. We estimate genetic structure associated with spatial, temporal, or other variables that may confound the detection of population structure. In the bowhead case, the model permits detection of genetic patterns associated with a temporally pulsed multi-population assemblage in the annual migration. Hypothesis tests for population substructure and for covariate effects can be carried out using permutation methods. Simulated and real examples illustrate the effectiveness and reliability of the approach and enable comparisons with other familiar approaches. Analysis of the bowhead data finds no evidence for two temporally pulsed subpopulations using the best available data, although a significant pattern found by other researchers using preliminary data is also confirmed here. Code in the R language is available from www.stat.colostate.edu/~geof/gammmp.html. PMID:18052914

Givens, Geof H; Ozaksoy, Isin

2007-01-01

100

Genetic differentiation and phylogeography of roe deer in Spain, as suggested by mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current population structure patterns of roe deer Capreolus capreolus in Spain were assessed through the analysis of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. Restriction fragment length polymorphism was detected in the D?loop and NADH?dehydrogenase ND1 segments of mitochondrial DNA. Nuclear variation was investigated using 12 microsatellite loci. A total of 126 roe deer were analysed from fourteen sampling sites across the Iberian

Rita Lorenzini; Francisco Braza; Santiago Aragón

2003-01-01

101

A comparative genetic study of two groups of chukar partridges ( Alectoris chukar ) from Cyprus and Argentina, using microsatellite analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present work is to estimate the usefulness of microsatellite genetic markers analysis to characterize and analyze\\u000a the possible differences between a captive reared population and a wild one from the same species. The first sample consists\\u000a of 27 chukar partridges (Alectoris chukar) bred in one farm in Argentina. The second one is composed of 31 chukar

M. V. Arruga; E. Hadjisterkotis; L. V. Monteagudo; M. T. Tejedor

2007-01-01

102

Evaluation of an extended set of 15 candidate STR loci for paternity and kinship analysis in an Austrian population sample.  

PubMed

We investigated 15 polymorphic short tandem repeat (STR) loci (D1S1656, D7S1517, D8S306, D8S639, D9S304, D10S2325, D11S488, D12S391, D14S608, D16S3253, D17S976, D18S1270, D19S253, D20S161, and D21S1437) which are not included in the standard sets of forensic loci. The markers were selected according to the complexity of the polymorphic region: Of the 15 investigated loci, 7 loci showed a simple repeat structure (D9S304, D10S2325, D14S608, D16S3253, D18S1270, D19S253, and D21S1437), 3 loci (D7S1517, D12S391, and D20S161) consisted of compound repeat units, and 5 loci (D1S1656, D8S306, D8S639, D11S488, and D17S976) showed a more complex polymorphic region partly including different repeat blocks and incomplete repeat units, which resulted in a relatively high proportion of intermediate alleles. A population study on a sample of 270 unrelated persons from Austria was carried out. We did not observe significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg expectations. The combined probability of exclusion for the 15 loci was 0.99999998. In combination with the conventional set of STR markers included in commercially available kits (no linkage was observed between these 15 loci and the Powerplex 16 System loci), these markers are approved as highly discriminating forensic tools, also suitable for the analysis of difficult paternity and kinship constellations. PMID:16642351

Grubwieser, P; Zimmermann, B; Niederstätter, H; Pavlic, M; Steinlechner, M; Parson, W

2007-03-01

103

Selection and use of SNP markers for animal identification and paternity analysis in U.S. beef cattle.  

PubMed

DNA marker technology represents a promising means for determining the genetic identity and kinship of an animal. Compared with other types of DNA markers, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are attractive because they are abundant, genetically stable, and amenable to high-throughput automated analysis. In cattle, the challenge has been to identify a minimal set of SNPs with sufficient power for use in a variety of popular breeds and crossbred populations. This report describes a set of 32 highly informative SNP markers distributed among 18 autosomes and both sex chromosomes. Informativity of these SNPs in U.S. beef cattle populations was estimated from the distribution of allele and genotype frequencies in two panels: one consisting of 96 purebred sires representing 17 popular breeds, and another with 154 purebred American Angus from six herds in four Midwestern states. Based on frequency data from these panels, the estimated probability that two randomly selected, unrelated individuals will possess identical genotypes for all 32 loci was 2.0 x 10(-13) for multi-breed composite populations and 1.9 x 10(-10) for purebred Angus populations. The probability that a randomly chosen candidate sire will be excluded from paternity was estimated to be 99.9% and 99.4% for the same respective populations. The DNA immediately surrounding the 32 target SNPs was sequenced in the 96 sires of the multi-breed panel and found to contain an additional 183 polymorphic sites. Knowledge of these additional sites, together with the 32 target SNPs, allows the design of robust, accurate genotype assays on a variety of high-throughput SNP genotyping platforms. PMID:12016516

Heaton, Michael P; Harhay, Gregory P; Bennett, Gary L; Stone, Roger T; Grosse, W Michael; Casas, Eduardo; Keele, John W; Smith, Timothy P L; Chitko-McKown, Carol G; Laegreid, William W

2002-05-01

104

Maternal and paternal genealogy of Eurasian taurine cattle (Bos taurus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has been used extensively to determine origin and diversity of taurine cattle (Bos taurus) but global surveys of paternally inherited Y-chromosome diversity are lacking. Here, we provide mtDNA information on previously uncharacterised Eurasian breeds and present the most comprehensive Y-chromosomal microsatellite data on domestic cattle to date. The mitochondrial haplogroup T3 was the most frequent,

J Kantanen; C J Edwards; D G Bradley; H Viinalass; S Thessler; Z Ivanova; T Kiselyova; M ?inkulov; R Popov; S Stojanovi?; I Ammosov; J Vilkki

2009-01-01

105

Microsatellite and Wolbachia analysis in Rhagoletis cerasi natural populations: population structuring and multiple infections  

PubMed Central

Rhagoletis cerasi (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a major pest of sweet and sour cherries in Europe and parts of Asia. Despite its economic significance, there is a lack of studies on the genetic structure of R. cerasi populations. Elucidating the genetic structure of insects of economic importance is crucial for developing phenological-predictive models and environmental friendly control methods. All natural populations of R. cerasi have been found to harbor the endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis, which widely affects multiple biological traits contributing to the evolution of its hosts, and has been suggested as a tool for the biological control of insect pests and disease vectors. In the current study, the analysis of 18 R. cerasi populations collected in Greece, Germany, and Russia using 13 microsatellite markers revealed structuring of R. cerasi natural populations, even at close geographic range. We also analyzed the Wolbachia infection status of these populations using 16S rRNA-, MLST- and wsp-based approaches. All 244 individuals screened were positive for Wolbachia. Our results suggest the fixation of the wCer1 strain in Greece while wCer2, wCer4, wCer5, and probably other uncharacterized strains were also detected in multiply infected individuals. The role of Wolbachia and its potential extended phenotypes needs a thorough investigation in R. cerasi. Our data suggest an involvement of this symbiont in the observed restriction in the gene flow in addition to a number of different ecological factors.

Augustinos, Antonios A; Asimakopoulou, Anastasia K; Moraiti, Cleopatra A; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos T; Bourtzis, Kostas

2014-01-01

106

Gene flow of Acanthaster planci (L.) in relation to ocean currents revealed by microsatellite analysis.  

PubMed

Population outbreaks of the coral-eating starfish, Acanthaster planci, are hypothesized to spread to many localities in the Indo-Pacific Ocean through dispersal of planktonic larvae. To elucidate the gene flow of A. planci across the Indo-Pacific in relation to ocean currents and to test the larval dispersal hypothesis, the genetic structure among 23 samples over the Indo-Pacific was analysed using seven highly polymorphic microsatellite loci. The F-statistics and genetic admixture analysis detected genetically distinct groups in accordance with ocean current systems, that is, the Southeast African group (Kenya and Mayotte), the Northwestern Pacific group (the Philippines and Japan), Palau, the North Central Pacific group (Majuro and Pohnpei), the Great Barrier Reef, Fiji, and French Polynesia, with a large genetic break between the Indian and Pacific Oceans. A pattern of significant isolation by distance was observed among all samples (P = 0.001, r = 0.88, n = 253, Mantel test), indicating restricted gene flow among the samples in accordance with geographical distances. The data also indicated strong gene flow within the Southeast African, Northwestern Pacific, and Great Barrier Reef groups. These results suggest that the western boundary currents have strong influence on gene flow of this species and may trigger secondary outbreaks. PMID:19302361

Yasuda, Nina; Nagai, Satoshi; Hamaguchi, Masami; Okaji, Ken; Gérard, Karin; Nadaoka, Kazuo

2009-04-01

107

Microsatellite analysis revealed genetic diversity and population structure among Chinese cashmere goats.  

PubMed

Most cashmere goats are found in northern China and Mongolia. They are regarded as precious resources for their production of high quality natural fibre for the textile industry. It was the first time that the genetic diversity and population structure of nine Chinese cashmere populations has been assessed using 14 ISAG/FAO microsatellite markers. In addition, two Iranian populations and one West African goat population were genotyped for comparison. Results indicated that the genetic diversity of Chinese cashmere goats was rich, but less than those of the Iranian goat populations. All pairwise F(ST) values between the Chinese cashmere goat populations reached a highly significant level (P < 0.001), suggesting that they should all be considered as separate breeds. Finally, clustering analysis divided Chinese cashmere goats into at least two clusters, with the Tibetan Hegu goats alone in one cluster. An extensive admixture was detected among the Chinese goat breeds (except the Hegu), which have important implications for breeding management. PMID:20497158

Di, R; Vahidi, S M Farhad; Ma, Y H; He, X H; Zhao, Q J; Han, J L; Guan, W J; Chu, M X; Sun, W; Pu, Y P

2011-08-01

108

[Analysis of microsatellite loci variations in herring (Clupea pallasii marisalbi) from the White Sea].  

PubMed

The genetic diversity among spawning groups of herring from different parts of the White Sea was assessed using ten microsatellite loci. All loci were polymorphic with the expected heterozygosity estimates varying in the range of 12.7-94.1% (mean was 59.5%). The degree of genetic differentiation displayed by White Sea herring was statistically significant (theta = 2.03%). The level of pairwise genetic differentiation F(ST) was 0-0.085, and it was statistically significant in most of the comparison pairs between the herring samples. A hierarchical analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed the statistically significant differentiation of White Sea herring. 96.59% genetic variation was found within the samples and 3.41% variation was found among the populations. The main component of interpopulation diversity (1.85%) falls at the differences between two ecological forms of herring, spring- and summer-spawning. Within the spring-spawning form, the presence of local stocks in Kandalaksha Gulf, Onega Bay, and Dvina Bay was demonstrated. PMID:24450198

Semenova, A V; Andreeva, A P; Karpov, A K; Stroganov, A N; Rubtsova, G A; Afanas'ev, K I

2013-06-01

109

Molecular tracking of mountain lions in the Yosemite valley region in California: genetic analysis using microsatellites and faecal DNA.  

PubMed

Twelve microsatellite loci were characterized in California mountain lions (Puma concolor) and sufficient polymorphism was found to uniquely genotype 62 animals sampled at necropsy. Microsatellite genotypes obtained using mountain lion faecal DNA matched those from muscle for all of 15 individuals examined. DNA from potential prey species and animals whose faeces could be misidentified as mountain lion faeces were reliably distinguished from mountain lions using this microsatellite panel. In a field application of this technique, 32 faecal samples were collected from hiking trails in the Yosemite Valley region where seven mountain lions previously had been captured, sampled, and released. Twelve samples yielded characteristic mountain lion genotypes, three displayed bobcat-type genotypes, and 17 did not amplify. The genotype of one of the 12 mountain lion faecal samples was identical to one of the mountain lions that previously had been captured. Three of the 12 faecal samples yielded identical genotypes, and eight new genotypes were detected in the remaining samples. This analysis provided a minimum estimate of 16 mountain lions (seven identified by capture and nine identified by faecal DNA) living in or travelling through Yosemite Valley from March 1997 to August 1998. Match probabilities (probabilities that identical DNA genotypes would be drawn at random a second time from the population) indicated that the samples with identical genotypes probably came from the same mountain lion. Our results demonstrate that faecal DNA analysis is an effective method for detecting and identifying individual mountain lions. PMID:10736046

Ernest, H B; Penedo, M C; May, B P; Syvanen, M; Boyce, W M

2000-04-01

110

Paternal Organic Solvent Exposure and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Organic solvents are widely used, but conflicting reports exist concerning\\u000apaternal exposure and adverse pregnancy outcomes. We conducted a meta-analysis to\\u000aassess the risks of spontaneous abortions (SAs) and major malformations (MMs) after\\u000apaternal exposure to organic solvents.\\u000aMethods: Medline, Toxline, Reprotox, and Embase from 1966 to 2003 were searched.\\u000aTwo independent reviewers searched for cohort and case-control studies

J. Floris S. Logman; Laurens E. de Vries; Michiel E. H. Hemels; Sohail Khattak; Thomas R. Einarson

2005-01-01

111

Paternity testing and behavioral ecology: A case study of jaguars (Panthera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We used microsatellite loci to test the paternity of two male jaguars involved in an infanticide event recorded during a long-term monitoring program,of this species. Seven microsatellite primers originally developed,for domestic,cats and previously selected for Panthera onca were used. In order to deal with uncertainty in the mother’s genotypes,for some of the loci, 10000 values of W were derived

Thannya Nascimento Soares; Mariana P. c. Telles; Lucileide V. Resende; Leandro Silveira; Anah Tereza A. Jácomo; Ronaldo G. Morato; José Alexandre F. Diniz-filho; Eduardo Eizirik; Rosana P. v. Brondani; Claudio Brondani

112

Comparative genomic analysis reveals species-dependent complexities that explain difficulties with microsatellite marker development in molluscs.  

PubMed

Reliable population DNA molecular markers are difficult to develop for molluscs, the reasons for which are largely unknown. Identical protocols for microsatellite marker development were implemented in three gastropods. Success rates were lower for Gibbula cineraria compared to Littorina littorea and L. saxatilis. Comparative genomic analysis of 47.2?kb of microsatellite containing sequences (MCS) revealed a high incidence of cryptic repetitive DNA in their flanking regions. The majority of these were novel, and could be grouped into DNA families based upon sequence similarities. Significant inter-specific variation in abundance of cryptic repetitive DNA and DNA families was observed. Repbase scans show that a large proportion of cryptic repetitive DNA was identified as transposable elements (TEs). We argue that a large number of TEs and their transpositional activity may be linked to differential rates of DNA multiplication and recombination. This is likely to be an important factor explaining inter-specific variation in genome stability and hence microsatellite marker development success rates. Gastropods also differed significantly in the type of TEs classes (autonomous vs non-autonomous) observed. We propose that dissimilar transpositional mechanisms differentiate the TE classes in terms of their propensity for transposition, fixation and/or silencing. Consequently, the phylogenetic conservation of non-autonomous TEs, such as CvA, suggests that dispersal of these elements may have behaved as microsatellite-inducing elements. Results seem to indicate that, compared to autonomous, non-autonomous TEs maybe have a more active role in genome rearrangement processes. The implications of the findings for genomic rearrangement, stability and marker development are discussed. PMID:20424639

McInerney, C E; Allcock, A L; Johnson, M P; Bailie, D A; Prodöhl, P A

2011-01-01

113

Forensic Applications of Molecular Genetic Analysis: An Italian Collaborative Study on Paternity Testing by the Determination of Variable Number of Tandem Repeat DNA Polymorphisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) DNA polymorphisms detecting different loci (YNH24\\/MspI or TaqI, CMM101\\/MspI or MLJ14\\/MspI, EFD64.2\\/RsaI or Hinfl, YNZ22\\/TaqI, AW101\\/EcoRI, EKMDA2.1\\/PvuII and 3’-HVR\\/PvuII) were used in the analysis of 27 cases of disputed paternity in the Italian population. Fourteen exclusions and 17 attributions were performed. The results were compared with those obtained with immunohematologic analyses. Four exclusions

P. Gasparini; P. Mandich; G. Novelli; E. Bellone; F. Sangiuolo; F. De Stefano; L. Potenza; E. Trabetti; M. Marigo; P. F. Pignatti; B. Dallapiccola; F. Ajmar

1991-01-01

114

Paternal and Maternal Genetic Analysis of a Desert Keriyan Population: Keriyans Are Not the Descendants of Guge Tibetans  

PubMed Central

The Keriyan people live in an isolated village in the Taklimakan Desert in Xinjiang, Western China. The origin and migration of the Keriyans remains unclear. We studied paternal and maternal genetic variance through typing Y-STR loci and sequencing the complete control region of the mtDNA and compared them with other adjacent populations. Data show that the Keriyan have relatively low genetic diversity on both the paternal and maternal lineages and possess both European and Asian specific haplogroups, indicating Keriyan is an admixture population of West and East. There is a gender-bias in the extent of contribution from Europe vs. Asia to the Keriyan gene pool. Keriyans have more genetic affinity to Uyghurs than to Tibetans. The Keriyan are not the descendants of the Guge Tibetans.

Chen, Kaixu; Ablimit, Abdurahman; Ling, Fengjun; Wu, Weiwei; Shan, Wenjuan; Qin, Wenbei; Keweier, Tuerhong; Zuo, Hongli; Zhang, Fuchun; Ma, Zhenghai; Zheng, Xiufen

2014-01-01

115

Analysis and injury paterns of walnut tree falls in central anatolia of turkey  

PubMed Central

Introduction Falls are the second most common cause of injury-associated mortality worldwide. This study aimed to analysis the injuries caused by falls from walnut tree and assess their mortality and morbidity risk. Methods This is a retrospective hospital-based study of patients presenting to emergency department (ED) of Ahi Evran Univercity between September and October 2012. For each casualty, we computed the ISS (defined as the sum of the squares of the highest Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score in each of the three most severely injured body regions). Severe injury was defined as ISS???16. The duration of hospital stay and final outcome were recorded. Statistical comparisons were carried out with Chi-Square test for categorical data and non-parametric spearman correlation tests were used to test the association between variables. A p value less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results Fifty-four patients admitted to our emergency department with fall from walnut tree. Fifty (92.6%) patients were male. The mean age was 48?±?14 years. Spinal region (44.4%) and particularly lumbar area (25.9%) sustained the most of the injuries among all body parts. Wedge compression fractures ranked first among all spinal injuries. Extremities injuries were the second most common injury. None of the patients died. Morbidity rate was 9.25%. Conclussion Falls from walnut trees are a significant health problem. Preventive measures including education of farmers and agricultural workers and using mechanized methods for harvesting walnut will lead to a dramatic decrease in mortality and morbidity caused by falls from walnut trees.

2014-01-01

116

Genetic structure of Mesoamerican populations of Big-leaf mahogany ( Swietenia macrophylla ) inferred from microsatellite analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

While microsatellites have been used to examine genetic structure in local populations of Neotropical trees, genetic studies based on such high-resolution markers have not been carried out for Mesoamerica as a whole. Here we assess the genetic structure of the Meso- american mahogany Swietenia macrophylla King (big-leaf mahogany), a Neotropical tree species recently listed as endangered in CITES which is

RACHEL ROTH N OVICK; CHRISTOPHER W. D ICK; MARISTERRA R. L EMES; CARLOS NAVARRO; ADALGISA CACCONE; ELDREDGE BERMINGHAM

117

Genetic Analysis of Six Endangered Local Duck Populations in China Based on Microsatellite Markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seventeen microsatellite loci were used to assess the genetic variation and population structure of six endangered duck populations in China. PIC, heterozygosity with two estimators of genetic differentiation (FST and GST), and Nei's standard genetic distance were evaluated. The results showed that these six endangered duck populations showed high polymorphism. The proportion of inter-population subdivision among the six duck populations

Ying Su; Ruijun Long; Guohong Chen; Xinsheng Wu; Kaizhou Xie; Jianghong Wan

2007-01-01

118

Genetic analysis of four wild chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta populations in China based on microsatellite markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis To assess the genetic variation and population structure of wild chum salmon in China, we analyzed microsatellite loci for populations in the Amur, Wusuli, Suifen Current and the Tumen rivers. We evaluated expected heterozygosity with two estimators of genetic differentiation (FST and GST) and Nei’s standard genetic distance. The average expected heterozygosity across the 10 loci was 0.65 in

Jin-Ping Chen; Da-Jiang Sun; Chong-Zhi Dong; Bing Liang; Wen-Hua Wu; Shu-Yi Zhang

2005-01-01

119

Inferred Paternity and Male Reproductive Success in a Killer Whale (Orcinus orca) Population.  

PubMed

We used data from 78 individuals at 26 microsatellite loci to infer parental and sibling relationships within a community of fish-eating ("resident") eastern North Pacific killer whales (Orcinus orca). Paternity analysis involving 15 mother/calf pairs and 8 potential fathers and whole-pedigree analysis of the entire sample produced consistent results. The variance in male reproductive success was greater than expected by chance and similar to that of other aquatic mammals. Although the number of confirmed paternities was small, reproductive success appeared to increase with male age and size. We found no evidence that males from outside this small population sired any of the sampled individuals. In contrast to previous results in a different population, many offspring were the result of matings within the same "pod" (long-term social group). Despite this pattern of breeding within social groups, we found no evidence of offspring produced by matings between close relatives, and the average internal relatedness of individuals was significantly less than expected if mating were random. The population's estimated effective size was <30 or about 1/3 of the current census size. Patterns of allele frequency variation were consistent with a population bottleneck. PMID:21757487

Ford, Michael J; Hanson, M Bradley; Hempelmann, Jennifer A; Ayres, Katherine L; Emmons, Candice K; Schorr, Gregory S; Baird, Robin W; Balcomb, Kenneth C; Wasser, Samuel K; Parsons, Kim M; Balcomb-Bartok, Kelly

2011-01-01

120

Genetic diversity analysis of BMY cattle based on microsatellite DNA markers.  

PubMed

BMY cattle (1/2 Brahman, 1/4 Murray Grey and 1/4 Yunnan Yellow cattle) has been inter se breeding since 1980s. Genetic diversity of BMY cattle was extensively investigated using 16 microsatellite markers. A total of 130 microsatellite alleles and high allele size variance were detected. All loci displayed high genetic diversity with overall mean of N(a) = 8.13, PIC = 0.7224 and H(e) = 0.7666, which were higher than those of many other beef breeds. The allele-sharing neighbour-joining tree clearly displayed the new genotypic combinations and the minglement from both BMY cattle and Brahman. The results provided the genetic information to match the standards of new beef breed in South China. PMID:22730772

Qu, K X; Huang, B Z; Yang, G R; He, Z X; Zhang, Y P; Zan, L S

2012-04-01

121

Genome-wide analysis of microsatellite polymorphism in chicken circumventing the ascertainment bias  

PubMed Central

Studies of microsatellites evolution based on marker data almost inherently suffer from an ascertainment bias because there is selection for the most mutable and polymorphic loci during marker development. To circumvent this bias we took advantage of whole-genome shotgun sequence data from three unrelated chicken individuals that, when aligned to the genome reference sequence, give sequence information on two chromosomes from about one-fourth (375,000) of all microsatellite loci containing di- through pentanucleotide repeat motifs in the chicken genome. Polymorphism is seen at loci with as few as five repeat units, and the proportion of dimorphic loci then increases to 50% for sequences with ?10 repeat units, to reach a maximum of 75%–80% for sequences with 15 or more repeat units. For any given repeat length, polymorphism increases with decreasing GC content of repeat motifs for dinucleotides, nonhairpin-forming trinucleotides, and tetranucleotides. For trinucleotide repeats which are likely to form hairpin structures, polymorphism increases with increasing GC content, indicating that the relative stability of hairpins affects the rate of replication slippage. For any given repeat length, polymorphism is significantly lower for imperfect compared to perfect repeats and repeat interruptions occur in >15% of loci. However, interruptions are not randomly distributed within repeat arrays but are preferentially located toward the ends. There is negative correlation between microsatellite abundance and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) density, providing large-scale genomic support for the hypothesis that equilibrium microsatellite distributions are governed by a balance between rate of replication slippage and rate of point mutation.

Brandstrom, Mikael; Ellegren, Hans

2008-01-01

122

Population Genetic Analysis among Five Indian Population Groups Using Six Microsatellite Markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 Abstract Genetic variation at six tetranucleotide microsatellites (HUMTHO1, HUMVWA, F13A01, D3S1359, D12S66, and D12S67) has been determined in five endogamous ethnic population groups of India be- longing to two major linguistic families. The populations analyzed were Konkanastha Brahmins and Marathas (Maharashtra state) from the Indo- Aryan linguistic family and Nairs, Ezhavas, and Muslims (Kerala state) from the Dravidian family.

Anu Ghosh; Birajalaxmi Das; M Seshadri

2003-01-01

123

Gene diversity analysis of mitochondrial DNA, microsatellites and allozymes in landlocked Atlantic salmon  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the patterns of genetic diversity detected in allozymes, mtDNA, and microsatellites, in order to assess their relative efficacy to differentiate sympatric landlocked salmon populations and to estimate changes in genetic diversity between wild and first- generation hatchery fish. Overall, the three genetic markers indicated a genetic differentiation between two sympatric populations of Lake Saint-Jean, Quebec. MtDNA and

N. Tessier; L. Bernatchez; P. Presa; B. Angers

1995-01-01

124

Analysis of conservation priorities of Iberoamerican cattle based on autosomal microsatellite markers  

PubMed Central

Background Determining the value of livestock breeds is essential to define conservation priorities, manage genetic diversity and allocate funds. Within- and between-breed genetic diversity need to be assessed to preserve the highest intra-specific variability. Information on genetic diversity and risk status is still lacking for many Creole cattle breeds from the Americas, despite their distinct evolutionary trajectories and adaptation to extreme environmental conditions. Methods A comprehensive genetic analysis of 67 Iberoamerican cattle breeds was carried out with 19 FAO-recommended microsatellites to assess conservation priorities. Contributions to global diversity were investigated using alternative methods, with different weights given to the within- and between-breed components of genetic diversity. Information on Iberoamerican plus 15 worldwide cattle breeds was used to investigate the contribution of geographical breed groups to global genetic diversity. Results Overall, Creole cattle breeds showed a high level of genetic diversity with the highest level found in breeds admixed with zebu cattle, which were clearly differentiated from all other breeds. Within-breed kinships revealed seven highly inbred Creole breeds for which measures are needed to avoid further genetic erosion. However, if contribution to heterozygosity was the only criterion considered, some of these breeds had the lowest priority for conservation decisions. The Weitzman approach prioritized highly differentiated breeds, such as Guabalá, Romosinuano, Cr. Patagonico, Siboney and Caracú, while kinship-based methods prioritized mainly zebu-related breeds. With the combined approaches, breed ranking depended on the weights given to the within- and between-breed components of diversity. Overall, the Creole groups of breeds were generally assigned a higher priority for conservation than the European groups of breeds. Conclusions Conservation priorities differed significantly according to the weight given to within- and between-breed genetic diversity. Thus, when establishing conservation programs, it is necessary to also take into account other features. Creole cattle and local isolated breeds retain a high level of genetic diversity. The development of sustainable breeding and crossbreeding programs for Creole breeds, and the added value resulting from their products should be taken into consideration to ensure their long-term survival.

2013-01-01

125

Genetic diversity and structure in Leishmania infantum populations from southeastern Europe revealed by microsatellite analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The dynamic re-emergence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in south Europe and the northward shift to Leishmania-free European countries are well-documented. However, the epidemiology of VL due to Leishmania infantum in southeastern (SE) Europe and the Balkans is inadequately examined. Herein, we aim to re-evaluate and compare the population structure of L. infantum in SE and southwestern (SW) Europe. Methods Leishmania strains collected from humans and canines in Turkey, Cyprus, Bulgaria, Greece, Albania and Croatia, were characterized by the K26-PCR assay and multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE). Genetic diversity was assessed by multilocus microsatellite typing (MLMT) and MLM Types were analyzed by model- and distance- based algorithms to infer the population structure of 128?L. infantum strains. Results L. infantum MON-1 was found predominant in SE Europe, whilst 16.8% of strains were MON-98. Distinct genetic populations revealed clear differentiation between SE and SW European strains. Interestingly, Cypriot canine isolates were genetically isolated and formed a monophyletic group, suggesting the constitution of a clonal MON-1 population circulating among dogs. In contrast, two highly heterogeneous populations enclosed all MON-1 and MON-98 strains from the other SE European countries. Structure sub-clustering, phylogenetic and Splitstree analysis also revealed two distinct Croatian subpopulations. A mosaic of evolutionary effects resulted in consecutive sub-structuring, which indicated substantial differentiation and gene flow among strains of both zymodemes. Conclusions This is the first population genetic study of L. infantum in SE Europe and the Balkans. Our findings demonstrate the differentiation between SE and SW European strains; revealing the partition of Croatian strains between these populations and the genetic isolation of Cypriot strains. This mirrors the geographic position of Croatia located in central Europe and the natural isolation of the island of Cyprus. We have analysed the largest number of MON-98 strains so far. Our results indicate extensive gene flow, recombination and no differentiation between MON-1 and MON-98 zymodemes. No correlation either to host specificity or place and year of strain isolation was identified. Our findings may be associated with intensive host migration and common eco-epidemiological characteristics in these countries and give valuable insight into the dynamics of VL.

2013-01-01

126

Identification of Epichlo? Endophytes In Planta by a Microsatellite-Based PCR Fingerprinting Assay with Automated Analysis  

PubMed Central

Epichloë endophytes are a group of filamentous fungi that include both sexual (Epichloë) and asexual (Neotyphodium) species. As a group they are genetically diverse and form both antagonistic and mutualistic associations with temperate grasses. We report here on the development of a microsatellite-based PCR system for fingerprinting this group of fungi with template isolated from either culture or infected plant material. M13mp19 partial genomic libraries were constructed for size-fractionated genomic DNA from two endophyte strains. These libraries were screened with a mixture of DIG-labeled dinucleotide and trinucleotide repeat probes. Positive clones were sequenced, and nine unique microsatellite loci were identified. An additional microsatellite was serendipitously identified in the 3? untranscribed region of the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase gene from N. lolii Lp19. Primers were designed for each locus and a panel of endophytes, from different taxonomic groupings, was screened to determine the degree of polymorphism. On the basis of these results a multiplex assay was developed for strain identification with fluorescently labeled primers for five of these loci. Using this system the size of the products amplified can be precisely determined by automated analysis, and an allele profile for each strain can be readily generated. The assay was shown to resolve endophyte groupings to the level of known isozyme phenotype groupings. In a blind test the assay was used successfully to identify a set of endophytes in planta. A reference database of allele sizes has been established for the panel of endophytes examined, and this will be expanded as new strains are analyzed.

Moon, Christina D.; Tapper, Brian A.; Scott, Barry

1999-01-01

127

Applying Microsatellite Multiplex PCR Analysis (MMPA) for Determining Allele Copy-Number Status and Percentage of Normal Cells within Tumors  

PubMed Central

The study of somatic genetic alterations in tumors contributes to the understanding and management of cancer. Genetic alterations, such us copy number or copy neutral changes, generate allelic imbalances (AIs) that can be determined using polymorphic markers. Here we report the development of a simple set of calculations for analyzing microsatellite multiplex PCR data from control-tumor pairs that allows us to obtain accurate information not only regarding the AI status of tumors, but also the percentage of tumor-infiltrating normal cells, the locus copy-number status and the mechanism involved in AI. We validated this new approach by re-analyzing a set of Neurofibromatosis type 1-associated dermal neurofibromas and comparing newly generated data with results obtained for the same tumors in a previous study using MLPA, Paralog Ratio Analysis and SNP-array techniques. Microsatellite multiplex PCR analysis (MMPA) should be particularly useful for analyzing specific regions of the genome containing tumor suppressor genes and also for determining the percentage of infiltrating normal cells within tumors allowing them to be sorted before they are analyzed by more expensive techniques.

Garcia-Linares, Carles; Mercade, Jaume; Gel, Bernat; Biayna, Josep; Terribas, Ernest; Lazaro, Conxi; Serra, Eduard

2012-01-01

128

Paternal occupation and anencephaly  

SciTech Connect

It has been suggested that paternal occupational exposures to pesticides and solvents increase the risk of neural tube defects in offspring. With the use of Texas livebirth, fetal death, and linked livebirth-death records, the authors conducted a population-based case-control study among 1981-1986 Texas births to examine the association between paternal occupation and anencephalic births. Fathers employed in occupations associated with solvent exposure were more likely to have offspring with anencephaly (odds ratio (OR) = 2.53), with painters having the highest risk (OR = 3.43). A lesser association was found for fathers employed in occupations involving pesticide exposure (OR = 1.28). Further studies are indicated to clarify these associations.

Brender, J.D.; Suarez, L. (Texas Department of Health, Austin (USA))

1990-03-01

129

Population structure of the predatory mite Neoseiulus womersleyi in a tea field based on an analysis of microsatellite DNA markers  

PubMed Central

The predatory mite Neoseiulus womersleyi (Schicha) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is an important natural enemy of the Kanzawa spider mite, Tetranychus kanzawaki Kishida (Acari: Tetranychidae), in tea fields. Attraction and preservation of natural enemies by habitat management to reduce the need for acaricide sprays is thought to enhance the activity of N. womersleyi. To better conserve N. womersleyi in the field, however, it is essential to elucidate the population genetic structure of this species. To this end, we developed ten microsatellite DNA markers for N. womersleyi. We then evaluated population structure of N. womersleyi collected from a tea field, where Mexican sunflower, Tithonia rotundifolia (Mill.), was planted to preserve N. womersleyi. Seventy-seven adult females were collected from four sites within 200 m. The fixation indexes FST among subpopulations were not significantly different. The kinship coefficients between individuals did not differ significantly within a site as a function of the sampling dates, but the coefficients gradually decreased with increasing distance. Bayesian clustering analysis revealed that the population consisted of three genetic clusters, and that subpopulations within 100 m, including those collected on T. rotundifolia, were genetically similar to each other. Given the previously observed population dynamics of N. womersleyi, it appears that the area inhabited by a given cluster of the mite did not exceed 100 m. The estimation of population structure using microsatellite markers will provide valuable information in conservation biological control.

Todokoro, Yasuhiro; Higaki, Tomomi

2010-01-01

130

Risk management for micro-satellite design  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown how the methods of risk analysis have been used in the University of Rome micro-satellite program. One of the driving research topics related to this program is the reduction of cost in building spacecraft. The probability risk analysis techniques seem to be a powerful tool in the field of micro-satellites design, to outline possible faults. Innovation and

Fabio Santoni

2004-01-01

131

A new source of polymorphic DNA markers for sperm typing: Analysis of microsatellite repeats in single cells  

SciTech Connect

The authors show that dinucleotide and tetranucleotide repeat polymorphisms can be analyzed in single cells without using radioactivity or denaturing gels. This provides a new source of DNA polymorphisms for genetic mapping by sperm typing. The recombination fraction between two CA repeat polymorphisms was determined after whole genome amplification of single sperm, followed by typing of two different aliquots, one aliquot for each polymorphic locus. Single-cell analysis of microsatellites may also be valuable both for preimplantation genetic disease diagnosis based on single-blastomere or polar-body analysis and for the typing of forensic or ancient DNA samples containing very small amounts of nucleic acid. 26 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Hubert, R.; Schmitt, K.; Zhang, L.; Arnheim, N. (Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)); Weber, J.L. (Marshfield Medical Research Foundation, WI (United States))

1992-11-01

132

Origin of the chromosomal radiation of Madeiran house mice: a microsatellite analysis of metacentric chromosomes  

PubMed Central

Chromosome races of Mus musculus domesticus are characterised by particular sets of metacentric chromosomes formed by Robertsonian fusions and whole-arm reciprocal translocations. The Atlantic island of Madeira is inhabited by six chromosome races of house mice with 6–9 pairs of metacentric chromosomes. Three of these races are characterised by the metacentric 3.8 also found elsewhere in the distribution of M. m. domesticus, including Denmark and Spain. We investigated the possibility that metacentric 3.8 was introduced to Madeira during the initial colonisation, as this could have ‘seeded' the cascade of chromosomal mutation that is the basis of the extraordinary chromosomal radiation observed on the island. Variation at 24 microsatellite loci mapping to three different chromosomal regions (proximal, interstitial and distal) of mouse chromosomes 3 and 8 was investigated in 179 mice from Madeira, Denmark, Portugal, Spain, Italy and Scotland. Analyses of microsatellite loci closely linked to the centromeres of these chromosomes (‘proximal loci') do not support a common evolutionary origin of metacentric 3.8 among Madeiran, Danish and Spanish mouse populations. Our results suggest that Madeiran mice are genetically more similar to standard karyotype mice from Portugal than to metacentric mice from elsewhere. There is expected to be an interruption to gene flow between hybridising metacentric races on Madeira, particularly in the chromosomal regions close to the rearrangement breakpoints. Consistent with this, relating to differentiation involving chromosomes 3 and 8 on Madeira, we found greater genetic structure among races for proximal than interstitial or distal loci.

Forster, D W; Mathias, M L; Britton-Davidian, J; Searle, J B

2013-01-01

133

Generation and analysis of ESTs from the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica Gmelin and identification of microsatellite and SNP markers  

PubMed Central

Background The eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin 1791), is an economically important species cultured in many areas in North America. It is also ecologically important because of the impact of its filter feeding behaviour on water quality. Populations of C. virginica have been threatened by overfishing, habitat degradation, and diseases. Through genome research, strategies are being developed to reverse its population decline. However, large-scale expressed sequence tag (EST) resources have been lacking for this species. Efficient generation of EST resources from this species has been hindered by a high redundancy of transcripts. The objectives of this study were to construct a normalized cDNA library for efficient EST analysis, to generate thousands of ESTs, and to analyze the ESTs for microsatellites and potential single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Results A normalized and subtracted C. virginica cDNA library was constructed from pooled RNA isolated from hemocytes, mantle, gill, gonad and digestive tract, muscle, and a whole juvenile oyster. A total of 6,528 clones were sequenced from this library generating 5,542 high-quality EST sequences. Cluster analysis indicated the presence of 635 contigs and 4,053 singletons, generating a total of 4,688 unique sequences. About 46% (2,174) of the unique ESTs had significant hits (E-value ? 1e-05) to the non-redundant protein database; 1,104 of which were annotated using Gene Ontology (GO) terms. A total of 35 microsatellites were identified from the ESTs, with 18 having sufficient flanking sequences for primer design. A total of 6,533 putative SNPs were also identified using all existing and the newly generated EST resources of the eastern oysters. Conclusion A high quality normalized cDNA library was constructed. A total of 5,542 ESTs were generated representing 4,688 unique sequences. Putative microsatellite and SNP markers were identified. These genome resources provide the material basis for future microarray development, marker validation, and genetic linkage and QTL analysis.

Quilang, Jonas; Wang, Shaolin; Li, Ping; Abernathy, Jason; Peatman, Eric; Wang, Yongping; Wang, Lingling; Shi, Yaohua; Wallace, Richard; Guo, Ximing; Liu, Zhanjiang

2007-01-01

134

Microsatellite loci for population and parentage analysis in the Amazon River dolphin (Inia geoffrensis de Blainville, 1817).  

PubMed

We developed specific primers for microsatellite DNA regions for the Amazon River dolphin or boto Inia geoffrensis, for use in population and conservation genetic studies. We also tested their transferability for two other species, Pontoporia blainvillei (sister taxon of I. geoffrensis) and Sotalia guianensis. A total of 12 microsatellite loci were polymorphic for the boto. An additional 25 microsatellite loci previously isolated from other cetacean species were also tested in the boto. The 26 polymorphic microsatellite loci indicate they will be excellent markers for studies of population structure and kinship relations of the boto. PMID:21564703

Gravena, Waleska; Hrbek, Tomas; DA Silva, Vera M S; Astolfi-Filho, Spartaco; Farias, Izeni P

2009-03-01

135

Meta-analysis of telomere length in 19,713 subjects reveals high heritability, stronger maternal inheritance and a paternal age effect.  

PubMed

Telomere length (TL) has been associated with aging and mortality, but individual differences are also influenced by genetic factors, with previous studies reporting heritability estimates ranging from 34 to 82%. Here we investigate the heritability, mode of inheritance and the influence of parental age at birth on TL in six large, independent cohort studies with a total of 19,713 participants. The meta-analysis estimate of TL heritability was 0.70 (95% CI 0.64-0.76) and is based on a pattern of results that is highly similar for twins and other family members. We observed a stronger mother-offspring (r=0.42; P-value=3.60 × 10(-61)) than father-offspring correlation (r=0.33; P-value=7.01 × 10(-5)), and a significant positive association with paternal age at offspring birth (?=0.005; P-value=7.01 × 10(-5)). Interestingly, a significant and quite substantial correlation in TL between spouses (r=0.25; P-value=2.82 × 10(-30)) was seen, which appeared stronger in older spouse pairs (mean age ?55 years; r=0.31; P-value=4.27 × 10(-23)) than in younger pairs (mean age<55 years; r=0.20; P-value=3.24 × 10(-10)). In summary, we find a high and very consistent heritability estimate for TL, evidence for a maternal inheritance component and a positive association with paternal age. PMID:23321625

Broer, Linda; Codd, Veryan; Nyholt, Dale R; Deelen, Joris; Mangino, Massimo; Willemsen, Gonneke; Albrecht, Eva; Amin, Najaf; Beekman, Marian; de Geus, Eco J C; Henders, Anjali; Nelson, Christopher P; Steves, Claire J; Wright, Margie J; de Craen, Anton J M; Isaacs, Aaron; Matthews, Mary; Moayyeri, Alireza; Montgomery, Grant W; Oostra, Ben A; Vink, Jacqueline M; Spector, Tim D; Slagboom, P Eline; Martin, Nicholas G; Samani, Nilesh J; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Boomsma, Dorret I

2013-10-01

136

Effectiveness of 10 polymorphic microsatellite markers for parentage and pedigree analysis in plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae)  

PubMed Central

Background The plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae) is an underground-dwelling mammal, native to the Tibetan plateau of China. A set of 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci has been developed earlier. Its reliability for parentage assignment has been tested in a plateau pika population. Two family groups with a known pedigree were used to validate the power of this set of markers. Results The error in parentage assignment using a combination of these 10 loci was very low as indicated by their power of discrimination (0.803 - 0.932), power of exclusion (0.351 - 0.887), and an effectiveness of the combined probability of exclusion in parentage assignment of 99.999%. Conclusion All the offspring of a family could be assigned to their biological mother; and their father or relatives could also be identified. This set of markers therefore provides a powerful and efficient tool for parentage assignment and other population analyses in the plateau pika.

2010-01-01

137

Microsatellite analysis of Japanese sea cucumber, Stichopus (Apostichopus) japonicus, supports reproductive isolation in color variants.  

PubMed

The genetic relationship among the three color variants (Red, Green, and Black) of the Japanese sea cucumber, S. japonicus, was investigated using 11 microsatellite markers. Genetic differentiation testing among the three sympatric color types showed the strong heterogeneity of Red (p<0.001), while no significant difference was observed between Green and Black (p=0.301 to 0.961). UPGMA trees constructed from 10 sample lots from 5 localities showed two distinct clusters, one from the Red types and the other from the Green and Black types. In addition, the sympatric Green and Black formed one subcluster with strong bootstrap support at each locality. These results indicate the separate species status of Red and the other color types, and also support the population identity of sympatric Green and Black. PMID:17043749

Kanno, Manami; Suyama, Yoshihisa; Li, Qi; Kijima, Akihiro

2006-01-01

138

Genetic analysis of six endangered local duck populations in China based on microsatellite markers.  

PubMed

Seventeen microsatellite loci were used to assess the genetic variation and population structure of six endangered duck populations in China. PIC, heterozygosity with two estimators of genetic differentiation (F(ST) and G(ST)), and Nei's standard genetic distance were evaluated. The results showed that these six endangered duck populations showed high polymorphism. The proportion of inter-population subdivision among the six duck populations ranged between 17.0 and 14.7%. The average heterozygosity was 0.706, 0.702, 0.691, 0.676, 0.604, and 0.660 in the Gaoyou, Liancheng, Jinding, Beijing, Shaoxing, and Jianchang ducks, respectively. The average PIC ranged from 0.561 to 0.663. Finally, the results showed higher genetic diversity and difference above the levels of genetic variation among all the populations. PMID:18037138

Su, Ying; Long, Ruijun; Chen, Guohong; Wu, Xinsheng; Xie, Kaizhou; Wan, Jianghong

2007-11-01

139

Patterns of differentiation and hybridization in North American wolflike canids, revealed by analysis of microsatellite loci.  

PubMed

Genetic divergence and gene flow among closely related populations are difficult to measure because mutation rates of most nuclear loci are so low that new mutations have not had sufficient time to appear and become fixed. Microsatellite loci are repeat arrays of simple sequences that have high mutation rates and are abundant in the eukaryotic genome. Large population samples can be screened for variation by using the polymerase chain reaction and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to separate alleles. We analyzed 10 microsatellite loci to quantify genetic differentiation and hybridization in three species of North American wolflike canids. We expected to find a pattern of genetic differentiation by distance to exist among wolflike canid populations, because of the finite dispersal distances of individuals. Moreover, we predicted that, because wolflike canids are highly mobile, hybrid zones may be more extensive and show substantial changes in allele frequency, relative to nonhybridizing populations. We demonstrate that wolves and coyotes do not show a pattern of genetic differentiation by distance. Genetic subdivision in coyotes, as measured by theta and Gst, is not significantly different from zero, reflecting persistent gene flow among newly established populations. However, gray wolves show significant subdivision that may be either due to drift in past Ice Age refugia populations or a result of other causes. Finally, in areas where gray wolves and coyotes hybridize, allele frequencies of gray wolves are affected, but those of coyotes are not. Past hybridization between the two species in the south-central United States may account for the origin of the red wolf. PMID:8078397

Roy, M S; Geffen, E; Smith, D; Ostrander, E A; Wayne, R K

1994-07-01

140

Informatics-based, highly accurate, noninvasive prenatal paternity testing  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of an informatics-based, noninvasive, prenatal paternity test using array-based single-nucleotide polymorphism measurements of cell-free DNA isolated from maternal plasma. Methods: Blood samples were taken from 21 adult pregnant women (with gestational ages between 6 and 21 weeks), and a genetic sample was taken from the corresponding biological fathers. Paternity was confirmed by genetic testing of the infant, products of conception, control of fertilization, and/or preimplantation genetic diagnosis during in vitro fertilization. Parental DNA samples and maternal plasma cell-free DNA were amplified and analyzed using a HumanCytoSNP-12 array. An informatics-based method measured single-nucleotide polymorphism data, confirming or rejecting paternity. Each plasma sample with a sufficient fetal cell-free DNA fraction was independently tested against the confirmed father and 1,820 random, unrelated males. Results: One of the 21 samples had insufficient fetal cell-free DNA. The test correctly confirmed paternity for the remaining 20 samples (100%) when tested against the biological father, with P values of <10?4. For the 36,400 tests using an unrelated male as the alleged father, 99.95% (36,382) correctly excluded paternity and 0.05% (18) were indeterminate. There were no miscalls. Conclusion: A noninvasive paternity test using informatics-based analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphism array measurements accurately determined paternity early in pregnancy.

Ryan, Allison; Baner, Johan; Demko, Zachary; Hill, Matthew; Sigurjonsson, Styrmir; Baird, Michael L.; Rabinowitz, Matthew

2013-01-01

141

Mating system of four inbreeding monkeyflower (Mimulus) species revealed using 'progeny-pair' analysis of highly informative microsatellite markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high variability of microsatellite markers has allowed more powerful and novel inferences regarding mating systems. We show that the many alleles at microsatellite loci allow a different approach for estimating a mating system that uses four-gene coefficients of relationship; the four genes are those possessed by two progeny at a single locus. We estimated the mating system in four

KERMIT RITLAND; MARISSA LEBLANC

2004-01-01

142

Microsatellites, from molecules to populations and back  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population genetics studies using microsatellites, and data on their molecular dynamics, are on the increase. But, so far, no consensus has emerged on which mutation model should be used, though this is of paramount importance for analysis of population genetic structure. However, this is not surprising given the variety of microsatellite molecular motifs. Null alleles may be disturbing for population

Philippe Jarne; Pierre J. L. Lagoda

1996-01-01

143

Global population genetic structure and male-mediated gene flow in the green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas): analysis of microsatellite loci.  

PubMed Central

We assessed the degree of population subdivision among global populations of green sea turtles, Chelonia mydas, using four microsatellite loci. Previously, a single-copy nuclear DNA study indicated significant male-mediated gene flow among populations alternately fixed for different mitochondrial DNA haplotypes and that genetic divergence between populations in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans was more common than subdivisions among populations within ocean basins. Even so, overall levels of variation at single-copy loci were low and inferences were limited. Here, the markedly more variable microsatellite loci confirm the presence of male-mediated gene flow among populations within ocean basins. This analysis generally confirms the genetic divergence between the Atlantic and Pacific. As with the previous study, phylogenetic analyses of genetic distances based on the microsatellite loci indicate a close genetic relationship among eastern Atlantic and Indian Ocean populations. Unlike the single-copy study, however, the results here cannot be attributed to an artifact of general low variability and likely represent recent or ongoing migration between ocean basins. Sequence analyses of regions flanking the microsatellite repeat reveal considerable amounts of cryptic variation and homoplasy and significantly aid in our understanding of population connectivity. Assessment of the allele frequency distributions indicates that at least some of the loci may not be evolving by the stepwise mutation model.

Roberts, Mark A; Schwartz, Tonia S; Karl, Stephen A

2004-01-01

144

Mining functional microsatellites in legume unigenes  

PubMed Central

Highly polymorphic and transferable microsatellites (SSRs) are important for comparative genomics, genome analysis and phylogenetic studies. Development of novel species-specific microsatellite markers remains a costly and labor-intensive project. Therefore, interest has been shifted from genomic to genic markers owing to their high inter-species transferability as they are developed from conserved coding regions of the genome. This study concentrates on comparative analysis of genic microsatellites in nine important legume (Arachis hypogaea, Cajanus cajan, Cicer arietinum, Glycine max, Lotus japonicus, Medicago truncatula, Phaseolus vulgaris, Pisum sativum and Vigna unguiculata) and two model plant species (Oryza sativa and Arabidopsis thaliana). Screening of a total of 228090 putative unique sequences spanning 219610522 bp using a microsatellite search tool, MISA, identified 12.18% of the unigenes containing 36248 microsatellite motifs excluding mononucleotide repeats. Frequency of legume unigene-derived SSRs was one SSR in every 6.0 kb of analyzed sequences. The trinucleotide repeats were predominant in all the unigenes with the exception of C. cajan, which showed prevalence of dinucleotide repeats over trinucleotide repeats. Dinucleotide repeats along with trinucleotides counted for more than 90% of the total microsatellites. Among dinucleotide and trinucleotide repeats, AG and AAG motifs, respectively, were the most frequent. Microsatellite positive chickpea unigenes were assigned Gene Ontology (GO) terms to identify the possible role of unigenes in various molecular and biological functions. These unigene based microsatellite markers will prove valuable for recording allelic variance across germplasm collections, gene tagging and searching for putative candidate genes.

Roorkiwal, Manish; Sharma, Prakash Chand

2011-01-01

145

Identification of genic moss SSR markers and a comparative analysis of twenty-four algal and plant gene indices reveal species-specific rather than group-specific characteristics of microsatellites  

PubMed Central

Background The moss Physcomitrella patens is an emerging model in comparative plant science. At present, the Physcomitrella genome is sequenced at the Joint Genome Institute (USA). In this study we present our results on the development of expressed sequence tag-derived microsatellite markers for Physcomitrella patens, their classification and applicability as genetic markers on the intra- as well as on the interspecies level. We experienced severe restrictions to compare our results on Physcomitrella with earlier studies for other plant species due to varying microsatellite search criteria and a limited selection of analysed species. As a consequence, we performed a side by side analysis of expressed sequence tag-derived microsatellites among 24 plant species covering a broad phylogenetic range and present our results on the observed frequencies. Results We identified 3,723 microsatellites using the software MISA in a non-redundant Physcomitrella expressed sequence tag database comprising more than 37 megabases of nucleotide information. For 2,951 microsatellites appendant primer sequences have been derived. PCR of 376 microsatellites yielded 88 % successful amplicons and over 30 % polymorphisms between two Physcomitrella accessions. The polymorphism information content of 64 microsatellites based on 21 different Physcomitrella accessions was comparably high with a mean of 0.47 +/- 0.17. Of the 64 Physcomitrella microsatellite markers, 34 % respectively 79.7 % revealed cross-species applicability in two closely related moss species. In our survey of two green algae, two mosses, a fern, a fern palm, the ginkgo tree, two conifers, ten dicots and five monocots we detected an up to sevenfold variation in the overall frequency with a minimum of 37 up to maximal 258 microsatellites per megabase and a high variability among the different microsatellite class and motif frequencies. Numerous species-specific microsatellite frequencies became evident and several deviations to earlier reports were ascertained. Conclusion With the Physcomitrella microsatellite marker set a valuable tool has been made available for further genetic and genomic applications on the intra- as well as on the interspecies level. The comparative survey of expressed sequence tag-derived microsatellites among the plant kingdom is well suited for a classification of future studies on plant microsatellites.

von Stackelberg, Mark; Rensing, Stefan A; Reski, Ralf

2006-01-01

146

Postfertilization autophagy of sperm organelles prevents paternal mitochondrial DNA transmission.  

PubMed

In sexual reproduction of most animals, the spermatozoon provides DNA and centrioles, together with some cytoplasm and organelles, to the oocyte that is being fertilized. Paternal mitochondria and their genomes are generally eliminated in the embryo by an unknown degradation mechanism. We show that, upon fertilization, a Caenorhabditis elegans spermatozoon triggers the recruitment of autophagosomes within minutes and subsequent paternal mitochondria degradation. Whereas the nematode-specific sperm membranous organelles are ubiquitinated before autophagosome formation, the mitochondria are not. The degradation of both paternal structures and mitochondrial DNA requires an LC3-dependent autophagy. Analysis of fertilized mouse embryos shows the localization of autophagy markers, which suggests that this autophagy event is evolutionarily conserved to prevent both the transmission of paternal mitochondrial DNA to the offspring and the establishment of heteroplasmy. PMID:22033522

Al Rawi, Sara; Louvet-Vallée, Sophie; Djeddi, Abderazak; Sachse, Martin; Culetto, Emmanuel; Hajjar, Connie; Boyd, Lynn; Legouis, Renaud; Galy, Vincent

2011-11-25

147

Fast versus slow larval growth in an invasive marine mollusc: does paternity matter?  

PubMed

Reproductive strategies and parental effects play a major role in shaping early life-history traits. Although polyandry is a common reproductive strategy, its role is still poorly documented in relation to paternal effects. Here, we used as a case study the invasive sessile marine gastropod Crepidula fornicata, a mollusc with polyandry and extreme larval growth variation among sibling larvae. Based on paternity analyses, the relationships between paternal identity and the variations in a major early life-history trait in marine organisms, that is, larval growth, were investigated. Using microsatellite markers, paternities of 437 fast- and slow-growing larvae from 6 broods were reliably assigned to a set of 20 fathers. No particular fathers were found responsible for the specific growth performances of their offspring. However, the range of larval growth rates within a brood was significantly correlated to 1) an index of sire diversity and 2) the degree of larvae relatedness within broods. Multiple paternity could thus play an important role in determining the extent of pelagic larval duration and consequently the range of dispersal distances achieved during larval life. This study also highlighted the usefulness of using indices based on fathers' relative contribution to the progeny in paternity studies. PMID:19307296

Le Cam, Sabrina; Pechenik, Jan A; Cagnon, Mathilde; Viard, Frédérique

2009-01-01

148

Mutational and expressional analysis of SMC2 gene in gastric and colorectal cancers with microsatellite instability.  

PubMed

Structural maintenance of chromosomes 2 (SMC2) gene encodes condensin complexes that are required for proper chromosome segregation and maintenance of chromosomal stability. Although cells with defective chromosome segregation become aneuploid and are prone to harbor chromosome instability, pathologic implications of SMC2 gene alterations are largely unknown. In a public database, we found that SMC2 gene had mononucleotide repeats that could be mutated in cancers with microsatellite instability (MSI). In this study, we analyzed these repeats in 32 gastric cancers (GC) with high MSI (MSI-H), 59 GC with low MSI (MSI-L)/stable MSI (MSS), 43 colorectal cancers (CRC) with MSI-H and 60 CRC with MSI-L/MSS by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and DNA sequencing. We also analyzed SMC2 protein expression in GC and CRC tissues using immunohistochemistry. We found SMC2 frameshift mutations in two GC and two CRC that would result in truncation of SMC2. The mutations were detected exclusively in MSI-H cancers, but not in MSI-L/MSS cancers. Loss of SMC2 expression was observed in 22% of GC and 25% of CRC. Of note, all of the cancers with SMC2 frameshift mutations displayed loss of SMC2 expression. Also, both GC and CRC with MSI-H had significantly higher incidences in SMC2 frameshift mutations and loss of SMC2 expression than those with MSI-L/MSS. Our data indicate that SMC2 gene is altered by both frameshift mutation and loss of expression in GC and CRC with MSI-H, and suggest that SMC2 gene alterations might be involved in pathogenesis of these cancers. PMID:24483990

Je, Eun Mi; Yoo, Nam Jin; Lee, Sug Hyung

2014-06-01

149

Microsatellite and flow cytometry analysis to help understand the origin of Dioscorea alata polyploids  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Dioscorea alata is a polyploid species with a ploidy level ranging from diploid (2n = 2x = 40) to tetraploid (2n = 4x = 80). Ploidy increase is correlated with better agronomic performance. The lack of knowledge about the origin of D. alata spontaneous polyploids (triploids and tetraploids) limits the efficiency of polyploid breeding. The objective of the present study was to use flow cytometry and microsatellite markers to understand the origin of D. alata polyploids. Methods Different progeny generated by intracytotype crosses (2x × 2x) and intercytotype crosses (2x × 4x and 3x × 2x) were analysed in order to understand endosperm incompatibility phenomena and gamete origins via the heterozygosity rate transmitted to progeny. Results This work shows that in a 2x × 2x cross, triploids with viable seeds are obtained only via a phenomenon of diploid female non-gametic reduction. The study of the transmission of heterozygosity made it possible to exclude polyspermy and polyembryony as the mechanisms at the origin of triploids. The fact that no seedlings were obtained by a 3x × 2x cross made it possible to confirm the sterility of triploid females. Flow cytometry analyses carried out on the endosperm of seeds resulting from 2x × 4x crosses revealed endosperm incompatibility phenomena. Conclusions The major conclusion is that the polyploids of D. alata would have appeared through the formation of unreduced gametes. The triploid pool would have been built and diversified through the formation of 2n gametes in diploid females as the result of the non-viability of seeds resulting from the formation of 2n sperm and of the non-viability of intercytotype crosses. The tetraploids would have appeared through bilateral sexual polyploidization via the union of two unreduced gametes due to the sterility of triploids.

Nemorin, A.; David, J.; Maledon, E.; Nudol, E.; Dalon, J.; Arnau, G.

2013-01-01

150

Genetic structure of Pyrenophora teres net and spot populations as revealed by microsatellite analysis.  

PubMed

The population structure of the fungal pathogen Pyrenophora teres, collected mainly from different regions of the Czech and Slovak Republics, was examined using a microsatellite analyses (SSR). Among 305 P. teres f. teres (PTT) and 82 P. teres f. maculata (PTM) isolates that were collected, the overall gene diversity was similar (? = 0.12 and ? = 0.13, respectively). A high level of genetic differentiation (FST = 0.46; P < 0.001) indicated the existence of population structure. Nine clusters that were found using a Bayesian approach represent the genetic structure of the studied P. teres populations. Two clusters consisted of PTM populations; PTT populations formed another seven clusters. An exact test of population differentiation confirmed the results that were generated by Structure. There was no difference between naturally infected populations over time, and genetic distance did not correlate with geographical distance. The facts that all individuals had unique multilocus genotypes and that the hypothesis of random mating could not be rejected in several populations or subpopulations serve as evidence that a mixed mating system plays a role in the P. teres life cycle. Despite the fact that the genetic differentiation value between PTT and PTM (FST = 0.30; P < 0.001) is lower than it is between the populations within each form (FST = 0.40 (PTT); FST = 0.35 (PTM); P < 0.001) and that individuals with mixed PTT and PTM genomes were found, the two forms of P. teres form genetically separate populations. Therefore, it can be assumed that these populations have most likely undergone speciation. PMID:24528640

Leišová-Svobodová, Leona; Mina?íková, V?ra; Matušinsky, Pavel; Hudcovicová, Martina; Ondrei?ková, Katarína; Gubiš, Jozef

2014-02-01

151

Male-Biased Sexual Size Dimorphism, Resource Defense Polygyny, and Multiple Paternity in the Emei Moustache Toad (Leptobrachium boringii)  

PubMed Central

We tested the hypotheses that the Emei moustache toad (Leptobrachium boringii) exhibits resource defense polygyny and that combat led to the evolution of male-biased sexual size dimorphism. Between February and March of 2011 and 2012, 26 female and 55 male L. boringii from Mount Emei UNESCO World Heritage Site, Sichuan, China, were observed throughout the breeding season. Prior to the breeding season, males grow 10–16 keratinized maxillary nuptial spines, which fall off once the season has ended. Throughout this time, males construct and defend aquatic nests where they produce advertisement calls to attract females. In a natural setting, we documented 14 cases involving a total of 22 males where males used their moustaches for aggressive interaction, and nest takeover was observed on seven occasions. Males were also observed to possess injuries resulting from combat. Genetic analysis using microsatellite DNA markers revealed several cases of multiple paternity, both within nest and within clutch. This observation indicated that some alternative male reproductive strategy, such as satellite behaviour, is occurring, which may have led to the multiple paternity. Larger males were observed to mate more frequently, and in multiple nests, suggesting that females are selecting for larger males, or that larger males are more capable of defending high quality territories.

Hudson, Cameron M.; Fu, Jinzhong

2013-01-01

152

Analysis of hematopoietic stem cell transplant engraftment: use of loss or gain of microsatellite alleles to identify residual hematopoietic malignancy.  

PubMed

Polymorphic short tandem repeat (STR), or microsatellite, loci have been widely used to analyze chimerism status after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The presence of a patient's DNA, as identified by STR analysis, may indicate residual or recurrent malignant disease or may represent normal hematopoiesis of patient origin. The ratio of patient-derived to donor-derived alleles is used to calculate the relative amount of patient cells (both benign and malignant) to donor cells. STRs on chromosomes known to be gained or lost in a patient's tumor are generally ignored because it is difficult to perform meaningful calculations of mixed chimerism. However, in this study, we present evidence that STR loci on gained or lost chromosomes are useful in distinguishing the benign or malignant nature of chimeric DNA. In the peripheral blood or bone marrow of 4 hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients with leukemia or lymphoma, we identified tumor DNA on the basis of STR loci showing copy number alteration. We propose that a targeted evaluation of STR loci showing altered copy number in posttransplant chimerism analysis can provide evidence of residual cancer cells. PMID:22089346

Lin, Ming-Tseh; Tseng, Li-Hui; Beierl, Katie; Harada, Shuko; Hafez, Michael J; Eshleman, James R; Gocke, Christopher D

2011-12-01

153

Genome-wide semiquantitative microsatellite analysis of human hepatocellular carcinoma: discrete mapping of smallest region of overlap of recurrent chromosomal gains and losses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recurrent chromosomal gains at 1q, 6p, 8q, and 17q, or losses at 1p, 4q, 6q, 8p, 9p, 13q, 16q, and 17p are common features of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). For precise determination of the shortest region of overlap (SRO), 49 HCC obtained at the time of surgery or autopsy were subjected to comprehensive microsatellite analysis by using 400 markers distributed

Takafumi Nishimura; Naoshi Nishida; Toshiki Komeda; Yoshihiro Fukuda; Iwao Ikai; Yoshio Yamaoka; Kazuwa Nakao

2006-01-01

154

DNA microsatellite analysis of families with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease types 1 and 2: evaluation of clinical heterogeneity between both forms of the disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied 17 large families affected by adult dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Ultrasonographic analysis was performed on all the family members. DNA microsatellite markers closely linked to PKD1 on 16p13.3 were analysed, and linkage of the disease to this locus was determined. Families showing a negative linkage value were evaluated for linkage to the PKD2 locus on 4q. Five

E Coto; S Sanz de Castro; S Aguado; J Alvarez; M Arias; M J Menéndez; C López-Larrea

1995-01-01

155

Polyandry and multiple paternities in the threatened Agassiz’s desert tortoise, Gopherus agassizii  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used data from 17 to 20 microsatellite markers to investigate the incidence of multiple paternities in wild Agassiz’s desert\\u000a tortoises, Gopherus agassizii. Neonates were sampled from clutches of eggs laid by wild mothers in nesting enclosures at Edwards Air Force Base and at the\\u000a Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center, California. We genotyped 28 clutches from 26 females sampling

Christina M. Davy; Taylor Edwards; Amy Lathrop; Mark Bratton; Mark Hagan; Brian Henen; Kenneth A. Nagy; Jonathon Stone; L. Scott Hillard; Robert W. Murphy

156

Decrease in the CGGn trinucleotide repeat mutation of the fragile X syndrome to normal size range during paternal transmission.  

PubMed Central

The fragile X syndrome, the most common inherited form of mental retardation, is caused by the expansion of a CGGn trinucleotide repeat in the FMR-1 gene. Although the repeat number usually increases during transmission, few cases with reduction of an expanded CGGn repeat back to the normal size range have been reported. We describe for the first time a family in which such reduction has occurred in the paternal transmission. The paternal premutation (delta = 300 bp) was not detected in one of the five daughters or in the son of this daughter, although he had the grandpaternal RFLP haplotype. Instead, fragments indicating the normal CGGn repeat size were seen on a Southern blot probed with StB12.3. PCR analysis of the CGGn repeat confirmed this; in addition to a maternal allele of 30 repeats, an allele of 34 repeats was detected in the daughter and, further, in her son. Sequencing of this new allele revealed a pure CGGn repeat configuration without AGG interruptions. No evidence for a somatic mosaicism of a premutation allele in the daughter or a normal allele in her father was detected when investigating DNA derived from blood lymphocytes and skin fibroblasts. Another unusual finding in this family was lack of the PCR product of the microsatellite marker RS46 (DXS548) in one of the grandmaternal X chromosomes, detected as incompatible inheritance of RS46 alleles. The results suggest an intergenerational reduction in the CGGn repeat from premutation size to the normal size range and stable transmission of the contracted repeat to the next generation. However, paternal germ-line mosaicism could not be excluded as an alternative explanation for the reverse mutation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4

Vaisanen, M. L.; Haataja, R.; Leisti, J.

1996-01-01

157

Microsatellite based ovine parentage testing to identify the source responsible for the killing of an endangered species.  

PubMed

In this study, we present an animal forensic genetics case in which we applied ovine microsatellite based parentage testing to the resolution of an act against protected wildlife. The aim was to identify the origin of the animal responsible for the death of an Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus) that had been poisoned through consumption of a Latxa Blond Face breed lamb. Thus, we carried out a 22 microsatellite based parentage test in order to identify the parents of the lamb in the flock which grazes in the same place where the vulture's remains were found. Multiple parentage analysis revealed two possible parents, one ewe and one ram, with a combined paternity/maternity index (PI) higher than 9.09E9 and a likelihood (W) value of 99.9999%, assuming 50% probability a priori. This result confirmed the flock of origin of the poisoned lamb and shows that the microsatellite panel described herein is a potentially useful tool for the resolution of animal forensic cases. PMID:20952265

Rendo, Fernando; Iriondo, Mikel; Manzano, Carmen; Estonba, Andone

2011-08-01

158

Significant population genetic structure of the Cameroonian fresh water snail, Bulinus globosus, (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) revealed by nuclear microsatellite loci analysis.  

PubMed

In order to characterize the demographic traits and spatial structure of Cameroonians Bulinus globosus, intermediate host of Schistosoma haematobium, genetic structure of seven different populations, collected from the tropical zone, was studied using six polymorphic microsatellites. Intrapopulation genetic diversity ranged from 0.37 to 0.55. Interpopulation genetic diversity variation clearly illustrated their significant isolation due to distance with gene flow substantially limited to neighbouring populations. The effective population sizes (Ne) were relatively low (from 3.0 to 18.6), which supposes a high rate from which populations would lose their genetic diversity by drift. Analysis of genetic temporal variability indicated fluctuations of allelic frequencies (35 of 42 locus-population combinations, P<0.05) characteristic of stochastic demography, and this is reinforced by events of bottlenecks detected in all populations. These findings demonstrated that Cameroonian B. globosus were mixed-maters with some populations showing clear preference for outcrossing. These data also suggest that genetic drift and gene flow are the main factors shaping the genetic structure of studied populations. PMID:24751417

Djuikwo-Teukeng, F F; Da Silva, A; Njiokou, F; Kamgang, B; Ekobo, A Same; Dreyfuss, G

2014-09-01

159

High genetic diversity in gametophyte clones of Undaria pinnatifida from Vladivostok, Dalian and Qingdao revealed using microsatellite analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Breeding practice for Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar requires the screening of a large number of offspring from gametophyte crossings to obtain an elite variety for large-scale cultivation. To better understand the genetic relationships of different gametophyte cultures isolated from different sources, 20 microsatellite loci were screened and 53 gametophyte clone cultures analyzed for U. pinnatifida isolated from wild sporophytes in Vladivostok, Russia and from cultivated sporophytes from Dalian and Qingdao, China. One locus was abandoned because of poor amplification. At the sex-linked locus of Up-AC-2A8, 3 alleles were detected in 25 female gametophyte clones, with sizes ranging from 307 to 316 bp. At other loci, 3 to 7 alleles were detected with an average of 4.5 alleles per locus. The average number of alleles at each locus was 1.3 and 3.7 for Russian and Chinese gametophyte clones, respectively. The average gene diversity for Russian, Chinese, and for the combined total of gametophyte clones was 0.1, 0.4, and 0.5, respectively. Russian gametophyte clones had unique alleles at 7 out of the 19 loci. In cluster analysis, Russian and Chinese gametophyte clones were separated into two different groups according to genetic distance. Overall, high genetic diversity was detected in gametophyte clones isolated from the two countries. These gametophyte cultures were believed to be appropriate parental materials for conducting breeding programs in the future.

Shan, Tifeng; Pang, Shaojun; Liu, Feng; Xu, Na; Zhao, Xiaobo; Gao, Suqin

2012-03-01

160

Facilitating co-existence by tracking gene dispersal in conventional potato systems with microsatellite markers.  

PubMed

Based on international findings, Irish co-existence guidelines for the cultivation of GM potato stipulate that an isolation distance of 20 m is required to minimize the spread of transgenic pollen in accordance with required labeling thresholds. As potato tolerant to Phytophthora infestans is the most applicable GM crop from an Irish context, we tested the efficacy of this isolation distance under Irish environmental conditions using the conventional variety Désirée as a pollen donor and the male-sterile variety British Queen as a pollen receptor. Gene flow was determined by scoring for berry presence on receptor plants and confirmed using a microsatellite marker system designed to assess paternity in F(1) seedlings. 99.1% of seedlings recovered were identified as having Désirée paternity. Whereas 19.9% (140/708) of total berries formed on receptor plants occurred at a distance of 21 m from the pollen source, only 4 of these berries bore viable true potato seed (TPS), from which 23 TPS germinated. TPS-bearing berry formation was negatively correlated with distance from the pollen source, and although overall distribution of berries and seeds was non-random across the plot, no significant correlation was evident with respect to wind direction. Microsatellite markers were also used to confirm that the foraging beetle Meligethes aeneus is a vector for the transmission of potato pollen, but a more detailed statistical analysis of this dataset was limited by inclement weather during the trial. To conclude, we recommend that a two-tiered system be established in regard to establishing isolation distances for the experimental trial and commercial cultivation of GM potato in Ireland, and that responsible crop management be adopted to minimize the establishment of TPS-derived volunteers, which we have noted will emerge through a rotation as a result of pollen-mediated gene flow. PMID:18289498

Petti, Carloalberto; Meade, Conor; Downes, Martin; Mullins, Ewen

2007-01-01

161

Paternal pericentric inversion of chromosome 4 as a cause of recurrent pregnancy loss.  

PubMed Central

A paternal pericentric inversion of chromosome 4 was ascertained through karyotype analysis of an abortus specimen proven to be 46,XX,rec(4),dup q, inv (4)(p13q28). The relationship of paternal pericentric inversion to pregnancy loss is discussed, and a recommendation for karyotype analysis of recurrent abortion specimens is made. Images

Wolf, G C; Mao, J; Izquierdo, L; Joffe, G

1994-01-01

162

Analysis of phenotypic and microsatellite-based diversity of maize landraces in India, especially from the north east Himalayan region.  

PubMed

The maize landraces in the North East Himalayan (NEH) region in India, especially in the Sikkim state, are morphologically highly diverse. The present study provides details of phenotypic and molecular characterization of a set of 48 selected maize landrace accessions, including the 'Sikkim Primitives' which have a unique habit of prolificacy (5-9 ears on a single stalk). Multi-location phenotypic evaluation of these 48 accessions revealed significant genetic variability for grain yield and its components, leading to identification of several promising accessions. Cluster analysis and PCA using nine morpho-agronomic characters clearly separated 'Sikkim Primitives' from the rest of the accessions. PCA revealed two principal components describing 90% of the total variation, with hundred kernel weight, ear length, ear diameter, number of kernels per ear and flowering behaviour forming the most discriminatory traits. The accessions were genotyped using 42 microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers using a 'population bulk DNA fingerprinting strategy', with allele resolution using an automated DNA Sequencer. The study revealed a high mean number of alleles per SSR locus (13.0) and high Polymorphism Information Content (PIC) value of 0.60. The analysis also led to identification of 163 private/unique alleles, differentiating 44 out of 48 accessions. Six highly frequent SSR alleles were detected at different loci (phi014, phi062, phi090, umc1266, umc1367 and umc2250) with individual frequencies >/=0.75. Some of these SSR loci were reported to tag specific genes/QTL for some important traits, indicating that chromosomal regions harboring these SSR alleles were not selectively neutral. Cluster analysis using Rogers' genetic distance also revealed distinct genetic identity of the 'Sikkim Primitives' from the rest of the accessions in India, including Sikkim. Mantel's test revealed significant and positive correlation between the phenotypic and molecular genetic dissimilarity matrices. The study was the first to portray the patterns of phenotypic and molecular diversity in the maize landraces from the NEH region in India. PMID:20107870

Sharma, Lata; Prasanna, B M; Ramesh, B

2010-06-01

163

Paternal alleles enhance female reproductive success in tropical pythons.  

PubMed

The conventional view that female reproductive success is unlikely to benefit from multiple mating has come under strong challenge in recent years. In the present study, we demonstrate that the time wild-caught reproductive female water pythons (Liasis fuscus) spent in the laboratory prior to oviposition affected both hatching success and the number of male microsatellite alleles detected in the broods. A negative correlation between time in captivity and number of male alleles observed in the broods suggests that reduced hatching success was most likely not caused by environmental factors such as non-optimal temperatures, but rather by restricted mating opportunities. Maternal nutritional status and mean hatchling mass did not affect brood viability. However, our results revealed a positive correlation between number of male microsatellite alleles observed in the broods and hatching success, suggesting that increased paternal genetic variability enhanced female reproductive success. As microsatellite loci are unlikely to be direct targets of selection, we suggest that variability at these loci may cosegregate with other polymorphic genes directly linked to fitness. PMID:15836649

Madsen, Thomas; Ujvari, Beata; Olsson, Mats; Shine, Richard

2005-05-01

164

Strong male-biased operational sex ratio in a breeding population of loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) inferred by paternal genotype reconstruction analysis  

PubMed Central

Characterization of a species mating systems is fundamental for understanding the natural history and evolution of that species. Polyandry can result in the multiple paternity of progeny arrays. The only previous study of the loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) in the USA showed that within the large peninsular Florida subpopulation, multiple paternity occurs in approximately 30% of clutches. Our study tested clutches from the smaller northern subpopulation for the presence of multiple paternal contributions. We examined mothers and up to 20 offspring from 19.5% of clutches laid across three nesting seasons (2008–2010) on the small nesting beach on Wassaw Island, Georgia, USA. We found that 75% of clutches sampled had multiple fathers with an average of 2.65 fathers per nest (1–7 fathers found). The average number of fathers per clutch varied among years and increased with female size. There was no relationship between number of fathers and hatching success. Finally, we found 195 individual paternal genotypes and determined that each male contributed to no more than a single clutch over the 3-year sampling period. Together these results suggest that the operational sex ratio is male-biased at this site.

Lasala, Jacob A; Harrison, J Scott; Williams, Kris L; Rostal, David C

2013-01-01

165

Microsatellite typing and avidity analysis suggest a common source of infection in herds with epidemic Neospora caninum-associated bovine abortion.  

PubMed

Neosporosis is an important cause of reproductive failure in cattle worldwide. Two different abortion patterns associated with Neospora caninum infection have been observed in cattle herds: endemic and epidemic abortion outbreaks. The endemic pattern is characterized by an abortion problem in a herd persisting for several months or years, and is assumed to be caused by reactivation of a chronic infection. In epidemic outbreaks, abortions concentrate within a short period of time, most likely due to a recent point source exposure of naďve animals to N. caninum. The aim of the study was to characterize five N. caninum-associated epidemic abortion outbreaks in Germany by serological and molecular techniques, including a p38-avidity-ELISA and typing of N. caninum in clinical samples by multilocus-microsatellite analysis. DNA extracts from the brain of 18 N. caninum infected fetuses from epidemic abortion outbreaks were characterized using 10 N. caninum-microsatellite markers. Nested-PCR protocols were developed to amplify the marker regions MS1B, MS3, MS5, MS6A, MS6B, MS7, MS12 and MS21 from clinical samples for subsequent analysis by capillary electrophoresis. Microsatellites MS2 and MS10 were analyzed by previously reported sequencing techniques. Most dams which had aborted showed a low-avidity IgG response to the N. caninum p38-antigen, and in three of the five studied herds, the majority of the dams at risk, which had not aborted, had also low-avidity responses suggesting that infection with N. caninum had recently occurred in most animals. A common microsatellite pattern prevailed in all fetuses from each individual epidemic outbreak. This pattern was unique for each herd. Although the number of epidemic abortion outbreaks analyzed was limited, the observation of a common microsatellite pattern, accompanied by a low-avidity IgG response against N. caninum in the dams, supports the hypothesis of a recent infection from a common point source. The genetic diversity of N. caninum observed among these outbreaks may indicate that not a particular N. caninum genotype but the horizontal infection route determines the occurrence of epidemic abortions. PMID:20609521

Basso, W; Schares, S; Minke, L; Bärwald, A; Maksimov, A; Peters, M; Schulze, C; Müller, M; Conraths, F J; Schares, G

2010-10-11

166

The frequency of multiple paternity suggests that sperm competition is common in house mice (Mus domesticus)  

PubMed Central

Sexual selection is an important force driving the evolution of morphological and genetic traits. To determine the importance of male–male, postcopulatory sexual selection in natural populations of house mice, we estimated the frequency of multiple paternity, defined as the frequency with which a pregnant female carried a litter fertilized by more than one male. By genotyping eight microsatellite markers from 1095 mice, we found evidence of multiple paternity from 33 of 143. Evidence for multiple paternity was especially strong for 29 of these litters. Multiple paternity was significantly more common in higher-density vs. lower-density populations. Any estimate of multiple paternity will be an underestimate of the frequency of multiple mating, defined as the frequency with which a female mates with more than a single male during a single oestrus cycle. We used computer simulations to estimate the frequency of multiple mating, incorporating observed reductions in heterozygosity and levels of allele sharing among mother and father. These simulations indicated that multiple mating is common, occurring in at least 20% of all oestrus cycles. The exact estimate depends on the competitive skew among males, a parameter for which we currently have no data from natural populations. This study suggests that sperm competition is an important aspect of postcopulatory sexual selection in house mice.

DEAN, M. D.; ARDLIE, K. G.; NACHMAN, M . W .

2010-01-01

167

Genetic analysis of Indian aromatic and quality rice ( Oryza sativa L.) germplasm using panels of fluorescently-labeled microsatellite markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic relationships among Indian aromatic and quality rice (Oryza sativa) germplasm were assessed using 30 fluorescently labeled rice microsatellite markers. The 69 rice genotypes used in this study included 52 Basmati and other scented\\/quality rice varieties from different parts of India and 17 indica and japonica varieties that served as controls. A total of 235 alleles were detected at the

Sunita Jain; Rajinder K. Jain; Susan R. McCouch

2004-01-01

168

Development of microsatellite markers for genetic diversity analysis of Dendrobium loddigesii Rolfe, an endangered orchid in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dendrobium loddigesii Rolfe is an endangered epiphytic orchid with high medicinal and horticulture value. To estimate genetic diversity and population structure of D. loddigesii, 12 new microsatellite markers of D. loddigesii were developed from an enriched library. A total of 98 alleles were detected with an average of 8.2 alleles per locus. The expected heterozygosity of each SSR locus varied

Xiaoyan Cai; Zhenyu Feng; Beiwei Hou; Wenrui Xing; Xiaoyu Ding

169

Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of DNA from noninvasive samples for accurate microsatellite genotyping of wild chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes verus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noninvasive samples are useful for molecular genetic analyses of wild animal populations. However, the low DNA content of such samples makes DNA amplification difficult, and there is the potential for erroneous results when one of two alleles at heterozygous microsatellite loci fails to be amplified. In this study we describe an assay designed to measure the amount of amplifiable nuclear

P. A. MORIN; K. E. CHAMBERS; C. BOESCH; L. VIGILANT

2001-01-01

170

Paternal investment and the human mating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paternal investment has long been considered responsible for the evolution of predominantly monogamous marriage in humans. However, male–male competition resulting in mate-guarding and male coercion could be equally important. In this review, I use a comparative approach to examine the effect of variation in human paternal investment on our mating system. I conclude paternal investment is important but so too

F. Marlowe

2000-01-01

171

ISFG: Recommendations on biostatistics in paternity testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Paternity Testing Commission (PTC) of the International Society for Forensic Genetics has taken up the task of establishing the biostatistical recommendations in accordance with the ISO 17025 standards and a previous set of ISFG recommendations specific to the genetic investigations in paternity cases. In the initial set, the PTC recommended that biostatistical evaluations of paternity are based on a

David W. Gjertson; Charles H. Brenner; Max P. Baur; Angel Carracedo; Francois Guidet; Juan A. Luque; Rüdiger Lessig; Wolfgang R. Mayr; Vince L. Pascali; Mechthild Prinz; Peter M. Schneider; Niels Morling

2007-01-01

172

DNA MICROSATELLITE MARKERS IN SERVICE OF SWORDFISH STOCK-STRUCTURE ANALYSIS IN THE ATLANTIC AND MEDITERRANEAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Analysis of mtDNA variation has been successfully used to describe swordfish stock structure around the globe. Despite the great usefulness of this marker, we still need a lot of research to understand stock structure and migration of swordfish. To deal with complications like mixed fisheries or eventual hybridization between stocks, suitable markers alone do not suffice. Suitable sampling and

J. Mejuto; G. Tserpes; P. Peristeraki; J. M. de la Serna

2003-01-01

173

Characterization of microsatellites in wild and sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.)--markers for individual identification and reproductive processes.  

PubMed

Nuclear microsatellites were characterized in Prunus avium and validated as markers for individual and cultivar identification, as well as for studies of pollen- and seed-mediated gene flow. We used 20 primer pairs from a simple sequence repeat (SSR) library of Prunus persica and identified 7 loci harboring polymorphic microsatellite sequences in P. avium. In a natural population of 75 wild cherry trees, the number of alleles per locus ranged from 4 to 9 and expected heterozygosity from 0.39 to 0.77. The variability of the SSR markers allowed an unambiguous identification of individual trees and potential root suckers. Additionally, we analyzed 13 sweet cherry cultivars and differentiated 12 of them. An exclusion probability of 0.984 was calculated, which indicates that the seven loci are suitable markers for paternity analysis. The woody endocarp was successfully used for resolution of all microsatellite loci and exhibited the same multilocus genotype as the mother tree, as shown in a single seed progeny. Hence, SSR fingerprinting of the purely maternal endocarp was also successful in this Prunus species, allowing the identification of the mother tree of the dispersed seeds. The linkage of microsatellite loci with PCR-amplified alleles of the self-incompatibility locus was tested in two full-sib families of sweet cherry cultivars. From low recombination frequencies, we inferred that two loci are linked with the S locus. The present study provides markers that will significantly facilitate studies of spatial genetic variation and gene flow in wild cherry, as well as breeding programs in sweet cherry. PMID:12669801

Schueler, Silvio; Tusch, Alexandra; Schuster, Mirko; Ziegenhagen, Birgit

2003-02-01

174

Transcriptomic changes in the frontal cortex associated with paternal age  

PubMed Central

Background Advanced paternal age is robustly associated with several human neuropsychiatric disorders, particularly autism. The precise mechanism(s) mediating the paternal age effect are not known, but they are thought to involve the accumulation of de novo (epi)genomic alterations. In this study we investigate differences in the frontal cortex transcriptome in a mouse model of advanced paternal age. Findings Transcriptomic profiling was undertaken for medial prefrontal cortex tissue dissected from the male offspring of young fathers (2 month old, 4 sires, n?=?16 offspring) and old fathers (10 month old, 6 sires, n?=?16 offspring) in a mouse model of advancing paternal age. We found a number of differentially expressed genes in the offspring of older fathers, many previously implicated in the aetiology of autism. Pathway analysis highlighted significant enrichment for changes in functional networks involved in inflammation and inflammatory disease, which are also implicated in autism. Conclusions We observed widespread alterations to the transcriptome associated with advanced paternal age with an enrichment of genes associated with inflammation, an interesting observation given previous evidence linking the immune system to several neuropsychiatric disorders including autism.

2014-01-01

175

Microsatellite DNA Analysis Revealed a Drastic Genetic Change of Plasmodium vivax Population in the Republic of Korea During 2002 and 2003  

PubMed Central

Background Vivax malaria was successfully eliminated in the Republic of Korea (South Korea) in the late 1970s, but it was found to have re-emerged from 1993. In order to control malaria and evaluate the effectiveness of malaria controls, it is important to develop a spatiotemporal understanding of the genetic structure of the parasite population. Here, we estimated the population structure and temporal dynamics of the transmission of Plasmodium vivax in South Korea by analyzing microsatellite DNA markers of the parasite. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed 14 microsatellite DNA loci of the P. vivax genome from 163 South Korean isolates collected from 1994 to 2008. Allelic data were used to analyze linkage disequilibrium (LD), genetic differentiation and population structure, in order to make a detailed estimate of temporal change in the parasite population. The LD analysis showed a gradual decrease in LD levels, while the levels of genetic differentiation between successive years and analysis of the population structure based on the Bayesian approach suggested that a drastic genetic change occurred in the South Korean population during 2002 and 2003. Conclusions/Significance Although relapse and asymptomatic parasite carriage might influence the population structure to some extent, our results suggested the continual introduction of P. vivax into South Korea through other parasite population sources. One possible source, particularly during 2002 and 2003, is North Korea. Molecular epidemiology using microsatellite DNA of the P. vivax population is effective for assessing the population structure and temporal dynamics of parasite transmission; information that can assist in the elimination of vivax malaria in endemic areas.

Iwagami, Moritoshi; Hwang, Seung-Young; Kim, So-Hee; Park, So-Jung; Lee, Ga-Young; Matsumoto-Takahashi, Emilie Louise Akiko; Kho, Weon-Gyu; Kano, Shigeyuki

2013-01-01

176

[Genetic divergence in pink salmon introduced into the European north of Russia: microsatellite and allozyme variation analysis].  

PubMed

The 1985 introduction into the European North of Russia resulted in the formation of a large stock of pink salmon of the odd-year breeding line. To assess the divergence of the new population and the role of various microevolutionary factors, variation of four microsatellite loci and fifteen genes encoding proteins (allozymes) in samples of fish, running for spawning in rivers of the new area, and in samples from the donor population of the Ola River (Magadan oblast). In the generations 8 and 9 of the introduced pink salmon of the odd-year line, the genetic diversity (the number of alleles and the mean heterozygosity) both at allozyme and at microsatellite loci was significantly lower, than that in the donor population. The explanations of the decline in diversity are discussed. The first evidence for spatial genetic divergence in transplanted fish within the new area has been obtained; the divergence level may be comparable with that characteristic of native populations. PMID:16649661

Gordeeva, N V; Salmenkova, E A; Altukhov, Iu P

2006-03-01

177

Genetic divergence in pink salmon introduced into the European North of Russia: Microsatellite and allozyme variation analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1985 introduction into the European North of Russia resulted in the formation of a large stock of pink salmon of the odd-year\\u000a broodline. To assess the divergence of the new population and the role of various microevolutionary factors, variation of\\u000a four microsatellite loci and fifteen genes encoding proteins (allozymes) in samples of fish, running for spawning in rivers\\u000a of

N. V. Gordeeva; E. A. Salmenkova; Yu. P. Altukhov

2006-01-01

178

A comparative analysis of population structure of a forest tree, Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtaceae), using microsatellite markers and quantitative traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtaceae) is a forest tree native to southeastern Australia, but is grown globally for pulpwood and timber. Eight microsatellite\\u000a loci were used to determine the degree of selectively neutral differentiation between native populations of the geographic\\u000a races of E. globulus that are used in a national breeding programme. Spatial differentiation was detected among 340 samples from across the

Dorothy A. Steane; Natalie Conod; Rebecca C. Jones; René E. Vaillancourt; Bradley M. Potts

2006-01-01

179

The development and use of microsatellite markers for genetic analysis and plant breeding with emphasis on bread wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, a variety of molecular markers, based on microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) have become the\\u000a markers of choice, thus necessitating their development and use in a variety of plant systems. In this review, the basic principles\\u000a underlying different hybridization-based (oligonucleotide fingerprinting) and PCR based approaches (STMS, MP-PCR, AMP-PCR\\/\\u000a ISSR\\/ ASSR, RAMPs\\/ dRAMPs, SAMPL), making use of

P. K. Gupta; R. K. Varshney

2000-01-01

180

Microsatellite analysis of albacore tuna ( Thunnus alalunga ): population genetic structure in the North-East Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stock heterogeneity was investigated in albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga, Bonnaterre 1788), a commercially important species in the North Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Twelve polymorphic\\u000a microsatellite loci were examined in 581 albacore tuna from nine locations, four in the north-east Atlantic Ocean (NEA), three\\u000a in the Mediterranean Sea (MED) and two in the south-western Pacific Ocean (SWP). Maximum numbers of

C. A. Davies; E. M. Gosling; D. Brophy; N. Tysklind

181

First Microsatellite Loci of Red Mullet ( Mullus barbatus ) and Their Application to Genetic Structure Analysis of Adriatic Shared Stock  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study the genetic structure of the Adriatic shared stock of red mullet (Mullus barbatus), we developed a set of dinucleotide microsatellite markers. A dinucleotide-enriched genomic library was obtained, and 6 polymorphic dinucleotide loci were successfully optimized. The markers showed high expected heterozygosity (from 0.68 to 0.92) and allele number (from 12 to 33); thus they appear to

Flavio Garoia; Ilaria Guarniero; Corrado Piccinetti; Fausto Tinti

2004-01-01

182

Tissue microarray immunohistochemical expression analysis of mismatch repair (hMLH1 and hMSH2 genes) in endometrial carcinoma and atypical endometrial hyperplasia: relationship with microsatellite instability.  

PubMed

Alterations in the mismatch repair genes (hMLH1 and hMSH2) play an important role in the development of microsatellite instability in sporadic endometrial cancer. Tissue microarray technology allows molecular profiling of tumor samples at the DNA, RNA, and protein levels. We analyzed hMLH1 and hMSH2 expression by immunohistochemistry in a group of atypical endometrial hyperplasias (n = 10), endometrioid endometrial carcinomas (n = 58), and nonendometrioid endometrial carcinomas (n = 27) on tissue microarray. The results were correlated with microsatellite instability status as evaluated by BAT-25 and BAT-26. Overall, 29.4% of lesions showed microsatellite instability. Loss of nuclear hMLH1 and hMSH2 protein expression was seen in 22.3% and 6.5% of cases, respectively. Immunohistochemistry for hMLH1 and hMSH2 showed lack of protein expression in 64% and 16.6% of microsatellite instability-positive endometrial lesions, respectively. Taken together, hMLH1 or hMSH2 protein expression was absent in 18 of 24 microsatellite instability-positive cases (75% sensitivity). A high level of concordance was found between immunohistochemistry for hMLH1 and hMSH2 and microsatellite instability status evaluated by BAT-25 and BAT-26 (kappa value of 0.7). Of the 57 cases found to be microsatellite instability negative, 53 showed normal expression of both proteins (93% specificity). The observed predictive value of absence of expression of hMLH1 for predicting microsatellite instability-positive status was 82%. The predictive value of normal expression of both proteins for predicting microsatellite instability-negative status was 90%. These results are consistent with those previously reported in whole tissue sections. Therefore, immunohistochemical analysis of hMLH1 and hMSH2 expression on tissue microarray provides an accurate technique for screening for tumors with microsatellite instability. Tissue microarrays represent an ideal approach for comparing different diagnostic or predictive markers with one another in consecutive tissue microarray sections. PMID:14614055

Hardisson, David; Moreno-Bueno, Gema; Sánchez, Lydia; Sarrió, David; Suárez, Asunción; Calero, Francisco; Palacios, José

2003-11-01

183

Landscape genetic patterns of the rainbow darter Etheostoma caeruleum: a catchment analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences and nuclear microsatellites.  

PubMed

Catchment population structure and divergence patterns of the rainbow darter Etheostoma caeruleum (Percidae: Teleostei), an eastern North American benthic fish, are tested using a landscape genetics approach. Allelic variation at eight nuclear DNA microsatellite loci and two mitochondrial DNA regions [cytochrome (cyt) b gene and control region; 2056 aligned base pairs (bp)] is analysed from 89 individuals and six sites in the Lake Erie catchment (Blanchard, Chagrin, Cuyahoga and Grand Rivers) v. the Ohio River catchment (Big Darby Creek and Little Miami River). Genetic and geographic patterning is assessed using phylogenetic trees, pair-wise F(ST) analogues, AMOVA partitioning, Mantel regression, Bayesian assignment, 3D factorial correspondence and barrier analyses. Results identify 34 cyt b haplotypes, 22 control region haplotypes and 137 microsatellite alleles whose distributions demonstrate marked genetic divergence between populations from the Lake Erie and Ohio River catchments. Etheostoma caeruleum populations in the Lake Erie and Ohio River catchments diverged c. 1.6 mya during the Pleistocene glaciations. Greater genetic separations characterize the Ohio River populations, reflecting their older habitat age and less recent connectivity. Divergence levels within the Lake Erie catchment denote more recent post-glacial origins. Notably, the western Lake Erie Blanchard River population markedly differs from the three central basin tributary samples, which are each genetically distinguishable using microsatellites. Overall relationships among the Lake Erie sites refute a genetic isolation by geographic distance hypothesis. Etheostoma caeruleum populations thus exchange few genes and have low migration among tributaries and catchments. PMID:20738685

Haponski, A E; Bollin, T L; Jedlicka, M A; Stepien, C A

2009-12-01

184

Distribution of polymorphic and non-polymorphic microsatellite repeats in Xenopus tropicalis.  

PubMed

The results of our bioinformatics analysis have found over 91,000 di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide microsatellites in our survey of 25% of the X. tropicalis genome, suggesting there may be over 360,000 within the entire genome. Within the X. tropicalis genome, dinucleotide (78.7%) microsatellites vastly out numbered tri- and tetranucleotide microsatellites. Similarly, AT-rich repeats are overwhelmingly dominant. The four AT-only motifs (AT, AAT, AAAT, and AATT) account for 51,858 out of 91,304 microsatellites found. Individually, AT microsatellites were the most common repeat found, representing over half of all di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide microsatellites. This contrasts with data from other studies, which show that AC is the most frequent microsatellite in vertebrate genomes (Toth et al. 2000). In addition, we have determined the rate of polymorphism for 5,128 non-redundant microsatellites, embedded in unique sequences. Interestingly, this subgroup of microsatellites was determined to have significantly longer repeats than genomic microsatellites as a whole. In addition, microsatellite loci with tandem repeat lengths more than 30 bp exhibited a significantly higher degree of polymorphism than other loci. Pairwise comparisons show that tetranucleotide microsatellites have the highest polymorphic rates. In addition, AAT and ATC showed significant higher polymorphism than other trinucleotide microsatellites, while AGAT and AAAG were significantly more polymorphic than other tetranucleotide microsatellites. PMID:19812773

Xu, Zhenkang; Gutierrez, Laura; Hitchens, Matthew; Scherer, Steve; Sater, Amy K; Wells, Dan E

2008-01-01

185

Distribution of Polymorphic and Non-Polymorphic Microsatellite Repeats in Xenopus tropicalis  

PubMed Central

The results of our bioinformatics analysis have found over 91,000 di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide microsatellites in our survey of 25% of the X. tropicalis genome, suggesting there may be over 360,000 within the entire genome. Within the X. tropicalis genome, dinucleotide (78.7%) microsatellites vastly out numbered tri- and tetranucleotide microsatellites. Similarly, AT-rich repeats are overwhelmingly dominant. The four AT-only motifs (AT, AAT, AAAT, and AATT) account for 51,858 out of 91,304 microsatellites found. Individually, AT microsatellites were the most common repeat found, representing over half of all di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide microsatellites. This contrasts with data from other studies, which show that AC is the most frequent microsatellite in vertebrate genomes (Toth et al. 2000). In addition, we have determined the rate of polymorphism for 5,128 non-redundant microsatellites, embedded in unique sequences. Interestingly, this subgroup of microsatellites was determined to have significantly longer repeats than genomic microsatellites as a whole. In addition, microsatellite loci with tandem repeat lengths more than 30 bp exhibited a significantly higher degree of polymorphism than other loci. Pairwise comparisons show that tetranucleotide microsatellites have the highest polymorphic rates. In addition, AAT and ATC showed significant higher polymorphism than other trinucleotide microsatellites, while AGAT and AAAG were significantly more polymorphic than other tetranucleotide microsatellites.

Xu, Zhenkang; Gutierrez, Laura; Hitchens, Matthew; Scherer, Steve; Sater, Amy K.; Wells, Dan E.

2008-01-01

186

Inherited alleles revealing an incestuous paternity.  

PubMed

(Full text is available at http://www.manu.edu.mk/prilozi). Some rape cases result in the pregnancy of the victim and if the case is not reported to the police after the act with a subsequent gynaecological examination of the girl and the taking of a vaginal swab, there is no way of connecting the rape case with the perpetrator, except by parentage determination using DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) analysis after abortion or induced delivery. In order to solve the rape case of a minor girl of 14 years which resulted with pregnancy, where a 60-year-old man was accused of the rape, DNA was extracted from blood samples from the girl and the putative assailant and from the foetus after its induced delivery. The autosomal short tandem repeats (STR) typing for 15 different loci showed differences in 6 STR loci between the putative assailant as a father and the foetus, thus excluding the tested paternity. A large number of identical loci between the mother's and the child's genotype led us to consider the possibility of incestuous paternity. Analysis of DNA samples from the girl's father and brother clarified the case as brother-sister incest. Key words: rape case, short tandem repeats (STRs) genotype, incest. PMID:21258293

Jankova-Ajanovska, R; Jakovski, Z; Janeska, B; Simjanovska, L; Duma, A

2010-12-01

187

Dynamic Nature of the Proximal AZFc Region of the Human Y Chromosome: Multiple Independent Deletion and Duplication Events Revealed by Microsatellite Analysis  

PubMed Central

The human Y chromosome shows frequent structural variants, some of which are selectively neutral, while others cause impaired fertility due to the loss of spermatogenic genes. The large-scale use of multiple Y-chromosomal microsatellites in forensic and population genetic studies can reveal such variants, through the absence or duplication of specific markers in haplotypes. We describe Y chromosomes in apparently normal males carrying null and duplicated alleles at the microsatellite DYS448, which lies in the proximal part of the azoospermia factor c (AZFc) region, important in spermatogenesis, and made up of “ampliconic” repeats that act as substrates for nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR). Physical mapping in 26 DYS448 deletion chromosomes reveals that only three cases belong to a previously described class, representing independent occurrences of an~1.5-Mb deletion mediated by recombination between the b1 and b3 repeat units. The remainder belong to five novel classes; none appears to be mediated through homologous recombination, and all remove some genes, but are likely to be compatible with normal fertility. A combination of deletion analysis with binary-marker and microsatellite haplotyping shows that the 26 deletions represent nine independent events. Nine DYS448 duplication chromosomes can be explained by four independent events. Some lineages have risen to high frequency in particular populations, in particular a deletion within haplogroup (hg) C*(xC3a,C3c) found in 18 Asian males. The nonrandom phylogenetic distribution of duplication and deletion events suggests possible structural predisposition to such mutations in hgs C and G. Hum Mutat 29(10), 1171–1180, 2008.

Balaresque, Patricia; Bowden, Georgina R.; Parkin, Emma J.; Omran, Ghada A.; Heyer, Evelyne; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Roewer, Lutz; Stoneking, Mark; Nasidze, Ivan; Carvalho-Silva, Denise R.; Tyler-Smith, Chris; de Knijff, Peter; Jobling, Mark A.

2009-01-01

188

Cross-priming of microsatellite loci in subfamily cyprininae (family Cyprinidae): their utility in finding markers for population genetic analysis in three Indian major carps.  

PubMed

This study is aimed to identify polymorphic microsatellite markers and establish their potential for population genetics studies in three carp (family cyprinidae; subfamily cyprininae) species, Labeo rohita, Catla catla and Cirrhinus mrigala through use of cyprinid primers. These species have high commercial value and knowledge of genetic variation is important for management of farmed and wild populations. We tested 108 microsatellite primers from 11 species belonging to three different cyprinid subfamilies, Cyprininae, Barbinae and Leuciscinae out of which 63 primers (58.33 %) successfully amplified orthologous loci in three focal species. Forty-two loci generated from 29 primers were polymorphic in these three carp species. Sequencing of amplified product confirmed the presence of SSRs in these 42 loci and orthologous nature of the loci. To validate potential of these 42 polymorphic loci in determining the genetic variation, we analyzed 486 samples of three focal species collected from Indus, Ganges and Brahmaputra river systems. Results indicated significant genetic variation, with mean number of alleles per locus ranging from 6.80 to 14.40 and observed heterozygosity ranging from 0.50 to 0.74 in the three focal species. Highly significant (P < 0.00001) allelic homogeneity values revealed that the identified loci can be efficiently used in population genetics analysis of these carp species. Further, thirty-two loci from 19 primers were useful for genotyping in more than one species. The data from the present study was compiled with cross-species amplification data from previous results on eight species of subfamily cyprininae to compare cross-transferability of microsatellite loci. It was revealed that out of 226 heterologous loci amplified, 152 loci that originated from 77 loci exhibited polymorphism and 45 primers were of multispecies utility, common for 2-7 species. PMID:24792330

Masih, Prachi; Luhariya, Rupesh K; Das, Rakhi; Gupta, Arti; Mohindra, Vindhya; Singh, Rajeev K; Srivastava, Rohit; Chauhan, U K; Jena, J K; Lal, Kuldeep K

2014-08-01

189

Polygynandry, extra-group paternity and multiple-paternity litters in European badger (Meles meles) social groups.  

PubMed

The costs and benefits of natal philopatry are central to the formation and maintenance of social groups. Badger groups, thought to form passively according to the resource dispersion hypothesis (RDH), are maintained through natal philopatry and delayed dispersal; however, there is minimal evidence for the functional benefits of such grouping. We assigned parentage to 630 badger cubs from a high-density population in Wytham Woods, Oxford, born between 1988 and 2005. Our methodological approach was different to previous studies; we used 22 microsatellite loci to assign parent pairs, which in combination with sibship inference provided a high parentage assignment rate. We assigned both parents to 331 cubs at > or = 95% confidence, revealing a polygynandrous mating system with up to five mothers and five fathers within a social group. We estimated that only 27% of adult males and 31% of adult females bred each year, suggesting a cost to group living for both sexes. Any strong motivation or selection to disperse, however, may be reduced because just under half of the paternities were gained by extra-group males, mainly from neighbouring groups, with males displaying a mixture of paternity strategies. We provide the strongest evidence to date for multiple-paternity litters, and for the first time show that within-group and extra-group males can sire cubs in the same litter. We investigate the factors that may play a role in determining the degree of delayed dispersal and conclude that the ecological constraints hypothesis, benefits of philopatry hypothesis, and life history hypothesis may all play a part, as proposed by the broad constraints hypothesis. PMID:17971085

Dugdale, Hannah L; Macdonald, David W; Pope, Lisa C; Burke, Terry

2007-12-01

190

New polymorphic tetranucleotide microsatellites improve scoring accuracy in the bottlenose dolphin Tursiops aduncus.  

PubMed

We isolated and characterized 19 novel tetranucleotide microsatellite markers in the Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) in order to improve genotyping accuracy in applications like large-scale population-wide paternity and relatedness assessments. One hundred T. aduncus from Shark Bay, Western Australia, were screened for polymorphism. Cross-amplification was tested on four other small odontocete species. The new tetranucleotide microsatellite loci showed a more than fourfold higher scoring accuracy and significantly lower stutter formation compared to eight dinucleotide loci, although overall allelic diversity was significantly reduced. PMID:21564684

Nater, Alexander; Kopps, Anna M; Krützen, Michael

2009-03-01

191

No evidence for a paternal interchromosomal effect from analysis of the origin of nondisjunction in Down syndrome patients with concomitant familial chromosome rearrangements.  

PubMed Central

The parental origin of the extra chromosome 21 was determined with DNA polymorphisms in seven families in whom the proband and one of the parents carried an additional chromosome rearrangement (balanced translocation or pericentric inversion) not involving chromosome 21. The balanced rearrangement was inherited from the mother in two families and from the father in five families, whereas the additional chromosome 21 was derived from the mother in all seven families. These findings are not in agreement with the hypothesis of a paternal interchromosomal effect. The latter would imply that a balanced rearrangement in the father would favor nondisjunction during meiosis in the germ cells.

Schinzel, A A; Adelsberger, P A; Binkert, F; Basaran, S; Antonarakis, S E

1992-01-01

192

PLANT SCIENCE: Paternal Patterning Cue  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Over the past decade, several mutations that exert maternal effects on embryogenesis have been described in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Bayer et al. describe the first paternal effect on plant embryogenesis, demonstrating that a temporal cue provided by the sperm cell triggers the events leading to the first asymmetric division of the plant embryo.

Ueli Grossniklaus (University of ZĂÂĽrich;)

2009-03-13

193

Decrease in the CGG{sub n} trinucleotide repeat mutation of the fragile X syndrome to normal size range during paternal transmission  

SciTech Connect

The fragile X syndrome, the most common inherited form of mental retardation, is caused by the expansion of a CGG{sub n} trinucleotide repeat in the FMR-1 gene. Although the repeat number usually increases during transmission, few cases with reduction of an expanded CGG{sub n} repeat back to the normal size range have been reported. We describe for the first time a family in which such reduction has occurred in the paternal transmission. The paternal premutation ({Delta} = 300 hp) was not detected in one of the five daughters or in the son of this daughter, although he had the grandpaternal RFLP haplotype. Instead, fragments indicating the normal CGG{sub n} repeat size were seen on a Southern blot probed with StB12.3. PCR analysis of the CGG{sub n} repeat confirmed this; in addition to a maternal allele of 30 repeats, an allele of 34 repeats was detected in the daughter and, further, in her son. Sequencing of this new allele revealed a pure CGG{sub n} repeat configuration without AGG interruptions. No evidence for a somatic mosaicism of a premutation allele in the daughter or a normal allele in her father was detected when investigating DNA derived from blood lymphocytes and skin fibroblasts. Another unusual finding in this family was lack of the PCR product of the microsatellite marker RS46 (DXS548) in one of the grandmaternal X chromosomes, detected as incompatible inheritance of RS46 alleles. The results suggest an intergenerational reduction in the CGG{sub n} repeat from premutation size to the normal size range and stable transmission of the contracted repeat to the next generation. However, paternal germ-line mosaicism could not be excluded as an alternative explanation for the reverse mutation. 37 refs., 4 figs.

Vaeisaenen, M.L.; Haataja, R.; Leisti, J. [Oulu Univ. Hospital (Finland)

1996-09-01

194

Density drives polyandry and relatedness influences paternal success in the Pacific gooseneck barnacle, Pollicipes elegans  

PubMed Central

Background Polyandry is a common mating strategy in animals, increasing female fitness through direct (material) and indirect (genetic) benefits. Most theories about the benefits of polyandry come from studies of terrestrial animals, which have relatively complex mating systems and behaviors; less is known about the potential benefits of polyandry in sessile marine animals, for which potential mates may be scarce and females have less control over pre-copulatory mate choice. Here, we used microsatellite markers to examine multiple paternity in natural aggregations of the Pacific gooseneck barnacle Pollicipes elegans, testing the effect of density on paternity and mate relatedness on male reproductive success. Results We found that multiple paternity was very common (79% of broods), with up to five fathers contributing to a brood, though power was relatively low to detect more than four fathers. Density had a significant and positive linear effect on the number of fathers siring a brood, though this relationship leveled off at high numbers of fathers, which may reflect a lack of power and/or an upper limit to polyandry in this species. Significant skew in male reproductive contribution in multiply-sired broods was observed and we found a positive and significant relationship between the proportion of offspring sired and the genetic similarity between mates, suggesting that genetic compatibility may influence reproductive success in this species. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study to show high levels of multiple paternity in a barnacle, and overall, patterns of paternity in P. elegans appear to be driven primarily by mate availability. Evidence of paternity bias for males with higher relatedness suggests some form of post-copulatory sexual selection is taking place, but more work is needed to determine whether it operates during or post-fertilization. Overall, our results suggest that while polyandry in P. elegans is driven by mate availability, it may also provide a mechanism for females to ensure fertilization by compatible gametes and increase reproductive success in this sessile species.

2014-01-01

195

Association analysis using refined microsatellite markers localizes a susceptibility locus for psoriasis vulgaris within a 111 kb segment telomeric to the HLA-C gene.  

PubMed

The HLA-Cw6 antigen has been associated with psoriasis vulgaris despite racial and ethnic differences. However, it remains unclear whether it is the HLA-Cw6 antigen itself or a closely linked, hitherto unidentified, locus that predisposes to the disease. Here, in order to map the susceptibility locus for psoriasis vulgaris precisely within the HLA class I region, 11 polymorphic microsatellite markers distributed throughout a 1060 kb segment surrounding the HLA-C locus were subjected to association analysis in Japanese psoriasis vulgaris patients. Statistical analyses of the distribution and deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium of the allelic frequency at each micro-satellite locus revealed that the pathogenic gene for psoriasis vulgaris is located within a reduced interval of 111 kb spanning 89-200 kb telomeric of the HLA-C gene. In addition to three known genes, POU5F1, TCF19 and S, this 111 kb fragment contains four new, expressed genes identified in the course of our genomic sequencing of the entire HLA class I region. Therefore, these seven genes are the potential candidates for susceptibility to psoriasis vulgaris. PMID:10545595

Oka, A; Tamiya, G; Tomizawa, M; Ota, M; Katsuyama, Y; Makino, S; Shiina, T; Yoshitome, M; Iizuka, M; Sasao, Y; Iwashita, K; Kawakubo, Y; Sugai, J; Ozawa, A; Ohkido, M; Kimura, M; Bahram, S; Inoko, H

1999-11-01

196

Analysis of four microsatellite markers on the long arm of chromosome 9 by meiotic recombination in flow-sorted single sperm  

SciTech Connect

Meiotic recombination in flow-sorted single sperm was used to analyze four highly polymorphic microsatellite markers on the long arm of chromosome 9. The microsatellites comprised three tightly linked markers: 9CMP1 (D9S109), 9CMP2 (D9S127), and D9S53, which map to 9q31, and a reference marker, ASS, which is located in 9q34.1. Haplotypes of single sperm were assessed by using PCR in a single-step multiplex reaction to amplify each locus. Recombinant haplotypes were identified by their relative infrequency and were analyzed using THREELOC, a maximum-likelihood-analysis program, and an adaptation of CRI-MAP. The most likely order of these markers was cen-D9S109-D9S127-D9S53-ASS-tel with D9S109, D9S127, and D9S53 being separated by a genetic distance of approximately 3%. The order of the latter three markers did not however achieve statistical significance using the THREELOC program. 21 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Furlong, R.A.; Goudie, D.R.; Carter, N.P.; Lyall, J.E.W.; Affara, N.A.; Ferguson-Smith, M.A. (Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom))

1993-06-01

197

A measure of population subdivision based on microsatellite allele frequencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsatellite loci, loci that vary in the number of repeats of a simple DNA sequence, are becoming commonly used in the analysis of natural populations. Microsatellite loci are often highly polymorphic and relatively easy to survey and hence offer the hope of greater understanding of population structure. The question is how to make the best use of allele frequencies at

Montgomery Slatkin

1995-01-01

198

Phenotypic characterization and nuclear microsatellite analysis reveal genomic changes and rearrangements underlying androgenesis in tetraploid potatoes ( Solanum tuberosum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two (di)haploids (2n = 2x = 24) and nine tetraploids (2n = 4x = 48) obtained from Solanum tuberosum through anther culture were characterized for nDNA variation, phenotypic variation and nuclear microsatellite polymorphism.\\u000a Androgenic (di)haploids were also characterized for late blight resistance. The (di)haploid C-13 was derived from Indian tetraploid\\u000a potato cv. Kufri Chipsona-2, while D4 from TPS (true potato seed) parental line JTH\\/C-107, which is an interspecific

Sushruti Sharma; Debabrata Sarkar; Suman Kumar Pandey

2010-01-01

199

Multiple paternity in the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae).  

PubMed

The reproductive strategies and variation in reproductive success of ticks are poorly understood. We determined variation in multiple paternity in the American dog tick Dermancentor variabilis . In total, 48 blood-engorged female ticks and 22 male companion ticks were collected from 13 raccoon ( Procyon lotor ) hosts. In the laboratory, 56.3% of blood-engorged females laid eggs, of which 37.0% hatched or showed signs of development. We examined the presence of multiple paternity in the ensuing clutches by genotyping groups of eggs and larvae at 5 microsatellite loci and subtracting the known maternal alleles, thereby identifying male-contributed alleles. Seventy-five percent of the clutches presented multiple paternity, with a mode of 2 fathers siring the clutch. Males associated with the females on the host always sired some offspring. In 1 case, a male was the sire of clutches derived from 2 females, indicating both polygyny and polyandry may occur for this species. These results, combined with those of several other recent studies, suggest that multiple paternity might be frequent for ixodid ticks. PMID:22257158

Ruiz-López, María José; Chaskelson, Saskia; Gompper, Matthew E; Eggert, Lori S

2012-06-01

200

Efficient human paternity testing with a panel of 40 short insertion-deletion polymorphisms.  

PubMed

We developed a panel of 40 multiplexed short insertion-deletion (indel) polymorphic loci with widespread chromosomal locations and allele frequencies close to 0.50 in the European population. We genotyped these markers in 360 unrelated self-classified White Brazilians and 50 mother-child-probable father trios with proven paternity. The average heterozygosity (gene diversity) per locus was 0.48, and the combined probability of identity (matching probability) for the 40-locus set was 3.48 x 10(-17). The combined power of exclusion of the indel panel was 0.9997. The efficiency of the 40 indel set in the exclusion of falsely accused individuals in paternity casework was equivalent to the CODIS set of 13 microsatellites. The geometric mean of the paternity indices of the 50 mother-child-probable father trios was 17,607. This panel of 40 short indels was found to have excellent performance. Thus, especially because of its simplicity and low cost, and the fact that it is composed of genomic markers that have very low mutation rates, it represents a useful new tool for human paternity testing. PMID:20391344

Pimenta, J R; Pena, S D J

2010-01-01

201

Change in paternity and select perinatal outcomes: causal or confounded?  

PubMed

Select social, behavioural and maternal characteristics were evaluated to determine if they were confounding factors in the association between paternity change and pre-eclampsia, small for gestational age (SGA) and pre-term delivery, in a sample of 1,409 women. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine if any of these risk factors modified the association between changing paternity and the selected perinatal outcomes. Results of the analysis showed that women who changed partners were more likely to possess potentially confounding risk factors compared with those who had not. Paternity change was 2.75 times more likely to be associated with the development of pre-eclampsia (95% CI 1.33; 5.68) and 2.25 times more likely to be associated with an SGA infant on weight (95% CI 1.13; 4.47), after adjusting for selected risk factors. Paternity change remains a significant risk factor for pre-eclampsia and SGA in the presence of select risk factors. PMID:22943712

Bandoli, G; Lindsay, S; Johnson, D L; Kao, K; Luo, Y; Chambers, C D

2012-10-01

202

Evolution of paternal care in diploid and haplodiploid populations.  

PubMed

W. D. Hamilton famously suggested that the inflated relatedness of full sisters under haplodiploidy explains why all workers in the social hymenoptera are female. This suggestion has not stood up to further theoretical scrutiny and is not empirically supported. Rather, it appears that altruistic sib-rearing in the social hymenoptera is performed exclusively by females because this behaviour has its origins in parental care, which was performed exclusively by females in the ancestors of this insect group. However, haplodiploidy might still explain the sex of workers if this mode of inheritance has itself been responsible for the rarity of paternal care in this group. Here, we perform a theoretical kin selection analysis to investigate the evolution of paternal care in diploid and haplodiploid populations. We find that haplodiploidy may either inhibit or promote paternal care depending on model assumptions, but that under the most plausible scenarios it promotes - rather than inhibits - paternal care. Our analysis casts further doubt upon there being a causal link between haplodiploidy and eusociality. PMID:24773069

Davies, N G; Gardner, A

2014-06-01

203

Multiplexed microsatellite recovery using massively parallel sequencing  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Conservation and management of natural populations requires accurate and inexpensive genotyping methods. Traditional microsatellite, or simple sequence repeat (SSR), marker analysis remains a popular genotyping method because of the comparatively low cost of marker development, ease of analysis and high power of genotype discrimination. With the availability of massively parallel sequencing (MPS), it is now possible to sequence microsatellite-enriched genomic libraries in multiplex pools. To test this approach, we prepared seven microsatellite-enriched, barcoded genomic libraries from diverse taxa (two conifer trees, five birds) and sequenced these on one lane of the Illumina Genome Analyzer using paired-end 80-bp reads. In this experiment, we screened 6.1 million sequences and identified 356958 unique microreads that contained di- or trinucleotide microsatellites. Examination of four species shows that our conversion rate from raw sequences to polymorphic markers compares favourably to Sanger- and 454-based methods. The advantage of multiplexed MPS is that the staggering capacity of modern microread sequencing is spread across many libraries; this reduces sample preparation and sequencing costs to less than $400 (USD) per species. This price is sufficiently low that microsatellite libraries could be prepared and sequenced for all 1373 organisms listed as 'threatened' and 'endangered' in the United States for under $0.5M (USD).

Jennings, T. N.; Knaus, B. J.; Mullins, T. D.; Haig, S. M.; Cronn, R. C.

2011-01-01

204

Multiplexed microsatellite recovery using massively parallel sequencing.  

PubMed

Conservation and management of natural populations requires accurate and inexpensive genotyping methods. Traditional microsatellite, or simple sequence repeat (SSR), marker analysis remains a popular genotyping method because of the comparatively low cost of marker development, ease of analysis and high power of genotype discrimination. With the availability of massively parallel sequencing (MPS), it is now possible to sequence microsatellite-enriched genomic libraries in multiplex pools. To test this approach, we prepared seven microsatellite-enriched, barcoded genomic libraries from diverse taxa (two conifer trees, five birds) and sequenced these on one lane of the Illumina Genome Analyzer using paired-end 80-bp reads. In this experiment, we screened 6.1 million sequences and identified 356,958 unique microreads that contained di- or trinucleotide microsatellites. Examination of four species shows that our conversion rate from raw sequences to polymorphic markers compares favourably to Sanger- and 454-based methods. The advantage of multiplexed MPS is that the staggering capacity of modern microread sequencing is spread across many libraries; this reduces sample preparation and sequencing costs to less than $400 (USD) per species. This price is sufficiently low that microsatellite libraries could be prepared and sequenced for all 1373 organisms listed as 'threatened' and 'endangered' in the United States for under $0.5 M (USD). PMID:21676207

Jennings, T N; Knaus, B J; Mullins, T D; Haig, S M; Cronn, R C

2011-11-01

205

Generation and analysis of 10 000 ESTs from the half-smooth tongue sole Cynoglossus semilaevis and identification of microsatellite and SNP markers.  

PubMed

Three normalized cDNA libraries were constructed, two of which were constructed from reproductive tissues ovary and testis, and the other one from pooled immune tissues including head kidney, intestine, liver and spleen. A total of 10 542 clones were sequenced generating 10 128 expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Cluster analysis indicated a total of 5808 unique sequences including 1712 contigs and 4096 singletons. A total of 4249 (73%) of the unique ESTs had significant hits to the non-redundant protein database, 2253 of which were annotated using Gene Ontology (GO) terms. A total of 311 microsatellites (with 246 having sufficient flanking sequences for primer design) and 6294 putative SNPs were identified. These genome resources provide the material basis for future microarray development, marker validation and genetic linkage and QTL analysis. PMID:20409170

Sha, Z; Wang, S; Zhuang, Z; Wang, Q; Wang, Q; Li, P; Ding, H; Wang, N; Liu, Z; Chen, S

2010-04-01

206

A new approach to characterize populations of Schistosoma mansoni from humans: development and assessment of microsatellite analysis of pooled miracidia  

PubMed Central

Summary OBJECTIVES To develop and assess a microsatellite technique to characterize populations of Schistosoma mansoni from humans. METHODS For each of five patients, we calculated the allele count and frequency at 11 loci for several pools of miracidia (50 and 100), and compared these to population values, determined by amplifying microsatellites from 186 to 200 individual miracidia per patient. RESULTS We were able to detect up to 94.5% of alleles in pools. Allele count and frequency strongly and significantly correlated between singles and pools; marginally significant differences (P < 0.05) were detected for one patient (pools of 50) for allele frequencies and for two patients (pools of 100) for allele counts. Kato–Katz egg counts and number of alleles per pool did not co-vary, indicating that further direct comparisons of the results from these two techniques are needed. CONCLUSIONS Allele counts and frequency profiles from pooling provide important information about infection intensity and complexity, beyond that obtained from traditional methods. Although we are not advocating use of pooling to replace individual genotyping studies, it can potentially be useful in certain applications as a rapid and cost effective screening method for studies of S. mansoni population genetics, or as a more informative way to quantify and characterize human worm populations.

Hanelt, B.; Steinauer, M. L.; Mwangi, I. N.; Maina, G. M.; Agola, L. E.; Mkoji, G. M.; Loker, E. S.

2010-01-01

207

Development of microsatellite markers in peach [ Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] and their use in genetic diversity analysis in peach and sweet cherry ( Prunus avium L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the sequence of 41 primer pairs of microsatellites from a CT-enriched genomic library of the peach cultivar 'Merrill O'Henry'. Ten microsatellite-containing clones had sequences similar to plant coding sequences in databases and could be used as markers for known functions. For microsatellites segregating at least in one of the two Prunus F2 progenies analyzed, it was possible to

E. Dirlewanger; P. Cosson; M. Tavaud; M. Aranzana; C. Poizat; A. Zanetto; P. Arús; F. Laigret

2002-01-01

208

Paternal inheritance of the primary sex ratio in a copepod.  

PubMed

Uniparentally inherited genetic elements are under strong selection to manipulate sex determination in their host and shift the host sex ratio towards the transmitting sex. For any sex-ratio trait, lineage analysis and quantitative genetics are important tools for characterizing the mode of inheritance (biparental vs. maternal vs. paternal) thereby narrowing the field of possible sex-determining mechanisms (e.g. polygenic, sex chromosomes with meiotic drive, cytoplasmic microorganisms). The primary sex ratio of the harpacticoid copepod, Tigriopus californicus is often male-biased and is highly variable among full sib families. We found that this extra-binomial variation for the primary sex ratio is paternally but not maternally transmitted in T. californicus. Paternal transmission of the primary sex ratio has been well documented in the haplo-diploid hymenoptera but is relatively rare in diplo-diploid organisms. If the sex-ratio trait is paternally transmitted in other closely related harpacticoid copepods it would explain why male biased primary sex ratios are so common in this group. PMID:16135125

Voordouw, M J; Robinson, H E; Anholt, B R

2005-09-01

209

Microsatellite isolation and marker development in carrot - genomic distribution, linkage mapping, genetic diversity analysis and marker transferability across Apiaceae  

PubMed Central

Background The Apiaceae family includes several vegetable and spice crop species among which carrot is the most economically important member, with ~21 million tons produced yearly worldwide. Despite its importance, molecular resources in this species are relatively underdeveloped. The availability of informative, polymorphic, and robust PCR-based markers, such as microsatellites (or SSRs), will facilitate genetics and breeding of carrot and other Apiaceae, including integration of linkage maps, tagging of phenotypic traits and assisting positional gene cloning. Thus, with the purpose of isolating carrot microsatellites, two different strategies were used; a hybridization-based library enrichment for SSRs, and bioinformatic mining of SSRs in BAC-end sequence and EST sequence databases. This work reports on the development of 300 carrot SSR markers and their characterization at various levels. Results Evaluation of microsatellites isolated from both DNA sources in subsets of 7 carrot F2 mapping populations revealed that SSRs from the hybridization-based method were longer, had more repeat units and were more polymorphic than SSRs isolated by sequence search. Overall, 196 SSRs (65.1%) were polymorphic in at least one mapping population, and the percentage of polymophic SSRs across F2 populations ranged from 17.8 to 24.7. Polymorphic markers in one family were evaluated in the entire F2, allowing the genetic mapping of 55 SSRs (38 codominant) onto the carrot reference map. The SSR loci were distributed throughout all 9 carrot linkage groups (LGs), with 2 to 9 SSRs/LG. In addition, SSR evaluations in carrot-related taxa indicated that a significant fraction of the carrot SSRs transfer successfully across Apiaceae, with heterologous amplification success rate decreasing with the target-species evolutionary distance from carrot. SSR diversity evaluated in a collection of 65 D. carota accessions revealed a high level of polymorphism for these selected loci, with an average of 19 alleles/locus and 0.84 expected heterozygosity. Conclusions The addition of 55 SSRs to the carrot map, together with marker characterizations in six other mapping populations, will facilitate future comparative mapping studies and integration of carrot maps. The markers developed herein will be a valuable resource for assisting breeding, genetic, diversity, and genomic studies of carrot and other Apiaceae.

2011-01-01

210

Measuring Microsatellite Conservation in Mammalian Evolution with a Phylogenetic Birth-Death Model  

PubMed Central

Microsatellites make up ?3% of the human genome, and there is increasing evidence that some microsatellites can have important functions and can be conserved by selection. To investigate this conservation, we performed a genome-wide analysis of human microsatellites and measured their conservation using a binary character birth--death model on a mammalian phylogeny. Using a maximum likelihood method to estimate birth and death rates for different types of microsatellites, we show that the rates at which microsatellites are gained and lost in mammals depend on their sequence composition, length, and position in the genome. Additionally, we use a mixture model to account for unequal death rates among microsatellites across the human genome. We use this model to assign a probability-based conservation score to each microsatellite. We found that microsatellites near the transcription start sites of genes are often highly conserved, and that distance from a microsatellite to the nearest transcription start site is a good predictor of the microsatellite conservation score. An analysis of gene ontology terms for genes that contain microsatellites near their transcription start site reveals that regulatory genes involved in growth and development are highly enriched with conserved microsatellites.

Sawaya, Sterling M.; Lennon, Dustin; Buschiazzo, Emmanuel; Gemmell, Neil; Minin, Vladimir N.

2012-01-01

211

Teenage Paternity, Child Support, and Crime.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the relationship between teenage premarital paternity, child support enforcement, and delinquency. The non-random data were gathered from the Marian County, Indiana District Attorney's Office and Juvenile Court. Suggests that the early establishment of paternity should be pursued and that child support enforcement strategies should…

Pirog-Good, Maureen A.

1988-01-01

212

Epigenetics and the Origins of Paternal Effects  

PubMed Central

Though there are multiple routes through which parents can influence their offspring, recent studies of environmentally induced epigenetic variation have highlighted the role of non-genomic pathways. In addition to the experience-dependent modification of DNA methylation that can be achieved via mother-infant interactions, there has been increasing interest in the epigenetic mechanisms through which paternal influences on offspring development can be achieved. Epidemiological and laboratory studies suggest that paternal nutritional and toxicological exposures as well as paternal age and phenotypic variation can lead to variations in offspring and, in some cases, grand-offspring development. These findings suggest a potential epigenetic germline inheritance of paternal effects. However, it may be important to consider the interplay between maternal and paternal influences as well as the experimental dissociation between experience-dependent and germline transmission when exploring the role of epigenetic variation within the germline as a mediator of these effects. In this review, we will explore these issues, with a particular focus on the potential role of paternally-induced maternal investment, highlight the literature illustrating the transgenerational impact of paternal experiences, and discuss the evidence supporting the role of epigenetic mechanisms in maintaining paternal effects both within and across generations.

Curley, James P.; Mashoodh, Rahia; Champagne, Frances A.

2010-01-01

213

Embryogenesis: Demethylation of the zygotic paternal genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mammals, both parental genomes undergo dramatic epigenetic changes after fertilization to form the diploid somatic genome. Here we show that the paternal genome in the mouse is significantly and actively demethylated within 6-8 hours of fertilization, before the onset of DNA replication, whereas the maternal genome is demethylated after several cleavage divisions. This active demethylation of the paternal genome

Wolfgang Mayer; Alain Niveleau; Jörn Walter; Reinald Fundele; Thomas Haaf

2000-01-01

214

Libertarian paternalism is not an oxymoron  

Microsoft Academic Search

The idea of libertarian paternalism might seem to be an oxymoron, but it is both possible and legitimate for private and public institutions to affect behavior while also respecting freedom of choice. Often people's preferences are ill-formed, and their choices will inevitably be influenced by default rules, framing effects, and starting points. In these circumstances, a form of paternalism cannot

Cass R. Sunstein; Richard H. Thaler

2003-01-01

215

Risk Factors for Paternal Physical Child Abuse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study uses the developmental-ecological framework to examine a comprehensive set of paternal factors hypothesized to be linked to risk for paternal child abuse (PCA) among a diverse sample of fathers. Attention was given to fathers' marital status and their race/ethnicity (White, African American, and Hispanic). Methods: Interviews…

Lee, Shawna J.; Guterman, Neil B.; Lee, Yookyong

2008-01-01

216

Beyond traditional paternity and identification cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper extends on the traditional methodology used to quantify DNA evidence in paternity or identification cases. By extending we imply that there are more than two alternatives to choose between. In a standard paternity case the two competing explanations H1: “John Doe is the father of the child” and H2: “A random man is the father of the child”,

T. Egeland; P. F. Mostad; B. Mevĺg; M. Stenersen

2000-01-01

217

Paternal isodisomy for chromosome 7 and normal growth and development in a patient with congenital chloride diarrhea  

SciTech Connect

Uniparental disomy (UPD) has been reported in an increasing number of patients, occasionally ascertained because of concomitant autosomal recessive disorders. In some cases, additional signs such as growth alteration, mental retardation or minor anomalies are present, suggesting an imprinting effect. For maternal chromosome 7, UPD has been described in three patients with recessive disorders. Severe growth retardation diagnosed in all these patients has been explained by the effect of imprinting of growth related genes on maternal chromosome 7. No cases of paternally derived disomy from chromosome 7 were previously known. Here we report paternal isodisomy for chromosome 7 and normal growth in a patient with a recessive disorder, congenital chloride diarrhea (CLD; MIM 214700). Ten informative microsatellite markers on chromosome 7 demonstrated that the proband did not have any maternal contribution to her genotype for that chromosome. Maternal and paternal alleles could not be distinguished for another 10 markers tested for chromosome 7, but the proband was always homozygous. As most uniparental paternal disomies appear to have a postzygotic origin, the primary event might have been a maternal meiotic nondisjunction. A thorough clinical evaluation with a view to additional signs of imprinted genes localized in chromosome 7 was performed. The physical status and laboratory tests were normal except for a mild high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss. As the patient has normal stature, it is likely that the paternal chromosome 7 lacks the suggested maternal imprinting effect on growth. The origin of the hearing loss remains speculative.

Hoeglund, P.; de la Chapelle, A.; Kere, J. [Univ. of Helsinki, (Finland)] [and others

1994-09-01

218

Compound Evolutionary History of the Rhesus Macaque Mhc Class I B Region Revealed by Microsatellite Analysis and Localization of Retroviral Sequences  

PubMed Central

In humans, the single polymorphic B locus of the major histocompatibility complex is linked to the microsatellite MIB. In rhesus macaques, however, haplotypes are characterized by the presence of unique combinations of multiple B genes, which may display different levels of polymorphism. The aim of the study was to shed light on the evolutionary history of this highly complex region. First, the robustness of the microsatellite MIB-linked to almost half of the B genes in rhesus macaques (Mamu-B)–for accurate B haplotyping was studied. Based on the physical map of an established haplotype comprising 7 MIB loci, each located next to a certain Mamu-B gene, two MIB loci, MIB1 and MIB6, were investigated in a panel of MHC homozygous monkeys. MIB1 revealed a complex genotyping pattern, whereas MIB6 analysis resulted in the detection of one or no amplicon. Both patterns are specific for a given B haplotype, show Mendelian segregation, and even allow a more precise haplotype definition than do traditional typing methods. Second, a search was performed for retroelements that may have played a role in duplication processes as observed in the macaque B region. This resulted in the description of two types of duplicons. One basic unit comprises an expressed Mamu-B gene, adjacent to an HERV16 copy closely linked to MIB. The second type of duplicon comprises a Mamu-B (pseudo)gene, linked to a truncated HERV16 structure lacking its MIB segment. Such truncation seems to coincide with the loss of B gene transcription. Subsequent to the duplication processes, recombination between MIB and Mamu-B loci appears to have occurred, resulting in a hyperplastic B region. Thus, analysis of MIB in addition to B loci allows deciphering of the compound evolutionary history of the class I B region in Old World monkeys.

Doxiadis, Gaby G. M.; Heijmans, Corrine M. C.; Bonhomme, Maxime; Otting, Nel; Crouau-Roy, Brigitte; Bontrop, Ronald E.

2009-01-01

219

Multiplex PCR panel of microsatellite markers for the tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum, developed as a tool for use in conservation and broodstock management.  

PubMed

The tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum, native to Brazil, is widely used in aquaculture systems. We developed a multiplex PCR panel for this species, comprising 12 microsatellite loci. This panel was used to genotype 73 specimens collected from Juruti, a city in the Brazilian Amazon. The mean number of alleles per locus was 8.8, the mean observed heterozygosity was 0.76, and the combined power of discrimination and the combined power of exclusion were 0.99999999999999993 and 0.999991762, respectively. We observed no significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in this population. All amplified alleles were clearly typed, and easily interpretable results were obtained. This method will be useful for paternity analysis, population genetics and conservation studies, as well as for selective breeding programs for C. macropomum. PMID:22370880

Hamoy, I G; Santos, S

2012-01-01

220

Searching microsatellites in DNA sequences: approaches used and tools developed.  

PubMed

Microsatellite instability associated genomic activities and evolutionary changes have led to a renewed focus on microsatellite research. In last decade, a number of microsatellite mining tools have been introduced based on different computational approaches. The choice is generally made between slow but exhaustive dynamic programming based approaches, or fast and incomplete heuristic methods. Tools based on stochastic approaches are more popular due to their simplicity and added ornamental features. We have performed a comparative evaluation of the relative efficiency of some microsatellite search tools with their default settings. The graphical user interface, the statistical analysis of the output and ability to mine imperfect repeats are the most important criteria in selecting a tool for a particular investigation. However, none of the available tools alone provides complete and accurate information about microsatellites, and a lot depends on the discretion of the user. PMID:23573036

Grover, Atul; Aishwarya, Veenu; Sharma, P C

2012-01-01

221

Evidence for complex mutations at microsatellite loci in Drosophila.  

PubMed Central

Fifteen lines each of Drosophila melanogaster, D. simulans, and D. sechellia were scored for 19 microsatellite loci. One to four alleles of each locus in each species were sequenced, and microsatellite variability was compared with sequence structure. Only 7 loci had their size variation among species consistent with the occurrence of strictly stepwise mutations in the repeat array, the others showing extensive variability in the flanking region compared to that within the microsatellite itself. Polymorphisms apparently resulting from complex nonstepwise mutations involving the microsatellite were also observed, both within and between species. Maximum number of perfect repeats and variance of repeat count were found to be strongly correlated in microsatellites showing an apparently stepwise mutation pattern. These data indicate that many microsatellite mutation events are more complex than represented even by generalized stepwise mutation models. Care should therefore be taken in inferring population or phylogenetic relationships from microsatellite size data alone. The analysis also indicates, however, that evaluation of sequence structure may allow selection of microsatellites that more closely match the assumptions of stepwise models.

Colson, I; Goldstein, D B

1999-01-01

222

Mitochondrial microsatellite variability in common wheat and its ancestral species.  

PubMed

On the basis of the entire mitochondrial DNA sequence of common wheat, Triticum aestivum, 21 mitochondrial microsatellite loci having more than ten mononucleotide repeats were identified. The mitochondrial microsatellite variability at all loci was examined with 43 accessions from 11 Triticum and Aegilops species involved in wheat polyploidy evolution. Polymorphic banding patterns were obtained at 15 out of 21 mitochondrial microsatellite loci. The number of alleles per polymorphic microsatellite ranged from 2 to 5 with an average of 3.07, and the diversity values (H) ranged from 0.09 to 0.50 with an average of 0.29. These values are almost two third of wheat chloroplast microsatellite values, indicating that variability of mitochondrial microsatellite is much less than that of chloroplast microsatellite. Based on the allele variation at all loci, a total of seven mitochondrial haplotypes were identified among common wheat and its ancestral species. Three diploid species showed their own specific haplotypes and timopheevi group (11 accessions) had three types, whereas 29 accessions of emmer and common wheat groups shared the same haplotype. These results indicate that a single mitochondrial haplotype determined by microsatellite analysis has conservatively been maintained in the evolutionary lineage from wild tetraploid to cultivated hexaploid species. PMID:16905875

Ishii, Takashige; Takahashi, Chisa; Ikeda, Nobuyuki; Kamijima, Osamu; Mori, Naoki

2006-06-01

223

Isolating Microsatellite DNA Loci  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of techniques are presented to construct genomic DNA libraries highly enriched for microsatellite DNA loci. The individual techniques used here derive from several published protocols but have been optimized and tested in our research laboratories as well as in classroom settings at the University of South Carolina and University of Georgia, with students achieving nearly 100% success. Reducing

Travis C. Glenn; Nancy A. Schable

2005-01-01

224

Molecular Evidence for High Frequency of Multiple Paternity in a Freshwater Shrimp Species Caridina ensifera  

PubMed Central

Background Molecular genetic analyses of parentage provide insights into mating systems. Although there are 22,000 members in Malacostraca, not much has been known about mating systems in Malacostraca. The freshwater shrimp Caridina ensifera blue, is a new species belonging to Malacostraca which was discovered recently in Sulawesi, Indonesia. Due to its small body size and low fecundity, this species is an ideal species to study the occurrence and frequency of multiple paternity and to understand of how the low fecundity species persist and evolve. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we developed four polymorphic microsatellites from C. ensifera and applied them to investigate the occurrence and frequency of multiple paternity in 20 C. ensifera broods caught from Lake Matano, Sulawesi. By genotyping the mother and all offspring from each brood we discovered multiple paternity in all 20 broods. In most of the 20 broods, fathers contributed skewed numbers of offspring and there was an apparent inverse correlation between reproductive success of sires and their relatedness to mothers. Conclusions/Significance Our results in combination with recent reports on multiple paternity in crayfish, crab and lobster species suggests that multiple paternity is common in Malacostraca. Skewed contribution of fathers to the numbers of offspring and inverse correlation between reproductive success of sires and their relatedness to mothers suggest that sperm competition occurred and/or pre- and postcopulatory female choice happen, which may be important for avoiding the occurrence of inbreeding and optimize genetic variation in offspring and for persistence and evolution of low fecundity species.

Yue, Gen Hua; Chang, Alex

2010-01-01

225

Associations between 2 paternal casein haplotypes and milk yield traits of Swiss Fleckvieh cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Associations between casein haplotypes and milk yield traits of offspring from 5 Swiss Fleckvieh AI test bulls were investigated.\\u000a The analysis was performed by using a daughter design, where each daughter inherited either paternal haplotype B-A1-A-A or B-A2-A-A for alleles of ?s1-, ?-, ?s2- and ?-casein genes. The substitution effects of paternalCSN2 A1 versus A2 on protein yield deviations (YDs)

Martin H. Braunschweig

2008-01-01

226

Siring Success and Paternal Effects in Heterodichogamous Acer opalus  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Heterodichogamy (a dimorphic breeding system comprising protandrous and protogynous individuals) is a potential starting point in the evolution of dioecy from hermaphroditism. In the genus Acer, previous work suggests that dioecy evolved from heterodichogamy through an initial spread of unisexual males. Here, the question is asked as to whether the different morphs in Acer opalus, a species in which males co-exist with heterodichogamous hermaphrodites, differ in various components of male in fitness. Methods Several components of male fertility were analysed. Pollination rates in the male phase were recorded across one flowering period. Pollen viability was compared among morphs through hand pollinations both with pollen from a single sexual morph and also simulating a situation of pollen competition; in the latter experiment, paternity was assessed with microsatellite markers. It was also determined whether effects of genetic relatedness between pollen donors and recipients could influence the siring success. Finally, paternal effects occurring beyond the fertilization process were tested for by measuring the height reached by seedlings with different sires over three consecutive growing seasons. Key Results The males and protandrous morphs had higher pollination rates than the protogynous morph, and the seedlings they sired grew taller. No differences in male fertility were found between males and protandrous individuals. Departures from random mating due to effects of genetic relatedness among sires and pollen recipients were also ruled out. Conclusions Males and protandrous individuals are probably better sires than protogynous individuals, as shown by the higher pollination rates and the differential growth of the seedlings sired by these morphs. In contrast, the fertility of males was not higher than the male fertility of the protandrous morph. While the appearance of males in sexually specialized heterodichogamous populations is possible, even in the absence of a fitness advantage, it is not clear that males can be maintained at an evolutionary equilibrium with two classes of heterodichogamous hermaphrodites.

Gleiser, Gabriela; Segarra-Moragues, Jose Gabriel; Pannell, John Richard; Verdu, Miguel

2008-01-01

227

Monosomy 1p36.31-33{yields}pter due to a paternal reciprocal translocation: Prognostic significance of FISH analysis  

SciTech Connect

A rare monosomy 1p36.31-33{r_arrow}pter was found in a child with physical anomalies, psycho-motor retardation, and seizures. Cytogenetic investigation suggested an unbalanced translocation between 1p and an acrocentric chromosome, but the rearrangement was difficult to assess accurately using conventional chromosome banding techniques. The half-cryptic translocation was further characterized using fluorescence in situ hybridization, and the aberrant chromosome 1 was shown to be a derivate of a paternal reciprocal translocation t(1;15)(p36.31-33;p11.2-12). The breakpoints on chromosome 1 and 15 were defined in detail using locus specific probes. The rearrangement did not include the region on chromosome 1p which previously has been suggested to predispose to the development of neuroblastoma in a case with a constitutional translocation. At 3 6/12 years, the patient has no clinical signs of this disease, which illustrates the prognostic significance of this investigation. 30 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Blennow, E.; Bui, The-Hung; Wallin, A. [Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden)] [and others] [Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); and others

1996-10-02

228

Phylogeographic sympatry and isolation of the Eurasian badgers (Meles, Mustelidae, Carnivora): Implications for an alternative analysis using maternally as well as paternally inherited genes.  

PubMed

In the present study, to further understand the phylogenetic relationships among the Eurasian badgers (Meles, Mustelidae, Carnivora), which are distributed widely in the Palearctic, partial sequences of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region (539-545 base-pairs) as a maternal genetic marker, and the sex-determining region on the Y-chromosome gene (SRY: 1052-1058 base-pairs), as a paternal genetic marker, were examined. The present study revealed ten SRY haplotypes from 47 males of 112 individuals of the Eurasian Continent and Japan. In addition, 39 mtDNA haplotypes were identified from those animals. From the phylogeography of both the uniparentally inherited genes, four lineages were recognized as Japanese, eastern Eurasian, Caucasian, and western Eurasian. The distribution patterns of the mtDNA lineages showed the existence of a sympatric zone between the eastern and western Eurasian lineages around the Volga River in western Russia. Furthermore, the present study suggested that in the Japanese badgers, the larger genetic differentiation of the Shikoku population was attributable to geographic history in the Japanese islands. PMID:21466348

Tashima, Sara; Kaneko, Yayoi; Anezaki, Tomoko; Baba, Minoru; Yachimori, Shuuji; Abramov, Alexei V; Saveljev, Alexander P; Masuda, Ryuichi

2011-04-01

229

Perceptions of paternal resemblance predict family violence.  

PubMed

Fifty-five men participating in a domestic violence treatment program agreed to complete a questionnaire and rate the degree to which their children looked like them. Ratings of paternal resemblance were positively correlated with the self-reported quality of the men's relationships with their children and inversely proportional to the severity of injuries suffered by their spouses. Analogous results were also found for the men's experience with their parents. We suggest that these results reflect men's use of paternal resemblance to assess paternity. PMID:11146307

Burch; Gallup

2000-11-01

230

Paternal genotype reconstruction reveals multiple paternity and sex ratios in a breeding population of leatherback turtles ( Dermochelys coriacea )  

Microsoft Academic Search

When animals are difficult to observe while breeding, insights into the mating system may be gained by using molecular techniques.\\u000a Patterns of extra-pair copulation, multiple paternity and parental genotype analysis may elucidate population characteristics\\u000a that help improve knowledge of life history while informing management decisions. During the course of a long-term study of\\u000a leatherback turtles, we assessed the level of

Kelly R. StewartPeter; Peter H. Dutton

2011-01-01

231

Comparison of the effectiveness of microsatellites and SNP panels for genetic identification, traceability and assessment of parentage in an inbred Angus herd  

PubMed Central

During the last decade, microsatellites (short tandem repeats or STRs) have been successfully used for animal genetic identification, traceability and paternity, although in recent year single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been increasingly used for this purpose. An efficient SNP identification system requires a marker set with enough power to identify individuals and their parents. Genetic diagnostics generally include the analysis of related animals. In this work, the degree of information provided by SNPs for a consanguineous herd of cattle was compared with that provided by STRs. Thirty-six closely related Angus cattle were genotyped for 18 STRs and 116 SNPs. Cumulative SNPs exclusion power values (Q) for paternity and sample matching probability (MP) yielded values greater than 0.9998 and 4.32E?42, respectively. Generally 2–3 SNPs per STR were needed to obtain an equivalent Q value. The MP showed that 24 SNPs were equivalent to the ISAG (International Society for Animal Genetics) minimal recommended set of 12 STRs (MP ? 10?11). These results provide valuable genetic data that support the consensus SNP panel for bovine genetic identification developed by the Parentage Recording Working Group of ICAR (International Committee for Animal Recording).

Fernandez, Maria E.; Goszczynski, Daniel E.; Liron, Juan P.; Villegas-Castagnasso, Egle E.; Carino, Monica H.; Ripoli, Maria V.; Rogberg-Munoz, Andres; Posik, Diego M.; Peral-Garcia, Pilar; Giovambattista, Guillermo

2013-01-01

232

Paternalism in the name of autonomy.  

PubMed

Different ideas of the normative relevance of autonomy can give rise to profoundly different action-guiding principles in healthcare. If autonomy is seen as a value rather than as a right, it can be argued that patients' decisions should sometimes be overruled in order to protect or promote their own autonomy. We refer to this as paternalism in the name of autonomy. In this paper, we discuss different elements of autonomy (decision-making capacity, efficiency, and authenticity) and arguments in favor of paternalism for the sake of autonomy that have been proposed in the bioethical debate. We argue that if autonomy is valuable, then paternalism for the sake of autonomy may be justified. However, policies allowing paternalism in the name of autonomy may be self-defeating. PMID:24158963

Sjöstrand, Manne; Eriksson, Stefan; Juth, Niklas; Helgesson, Gert

2013-12-01

233

Analysis of the population structure of Macrolophus pygmaeus (Rambur) (Hemiptera: Miridae) in the Palaearctic region using microsatellite markers  

PubMed Central

Macrolophus pygmaeus (Rambur) (Hemiptera: Miridae) is widely distributed throughout the Palaearctic region. The aim was to explain the current geographic distribution of the species by investigating its genetic population structure. Samples of M. pygmaeus were collected in 15 localities through its range of distribution. A sample from a commercial producer was also analyzed. A total of 367 M. pygmaeus were genotyped for nine microsatellite loci. Isolation by distance was tested by Mantel's test. The molecular structure of M. pygmaeus populations was inferred by UPGMA, AMOVA, Principal component and Bayesian analyses. The average number of alleles per locus per population was 5.5 (range: 3.1–7.8). Istanbul (Turkey) and Nimes (France) had the lowest (0.291) and the highest (0.626) expected heterozygosity (He), respectively. There was an increase in He from the Canary Islands to Nimes, and a progressive decrease thereafter. A significant negative correlation was found between allelic richness and He, and the distance of each population to the easternmost locality (Canary Islands). Significant linkage disequilibrium was observed in the populations from Turkey. FST (0.004–0.334) indicated a high population differentiation, with isolation by distance supported by a high correlation. Bayesian analyses, PCA, and UPGMA pointed to three main clusters: (1) Greece and Turkey, (2) Italy and France, and (3) southern Iberia and the Canary Islands. The recent evolutionary history of M. pygmaeus is inferred from the data as follows: (1) the reduction in the geographic distribution of the species to the Iberian, Italian, and Balkan peninsulas, and possibly southern France, during glaciations and re-colonization of northern Europe from its southern refuges; (2) the maintenance of high diversity in Iberia and Italy (and possibly southern France) during contraction periods, and bottlenecks in the Balkans; (3) introgression of the Italian–French lineage in northern Spain, naturally or through trade.

Sanchez, Juan Antonio; Spina, Michelangelo La; Perera, Omaththage P

2012-01-01

234

Molecular phylogenetics and microsatellite analysis reveal cryptic species of speckled dace (Cyprinidae: Rhinichthys osculus) in Oregon's Great Basin.  

PubMed

Speckled dace (Rhinichthys osculus) is a small cyprinid that occurs throughout western North America and is the most commonly occurring fish in Oregon. Because of the high genetic and morphological variation in this species across its range, it has been referred to as a species complex; however, no revision to its taxonomy has occurred since 1984. Here, the phylogenetics and population genetics of speckled dace are examined throughout Oregon's Great Basin to describe genetic variation and infer the geographic boundaries between distinct taxonomic entities and populations. We tested the validity of a putative subspecies, Foskett Spring speckled dace, that occurs in a single spring within Warner Valley in Southeast Oregon and is listed Federally as threatened. Dace were collected from Foskett Spring and all surrounding basins containing speckled dace (Warner, Goose Lake, Lake Abert, Silver Lake, and Malheur), as well as Stinking Lake Spring (located within Malheur), created phylogenetic trees from mitochondrial ND2 and nuclear S7 sequence data, and genotyped eight microsatellite loci for population-level analyses. Three highly divergent clades warrant species-level status: Malheur stream dace, Stinking Lake Spring dace, and dace from the other four basins combined. Although Foskett Spring dace were not monophyletic, substantial population structure occurs at the basin-level and separates Foskett Spring dace from other dace in the surrounding Warner Valley. Thus, we recommend ESU status for the isolated population of speckled dace in Foskett Spring. The high, previously unrecognized, taxonomic diversity within this region indicates a need for a range-wide phylogeographic study of speckled dace and an investigation of the morphological distinctiveness of the putative new species. PMID:24795214

Hoekzema, Kendra; Sidlauskas, Brian L

2014-08-01

235

Segregation and Linkage Analysis of 75 Novel Microsatellite DNA Markers in Pair Crosses of Japanese Abalone ( Haliotis discus hannai ) Using the 5?Tailed Primer Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present novel microsatellite markers of the Japanese abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) for general mapping studies in this species. A total of 75 microsatellite markers were developed, and the allele-transmission\\u000a patterns of these markers were studied in three families generated by pair crosses. For allele scoring, we employed the 5?-tailed\\u000a primer polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique, which substantially reduces the

Masashi Sekino; Toshimasa Kobayashi; Motoyuki Hara

2006-01-01

236

Flanking Sequence Specificity Determines Coding Microsatellite Heteroduplex and Mutation Rates with Defective DNA Mismatch Repair (MMR)  

PubMed Central

The activin type II receptor (ACVR2) contains 2 identical microsatellites in exon 3 and 10, but only the exon 10 microsatellite is frameshifted in MMR-defective colonic tumors. The reason for this selectivity is not known. We hypothesized that ACVR2 frameshifts were influenced by DNA sequences surrounding the microsatellite. We constructed plasmids in which exon 3 or 10 of ACVR2 were cloned +1bp out-of-frame of EGFP, allowing ?1bp frameshift to express EGFP. Plasmids were stably-transfected into MMR-deficient cells, subsequent non-fluorescent cells sorted, cultured, and harvested for mutation analysis. We swapped DNA sequences flanking the exon 3 and 10 microsatellites to test our hypothesis. Native ACVR2 exon 3 and 10 microsatellites underwent heteroduplex formation (A7/T8) in hMLH1?/? cells, but only exon 10 microsatellites fully mutated (A7/T7) in both hMLH1?/? and hMSH6?/? backgrounds, showing selectivity for exon 10 frameshifts and inability of exon 3 heteroduplexes to fully mutate. Substituting nucleotides flanking the exon 3 microsatellite for nucleotides flanking the exon 10 microsatellite significantly reduced heteroduplex and full mutation in hMLH1?/? cells. When the exon 3 microsatellite was flanked by nucleotides normally surrounding the exon 10 microsatellite, fully-mutant exon 3 frameshifts appeared. Mutation selectivity for ACVR2 lies partly with flanking nucleotides surrounding each microsatellite.

Chung, Heekyung; Lopez, Claudia G.; Young, Dennis J.; Lai, Jenny F.; Holmstrom, Joy; Ream-Robinson, Deena; Cabrera, Betty L.; Carethers, John M.

2014-01-01

237

Variability in microsatellite instability in sporadic colon cancer  

SciTech Connect

The phenomenon of microsatellite instability recently has been described in colon cancer. However, little attention has been given as to whether different microsatellites have different degrees of instability in cancer patients. We selected a total of 14 microsatellite loci (5 di-, 3 tri-, 6 tetranucleotide) supposed to have different mutation rates in vivo, and spread over 8 different chromosomes. The above microsatellites were typed by PCR analysis of DNA from a total of over 200 paraffin-embedded colon tumors and corresponding normal tissue. None of these patients have an obvious family history of cancer and thus we assumed all tumors were sporadic. Comparison of normal and colon cancer tissues revealed somatic mutations for each of the selected microsatellites. The proportion of patients with instability for any given locus varies from 4.5% to 19.3%, with tetranucleotide repeats having the highest average frequency. In addition, a greater fraction of tumors showed instability in at least 1 locus than previously has been reported, possibly signifying a baseline microsatellite instability in all colon cancers. For cases demonstrating instability at 1 or more loci, we analyzed additional microsatellite loci. We then grouped patients based on the number of loci that showed instability. In order to investigate patterns of instability, we also scored the size of somatic mutations occurring in cancer tissue.

Toomajian, M.; Sisk, B.; DiRienzo, A. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

238

Testosterone response to courtship predicts future paternal behavior in the California mouse, Peromyscus californicus  

PubMed Central

In the monogamous and biparental California mouse (Peromyscus californicus), paternal care is critical for maximal offspring survival. Animals form pair bonds and do not engage in extrapair matings, and thus female evaluation of paternal quality during courtship is likely to be advantageous. We hypothesized that male endocrine or behavioral response to courtship interactions would be predictive of future paternal behavior. To test this hypothesis, we formed 20 pairs of California mice, and evaluated their behavior during the first hour of courtship interactions and again following the birth of young. We also collected blood from males at baseline, 1-hr after pairing, 3-weeks paired, and when young were four days old to measure testosterone (T). We found that male T-response to courtship interactions predicted future paternal behavior, specifically the amount of time he huddled over young when challenged by the temporary removal of his mate. Males that mounted T increases at courtship also approached pups more quickly during this challenge than males who had a significant decrease in T at courtship. Proximity of the male and female during courtship predicted paternal huddling during a 1-hr observation, and a multiple regression analysis revealed that courtship behavior was also predictive of birth latency. We speculate that male T-response to a female in P. californicus is an honest indicator of paternal quality, and if detectable by females could provide a basis for evaluation during mate choice.

Gleason, Erin D.; Marler, Catherine A.

2009-01-01

239

Genetic distinctness and variation in the Tsushima Islands population of the Japanese marten, Martes melampus (Carnivora: Mustelidae), revealed by microsatellite analysis.  

PubMed

A carnivoran mammal endemic to Japan, the Japanese marten (Martes melampus) is native in forested regions on Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu (main islands of Japan), and the Tsushima Islands. The Tsushima population is classified as a different subspecies (M. m. tsuensis) from populations on the main islands (M. m. melampus). To elucidate the genetic structure of the Tsushima population, we genotyped 101 individuals from the Tsushima Islands and 43 individuals from Honshu and Kyushu using 10 microsatellite loci, and performed population genetic analyses on the genotype data. Genetic diversity was lower in the Tsushima population than in three geographic populations on the main islands: heterozygosity was 0.189-0.364 in the former, compared to 0.457-0.747 in the latter. In addition, high pairwise Fst values (0.485-0.682) and Nei's standard distance (0.550-1.183) between the Tsushima and main-island populations indicated a high degree of genetic differentiation. Finally, a Bayesian clustering analysis showed that the Tsushima population is apparently differentiated from the main-island populations and comprises two genetic clusters. A factorial correspondence analysis corroborated these results. Our results suggest that restricted gene flow or inbreeding may have reduced genetic diversity in the Tsushima population, which has been geographically isolated from the main-island populations since the formation of Tsushima Strait. PMID:23215974

Kamada, Shouko; Moteki, Shusaku; Baba, Minoru; Ochiai, Keiji; Masuda, Ryuichi

2012-12-01

240

A Consensus Microsatellite-Based Linkage Map for the Hermaphroditic Bay Scallop (Argopecten irradians) and Its Application in Size-Related QTL Analysis  

PubMed Central

Bay scallop (Argopecten irradians) is one of the most economically important aquaculture species in China. In this study, we constructed a consensus microsatellite-based genetic linkage map with a mapping panel containing two hybrid backcross-like families involving two subspecies of bay scallop, A. i. irradians and A. i. concentricus. One hundred sixty-one microsatellite and one phenotypic (shell color) markers were mapped to 16 linkage groups (LGs), which corresponds to the haploid chromosome number of bay scallop. The sex-specific map was 779.2 cM and 781.6 cM long in female and male, respectively, whereas the sex-averaged map spanned 849.3 cM. The average resolution of integrated map was 5.9 cM/locus and the estimated coverage was 81.3%. The proportion of distorted markers occurred more in the hybrid parents, suggesting that the segregation distortion was possibly resulted from heterospecific interaction between genomes of two subspecies of bay scallop. The overall female-to-male recombination rate was 1.13?1 across all linked markers in common to both parents, and considerable differences in recombination also existed among different parents in both families. Four size-related traits, including shell length (SL), shell height (SH), shell width (SW) and total weight (TW) were measured for quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis. Three significant and six suggestive QTL were detected on five LGs. Among the three significant QTL, two (qSW-10 and qTW-10, controlling SW and TW, respectively) were mapped on the same region near marker AiAD121 on LG10 and explained 20.5% and 27.7% of the phenotypic variance, while the third (qSH-7, controlling SH) was located on LG7 and accounted for 15.8% of the phenotypic variance. Six suggestive QTL were detected on four different LGs. The linkage map and size-related QTL obtained in this study may facilitate marker-assisted selection (MAS) in bay scallop.

Li, Hongjun; Liu, Xiao; Zhang, Guofan

2012-01-01

241

The unexpected but understandable dynamics of mating, paternity and paternal care in the ocellated wrasse  

PubMed Central

Although theory generally predicts that males should reduce paternal care in response to cues that predict increased sperm competition and decreased paternity, empirical patterns are equivocal. Some studies have found the predicted decrease in male care with increased sperm competition, while even more studies report no effect of paternity or sperm competition on male care. Here, we report the first example, to our knowledge, of paternal care increasing with the risk and intensity of sperm competition, in the ocellated wrasse (Symphodus ocellatus). Theory also predicts that if paternal care varies and is important to female fitness, female choice among males and male indicators traits of expected paternal care should evolve. Despite a non-random distribution of mating success among nests, we found no evidence for female choice among parental males. Finally, we document the highest published levels of extra-pair paternity for a species with exclusive and obligate male care: genetic paternity analyses revealed cuckoldry at 100 per cent of nests and 28 per cent of all offspring were not sired by the male caring for them. While not predicted by any existing theory, these unexpected reproductive patterns become understandable if we consider how male and female mating and parental care interact simultaneously in this and probably many other species.

Alonzo, Suzanne H.; Heckman, Kellie L.

2010-01-01

242

Paternity and inheritance of wealth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the oldest conjectures in anthropology is that men transfer wealth to their sister's son when the biological paternity of their `own' children is in doubt1-12. Because maternity is certain, a man is necessarily related to his sister's son and his brother (see Fig. 1). It is argued here that relatedness to male heirs can be assured by passing wealth to sister's sons or down a line of brothers, whether the prevailing kinship system reckons those brothers matrilineally or patrilineally. It is also argued that when several transfers of wealth are considered, a man's likelihood of being cuckolded need not be unrealistically high13 for his successive matrilineal heirs to be more related to him than his successive patrilineal heirs (see Fig. 2). Cross-cultural data on sister's son/brother inheritance14 and frequency of extramarital sex for females15 support the hypothesis that men tend to transmit wealth to their sister's son and/or brother when the probability that their putative children are their genetic children is relatively low.

Hartung, John

1981-06-01

243

Paternal origins of Chinese cattle.  

PubMed

To determine the genetic diversity and paternal origin of Chinese cattle, 302 males from 16 Chinese native cattle breeds as well as 30 Holstein males and four Burma males as controls were analysed using four Y-SNPs and two Y-STRs. In Chinese bulls, the taurine Y1 and Y2 haplogroups and indicine Y3 haplogroup were detected in seven, 172 and 123 individuals respectively, and these frequencies varied among the Chinese cattle breeds examined. Y2 dominates in northern China (91.4%), and Y3 dominates in southern China (90.8%). Central China is an admixture zone, although Y2 predominates overall (72.0%). The geographical distributions of the Y2 and Y3 haplogroup frequencies revealed a pattern of male indicine introgression from south to north China. The three Y haplogroups were further classified into one Y1 haplotype, five Y2 haplotypes and one Y3 haplotype in Chinese native bulls. Due to the interplay between taurine and indicine types, Chinese cattle represent an extensive reservoir of genetic diversity. The Y haplotype distribution of Chinese cattle exhibited a clear geographical structure, which is consistent with mtDNA, historical and geographical information. PMID:23347145

Li, R; Zhang, X M; Campana, M G; Huang, J P; Chang, Z H; Qi, X B; Shi, H; Su, B; Zhang, R F; Lan, X Y; Chen, H; Lei, C Z

2013-08-01

244

Temporal changes of genetic population structure and diversity in the endangered Blakiston's fish owl (Bubo blakistoni) on Hokkaido Island, Japan, revealed by microsatellite analysis.  

PubMed

The Blakiston's fish owl (Bubo blakistoni) population on Hokkaido Island, Japan, decreased to less than one hundred individuals over the last century due to habitat disruption by human activity. Although the ongoing conservation management has slightly restored the population, it remains endangered. In order to assess the genetic variation and population structure of the Blakiston's fish owl in Hokkaido, we genotyped eight microsatellite loci on 120 individuals sampled over the past three decades. The genotype data set showed low levels of genetic variation and gene flow among the geographically isolated five subpopulations. Comparative analysis of past and current populations indicated that some alleles shared by past individuals had been lost, and that genetic variation had declined over the last three decades. The result suggests that the genetic decline may have resulted from inbreeding and/or genetic drift due to bottlenecks in the Hokkaido population. The present study provides invaluable genetic information for the conservation and management of the endangered Blakiston's fish owl in Hokkaido. PMID:22559963

Omote, Keita; Nishida, Chizuko; Takenaka, Takeshi; Masuda, Ryuichi

2012-05-01

245

Genealogical Inference From Microsatellite Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ease and accuracy of typing, together with high levels of polymorphism and widespread distribution in the genome, make microsatellite (or short tandem repeat) loci an attractive potential source of information about both population histories and evolutionary processes. However, microsatellite data are difficult to interpret, in particular because of the frequency of back-mutations. Stochastic models for the underlying genetic processes can

Ian J. Wilson; David J. Balding

1998-01-01

246

A Microsatellite Map of Wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell) is one of the world's most important crop plants and displays a very low level of intraspecific polymorphism. We report the development of highly polymorphic microsatellite markers using procedures optimized for the large wheat genome. The isolation of microsatellite-containing clones from hypomethylated regions of the wheat genome increased the proportion of useful

Marion S. Roder; Victor Korzun; Katja Wendehake; Jens Plaschke; Marie-Helene Tixier; Philippe Leroy; Martin W. Ganal

247

Microsatellite instability in sarcomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Microsatellite instability (MIN) has been studied in a variety of carcinomas and gynecologic sarcomas, but never in musculoskeletal\\u000a sarcomas.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: We evaluated 16 skeletal and soft tissue sarcomas at nine genetic loci from chromosomal regions 1q, 5q, 7q, 12p, 13q, 17p,\\u000a 19q, and two at 11p—all potential regions of interest regarding musculoskeletal sarcomas.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results: MIN was identified at one

Stephanie S. Martin; W. Grear Hurt; Lora K. Hedges; Merlin G. Butler; Herbert S. Schwartz

1998-01-01

248

Segmental Paternal Uniparental Disomy (patUPD) of 14q32 With Abnormal Methylation Elicits the Characteristic Features of Complete patUPD14  

PubMed Central

Uniparental disomy (UPD) for chromosome 14 is associated with well-recognized phenotypes, depending on the parent of origin. Studies in mouse models and human patients have implicated the involvement of the distal region of the long arm of chromosome 14 in the distinctive phenotypes. This involvement is supported by the identification of an imprinting cluster at chromosome 14q32, encompassing the differentially methylated regions (DMRs), IG-DMR and MEG3-DMR, as well as the maternally expressed genes GTL2, DIO3, and RTL1 and the paternally expressed genes DLK1, RTL1as, and MEG8. Here we report on a preterm female infant with distal segmental paternal UPD14 (upd(14)pat) of 14q32-14q32.33, which resulted in thoracic deformity secondary to rib abnormalities (“coat-hanger” rib sign), polyhydramnios, and other congenital abnormalities characteristically described in cases of complete upd(14)pat. Microsatellite investigation demonstrated UPD of markers D14S250 and D14S1010, encompassing a ~3.5 Mb region of distal 14q and involving the imprinting cluster. This case provided insight into the etiology of the phenotypic effects of upd(14)pat, prompting methylation analysis of the GTL2 promoter and the DMR between GTL2 and DLK1. We compare the physical findings seen in this case with those of patients with other causes of abnormal methylation of 14q32, which consistently result in certain distinct clinical features, regardless of the cytogenetic and molecular etiology.

Irving, Melita D.; Buiting, Karin; Kanber, Deniz; Donaghue, Celia; Schulz, Reiner; Offiah, Amaka; Mohammed, Shehla N.; Oakey, Rebecca J.

2013-01-01

249

Evidence for heterozygote instability in microsatellite loci in house wrens.  

PubMed

Microsatellite loci have high mutation rates and high levels of allelic variation, but the factors influencing their mutation rate are not well understood. The proposal that heterozygosity may increase mutation rates has profound implications for understanding the evolution of microsatellite loci, but currently has limited empirical support. We examined 20 microsatellite mutations identified in an analysis of 12 260 meiotic events across three loci in two populations of a songbird, the house wren (Troglodytes aedon). We found that for an allele of a given length, mutation was significantly more likely when there was a relatively large difference in size between the allele and its homologue (i.e. a large 'allele span'). Our results support the proposal of heterozygote instability at microsatellite loci. PMID:20702452

Masters, Brian S; Johnson, L Scott; Johnson, Bonnie G P; Brubaker, Jessica L; Sakaluk, Scott K; Thompson, Charles F

2011-02-23

250

Microsatellite markers in the tree peony, Paeonia suffruticosa (Paeoniaceae).  

PubMed

• Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed in the tree peony, Paeonia suffruticosa, to perform paternity tests as well as assignment to variety in special Austrian collections. • Methods and Results: Using SSR-enriched libraries and EST-mining, 8 polymorphic primer sets were identified in Austrian collections of Paeonia sect. Moutan DC. The primers amplified di- and trinucleotide repeats with 2-6 alleles per locus. All primers also amplified in P. ostii, P. pontaninii var. trolloides, P. delavayi, and P. lutea, and in the herbaceous species P. peregrina and P. tenuifolia (Paeonia sect. Paeon). • Conclusions: These results show the usefulness of primers in P. suffruticosa for population genetic studies and their ability to cross amplify in related taxa across the genus. PMID:21622456

Homolka, Andreas; Berenyi, Maria; Burg, Kornel; Kopecky, Dieter; Fluch, Silvia

2010-06-01

251

Coercive paternalism and back-door perfectionism.  

PubMed

In this response piece, I argue that the 'coercive paternalism' that Sarah Conly endorses in her book Against Autonomy veers towards a back-door perfectionism. Although Conly points out that coercive paternalism does not mandate the imposition of alien values upon us in the same way that perfectionism does, I argue that coercive paternalism might yet impose an alien weighting of our own values; this, I suggest, means that coercive paternalism remains perfectionist in spirit, if not in letter. I go on to concede to Conly that coercive paternalism might be warranted in preventing actions that threaten health and that are only carried out on the basis of cognitive error. However, I conclude by claiming that we must take great care about what we presume that people are consuming only on the basis of cognitive error. More specifically, I suggest that it is crucial that we avoid defining our terms in such a manner that it becomes impossible for agents to choose some action that poses a risk to their health without them being accused of making a cognitive error in weighing their values in that way. PMID:24335856

Pugh, Jonathan

2014-05-01

252

Tetranucleotide microsatellite markers in Ctenomys torquatus (Rodentia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eleven microsatellite markers were isolated from an enriched library developed specifically for the tuco-tuco Ctenomys torquatus, using tri and tetranucleotide probes. Ten of these were successfully amplified, and only one was monomorphic for the populations\\u000a that have so far been analyzed. Analysis of two different populations yielded a mean of 2.6 (Cachoeira do Sul—CAC) and 4.3\\u000a (Butiá—BUT) alleles per locus,

Paula A. Roratto; Marlise L. Bartholomei-Santos; Thales R. O. de Freitas

253

[Molecular genetic analysis of soriz genome (Sorghum oryzoidum)].  

PubMed

Molecular-genetic analysis of soriz genotypes (Sorghum oryzoidum), its paternal form Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (grain sorghum), possible parents (Sorghum sudanense (Piper.) Stapf. (Sudan grass) and Oryza sativa L. (rice planting)) and the nearest relatives has been carried out using microsatellite (MS) loci of sorghum and rice. Based on these data genetic distances have been calculated. It was shown that soriz do not bear DNA fragments of rice, but contains in its genome DNA fragments belonging to the Sudanese grass indicating that the origin of soriz is associated with Sorghum sudanense. PMID:21950137

Galaiev, O V; Shevchuk, G Iu; Dudchenko, V V; Syvolap, Iu M

2011-01-01

254

Seasonal Changes in the Genetic Structure of an Aphid-Ant Mutualism as Revealed Using Microsatellite Analysis of the Aphid Tuberculatus quercicola and the Ant Formica yessensis  

PubMed Central

The present study examined whether the mutualistic relationship between the aphid Tuberculatus quercicola (Matsumura) (Homoptera: Aphididae) and the attending ant Formica yessensis Forel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) has had any mutual effects on the microgeographical genetic population structure of both partner species. The aphids and the attending ants were collected in June, August, and October 2004 from six trees of the Daimyo oak Quercus dentata Thunberg (Fagales: Fagaceae) and were genotyped using microsatellite loci. Significant genetic differentiation was detected among T. quercicola populations on the respective trees across seasons (an average of pairwise FST = 0.183). Similarly, significant genetic differentiation was found among populations of F. yessensis that attended aphid colonies on the respective host trees, though the averages of pairwise FST were lower (an average of pairwise FST = 0.070). An analysis of molecular variance and two-way ANOVA detected a significantly large genetic difference between spring and summer samples in F. yessensis but not in T. quercicola, indicating that changes in genetic composition occurred in the F. yessensis colony. In spite of a drastic seasonal change in the genetic difference in F. yessensis, principle coordinate analysis showed that the relative position among the six populations was maintained from spring to summer, suggesting that the tree where honeydew was available for a long time was occupied by F. yessensis over the same period and that the honeydew sources were inherited at the level of the ant colony. It is hypothesized that the suitability of host trees for the aphid T. quercicola may have an affect on the genetic structure of the attending ant F. yessensis. Within a colony of aphids, clonal diversity decreased significantly as the season progressed. The reduction in clonal diversity may be due to an increase in identical genotypes by parthenogenesis or selective pressure from host plant deterioration.

Yao, Izumi; Akimoto, Shin-Ichi

2009-01-01

255

Novel strategy for optimal sequential application of clinical criteria, immunohistochemistry and microsatellite analysis in the diagnosis of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer.  

PubMed

Clinical criteria, microsatellite analysis (MSA) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) are important diagnostic tools for identification of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) patients who are likely to carry pathogenic germline mutations in mismatch repair genes. Based on MSA and IHC results and subsequent mutation analyses of 1,119 unrelated index patients meeting the Amsterdam II criteria or the classical Bethesda guidelines, we analyzed the value of these tools to predict MLH1 and MSH2 mutations with the aim of establishing optimal strategies for their most efficient sequential use. The overall prevalence of pathogenic germline mutations in our cohort was 20.6% (95% CI = 18.3-23.0%) and 61.8% (95% CI = 56.8-66.6%), respectively, after MSA/IHC-based preselection. IHC was highly predictive (99.1%) and specific (99.6%) with regard to MSA. However, 14 out of 230 mutations (6%) escaped detection by IHC. Thus, IHC cannot be recommended to substitute MSA fully. Nonetheless, IHC is important to indicate the gene that is likely to be affected. To combine both methods efficiently, we propose a novel screening strategy that provides 2 alternative ways of sequential IHC and MSA application, either using IHC or MSA in the first place. A logistic regression model based on the age of the index patient at first tumor diagnosis and the number of fulfilled HNPCC criteria is used to allocate individual patients to that alternative pathway that is expected to be least expensive. A cost analysis reveals that about 25% of the costs can be saved using this strategy. PMID:16003745

Engel, Christoph; Forberg, Jochen; Holinski-Feder, Elke; Pagenstecher, Constanze; Plaschke, Jens; Kloor, Matthias; Poremba, Christopher; Pox, Christian P; Rüschoff, Josef; Keller, Gisela; Dietmaier, Wolfgang; Rümmele, Petra; Friedrichs, Nicolaus; Mangold, Elisabeth; Buettner, Reinhard; Schackert, Hans K; Kienle, Peter; Stemmler, Susanne; Moeslein, Gabriela; Loeffler, Markus

2006-01-01

256

Microsatellite analysis supports clonal propagation and reduced divergence of Trypanosoma vivax from asymptomatic to fatally infected livestock in South America compared to West Africa  

PubMed Central

Background Mechanical transmission of the major livestock pathogen Trypanosoma vivax by other biting flies than tsetse allows its spread from Africa to the New World. Genetic studies are restricted to a small number of isolates and based on molecular markers that evolve too slowly to resolve the relationships between American and West African populations and, thus, unable us to uncover the recent history of T. vivax in the New World. Methods T. vivax genetic diversity, population structure and the source of outbreaks was investigated through the microsatellite multiloci (7 loci) genotype (MLGs) analysis in South America (47isolates from Brazil, Venezuela and French Guiana) and West Africa (12 isolates from The Gambia, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Benin and Nigeria). Relationships among MLGs were explored using phylogenetic, principal component and STRUCTURE analyses. Results Although closely phylogenetically related, for the first time, genetic differences were detected between T. vivax isolates from South America (11 genotypes/47 isolates) and West Africa (12 genotypes/12 isolates) with no MLGs in common. Diversity was far greater across West Africa than in South America, where genotypes from Brazil (MLG1-6), Venezuela (MLG7-10) and French Guiana (MLG11) shared similar but not identical allele composition. No MLG was exclusive to asymptomatic (endemic areas) or sick (outbreaks in non-endemic areas) animals, but only MLGs1, 2 and 3 were responsible for severe haematological and neurological disorders. Conclusions Our results revealed closely related genotypes of T. vivax in Brazil and Venezuela, regardless of endemicity and clinical conditions of the infected livestock. The MLGs analysis from T. vivax across SA and WA support clonal propagation, and is consistent with the hypothesis that the SA populations examined here derived from common ancestors recently introduced from West Africa. The molecular markers defined here are valuable to assess the genetic diversity, to track the source and dispersion of outbreaks, and to explore the epidemiological and pathological significance of T. vivax genotypes.

2014-01-01

257

Statement on guidance for genetic counseling in advanced paternal age.  

PubMed

In 1996, a practice guideline on genetic counseling for advanced paternal age was published. The current document updates the state of knowledge of advanced paternal age effects on single gene mutations, chromosome anomalies, and complex traits. PMID:18496227

Toriello, Helga V; Meck, Jeanne M

2008-06-01

258

Paternal age as a risk factor for schizophrenia: how important is it?  

PubMed

Advanced paternal age has been widely cited as a risk factor for schizophrenia among offspring and even claimed to account for one-quarter of all cases. We carried out a new study on 25,025 offspring from the Collaborative Perinatal Project (CPP), including 168 diagnosed with psychosis and 88 with narrowly defined schizophrenia. We also conducted a meta-analysis of this and nine other studies for which comparable age-cohort data were available. The mean paternal age for the CPP cases was slightly, but not significantly, higher than the matched controls (p=0.28). Meta-analyses including these new results were conducted to determine the relative risk associated with alternative definitions of advanced paternal age (35, 45 or 55 years and older). These yielded pooled odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of 1.28 (1.10, 1.48), 1.38 (0.95, 2.01) and 2.22 (1.46, 3.37), respectively. Thus, increased paternal age appears to be a risk factor for schizophrenia primarily among offspring of fathers ages 55 and over. In these 10 studies, such fathers accounted for only 0.6% of all births. Compared with other known risk factors for schizophrenia, advanced paternal age appears to be intermediate in magnitude. Advanced paternal age is also known to be a risk factor for some chromosomal and neoplastic diseases in the offspring where the cause is thought to be chromosomal aberrations and mutations of the aging germline. Similar mechanisms may account for the relationship between advanced paternal age and schizophrenia risk. PMID:19683417

Torrey, E Fuller; Buka, Stephen; Cannon, Tyrone D; Goldstein, Jill M; Seidman, Larry J; Liu, Tianli; Hadley, Trevor; Rosso, Isabelle M; Bearden, Carrie; Yolken, Robert H

2009-10-01

259

Microsatellite genotyping reveals a signature in breast cancer exomes.  

PubMed

Genomic instability at microsatellite loci is a hallmark of many cancers, including breast cancer. However, much of the genomic variation and many of the hereditary components responsible for breast cancer remain undetected. We hypothesized that variation at microsatellites could provide additional genomic markers for breast cancer risk assessment. A total of 1,345 germline and tumor DNA samples from individuals diagnosed with breast cancer, exome sequenced as part of The Cancer Genome Atlas, were analyzed for microsatellite variation. The comparison group for our analysis, representing healthy individuals, consisted of 249 females which were exome sequenced as part of the 1,000 Genomes Project. We applied our microsatellite-based genotyping pipeline to identify 55 microsatellite loci that can distinguish between the germline of individuals diagnosed with breast cancer and healthy individuals with a sensitivity of 88.4 % and a specificity of 77.1 %. Further, we identified additional microsatellite loci that are potentially useful for distinguishing between breast cancer subtypes, revealing a possible fifth subtype. These findings are of clinical interest as possible risk diagnostics and reveal genes that may be of potential therapeutic value, including genes previously not associated with breast cancer. PMID:24838940

McIver, L J; Fonville, N C; Karunasena, E; Garner, H R

2014-06-01

260

Microsatellite cross-amplification in coccolithophores: application in population diversity studies.  

PubMed

The development and isolation of microsatellites entails a significant input of time and money. Therefore there is an interest in using existing microsatellites on species from which markers have not yet been developed. Conservation of six previously identified microsatellite loci in the marine coccolithophorid species Emiliana huxleyi was found in a survey of two bloom forming coccolithophorid species--Gephyrocapsa oceanica and Coccolithus pelagicus. The number of alleles per locus varied from 1 to 8, and half of the microsatellite loci tested showed 4 or more alleles. The microsatellite markers used in this study may be applied to other coccolithophorid species for population analysis, eliminating the time-consuming, costly development of microsatellite markers for other coccolithophorid species. PMID:17362341

Iglesias-Rodríguez, M Débora; Probert, Ian; Batley, Jacqueline

2006-12-01

261

Integrated analysis of genome-wide copy number alterations and gene expression in microsatellite stable, CpG island methylator phenotype-negative colon cancer.  

PubMed

Microsatellite stable (MSS), CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP)-negative colorectal tumors, the most prevalent molecular subtype of colorectal cancer, are associated with extensive copy number alteration (CNA) events and aneuploidy. We report on the identification of characteristic recurrent CNA (with frequency >25%) events and associated gene expression profiles for a total of 40 paired tumor and adjacent normal colon tissues using genome-wide microarrays. We observed recurrent CNAs, namely gains at 1q, 7p, 7q, 8p12-11, 8q, 12p13, 13q, 20p, 20q, Xp, and Xq and losses at 1p36, 1p31, 1p21, 4p15-12, 4q12-35, 5q21-22, 6q26, 8p, 14q, 15q11-12, 17p, 18p, 18q, 21q21-22, and 22q. Within these genomic regions we identified 356 genes with significant differential expression (P < 0.0001 and ±1.5-fold change) in the tumor compared to adjacent normal tissue. Gene ontology and pathway analyses indicated that many of these genes were involved in functional mechanisms that regulate cell cycle, cell death, and metabolism. An amplicon present in >70% of the tumor samples at 20q11-20q13 contained several cancer-related genes (AHCY, POFUT1, RPN2, TH1L, and PRPF6) that were upregulated and demonstrated a significant linear correlation (P < 0.05) for gene dosage and gene expression. Copy number loss at 8p, a CNA associated with adenocarcinoma and poor prognosis, was observed in >50% of the tumor samples and demonstrated a significant linear correlation for gene dosage and gene expression for two potential tumor suppressor genes, MTUS1 (8p22) and PPP2CB (8p12). The results from our integration analysis illustrate the complex relationship between genomic alterations and gene expression in colon cancer. PMID:23341073

Loo, Lenora W M; Tiirikainen, Maarit; Cheng, Iona; Lum-Jones, Annette; Seifried, Ann; Church, James M; Gryfe, Robert; Weisenberger, Daniel J; Lindor, Noralane M; Gallinger, Steven; Haile, Robert W; Duggan, David J; Thibodeau, Stephen N; Casey, Graham; Le Marchand, Loďc

2013-05-01

262

Anarchy in the UK: Detailed genetic analysis of worker reproduction in a naturally occurring British anarchistic honeybee, Apis mellifera, colony using DNA microsatellites.  

PubMed

Anarchistic behaviour is a very rare phenotype of honeybee colonies. In an anarchistic colony, many workers' sons are reared in the presence of the queen. Anarchy has previously been described in only two Australian colonies. Here we report on a first detailed genetic analysis of a British anarchistic colony. Male pupae were present in great abundance above the queen excluder, which was clearly indicative of extensive worker reproduction and is the hallmark of anarchy. Seventeen microsatellite loci were used to analyse these male pupae, allowing us to address whether all the males were indeed workers' sons, and how many worker patrilines and individual workers produced them. In the sample, 95 of 96 of the males were definitely workers' sons. Given that approximately 1% of workers' sons were genetically indistinguishable from queen's sons, this suggests that workers do not move any queen-laid eggs between the part of the colony where the queen is present to the area above the queen excluder which the queen cannot enter. The colony had 16 patrilines, with an effective number of patrilines of 9.85. The 75 males that could be assigned with certainty to a patriline came from 7 patrilines, with an effective number of 4.21. They were the offspring of at least 19 workers. This is in contrast to the two previously studied Australian naturally occurring anarchist colonies, in which most of the workers' sons were offspring of one patriline. The high number of patrilines producing males leads to a low mean relatedness between laying workers and males of the colony. We discuss the importance of studying such colonies in the understanding of worker policing and its evolution. PMID:12207729

Châline, N; Ratnieks, F L W; Burke, T

2002-09-01

263

Flow cytometric analysis and microsatellite genotyping reveal extensive DNA content variation in Trypanosoma cruzi populations and expose contrasts between natural and experimental hybrids  

PubMed Central

Trypanosoma cruzi exhibits remarkable genetic heterogeneity. This is evident at the nucleotide level but also structurally, in the form of karyotypic variation and DNA content differences between strains. Although natural populations of T. cruzi are predominantly clonal, hybrid lineages (TcIId and TcIIe) have been identified and hybridisation has been demonstrated in vitro, raising the possibility that genetic exchange may continue to shape the evolution of this pathogen. The mechanism of genetic exchange identified in the laboratory is unusual, apparently involving fusion of diploid parents followed by genome erosion. We investigated DNA content diversity in natural populations of T. cruzi in the context of its genetic subdivisions by using flow cytometric analysis and multilocus microsatellite genotyping to determine the relative DNA content and estimate the ploidy of 54 cloned isolates. The maximum difference observed was 47.5% between strain Tu18 cl2 (TcIIb) and strain C8 cl1 (TcI), which we estimated to be equivalent to ?73 Mb of DNA. Large DNA content differences were identified within and between discrete typing units (DTUs). In particular, the mean DNA content of TcI strains was significantly less than that for TcII strains (P < 0.001). Comparisons of hybrid DTUs TcIId/IIe with corresponding parental DTUs TcIIb/IIc indicated that natural hybrids are predominantly diploid. We also measured the relative DNA content of six in vitro-generated TcI hybrid clones and their parents. In contrast to TcIId/IIe hybrid strains these experimental hybrids comprised populations of sub-tetraploid organisms with mean DNA contents 1.65–1.72 times higher than the parental organisms. The DNA contents of both parents and hybrids were shown to be relatively stable after passage through a mammalian host, heat shock or nutritional stress. The results are discussed in the context of hybridisation mechanisms in both natural and in vitro settings.

Lewis, Michael D.; Llewellyn, Martin S.; Gaunt, Michael W.; Yeo, Matthew; Carrasco, Hernan J.; Miles, Michael A.

2009-01-01

264

High resolution microsatellite based analysis of the mating system allows the detection of significant biparental inbreeding in Caryocar brasiliense, an endangered tropical tree species  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we investigate the mating system of four populations of the endangered tropical tree species Caryocar brasiliense, using genetic data from 10 microsatellite loci. Eight to 10 open-pollinated progeny arrays of 16 individuals, together with their mother tree, were sampled per population. Mating system parameters were estimated under the mixed mating model, implemented by the software MLTR. The

Rosane Garcia Collevatti; Dario Grattapaglia; John Duvall Hay

2001-01-01

265

Individual Multilocus Genotypes Using Microsatellite Polymorphisms to Permit the Analysis of the Genetic Variability Within and Between Italian Beef Cattle Breeds1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the genetic variabil- ity within and between cattle breeds. The polymor- phisms of 17 microsatellites were studied in 220 unrelated animals belonging to four Italian beef cattle breeds (Chianina, Marchigiana, Romagnola, and Pie- montese). Variations of allelic frequencies were exa- mined to characterize the breeds and their relation- ships. Wahlund coefficients, Polymorphism Information Content values, and Haldane exact

Roberta Ciampolini; Katayoun Moazami-Goudarzi; Daniel Vaiman; Christine Dillmann; Elisa Mazzanti; Jean-Louis Foulley; Hubert Leveziel; Dario Cianci

266

Stocking impact and temporal stability of genetic composition in a brackish northern pike population (Esox lucius L.), assessed using microsatellite DNA analysis of historical and contemporary samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last decade, brackish northern pike populations in Denmark have been subject to stocking programmes, using nonindigenous pike from freshwater lakes, in order to compensate for drastic population declines. The present study was designed to investigate the genetic impact of stocking freshwater pike into a brackish pike population in Stege Nor, Denmark. We analysed polymorphism at eight microsatellite loci

P F Larsen; M M Hansen; E E Nielsen; L F Jensen; V Loeschcke

2005-01-01

267

Identification of novel candidate loci for anorexia nervosa at 1q41 and 11q22 in Japanese by a genome-wide association analysis with microsatellite markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Japanese Genetic Research Group for Eating Disorders (JGRED) is a multisite collaborative study group that was organized for the systematic recruitment of patients with an eating disorder for the purpose of genetic study in Japan. We conducted a genome-wide case–control association study using 23 465 highly polymorphic microsatellite (MS) markers to identify genomic loci related to anorexia nervosa (AN).

Kazuhiko Nakabayashi; Gen Komaki; Atsushi Tajima; Tetsuya Ando; Mayuko Ishikawa; Junko Nomoto; Kenichiro Hata; Akira Oka; Hidetoshi Inoko; Takehiko Sasazuki; Senji Shirasawa

2009-01-01

268

Microsatellite instability in hematological malignancies  

PubMed Central

The genome of colorectal carcinomas displaying pronounced microsatellite instability codes for an extraordinarily high number of mutated proteins that elicit tumor-specific cellular immune responses. We have recently demonstrated that leukemic cells are also vulnerable to T cells specific for tumor-associated antigens produced in the context of microsatellite instability. This finding extends our understanding of secondary and therapy-related leukemogenesis, linking it to the mutual interaction between immune control and escape.

Maletzki, Claudia; Stier, Saskia; Linnebacher, Michael

2013-01-01

269

Adolescent Fathers: The Question of Paternity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes legislation and court decisions that affect unwed and/or adolescent African-American fathers. Addresses the following concerns: (1) paternity; (2) child support; and (3) legal rights and responsibilities. Recommends development of programs to help potential fathers understand their rights and responsibilities. (FMW)

Rozie-Battle, Judith L.

1989-01-01

270

Paternal Occupational Exposures and Childhood Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study described here was to test the hypothesis that paternal occupational exposure near conception increases the risk of cancer in the offspring. We conducted a cohort study based on a population of 235,635 children born shortly after two different censuses in Sweden. The children were followed from birth to 14 years, and cases of cancer were

Maria Feychting; Nils Plato; Gun Nise; Anders Ahlbom

2001-01-01

271

Paternal Attachment, Parenting Beliefs and Children's Attachment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relationships between fathers' romantic attachment style, parenting beliefs and father-child attachment security and dependence were examined in a diverse sample of 72 fathers of young children. Paternal romantic attachment style was coded based on fathers' endorsement of a particular style represented in the Hazan and Shaver Three-Category…

Howard, Kimberly S.

2010-01-01

272

Genetic characterization of 12 heterologous microsatellite markers for the giant tropical tree Cariniana legalis (Lecythidaceae)  

PubMed Central

Twelve microsatellite loci previously developed in the tropical tree Cariniana estrellensis were genetically characterized in Cariniana legalis. Polymorphisms were assessed in 28 C. legalis individuals found between the Pardo and Mogi-Guaçu River basins in the state of Săo Paulo, Brazil. Of the 12 loci, 10 were polymorphic and exhibited Mendelian inheritance. The allelic richness at each locus ranged from 2-11, with an average of 7 alleles per locus, and the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.07-0.88. These loci showed a high probability of paternity exclusion. The characteristics of these heterologous microsatellite markers indicate that they are suitable tools for investigating questions concerning population genetics in C. legalis.

2010-01-01

273

Tracing field hybridization in Ryegrass species using microsatellite and morphological markers.  

PubMed

We have assessed the utility of morphological and microsatellite markers for tracing field hybridization between Lolium multiflorum and Lolium perenne in cereal-enclosed gene flow plots. The presence of awns on the inflorescence of F(1) hybrids was found to be a reliable, but underscoring, indicator of L. multiflorum paternity in L. perenne derived seed as determined by inheritance of species-specific alleles at the microsatellite locus 'H01 H06' in these progeny. A positive correlation was evident in the experimental treatment between the number of pollen donor plants in a given plot and the frequency of hybrid F(1) seed harvested from pollen receptor plants in that plot. These experiments have established the utility of naturally occurring heritable markers for the measurement of gene flow rates in field Ryegrass populations, with particular significance for risk assessment modeling of potential gene flow from transgenic grass cultivars. PMID:17328857

Ryan, Eimear; Mullins, Ewen; Burke, James; Downes, Martin; Meade, Conor

2006-01-01

274

Development of microsatellite markers for Pythium helicoides.  

PubMed

A strategy combining dual-suppression PCR and thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR was used to determine sequences flanking microsatellite regions in Pythium helicoides. The primer pairs were designed to amplify loci containing (AC)n, (GA)n, (AGC)n, (CAC)n(CAA)n, (TCA)n and (CTTT)n repeats from the P. helicoides nuclear genome. The PCR products of each primer pair, amplified from three representative isolates collected from different hosts and locations, were cloned and sequenced. Different degrees of polymorphism were detected among these microsatellite markers. The numbers of alleles were 6, 2, 4, 11, 4 and 4 in YL-AC, YL-AGC, YL-CAA, YL-CTTT, YL-GA and YL-TCA, respectively. Allele analysis of 30 P. helicoides isolates showed length polymorphisms in all loci, except for YL-AC, using capillary electrophoresis. Thus, we have developed a simple method for designing PCR primers to amplify microsatellite markers from P. helicoides. PMID:19278526

Yin-Ling; Zhou, Wei; Motohashi, Keiichi; Suga, Haruhisa; Fukui, Hirokazu; Kageyama, Koji

2009-04-01

275

XSS-10 microsatellite flight demonstration program results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Air Force Research Laboratory"s space experiment XSS-10 was flown on the Air Force Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) mission IIR-8 launched on January 29, 2003. The mission objectives of XSS-10 were to demonstrate autonomous navigation, proximity operations, and inspection of a Resident Space Object (RSO). XSS-10 was a 28-kilogram micro-satellite was launched as a secondary mission on a Delta II expendable launch vehicle carrying a GPS satellite. XSS-10 was equipped with a visible camera, a star sensor, and mini SGLS system, all specially built for this program. In addition, a visible camera was attached to the second stage to observe the release of the micro-satellite and observe its maneuvers. Following the release of the GPS satellite, the Delta II initiated three depletion burns to reorient into an 800 KM circular orbit. The XSS-II was ejected from the Delta II second stage approximately 18 hours after launch. Operating autonomously on a preplanned course, XSS-10 performed its mission of navigating around the Delta II second stage at preplanned positions; the micro-satellite took images of the second stage and send them back to earth in real time. During these demonstrations the XSS-10 mission operations team accomplished responsive checkout of the micro-satellite and all of its subsystems, autonomous navigation on a preplanned course and a variety of algorithms and mission operations that pave the way for more ambitious missions in the future. This paper will discuss the results of the mission and post mission analysis of the XSS-10 space flight.

Davis, Thomas M.; Melanson, David

2004-08-01

276

The effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence and personality when controlling for paternal trait level.  

PubMed

Paternal age at conception has been found to predict the number of new genetic mutations. We examined the effect of father's age at birth on offspring intelligence, head circumference and personality traits. Using the Minnesota Twin Family Study sample we tested paternal age effects while controlling for parents' trait levels measured with the same precision as offspring's. From evolutionary genetic considerations we predicted a negative effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence, but not on other traits. Controlling for parental intelligence (IQ) had the effect of turning an initially positive association non-significantly negative. We found paternal age effects on offspring IQ and Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire Absorption, but they were not robustly significant, nor replicable with additional covariates. No other noteworthy effects were found. Parents' intelligence and personality correlated with their ages at twin birth, which may have obscured a small negative effect of advanced paternal age (<1% of variance explained) on intelligence. We discuss future avenues for studies of paternal age effects and suggest that stronger research designs are needed to rule out confounding factors involving birth order and the Flynn effect. PMID:24587224

Arslan, Ruben C; Penke, Lars; Johnson, Wendy; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

2014-01-01

277

Information and consent in internet paternity testing: focus on minors' protection in Italy.  

PubMed

Paternity testing in Italy is usually performed by private laboratories and universities having direct contacts with the applicants. Recently, the number of paternity tests offered through laboratory websites has increased in Italy and Europe. The execution of genetic tests, including paternity testing based on DNA analysis, represents a complex act, which contains three main steps. Paternity analyses carried out by laboratories via Internet are performed on samples collected by the applicants and then mailed back to the laboratories without any patient-physician relationship. Information is given to the subjects through the laboratory's website or mailed with the test order form. The execution of "household" DNA analysis without technical precautions may provide an incorrect response with severe consequences on the individual who has undergone testing, on the family involved, and on society in general. The problems connected with this kind of analysis are not technical, but ethical and deontological. In this work, we will discuss the problems related to information and consent by way of outlining the relevant Italian laws and codes of medical ethics. The Italian Privacy's Guarantor is assessing the ethical and legal implications, but regulations are not yet in place. We believe that adequate information related to this practice cannot be given via Internet, and, consequently, the validity of the consent expressed during this kind of procedure can be uncertain. Further, we will analyze issues regarding the importance of minors' protection when a paternity test is performed via Internet. In our opinion, the complexity of the situations and expectations linked to paternity investigations require a special sensitivity in dealing with each case, based on a patient-physician relationship in the decision-making process especially referring to the defense of the minors' well-being. PMID:18999916

Caenazzo, Luciana; Tozzo, Pamela; Benciolini, Paolo; Rodriguez, Daniele

2008-12-01

278

Evolutionary history of partible paternity in lowland South America  

PubMed Central

Partible paternity, the conception belief that more than one man can contribute to the formation of a fetus, is common in lowland South America and characterized by nonexclusive mating relationships and various institutionalized forms of recognition and investment by multiple cofathers. Previous work has emphasized the fitness benefits for women where partible paternity beliefs facilitate paternal investment from multiple men and may reduce the risk of infanticide. In this comparative study of 128 lowland South American societies, the prevalence of partible paternity beliefs may be as much as two times as common as biologically correct beliefs in singular paternity. Partible paternity beliefs are nearly ubiquitous in four large language families—Carib, Pano, Tupi, and Macro-Je. Phylogenetic reconstruction suggests that partible paternity evolved deep in Amazonian prehistory at the root of a tentative Je-Carib-Tupi clade. Partible paternity often occurs with uxorilocal postmarital residence (males transfer), although there are exceptions. Partible paternity may have benefits for both sexes, especially in societies where essentially all offspring are said to have multiple fathers. Despite a decrease in paternity certainty, at least some men probably benefit (or mitigate costs) by increasing their number of extramarital partners, using sexual access to their wives to formalize male alliances, and/or sharing paternity with close kin.

Walker, Robert S.; Flinn, Mark V.; Hill, Kim R.

2010-01-01

279

Molecular diversity and population structure of Chinese green foxtail [Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv.] revealed by microsatellite analysis  

PubMed Central

Green foxtail (Setaria viridis) is a new model plant for the genomic investigation of C4 photosynthesis biology. As the ancestor of foxtail millet (Setaria italica), an ancient cereal of great importance in arid regions of the world, green foxtail is crucial for the study of domestication and evolution of this ancient crop. In the present study, 288 green foxtail accessions, which were collected from all geographical regions of China, were analysed using 77 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) that cover the whole genome. A high degree of molecular diversity was detected in these accessions, with an average of 33.5 alleles per locus. Two clusters, which were inconsistent with the distribution of eco-geographical regions in China, were inferred from STRUCTURE, Neighbor–Joining, and principal component analysis, indicating a partially mixed distribution of Chinese green foxtails. The higher subpopulation diversity was from accessions mainly collected from North China. A low level of linkage disequilibrium was observed in the green foxtail genome. Furthermore, a combined analysis of green foxtail and foxtail millet landraces was conducted, and the origin and domestication of foxtail millet was inferred in North China.

Zhi, Hui; Diao, Xianmin

2013-01-01

280

Taiwanese aborigines: genetic heterogeneity and paternal contribution to Oceania.  

PubMed

In the present study, for the first time, 293 Taiwanese aboriginal males from all nine major tribes (Ami, Atayal, Bunun, Rukai, Paiwan, Saisat, Puyuma, Tsou, Yami) were genotyped with 17 YSTR loci in a attend to reveal migrational patterns connected with the Austronesian expansion. We investigate the paternal genetic relationships of these Taiwanese aborigines to 42 Asia-Pacific reference populations, geographically selected to reflect various locations within the Austronesian domain. The Tsou and Puyuma tribes exhibit the lowest (0.1851) and the highest (0.5453) average total genetic diversity, respectively. Further, the fraction of unique haplotypes is also relatively high in the Puyuma (86.7%) and low in Tsou (33.3%) suggesting different demographic histories. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed several notable findings: 1) the Taiwan indigenous populations are highly diverse. In fact, the level of inter-population heterogeneity displayed by the Taiwanese aboriginal populations is close to that exhibited among all 51 Asia-Pacific populations examined; 2) the asymmetrical contribution of the Taiwanese aborigines to the Oceanic groups. Ami, Bunun and Saisiyat tribes exhibit the strongest paternal links to the Solomon and Polynesian island communities, whereas most of the remaining Taiwanese aboriginal groups are more genetically distant to these Oceanic inhabitants; 3) the present YSTR analyses does not reveal a strong paternal affinity of the nine Taiwanese tribes to their continental Asian neighbors. Overall, our current findings suggest that, perhaps, only a few of the tribes were involved in the migration out of Taiwan. PMID:24613753

Zeng, Zhaoshu; Rowold, Diane J; Garcia-Bertrand, Ralph; Calderon, Silvia; Regueiro, Maria; Li, Li; Zhong, Mingxia; Herrera, Rene J

2014-06-01

281

Population genetic structure of Central African Trypanosoma brucei gambiense isolates using microsatellite DNA markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic variation of microsatellite loci is a widely used method for the analysis of population genetic structure of microorganisms. Seven microsatellite markers were used here to characterize Trypanosoma brucei gambiense isolates from Central Africa sub-region in order to improve knowledge on the population genetic structure of this subspecies. These markers confirmed the low genetic polymorphism within Central African T. b.

Gustave Simo; Flobert Njiokou; Christopher Tume; Smiths Lueong; Thierry De Meeűs; Gerard Cuny; Tazoacha Asonganyi

2010-01-01

282

Managing misaligned paternity findings in research including sickle cell disease screening in Kenya: 'consulting communities' to inform policy.  

PubMed

The management of misaligned paternity findings raises important controversy worldwide. It has mainly, however, been discussed in the context of high-income countries. Genetic and genomics research, with the potential to show misaligned paternity, are becoming increasingly common in Africa. During a genomics study in Kenya, a dilemma arose over testing and sharing information on paternal sickle cell disease status. This dilemma may be paradigmatic of challenges in sharing misaligned paternity findings in many research and health care settings. Using a deliberative approach to community consultation to inform research practice, we explored residents' views on paternal testing and sharing misaligned paternity information. Between December 2009 and November 2010, 63 residents in Kilifi County were engaged in informed deliberative small group discussions, structured to support normative reflection within the groups, with purposive selection to explore diversity. Analysis was based on a modified framework analysis approach, drawing on relevant social science and bioethics literature. The methods generated in-depth individual and group reflection on morally important issues and uncovered wide diversity in views and values. Fundamental and conflicting values emerged around the importance of family interests and openness, underpinned by disagreement on the moral implications of marital infidelity and withholding truth. Wider consideration of ethical issues emerging in these debates supports locally-held reasoning that paternal sickle cell testing should not be undertaken in this context, in contrast to views that testing should be done with or without the disclosure of misaligned paternity information. The findings highlight the importance of facilitating wider testing of family members of affected children, contingent on the development and implementation of national policies for the management of this inherited disorder. Their richness also illustrates the potential for the approach adopted in this study to strengthen community consultation. PMID:24034967

Marsh, Vicki; Kombe, Francis; Fitzpatrick, Ray; Molyneux, Sassy; Parker, Michael

2013-11-01

283

Managing misaligned paternity findings in research including sickle cell disease screening in Kenya: 'Consulting communities' to inform policy?  

PubMed Central

The management of misaligned paternity findings raises important controversy worldwide. It has mainly, however, been discussed in the context of high-income countries. Genetic and genomics research, with the potential to show misaligned paternity, are becoming increasingly common in Africa. During a genomics study in Kenya, a dilemma arose over testing and sharing information on paternal sickle cell disease status. This dilemma may be paradigmatic of challenges in sharing misaligned paternity findings in many research and health care settings. Using a deliberative approach to community consultation to inform research practice, we explored residents' views on paternal testing and sharing misaligned paternity information. Between December 2009 and November 2010, 63 residents in Kilifi County were engaged in informed deliberative small group discussions, structured to support normative reflection within the groups, with purposive selection to explore diversity. Analysis was based on a modified framework analysis approach, drawing on relevant social science and bioethics literature. The methods generated in-depth individual and group reflection on morally important issues and uncovered wide diversity in views and values. Fundamental and conflicting values emerged around the importance of family interests and openness, underpinned by disagreement on the moral implications of marital infidelity and withholding truth. Wider consideration of ethical issues emerging in these debates supports locally-held reasoning that paternal sickle cell testing should not be undertaken in this context, in contrast to views that testing should be done with or without the disclosure of misaligned paternity information. The findings highlight the importance of facilitating wider testing of family members of affected children, contingent on the development and implementation of national policies for the management of this inherited disorder. Their richness also illustrates the potential for the approach adopted in this study to strengthen community consultation.

Marsh, Vicki; Kombe, Francis; Fitzpatrick, Ray; Molyneux, Sassy; Parker, Michael

2013-01-01

284

Microsatellite instability in endometrial polyps  

PubMed Central

Objective(s) To investigate the prevalence of microsatellite instability (MSI) in endometrial polyps and to evaluate whether there are clinical and histopathological parameters associated with this kind of instability. Study design Between September 2008 and April 2009, endometrial polyps were collected from 109 patients. MSI was evaluated using the NCI recommended markers BAT25, BAT26, D2S123, D5S346 and D17S250. Histopathological analysis was performed, and clinical information was obtained from patients' records. Result(s) MSI low was detected in 6.4% of the validated samples (7/109). Of the seven MSI that were detected, six were positive for instability at D17S250 and one at D5S346. There were no significant differences between polyps with or without MSI with regard to age, BMI, menarche, parity, miscarriage or menopause; however, MSI was more frequent in polyps with simple hyperplasia without atypia (3/20; 15%). Furthermore, patients with multiple polyps had a marginally but statistically insignificant increase in the frequency of MSI (p < 0.07). Conclusion(s) This is the first prospective study of MSI in endometrial polyps using hysteroscopically obtained samples. In a population of 109 patients, MSI was infrequent in endometrial polyps. Although MSI appears to be more frequent in multiple polyps and polyps with simple hyperplasia without atypia, this was not statistically significant.

Rios, Salete S.; Andrade, Rosangela V.; Pereira, Rinaldo W.; Wall, Nathan R.; Bahjri, Khaled; Caldas, Erica; Cavalcante, Larissa; Figueiredo, Florencio

2011-01-01

285

In-silico mining, type and frequency analysis of genic microsatellites of finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.): a comparative genomic analysis of NBS-LRR regions of finger millet with rice.  

PubMed

In recent years, the increased availability of the DNA sequences has given the possibility to develop and explore the expressed sequence tags (ESTs) derived SSR markers. In the present study, a total of 1956 ESTs of finger millet were used to find the microsatellite type, distribution, frequency and developed a total of 545 primer pairs from the ESTs of finger millet. Thirty-two EST sequences had more than two microsatellites and 1357 sequences did not have any SSR repeats. The most frequent type of repeats was trimeric motif, however the second place was occupied by dimeric motif followed by tetra-, hexa- and penta repeat motifs. The most common dimer repeat motif was GA and in case of trimeric SSRs, it was CGG. The EST sequences of NBS-LRR region of finger millet and rice showed higher synteny and were found on nearly same positions on the rice chromosome map. A total of eight, out of 15 EST based SSR primers were polymorphic among the selected resistant and susceptible finger millet genotypes. The primer FMBLEST5 could able to differentiate them into resistant and susceptible genotypes. The alleles specific to the resistant and susceptible genotypes were sequenced using the ABI 3130XL genetic analyzer and found similarity to NBS-LRR regions of rice and finger millet and contained the characteristic kinase-2 and kinase 3a motifs of plant R-genes belonged to NBS-LRR region. The In-silico and comparative analysis showed that the genes responsible for blast resistance can be identified, mapped and further introgressed through molecular breeding approaches for enhancing the blast resistance in finger millet. PMID:24477586

Kalyana Babu, B; Pandey, Dinesh; Agrawal, P K; Sood, Salej; Kumar, Anil

2014-05-01

286

The ethical debate on present day paternity testing practices.  

PubMed

The last years, the number of paternity tests on buccal swabs sold over the internet as "test kits", has steeply increased. The commercial providers of these services facilitate controversial practices, including clandestine sampling at home, anonymous sending off for analysis, motherless testing and using "stolen" personal objects containing biological material (combs, cigarette butts). This has led to concern on the consequences on the family unit--especially the child--which may suffer emotionally, physically and financially. In reaction, legal initiatives are appearing throughout Europe. The UK Human Genetics Commission has advised that the non-consensual obtaining and analysis of personal genetic information should be a new criminal offence. The German Federal Court of Justice has ruled that paternity tests performed without the mother's knowledge are inadmissible as evidence in lawsuits. French law strictly forbids the application of DNA testing without the involvement of the court system. In Belgium, a proposal for law has been laid down where the offering to PMID:16792338

Mertens, G

2006-01-01

287

Genome-wide analysis of microsatellite repeats in humans: their abundance and density in specific genomic regions  

PubMed Central

Background Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are found in most organisms, and occupy about 3% of the human genome. Although it is becoming clear that such repeats are important in genomic organization and function and may be associated with disease conditions, their systematic analysis has not been reported. This is the first report examining the distribution and density of simple sequence repeats (1-6 base-pairs (bp)) in the entire human genome. Results The densities of SSRs across the human chromosomes were found to be relatively uniform. However, the overall density of SSR was found to be high in chromosome 19. Triplets and hexamers were more predominant in exonic regions compared to intronic and intergenic regions, except for chromosome Y. Comparison of densities of various SSRs revealed that whereas trimers and pentamers showed a similar pattern (500-1,000 bp/Mb) across the chromosomes, di- tetra- and hexa-nucleotide repeats showed patterns of higher (2,000-3,000 bp/Mb) density. Repeats of the same nucleotide were found to be higher than other repeat types. Repeats of A, AT, AC, AAT, AAC, AAG, AGC, AAAC, AAAT, AAAG, AAGG, AGAT predominate, whereas repeats of C, CG, ACT, ACG, AACC, AACG, AACT, AAGC, AAGT, ACCC, ACCG, ACCT, CCCG and CCGG are rare. Conclusions The overall SSR density was comparable in all chromosomes. The density of different repeats, however, showed significant variation. Tri- and hexa-nucleotide repeats are more abundant in exons, whereas other repeats are more abundant in non-coding regions.

Subramanian, Subbaya; Mishra, Rakesh K; Singh, Lalji

2003-01-01

288

Isolation and Characterization of Microsatellite Markers and Analysis of Genetic Diversity in Chinese Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.)  

PubMed Central

Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill, 2n?=?2×?=?24, Rhamnaceae) is an economically important Chinese native species. It has high nutritional value, and its medicinal properties have led to extensive use in traditional oriental medicine. The characterization of genotypes using molecular markers is important for genetic studies and plant breeding. However, few simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are available for this species. In this study, 1,488 unique SSR clones were isolated from Z. jujuba ‘Dongzao’ using enriched genomic libraries coupled with a three-primer colony PCR screening strategy, yielding a high enrichment rate of 73.3%. Finally, 1,188 (80.87%) primer pairs were amplified successfully in the size expected for ‘Dongzao’. A total of 350 primer pairs were further selected and evaluated for their ability to detect polymorphisms across a panel of six diverse cultivars; among these, 301 primer pairs detected polymorphisms, and the polymorphism information content (PIC) value across all loci ranged from 0.15 to 0.82, with an average of 0.52. An analysis of 76 major cultivars employed in Chinese jujube production using 31 primer pairs revealed comparatively high genetic diversity among these cultivars. Within-population differences among individuals accounted for 98.2% of the observed genetic variation. Neighbor-joining clustering divided the cultivars into three main groups, none of which correspond to major geographic regions, suggesting that the genetics and geographical origin of modern Chinese jujube cultivars might not be linked. The current work firstly reports the large-scale development of Chinese jujube SSR markers. The development of these markers and their polymorphic information represent a significant improvement in the available Chinese jujube genomic resources and will facilitate both genetic and breeding applications, further accelerating the development of new cultivars.

Liu, Huabo; Tang, Yan; Wu, Liping; Wang, Zhe; Li, Yingyue; Wu, Rongling; Pang, Xiaoming

2014-01-01

289

Isolation and Characterization of Microsatellite Markers and Analysis of Genetic Diversity in Chinese Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.).  

PubMed

Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill, 2n?=?2×?=?24, Rhamnaceae) is an economically important Chinese native species. It has high nutritional value, and its medicinal properties have led to extensive use in traditional oriental medicine. The characterization of genotypes using molecular markers is important for genetic studies and plant breeding. However, few simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are available for this species. In this study, 1,488 unique SSR clones were isolated from Z. jujuba 'Dongzao' using enriched genomic libraries coupled with a three-primer colony PCR screening strategy, yielding a high enrichment rate of 73.3%. Finally, 1,188 (80.87%) primer pairs were amplified successfully in the size expected for 'Dongzao'. A total of 350 primer pairs were further selected and evaluated for their ability to detect polymorphisms across a panel of six diverse cultivars; among these, 301 primer pairs detected polymorphisms, and the polymorphism information content (PIC) value across all loci ranged from 0.15 to 0.82, with an average of 0.52. An analysis of 76 major cultivars employed in Chinese jujube production using 31 primer pairs revealed comparatively high genetic diversity among these cultivars. Within-population differences among individuals accounted for 98.2% of the observed genetic variation. Neighbor-joining clustering divided the cultivars into three main groups, none of which correspond to major geographic regions, suggesting that the genetics and geographical origin of modern Chinese jujube cultivars might not be linked. The current work firstly reports the large-scale development of Chinese jujube SSR markers. The development of these markers and their polymorphic information represent a significant improvement in the available Chinese jujube genomic resources and will facilitate both genetic and breeding applications, further accelerating the development of new cultivars. PMID:24932973

Wang, Siqi; Liu, Ying; Ma, Liying; Liu, Huabo; Tang, Yan; Wu, Liping; Wang, Zhe; Li, Yingyue; Wu, Rongling; Pang, Xiaoming

2014-01-01

290

Microsatellite polymorphisms in the gene promoter of monocyte chemotactic protein-3 and analysis of the association between monocyte chemotactic protein-3 alleles and multiple sclerosis development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monocyte chemotactic protein 3 (MCP-3) is a chemokine that attracts mononuclear cells, including monocytes and lymphocytes, the inflammatory cell types that predominate in multiple sclerosis lesions. We studied the possible association between the presence of a CA\\/GA microsatellite repeat polymorphism in the promoter\\/enhancer region of the MCP-3 gene and the occurrence of multiple sclerosis. DNA samples from 192 Swedish multiple

Pierre Fiten; Koen Vandenbroeck; Bénédicte Dubois; Els Van Coillie; Inge Nelissen; Jo Van Damme; Arturs Ligers; Jan Hillert; Magnus Andersson; Tomas Olsson; Ghislain Opdenakker

1999-01-01

291

A microsatellite genetic linkage map of human chromosome 18  

SciTech Connect

We isolated nine new microsatellite markers from chromosome 18 and further characterized and mapped eight microsatellites developed in other laboratories. We have constructed a framework linkage map of chromosome 18 that includes 14 microsatellite markers (12 dinucleotide and 2 tetranucleotide) and 2 RFLP markers. Cytogenetic localization for the microsatellites was performed by PCR amplification of IS somatic cell hybrids containing different deletions of chromosome 18. Twelve of the microsatellites and one of the RFLPs have heterozygosities greater than 70%. The average heterozygosity of the markers included in the map is 72%. In addition, we have made provisional placements of 3 more microsatellite markers and 2 more RFLP markers. The map lengths (in Kosambi centimorgans) are as follows: sex-averaged, 109.3 cM; male, 72.4 cM; female, 161.2 cM. The average distance between markers in the sex-averaged map is 7.3 cM, and the largest gap between markers is 16.7 cM. Analysis of the data for differences in the female:male map distance ratio revealed significant evidence for a constant difference in the ratio (X[sup 2]=32.25; df = 1; P < 0.001; ratio = 2.5:1). Furthermore, there was significant evidence in favor of a variable female:male map distance ratio across the chromosome compared to a constant distance ratio (X[sup 2] = 27.78; df = 14; P = 0.015). To facilitate their use in genomic screening for disease genes, all of the microsatellite markers used here can be amplified under standard PCR conditions, and most can be used in duplex PCR reactions. 36 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

Straub, R.E.; Speer, M.C.; Luo, Ying; Ott, J.; Gilliam, T.C. (Columbia Univ. and New York State Psychiatric Institute, NY (United States)); Rojas, K.; Overhauser, J. (Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States))

1993-01-01

292

Genome-wide semiquantitative microsatellite analysis of human hepatocellular carcinoma: discrete mapping of smallest region of overlap of recurrent chromosomal gains and losses.  

PubMed

Recurrent chromosomal gains at 1q, 6p, 8q, and 17q, or losses at 1p, 4q, 6q, 8p, 9p, 13q, 16q, and 17p are common features of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). For precise determination of the shortest region of overlap (SRO), 49 HCC obtained at the time of surgery or autopsy were subjected to comprehensive microsatellite analysis by using 400 markers distributed at almost equal distances throughout the 22 autosomes and X chromosomes. Each allele showing imbalance was subjected to comparative duplex polymerase chain reaction using a retained allele as an internal control to determine whether the imbalance was the result of chromosomal gain or loss. The following SRO of recurrent chromosomal gains and losses were determined: -1p36.22 approximately p36.33, D1S450-D1S2893, 5.0 mega-base pairs (Mbp); +1q23.3 approximately q25.3, D1S2878-D1S2619, 16.9 Mbp; -4q21.2 approximately q24, D4S2964-D4S1572, 23.0 Mbp; -6q23.3 approximately qter, D6S292-qter, 34.7 Mb; -8p22 approximately p23.1, D8S549-D8S550, 4.8 Mbp; +8q12.2 approximately q24.13, D8S260-D8S514, 61.8 Mbp; -13q13.3 approximately q22.1, D13S218-D13S156, 35.6 Mbp; -16q22.1 approximately qter, D16S503-qter, 26.7 Mbp; and -17p12 approximately pter, D17S921-pter, 14.2 Mbp. Contrary to our initial expectations, many HCC showed major deletions or additions of chromosome arms, so that a number of genes were included in the SRO. Although some putative oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes mapped in these SRO may be important, relative copy number changes of numerous other genes may affect pathogenesis of HCC. PMID:16682288

Nishimura, Takafumi; Nishida, Naoshi; Komeda, Toshiki; Fukuda, Yoshihiro; Ikai, Iwao; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Nakao, Kazuwa

2006-05-01

293

An Examination of Paternal Influence on High-Achieving Gifted Males  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The challenges facing contemporary boys are complex, highlighting the importance of positive paternal influence for young men to achieve success. This study examines the father-son relationships of 10 prominent gifted men of achievement to identify factors influencing talent development. Through biographical analysis, 6 significant themes were…

Hebert, Thomas P.; Pagnani, Alexander R.; Hammond, Daniel R.

2009-01-01

294

Gregariousness and protandry promote reproductive insurance in the invasive gastropod Crepidula fornicata: evidence from assignment of larval paternity.  

PubMed

According to the size-advantage hypothesis, protandric sequential hermaphroditism is expected when the increase in reproductive success with age or size is small for males but large for females. Interestingly, some protandrous molluscs have developed gregarious strategies that might enhance male reproductive success but at the cost of intraspecific competition. The gastropod Crepidula fornicata, a European invading species, is ideal for investigating mating patterns in a sequential hermaphrodite in relation to grouping behaviour because individuals of different size (age) live in perennial stacks, fertilization is internal and embryos are brooded. Paternity analyses were undertaken in stacks sampled in three close and recently invaded sites in Brittany, France. Paternity assignment of 239 larvae, sampled from a set of 18 brooding females and carried out using five microsatellite loci, revealed that 92% of the crosses occurred between individuals located in the same stack. These stacks thus function as independent mating groups in which individuals may reproduce consecutively as male and female over a short time period, a pattern explained by sperm storage capacity. Gregariousness and sex reversal are promoting reproductive insurance in this species. In addition, females are usually fertilized by several males (78% of the broods were multiply sired) occupying any position within the stack, a result reinforcing the hypothesis of sperm competition. Our study pointed out that mating behaviours and patterns of gender allocation varied in concert across sites suggesting that multiple paternities might enhance sex reversal depending on sperm competition intensity. PMID:16911217

Dupont, L; Richard, J; Paulet, Y-M; Thouzeau, G; Viard, F

2006-09-01

295

Investigation of factors associated with paternal nondisjunction of chromosome 21.  

PubMed

Previous studies on relatively small samples of individuals with trisomy 21 caused by paternally derived errors have shown that: (1) advanced paternal age is not a risk factor for chromosome 21 nondisjunction (NDJ), (2) absence of recombination, but not the location of recombination is associated with paternal NDJ and (3) there is an excess of males among live-births with paternally derived trisomy 21. An excess of males is also observed among all individuals with trisomy 21. Using 128 families that had a child with trisomy 21 due to a paternally derived error, we examined: paternal age, recombination and the male/female sex ratio. We genotyped STRs along 21q to identify the origin of the error and the location of recombination on the paternal chromosome. Results showed that 32% of paternal meiotic errors occurred in meiosis I (MI) and 68% in meiosis II (MII). We confirmed the lack of a paternal age association with either type of error (mean paternal age for controls, MI, and MII errors: 31.3 +/- 6.6, 32.2 +/- 6.3, 30.6 +/- 6.5, respectively). However, contrary to previous findings, we did not find altered patterns of recombination among paternal MI or MII errors. We found an increased male/female sex ratio among paternal (1.28, 95% CI: 0.68-1.91) and maternal (1.16, 95% CI: 1.02-1.33) meiotic errors. While the sex ratio among individuals with paternal errors was not statistically significant, these findings suggest that selection against female fetuses with trisomy 21 may contribute to the excess of males observed among all individuals with trisomy 21. PMID:19606484

Oliver, Tiffany Renee; Bhise, Archit; Feingold, Eleanor; Tinker, Stuart; Masse, Nirupama; Sherman, Stephanie L

2009-08-01

296

Advanced paternal age increases the risk of schizophrenia and obsessive-compulsive disorder in a Chinese Han population  

PubMed Central

Using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, patient and non-patient version (SCID-P/NP), this study investigated 351 patients with schizophrenia, 122 with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), and 238 unrelated healthy volunteers in a Chinese Han population. The relative risks posed by advanced paternal age for schizophrenia and OCD in offspring were computed under logistic regression analyses and adjusted for the participant's sex, age and co-parent age at birth. Compared to the offspring with paternal age of 25–29 years old, the relative risks rose from 2.660 to 10.183 in the paternal age range of 30–34 and ? 35. The relative risks for OCD increased from 2.225 to 5.413 in 30–34 and ? 35. For offspring with paternal age of < 25, the odds ratios of developing schizophrenia and OCD were 0.628 and 0.289 respectively, whereas an association between increased maternal age and risk for schizophrenia/OCD was not seen. Interaction analysis showed an interaction effect between paternal age and maternal age at birth. Such a tendency of risk affected by parental age for schizophrenia and OCD existed after splitting out the data of early onset patients. Sex-specific analyses found that the relative risks for schizophrenia with paternal age of 30–34 and ? 35 in male offspring were 2.407 and 10.893, and in female offspring were 3.080 and 9.659. The relative risks for OCD with paternal age of 30–34 and ? 35 in male offspring were 3.493 and 7.373, and in female offspring 2.005 and 4.404. The mean paternal age of schizophrenia/OCD patients born before the early 1980s was much greater than that of patients who were born after then. The findings illustrated that advanced paternal age is associated with increased risk for both schizophrenia and OCD in a Chinese Han population, prominently when paternal age is over 35. Biological and non-biological mechanisms may both be involved in the effects of advanced paternal age on schizophrenia and OCD.

Wu, Yuejing; Liu, Xiang; Luo, Hongrong; Deng, Wei; Zhao, Gaofeng; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Lan; Ma, Xiaohong; Liu, Xiehe; Murray, Robin A.; Collier, David A.; Li, Tao

2012-01-01

297

Advanced paternal age increases the risk of schizophrenia and obsessive-compulsive disorder in a Chinese Han population.  

PubMed

Using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, patient and non-patient version (SCID-P/NP), this study investigated 351 patients with schizophrenia, 122 with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and 238 unrelated healthy volunteers in a Chinese Han population. The relative risks posed by advanced paternal age for schizophrenia and OCD in offspring were computed under logistic regression analyses and adjusted for the participant's sex, age and co-parent age at birth. Compared to the offspring with paternal age of 25-29 years old, the relative risks rose from 2.660 to 10.183 in the paternal age range of 30-34 and ?35. The relative risks for OCD increased from 2.225 to 5.413 in 30-34 and ?35. For offspring with paternal age of <25, the odds ratios of developing schizophrenia and OCD were 0.628 and 0.289 respectively, whereas an association between increased maternal age and risk for schizophrenia/OCD was not seen. Interaction analysis showed an interaction effect between paternal age and maternal age at birth. Such a tendency of risk affected by parental age for schizophrenia and OCD existed after splitting out the data of early onset patients. Sex-specific analyses found that the relative risks for schizophrenia with paternal age of 30-34 and ?35 in male offspring were 2.407 and 10.893, and in female offspring were 3.080 and 9.659. The relative risks for OCD with paternal age of 30-34 and ?35 in male offspring were 3.493 and 7.373, and in female offspring 2.005 and 4.404. The mean paternal age of schizophrenia/OCD patients born before the early 1980s was much greater than that of patients who were born after then. The findings illustrated that advanced paternal age is associated with increased risk for both schizophrenia and OCD in a Chinese Han population, prominently when paternal age is over 35. Biological and non-biological mechanisms may both be involved in the effects of advanced paternal age on schizophrenia and OCD. PMID:22424906

Wu, Yuejing; Liu, Xiang; Luo, Hongrong; Deng, Wei; Zhao, Gaofeng; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Lan; Ma, Xiaohong; Liu, Xiehe; Murray, Robin A; Collier, David A; Li, Tao

2012-08-15

298

Paternal Fears of Childbirth: A Literature Review  

PubMed Central

To date, most studies on paternal childbirth fears have been exploratory or descriptive, conducted outside of the United States, and focused mainly on White, first-time fathers. Identified fears include harm to the mother or newborn, partner pain, feelings of helplessness, lack of knowledge, and fear of high-risk intervention. Fathers often report that childbirth classes are not helpful and, in some cases, even increase their fears. Some fathers view birth as traumatic, changing their perception of and relationship with their partner. Fathers also voice the need for more information and for reassurance that they are doing the right things for their partner during childbirth. This article summarizes the research findings on paternal childbirth fears and recommends topics for future study.

Hanson, Suzanne; Hunter, Lauren P.; Bormann, Jill R.; Sobo, Elisa J.

2009-01-01

299

A MOLECULAR EXAMINATION OF RELATEDNESS, MULTIPLE PATERNITY, AND COHABITATION OF THE SOUTHERN PLAINS WOODRAT (NEOTOMA MICROPUS)  

PubMed Central

Two hundred twenty-two individuals of the southern plains woodrat (Neotoma micropus) were captured from 198 excavated middens at 10 discrete collecting sites from a single population in south-central Texas. Field data, mitochondrial D-loop haplotypes, and polymorphic microsatellite loci (5–7) were used to determine genetic patterns in parentage, relatedness, and mating strategy. Microsatellite loci were highly polymorphic (average observed heterozygosity = 0.859) and were used to construct genotypes that were unique for each individual (probability of identical genotypes: 1 in 2,104,567). Results indicated a high frequency of multiple paternity (6 of 9 litters), evidence of repeat mating between the same 2 individuals, and no indication of male dominance at any collection site. Examination of these data suggested a promiscuous mating system. Within a site, average relatedness between adult females was similar to that between adult males. A higher level of cohabitation from that previously documented was recorded and finer-scale analyses revealed high levels of relatedness between most cohabiting individuals. Taken with results from other studies of mating behaviors of N. micropus, our results suggest that mating and social behavior of this species are likely influenced by population density.

Baxter, B. Dnate'; Mendez-Harclerode, Francisca M.; Fulhorst, Charles F.; Bradley, Robert D.

2009-01-01

300

Paternally inherited markers in bovine hybrid populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic integrity of crossfertile bovine- or cattle-like species may be endangered by species hybridization. Previously, amplified fragment length polymorphism, satellite fragment length polymorphism and microsatellite assays have been used to analyze the species composition of nuclear DNA in taurine cattle, zebu, banteng and bison populations, while mitochondrial DNA reveals the origin of the maternal lineages. Here, we describe species-specific

E L C Verkaar; H Vervaecke; C Roden; L Romero Mendoza; M W Barwegen; T Susilawati; I J Nijman; J A Lenstra

2003-01-01

301

Occupational paternal exposure to benzene and risk of spontaneous abortion.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--The purpose of this study was to evaluate the risk of spontaneous abortion among the wives of male workers occupationally exposed to benzene. METHODS--The wives of 823 men working in two chemical plants at the time of the study were asked to complete a questionnaire describing their pregnancies. The analysis of the 1739 pregnancies that ended in a spontaneous abortion or a birth is presented. The firms' payroll records provided all workers' employment history, including dates. Benzene exposure, graded at two levels (< 5, > or = 5 ppm), was determined for every job, so that benzene exposure for each worker's entire professional life (at these companies) could be assessed. This information was linked to the dates of the pregnancies reported in the questionnaires to enable the exposure status of each pregnancy to be defined (1270 non-exposed and 274 exposed). The frequency of spontaneous abortion, defined as the number of spontaneous abortions divided by the total of spontaneous abortions and births was evaluated. RESULTS--When adjusted for tobacco consumption, mother's age and pregnancy order, the odds ratio of the association between paternal exposure to approximately 5 ppm of benzene and the risk of spontaneous abortion was close to and statistically not different from unity (OR = 1.1; 95% CI (0.7-1.8). CONCLUSION--In this study paternal exposure to benzene did not increase the risk of spontaneous abortion.

Strucker, I; Mandereau, L; Aubert-Berleur, M P; Deplan, F; Paris, A; Richard, A; Hemon, D

1994-01-01

302

Transpecific microsatellites for hard pines.  

PubMed

Microsatellites are difficult to recover from large plant genomes so cross-specific utilisation is an important source of markers. Fifty microsatellites were tested for cross-specific amplification and polymorphism to two New World hard pine species, slash pine ( Pinus elliottii var. elliottii) and Caribbean pine ( P. caribaea var. hondurensis). Twenty-nine (58%) markers amplified in both hard pine species, and 23 of these 29 were polymorphic. Soft pine (subgenus Strobus) microsatellite markers did amplify, but none were polymorphic. Pinus elliottii var. elliottii and P. caribaea var. hondurensis showed mutational changes in the flanking regions and the repeat motif that were informative for Pinus spp. phylogenetic relationships. Most allele length variation could be attributed to variability in repeat unit number. There was no evidence for ascertainment bias. PMID:12582642

Shepherd, M.; Cross, M.; Maguire, L.; Dieters, J.; Williams, G.; Henry, J.

2002-04-01

303

A rapid qPCR method for genetic sex identification of Salmo salar and Salmo trutta including simultaneous elucidation of interspecies hybrid paternity by high-resolution melt analysis.  

PubMed

This study presents an improved duplex quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method using the master sex-determining gene sdY as a marker for simultaneous genetic sex identification of salmonids of the Salmo genus and paternity elucidation for Salmo salar × Salmo trutta hybrids. This method will provide a new, simple and economical molecular tool for ecological studies of these species as well as for aquaculture purposes. PMID:24814478

Anglčs d'Auriac, M B; Urke, H A; Kristensen, T

2014-06-01

304

Human mutagens: evidence from paternal exposure  

SciTech Connect

The importance of inherited mutations as a cause of human disease has been established clearly through examples of well-defined genetic anomalies, such as Down syndrome and retinoblastoma. Furthermore, it is suspected that environmental contaminants induce mutations resulting in increased risk for such defects in subsequent generations of persons exposed. The present lack of direct evidence for induced inherited genetic disorders in human beings hampers the development of risk estimation techniques for extrapolation from animal models. The most extensive prospective epidemiologic studies of inherited genetic effects have involved survivors of atomic bomb detonations and patients treated with cancer chemotherapy. In neither case has a significant elevation in inherited genetic effects or cancer been detected in the offspring of exposed individuals. Epidemiologic studies of subjects receiving chronic exposure may be confounded by the effect of maternal exposure during pregnancy. Consideration of only paternal exposure can minimize the confounding influence of teratogenicity, enhancing the resolving power of studies for inherited effects. Using this approach, retrospective (case-control) studies of childhood cancer patients have provided limited but suggestive evidence for inheritance of induced effects. Endpoints, such as congenital malformations and spontaneous abortion following paternal exposure, can also be considered as indicators of heritable mutagenic effects. For example, there is limited evidence suggesting that paternal exposure to anaesthetic gases may cause miscarriage and congenital abnormalities as a result of induced male germ cell mutations. 104 references.

Narod, S.A.; Douglas, G.R.; Nestmann, E.R.; Blakey, D.H.

1988-01-01

305

18F-FDG-PET/CT predicts the distribution of microsatellite lesions in hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to investigate whether fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) is useful for predicting the distance of intrahepatic metastases and microvascular invasion from the main tumor and the pattern of postoperative recurrence. A total of 89 consecutive patients who underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT prior to liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) between April, 2006 and December, 2011 were enrolled in this study. The distance between the microsatellite lesion and the main nodule (microsatellite distance) was analyzed and measured pathologically. The correlation between maximal standardized uptake values (SUVmax) and microsatellite distance was analyzed and the independent risk factors for microsatellite distance >1 cm were assessed. The postoperative recurrence patterns were divided into no recurrence, intrahepatic recurrence and extrahepatic recurrence. SUVmax and the distribution of microsatellite lesions were compared among these groups. The postoperative recurrence patterns were also analyzed according to the SUVmax and the microsatellite lesion pattern. SUVmax was found to be significantly correlated with the distance from the microsatellite lesion to the main nodule (r=0.57, P<0.0001). On the multivariate analysis of microsatellite distance >1 cm, the only significant factor was SUVmax [P=0.002; hazard ratio=1.60; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.23–2.26]. The optimal cutoff value of SUVmax for microsatellite distance >1 cm was 8.8. The mean SUVmax and the microsatellite distance were highest in patients with postoperative extrahepatic metastases (8.6 and 9,160 ?m, respectively). In conclusion, the SUVmax of 18F-FDG PET/CT reflects microsatellite distance and the patterns of postoperative recurrence in HCC. Therefore, 18F-FDG PET/CT may be a useful imaging modality for determining the resection margin and the treatment protocol for HCC.

OCHI, HIRONORI; HIROOKA, MASASHI; HIRAOKA, ATSUSHI; KOIZUMI, YOHEI; ABE, MASANORI; SOGABE, ICHIRO; ISHIMARU, YOSHIHIRO; FURUYA, KEIZOU; MIYAGAWA, MASAO; KAWASAKI, HIDEKI; MICHITAKA, KOJIRO; TAKADA, YASUTSUGU; MOCHIZUKI, TERUHITO; HIASA, YOICHI

2014-01-01

306

Risk management for micro-satellite design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown how the methods of risk analysis have been used in the University of Rome micro-satellite program. One of the driving research topics related to this program is the reduction of cost in building spacecraft. The probability risk analysis techniques seem to be a powerful tool in the field of micro-satellites design, to outline possible faults. Innovation and limited budget forcing the designer to move in a very "risky" environment and can be faced with an as rigorous as possible decision making method. In our project, cost reduction is often attained relying on commercial, not space-rated components, which of course increases risk. This is why the design process should be led by the careful analysis of the risk associated with the selection of components and construction techniques. In standard applications risk can be evaluated from reliability data obtained in previous and well known similar applications. In our case, for many components, there is a lack of reliability data, due to the obvious missing experience when dealing with not yet space qualified, or even never flown before components. This lack is overcome using numerical simulations and practical engineering considerations, but does not allow a rigorous reliability assessment. A simple qualitative analysis is used to rank priorities among subsystems and allocate economic resources and development efforts. The main risk source is space radiation effect on CMOS electronic components. Therefore, development resources are directed to radiation effect mitigation. A procedure is proposed to lower risk without using space rated components.

Santoni, Fabio

2004-02-01

307

Association of microsatellite pairs with segmental duplications in insect genomes  

PubMed Central

Background Segmental duplications (SDs), also known as low-copy repeats, are DNA sequences of length greater than 1 kb which are duplicated with a high degree of sequence identity (greater than 90%) causing instability in genomes. SDs are generally found in the genome as mosaic forms of duplicated sequences which are generated by a two-step process: first, multiple duplicated sequences are aggregated at specific genomic regions, and then, these primary duplications undergo multiple secondary duplications. However, the mechanism of how duplicated sequences are aggregated in the first place is not well understood. Results By analyzing the distribution of microsatellite sequences among twenty insect species in a genome-wide manner it was found that pairs of microsatellites along with the intervening sequences were duplicated multiple times in each genome. They were found as low copy repeats or segmental duplications when the duplicated loci were greater than 1 kb in length and had greater than 90% sequence similarity. By performing a sliding-window genomic analysis for number of paired microsatellites and number of segmental duplications, it was observed that regions rich in repetitive paired microsatellites tend to get richer in segmental duplication suggesting a “rich-gets-richer” mode of aggregation of the duplicated loci in specific regions of the genome. Results further show that the relationship between number of paired microsatellites and segmental duplications among the species is independent of the known phylogeny suggesting that association of microsatellites with segmental duplications may be a species-specific evolutionary process. It was also observed that the repetitive microsatellite pairs are associated with gene duplications but those sequences are rarely retained in the orthologous genes between species. Although some of the duplicated sequences with microsatellites as termini were found within transposable elements (TEs) of Drosophila, most of the duplications are found in the TE-free and gene-free regions of the genome. Conclusion The study clearly suggests that microsatellites are instrumental in extensive sequence duplications that may contribute to species-specific evolution of genome plasticity in insects.

2013-01-01

308

Families, murder, and insanity: a psychiatric review of paternal neonaticide.  

PubMed

Neonaticide is the killing of a newborn within the first 24 h of life. Although relatively uncommon, numerous cases of maternal neonaticide have been reported. To date, only two cases of paternal neonaticide have appeared in the literature. The authors review neonaticide and present two new case reports of paternal neonaticide. A psychodynamic explanation of paternal neonaticide is formulated. A new definition for neonaticide, more consistent with biological and psychological determinants, is suggested. PMID:2313254

Kaye, N S; Borenstein, N M; Donnelly, S M

1990-01-01

309

Development and characterization of microsatellite markers from tropical forage Stylosanthes species and analysis of genetic variability and cross-species transferability.  

PubMed

A limited number of functional molecular markers has slowed the desired genetic improvement of Stylosanthes species. Hence, in an attempt to develop simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, genomic libraries from Stylosanthes seabrana B.L. Maass & 't Mannetje (2n=2x=20) using 5' anchored degenerate microsatellite primers were constructed. Of the 76 new microsatellites, 21 functional primer pairs were designed. Because of the small number of primer pairs designed, 428 expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences from seven Stylosanthes species were also examined for SSR detection. Approximately 10% of sequences delivered functional primer pairs, and after redundancy elimination, 57 microsatellite repeats were selected. Tetranucleotides followed by trinucleotides were the major repeated sequences in Stylosanthes ESTs. In total, a robust set of 21 genomic-SSR (gSSR) and 20 EST-SSR (eSSR) markers were developed. These markers were analyzed for intraspecific diversity within 20 S. seabrana accessions and for their cross-species transferability. Mean expected (He) and observed (Ho) heterozygosity values with gSSR markers were 0.64 and 0.372, respectively, whereas with eSSR markers these were 0.297 and 0.214, respectively. Dendrograms having moderate bootstrap value (23%-94%) were able to distinguish all accessions of S. seabrana with gSSR markers, whereas eSSR markers showed 100% similarities between few accessions. The set of 21 gSSRs, from S. seabrana, and 20 eSSRs, from selected Stylosanthes species, with their high cross-species transferability (45% with gSSRs, 86% with eSSRs) will facilitate genetic improvement of Stylosanthes species globally. PMID:22088085

Chandra, Amaresh; Tiwari, K K; Nagaich, D; Dubey, N; Kumar, S; Roy, A K

2011-12-01

310

Detecting Sex-Biased Gene Flow in African-Americans through the Analysis of Intra- and Inter-Population Variation at Mitochondrial DNA and Y- Chromosome Microsatellites  

PubMed Central

This study reports on variations at the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) hypervariable region 1 (HVR-1) and at seven Y-chromosome microsatellites in an African-American population sample from Chicago, IL, USA. Our results support the hypothesis that the population studied had undergone a European male-biased gene flow. We show that comparisons of intra-and inter-population diversity parameters between African-Americans, Europeans and Africans may help detect sex-biased gene flow, providing a complement to quantitative methods to estimate genetic admixture.

Battaggia, C; Anagnostou, P; Bosch, I; Brisighelli, F; Destro-Bisol, G; Capocasa, M

2012-01-01

311

Genetic structure of the Iberian pig breed using microsatellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary An analysis of 25 microsatellite loci in 210 animals has been used to define the genetic structure of the Iberian pig, traditionally classified into several varieties. In addition, a sample of 20 Duroc pigs was used as an out- group for topology trees. Inter-variety genetic variation was estimated by unbiased average heterozygosity and the number of alleles ob- served.

A M Martinez; J V Delgado; A Rodero; J L Vega-Pla

2000-01-01

312

Detecting microsatellites within genomes: significant variation among algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Microsatellites are short, tandemly-repeated DNA sequences which are widely distributed among genomes. Their structure, role and evolution can be analyzed based on exhaustive extraction from sequenced genomes. Several dedicated algorithms have been developed for this purpose. Here, we compared the detection efficiency of five of them (TRF, Mreps, Sputnik, STAR, and RepeatMasker). RESULTS: Our analysis was first conducted on

Sébastien Leclercq; Eric Rivals; Philippe Jarne

2007-01-01

313

Microsatellite Variation Indicates Population Genetic Structure of Bocaccio  

Microsoft Academic Search

The California groundfish fishery has recently experienced a severe decline in both the biomass and harvest of bocaccio Sebastes paucispinis. The conservation and management actions necessary to reverse this trend require biological data, including information on the population structure, that reflect the basis of productivity. Using microsatellite loci, we conducted a population genetic analysis of bocaccio with samples from waters

Andrew P. Matala; A. K. Gray; A. J. Gharrett; M. S. Love

2004-01-01

314

Microsatellite instability in adenocarcinoma of the prostrate  

SciTech Connect

Instability of tandem repeat sequences (microsatellites) has been reported to play a major etiologic role in familial colon cancer, as well as a potential role in the carcinogenesis of other sporadic neoplasms. These replication errors are the result of faulty DNA excision/repair function controlled at the gene level. In order to examine this phenomenon in prostate cancer, we screened 40 tumors with di-, tri- and tetranucleotide markers spanning eleven chromosomal loci. Microsatellite instability was observed overall in 3 of the 40 cases (7.5%). All changes were identified solely in tetranucleotide sequences (3 of 11 total markers analyzed). One tumor demonstrated repeat length expansions at two loci, while the other tumors did so at a single locus. Both Type 1 (>4 base pairs) and Type II (4 base pairs) mutations were identified. One of these cases also included metastatic nodal disease. Analysis of the metastatic tumor tissue revealed allelic patterns identical to the normal tissue control. A secondary screening of the mutated tumors demonstrated no repeat length alterations in 16 additional markers. A CAG repeat in the androgen receptor (AR) gene was also studied and demonstrated that 3 of 40 (7.5%) tumors contained mutations within this repeat. We concluded that microsatellite instability is uncommon in prostate adenocarcinoma appearing to occur more often in tetranucleotide repeat sequences and in an AR gene repeat. Additionally, these findings suggest that dysfunctional DNA excision/repair mechanisms, as evidenced by the low frequency of replication errors, are unlikely to play a major role in the natural history of prostate cancer.

Terrell, R.B.; Willie, A.H.; Cheville, J.C. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

315

Differentiation among Spanish sheep breeds using microsatellites  

PubMed Central

Genetic variability at 18 microsatellites was analysed on the basis of individual genotypes in five Spanish breeds of sheep – Churra, Latxa, Castellana, Rasa-Aragonesa and Merino -, with Awassi also being studied as a reference breed. The degree of population subdivision calculated between Spanish breeds from FST diversity indices was around 7% of total variability. A high degree of reliability was obtained for individual-breed assignment from the 18 loci by using different approaches among which the Bayesian method provided to be the most efficient, with an accuracy for nine microsatellites of over 99%. Analysis of the Bayesian assignment criterion illustrated the divergence between any one breed and the others, which was highest for Awassi sheep, while no great differences were evident among the Spanish breeds. Relationships between individuals were analysed from the proportion of shared alleles. The resulting dendrogram showed a remarkable breed structure, with the highest level of clustering among members of the Spanish breeds in Latxa and the lowest in Merino sheep, the latter breed exhibiting a peculiar pattern of clustering, with animals grouped into several closely set nodes. Analysis of individual genotypes provided valuable information for understanding intra- and inter-population genetic differences and allowed for a discussion with previously reported results using populations as taxonomic units.

Arranz, Juan-Jose; Bayon, Yolanda; Primitivo, Fermin San

2001-01-01

316

Differentiation among Spanish sheep breeds using microsatellites.  

PubMed

Genetic variability at 18 microsatellites was analysed on the basis of individual genotypes in five Spanish breeds of sheep--Churra, Latxa, Castellana, Rasa-Aragonesa and Merino--with Awassi also being studied as a reference breed. The degree of population subdivision calculated between Spanish breeds from F(ST) diversity indices was around 7% of total variability. A high degree of reliability was obtained for individual-breed assignment from the 18 loci by using different approaches among which the Bayesian method provided to be the most efficient, with an accuracy for nine microsatellites of over 99%. Analysis of the Bayesian assignment criterion illustrated the divergence between any one breed and the others, which was highest for Awassi sheep, while no great differences were evident among the Spanish breeds. Relationships between individuals were analysed from the proportion of shared alleles. The resulting dendrogram showed a remarkable breed structure, with the highest level of clustering among members of the Spanish breeds in Latxa and the lowest in Merino sheep, the latter breed exhibiting a peculiar pattern of clustering, with animals grouped into several closely set nodes. Analysis of individual genotypes provided valuable information for understanding intra- and inter-population genetic differences and allowed for a discussion with previously reported results using populations as taxonomic units. PMID:11712973

Arranz, J J; Bayón, Y; San Primitivo, F

2001-01-01

317

Targeted development of informative microsatellite (SSR) markers  

PubMed Central

We describe a novel approach, selectively amplified microsatellite (SAM) analysis, for the targeted development of informative simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. A modified selectively amplified microsatellite polymorphic loci assay is used to generate multi-locus SSR fingerprints that provide a source of polymorphic DNA markers (SAMs) for use in genetic studies. These polymorphisms capture the repeat length variation associated with SSRs and allow their chromosomal location to be determined prior to the expense of isolating and characterising individual loci. SAMs can then be converted to locus-specific SSR markers with the design and synthesis of a single primer specific to the conserved region flanking the repeat. This approach offers a cost-efficient and rapid method for developing SSR markers for predetermined chromosomal locations and of potential informativeness. The high recovery rate of useful SSR markers makes this strategy a valuable tool for population and genetic mapping studies. The utility of SAM analysis was demonstrated by the development of SSR markers in bread wheat.

Hayden, M. J.; Sharp, P. J.

2001-01-01

318

Genetic structure and reproduction dynamics of Salix reinii during primary succession on Mount Fuji, as revealed by nuclear and chloroplast microsatellite analysis.  

PubMed

The early stage of volcanic desert succession is underway on the southeastern slope of Mount Fuji. We used markers of nuclear microsatellites (simple sequence repeats; SSR) and chloroplast microsatellites (cpSSR) to investigate the population genetic structure and reproduction dynamics of Salix reinii, one of the dominant pioneer shrubs in this area. The number of S. reinii genets in a patch and the area of the largest genet within the patch increased with patch area, suggesting that both clonal growth and seedling recruitment are involved in the reproduction dynamics of S. reinii. Five polymorphic cpSSR markers were developed for S. reinii by sequencing the noncoding regions between universal sequences in the chloroplast genome. Nineteen different cpSSR haplotypes were identified, indicating that S. reinii pioneer genets were created by the long-distance dispersal of seeds originating from different mother genets around the study site, where all vegetation was destroyed during the last eruption. Furthermore, the clustered distributions of different haplotypes within each patch or plot suggested that newly colonized genets tended to be generated from seeds dispersed near the initially established mother genets. These results revealed that the establishment of the S. reinii population on the southeastern slope of Mount Fuji involved two sequential modes of seed dispersal: long-distance dispersal followed by short-distance dispersal. PMID:12675817

Lian, Chunlan; Oishi, Ryuya; Miyashita, Naoya; Nara, Kazuhide; Nakaya, Hironobu; Wu, Bingyun; Zhou, Zhihua; Hogetsu, Taizo

2003-03-01

319

Paternal Age and Risk of Autism in an Ethnically Diverse, Non-Industrialized Setting: Aruba  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to examine paternal age in relation to risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in a setting other than the industrialized west. Design A case-control study of Aruban-born children (1990–2003). Cases (N?=?95) were identified at the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clinic, the only such clinic in Aruba; gender and age matched controls (N?=?347) were gathered from public health records. Parental age was defined categorically (?29, 30–39, 40–49, ?50y). The analysis was made, using conditional logistic regression. Results Advanced paternal age was associated with increased risk of ASDs in offspring. In comparison to the youngest paternal age group (?29y), risk of autism increased 2.18 times for children born from fathers in their thirties, 2.71 times for fathers in their forties, and 3.22 thereafter. Conclusion This study, part of the first epidemiologic study of autism in the Caribbean, contributes additional evidence, from a distinctive sociocultural setting, of the risk of ASD associated with increased paternal age.

van Balkom, Ingrid D. C.; Bresnahan, Michaeline; Vuijk, Pieter Jelle; Hubert, Jan; Susser, Ezra; Hoek, Hans W.

2012-01-01

320

Immune defence, extra-pair paternity, and sexual selection in birds  

PubMed Central

Secondary sexual characters have been suggested to reliably reflect the ability of individuals to resist debilitating parasites, and females may gain direct or indirect fitness benefits from preferring the most extravagantly ornamented males. Extra-pair paternity provides an estimate of an important component of sexual selection in birds. Species with a high frequency of extra-pair paternity have a variance in realized reproductive success that is greater than the variance in apparent reproductive success, and extra-pair copulations and hence extra-pair paternity by females are often directly associated with the expression of male secondary sexual characters. If sexually dichromatic species have experienced a long period of antagonistic coevolution with their parasites, such species should have evolved larger immune defence organs than sexually monochromatic species. Bird species with sexual dichromatism had larger spleens for their body size than monochromatic species in a comparative analysis. Furthermore, species with a high frequency of extra-pair paternity were sexually dichromatic and had large spleens for their body size. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that females of dichromatic bird species seek extra-pair copulations to obtain indirect fitness benefits in terms of superior resistance of their offspring to virulent parasites.

M?ller, A. P.

1997-01-01

321

Sex Differences in Sand Lizard Telomere Inheritance: Paternal Epigenetic Effects Increases Telomere Heritability and Offspring Survival  

PubMed Central

Background To date, the only estimate of the heritability of telomere length in wild populations comes from humans. Thus, there is a need for analysis of natural populations with respect to how telomeres evolve. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we show that telomere length is heritable in free-ranging sand lizards, Lacerta agilis. More importantly, heritability estimates analysed within, and contrasted between, the sexes are markedly different; son-sire heritability is much higher relative to daughter-dam heritability. We assess the effect of paternal age on Telomere Length (TL) and show that in this species, paternal age at conception is the best predictor of TL in sons. Neither paternal age per se at blood sampling for telomere screening, nor corresponding age in sons impact TL in sons. Processes maintaining telomere length are also associated with negative fitness effects, most notably by increasing the risk of cancer and show variation across different categories of individuals (e.g. males vs. females). We therefore tested whether TL influences offspring survival in their first year of life. Indeed such effects were present and independent of sex-biased offspring mortality and offspring malformations. Conclusions/Significance TL show differences in sex-specific heritability with implications for differences between the sexes with respect to ongoing telomere selection. Paternal age influences the length of telomeres in sons and longer telomeres enhance offspring survival.

Olsson, Mats; Pauliny, Angela; Wapstra, Erik; Uller, Tobias; Schwartz, Tonia; Blomqvist, Donald

2011-01-01

322

Isolation of compound microsatellite loci in the herbaceous perennial Cirsium purpuratum (Maxim.) Matsum.  

PubMed

The herbaceous perennial Cirsium purpuratum is a pioneer on the southeast side of Mount Fuji in Japan. For genetic analysis of reproduction in this species, we developed polymorphic compound microsatellite markers using an adaptor-ligated library method and a simpler method called the intercompound microsatellite method. The latter method was an effective method for developing compound simple sequence repeat markers. In total, 11 polymorphic, codominant microsatellite markers were developed and characterized for this species. These polymorphic markers had three to 20 alleles per locus, a range of observed heterozygosity from 0.25 to 0.90, and were considered effective for genetic analysis. PMID:21585900

Wu, Bingyun; Shiokawa, Akiko; Matsushita, Norihisa; Hogetsu, Taizo

2008-07-01

323

Moral Status and the Wrongness of Paternalism  

PubMed Central

In this paper, I consider the view that paternalism is wrong when it demeans or diminishes the paternalizee’s moral status (the Moral Status Argument). I argue that we should reject the Moral Status Argument because it is both too narrow and too broad. It is too narrow because it cannot account for the wrongness of some of the most objectionable paternalistic interventions, namely strong paternalistic interventions. It is too broad because it is unable to distinguish between wrongful paternalistic acts that are plausibly considered more wrong than other wrongful paternalistic acts.

Birks, David

2014-01-01

324

Advanced paternal age and reproductive outcome.  

PubMed

Women have been increasingly delaying the start of motherhood in recent decades. The same trend is seen also for men. The influence of maternal age on fertility, chromosomal anomalies, pregnancy complications, and impaired perinatal and post-natal outcome of offspring, has been thoroughly investigated, and these aspects are clinically applied during fertility and pregestational counseling. Male aging and reproductive outcome has gained relatively less attention. The purpose of this review is to evaluate updated and relevant literature on the effect of paternal age on reproductive outcome. PMID:22157982

Wiener-Megnazi, Zofnat; Auslender, Ron; Dirnfeld, Martha

2012-01-01

325

Assessment of application value of 19 autosomal short tandem repeat loci of GoldenEye 20A kit in forensic paternity testing.  

PubMed

This study was carried out to assess the application value of 19 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci of GoldenEye 20A kit, in which 13 combined DNA index system core STR loci and PentaE, PentaD, D2S1338, D19S433, D12S391, and D6S1043 of six STR loci could be used in forensic paternity testing in Chinese population. We amplified the genomic DNA from blood samples on FTA paper of 289 paternity testing cases by using the GoldenEye 20A kit. The amplified products were detected by capillary electrophoresis, and then the genotypes of 20 genetic markers including 19 STR loci as well as Amelogenin for sex determination were analyzed by GeneMapper v3.2 and GeneMarker HID Software. The results of genotypes were compared to the three commonly used commercial kits including AmpF?STR Identifiler, PowerPlex16, and AmpF?STR Sinofiler kits. Compared to the three other common commercial kits, the GoldenEye 20A kit had higher value of combined paternity index in certainty of paternity or non-exclusion paternity cases, and more numbers of STR loci were excluded in exclusionary paternity cases. Our data in this study showed that the GoldenEye 20A kit has a higher application value in forensic paternity testing and will be of help for kinship analysis. PMID:23483205

Huang, Yan-Mei; Wang, Jie; Jiao, Zhangping; Yang, Liu; Zhang, Xinning; Tang, Hui; Liu, Yacheng

2013-05-01

326

Maternal and Paternal Depressive Symptoms as Predictors of Toddler Adjustment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study we explored the relation between maternal and paternal depressive symptoms and toddler adjustment in a community sample, testing direct, additive, and interactive models of parental depressive symptoms and child adjustment. Participants were 49 families with 30-month-old children. Data were collected on maternal and paternal

Weinfield, Nancy S.; Ingerski, Lisa; Moreau, Stacey Coffey

2009-01-01

327

Parental Psychopathology and Paternal Child Neglect in Late Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We aimed at determining the association of both severity of paternal and maternal substance use disorder (SUD) and psychiatric disorders with paternal child neglect severity during late childhood. The sample comprised 146 intact SUD (n=71) and non SUD (n=75) families with a 10-12 year old female or male biological offspring. The average age of…

Stewart, Chris; Mezzich, Ada C.; Day, Bang-Shiuh

2006-01-01

328

Extrapair paternity and the evolution of bird song  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bird song is usually considered to have evolved in the context of sexual selection. Because extrapair paternity is a major component of sexual selection, mating advantages at the social level for males that produce songs of high quality may be transformed into higher success in extrapair paternity. Therefore, males with longer and more complex songs should suffer less from extrapair

László Zsolt Garamszegi; Anders Pape Mřller

2004-01-01

329

Multiple mutations, covert mutations and false exclusions in paternity casework  

Microsoft Academic Search

The universal practice, up to now, is to make the judgement “paternity excluded” whenever there are more than some established number—such as two—of loci in which the genetic pattern, barring mutation, is inconsistent with paternity. Such a rule is founded on the implicit assumption that the probability of two mutations is vanishingly small. However, the ideal procedure would of course

C. H Brenner

2004-01-01

330

Mouse Zygotes Respond to Severe Sperm DNA Damage by Delaying Paternal DNA Replication and Embryonic Development  

PubMed Central

Mouse zygotes do not activate apoptosis in response to DNA damage. We previously reported a unique form of inducible sperm DNA damage termed sperm chromatin fragmentation (SCF). SCF mirrors some aspects of somatic cell apoptosis in that the DNA degradation is mediated by reversible double strand breaks caused by topoisomerase 2B (TOP2B) followed by irreversible DNA degradation by a nuclease(s). Here, we created zygotes using spermatozoa induced to undergo SCF (SCF zygotes) and tested how they responded to moderate and severe paternal DNA damage during the first cell cycle. We found that the TUNEL assay was not sensitive enough to identify the breaks caused by SCF in zygotes in either case. However, paternal pronuclei in both groups stained positively for ?H2AX, a marker for DNA damage, at 5 hrs after fertilization, just before DNA synthesis, while the maternal pronuclei were negative. We also found that both pronuclei in SCF zygotes with moderate DNA damage replicated normally, but paternal pronuclei in the SCF zygotes with severe DNA damage delayed the initiation of DNA replication by up to 12 hrs even though the maternal pronuclei had no discernable delay. Chromosomal analysis of both groups confirmed that the paternal DNA was degraded after S-phase while the maternal pronuclei formed normal chromosomes. The DNA replication delay caused a marked retardation in progression to the 2-cell stage, and a large portion of the embryos arrested at the G2/M border, suggesting that this is an important checkpoint in zygotic development. Those embryos that progressed through the G2/M border died at later stages and none developed to the blastocyst stage. Our data demonstrate that the zygote responds to sperm DNA damage through a non-apoptotic mechanism that acts by slowing paternal DNA replication and ultimately leads to arrest in embryonic development.

Gawecka, Joanna E.; Marh, Joel; Ortega, Michael; Yamauchi, Yasuhiro; Ward, Monika A.; Ward, W. Steven

2013-01-01

331

Allelotype of uterine cancer by analysis of RFLP and microsatellite polymorphisms: frequent loss of heterozygosity on chromosome arms 3p, 9q, 10q, and 17p.  

PubMed

Cancers in which mutations have been identified in putative tumor suppressor genes, such as the TP53 gene, the retinoblastoma (RBI) gene, the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene, and the Wilms tumor (WTI) gene, frequently show loss of the corresponding allele on the homologous chromosome. To identify locations of tumor suppressor genes involved in uterine cancer, we examined loss of heterozygosity (LOH) by using genomic probes detecting RFLPs in 35 uterine cancers at 29 loci throughout the genome, and with highly informative microsatellite markers in 21 uterine cancers at nine putative or known tumor suppressor gene loci. High frequencies of allelic loss found at loci on 3p (71%), 9q (38%), 10q (35%), and 17p (35%) suggest that tumor suppressor genes involved in uterine carcinogenesis exist in these regions. There were no significant differences in frequencies of LOH between cancers of the uterine cervix and cancers of the uterine endometrium at any of the loci tested. PMID:7513541

Jones, M H; Koi, S; Fujimoto, I; Hasumi, K; Kato, K; Nakamura, Y

1994-02-01

332

Absence of evidence for isolation by distance in an expanding cane toad (Bufo marinus) population: an individual-based analysis of microsatellite genotypes.  

PubMed

The cane toad (Bufo marinus) was introduced in 1935 in Australia, where it spread rapidly. We have tested for isolation by distance by analysing at a local geographical scale a continuous population using seven microsatellite markers and an individual-based method. The matrix of pairwise individual differentiation was not significantly correlated with that of geographical distance. Regression analyses gave a low positive slope of 0.00072 (all individuals) or a negative slope of 0.0017 (individuals with a distance higher than the previously estimated mean dispersal distance). The absence of evidence for isolation by distance favours the hypothesis that the substantial differentiation and autocorrelation previously observed at enzyme loci, mainly results from discontinuities in the colonization process with founder effects occurring at the time of the establishment of new populations. PMID:11091326

Leblois, R; Rousset, F; Tikel, D; Moritz, C; Estoup, A

2000-11-01

333

A novel microsatellite control system  

SciTech Connect

The authors are researching extremely simple yet quite capable analog pulse-coded neural networks for ``smaller-faster-cheaper`` spacecraft attitude and control systems. The will demonstrate a prototype microsatellite that uses their novel control method to autonomously stabilize itself in the ambient magnetic field and point itself at the brightest available light source. Though still in design infancy, the ``Nervous Net`` controllers described could allow for space missions not currently possible given conventional satellite hardware. Result, prospects and details are presented.

Moore, K.R.; Frigo, J.R.; Tilden, M.W.

1998-02-01

334

A dominant spinocerebellar ataxia gene (SCA5) in a family descendent from the paternal grandparents of President Lincoln maps to chromosome 11  

SciTech Connect

Four different genes that cause spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA1, SCA2, Machado Joseph`s Disease (MJD)/SCA3 and SCA4) have been mapped to chromosomes 6p, 12q, 14q, and 16q, respectively. We have examined and collected 170 individuals (56 affected) from a previously unreported 10 generation kindred (the Lincoln Family) with a dominant ataxia that is clinically and genetically distinct from those previously mapped. The family has two major branches from Indiana and Kentucky. Of historical interest is that both branches descend from the paternal grandparents of President Abraham Lincoln. While the ataxia in this kindred is disabling, the most striking clinical distinction from SCA1, SCA2 and MJD/SCA3 is that it is generally not life threatening. This clinical difference is explained by the absence of bulbar paralysis and lower motor neuron degeneration that causes respiratory muscle weakness. We have mapped the gene, SCA5, using microsatellite markers spaced at 20-40 cM intervals throughout the genome. After 75 markers, the first to demonstrate a lod score greater than 3.0 was D11S871 (Zmax=5.05). Four additional markers from the centromeric region of chromosome 11 also gave lod scores greater than 3. The highest lod scores were 12.3 for both D11S905 ({theta}=0.056) and D11S913 ({theta}=0.030). Multipoint linkage and haplotype analyses indicate the most likely location for SCA5 is within the 7 cM interval between GATA2A01 and D11S913. A statistical analysis of the age of onset of parent-offspring pairs within the family supports (p<0.0002) the presence of anticipation. Several dramatic examples of anticipation have been observed in which grandmothers have onsets 10-20 years later in life than their daughters who have onsets 10-20 years later than their children. Interestingly, all four of the juvenile onset cases are maternally inherited, suggesting a maternal bias in anticipation for SCA5 rather than a paternal bias as seen with SCA1.

Ranum, L.P.W.; Lundgren, J.K.; Schut, L.J. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

1994-09-01

335

Transcriptome analysis of channel catfish ( Ictalurus punctatus): initial analysis of gene expression and microsatellite-containing cDNAs in the skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous molecular genetic studies on channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) have focused on limited number of genes and gene products. Recent advancement of molecular techniques made high throughput analysis of transcriptomes possible. As part of our transcriptome analysis of channel catfish, we have analyzed 1909 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) derived from a skin library. Of the 1909 ESTs analyzed, 1376 (72.1%)

Attila Karsi; Dongfeng Cao; Ping Li; Andrea Patterson; Arif Kocabas; Jinian Feng; Zhenlin Ju; Kathryn D. Mickett; Zhanjiang Liu

2002-01-01

336

Microsatellites in palm (Arecaceae) sequences  

PubMed Central

Microsatellites are the most promising co-dominant markers, widely distributed throughout the genome. Identification of these repeating genomic subsets is a tedious and iterative process making computational approaches highly useful for solving this biological problem. Here 38,083 microsatellites were localized in palm sequences. A total of 2, 97,023 sequences retrieved from public domains were used for this study. The sequences were unstained using the tool Seqclean and consequently clustered using CAP3. SSRs are located in the sequences using the microsatellite search tool, MISA. Repeats were detected in 33,309 sequences and more than one SSR had appeared in 3,943 sequences. In the present study, dinucleotide repeats (49%) were found to be more abundant followed by mononucleotide (30%) and trinucleotide (19%). Also among the dinucleotides, AG/GA/TC/CT motifs (55.8%) are predominantly repeating within the palm sequences. Thus in future this study will lead to the development of specific algorithm for mining SSRs exclusively for palms.

Palliyarakkal, Manju Kalathil; Ramaswamy, Manimekalai; Vadivel, Arunachalam

2011-01-01

337

Domain-Level Differences in Microsatellite Distribution and Content Result from Different Relative Rates of Insertion and Deletion Mutations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microsatellites (short tandem polynucleotide repeats) are found throughout eukaryotic genomes at frequencies many orders of magnitude higher than the frequencies predicted to occur by chance. Most of these microsatellites appear to have evolved in a generally neutral manner. In contrast, microsatellites are generally absent from bacterial genomes except in locations where they provide adaptive functional variability, and these appear to have evolved under selection. We demonstrate a mutational bias towards deletion (repeat contraction) in a native chromosomal microsatellite of the bacterium Mycoplasma gallisepticum, through the collection and analysis of independent mutations in the absence of natural selection. Using this and similar existing data from two other bacterial species and four eukaryotic species, we find strong evidence that deletion biases resulting in repeat contraction are common in bacteria, while eukaryotic microsatellites generally experience unbiased mutation or a bias towards insertion (repeat expansion). This difference in mutational bias suggests that eukaryotic microsatellites should generally expand wherever selection does not exclude them, whereas bacterial microsatellites should be driven to extinction by mutational pressure wherever they are not maintained by selection. This is consistent with observed bacterial and eukaryotic microsatellite distributions. Hence, mutational biases that differ between eukaryotes and bacteria can account for many of the observed differences in microsatellite DNA content and distribution found in these two groups of organisms.

Metzgar, David; Liu, Li; Hansen, Christian; Dybvig, Kevin; Wills, Christopher

2003-01-01

338

Impact of a chromosome X STR Decaplex in deficiency paternity cases  

PubMed Central

Deficiency paternity cases, characterized by the absence of the alleged father, are a challenge for forensic genetics. Here we present four cases with a female child and a deceased alleged father in which the analysis of a set of 21 or 22 autosomal STRs (AS STRs) produced results within a range of doubt when genotyping relatives of the alleged father. Aiming to increase the Paternity Index (PI) and obtain more reliable results, a set of 10 X-linked STR markers, developed by the Spanish and Portuguese Group of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG), was then added. Statistical analysis substantially shifted the results towards the alleged fatherhood in all four cases, with more dramatic changes when the supposed half-sister and respective mother were the relatives tested.

Trindade-Filho, Aluisio; Ferreira, Samuel; Oliveira, Silviene F.

2013-01-01

339

Impact of a chromosome X STR Decaplex in deficiency paternity cases.  

PubMed

Deficiency paternity cases, characterized by the absence of the alleged father, are a challenge for forensic genetics. Here we present four cases with a female child and a deceased alleged father in which the analysis of a set of 21 or 22 autosomal STRs (AS STRs) produced results within a range of doubt when genotyping relatives of the alleged father. Aiming to increase the Paternity Index (PI) and obtain more reliable results, a set of 10 X-linked STR markers, developed by the Spanish and Portuguese Group of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG), was then added. Statistical analysis substantially shifted the results towards the alleged fatherhood in all four cases, with more dramatic changes when the supposed half-sister and respective mother were the relatives tested. PMID:24385853

Trindade-Filho, Aluisio; Ferreira, Samuel; Oliveira, Silviene F

2013-12-01

340

Telomere length, family history, and paternal age in schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is longer in association with advanced paternal age, but this association has not been examined along with family history (FH) in schizophrenia. LTL was measured by PCR and compared across cases and controls as part of a study to examine the characteristics of paternal age related schizophrenia. The 53 schizophrenia cases had similar mean LTL as 20 controls, although cases were significantly older than controls and overwhelmingly smoked cigarettes. Multivariate analyses showed that a FH of schizophrenia was associated with longer LTL in both male and female cases. Later paternal age was also related to longer LTL in male cases, but with shorter LTL in female cases. Male cases with older fathers and a FH had the longest LTL. The genetic architecture associated with a familial risk for schizophrenia may include pathways that lengthen LTL. Paternal aging conferred an additional increase in LTL lengthening in male cases, but reduced LTL in female cases. The gender difference in LTL for paternal aging is consistent with the severe illness features reported for female cases with older fathers and could implicate epigenetic alterations in the paternal X chromosomal region with advanced paternal age in association with the risk for schizophrenia.

Malaspina, Dolores; Dracxler, Roberta; Walsh-Messinger, Julie; Harlap, Susan; Goetz, Raymond R; Keefe, David; Perrin, Mary C

2014-01-01

341

The impact of paternity on male-infant association in a primate with low paternity certainty  

PubMed Central

In multi-male groups where females mate promiscuously, male-infant associations have rarely been studied. However, recent studies have shown that males selectively support their offspring during agonistic conflicts with other juveniles and that father’s presence accelerates offspring maturation. Furthermore, it was shown that males invest in unrelated infants to enhance future mating success with the infant’s mother. Hence, infant care might provide fitness gain for males. Here we investigate male-infant associations in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), a primate with low paternity certainty as females mate with multiple partners and males ensure paternity less efficiently through mate-guarding. We combined behavioral data with genetic paternity analyses of one cohort of the semifree-ranging population of Cayo Santiago (Puerto Rico) and recorded affiliative and aggressive interactions between focal subjects and adult males from birth to sexual maturation (0–4 years) of focal subjects. Our results revealed, that 9.6% of all interactions of focal subjects involved an adult male and 94% of all male-infant interactions were affiliative, indicating the rareness of male-infant aggression. Second and most interestingly, sires were more likely to affiliate with their offspring than non-sires with unrelated infants. This preference was independent of mother’s proximity and emphasized during early infancy. Male-infant affiliation rose with infant age and was pronounced between adult males and male rather than female focal subjects. Overall our results suggest that male-infant affiliation are also an important component in structuring primate societies and affiliation directed towards own offspring presumably represent low cost paternal care.

Langos, Doreen; Kulik, Lars; Mundry, Roger; Widdig, Anja

2013-01-01

342

Linkage analysis of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy and microsatellite loci spanning 61 cM of human chromosome 6p in 19 nuclear pedigrees provides no evidence for a susceptibility locus in this region  

SciTech Connect

Linkage analysis in separately ascertained families of probands with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) has previously provided evidence both for and against the existence of a locus (designated {open_quotes}EJM1{close_quotes}), on chromosome 6p, predisposing to a trait defined as either clinical JME, its associated electroencephalographic abnormality, or idiopathic generalized epilepsy. Linkage analysis was performed in 19 families in which a proband and at least one first- or two second-degree relatives have clinical JME. Family members were typed for seven highly polymorphic microsatellite markers on chromosome 6p: D6S260, D6S276, D6S291, D6S271, D6S465, D6S257, and D6S254. Pairwise and multipoint linkage analysis was carried out under the assumptions of autosomal dominant inheritance at 70% and 50% penetrance and autosomal recessive inheritance at 70% and 50% penetrance. No significant evidence in favor of linkage to the clinical trait of JME was obtained for any locus. The region formally excluded (LOD score <-2) by using multipoint analysis varies depending on the assumptions made concerning inheritance parameters and the proportion of linked families, {alpha} - that is, the degree of locus heterogeneity. Further analysis either classifying all unaffected individuals as unknown or excluding a subset of four families in which pyknoleptic absence seizures were present in one or more individuals did not alter these conclusions. 24 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Elmslie, F.V.; Williamson, M.P.; Rees, M. [Rayne Inst., London (United Kingdom)] [and others

1996-09-01

343

Paternal exposure to mercury and spontaneous abortions.  

PubMed Central

The potential reproductive toxicity of mercury vapour was investigated by comparing the rate of spontaneous abortions among the wives of 152 workers occupationally exposed to mercury vapour with the rate among the wives of 374 controls in the same plant. The results indicate an increase in the rate of spontaneous abortions with an increasing concentration of mercury in the fathers' urine before pregnancy. At concentrations above 50 micrograms/l the risk of spontaneous abortion doubles (odds ratio (OR) = 2.26; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.99-5.23). Special care was taken to avoid bias in reporting abortions and known risk factors of spontaneous abortions do not seem to explain the results. Several biological mechanisms might account for them including, in particular, direct action of mercury on the paternal reproductive system and indirect toxicity to the mother or embryo through transport of mercury from the father. These indications could be of practical importance and should therefore be further documented.

Cordier, S; Deplan, F; Mandereau, L; Hemon, D

1991-01-01

344

MICROSATELLITE MARKERS REVEAL DIFFERENTIATION OF SOUTHEASTERN AND WESTERN EUROPEAN SHEEP BREEDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Fifty-seven European, particularly Mediterranean, and Middle Eastern sheep breeds from 15 countries were typed with 31 microsatellite markers. Principle component and Bayesian model-based clustering analysis based on allele frequencies revealed a clear distinction between Western European breeds on the one hand and Southeastern European and Middle Eastern breeds on the other hand. Abstract Thirty-one microsatellite markers covering 22 chromosomes,

Peter Christina; Dalamitra Stella; Perez Trinidad

345

Northern Slavs from Serbia do not show a founder effect at autosomal and Y-chromosomal STRs and retain their paternal genetic heritage.  

PubMed

Studies on Y-chromosomal markers revealed significant genetic differentiation between Southern and Northern (Western and Eastern) Slavic populations. The northern Serbian region of Vojvodina is inhabited by Southern Slavic Serbian majority and, inter alia, Western Slavic (Slovak) and Eastern Slavic (Ruthenian) minorities. In the study, 15 autosomal STR markers were analysed in unrelated Slovaks, Ruthenians and Serbs from northern Serbia and western Slovakia. Additionally, Slovak males from Serbia were genotyped for 17 Y-chromosomal STR loci. The results were compared to data available for other Slavic populations. Genetic distances for autosomal markers revealed homogeneity between Serbs from northern Serbia and Slovaks from western Slovakia and distinctiveness of Serbian Slovaks and Ruthenians. Y-STR variation showed a clear genetic departure of the Slovaks and Ruthenians inhabiting Vojvodina from their Serbian neighbours and genetic similarity to the Northern Slavic populations of Slovakia and Ukraine. Admixture estimates revealed negligible Serbian paternal ancestry in both Northern Slavic minorities of Vojvodina, providing evidence for their genetic isolation from the Serbian majority population. No reduction of genetic diversity at autosomal and Y-chromosomal markers was found, excluding genetic drift as a reason for differences observed at autosomal STRs. Analysis of molecular variance detected significant population stratification of autosomal and Y-chromosomal microsatellites in the three Slavic populations of northern Serbia, indicating necessity for separate databases used for estimations of frequencies of autosomal and Y-chromosomal STR profiles in forensic casework. Our results demonstrate that regarding Y-STR haplotypes, Serbian Slovaks and Ruthenians fit in the Eastern European metapopulation defined in the Y chromosome haplotype reference database. PMID:24315599

R?ba?a, Krzysztof; Veselinovi?, Igor; Siváková, Daniela; Patskun, Erika; Kravchenko, Sergey; Szczerkowska, Zofia

2014-01-01

346

Relatedness threshold for the production of female sexuals in colonies of a polygynous ant, Myrmica tahoensis, as revealed by microsatellite DNA analysis.  

PubMed Central

The genetic relationships of colony members in the ant Myrmica tahoensis were determined on the basis of highly polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci. These analyses show that colonies fall into one of two classes. In roughly half of the sampled colonies, workers and female offspring appear to be full sisters. The remaining colonies contain offspring produced by two or more queens. Colonies that produce female sexuals are always composed of highly related females, while colonies that produce males often show low levels of nestmate relatedness. These results support theoretical predictions that workers should skew sex allocation in response to relatedness asymmetries found within colonies. The existence of a relatedness threshold below which female sexuals are not produced suggests a possible mechanism for worker perception of relatedness. Two results indicate that workers use genetic cues, not queen number, in making sex-allocation decisions. (i) The number of queens in a colony was not significantly correlated with either the level of relatedness asymmetry or the sex ratio. (ii) Sex-ratio shifts consistent with a genetically based mechanism of relatedness assessment were seen in an experiment involving transfers of larvae among unrelated nests. Thus workers appear to make sex-allocation decisions on the basis of larval cues and appear to be able to adjust sex ratios long after egg laying. Images Fig. 2

Evans, J D

1995-01-01

347

Karyotypic analysis and FISH mapping of microsatellite motifs reveal highly differentiated XX/XY sex chromosomes in the pink-tailed worm-lizard (Aprasia parapulchella, Pygopodidae, Squamata)  

PubMed Central

Background The infraorder Gekkota is intriguing because it contains multiple chromosomal and environmental sex determination systems that vary even among closely related taxa. Here, we compare male and females karyotypes of the pink-tailed worm-lizard (Aprasia parapulchella), a small legless lizard belonging to the endemic Australian family Pygopodidae. Results We applied comparative genomic hybridization to reveal an XX/XY sex chromosome system in which the Y chromosome is highly differentiated from the X in both gross morphology and DNA sequence. In addition, FISH mapping has revealed that two microsatellite repeat motifs, (AGAT)n and (AC)n, have been amplified multiple times on the Y chromosome. Conclusion XY karyotypes are found in other pygopodids (Delma inornata and Lialis burtonis), suggesting that the common ancestor of Pygopodidae also had XY sex chromosomes. However, the morphology and size of the Y chromosomes are different among the three species, suggesting that the processes underlying the evolution of sex chromosomes in the Pygopodidae involved chromosome rearrangements and accumulation and amplification of repeats.

2013-01-01

348

Population genetic analysis of microsatellite variation of guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in Trinidad and Tobago: evidence for a dynamic source-sink metapopulation structure, founder events and population bottlenecks.  

PubMed

Riverine fish populations are traditionally considered to be highly structured and subject to strong genetic drift. Here, we use microsatellites to analyse the population structure of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), focussing on the headwater floodplain area of the Caroni drainage in Trinidad. We also analyse the population genetics of guppies in the Northern Drainage in Trinidad, a habitat characterized by rivers flowing directly into the sea, and a small isolated population in Tobago. Upland Caroni populations are highly differentiated and display low levels of genetic diversity. However, we found no evidence to suggest that these upland populations experienced recent population crashes and the populations appear to approach mutation-drift equilibrium. Dominant downstream migration over both short- and long-time frames has a strong impact on the population genetics of lowland Caroni populations. This drainage system could be considered a source-sink metapopulation, with the tributary furthest downstream representing a 'super sink', receiving immigrants from rivers upstream in the drainage. Moreover, the effective population size in the lowlands is surprisingly low in comparison with the apparently large census population sizes. PMID:19210594

Barson, N J; Cable, J; Van Oosterhout, C

2009-03-01

349

Tetranucleotide microsatellites for aquila and haliaeetus eagles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A unique community of four syntopic eagle species exists in north-central Kazakhstan. Questions about behaviour and genetics in these four species would benefit from the development of microsatellite markers. We isolated eight polymorphic microsatellite repeats (AAAG) n from the eastern imperial eagle ( Aquila heliaca ) genome using a hybridiza- tion enrichment technique. These loci revealed moderate diversity in a

JOSEPH D. BUSCH; TODD E. KATZNER; EVGENY BRAGIN; PAUL. KEIM

2005-01-01

350

Additional microsatellite markers for mouse genome mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mouse sequence information from the EMBL and GenBank databases, published sequences and genomic clones have been analyzed for simple repetitive elements or microsatellites. Each microsatellite has been amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a single locus marker. PCR primers were designed from unique sequence flanking each repeat. Size variation of PCR products less than 750 base pairs (bp)

Catherine M. Hearne; Marcia A. McAleer; Jennifer M. Love; Timothy J. Aitman; Richard J. Cornall; Soumitra Ghosh; Andrew M. Knight; Jan-Bas Prins; John A. Todd

1991-01-01

351

A5 92-Kilobase-Pair Region of the Imprinted Mouse H19 Gene Exhibits Exclusive Paternal Methylation throughout Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The imprinted mouse H19 gene is hypermethylated on the inactive paternal allele in somatic tissues and sperm. Previous observations from a limited analysis have suggested that methylation of a few CpG dinucle- otides in the region upstream from the start of transcription may be the mark that confers parental identity to the H19 alleles. Here we exploit bisulfite mutagenesis coupled

KIMBERLY D. TREMBLAY; KRISTEN L. DURAN; MARISA S. BARTOLOMEI

1997-01-01

352

Canine Paternity Testing--Using Personal Experiences To Teach Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines how an example from the field of animal husbandry is used in a DNA Technology course to motivate students to take a deeper interest in the material. Focuses on paternity testing in dogs. (DDR)

Rascati, Ralph J.

2002-01-01

353

Paternal postpartum depression: what health care providers should know.  

PubMed

Paternal postpartum depression (PPD) is a clinically significant problem for families that is currently underscreened, underdiagnosed, and undertreated. Maternal PPD is a well-known condition and has been extensively researched. In comparison, PPD in fathers and its potential effects on the family are not widely recognized. Studies have shown the importance of optimal mental health in fathers during the postpartum period. Negative effects of paternal PPD affect marital/partner relationships, infant bonding, and child development. To promote optimal health for parents and children, pediatric nurse practitioners must stay up to date on this topic. This article discusses the relationship of paternal PPD to maternal PPD; the consequences, signs, and symptoms; and the pediatric nurse practitioner's role in assessing and managing paternal PPD. PMID:23182851

Musser, Anna K; Ahmed, Azza H; Foli, Karen J; Coddington, Jennifer A

2013-01-01

354

Development of 57 novel polymorphic microsatellite markers in half-smooth tongue sole ( Cynoglossus semilaevis)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Half-smooth tongue sole ( Cynoglossus semilaevis) is a promising species for aquaculture in China. The wild population of C. semilaevis is under threat from environmental factors. Microsatellite markers are very suitable for assessing genetic diversity. Four microsatellite-enriched libraries of half smooth tongue sole ( Cynoglossus semilaevis) were constructed, from which 57 polymorphic microsatellites were isolated and characterized. The polymorphism of these microsatellites was assessed by genotyping in 30 individual fish. The number of alleles ranged from 2 to 11, with an average of 4.614 alleles per locus. The values of observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.1000 to 1.0000 and from 0.0966 to 0.8847 respectively. Polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.0905 to 0.862. These markers would be useful for population structure assessment, genetic linkage map construction and parentage analysis for this species.

Miao, Guidong; Xu, Ying; Wang, Di; Chen, Songlin; Fan, Tingjun; Tian, Yongsheng

2011-09-01

355

The Rate and Spectrum of Microsatellite Mutation in Caenorhabditis elegans and Daphnia pulex  

PubMed Central

The effective use of microsatellite loci as tools for microevolutionary analysis requires knowledge of the factors influencing the rate and pattern of mutation, much of which is derived from indirect inference from population samples. Interspecific variation in microsatellite stability also provides a glimpse into aspects of phylogenetic constancy of mutational processes. Using long-term series of mutation-accumulation lines, we have obtained direct estimates of the spectrum of microsatellite mutations in two model systems: the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the microcrustacean Daphnia pulex. Although the scaling of the mutation rate with the number of tandem repeats is highly consistent across distantly related species, including yeast and human, the per-cell-division mutation rate appears to be elevated in multicellular species. Contrary to the expectations under the stepwise mutation model, most microsatellite mutations in C. elegans and D. pulex involve changes of multiple repeat units, with expansions being much more common than contractions.

Seyfert, Amanda L.; Cristescu, Melania E. A.; Frisse, Linda; Schaack, Sarah; Thomas, W. Kelley; Lynch, Michael

2008-01-01

356

Paternal deprivation prior to adolescence and vulnerability to pituitary adenomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been reported that women with prolactinoma were exposed, early in life, to an environment characterized by an absent\\u000a or violent father. The present study was designed to evaluate whether paternal absence or violent paternal behavior were more\\u000a prevalent in patients with pituitary adenomas (prolactinoma, acromegaly, non-secreting adenoma and Cushing’s disease) compared\\u000a to a control population. We conducted an

L. G. Sobrinho; J. S. Duarte; I. Paiva; L. Gomes; V. Vicente; P. Aguiar

357

Paternal inheritance of mitochondrial DNA in the sheep ( Ovine aries )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paternal inheritance of mitochondria DNA in sheep was discovered by examination of 152 sheep from 38 hybrid families for mtDNA\\u000a D-loop polymorphisms using PCR-RFLP, amplification of repeated sequence somain, and PCR-SSCP of the D-loop 5? end region of\\u000a a 253 bp fragment. Our findings have provided the first evidence of paternal inheritance of mtDNA in sheep and possible mechanisms\\u000a of

Xingbo Zhao; Mingxing Chu; Ning Li; Changxin Wu

2001-01-01

358

Oxytocin changes primate paternal tolerance to offspring in food transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxytocin facilitates social recognition in rats and mice, onset of maternal behavior in virgin mice and formation of pair\\u000a bonds without copulation in prairie voles. However, the relationship between this peptide and paternal behavior in primates\\u000a remains largely unknown. We investigated whether oxytocin affects paternal behavior in common marmosets. In these primates,\\u000a fathers as well as mothers take care of

Atsuko Saito; Katsuki Nakamura

2011-01-01

359

Genetic origins of the Ainu inferred from combined DNA analyses of maternal and paternal lineages.  

PubMed

The Ainu, a minority ethnic group from the northernmost island of Japan, was investigated for DNA polymorphisms both from maternal (mitochondrial DNA) and paternal (Y chromosome) lineages extensively. Other Asian populations inhabiting North, East, and Southeast Asia were also examined for detailed phylogeographic analyses at the mtDNA sequence type as well as Y-haplogroup levels. The maternal and paternal gene pools of the Ainu contained 25 mtDNA sequence types and three Y-haplogroups, respectively. Eleven of the 25 mtDNA sequence types were unique to the Ainu and accounted for over 50% of the population, whereas 14 were widely distributed among other Asian populations. Of the 14 shared types, the most frequently shared type was found in common among the Ainu, Nivkhi in northern Sakhalin, and Koryaks in the Kamchatka Peninsula. Moreover, analysis of genetic distances calculated from the mtDNA data revealed that the Ainu seemed to be related to both the Nivkhi and other Japanese populations (such as mainland Japanese and Okinawans) at the population level. On the paternal side, the vast majority (87.5%) of the Ainu exhibited the Asian-specific YAP+ lineages (Y-haplogroups D-M55* and D-M125), which were distributed only in the Japanese Archipelago in this analysis. On the other hand, the Ainu exhibited no other Y-haplogroups (C-M8, O-M175*, and O-M122*) common in mainland Japanese and Okinawans. It is noteworthy that the rest of the Ainu gene pool was occupied by the paternal lineage (Y-haplogroup C-M217*) from North Asia including Sakhalin. Thus, the present findings suggest that the Ainu retain a certain degree of their own genetic uniqueness, while having higher genetic affinities with other regional populations in Japan and the Nivkhi among Asian populations. PMID:14997363

Tajima, Atsushi; Hayami, Masanori; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Juji, Takeo; Matsuo, Masafumi; Marzuki, Sangkot; Omoto, Keiichi; Horai, Satoshi

2004-01-01

360

Using forensic microsatellites to decipher the genetic structure of linguistic and geographic isolates: A survey in the eastern Italian Alps.  

PubMed

The study of geographically and/or linguistically isolated populations could represent a potential area of interaction between population and forensic genetics. These investigations may be useful to evaluate the suitability of loci which have been selected using forensic criteria for bio-anthropological studies. At the same time, they give us an opportunity to evaluate the efficiency of forensic tools for parentage testing in groups with peculiar allele frequency profiles. Within the frame of a long-term project concerning Italian linguistic isolates, we studied 15 microsatellite loci (Identifiler kit) comprising the CODIS panel in 11 populations from the north-eastern Italian Alps (Veneto, Trentino and Friuli Venezia Giulia regions). All our analyses of inter-population differentiation highlight the genetic distinctiveness of most Alpine populations comparing them either to each other or with large and non-isolated Italian populations. Interestingly, we brought to light some aspects of population genetic structure which cannot be detected using unilinear polymorphisms. In fact, the analysis of genotypic disequilibrium between loci detected signals of population substructure when all the individuals of Alpine populations are pooled in a single group. Furthermore, despite the relatively low number of loci analyzed, genetic differentiation among Alpine populations was detected at individual level using a Bayesian method to cluster multilocus genotypes. Among the various populations studied, the four linguistic minorities (Fassa Valley, Luserna, Sappada and Sauris) showed the most pronounced diversity and signatures of a peculiar genetic ancestry. Finally, we show that database replacement may affect estimates of probability of paternity even when the local database is replaced by another based on populations which share a common genetic background but which differ in their demographic history. These findings point to the importance of considering the demographic and cultural profile of populations in forensic applications, even in a context of substantial genetic homogeneity such as that of European populations. PMID:22595149

Montinaro, Francesco; Boschi, Ilaria; Trombetta, Federica; Merigioli, Sara; Anagnostou, Paolo; Battaggia, Cinzia; Capocasa, Marco; Crivellaro, Federica; Destro Bisol, Giovanni; Coia, Valentina

2012-12-01

361

Paternal social enrichment effects on maternal behavior and offspring growth  

PubMed Central

Paternal environmental experiences are significant predictors of developmental outcomes in offspring and can occur even in the absence of paternal care. Although there has been a recent focus on the role of environmentally induced changes in the male germline in producing these effects, the potential mediating role of mothers has not been investigated. A role for mothers in the transmission of paternal effects has been well acknowledged in behavioral ecology, which predicts that females will dynamically adjust their reproductive investment in response to the qualities of their mate. In the present study, we show that a lifetime of socially enriched compared with impoverished housing conditions shifts anxiety-like behavior and gene expression of male mice. Females that mate with enriched-reared males exhibit increased levels of pup nursing and licking toward their offspring, which are associated with changes in gene expression within the maternal hypothalamus. Significantly, these changes in maternal behavior are correlated with the general levels of anxiety exhibited by their male mates. Further, we show that paternal environmental enrichment results in increased growth of their offspring. These results suggest that maternal–paternal interactions at mating may guide offspring development, with significant implications for the transgenerational transmission of paternal environmental experiences.

Mashoodh, Rahia; Franks, Becca; Curley, James P.; Champagne, Frances A.

2012-01-01

362

The effect of paternal age on fetal birth outcomes.  

PubMed

Research investigating the role of paternal age in adverse birth outcomes is limited. This population-based retrospective cohort study used the Missouri maternally linked data set from 1989 to 2005 to assess whether paternal age affects fetal birth outcomes: low birth weight (LBW), preterm birth (PTB), stillbirth, and small size for gestational age (SGA). We examined these outcomes among infants across seven paternal age-groups (<20, 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39, 40-45, and >45 years) using the generalized estimating equation framework. Compared with infants born to younger fathers (25-29 years), infants born to fathers aged 40 to 45 years had a 24% increased risk of stillbirth but a reduced risk of SGA. A 48% increased risk of late stillbirth was observed in infants born to advanced paternal age (>45 years). Moreover, advanced paternal age (>45 years) was observed to result in a 19%, 13%, and 29% greater risk for LBW, PTB, and VPTB (very preterm birth) infants, respectively. Infants born to fathers aged 30 to 39 years had a lower risk of LBW, PTB, and SGA, whereas those born to fathers aged 24 years or younger had an elevated likelihood of experiencing these same adverse outcomes. These findings demonstrate that paternal age influences birth outcomes and warrants further investigation. PMID:22564913

Alio, Amina P; Salihu, Hamisu M; McIntosh, Cheri; August, Euna M; Weldeselasse, Hanna; Sanchez, Emanny; Mbah, Alfred K

2012-09-01

363

Microsatellite and mtDNA analysis of lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, from Great Bear Lake, Northwest Territories: impacts of historical and contemporary evolutionary forces on Arctic ecosystems.  

PubMed

Resolving the genetic population structure of species inhabiting pristine, high latitude ecosystems can provide novel insights into the post-glacial, evolutionary processes shaping the distribution of contemporary genetic variation. In this study, we assayed genetic variation in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Great Bear Lake (GBL), NT and one population outside of this lake (Sandy Lake, NT) at 11 microsatellite loci and the mtDNA control region (d-loop). Overall, population subdivision was low, but significant (global F(ST) ? = 0.025), and pairwise comparisons indicated that significance was heavily influenced by comparisons between GBL localities and Sandy Lake. Our data indicate that there is no obvious genetic structure among the various basins within GBL (global F(ST) = 0.002) despite the large geographic distances between sampling areas. We found evidence of low levels of contemporary gene flow among arms within GBL, but not between Sandy Lake and GBL. Coalescent analyses suggested that some historical gene flow occurred among arms within GBL and between GBL and Sandy Lake. It appears, therefore, that contemporary (ongoing dispersal and gene flow) and historical (historical gene flow and large founding and present-day effective population sizes) factors contribute to the lack of neutral genetic structure in GBL. Overall, our results illustrate the importance of history (e.g., post-glacial colonization) and contemporary dispersal ecology in shaping genetic population structure of Arctic faunas and provide a better understanding of the evolutionary ecology of long-lived salmonids in pristine, interconnected habitats. PMID:23404390

Harris, Les N; Howland, Kimberly L; Kowalchuk, Matthew W; Bajno, Robert; Lindsay, Melissa M; Taylor, Eric B

2012-01-01

364

Analysis of nrDNA sequences and microsatellite allele frequencies reveals a cryptic chanterelle species Cantharellus cascadensis sp. nov. from the American Pacific Northwest.  

PubMed

In the Pacific Northwest, yellow chanterelles have long been referred to as Cantharellus cibarius, synonymous with the European yellow chanterelle. Broad scale genetic surveys of North American chanterelles with C. cibarius-like morphology have demonstrated that the nrDNA internal transcribed spacer exhibits length variability, suggesting that this common morphology masks a species complex. Recently researchers have used morphological and genetic data to identify the yellow chanterelle most frequently harvested from American Pacific Northwest forests as C. formosus, a species once thought to be rare in the region. We present three genetic data sets and one morphological data set that characterize a previously undescribed, species of yellow chanterelle from the central Cascade Mountains of Oregon. Phylogenetic analyses of the nrDNA large subunit and ITS regions show that C. cascadensis sp. nov., along with two other yellow chanterelle taxa (C. cibarius var. roseocanus and European C. cibarius), are more closely related to white chanterelles (C. subalbidus) than they are to C. formosus. Data from five microsatellite loci provide evidence that C. formosus, C. subalbidus, and C. cascadensis sp. nov. do not interbreed when they co-occur spatially and temporally in Douglas fir-western hemlock forests. This demonstrates that these three sympatric chanterelles are biological species with boundaries congruent with those delineated by nrDNA phylogenetic clades. Morphological data indicate that the colour of the pileus and shape of the stipe can be used to separate fresh collections of the two yellow species now known to co-occur in Douglas fir-western hemlock forests in Oregon. PMID:14635765

Dunham, Susie M; O'Dell, Thomas E; Molina, Randy

2003-10-01

365

Cues of Paternal Uncertainty and Father to Child Physical Abuse as Reported by Mothers in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Paternity is uncertain, so if paternal feelings evolved to promote fitness, we might expect them to vary in response to variables indicative of paternity probability. We therefore hypothesized that the risk of lapses of paternal affection, including abusive assaults on children, will be exacerbated by cues of non-paternity. Methods:…

Alexandre, Gisele Caldas; Nadanovsky, Paulo; Wilson, Margo; Daly, Martin; Moraes, Claudia Leite; Reichenheim, Michael

2011-01-01

366

Uniparental isodisomy for paternal 7p and maternal 7q in a child with growth retardation.  

PubMed

Uniparental isodisomy resulting from the simultaneous presence of isochromosomes of the p and q arms of a chromosome and absence of a normal homologue is an exceptionally rare event. We have observed a growth-retarded female infant in whom the normal chromosome 7 homologues were replaced by what appeared cytogenetically to be isochromosomes of 7p and 7q. Polymorphic microsatellite loci spanning the length of 7p and 7q were analyzed in the proband and her parents to ascertain the parental origin and extent of heterozygosity of the proband's rearranged chromosomes. These studies demonstrated that the 7p alleles of the proband were derived only from the father, the 7q alleles were derived only from the mother, and there was homozygosity for all chromosome 7 loci analyzed. The mechanisms leading to the formation of the proband's isochromosomes could reflect abnormalities of cell division occurring at meiosis, postfertilization mitosis, or both. We believe that the present case may result from incomplete mitotic interchange in the pericentromeric regions of chromosome 7 homologues, with resolution by sister-chromatid reunion in an early, if not first, zygotic division. Phenotypically, our proband resembled three previously reported cases of maternal isodisomy for chromosome 7, suggesting that lack of paternal genes from 7q may result in a phenotype of short stature and growth retardation. PMID:7913578

Eggerding, F A; Schonberg, S A; Chehab, F F; Norton, M E; Cox, V A; Epstein, C J

1994-08-01

367

Adolescents' paternal attachment and Internet use.  

PubMed

As children approach middle childhood and adolescence, the influence of fathers on children's behavior and development becomes more equivalent to that of mothers. The quality of father-child attachment operates as a stronger predictor of adolescents' cognitive and emotional development. During adolescence, symbolic communication by means of the Internet becomes increasingly more important than physical approximate-seeking behavior in infancy and childhood. Adolescents might regard the Internet as their new attachment figure or may seek new attachment figures through the Internet. This study was designed to address the impacts of father-adolescent attachment on adolescents' Internet use. Seven hundred twelve adolescent participants completed questionnaires to assess the associations among their paternal attachment, intensity of Internet use, and Internet services preference. The result revealed that alienation positively predicted pathological Internet use (PIU) directly and also indirectly mediated by leisure services preference. Trust predicted PIU negatively. These results help to provide parents and educators with guidance in adolescents' more appropriate Internet use. PMID:17927530

Lei, Li; Wu, Yana

2007-10-01

368

Maternal and paternal alcohol consumption and miscarriage.  

PubMed

To explore the role of parental alcohol consumption in miscarriage we interviewed 80 women who miscarried about their own and their partners' drinking habits. A control group of 81 gestational-age-matched women whose pregnancy ended in the delivery of a healthy infant at term were similarly questioned. The use of alcohol by women and men was equally frequent in both groups. Before pregnancy, the mean alcohol consumption per week had been about 1-2 drinks for the women and 4-5 drinks for the men. During the presumed day of conception, 13% of the women who miscarried and 11% of the women in the control group had drunk on average 3-4 drinks; the other women had been abstinent at this time. Of the partners, 13% and 15%, respectively, had taken a mean of 4-5 drinks. In both groups 58% of the subjects continued to consume alcohol during pregnancy. The mean consumption was about one drink a week by the women who miscarried and half a drink a week in the control group. Of women who miscarried, 36 had a blighted ovum and in this subgroup alcohol consumption in both women and men was similar to that in the other women who miscarried and their partners, suggesting that alcohol is not causally related to the development of a blighted ovum. These results suggest that moderate maternal or paternal alcohol consumption does not increase the risk of miscarriage. PMID:2930743

Halmesmäki, E; Välimäki, M; Roine, R; Ylikahri, R; Ylikorkala, O

1989-02-01

369

Micro-satellites thermal control—concepts and components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main idea of this paper is to present the survey of current tendencies in micro-satellites thermal control concepts that can be rational and useful for posterior missions due to intensive expansion of satellites of such type. For this purpose, the available references and lessons learned by the National Technical University of Ukraine during the elaboration of thermal control hardware for micro-satellites Magion 4, 5, BIRD and autonomous thermal control systems for interplanetary missions VEGA, PHOBOS have been used. The main parameters taken into consideration for analysis are the satellite sizes, mass, power consumption, orbit parameters, altitude control peculiarities and thermal control description. It was defined that passive thermal control concepts are widely used, excepting autonomous temperature regulation for sensitive components such as batteries, high-precision optics, and some types of sensors. The practical means for realization of passive thermal control design as multi-layer insulation, optical coatings, heat conductive elements, gaskets are briefly described.

Baturkin, Volodymyr

2005-01-01

370

FishMicrosat: a microsatellite database of commercially important fishes and shellfishes of the Indian subcontinent  

PubMed Central

Background Microsatellite DNA is one of many powerful genetic markers used for the construction of genetic linkage maps and the study of population genetics. The biological databases in public domain hold vast numbers of microsatellite sequences for many organisms including fishes. The microsatellite data available in these data sources were extracted and managed into a database that facilitates sequences analysis and browsing relevant information. The system also helps to design primer sequences for flanking regions of repeat loci for PCR identification of polymorphism within populations. Description FishMicrosat is a database of microsatellite sequences of fishes and shellfishes that includes important aquaculture species such as Lates calcarifer, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Penaeus monodon, Labeo rohita, Oreochromis niloticus, Fenneropenaeus indicus and Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The database contains 4398 microsatellite sequences of 41 species belonging to 15 families from the Indian subcontinent. GenBank of NCBI was used as a prime data source for developing the database. The database presents information about simple and compound microsatellites, their clusters and locus orientation within sequences. The database has been integrated with different tools in a web interface such as primer designing, locus finding, mapping repeats, detecting similarities among sequences across species, and searching using motifs and keywords. In addition, the database has the ability to browse information on the top 10 families and the top 10 species, through record overview. Conclusions FishMicrosat database is a useful resource for fish and shellfish microsatellite analyses and locus identification across species, which has important applications in population genetics, evolutionary studies and genetic relatedness among species. The database can be expanded further to include the microsatellite data of fishes and shellfishes from other regions and available information on genome sequencing project of species of aquaculture importance.

2013-01-01

371

The academic Chibis-M microsatellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the scientific goals and design developments of the Chibis microsatellite platform and the Groza scientific equipment, which are aimed at studying new physical mechanisms of high-altitude electrical discharges in the atmosphere. A description of the Groza scientific equipment is presented, which is a united flying instrument that determines the basic requirements for the Chibis-M microsatellite. The problems of ground training of the space experiment, methods of launching the microsatellite in the ISS infrastructure into orbit, and command and telemetry control in flight, as well as the first scientific results, are presented.

Zelenyi, L. M.; Gurevich, A. V.; Klimov, S. I.; Angarov, V. N.; Batanov, O. V.; Bogomolov, A. V.; Bogomolov, V. V.; Bodnar, L.; Vavilov, D. I.; Vladimirova, G. A.; Garipov, G. K.; Gotlib, V. M.; Dobriyan, M. B.; Dolgonosov, M. S.; Ivlev, N. A.; Kalyuzhnyi, A. V.; Karedin, V. N.; Karpenko, S. O.; Kozlov, V. M.; Kozlov, I. V.; Korepanov, V. E.; Lizunov, A. A.; Ledkov, A. A.; Nazarov, V. N.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Papkov, A. P.; Rodin, V. G.; Segedi, P.; Svertilov, S. I.; Sukhanov, A. A.; Ferenz, Ch.; Eysmont, N. A.; Yashin, I. V.

2014-03-01

372

Deletion in a (T)8 microsatellite abrogates expression regulation by 3?-UTR  

PubMed Central

A high level of genetic instability might cause mutations to accumulate in tumours. Microsatellite instability (MSI), due to defects of the DNA mismatch repair system, affects in particular repeat sequences (microsatellites) scattered throughout the genome. By scanning transcriptome databases, we found that microsatellites in the human genome are less numerous in coding DNA than in the 3?-untranslated region (UTR), known to mediate control of gene expression. By mutation analysis, we identified a 1 bp deletion in a (T)8 microsatellite embedded in the 1801 nucleotide long 3?-UTR of CEACAM1 gene, thought to be involved in tumour onset and progression. By Lentiviral Vector- mediated gene transfer, we showed that the wild-type but not the mutated CEACAM1 3?-UTR greatly decreased transgene expression at both mRNA and protein level. Messenger RNA abundance was fully regulated by the most 3? region of CEACAM1 3?-UTR. This region includes the (T)8 microsatellite but not any known classified regulatory element. These data show that CEACAM1 3?-UTR contains non-canonical elements contributing to mRNA regulation, among which a short repeat sequence could play a critical regulatory function. This suggests that, in cancer cells, a single mutation in a 3?-UTR short microsatellite might strongly affect gene expression.

Ruggiero, Tina; Olivero, Martina; Follenzi, Antonia; Naldini, Luigi; Calogero, Raffaele; Di Renzo, Maria Flavia

2003-01-01

373

Microsatellite Instability in Colorectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Microsatellite instability (MSI) is a hypermutable phenotype caused by the loss of DNA mismatch repair activity. MSI is detected in about 15% of all colorectal cancers; 3% are of these are associated with Lynch syndrome and the other 12% are caused by sporadic, acquired hypermethylation of the promoter of the MLH1 gene, which occurs in tumors with the CpG island methylator phenotype. Colorectal tumors with MSI have distinctive features, including a tendency to arise in the proximal colon, lymphocytic infiltrate, and a poorly differentiated, mucinous or signet ring appearance. They have a slightly better prognosis than colorectal tumors without MSI and do not have the same response to chemotherapeutics. Discovery of MSI in colorectal tumors has increased awareness of the diversity of colorectal cancers and implications for specialized management of patients.

Boland, C. Richard; Goel, Ajay

2011-01-01

374

The Importance of 10q Status in an Outcomes-Based Comparison Between 1p/19q Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization and PCR-Based Microsatellite Loss of Heterozygosity Analysis of Oligodendrogliomas  

PubMed Central

1p/19q codeletion is a favorable prognostic marker of oligodendrogliomas. While fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and microsatellite-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) are common methods to test for 1p/19q codeletion, it is unclear which test is better at prognostic stratification. This study analyzed outcomes of 111 oligodendrogliomas with both 1p/19q FISH and LOH done at the time of diagnosis. Overall concordance between the 2 assays was 81.1%. In grade III oligodendrogliomas, LOH was better than FISH at survival stratification (p < 0.0001 for LOH vs. p = 0.02 for FISH), although increasing the stringency of FISH interpretation criteria improved concordance and prognostic power. Oligodendrogliomas that were 1p/19q-codeleted by FISH but also had 10q LOH were negative for 1p/19q codeletion by PCR analysis in over 70% of cases, with very poor survival in the grade III subset. Thus, although PCR-based LOH is a better stratifier of 1p/19q status, FISH still has clinical and prognostic utility, especially if 10q data can be incorporated.

Horbinski, Craig; Nikiforova, Marina N.; Hobbs, Jonathan; Cieply, Kathleen; Dacic, Sanja; Hamilton, Ronald L.

2011-01-01

375

Abortion, changed paternity, and risk of preeclampsia in nulliparous women.  

PubMed

A prior birth confers a strong protective effect against preeclampsia, whereas a prior abortion confers a weaker protective effect. Parous women who change partners in a subsequent pregnancy appear to lose the protective effect of a prior birth. This study (Calcium for Preeclampsia Prevention Trial, 1992-1995) examines whether nulliparous women with a prior abortion who change partners also lose the protective effect of the prior pregnancy. A cohort analysis was conducted among participants in this large clinical trial of calcium supplementation to prevent preeclampsia. Subjects were nulliparous, had one prior pregnancy or less, delivered after 20 weeks' gestation, and were interviewed at 5-21 weeks about prior pregnancies and paternity. Women without a history of abortion served as the reference group in logistic regression analyses. Women with a history of abortion who conceived again with the same partner had nearly half the risk of preeclampsia (adjusted odds ratio = 0.54, 95 percent confidence interval: 0.31, 0.97). In contrast, women with an abortion history who conceived with a new partner had the same risk of preeclampsia as women without a history of abortion (adjusted odds ratio = 1.03, 95 percent confidence interval: 0.72, 1.47). Thus, the protective effect of a prior abortion operated only among women who conceived again with the same partner. An immune-based etiologic mechanism is proposed, whereby prolonged exposure to fetal antigens from a previous pregnancy protects against preeclampsia in a subsequent pregnancy with the same father. PMID:12796047

Saftlas, Audrey F; Levine, Richard J; Klebanoff, Mark A; Martz, Karen L; Ewell, Marian G; Morris, Cynthia D; Sibai, Baha M

2003-06-15

376

Paternal effects on the defensive behavior of honeybees.  

PubMed

The defensive behavior of 52 hybrid honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies from four sets of crosses was studied and compared with that of European and Africanized bee colonies. Colonies containing F(1) hybrid workers were obtained through reciprocal crosses between European and Africanized bees. The total number of stings deposited by workers in a moving leather patch in 1 min was recorded. In each of the four sets of crosses, bees from hybrid colonies of Africanized paternity left more stings in leather patches than bees from hybrid colonies of European paternity. Results strongly suggest paternal effects of African origin increasing the defensive behavior of hybrid colonies. Although some degree of dominance was observed for high-defensive behavior in one of the four sets of crosses involving European paternity, most of the dominance effects reported in the literature appear to be the result of paternal effects. Several hypotheses to explain this phenomenon, as well as the implications of these effects on the fitness and breeding of honeybees are discussed. PMID:15743904

Guzman-Novoa, E; Hunt, G J; Page, R E; Uribe-Rubio, J L; Prieto-Merlos, D; Becerra-Guzman, F

2005-01-01

377

Paternally induced transgenerational inheritance of susceptibility to diabetes in mammals.  

PubMed

The global prevalence of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing, and it is contributing to the susceptibility to diabetes and its related epidemic in offspring. Although the impacts of paternal impaired fasting blood glucose and glucose intolerance on the metabolism of offspring have been well established, the exact molecular and mechanistic basis that mediates these impacts remains largely unclear. Here we show that paternal prediabetes increases the susceptibility to diabetes in offspring through gametic epigenetic alterations. In our findings, paternal prediabetes led to glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in offspring. Relative to controls, offspring of prediabetic fathers exhibited altered gene expression patterns in the pancreatic islets, with down-regulation of several genes involved in glucose metabolism and insulin signaling pathways. Epigenomic profiling of offspring pancreatic islets revealed numerous changes in cytosine methylation depending on paternal prediabetes, including reproducible changes in methylation over several insulin signaling genes. Paternal prediabetes altered overall methylome patterns in sperm, with a large portion of differentially methylated genes overlapping with that of pancreatic islets in offspring. Our study uniquely revealed that prediabetes can be inherited transgenerationally through the mammalian germ line by an epigenetic mechanism. PMID:24449870

Wei, Yanchang; Yang, Cai-Rong; Wei, Yan-Ping; Zhao, Zhen-Ao; Hou, Yi; Schatten, Heide; Sun, Qing-Yuan

2014-02-01

378

Microsatellites as Targets of Natural Selection  

PubMed Central

The ability to survey polymorphism on a genomic scale has enabled genome-wide scans for the targets of natural selection. Theory that connects patterns of genetic variation to evidence of natural selection most often assumes a diallelic locus and no recurrent mutation. Although these assumptions are suitable to selection that targets single nucleotide variants, fundamentally different types of mutation generate abundant polymorphism in genomes. Moreover, recent empirical results suggest that mutationally complex, multiallelic loci including microsatellites and copy number variants are sometimes targeted by natural selection. Given their abundance, the lack of inference methods tailored to the mutational peculiarities of these types of loci represents a notable gap in our ability to interrogate genomes for signatures of natural selection. Previous theoretical investigations of mutation-selection balance at multiallelic loci include assumptions that limit their application to inference from empirical data. Focusing on microsatellites, we assess the dynamics and population-level consequences of selection targeting mutationally complex variants. We develop general models of a multiallelic fitness surface, a realistic model of microsatellite mutation, and an efficient simulation algorithm. Using these tools, we explore mutation-selection-drift equilibrium at microsatellites and investigate the mutational history and selective regime of the microsatellite that causes Friedreich’s ataxia. We characterize microsatellite selective events by their duration and cost, note similarities to sweeps from standing point variation, and conclude that it is premature to label microsatellites as ubiquitous agents of efficient adaptive change. Together, our models and simulation algorithm provide a powerful framework for statistical inference, which can be used to test the neutrality of microsatellites and other multiallelic variants.

Haasl, Ryan J.; Payseur, Bret A.

2013-01-01

379

Genetic analysis of hybridization and introgression between wild mongoose and brown lemurs  

PubMed Central

Background Hybrid zones generally represent areas of secondary contact after speciation. The nature of the interaction between genes of individuals in a hybrid zone is of interest in the study of evolutionary processes. In this study, data from nuclear microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA sequences were used to genetically characterize hybridization between wild mongoose lemurs (Eulemur mongoz) and brown lemurs (E. fulvus) at Anjamena in west Madagascar. Results Two segments of mtDNA have been sequenced and 12 microsatellite loci screened in 162 brown lemurs and mongoose lemurs. Among the mongoose lemur population at Anjamena, we identified two F1 hybrids (one also having the mtDNA haplotype of E. fulvus) and six other individuals with putative introgressed alleles in their genotype. Principal component analysis groups both hybrids as intermediate between E. mongoz and E. fulvus and admixture analyses revealed an admixed genotype for both animals. Paternity testing proved one F1 hybrid to be fertile. Of the eight brown lemurs genotyped, all have either putative introgressed microsatellite alleles and/or the mtDNA haplotype of E. mongoz. Conclusion Introgression is bidirectional for the two species, with an indication that it is more frequent in brown lemurs than in mongoose lemurs. We conclude that this hybridization occurs because mongoose lemurs have expanded their range relatively recently. Introgressive hybridization may play an important role in the unique lemur radiation, as has already been shown in other rapidly evolving animals.

Pastorini, Jennifer; Zaramody, Alphonse; Curtis, Deborah J; Nievergelt, Caroline M; Mundy, Nicholas I

2009-01-01

380

Microsatellite characterization of Cimarron Uruguayo dogs  

PubMed Central

Various genetic markers, including microsatellites, have been used to analyze the genetic polymorphism and heterozygosity in canine breeds. In this work, we used nine microsatellite markers to investigate the genetic variability in Cimarron Uruguayo dogs, the only officially recognized native canine breed in Uruguay. DNA from 30 Cimarron Uruguayo dogs from northeastern and southern Uruguay was analyzed. The allelic frequencies for each microsatellite, the genetic variability and the consanguinity were calculated, as were the polymorphic information content (PIC) and the probability of exclusion (PE). All of the microsatellites studied were polymorphic. FH 2361, FH 2305 and PEZ 03 were the most informative, with PIC values > 0.7, in agreement with results for other canine breeds. The PE values for the markers were within the ranges previously described and were generally greater for microsatellites with higher PIC values. The heterozygosity value (0.649) was considered high since only nine microsatellites were analyzed. Compared with data for other breeds, the results obtained here indicate that Cimarron Uruguayo dogs have high genetic diversity.

Gagliardi, Rosa; Llambi, Silvia; Garcia, Cristina; Arruga, Maria Victoria

2011-01-01

381

Paternalism, autonomy and reciprocity: ethical perspectives in encounters with patients in psychiatric in-patient care  

PubMed Central

Background Psychiatric staff members have the power to decide the options that frame encounters with patients. Intentional as well as unintentional framing can have a crucial impact on patients’ opportunities to be heard and participate in the process. We identified three dominant ethical perspectives in the normative medical ethics literature concerning how doctors and other staff members should frame interactions in relation to patients; paternalism, autonomy and reciprocity. The aim of this study was to describe and analyse statements describing real work situations and ethical reflections made by staff members in relation to three central perspectives in medical ethics; paternalism, autonomy and reciprocity. Methods All staff members involved with patients in seven adult psychiatric and six child and adolescent psychiatric clinics were given the opportunity to freely describe ethical considerations in their work by keeping an ethical diary over the course of one week and 173 persons handed in their diaries. Qualitative theory-guided content analysis was used to provide a description of staff encounters with patients and in what way these encounters were consistent with, or contrary to, the three perspectives. Results The majority of the statements could be attributed to the perspective of paternalism and several to autonomy. Only a few statements could be attributed to reciprocity, most of which concerned staff members acting contrary to the perspective. The result is presented as three perspectives containing eight values. •Paternalism; 1) promoting and restoring the health of the patient, 2) providing good care and 3) assuming responsibility. •Autonomy; 1) respecting the patient’s right to self-determination and information, 2) respecting the patient’s integrity and 3) protecting human rights. •Reciprocity; 1) involving patients in the planning and implementation of their care and 2) building trust between staff and patients. Conclusions Paternalism clearly appeared to be the dominant perspective among the participants, but there was also awareness of patients’ right to autonomy. Despite a normative trend towards reciprocity in psychiatry throughout the Western world, identifying it proved difficult in this study. This should be borne in mind by clinics when considering the need for ethical education, training and supervision.

2013-01-01

382

Microsatellite instability and hMLH1 promoter hypermethylation in Richter’s transformation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is an indolent B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) that may transform into diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBL). This transformation is referred to as Richter’s syndrome or transformation. To analyze whether microsatellite instability (MSI) and DNA mismatch repair defects are associated with Richter’s transformation, we have performed microsatellite analysis, mutational analysis of hMLH1 and hMSH2 genes

Z Fülöp; B Csernus; B Tímár; Á Szepesi; A Matolcsy

2003-01-01

383

The effects of advanced paternal age on fertility  

PubMed Central

Modern societal pressures and expectations over the past several decades have resulted in the tendency for couples to delay conception. While women experience a notable decrease in oocyte production in their late thirties, the effect of age on spermatogenesis is less well described. While there are no known limits to the age at which men can father children, the effects of advanced paternal age are incompletely understood. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding advanced paternal age and its implications on semen quality, reproductive success and offspring health. This review will serve as a guide to physicians in counseling men about the decision to delay paternity and the risks involved with conception later in life.

Kovac, Jason R; Addai, Josephine; Smith, Ryan P; Coward, Robert M; Lamb, Dolores J; Lipshultz, Larry I

2013-01-01

384

The effects of advanced paternal age on fertility.  

PubMed

Modern societal pressures and expectations over the past several decades have resulted in the tendency for couples to delay conception. While women experience a notable decrease in oocyte production in their late thirties, the effect of age on spermatogenesis is less well described. While there are no known limits to the age at which men can father children, the effects of advanced paternal age are incompletely understood. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding advanced paternal age and its implications on semen quality, reproductive success and offspring health. This review will serve as a guide to physicians in counseling men about the decision to delay paternity and the risks involved with conception later in life. PMID:23912310

Kovac, Jason R; Addai, Josephine; Smith, Ryan P; Coward, Robert M; Lamb, Dolores J; Lipshultz, Larry I

2013-11-01

385

The Effect of Paternal Incarceration on Material Hardship  

PubMed Central

High rates of incarceration among American men, coupled with a high prevalence of fatherhood among the incarcerated, have led to millions of children and families whose fathers are, or have been, in the nation’s jails and prisons. This study uses data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Survey to estimate the extent to which paternal incarceration increases family material hardship. Analyses from a series of longitudinal regression models suggest that material hardship is statistically significant and positively associated with paternal incarceration. These hardships are found to reflect not only a reduction in fathers’ income and financial contributions but also an increase in financial and other family strains. The findings underscore the challenges facing families with incarcerated fathers. They also emphasize the need for efforts by criminal justice agencies and social service providers to help mitigate the risks associated with paternal incarceration.

Schwartz-Soicher, Ofira; Geller, Amanda; Garfinkel, Irwin

2013-01-01

386

Adenovirus Microsatellite Reveals Dynamics of Transmission during a Recent Epidemic of Human Adenovirus Serotype 14 Infection?  

PubMed Central

This study reveals diverse-length polymorphisms in long mononucleotide repeats (microsatellites) in several serotypes of epidemic human respiratory adenovirus. The length of one of these microsatellites, a homopolymeric thymidine [poly(T)] repeat, is measured in 68 isolates of adenovirus serotype 14. These isolates were collected during a series of sudden and sometimes fatal outbreaks among both military recruits and civilians as the virus emerged for the first time in the United States in 2006 and 2007. The results demonstrate the usefulness of adenoviral microsatellites as high-resolution molecular strain markers. The described homopolymer is hypervariable in length, varying from 12 to 17 bp in the analyzed sample set. All intermediate lengths were identified in at least one isolate. Furthermore, the specific length of the marker is stable for significant periods of time (up to 7 months) at individual sites where the virus is in consistent circulation. The microsatellite also can maintain specific length identity through site-to-site transmission events, as determined by the analysis of isolates from three advanced training sites that appeared to be subject to pathogen transfer from one of the affected recruit training installations. Public database searches revealed that the polymorphic nature of the microsatellite extends to other species B serotypes, and that other polymorphic microsatellites can be identified readily in a variety of epidemic respiratory adenovirus clades. This study shows that microsatellites are a ubiquitous source of polymorphic markers for human adenoviruses and demonstrates their use through an epidemiological analysis of isolates from a recent North American epidemic.

Houng, Huo-Shu H.; Lott, Lisa; Gong, Heping; Kuschner, Robert A.; Lynch, Julia A.; Metzgar, David

2009-01-01

387

[When should evoke prenatal paternal uniparental disomy 14?].  

PubMed

The paternal uniparental disomy 14 is a rare malformation syndrome whose postnatal pathognomonic sign is the deformation of the rib as coat hanger. In prenatal, ultrasonographic signs are major recurrent polyhydramnios, a narrow thorax and deformed long bones short and sometimes other anomalies including ends. The authors report one rare case of prenatal paternal uniparental disomy 14 with the deformation of the rib as coat hanger. Prenatally, the narrow deformed thorax can be searched by ultrasound three-dimensional (3D) and/or helical CT and thus represent an aid to prenatal diagnosis. PMID:24394322

Boiffard, F; Bénéteau, C; Quéré, M P; Philippe, H J; Le Vaillant, C

2014-04-01

388

Polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers in the penduline tit, Remiz pendulinus.  

PubMed

To describe the exceptional mating system of the penduline tit, Remiz pendulinus, we aim to combine field observation records with DNA analysis based on polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers. Here we describe features of nine loci and their corresponding polymerase chain reaction primers. The observed number of alleles varied from four to seven and the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.419 to 0.802. Neither of the loci is sex-linked and as linkage disequilibrium analysis showed they assort independently. Seven of the nine loci were polymorphic in the Cape penduline tit, Anthoscopus minutus. PMID:21585873

Mészáros, L A; Frauenfelder, N; VAN DER Velde, M; Komdeur, J; Szabad, J

2008-05-01

389

The Association of Paternal Mood and Infant Temperament: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maternal depression is associated with adverse child development, but little is known about the effects of paternal depression. This pilot study estimated the prevalence of paternal depression and mood state, and assessed the relationship between paternal mood and infant temperament. The participants in the study were 98 fathers of newborn babies.…

Dave, Shreya; Nazareth, Irwin; Sherr, Lorraine; Senior, Rob

2005-01-01

390

For Your Child's Sake...Establish Paternity [and] Collect Child Support.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These brochures explain briefly the importance of establishing paternity for unwed mothers. By establishing paternity and enforcing child support orders, fathers can be required to help raise their child legally and financially. The brochures consist of two separate sheets. "For Your Child's Sake...Establish Paternity" presents several questions…

Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC.

391

Culturally transmitted paternity beliefs and the evolution of human mating behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent anthropological findings document how certain lowland South American societies hold beliefs in 'partible paternity', which allow children to have more than one 'biological' father. This contrasts with Western beliefs in 'singular paternity', and biological reality, where children have just one father. Here, mathematical models are used to explore the coevolution of paternity beliefs and the genetic variation underlying human

Alex Mesoudi; Kevin N. Laland

2007-01-01

392

Extensive Microsatellite Variation in Rice Induced by Introgression from Wild Rice (Zizania latifolia Griseb.)  

PubMed Central

Background It is widely accepted that interspecific hybridization may induce genomic instability in the resultant hybrids. However, few studies have been performed on the genomic analysis of homoploid hybrids and introgression lines. We have reported previously that by introgressive hybridization, a set of introgression lines between rice (Oryza sativa L.) and wild rice (Zizania latifolia Griseb.) was successfully generated, and which have led to the release of several cultivars. Methodology Using 96 microsatellite markers located in the nuclear and organelle genomes of rice, we investigated microsatellite stability in three typical introgression lines. Expression of a set of mismatch repair (MMR) genes and microsatellite-containing genes was also analyzed. Results/Conclusions Compared with the recipient rice cultivar (Matsumae), 55 of the 96 microsatellite loci revealed variation in one or more of the introgression lines, and 58.2% of the altered alleles were shared by at least two lines, indicating that most of the alterations had occurred in the early stages of introgression before their further differentiation. 73.9% of the non-shared variations were detected only in one introgression line, i.e. RZ2. Sequence alignment showed that the variations included substitutions and indels that occurred both within the repeat tracts and in the flanking regions. Interestingly, expression of a set of MMR genes altered dramatically in the introgression lines relative to their rice parent, suggesting participation of the MMR system in the generation of microsatellite variants. Some of the altered microsatellite loci are concordant with changed expression of the genes harboring them, suggesting their possible cis-regulatory roles in controlling gene expression. Because these genes bear meaningful homology to known-functional proteins, we conclude that the introgression-induced extensive variation of microsatellites may have contributed to the novel phenotypes in the introgression lines.

Dong, Zhenying; Wang, Hongyan; Dong, Yuzhu; Wang, Yongming; Liu, Wei; Miao, Gaojian; Lin, Xiuyun; Wang, Daqing; Liu, Bao

2013-01-01

393

New polymorphic microsatellite markers in the human MHC class III region.  

PubMed

The human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class III region spanning approximately 760 kb is characterized by a remarkably high gene density with 59 expressed genes (one gene every 12.9 kb). Recently, susceptibility loci to numerous diseases, such as Graves disease, Crohn disease, and SLE have been suggested to be localized to this region, as assessed by associations mainly with genetic polymorphisms of TNF and TNF-linked microsatellite loci. However, it has been difficult to precisely localize these susceptibility loci to a single gene due to a paucity to date of polymorphic markers in the HLA class III region. To facilitate disease mapping within this region, we have analyzed 2 approximately 5 bases short tandem repeats (microsatellites) in this region. A total of 297 microsatellites were identified from the genomic sequence, consisting of 69 di-, 62 tri-, 107 tetra-, and 59 penta-nucleotide repeats. It was noted that among them as many as 17 microsatellites were located within the coding sequence of expressed genes (NOTCH4, PBX2, RAGE, G16, LPAAT, PPT2, TNXB, P450-CYP21B, G9a, HSP70-2, HSP70-1, HSP-hom, MuTSH5 and BAT2). Eight microsatellite repeats were collected as polymorphic markers due to their high number of alleles (11.9 on average) as well as their high polymorphic content value (PIC) (0.63). By combining the 38 and the 22 polymorphic microsatellites we have previously collected in the HLA class I and class II regions, respectively, we have now established a total of 68 novel genetic markers which are uniformly interspersed with a high density of one every 63.3 kb throughout the HLA region. This collection of polymorphic microsatellites will enable us to search for the location of any disease susceptible loci within the HLA region by association analysis. PMID:11556964

Matsuzaka, Y; Makino, S; Nakajima, K; Tomizawa, M; Oka, A; Bahram, S; Kulski, J K; Tamiya, G; Inoko, H

2001-05-01

394

[Genomic "dactyloscopy" in the expertise of disputed paternity and the determination of biological relationship].  

PubMed

Genome "dactyloscopy" (DNA fingerprinting) is a principally new way of personal identification based on analysis of human genetic material (DNA); the difference in DNA structure of different subjects is the scientific basis of this method. This ensures opportunity to estimate biological relationship of persons positively. The authors were the first to demonstrate using certain expert material the adequacy and potentials of DNA fingerprinting by M 13 probe for medicolegal expert practice in most complicated cases of relationship determination requiring positive identification of paternity and maternity. PMID:2396289

Ivanov, P L; Gurtovaia, S V; Verbovaia, L V; Boldesku, N G; Plaksin, V O; Ryskov, A P

1990-01-01

395

HLA region microsatellite polymorphisms in juvenile arthritis.  

PubMed

A number of microsatellite polymorphisms located in the MHC region of the human chromosome 6 have been analysed in a large group of patients with juvenile arthritis (JA) (n = 177) and in 157 controls. There have been no significant associations for the alleles of the microsatellite polymorphisms D6S-105, D6S-510, TNFA, TNFC, TNFD, TNFE, HSP. Allele frequencies and HLA associations were listed for the non-associated microsatellite loci. The microsatellite locus DQ CAR, which is localized between DQA1 and DQB1, shows a significant positive association with JA for the allele DQ CAR 121 and a negative association for the allele DQ CAR 111. The allele DQ CAR 121 is strongly associated with DQA1*0501 and with DQB1*0301 both in the normal controls and in the patient population. This pair of DQA/DQB alleles corresponds to the DQ molecule DQ7 on the cell surface, which has been described to be strongly associated with JA. Investigations of the two and three-point haplotypes of DQ CAR with alleles of its neighboring loci have shown that the association with DQ CAR 121 is secondary to the association with DQ7 previously observed. Thus, using eight HLA linked microsatellite polymorphisms in the region from HLA-A to HLA-DQ, we have not found any evidence for further loci which might be involved in the coding for susceptibility for JA. PMID:9802601

Feichtlbauer, P; Gomolka, M; Brünnler, G; Eisenhut, T; Truckenbrodt, H; Albert, E D

1998-09-01

396

Overcompensation through the paternal component of fitness in Ipomopsis arizonica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimates of the effects of herbivory on plant fitness based on female fitness alone may be misleading if plants experience either reduced or increased male fitness. Because there are many plants that produce more flowers following herbivory where seed set is unaffected or reduced, total fitness may be enhanced through the paternal component alone. Here we show that herbivory results

Ken N. Paige; Barry Williams; Tracey Hickox

2001-01-01

397

Paternity uncertainty overrides sex chromosome selection for preferential grandparenting  

Microsoft Academic Search

With respect to autosomal genes, a grandparent is equally related to male and female grandchildren. Because males are heterozygous for sex chromosomes, however, grandparents are asymmetrically related to male and female grandchildren via the sex chromosomes. For example, the Y chromosome from the paternal grandfather passes directly down to grandsons. This asymmetry leads to a prediction that genes on the

Elizabeth R. Chrastil; Wayne M. Getz; Harald A. Euler; Philip T. Starks

2006-01-01

398

Paternal occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields and neuroblastoma in offspring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigators in Texas have reported an association between paternal employment in jobs linked with exposure to electromagnetic fields and risk of neuroblastoma in offspring. In an attempt to replicate this finding, the authors conducted a case-control study in Ohio. A total of 101 incident cases of neuroblastoma were identified through the Columbus (Ohio) Children's Hospital Tumor Registry. All cases were

V. D. Hundley

1990-01-01