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1

Microsatellite analysis of multiple paternity and male reproductive success in the promiscuous snowshoe hare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few genetic studies have addressed patterns of paternity in promiscuous mammals. I used microsatellite DNA primers developed in the European rabbit to analyze paternity in the promiscuous snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus). Sixty-five offspring, their 12 mothers, and their 24 putative fathers were genotyped at seven polymorphic loci (3-22 alleles\\/locus). Paternal allele counts and likelihood-based paternity assignments confirmed that multiple pa

Cole Burton

2002-01-01

2

Paternity analysis in Excel.  

PubMed

Paternity analysis using microsatellite information is a well-studied subject. These markers are ideal for parentage studies and fingerprinting, due to their high-discrimination power. This type of data is used to assign paternity, to compute the average selfing and outcrossing rates and to estimate the biparental inbreeding. There are several public domain programs that compute all this information from data. Most of the time, it is necessary to export data to some sort of format, feed it to the program and import the output to an Excel book for further processing. In this article we briefly describe a program referred from now on as Paternity Analysis in Excel (PAE), developed at IST and IBET (see the acknowledgments) that computes paternity candidates from data, and other information, from within Excel. In practice this means that the end user provides the data in an Excel sheet and, by pressing an appropriate button, obtains the results in another Excel sheet. For convenience PAE is divided into two modules. The first one is a filtering module that selects data from the sequencer and reorganizes it in a format appropriate to process paternity analysis, assuming certain conventions for the names of parents and offspring from the sequencer. The second module carries out the paternity analysis assuming that one parent is known. Both modules are written in Excel-VBA and can be obtained at the address (www.math.ist.utl.pt/~fmd/pa/pa.zip). They are free for non-commercial purposes and have been tested with different data and against different software (Cervus, FaMoz, and MLTR). PMID:17928093

Rocheta, Margarida; Dionísio, F Miguel; Fonseca, Luís; Pires, Ana M

2007-12-01

3

Microsatellite markers and multiple paternity in the garter snake thamnophis sirtalis  

PubMed

Data from four microsatellite loci developed for the common garter snake, Thamnophis sirtalis, show that multiple paternity is common in a natural population on Beaver Island, Michigan. Six of eight litters tested, and all litters with five or more neonates, were multiply sired. At least triple paternity was documented in the largest litter examined (n = 13 neonates). Inheritance patterns and genotype frequencies in the wild population indicate the presence of null allele(s) at one of the microsatellite loci. Garter snakes are widely used in quantitative genetics research, and paternity testing is essential in studies that rely on sibling analysis. PMID:10564453

McCracken; Burghardt; Houts

1999-09-01

4

The reproductive biology of Polytrichum formosum: clonal structure and paternity revealed by microsatellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using highly polymorphic microsatellite markers, we assessed clonal structure and patern- ity in a population of the bryophyte species Polytrichum formosum. Identical multilocus genotypes of individual shoots were almost never observed in spatially separated cushions, but were found to be highly clustered within moss cushions. Therefore, asexual reproduc- tion through dispersal of gametophyte fragments is not very important in P.

M. VAN DER VELDE; L. VAN DE ZANDE; R. BIJLSMA

2001-01-01

5

The reproductive biology of Polytrichum formosum: clonal structure and paternity revealed by microsatellites.  

PubMed

Using highly polymorphic microsatellite markers, we assessed clonal structure and paternity in a population of the bryophyte species Polytrichum formosum. Identical multilocus genotypes of individual shoots were almost never observed in spatially separated cushions, but were found to be highly clustered within moss cushions. Therefore, asexual reproduction through dispersal of gametophyte fragments is not very important in P. formosum. However, asexual reproduction on a very localized scale through vegetative growth of genets (branching of gametophytes via clonal growth of rhizomes) is very extensive. The patchy spatial distribution of genets and the absence of intermingling among genets suggest that this species follows a 'phalanx' clonal growth strategy. Vegetative proliferation of genets will increase their size, and, consequently, will have considerable fitness consequences for individuals in terms of increased genet longevity and reproductive output. Although paternity analysis of sporophytes confirmed male genet size, i.e. gamete production, to be an important determinant of male reproductive fitness, it also showed that the spatial distance to female genets is the predominant factor that governs male reproductive success. Moreover, we showed that male gamete dispersal distances in P. formosum are much further than generally assumed, and are in the order of metres rather than centimetres. Combining the findings, we conclude that the high genotypic diversity observed for this facultatively clonal species is most likely explained by a preponderance of sexual reproduction over clonal reproduction. PMID:11742546

van der Velde, M; During, H J; van de Zande, L; Bijlsma, R

2001-10-01

6

Microsatellite Evidence for High Frequency of Multiple Paternity in the Marine Gastropod Rapana venosa  

PubMed Central

Background Inferring of parentage in natural populations is important in understanding the mating systems of a species, which have great effects on its genetic structure and evolution. Muricidae, a large group (approximately 1,600 species) of marine gastropods, are poorly investigated in patterns of multiple paternity and sperm competition based on molecular techniques. The veined Rapa whelk, Rapana venosa, a commercially important muricid species with internal fertilization, is an ideal species to study the occurrence and frequency of multiple paternity and to facilitate understanding of their reproductive strategies. Methodology/Principal Findings We developed five highly polymorphic microsatellites in R. venosa and applied them to identify multiple paternity in 19 broods (1381 embryos) collected from Dandong, China. Multiple paternity was detected in 17 (89.5%) of 19 broods. The number of sires per brood ranged from 1 to 7 (4.3 on average). Of the 17 multiply sired broods, 16 (94.1%) were significantly skewed from equal paternal contributions, and had a dominant sire which was also dominant in each assayed capsule. Conclusions Our results indicate that a high level of multiple paternity occurs in the wild population of R. venosa. Similar patterns of multiple paternity in the 2–6 assayed capsules from each brood imply that fertilization events within the body of a female occur mostly (but not entirely) as random draws from a “well-but-not-perfectly blended sperm pool” of her several mates. Strongly skewed distributions of fertilization success among sires also suggest that sperm competition and/or cryptic female choice might be important for post-copulatory paternity biasing in this species. PMID:24466127

Liu, Jin-Xian

2014-01-01

7

Paternity analysis of pollen-mediated gene flow for Fraxinus excelsior L. in a chronically fragmented landscape  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paternity analysis based on microsatellite marker genotyping was used to infer contemporary genetic connectivity by pollen of three population remnants of the wind-pollinated, wind-dispersed tree Fraxinus excelsior, in a deforested Scottish landscape. By deterministically accounting for genotyping error and comparing a range of assignment methods, individual-based paternity assignments were used to derive population-level estimates of gene flow. Pollen immigration into

C F E Bacles; R A Ennos

2008-01-01

8

[Applicability of microsatellite DNA markers to the parental identification of Hucho taimen (Pallas)].  

PubMed

Using seven pairs of microsatellite markers we studied the relationship between the size of the the candidate groups and the microsatellite paternity testing accuracy by separate breed or the microsatellite paternity appraisal ability by mixed breed. By computer software analysis, the appraisal ability decreased with the candidate groups increase. For the 81 putative parents the microsatellite paternity testing accuracy was 80% and the microsatellite paternity appraisal ability was 78.9%; for the 9 putative parents, the testing accuracy was 93.3% and the appraisal ability was 92.2%. The results indicated that the microsatellite DNA markers can be used for the parentage determination of Hucho taimen Pallas. PMID:20740701

Zhang, Chun-Lei; Tong, Guang-Xiang; Kuang, You-Yi; Zhang, Chao; Yin, Jia-Sheng

2010-08-01

9

Extrapair paternity is influenced by breeding synchrony and density in the common yellowthroat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of breeding synchrony and density on levels of extrapair paternity in birds are controversial. We used multilocus DNA fingerprinting and microsatellite analysis to examine the effects of breeding synchrony and density on levels of extrapair paternity in the common yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas). As in many Neotropical migrants, breeding synchrony was greatest at the beginning of the breeding season.

Kevin J. Thusius; Peter O. Dunn; Kara A. Peterson; Linda A. Whittingham

2001-01-01

10

Statistical Approaches to Paternity Analysis in Natural Populations and Applications to the North Atlantic Humpback Whale  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new method for paternity analysis in natural populations that is based on genotypic data that can take the sampling fraction of putative parents into account. The method allows paternity assignment to be performed in a decision theoretic framework. Simulations are performed to evaluate the utility and robustness of the method and to assess how many loci are

Rasmus Nielsen; David K. Mattila; Philip J. Clapham; Per J. Palsbøll

2001-01-01

11

Analysis of two 47,XXX males reveals X-Y interchange and maternal or paternal nondisjunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two cases of 47,XXX males were studied, one of which has been published previously (Bigozzi et al. 1980). Analysis of X-linked restriction fragment length polymorphisms revealed that in this case, one X chromosome was of paternal and two were of maternal origin, whereas in the other case, two X chromosomes were of paternal and one of maternal origin. Southern blot

G. Scherer; W. Schempp; M. Fraccaro; E. Bausch; V. Bigozzi; P. Maraschio; E. Montali; G. Simoni; U. Wolf

1989-01-01

12

Multiple paternity in Asclepias syriaca using a paired-fruit analysis  

E-print Network

Multiple paternity in Asclepias syriaca using a paired-fruit analysis Julie J. Gold and Joel S. Shore Introduction Abstract: We investigated the extent of multiple paternity within and between fruits within fruits. When pairs of fruits obtained from individual ramets were analyzed in a similar manner

Shore, Joel S.

13

Pollination in the marine realm: microsatellites reveal high outcrossing rates and multiple paternity in eelgrass Zostera marina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mating system was examined in two annual populations of eelgrass (Zostera marina), a marine angiosperm displaying subaqueous pollination. Multilocus genotyping using microsatellite DNA markers allowed the assessment of the pollen source based on single progeny as units of observation. Outcrossing was detectable by the presence of non-maternal alleles at one or more of the loci. In outcrossing cases, three

THORSTEN B. H. REUSCH

2000-01-01

14

Novel and cross-species microsatellite markers for parentage analysis in Sanderling Calidris alba  

Microsoft Academic Search

We isolated and tested six novel microsatellite loci in Sanderling (Calidris alba) from Greenland for paternity analyses. In addition, we tested 11 already published microsatellite markers which were originally\\u000a developed for the congeneric species, the Pectoral Sandpiper (C. melanotos). All loci were polymorphic, but five of the cross-species loci were not scorable due to suboptimal amplification patterns.\\u000a The 12 successful

Pieternella C. Luttikhuizen; Anneke Bol; Harry Witte; Judith van Bleijswijk; Oliver Haddrath; Allan J. Baker; Theunis Piersma; Jeroen Reneerkens

2011-01-01

15

DNA microsatellites of pronghorn (Antilocapra americana)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a set of eight polymorphic microsatellite loci for pronghorn, Antilocapra americana. We screened 233 individuals from the National Bison Range in Moiese, MT, and found allele numbers from three to 11 and heterozygosity levels ranging from 0.142 to 0.807. These results suggest that these loci will be useful in paternity analysis and basic popula- tion genetics applications.

M. D. CARLING; C. W. PASSAVANT; J. A. BYERS

16

Establishing paternity in whooping cranes (Grus Americana) by DNA analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

DNA fingerprinting was used to study paternity and genetic variability within a captive flock of Whooping Cranes (Grus americana). Fingerprint patterns for 42 individuals were obtained by digesting genomic crane DNAs with HaeIII followed by electrophoresis, blotting, and hybridization to the M13 minisatellite probe. Despite finding reduced levels of genetic variation in the Whooping Crane due to a population 'bottleneck,' these polymorphisms were successfully used to determine paternity in six of seven cases of captive propagation where the maternal-offspring relationship was known, but where the sire was unknown. These determinations of paternity are required for effective genetic management of. the crane flock. These results also revealed a number of heterozygous minisatellite loci that will be valuable in future assessments of genetic variability in this endangered species.

Longmire, J.L.; Gee, G.F.; Hardekopf, C.L.; Mark, G.A.

1992-01-01

17

Network analysis of human Y microsatellite haplotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the utility of Y chromosome micro- satellites for studying human male-lineage evolution, we typed samples from three populations for five tetranucleotide repeats and an Alu insertion poly- morphism. We found very high levels of haplotype diversity and evidence that most mutations involve the gain or loss of only one repeat unit, implying that any given microsatellite haplotype may

Gillian Cooper; William Amos; Dorota Hoffman; David C. Rubinsztein

1996-01-01

18

Paternal Smoking and Risk of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective. To investigate the association between paternal smoking and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Method. We identified 18 published epidemiologic studies that reported data on both paternal smoking and childhood ALL risk. We performed a meta-analysis and analyzed dose-response relationships on ALL risk for smoking during preconception, during pregnancy, after birth, and ever smoking. Results. The summary odds ratio (OR) of childhood ALL associated with paternal smoking was 1.11 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.05–1.18, I2 = 18%) during any time period, 1.25 (95% CI: 1.08–1.46, I2 = 53%) preconception; 1.24 (95% CI: 1.07–1.43, I2 = 54%) during pregnancy, and 1.24 (95% CI: 0.96–1.60, I2 = 64%) after birth, with a dose-response relationship between childhood ALL and paternal smoking preconception or after birth. Conclusion. The evidence supports a positive association between childhood ALL and paternal ever smoking and at each exposure time period examined. Future epidemiologic studies should assess paternal smoking during well-defined exposure windows and should include biomarkers to assess smoking exposure and toxicological mechanisms. PMID:21765828

Liu, Ruiling; Zhang, Luoping; McHale, Cliona M.; Hammond, S. Katharine

2011-01-01

19

Case–control analysis of paternal age and trisomic anomalies  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo determine whether older paternal age increases the risk of fathering a pregnancy with Patau (trisomy 13), Edwards (trisomy 18), Klinefelter (XXY) or XYY syndrome.DesignCase–control: cases with each of these syndromes were matched to four controls with Down syndrome from within the same congenital anomaly register and with maternal age within 6 months.SettingData from 22 EUROCAT congenital anomaly registers in

E. De Souza; J. K. Morris

2010-01-01

20

The Y chromosome in forensic analysis and paternity testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The male specificity of the human Y chromosome makes it potentially useful in forensic studies and paternity testing, and\\u000a markers are now available which will allow its usefulness to be assessed in practice. However, while it can be used confidently\\u000a for exclusions, the unusual properties of the Y mean that inclusions will be very difficult to make: haplotypes are confined

M. A. Jobling; A. Pandya; C. Tyler-Smith

1997-01-01

21

Mission design and trajectory analysis for inspection of a host spacecraft by a microsatellite  

E-print Network

The trajectory analysis and mission design for inspection of a host spacecraft by a microsatellite is motivated by the current developments in designing and building prototypes of a microsatellite inspector vehicle. Two ...

Kim, Susan C. (Susan Cecilia)

2006-01-01

22

Meta-analysis of Paternal Age and Schizophrenia Risk in Male Versus Female Offspring  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Advanced paternal age (APA) is a reported risk factor for schizophrenia in the offspring. We performed a meta-analysis of this association, considering the effect of gender and study design. Methods: We identified articles by searching Pub Med, PsychInfo, ISI, and EMBASE, and the reference lists of identified studies. Previously unpublished data from the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort (NFBC 1966) study were also included. Results: There were 6 cohort studies and 6 case–control studies that met the inclusion criteria. In both study designs, there was a significant increase in risk of schizophrenia in the offspring of older fathers (?30) compared to a reference paternal age of 25–29, with no gender differences. The relative risk (RR) in the oldest fathers (?50) was 1.66 [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.46–1.89, P < 0.01]. A significant increase in risk was also found for younger fathers (<25) in males (RR?=?1.08, 95% CI: 1.02–1.14, P?=?0.01) but not females (RR?=?1.04, 95% CI: 0.97–1.14, P?=?0.28). The population attributable risk percentage (PAR%) was 10% for paternal age ?30 and 5% for paternal age <25. Discussion: Both APA (?30) and younger paternal age (<25) increase the risk of schizophrenia; younger paternal age may be associated with an increased risk in males but not females. This risk factor increases the risk of schizophrenia as much as any single candidate gene of risk. The mechanism of these associations is not known and may differ for older and younger fathers. PMID:20185538

Miller, Brian; Messias, Erick; Miettunen, Jouko; Alaräisänen, Antti; Järvelin, Marjo-Riita; Koponen, Hannu; Räsänen, Pirkko; Isohanni, Matti; Kirkpatrick, Brian

2011-01-01

23

Correlates of multiple paternity in the Aquatic Warbler ( Acrocephalus paludicola )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Aquatic Warblers show a promiscuous mating system and males do not help the female to incubate eggs or feed nestlings. Paternity\\u000a was determined in 64 broods in the Biebrza basin (NE Poland) studied in 1993, 1994 and 1997 by microsatellite PCR analysis.\\u000a A total of 14 broods had been sired by a single male and 50 by two and more

Andrzej Dyrcz; Michael Wink; Astrid Backhaus; Wanda Zdunek; Bernd Leisler; Karl Schulze-Hagen

2002-01-01

24

Multiple paternity in viviparous kelp rockfish, Sebastes atrovirens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of multilocus microsatellite genotypes revealed multiple paternity for all of the seven viable broods of larvae produced\\u000a by kelp rockfish, Sebastes atrovirens (Jordan and Gilbert 1880), held jointly in a large aquarium tank (n = eight females and eight males). Only two of the eight experimental males were identified as fathers, and alleles not found\\u000a in any of the captive males

Susan M. Sogard; Elizabeth Gilbert-Horvath; Eric C. Anderson; Rebecca Fisher; Steven A. Berkeley; J. Carlos Garza

2008-01-01

25

Statistical approaches to paternity analysis in natural populations and applications to the North Atlantic humpback whale.  

PubMed

We present a new method for paternity analysis in natural populations that is based on genotypic data that can take the sampling fraction of putative parents into account. The method allows paternity assignment to be performed in a decision theoretic framework. Simulations are performed to evaluate the utility and robustness of the method and to assess how many loci are necessary for reliable paternity inference. In addition we present a method for testing hypotheses regarding relative reproductive success of different ecologically or behaviorally defined groups as well as a new method for estimating the current population size of males from genotypic data. This method is an extension of the fractional paternity method to the case where only a proportion of all putative fathers have been sampled. It can also be applied to provide abundance estimates of the number of breeding males from genetic data. Throughout, the methods were applied to genotypic data collected from North Atlantic humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) to test if the males that appear dominant during the mating season have a higher reproductive success than the subdominant males. PMID:11290722

Nielsen, R; Mattila, D K; Clapham, P J; Palsbøll, P J

2001-04-01

26

Behavioral Ecology Vol. 12 No. 5: 633639 Extrapair paternity is influenced by breeding  

E-print Network

analyses. Key words: breeding ecology, DNA fingerprinting, Geothlypis trichas, microsatellites, paternity of breeding synchrony and density on levels of extrapair paternity in the common yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas). As in many Neotropical migrants, breeding synchrony was greatest at the beginning

Dunn, Peter O.

27

Paternity and relatedness in wild chimpanzee communities  

PubMed Central

The genetic structure of three contiguous wild chimpanzee communities in West Africa was examined to determine the extent to which the community, the mixed-sex social unit of chimpanzees, represents a closed reproductive unit. An analysis of paternity for 41 offspring resulted in 34 cases of paternity assignment to an adult male belonging to the same community. Among the 14 offspring for which all potential within-community fathers have been tested, one likely case of extra-group paternity (EGP) has been identified, suggesting an incidence of EGP of 7%. This more extensive analysis contradicts a previous genetic study of the Taï chimpanzees that inferred 50% extra-group fathers. We suggest, based on direct comparison of results for 33 individuals at 1 microsatellite locus and direct comparison of paternity assignments for 11 offspring, that the error rate in the previous study was too high to produce accurate genotypes and assignments of paternity and hence caused the false inference of a high rate of EGP. Thus, the community is the primary but not exclusive unit for reproduction in wild chimpanzees, and females do not typically reproduce with outside males. Despite the inferred low level of gene flow from extra-community males, relatedness levels among the community males are not significantly higher than among community females, and the distribution of genetic relationships within the group suggests that, rather than a primarily male-bonded social structure, the group is bonded through relationships between males and females. Kinship may explain cooperative behaviors directed against other communities, but is unlikely to explain the high levels of affiliation and cooperation seen for male within-community interactions. PMID:11606765

Vigilant, Linda; Hofreiter, Michael; Siedel, Heike; Boesch, Christophe

2001-01-01

28

Analysis of new microsatellite markers developed from reported sequences of Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, were selected from GenBank to identify simple sequence repeats (SSRs) or microsatellites. A bioinformatic analysis of 11111\\u000a ESTs identified 751 SSR-containing ESTs, including 440 dinucleotide, 254 trinucleotide, 53 tetranucleotide, 95 pentanucleotide\\u000a and 40 hexanucleotide microsatellites respectively. The CA\\/TG and GA\\/TC repeats were the most abundant microsatellites. AT-rich\\u000a types were predominant

Haiyang Yu; Liming Jiang; Wei Chen; Xubo Wang; Zhigang Wang; Quanqi Zhang

2010-01-01

29

Microsatellite variability analysis in farmed catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) from Tamaulipas, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of cultured catfish from six farms in Tamaulipas, Mexico was achieved using a combination of microsatellite PCR analysis and semiautomatic fluoresce-based detection, in order to provide a first assessment of the genetic variability on cultured catfish in Mexico. Five microsatellites showed extensive polymorphism with allele numbers ranging from 10 and 20. Overall observed heterozygosity at each locus ranged between

Laura E. Perales-Flores; Ana María Sifuentes-Rincón; Francisco J. García de León

2007-01-01

30

Microsatellite analysis of cryopreserved stallion semen stored on FTA paper.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to establish and validate a method to permit microsatellite analysis of DNA profiles obtained from frozen-thawed stallion sperm cells. This would provide reliable and accurate verification of the identification of a semen donor. Ejaculates from 5 pony stallions were collected, processed and frozen in 0.5 ml plastic straws. Aliquots of 100 microl of the frozen-thawed semen thus obtained were either placed directly, or diluted (1:10; 1:100; and 1:1000) and placed on slides of FTA paper. Similarly, blood samples obtained from each of the stallions were placed onto slides of FTA paper. A punch was removed from each sample after drying Each sample was mixed with FTA purification reagent, Dithiothreitol and Proteinase K before incubation and processing. All samples were processed with a set of 13 microsatellite markers. Further analysis permitted a comparison of the DNA profiles of the frozen-thawed semen and the blood samples. A full profile of markers was obtained from the 1:10 and 1:100 dilutions of the frozen-thawed semen samples as well as from the blood samples. The DNA profiles from the frozen-thawed semen and blood samples obtained from the stallions matched in all cases. PMID:12665139

Schulman, M L; Harper, C K; Bell, E; Nel, A; Guthrie, A J

2002-12-01

31

Paternity assessment: application on estimation of breeding value in body-weight at first egg trait of egg-laying duck (Anas platyrhynchos).  

PubMed

Paternity index was analyzed using five microsatellite loci among Chinese egg-laying ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). Based on the paternity relationship that was identified by paternity index analysis, the estimated breeding value (EBV) was calculated using BLUP (best linear unbiased predictor) method. Body weight at first egg (BWF) is the only considered trait in this study. In total, 12 sires, 31 dams and 77 daughters were involved in the EBV calculation. The results demonstrated that five microsatellite loci's polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.795 in locus AY493338 to 0.957 in locus AY493264 with average 0.899; the parent-offspring relationships were built by these microsatellites' genotype, 12 families of half sibling and 2 families of full sibling were involved, and the relationship error is smaller than 10(-7). The EBV results suggest that the average EBV was significantly higher in females (average EBV is 10.234 and 0.1045 for mother and daughter, respectively) than males (average EBV is just -26.44). The EBV results on BWF were in good agreement with the principle of GH (growth hormone) expression in poultry. These results show that paternity analyses of Chinese egg-laying ducks were basically resolved using the five microsatellite loci selected. The paternity relationships can apply in Chinese egg-laying duck breeding to quicken the improvement of genetic progress. PMID:19105044

Ren, Jindong; Lu, Lizhi; Liu, Xiaolin; Tao, Zhengrong; Zhang, Congcong; Wang, Deqian; Shen, Junda; Liu, Weimeng; Tian, Yong; Zhu, Zhigang

2009-11-01

32

Characterization of new Schistosoma mansoni microsatellite loci in sequences obtained from public DNA databases and microsatellite enriched genomic libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last decade microsatellites have become one of the most useful genetic markers used in a large number of organisms due to their abundance and high level of polymorphism. Microsatellites have been used for individual identification, paternity tests, forensic studies and population genetics. Data on microsatellite abundance comes preferentially from microsatellite enriched libraries and DNA sequence databases. We have

NB Rodrigues; PT LoVerde; AJ Romanha; G Oliveira

2002-01-01

33

Microsatellite (simple sequence repeat) marker-based paternity analysis of a seven-parent sugarcane polycross  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

It is not feasible to make all possible cross combinations among elite parents used in sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) breeding programs, particularly within a single year. Hence, the polycross approach has been used to maximize the number of cross combinations that can be represented among progeny. Th...

34

MICROSATELLITE-BASED PATERNITY ANALYSIS OF A SEVEN-PARENT SUGARCANE POLYCROSS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

It is virtually impossible to make all cross combinations among even the most elite parents used in breeding programs. Hence, the polycross approach has been used in sugarcane breeding to maximize the number of cross combinations that could be represented among progeny at the seedling stage of test...

35

Microsatellite DNA analysis of parapatric lamprey (Entosphenus spp.) populations: implications for  

E-print Network

Microsatellite DNA analysis of parapatric lamprey (Entosphenus spp.) populations: implications, and Margaret F. Docker Abstract: Parapatric freshwater and anadromous parasitic lampreys (Petromyzontiformes lamprey (Entosphenus macrostomus (Beamish, 1982)) and Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus (Richardson

Taylor, Eric B. "Rick"

36

Challenges in analysis and interpretation of microsatellite data for population genetic studies.  

PubMed

Advancing technologies have facilitated the ever-widening application of genetic markers such as microsatellites into new systems and research questions in biology. In light of the data and experience accumulated from several years of using microsatellites, we present here a literature review that synthesizes the limitations of microsatellites in population genetic studies. With a focus on population structure, we review the widely used fixation (F ST) statistics and Bayesian clustering algorithms and find that the former can be confusing and problematic for microsatellites and that the latter may be confounded by complex population models and lack power in certain cases. Clustering, multivariate analyses, and diversity-based statistics are increasingly being applied to infer population structure, but in some instances these methods lack formalization with microsatellites. Migration-specific methods perform well only under narrow constraints. We also examine the use of microsatellites for inferring effective population size, changes in population size, and deeper demographic history, and find that these methods are untested and/or highly context-dependent. Overall, each method possesses important weaknesses for use with microsatellites, and there are significant constraints on inferences commonly made using microsatellite markers in the areas of population structure, admixture, and effective population size. To ameliorate and better understand these constraints, researchers are encouraged to analyze simulated datasets both prior to and following data collection and analysis, the latter of which is formalized within the approximate Bayesian computation framework. We also examine trends in the literature and show that microsatellites continue to be widely used, especially in non-human subject areas. This review assists with study design and molecular marker selection, facilitates sound interpretation of microsatellite data while fostering respect for their practical limitations, and identifies lessons that could be applied toward emerging markers and high-throughput technologies in population genetics. PMID:25540699

Putman, Alexander I; Carbone, Ignazio

2014-11-01

37

Challenges in analysis and interpretation of microsatellite data for population genetic studies  

PubMed Central

Advancing technologies have facilitated the ever-widening application of genetic markers such as microsatellites into new systems and research questions in biology. In light of the data and experience accumulated from several years of using microsatellites, we present here a literature review that synthesizes the limitations of microsatellites in population genetic studies. With a focus on population structure, we review the widely used fixation (FST) statistics and Bayesian clustering algorithms and find that the former can be confusing and problematic for microsatellites and that the latter may be confounded by complex population models and lack power in certain cases. Clustering, multivariate analyses, and diversity-based statistics are increasingly being applied to infer population structure, but in some instances these methods lack formalization with microsatellites. Migration-specific methods perform well only under narrow constraints. We also examine the use of microsatellites for inferring effective population size, changes in population size, and deeper demographic history, and find that these methods are untested and/or highly context-dependent. Overall, each method possesses important weaknesses for use with microsatellites, and there are significant constraints on inferences commonly made using microsatellite markers in the areas of population structure, admixture, and effective population size. To ameliorate and better understand these constraints, researchers are encouraged to analyze simulated datasets both prior to and following data collection and analysis, the latter of which is formalized within the approximate Bayesian computation framework. We also examine trends in the literature and show that microsatellites continue to be widely used, especially in non-human subject areas. This review assists with study design and molecular marker selection, facilitates sound interpretation of microsatellite data while fostering respect for their practical limitations, and identifies lessons that could be applied toward emerging markers and high-throughput technologies in population genetics. PMID:25540699

Putman, Alexander I; Carbone, Ignazio

2014-01-01

38

Paternal age related schizophrenia (PARS): latent subgroups detected by k-means clustering analysis  

E-print Network

1 Paternal age related schizophrenia (PARS): latent subgroups detected by k-means clustering.antonius@nyumc.org #12;2 Abstract Background: Paternal age related schizophrenia (PARS) has been proposed as a subgroup of schizophrenia with distinct etiology, pathophysiology and symptoms. This study uses a k-means clustering

Ahn, Hongshik

39

Characteristics and Frequency of Germline Mutations at Microsatellite Loci from the Human Y Chromosome, as Revealed by Direct Observation in Father\\/Son Pairs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of applications of analysis of human Y-chromosome microsatellite loci to human evolution and forensic science require reliable estimates of the mutation rate and knowledge of the mutational mechanism. We therefore screened a total of 4,999 meioses from father\\/son pairs with confirmed paternity (probability >99.9%) at 15 Y- chromosomal microsatellite loci and identified 14 mutations. The locus-specific mutation-rate estimates

Manfred Kayser; Lutz Roewer; Minttu Hedman; Lotte Henke; Jürgen Henke; Silke Brauer; Carmen Krüger; Michael Krawczak; Marion Nagy; Tadeusz Dobosz; Reinhard Szibor; Peter de Knijff; Mark Stoneking; Antti Sajantila

2000-01-01

40

Deletion Analysis of the Selfish B Chromosome, Paternal Sex Ratio (Psr), in the Parasitic Wasp Nasonia Vitripennis  

PubMed Central

Paternal Sex Ratio (PSR) is a ``selfish'' B chromosome in the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis. It is transmitted via sperm, but causes supercondensation and destruction of the paternal chromosomes in early fertilized eggs. Because this wasp has haplodiploid sex determination, the effect of PSR is to convert diploid (female) eggs into haploid (male) eggs that carry PSR. Characterizing its genetic structure is a first step toward understanding mechanisms of PSR action. The chromosome is largely heterochromatic and contains several tandemly repeated DNA sequences that are not present on the autosomes. A deletion analysis of PSR was performed to investigate organization of repeats and location of functional domains causing paternal chromosome destruction. Deletion profiles using probes to PSR-specific repetitive DNA indicate that most repeats are organized in blocks on the chromosome. This study shows that the functional domains of PSR can be deleted, resulting in nonfunctional PSR chromosomes that are transmitted to daughters. A functional domain may be linked with the psr22 repeat, but function may also depend on abundance of PSR-specific repeats on the chromosome. It is hypothesized that the repeats act as a ``sink'' for a product required for proper paternal chromosome processing. Almost all deletion chromosomes remained either functional of nonfunctional in subsequent generations following their creation. One chromosome was exceptional in that it reverted from nonfunctionality to functionality in one lineage. Transmission rates of nonfunctional deletion chromosomes were high through haploid males, but low through diploid females. PMID:8454206

Beukeboom, L. W.; Werren, J. H.

1993-01-01

41

Comparative analysis of microsatellite variability in five macaw species (Psittaciformes, Psittacidae): Application for conservation.  

PubMed

Cross-amplification was tested and variability in microsatellite primers (designed for Neotropical parrots) compared, in five macaw species, viz., three endangered blue macaws (Cyanopsitta spixii [extinct in the wild], Anodorhynchus leari [endangered] and Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus [vulnerable]), and two unthreatened red macaws (Ara chloropterus and Ara macao). Among the primers tested, 84.6% successfully amplified products in C. spixii, 83.3% in A. leari, 76.4% in A. hyacinthinus, 78.6% in A. chloropterus and 71.4% in A. macao. The mean expected heterozygosity estimated for each species, and based on loci analyzed in all the five, ranged from 0.33 (A. hyacinthinus) to 0.85 (A. macao). As expected, the results revealed lower levels of genetic variability in threatened macaw species than in unthreatened. The low combined probability of genetic identity and the moderate to high potential for paternity exclusion, indicate the utility of the microsatellite loci set selected for each macaw species in kinship and population studies, thus constituting an aid in planning in-situ and ex-situ conservation. PMID:21734841

Presti, Flavia T; Oliveira-Marques, Adriana R; Caparroz, Renato; Biondo, Cibele; Miyaki, Cristina Y

2011-04-01

42

MICROSATELLITE MEASURES OF INBREEDING: A META-ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meta-analyses of published and unpublished correlations between phenotypic variation and two measures of genetic variation at microsatellite loci, multilocus heterozygosity (MLH) and mean d2, revealed that the strength of these associations are generally weak (mean r , 0.10). Effects on life-history trait variation were significantly greater than zero for both measures over all reported effect sizes (r 5 0.0856 and

D. W. Coltman; J. Slate

2003-01-01

43

Genetic and functional analysis of neuronatin in mice with maternal or paternal duplication of distal Chr 2.  

PubMed

Functional differences between parental genomes are due to differential expression of parental alleles of imprinted genes. Neuronatin (Nnat) is a recently identified paternally expressed imprinted gene that is initially expressed in the rhombomeres and pituitary gland and later more widely in the central and peripheral nervous system mainly in postmitotic and differentiating neuroepithelial cells. Nnat maps to distal chromosome (Chr) 2, which contains an imprinting region that causes morphological abnormalities and early neonatal lethality. More detailed mapping analysis of Nnat showed that it is located between the T26H and T2Wa translocation breakpoints which is, surprisingly, proximal to the reported imprinting region between the T2Wa and T28H translocation breakpoints, suggesting that there may be two distinct imprinting regions on distal chromosome 2. To investigate the potential role of Nnat, we compared normal embryos with those which were PatDp.dist2.T26H (paternal duplication/maternal deficiency of chromosome 2 distal to the translocation breakpoint T26H) and MatDp.dist2.T26H. Expression of Nnat was detected in the PatDp.dist2.T26H embryos, where both copies of Nnat are paternally inherited, and normal embryos but no expression was detected in the MatDp.dist2.T26H embryos with the two maternally inherited copies. The differential expression of Nnat was supported by DNA methylation analysis with the paternally inherited alleles being unmethylated and the maternal alleles fully methylated. Although experimental embryos appeared grossly similar phenotypically in the structures where expression of Nnat was detected, differences in folding of the cerebellum were observed in neonates, and other more subtle developmental or behavioral effects due to gain or loss of Nnat cannot be ruled out. PMID:9331332

Kikyo, N; Williamson, C M; John, R M; Barton, S C; Beechey, C V; Ball, S T; Cattanach, B M; Surani, M A; Peters, J

1997-10-01

44

High transmission of paternal plastid DNA in alfalfa plants demonstrated by restriction fragment polymorphic analysis.  

PubMed

A high frequency of paternal plastid transmission occurred in progeny from crosses among normal green alfalfa plants. Plastid transmission was analyzed by hybridization of radiolabeled alfalfa plastid DNA (cpDNA) probes to Southern blots of restriction digests of the progeny DNA. Each probe revealed a specific polymorphism differentiating the parental plastid genomes. Of 212 progeny, 34 were heteroplastidic, with their cpDNAs ranging from predominantly paternal to predominantly maternal. Regrowth of shoots from heteroplasmic plants following removal of top growth revealed the persistence of mixed plastids in a given plant. However, different shoots within a green heteroplasmic plant exhibited paternal, maternal, or mixed cpDNAs. Evidence of maternal nuclear genomic influence on the frequency of paternal plastid transmission was observed in some reciprocal crosses. A few tetraploid F1 progeny were obtained from tetraploid (2n=4x=32) Medicago sativa ssp. sativa x diploid (2n=2x=16) M. sativa ssp. falcata crosses, and resulted from unreduced gametes. Here more than the maternal genome alone apparently functioned in controlling plastid transmission. Considering all crosses, only 5 of 212 progeny cpDNAs lacked evidence of a definitive paternal plastid fragment. PMID:24226119

Masoud, S A; Johnson, L B; Sorensen, E L

1990-01-01

45

[Extrapair paternity in Parus major].  

PubMed

Mating systems, as an evolutionary stable strategy, play an important role in animal reproductive process and result from an animal's adaption to their environment, including their inter-specific environment. In the 1980s, extrapair paternity (EPP) was first noted in the eurychoric species, the Great Tit, Parus major. As earlier studies indicated, morphology, physiology, behavior, ecological characteristics and mating systems of eurychoric species differ greatly between areas or populations. Accordingly, we analyzed the mating system of the Great Tit (P.m.minor) in Fairy Cave National Nature Reserve, Liaoning, China. We collected total parent-offspring blood samples from 22 broods. We used 8 hypervariable loci, which were selected from 11 reported microsatellite loci for paternity test. In conjunction with the known genetic pattern of the female parent, the accuracy of the paternity testing reached 99.98% with this genetic data. Results of paternity testing showed that 7 of 22 broods (31.8%) had extra-pair nestling, with 16 of 197 nestlings (8.12%) a result of extra-pair fertilizations. The EPP rate of the Great Tit we noted in Liaoning is obviously lower than those in other passerine forest birds (less than 10%). Though between 55.6% and 9.1% extrapair offspring were found among the different nests, we were, however, unable to find any explanatory rule. PMID:23389978

Yin, Li-Xian; Zhang, Lei; Chang, Peng; Li, Jing; Wan, Dong-Mei

2013-02-01

46

Analysis of microsatellite polymorphism in red deer, roe deer, and fallow deer — possible employment in forensic applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA microsatellites play a major role in population genetics, linkage mapping, and parentage studies of mammals. In addition, they may be used for forensic purposes, if an individual identification of a specific animal is necessary. Therefore, we tested a variety of microsatellite polymorphism derived from reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) by PCR and sequencing analysis for use in red deer (Cervus elaphus),

Micaela Poetsch; Sabine Seefeldt; Marina Maschke; Eberhard Lignitz

2001-01-01

47

The comparison of RFLP, RAPD, AFLP and SSR (microsatellite) markers for germplasm analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utility of RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism), RAPD (random-amplified polymorphic DNA), AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) and SSR (simple sequence repeat, microsatellite) markers in soybean germplasm analysis was determined by evaluating information content (expected heterozygosity), number of loci simultaneously analyzed per experiment (multiplex ratio) and effectiveness in assessing relationships between accessions. SSR markers have the highest expected heterozygosity (0.60),

Wayne Powell; Michele Morgante; Chaz Andre; Michael Hanafey; Julie Vogel; Scott Tingey; Antoni Rafalski

1996-01-01

48

Microsatellite analysis of natterjack toad Bufo calamita Laurenti populations: consequences of dispersal from a Pleistocene refugium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Populations of the amphibian Bufo calamita were sampled for genetic analysis in eleven areas distributed across its biogeographical range in Europe. Genetic diversity estimates across eight microsatellite loci showed a decline in polymorphism, numbers of alleles and heterozygosity as a function of distance from the presumed ice-age refugium in Iberia. Trials with a selection of tree-building algorithms indicated that UPGMA

TREVOR J. C BEEBEE; GRAHAM ROWE

2000-01-01

49

Microsatellite analysis of genetic variation among and within Alpine marmot populations in the French Alps  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic structure of the Alpine marmot, Marmota marmota , was studied by an analysis of five polymorphic microsatellite loci. Eight locations were sampled in the French Alps, one from Les Ecrins valley ( n = 160), another from La Sassière valley ( n = 289) and the six others from the Maurienne valley ( n = 139). Information on

B. Goossens; L. Chikhi; P. Taberlet; L. P. Waits; D. AllainE

2001-01-01

50

Microsatellite DNA analysis of coastal populations of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in British  

E-print Network

Microsatellite DNA analysis of coastal populations of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus (Salvelinus confluentus) from 20 Pacific coastal localities from the Skeena River (central British Columbia. [Traduit par la Rédaction] Taylor and Costello 1171 Introduction The bull trout, Salvelinus confluentus

Taylor, Eric B. "Rick"

51

Analysis of paternal alleles in nucleated red blood cells enriched from maternal blood.  

PubMed

The purpose of our study was to identify paternal alleles in NRBC enriched from maternal peripheral blood for detection of the presence of foetal cells in the maternal circulation and to establish a reliable non-invasive method which should allow following genetic testing. For enrichment of foetal cells from peripheral maternal blood we combined Ficoll-Paque density gradient centrifugation and MACS. Maternal leukocytes were firstly depleted using anti-CD14 and anti-CD45 microbeads. NRBC were sorted from the CD14-/CD45- fraction by positive selection using CD71 microbeads. Paternal alleles in the CD14-/CD45-/CD71+ fraction were indicated by the PCR method using HLA (DRB1, DQB1, DQA1) and Polymarker System (LDLR, GYPA, HBGG, D7S8, GC) as genetic markers. Different paternal alleles of studied 8 loci were detected in 13 out of 19 samples of cells enriched from maternal peripheral blood between the 13th and 36th week of gestation. Our results demonstrate that foetal cells enriched from maternal peripheral blood may be used as a source of foetal DNA for prenatal diagnosis, paternity testing and other application. PMID:11232868

Hromadníková, I; Bendukidze, N; Mrstinová, M; Ivasková, E

2001-01-01

52

Genetic and Functional Analysis of neuronatinin Mice with Maternal or Paternal Duplication of Distal Chr 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional differences between parental genomes are due to differential expression of parental alleles of imprinted genes. Neuronatin (Nnat) is a recently identified paternally expressed imprinted gene that is initially expressed in the rhombomeres and pituitary gland and later more widely in the central and peripheral nervous system mainly in postmitotic and differentiating neuroepithelial cells.Nnatmaps to distal chromosome (Chr) 2, which

Nobuaki Kikyo; Christine M. Williamson; Rosalind M. John; Sheila C. Barton; Colin V. Beechey; Simon T. Ball; Bruce M. Cattanach; M. Azim Surani; Josephine Peters

1997-01-01

53

High transmission of paternal plastid DNA in alfalfa plants demonstrated by restriction fragment polymorphic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high frequency of paternal plastid transmission occurred in progeny from crosses among normal green alfalfa plants. Plastid transmission was analyzed by hybridization of radiolabeled alfalfa plastid DNA (cpDNA) probes to Southern blots of restriction digests of the progeny DNA. Each probe revealed a specific polymorphism differentiating the parental plastid genomes. Of 212 progeny, 34 were heteroplastidic, with their cpDNAs

S. A. Masoud; L. B. Johnson; E. L. Sorensen

1990-01-01

54

[Genetic diversity in goat breeds based on microsatellite analysis].  

PubMed

Fluorescence PCR was applied to investigate the genetic diversities of 9 indigenous Chinese goat breeds and 1 exotic breed with 10 microsatellite DNA markers recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the International Livestock Research Institute of Animal Genetics, which provide data for the preservation and utilization of indigenous goat breeds genetic resource. We found that the 7 breeds were high polymorphic while 3 breeds were moderate polymorphic. We also detected 119 alleles, and the effective allele number ranged from 1.4641 to 9.2911. The average heterozygosity of loci and breeds respectively varied from 0.2618 to 0.7672 and from 0.5196 to 0.7024. As well as SRCRSP23 site and Hexi cashmere goat had the highest average heterozygosity. Then we analyzed the phylogenetic trees (NJ and UPGMA), and found both of them were generally in accordance with their original breeding history and localities. PMID:20684301

Xu, Limei; Liu, Chousheng; Zhang, Liping; Wang, Zhigang; Han, Xu; Li, Xiaoxia; Chang, Shuang

2010-05-01

55

Relating paternity to paternal care.  

PubMed Central

Intuition suggests, to most people, that parents should be selected to care for their offspring in relation to how certain they are of being the parents of those offspring. Theoretical models of the relationship between parental investment and certainty of parentage predict the two to be related only when some other assumptions are made, few of which can be taken for granted. I briefly review the models and their assumptions, and discuss two kinds of difficulty facing an empiricist wishing to test the models. The first is the problem of unmeasured (and immeasurable) variables. The second is the problem that even the most extensive models do not capture the complexity that can be demonstrated in real systems. I illustrate some of these problems, and some qualitative tests of the models, with experimental work on a population of the collared flycatcher. My conclusion is that although there are some cases where the models have qualitative support, we are a long way from understanding whether paternal care is commonly adjusted in relation to certainty of paternity. PMID:11958702

Sheldon, Ben C

2002-01-01

56

Thermal fatigue analysis of solar panel structure for micro-satellite applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal fatigue analysis based on 2D finite difference and 3D finite element methods is carried out to study the performance\\u000a of solar panel structure during micro-satellite life time. Solar panel primary structure consists of honeycomb structure and\\u000a composite laminates. The 2D finite difference (I-DEAS) model yields predictions of the temperature profile during one orbit.\\u000a Then, 3D finite element analysis (ANSYS)

Gasser Farouk Abdelal; Ayman Atef

2008-01-01

57

Sperm competition and sexual selection: a meta-analysis of paternity studies of birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sperm competition (the competition among the sperm of different males for fertilization of the eggs of a female) has been\\u000a suggested to be an important component of sexual selection, but no general assessment has been made of this proposition. We\\u000a used a meta-analytic approach to assess the extensive literature on paternity (the proportion of offspring in a focal nest\\u000a sired

Anders Pape Møller; Paola Ninni

1998-01-01

58

Microsatellite analysis of North American wapiti (Cervus elaphus) populations.  

PubMed

Eleven populations of wapiti (Cervus elaphus) were analysed for genetic diversity using 12 microsatellite loci. Samples were taken from Vancouver Island, British Columbia; Burwash and French River herds in Ontario; Ya Ha Tinda Ranch, Alberta; and Banff, Elk Island, Jasper, Kootenay, Riding Mountain, Yellowstone and Yoho National Parks. Overall, wapiti populations have on average three to four alleles per locus and an average expected heterozygosity that ranged from 25.75 to 52.85%. The greatest genetic distances were observed between the Vancouver population and all other populations. Using the assignment test, Roosevelt wapiti (C. e. roosevelti Merriam 1897) assigned only to the Vancouver Island population. The distance and assignment values suggest a divergence of the Roosevelt wapiti from other populations and support the subspecific status for the Vancouver Island population. No evidence was found for the existence of unique Eastern wapiti (C. e. canadensis Erxleben 1777) in the Burwash or French River herds in Ontario. The overlapping distribution of genotypes from indigenous populations from Riding Mountain, Elk Island and Yellowstone National Parks suggests that wapiti were once a continuous population before settlers decimated their numbers. The lack of differentiation between these populations raises questions about the status of Manitoban (C. e.manitobensis Millais 1915) and Rocky Mountain (C. e.nelsoni Bailey 1935) subspecies. PMID:11050551

Polziehn, R O; Hamr, J; Mallory, F F; Strobeck, C

2000-10-01

59

Further microsatellite analysis of common minke whales in the western North Pacific  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a revised version of the microsatellite analysis presented in SC\\/J09\\/JR30 to cover the recommendations from the Expert Workshop to review the JARPNII Programme. The IWC Scientific Committee (SC) completed the RMP Implementation for the western North Pacific common minke whales during the 2003 Annual Meeting. At the final stage of the Implementation process, the SC adopted four

Naohisa Kanda; Mutsuo Goto; Toshiya Kishiro; Hideyoshi Yoshida; Hidehiro Kato

60

Multiyear multiple paternity and mate fidelity in the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis  

E-print Network

Multiyear multiple paternity and mate fidelity in the American alligator, Alligator breeding events within a 10-year period (1995­2005) for a total of 114 wild American alligator nests at five microsatellite loci were generated for 1802 alligator hatchlings. Multiple paternity was found

Georgia, University of

61

Extrapair paternity and egg hatchability in tree swallows: evidence for the genetic compatibility hypothesis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) show one of the highest levels of extrapair paternity in birds, and there is evidence that females have control over who fathers their offspring. However, it is unclear which benefits female tree swallows obtain from mating with multiple males. Using microsatellite DNA fingerprinting, we studied extrapair paternity in relation to nesting success and male, female, and

Bart Kempenaers; Brad Congdon; Peter Boag; Raleigh J. Robertsona

1999-01-01

62

Advancing paternal age and risk of autism: new evidence from a population-based study and a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies.  

PubMed

Advanced paternal age has been suggested as a risk factor for autism, but empirical evidence is mixed. This study examines whether the association between paternal age and autism in the offspring (1) persists controlling for documented autism risk factors, including family psychiatric history, perinatal conditions, infant characteristics and demographic variables; (2) may be explained by familial traits associated with the autism phenotype, or confounding by parity; and (3) is consistent across epidemiological studies. Multiple study methods were adopted. First, a Swedish 10-year birth cohort (N=1?075?588) was established. Linkage to the National Patient Register ascertained all autism cases (N=883). Second, 660 families identified within the birth cohort had siblings discordant for autism. Finally, meta-analysis included population-based epidemiological studies. In the birth cohort, autism risk increased monotonically with increasing paternal age. Offspring of men aged ?50 years were 2.2 times (95% confidence interval: 1.26-3.88: P=0.006) more likely to have autism than offspring of men aged ?29 years, after controlling for maternal age and documented risk factors for autism. Within-family analysis of discordant siblings showed that affected siblings had older paternal age, adjusting for maternal age and parity (P<0.0001). Meta-analysis demonstrated advancing paternal age association with increased risk of autism across studies. These findings provide the strongest evidence to date that advanced paternal age is a risk factor for autism in the offspring. Possible biological mechanisms include de novo aberration and mutations or epigenetic alterations associated with aging. PMID:21116277

Hultman, C M; Sandin, S; Levine, S Z; Lichtenstein, P; Reichenberg, A

2011-12-01

63

Variogram analysis of the spatial genetic structure of continuous populations using multilocus microsatellite data.  

PubMed

A geostatistical perspective on spatial genetic structure may explain methodological issues of quantifying spatial genetic structure and suggest new approaches to addressing them. We use a variogram approach to (i) derive a spatial partitioning of molecular variance, gene diversity, and genotypic diversity for microsatellite data under the infinite allele model (IAM) and the stepwise mutation model (SMM), (ii) develop a weighting of sampling units to reflect ploidy levels or multiple sampling of genets, and (iii) show how variograms summarize the spatial genetic structure within a population under isolation-by-distance. The methods are illustrated with data from a population of the epiphytic lichen Lobaria pulmonaria, using six microsatellite markers. Variogram-based analysis not only avoids bias due to the underestimation of population variance in the presence of spatial autocorrelation, but also provides estimates of population genetic diversity and the degree and extent of spatial genetic structure accounting for autocorrelation. PMID:15654102

Wagner, Helene H; Holderegger, Rolf; Werth, Silke; Gugerli, Felix; Hoebee, Susan E; Scheidegger, Christoph

2005-03-01

64

Genome-wide survey and analysis of microsatellites in the Pacific oyster genome: abundance, distribution, and potential for marker development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microsatellites are a ubiquitous component of the eukaryote genome and constitute one of the most popular sources of molecular markers for genetic studies. However, no data are currently available regarding microsatellites across the entire genome in oysters, despite their importance to the aquaculture industry. We present the first genome-wide investigation of microsatellites in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas by analysis of the complete genome, resequencing, and expression data. The Pacific oyster genome is rich in microsatellites. A total of 604 653 repeats were identified, in average of one locus per 815 base pairs (bp). A total of 12 836 genes had coding repeats, and 7 332 were expressed normally, including genes with a wide range of molecular functions. Compared with 20 different species of animals, microsatellites in the oyster genome typically exhibited 1) an intermediate overall frequency; 2) relatively uniform contents of (A)n and (C)n repeats and abundant long (C)n repeats (?24 bp); 3) large average length of (AG)n repeats; and 4) scarcity of trinucleotide repeats. The microsatellite-flanking regions exhibited a high degree of polymorphism with a heterozygosity rate of around 2.0%, but there was no correlation between heterozygosity and microsatellite abundance. A total of 19 462 polymorphic microsatellites were discovered, and dinucleotide repeats were the most active, with over 26% of loci found to harbor allelic variations. In all, 7 451 loci with high potential for marker development were identified. Better knowledge of the microsatellites in the oyster genome will provide information for the future design of a wide range of molecular markers and contribute to further advancements in the field of oyster genetics, particularly for molecular-based selection and breeding.

Wang, Jiafeng; Qi, Haigang; Li, Li; Zhang, Guofan

2014-01-01

65

Mosaic analysis and tumor induction in zebrafish by microsatellite instability-mediated stochastic gene expression  

PubMed Central

Mosaic analysis, in which two or more populations of cells with differing genotypes are studied in a single animal, is a powerful approach to study developmental mechanisms and gene function in vivo. Over recent years, several genetic methods have been developed to achieve mosaicism in zebrafish, but despite their advances, limitations remain and different approaches and further refinements are warranted. Here, we describe an alternative approach for creating somatic mosaicism in zebrafish that relies on the instability of microsatellite sequences during replication. We placed the coding sequences of various marker proteins downstream of a microsatellite and out-of-frame; in vivo frameshifting into the proper reading frame results in expression of the protein in random individual cells that are surrounded by wild-type cells. We optimized this approach for the binary Gal4-UAS expression system by generating a driver line and effector lines that stochastically express Gal4-VP16 or UAS:H2A-EGFP and self-maintaining UAS:H2A-EGFP-Kaloop, respectively. To demonstrate the utility of this system, we stochastically expressed a constitutively active form of the human oncogene H-RAS and show the occurrence of hyperpigmentation and sporadic tumors within 5 days. Our data demonstrate that inducing somatic mosaicism through microsatellite instability can be a valuable approach for mosaic analysis and tumor induction in Danio rerio. PMID:24487406

Koole, Wouter; Tijsterman, Marcel

2014-01-01

66

A set of 37 microsatellite DNA markers for genetic diversity and structure analysis of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar populations.  

PubMed

Atlantic salmon Salmo salar microsatellite markers from a large database were analysed and selected with technical, economic and genetic criteria to provide an optimized set of polymorphic DNA markers for the analysis of the genetic diversity and the structure of anadromous Atlantic salmon populations. A set of 37 microsatellite markers was identified that are easy to use and provide a high level of differentiation power. PMID:20735571

Nikolic, N; Fève, K; Chevalet, C; Høyheim, B; Riquet, J

2009-02-01

67

Variable microsatellite loci for population genetic analysis of Old World monkey lice (Pedicinus sp.).  

PubMed

Parasitic lice have been valuable informants of their host's evolutionary history because they complete their entire life cycle on the host and move between hosts primarily through direct host-to-host contact. Therefore, lice are confined to their hosts both in ecological and evolutionary time. Lice on great apes have been studied to examine details of their host's evolutionary history; however, species of Pedicinus, which parasitize the Old World monkeys, are less well known. We sampled lice from 2 groups of red colobus (Procolobus spp.) in Kibale National Park in Uganda and from red colobus and black and white colobus (Procolobus polycomos) in Taï National Park in Côte d'Ivoire. We used next-generation sequencing data analysis and the human body louse (Pediculus humanus humanus) genome to search for microsatellites for population genetic studies of Pedicinus lice. The 96 primer sets for microsatellite loci designed from the human body louse genome failed to amplify microsatellites in Pedicinus sp., perhaps due to the fast rate of evolution in parasitic lice. Of 63 microsatellites identified by next-generation sequencing data analysis of Pedicinus sp., 12 were variable among populations and 9 were variable within a single population. Our results suggest that these loci will be useful across the genus Pedicinus. We found that the lice in Uganda are not structured according to their hosts' social group; rather, 2 non-interbreeding populations of lice were found on both groups of red colobus. Because direct host-to-host contact is usually required for lice to move among hosts, these lice could be useful for identification and study of behavioral interactions between primate species. PMID:22509906

Scholl, Katlyn; Allen, Julie M; Leendertz, Fabian H; Chapman, Colin A; Reed, David L

2012-10-01

68

IMEx: Imperfect Microsatellite Extractor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivation: Microsatellites, also known as simple sequence repeats, are the tandem repeats of nucleotide motifs of the size 1-6bp found in every genome known so far. Their importance in genomes is well known. Microsatellites are associated with various disease genes, have been used as molecular markers in linkage analysis and DNA fingerprinting studies, and also seem to play an important

Suresh B. Mudunuri; Hampapathalu A. Nagarajaram

2007-01-01

69

Microsatellite Analysis of Perch (Perca fluviatilis) and its Genetic Authentication of Geographical Localization.  

PubMed

European perch (Perca fluviatilis) is an economically important freshwater species in Europe. In Switzerland, where the demand largely exceeds the production coming from Swiss lakes, nearly 90% of the requirements come from importation with the majority of perch originating from Estonia and Russia. The price of perch fillet varies considerably depending on the origin. Therefore traceability in the fish food sector plays an increasingly important role for consumer protection. Currently the traceability of perch can be assessed through chemical isotopic analysis. The 180/160 isotopic abundance ratio is used as geographical traceability marker, but several aspects affect the accuracy of the method, i.e. the distinct geographical area ratio differs only very slightly with overlapping standard deviation, the need for a large amount of fish material requires the mix of many fillets, the impossibility of analyzing processed matrix, the comparison of the ratio with the ratio of a sample of the presumed originating water makes the analyses more complicated. New application of DNA markers for the traceability of food products plays an increasingly important role for consumer protection. Microsatellites, which are short tandemly repetitive DNA sequences, are genetic markers of choice for traceability because of their abundance and high polymorphism. Moreover, fluorescent labelling and capillary electrophoresis separation increase efficiency and precision of genotyping microsatellites. The method can also be efficiently applied in processed food products where other methods have limited applications. In this study, we tested the efficiency of three polymorphic microsatellites and their combinations for their ability to correctly assign or exclude 195 reference perch to their origin population. Using the maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods computed by the software GeneClass2, the three loci microsatellite were optimized and allowed the correct assignation of all but two Swiss perch (60/62) into Swiss population. The markers also exclude 132/133 imported fish from the Swiss population with a match probability of more than 95%. The number of markers required for correct assignation differs from species to species, and depends on many factors such as genetic diversity and population structure. For perch populations, the results showed that only three polymorphic microsatellite markers are required to perform a reliable attribution or exclusion of a perch to the Swiss population with more than 98% correct assignations. PMID:25437166

Rolli, Joelle; Girardet, Sylvie; Monachon, Cédric; Richard, Christian

2014-10-01

70

Evaluation of bull prolificacy on commercial beef cattle ranches using DNA paternity analysis.  

PubMed

SNP-based DNA testing was used to assign paternity to 5,052 calves conceived in natural service multisire breeding pastures from 3 commercial ranches in northern California representing 15 calf crops over 3 yr. Bulls present for 60 to 120 d at a 25:1 cow to bull ratio in both fall and spring breeding seasons in ?40 ha or smaller fenced breeding pastures sired a highly variable (P < 0.001) number of calves (Ncalf), ranging from 0 (4.4% of bulls present in any given breeding season) to 64 calves per bull per breeding season, with an average of 18.9 ± 13.1. There was little variation in Ncalf among ranches (P = 0.90), years (P = 0.96), and seasons (P = 0.94). Bulls varied widely (P < 0.01) in the average individual 205-d adjusted weaning weight (I205) of progeny, and I205 varied between years (P < 0.01) and seasons (P < 0.01) but not ranches (P = 0.29). The pattern for cumulative total 205-d adjusted weaning weight of all progeny sired by a bull (T205) was highly correlated to Ncalf, with small differences between ranches (P = 0.35), years (P = 0.66), and seasons (P = 0.20) but large differences (P < 0.01) between bulls, ranging from an average of 676 to 8,838 kg per bull per calf crop. The peak Ncalf occurred at about 5 yr of age for bulls ranging from 2 to 11 yr of age. Weekly conception rates as assessed by date of calving varied significantly and peaked at wk 3 of the calving season. The distribution of calves born early in the calving season was disproportionately skewed toward the highly prolific bulls. The DNA paternity testing of the subset of those calves born in wk 3 of the calving season was highly predictive of overall bull prolificacy and may offer a reduced-cost DNA-based option for assessing prolificacy. Prolificacy of young bulls in their first breeding season was positively linearly related (P < 0.05) to subsequent breeding seasons, explaining about 20% of the subsequent variation. Prolificacy was also positively linearly related (P < 0.05) to scrotal circumference (SC) EPD for Angus bulls that had SC EPD Beef Improvement Federation accuracies greater than 0.05. Varying prolificacy of herd bulls has implications for the genetic composition of replacement heifers, with the genetics of those bulls siring an increased number of calves being disproportionately represented in the early-born replacement heifer pool. PMID:24753384

Van Eenennaam, A L; Weber, K L; Drake, D J

2014-06-01

71

Genetic Diversity and Geographic Population Structure of Bovine Neospora caninum Determined by Microsatellite Genotyping Analysis  

PubMed Central

The cyst-forming protozoan parasite Neosporacaninum is one of the main causes of bovine abortion worldwide and is of great economic importance in the cattle industry. Recent studies have revealed extensive genetic variation among N. caninum isolates based on microsatellite sequences (MSs). MSs may be suitable molecular markers for inferring the diversity of parasite populations, molecular epidemiology and the basis for phenotypic variations in N. caninum, which have been poorly defined. In this study, we evaluated nine MS markers using a panel of 11 N. caninum-derived reference isolates from around the world and 96 N. caninum bovine clinical samples and one ovine clinical sample collected from four countries on two continents, including Spain, Argentina, Germany and Scotland, over a 10-year period. These markers were used as molecular tools to investigate the genetic diversity, geographic distribution and population structure of N. caninum. Multilocus microsatellite genotyping based on 7 loci demonstrated high levels of genetic diversity in the samples from all of the different countries, with 96 microsatellite multilocus genotypes (MLGs) identified from 108 N. caninum samples. Geographic sub-structuring was present in the country populations according to pairwise FST. Principal component analysis (PCA) and Neighbor Joining tree topologies also suggested MLG segregation partially associated with geographical origin. An analysis of the MLG relationships, using eBURST, confirmed that the close genetic relationship observed between the Spanish and Argentinean populations may be the result of parasite migration (i.e., the introduction of novel MLGs from Spain to South America) due to cattle movement. The eBURST relationships also revealed genetically different clusters associated with the abortion. The presence of linkage disequilibrium, the co-existence of specific MLGs to individual farms and eBURST MLG relationships suggest a predominant clonal propagation for Spanish N. caninum MLGs in cattle. PMID:23940816

Regidor-Cerrillo, Javier; Díez-Fuertes, Francisco; García-Culebras, Alicia; Moore, Dadín P.; González-Warleta, Marta; Cuevas, Carmen; Schares, Gereon; Katzer, Frank; Pedraza-Díaz, Susana; Mezo, Mercedes; Ortega-Mora, Luis M.

2013-01-01

72

Narrow genetic basis for the Australian dingo confirmed through analysis of paternal ancestry.  

PubMed

The dingo (Canis lupus dingo) is an iconic animal in the native culture of Australia, but archaeological and molecular records indicate a relatively recent history on the continent. Studies of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) imply that the current dingo population was founded by a small population of already tamed dogs from Southeast Asia. However, the maternal genetic data might give a unilateral picture, and the gene pool has yet to be screened for paternal ancestry. We sequenced 14,437 bp of the Y-chromosome (Y-chr) from two dingoes and one New Guinea Singing Dog (NGSD). This positioned dingo and NGSD within the domestic dog Y-chr phylogeny, and produced one haplotype not detected before. With this data, we characterized 47 male dingoes in 30 Y-chr single-nucleotide polymorphism sites using protease-mediated allele-specific extension technology. Only two haplotypes, H3 and H60, were found among the dingoes, at frequencies of 68.1 and 31.9 %, respectively, compared to 27 haplotypes previously established in the domestic dog. While H3 is common among Southeast Asian dogs, H60 was specifically found in dingoes and the NGSD, but was related to Southeast Asian dog Y-chr haplotypes. H3 and H60 were observed exclusively in the western and eastern parts of Australia, respectively, but had a common range in Southeast. Thus, the Y-chr diversity was very low, similar to previous observations for d-loop mtDNA. Overall genetic evidence suggests a very restricted introduction of the first dingoes into Australia, possibly from New Guinea. This study further confirms the dingo as an isolated feral dog. PMID:22618967

Ardalan, Arman; Oskarsson, Mattias; Natanaelsson, Christian; Wilton, Alan N; Ahmadian, Afshin; Savolainen, Peter

2012-03-01

73

Multilocus microsatellite analysis of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' associated with citrus Huanglongbing worldwide  

PubMed Central

Background Huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most destructive citrus diseases in the world. The disease is associated with the presence of a fastidious, phloem-limited ?- proteobacterium, 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus', 'Ca. Liberibacter africanus' or 'Ca. Liberibacter americanus'. HLB-associated Liberibacters have spread to North America and South America in recent years. While the causal agents of HLB have been putatively identified, information regarding the worldwide population structure and epidemiological relationships for 'Ca. L. asiaticus' is limited. The availability of the 'Ca. L. asiaticus' genome sequence has facilitated development of molecular markers from this bacterium. The objectives of this study were to develop microsatellite markers and conduct genetic analyses of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' from a worldwide collection. Two hundred eighty seven isolates from USA (Florida), Brazil, China, India, Cambodia, Vietnam, Taiwan, Thailand, and Japan were analyzed. Results A panel of seven polymorphic microsatellite markers was developed for 'Ca. L. asiaticus'. Microsatellite analyses across the samples showed that the genetic diversity of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' is higher in Asia than Americas. UPGMA and STRUCTURE analyses identified three major genetic groups worldwide. Isolates from India were genetically distinct. East-southeast Asian and Brazilian isolates were generally included in the same group; a few members of this group were found in Florida, but the majority of the isolates from Florida were clustered separately. eBURST analysis predicted three founder haplotypes, which may have given rise to three groups worldwide. Conclusions Our results identified three major genetic groups of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' worldwide. Isolates from Brazil showed similar genetic makeup with east-southeast Asian dominant group, suggesting the possibility of a common origin. However, most of the isolates recovered from Florida were clustered in a separate group. While the sources of the dominant 'Ca. L. asiaticus' in Florida were not clearly understood, the less-pervasive groups may have been introduced directly from Asia or via Brazil. Notably, the recent outbreak of HLB in Florida probably occurred through multiple introductions. Microsatellite markers developed in this study provide adequate discriminatory power for the identification and differentiation of closely-related isolates, as well as for genetic studies of 'Ca. L. asiaticus'. PMID:22433492

2012-01-01

74

Analysis of genetic diversity and differentiation of seven stocks of Litopenaeus vannamei using microsatellite markers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seven microsatellite markers were used to evaluate the genetic diversity and differentiation of seven stocks of Litopenaeus vannamei, which were introduced from Central and South America to China. All seven microsatellite loci were polymorphic, with polymorphism information content ( PIC) values ranging from 0.593 to 0.952. Totally 92 alleles were identified, and the number of alleles ( Na) and effective alleles ( Ne) varied between 4 and 21 and 2.7 and 14.6, respectively. Observed heterozygosity ( H o) values were lower than the expected heterozygosity ( H e) values (0.526-0.754), which indicated that the seven stocks possessed a rich genetic diversity. Thirty-seven tests were detected for reasonable significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. F is values were positive at five loci, suggesting that there was a relatively high degree of inbreeding within stocks. Pairwise F st values ranged from 0.0225 to 0.151, and most of the stock pairs were moderately differentiated. Genetic distance and cluster analysis using UPGMA revealed a close genetic relationship of L. vannamei between Pop2 and Pop3. AMOVA indicated that the genetic variation among stocks (11.3%) was much lower than that within stocks (88.7%). Although the seven stocks had a certain degree of genetic differentiation and a rich genetic diversity, there is an increasing risk of decreased performance due to inbreeding in subsequent generations.

Zhang, Kai; Wang, Weiji; Li, Weiya; Zhang, Quanqi; Kong, Jie

2014-08-01

75

Polymorphism in ornamental and common carp strains ( Cyprinus carpio L.) as revealed by AFLP analysis and a new set of microsatellite markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-seven new microsatellite markers were generated and applied, together with the AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) technique using two different enzyme combinations, to the genetic analysis of two carp species, Cyprinus carpio L. and Ctenopharyngodon idella. The extent of polymorphism and the genetic relationships between nine carp populations were studied. The incidence of microsatellites containing CA and CT motifs was

L. David; P. Rajasekaran; J. Fang; J. Hillel; U. Lavi

2001-01-01

76

Microsatellite and mtDNA analysis of lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, from Great Bear Lake, Northwest Territories  

E-print Network

Microsatellite and mtDNA analysis of lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, from Great Bear Lake genetic variation in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Great Bear Lake (GBL), NT and one population, Salvelinus. Correspondence Les N. Harris, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, MB

Taylor, Eric B. "Rick"

77

Comparative analysis of microsatellite detecting software: a significant variation in results and influence of parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsatellites are a unique type of repeat patterns found in genome sequences of all known organisms including bacteria and viruses. These repeats play an important role in genome evolution, are associated with various diseases, have been used as molecular markers in DNA Fingerprinting, Population Genetics etc. Various bioinformatics tools have been developed for extraction of microsatellites from DNA sequences. However,

Suresh B. Mudunuri; Allam Appa Rao; S. Pallamsetty; H. A. Nagarajaram

2010-01-01

78

Performance of non-motile male gametes in the sea: analysis of paternity and fertilization success in a natural population of a red seaweed, Gracilaria gracilis  

PubMed Central

In haploid–diploid red seaweeds, the dispersal of male gametes is presumed limited due to their lack of flagella. It has been suggested that this group suffers from sperm limitation and, consequently, that fertilization is relatively inefficient. Fertilization in most floridean rhodophytes results in the formation a cystocarp, a swelling on the haploid female thallus housing the diploid zygote and its thousands of diploid daughter spores. To study the performance of non-motile male gametes in the sea, we evaluated both female and male fertilization success in a natural population of the red marine alga Gracilaria gracilis. Female fertilization success, estimated by cystocarp yield per unit female thallus, was evaluated with respect to the availability of male gametes. Male fertilization success, estimated by the individual contribution of different males to zygotes, was assessed by paternity analyses on 350 cystocarps produced in one reproductive season using two microsatellite loci. The results show that cystocarp yield is not sperm limited and that the large variation in male fertilization success cannot be solely explained by the distance travelled by the male gamete to find a mate. Taken together, the results suggest that, not only is fertilization efficient, but that male–male competition and/or female choice may play a role in shaping population mating patterns.

Engel, C. R.; Wattier, R.; Destombe, C.; Valero, M.

1999-01-01

79

Microsatellite-centromere mapping in common carp through half-tetrad analysis in diploid meiogynogenetic families.  

PubMed

Gene-centromere (G-C) mapping provides insights into the understanding of the composition, structure, and evolution of vertebrate genomes. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is an important aquaculture fish and has been proposed to undertake tetraploidization. In this study, we selected 214 informative microsatellite markers across 50 linkage groups of a common carp genetic map to perform gene-centromere mapping using half-tetrad analysis. A total of 199 microsatellites were segregated under the Mendelian expectations in at least one of the three gynogenetic families and were used for G-C distance estimation. The G-C recombination frequency (y) ranged from 0 to 0.99 (0.43 on average), corresponding to a fixation index (F) of 0.57 after one generation of gynogenesis. Large y values for some loci together with significant correlation between G-C distances and genetic linkage map distances suggested the presence of high interference in common carp. Under the assumption of complete interference, 50 centromeres were localized onto corresponding linkage groups (LGs) of common carp, with G-C distances of centromere-linked markers per LG ranging from 0 to 10.3 cM (2.9 cM on average). Based on the information for centromere positions, we proposed a chromosome formula of 2n?=?100?=?58 m/sm?+?42 t/st with 158 chromosome arms for common carp, which was similar to a study observed by cytogenetic method. The examination of crossover distributions along 10 LGs revealed that the proportion of crossover chromatids was overall higher than that of non-crossover chromatids in gynogenetic progenies, indicating high recombination levels across most LGs. Comparative genomics analyses suggested that the chromosomes of common carp have undergone extensive rearrangement after genome duplication. This study would be valuable to elucidate the mechanism of genome evolution and integrate physical and genetic maps in common carp. PMID:25171918

Feng, Xiu; Wang, Xinhua; Yu, Xiaomu; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Lu, Cuiyun; Sun, Xiaowen; Tong, Jingou

2014-08-30

80

Genetic linkage analysis of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis using human chromosome 21 microsatellite DNA markers  

SciTech Connect

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS; Lou Gehrig`s Disease) is a lethal neurodegenerative disease of upper and lower motorneurons in the brain and spinal cord. We previously reported linkage of a gene for familial ALS (FALS) to human chromosome 21 using 4 restriction fragment length polymorphism DNA markers and identified disease-associated mutations in the superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1 gene in some ALS families. We report here the genetic linkage data that led us to examine the SOD-1 gene for mutations. We also report a new microsatellite DNA marker for D21S63, derived from the cosmid PW517. Ten microsatellite DNA markers, including the new marker D21S63, were used to reinvestigate linkage of FALS to chromosome 21. Genetic linkage analysis performed with 13 ALS familes for these 10 DNA markers confirmed the presence of a FALS gene on chromosome 21. The highest total 2-point LOD score for all families was 4.33, obtained at a distance of 10 cM from the marker D21S223. For 5 ALS families linked to chromosome 21, a peak 2-point LOD score of 5.94 was obtained at the DNA marker D21S223. A multipoint score of 6.50 was obtained with the markers D21S213, D21S223, D21S167, and FALS for 5 chromosome 21-linked ALS families. The haplotypes of these families for the 10 DNA markers reveal recombination events that further refined the location of the FALS gene to a segment of approximately 5 megabases (Mb) between D21S213 and D21S219. The only characterized gene within this segment was SOD-1, the structural gene for Cu, Zn SOD. 30 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Rosen, D.R.; Sapp, P.; O`Regan, J.; McKenna-Yasek, D.; Schlumpf, K.S.; Haines, J.L.; Gusella, J.F.; Horvitz, H.R.; Brown, R.H. Jr. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

1994-05-15

81

Microsatellite analysis of Damask rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) accessions from various regions in Iran reveals multiple genotypes  

PubMed Central

Background Damask roses (Rosa damascena Mill.) are mainly used for essential oil production. Previous studies have indicated that all production material in Bulgaria and Turkey consists of only one genotype. Nine polymorphic microsatellite markers were used to analyze the genetic diversity of 40 accessions of R. damascena collected across major and minor rose oil production areas in Iran. Results All microsatellite markers showed a high level of polymorphism (5–15 alleles per microsatellite marker, with an average of 9.11 alleles per locus). Cluster analysis of genetic similarities revealed that these microsatellites identified a total of nine different genotypes. The genotype from Isfahan province, which is the major production area, was by far the most common genotype (27/40 accessions). It was identical to the Bulgarian genotype. Other genotypes (each represented by 1–4 accessions) were collected from minor production areas in several provinces, notably in the mountainous Northwest of Iran. Conclusion This is the first study that uncovered genetic diversity within Damask rose. Our results will guide new collection activities to establish larger collections and manage the Iranian Damask rose genetic resources. The genotypes identified here may be directly useful for breeding. PMID:17346330

Babaei, Alireza; Tabaei-Aghdaei, Seyed Reza; Khosh-Khui, Morteza; Omidbaigi, Reza; Naghavi, Mohammad Reza; Esselink, Gerhard D; Smulders, Marinus JM

2007-01-01

82

Population genetic structure and phylogeography of cyprinid fish, Labeo dero (Hamilton, 1822) inferred from allozyme and microsatellite DNA marker analysis.  

PubMed

We examined population structure of Labeo dero (Hamilton, 1822) from different riverine locations in India using 10 polymorphic allozyme and eight microsatellite loci. For analysis, 591 different tissue samples were obtained from commercial catches covering a wide geographic range. Allozyme variability (An = 1.28-1.43, Ho = 0.029-0.071) was much lower than for microsatellites (An = 4.625-6.125, Ho = 0.538-0.633). Existence of rare alleles was found at three allozyme (MDH-2, GPI and PGDH) and at two microsatellite loci (R-3 and MFW-15). Deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P < 0.05, after the critical probability levels were adjusted for sequential Bonferroni adjustment) could be detected at three loci (EST-1, -2 and XDH) whereas, after correction for null alleles, two microsatellite loci (MFW-1,-15) deviated from HWE in the river Yamuna. Fst for all the samples combined over all allozyme loci was found to be 0.059 suggesting that 5.9% of the total variation was due to genetic differentiation while microsatellite analysis yielded 0.019 which was concordant to mean Rst (0.02). Hierarchical partition of genetic diversity (AMOVA) showed that greater variability (approx. 95%) was due to within population component than between geographical regions. Based on distribution of genetic differentiation detected by both markers, at least five different genetic stocks of L. dero across its natural distribution could be identified. These results are useful for the evaluation and conservation of L. dero in natural water bodies. PMID:21132388

Chaturvedi, Anshumala; Mohindra, Vindhya; Singh, Rajeev K; Lal, Kuldeep K; Punia, Peyush; Bhaskar, Ranjana; Mandal, Anup; Narain, Lalit; Lakra, W S

2011-06-01

83

Efficient molecular sexing in dioecious Silene latifolia and S. dioica and paternity analysis in F(1) hybrids.  

PubMed

Two polymerase chain reaction-based assays have been developed that work in combination with an efficient DNA extraction protocol to rapidly and reliably determine sex in the dioecious plant species Silene latifolia and S. dioica. In addition, one of the assays allows assessing paternity in the F(1) generation of intra- and interspecific matings involving the two species. PMID:21586019

Hobza, R; Widmer, A

2008-11-01

84

Multiple paternity in the cooperatively breeding fish Neolamprologus pulcher  

Microsoft Academic Search

In cooperative breeders, mature males may compete for fertilizations. In this study, we measured the degree of multiple paternity\\u000a in a natural population of a cooperatively breeding fish. Neolamprologus pulcher (Perciformes: Cichlidae) is a highly social cichlid endemic to Lake Tanganyika. We used highly variable microsatellite loci\\u000a to survey 12 groups with an average number of 10.6 brood care helpers

P. Dierkes; M. Taborsky; R. Achmann

2008-01-01

85

Developing conversed microsatellite markers and their implications in evolutionary analysis of the Bemisia tabaci complex.  

PubMed

The study of population genetics among the Bemisia tabaci complex is limited due to the lack of conserved molecular markers. In this study, 358, 433 and 322 new polynucleotide microsatellites are separately identified from the transcriptome sequences of three cryptic species of the B. tabaci complex. The cross species transferability of 57 microsatellites was then experimentally validated. The results indicate that these markers are conserved and have high inter-taxon transferability. Thirteen markers were employed to assess the genetic relationships among six cryptic species of the B. tabaci complex. To our surprise, the inferred phylogeny was consistent with that of mitochondrial COI sequences, indicating that microsatellites have the potential to distinguish species of the B. tabaci complex. Our results demonstrate that development of microsatellites from transcriptome data is a fast and cost-effective approach. These markers can be used to analyze the population genetics and evolutionary patterns of the B. tabaci complex. PMID:25220501

Wang, Hua-Ling; Yang, Jiao; Boykin, Laura M; Zhao, Qiong-Yi; Wang, Yu-Jun; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Wang, Xiao-Wei

2014-01-01

86

Developing conversed microsatellite markers and their implications in evolutionary analysis of the Bemisia tabaci complex  

PubMed Central

The study of population genetics among the Bemisia tabaci complex is limited due to the lack of conserved molecular markers. In this study, 358, 433 and 322 new polynucleotide microsatellites are separately identified from the transcriptome sequences of three cryptic species of the B. tabaci complex. The cross species transferability of 57 microsatellites was then experimentally validated. The results indicate that these markers are conserved and have high inter-taxon transferability. Thirteen markers were employed to assess the genetic relationships among six cryptic species of the B. tabaci complex. To our surprise, the inferred phylogeny was consistent with that of mitochondrial COI sequences, indicating that microsatellites have the potential to distinguish species of the B. tabaci complex. Our results demonstrate that development of microsatellites from transcriptome data is a fast and cost-effective approach. These markers can be used to analyze the population genetics and evolutionary patterns of the B. tabaci complex. PMID:25220501

Wang, Hua-Ling; Yang, Jiao; Boykin, Laura M.; Zhao, Qiong-Yi; Wang, Yu-Jun; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Wang, Xiao-Wei

2014-01-01

87

Meta-regression analysis using latitude as moderator of paternal age related schizophrenia risk: high ambient temperature induced de novo mutations or is it related to the cold?  

PubMed

While the season of birth, latitude and first admission effects suggest higher risk of schizophrenia with cold climate, the high ambient temperature induced de novo mutation hypothesis suggests the opposite. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis (4 case-control studies and 5 cohort studies). We used annual mean daily temperature and latitude of study sites as direct and indirect measures of ambient temperature respectively. Using case-control studies conducted in the Northern hemisphere for meta-regression, high latitude and low ambient temperature were found to increase paternal age related schizophrenia risk significantly. More research is needed to support the de novo mutation hypothesis. PMID:18042349

Cheng, Jackie Y W; Ko, John S N; Chen, Ronald Y L; Ng, Emil M L

2008-02-01

88

Forensic Applications of Molecular Genetic Analysis: An Italian Collaborative Study on Paternity Testing by the Determination of Variable Number of Tandem Repeat DNA Polymorphisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) DNA polymorphisms detecting different loci (YNH24\\/MspI or TaqI, CMM101\\/MspI or MLJ14\\/MspI, EFD64.2\\/RsaI or Hinfl, YNZ22\\/TaqI, AW101\\/EcoRI, EKMDA2.1\\/PvuII and 3’-HVR\\/PvuII) were used in the analysis of 27 cases of disputed paternity in the Italian population. Fourteen exclusions and 17 attributions were performed. The results were compared with those obtained with immunohematologic analyses. Four exclusions

P. Gasparini; P. Mandich; G. Novelli; E. Bellone; F. Sangiuolo; F. De Stefano; L. Potenza; E. Trabetti; M. Marigo; P. F. Pignatti; B. Dallapiccola; F. Ajmar

1991-01-01

89

Unraveling the Processes of Microsatellite Evolution Through Analysis of Germ Line Mutations in Barn Swallows Hirundo rustica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct analysis of mutation events provides important clues for understanding the processes of microsatellite evo- lution. A barn swallow Hirundo rustica (AAAG)n tetranucleotide repeat locus displayed hypervariability and hy- permutability, with 44 mutations observed among 1,209 meioses, yielding an average mutation rate of 3.6%. The magnitude of mutations was compatible with a stepwise mutation model, although not exclusively involving single-

C. R. Primmer; N. Saino; A. P. Møller; H. Ellegren

90

Linkage analysis of alcoholism-related electrophysiological phenotypes: genome scans with microsatellites compared to single-nucleotide polymorphisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

P300 amplitude is an electrophysiological quantitative trait that is correlated with both alcoholism and smoking status. Using the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism data, we performed model-free linkage analysis to investigate the relationship between alcoholism, P300 amplitude, and habitual smoking. We also analyzed the effect of parent-of-origin on alcoholism, and utilized both microsatellites (MS) markers and single-nucleotide polymorphisms

Jocelyn F Bautista; Shannon RE Quade; Antonio R Parrado; Katrina AB Goddard

2005-01-01

91

Conceptual Mission Analysis for RS MicroSatellite: EgyptIris-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental micro-satellite project accepts a number of characteristics typically denounced in commercial spacecraft development. These include acceptance of high risk, little component redundancy of the experiments, low-precision control, non-optimal designs, and limited mission duration. It is proposed to use a micro-satellite as a platform for the research and development of micro system technology to enhance the knowledge infrastructure of

A. M. Elhady

2007-01-01

92

Pacific Rim Population Structure of Chinook Salmon as Determined from Microsatellite Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pacific Rim population structure of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha was examined with a survey of microsatellite variation. Variation at 13 microsatellite loci was surveyed for over 52,000 Chinook salmon sampled from over 320 localities ranging from Russia to California. The genetic differentiation index (FST) over all populations and loci was 0.063; individual locus values ranged from 0.026 to 0.130.

Terry D. Beacham; Kimberly L. Jonsen; Janine Supernault; Michael Wetklo; Langtuo Deng; Natalia Varnavskaya

2006-01-01

93

Paternal isodisomy for chromosome 2 as the cause of Crigler-Najjar type I syndrome.  

PubMed

Crigler-Najjar syndrome type I (CN-I) is a rare and severe autosomal recessive metabolic disease due to a total deficiency of bilirubin uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase located on chromosome 2. We report on a child with CN-I due to a phenylalanine residue deletion inherited only from the father carrying this deletion at the heterozygous state. Cytogenetic analyses showed no deletion of the chromosomal 2q37 region. Microsatellite analysis of the child and his parents was consistent with paternal isodisomy for chromosome 2 in the child. This report demonstrates that uniparental disomy may be at the origin of very rare diseases transmitted as autosomal recessive traits and emphasizes the need for parental DNA analysis in such cases. PMID:15586176

Petit, François M; Gajdos, Vincent; Parisot, Frédéric; Capel, Liliane; Aboura, Azzedine; Lachaux, Alain; Tachdjian, Gérard; Poüs, Christian; Labrune, Philippe

2005-03-01

94

Worldwide analysis of multiple microsatellites: language diversity has a detectable influence on DNA diversity.  

PubMed

Previous studies of the correlations between the languages spoken by human populations and the genes carried by the members of those populations have been limited by the small amount of genetic markers available and by approximations in the treatment of linguistic data. In this study we analyzed a large collection of polymorphic microsatellite loci (377), distributed on all autosomes, and used Ruhlen's linguistic classification, to investigate the relative roles of geography and language in shaping the distribution of human DNA diversity at a worldwide scale. For this purpose, we performed three different kinds of analysis: (i) we partitioned genetic variances at three hierarchical levels of population subdivision according to language group by means of a molecular analysis of variance (AMOVA); (ii) we quantified by a series of Mantel's tests the correlation between measures of genetic and linguistic differentiation; and (iii) we tested whether linguistic differences are increased across known zones of increased genetic change between populations. Genetic differences appear to more closely reflect geographic than linguistic differentiation. However, our analyses show that language differences also have a detectable effect on DNA diversity at the genomic level, above and beyond the effects of geographic distance. PMID:17506490

Belle, Elise M S; Barbujani, Guido

2007-08-01

95

Single cell analysis demonstrating somatic mosaicism involving 11p in a patient with paternal isodisomy and Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome (BWS) is characterized by numerous growth abnormalities including exomphalos, macroglossia, gigantism, and hemihypertrophy or hemihyperplasia. The {open_quotes}BWS gene{close_quotes} appears to be maternally repressed and is suspected to function as a growth factor or regulator of somatic growth, since activation of this gene through a variety of mechanisms appears to result in somatic overgrowth and tumor development. Mosaic paternal

F. Z. Bischoff; C. McCaskill; S. Subramanian

1994-01-01

96

Analysis and injury paterns of walnut tree falls in central anatolia of turkey  

PubMed Central

Introduction Falls are the second most common cause of injury-associated mortality worldwide. This study aimed to analysis the injuries caused by falls from walnut tree and assess their mortality and morbidity risk. Methods This is a retrospective hospital-based study of patients presenting to emergency department (ED) of Ahi Evran Univercity between September and October 2012. For each casualty, we computed the ISS (defined as the sum of the squares of the highest Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score in each of the three most severely injured body regions). Severe injury was defined as ISS???16. The duration of hospital stay and final outcome were recorded. Statistical comparisons were carried out with Chi-Square test for categorical data and non-parametric spearman correlation tests were used to test the association between variables. A p value less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results Fifty-four patients admitted to our emergency department with fall from walnut tree. Fifty (92.6%) patients were male. The mean age was 48?±?14 years. Spinal region (44.4%) and particularly lumbar area (25.9%) sustained the most of the injuries among all body parts. Wedge compression fractures ranked first among all spinal injuries. Extremities injuries were the second most common injury. None of the patients died. Morbidity rate was 9.25%. Conclussion Falls from walnut trees are a significant health problem. Preventive measures including education of farmers and agricultural workers and using mechanized methods for harvesting walnut will lead to a dramatic decrease in mortality and morbidity caused by falls from walnut trees. PMID:25006346

2014-01-01

97

Population genetic structure of chub mackerel Scomber japonicus in the Northwestern Pacific inferred from microsatellite analysis.  

PubMed

Marine pelagic fishes are usually characterized by subtle but complex patterns of genetic differentiation, which are influenced by both historical process and contemporary gene flow. Genetic population differentiation of chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus, was examined across most of its range in the Northwestern Pacific by screening variation of eight microsatellite loci. Our genetic analysis detected a weak but significant genetic structure of chub mackerel, which was characterized by areas of gene flow and isolation by distance. Consistent with previous estimates of stock structure, we found genetic discontinuity between Japan and China samples. Local-scale pattern of genetic differentiation was observed between samples from the Bohai Sea and North Yellow Sea and those from the East China Sea, which we ascribed to differences in spawning time and migratory behavior. Furthermore, the observed homogeneity among collections of chub mackerel from the East and South China Seas could be the result of an interaction between biological characteristics and marine currents. The present study underlies the importance of understanding the biological significance of genetic differentiation to establish management strategies for exploited fish populations. PMID:25366174

Cheng, Jiao; Yanagimoto, Takashi; Song, Na; Gao, Tian-Xiang

2014-11-01

98

Microsatellite and Wolbachia analysis in Rhagoletis cerasi natural populations: population structuring and multiple infections  

PubMed Central

Rhagoletis cerasi (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a major pest of sweet and sour cherries in Europe and parts of Asia. Despite its economic significance, there is a lack of studies on the genetic structure of R. cerasi populations. Elucidating the genetic structure of insects of economic importance is crucial for developing phenological-predictive models and environmental friendly control methods. All natural populations of R. cerasi have been found to harbor the endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis, which widely affects multiple biological traits contributing to the evolution of its hosts, and has been suggested as a tool for the biological control of insect pests and disease vectors. In the current study, the analysis of 18 R. cerasi populations collected in Greece, Germany, and Russia using 13 microsatellite markers revealed structuring of R. cerasi natural populations, even at close geographic range. We also analyzed the Wolbachia infection status of these populations using 16S rRNA-, MLST- and wsp-based approaches. All 244 individuals screened were positive for Wolbachia. Our results suggest the fixation of the wCer1 strain in Greece while wCer2, wCer4, wCer5, and probably other uncharacterized strains were also detected in multiply infected individuals. The role of Wolbachia and its potential extended phenotypes needs a thorough investigation in R. cerasi. Our data suggest an involvement of this symbiont in the observed restriction in the gene flow in addition to a number of different ecological factors. PMID:24963388

Augustinos, Antonios A; Asimakopoulou, Anastasia K; Moraiti, Cleopatra A; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos T; Bourtzis, Kostas

2014-01-01

99

Microsatellite analysis revealed genetic diversity and population structure among Chinese cashmere goats.  

PubMed

Most cashmere goats are found in northern China and Mongolia. They are regarded as precious resources for their production of high quality natural fibre for the textile industry. It was the first time that the genetic diversity and population structure of nine Chinese cashmere populations has been assessed using 14 ISAG/FAO microsatellite markers. In addition, two Iranian populations and one West African goat population were genotyped for comparison. Results indicated that the genetic diversity of Chinese cashmere goats was rich, but less than those of the Iranian goat populations. All pairwise F(ST) values between the Chinese cashmere goat populations reached a highly significant level (P < 0.001), suggesting that they should all be considered as separate breeds. Finally, clustering analysis divided Chinese cashmere goats into at least two clusters, with the Tibetan Hegu goats alone in one cluster. An extensive admixture was detected among the Chinese goat breeds (except the Hegu), which have important implications for breeding management. PMID:20497158

Di, R; Vahidi, S M Farhad; Ma, Y H; He, X H; Zhao, Q J; Han, J L; Guan, W J; Chu, M X; Sun, W; Pu, Y P

2011-08-01

100

Microsatellite Analysis of the Population Genetic Structure of Anolis carolinensis Introduced to the Ogasawara Islands.  

PubMed

DNA analysis can reveal the origins and dispersal patterns of invasive species. The green anole Anolis carolinensis is one such alien animal, which has been dispersed widely by humans from its native North America to many Pacific Ocean islands. In the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands, this anole was recorded from Chichi-jima at the end of the 1960s, and then from Haha-jima in the early 1980s. These two islands are inhabited. In 2013, it was also found on the uninhabited Ani-jima, close to Chichi-jima. Humans are thought to have introduced the anole to Haha-jima, while the mode of introduction to Ani-jima is unknown. To clarify its dispersal patterns within and among these three islands, we assessed the fine-scale population genetic structure using five microsatellite loci. The results show a homogeneous genetic structure within islands, but different genetic structures among islands, suggesting that limited gene flow occurs between islands. The recently established Ani-jima population may have originated from several individuals simultaneously, or by repeated immigration from Chichi-jima. We must consider frequent incursions among these islands to control these invasive lizard populations and prevent their negative impact on native biodiversity. PMID:25660696

Sugawara, Hirotaka; Takahashi, Hiroo; Hayashi, Fumio

2015-01-01

101

Genetic and demographic bottleneck analysis of Indian camel breeds by microsatellite markers.  

PubMed

The genetic and demographic bottleneck analysis of Indian camel breeds was carried out utilizing 40 microsatellite markers. Allelic polymorphism was observed at 20 loci in the Indian dromedary breeds. A total of 66 alleles were scored. The average number of alleles, expected heterozygosity and polymorphic information content were, respectively, 3.25?±?0.27, 0.56?±?0.04 and 0.49?±?0.04 in Bikaneri; 3.25?±?0.25, 0.53?±?0.03 and 0.46?±?0.03 in Jaisalmeri; 3.0?±?0.21, 0.53?±?0.04 and 0.45?±?0.03 in Kachchhi and 3.1?±?0.19, 0.51?±?0.03 and 0.44?±?0.03 in Mewari breed. Higher genetic variation was observed in most numerous Bikaneri breed. Genetic distances were least between the breed pair Bikaneri and Jaisalmeri which was closely placed with the Kachchhi breed. The Mewari camels had relatively higher genetic distance from the other three Indian dromedary breeds. The bottleneck analysis revealed the presence of genetic bottleneck in all four breeds of Indian dromedary. However, the qualitative graphical method resulted in normal L-shaped distribution of allele frequencies in Jaisalmeri breeds and shifted mode in Bikaneri, Kachchhi and Mewari breeds. The demographic bottleneck analysis revealed minimum reduction (-9.65 %) in the population of camels in Jaisalmeri breeding tract as compared to that of Bikaneri (-14.18 %), Kachchhi (-27.78 %) and Mewari (-32 %) breeding tracts. Conclusively, the genetic bottleneck analysis could explain the demographic bottleneck in the Indian dromedary populations. Therefore, appropriate conservation and improvement efforts are needed in all four dromedary breeds with immediate attention on Mewari and Kachchhi breeds. The present study is the first report in demonstrating the genetic basis of demographic bottleneck in the Indian dromedary populations. PMID:25134805

Mehta, Sharat Chandra

2014-12-01

102

Population Structure and Transmission Dynamics of Plasmodium vivax in the Republic of Korea Based on Microsatellite DNA Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background In order to control malaria, it is important to understand the genetic structure of the parasites in each endemic area. Plasmodium vivax is widely distributed in the tropical to temperate regions of Asia and South America, but effective strategies for its elimination have yet to be designed. In South Korea, for example, indigenous vivax malaria was eliminated by the late 1970s, but re-emerged from 1993. We estimated the population structure and temporal dynamics of transmission of P. vivax in South Korea using microsatellite DNA markers. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed 255 South Korean P. vivax isolates collected from 1994 to 2008, based on 10 highly polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci of the P. vivax genome. Allelic data were obtained for the 87 isolates and their microsatellite haplotypes were determined based on a combination of allelic data of the loci. In total, 40 haplotypes were observed. There were two predominant haplotypes: H16 and H25. H16 was observed in 9 isolates (10%) from 1996 to 2005, and H25 in 27 (31%) from 1995 to 2003. These results suggested that the recombination rate of P. vivax in South Korea, a temperate country, was lower than in tropical areas where identical haplotypes were rarely seen in the following year. Next, we estimated the relationships among the 40 haplotypes by eBURST analysis. Two major groups were found: one composed of 36 isolates (41%) including H25; the other of 20 isolates (23%) including H16. Despite the low recombination rate, other new haplotypes that are genetically distinct from the 2 groups have also been observed since 1997 (H27). Conclusions/Significance These results suggested a continual introduction of P. vivax from other population sources, probably North Korea. Molecular epidemiology using microsatellite DNA of the P. vivax population is effective for assessing the population structure and transmission dynamics of the parasites - information that can assist in the elimination of vivax malaria in endemic areas. PMID:22509416

Iwagami, Moritoshi; Fukumoto, Megumi; Hwang, Seung-Young; Kim, So-Hee; Kho, Weon-Gyu; Kano, Shigeyuki

2012-01-01

103

Factors affecting germline mutations in a hypervariable microsatellite: a comparative analysis of six species of swallows (Aves: Hirundinidae).  

PubMed

Microsatellites mutate frequently by replication slippage. Empirical evidence shows that the probability of such slippage mutations may increase with the length of the repeat region as well as exposure to environmental mutagens, but the mutation rate can also differ between the male and female germline. It has been hypothesized that more intense sexual selection or sperm competition can also lead to elevated mutation rates, but the empirical evidence is inconclusive. Here, we analyzed the occurrence of germline slippage mutations in the hypervariable pentanucleotide microsatellite locus HrU10 across six species of swallow (Aves: Hirundinidae). These species exhibit marked differences in the length range of the microsatellite, as well as differences in the intensity of sperm competition. We found a strong effect of microsatellite length on the probability of mutation, but no residual effect of species or their level of sperm competition when the length effect was accounted for. Neither could we detect any difference in mutation rate between tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) breeding in Hamilton Harbour, Ontario, an industrial site with previous documentation of elevated mutation rates for minisatellite DNA, and a rural reference population. However, our cross-species analysis revealed two significant patterns of sex differences in HrU10 germline mutations: (1) mutations in longer alleles occurred typically in the male germline, those in shorter alleles in the female germline, and (2) male germline mutations were more often expansions than contractions, whereas no directional bias was evident in the female germline. These results indicate some fundamental differences in male and female gametogenesis affecting the probability of slippage mutations. Our study also reflects the value of a comparative, multi-species approach for locus-specific mutation analyses, through which a wider range of influential factors can be assessed than in single-species studies. PMID:21291898

Anmarkrud, Jarl A; Kleven, Oddmund; Augustin, Jakob; Bentz, Kristofer H; Blomqvist, Donald; Fernie, Kim J; Magrath, Michael J L; Pärn, Henrik; Quinn, James S; Robertson, Raleigh J; Szép, Tibor; Tarof, Scott; Wagner, Richard H; Lifjeld, Jan T

2011-03-15

104

Metaplastic papillary tumor of the salpinx: report of a case using microsatellite analysis.  

PubMed

Metaplastic papillary tumor (MPT) of the salpinx is a rare lesion found in the lumen of fallopian tubes during the postpartum period. This lesion is very small and is composed microscopically of papillae lined by stratified epithelium. Similar to serous borderline ovarian tumors (BOTs), epithelial elements of MPT show a budding, abundant, dense, and eosinophilic cytoplasm, bland nuclei or with mild atypia. It is not clear whether this lesion is a papillary metaplastic proliferation or a small atypical proliferative (borderline) serous tumor associated with pregnancy. Owing to its rarity, MPT has never been investigated in molecular studies and compared with ovarian serous neoplasms. In this study, a case of tubal MPT was molecularly examined and compared with 4 BOTs and with 2 low-grade ovarian carcinomas, using microsatellite analysis with 13 markers at 8 chromosomal regions involved in ovarian carcinogenesis. The tubal MPT and one of the BOTs showed no alterations in the investigated chromosomal regions. The remaining 3 BOTs showed only single allelic imbalances. Instead, low-grade serous carcinomas showed a higher frequency of alterations, including allelic imbalance at chr10q23, 1p36, 9p22, and 17. In conclusion, this study provides, for the first time, molecular data on an MPT of the fallopian tube, indicating that this entity might share both morphologic and molecular similarities with a subset of minimally altered BOTs, termed atypical proliferative serous tumors, which behave in a benign manner. However, in our opinion, further molecular studies should be conducted on other cases of MPTs to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:21979587

D'Adda, Tiziana; Pizzi, Silvia; Bottarelli, Lorena; Azzoni, Cinzia; Manni, Stefania; Giordano, Giovanna

2011-11-01

105

Simultaneous Analysis of Hundreds of Y-Chromosomal SNPs for High-Resolution Paternal Lineage Classification using Targeted Semiconductor Sequencing.  

PubMed

SNPs from the non-recombining part of the human Y chromosome (Y-SNPs) are informative to classify paternal lineages in forensic, genealogical, anthropological, and evolutionary studies. Although thousands of Y-SNPs were identified thus far, previous Y-SNP multiplex tools target only dozens of markers simultaneously, thereby restricting the provided Y-haplogroup resolution and limiting their applications. Here, we overcome this shortcoming by introducing a high-resolution multiplex tool for parallel genotyping-by-sequencing of 530 Y-SNPs using the Ion Torrent PGM platform, which allows classification of 432 worldwide Y haplogroups. Contrary to previous Y-SNP multiplex tools, our approach covers branches of the entire Y tree, thereby maximizing the paternal lineage classification obtainable. We used a default DNA input amount of 10 ng per reaction but preliminary sensitivity testing revealed positive results from as little as 100 pg input DNA. Furthermore, we demonstrate that sample pooling using barcodes is feasible, allowing increased throughput for lower per-sample costs. In addition to the wetlab protocol, we provide a software tool for automated data quality control and haplogroup classification. The unique combination of ultra-high marker density and high sensitivity achievable from low amounts of potentially degraded DNA makes this new multiplex tool suitable for a wide range of Y-chromosome applications. PMID:25338970

Ralf, Arwin; van Oven, Mannis; Zhong, Kaiyin; Kayser, Manfred

2014-10-22

106

Microsatellite analysis of female mating behaviour in lek-breeding sage grouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used microsatellite DNA markers to genotype chicks in 10 broods of lek-breeding sage grouse, Centrocercus urophasianus , whose mothers' behaviour was studied by radio- tracking and observing leks. Previous behavioural studies suggested that almost all matings are performed by territorial males on leks and that multiple mating is rare. Two broods (20%) were sired by more than one male.

K. Semple; R. K. Wayne; R. M. Gibson

2001-01-01

107

Patterns of Differentiation and Hybridization in North American Wolflike Canids, Revealed by Analysis of Microsatellite Loci  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic divergence and gene flow among closely related populations are difficult to measure because mutation rates of most nuclear loci are so low that new mutations have not had sufficient time to appear and become fixed. Microsatellite loci are repeat arrays of simple sequences that have high mutation rates and are abundant in the eukaryotic genome. Large population samples can

Michael S. Roy; Eli GefenJ; Deborah Smith; Elaine A. Ostrander; Robert K. Wayne

108

Analysis of genetic diversity of flowering dogwood natural stands using microsatellites the effects of dogwood anthracnose  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) populations recently have experienced severe declines caused by dogwood anthracnose. Mortality ranged from 48-98%, raising the concern that genetic diversity has been reduced significantly. Microsatellite data was used to evaluate the level and distribution of ge...

109

Microsatellite analysis of genetic diversity in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) populations throughout Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic diversity in nine African buffalo ( Syncerus caffer ) populations throughout Africa was analysed with 14 microsatellites to study the effects of rinderpest epidemics and habitat fragmentation during the 20th century. A gradient of declining expected heterozygosity was observed among populations in Save Valley Conservancy (Zimbabwe), and northern and southern Kruger National Park (South Africa). This was explained by

W. F. Van Hooft; A. F. Groen; H. H. T. Prins

2000-01-01

110

Genetic structure of Mesoamerican populations of Big-leaf mahogany ( Swietenia macrophylla ) inferred from microsatellite analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

While microsatellites have been used to examine genetic structure in local populations of Neotropical trees, genetic studies based on such high-resolution markers have not been carried out for Mesoamerica as a whole. Here we assess the genetic structure of the Meso- american mahogany Swietenia macrophylla King (big-leaf mahogany), a Neotropical tree species recently listed as endangered in CITES which is

RACHEL ROTH N OVICK; CHRISTOPHER W. D ICK; MARISTERRA R. L EMES; CARLOS NAVARRO; ADALGISA CACCONE; ELDREDGE BERMINGHAM

111

Development of a cost-effective high-throughput process of microsatellite analysis involving miniaturized multiplexed PCR amplification and automated allele identification  

PubMed Central

Background Microsatellites are nucleotide sequences of tandem repeats occurring throughout the genome, which have been widely used in genetic linkage analysis, studies of loss of heterozygosity, determination of lineage and clonality, and the measurement of genome instability or the emergence of drug resistance reflective of mismatch repair deficiency. Such analyses may involve the parallel evaluation of many microsatellite loci, which are often limited by sample DNA, are labor intensive, and require large data processing. Results To overcome these challenges, we developed a cost-effective high-throughput approach of microsatellite analysis, in which the amplifications of microsatellites are performed in miniaturized, multiplexed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) adaptable to 96 or 384 well plates, and accurate automated allele identification has been optimized with a collective reference dataset of 5,508 alleles using the GeneMapper software. Conclusions In this investigation, we have documented our experience with the optimization of multiplex PCR conditions and automated allele identification, and have generated a unique body of data that provide a starting point for a cost-effective, high-throughput process of microsatellite analysis using the studied markers. PMID:23496942

2013-01-01

112

Multi-locus microsatellite analysis supports the hypothesis of an autochthonous focus of Echinococcus multilocularis in northern Italy.  

PubMed

Echinococcus multilocularis is characterised by a wide geographical distribution, encompassing three continents (North America, Asia and Europe) yet very low genetic variability is documented. Recently, this parasite has been detected in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) circulating in an Alpine region of Italy, close to Austria. This finding raised the question as to whether an autochthonous cycle exists in Italy or whether the infected foxes originated from the neighbouring regions of Austria. Studies have shown that multi-locus microsatellite analysis can identify genomic regions carrying mutations that result in a local adaptation. We used a tandem repeated multi-locus microsatellite (EmsB) to evaluate the genetic differences amongst adult worms of E. multilocularis collected in Italy, worms from neighbouring Austria and from other European and extra-European countries. Fluorescent PCR was performed on a panel of E. multilocularis samples to assess intra-specific polymorphism. The analysis revealed four closed genotypes for Italian samples of E. multilocularis which were unique compared with the other 25 genotypes from Europe and the five genotypes from Alaska. An analysis in the Alpine watershed, comparing Italian adult worms with those from neighbouring areas in Austria, showed a unique cluster for Italian samples. This result supports the hypothesis of the presence of an autochthonous cycle of E. multilocularis in Italy. EmsB can be useful for 'tracking' the source of infection of this zoonotic parasite and developing appropriate measures for preventing or reducing the risk of human alveolar echinococcosis. PMID:19150351

Casulli, A; Bart, J M; Knapp, J; La Rosa, G; Dusher, G; Gottstein, B; Di Cerbo, A; Manfredi, M T; Genchi, C; Piarroux, R; Pozio, E

2009-06-01

113

Paternal occupation and anencephaly  

SciTech Connect

It has been suggested that paternal occupational exposures to pesticides and solvents increase the risk of neural tube defects in offspring. With the use of Texas livebirth, fetal death, and linked livebirth-death records, the authors conducted a population-based case-control study among 1981-1986 Texas births to examine the association between paternal occupation and anencephalic births. Fathers employed in occupations associated with solvent exposure were more likely to have offspring with anencephaly (odds ratio (OR) = 2.53), with painters having the highest risk (OR = 3.43). A lesser association was found for fathers employed in occupations involving pesticide exposure (OR = 1.28). Further studies are indicated to clarify these associations.

Brender, J.D.; Suarez, L. (Texas Department of Health, Austin (USA))

1990-03-01

114

Population genetic structure of wild boar Sus scrofa in Bulgaria as revealed by microsatellite analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last two decades wild boar Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758 became the most intensively managed game species in Bulgaria. In order to delineate the population genetic\\u000a structure, which is essential for sustainable wildlife management, we screened 10 porcine microsatellites across 289 wild\\u000a boar samples originating from all relevant bioregions of the country. Results based on F\\u000a ST values, Bayesian

Ivan Stojanov Nikolov; Bernhard Gum; Georgi Markov; Ralph Kuehn

2009-01-01

115

Genetic Analysis and Linkage Mapping in a Resource Pig Population Using Microsatellite Markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of markers and linkage map construction are important for QTL mapping in pigs. In this article, the genetic characteristics were studied and the linkage map was constructed in a pig resource population including 214 individuals by typing 39 microsatellite marker loci on Sus scrofa chromosomes, SSC4, SSC6, SSC7, SSC8, and SSC13. Results indicated that the average allele number,

Jinghu Zhang; Yuanzhu Xiong; Bo Zuo; Minggang Lei; Siwen Jiang; Feng'e Li; Rong Zheng; Jialian Li

2007-01-01

116

Genetic diversity and structure in Leishmania infantum populations from southeastern Europe revealed by microsatellite analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The dynamic re-emergence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in south Europe and the northward shift to Leishmania-free European countries are well-documented. However, the epidemiology of VL due to Leishmania infantum in southeastern (SE) Europe and the Balkans is inadequately examined. Herein, we aim to re-evaluate and compare the population structure of L. infantum in SE and southwestern (SW) Europe. Methods Leishmania strains collected from humans and canines in Turkey, Cyprus, Bulgaria, Greece, Albania and Croatia, were characterized by the K26-PCR assay and multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE). Genetic diversity was assessed by multilocus microsatellite typing (MLMT) and MLM Types were analyzed by model- and distance- based algorithms to infer the population structure of 128?L. infantum strains. Results L. infantum MON-1 was found predominant in SE Europe, whilst 16.8% of strains were MON-98. Distinct genetic populations revealed clear differentiation between SE and SW European strains. Interestingly, Cypriot canine isolates were genetically isolated and formed a monophyletic group, suggesting the constitution of a clonal MON-1 population circulating among dogs. In contrast, two highly heterogeneous populations enclosed all MON-1 and MON-98 strains from the other SE European countries. Structure sub-clustering, phylogenetic and Splitstree analysis also revealed two distinct Croatian subpopulations. A mosaic of evolutionary effects resulted in consecutive sub-structuring, which indicated substantial differentiation and gene flow among strains of both zymodemes. Conclusions This is the first population genetic study of L. infantum in SE Europe and the Balkans. Our findings demonstrate the differentiation between SE and SW European strains; revealing the partition of Croatian strains between these populations and the genetic isolation of Cypriot strains. This mirrors the geographic position of Croatia located in central Europe and the natural isolation of the island of Cyprus. We have analysed the largest number of MON-98 strains so far. Our results indicate extensive gene flow, recombination and no differentiation between MON-1 and MON-98 zymodemes. No correlation either to host specificity or place and year of strain isolation was identified. Our findings may be associated with intensive host migration and common eco-epidemiological characteristics in these countries and give valuable insight into the dynamics of VL. PMID:24308691

2013-01-01

117

[Microsatellite analysis of two captive populations of sable (Martes zibellina L.)].  

PubMed

The high value of sable (Martes zibellina L.) fur and stable demand for it over the centuries have led to suboptimal hunting patterns and, as a result, considerable fluctuations in the sizes of natural populations of this species. To maintain the traditional export of sable fur, efforts towards commercial domestication of sable have been made in Russia. The first farm population of sable consisted of animal from eight natural populations in 1929. After the problems related to breeding in captivity were solved, directional selection began. Eighty years of breeding have resulted in sable herds with homogeneous quantitative characters. Prospects for further breeding depend on the current level of genetic diversity in the captive populations of sables formed during the first stages of domestication. The sable populations of the Pushkinsky and Saltykovsky fur farms located in Moscow oblast, which were the objects of this study, are the progenitors of the existing captive populations. The first estimation of genetic variation of this species by means of a panel of microsatellite markers was developed for this study. Two captive sable populations were analyzed using ten microsatellite loci; a total of 75 alleles were found in both populations. Population-specific alleles were identified (6 and 13 in the Pushkinsky and Saltykovsky populations, respectively). The populations studied were found to be differentiated with respect to four microsatellite loci. PMID:22384691

Kashtanov, S N; Afanas'ev, K I; Potapov, S G; Lazebny?, O E

2011-12-01

118

Analysis of Microsatellite Polymorphisms in South Indian Patients with Non Syndromic Cleft Lip and Palate  

PubMed Central

Non syndromic cleft lip and/or palate (NSCLP) is a complex congenital anomaly with varying incidence among patients of different geographical origins. Multiple contributing factors are known to trigger the cleft formation. There are several genes involved in the aetiology of NSCLP and they are different in different populations. The genetic components of clefts that underlie the susceptibility to respond to the environment still remain unclear. In this study, five microsatellite polymorphisms from five candidate genes were employed to analyze the association between these genes and NSCLP in 83 patients and 90 controls. Genotyping was performed by separating and visualizing the fluorescently-labeled polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products. The association of the five microsatellite polymorphisms with NSCLP was tested by using the CLUMP v1.9 program that uses the Monte Carlo method. The genotypic distribution is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the control group for only the MSX1 and DLX3 genes. The RARA microsatellite was significantly associated with NSCLP. Our results suggest that the RARA gene is involved in pathogenesis of cleft lip and palate in South Indians. PMID:24265584

Xavier, DL; Arif, YA; Murali, RV; Kishore Kumar, S; Vipin Kumar, S; Tamang, R; Thangaraj, K; Bhaskar, LVKS

119

Fluorescence-based automated fragment analysis of microsatellite polymorphism within the transmembrane region of the MIC-A gene.  

PubMed

MHC class I chain-related genes (MIC) are located within the MHC class I region of chromosome 6. Sequence analysis of the MIC-A gene showed a trinucleotide repeat (GCT) microsatellite polymorphism within the transmembrane region. So far, six alleles of the exon 5 of the MIC-A gene, which consist of 4, 5, 6, 9 and 10 repetitions of GCT, or five repetitions of GCT with an additional nucleotide insertion (GGCT), have been identified. Recent works support the findings that MIC-A is associated with several autoimmune diseases. In our work we present a modification of a method used for microsatellite polymorphism detection within the transmembrane region of the MIC-A gene. It is the ALFexpress fluorescence-based automated fragment analysis. We also present the frequencies of MIC-A exon 5 alleles found in the Czech population. We have identified five alleles of the transmembrane region of MIC-A, which comprise 4, 5, 6 and 9 repetitions or five repetitions with an additional nucleotide insertion. The most frequent allele was A5.1 (59.3%) and the less frequent was the allele A5 (20.0%). No A7, A8 or A10 alleles were identified. PMID:15055739

Novota, P; Kolesár, L; Slavcev, A; Cerná, M

2004-01-01

120

Population structure of the predatory mite Neoseiulus womersleyi in a tea field based on an analysis of microsatellite DNA markers  

PubMed Central

The predatory mite Neoseiulus womersleyi (Schicha) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is an important natural enemy of the Kanzawa spider mite, Tetranychus kanzawaki Kishida (Acari: Tetranychidae), in tea fields. Attraction and preservation of natural enemies by habitat management to reduce the need for acaricide sprays is thought to enhance the activity of N. womersleyi. To better conserve N. womersleyi in the field, however, it is essential to elucidate the population genetic structure of this species. To this end, we developed ten microsatellite DNA markers for N. womersleyi. We then evaluated population structure of N. womersleyi collected from a tea field, where Mexican sunflower, Tithonia rotundifolia (Mill.), was planted to preserve N. womersleyi. Seventy-seven adult females were collected from four sites within 200 m. The fixation indexes FST among subpopulations were not significantly different. The kinship coefficients between individuals did not differ significantly within a site as a function of the sampling dates, but the coefficients gradually decreased with increasing distance. Bayesian clustering analysis revealed that the population consisted of three genetic clusters, and that subpopulations within 100 m, including those collected on T. rotundifolia, were genetically similar to each other. Given the previously observed population dynamics of N. womersleyi, it appears that the area inhabited by a given cluster of the mite did not exceed 100 m. The estimation of population structure using microsatellite markers will provide valuable information in conservation biological control. PMID:20625919

Todokoro, Yasuhiro; Higaki, Tomomi

2010-01-01

121

Development and characterization of novel microsatellite loci for Lusitanian toadfish, Halobatrachus didactylus  

PubMed Central

The Lusitanian toadfish Halobatrachus didactylus is an eastern Atlantic polygynous species showing male paternal care. In this paper we describe 5 novel microsatellite loci obtained by 454 GS-FLX Titanium pyrosequencing of a microsatellite-enriched library. The number of alleles per polymorphic locus varied between 2 and 4, and the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.082 to 0.600. No significant deviation from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium was found and there was no evidence for linkage disequilibrium. These markers will be of great value for paternity studies and population genetics of this species. PMID:25653909

Fonseca, Paulo J.; Amorim, Maria Clara P.

2015-01-01

122

Complementary analysis of microsatellite tumor profile and mismatch repair defects in colorectal carcinomas  

PubMed Central

Microsatellite instability (MSI) is a prognostic factor and a marker of deficient mismatch repair (MMR) in colorectal adenocarcinomas (CRC). However, a proper application of this marker requires understanding the following: (1) The MSI concept: The PCR approach must amplify the correct locus and accurately identify the microsatellite pattern in the patient’s normal tissue. MSI is demonstrated when the length of DNA sequences in a tumor differs from that of nontumor tissue. Any anomalous expansion or reduction of tandem repeats results in extra-bands normally located in the expected size range (100 bp, above or below the expected product), differ from the germline pattern by some multiple of the repeating unit, and must show appropriate stutter. (2) MSI mechanisms: MMR gene inactivation (by either mutation or protein down-regulation as frequently present in deep CRC compartments) leads to mutation accumulation in a cell with every cellular division, resulting in malignant transformation. These mechanisms can express tumor progression and result in a decreased prevalence of aneuploid cells and loss of the physiologic cell kinetic correlations in the deep CRC compartments. MSI molecular mechanisms are not necessarily independent from chromosomal instability and may coexist in a given CRC. (3) Because of intratumoural heterogeneity, at least two samples from each CRC should be screened, preferably from the superficial (tumor cells above the muscularis propria) and deep (tumor cells infiltrating the muscularis propria) CRC compartments to cover the topographic tumor heterogeneity. (4) Pathologists play a critical role in identifying microsatellite-unstable CRC, such as occur in young patients with synchronous or metachronous tumors or with tumors showing classic histologic features. In these cases, MSI testing and/or MMR immunohistochemistry are advisable, along with gene sequencing and genetic counseling if appropriate. MSI is an excellent functional and prognostically useful marker, whereas MMR immunohistochemistry can guide gene sequencing. PMID:17009390

Blanes, Alfredo; Diaz-Cano, Salvador J

2006-01-01

123

Development and evaluation of microsatellite markers for a native prairie perennial, Echinacea angustifolia (Asteraceae)1  

PubMed Central

• Premise of the study: Microsatellite loci for the native prairie perennial Echinacea angustifolia were developed and evaluated for future use in population structure and paternity studies. • Methods and Results: A total of 50 trinucleotide microsatellite regions were identified though an enrichment protocol that prescreens for microsatellite repeats before ligating into a vector. Of these, 11 loci were polymorphic and in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium in three populations with varying numbers of plants. The loci had between three and 14 alleles and collectively provided high paternity exclusion probabilities. • Conclusions: These sets of microsatellite primers will provide researchers and land managers with valuable information on the population genetic structure and gene flow between fragmented prairie populations. PMID:25202499

Ison, Jennifer L.; Wagenius, Stuart; Reitz, Diedre; Ashley, Mary V.

2013-01-01

124

ANALYSIS OF GENETIC DIVERSITY AND POPULATION STRUCTURE WITHIN FLORIDA COCONUT (COCOS NUCIFERA L.) GERMPLASM USING MICROSATELLITE DNA, WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON THE FIJI DWARF CULTIVAR  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Using fifteen simple sequence repeat (SSR) microsatellite DNA loci, we analyzed genetic variation within Cocos nucifera germplasm collections at two locations in south Florida, representing eight cultivars. The loci were also used in a parentage analysis of progeny of the 'Fiji Dwarf' variety at bo...

125

Evolution of Polyploidy and Functional Diploidization in Sturgeons: Microsatellite Analysis in 10 Sturgeon Species.  

PubMed

Sturgeons (family Acipenseridae) are one of the most endangered groups of animals. Two hundred million years of evolution and multiple ploidy levels make this group a unique subject for studying the evolution of polyploidy in animals. As most sturgeon species have gone through significant functional diploidization, 2 scales of ploidy levels can be distinguished: the "evolutionary scale," which indicates the maximum ploidy level achieved and the "recent scale," which indicates the current functional ploidy level. This study analyzes published and new microsatellites to check the ploidy level and to determine the degrees of functional diploidization in 10 sturgeon species from Europe and Asia. We screened 50 primer pairs newly developed for Acipenser gueldenstaedtii and 40 primer pairs previously developed in other studies for other sturgeon species. The maximal number of alleles per individual of a given species was assessed at 20 microsatellite loci, which showed consistent amplification in most of the 10 analyzed species. Taken together, our data on the percentage of disomic loci in different species suggest that functional diploidization is an ongoing process in sturgeons. We observed lower levels of diploidization in tetraploid species from the Atlantic clade than in the species from the Pacific clade, which can be explained by the more recent genome duplication in tetraploid species from the Atlantic clade. Based on the recent findings and results of this study, we propose that the evolution of sturgeons has been affected by at least 3 different polyploidization events. PMID:24829364

Rajkov, Jelena; Shao, Zhaojun; Berrebi, Patrick

2014-05-14

126

Microsatellite marker development and Mendelian analysis in the Matschie's tree kangaroo (Dendrolagus matschiei).  

PubMed

Matschie's tree kangaroo (Dendrolagus matschiei) is an endangered arboreal macropodid endemic to the Huon Peninsula, Papua New Guinea (PNG). We developed 5 microsatellite markers for D. matschiei, which are the first markers developed for Dendrolagus. We screened 17 additional markers that were developed for other marsupial taxa and identified 3 that were polymorphic in D. matschiei. We estimated allelic and genetic diversity with the set of 8 markers by analyzing 22 D. matschiei from Wasaunon on the Huon Peninsula, PNG. The number of alleles ranged from 2 to 9 and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.440 to 0.794. We tested for null alleles and Mendelian inheritance by analyzing 19 pairs of D. matschiei parents and offspring from Association of Zoos and Aquariums institutions. Null alleles were not detected and Mendelian inheritance was followed for all 8 markers. We also evaluated the reliability of using the markers to amplify DNA extracted from D. matschiei fecal samples and the ability of the markers to amplify DNA samples from Goodfellow's tree kangaroo (Dendrolagus goodfellowi ssp.), Doria's tree kangaroo (Dendrolagus dorianus ssp.), and Grizzled tree kangaroo (Dendrolagus inustus ssp.). Microsatellite markers can be used to inform management decisions to conserve D. matschiei in captivity and the wild. PMID:19783838

McGreevy, Thomas J; Dabek, Lisa; Husband, Thomas P

2010-01-01

127

LOH of PTCH1 region in BCC and ovarian carcinoma: microsatellite vs. HRM analysis.  

PubMed

Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of tumor suppressor genes is a frequent event in tumorigenesis. LOH is most often analyzed by microsatellite typing, but here we offer a fast and efficient method for simultaneous SNP genotyping and mutation scanning, which can also be used for LOH detection. High resolution melting (HRM) provides simple variant detection, and can be adopted for a wide range of applications. When a melting profile for a specific SNP is determined, the screening can be done without the need for sequencing, and only the melting profiles differing from the established melting profiles should be sequenced. LOH of PTCH1 gene is often found in a series of different tumors, for example basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and ovarian carcinoma (OC). In this study LOH was detected in 50 % of BCC and 27.27 % of OC, and the detection rates of microsatellite typing and HRM were comparable. Both methods depended only on the heterozygosity of the loci analyzed, but HRM offers an additional advantage of detection of all sequence variants in the gene of interest. PMID:22201935

Musani, Vesna; Sabol, Maja; Car, Diana; Ozretic, Petar; Oreskovic, Slavko; Leovic, Dinko; Levanat, Sonja

2012-01-01

128

Microsatellite and Mini-Exon Analysis of Mexican Human DTU I Trypanosoma cruzi Strains and Their Susceptibility to Nifurtimox and Benznidazole  

PubMed Central

Abstract Chagas disease is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, and it affects as many as 10 million people in North and South America, where it represents a major public health problem. T. cruzi is a parasite with high genetic diversity, and it has been grouped into 6 discrete typing units (DTUs), designated as T. cruzi I (TcI) to T. cruzi VI (TcVI). Mexican isolates from humans and from vector insects have been primarily found to be TcI, and these isolates are likely to be the strains that cause the clinical manifestations observed in Mexico. However, genetic characterization and drug susceptibility assays are limited in Mexican TcI strains. In this work, 24 Mexican T. cruzi strains, obtained primarily from humans, were studied with 7 locus microsatellites and mini-exon gene by PCR. Also, drug susceptibility was evaluated by growth and mobility assays. All of the human strains belonged to TcI, and they could be further grouped through microsatellite analysis into 2 subgroups (microsatellite genotypes 1 and 2), which were not related to the host clinical status or biological origin of the strain. Two strains, both from wild mammals, belonged to the TcII–TcVI groups; these strains and the CL Brener strain constituted microsatellite genotype 3. The number of alleles in each locus was lower than reported for South American strains, and a departure from the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium was observed. The susceptibility of these strains to nifurtimox and benznidazole was heterogeneous. T. cruzi strains characterized as microsatellite genotypes 2 and 3 were significantly more susceptible to benznidazole than strains of microsatellite genotype 1. Only 1 Mexican strain resistant to both drugs was found in this study. PMID:23421890

Martínez, Ignacio; Nogueda, Benjamín; Martínez-Hernández, Fernando

2013-01-01

129

Genetic components of grey cattle in Estonia as revealed by microsatellite analysis using two Bayesian clustering methods  

PubMed Central

Background It was recently postulated that a few individual grey cattle still found in Estonia might be a relict of the old native cattle stock. Genotypes at 17 microsatellite loci from a total of 243 cattle from North European breeds and 11 grey cattle in Estonia were used in an attempt to clarify the genetic composition of the grey cattle. Findings We characterize the genetic components of 11 examples of the grey cattle in Estonia at the population and individual levels. Our results show that the grey cattle in Estonia are most genetically similar to the Holstein-Friesian breed and secondarily to the Estonian Red cattle. Conclusions Both Bayesian approaches gave similar results in terms of the identification of numbers of clusters and the estimation of proportions of genetic components. This study suggested that the Estonian grey cattle included in the analysis are a genetic composite resulting from cross-breeding of European dairy breeds. PMID:21314923

2011-01-01

130

International Recommendations for Paternity Testing Standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paternity testing with DNA techniques is now very powerful and safe if properly performed. In normal paternity cases it is possible to obtain very high weights of the evidence if multiple polymorphic, genetic systems are investigated. Thus, paternity testing with DNA techniques has reached a state where the public trusts in the results of paternity testing due to the mere

Niels Morling

2003-01-01

131

Are clownfish groups composed of close relatives? An analysis of microsatellite DNA variation in Amphiprion percula.  

PubMed

A central question of evolutionary ecology is: why do animals live in groups? Answering this question requires that the costs and benefits of group living are measured from the perspective of each individual in the group. This, in turn, requires that the group's genetic structure is elucidated, because genetic relatedness can modulate the individuals' costs and benefits. The clown anemonefish, Amphiprion percula, lives in groups composed of a breeding pair and zero to four nonbreeders. Both breeders and nonbreeders stand to gain by associating with relatives: breeders might prefer to tolerate nonbreeders that are relatives because there is little chance that relatives will survive to breed elsewhere; nonbreeders might prefer to associate with breeders that are relatives because of the potential to accrue indirect genetic benefits by enhancing anemone and, consequently, breeder fitness. Given the potential benefits of associating with relatives, we use microsatellite loci to investigate whether or not individuals within groups of A. percula are related. We develop seven polymorphic microsatellite loci, with a number of alleles (range 2-24) and an observed level of heterozygosity (mean = 0.5936) sufficient to assess fine-scale genetic structure. The mean coefficient of relatedness among group members is 0.00 +/- 0.10 (n = 9 groups), and there are no surprising patterns in the distribution of pairwise relatedness. We conclude that A. percula live in groups of unrelated individuals. This study lays the foundation for further investigations of behavioural, population and community ecology of anemonefishes which are emerging as model systems for evolutionary ecology in the marine environment. PMID:17845439

Buston, Peter M; Bogdanowicz, Steven M; Wong, Alex; Harrison, Richard G

2007-09-01

132

Complex Microsatellite Dynamics in the Myostatin Gene Within Ruminants  

E-print Network

Complex Microsatellite Dynamics in the Myostatin Gene Within Ruminants A° sa Tellgren-Roth � ruminants. While caprids and ovids share the ancestral state with pigs and other mammals, microsatellite genomes. Keywords Microsatellite evolution Á Phylogenetic analysis Á Myostatin Á Ruminants Á Artiodactyls

Liberles, David

133

Higher Levels of Multiple Paternities Increase Seedling Survival in the Long-Lived Tree Eucalyptus gracilis  

PubMed Central

Studying associations between mating system parameters and fitness in natural populations of trees advances our understanding of how local environments affect seed quality, and thereby helps to predict when inbreeding or multiple paternities should impact on fitness. Indeed, for species that demonstrate inbreeding avoidance, multiple paternities (i.e. the number of male parents per half-sib family) should still vary and regulate fitness more than inbreeding – named here as the ‘constrained inbreeding hypothesis’. We test this hypothesis in Eucalyptus gracilis, a predominantly insect-pollinated tree. Fifty-eight open-pollinated progeny arrays were collected from trees in three populations. Progeny were planted in a reciprocal transplant trial. Fitness was measured by family establishment rates. We genotyped all trees and their progeny at eight microsatellite loci. Planting site had a strong effect on fitness, but seed provenance and seed provenance × planting site did not. Populations had comparable mating system parameters and were generally outcrossed, experienced low biparental inbreeding and high levels of multiple paternity. As predicted, seed families that had more multiple paternities also had higher fitness, and no fitness-inbreeding correlations were detected. Demonstrating that fitness was most affected by multiple paternities rather than inbreeding, we provide evidence supporting the constrained inbreeding hypothesis; i.e. that multiple paternity may impact on fitness over and above that of inbreeding, particularly for preferentially outcrossing trees at life stages beyond seed development. PMID:24587373

Breed, Martin F.; Christmas, Matthew J.; Lowe, Andrew J.

2014-01-01

134

Higher levels of multiple paternities increase seedling survival in the long-lived tree Eucalyptus gracilis.  

PubMed

Studying associations between mating system parameters and fitness in natural populations of trees advances our understanding of how local environments affect seed quality, and thereby helps to predict when inbreeding or multiple paternities should impact on fitness. Indeed, for species that demonstrate inbreeding avoidance, multiple paternities (i.e. the number of male parents per half-sib family) should still vary and regulate fitness more than inbreeding--named here as the 'constrained inbreeding hypothesis'. We test this hypothesis in Eucalyptus gracilis, a predominantly insect-pollinated tree. Fifty-eight open-pollinated progeny arrays were collected from trees in three populations. Progeny were planted in a reciprocal transplant trial. Fitness was measured by family establishment rates. We genotyped all trees and their progeny at eight microsatellite loci. Planting site had a strong effect on fitness, but seed provenance and seed provenance × planting site did not. Populations had comparable mating system parameters and were generally outcrossed, experienced low biparental inbreeding and high levels of multiple paternity. As predicted, seed families that had more multiple paternities also had higher fitness, and no fitness-inbreeding correlations were detected. Demonstrating that fitness was most affected by multiple paternities rather than inbreeding, we provide evidence supporting the constrained inbreeding hypothesis; i.e. that multiple paternity may impact on fitness over and above that of inbreeding, particularly for preferentially outcrossing trees at life stages beyond seed development. PMID:24587373

Breed, Martin F; Christmas, Matthew J; Lowe, Andrew J

2014-01-01

135

Characterization of new Schistosoma mansoni microsatellite loci in sequences obtained from public DNA databases and microsatellite enriched genomic libraries.  

PubMed

In the last decade microsatellites have become one of the most useful genetic markers used in a large number of organisms due to their abundance and high level of polymorphism. Microsatellites have been used for individual identification, paternity tests, forensic studies and population genetics. Data on microsatellite abundance comes preferentially from microsatellite enriched libraries and DNA sequence databases. We have conducted a search in GenBank of more than 16,000 Schistosoma mansoni ESTs and 42,000 BAC sequences. In addition, we obtained 300 sequences from CA and AT microsatellite enriched genomic libraries. The sequences were searched for simple repeats using the RepeatMasker software. Of 16,022 ESTs, we detected 481 (3%) sequences that contained 622 microsatellites (434 perfect, 164 imperfect and 24 compounds). Of the 481 ESTs, 194 were grouped in 63 clusters containing 2 to 15 ESTs per cluster. Polymorphisms were observed in 16 clusters. The 287 remaining ESTs were orphan sequences. Of the 42,017 BAC end sequences, 1,598 (3.8%) contained microsatellites (2,335 perfect, 287 imperfect and 79 compounds). The 1,598 BAC end sequences 80 were grouped into 17 clusters containing 3 to 17 BAC end sequences per cluster. Microsatellites were present in 67 out of 300 sequences from microsatellite enriched libraries (55 perfect, 38 imperfect and 15 compounds). From all of the observed loci 55 were selected for having the longest perfect repeats and flanking regions that allowed the design of primers for PCR amplification. Additionally we describe two new polymorphic microsatellite loci. PMID:12426598

Rodrigues, N B; Loverde, P T; Romanha, A J; Oliveira, G

2002-01-01

136

Male-Biased Sexual Size Dimorphism, Resource Defense Polygyny, and Multiple Paternity in the Emei Moustache Toad (Leptobrachium boringii)  

PubMed Central

We tested the hypotheses that the Emei moustache toad (Leptobrachium boringii) exhibits resource defense polygyny and that combat led to the evolution of male-biased sexual size dimorphism. Between February and March of 2011 and 2012, 26 female and 55 male L. boringii from Mount Emei UNESCO World Heritage Site, Sichuan, China, were observed throughout the breeding season. Prior to the breeding season, males grow 10–16 keratinized maxillary nuptial spines, which fall off once the season has ended. Throughout this time, males construct and defend aquatic nests where they produce advertisement calls to attract females. In a natural setting, we documented 14 cases involving a total of 22 males where males used their moustaches for aggressive interaction, and nest takeover was observed on seven occasions. Males were also observed to possess injuries resulting from combat. Genetic analysis using microsatellite DNA markers revealed several cases of multiple paternity, both within nest and within clutch. This observation indicated that some alternative male reproductive strategy, such as satellite behaviour, is occurring, which may have led to the multiple paternity. Larger males were observed to mate more frequently, and in multiple nests, suggesting that females are selecting for larger males, or that larger males are more capable of defending high quality territories. PMID:23840725

Hudson, Cameron M.; Fu, Jinzhong

2013-01-01

137

Validation of microsatellite multiplexes for parentage analysis and species discrimination in two hybridizing species of coral reef fish (Plectropomus spp., Serranidae).  

PubMed

Microsatellites are often considered ideal markers to investigate ecological processes in animal populations. They are regularly used as genetic barcodes to identify species, individuals, and infer familial relationships. However, such applications are highly sensitive the number and diversity of microsatellite markers, which are also prone to error. Here, we propose a novel framework to assess the suitability of microsatellite datasets for parentage analysis and species discrimination in two closely related species of coral reef fish, Plectropomus leopardus and P. maculatus (Serranidae). Coral trout are important fisheries species throughout the Indo-Pacific region and have been shown to hybridize in parts of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. We first describe the development of 25 microsatellite loci and their integration to three multiplex PCRs that co-amplify in both species. Using simulations, we demonstrate that the complete suite of markers provides appropriate power to discriminate between species, detect hybrid individuals, and resolve parent-offspring relationships in natural populations, with over 99.6% accuracy in parent-offspring assignments. The markers were also tested on seven additional species within the Plectropomus genus with polymorphism in 28-96% of loci. The multiplex PCRs developed here provide a reliable and cost-effective strategy to investigate evolutionary and ecological dynamics and will be broadly applicable in studies of wild populations and aquaculture brood stocks for these closely related fish species. PMID:25360247

Harrison, Hugo B; Feldheim, Kevin A; Jones, Geoffrey P; Ma, Kayan; Mansour, Hicham; Perumal, Sadhasivam; Williamson, David H; Berumen, Michael L

2014-06-01

138

Global population genetic structure and male-mediated gene flow in the green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas): analysis of microsatellite loci.  

PubMed Central

We assessed the degree of population subdivision among global populations of green sea turtles, Chelonia mydas, using four microsatellite loci. Previously, a single-copy nuclear DNA study indicated significant male-mediated gene flow among populations alternately fixed for different mitochondrial DNA haplotypes and that genetic divergence between populations in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans was more common than subdivisions among populations within ocean basins. Even so, overall levels of variation at single-copy loci were low and inferences were limited. Here, the markedly more variable microsatellite loci confirm the presence of male-mediated gene flow among populations within ocean basins. This analysis generally confirms the genetic divergence between the Atlantic and Pacific. As with the previous study, phylogenetic analyses of genetic distances based on the microsatellite loci indicate a close genetic relationship among eastern Atlantic and Indian Ocean populations. Unlike the single-copy study, however, the results here cannot be attributed to an artifact of general low variability and likely represent recent or ongoing migration between ocean basins. Sequence analyses of regions flanking the microsatellite repeat reveal considerable amounts of cryptic variation and homoplasy and significantly aid in our understanding of population connectivity. Assessment of the allele frequency distributions indicates that at least some of the loci may not be evolving by the stepwise mutation model. PMID:15126404

Roberts, Mark A; Schwartz, Tonia S; Karl, Stephen A

2004-01-01

139

Validation of microsatellite multiplexes for parentage analysis and species discrimination in two hybridizing species of coral reef fish (Plectropomus spp., Serranidae)  

PubMed Central

Microsatellites are often considered ideal markers to investigate ecological processes in animal populations. They are regularly used as genetic barcodes to identify species, individuals, and infer familial relationships. However, such applications are highly sensitive the number and diversity of microsatellite markers, which are also prone to error. Here, we propose a novel framework to assess the suitability of microsatellite datasets for parentage analysis and species discrimination in two closely related species of coral reef fish, Plectropomus leopardus and P. maculatus (Serranidae). Coral trout are important fisheries species throughout the Indo-Pacific region and have been shown to hybridize in parts of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. We first describe the development of 25 microsatellite loci and their integration to three multiplex PCRs that co-amplify in both species. Using simulations, we demonstrate that the complete suite of markers provides appropriate power to discriminate between species, detect hybrid individuals, and resolve parent–offspring relationships in natural populations, with over 99.6% accuracy in parent–offspring assignments. The markers were also tested on seven additional species within the Plectropomus genus with polymorphism in 28–96% of loci. The multiplex PCRs developed here provide a reliable and cost-effective strategy to investigate evolutionary and ecological dynamics and will be broadly applicable in studies of wild populations and aquaculture brood stocks for these closely related fish species. PMID:25360247

Harrison, Hugo B; Feldheim, Kevin A; Jones, Geoffrey P; Ma, Kayan; Mansour, Hicham; Perumal, Sadhasivam; Williamson, David H; Berumen, Michael L

2014-01-01

140

Re-sequencing regions of the ovine Y chromosome in domestic and wild sheep reveals novel paternal haplotypes.  

PubMed

The male-specific region of the ovine Y chromosome (MSY) remains poorly characterized, yet sequence variants from this region have the potential to reveal the wild progenitor of domestic sheep or examples of domestic and wild paternal introgression. The 5' promoter region of the sex-determining gene SRY was re-sequenced using a subset of wild sheep including bighorn (Ovis canadensis), thinhorn (Ovis dalli spp.), urial (Ovis vignei), argali (Ovis ammon), mouflon (Ovis musimon) and domestic sheep (Ovis aries). Seven novel SNPs (oY2-oY8) were revealed; these were polymorphic between but not within species. Re-sequencing and fragment analysis was applied to the MSY microsatellite SRYM18. It contains a complex compound repeat structure and sequencing of three novel size fragments revealed that a pentanucleotide element remained fixed, whilst a dinucleotide element displayed variability within species. Comparison of the sequence between species revealed that urial and argali sheep grouped more closely to the mouflon and domestic breeds than the pachyceriforms (bighorn and thinhorn). SNP and microsatellite data were combined to define six previously undetected haplotypes. Analysis revealed the mouflon as the only species to share a haplotype with domestic sheep, consistent with its status as a feral domesticate that has undergone male-mediated exchange with domestic animals. A comparison of the remaining wild species and domestic sheep revealed that O. aries is free from signatures of wild sheep introgression. PMID:19016675

Meadows, J R S; Kijas, J W

2009-02-01

141

Early-onset obesity and paternal 2pter deletion encompassing the ACP1, TMEM18, and MYT1L genes.  

PubMed

Obesity is a common but highly, clinically, and genetically heterogeneous disease. Deletion of the terminal region of the short arm of chromosome 2 is rare and has been reported in about 13 patients in the literature often associated with a Prader-Willi-like phenotype. We report on five unrelated patients with 2p25 deletion of paternal origin presenting with early-onset obesity, hyperphagia, intellectual deficiency, and behavioural difficulties. Among these patients, three had de novo pure 2pter deletions, one presented with a paternal derivative der(2)t(2;15)(p25.3;q26) with deletion in the 2pter region and the last patient presented with an interstitial 2p25 deletion. The size of the deletions was characterized by SNP array or array-CGH and was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) studies. Four patients shared a 2p25.3 deletion with a minimal critical region estimated at 1.97?Mb and encompassing seven genes, namely SH3HYL1, ACP1, TMEMI8, SNTG2, TPO, PXDN, and MYT1L genes. The fifth patient had a smaller interstitial deletion encompassing the TPO, PXDN, and MYT1L genes. Paternal origin of the deletion was determined by genotyping using microsatellite markers. Analysis of the genes encompassed in the deleted region led us to speculate that the ACP1, TMEM18, and/or MYT1L genes might be involved in early-onset obesity. In addition, intellectual deficiency and behavioural troubles can be explained by the heterozygous loss of the SNTG2 and MYT1L genes. Finally, we discuss the parent-of-origin of the deletion. PMID:24129437

Doco-Fenzy, Martine; Leroy, Camille; Schneider, Anouck; Petit, Florence; Delrue, Marie-Ange; Andrieux, Joris; Perrin-Sabourin, Laurence; Landais, Emilie; Aboura, Azzedine; Puechberty, Jacques; Girard, Manon; Tournaire, Magali; Sanchez, Elodie; Rooryck, Caroline; Ameil, Agnès; Goossens, Michel; Jonveaux, Philippe; Lefort, Geneviève; Taine, Laurence; Cailley, Dorothée; Gaillard, Dominique; Leheup, Bruno; Sarda, Pierre; Geneviève, David

2014-04-01

142

Selections of an Olive Breeding Program Identifi ed by Microsatellite Markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work reports on the use of 10 microsatel- lites for identifying and testing the paternity of the fi rst 17 selections of an olive (Olea euro- paea L.) breeding program in Córdoba, Spain. The usefulness of the microsatellites was con- fi rmed by the high discrimination power and polymorphism information content values and by the low probability of identity

Aurora Díaz; Raúl De la Rosa; Pilar Rallo; Concepción Muñoz-Díez; Isabel Trujillo; Diego Barranco; Antonio Martín; Angjelina Belaj

2007-01-01

143

Microsatellite analysis of female mating behaviour in lek-breeding sage grouse.  

PubMed

We used microsatellite DNA markers to genotype chicks in 10 broods of lek-breeding sage grouse, Centrocercus urophasianus, whose mothers' behaviour was studied by radio-tracking and observing leks. Previous behavioural studies suggested that almost all matings are performed by territorial males on leks and that multiple mating is rare. Two broods (20%) were sired by more than one male. Genetic analyses of the broods of eight females that visited an intensively studied lek were consistent with behavioural observations. Four females observed mating produced singly sired broods and males other than the individual observed copulating were excluded as sires for most or all of their chicks. Territorial males at the study lek were excluded as sires of broods of four other females that visited the lek but were not observed mating there. Radio-tracking suggested that two of these females mated at other leks. Our results confirm the reliability of mating observations at leks, but do not rule out a possible unseen component of the mating system. PMID:11555247

Semple, K; Wayne, R K; Gibson, R M

2001-08-01

144

Microsatellite DNA analysis shows that greater sage grouse leks are not kin groups.  

PubMed

The spectacular social courtship displays of lekking birds are thought to evolve via sexual selection, but this view does not easily explain the participation of many males that apparently fail to mate. One of several proposed solutions to this 'lek skew paradox' is that kin selection favours low-ranking males joining leks to increase the fitness of closely related breeders. We investigated the potential for kin selection to operate in leks of the greater sage grouse, Centrocercus urophasianus, by estimating relatedness between lekking males using microsatellite DNA markers. We also calibrated these estimates using data from known families. Mean relatedness within leks was statistically indistinguishable from zero. We also found no evidence for local clustering of kin during lek display, although males tended to range closer to kin when off the lek. These results make kin selection an unlikely solution to the lek skew paradox in sage grouse. Together with other recent studies, they also raise the question of why kin selection apparently promotes social courtship in some lekking species, but not in others. PMID:16313605

Gibson, Robert M; Pires, Debra; Delaney, Kathleen S; Wayne, Robert K

2005-12-01

145

[Genetic potential analysis of six tilapia populations by microsatellite DNA markers].  

PubMed

Twenty five microsatellite loci were used to analyze two blue tilapia populations ["Xia'ao 1" (ZA), Guangxi population] and four nile tilapia populations [Egypt strain (ZN), 88 strain (XN), Guangxi population (GN), American strain (MN)]. A total of 7775 fragments ranging from 100 bp to 400 bp in length were obtained. Three to eight alleles were amplified in 25 loci and 143 alleles in all the six populations. The average number of alleles in each locus was 5.72. The average values of observed heterozygosity (Ho) ranged from 0.7253 to 0.8160, the average expected heterozygosity (He) ranged from 0.5146 to 0.6834, the average polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.4212 to 0.6105, and the number of average effective alleles (Ae) ranged from 2.20 to 3.23. The highest genetic similarity index was 0.9130 (between ZA and GA); and the lowest was 0.4352 (between ZA and ZN). The results showed that the four nile tilapia populations contained a high level of genetic potential, and the two blue tilapia populations were moderate. PMID:22049692

Yang, Hong; Li, Da-Yu; Cao, Xiang; Zou, Zhi-Ying; Xiao, Wei; Zhu, Jing-Lin

2011-07-01

146

Population genetic analysis among five Indian population groups using six microsatellite markers.  

PubMed

Genetic variation at six tetranucleotide microsatellites (HUMTHO1, HUMVWA, F13A01, D3S1359, D12S66, and D12S67) has heen determined in five endogamous ethnic population groups of India belonging to two major linguistic families. The populations analyzed were Konkanastha Brahmins and Marathas (Maharashtra state) from the Indo-Aryan linguistic family and Nairs, Ezhavas, and Muslims (Kerala state) from the Dravidian family. All six loci show high gene diversity, ranging from 0.63 +/- 0.04 to 0.84 +/- 0.02. The average GST value observed was 1.7%, indicating that the differences between the populations account for less than 2% of the diversity, while the genetic variation is high within the five population groups studied (>98%). The phylogenetic tree fails to show any clear cluster. The absence of any cluster along with low average GST is suggestive of substantial genetic similarity among the studied populations, in spite of clear geographical, linguistic, and cultural barriers. This similarity indicates either a greater gene flow between these groups or, alternatively, may reflect a recent evolution for them, considering that the Indian caste system evolved only about 3000 years ago. PMID:12943158

Ghosh, Anu; Das, Birajalaxmi; Seshadri, M

2003-04-01

147

Spatially defined microsatellite analysis reveals extensive genetic mosaicism and clonal complexity in intestinal metaplastic glands.  

PubMed

Intestinal metaplasia (IM) has been recognized as the first irreversible precancerous stage of intestinal-type gastric cancer at which genetic instabilities, such as microsatellite (MS) instability and loss of heterozygosity, can already be detected. However, the extent and clonal relationship of these genetic lesions in the precancerous tissues are not fully appreciated. In this work, we have used well established MS markers to analyze the relatedness of spatially separated individual metaplastic glands as well as subsegments within single glands from the same patients. We found that individual IM glands frequently show different marker lengths even for closely apposed IM glands, suggesting that these tissues have already gained the ability to independently evolve their genome regardless of whether or not they share a common origin. Furthermore, within individual IM glands, there is also significant intra-gland diversity in the MS markers. Since most of these cells are not dividing and only have a limited lifespan, this result indicates that in each IM gland, a single dominant clone is rare and new clones are constantly created by either progenitor cells or stem cells. This greatly enhanced ability to create de novo genetic alterations may underlie the importance of this stage in the eventual progression toward cancer. Given the widely observed phenotype switch in the early stages of many solid tumors, whether this associated genetic stability is also an intrinsic property of metaplastic transformation should be extensively characterized to further our understanding of cancer initiation. PMID:25403721

Guo, Yan; Zhou, Juan; Huang, Ayuan; Li, Jianfang; Yan, Min; Zhu, Zhenggang; Zhao, Xiaodong; Gu, Jianren; Liu, Bingya; Shao, Zhifeng

2014-11-18

148

Short communication: development and characterization of novel transcriptome-derived microsatellites for genetic analysis of persimmon.  

PubMed

Oriental persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) (2n = 6x = 90) is a major commercial and deciduous fruit tree that is believed to have originated in China. However, rare transcriptomic and genomic information on persimmon is available. Using Roche 454 sequencing technology, the transcriptome from RNA of the flowers of D. kaki was analyzed. A total of 1,250,893 reads were generated and 83,898 unigenes were assembled. A total of 42,711 SSR loci were identified from 23,494 unigenes and 289 polymerase chain reaction primer pairs were designed. Of these 289 primers, 155 (53.6%) showed robust PCR amplification and 98 revealed polymorphism between 15 persimmon genotypes, indicating a polymorphic rate of 63.23% of the productive primers for characterization and genotyping of the genus Diospyros. Transcriptome sequence data generated from next-generation sequencing technology to identify microsatellite loci appears to be rapid and cost-efficient, particularly for species with no genomic sequence information available. PMID:24782136

Luo, C; Zhang, Q L; Luo, Z R

2014-01-01

149

Microsatellite based ovine parentage testing to identify the source responsible for the killing of an endangered species.  

PubMed

In this study, we present an animal forensic genetics case in which we applied ovine microsatellite based parentage testing to the resolution of an act against protected wildlife. The aim was to identify the origin of the animal responsible for the death of an Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus) that had been poisoned through consumption of a Latxa Blond Face breed lamb. Thus, we carried out a 22 microsatellite based parentage test in order to identify the parents of the lamb in the flock which grazes in the same place where the vulture's remains were found. Multiple parentage analysis revealed two possible parents, one ewe and one ram, with a combined paternity/maternity index (PI) higher than 9.09E9 and a likelihood (W) value of 99.9999%, assuming 50% probability a priori. This result confirmed the flock of origin of the poisoned lamb and shows that the microsatellite panel described herein is a potentially useful tool for the resolution of animal forensic cases. PMID:20952265

Rendo, Fernando; Iriondo, Mikel; Manzano, Carmen; Estonba, Andone

2011-08-01

150

Genetic structure of Pyrenophora teres net and spot populations as revealed by microsatellite analysis.  

PubMed

The population structure of the fungal pathogen Pyrenophora teres, collected mainly from different regions of the Czech and Slovak Republics, was examined using a microsatellite analyses (SSR). Among 305 P. teres f. teres (PTT) and 82 P. teres f. maculata (PTM) isolates that were collected, the overall gene diversity was similar (? = 0.12 and ? = 0.13, respectively). A high level of genetic differentiation (FST = 0.46; P < 0.001) indicated the existence of population structure. Nine clusters that were found using a Bayesian approach represent the genetic structure of the studied P. teres populations. Two clusters consisted of PTM populations; PTT populations formed another seven clusters. An exact test of population differentiation confirmed the results that were generated by Structure. There was no difference between naturally infected populations over time, and genetic distance did not correlate with geographical distance. The facts that all individuals had unique multilocus genotypes and that the hypothesis of random mating could not be rejected in several populations or subpopulations serve as evidence that a mixed mating system plays a role in the P. teres life cycle. Despite the fact that the genetic differentiation value between PTT and PTM (FST = 0.30; P < 0.001) is lower than it is between the populations within each form (FST = 0.40 (PTT); FST = 0.35 (PTM); P < 0.001) and that individuals with mixed PTT and PTM genomes were found, the two forms of P. teres form genetically separate populations. Therefore, it can be assumed that these populations have most likely undergone speciation. PMID:24528640

Leišová-Svobodová, Leona; Mina?íková, V?ra; Matušinsky, Pavel; Hudcovicová, Martina; Ondrei?ková, Katarína; Gubiš, Jozef

2014-02-01

151

[Analysis of genetic diversity on 9 wild stocks of taimen (Hucho taimen) by microsatellite markers].  

PubMed

Taimen (Hucho taimen) is a native fish species in China and it is in the state of endangerment. To explain clearly the genetic diversity and genetic structure, 9 wild populations of taimen were investigated using 20 microsatellite markers. The results showed that their observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.0994 to 0.8882, the expected heterozygosity varied from 0.2005 to 0.8759, and the range of PIC index was from 0.3432 to 0.5261 while population from Huma River had low genetic diversity. Fst of matching group ranged from 0.0246 to 0.2333 (P <0.0001)and Nm varied among 0.8216 to 9.9292, which indicated that the genetic differentiation was remarkable among populations.The half/full-sib family tests detected a proportion of half/full-sib family groups varying among 27.78% to 90.91%, showing a high inbred pressure and a risk of bottlenecks experienced by most groups. The AMOVA results showed that the global Fst was 0.1081; the clustering result showed that individuals from Beiji tributary of Heilongjiang River clustered as one clade, all individuals from Huma River and Wusuli River clustered as one clade and all individuals from the upper reaches of the Heilongjiang River clustered as another clade. All these results indicated that the decrease of taimen resource has affected the gene exchange among their populations. In order to achieve full protection of taimen germplasm resources, we should put an end to the destructive fishing for taimen and promotegene exchange among their populations. PMID:22184017

Liu, Bo; Kuang, You-Yi; Tong, Guang-Xiang; Yin, Jia-Sheng

2011-12-01

152

Microsatellite marker analysis reveals the complex phylogeographic history of Rhododendron ferrugineum (Ericaceae) in the Pyrenees.  

PubMed

Genetic variation within plant species is determined by a number of factors such as reproductive mode, breeding system, life history traits and climatic events. In alpine regions, plants experience heterogenic abiotic conditions that influence the population's genetic structure. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic structure and phylogeographic history of the subalpine shrub Rhododendron ferrugineum across the Pyrenees and the links between the populations in the Pyrenees, the Alps and Jura Mountains. We used 27 microsatellite markers to genotype 645 samples from 29 Pyrenean populations, three from the Alps and one from the Jura Mountains. These data were used to estimate population genetics statistics such as allelic richness, observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity, fixation index, inbreeding coefficient and number of migrants. Genetic diversity was found to be higher in the Alps than in the Pyrenees suggesting colonization waves from the Alps to the Pyrenees. Two separate genetic lineages were found in both the Alps and Pyrenees, with a substructure of five genetic clusters in the Pyrenees where a loss of genetic diversity was noted. The strong differentiation among clusters is maintained by low gene flow across populations. Moreover, some populations showed higher genetic diversity than others and presented rare alleles that may indicate the presence of alpine refugia. Two lineages of R. ferrugineum have colonized the Pyrenees from the Alps. Then, during glaciation events R. ferrugineum survived in the Pyrenees in different refugia such as lowland refugia at the eastern part of the chain and nunataks at high elevations leading to a clustered genetic pattern. PMID:24667824

Charrier, Olivia; Dupont, Pierre; Pornon, André; Escaravage, Nathalie

2014-01-01

153

Microsatellite and flow cytometry analysis to help understand the origin of Dioscorea alata polyploids  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Dioscorea alata is a polyploid species with a ploidy level ranging from diploid (2n = 2x = 40) to tetraploid (2n = 4x = 80). Ploidy increase is correlated with better agronomic performance. The lack of knowledge about the origin of D. alata spontaneous polyploids (triploids and tetraploids) limits the efficiency of polyploid breeding. The objective of the present study was to use flow cytometry and microsatellite markers to understand the origin of D. alata polyploids. Methods Different progeny generated by intracytotype crosses (2x × 2x) and intercytotype crosses (2x × 4x and 3x × 2x) were analysed in order to understand endosperm incompatibility phenomena and gamete origins via the heterozygosity rate transmitted to progeny. Results This work shows that in a 2x × 2x cross, triploids with viable seeds are obtained only via a phenomenon of diploid female non-gametic reduction. The study of the transmission of heterozygosity made it possible to exclude polyspermy and polyembryony as the mechanisms at the origin of triploids. The fact that no seedlings were obtained by a 3x × 2x cross made it possible to confirm the sterility of triploid females. Flow cytometry analyses carried out on the endosperm of seeds resulting from 2x × 4x crosses revealed endosperm incompatibility phenomena. Conclusions The major conclusion is that the polyploids of D. alata would have appeared through the formation of unreduced gametes. The triploid pool would have been built and diversified through the formation of 2n gametes in diploid females as the result of the non-viability of seeds resulting from the formation of 2n sperm and of the non-viability of intercytotype crosses. The tetraploids would have appeared through bilateral sexual polyploidization via the union of two unreduced gametes due to the sterility of triploids. PMID:23912697

Nemorin, A.; David, J.; Maledon, E.; Nudol, E.; Dalon, J.; Arnau, G.

2013-01-01

154

Isolation of (AC) n microsatellites in Vitis vinifera L. and analysis of genetic background in grapevines under marker assisted selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primers were developed for 118 microsatellites isolated from grape (Vitis vinifera) genomic libraries enriched for (AC)n repeats. Only one microsatellite sequence matched other grape SSR-sequences in the GeneBank database. Genotyping was carried out in the parental lines and four offspring of two pseudo-test-cross populations, ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ x ‘Seyval’ and ‘Chardonnay’ x ‘Bianca’, and a further six other grape genotypes (V.

Gabriele Di Gaspero; Guido Cipriani; Maria Teresa Marrazzo; Daniele Andreetta; Maria Jesus Prado Castro; Enrico Peterlunger; Raffaele Testolin

2005-01-01

155

Strong male-biased operational sex ratio in a breeding population of loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) inferred by paternal genotype reconstruction analysis.  

PubMed

Characterization of a species mating systems is fundamental for understanding the natural history and evolution of that species. Polyandry can result in the multiple paternity of progeny arrays. The only previous study of the loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) in the USA showed that within the large peninsular Florida subpopulation, multiple paternity occurs in approximately 30% of clutches. Our study tested clutches from the smaller northern subpopulation for the presence of multiple paternal contributions. We examined mothers and up to 20 offspring from 19.5% of clutches laid across three nesting seasons (2008-2010) on the small nesting beach on Wassaw Island, Georgia, USA. We found that 75% of clutches sampled had multiple fathers with an average of 2.65 fathers per nest (1-7 fathers found). The average number of fathers per clutch varied among years and increased with female size. There was no relationship between number of fathers and hatching success. Finally, we found 195 individual paternal genotypes and determined that each male contributed to no more than a single clutch over the 3-year sampling period. Together these results suggest that the operational sex ratio is male-biased at this site. PMID:24363901

Lasala, Jacob A; Harrison, J Scott; Williams, Kris L; Rostal, David C

2013-11-01

156

Patterns of paternity skew among polyandrous social insects: what can they tell us about the potential for sexual selection?  

PubMed

Monogamy results in high genetic relatedness among offspring and thus it is generally assumed to be favored by kin selection. Female multiple mating (polyandry) has nevertheless evolved several times in the social Hymenoptera (ants, bees, and wasps), and a substantial amount of work has been conducted to understand its costs and benefits. Relatedness and inclusive fitness benefits are, however, not only influenced by queen mating frequency but also by paternity skew, which is a quantitative measure of paternity biases among the offspring of polyandrous females. We performed a large-scale phylogenetic analysis of paternity skew across polyandrous social Hymenoptera. We found a general and significant negative association between paternity frequency and paternity skew. High paternity skew, which increases relatedness among colony members and thus maximizes inclusive fitness gains, characterized species with low paternity frequency. However, species with highly polyandrous queens had low paternity skew, with paternity equalized among potential sires. Equal paternity shares among fathers are expected to maximize fitness benefits derived from genetic diversity among offspring. We discuss the potential for postcopulatory sexual selection to influence patterns of paternity in social insects, and suggest that sexual selection may have played a key, yet overlooked role in social evolution. PMID:23206136

Jaffé, Rodolfo; Garcia-Gonzalez, Francisco; den Boer, Susanne P A; Simmons, Leigh W; Baer, Boris

2012-12-01

157

High genetic diversity in gametophyte clones of Undaria pinnatifida from Vladivostok, Dalian and Qingdao revealed using microsatellite analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Breeding practice for Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar requires the screening of a large number of offspring from gametophyte crossings to obtain an elite variety for large-scale cultivation. To better understand the genetic relationships of different gametophyte cultures isolated from different sources, 20 microsatellite loci were screened and 53 gametophyte clone cultures analyzed for U. pinnatifida isolated from wild sporophytes in Vladivostok, Russia and from cultivated sporophytes from Dalian and Qingdao, China. One locus was abandoned because of poor amplification. At the sex-linked locus of Up-AC-2A8, 3 alleles were detected in 25 female gametophyte clones, with sizes ranging from 307 to 316 bp. At other loci, 3 to 7 alleles were detected with an average of 4.5 alleles per locus. The average number of alleles at each locus was 1.3 and 3.7 for Russian and Chinese gametophyte clones, respectively. The average gene diversity for Russian, Chinese, and for the combined total of gametophyte clones was 0.1, 0.4, and 0.5, respectively. Russian gametophyte clones had unique alleles at 7 out of the 19 loci. In cluster analysis, Russian and Chinese gametophyte clones were separated into two different groups according to genetic distance. Overall, high genetic diversity was detected in gametophyte clones isolated from the two countries. These gametophyte cultures were believed to be appropriate parental materials for conducting breeding programs in the future.

Shan, Tifeng; Pang, Shaojun; Liu, Feng; Xu, Na; Zhao, Xiaobo; Gao, Suqin

2012-03-01

158

Spatial analysis of within-population microsatellite variability reveals restricted gene flow in the Pacific golden chanterelle (Cantharellus formosus).  

PubMed

We examined the within-population genetic structure of the Pacific golden chanterelle (Cantharellus formosus) in a 50 y old forest stand dominated by Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) with spatial autocorrelation analysis. We tested the null hypothesis that multilocus genotypes possessed by chanterelle genets were randomly distributed within the study area. Fruit bodies from 203 C. formosus genets were collected from a 50 ha study plot. One hundred six unique multilocus genotypes were identified after scoring these collections at five microsatellite loci. Statistically significant positive spatial autocorrelation was detected indicating the presence of fine-scale genetic structure within the area. Repeated autocorrelation analyses with varied minimum distance classes (50-500 m) detected positive spatial genetic structure up to 400 m. Therefore nonrandom evolutionary processes (e.g., isolation by distance) can cause fine-scale genetic structure in C. formosus. The implications of this research for future broad-scale population studies of this species are that population samples should be separated by at least 400 m to be considered statistically independent. Sampling designs that account for fine-scale genetic structure will better characterize heterogeneity distributed across the landscape by avoiding the effects of pseudo replication. PMID:16894970

Dunham, Susie M; O'Dell, Thomas E; Molina, Randy

2006-01-01

159

ISFG: Recommendations on biostatistics in paternity testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Paternity Testing Commission (PTC) of the International Society for Forensic Genetics has taken up the task of establishing the biostatistical recommendations in accordance with the ISO 17025 standards and a previous set of ISFG recommendations specific to the genetic investigations in paternity cases. In the initial set, the PTC recommended that biostatistical evaluations of paternity are based on a

David W. Gjertson; Charles H. Brenner; Max P. Baur; Angel Carracedo; Francois Guidet; Juan A. Luque; Rüdiger Lessig; Wolfgang R. Mayr; Vince L. Pascali; Mechthild Prinz; Peter M. Schneider; Niels Morling

2007-01-01

160

Paternal investment and the human mating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paternal investment has long been considered responsible for the evolution of predominantly monogamous marriage in humans. However, male–male competition resulting in mate-guarding and male coercion could be equally important. In this review, I use a comparative approach to examine the effect of variation in human paternal investment on our mating system. I conclude paternal investment is important but so too

F. Marlowe

2000-01-01

161

Quantification of the paternal allele bias for new germline mutations in the retinoblastoma gene  

SciTech Connect

New germline mutations in the human retinoblastoma gene preferentially arise on a paternally derived allele. In nonhereditary retinoblastoma, the initial somatic mutation seems to have no such bias. The few previous reports of these phenomena included relatively few cases (less than a dozen new germline or initial somatic mutations), so that the magnitude of the paternal allele bias for new germline mutations is not known. Knowledge of the magnitude of the bias is valuable for genetic counseling, since, for example, patients with new germline mutations who reproduce transmit risk for retinoblastoma according to the risk that the transmitted allele has a germline mutation. We sought to quantitate the paternal allele bias and to determine whether paternal age is a factor possibly accounting for it. We studied 311 families with retinoblastoma (261 simplex, 50 multiplex) that underwent clinical genetic testing and 5 informative families recruited from earlier research. Using RFLPs and polymorphic microsatellites in the retinoblastoma gene, we could determine the parental origin of 45 new germline mutations and 44 probable initial somatic mutations. Thirty-seven of the 45 new germline mutations, or 82%, arose on a paternal allele while only 24 of the 44 initial somatic mutations (55%) did so. Increased paternal age does not appear to account for the excess of new paternal germline mutations, since the average age of fathers of children with new germline mutations (29.4 years, n=26, incomplete records on 11) was not significantly different from the average age of fathers of children with maternal germline mutations or somatic initial mutations (29.8 years, n=35, incomplete records on 17).

Morrow, J.F.; Rapaport, J.M.; Dryia, T.P. [Massachusetts Eye & Ear Infirmary, Boston, MA (United States)

1994-09-01

162

A comparison of single nucleotide polymorphism and microsatellite markers for analysis of parentage and kinship in a cooperatively breeding bird.  

PubMed

The development of genetic markers has revolutionized molecular studies within and among populations. Although poly-allelic microsatellites are the most commonly used genetic marker for within-population studies of free-living animals, biallelic single nucleotide polymorphisms, or SNPs, have also emerged as a viable option for use in nonmodel systems. We describe a robust method of SNP discovery from the transcriptome of a nonmodel organism that resulted in more than 99% of the markers working successfully during genotyping. We then compare the use of 102 novel SNPs with 15 previously developed microsatellites for studies of parentage and kinship in cooperatively breeding superb starlings (Lamprotornis superbus) that live in highly kin-structured groups. For 95% of the offspring surveyed, SNPs and microsatellites identified the same genetic father, but only when behavioural information about the likely parents at a nest was included to aid in assignment. Moreover, when such behavioural information was available, the number of SNPs necessary for successful parentage assignment was reduced by half. However, in a few cases where candidate fathers were highly related, SNPs did a better job at assigning fathers than microsatellites. Despite high variation between individual pairwise relatedness values, microsatellites and SNPs performed equally well in kinship analyses. This study is the first to compare SNPs and microsatellites for analyses of parentage and relatedness in a species that lives in groups with a complex social and kin structure. It should also prove informative for those interested in developing SNP loci from transcriptome data when published genomes are unavailable. PMID:25224810

Weinman, Lucia R; Solomon, Joseph W; Rubenstein, Dustin R

2014-09-15

163

Gel Electrophoresis Lab: Paternity Case  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lab activity from the Biotechnology Alliance for Suncoast Biology Educators provides instructions for conducting a gel electrophoresis lab. Students will try to solve a paternity case with this activity by obtaining a DNA fingerprint from each potential father, the mother and the child. This activity may be downloaded in PDF file format. A data collection sheet and student questions are also included.

2013-07-05

164

Analysis of simple sequence repeats in the Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici genome and the development of microsatellite markers.  

PubMed

Understanding the genetic structure of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici is essential for the establishment of efficient disease control strategies. It is becoming clear that microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats (SSRs), play an important role in genome organization and phenotypic diversity, and are a large source of genetic markers for population genetics and meiotic maps. In this study, we examined the G. graminis var. tritici genome (1) to analyze its pattern of SSRs, (2) to compare it with other plant pathogenic filamentous fungi, such as Magnaporthe oryzae and M. poae, and (3) to identify new polymorphic SSR markers for genetic diversity. The G. graminis var. tritici genome was rich in SSRs; a total 13,650 SSRs have been identified with mononucleotides being the most common motifs. In coding regions, the densities of tri- and hexanucleotides were significantly higher than in noncoding regions. The di-, tri-, tetra, penta, and hexanucleotide repeats in the G. graminis var. tritici genome were more abundant than the same repeats in M. oryzae and M. poae. From 115 devised primers, 39 SSRs are polymorphic with G. graminis var. tritici isolates, and 8 primers were randomly selected to analyze 116 isolates from China. The number of alleles varied from 2 to 7 and the expected heterozygosity (He) from 0.499 to 0.837. In conclusion, SSRs developed in this study were highly polymorphic, and our analysis indicated that G. graminis var. tritici is a species with high genetic diversity. The results provide a pioneering report for several applications, such as the assessment of population structure and genetic diversity of G. graminis var. tritici. PMID:24789608

Li, Wei; Feng, Yanxia; Sun, Haiyan; Deng, Yuanyu; Yu, Hanshou; Chen, Huaigu

2014-11-01

165

Fine-Scale Genetic Structure and Gene Dispersal in Centaurea corymbosa (Asteraceae). II. Correlated Paternity Within and Among Sibships  

PubMed Central

The fine-scale pattern of correlated paternity was characterized within a population of the narrow-endemic model plant species, Centaurea corymbosa, using microsatellites and natural progeny arrays. We used classical approaches to assess correlated mating within sibships and developed a new method based on pairwise kinship coefficients to assess correlated paternity within and among sibships in a spatio-temporal perspective. We also performed numerical simulations to assess the relative significance of different mechanisms promoting correlated paternity and to compare the statistical properties of different estimators of correlated paternity. Our new approach proved very informative to assess which factors contributed most to correlated paternity and presented good statistical properties. Within progeny arrays, we found that about one-fifth of offspring pairs were full-sibs. This level of correlated mating did not result from correlated pollen dispersal events (i.e., pollen codispersion) but rather from limited mate availability, the latter being due to limited pollen dispersal distances, the heterogeneity of pollen production among plants, phenological heterogeneity and, according to simulations, the self-incompatibility system. We point out the close connection between correlated paternity and the “TwoGener” approach recently developed to infer pollen dispersal and discuss the conditions to be met when applying the latter. PMID:15579710

Hardy, Olivier J.; González-Martínez, Santiago C.; Colas, Bruno; Fréville, Hélène; Mignot, Agnès; Olivieri, Isabelle

2004-01-01

166

Analysis of microsatellite DNA resolves genetic structure and diversity of chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ) in California's Central Valley  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use 10 microsatellite DNA markers to assess genetic diversity within and among the four runs (winter, spring, fall, and late fall) of chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ) in California's Central Valley. Forty-one pop- ulation samples are studied, comprising naturally spawning and hatchery stocks collected from 1991 through 1997. Maximum likelihood methods are used to correct for kinship in

Michael A. Banks; Vanessa K. Rashbrook; Marco J. Calavetta; Cheryl A. Dean; Dennis Hedgecock

2000-01-01

167

Microsatellite markers from the 'South American fruit fly' Anastrepha fraterculus: a valuable tool for population genetic analysis and SIT applications  

PubMed Central

Background Anastrepha fraterculus Wiedemann is a horticultural pest which causes significant economic losses in the fruit-producing areas of the American continent and limits the access of products to international markets. The use of environmentally friendly control strategies against this pest is constrained due to the limited knowledge of its population structure. Results We developed microsatellite markers for A. fraterculus from four genomic libraries, which were enriched in CA, CAA, GA and CAT microsatellite motifs. Fifty microsatellite regions were evaluated and 14 loci were selected for population genetics studies. Genotypes of 122 individuals sampled from four A. fraterculus populations were analyzed. The level of polymorphism ranged from three to 13 alleles per locus and the mean expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.60 to 0.64. Comparison between allelic and genotypic frequencies showed significant differences among all pairs of populations. Conclusions This novel set of microsatellite markers provides valuable information for the description of genetic variability and population structure of wild populations and laboratory strains of A. fraterculus. This information will be used to identify and characterize candidate strains suitable to implement effective pest control strategies and might represent a first step towards having a more comprehensive knowledge about the genetics of this pest. PMID:25471285

2014-01-01

168

Microsatellite analysis of Damask rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) accessions from various regions in Iran reveals multiple genotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Damask roses (Rosa damascena Mill.) are mainly used for essential oil production. Previous studies have indicated that all production material in Bulgaria and Turkey consists of only one genotype. Nine polymorphic microsatellite markers were used to analyze the genetic diversity of 40 accessions of R. damascena collected across major and minor rose oil production areas in Iran. RESULTS: All

Alireza Babaei; Seyed Reza Tabaei-Aghdaei; Morteza Khosh-Khui; Reza Omidbaigi; Mohammad Reza Naghavi; Gerhard D Esselink; Marinus JM Smulders

2007-01-01

169

Population structure of spotted seatrout, Cynoscion nebulosus, in Texas bays and estuaries as revealed by analysis of microsatellite DNA  

E-print Network

, Silver S ~~ ~rag, MD. 14 Piertney SB, MacColl ADC, Bacon P J, Dallas JF (1998) Local genetic structure in red grouse (Lagopus lagopus scoticus): evidence from microsatellite DNA markers. Molecular Ecology, 7, 1645-1654. Ramsey PR, Wakeman JM (1987...

Stewart, Leah Beth

2013-02-22

170

Polymorphic microsatellite loci for the genetic analysis of Lycoris radiata (Amaryllidaceae) and cross-amplification in other congeneric species.  

PubMed

Lycoris radiata is a perennial herb that has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for a long time and has two main medicinal components in its bulb, lycorine and galanthamine. However, the original microsatellite loci have not been developed for any species of Lycoris. Total genomic DNA was extracted from fresh bulbs using a modified CTAB protocol. We isolated 10 microsatellite loci from 21 L. radiata individuals of a natural population from Yellow Mountain in Anhui Province, China. The number of alleles ranged from two to nine. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.238 to 0.952 and from 0.455 to 0.784, respectively. One locus significantly deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and no significant linkage disequilibrium was found between pairs of loci. Cross-species amplification of these microsatellite loci was characterized in additional five species (L. sprengeri, L. anhuiensis, L. albiflora, L. longituba, and L. chinensis) of Lycoris. The results suggest that these microsatellite markers would contribute to the population genetic studies of L. radiata and other related species. PMID:22194169

Xuan, S Q; Zheng, J Y; Wang, H; Gao, P; Zhou, S B; Liu, K; Zhu, G-P

2011-01-01

171

PATERNITY DETERMINATION WITH DNA FINGERPRINTING IN A GRIZZLY BEAR POPULATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

We extracted DNA from 120 grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) in an arctic population for paternity analysis using DNA fingerprinting. Preliminary results indicate that a combination of several probes and\\/or enzymes will be necessary to identify sires of offspring with known mothers. Development of genetic profiles will provide estimates of population genetics parameters such as inbreeding coefficients, heterozygosity, and degree

LANCE CRAIGHEAD; ERNIE R. VYSE; HARRY V. REYNOLDS

172

Electrophoretic Techniques Applied to the Detection and Analysis of the Human Microsatellite Dg10s478  

PubMed Central

Short nucleotide repetitions (STRs) are commonly used as genetic markers; thus their detection and analysis constitutes a very important tool for the mapping of genetic diseases, as well as for gathering information about genetic polymorphisms at the population level. STRs can be detected with agarose- or acrylamide-based electrophoretic techniques, followed by visualization of the DNA sample with ethidium bromide, silver nitrate, or fluorophore labeling. In this work, we analyzed genomic DNA from five individuals affected with type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and five controls (unaffected individuals) in order to know the most precise and reproducible technique for the analysis of the existing polymorphism in the STR DG10S478 of the TCF7L2 gene. The combination of PCR with labeling of the products with the CY5 fluorophore, followed by detection on an ALFexpress sequencer, offered the required resolution to detect the variability in this STR, based solely on size analysis. Our methodology offers similar accuracy and reproducibility at lower costs than existing methods based on the sequencing of PCR products, and is a faster alternative when applied to genotyping studies. PMID:18166673

Taylor, Clara Y.; Guillén, Isabel A.; Nazabal, Marcelo; Fernández, Julio R.; Silva, José A.

2007-01-01

173

Male reproductive success and multiple paternity in wild, low-density populations of the adder (Vipera berus).  

PubMed

We studied for the first time the occurrence of multiple paternity, male reproductive success, and neonate survival in wild, low-density adder (Vipera berus) populations using 13 microsatellite loci. Paternity was assigned for 15 clutches, collected during 3 years. Our data demonstrated that multiple paternity can occur at a high level (69%) in natural populations of V. berus, even if the density of adults is low. The high proportion of multiple sired clutches was comparable to the proportion observed in captive populations. Male reproductive success significantly increased with body length, and only the largest males successfully sired entire clutches. Finally, no relationship was detected between the number of fathers per clutch and neonate survival. These results suggest that multiple matings could be beneficial in populations with high level of inbreeding or low male fecundity. PMID:19074755

Ursenbacher, Sylvain; Erny, Cecile; Fumagalli, Luca

2009-01-01

174

Microsatellite DNA Analysis Revealed a Drastic Genetic Change of Plasmodium vivax Population in the Republic of Korea During 2002 and 2003  

PubMed Central

Background Vivax malaria was successfully eliminated in the Republic of Korea (South Korea) in the late 1970s, but it was found to have re-emerged from 1993. In order to control malaria and evaluate the effectiveness of malaria controls, it is important to develop a spatiotemporal understanding of the genetic structure of the parasite population. Here, we estimated the population structure and temporal dynamics of the transmission of Plasmodium vivax in South Korea by analyzing microsatellite DNA markers of the parasite. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed 14 microsatellite DNA loci of the P. vivax genome from 163 South Korean isolates collected from 1994 to 2008. Allelic data were used to analyze linkage disequilibrium (LD), genetic differentiation and population structure, in order to make a detailed estimate of temporal change in the parasite population. The LD analysis showed a gradual decrease in LD levels, while the levels of genetic differentiation between successive years and analysis of the population structure based on the Bayesian approach suggested that a drastic genetic change occurred in the South Korean population during 2002 and 2003. Conclusions/Significance Although relapse and asymptomatic parasite carriage might influence the population structure to some extent, our results suggested the continual introduction of P. vivax into South Korea through other parasite population sources. One possible source, particularly during 2002 and 2003, is North Korea. Molecular epidemiology using microsatellite DNA of the P. vivax population is effective for assessing the population structure and temporal dynamics of parasite transmission; information that can assist in the elimination of vivax malaria in endemic areas. PMID:24205429

Iwagami, Moritoshi; Hwang, Seung-Young; Kim, So-Hee; Park, So-Jung; Lee, Ga-Young; Matsumoto-Takahashi, Emilie Louise Akiko; Kho, Weon-Gyu; Kano, Shigeyuki

2013-01-01

175

Paternal effects on early embryogenesis  

PubMed Central

Historically, less attention has been paid to paternal effects on early embryogenesis than maternal effects. However, it is now apparent that certain male factor infertility phenotypes are associated with increased DNA fragmentation and/or chromosome aneuploidies that may compromise early embryonic development. In addition, there is a growing body of evidence that the fertilizing sperm has more function than just carrying an intact, haploid genome. The paternally inherited centrosome is essential for normal fertilization, and the success of higher order chromatin packaging may impact embryogenesis. Epigenetic modifications of sperm chromatin may contribute to the reprogramming of the genome, and sperm delivered mRNA has also been hythesized to be necessary for embryogenesis. There is less information about the epigenetic factors affecting embryogenesis than genetic factors, but the epigenetics of gamete and early embryogenesis is a rapidly advancing field. PMID:18485208

Nanassy, Laszlo; Carrell, Douglas T

2008-01-01

176

Density drives polyandry and relatedness influences paternal success in the Pacific gooseneck barnacle, Pollicipes elegans  

PubMed Central

Background Polyandry is a common mating strategy in animals, increasing female fitness through direct (material) and indirect (genetic) benefits. Most theories about the benefits of polyandry come from studies of terrestrial animals, which have relatively complex mating systems and behaviors; less is known about the potential benefits of polyandry in sessile marine animals, for which potential mates may be scarce and females have less control over pre-copulatory mate choice. Here, we used microsatellite markers to examine multiple paternity in natural aggregations of the Pacific gooseneck barnacle Pollicipes elegans, testing the effect of density on paternity and mate relatedness on male reproductive success. Results We found that multiple paternity was very common (79% of broods), with up to five fathers contributing to a brood, though power was relatively low to detect more than four fathers. Density had a significant and positive linear effect on the number of fathers siring a brood, though this relationship leveled off at high numbers of fathers, which may reflect a lack of power and/or an upper limit to polyandry in this species. Significant skew in male reproductive contribution in multiply-sired broods was observed and we found a positive and significant relationship between the proportion of offspring sired and the genetic similarity between mates, suggesting that genetic compatibility may influence reproductive success in this species. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study to show high levels of multiple paternity in a barnacle, and overall, patterns of paternity in P. elegans appear to be driven primarily by mate availability. Evidence of paternity bias for males with higher relatedness suggests some form of post-copulatory sexual selection is taking place, but more work is needed to determine whether it operates during or post-fertilization. Overall, our results suggest that while polyandry in P. elegans is driven by mate availability, it may also provide a mechanism for females to ensure fertilization by compatible gametes and increase reproductive success in this sessile species. PMID:24739102

2014-01-01

177

PLANT SCIENCE: Paternal Patterning Cue  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Over the past decade, several mutations that exert maternal effects on embryogenesis have been described in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Bayer et al. describe the first paternal effect on plant embryogenesis, demonstrating that a temporal cue provided by the sperm cell triggers the events leading to the first asymmetric division of the plant embryo.

Ueli Grossniklaus (University of Zürich;)

2009-03-13

178

Characterization of microsatellite loci and repeat density in the gooseneck barnacle, Pollicipes elegans, using next generation sequencing.  

PubMed

Pollicipes elegans is a commercially important and biogeographically significant rocky-shore gooseneck barnacle found along the eastern Pacific coasts of Peru, El Salvador, and Mexico. Little is known about its reproductive biology, and no genetic resources exist despite its growing importance as a fisheries species in the region. Next generation sequencing methods can provide rapid and cost-effective development of molecular markers such as microsatellites, which can be applied to studies of paternity, parentage, and population structure in this understudied species. Here, we used Roche 454 pyrosequencing to develop microsatellite markers in P. elegans and made genomic comparisons of repeat density and repeat class frequency with other arthropods and more distantly related taxa. We identified 13 809 repeats of 1-6 bp, or a density of 9744 bp of repeat per megabase queried, which was intermediate in the range of taxonomic groups compared. Comparison of repeat class frequency distributions revealed that P. elegans was most similar to Drosophila melanogaster rather than the more closely related crustacean Daphnia pulex. We successfully isolated 15 polymorphic markers with an average of 9.4 alleles per locus and average observed and expected heterozygosities of 0.501 and 0.597, respectively. Four loci were found to be out of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, likely due to the presence of null alleles. A preliminary population genetic analysis revealed low but significant differentiation between a Peruvian (n = 47) and Mexican (n = 48) population (F(ST) = 0.039) and markedly reduced genetic diversity in Peru. These markers should facilitate future studies of paternity, parentage, and population structure in this species. PMID:24115106

Plough, Louis V; Marko, Peter B

2014-01-01

179

Change in paternity and select perinatal outcomes: causal or confounded?  

PubMed

Select social, behavioural and maternal characteristics were evaluated to determine if they were confounding factors in the association between paternity change and pre-eclampsia, small for gestational age (SGA) and pre-term delivery, in a sample of 1,409 women. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine if any of these risk factors modified the association between changing paternity and the selected perinatal outcomes. Results of the analysis showed that women who changed partners were more likely to possess potentially confounding risk factors compared with those who had not. Paternity change was 2.75 times more likely to be associated with the development of pre-eclampsia (95% CI 1.33; 5.68) and 2.25 times more likely to be associated with an SGA infant on weight (95% CI 1.13; 4.47), after adjusting for selected risk factors. Paternity change remains a significant risk factor for pre-eclampsia and SGA in the presence of select risk factors. PMID:22943712

Bandoli, G; Lindsay, S; Johnson, D L; Kao, K; Luo, Y; Chambers, C D

2012-10-01

180

Evolution of paternal care in diploid and haplodiploid populations.  

PubMed

W. D. Hamilton famously suggested that the inflated relatedness of full sisters under haplodiploidy explains why all workers in the social hymenoptera are female. This suggestion has not stood up to further theoretical scrutiny and is not empirically supported. Rather, it appears that altruistic sib-rearing in the social hymenoptera is performed exclusively by females because this behaviour has its origins in parental care, which was performed exclusively by females in the ancestors of this insect group. However, haplodiploidy might still explain the sex of workers if this mode of inheritance has itself been responsible for the rarity of paternal care in this group. Here, we perform a theoretical kin selection analysis to investigate the evolution of paternal care in diploid and haplodiploid populations. We find that haplodiploidy may either inhibit or promote paternal care depending on model assumptions, but that under the most plausible scenarios it promotes - rather than inhibits - paternal care. Our analysis casts further doubt upon there being a causal link between haplodiploidy and eusociality. PMID:24773069

Davies, N G; Gardner, A

2014-06-01

181

The development and use of microsatellite markers for genetic analysis and plant breeding with emphasis on bread wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, a variety of molecular markers, based on microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) have become the\\u000a markers of choice, thus necessitating their development and use in a variety of plant systems. In this review, the basic principles\\u000a underlying different hybridization-based (oligonucleotide fingerprinting) and PCR based approaches (STMS, MP-PCR, AMP-PCR\\/\\u000a ISSR\\/ ASSR, RAMPs\\/ dRAMPs, SAMPL), making use of

P. K. Gupta; R. K. Varshney

2000-01-01

182

A multi-samples, multi-extracts approach for microsatellite analysis of faecal samples in an arboreal ape  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effect of the number of faecal samples, ofextracts per sample and of PCRs per extract on the reliability ofgenotypes for a microsatellite locus in free-living orang-utans.For each individual 36 PCRs were performed using DNA extractionsfrom up to four faecal samples. We found a very largeinter-individual variation in positive PCRs (P+) (36\\/36 for oneindividual and 0\\/36 for another).

Benoît Goossens; Lounès Chikhi; Sri S. Utami; Jan de Ruiter; Michael W. Bruford

2000-01-01

183

Microsatellite instability analysis in uterine cavity washings as a screening tool for endometrial cancer in Lynch syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although patients with Lynch syndrome (LS) are at high risk of endometrial cancer, gynecologic screening has been poorly investigated\\u000a and diagnostic value of current screening tests remains unclear. Microsatellite instability (MSI) phenotype is found in more\\u000a than 90% of endometrial cancers developed in LS patients. Here we report the first two cases of unstable endometrial tumors\\u000a with detection of MSI

Julie Bouquier; Hélène Blons; Céline Narjoz; Fabrice Lécuru; Pierre Laurent-Puig; Anne-Sophie Bats

184

Analysis of genetic variation and bottleneck in a captive population of Siamese crocodile using novel microsatellite loci  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Siamese crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis), listed in CITES Appendix I, is considered one of the most critically endangered crocodilians in the world, and the reintroductions\\u000a of it have been tried. Investigation of genetic variation for Siamese crocodile can help to conserve and improve this endangered\\u000a species. Fourteen microsatellite loci were developed and twelve polymorphic loci were used to investigate the

Dongmei Yu; Jianjun Peng; Shijia Hu; Saifei Gao; Meilan Fu; Huijian Hu; Jiejian Zou

2011-01-01

185

Multiple paternity in the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae).  

PubMed

The reproductive strategies and variation in reproductive success of ticks are poorly understood. We determined variation in multiple paternity in the American dog tick Dermancentor variabilis . In total, 48 blood-engorged female ticks and 22 male companion ticks were collected from 13 raccoon ( Procyon lotor ) hosts. In the laboratory, 56.3% of blood-engorged females laid eggs, of which 37.0% hatched or showed signs of development. We examined the presence of multiple paternity in the ensuing clutches by genotyping groups of eggs and larvae at 5 microsatellite loci and subtracting the known maternal alleles, thereby identifying male-contributed alleles. Seventy-five percent of the clutches presented multiple paternity, with a mode of 2 fathers siring the clutch. Males associated with the females on the host always sired some offspring. In 1 case, a male was the sire of clutches derived from 2 females, indicating both polygyny and polyandry may occur for this species. These results, combined with those of several other recent studies, suggest that multiple paternity might be frequent for ixodid ticks. PMID:22257158

Ruiz-López, María José; Chaskelson, Saskia; Gompper, Matthew E; Eggert, Lori S

2012-06-01

186

Analysis of transferability of microsatellite primers (SSR) in wild Passiflora species and intraspecific genetic diversity in Passiflora alata.  

PubMed

The genus Passiflora L. is the most representative of Passifloraceae, with over 500 known species, among which 150-200 originated from Brazil. In addition to the great commercial importance of this genus for the fruit market, many of the species have exotic flowers with a huge diversity of colors and can thereby be exploited as ornamental plants. This study was aimed at investigating the transferability of microsatellite primers in wild Passiflora species (P. cacao, P. cincinnata, P. glandulosa, P. gibertii, and P. mucronata) and characterizing 29 P. alata accessions using microsatellite primers that were previously developed in a library enriched with microsatellites from P. edulis f. flavicarpa for P. alata. The interspecies cross-amplification rate varied, and P. cacao exhibited the highest rate of amplification, suggesting a greater degree of proximity to P. edulis. The study of intraspecific accessions in P. alata found genetic similarity, with values ranging from 0.47 to 1.00 and an average similarity of 0.74. Hence, this study revealed the intraspecific genetic variability of P. alata in the Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz's Active Germplasm Bank and will lead to the adoption of mating strategies between accessions; thus making their use more suitable for breeding purposes. PMID:25117349

Silva, M A A; Souza, M M; Silva, G S; Melo, C A F; Corrêa, R X; Araújo, I S; Conceição, L D H C S

2014-01-01

187

Certainty of paternity and paternal investment in eastern bluebirds and tree swallows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extra-pair paternity is common in many socially monogamous passerine birds with biparental care. Thus, males often invest in offspring to which they are not related. Models of optimal parental investment predict that, under certain assumptions, males should lower their investment in response to reduced certainty of paternity. We attempted to reduce certainty of paternity experimentally in two species, the eastern

BART KEMPENAERS; RICHARD B. LANCTOT; RALEIGH J. ROBERTSON

1998-01-01

188

Genetic diversity and differentiation of the Korean starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus) between and within cultured stocks and wild populations inferred from microsatellite DNA analysis.  

PubMed

The Korean starry flounder, Platichthys stellatus, is economically valuable coastal resident fish species. However, the annual catch of this fish has fluctuated and suffered major declines in Korea. We examined the genetic diversity and population structure for four wild populations and three hatchery stocks of Korean starry flounder to protect its genetic integrity using nine microsatellites. A group of 339 genotypes belonging to seven populations were screened. High degrees of polymorphism at the microsatellite loci were observed within both the wild and hatchery populations. Compared to the wild populations, genetic changes, including reduced genetic diversity and highly significant differentiation, have occurred in cultured stocks. Significant population differentiation was also observed in wild starry flounder populations. Similar degrees of inbreeding and significant Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium deviations were detected in both the wild and the hatchery populations. The genetic connectivity pattern identified four distinct metapopulations of starry flounder in Korea by clustering in the phylogenetic tree, Bayesian analyses, molecular variance analysis, PCA and multidimensional scaling analysis. A pattern of isolation-by-distance was not significant. This genetic differentiation may be the result of the co-effects of various factors, such as historic dispersal, local environment or anthropogenic activities. These results provide useful information for the genetic monitoring of P. stellatus hatchery stocks, for the genetic improvement of this species by selective breeding and for designing suitable management guidelines for the conservation of this species. PMID:25064574

An, Hye Suck; Nam, Myung Mo; Myeong, Jeong In; An, Chul Min

2014-11-01

189

Analysis of four microsatellite markers on the long arm of chromosome 9 by meiotic recombination in flow-sorted single sperm  

SciTech Connect

Meiotic recombination in flow-sorted single sperm was used to analyze four highly polymorphic microsatellite markers on the long arm of chromosome 9. The microsatellites comprised three tightly linked markers: 9CMP1 (D9S109), 9CMP2 (D9S127), and D9S53, which map to 9q31, and a reference marker, ASS, which is located in 9q34.1. Haplotypes of single sperm were assessed by using PCR in a single-step multiplex reaction to amplify each locus. Recombinant haplotypes were identified by their relative infrequency and were analyzed using THREELOC, a maximum-likelihood-analysis program, and an adaptation of CRI-MAP. The most likely order of these markers was cen-D9S109-D9S127-D9S53-ASS-tel with D9S109, D9S127, and D9S53 being separated by a genetic distance of approximately 3%. The order of the latter three markers did not however achieve statistical significance using the THREELOC program. 21 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Furlong, R.A.; Goudie, D.R.; Carter, N.P.; Lyall, J.E.W.; Affara, N.A.; Ferguson-Smith, M.A. (Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom))

1993-06-01

190

Creation of a Chloroplast Microsatellite Reporter for Detection of Replication Slippage in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsatellites are composed of short tandem direct repeats; deletions or duplications of those repeats through the process of replication slippage result in microsatellite instability relative to other genomic loci. Variation in repeat number occurs so frequently that microsatellites can be used for genotyping and forensic analysis. However, an accurate assessment of the rates of change can be difficult because the

Monica GuhaMajumdar; Ethan Dawson-Baglien; Barbara B. Sears

2008-01-01

191

Paternal isodisomy for chromosome 7 and normal growth and development in a patient with congenital chloride diarrhea  

SciTech Connect

Uniparental disomy (UPD) has been reported in an increasing number of patients, occasionally ascertained because of concomitant autosomal recessive disorders. In some cases, additional signs such as growth alteration, mental retardation or minor anomalies are present, suggesting an imprinting effect. For maternal chromosome 7, UPD has been described in three patients with recessive disorders. Severe growth retardation diagnosed in all these patients has been explained by the effect of imprinting of growth related genes on maternal chromosome 7. No cases of paternally derived disomy from chromosome 7 were previously known. Here we report paternal isodisomy for chromosome 7 and normal growth in a patient with a recessive disorder, congenital chloride diarrhea (CLD; MIM 214700). Ten informative microsatellite markers on chromosome 7 demonstrated that the proband did not have any maternal contribution to her genotype for that chromosome. Maternal and paternal alleles could not be distinguished for another 10 markers tested for chromosome 7, but the proband was always homozygous. As most uniparental paternal disomies appear to have a postzygotic origin, the primary event might have been a maternal meiotic nondisjunction. A thorough clinical evaluation with a view to additional signs of imprinted genes localized in chromosome 7 was performed. The physical status and laboratory tests were normal except for a mild high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss. As the patient has normal stature, it is likely that the paternal chromosome 7 lacks the suggested maternal imprinting effect on growth. The origin of the hearing loss remains speculative.

Hoeglund, P.; de la Chapelle, A.; Kere, J. [Univ. of Helsinki, (Finland)] [and others

1994-09-01

192

Paternal inheritance in mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mealybugs have a haplodiploid reproduction system, with paternal genome elimination (PGE); the males are diploid soon after fertilization, but during embryogenesis, the male paternal set of chromosomes becomes heterochromatic (HC) and therefore inactive. Previous studies have suggested that paternal genes can be passed on from mealybug males to their sons, but not necessarily by any son, to the next generation. We employed crosses between two mealybug species— Planococcus ficus (Signoret) and Planococcus citri (Risso)—and between two populations of P. ficus, which differ in their mode of pheromone attraction, in order to demonstrate paternal inheritance from males to F2 through F1 male hybrids. Two traits were monitored through three generations: mode of male pheromone attraction (pherotype) and sequences of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) gene segment (genotype). Our results demonstrate that paternal inheritance in mealybugs can occur from males to their F2 offspring, through F1 males (paternal line). F2 backcrossed hybrid males expressed paternal pherotypes and ITS2 genotypes although their mother originated through a maternal population. Further results revealed other, hitherto unknown, aspects of inheritance in mealybugs, such as that hybridization between the two species caused absence of paternal traits in F2 hybrid females produced by F1 hybrid females. Furthermore, hybridization between the two species raised the question of whether unattracted males have any role in the interactions between P. ficus and P. citri.

Kol-Maimon, Hofit; Mendel, Zvi; Franco, José Carlos; Ghanim, Murad

2014-10-01

193

Beyond traditional paternity and identification cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper extends on the traditional methodology used to quantify DNA evidence in paternity or identification cases. By extending we imply that there are more than two alternatives to choose between. In a standard paternity case the two competing explanations H1: “John Doe is the father of the child” and H2: “A random man is the father of the child”,

T. Egeland; P. F. Mostad; B. Mevåg; M. Stenersen

2000-01-01

194

Paternal contribution: new insights and future challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been widely held that all that fathers essentially contribute to the next generation is half their genome. However, recent progress towards understanding biological processes such as sperm maturation and fertilization now indicates that the paternal contribution has been underestimated. To tackle some of the misconceptions surrounding the paternal contribution, the factors that are actually delivered by the sperm

Stephen A. Krawetz

2005-01-01

195

Paternal inheritance in mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae).  

PubMed

Mealybugs have a haplodiploid reproduction system, with paternal genome elimination (PGE); the males are diploid soon after fertilization, but during embryogenesis, the male paternal set of chromosomes becomes heterochromatic (HC) and therefore inactive. Previous studies have suggested that paternal genes can be passed on from mealybug males to their sons, but not necessarily by any son, to the next generation. We employed crosses between two mealybug species--Planococcus ficus (Signoret) and Planococcus citri (Risso)--and between two populations of P. ficus, which differ in their mode of pheromone attraction, in order to demonstrate paternal inheritance from males to F2 through F1 male hybrids. Two traits were monitored through three generations: mode of male pheromone attraction (pherotype) and sequences of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) gene segment (genotype). Our results demonstrate that paternal inheritance in mealybugs can occur from males to their F2 offspring, through F1 males (paternal line). F2 backcrossed hybrid males expressed paternal pherotypes and ITS2 genotypes although their mother originated through a maternal population. Further results revealed other, hitherto unknown, aspects of inheritance in mealybugs, such as that hybridization between the two species caused absence of paternal traits in F2 hybrid females produced by F1 hybrid females. Furthermore, hybridization between the two species raised the question of whether unattracted males have any role in the interactions between P. ficus and P. citri. PMID:25091548

Kol-Maimon, Hofit; Mendel, Zvi; Franco, José Carlos; Ghanim, Murad

2014-10-01

196

Non-equivalent contributions of maternal and paternal genomes to early plant embryogenesis.  

PubMed

Zygotic genome activation in metazoans typically occurs several hours to a day after fertilization, and thus maternal RNAs and proteins drive early animal embryo development. In plants, despite several molecular studies of post-fertilization transcriptional activation, the timing of zygotic genome activation remains a matter of debate. For example, two recent reports that used different hybrid ecotype combinations for RNA sequence profiling of early Arabidopsis embryo transcriptomes came to divergent conclusions. One identified paternal contributions that varied by gene, but with overall maternal dominance, while the other found that the maternal and paternal genomes are transcriptionally equivalent. Here we assess paternal gene activation functionally in an isogenic background, by performing a large-scale genetic analysis of 49 EMBRYO DEFECTIVE genes and testing the ability of wild-type paternal alleles to complement phenotypes conditioned by mutant maternal alleles. Our results demonstrate that wild-type paternal alleles for nine of these genes are completely functional 2 days after pollination, with the remaining 40 genes showing partial activity beginning at 2, 3 or 5 days after pollination. Using our functional assay, we also demonstrate that different hybrid combinations exhibit significant variation in paternal allele activation, reconciling the apparently contradictory results of previous transcriptional studies. The variation in timing of gene function that we observe confirms that paternal genome activation does not occur in one early discrete step, provides large-scale functional evidence that maternal and paternal genomes make non-equivalent contributions to early plant embryogenesis, and uncovers an unexpectedly profound effect of hybrid genetic backgrounds on paternal gene activity. PMID:25209660

Del Toro-De León, Gerardo; García-Aguilar, Marcelina; Gillmor, C Stewart

2014-10-30

197

Friedreich ataxia in Louisiana Acadians: demonstration of a founder effect by analysis of microsatellite-generated extended haplotypes.  

PubMed Central

Eleven Acadian families with Friedreich ataxia (FA) who were from southwest Louisiana were studied with a series of polymorphic markers spanning 310 kb in the D9S5-D9S15 region previously shown to be tightly linked to the disease locus. In particular, three very informative microsatellites were tested. Evidence for a strong founder effect was found, since a specific extended haplotype spanning 230 kb from 26P (D9S5) to MCT112 (D9S15) was present on 70% of independent FA chromosomes and only once (6%) on the normal ones. There was no evident correlation between haplotypes and clinical expression. The typing of an additional microsatellite (GS4) located 80 kb from MCT112 created a divergence of the main FA-linked haplotype, generating four minor and one major haplotype. A similar split was observed with GS4 in a patient homozygous for a rare 26P-to-MCT112 haplotype. These results suggest that GS4 is flanking marker for the disease locus, although other interpretations are possible. Images Figure 2 PMID:1347194

Sirugo, G; Keats, B; Fujita, R; Duclos, F; Purohit, K; Koenig, M; Mandel, J L

1992-01-01

198

Mining microsatellites in eukaryotic genomes.  

PubMed

During recent decades, microsatellites have become the most popular source of genetic markers. More recently, the availability of enormous sequence data for a large number of eukaryotic genomes has accelerated research aimed at understanding the origin and functions of microsatellites and searching for new applications. This review presents recent developments of in silico mining of microsatellites to reveal various facets of the distribution and dynamics of microsatellites in eukaryotic genomes. Two aspects of microsatellite search strategies--using a suitable search tool and accessing a relevant microsatellite database--have been explored. Judicious microsatellite mining not only helps in addressing biological questions but also facilitates better exploitation of microsatellites for diverse applications. PMID:17945369

Sharma, Prakash C; Grover, Atul; Kahl, Günter

2007-11-01

199

Organismal and 'gametic' capture-recapture using microsatellite genotyping confirm low abundance and reproductive autonomy of humpback whales on the wintering grounds of New Caledonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abundance and reproductive autonomy of humpback whales from the New Caledo- nia (South Pacific) wintering grounds were investigated using capture-recapture models and pater- nity inference based on nuclear microsatellite genotyping, mitochondrial DNA sequencing, molecu- lar sex identification and photographs of natural markings (photo-identification). The analyses included records of 213 individuals (excluding 16 calves used in paternity inference) identified by

Claire Garrigue; Rémi Dodemont; Debbie Steel; C. Scott Baker

2004-01-01

200

Critical experimental test of the possibility of "paternal leakage" of mitochondrial DNA.  

PubMed Central

Most previous data suggesting maternal inheritance of mtDNA have come from single-generation mating experiments, and most of the analytical techniques utilized would not have detected paternal mtDNA molecules in progeny at levels less than about 5%. Long-term mating experiments, in which a fertile female lineage derived from hybridization of two species with distinguishable mtDNAs is backcrossed recurrently to the male parental species, provide an ideal opportunity to assess possible low-level paternal leakage. We have analyzed the 45- and 91-generation backcross progeny of such matings between two species of lepidopteran insects [Heliothis (Noctuidae)], using autoradiographic techniques that can detect rare mtDNA molecules in less than 1 part per 500. The analysis failed to detect any paternal mtDNA and sets an upper limit of paternal leakage at about 1 molecule per 25,000 per generation in this system. Images PMID:6300883

Lansman, R A; Avise, J C; Huettel, M D

1983-01-01

201

Microsatellite isolation and marker development in carrot - genomic distribution, linkage mapping, genetic diversity analysis and marker transferability across Apiaceae  

PubMed Central

Background The Apiaceae family includes several vegetable and spice crop species among which carrot is the most economically important member, with ~21 million tons produced yearly worldwide. Despite its importance, molecular resources in this species are relatively underdeveloped. The availability of informative, polymorphic, and robust PCR-based markers, such as microsatellites (or SSRs), will facilitate genetics and breeding of carrot and other Apiaceae, including integration of linkage maps, tagging of phenotypic traits and assisting positional gene cloning. Thus, with the purpose of isolating carrot microsatellites, two different strategies were used; a hybridization-based library enrichment for SSRs, and bioinformatic mining of SSRs in BAC-end sequence and EST sequence databases. This work reports on the development of 300 carrot SSR markers and their characterization at various levels. Results Evaluation of microsatellites isolated from both DNA sources in subsets of 7 carrot F2 mapping populations revealed that SSRs from the hybridization-based method were longer, had more repeat units and were more polymorphic than SSRs isolated by sequence search. Overall, 196 SSRs (65.1%) were polymorphic in at least one mapping population, and the percentage of polymophic SSRs across F2 populations ranged from 17.8 to 24.7. Polymorphic markers in one family were evaluated in the entire F2, allowing the genetic mapping of 55 SSRs (38 codominant) onto the carrot reference map. The SSR loci were distributed throughout all 9 carrot linkage groups (LGs), with 2 to 9 SSRs/LG. In addition, SSR evaluations in carrot-related taxa indicated that a significant fraction of the carrot SSRs transfer successfully across Apiaceae, with heterologous amplification success rate decreasing with the target-species evolutionary distance from carrot. SSR diversity evaluated in a collection of 65 D. carota accessions revealed a high level of polymorphism for these selected loci, with an average of 19 alleles/locus and 0.84 expected heterozygosity. Conclusions The addition of 55 SSRs to the carrot map, together with marker characterizations in six other mapping populations, will facilitate future comparative mapping studies and integration of carrot maps. The markers developed herein will be a valuable resource for assisting breeding, genetic, diversity, and genomic studies of carrot and other Apiaceae. PMID:21806822

2011-01-01

202

Fibroadenoma in Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome with paternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 11p15.5.  

PubMed

Herein is described a case of breast fibroadenomas in a 16-year-old girl with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) and uniparental disomy (UPD) of chromosome 11p15.5. She was clinically diagnosed with BWS and direct closure was performed for an omphalocele at birth. Subtotal and 90% pancreatectomy were performed for nesidioblastosis at the ages 2 months and 8 years, respectively. Bilateral multiple breast fibroadenomas were noted at the age of 16 and 17 years. In this case, paternal UPD of chromosome 11p15.5 was identified on microsatellite marker analysis. The relevant imprinted chromosomal region in BWS is 11p15.5, and UPD of chromosome 11p15 is a risk factor for BWS-associated tumorigenicity. Chromosome 11p15.5 consists of imprinting domains of IGF2, the expression of which is associated with the tumorigenesis of various breast cancers. This case suggests that fibroadenomas occurred in association with BWS. PMID:25521982

Takama, Yuichi; Kubota, Akio; Nakayama, Masahiro; Higashimoto, Ken; Jozaki, Kosuke; Soejima, Hidenobu

2014-12-01

203

Siring Success and Paternal Effects in Heterodichogamous Acer opalus  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Heterodichogamy (a dimorphic breeding system comprising protandrous and protogynous individuals) is a potential starting point in the evolution of dioecy from hermaphroditism. In the genus Acer, previous work suggests that dioecy evolved from heterodichogamy through an initial spread of unisexual males. Here, the question is asked as to whether the different morphs in Acer opalus, a species in which males co-exist with heterodichogamous hermaphrodites, differ in various components of male in fitness. Methods Several components of male fertility were analysed. Pollination rates in the male phase were recorded across one flowering period. Pollen viability was compared among morphs through hand pollinations both with pollen from a single sexual morph and also simulating a situation of pollen competition; in the latter experiment, paternity was assessed with microsatellite markers. It was also determined whether effects of genetic relatedness between pollen donors and recipients could influence the siring success. Finally, paternal effects occurring beyond the fertilization process were tested for by measuring the height reached by seedlings with different sires over three consecutive growing seasons. Key Results The males and protandrous morphs had higher pollination rates than the protogynous morph, and the seedlings they sired grew taller. No differences in male fertility were found between males and protandrous individuals. Departures from random mating due to effects of genetic relatedness among sires and pollen recipients were also ruled out. Conclusions Males and protandrous individuals are probably better sires than protogynous individuals, as shown by the higher pollination rates and the differential growth of the seedlings sired by these morphs. In contrast, the fertility of males was not higher than the male fertility of the protandrous morph. While the appearance of males in sexually specialized heterodichogamous populations is possible, even in the absence of a fitness advantage, it is not clear that males can be maintained at an evolutionary equilibrium with two classes of heterodichogamous hermaphrodites. PMID:18319287

Gleiser, Gabriela; Segarra-Moragues, José Gabriel; Pannell, John Richard; Verdú, Miguel

2008-01-01

204

Analysis of microsatellite polymorphisms within the GLC1F locus in Japanese patients with normal tension glaucoma  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate whether the GLC1F locus is associated with normal tension glaucoma (NTG) in Japanese patients. Methods We recruited 242 unrelated Japanese subjects, including, 141 NTG patients and 101 healthy controls. The patients exhibiting a comparatively early onset were selected as they suggest that genetic factors may show stronger involvement. Genotyping and assessment of allelic diversity was performed on 11 highly polymorphic microsatellite markers in and around the GLC1F locus. Results Individuals carrying the 163 allele of D7S1277i had a statistically significant increased risk of NTG (p=0.0013, pc=0.016, OR=2.47, 95%CI=1.42–4.30). None of the other markers identified significant loci (pc>0.05) after Bonferroni’s correction. Conclusions These findings suggested that the genes in the GLC1F locus may be associated with the pathogenesis of NTG. PMID:20309402

Murakami, Kaori; Ota, Masao; Shiota, Tomoko; Nomura, Naoko; Kashiwagi, Kenji; Mabuchi, Fumihiko; Iijima, Hiroyuki; Kawase, Kazuhide; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Nakamura, Makoto; Negi, Akira; Sagara, Takeshi; Nishida, Teruo; Inatani, Masaru; Tanihara, Hidenobu; Aihara, Makoto; Araie, Makoto; Fukuchi, Takeo; Abe, Haruki; Higashide, Tomomi; Sugiyama, Kazuhisa; Kanamoto, Takashi; Kiuchi, Yoshiaki; Iwase, Aiko; Ohno, Shigeaki; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Mizuki, Nobuhisa

2010-01-01

205

Non-Density Dependent Pollen Dispersal of Shorea maxwelliana (Dipterocarpaceae) Revealed by a Bayesian Mating Model Based on Paternity Analysis in Two Synchronized Flowering Seasons  

PubMed Central

Pollinator syndrome is one of the most important determinants regulating pollen dispersal in tropical tree species. It has been widely accepted that the reproduction of tropical forest species, especially dipterocarps that rely on insects with weak flight for their pollination, is positively density-dependent. However differences in pollinator syndrome should affect pollen dispersal patterns and, consequently, influence genetic diversity via the mating process. We examined the pollen dispersal pattern and mating system of Shorea maxwelliana, the flowers of which are larger than those of Shorea species belonging to section Mutica which are thought to be pollinated by thrips (weak flyers). A Bayesian mating model based on the paternity of seeds collected from mother trees during sporadic and mass flowering events revealed that the estimated pollen dispersal kernel and average pollen dispersal distance were similar for both flowering events. This evidence suggests that the putative pollinators – small beetles and weevils – effectively contribute to pollen dispersal and help to maintain a high outcrossing rate even during sporadic flowering events. However, the reduction in pollen donors during a sporadic event results in a reduction in effective pollen donors, which should lead to lower genetic diversity in the next generation derived from seeds produced during such an event. Although sporadic flowering has been considered less effective for outcrossing in Shorea species that depend on thrips for their pollination, effective pollen dispersal by the small beetles and weevils ensures outcrossing during periods of low flowering tree density, as occurs in a sporadic flowering event. PMID:24391712

Masuda, Shinsuke; Tani, Naoki; Ueno, Saneyoshi; Lee, Soon Leong; Muhammad, Norwati; Kondo, Toshiaki; Numata, Shinya; Tsumura, Yoshihiko

2013-01-01

206

Phylogeographic sympatry and isolation of the Eurasian badgers (Meles, Mustelidae, Carnivora): Implications for an alternative analysis using maternally as well as paternally inherited genes.  

PubMed

In the present study, to further understand the phylogenetic relationships among the Eurasian badgers (Meles, Mustelidae, Carnivora), which are distributed widely in the Palearctic, partial sequences of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region (539-545 base-pairs) as a maternal genetic marker, and the sex-determining region on the Y-chromosome gene (SRY: 1052-1058 base-pairs), as a paternal genetic marker, were examined. The present study revealed ten SRY haplotypes from 47 males of 112 individuals of the Eurasian Continent and Japan. In addition, 39 mtDNA haplotypes were identified from those animals. From the phylogeography of both the uniparentally inherited genes, four lineages were recognized as Japanese, eastern Eurasian, Caucasian, and western Eurasian. The distribution patterns of the mtDNA lineages showed the existence of a sympatric zone between the eastern and western Eurasian lineages around the Volga River in western Russia. Furthermore, the present study suggested that in the Japanese badgers, the larger genetic differentiation of the Shikoku population was attributable to geographic history in the Japanese islands. PMID:21466348

Tashima, Sara; Kaneko, Yayoi; Anezaki, Tomoko; Baba, Minoru; Yachimori, Shuuji; Abramov, Alexei V; Saveljev, Alexander P; Masuda, Ryuichi

2011-04-01

207

Microsatellite analysis of Rosa damascena Mill. accessions reveals genetic similarity between genotypes used for rose oil production and old Damask rose varieties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Damask roses are grown in several European and Asiatic countries for rose oil production. Twenty-six oil-bearing Rosa damascena Mill. accessions and 13 garden Damask roses were assayed by molecular markers. Microsatellite genotyping demonstrated that R. damascena Mill. accessions from Bulgaria, Iran, and India and old European Damask rose varieties possess identical microsatellite profiles, suggesting a common origin. At the same

K. Rusanov; N. Kovacheva; B. J. Vosman; L. Zhang; S. Rajapakse; A. Atanassov; I. Atanassov

2005-01-01

208

Searching microsatellites in DNA sequences: approaches used and tools developed.  

PubMed

Microsatellite instability associated genomic activities and evolutionary changes have led to a renewed focus on microsatellite research. In last decade, a number of microsatellite mining tools have been introduced based on different computational approaches. The choice is generally made between slow but exhaustive dynamic programming based approaches, or fast and incomplete heuristic methods. Tools based on stochastic approaches are more popular due to their simplicity and added ornamental features. We have performed a comparative evaluation of the relative efficiency of some microsatellite search tools with their default settings. The graphical user interface, the statistical analysis of the output and ability to mine imperfect repeats are the most important criteria in selecting a tool for a particular investigation. However, none of the available tools alone provides complete and accurate information about microsatellites, and a lot depends on the discretion of the user. PMID:23573036

Grover, Atul; Aishwarya, Veenu; Sharma, P C

2012-01-01

209

Evidence for complex mutations at microsatellite loci in Drosophila.  

PubMed Central

Fifteen lines each of Drosophila melanogaster, D. simulans, and D. sechellia were scored for 19 microsatellite loci. One to four alleles of each locus in each species were sequenced, and microsatellite variability was compared with sequence structure. Only 7 loci had their size variation among species consistent with the occurrence of strictly stepwise mutations in the repeat array, the others showing extensive variability in the flanking region compared to that within the microsatellite itself. Polymorphisms apparently resulting from complex nonstepwise mutations involving the microsatellite were also observed, both within and between species. Maximum number of perfect repeats and variance of repeat count were found to be strongly correlated in microsatellites showing an apparently stepwise mutation pattern. These data indicate that many microsatellite mutation events are more complex than represented even by generalized stepwise mutation models. Care should therefore be taken in inferring population or phylogenetic relationships from microsatellite size data alone. The analysis also indicates, however, that evaluation of sequence structure may allow selection of microsatellites that more closely match the assumptions of stepwise models. PMID:10353904

Colson, I; Goldstein, D B

1999-01-01

210

The palatal ruga pattern in possible paternity determination.  

PubMed

The use of a genetic marker in paternity determination has been successful with the ABO blood group system but unsuccessful in dermatoglyphics and palatal rugae because the genetic mechanism is polygenic. The palatal rugae of 17 families (34 parents and 49 children) were classified and recorded, and the data used to construct a statistical analysis system (SAS) cluster map. A positive result would have meant a father clustering with all his children at Level 83, where, in fact, the best result achieved was at Level 5. The best cluster occurred at Level 82 between the ten-year-old boy of Family 7 and the eleven-year-old girl of Family 3. It is thus clear that the palatal rugae cannot be used in a practical procedure to determine paternity. PMID:3944569

Thomas, C J; Kotze, T J; Nash, J M

1986-01-01

211

Testosterone response to courtship predicts future paternal behavior in the California mouse, Peromyscus californicus  

PubMed Central

In the monogamous and biparental California mouse (Peromyscus californicus), paternal care is critical for maximal offspring survival. Animals form pair bonds and do not engage in extrapair matings, and thus female evaluation of paternal quality during courtship is likely to be advantageous. We hypothesized that male endocrine or behavioral response to courtship interactions would be predictive of future paternal behavior. To test this hypothesis, we formed 20 pairs of California mice, and evaluated their behavior during the first hour of courtship interactions and again following the birth of young. We also collected blood from males at baseline, 1-hr after pairing, 3-weeks paired, and when young were four days old to measure testosterone (T). We found that male T-response to courtship interactions predicted future paternal behavior, specifically the amount of time he huddled over young when challenged by the temporary removal of his mate. Males that mounted T increases at courtship also approached pups more quickly during this challenge than males who had a significant decrease in T at courtship. Proximity of the male and female during courtship predicted paternal huddling during a 1-hr observation, and a multiple regression analysis revealed that courtship behavior was also predictive of birth latency. We speculate that male T-response to a female in P. californicus is an honest indicator of paternal quality, and if detectable by females could provide a basis for evaluation during mate choice. PMID:19833131

Gleason, Erin D.; Marler, Catherine A.

2009-01-01

212

Paternity leave experiences of NHS doctors.  

PubMed

This study assesses NHS doctors' experiences of paternity leave and evaluates whether practices have changed since the introduction of additional paternity leave (APL) in April 2011. An anonymised online survey designed to discover experiences and uptake of APL and ordinary paternity leave (OPL) was distributed to all members of the London Deanery Synapse® network. In total, 364 fathers responded. Their seniority ranged from foundation trainees to consultants. Following the formal introduction of OPL in 2003, the number of fathers taking any paternity leave increased (from 50% to 95.6%). The majority of respondents (76.7%) felt well supported by their employer. Since the introduction of APL, 3% of respondents took additional leave. Reasons for the low uptake of APL included the impracticalities of the law, poor awareness and perceived attitudes and implications for training. Problems with OPL included the inadequate provision of cover and difficulties in timing the leave appropriately. PMID:24115693

Gordon, Hannah; Szram, Joanna

2013-10-01

213

Pectoral fins and paternal quality in sticklebacks.  

PubMed Central

Sexual selection through female mate choice exerts a strong selection pressure on males' sexual traits, particularly when direct benefits are involved. In species with male parental care, one would expect sexual selection to favour paternal quality, for instance through selection on morphological structures which promote quality. We experimentally studied the influence of pectoral fins on paternal quality in male three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.). After reductions of fin area to different degrees, similar-sized males had to perform a complete reproductive cycle in enclosures in the field. The collected data on fanning behaviour and egg development showed that a reduction in pectoral fin size affected paternal quality probably through an increased beat frequency of the pectorals. Thus, pectoral fins can potentially signal paternal quality to choosy females. PMID:10874749

Künzler, R; Bakker, T C

2000-01-01

214

Paternal isodisomy of chromosome 6 in association with a maternal supernumerary marker chromosome (6)  

SciTech Connect

Uniparental disomy may arise by a number of different mechanisms of aneuploidy correction. A population that has been identified as being at increased risk of aneuploidy are those individuals bearing supernumerary marker chromosomes (SMCs). There have been a number of cases reported of trisomy 21 in association with bi-satellited marker chromosomes have described two individuals with small inv dup (15) markers. One had paternal isodisomy of chromosome 15 and Angelman syndrome. The other had maternal heterodisomy (15) and Prader-Willi syndrome. At the Wessex Regional Genetics Laboratory we have conducted a search for uniparental disomy of the normal homologues of the chromosomes from which SMCs originated. Our study population consists of 39 probands with SMCs originating from a number of different autosomes, including 17 with SMCs of chromosome 15 origin. Using PCR amplification of microsatellite repeat sequences located distal to the regions included in the SMCs we have determined the parental origin of the two normal homologues in each case. We have identified paternal isodisomy of chromosome 6 in a female child with a supernumerary marker ring chromosome 6 in approximately 70% of peripheral blood lymphocytes. The marker was found to be of maternal origin. This is the second case of paternal isodisomy of chromosome 6 to be reported, and the first in association with a SMC resulting in a partial trisomy for a portion of the short arm of chromosome 6. In spite of this, the patient appears to be functioning appropriately for her age.

James, R.S.; Crolla, J.A.; Sitch, F.L. [Salisbury District Hospital, Wiltshire (United Kingdom)] [and others

1994-09-01

215

Microsatellites reveal heterosis in red deer.  

PubMed Central

The fitness consequences of inbreeding and outbreeding are poorly understood in natural populations. We explore two microsatellite-based variables, individual heterozygosity (likely to correlate with recent inbreeding) and a new individual-specific internal distance measure, mean d2 (focusing on events deeper in the pedigree), in relation to two measures of fitness expressed early in life, birth weight and neonatal survival, in 670 red deer calves (Cervus elaphus) born on the Isle of Rum between 1982 and 1996. For comparison, we also analyse inbreeding coefficients derived from pedigrees in which paternity was inferred by molecular methods. Only 14 out of 231 calves (6.1%) had non-zero inbreeding coefficients, and neither inbreeding coefficient nor individual heterozygosity was consistently related to birth weight or neonatal survival. However, mean d2 was consistently related to both fitness measures. Low mean d2 was associated with low birth weight, especially following cold Aprils, in which foetal growth is reduced. Low mean d2 was also associated with low neonatal survival, but this effect was probably mediated by birth weight because fitting birth weight to the neonatal survival model displaced mean d2 as an explanatory variable. We conclude that in the deer population fitness measures expressed early in life do not show evidence of inbreeding depression, but they do show evidence of heterosis, possibly as a result of population mixing. We also demonstrate the practical problems of estimating inbreeding via pedigrees compared with a direct marker-based estimate of individual heterozygosity. We suggest that, together, individual heterozygosity and mean d2, estimated using microsatellites, are useful tools for exploring inbreeding and outbreeding in natural population. PMID:9569667

Coulson, T N; Pemberton, J M; Albon, S D; Beaumont, M; Marshall, T C; Slate, J; Guinness, F E; Clutton-Brock, T H

1998-01-01

216

Intra-population genetic diversity of cultivated carrot (Daucus carota L.) assessed by analysis of microsatellite markers.  

PubMed

Intra-population variation of 18 cultivated carrot (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus) populations of diverse origins was evaluated using codominant microsatellite (SSR) markers. Using 27 genomic and EST-derived SSR markers, 253 alleles were identified with a mean 9.4 alleles per marker. Most of the alleles (60.5%) were rare i.e., with the frequency ? 0.05 while only 3.95% of alleles occurred with frequency > 0.6. EST-derived SSR markers were less polymorphic than genomic SSR markers. Differences in allele occurrence allowed 16 out of 18 populations to be assigned to either the Western or Asian carrot gene pools with high probability. Populations could be also discriminated due to the presence of private alleles (25.3% of all alleles). Most populations had excess of alleles in the homozygous state indicating their inbreeding, although heterozygous loci were common in F1 hybrids. Genetic diversity was due to allelic variation among plants within populations (62% of total variation) and between populations (38%). Accessions originating from continental Asia and Europe had more allelic variants and higher diversity than those from Japan and USA. Also, allelic richness and variability in landraces was higher than in F1 hybrids and open-pollinated cultivars. PMID:24432327

Maksylewicz, Anna; Baranski, Rafal

2013-01-01

217

The unexpected but understandable dynamics of mating, paternity and paternal care in the ocellated wrasse  

PubMed Central

Although theory generally predicts that males should reduce paternal care in response to cues that predict increased sperm competition and decreased paternity, empirical patterns are equivocal. Some studies have found the predicted decrease in male care with increased sperm competition, while even more studies report no effect of paternity or sperm competition on male care. Here, we report the first example, to our knowledge, of paternal care increasing with the risk and intensity of sperm competition, in the ocellated wrasse (Symphodus ocellatus). Theory also predicts that if paternal care varies and is important to female fitness, female choice among males and male indicators traits of expected paternal care should evolve. Despite a non-random distribution of mating success among nests, we found no evidence for female choice among parental males. Finally, we document the highest published levels of extra-pair paternity for a species with exclusive and obligate male care: genetic paternity analyses revealed cuckoldry at 100 per cent of nests and 28 per cent of all offspring were not sired by the male caring for them. While not predicted by any existing theory, these unexpected reproductive patterns become understandable if we consider how male and female mating and parental care interact simultaneously in this and probably many other species. PMID:19812085

Alonzo, Suzanne H.; Heckman, Kellie L.

2010-01-01

218

Paternity and inheritance of wealth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the oldest conjectures in anthropology is that men transfer wealth to their sister's son when the biological paternity of their `own' children is in doubt1-12. Because maternity is certain, a man is necessarily related to his sister's son and his brother (see Fig. 1). It is argued here that relatedness to male heirs can be assured by passing wealth to sister's sons or down a line of brothers, whether the prevailing kinship system reckons those brothers matrilineally or patrilineally. It is also argued that when several transfers of wealth are considered, a man's likelihood of being cuckolded need not be unrealistically high13 for his successive matrilineal heirs to be more related to him than his successive patrilineal heirs (see Fig. 2). Cross-cultural data on sister's son/brother inheritance14 and frequency of extramarital sex for females15 support the hypothesis that men tend to transmit wealth to their sister's son and/or brother when the probability that their putative children are their genetic children is relatively low.

Hartung, John

1981-06-01

219

Transmission genetics of pancreatic acinar atrophy in the German Shepherd Dog and development of microsatellite DNA-based tools for canine forensics and linkage analysis  

E-print Network

analyses in the study of canine hereditary diseases. This was achieved through the development of 1) multiplexing strategies for the MSS-1, 2) a multiplex of microsatellite markers for use in canine forensics and parentage assays and 3) chromosome...

Clark, Leigh Anne

2004-09-30

220

Segmental paternal uniparental disomy (patUPD) of 14q32 with abnormal methylation elicits the characteristic features of complete patUPD14.  

PubMed

Uniparental disomy (UPD) for chromosome 14 is associated with well-recognized phenotypes, depending on the parent of origin. Studies in mouse models and human patients have implicated the involvement of the distal region of the long arm of chromosome 14 in the distinctive phenotypes. This involvement is supported by the identification of an imprinting cluster at chromosome 14q32, encompassing the differentially methylated regions (DMRs), IG-DMR and MEG3-DMR, as well as the maternally expressed genes GTL2, DIO3, and RTL1 and the paternally expressed genes DLK1, RTL1as, and MEG8. Here we report on a preterm female infant with distal segmental paternal UPD14 (upd(14)pat) of 14q32-14q32.33, which resulted in thoracic deformity secondary to rib abnormalities ("coat-hanger" rib sign), polyhydramnios, and other congenital abnormalities characteristically described in cases of complete upd(14)pat. Microsatellite investigation demonstrated UPD of markers D14S250 and D14S1010, encompassing a approximately 3.5 Mb region of distal 14q and involving the imprinting cluster. This case provided insight into the etiology of the phenotypic effects of upd(14)pat, prompting methylation analysis of the GTL2 promoter and the DMR between GTL2 and DLK1. We compare the physical findings seen in this case with those of patients with other causes of abnormal methylation of 14q32, which consistently result in certain distinct clinical features, regardless of the cytogenetic and molecular etiology. PMID:20602488

Irving, Melita D; Buiting, Karin; Kanber, Deniz; Donaghue, Celia; Schulz, Reiner; Offiah, Amaka; Mohammed, Shehla N; Oakey, Rebecca J

2010-08-01

221

Assignment of allelic configuration in polyploids using the MAC-PR (microsatellite DNA allele counting—peak ratios) method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polysomic inheritance frequently results in the simultaneous occurrence of several microsatellite DNA alleles on a single locus. The MAC-PR (microsatellite DNA allele counting—peak ratios) method was recently developed for the analysis of polyploid plants and makes use of the quantitative values for microsatellite allele peak areas. To date, this approach has only been used in plants with known genetic relationships.

G. D. Esselink; H. Nybom; B. J. Vosman

2004-01-01

222

Analysis of the population structure of Macrolophus pygmaeus (Rambur) (Hemiptera: Miridae) in the Palaearctic region using microsatellite markers  

PubMed Central

Macrolophus pygmaeus (Rambur) (Hemiptera: Miridae) is widely distributed throughout the Palaearctic region. The aim was to explain the current geographic distribution of the species by investigating its genetic population structure. Samples of M. pygmaeus were collected in 15 localities through its range of distribution. A sample from a commercial producer was also analyzed. A total of 367 M. pygmaeus were genotyped for nine microsatellite loci. Isolation by distance was tested by Mantel's test. The molecular structure of M. pygmaeus populations was inferred by UPGMA, AMOVA, Principal component and Bayesian analyses. The average number of alleles per locus per population was 5.5 (range: 3.1–7.8). Istanbul (Turkey) and Nimes (France) had the lowest (0.291) and the highest (0.626) expected heterozygosity (He), respectively. There was an increase in He from the Canary Islands to Nimes, and a progressive decrease thereafter. A significant negative correlation was found between allelic richness and He, and the distance of each population to the easternmost locality (Canary Islands). Significant linkage disequilibrium was observed in the populations from Turkey. FST (0.004–0.334) indicated a high population differentiation, with isolation by distance supported by a high correlation. Bayesian analyses, PCA, and UPGMA pointed to three main clusters: (1) Greece and Turkey, (2) Italy and France, and (3) southern Iberia and the Canary Islands. The recent evolutionary history of M. pygmaeus is inferred from the data as follows: (1) the reduction in the geographic distribution of the species to the Iberian, Italian, and Balkan peninsulas, and possibly southern France, during glaciations and re-colonization of northern Europe from its southern refuges; (2) the maintenance of high diversity in Iberia and Italy (and possibly southern France) during contraction periods, and bottlenecks in the Balkans; (3) introgression of the Italian–French lineage in northern Spain, naturally or through trade. PMID:23301179

Sanchez, Juan Antonio; Spina, Michelangelo La; Perera, Omaththage P

2012-01-01

223

Survey and analysis of simple sequence repeats in the Laccaria bicolor genome, with development of microsatellite markers  

SciTech Connect

It is becoming clear that simple sequence repeats (SSRs) play a significant role in fungal genome organization, and they are a large source of genetic markers for population genetics and meiotic maps. We identified SSRs in the Laccaria bicolor genome by in silico survey and analyzed their distribution in the different genomic regions. We also compared the abundance and distribution of SSRs in L. bicolor with those of the following fungal genomes: Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Coprinopsis cinerea, Ustilago maydis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus nidulans, Magnaporthe grisea, Neurospora crassa and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using the MISA computer program, we detected 277,062 SSRs in the L. bicolor genome representing 8% of the assembled genomic sequence. Among the analyzed basidiomycetes, L. bicolor exhibited the highest SSR density although no correlation between relative abundance and the genome sizes was observed. In most genomes the short motifs (mono- to trinucleotides) were more abundant than the longer repeated SSRs. Generally, in each organism, the occurrence, relative abundance, and relative density of SSRs decreased as the repeat unit increased. Furthermore, each organism had its own common and longest SSRs. In the L. bicolor genome, most of the SSRs were located in intergenic regions (73.3%) and the highest SSR density was observed in transposable elements (TEs; 6,706 SSRs/Mb). However, 81% of the protein-coding genes contained SSRs in their exons, suggesting that SSR polymorphism may alter gene phenotypes. Within a L. bicolor offspring, sequence polymorphism of 78 SSRs was mainly detected in non-TE intergenic regions. Unlike previously developed microsatellite markers, these new ones are spread throughout the genome; these markers could have immediate applications in population genetics.

Labbe, Jessy L [ORNL; Murat, Claude [INRA, Nancy, France; Morin, Emmanuelle [INRA, Nancy, France; Le Tacon, F [UMR, France; Martin, Francis [INRA, Nancy, France

2011-01-01

224

Microsatellite analysis of variation among wild, domesticated, and genetically improved populations of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala).  

PubMed

In the present study, the genetic diversity of one selected strain (Pujiang No. 1), two domesticated populations (GA and HX) and four wild populations (LZ, YN, SS and JL) of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) was analyzed using 17 microsatellite markers. The results showed that an average of 4.88-7.65 number of alleles (A); an average of 3.20-5.33 effective alleles (Ne); average observed heterozygosity (Ho) of 0.6985-0.9044; average expected heterozygosity (He) of 0.6501-0.7805; and the average polymorphism information content (PIC) at 0.5706-0.7226. Pairwise FST value between populations ranged from 0.0307-0.1451, and Nei's standard genetic distance between populations was 0.0938-0.4524. The expected heterozygosities in the domesticated populations (GA and HX) were significantly lower than those found in three wild populations (LZ, SS and JL), but no difference was detected when compared with the wild YN population. Likewise, no difference was found between the four wild populations or two domesticated populations. The expected heterozygosity in Pujiang No. 1 was higher than the two domesticated populations and lower than the four wild populations. Regarding pairwise FST value between populations, permutation test P-values were significant between the GA, HX and PJ populations, but not between the four wild populations. These results showed that the expected heterozygosity in the selected strain of blunt snout bream, after seven generations of selective breeding, was lower than that of wild populations, but this strain retains higher levels of genetic diversity than domesticated populations. The genetic differences and differentiation amongst wild populations, domesticated populations and the genetically improved strain of blunt snout bream will provide important conservation criteria and guide the utilization of germplasm resources. PMID:24668653

Tang, Shou-Jie; Li, Si-Fa; Cai, Wan-Qi; Zhao, Yan

2014-03-01

225

Molecular phylogenetics and microsatellite analysis reveal cryptic species of speckled dace (Cyprinidae: Rhinichthys osculus) in Oregon's Great Basin.  

PubMed

Speckled dace (Rhinichthys osculus) is a small cyprinid that occurs throughout western North America and is the most commonly occurring fish in Oregon. Because of the high genetic and morphological variation in this species across its range, it has been referred to as a species complex; however, no revision to its taxonomy has occurred since 1984. Here, the phylogenetics and population genetics of speckled dace are examined throughout Oregon's Great Basin to describe genetic variation and infer the geographic boundaries between distinct taxonomic entities and populations. We tested the validity of a putative subspecies, Foskett Spring speckled dace, that occurs in a single spring within Warner Valley in Southeast Oregon and is listed Federally as threatened. Dace were collected from Foskett Spring and all surrounding basins containing speckled dace (Warner, Goose Lake, Lake Abert, Silver Lake, and Malheur), as well as Stinking Lake Spring (located within Malheur), created phylogenetic trees from mitochondrial ND2 and nuclear S7 sequence data, and genotyped eight microsatellite loci for population-level analyses. Three highly divergent clades warrant species-level status: Malheur stream dace, Stinking Lake Spring dace, and dace from the other four basins combined. Although Foskett Spring dace were not monophyletic, substantial population structure occurs at the basin-level and separates Foskett Spring dace from other dace in the surrounding Warner Valley. Thus, we recommend ESU status for the isolated population of speckled dace in Foskett Spring. The high, previously unrecognized, taxonomic diversity within this region indicates a need for a range-wide phylogeographic study of speckled dace and an investigation of the morphological distinctiveness of the putative new species. PMID:24795214

Hoekzema, Kendra; Sidlauskas, Brian L

2014-08-01

226

No evidence for linkage by transmission disequilibrium test analysis of microsatellite marker D22S278 and schizophrenia in a Palestinian Arab and in a German population.  

PubMed

Linkage for a schizophrenia susceptibility locus on chromosome region 22q12-q13 was initially suggested by independent studies from two groups and confirmed in a combined analysis of data for the microsatellite marker D22S278 in multiply affected schizophrenic families derived from 11 independent research groups worldwide. In addition to these reports of linkage to schizophrenia on chromosome 22, bipolar disorder has also been linked to markers in this chromosomal region. We now report results from an analysis of 223 Palestinian Arab trios from three different centers in Israel and Palestine using the allele-wise extended transmission disequilibrium test for multiallelic markers. No evidence for linkage is observed in the entire group or in any of the three centers (entire group: chi-square = 5.59, P = 0.78, df = 9; Afula: chi-square = 6.51, P = 0.48, df = 7; Bethlehem: chi-square = 14.11, P = 0.12, df = 9; Beersheva: chi-square = 7.04, P = 0.32, df = 6). Additionally, we examined D22S278 in a group of 114 schizophrenic German triads and failed to observe evidence for linkage (chi-square = 8.13, P = 0.42, df = 8df). PMID:11378845

Dobrusin, M; Corbex, M; Kremer, I; Murad, I; Muhaheed, M; Bannoura, I; Müller, D J; Schulze, T G; Reshef, A; Blanaru, M; Gathas, S; Rietschel, M; Belmaker, R H; Maier, W; Ebstein, R P

2001-05-01

227

Microsatellites in the genome of the edible mushroom, Volvariella volvacea.  

PubMed

Using bioinformatics software and database, we have characterized the microsatellite pattern in the V. volvacea genome and compared it with microsatellite patterns found in the genomes of four other edible fungi: Coprinopsis cinerea, Schizophyllum commune, Agaricus bisporus, and Pleurotus ostreatus. A total of 1346 microsatellites have been identified, with mono-nucleotides being the most frequent motif. The relative abundance of microsatellites was lower in coding regions with 21?No./Mb. However, the microsatellites in the V. volvacea gene models showed a greater tendency to be located in the CDS regions. There was also a higher preponderance of trinucleotide repeats, especially in the kinase genes, which implied a possible role in phenotypic variation. Among the five fungal genomes, microsatellite abundance appeared to be unrelated to genome size. Furthermore, the short motifs (mono- to tri-nucleotides) outnumbered other categories although these differed in proportion. Data analysis indicated a possible relationship between the most frequent microsatellite types and the genetic distance between the five fungal genomes. PMID:24575404

Wang, Ying; Chen, Mingjie; Wang, Hong; Wang, Jing-Fang; Bao, Dapeng

2014-01-01

228

Microsatellites in the Genome of the Edible Mushroom, Volvariella volvacea  

PubMed Central

Using bioinformatics software and database, we have characterized the microsatellite pattern in the V. volvacea genome and compared it with microsatellite patterns found in the genomes of four other edible fungi: Coprinopsis cinerea, Schizophyllum commune, Agaricus bisporus, and Pleurotus ostreatus. A total of 1346 microsatellites have been identified, with mono-nucleotides being the most frequent motif. The relative abundance of microsatellites was lower in coding regions with 21?No./Mb. However, the microsatellites in the V. volvacea gene models showed a greater tendency to be located in the CDS regions. There was also a higher preponderance of trinucleotide repeats, especially in the kinase genes, which implied a possible role in phenotypic variation. Among the five fungal genomes, microsatellite abundance appeared to be unrelated to genome size. Furthermore, the short motifs (mono- to tri-nucleotides) outnumbered other categories although these differed in proportion. Data analysis indicated a possible relationship between the most frequent microsatellite types and the genetic distance between the five fungal genomes. PMID:24575404

Chen, Mingjie; Wang, Hong; Bao, Dapeng

2014-01-01

229

Microsatellite instability associated with hepatocarcinogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: The biological and clinicopathological significance of microsatellite instability in hepatocellular carcinoma still remains to be determined. The aim of this study was to assess the role of microsatellite instability in hepatocarcinogenesis.Methods: Genomic DNA extracted from 38 fresh samples of hepatocellular carcinoma was amplified by polymerase chain reaction using 29 fluorescence-labeled microsatellite markers and analyzed using a semi-automated laser scanning

Yutaka Kondo; Yae Kanai; Michiie Sakamoto; Masashi Mizokami; Ryuzo Ueda; Setsuo Hirohashi

1999-01-01

230

A Consensus Microsatellite-Based Linkage Map for the Hermaphroditic Bay Scallop (Argopecten irradians) and Its Application in Size-Related QTL Analysis  

PubMed Central

Bay scallop (Argopecten irradians) is one of the most economically important aquaculture species in China. In this study, we constructed a consensus microsatellite-based genetic linkage map with a mapping panel containing two hybrid backcross-like families involving two subspecies of bay scallop, A. i. irradians and A. i. concentricus. One hundred sixty-one microsatellite and one phenotypic (shell color) markers were mapped to 16 linkage groups (LGs), which corresponds to the haploid chromosome number of bay scallop. The sex-specific map was 779.2 cM and 781.6 cM long in female and male, respectively, whereas the sex-averaged map spanned 849.3 cM. The average resolution of integrated map was 5.9 cM/locus and the estimated coverage was 81.3%. The proportion of distorted markers occurred more in the hybrid parents, suggesting that the segregation distortion was possibly resulted from heterospecific interaction between genomes of two subspecies of bay scallop. The overall female-to-male recombination rate was 1.13?1 across all linked markers in common to both parents, and considerable differences in recombination also existed among different parents in both families. Four size-related traits, including shell length (SL), shell height (SH), shell width (SW) and total weight (TW) were measured for quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis. Three significant and six suggestive QTL were detected on five LGs. Among the three significant QTL, two (qSW-10 and qTW-10, controlling SW and TW, respectively) were mapped on the same region near marker AiAD121 on LG10 and explained 20.5% and 27.7% of the phenotypic variance, while the third (qSH-7, controlling SH) was located on LG7 and accounted for 15.8% of the phenotypic variance. Six suggestive QTL were detected on four different LGs. The linkage map and size-related QTL obtained in this study may facilitate marker-assisted selection (MAS) in bay scallop. PMID:23077533

Li, Hongjun; Liu, Xiao; Zhang, Guofan

2012-01-01

231

Temporal changes of genetic population structure and diversity in the endangered Blakiston's fish owl (Bubo blakistoni) on Hokkaido Island, Japan, revealed by microsatellite analysis.  

PubMed

The Blakiston's fish owl (Bubo blakistoni) population on Hokkaido Island, Japan, decreased to less than one hundred individuals over the last century due to habitat disruption by human activity. Although the ongoing conservation management has slightly restored the population, it remains endangered. In order to assess the genetic variation and population structure of the Blakiston's fish owl in Hokkaido, we genotyped eight microsatellite loci on 120 individuals sampled over the past three decades. The genotype data set showed low levels of genetic variation and gene flow among the geographically isolated five subpopulations. Comparative analysis of past and current populations indicated that some alleles shared by past individuals had been lost, and that genetic variation had declined over the last three decades. The result suggests that the genetic decline may have resulted from inbreeding and/or genetic drift due to bottlenecks in the Hokkaido population. The present study provides invaluable genetic information for the conservation and management of the endangered Blakiston's fish owl in Hokkaido. PMID:22559963

Omote, Keita; Nishida, Chizuko; Takenaka, Takeshi; Masuda, Ryuichi

2012-05-01

232

Passive cryocooler for microsatellite payload  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A passive cryocooler has been developed for the cooling of small payloads to temperatures as low as 145 K. Although designed for a specific electronics experiment on the STRV-1d microsatellite, the device is suitable for a wide range of applications. The cryocooler uses coated surfaces for tailored radiative cooling. Mechanical support between components is provided by fiberglass struts. The measured end temperature reached is 151 K in a liquid nitrogen dewar which extrapolates to an end temperature of lower than 145 K in space. Thermal vacuum testing and random vibration testing at levels consistent with an Ariane 5 launch have been performed as part of formal qualification for the STRV mission. In this paper, details of the design, analysis, fabrication and testing of the passive cryocooler are presented.

Mullins, Mayes; Thomas, Paul J.; Harron, John W.; Duggan, Philip; Sinclair, Peter M.; Khanna, Shyam M.

1998-11-01

233

Paternal kin discrimination in wild baboons Susan C. Alberts  

E-print Network

Paternal kin discrimination in wild baboons Susan C. Alberts Department of Zoology, Duke University. Here I report that among wild baboons, Papio cynocephalus, paternal siblings exhibited lower levels untested in large mammals. For baboons, as for other animals, two possible mechan- isms of paternal kin

Alberts, Susan C

234

Evidence for heterozygote instability in microsatellite loci in house wrens  

PubMed Central

Microsatellite loci have high mutation rates and high levels of allelic variation, but the factors influencing their mutation rate are not well understood. The proposal that heterozygosity may increase mutation rates has profound implications for understanding the evolution of microsatellite loci, but currently has limited empirical support. We examined 20 microsatellite mutations identified in an analysis of 12 260 meiotic events across three loci in two populations of a songbird, the house wren (Troglodytes aedon). We found that for an allele of a given length, mutation was significantly more likely when there was a relatively large difference in size between the allele and its homologue (i.e. a large ‘allele span’). Our results support the proposal of heterozygote instability at microsatellite loci. PMID:20702452

Masters, Brian S.; Johnson, L. Scott; Johnson, Bonnie G. P.; Brubaker, Jessica L.; Sakaluk, Scott K.; Thompson, Charles F.

2011-01-01

235

Evidence for heterozygote instability in microsatellite loci in house wrens.  

PubMed

Microsatellite loci have high mutation rates and high levels of allelic variation, but the factors influencing their mutation rate are not well understood. The proposal that heterozygosity may increase mutation rates has profound implications for understanding the evolution of microsatellite loci, but currently has limited empirical support. We examined 20 microsatellite mutations identified in an analysis of 12 260 meiotic events across three loci in two populations of a songbird, the house wren (Troglodytes aedon). We found that for an allele of a given length, mutation was significantly more likely when there was a relatively large difference in size between the allele and its homologue (i.e. a large 'allele span'). Our results support the proposal of heterozygote instability at microsatellite loci. PMID:20702452

Masters, Brian S; Johnson, L Scott; Johnson, Bonnie G P; Brubaker, Jessica L; Sakaluk, Scott K; Thompson, Charles F

2011-02-23

236

Microsatellite analysis of Rosa damascena Mill. accessions reveals genetic similarity between genotypes used for rose oil production and old Damask rose varieties.  

PubMed

Damask roses are grown in several European and Asiatic countries for rose oil production. Twenty-six oil-bearing Rosa damascena Mill. accessions and 13 garden Damask roses were assayed by molecular markers. Microsatellite genotyping demonstrated that R. damascena Mill. accessions from Bulgaria, Iran, and India and old European Damask rose varieties possess identical microsatellite profiles, suggesting a common origin. At the same time, the data indicated that modern industrial oil rose cultivation is based on a very narrow genepool and that oil rose collections contain many genetically identical accessions. The study of long-term vegetative propagation of the Damask roses also reveals high somatic stability for the microsatellite loci analyzed. PMID:15947904

Rusanov, K; Kovacheva, N; Vosman, B; Zhang, L; Rajapakse, S; Atanassov, A; Atanassov, I

2005-08-01

237

Seasonal Changes in the Genetic Structure of an Aphid-Ant Mutualism as Revealed Using Microsatellite Analysis of the Aphid Tuberculatus quercicola and the Ant Formica yessensis  

PubMed Central

The present study examined whether the mutualistic relationship between the aphid Tuberculatus quercicola (Matsumura) (Homoptera: Aphididae) and the attending ant Formica yessensis Forel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) has had any mutual effects on the microgeographical genetic population structure of both partner species. The aphids and the attending ants were collected in June, August, and October 2004 from six trees of the Daimyo oak Quercus dentata Thunberg (Fagales: Fagaceae) and were genotyped using microsatellite loci. Significant genetic differentiation was detected among T. quercicola populations on the respective trees across seasons (an average of pairwise FST = 0.183). Similarly, significant genetic differentiation was found among populations of F. yessensis that attended aphid colonies on the respective host trees, though the averages of pairwise FST were lower (an average of pairwise FST = 0.070). An analysis of molecular variance and two-way ANOVA detected a significantly large genetic difference between spring and summer samples in F. yessensis but not in T. quercicola, indicating that changes in genetic composition occurred in the F. yessensis colony. In spite of a drastic seasonal change in the genetic difference in F. yessensis, principle coordinate analysis showed that the relative position among the six populations was maintained from spring to summer, suggesting that the tree where honeydew was available for a long time was occupied by F. yessensis over the same period and that the honeydew sources were inherited at the level of the ant colony. It is hypothesized that the suitability of host trees for the aphid T. quercicola may have an affect on the genetic structure of the attending ant F. yessensis. Within a colony of aphids, clonal diversity decreased significantly as the season progressed. The reduction in clonal diversity may be due to an increase in identical genotypes by parthenogenesis or selective pressure from host plant deterioration. PMID:19619024

Yao, Izumi; Akimoto, Shin-Ichi

2009-01-01

238

Microsatellite analysis supports clonal propagation and reduced divergence of Trypanosoma vivax from asymptomatic to fatally infected livestock in South America compared to West Africa  

PubMed Central

Background Mechanical transmission of the major livestock pathogen Trypanosoma vivax by other biting flies than tsetse allows its spread from Africa to the New World. Genetic studies are restricted to a small number of isolates and based on molecular markers that evolve too slowly to resolve the relationships between American and West African populations and, thus, unable us to uncover the recent history of T. vivax in the New World. Methods T. vivax genetic diversity, population structure and the source of outbreaks was investigated through the microsatellite multiloci (7 loci) genotype (MLGs) analysis in South America (47isolates from Brazil, Venezuela and French Guiana) and West Africa (12 isolates from The Gambia, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Benin and Nigeria). Relationships among MLGs were explored using phylogenetic, principal component and STRUCTURE analyses. Results Although closely phylogenetically related, for the first time, genetic differences were detected between T. vivax isolates from South America (11 genotypes/47 isolates) and West Africa (12 genotypes/12 isolates) with no MLGs in common. Diversity was far greater across West Africa than in South America, where genotypes from Brazil (MLG1-6), Venezuela (MLG7-10) and French Guiana (MLG11) shared similar but not identical allele composition. No MLG was exclusive to asymptomatic (endemic areas) or sick (outbreaks in non-endemic areas) animals, but only MLGs1, 2 and 3 were responsible for severe haematological and neurological disorders. Conclusions Our results revealed closely related genotypes of T. vivax in Brazil and Venezuela, regardless of endemicity and clinical conditions of the infected livestock. The MLGs analysis from T. vivax across SA and WA support clonal propagation, and is consistent with the hypothesis that the SA populations examined here derived from common ancestors recently introduced from West Africa. The molecular markers defined here are valuable to assess the genetic diversity, to track the source and dispersion of outbreaks, and to explore the epidemiological and pathological significance of T. vivax genotypes. PMID:24885708

2014-01-01

239

CpG Island Methylator Phenotype, Helicobacter pylori, Epstein-Barr Virus, and Microsatellite Instability and Prognosis in Gastric Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The controversy of CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) in gastric cancer persists, despite the fact that many studies have been conducted on its relation with helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and microsatellite instability (MSI) and prognosis. To drive a more precise estimate of this postulated relationship, a meta-analysis was performed based on existing relevant studies. Methods We combined individual patient data from 12 studies which involved 1000 patients with gastric cancer, which met the criteria. We tabulated and analyzed parameters from each study, including H. pylori, EBV, MSI, and clinical information of patients. Results The overall OR for H. pylori infection in CIMP positive group vs. negative group revealed that significantly elevated risks of positive H. pylori infection in the former were achieved (OR 2.23 95% CI, 1.25–4.00; P?=?0.007, Pheterogeneity?=?0.05). Similarly, strong relation between EBV infection and CIMP was achieved by OR 51.27 (95% CI, 9.39–279.86; P<0.00001, Pheterogeneity?=?0.39). The overall OR for MSI in CIMP positive group vs. negative group was 4.44 (95% CI, 1.17–16.88; P?=?0.03, Pheterogeneity?=?0.01). However, there did not appear to be any correlations with clinical parameters such as tumor site, pathological type, cell differentiation, TNM stage, distant metastasis, lymph node metastasis, and 5-year survival. Conclusions The meta-analysis highlights the strong relation of CIMP with H. pylori, EBV, and MSI, but CIMP can not be used as a prognostic marker for gastric cancer. PMID:24475075

2014-01-01

240

Paternal Occupational Exposures and Childhood Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study described here was to test the hypothesis that paternal occupational exposure near conception increases the risk of cancer in the offspring. We conducted a cohort study based on a population of 235,635 children born shortly after two different censuses in Sweden. The children were followed from birth to 14 years, and cases of cancer were

Maria Feychting; Nils Plato; Gun Nise; Anders Ahlbom

2001-01-01

241

Advancing Paternal Age and Simplex Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

De novo events appear more common in female and simplex autism spectrum disorder (ASD) cases and may underlie greater ASD risk in older fathers' offspring. This study examined whether advancing paternal age predicts an increase in simplex (n = 90) versus multiplex ASD cases (n = 587) in 677 participants (340 families). Whether or not controlling…

Puleo, Connor Morrow; Schmeidler, James; Reichenberg, Abraham; Kolevzon, Alexander; Soorya, Latha V.; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Silverman, Jeremy M.

2012-01-01

242

REPORTS Avian Paternal Care Had Dinosaur Origin  

E-print Network

The repeated discovery of adult dinosaurs in close association with egg clutches leads to speculation over the type and extent of care exhibited by these extinct animals for their eggs and young. To assess parental care in Cretaceous troodontid and oviraptorid dinosaurs, we examined clutch volume and the bone histology of brooding adults. In comparison to four archosaur care regressions, the relatively large clutch volumes of Troodon, Oviraptor, and Citipati scale most closely with a bird-paternal care model. Clutch-associated adults lack the maternal and reproductively associated histologic features common to extant archosaurs. Large clutch volumes and a suite of reproductive features shared only with birds favor paternal care, possibly within a polygamous mating system. Paternal care in both troodontids and oviraptorids indicates that this care system evolved before the emergence of birds and represents birds ’ ancestral condition. In extant birds and over most adult sizes, paternal and biparental care correspond to the largest and smallest relative clutch volumes, respectively. of nearly all Paleognathes (ratites, tinamous) incubate and care for the young alone (4). Cretaceous troodontid and oviraptorid dinosaurs

David J. Varricchio; Jason R. Moore; Gregory M. Erickson; Mark A. Norell; Frankie D. Jackson; John J. Borkowski

2009-01-01

243

Paternally expressed genes predominate in the placenta.  

PubMed

The discovery of genomic imprinting through studies of manipulated mouse embryos indicated that the paternal genome has a major influence on placental development. However, previous research has not demonstrated paternal bias in imprinted genes. We applied RNA sequencing to trophoblast tissue from reciprocal hybrids of horse and donkey, where genotypic differences allowed parent-of-origin identification of most expressed genes. Using this approach, we identified a core group of 15 ancient imprinted genes, of which 10 were paternally expressed. An additional 78 candidate imprinted genes identified by RNA sequencing also showed paternal bias. Pyrosequencing was used to confirm the imprinting status of six of the genes, including the insulin receptor (INSR), which may play a role in growth regulation with its reciprocally imprinted ligand, histone acetyltransferase-1 (HAT1), a gene involved in chromatin modification, and lymphocyte antigen 6 complex, locus G6C, a newly identified imprinted gene in the major histocompatibility complex. The 78 candidate imprinted genes displayed parent-of-origin expression bias in placenta but not fetus, and most showed less than 100% silencing of the imprinted allele. Some displayed variability in imprinting status among individuals. This variability results in a unique epigenetic signature for each placenta that contributes to variation in the intrauterine environment and thus presents the opportunity for natural selection to operate on parent-of-origin differential regulation. Taken together, these features highlight the plasticity of imprinting in mammals and the central importance of the placenta as a target tissue for genomic imprinting. PMID:23754418

Wang, Xu; Miller, Donald C; Harman, Rebecca; Antczak, Douglas F; Clark, Andrew G

2013-06-25

244

A Postdoc's Guide to Paternity Leave  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guide provides general information on paternity leave for postdoc fathers following the birth of a child. It is intended as a companion guide to A Postdoc's Guide to Pregnancy and Maternity Leave. Adopting postdoc parents may want to consult our forthcoming companion guide on adoption leave.

Kathleen Flint Ehm (National Postdoctoral Association)

2012-06-01

245

Paternal Attachment, Parenting Beliefs and Children's Attachment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relationships between fathers' romantic attachment style, parenting beliefs and father-child attachment security and dependence were examined in a diverse sample of 72 fathers of young children. Paternal romantic attachment style was coded based on fathers' endorsement of a particular style represented in the Hazan and Shaver Three-Category…

Howard, Kimberly S.

2010-01-01

246

Daddy issues: paternal effects on phenotype  

PubMed Central

The once-popular, then heretical, idea that ancestral environment can affect the phenotype of future generations is coming back into vogue, due to advances in the field of epigenetic inheritance. How paternal environmental conditions influence the phenotype of progeny is now a tractable question, and researchers are exploring potential mechanisms underlying such effects. PMID:23141533

Rando, Oliver J.

2012-01-01

247

The effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence and personality when controlling for paternal trait level.  

PubMed

Paternal age at conception has been found to predict the number of new genetic mutations. We examined the effect of father's age at birth on offspring intelligence, head circumference and personality traits. Using the Minnesota Twin Family Study sample we tested paternal age effects while controlling for parents' trait levels measured with the same precision as offspring's. From evolutionary genetic considerations we predicted a negative effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence, but not on other traits. Controlling for parental intelligence (IQ) had the effect of turning an initially positive association non-significantly negative. We found paternal age effects on offspring IQ and Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire Absorption, but they were not robustly significant, nor replicable with additional covariates. No other noteworthy effects were found. Parents' intelligence and personality correlated with their ages at twin birth, which may have obscured a small negative effect of advanced paternal age (<1% of variance explained) on intelligence. We discuss future avenues for studies of paternal age effects and suggest that stronger research designs are needed to rule out confounding factors involving birth order and the Flynn effect. PMID:24587224

Arslan, Ruben C; Penke, Lars; Johnson, Wendy; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

2014-01-01

248

Mini- and microsatellites.  

PubMed Central

While the faithful transmission of genetic information requires a fidelity and stability of DNA that is involved in translation into proteins, it has become evident that a large part of noncoding DNA is organized in repeated sequences, which often exhibit a pronounced instability and dynamics. This applies both to longer repeated sequences, minisatellites (about 10-100 base pairs), and microsatellites (mostly 2-4 base pairs). Although these satellite DNAs are abundantly distributed in all kinds of organisms, no clear function has been discerned for them. However, extension of trinucleotide microsatellite sequences has been associated with several severe human disorders, such as Fragile X syndrome and Huntington's disease. Rare alleles of a minisatellite sequence have been reported to be associated with the ras oncogene leading to an increased risk for several human cancers. A dynamic behavior of repeated DNA sequences also applies to telomeres, constituting the ends of the chromosomes. Repeated DNA sequences protect the chromosome ends from losing coding sequences at cell divisions. The telomeres are maintained by the enzyme telomerase. Somatic cells, however, lose telomerase function and gradually die. Cancer cells have activated telomerase and therefore they acquire immortality. PMID:9255562

Ramel, C

1997-01-01

249

Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome due to 11p15.5 paternal duplication associated with Klinefelter syndrome and a "de novo" pericentric inversion of chromosome Y.  

PubMed

We report on an infant who had been prenatally diagnosed with Klinefelter syndrome associated with a "de novo" pericentric inversion of the Y chromosome. A re-evaluation at 3 years of age suggested that he was also affected by Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS). Karyotype was repeated and fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) analysis revealed trisomy for 11p15.5-->11pter and a distal monosomy 18q (18q23-->qter). Parental cytogenetic studies showed that the father carried a balanced cryptic translocation between chromosomes 11p and 18q. Furthermore, the child had an extra X chromosome and a "de novo" structural abnormality of chromosome Y. Thus, his karyotype was 47,XX, inv (Y) (p11.2 q11.23), der(18) t (11;18) (p15.5;q23) pat. ish der(18) (D11S2071+, D18S1390-). Two markers on the X chromosome showed that the extra X of the child was paternally inherited. No deletions were observed on the structurally abnormal Y chromosome from any of the microsatellites studied. Clinical findings of patients with BWS due to partial trisomy 11p reveal that there is a distinct pattern of dysmorphic features associated with an increased incidence of mental retardation when comparing patients with normal chromosomes. This fact reinforces that FISH study have to be performed in all BWS patients, specially in those with mental retardation since small rearrangements cannot be detected by conventional cytogenetic techniques. PMID:16053907

Delicado, Alicia; Lapunzina, Pablo; Palomares, María; Molina, Maria Antonia; Galán, Enrique; López Pajares, Isidora

2005-01-01

250

Managing misaligned paternity findings in research including sickle cell disease screening in Kenya: ‘Consulting communities’ to inform policy?  

PubMed Central

The management of misaligned paternity findings raises important controversy worldwide. It has mainly, however, been discussed in the context of high-income countries. Genetic and genomics research, with the potential to show misaligned paternity, are becoming increasingly common in Africa. During a genomics study in Kenya, a dilemma arose over testing and sharing information on paternal sickle cell disease status. This dilemma may be paradigmatic of challenges in sharing misaligned paternity findings in many research and health care settings. Using a deliberative approach to community consultation to inform research practice, we explored residents' views on paternal testing and sharing misaligned paternity information. Between December 2009 and November 2010, 63 residents in Kilifi County were engaged in informed deliberative small group discussions, structured to support normative reflection within the groups, with purposive selection to explore diversity. Analysis was based on a modified framework analysis approach, drawing on relevant social science and bioethics literature. The methods generated in-depth individual and group reflection on morally important issues and uncovered wide diversity in views and values. Fundamental and conflicting values emerged around the importance of family interests and openness, underpinned by disagreement on the moral implications of marital infidelity and withholding truth. Wider consideration of ethical issues emerging in these debates supports locally-held reasoning that paternal sickle cell testing should not be undertaken in this context, in contrast to views that testing should be done with or without the disclosure of misaligned paternity information. The findings highlight the importance of facilitating wider testing of family members of affected children, contingent on the development and implementation of national policies for the management of this inherited disorder. Their richness also illustrates the potential for the approach adopted in this study to strengthen community consultation. PMID:24034967

Marsh, Vicki; Kombe, Francis; Fitzpatrick, Ray; Molyneux, Sassy; Parker, Michael

2013-01-01

251

First identification of polymorphic microsatellite markers in the Burgundy truffle, Tuber aestivum (Tuberaceae)1  

PubMed Central

• Premise of the study: Tuber aestivum, the most common truffle in Europe, plays an important role in the commercial truffle market. For the first time, microsatellite primers were developed to investigate polymorphism within this species. • Methods and Results: Using direct shotgun pyrosequencing, 15 polymorphic microsatellites were identified out of the 7784 perfect microsatellites present in the 534620 reads obtained. Tested on 75 samples, these microsatellites were highly polymorphic. The number of alleles varied from four to 15, and the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.266 to 0.620. A multilocus analysis allowed the identification of 63 genotypes over the 75 samples analyzed. • Conclusions: Direct shotgun pyrosequencing is a fast and relatively low-cost technique allowing identification of microsatellites in nonmodel species. The microsatellites developed in this study will be useful in population genetic studies to infer the evolutionary history of this species. PMID:25202513

Molinier, Virginie; Murat, Claude; Morin, Emmanuelle; Gollotte, Armelle; Wipf, Daniel; Martin, Francis

2013-01-01

252

Taiwanese aborigines: genetic heterogeneity and paternal contribution to Oceania.  

PubMed

In the present study, for the first time, 293 Taiwanese aboriginal males from all nine major tribes (Ami, Atayal, Bunun, Rukai, Paiwan, Saisat, Puyuma, Tsou, Yami) were genotyped with 17 YSTR loci in a attend to reveal migrational patterns connected with the Austronesian expansion. We investigate the paternal genetic relationships of these Taiwanese aborigines to 42 Asia-Pacific reference populations, geographically selected to reflect various locations within the Austronesian domain. The Tsou and Puyuma tribes exhibit the lowest (0.1851) and the highest (0.5453) average total genetic diversity, respectively. Further, the fraction of unique haplotypes is also relatively high in the Puyuma (86.7%) and low in Tsou (33.3%) suggesting different demographic histories. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed several notable findings: 1) the Taiwan indigenous populations are highly diverse. In fact, the level of inter-population heterogeneity displayed by the Taiwanese aboriginal populations is close to that exhibited among all 51 Asia-Pacific populations examined; 2) the asymmetrical contribution of the Taiwanese aborigines to the Oceanic groups. Ami, Bunun and Saisiyat tribes exhibit the strongest paternal links to the Solomon and Polynesian island communities, whereas most of the remaining Taiwanese aboriginal groups are more genetically distant to these Oceanic inhabitants; 3) the present YSTR analyses does not reveal a strong paternal affinity of the nine Taiwanese tribes to their continental Asian neighbors. Overall, our current findings suggest that, perhaps, only a few of the tribes were involved in the migration out of Taiwan. PMID:24613753

Zeng, Zhaoshu; Rowold, Diane J; Garcia-Bertrand, Ralph; Calderon, Silvia; Regueiro, Maria; Li, Li; Zhong, Mingxia; Herrera, Rene J

2014-06-01

253

Development of highly polymorphic simple sequence repeat markers using genome-wide microsatellite variant analysis in Foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.  

PubMed Central

Background Foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) Beauv.) is an important gramineous grain-food and forage crop. It is grown worldwide for human and livestock consumption. Its small genome and diploid nature have led to foxtail millet fast becoming a novel model for investigating plant architecture, drought tolerance and C4 photosynthesis of grain and bioenergy crops. Therefore, cost-effective, reliable and highly polymorphic molecular markers covering the entire genome are required for diversity, mapping and functional genomics studies in this model species. Result A total of 5,020 highly repetitive microsatellite motifs were isolated from the released genome of the genotype 'Yugu1’ by sequence scanning. Based on sequence comparison between S. italica and S. viridis, a set of 788 SSR primer pairs were designed. Of these primers, 733 produced reproducible amplicons and were polymorphic among 28 Setaria genotypes selected from diverse geographical locations. The number of alleles detected by these SSR markers ranged from 2 to 16, with an average polymorphism information content of 0.67. The result obtained by neighbor-joining cluster analysis of 28 Setaria genotypes, based on Nei’s genetic distance of the SSR data, showed that these SSR markers are highly polymorphic and effective. Conclusions A large set of highly polymorphic SSR markers were successfully and efficiently developed based on genomic sequence comparison between different genotypes of the genus Setaria. The large number of new SSR markers and their placement on the physical map represent a valuable resource for studying diversity, constructing genetic maps, functional gene mapping, QTL exploration and molecular breeding in foxtail millet and its closely related species. PMID:24472631

2014-01-01

254

Analysis of genetic diversity and population structure within Florida coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) germplasm using microsatellite DNA, with special emphasis on the Fiji Dwarf cultivar.  

PubMed

Using 15 simple sequence repeat (SSR) microsatellite DNA loci, we analyzed genetic variation within Cocos nucifera germplasm collections at two locations in south Florida, representing eight cultivars. The loci were also used in a parentage analysis of progeny of the 'Fiji Dwarf' variety at both locations. A total of 67 alleles were detected, with eight the highest number at any one locus. These loci identified 83 of the 110 individual palms. Gene diversity of the 15 loci ranged from 0.778 to 0.223, with a mean of 0.574. 'Fiji Dwarf', 'Malayan Dwarf', 'Green Niño' and 'Red Spicata' cultivars resolve as distinct clusters in a neighbor joining tree using modified Rogers distance, while the tall varieties form two aggregates. The highest gene diversity was found in the tall cultivars (H = 0.583 cumulatively), and the lowest in the 'Malayan Dwarf' (H = 0.202). After the tall coconuts, the 'Fiji Dwarf' was most genetically diverse (H = 0.436), and had the largest number of unique alleles. Genetic identity is highest among the 'Malayan Dwarf' phenotypes, and between the tall varieties. The 'Red Malayan Dwarf' is genetically distinct from the 'Green' and 'Yellow Malayan Dwarf' phenotypes, which cannot be distinguished with the SSR loci used. Off-type 'Malayan Dwarf' phenotypes (putative hybrids with talls) can be identified genotypically. Parentage analyses of 30 'Fiji Dwarf' progeny propagated from five adults surrounded by other cultivars estimate that only 20% of the progeny were out-crossed to the other varieties, while 40-46% were possible selfs. This suggests that a seed-production orchard of the variety maintained at reasonable distance from other varieties, will likely yield only 'Fiji Dwarf' genotypes. Our data are discussed in the context of hypotheses of coconut dissemination around the world. PMID:12596002

Meerow, Alan W; Wisser, Randall J; Brown, J Steven; Kuhn, David N; Schnell, Raymond J; Broschat, Timothy K

2003-02-01

255

"I've Fixed Things Up": Paternal Identity of Substance-Dependent Fathers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study deals with how substance-dependent men perceive their paternal identity. Data were based on in-depth semi-structured interviews with 12 Israeli fathers who were enrolled in methadone maintenance treatment. Content analysis revealed that participants had undergone a process of parental identity formation composed of four distinct stages:…

Peled, Einat; Gavriel-Fried, Belle; Katz, Noam

2012-01-01

256

Identification of novel candidate loci for anorexia nervosa at 1q41 and 11q22 in Japanese by a genome-wide association analysis with microsatellite markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Japanese Genetic Research Group for Eating Disorders (JGRED) is a multisite collaborative study group that was organized for the systematic recruitment of patients with an eating disorder for the purpose of genetic study in Japan. We conducted a genome-wide case–control association study using 23 465 highly polymorphic microsatellite (MS) markers to identify genomic loci related to anorexia nervosa (AN).

Kazuhiko Nakabayashi; Gen Komaki; Atsushi Tajima; Tetsuya Ando; Mayuko Ishikawa; Junko Nomoto; Kenichiro Hata; Akira Oka; Hidetoshi Inoko; Takehiko Sasazuki; Senji Shirasawa

2009-01-01

257

High resolution microsatellite based analysis of the mating system allows the detection of significant biparental inbreeding in Caryocar brasiliense, an endangered tropical tree species  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we investigate the mating system of four populations of the endangered tropical tree species Caryocar brasiliense, using genetic data from 10 microsatellite loci. Eight to 10 open-pollinated progeny arrays of 16 individuals, together with their mother tree, were sampled per population. Mating system parameters were estimated under the mixed mating model, implemented by the software MLTR. The

Rosane Garcia Collevatti; Dario Grattapaglia; John Duvall Hay

2001-01-01

258

A Comparison of Hybridization between Mottled Ducks ( Anas fulvigula )and Mallards ( A. platyrhynchos ) in Florida and South Carolina using Microsatellite DNA Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interspecific hybridization has been implicated in population declines for some waterfowl species within the mallard complex, and hybridization with mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) is currently considered the largest threat to mottled ducks (A. fulvigula), one North American member of that complex. We assessed genetic variation among 225 mottled ducks and mallards using five microsatellite loci, and detected significant overall differences between

Christen L. Williams; Richard C. Brust; Timothy T. Fendley; Gerald R. Tiller Jr; Olin E. Rhodes Jr

2005-01-01

259

Sequence conservation of microsatellites between Bos taurus (cattle), Capra hircus (goat) and related species. Examples of use in parentage testing and phylogeny analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A panel of 70 bovine microsatellites was tested for amplification from goat DNA. Forty-three could be successfully amplified by PCR, 20 of which were tested for polymorphism. Three were applied for parentage testing in goat families and their exclusion probability evaluated. Fourteen were cloned and sequenced from goat DNA, and goat and bovine sequences were compared to evaluate interspecific conservation.

Laurent Pépin; Yves Amigues; Andrée Lépingle; Jean-Luc Berthier; Albert Bensaid; Daniel Vaiman

1995-01-01

260

Development of microsatellite markers in peach [ Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] and their use in genetic diversity analysis in peach and sweet cherry ( Prunus avium L.).  

PubMed

We report the sequence of 41 primer pairs of microsatellites from a CT-enriched genomic library of the peach cultivar 'Merrill O'Henry'. Ten microsatellite-containing clones had sequences similar to plant coding sequences in databases and could be used as markers for known functions. For microsatellites segregating at least in one of the two Prunus F(2) progenies analyzed, it was possible to demonstrate Mendelian inheritance. Microsatellite polymorphism was evaluated in 27 peach and 21 sweet cherry cultivars. All primer pairs gave PCR-amplification products on peach and 33 on cherry (80.5%). Six PCR-amplifications revealed several loci (14.6%) in peach and eight (19.5%) in sweet cherry. Among the 33 single-locus microsatellites amplified in peach and sweet cherry, 13 revealed polymorphism both in peach and cherry, 19 were polymorphic only on peach and one was polymorphic only on cherry. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 1 to 9 for peach and from 1 to 6 on sweet cherry with an average of 4.2 and 2.8 in peach and sweet cherry, respectively. Cross-species amplification was tested within the Prunus species: Prunus avium L. (sweet cherry and mazzard), Prunus cerasus L. (sour cherry), Prunus domestica L. (European plum), Prunus amygdalus Batsch. (almond), Prunus armeniaca L. (apricot), Prunus cerasifera Ehrh. (Myrobalan plum). Plants from other genera of the Rosaceae were also tested: Malus (apple) and Fragaria (strawberry), as well as species not belonging to the Rosaceae: Castanea (chestnut tree), Juglans (walnut tree) and Vitis (grapevine). Six microsatellites gave amplification on all the tested species. Among them, one had an amplified region homologous to sequences encoding a MADS-box protein in Malus x domestica. Twelve microsatellites (29.3%) were amplified in all the Rosaceae species tested and 31 (75.6%) were amplified in all the six Prunus species tested. Thirty three (80.5%), 18 (43.9%) and 13 (31.7%) gave amplification on chestnut tree, grapevine and walnut tree, respectively. PMID:12582570

Dirlewanger, E.; Cosson, P.; Tavaud, M.; Aranzana, J.; Poizat, C.; Zanetto, A.; Arús, P.; Laigret, F.

2002-07-01

261

Advanced paternal age increases the risk of schizophrenia and obsessive-compulsive disorder in a Chinese Han population.  

PubMed

Using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, patient and non-patient version (SCID-P/NP), this study investigated 351 patients with schizophrenia, 122 with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and 238 unrelated healthy volunteers in a Chinese Han population. The relative risks posed by advanced paternal age for schizophrenia and OCD in offspring were computed under logistic regression analyses and adjusted for the participant's sex, age and co-parent age at birth. Compared to the offspring with paternal age of 25-29 years old, the relative risks rose from 2.660 to 10.183 in the paternal age range of 30-34 and ?35. The relative risks for OCD increased from 2.225 to 5.413 in 30-34 and ?35. For offspring with paternal age of <25, the odds ratios of developing schizophrenia and OCD were 0.628 and 0.289 respectively, whereas an association between increased maternal age and risk for schizophrenia/OCD was not seen. Interaction analysis showed an interaction effect between paternal age and maternal age at birth. Such a tendency of risk affected by parental age for schizophrenia and OCD existed after splitting out the data of early onset patients. Sex-specific analyses found that the relative risks for schizophrenia with paternal age of 30-34 and ?35 in male offspring were 2.407 and 10.893, and in female offspring were 3.080 and 9.659. The relative risks for OCD with paternal age of 30-34 and ?35 in male offspring were 3.493 and 7.373, and in female offspring 2.005 and 4.404. The mean paternal age of schizophrenia/OCD patients born before the early 1980s was much greater than that of patients who were born after then. The findings illustrated that advanced paternal age is associated with increased risk for both schizophrenia and OCD in a Chinese Han population, prominently when paternal age is over 35. Biological and non-biological mechanisms may both be involved in the effects of advanced paternal age on schizophrenia and OCD. PMID:22424906

Wu, Yuejing; Liu, Xiang; Luo, Hongrong; Deng, Wei; Zhao, Gaofeng; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Lan; Ma, Xiaohong; Liu, Xiehe; Murray, Robin A; Collier, David A; Li, Tao

2012-08-15

262

Advanced paternal age increases the risk of schizophrenia and obsessive–compulsive disorder in a Chinese Han population  

PubMed Central

Using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, patient and non-patient version (SCID-P/NP), this study investigated 351 patients with schizophrenia, 122 with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), and 238 unrelated healthy volunteers in a Chinese Han population. The relative risks posed by advanced paternal age for schizophrenia and OCD in offspring were computed under logistic regression analyses and adjusted for the participant's sex, age and co-parent age at birth. Compared to the offspring with paternal age of 25–29 years old, the relative risks rose from 2.660 to 10.183 in the paternal age range of 30–34 and ? 35. The relative risks for OCD increased from 2.225 to 5.413 in 30–34 and ? 35. For offspring with paternal age of < 25, the odds ratios of developing schizophrenia and OCD were 0.628 and 0.289 respectively, whereas an association between increased maternal age and risk for schizophrenia/OCD was not seen. Interaction analysis showed an interaction effect between paternal age and maternal age at birth. Such a tendency of risk affected by parental age for schizophrenia and OCD existed after splitting out the data of early onset patients. Sex-specific analyses found that the relative risks for schizophrenia with paternal age of 30–34 and ? 35 in male offspring were 2.407 and 10.893, and in female offspring were 3.080 and 9.659. The relative risks for OCD with paternal age of 30–34 and ? 35 in male offspring were 3.493 and 7.373, and in female offspring 2.005 and 4.404. The mean paternal age of schizophrenia/OCD patients born before the early 1980s was much greater than that of patients who were born after then. The findings illustrated that advanced paternal age is associated with increased risk for both schizophrenia and OCD in a Chinese Han population, prominently when paternal age is over 35. Biological and non-biological mechanisms may both be involved in the effects of advanced paternal age on schizophrenia and OCD. PMID:22424906

Wu, Yuejing; Liu, Xiang; Luo, Hongrong; Deng, Wei; Zhao, Gaofeng; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Lan; Ma, Xiaohong; Liu, Xiehe; Murray, Robin A.; Collier, David A.; Li, Tao

2012-01-01

263

Journal of Fish Biology (1995) 47 (Supplement A), 156-163 Gene diversity analysis of mitochondrial DNA, microsatellites  

E-print Network

markers indicated a genetic differentiation between two sympatric populations of Lake Saint-Jean, Quebec decisions. Allozyme analysis has been a method of choice for many management purposes (Ferguson, 1994 diversity in fishes (Taggart & Ferguson, 1990;Wright & Bentzen, 1994). It is obvious from the literature

Bernatchez, Louis

264

Sequence analysis of a zinc-finger gene for the examination of paternal lineages and introgressive hybridization in North American deer  

E-print Network

. Analysis ofhybridzones. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 16:113-148. Bianchi, N. O. , A. de la Chapelle, L. Vidal-Rioja, and S. Merani. 1989. The sex determining zinc finger sequences in XY females of ~n ~r (Rodentia Cricetidae). Cytogent. Cell Genet. 52...:162-166. Bianchi, M. S. , P. Pamilo, L. Vidal-Rioja, and A. de la Chapelle. 1992. Evolution of zinc finger- Y and zinc finger-X genes in Oryzomyne-Akodontine rodents (Cricetidae). J. Molec. Evol. 34:54-61. 26 Bradley, R. D. , S. K. Davis, S. F. Lockwood, J. W...

Cathey, James Cleveland

1993-01-01

265

Development of microsatellite markers for Pythium helicoides.  

PubMed

A strategy combining dual-suppression PCR and thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR was used to determine sequences flanking microsatellite regions in Pythium helicoides. The primer pairs were designed to amplify loci containing (AC)n, (GA)n, (AGC)n, (CAC)n(CAA)n, (TCA)n and (CTTT)n repeats from the P. helicoides nuclear genome. The PCR products of each primer pair, amplified from three representative isolates collected from different hosts and locations, were cloned and sequenced. Different degrees of polymorphism were detected among these microsatellite markers. The numbers of alleles were 6, 2, 4, 11, 4 and 4 in YL-AC, YL-AGC, YL-CAA, YL-CTTT, YL-GA and YL-TCA, respectively. Allele analysis of 30 P. helicoides isolates showed length polymorphisms in all loci, except for YL-AC, using capillary electrophoresis. Thus, we have developed a simple method for designing PCR primers to amplify microsatellite markers from P. helicoides. PMID:19278526

Yin-Ling; Zhou, Wei; Motohashi, Keiichi; Suga, Haruhisa; Fukui, Hirokazu; Kageyama, Koji

2009-04-01

266

G-IMEx: A comprehensive software tool for detection of microsatellites from genome sequences  

PubMed Central

Microsatellites are ubiquitous short tandem repeats found in all known genomes and are known to play a very important role in various studies and fields including DNA fingerprinting, paternity studies, evolutionary studies, virulence and adaptation of certain bacteria and viruses etc. Due to the sequencing of several genomes and the availability of enormous amounts of sequence data during the past few years, computational studies of microsatellites are of interest for many researchers. In this context, we developed a software tool called Imperfect Microsatellite Extractor (IMEx), to extract perfect, imperfect and compound microsatellites from genome sequences along with their complete statistics. Recently we developed a user-friendly graphical-interface using JAVA for IMEx to be used as a stand-alone software named G-IMEx. G-IMEx takes a nucleotide sequence as an input and the results are produced in both html and text formats. The Linux version of G-IMEx can be downloaded for free from http://www.cdfd.org.in/imex PMID:21364802

Mudunuri, Suresh B; Kumar, Pankaj; Rao, Allam Appa; Pallamsetty, S; Nagarajaram, H A

2010-01-01

267

Certainty of paternity and paternal investment in eastern bluebirds and tree swallows.  

PubMed

Extra-pair paternity is common in many socially monogamous passerine birds with biparental care. Thus, males often invest in offspring to which they are not related. Models of optimal parental investment predict that, under certain assumptions, males should lower their investment in response to reduced certainty of paternity. We attempted to reduce certainty of paternity experimentally in two species, the eastern bluebird, Sialia sialis, and the tree swallow, Tachycineta bicolor, by temporarily removing fertile females on two mornings during egg laying. In both species, experimental males usually attempted to copulate with the female immediately after her reappearance, suggesting that they experienced the absence of their mate as a threat to their paternity. Experimental males copulated at a significantly higher rate than control males. However, contrary to the prediction of the model, experimental males did not invest less than control males in their offspring. There was no difference between experimental and control nests in the proportion of male feeds, male and female feeding rates, nestling growth and nestling condition and size at age 14 days. We argue that females might have restored the males' confidence in paternity after the experiment by soliciting or accepting copulations. Alternatively, males may not reduce their effort, because the fitness costs to their own offspring may outweigh the benefits for the males, at least in populations where females cannot fully compensate for reduced male investment. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:9632472

Kempenaers; Lanctot; Robertson

1998-04-01

268

A second generation framework for the analysis of microsatellites in expressed sequence tags and the development of EST-SSR markers for a conifer, Cryptomeria japonica  

PubMed Central

Background Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are useful resources for genome analysis because of their abundance, functionality and polymorphism. The advent of commercial second generation sequencing machines has lead to new strategies for developing EST-SSR markers, necessitating the development of bioinformatic framework that can keep pace with the increasing quality and quantity of sequence data produced. We describe an open scheme for analyzing ESTs and developing EST-SSR markers from reads collected by Sanger sequencing and pyrosequencing of sugi (Cryptomeria japonica). Results We collected 141,097 sequence reads by Sanger sequencing and 1,333,444 by pyrosequencing. After trimming contaminant and low quality sequences, 118,319 Sanger and 1,201,150 pyrosequencing reads were passed to the MIRA assembler, generating 81,284 contigs that were analysed for SSRs. 4,059 SSRs were found in 3,694 (4.54%) contigs, giving an SSR frequency lower than that in seven other plant species with gene indices (5.4–21.9%). The average GC content of the SSR-containing contigs was 41.55%, compared to 40.23% for all contigs. Tri-SSRs were the most common SSRs; the most common motif was AT, which was found in 655 (46.3%) di-SSRs, followed by the AAG motif, found in 342 (25.9%) tri-SSRs. Most (72.8%) tri-SSRs were in coding regions, but 55.6% of the di-SSRs were in non-coding regions; the AT motif was most abundant in 3? untranslated regions. Gene ontology (GO) annotations showed that six GO terms were significantly overrepresented within SSR-containing contigs. Forty–four EST-SSR markers were developed from 192 primer pairs using two pipelines: read2Marker and the newly-developed CMiB, which combines several open tools. Markers resulting from both pipelines showed no differences in PCR success rate and polymorphisms, but PCR success and polymorphism were significantly affected by the expected PCR product size and number of SSR repeats, respectively. EST-SSR markers exhibited less polymorphism than genomic SSRs. Conclusions We have created a new open pipeline for developing EST-SSR markers and applied it in a comprehensive analysis of EST-SSRs and EST-SSR markers in C. japonica. The results will be useful in genomic analyses of conifers and other non-model species. PMID:22507374

2012-01-01

269

Conservation genetics of bull trout: Geographic distribution of variation at microsatellite loci  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the genetic population structure of 65 bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) populations from the northwestern United States using four microsatellite loci. The distribution of genetic variation as measured by microsatellites is consistent with previous allozyme and mitochondrial DNA analysis. There is relatively little genetic variation within populations (HS = 0.000 - 0.404, average HS = 0.186, but substantial divergence

P. Spruell; A. R. Hemmingsen; P. J. Howell; N. Kanda; F. W. Allendorf

2003-01-01

270

Parentage and kinship studies in an obligate brood parasitic bird, the brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater), using microsatellite DNA markers.  

PubMed

Recent studies suggest that single-locus microsatellite DNA markers have the potential to unambiguously resolve parentage among individuals in natural populations where maternity is known. However, their power for determining parentage when neither parent is known is unclear. Here we investigate the usefulness of microsatellite DNA markers to determine parentage in a brood parasitic bird, the brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater), where, for a given offspring, no a priori knowledge of either parent is available. Seven polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers isolated from brown-headed cowbirds and yellow warblers (Dendroica petechia) were used to genetically characterize an individually marked breeding population of male and female cowbirds at Delta Marsh, Manitoba. Forty-four males, 21 females, and 61 cowbird chicks were genotyped at seven loci using DNA amplified from blood and tissue samples. The mean exclusion probabilities pooled across all seven loci were 0.9964 for males and 0.9948 for females. Two null (non-amplifying) alleles at one locus were discovered and accounted for by constructing alternate nonoverlapping primer sets. Exclusion analyses performed using all individuals determined both paternity and maternity for 43 chicks and paternity only for 4 chicks. Another microsatellite locus was then used to determine paternity for three additional chicks. Relatedness analyses placed 12 of the 18 remaining chicks not assigned both maternity and paternity into four unique full sibling groups. Overall, 90.16% (55 of 61) of all offspring examined were placed into distinct parent/sibling groups, demonstrating that this marker set is extremely useful for parentage studies in this species. PMID:9987928

Alderson, G W; Gibbs, H L; Sealy, S G

1999-01-01

271

Molecular diversity and population structure of Chinese green foxtail [Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv.] revealed by microsatellite analysis.  

PubMed

Green foxtail (Setaria viridis) is a new model plant for the genomic investigation of C4 photosynthesis biology. As the ancestor of foxtail millet (Setaria italica), an ancient cereal of great importance in arid regions of the world, green foxtail is crucial for the study of domestication and evolution of this ancient crop. In the present study, 288 green foxtail accessions, which were collected from all geographical regions of China, were analysed using 77 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) that cover the whole genome. A high degree of molecular diversity was detected in these accessions, with an average of 33.5 alleles per locus. Two clusters, which were inconsistent with the distribution of eco-geographical regions in China, were inferred from STRUCTURE, Neighbor-Joining, and principal component analysis, indicating a partially mixed distribution of Chinese green foxtails. The higher subpopulation diversity was from accessions mainly collected from North China. A low level of linkage disequilibrium was observed in the green foxtail genome. Furthermore, a combined analysis of green foxtail and foxtail millet landraces was conducted, and the origin and domestication of foxtail millet was inferred in North China. PMID:23956411

Jia, Guanqing; Shi, Shenkui; Wang, Chunfang; Niu, Zhengang; Chai, Yang; Zhi, Hui; Diao, Xianmin

2013-09-01

272

Molecular diversity and population structure of Chinese green foxtail [Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv.] revealed by microsatellite analysis  

PubMed Central

Green foxtail (Setaria viridis) is a new model plant for the genomic investigation of C4 photosynthesis biology. As the ancestor of foxtail millet (Setaria italica), an ancient cereal of great importance in arid regions of the world, green foxtail is crucial for the study of domestication and evolution of this ancient crop. In the present study, 288 green foxtail accessions, which were collected from all geographical regions of China, were analysed using 77 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) that cover the whole genome. A high degree of molecular diversity was detected in these accessions, with an average of 33.5 alleles per locus. Two clusters, which were inconsistent with the distribution of eco-geographical regions in China, were inferred from STRUCTURE, Neighbor–Joining, and principal component analysis, indicating a partially mixed distribution of Chinese green foxtails. The higher subpopulation diversity was from accessions mainly collected from North China. A low level of linkage disequilibrium was observed in the green foxtail genome. Furthermore, a combined analysis of green foxtail and foxtail millet landraces was conducted, and the origin and domestication of foxtail millet was inferred in North China. PMID:23956411

Zhi, Hui; Diao, Xianmin

2013-01-01

273

Religion as a means to assure paternity.  

PubMed

The sacred texts of five world religions (Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism) use similar belief systems to set limits on sexual behavior. We propose that this similarity is a shared cultural solution to a biological problem: namely male uncertainty over the paternity of offspring. Furthermore, we propose the hypothesis that religious practices that more strongly regulate female sexuality should be more successful at promoting paternity certainty. Using genetic data on 1,706 father-son pairs, we tested this hypothesis in a traditional African population in which multiple religions (Islam, Christianity, and indigenous) coexist in the same families and villages. We show that the indigenous religion enables males to achieve a significantly (P = 0.019) lower probability of cuckoldry (1.3% versus 2.9%) by enforcing the honest signaling of menstruation, but that all three religions share tenets aimed at the avoidance of extrapair copulation. Our findings provide evidence for high paternity certainty in a traditional African population, and they shed light on the reproductive agendas that underlie religious patriarchy. PMID:22665788

Strassmann, Beverly I; Kurapati, Nikhil T; Hug, Brendan F; Burke, Erin E; Gillespie, Brenda W; Karafet, Tatiana M; Hammer, Michael F

2012-06-19

274

Religion as a means to assure paternity  

PubMed Central

The sacred texts of five world religions (Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism) use similar belief systems to set limits on sexual behavior. We propose that this similarity is a shared cultural solution to a biological problem: namely male uncertainty over the paternity of offspring. Furthermore, we propose the hypothesis that religious practices that more strongly regulate female sexuality should be more successful at promoting paternity certainty. Using genetic data on 1,706 father–son pairs, we tested this hypothesis in a traditional African population in which multiple religions (Islam, Christianity, and indigenous) coexist in the same families and villages. We show that the indigenous religion enables males to achieve a significantly (P = 0.019) lower probability of cuckoldry (1.3% versus 2.9%) by enforcing the honest signaling of menstruation, but that all three religions share tenets aimed at the avoidance of extrapair copulation. Our findings provide evidence for high paternity certainty in a traditional African population, and they shed light on the reproductive agendas that underlie religious patriarchy. PMID:22665788

Strassmann, Beverly I.; Kurapati, Nikhil T.; Hug, Brendan F.; Burke, Erin E.; Gillespie, Brenda W.; Karafet, Tatiana M.; Hammer, Michael F.

2012-01-01

275

In-silico mining, type and frequency analysis of genic microsatellites of finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.): a comparative genomic analysis of NBS-LRR regions of finger millet with rice.  

PubMed

In recent years, the increased availability of the DNA sequences has given the possibility to develop and explore the expressed sequence tags (ESTs) derived SSR markers. In the present study, a total of 1956 ESTs of finger millet were used to find the microsatellite type, distribution, frequency and developed a total of 545 primer pairs from the ESTs of finger millet. Thirty-two EST sequences had more than two microsatellites and 1357 sequences did not have any SSR repeats. The most frequent type of repeats was trimeric motif, however the second place was occupied by dimeric motif followed by tetra-, hexa- and penta repeat motifs. The most common dimer repeat motif was GA and in case of trimeric SSRs, it was CGG. The EST sequences of NBS-LRR region of finger millet and rice showed higher synteny and were found on nearly same positions on the rice chromosome map. A total of eight, out of 15 EST based SSR primers were polymorphic among the selected resistant and susceptible finger millet genotypes. The primer FMBLEST5 could able to differentiate them into resistant and susceptible genotypes. The alleles specific to the resistant and susceptible genotypes were sequenced using the ABI 3130XL genetic analyzer and found similarity to NBS-LRR regions of rice and finger millet and contained the characteristic kinase-2 and kinase 3a motifs of plant R-genes belonged to NBS-LRR region. The In-silico and comparative analysis showed that the genes responsible for blast resistance can be identified, mapped and further introgressed through molecular breeding approaches for enhancing the blast resistance in finger millet. PMID:24477586

Kalyana Babu, B; Pandey, Dinesh; Agrawal, P K; Sood, Salej; Kumar, Anil

2014-05-01

276

Microsatellite polymorphisms in the gene promoter of monocyte chemotactic protein-3 and analysis of the association between monocyte chemotactic protein-3 alleles and multiple sclerosis development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monocyte chemotactic protein 3 (MCP-3) is a chemokine that attracts mononuclear cells, including monocytes and lymphocytes, the inflammatory cell types that predominate in multiple sclerosis lesions. We studied the possible association between the presence of a CA\\/GA microsatellite repeat polymorphism in the promoter\\/enhancer region of the MCP-3 gene and the occurrence of multiple sclerosis. DNA samples from 192 Swedish multiple

Pierre Fiten; Koen Vandenbroeck; Bénédicte Dubois; Els Van Coillie; Inge Nelissen; Jo Van Damme; Arturs Ligers; Jan Hillert; Magnus Andersson; Tomas Olsson; Ghislain Opdenakker

1999-01-01

277

Microsatellite DNA analysis of coastal populations of bull trout ( Salvelinus confluentus ) in British Columbia: zoogeographic implications and its application to recreational fishery management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsatellite DNA variation was assayed among 383 bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) from 20 Pacific coastal localities from the Skeena River (central British Columbia) to the Olympic Peninsula (western Washington State). An average of 1.7 alleles was resolved per population and heterozygosity averaged 0.35. Twenty-six fish were identified as bull trout × Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma) hybrids. Population subdivision was substantial

Eric B. Taylor; A. B. Costello

2006-01-01

278

Microsatellite analysis of Alpine grape cultivars ( Vitis vinifera L.): alleged descendants of Pliny the Elder’s Raetica are genetically related  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to Pliny the Elder and other Greco-Roman geoponics, Raetica was a famous white grape as well as a white wine produced in Raetia, a Province of the Roman Empire. Does Raetica grape have modern descendants? Etymologically and geographically, the white ‘R?ze’ from Valais (Switzerland) would be the\\u000a best candidate. Using available microsatellite data, we searched for relatives of ‘R?ze’

José F. Vouillamoz; Anna Schneider; M. Stella Grando

2007-01-01

279

Evolution and proximate expression of human paternal investment.  

PubMed

In more than 95% of mammalian species, males provide little direct investment in the well-being of their offspring. Humans are one notable exception to this pattern and, to date, the factors that contributed to the evolution and the proximate expression of human paternal care are unexplained (T. H. Clutton-Brock, 1989). The nature, extent, and influence of human paternal investment on the physical and social well-being of children are reviewed in light of the social and ecological factors that are associated with paternal investment in other species. On the basis of this review, discussion of the evolution and proximate expression of human paternal investment is provided. PMID:10668350

Geary, D C

2000-01-01

280

Paternity, parental behavior and circulating steroid hormone concentrations in nest-tending male bluegill  

E-print Network

Paternity, parental behavior and circulating steroid hormone concentrations in nest-tending male, we examined the relationships between circulating steroid hormones, paternity, and parental behavior a complex relationship between circulating steroid hormone levels, paternity and parental behavior. © 2009

Neff, Bryan D.

281

Immune defence, extra-pair paternity, and sexual selection in birds  

PubMed Central

Secondary sexual characters have been suggested to reliably reflect the ability of individuals to resist debilitating parasites, and females may gain direct or indirect fitness benefits from preferring the most extravagantly ornamented males. Extra-pair paternity provides an estimate of an important component of sexual selection in birds. Species with a high frequency of extra-pair paternity have a variance in realized reproductive success that is greater than the variance in apparent reproductive success, and extra-pair copulations and hence extra-pair paternity by females are often directly associated with the expression of male secondary sexual characters. If sexually dichromatic species have experienced a long period of antagonistic coevolution with their parasites, such species should have evolved larger immune defence organs than sexually monochromatic species. Bird species with sexual dichromatism had larger spleens for their body size than monochromatic species in a comparative analysis. Furthermore, species with a high frequency of extra-pair paternity were sexually dichromatic and had large spleens for their body size. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that females of dichromatic bird species seek extra-pair copulations to obtain indirect fitness benefits in terms of superior resistance of their offspring to virulent parasites.

Møller, A. P.

1997-01-01

282

Sex Differences in Sand Lizard Telomere Inheritance: Paternal Epigenetic Effects Increases Telomere Heritability and Offspring Survival  

PubMed Central

Background To date, the only estimate of the heritability of telomere length in wild populations comes from humans. Thus, there is a need for analysis of natural populations with respect to how telomeres evolve. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we show that telomere length is heritable in free-ranging sand lizards, Lacerta agilis. More importantly, heritability estimates analysed within, and contrasted between, the sexes are markedly different; son-sire heritability is much higher relative to daughter-dam heritability. We assess the effect of paternal age on Telomere Length (TL) and show that in this species, paternal age at conception is the best predictor of TL in sons. Neither paternal age per se at blood sampling for telomere screening, nor corresponding age in sons impact TL in sons. Processes maintaining telomere length are also associated with negative fitness effects, most notably by increasing the risk of cancer and show variation across different categories of individuals (e.g. males vs. females). We therefore tested whether TL influences offspring survival in their first year of life. Indeed such effects were present and independent of sex-biased offspring mortality and offspring malformations. Conclusions/Significance TL show differences in sex-specific heritability with implications for differences between the sexes with respect to ongoing telomere selection. Paternal age influences the length of telomeres in sons and longer telomeres enhance offspring survival. PMID:21526170

Olsson, Mats; Pauliny, Angela; Wapstra, Erik; Uller, Tobias; Schwartz, Tonia; Blomqvist, Donald

2011-01-01

283

Female-directed aggression predicts paternal behavior, but female prairie voles prefer affiliative males to paternal males.  

PubMed

In the socially monogamous prairie vole, Microtus ochrogaster, male affiliation and parental care are influenced by the neuropeptide arginine vasopressin and expression of its receptor V1aR. If parental care and adult affiliation can be considered a behavioral syndrome, females might use male affiliative behavior as a cue to choose a good father. We investigated three questions: (1) do females prefer affiliative males; (2) do males that are affiliative with females demonstrate paternal behavior with pups; and (3) is male V1aR expression related to male behavior or female preference? We evaluated paternal behavior of individual males, then offered sexually receptive females a choice between paternal and non-paternal males and measured the proportion of time each male spent engaging in affiliative behavior with the choosing female. Females showed a preference for more affiliative males, but affiliation was not predictive of paternal care. Thus females did not discriminate between paternal and non-paternal males. Perhaps surprisingly, paternal behavior was correlated with the relative amount of aggression males directed toward females. Finally, females did not discriminate between males with high or low V1aR expression and V1aR expression did not predict male affiliative behavior or parental care. These data suggest that male affiliative behavior, but not paternal care, is associated with female mate choice. PMID:17878716

Ophir, Alexander G; Crino, Ondi L; Wilkerson, Quiana C; Wolff, Jerry O; Phelps, Steven M

2008-01-01

284

Risk management for micro-satellite design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown how the methods of risk analysis have been used in the University of Rome micro-satellite program. One of the driving research topics related to this program is the reduction of cost in building spacecraft. The probability risk analysis techniques seem to be a powerful tool in the field of micro-satellites design, to outline possible faults. Innovation and limited budget forcing the designer to move in a very "risky" environment and can be faced with an as rigorous as possible decision making method. In our project, cost reduction is often attained relying on commercial, not space-rated components, which of course increases risk. This is why the design process should be led by the careful analysis of the risk associated with the selection of components and construction techniques. In standard applications risk can be evaluated from reliability data obtained in previous and well known similar applications. In our case, for many components, there is a lack of reliability data, due to the obvious missing experience when dealing with not yet space qualified, or even never flown before components. This lack is overcome using numerical simulations and practical engineering considerations, but does not allow a rigorous reliability assessment. A simple qualitative analysis is used to rank priorities among subsystems and allocate economic resources and development efforts. The main risk source is space radiation effect on CMOS electronic components. Therefore, development resources are directed to radiation effect mitigation. A procedure is proposed to lower risk without using space rated components.

Santoni, Fabio

2004-02-01

285

Advanced paternal age and reproductive outcome.  

PubMed

Women have been increasingly delaying the start of motherhood in recent decades. The same trend is seen also for men. The influence of maternal age on fertility, chromosomal anomalies, pregnancy complications, and impaired perinatal and post-natal outcome of offspring, has been thoroughly investigated, and these aspects are clinically applied during fertility and pregestational counseling. Male aging and reproductive outcome has gained relatively less attention. The purpose of this review is to evaluate updated and relevant literature on the effect of paternal age on reproductive outcome. PMID:22157982

Wiener-Megnazi, Zofnat; Auslender, Ron; Dirnfeld, Martha

2012-01-01

286

Modeling paternal attentiveness: distressed pups evoke differential neurobiological and behavioral responses in paternal and nonpaternal mice.  

PubMed

With the exception of parturition and lactation, male California deer mice (Peromyscus californicus) exhibit the same parental responses toward offspring as conspecific females. A closely related species, Peromyscus maniculatus, however, rarely exhibits paternal responses. In the current study, a comparative species approach was used to assess paternal responses in both Peromyscus species with varying levels of paternal experience (biological fathers, pup-exposed virgins, and pup-naïve virgins). Of special interest was the persistence of the males to direct their attention toward a distressed pup housed in a small enclosure (i.e., a barrier existed between males and pups). In addition to pup-directed responses, non-pup-directed responses such as grooming, resting and jumping were recorded. Subsequently, all animals' brains were assessed for fos-immunoreactivity (ir) in several areas previously associated with the paternal brain circuit. Overall, P. californicus exhibited more pup-directed responses as well as less fos-ir in brain areas involved in emotional integration and processing such as the insula and anterior cingulate. In addition to increased activation of emotional regulatory areas, P. maniculatus males, observed to direct their behavior away from the pup, exhibited higher fos-ir in the nucleus accumbens (involved in goal acquisition), perhaps due to a heightened motivation to avoid the pups. Interestingly, experience with pups altered the lateral septum and amygdala activation of P. maniculatus to levels similar to P. californicus biological fathers. Finally, fos-ir was increased in the medial preoptic area, involved in the maintenance of maternal behavior, in the biological fathers of both species. Thus, although biological predispositions toward pup-directed behaviors were observed in P. californicus males, evidence of a few shifts toward the paternal neural activation profile was apparent in P. maniculatus males. Specifically, modifications in fear responses and social processing may represent the cornerstones of the gradual shift from social tentativeness to social attentiveness in the presence of pups. PMID:23262236

Lambert, K G; Franssen, C L; Hampton, J E; Rzucidlo, A M; Hyer, M M; True, M; Kaufman, C; Bardi, M

2013-03-27

287

Multiple sperm storage organs facilitate female control of paternity  

PubMed Central

It has been proposed that multiple sperm storage organs (spermathecae) could allow polyandrous females to control paternity. There is little conclusive evidence for this since insemination of individual spermathecae is generally not experimentally manipulable. Here, we examined sperm use patterns in the Australian redback spider (Latrodectus hasselti), which has paired, independent spermathecae. We assessed paternity when two rivals were forced to inseminate a single storage organ or opposite storage organs. When males inseminated a single spermatheca, mean paternity of the female's first mate was 79.8% (median 89.4%), and 38% of first mates achieved 100% paternity. In contrast, when males inseminated opposite organs, the mean paternity of the first mate was 49.3% (median 49.9%), only 10% of males achieved complete precedence, and paternity was normally distributed, suggesting sperm mixing. Males responded to this difference by avoiding previously inseminated female reproductive tracts. Complete sperm precedence can only be achieved if females permit males to copulate with both reproductive tracts. Females often cannibalize smaller males during their first copulation, thus limiting their paternity to 50%. These data show that multiple sperm storage organs can increase female control of paternity. PMID:16024375

Snow, Lindsay S.E; Andrade, Maydianne C.B

2005-01-01

288

Reexamination of paternal age effect in Down's syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paternal age distribution for 1279 cases of Down's syndrome born in 1952–1968 was compared with the corresponding distribution for the general population, corrected for the maternal age as well as for the year of birth of the patients. Although there was no difference in the mean paternal age, the two distributions differed significantly, largely due to the excess of fathers

Ei Matsunaga; Akira Tonomura; Hidetsune Oishi; Yasumoto Kikuchi

1978-01-01

289

Low frequency paternal transmission of plastid genes in Brassicaceae.  

PubMed

Plastid-encoded genes are maternally inherited in most plant species. Transgenes located on the plastid genome are thus within a natural confinement system, preventing their distribution via pollen. However, a low-frequency leakage of plastids via pollen seems to be universal in plants. Here we report that a very low-level paternal inheritance in Arabidopsis thaliana occurs under field conditions. As pollen donor an Arabidopsis accession (Ler-Ely) was used, which carried a plastid-localized atrazine resistance due to a point mutation in the psbA gene. The frequency of pollen transmission into F1 plants, based on their ability to express the atrazine resistance was 1.9 × 10(-5). We extended our analysis to another cruciferous species, the world-wide cultivated crop Brassica napus. First, we isolated a fertile and stable plastid transformant (T36) in a commercial cultivar of B. napus (cv Drakkar). In T36 the aadA and the bar genes were integrated in the inverted repeat region of the B. napus plastid DNA following particle bombardment of hypocotyl segments. Southern blot analysis confirmed transgene integration and homoplasmy of plastid DNA. Line T36 expressed Basta resistance from the inserted bar gene and this trait was used to estimate the frequency of pollen transmission into F1 plants. A frequency of <2.6 × 10(-5) was determined in the greenhouse. Taken together, our data show a very low rate of paternal plastid transmission in Brassicacea. Moreover, the establishment of plastid transformation in B. napus facilitates a safe use of this important crop plant for plant biotechnology. PMID:25343875

Schneider, Anja; Stelljes, Christian; Adams, Caroline; Kirchner, Stefan; Burkhard, Gabi; Jarzombski, Sabine; Broer, Inge; Horn, Patricia; Elsayed, Ashraf; Hagl, Peter; Leister, Dario; Koop, Hans-Ulrich

2014-10-25

290

Skewed paternity and sex allocation in hermaphroditic plants and animals.  

PubMed Central

Models predict a reduced allocation to sperm when females preferentially use one of two males' sperm and the males do not know who is favoured. An analogous discounting occurs in plants when their paternity success is skewed by random, non-heritable factors such as location in the population and pollinator behaviour. We present a model that shows that skewed paternity can affect the sex allocation of hermaphrodites, that is it leads to a female-biased investment. The model highlights the close links between local mate competition and sperm competition. We use paternity data from Ficus in order to illustrate that skews in paternity success can lead to a high degree of sibling gamete competition in an apparently open breeding system. Since skews in paternity are ubiquitous in hermaphroditic plants and animals these findings should apply broadly. PMID:11600078

Greeff, J. M.; Nason, J. D.; Compton, S. G.

2001-01-01

291

Molecular genetic analysis of Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes  

SciTech Connect

Angelman (AS) and Prader-Willi (PWS) syndromes are caused by the loss of either maternal (AS) or paternal (PWS) contributions to chromosome 15q11-q13 region, which is subject to genomic imprinting. DNA methylation has been postulated to play a crucial role in genomic imprinting and the diagnostic test used is based on the differential parental methylation of 15q11-q13. We report here the DNA studies of 39 classical PWS and 12 AS patients. For DNA polymorphism and dosage studies we used nine genomic probes and five microsatellite markers specific for chromosome 15. To study the methylation patterns the probes DN34 (D15S9) and PW71 (D15S63), which show a parental-specific DNA methylation imprint, were used. Among the PWS patients, 29 (77%) cases with a deletion belonging to four different size classes and 9 (23%) with maternal uniparental disomy were found, respectively. Of the AS patients, 8 (67%) had a deletion, 1 (8%) paternal uniparental disomy and 3 (25%) biparental inheritance, respectively. Two sibs with biparental disomy showed a typical methylation pattern for AS, indicating that the maternal chromosome 15 carried a paternal methylation imprint. In the DNA methylation analysis the probe PW71 was useful: in our study it detected all deletions and uniparental disomy patients as well as potential imprinting mutations. The probe DN34 couldn`t identify patients which have a deletion outside the D15S9 locus. In the diagnosis of AS and PWS, the differential methylation of the parental 15q11-q13 offers a rapid diagnostic test but does not distinguish between a deletion and uniparental disomy. In our material the probe 4a.1, which detects DNA sequences from both the locus SNRPN (15q12) and SNRPNP1 (6pter-p21), proved to be reliable detecting all deletions. For detection of parental origin of deletion or uniparental disomy, microsatellite markers proved useful.

Kokkonen, H.M.; Kahkonen, T.M.; Leisti, J. [Oulu Univ. Central Hospital (Finland)

1994-09-01

292

Gene Expression Profiling of Microsatellite Unstable and Microsatellite Stable Endometrial Cancers Indicates Distinct Pathways of Aberrant Signaling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsatellite instability (MSI) is a molecular phenotype present in f25% of endometrial cancers. We examined the global gene expression profiles of early-stage endometrioid endometrial cancers with and without the MSI phenotype to test the hypothesis that MSI phenotype may determine a unique molecular signature among otherwise similar cancers. Unsupervised principal component analysis of the expression data from these cases indicated

John I. Risinger; G. Larry Maxwell; Gadisetti V. R. Chandramouli; Olga Aprelikova; Tracy Litzi; Asad Umar; Andrew Berchuck; J. Carl Barrett

2005-01-01

293

Human paternal lineages, languages, and environment in the caucasus.  

PubMed

Publications that describe the composition of the human Y-DNA haplogroup in diffferent ethnic or linguistic groups and geographic regions provide no explicit explanation of the distribution of human paternal lineages in relation to specific ecological conditions. Our research attempts to address this topic for the Caucasus, a geographic region that encompasses a relatively small area but harbors high linguistic, ethnic, and Y-DNA haplogroup diversity. We genotyped 224 men that identified themselves as ethnic Georgian for 23 Y-chromosome short tandem-repeat markers and assigned them to their geographic places of origin. The genotyped data were supplemented with published data on haplogroup composition and location of other ethnic groups of the Caucasus. We used multivariate statistical methods to see if linguistics, climate, and landscape accounted for geographical diffferences in frequencies of the Y-DNA haplogroups G2, R1a, R1b, J1, and J2. The analysis showed significant associations of (1) G2 with wellforested mountains, (2) J2 with warm areas or poorly forested mountains, and (3) J1 with poorly forested mountains. R1b showed no association with environment. Haplogroups J1 and R1a were significantly associated with Daghestanian and Kipchak speakers, respectively, but the other haplogroups showed no such simple associations with languages. Climate and landscape in the context of competition over productive areas among diffferent paternal lineages, arriving in the Caucasus in diffferent times, have played an important role in shaping the present-day spatial distribution of patrilineages in the Caucasus. This spatial pattern had formed before linguistic subdivisions were finally shaped, probably in the Neolithic to Bronze Age. Later historical turmoil had little influence on the patrilineage composition and spatial distribution. Based on our results, the scenario of postglacial expansions of humans and their languages to the Caucasus from the Middle East, western Eurasia, and the East European Plain is plausible. PMID:25397702

Tarkhnishvili, David; Gavashelishvili, Alexander; Murtskhvaladze, Marine; Gabelaia, Mariam; Tevzadze, Gigi

2014-05-01

294

Microsatellites from Conyza canadensis (horseweed)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Microsatellite loci were identified from Conyza canadensis (horseweed). Primer pairs for 64 loci were developed and of these eight were optimized and screened using genomic DNA from 22 accessions of horseweed from North America. Most loci were polymorphic and the number of alleles per locus ranged ...

295

Passive cryocooler for microsatellite payload  

Microsoft Academic Search

A passive cryocooler has been developed for the cooling of small payloads to temperatures as low as 145 K. Although designed for a specific electronics experiment on the STRV-1d microsatellite, the device is suitable for a wide range of applications. The cryocooler uses coated surfaces for tailored radiative cooling. Mechanical support between components is provided by fiberglass struts. The measured

Mayes Mullins; Paul J. Thomas; John W. Harron; Philip Duggan; Peter M. Sinclair; S. M. Khanna

1998-01-01

296

Blueberry Microsatellite Markers Identify Cranberries  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Forty-six blueberry simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers or microsatellites were tested for the ability to amplify a polymorphic marker in eight American cranberry accessions. Sixteen SSRs resulted in informative and polymorphic SSR primer pairs and were used to fingerprint 16 economically important...

297

Incestuous paternity detected by STR-typing of chorionic villi isolated from archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded abortion material using laser microdissection.  

PubMed

Microscopic examination of a blood clot expelled by a physically and mentally disabled woman taken to the emergency room because of genital bleeding revealed the presence of chorionic villi encircled by decidua, hemorrhage, and necrosis. In order to identify the father of the product of conception, sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded abortion material were subjected to laser microdissection: DNA extraction from chorionic villi selectively isolated from the surrounding tissues allowed successful STR-typing of fetal cells, which was otherwise prevented by excess maternal DNA. The large number of homozygous genotypes in the fetal profile suggested incestuous paternity. Analysis of reference DNA samples from male relatives excluded the woman's father, paternal grandfather, and maternal grandfather, whereas the obligate paternal alleles of the fetus were constantly present in the genotypes of the woman's brother, clearly demonstrating brother-sister incest (probability of paternity > 99.99999%). PMID:16423229

Robino, Carlo; Barilaro, Maria Rosa; Gino, Sarah; Chiarle, Roberto; Palestro, Giorgio; Torre, Carlo

2006-01-01

298

Central Vasopressin Administration Regulates the Onset of Facultative Paternal Behavior in Microtus pennsylvanicus (Meadow Voles)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pharmacological experiments have implicated a role for central arginine vasopressin (AVP) in regulating paternal behavior in monogamous prairie voles. Although nonmonogamous meadow voles exhibit appreciable paternal care when housed under winter, short day lengths (SD), no research has examined whether the same neurobiological systems are involved in regulating paternal behavior in a nonmonogamous species when it behaves paternally. The goal

Karen J Parker; Theresa M Lee

2001-01-01

299

Advanced paternal age and risk of fetal death: a cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A possible detrimental paternal age effect on offspring health due to mutations of paternal origin should be reflected in an association between paternal age and fetal loss. The authors used data from a prospective study of 23,821 pregnant women recruited consecutively to the Danish National Birth Cohort from 1997 to 1999 to assess the association between paternal age and fetal

Anne-Marie Nybo Andersen; textbfKasper D textbfHansen; Per Kragh Andersen; George Davey Smith; Kasper Daniel Hansen

2004-01-01

300

Phylogenetic split of Larix : evidence from paternally inherited cpDNA trn T- trn F region  

Microsoft Academic Search

A molecular phylogeny of Larix comprising 12 species was constructed from the sequence analysis of the paternally inherited cpDNA trnT- trnF region of 46 individuals. The most parsimonious tree split Larix into three sister clades: one clade was composed of two North American species, the other two were short-bracted and long-bracted species of Eurasia respectively except that L. sibirica was

X.-X. Wei; X.-Q. Wang

2003-01-01

301

Phylogenetic split of Larix : evidence from paternally inherited cpDNA trn T- trn F region  

Microsoft Academic Search

A molecular phylogeny of Larix com- prising 12 species was constructed from the sequence analysis of the paternally inherited cpDNA trnT-trnF region of 46 individuals. The most parsimonious tree split Larix into three sister clades: one clade was composed of two North American species, the other two were short-bracted and long-bracted species of Eurasia respectively except that L. sibirica was

X.-X. Wei; X.-Q. Wang

2003-01-01

302

Male age mediates reproductive investment and response to paternity assurance  

PubMed Central

Theory predicts that male response to reduced paternity will depend on male state and interactions between the sexes. If there is little chance of reproducing again, then males should invest heavily in current offspring, regardless of their share in paternity. We tested this by manipulating male age and paternity assurance in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides. We found older males invested more in both mating effort and parental effort than younger males. Furthermore, male age, a component of male state, mediated male response to perceived paternity. Older males provided more prenatal care, whereas younger males provided less prenatal care, when perceived paternity was low. Adjustments in male care, however, did not influence selection acting indirectly on parents, through offspring performance. This is because females adjusted their care in response to the age of their partner, providing less care when paired with older males than younger males. As a result offspring, performance did not differ between treatments. Our study shows, for the first time, that a male state variable is an important modifier of paternity–parental care trade-offs and highlights the importance of social interactions between males and females during care in determining male response to perceived paternity. PMID:23782889

Benowitz, Kyle M.; Head, Megan L.; Williams, Camellia A.; Moore, Allen J.; Royle, Nick J.

2013-01-01

303

Telomere length, family history, and paternal age in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is longer in association with advanced paternal age, but this association has not been examined along with family history (FH) in schizophrenia. LTL was measured by PCR and compared across cases and controls as part of a study to examine the characteristics of paternal age related schizophrenia. The 53 schizophrenia cases had similar mean LTL as 20 controls, although cases were significantly older than controls and overwhelmingly smoked cigarettes. Multivariate analyses showed that a FH of schizophrenia was associated with longer LTL in both male and female cases. Later paternal age was also related to longer LTL in male cases, but with shorter LTL in female cases. Male cases with older fathers and a FH had the longest LTL. The genetic architecture associated with a familial risk for schizophrenia may include pathways that lengthen LTL. Paternal aging conferred an additional increase in LTL lengthening in male cases, but reduced LTL in female cases. The gender difference in LTL for paternal aging is consistent with the severe illness features reported for female cases with older fathers and could implicate epigenetic alterations in the paternal X chromosomal region with advanced paternal age in association with the risk for schizophrenia. PMID:25077175

Malaspina, Dolores; Dracxler, Roberta; Walsh-Messinger, Julie; Harlap, Susan; Goetz, Raymond R; Keefe, David; Perrin, Mary C

2014-07-01

304

Effects of body size on male mating tactics and paternity in black bears, Ursus americanus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reproductive behaviour of large, solitary mammals is difficult to study. Owing to their secretive nature and wide-ranging habits, aspects of male mating behaviour are poorly documented in solitary than in social species. We used radiotelemetry and microsatellite DNA analysis to investigate the influence of body size on male mating tac- tics and short-term reproductive success in the black bear,

Adrienne I. Kovach; Roger A. Powell

2003-01-01

305

Conservation of noncoding microsatellites in plants: implication for gene regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Microsatellites are extremely common in plant genomes, and in particular, they are significantly enriched in the 5' noncoding regions. Although some 5' noncoding microsatellites involved in gene regulation have been described, the general properties of microsatellites as regulatory elements are still unknown. To address the question of microsatellites associated with regulatory elements, we have analyzed the conserved noncoding microsatellite

Lida Zhang; Kaijing Zuo; Fei Zhang; Youfang Cao; Jiang Wang; Yidong Zhang; Xiaofen Sun; Kexuan Tang

2006-01-01

306

A microsatellite marker based linkage map of tobacco.  

PubMed

We report the first linkage map of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) generated through microsatellite markers. The microsatellite markers were predominantly derived from genomic sequences of the Tobacco Genome Initiative (TGI) through bioinformatics screening for microsatellite motives. A total of 684 primer pairs were screened for functionality in a panel of 16 tobacco lines. Of those, 637 primer pairs were functional. Potential parents for mapping populations were evaluated for their polymorphism level through genetic similarity analysis. The similarity analysis revealed that the known groups of tobacco varieties (Burley, Flue-cured, Oriental and Dark) form distinct clusters. A mapping population, based on a cross between varieties Hicks Broad Leaf and Red Russian, and consisting of 186 F2 individuals, was selected for mapping. A total of 282 functional microsatellite markers were polymorphic in this population and 293 loci could be mapped together with the morphological trait flower color. Twenty-four tentative linkage groups spanning 1,920 cM could be identified. This map will provide the basis for the genetic mapping of traits in tobacco and for further analyses of the tobacco genome. PMID:17115128

Bindler, Gregor; van der Hoeven, Rutger; Gunduz, Irfan; Plieske, Jörg; Ganal, Martin; Rossi, Luca; Gadani, Ferruccio; Donini, Paolo

2007-01-01

307

Transcriptome analysis of channel catfish ( Ictalurus punctatus): initial analysis of gene expression and microsatellite-containing cDNAs in the skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous molecular genetic studies on channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) have focused on limited number of genes and gene products. Recent advancement of molecular techniques made high throughput analysis of transcriptomes possible. As part of our transcriptome analysis of channel catfish, we have analyzed 1909 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) derived from a skin library. Of the 1909 ESTs analyzed, 1376 (72.1%)

Attila Karsi; Dongfeng Cao; Ping Li; Andrea Patterson; Arif Kocabas; Jinian Feng; Zhenlin Ju; Kathryn D. Mickett; Zhanjiang Liu

2002-01-01

308

A substantial proportion of microsatellite-unstable colon tumors carry TP53 mutations while not showing chromosomal instability.  

PubMed

Chromosomal instability in colon tumors implies the presence of numerical and structural chromosome aberrations and is further characterized by the absence of microsatellite instability and the occurrence of KRAS and/or TP53 mutations. In a previous screening of 194 colon tumors for both microsatellite instability and TP53 mutation, we found 25 microsatellite-unstable tumors, in 9 (36%) of which, presumed to be chromosomally stable, there were TP53 mutations. This prompted us to investigate whether a TP53 mutation in these microsatellite-unstable tumors would be an indicator of chromosomal instability, that is, whether this would be a category of tumors showing both microsatellite and chromosomal instability. For chromosomal instability assessment, we performed array-comparative genomic hybridization analysis of tumor and control DNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded stage III colon tumor specimens. The array consisted of 435 subtelomere-specific BACs. We compared all but one (whose DNA was of bad quality) of the microsatellite-unstable TP53 mutation-containing tumors (8) with a similarly sized group of microsatellite-unstable tumors without TP53 mutation (11). Microsatellite-unstable tumors with a TP53 mutation showed on average 0.9 aberrations (range 0-3) when assessed with this array system. Those without a TP53 mutation showed on average 0.7 aberrations (range 0-2). Thus, microsatellite-unstable tumors showed few chromosomal abnormalities regardless of TP53 mutation status. Because, in our study, the microsatellite-stable tumors had on average 3.4chromosomal abnormalities (range 0-7), a clear difference exists between microsatellite-unstable and -stable tumors. Because a substantial proportion of microsatellite-unstable colon tumors carry a TP53 mutation while showing relativelyfewchromosomal aberrations, a TP53 mutation in these tumors cannot be considered to be an indicator of chromosomal instability. PMID:15729700

Westra, Jantine L; Boven, Ludolf G; van der Vlies, Pieter; Faber, Hendrika; Sikkema, Birgit; Schaapveld, Michael; Dijkhuizen, Trijnie; Hollema, Harry; Buys, Charles H C M; Plukker, John T M; Kok, Klaas; Hofstra, Robert M W

2005-06-01

309

Patrilocal Residence and Father–Child Resemblance Beliefs in Relation to Paternal Investment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The present study investigated the moderating effect of patrilocality—whether a child's mother lives with paternal grandparents—on the relation between father–child resemblance belief and paternal investment. Design and Results. On the basis of 341 children and their parents from rural China, belief in paternal resemblance was found to be related to higher paternal warmth toward the child, higher paternal marital

Lei Chang; Hui Jing Lu; Louis N. Y. Lee; Tong Li; Sha Sha Sui

2010-01-01

310

DETERMINATION OF GENETIC DIVERSITY AND PATERNITY IN THE GRAY-TAILED VOLE (MICROTUS CANICAUDUS) BY RAPD-PCR  

EPA Science Inventory

Genetic relatedness of gray-tailed voles (Microtus canicaudus) was determined by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). This work is the first reported use of the RAPD method for pedigree analysis of M. canicaudus and demonstrates the feasibility of RAPD for assessing paternity...

311

Domain-Level Differences in Microsatellite Distribution and Content Result from Different Relative Rates of Insertion and Deletion Mutations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microsatellites (short tandem polynucleotide repeats) are found throughout eukaryotic genomes at frequencies many orders of magnitude higher than the frequencies predicted to occur by chance. Most of these microsatellites appear to have evolved in a generally neutral manner. In contrast, microsatellites are generally absent from bacterial genomes except in locations where they provide adaptive functional variability, and these appear to have evolved under selection. We demonstrate a mutational bias towards deletion (repeat contraction) in a native chromosomal microsatellite of the bacterium Mycoplasma gallisepticum, through the collection and analysis of independent mutations in the absence of natural selection. Using this and similar existing data from two other bacterial species and four eukaryotic species, we find strong evidence that deletion biases resulting in repeat contraction are common in bacteria, while eukaryotic microsatellites generally experience unbiased mutation or a bias towards insertion (repeat expansion). This difference in mutational bias suggests that eukaryotic microsatellites should generally expand wherever selection does not exclude them, whereas bacterial microsatellites should be driven to extinction by mutational pressure wherever they are not maintained by selection. This is consistent with observed bacterial and eukaryotic microsatellite distributions. Hence, mutational biases that differ between eukaryotes and bacteria can account for many of the observed differences in microsatellite DNA content and distribution found in these two groups of organisms.

Metzgar, David; Liu, Li; Hansen, Christian; Dybvig, Kevin; Wills, Christopher

2003-01-01

312

Phylogeography and population structure of the saker falcon ( Falco cherrug ) and the influence of hybridization: mitochondrial and microsatellite data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsatellite as well as sequence analysis of the mitochondrial control region were applied to infer phylogeography and population genetic structure of the saker falcon ( Falco cherrug ). Furthermore, we compared the patterns of mitochondrial haplotypes with the variation of microsatellite alleles among the species of the hierofalcon complex ( F. cherrug , Falco rusticolus , Falco biarmicus , Falco

FRANZISKA NITTINGER; ANITA GAMAUF; WILHELM PINSKER; MICHAEL WINK; ELISABETH HARING

313

Twelve polymorphic microsatellite loci from the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, the vector for citrus greening disease Huanglongbing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Twelve polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed from microsatellite-enriched DNA libraries and mined from an EST library of Diaphorina citri, the vector of the devastating citrus greening disease (Huanglongbing). Analysis of 288 individuals from Florida, Texas, and Brazil showed allelic di...

314

O father where art thou? Paternity analyses in a natural population of the haploid-diploid seaweed Chondrus crispus.  

PubMed

The link between life history traits and mating systems in diploid organisms has been extensively addressed in the literature, whereas the degree of selfing and/or inbreeding in natural populations of haploid-diploid organisms, in which haploid gametophytes alternate with diploid sporophytes, has been rarely measured. Dioecy has often been used as a proxy for the mating system in these organisms. Yet, dioecy does not prevent the fusion of gametes from male and female gametophytes originating from the same sporophyte. This is likely a common occurrence when spores from the same parent are dispersed in clumps and recruit together. This pattern of clumped spore dispersal has been hypothesized to explain significant heterozygote deficiency in the dioecious haploid-diploid seaweed Chondrus crispus. Fronds and cystocarps (structures in which zygotes are mitotically amplified) were sampled in two 25?m(2) plots located within a high and a low intertidal zone and genotyped at 5 polymorphic microsatellite loci in order to explore the mating system directly using paternity analyses. Multiple males sired cystocarps on each female, but only one of the 423 paternal genotypes corresponded to a field-sampled gametophyte. Nevertheless, larger kinship coefficients were detected between males siring cystocarps on the same female in comparison with males in the entire population, confirming restricted spermatial and clumped spore dispersal. Such dispersal mechanisms may be a mode of reproductive assurance due to nonmotile gametes associated with putatively reduced effects of inbreeding depression because of the free-living haploid stage in C. crispus. PMID:25227258

Krueger-Hadfield, S A; Roze, D; Correa, J A; Destombe, C; Valero, M

2015-02-01

315

Successful development of microsatellite markers in a challenging species: the horizontal borer Austroplatypus incompertus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).  

PubMed

The analysis of microsatellite loci has allowed significant advances in evolutionary biology and pest management. However, until very recently, the potential benefits have been compromised by the high costs of developing these neutral markers. High-throughput sequencing provides a solution to this problem. We describe the development of 13 microsatellite markers for the eusocial ambrosia beetle, Austroplatypus incompertus, a significant pest of forests in southeast Australia. The frequency of microsatellite repeats in the genome of A. incompertus was determined to be low, and previous attempts at microsatellite isolation using a traditional genomic library were problematic. Here, we utilised two protocols, microsatellite-enriched genomic library construction and high-throughput 454 sequencing and characterised 13 loci which were polymorphic among 32 individuals. Numbers of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 17, and observed and expected heterozygosities from 0.344 to 0.767 and from 0.507 to 0.860, respectively. These microsatellites have the resolution required to analyse fine-scale colony and population genetic structure. Our work demonstrates the utility of next-generation 454 sequencing as a method for rapid and cost-effective acquisition of microsatellites where other techniques have failed, or for taxa where marker development has historically been both complicated and expensive. PMID:21477421

Smith, S; Joss, T; Stow, A

2011-10-01

316

Microsatellite instability in adenocarcinomas of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Relation to clinicopathological data and family history.  

PubMed Central

We analyzed 66 adenocarcinomas arising in the upper gastrointestinal tract for microsatellite instability at eight microsatellite loci to investigate the role of these genetic alterations in the etiology of these tumors. We identified alterations in at least one locus in 11/46 adenocarcinomas of the stomach, in 2/15 adenocarcinomas arising in Barrett's esophagus, and in 1/5 adenocarcinomas of the duodenum and jejunum. Microsatellite instability in gastric tumors was found in 5/22 of intestinal, 1/3 of mixed, and 5/21 of diffuse type tumors. No relationship to the tumor stage (TNM), age, and survival time of the patients was observed. One patient had two synchronous gastric tumors both exhibiting microsatellite instability at multiple loci. His family history revealed four individuals in the maternal line afflicted with gastric carcinoma in three generations. Our data show that microsatellite instability is a genetic event in 11 to 24% of tumors of the upper gastrointestinal tract. The observation of microsatellite instability and a familial clustering of gastric tumors may suggest a genetic predisposition for a subset of gastric tumors, which may be identified by microsatellite analysis. Images Figure 1 PMID:7677173

Keller, G.; Rotter, M.; Vogelsang, H.; Bischoff, P.; Becker, K. F.; Mueller, J.; Brauch, H.; Siewert, J. R.; Höfler, H.

1995-01-01

317

Canine Paternity Testing--Using Personal Experiences To Teach Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines how an example from the field of animal husbandry is used in a DNA Technology course to motivate students to take a deeper interest in the material. Focuses on paternity testing in dogs. (DDR)

Rascati, Ralph J.

2002-01-01

318

A novel microsatellite control system  

SciTech Connect

The authors are researching extremely simple yet quite capable analog pulse-coded neural networks for ``smaller-faster-cheaper`` spacecraft attitude and control systems. The will demonstrate a prototype microsatellite that uses their novel control method to autonomously stabilize itself in the ambient magnetic field and point itself at the brightest available light source. Though still in design infancy, the ``Nervous Net`` controllers described could allow for space missions not currently possible given conventional satellite hardware. Result, prospects and details are presented.

Moore, K.R.; Frigo, J.R.; Tilden, M.W.

1998-02-01

319

High resolution of human evolutionary trees with polymorphic microsatellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

GENETIC variation at hypervariable loci is being used extensively for linkage analysis1 and individual identification2, and may be useful for inter-population studies2-5. Here we show that polymorphic microsatellites (primarily CA repeats) allow trees of human individuals to be constructed that reflect their geographic origin with remarkable accuracy. This is achieved by the analysis of a large number of loci for

A. M. Bowcock; A. Ruiz-Linares; J. Tomfohrde; E. Minch; J. R. Kidd; L. L. Cavalli-Sforza

1994-01-01

320

Eight polymorphic microsatellite markers for Rhinanthus minor.  

PubMed

Little research has been carried out on the genetics of Rhinanthus minor to date. To enable study of this species, eight polymorphic microsatellite loci were developed, using a genomic library enriched for microsatellites. All loci are polymorphic in the two UK populations tested, Bardister and Oxwich Bay. These microsatellite markers will be useful for studying genetic structure and subspecies differences of R. minor. PMID:21564594

Houston, Kelly; Wolff, Kirsten

2009-01-01

321

Linkage analysis of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy and microsatellite loci spanning 61 cM of human chromosome 6p in 19 nuclear pedigrees provides no evidence for a susceptibility locus in this region  

SciTech Connect

Linkage analysis in separately ascertained families of probands with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) has previously provided evidence both for and against the existence of a locus (designated {open_quotes}EJM1{close_quotes}), on chromosome 6p, predisposing to a trait defined as either clinical JME, its associated electroencephalographic abnormality, or idiopathic generalized epilepsy. Linkage analysis was performed in 19 families in which a proband and at least one first- or two second-degree relatives have clinical JME. Family members were typed for seven highly polymorphic microsatellite markers on chromosome 6p: D6S260, D6S276, D6S291, D6S271, D6S465, D6S257, and D6S254. Pairwise and multipoint linkage analysis was carried out under the assumptions of autosomal dominant inheritance at 70% and 50% penetrance and autosomal recessive inheritance at 70% and 50% penetrance. No significant evidence in favor of linkage to the clinical trait of JME was obtained for any locus. The region formally excluded (LOD score <-2) by using multipoint analysis varies depending on the assumptions made concerning inheritance parameters and the proportion of linked families, {alpha} - that is, the degree of locus heterogeneity. Further analysis either classifying all unaffected individuals as unknown or excluding a subset of four families in which pyknoleptic absence seizures were present in one or more individuals did not alter these conclusions. 24 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Elmslie, F.V.; Williamson, M.P.; Rees, M. [Rayne Inst., London (United Kingdom)] [and others

1996-09-01

322

MICROSATELLITE LETTERS EST-based microsatellites for northern pike (Esox lucius)  

E-print Network

MICROSATELLITE LETTERS EST-based microsatellites for northern pike (Esox lucius) and cross novel microsatellite markers in North American northern pike, Esox lucius, and tested cross out of 17 loci were successfully cross-amplified on all species. Keywords Esox lucius Á Northern pike

Bernatchez, Louis

323

Feto-infant Health and Survival: Does Paternal Involvement Matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lack of paternal involvement during pregnancy and infancy may account for a significant burden of the adverse pregnancy outcomes\\u000a among black women and could therefore, represent an important avenue providing the opportunity to improve feto-infant health\\u000a and survival. This study aimed to review the literature on paternal involvement during the perinatal period and its influence\\u000a on feto-infant health and survival.

Amina P. AlioHamisu; Hamisu M. Salihu; Jennifer L. Kornosky; Alice M. Richman; Phillip J. Marty

2010-01-01

324

The effect of paternal age on fetal birth outcomes.  

PubMed

Research investigating the role of paternal age in adverse birth outcomes is limited. This population-based retrospective cohort study used the Missouri maternally linked data set from 1989 to 2005 to assess whether paternal age affects fetal birth outcomes: low birth weight (LBW), preterm birth (PTB), stillbirth, and small size for gestational age (SGA). We examined these outcomes among infants across seven paternal age-groups (<20, 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39, 40-45, and >45 years) using the generalized estimating equation framework. Compared with infants born to younger fathers (25-29 years), infants born to fathers aged 40 to 45 years had a 24% increased risk of stillbirth but a reduced risk of SGA. A 48% increased risk of late stillbirth was observed in infants born to advanced paternal age (>45 years). Moreover, advanced paternal age (>45 years) was observed to result in a 19%, 13%, and 29% greater risk for LBW, PTB, and VPTB (very preterm birth) infants, respectively. Infants born to fathers aged 30 to 39 years had a lower risk of LBW, PTB, and SGA, whereas those born to fathers aged 24 years or younger had an elevated likelihood of experiencing these same adverse outcomes. These findings demonstrate that paternal age influences birth outcomes and warrants further investigation. PMID:22564913

Alio, Amina P; Salihu, Hamisu M; McIntosh, Cheri; August, Euna M; Weldeselasse, Hanna; Sanchez, Emanny; Mbah, Alfred K

2012-09-01

325

Paternal social enrichment effects on maternal behavior and offspring growth.  

PubMed

Paternal environmental experiences are significant predictors of developmental outcomes in offspring and can occur even in the absence of paternal care. Although there has been a recent focus on the role of environmentally induced changes in the male germline in producing these effects, the potential mediating role of mothers has not been investigated. A role for mothers in the transmission of paternal effects has been well acknowledged in behavioral ecology, which predicts that females will dynamically adjust their reproductive investment in response to the qualities of their mate. In the present study, we show that a lifetime of socially enriched compared with impoverished housing conditions shifts anxiety-like behavior and gene expression of male mice. Females that mate with enriched-reared males exhibit increased levels of pup nursing and licking toward their offspring, which are associated with changes in gene expression within the maternal hypothalamus. Significantly, these changes in maternal behavior are correlated with the general levels of anxiety exhibited by their male mates. Further, we show that paternal environmental enrichment results in increased growth of their offspring. These results suggest that maternal-paternal interactions at mating may guide offspring development, with significant implications for the transgenerational transmission of paternal environmental experiences. PMID:23045657

Mashoodh, Rahia; Franks, Becca; Curley, James P; Champagne, Frances A

2012-10-16

326

Conservation genetics of bull trout: Geographic distribution of variation at microsatellite loci  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the genetic population structure of65 bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus)populations from the northwestern United Statesusing four microsatellite loci. Thedistribution of genetic variation as measuredby microsatellites is consistent with previousallozyme and mitochondrial DNA analysis. Thereis relatively little genetic variation withinpopulations (HS = 0.000 – 0.404,average HS = 0.186, but substantialdivergence between populations (FST = 0.659). In addition, those populations that

P. Spruell; A. R. Hemmingsen; P. J. Howell; N. Kanda; F. W. Allendorf

2003-01-01

327

Application of Microsatellite Markers to Population Genetics Studies of Japanese Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   We examined population genetic structure by means of microsatellite analysis among 7 Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) populations collected from coastal sea areas around Japan. As was expected, all of the 11 microsatellite loci examined were\\u000a variable in all populations (number of alleles per locus, 15.2–18.2; average of expected heterozygosity, 0.74–0.78). Eleven\\u000a population pairs in 21 possible pairwise comparisons showed

Masashi Sekino; Motoyuki Hara

2001-01-01

328

Stocking impact and temporal stability of genetic composition in a brackish northern pike population (Esox lucius L.), assessed using microsatellite DNA analysis of historical and contemporary samples.  

PubMed

During the last decade, brackish northern pike populations in Denmark have been subject to stocking programmes, using nonindigenous pike from freshwater lakes, in order to compensate for drastic population declines. The present study was designed to investigate the genetic impact of stocking freshwater pike into a brackish pike population in Stege Nor, Denmark. We analysed polymorphism at eight microsatellite loci in samples representing the indigenous Stege Nor population prior to stocking (ie from 1956 to 1957), along with a sample of the contemporary Stege Nor population and samples from the three populations used for stocking. Despite large numbers of stocked fry, the results from both individual and population level admixture analyses demonstrated extremely poor performance and <1% introgression of stocked freshwater pike into the brackish pike population. Furthermore, pairwise F(ST) estimates between samples demonstrated close genetic relationship among temporal samples from Stege Nor, indicating temporal stability over the last 45 years. We also estimated the effective population size (N(e)) of pike in Stege Nor and applied a test for recent population bottlenecks. The harmonic mean of N(e) was relatively high (>250), but there were indications of bottlenecks in all samples and populations. We ascribe this finding to historical rather than recent bottlenecks, possibly dating back to founder events associated with postglacial recolonisation. PMID:15999144

Larsen, P F; Hansen, M M; Nielsen, E E; Jensen, L F; Loeschcke, V

2005-08-01

329

Karyotypic analysis and FISH mapping of microsatellite motifs reveal highly differentiated XX/XY sex chromosomes in the pink-tailed worm-lizard (Aprasia parapulchella, Pygopodidae, Squamata)  

PubMed Central

Background The infraorder Gekkota is intriguing because it contains multiple chromosomal and environmental sex determination systems that vary even among closely related taxa. Here, we compare male and females karyotypes of the pink-tailed worm-lizard (Aprasia parapulchella), a small legless lizard belonging to the endemic Australian family Pygopodidae. Results We applied comparative genomic hybridization to reveal an XX/XY sex chromosome system in which the Y chromosome is highly differentiated from the X in both gross morphology and DNA sequence. In addition, FISH mapping has revealed that two microsatellite repeat motifs, (AGAT)n and (AC)n, have been amplified multiple times on the Y chromosome. Conclusion XY karyotypes are found in other pygopodids (Delma inornata and Lialis burtonis), suggesting that the common ancestor of Pygopodidae also had XY sex chromosomes. However, the morphology and size of the Y chromosomes are different among the three species, suggesting that the processes underlying the evolution of sex chromosomes in the Pygopodidae involved chromosome rearrangements and accumulation and amplification of repeats. PMID:24344753

2013-01-01

330

Microsatellite and mtDNA analysis of lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, from Great Bear Lake, Northwest Territories: impacts of historical and contemporary evolutionary forces on Arctic ecosystems  

PubMed Central

Resolving the genetic population structure of species inhabiting pristine, high latitude ecosystems can provide novel insights into the post-glacial, evolutionary processes shaping the distribution of contemporary genetic variation. In this study, we assayed genetic variation in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Great Bear Lake (GBL), NT and one population outside of this lake (Sandy Lake, NT) at 11 microsatellite loci and the mtDNA control region (d-loop). Overall, population subdivision was low, but significant (global FST ? = 0.025), and pairwise comparisons indicated that significance was heavily influenced by comparisons between GBL localities and Sandy Lake. Our data indicate that there is no obvious genetic structure among the various basins within GBL (global FST = 0.002) despite the large geographic distances between sampling areas. We found evidence of low levels of contemporary gene flow among arms within GBL, but not between Sandy Lake and GBL. Coalescent analyses suggested that some historical gene flow occurred among arms within GBL and between GBL and Sandy Lake. It appears, therefore, that contemporary (ongoing dispersal and gene flow) and historical (historical gene flow and large founding and present-day effective population sizes) factors contribute to the lack of neutral genetic structure in GBL. Overall, our results illustrate the importance of history (e.g., post-glacial colonization) and contemporary dispersal ecology in shaping genetic population structure of Arctic faunas and provide a better understanding of the evolutionary ecology of long-lived salmonids in pristine, interconnected habitats. PMID:23404390

Harris, Les N; Howland, Kimberly L; Kowalchuk, Matthew W; Bajno, Robert; Lindsay, Melissa M; Taylor, Eric B

2013-01-01

331

Paternal exposure to mercury and spontaneous abortions.  

PubMed Central

The potential reproductive toxicity of mercury vapour was investigated by comparing the rate of spontaneous abortions among the wives of 152 workers occupationally exposed to mercury vapour with the rate among the wives of 374 controls in the same plant. The results indicate an increase in the rate of spontaneous abortions with an increasing concentration of mercury in the fathers' urine before pregnancy. At concentrations above 50 micrograms/l the risk of spontaneous abortion doubles (odds ratio (OR) = 2.26; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.99-5.23). Special care was taken to avoid bias in reporting abortions and known risk factors of spontaneous abortions do not seem to explain the results. Several biological mechanisms might account for them including, in particular, direct action of mercury on the paternal reproductive system and indirect toxicity to the mother or embryo through transport of mercury from the father. These indications could be of practical importance and should therefore be further documented. PMID:2064975

Cordier, S; Deplan, F; Mandereau, L; Hemon, D

1991-01-01

332

AFLP fingerprinting for paternity testing in ducks.  

PubMed

1. The accuracy and reproducibility of AFLP fingerprinting was investigated in the duck (Anas Platyrhynchos), using a multicolour fluorescent labeling technique. The fluorescent labelling fragments were separated on a capillary electrophoresis-base ABI PRISM 3100 Genetic Analyzer. 2. A total of 337 AFLP peaks with 103 of them being polymorphic markers were generated by 16 sets consisting of EcoRI/TaqI primer pair combinations. The number and size range of AFLP polymorphisms detected per primer pair varied from 3 to 11 and 58 to 290 bp, respectively. About 30.6% (103/337) of AFLP peaks were detected polymorphisms, with an average of 6.4 polymorphic markers per primer pair. 3. The clear polymorphic peaks were amplified with EcoR+AC/Taq+AC primer combinations. The AFLP peaks showed high reproducibility. From the family testing, we found that the fingerprints of all the offspring were derived from one or other parent. Therefore, we conclude that AFLP fingerprinting might be a suitable method for duck paternity testing. PMID:17578695

Huang, C-W; Cheng, Y-S; Rouvier, R; Yang, K-T; Wu, C-P; Huang, M-C

2007-06-01

333

Dynamic paternity allocation as a function of male plumage color in barn swallows.  

PubMed

Paternity in male animals can be influenced by their phenotypic signals of quality. Accordingly, the behavior underlying patterns of paternity should be flexible as signals of quality change. To evaluate the dynamics of paternity allocation, we analyzed paternity before and after manipulating plumage coloration, a known signal of quality, in male barn swallows Hirundo rustica. We found that, in successive breeding bouts, only males whose plumage color was experimentally enhanced received greater paternity from their social mates, demonstrating evidence for flexible and dynamic paternity allocation and the importance for males of maintaining signals of quality well after pair bond formation. PMID:16195460

Safran, R J; Neuman, C R; McGraw, K J; Lovette, I J

2005-09-30

334

RAPD identification of microsatellites in Daphnia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simple sequence repeats (SSRs, or microsatellites) have been constantly gaining importance as single-locus DNA markers in population genetics and behavioural ecology. We tested a PCR- based strategy for finding microsatellite loci in anonymous genomes, which avoids genomic library construction and screening, and the need for larger amounts of DNA. In the first step, parts of a genome are randomly amplified

A. Ender; K. Schwenk; T. Stadler; B. Streit; B. Schierwater

1996-01-01

335

Microsatellite primers for red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In this note, we document polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) primer pairs for 101, nuclear-encoded microsatellites designed and developed from a red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) genomic library. The 101 microsatellites (Genbank Accession Numbers EU015882-EU015982) were amplified successfully and used to...

336

Additional microsatellite markers for mouse genome mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mouse sequence information from the EMBL and GenBank databases, published sequences and genomic clones have been analyzed for simple repetitive elements or microsatellites. Each microsatellite has been amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a single locus marker. PCR primers were designed from unique sequence flanking each repeat. Size variation of PCR products less than 750 base pairs (bp)

Catherine M. Hearne; Marcia A. McAleer; Jennifer M. Love; Timothy J. Aitman; Richard J. Cornall; Soumitra Ghosh; Andrew M. Knight; Jan-Bas Prins; John A. Todd

1991-01-01

337

Microsatellite polymorphisms in the gene promoter of monocyte chemotactic protein-3 and analysis of the association between monocyte chemotactic protein-3 alleles and multiple sclerosis development.  

PubMed

Monocyte chemotactic protein 3 (MCP-3) is a chemokine that attracts mononuclear cells, including monocytes and lymphocytes, the inflammatory cell types that predominate in multiple sclerosis lesions. We studied the possible association between the presence of a CA/GA microsatellite repeat polymorphism in the promoter/enhancer region of the MCP-3 gene and the occurrence of multiple sclerosis. DNA samples from 192 Swedish multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and 129 healthy controls were analysed by an automated fluorescent technique. In the whole sample population, five MCP-3 allele variants (MCP-3*A1 to MCP-3*A5) were detected with an allele frequency ranging between 0.3% and 46%. The individual MCP-3 allele frequencies did not differ significantly between MS patients and control individuals. The relative MS risk, attributable to HLA-DRB1*15 was 3.05 (chi2 = 22.25, p < 0.0001). The phenotype frequency (PF) of none of the MCP-3 alleles was significantly altered in the population of controls versus unselected MS patients. When MS patients and control subjects were stratified according to positivity for HLA-DRB1*15, the MCP-3*A4-associated risk for developing MS decreased to 0.36 (p = 0.011). In the stratified groups of patients who were negative for both HLA-DRB1*15 and HLA-DRB1*03, and hence possessed a lower risk to develop MS, the MCP-3*A2-associated risk for MS development decreased significantly (p = 0.018). We conclude that the MCP-3*A4 allele might protect against MS development on the background of the increased risk in HLA-DRB1*15+ individuals and the MCP-3*A2 allele seems protective in low-risk individuals, who are both negative for DRB1*03 and DRB1*15. PMID:10229131

Fiten, P; Vandenbroeck, K; Dubois, B; Van Coillie, E; Nelissen, I; Van Damme, J; Ligers, A; Hillert, J; Andersson, M; Olsson, T; Opdenakker, G

1999-03-01

338

The development of 10 novel polymorphic microsatellite markers through next generation sequencing and a preliminary population genetic analysis for the endangered Glenelg spiny crayfish, Euastacus bispinosus.  

PubMed

The Glenelg spiny crayfish, Euastacus bispinosus, is an iconic freshwater invertebrate of south eastern Australia and listed as 'endangered' under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999, and 'vulnerable' under the International Union for Conservation of Nature's Red List. The species has suffered major population declines as a result of over-fishing, low environmental flows, the introduction of invasive fish species and habitat degradation. In order to develop an effective conservation strategy, patterns of gene flow, genetic structure and genetic diversity across the species distribution need to be clearly understood. In this study we develop a suite of polymorphic microsatellite markers by next generation sequencing. A total of 15 polymorphic loci were identified and 10 characterized using 22 individuals from the lower Glenelg River. We observed low to moderate genetic variation across most loci (mean number of alleles per locus = 2.80; mean expected heterozygosity = 0.36) with no evidence of individual loci deviating significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Marker independence was confirmed with tests for linkage disequilibrium, and analyses indicated no evidence of null alleles across loci. Individuals from two additional sites (Crawford River, Victoria; Ewens Ponds Conservation Park, South Australia) were genotyped at all 10 loci and a preliminary investigation of genetic diversity and population structure was undertaken. Analyses indicate high levels of genetic differentiation among sample locations (F ST = 0.49), while the Ewens Ponds population is genetically homogeneous, indicating a likely small founder group and ongoing inbreeding. Management actions will be needed to restore genetic diversity in this and possibly other at risk populations. These markers will provide a valuable resource for future population genetic assessments so that an effective framework can be developed for implementing conservation strategies for E. bispinosus. PMID:23644985

Miller, Adam D; Van Rooyen, Anthony; Sweeney, Oisín F; Whiterod, Nick S; Weeks, Andrew R

2013-07-01

339

Microsatellite and mtDNA analysis of lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, from Great Bear Lake, Northwest Territories: impacts of historical and contemporary evolutionary forces on Arctic ecosystems.  

PubMed

Resolving the genetic population structure of species inhabiting pristine, high latitude ecosystems can provide novel insights into the post-glacial, evolutionary processes shaping the distribution of contemporary genetic variation. In this study, we assayed genetic variation in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Great Bear Lake (GBL), NT and one population outside of this lake (Sandy Lake, NT) at 11 microsatellite loci and the mtDNA control region (d-loop). Overall, population subdivision was low, but significant (global F(ST) ? = 0.025), and pairwise comparisons indicated that significance was heavily influenced by comparisons between GBL localities and Sandy Lake. Our data indicate that there is no obvious genetic structure among the various basins within GBL (global F(ST) = 0.002) despite the large geographic distances between sampling areas. We found evidence of low levels of contemporary gene flow among arms within GBL, but not between Sandy Lake and GBL. Coalescent analyses suggested that some historical gene flow occurred among arms within GBL and between GBL and Sandy Lake. It appears, therefore, that contemporary (ongoing dispersal and gene flow) and historical (historical gene flow and large founding and present-day effective population sizes) factors contribute to the lack of neutral genetic structure in GBL. Overall, our results illustrate the importance of history (e.g., post-glacial colonization) and contemporary dispersal ecology in shaping genetic population structure of Arctic faunas and provide a better understanding of the evolutionary ecology of long-lived salmonids in pristine, interconnected habitats. PMID:23404390

Harris, Les N; Howland, Kimberly L; Kowalchuk, Matthew W; Bajno, Robert; Lindsay, Melissa M; Taylor, Eric B

2012-01-01

340

Genetic analysis of hybridization and introgression between wild mongoose and brown lemurs  

PubMed Central

Background Hybrid zones generally represent areas of secondary contact after speciation. The nature of the interaction between genes of individuals in a hybrid zone is of interest in the study of evolutionary processes. In this study, data from nuclear microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA sequences were used to genetically characterize hybridization between wild mongoose lemurs (Eulemur mongoz) and brown lemurs (E. fulvus) at Anjamena in west Madagascar. Results Two segments of mtDNA have been sequenced and 12 microsatellite loci screened in 162 brown lemurs and mongoose lemurs. Among the mongoose lemur population at Anjamena, we identified two F1 hybrids (one also having the mtDNA haplotype of E. fulvus) and six other individuals with putative introgressed alleles in their genotype. Principal component analysis groups both hybrids as intermediate between E. mongoz and E. fulvus and admixture analyses revealed an admixed genotype for both animals. Paternity testing proved one F1 hybrid to be fertile. Of the eight brown lemurs genotyped, all have either putative introgressed microsatellite alleles and/or the mtDNA haplotype of E. mongoz. Conclusion Introgression is bidirectional for the two species, with an indication that it is more frequent in brown lemurs than in mongoose lemurs. We conclude that this hybridization occurs because mongoose lemurs have expanded their range relatively recently. Introgressive hybridization may play an important role in the unique lemur radiation, as has already been shown in other rapidly evolving animals. PMID:19196458

Pastorini, Jennifer; Zaramody, Alphonse; Curtis, Deborah J; Nievergelt, Caroline M; Mundy, Nicholas I

2009-01-01

341

Origin and genome evolution of polyploid green toads in Central Asia: evidence from microsatellite markers.  

PubMed

Polyploidization, which is expected to trigger major genomic reorganizations, occurs much less commonly in animals than in plants, possibly because of constraints imposed by sex-determination systems. We investigated the origins and consequences of allopolyploidization in Palearctic green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup) from Central Asia, with three ploidy levels and different modes of genome transmission (sexual versus clonal), to (i) establish a topology for the reticulate phylogeny in a species-rich radiation involving several closely related lineages and (ii) explore processes of genomic reorganization that may follow polyploidization. Sibship analyses based on 30 cross-amplifying microsatellite markers substantiated the maternal origins and revealed the paternal origins and relationships of subgenomes in allopolyploids. Analyses of the synteny of linkage groups identified three markers affected by translocation events, which occurred only within the paternally inherited subgenomes of allopolyploid toads and exclusively affected the linkage group that determines sex in several diploid species of the green toad radiation. Recombination rates did not differ between diploid and polyploid toad species, and were overall much reduced in males, independent of linkage group and ploidy levels. Clonally transmitted subgenomes in allotriploid toads provided support for strong genetic drift, presumably resulting from recombination arrest. The Palearctic green toad radiation seems to offer unique opportunities to investigate the consequences of polyploidization and clonal transmission on the dynamics of genomes in vertebrates. PMID:25370211

Betto-Colliard, C; Sermier, R; Litvinchuk, S; Perrin, N; Stöck, M

2015-03-01

342

Paternalism, autonomy and reciprocity: ethical perspectives in encounters with patients in psychiatric in-patient care  

PubMed Central

Background Psychiatric staff members have the power to decide the options that frame encounters with patients. Intentional as well as unintentional framing can have a crucial impact on patients’ opportunities to be heard and participate in the process. We identified three dominant ethical perspectives in the normative medical ethics literature concerning how doctors and other staff members should frame interactions in relation to patients; paternalism, autonomy and reciprocity. The aim of this study was to describe and analyse statements describing real work situations and ethical reflections made by staff members in relation to three central perspectives in medical ethics; paternalism, autonomy and reciprocity. Methods All staff members involved with patients in seven adult psychiatric and six child and adolescent psychiatric clinics were given the opportunity to freely describe ethical considerations in their work by keeping an ethical diary over the course of one week and 173 persons handed in their diaries. Qualitative theory-guided content analysis was used to provide a description of staff encounters with patients and in what way these encounters were consistent with, or contrary to, the three perspectives. Results The majority of the statements could be attributed to the perspective of paternalism and several to autonomy. Only a few statements could be attributed to reciprocity, most of which concerned staff members acting contrary to the perspective. The result is presented as three perspectives containing eight values. •Paternalism; 1) promoting and restoring the health of the patient, 2) providing good care and 3) assuming responsibility. •Autonomy; 1) respecting the patient’s right to self-determination and information, 2) respecting the patient’s integrity and 3) protecting human rights. •Reciprocity; 1) involving patients in the planning and implementation of their care and 2) building trust between staff and patients. Conclusions Paternalism clearly appeared to be the dominant perspective among the participants, but there was also awareness of patients’ right to autonomy. Despite a normative trend towards reciprocity in psychiatry throughout the Western world, identifying it proved difficult in this study. This should be borne in mind by clinics when considering the need for ethical education, training and supervision. PMID:24314345

2013-01-01

343

Prolactin and Paternal Care: Comparison of Three Species of Monogamous New World Monkeys  

E-print Network

Prolactin and Paternal Care: Comparison of Three Species of Monogamous New World Monkeys whether prolactin is associated with paternal care in 3 monkey species: titi monkey (Callicebus cupreus), common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), and Goeldi's monkey (Callimico goeldii). They compared prolactin

Reeder, DeeAnn M.

344

FishMicrosat: a microsatellite database of commercially important fishes and shellfishes of the Indian subcontinent  

PubMed Central

Background Microsatellite DNA is one of many powerful genetic markers used for the construction of genetic linkage maps and the study of population genetics. The biological databases in public domain hold vast numbers of microsatellite sequences for many organisms including fishes. The microsatellite data available in these data sources were extracted and managed into a database that facilitates sequences analysis and browsing relevant information. The system also helps to design primer sequences for flanking regions of repeat loci for PCR identification of polymorphism within populations. Description FishMicrosat is a database of microsatellite sequences of fishes and shellfishes that includes important aquaculture species such as Lates calcarifer, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Penaeus monodon, Labeo rohita, Oreochromis niloticus, Fenneropenaeus indicus and Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The database contains 4398 microsatellite sequences of 41 species belonging to 15 families from the Indian subcontinent. GenBank of NCBI was used as a prime data source for developing the database. The database presents information about simple and compound microsatellites, their clusters and locus orientation within sequences. The database has been integrated with different tools in a web interface such as primer designing, locus finding, mapping repeats, detecting similarities among sequences across species, and searching using motifs and keywords. In addition, the database has the ability to browse information on the top 10 families and the top 10 species, through record overview. Conclusions FishMicrosat database is a useful resource for fish and shellfish microsatellite analyses and locus identification across species, which has important applications in population genetics, evolutionary studies and genetic relatedness among species. The database can be expanded further to include the microsatellite data of fishes and shellfishes from other regions and available information on genome sequencing project of species of aquaculture importance. PMID:24047532

2013-01-01

345

Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers from three species of swallows in the genus Tachycineta: T. albilinea, T. bicolor and T. leucorrhoa.  

PubMed

We describe 30 microsatellite loci developed from three species of swallows in the genus Tachycineta: T. bicolor (tree swallow), T. albilinea (mangrove swallow), and T. leucorrhoa (white-rumped swallow). These commonly studied birds nest in secondary cavities and are distributed from Alaska to Argentina. Primer pairs were designed for each species individually and tested for cross-amplification in 40-48 individuals of all three species. Polymorphism ranged from 5 to 65 alleles per locus (mean = 19.1). These markers will allow comparative studies of extra-pair paternity rates among members of the genus as well as the assessment of population structure. PMID:21564713

Makarewich, C A; Stenzler, L M; Ferretti, V; Winkler, D W; Lovette, I J

2009-03-01

346

The effects of advanced paternal age on fertility  

PubMed Central

Modern societal pressures and expectations over the past several decades have resulted in the tendency for couples to delay conception. While women experience a notable decrease in oocyte production in their late thirties, the effect of age on spermatogenesis is less well described. While there are no known limits to the age at which men can father children, the effects of advanced paternal age are incompletely understood. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding advanced paternal age and its implications on semen quality, reproductive success and offspring health. This review will serve as a guide to physicians in counseling men about the decision to delay paternity and the risks involved with conception later in life. PMID:23912310

Kovac, Jason R; Addai, Josephine; Smith, Ryan P; Coward, Robert M; Lamb, Dolores J; Lipshultz, Larry I

2013-01-01

347

The effects of advanced paternal age on fertility.  

PubMed

Modern societal pressures and expectations over the past several decades have resulted in the tendency for couples to delay conception. While women experience a notable decrease in oocyte production in their late thirties, the effect of age on spermatogenesis is less well described. While there are no known limits to the age at which men can father children, the effects of advanced paternal age are incompletely understood. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding advanced paternal age and its implications on semen quality, reproductive success and offspring health. This review will serve as a guide to physicians in counseling men about the decision to delay paternity and the risks involved with conception later in life. PMID:23912310

Kovac, Jason R; Addai, Josephine; Smith, Ryan P; Coward, Robert M; Lamb, Dolores J; Lipshultz, Larry I

2013-11-01

348

Experimental parasite infection reveals costs and benefits of paternal effects  

PubMed Central

Forces shaping an individual's phenotype are complex and include transgenerational effects. Despite low investment into reproduction, a father's environment and phenotype can shape its offspring's phenotype. Whether and when such paternal effects are adaptive, however, remains elusive. Using three-spined sticklebacks in controlled infection experiments, we show that sperm deficiencies in exposed males compared to their unexposed brothers functionally translated into reduced reproductive success in sperm competition trials. In non-competitive fertilisations, offspring of exposed males suffered significant costs of reduced hatching success and survival but they reached a higher body condition than their counterparts from unexposed fathers after experimental infection. Interestingly, those benefits of paternal infection did not result from increased resistance but from increased tolerance to the parasite. Altogether, these results demonstrate that parasite resistance and tolerance are shaped by processes involving both genetic and non-genetic inheritance and suggest a context-dependent adaptive value of paternal effects. PMID:25168056

Kaufmann, Joshka; Lenz, Tobias L; Milinski, Manfred; Eizaguirre, Christophe

2014-01-01

349

Microsatellite retrieval in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).  

PubMed

By using enriched genomic libraries, microsatellite-containing sequences were isolated from lettuce (Lactuca sativa) with high efficiency. With this approach, a sizeable fraction (up to 55%) of the clones contained a microsatellite. In about half of these clones, primers could be designed for PCR amplification of the microsatellite. This yielded 28 primer sets amplifying unambiguously scorable products, of which 26 showed polymorphisms in a test set of six lettuce varieties. Practically all microsatellite-amplifying primer sets yielded products in lettuce's nearest relative, L. serriola, but only half of the primer sets yielded products in the more distant species L. saligna and L. virosa. An average polymorphism information content (PIC) value of 0.55 and an average number of 3.5 alleles per locus were in the normal range for a self-fertilizing species like lettuce. In addition, the incidental cloning of a microsatellite-containing repeat family, apparently specific for Lactuca, is reported and the implications for the efficient retrieval of single-locus microsatellite sequences are discussed. The microsatellite loci isolated will be useful for distinguishing lettuce cultivars and for screening diversity of genetic resources. PMID:10208007

van de Wiel, C; Arens, P; Vosman, B

1999-02-01

350

Characteristic neurobiological patterns differentiate paternal responsiveness in two Peromyscus species.  

PubMed

Rodent paternal models provide unique opportunities to investigate the emergence of affiliative social behavior in mammals. Using biparental and uniparental Peromyscus species (californicus and maniculatus, respectively) we assessed paternal responsiveness by exposing males to biological offspring, unrelated conspecific pups, or familiar brothers following a 24-hour separation. The putative paternal circuit we investigated included brain areas involved in fear/anxiety [cingulate cortex (Cg), medial amygdala (MeA), paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), and lateral septum (LS)], parental motivation [medial preoptic area (MPOA)], learning/behavioral plasticity (hippocampus), olfaction [pyriform cortex (PC)], and social rewards (nucleus accumbens). Paternal experience in californicus males reduced fos immunoreactivity (ir) in several fear/anxiety areas; additionally, all californicus groups exhibited decreased fos-ir in the PC. Enhanced arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT)-ir cell bodies and fibers, as well as increased neuronal restructuring in the hippocampus, were also observed in californicus mice. Multidimensional scaling analyses revealed distinct brain activation profiles differentiating californicus biological fathers, pup-exposed virgins, and pup-naïve virgins. Specifically, associations among MPOA fos, CA1 fos, dentate gyrus GFAP, CA2 nestin-, and PVN OT-ir characterized biological fathers; LS fos-, Cg fos-, and AVP-ir characterized pup-exposed virgins, and PC-, PVN-, and MeA fos-ir characterized pup-naïve virgins. Thus, whereas fear/anxiety areas characterized pup-naïve males, neurobiological factors involved in more diverse functions such as learning, motivation, and nurturing responses characterized fatherhood in biparental californicus mice. Less distinct paternal-dependent activation patterns were observed in uniparental maniculatus mice. These data suggest that dual neurobiological circuits, leading to the inhibition of social-dependent anxiety as well as the activation of affiliative responses, characterize the transition from nonpaternal to paternal status in californicus mice. PMID:21546770

Lambert, Kelly G; Franssen, Catherine L; Bardi, Massimo; Hampton, Joseph E; Hainley, Leslie; Karsner, Stephanie; Tu, Eddie B; Hyer, Molly M; Crockett, Ashly; Baranova, Anya; Ferguson, Tajh; Ferguson, Tenaj; Kinsley, Craig H

2011-01-01

351

Developing genome-wide microsatellite markers of bamboo and their applications on molecular marker assisted taxonomy for accessions in the genus Phyllostachys.  

PubMed

Morphology-based taxonomy via exiguously reproductive organ has severely limitation on bamboo taxonomy, mainly owing to infrequent and unpredictable flowering events of bamboo. Here, we present the first genome-wide analysis and application of microsatellites based on the genome of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) to assist bamboo taxonomy. Of identified 127,593 microsatellite repeat-motifs, the primers of 1,451 microsatellites were designed and 1,098 markers were physically mapped on the genome of moso bamboo. A total of 917 markers were successfully validated in 9 accessions with ~39.8% polymorphic potential. Retrieved from validated microsatellite markers, 23 markers were selected for polymorphic analysis among 78 accessions and 64 alleles were detected with an average of 2.78 alleles per primers. The cluster result indicated the majority of the accessions were consistent with their current taxonomic classification, confirming the suitability and effectiveness of the developed microsatellite markers. The variations of microsatellite marker in different species were confirmed by sequencing and in silico comparative genome mapping were investigated. Lastly, a bamboo microsatellites database (http://www.bamboogdb.org/ssr) was implemented to browse and search large information of bamboo microsatellites. Consequently, our results of microsatellite marker development are valuable for assisting bamboo taxonomy and investigating genomic studies in bamboo and related grass species. PMID:25620112

Zhao, Hansheng; Yang, Li; Peng, Zhenhua; Sun, Huayu; Yue, Xianghua; Lou, Yongfeng; Dong, Lili; Wang, Lili; Gao, Zhimin

2015-01-01

352

Developing genome-wide microsatellite markers of bamboo and their applications on molecular marker assisted taxonomy for accessions in the genus Phyllostachys  

PubMed Central

Morphology-based taxonomy via exiguously reproductive organ has severely limitation on bamboo taxonomy, mainly owing to infrequent and unpredictable flowering events of bamboo. Here, we present the first genome-wide analysis and application of microsatellites based on the genome of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) to assist bamboo taxonomy. Of identified 127,593 microsatellite repeat-motifs, the primers of 1,451 microsatellites were designed and 1,098 markers were physically mapped on the genome of moso bamboo. A total of 917 markers were successfully validated in 9 accessions with ~39.8% polymorphic potential. Retrieved from validated microsatellite markers, 23 markers were selected for polymorphic analysis among 78 accessions and 64 alleles were detected with an average of 2.78 alleles per primers. The cluster result indicated the majority of the accessions were consistent with their current taxonomic classification, confirming the suitability and effectiveness of the developed microsatellite markers. The variations of microsatellite marker in different species were confirmed by sequencing and in silico comparative genome mapping were investigated. Lastly, a bamboo microsatellites database (http://www.bamboogdb.org/ssr) was implemented to browse and search large information of bamboo microsatellites. Consequently, our results of microsatellite marker development are valuable for assisting bamboo taxonomy and investigating genomic studies in bamboo and related grass species. PMID:25620112

Zhao, Hansheng; Yang, Li; Peng, Zhenhua; Sun, Huayu; Yue, Xianghua; Lou, Yongfeng; Dong, Lili; Wang, Lili; Gao, Zhimin

2015-01-01

353

Paternal behavior by Peromyscus leucopus in enclosures XUHUAXIA AND JOHNS. MILLAR  

E-print Network

Paternal behavior by Peromyscus leucopus in enclosures XUHUAXIA AND JOHNS. MILLAR Department,X., and MILLAR,J. S. 1988. Paternal behavior by Peromyscus leucopus in enclosures. Can. J. Zool. 66: 1184- 1187. Male Peromyscus leucopus are known to exhibit well-developed paternal behavior in confined cages

Xia, Xuhua

354

Culturally transmitted paternity beliefs and the evolution of human mating behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent anthropological findings document how certain lowland South American societies hold beliefs in 'partible paternity', which allow children to have more than one 'biological' father. This contrasts with Western beliefs in 'singular paternity', and biological reality, where children have just one father. Here, mathematical models are used to explore the coevolution of paternity beliefs and the genetic variation underlying human

Alex Mesoudi; Kevin N. Laland

2007-01-01

355

[When should evoke prenatal paternal uniparental disomy 14?].  

PubMed

The paternal uniparental disomy 14 is a rare malformation syndrome whose postnatal pathognomonic sign is the deformation of the rib as coat hanger. In prenatal, ultrasonographic signs are major recurrent polyhydramnios, a narrow thorax and deformed long bones short and sometimes other anomalies including ends. The authors report one rare case of prenatal paternal uniparental disomy 14 with the deformation of the rib as coat hanger. Prenatally, the narrow deformed thorax can be searched by ultrasound three-dimensional (3D) and/or helical CT and thus represent an aid to prenatal diagnosis. PMID:24394322

Boiffard, F; Bénéteau, C; Quéré, M P; Philippe, H J; Le Vaillant, C

2014-04-01

356

The academic Chibis-M microsatellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the scientific goals and design developments of the Chibis microsatellite platform and the Groza scientific equipment, which are aimed at studying new physical mechanisms of high-altitude electrical discharges in the atmosphere. A description of the Groza scientific equipment is presented, which is a united flying instrument that determines the basic requirements for the Chibis-M microsatellite. The problems of ground training of the space experiment, methods of launching the microsatellite in the ISS infrastructure into orbit, and command and telemetry control in flight, as well as the first scientific results, are presented.

Zelenyi, L. M.; Gurevich, A. V.; Klimov, S. I.; Angarov, V. N.; Batanov, O. V.; Bogomolov, A. V.; Bogomolov, V. V.; Bodnar, L.; Vavilov, D. I.; Vladimirova, G. A.; Garipov, G. K.; Gotlib, V. M.; Dobriyan, M. B.; Dolgonosov, M. S.; Ivlev, N. A.; Kalyuzhnyi, A. V.; Karedin, V. N.; Karpenko, S. O.; Kozlov, V. M.; Kozlov, I. V.; Korepanov, V. E.; Lizunov, A. A.; Ledkov, A. A.; Nazarov, V. N.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Papkov, A. P.; Rodin, V. G.; Segedi, P.; Svertilov, S. I.; Sukhanov, A. A.; Ferenz, Ch.; Eysmont, N. A.; Yashin, I. V.

2014-03-01

357

Development of microsatellite markers for the endangered Neotropical tree species Tibouchina papyrus (Melastomataceae).  

PubMed

We isolated and characterized 12 microsatellite loci for Tibouchina papyrus (Melastomataceae), an endangered species with narrow and disjunct range, endemics to a few localities in "cerrado rupestre" from Central Brazil. These microsatellites were obtained by sequencing of a genomic shotgun library for primer design. Leaves from 96 individuals collected in the three known local populations were genotyped using the 12 primers designed to analyze the polymorphisms at each locus. The number of alleles per locus ranged from one to six; two loci were monomorphic. Among the polymorphic loci, expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.161 to 0.714. Combined paternity exclusion probability was 0.957 and combined genetic identity (0.051) was high for studies on parentage. Tibouchina papyrus is a rare and endemic tree species of outcrop quartzite and sandstone soils, with highly isolated populations, which may have lead to the low degree of polymorphism that we detected. Also, motifs of most loci are larger than dinucleotide, which typically display lower levels of polymorphism. PMID:21365547

Telles, M P C; Peixoto, F P; Lima, J S; Resende, L V; Vianello, R P; Walter, M E M T; Collevatti, R G

2011-01-01

358

Microsatellite Instability in Colorectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Microsatellite instability (MSI) is a hypermutable phenotype caused by the loss of DNA mismatch repair activity. MSI is detected in about 15% of all colorectal cancers; 3% are of these are associated with Lynch syndrome and the other 12% are caused by sporadic, acquired hypermethylation of the promoter of the MLH1 gene, which occurs in tumors with the CpG island methylator phenotype. Colorectal tumors with MSI have distinctive features, including a tendency to arise in the proximal colon, lymphocytic infiltrate, and a poorly differentiated, mucinous or signet ring appearance. They have a slightly better prognosis than colorectal tumors without MSI and do not have the same response to chemotherapeutics. Discovery of MSI in colorectal tumors has increased awareness of the diversity of colorectal cancers and implications for specialized management of patients. PMID:20420947

Boland, C. Richard; Goel, Ajay

2011-01-01

359

Microsatellite primer development for post oak, Quercus stellata (Fagaceae)1  

PubMed Central

• Premise of the study: The American Cross Timbers forest ecosystem runs from southeastern Kansas to Central Texas and is primarily composed of post oak (Quercus stellata). This old-growth forest currently occupies only about 2% of its ancestral range. To facilitate genetic research on this species, we developed microsatellite primers specific to post oak from reduced genomic libraries. • Methods and Results: Two Q. stellata individuals, sampled from the northern and southern range of the post oak forest, were subject to genomic reduction and 454 pyrosequencing. Bioinformatic analysis identified putative microsatellites from which 12 polymorphic primer sets were screened on three populations. The number of alleles observed ranged from five to 20 across all populations, while observed and expected heterozygosity values ranged from 0.05 to 0.833 and 0.236 to 0.893, respectively, within individual populations. • Conclusions: We report the development of microsatellite markers, specific to post oak, to aid the study of genetic diversity and population structure of extant forest remnants. PMID:25309841

Chatwin, Warren B.; Carpenter, Kyrie K.; Jimenez, Felix R.; Elzinga, Dave B.; Johnson, Leigh A.; Maughan, Peter J.

2014-01-01

360

True paternal care in a multi-male primate society  

E-print Network

of wild savannah baboons (Papio cynocephalus) and collected data on interventions in agonistic disputes baboon groups in Amboseli, Kenya, and adjacent areas at the foot of Mount Kilimanjaro; the study of paternal care in baboons could be limited by the fact that males regularly transfer between social groups

Alberts, Susan C

361

Maternal Depression, Paternal Psychopathology, and Toddlers' Behavior Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examined the effects of maternal depression during the postpartum period (Time 1) on the later behavior problems of toddlers (Time 3) and tested if this relationship was moderated by paternal psychopathology during toddlers' lives and/or mediated by maternal parenting behavior observed during mother-child interaction (Time 2). Of the…

Dietz, Laura J.; Jennings, Kay Donahue; Kelley, Sue A.; Marshal, Michael

2009-01-01

362

The Determinants of Paternal Involvement in Primiparous Swedish Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mothers and fathers of 138 firstborn Swedish children were interviewed when their children averaged 16 months of age and again 12 months later. Questions focused on demographic characteristics, employment characteristics, division of paid and unpaid parental leave, amount of paternal involvement in the weeks preceding the two assesssment phases, division of parental responsibilities, and the child's parental preferences. Analyses

Michael E. Lamb; Carl-Philip Hwang; Anders Broberg; Fred L. Bookstein; Gunilla Hult; Majt Frodi

1988-01-01

363

Those They Leave behind: Paternal Incarceration and Maternal Instrumental Support  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the American imprisonment rate has risen, researchers have become increasingly concerned about the implications of mass imprisonment for family life. The authors extend this research by examining how paternal incarceration is linked to perceived instrumental support among the mothers of inmates' children. Results from the Fragile Families and…

Turney, Kristin; Schnittker, Jason; Wildeman, Christopher

2012-01-01

364

Paternal Genetic History of the Basque Population of Spain  

E-print Network

.71%, p 0.0369). Gene and haplotype diversity levels in the Basque population are on the low end of the European distribution (gene diversity: 0.4268; haplotype diversity: 0.9421). Post-Neolithic contribution to the paternal Basque gene pool was estimated...

Young, Kristin Leigh; Sun, Guangyun; Deka, Ranjan; Crawford, Michael H.

2011-01-01

365

Paternal Banking and Maternal Gatekeeping in Postdivorce Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research explores the way in which postseparated parents continue to exert a bidirectional force on each other following divorce and separation. The study draws on qualitative interviews with 39 separated mothers and fathers in Ireland, including five marital sets of former couples. The study found many fathers adopted a range of "paternal…

Moore, Elena

2012-01-01

366

The making and breaking of paternity secrets in donor insemination  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the complex issues faced by regulators of the infertility treatment industry in response to the social and technological changes that heralded a new openness in knowledge about genetics, paternity and the concomitant need for donor offspring to know their genetic origins. The imperative for full information about their donor and biological father, who contributed to their creation

Lyn Turney

2010-01-01

367

Paternal age and twinning in the Jerusalem Perinatal Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate whether incidence of twin deliveries is related to father's age, independently of mother's age, and whether it differs for same-sex or opposite-sex twin sets. Study Design In a program of research on effects of paternal age, this study used data from a prospective cohort of 92,408 offspring born in Jerusalem from 1964-1976. Of the 91,253 deliveries in the Jerusalem Perinatal Study, 1,115 were twin deliveries. The data were analyzed with General Estimate Equations to inform unconditional logistic regression. Results After controlling for maternal age, Odds Ratios (OR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI) associated with father's ages 25-34 and 35+ were 1.3 (1.1, 1.7) and 1.5 (1.2, 2.1) respectively, compared with fathers <25 years old. The effect of maternal age was partly explained by paternal age. The ORs for opposite-sex twin sets and male-male twin sets increased slightly with paternal age, while the OR for same-sex and female-female twin decreased. Conclusion Studies of twins are used to estimate effects of genes and environment in a variety of diseases. Our findings highlight the need to consider paternal as well as maternal age when analyzing data on twins to explore etiology of diseases. PMID:18771839

Kleinhaus, Karine; Perrin, Mary C.; Manor, O; Friedlander, Yehiel; Calderon-Margalit, Ronit; Harlap, Susan; Malaspina, Dolores

2008-01-01

368

No fallacies in the formulation of the paternity index  

PubMed Central

In a recent publication, Li and Chakravarti claim to have shown that the paternity index is not a likelihood ratio. They present a method of estimating the prior probability of paternity from a sample of previous court cases on the basis of exclusions and nonexclusions. They propose calculating the posterior probability on the basis of this estimated prior and the test result expressed as exclusion/nonexclusion. Their claim is wrong—the paternity index is a likelihood-ratio, that is, the ratio of the likelihood of the observation conditional on the two mutually exclusive hypotheses. Their proposed method of estimating the prior has been long known, has been applied to several samples, and is inferior (in terms of variance of the estimate) to maximum likelihood estimation based on all the phenotypic information available. Their proposed “new method” of calculating a posterior probability is based on the use of a less informative likelihood ratio 1/(1 – PE) instead of Gürtler's fully informative paternity index X/Y (Acta Med Leg Soc Liege 9:83–93, 1956), but is otherwise indentical to the Bayesian approach originally introduced by Essen-Möller in 1938. PMID:3766545

Baur, M. P.; Elston, R. C.; Gürtler, H.; Henningsen, K.; Hummel, K.; Matsumoto, H.; Mayr, W.; Moris, J. W.; Niejenhuis, L.; Polesky, H.; Salmon, D.; Valentin, J.; Walkers, R.

1986-01-01

369

Paternity, copulation disturbance and female choice in lekking black grouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female copulation behaviour in the black grouse,Tetrao tetrix, was studied by detailed observations of individually marked birds together with DNA fingerprinting analyses for paternity assessment. For each breeding occasion females typically mated only once with one male, and did not mate outside the lek arena. They re-mated with the same or another male usually only if the initial copulation was

RAUNO V. ALATALO; TERRY BURKE; JANINE DANN; OLIVIER HANOTTE; JACOB HÖGLUND; ARNE LUNDBERG; ROBERT MOSS; PEKKA T. RINTAMÄKI

1996-01-01

370

45 CFR 303.5 - Establishment of paternity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...under State law. (b) The IV-D agency need not attempt to establish paternity in any case involving incest or forcible rape, or in any case in which legal proceedings for adoption are pending, if, in the opinion of the IV-D agency, it would...

2010-10-01

371

45 CFR 303.5 - Establishment of paternity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...under State law. (b) The IV-D agency need not attempt to establish paternity in any case involving incest or forcible rape, or in any case in which legal proceedings for adoption are pending, if, in the opinion of the IV-D agency, it would...

2011-10-01

372

Overcompensation through the paternal component of fitness in Ipomopsis arizonica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimates of the effects of herbivory on plant fitness based on female fitness alone may be misleading if plants experience either reduced or increased male fitness. Because there are many plants that produce more flowers following herbivory where seed set is unaffected or reduced, total fitness may be enhanced through the paternal component alone. Here we show that herbivory results

Ken N. Paige; Barry Williams; Tracey Hickox

2001-01-01

373

Reduced recombination and paternal age effect in Klinefelter syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The parental origin of the additional sex chromosome was studied in 47 cases with an XXY sex chromosome consitution. In 23 cases (49%), the error occurred during the first paternal meiotic division. Maternal origin of the additional chromosome was found in the remaining 24 cases (51%). Centromeric homo- versus heterozygosity could be determined in 18 out of the 24 maternally

Isabel Lorda-Sanchez; Franz Binkert; Marco Maechler; Wendy P. Robinson; Albert A. Schinzel

1992-01-01

374

Fine mapping of paternal sorting of mitochondria (Psm) in cucumber  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cucumber is unique among plants because its mitochondrial DNA shows paternal transmission, is one of the largest known among all plants, due largely to short repetitive DNA motifs, and recombination among these repeats produces rearranged mitochondrial DNAs associated with strongly mosaic (MSC) phen...

375

Fine mapping of paternal sorting of mitochondria (psm) in cucumber  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cucumber is unique among plants because its mitochondrial DNA shows paternal transmission, is one of the largest known among all plants, due largely to short repetitive DNA motifs, and undergoes recombination among repeats to produce rearranged mitochondrial DNAs associated with strongly mosaic (MSC...

376

REVIEW ARTICLE Patterns of multiple paternity and maternity in fishes  

E-print Network

, whereas rates of multiple maternity are quite low. These patterns may reflect conflicts between and providing a resource for future studies of mating patterns. THE NATURAL HISTORY OF FISH REPRODUCTION: MATINGREVIEW ARTICLE Patterns of multiple paternity and maternity in fishes SETH W. COLEMAN1 * and ADAM G

Jones, Adam

377

Paternal influences on pregnancy complications and birth outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of selected characteristics of the paternal work environment and occupational history to the incidence of complications in pregnancy, complications in labor and anomalies in birth outcomes. The literature suggested that male exposure to teratogenic hazards in the form of radiation and chemical compounds, primarily in the form of solvents, has

Cleghorn de Rohrmoser

1992-01-01

378

Microsatellite characterization of Cimarron Uruguayo dogs  

PubMed Central

Various genetic markers, including microsatellites, have been used to analyze the genetic polymorphism and heterozygosity in canine breeds. In this work, we used nine microsatellite markers to investigate the genetic variability in Cimarron Uruguayo dogs, the only officially recognized native canine breed in Uruguay. DNA from 30 Cimarron Uruguayo dogs from northeastern and southern Uruguay was analyzed. The allelic frequencies for each microsatellite, the genetic variability and the consanguinity were calculated, as were the polymorphic information content (PIC) and the probability of exclusion (PE). All of the microsatellites studied were polymorphic. FH 2361, FH 2305 and PEZ 03 were the most informative, with PIC values > 0.7, in agreement with results for other canine breeds. The PE values for the markers were within the ranges previously described and were generally greater for microsatellites with higher PIC values. The heterozygosity value (0.649) was considered high since only nine microsatellites were analyzed. Compared with data for other breeds, the results obtained here indicate that Cimarron Uruguayo dogs have high genetic diversity. PMID:21637561

Gagliardi, Rosa; Llambí, Silvia; García, Cristina; Arruga, María Victoria

2011-01-01

379

Hypomethylation of the paternally inherited LRRTM1 promoter linked to schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Epigenetic effects on psychiatric traits remain relatively under-studied, and it remains unclear what the sizes of individual epigenetic effects may be, or how they vary between different clinical populations. The gene LRRTM1 (chromosome 2p12) has previously been linked and associated with schizophrenia in a parent-of-origin manner in a set of affected siblings (LOD?=?4.72), indirectly suggesting a disruption of paternal imprinting at this locus in these families. From the same set of siblings that originally showed strong linkage at this locus, we analyzed 99 individuals using 454-bisulfite sequencing, from whole blood DNA, to measure the level of DNA methylation in the promoter region of LRRTM1. We also assessed seven additional loci that would be informative to compare. Paternal identity-by-descent sharing at LRRTM1, within sibling pairs, was linked to their similarity of methylation at the gene's promoter. Reduced methylation at the promoter showed a significant association with schizophrenia. Sibling pairs concordant for schizophrenia showed more similar methylation levels at the LRRTM1 promoter than diagnostically discordant pairs. The alleles of common SNPs spanning the locus did not explain this epigenetic linkage, which can therefore be considered as largely independent of DNA sequence variation and would not be detected in standard genetic association analysis. Our data suggest that hypomethylation at the LRRTM1 promoter, particularly of the paternally inherited allele, was a risk factor for the development of schizophrenia in this set of siblings affected with familial schizophrenia, and that had previously showed linkage at this locus in an affected-sib-pair context. PMID:25111784

Brucato, Nicolas; DeLisi, Lynn E; Fisher, Simon E; Francks, Clyde

2014-10-01

380

Dads make a difference: an exploratory study of paternal support for breastfeeding in Perth, Western Australia  

PubMed Central

Background The ability to breastfeed and continue the practice requires dedication, commitment, persistence and support. Mothers often need to overcome many obstacles to successfully breastfeed their babies and maintain their balance of home, family and work commitments. Evidence suggests that fathers want to be involved and be part of the parenthood process, including infant feeding. The role transition from couple to family poses challenges to both parents. Sharing the experience of childbirth and supporting each other in the subsequent infant feeding practices is one of those challenges. Methods A qualitative exploratory design was chosen to identify parents' perceptions of what constitutes support for breastfeeding, particularly focusing upon paternal support. Focus groups were conducted with mothers and a focus group, interviews and an online survey were developed for fathers. Thematic analysis was used to identify the main themes. Results From a total of 76 participants, the major theme emerging from mothers' data identified that "Dads do make a difference". Three sub-themes included: Anticipating needs and getting the job done; Encouragement to do your best; and Paternal determination and commitment, associated with effective partner support. "Wanting to be involved" was identified from fathers' data as the major theme around their needs. Three sub-themes included: Wanting more information; Learning the role; and Being an advocate. Conclusion Sharing the experience of childbirth and supporting each other in the subsequent infant feeding practices was perceived as the best outcome for the majority of new mothers and fathers. Paternal emotional, practical and physical supports were identified as important factors to promote successful breastfeeding and to enrich the experience for the mother and subsequently the father. Trail Regristration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12609000667213. PMID:19943958

2009-01-01

381

Paternal age and congenital malformations in offspring in California, 1989-2002.  

PubMed

This study examined the association between paternal age and a wide range of structural birth defects. Data were drawn from The California Birth Defects Monitoring Program, a population-based active surveillance system for collecting information on infants and fetuses with defects born between 1989 and 2002. The analysis included 46,114 cases with defects, plus a random sample of 36,838 non-malformed births. After adjustment for maternal age, risks of anomalies of the nervous system for 38 and 42 year-old fathers, as compared to 29 year-old fathers, were 1.05-fold [1.00, 1.11] and 1.10-fold [1.02, 1.18] higher, respectively. Similar results were observed for anomalies of the limbs, where 38 and 42 year-old fathers had a 1.06-fold [1.02, 1.11] and 1.11-fold [1.05, 1.18] higher risk, respectively. Risks of anomalies of the integument were 1.05-fold [1.00, 1.09] and 1.10-fold [1.03, 1.16] higher for 38 and 42 year olds, respectively. Young paternal age, i.e., less than 29 years, was associated with an increased risk of amniotic bands (OR: 0.87 [0.78, 0.97]), pyloric stenosis (OR: 0.93 [0.90, 0.96]) and anomalies of the great veins (OR: 0.93 [0.87, 1.00]). In sum, both advanced and young paternal age was associated with select birth defects in California between 1989 and 2002. PMID:21344170

Grewal, Jagteshwar; Carmichael, Suzan L; Yang, Wei; Shaw, Gary M

2012-02-01

382

Multicolor FISH studies of male non-disjunction: Evidence for a paternal age effect  

SciTech Connect

Approximately 5-10% of autosomal trisomies and the majority of sex chromosome aneuploidies are paternally derived, thus paternal non-disjunction is an important contributor to human chromosomal syndromes. We have been using multicolor FISH to screen for aneuploidy in sperm of normal males and to determine whether there is, among individuals or among chromosomes, variation in the likelihood of non-disjunction. Our initial studies based on analysis of 5000 sperm scored per chromosome in nine males identified significant differences in disomy rates for chromosomes 16, 18 and the sex chromosomes. We have now extended those analyses to a new series of 10 donors aged 22 to 45 to confirm or refute our observations of chromosome-specific differences in rates of disomy; to determine if the size of the centromeric (alpha satellite) sequences is related to non-disjunction frequency; and to determine if there is a paternal as well as a maternal age effect on non-disjunction. For these studies, we have used 3 color FISH for chromosomes 18 and the X and Y chromosomes to now score {approximately}20,000 sperm for each of 10 new donors. Our results provide little evidence for an effect of the size of the Y chromosome centromere on the frequency of sex chromosome disomy. However, we have found considerable variation in rates of disomy among individuals and have confirmed significant differences among chromosomes in the likelihood of non-disjunction; i.e., the rate of non-disjunction of the sex chromosomes is 3.5 -4 times greater than that of chromosome 18 and meiosis II errors are significantly more likely for the Y chromosome than for the X chromosome. Specifically, we have identified increases in the frequency of disomy 18 and both meiosis I (XY) and meiosis II (XX and YY) sex chromosome disomy although the effect is only significant for total sex chromosome disomy.

Griffin, D.K.; Millie, E.A.; Sheean, L.A. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

383

Central vasopressin administration regulates the onset of facultative paternal behavior in microtus pennsylvanicus (meadow voles).  

PubMed

Pharmacological experiments have implicated a role for central arginine vasopressin (AVP) in regulating paternal behavior in monogamous prairie voles. Although nonmonogamous meadow voles exhibit appreciable paternal care when housed under winter, short day lengths (SD), no research has examined whether the same neurobiological systems are involved in regulating paternal behavior in a nonmonogamous species when it behaves paternally. The goal of these experiments was to determine whether central administration of AVP, but not cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), affected the suppression of pup-directed aggression and/or the onset of paternal behavior in meadow voles. Data from experiment 1 implicated a role for AVP in facilitating changes in male behavior: central administration of 1 ng of AVP (but not 3 ng or CSF) inhibited pup-directed aggression in previously pup-aggressive males, and 3 ng of AVP (but not 1 ng or CSF) induced paternal behavior in previously nonpaternal males. In contrast, AVP (1 and 3 ng) did not enhance paternal behavior in already paternal males. Experiment 2 tested the specificity of AVP. Previous research indicated that 24 h of unmated cohabitation with a female reliably induced paternal behavior in SD males. Hence, experiment 2 examined whether administration of a V(1a) AVP antagonist (AVPA), but not CSF, prior to 24 h of unmated cohabitation would block the onset of paternal behavior. Males that received CSF displayed paternal behavior faster and engaged in more investigatory and paternal behaviors than males that received AVPA. Thus, pharmacological experiments support the hypothesis that AVP likely regulates paternal behavior in both facultatively and consistently paternal vole species. PMID:11374914

Parker, K J; Lee, T M

2001-06-01

384

From here to paternity: Neural correlates of the onset of paternal behavior in California mice (Peromyscus californicus)  

E-print Network

(Peromyscus californicus) Trynke R. de Jong a, , Miyetani Chauke a,b , Breanna N. Harris a,c , Wendy Saltzman 2009 Available online 9 May 2009 Keywords: Paternal behavior Peromyscus californicus Fos Medial, including California mice (Peromyscus californicus), prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster), and Djungarian

Saltzman, Wendy

385

TWO SEX-CHROMOSOME-LINKED MICROSATELLITE LOCI SHOW GEOGRAPHIC VARIANCE AMONG NORTH AMERICAN OSTRINIA NUBILALIS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A (GAAAAT)n repeat microsatellite was isolated from a partial Ostrinia nubilalis genomic library. Pedigree analysis indicated the marker was female specific, and referred to as Ostrinia nubilalis W-chromosome marker 1 (ONW1). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequence analysis indicated that ...

386

Using a comparative species approach to investigate the neurobiology of paternal responses.  

PubMed

A goal of behavioral neuroscience is to identify underlying neurobiological factors that regulate specific behaviors. Using animal models to accomplish this goal, many methodological strategies require invasive techniques to manipulate the intensity of the behavior of interest (e.g., lesion methods, pharmacological manipulations, microdialysis techniques, genetically-engineered animal models). The utilization of a comparative species approach allows researchers to take advantage of naturally occurring differences in response strategies existing in closely related species. In our lab, we use two species of the Peromyscus genus that differ in paternal responses. The male California deer mouse (Peromyscus californicus) exhibits the same parental responses as the female whereas its cousin, the common deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) exhibits virtually no nurturing/parental responses in the presence of pups. Of specific interest in this article is an exploration of the neurobiological factors associated with the affiliative social responses exhibited by the paternal California deer mouse. Because the behavioral neuroscience approach is multifaceted, the following key components of the study will be briefly addressed: the identification of appropriate species for this type of research; data collection for behavioral analysis; preparation and sectioning of the brains; basic steps involved in immunocytochemistry for the quantification of vasopressin-immunoreactivity; the use of neuroimaging software to quantify the brain tissue; the use of a microsequencing video analysis to score behavior and, finally, the appropriate statistical analyses to provide the most informed interpretations of the research findings. PMID:21968462

Franssen, Catherine L; Bardi, Massimo; Lambert, Kelly G

2011-01-01

387

Contrasting levels of extra-pair paternity in mainland and island populations of the house sparrow ( Passer domesticus ): is there an «island effect»?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the many studies that have investigated the genetic mating system of socially monogamous birds, very little is known about the underlying causes of extra-pair paternity and few studies have attempted to test those hypotheses which have been suggested. This study describes the analysis of the genetic mating system of two populations of the house sparrow (Passer domesticus), and uses

SIMON C GRIFFITH; IAN R. K STEWART; DEBORAH A DAWSON; IAN P. F OWENS; TERRY BURKE

1999-01-01

388

Assessment of microsatellite instability in urine in the detection of transitional-cell carcinoma of the bladder.  

PubMed

Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and alterations in microsatellite DNA markers have been reported in bladder-cancer tumors. We have studied, in a blinded fashion, using PCR-based microsatellite analysis, genetic alterations of cells exfoliated in urine of 59 Caucasian patients and control patients; 31 with initially confirmed bladder transitional-cell carcinoma (TCC), 17 with signs and symptoms suggestive of bladder cancer, 6 control patients who underwent renal transplantation, and 5 control patients with urolithiasis. Microsatellite analysis of cells exfoliated in the urine allowed the diagnosis of 83% (10/12) of patients with bladder TCC recurrence confirmed by cystoscopy, while 100% of patients followed up for transitional-cell carcinoma of the bladder for up to 12 months without evidence of tumor recurrence upon routine cystoscopy showed no microsatellite alterations. None of the patients without neoplasia (negative controls) had any microsatellite alterations, whereas all patients who underwent renal transplantation had additional new alleles corresponding to contamination with donor's renal and urothelial cells (positive controls). No control patients had any evidence of transitional-cell carcinoma by cystoscopy. Our results provide objective evidence that non-invasive molecular detection of bladder TCC by microsatellite analysis is reproducible with a sensitivity of 83% and a specificity of 100% in Caucasian patients. This non-invasive procedure represents a potential clinical tool for the detection and the screening of bladder TCC. PMID:9842973

Mourah, S; Cussenot, O; Vimont, V; Desgrandchamps, F; Teillac, P; Cochant-Priollet, B; Le Duc, A; Fiet, J; Soliman, H

1998-12-18

389

Design and control of microsatellite clusters for tracking missions  

E-print Network

Space-based tracking missions are an emerging interest that could be accomplished using a cluster of microsatellites. This thesis addresses the design of microsatellite clusters to accurately track a target in a probabilistic ...

Griffith, John Daniel

2007-01-01

390

Microsatellite markers for linkage and association studies.  

PubMed

During the 1990s and the first several years of this century, microsatellites or short tandem repeats were the workhorse genetic markers for hypothesis-independent studies in human genetics, facilitating genome-wide linkage studies and allelic imbalance studies. However, the rise of higher throughput and cost-effective single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) platforms led to the era of the SNP for genome scans. Nevertheless, it is important to note that microsatellites remain highly informative and useful measures of genomic variation for linkage and association studies. Their continued advantage in complementing SNPs lies in their greater allelic diversity than biallelic SNPs as well as in their population history, in which single-step expansion or contraction of the tandem repeat on the background of ancestral SNP haplotypes can break up common haplotypes, leading to greater haplotype diversity within the linkage disequilibrium block of interest. In fact, microsatellites have starred in association studies leading to widely replicated discoveries of type 2 diabetes (TCF7L2) and prostate cancer genes (the 8q21 region). At the end of the day, it will be important to catalog all variation, including SNPs, microsatellites, copy number variations, and polymorphic inversions in human genetic studies. This article describes the utilities of microsatellites and experimental approaches in their use. PMID:22474656

Gulcher, Jeffrey

2012-04-01

391

Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci for the Potentilla core group (Rosaceae) using 454 sequencing.  

PubMed

Microsatellites are valuable markers for the analysis of genetic diversity, linkage mapping or genotyping. The limited availability of microsatellites for the genus Potentilla (Rosaceae) stipulated the isolation of markers from a representative (Potentilla pusilla Host) of the Potentilla core group that constitutes the most species-rich evolutionary lineage within the genus. Thousand four hundred and seventy-six simple sequence repeat (SSR) containing candidate sequences were isolated from a single-type line using 454 sequencing. Seventy-four functional microsatellite markers were developed from 200 sequences selected for suitable priming sites flanking microsatellite repeats referring to a 37% primer-to-marker conversion ratio. Seventy-two markers were polymorphic. These numbers confirm the increased efficiency of pyrosequencing over traditional isolation techniques in the development of microsatellites. Amplification primer sequences and the sequences of corresponding target fragments are provided for all functional markers, and molecular polymorphisms estimated for four accessions of P. pusilla and among seven core group species represented by 14 individuals are reported. Cross-species transferability ranged between 86.4% and 97.3% among the studied taxa, and 57, 11 and six of the selected primer pairs amplified fragments of expected size and number in seven, six and five of the species, respectively. Reproducibility of the molecular phenotypes was 97.0%, which was inferred using a replicate sample of P. pusilla. PMID:22463760

Dobeš, Ch; Scheffknecht, S

2012-07-01

392

Characterization of the Soybean Genome Using EST-derived Microsatellite Markers  

PubMed Central

Abstract We generated a high-density genetic linkage map of soybean using expressed sequence tag (EST)-derived microsatellite markers. A total of 6920 primer pairs (10.9%) were designed to amplify simple sequence repeats (SSRs) from 63 676 publicly available non-redundant soybean ESTs. The polymorphism of two parent plants, the Japanese cultivar ‘Misuzudaizu’ and the Chinese line ‘Moshidou Gong 503’, were examined using 10% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Primer pairs showing polymorphism were then used for genotyping 94 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between the parents. In addition to previously reported markers, 680 EST-derived microsatellite markers were selected and subjected to linkage analysis. As a result, 935 marker loci were mapped successfully onto 20 linkage groups, which totaled 2700.3 cM in length; 693 loci were detected using the 668 EST-derived microsatellite markers developed in this study, the other 242 loci were detected with 105 RFLP markers, 136 genome-derived microsatellite markers, and one phenotypic marker. We examined allelic variation among 23 soybean cultivars/lines and a wild soybean line using 668 mapped EST-derived microsatellite markers (corresponding to 686 marker loci), in order to determine the transferability of the markers among soybean germplasms. A limited degree of macrosynteny was observed at the segmental level between the genomes of soybean and the model legume Lotus japonicus, which suggests that considerable genome shuffling occurred after separation of the species and during establishment of the paleopolyploid soybean genome. PMID:18192281

Hisano, Hiroshi; Sato, Shusei; Isobe, Sachiko; Sasamoto, Shigemi; Wada, Tsuyuko; Matsuno, Ai; Fujishiro, Tsunakazu; Yamada, Manabu; Nakayama, Shinobu; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Watanabe, Satoshi; Harada, Kyuya; Tabata, Satoshi

2007-01-01

393

Assessment of microsatellites in estimating inter- and intraspecific variation among Neotropical Crocodylus species.  

PubMed

We tested microsatellites that were developed for the saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) for cross-species amplification and to provide an estimate of inter- and intraspecific variation among four species of Neotropical crocodiles (C. rhombifer, C. intermedius, C. acutus, and C. moreletii). Our results indicated that with the exception of 2 loci in C. intermedius, all 10 microsatellite loci were successfully amplified in the 4 species, producing a set of variably sized alleles that ranged in number between 2 and 14 alleles per locus. Similarly, private alleles (i.e., unique alleles) also were reported in all 4 species for at least 3 loci. The mean observed and expected heterozygosities (averaged across species for all 10 loci combined) ranged from 0.39 to 0.77 and from 0.44 to 0.78, respectively. In addition to this, we evaluated these microsatellites in 2 populations of C. acutus and C. moreletii to assess their utility in estimating intraspecific levels of polymorphisms. These microsatellites also showed considerable allelic variation in population level analysis. The set of 10 microsatellite loci in our study had the potential to be used as a tool in population and conservation genetic studies of Neotropical crocodiles. PMID:25117304

Bashyal, A; Gross, B A; Venegas-Anaya, M; Lowrance, F; Densmore Iii, L D

2014-01-01

394

Isolation and characterization of microsatellites in trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have identified, isolated, and characterized microsatellite\\/simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci in trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) by screening partial genomic libraries. We have also examined the compatibility and use of the P. tremuloides SSR primers to resolve microsatellites in other Populus species. Fourteen microsatellites were identified from 1600 clones screened. The TC\\/AG microsatellites were the most abundant.\\u000a A total of

S. Dayanandan; O. P. Rajora; K. S. Bawa

1998-01-01

395

Clinical Features of Three Girls With Mosaic Genome-Wide Paternal Uniparental Isodisomy  

PubMed Central

Here we describe three subjects with mosaic genome-wide paternal uniparental isodisomy (GWpUPD) each of whom presented initially with overgrowth, hemihyperplasia (HH), and hyperinsulinism (HI). Due to the severity of findings and the presence of additional features, SNP array testing was performed, which demonstrated mosaic GWpUPD. Comparing these individuals to 10 other live-born subjects reported in the literature, the predominant phenotype is that of pUPD11 and notable for a very high incidence of tumor development. Our subjects developed non-metastatic tumors of the adrenal gland, kidney, and/or liver.AllthreesubjectshadpancreatichyperplasiaresultinginHI. Notably, our subjects to date display minimal features of other diseases associated with paternal UPD loci. Both children who survived the neonatal period have displayed near-normal cognitive development, likely due to a favorable tissue distribution of the mosaicism.Tounderstandthe rangeofUPDmosaicismlevels, we studied multiple tissues using SNP array analysis and detected levels of 5–95%, roughly correlating with the extent of tissue involvement.Giventherapidityoftumorgrowthandthedifficulty distinguishing malignant and benign tumors in these GWpUPD subjects, we have utilized increased frequency of ultrasound (US) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) screening in the first years of life. Because of a later age of onset of additional tumors, continued tumor surveillance into adolescence may need to be considered in these rare patients. PMID:23804593

Kalish, Jennifer M.; Conlin, Laura K.; Bhatti, Tricia R.; Dubbs, Holly A.; Harris, Mary Catherine; Izumi, Kosuke; Mostoufi-Moab, Sogol; Mulchandani, Surabhi; Saitta, Sulagna; States, Lisa J.; Swarr, Daniel T.; Wilkens, Alisha B.; Zackai, Elaine H.; Zelley, Kristin; Bartolomei, Marisa S.; Nichols, Kim E.; Palladino, Andrew A.; Spinner, Nancy B.; Deardorff, Matthew A.

2014-01-01

396

Paternal isodisomy for chromosome 5 in a child with spinal muscular atropy  

SciTech Connect

Paternal isodisomy for chromosomes 5 was detected in a 2-year-old boy with type III spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), an autosomal recessive degenerative disorder of alpha motor neurons, known to map to 5q11.2-13.3. Examination of 17 short-sequence repeat polymorphisms spanning 5p15.1-15.3. to 5q33.3-qter produced no evidence of maternally inherited alleles. Cytogenetic analysis revealed a normal male karyotype, and FISH with probes closely flanking the SMA locus confirmed the presence of two copies of chromosome 5. No developmental abnormalities, other than those attributable to classical childhood-onset SMA, were present. While the absence of a maternally derived chromosome 5 could have produced the symptoms of SMA through the mechanism of genomic imprinting, the lack of more global developmental abnormalities would be unusual. Paternal transmission of two copies of a defective gene at the SMA locus seems to be the most likely cause of disease, but proof of this will have to await the identification of the SMA gene. While uniparental isodisomy is a rare event, it must be considered as a possible mechanism involved in SMA when conducting prenatal testing and counseling for this disorder. 37 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Brzustowicz, L.M.; Penchaszadeh, G.K.; Gilliam, T.C.; Allitto, B.A.; Theve, R.; Michaud, L.; Sugarman, E.; Handelin, B.L.; Chatkupt, S.; Koenigsberger, M.R. (Univ. of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ (United States))

1994-03-01

397

Paternal signature in kin recognition cues of a social insect: concealed in juveniles, revealed in adults.  

PubMed

Kin recognition is a key mechanism to direct social behaviours towards related individuals or avoid inbreeding depression. In insects, recognition is generally mediated by cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) compounds, which are partly inherited from parents. However, in social insects, potential nepotistic conflicts between group members from different patrilines are predicted to select against the expression of patriline-specific signatures in CHC profiles. Whereas this key prediction in the evolution of insect signalling received empirical support in eusocial insects, it remains unclear whether it can be generalized beyond eusociality to less-derived forms of social life. Here, we addressed this issue by manipulating the number of fathers siring clutches tended by females of the European earwig, Forficula auricularia, analysing the CHC profiles of the resulting juvenile and adult offspring, and using discriminant analysis to estimate the information content of CHC with respect to the maternal and paternal origin of individuals. As predicted, if paternally inherited cues are concealed during family life, increases in mating number had no effect on information content of CHC profiles among earwig juveniles, but significantly decreased the one among adult offspring. We suggest that age-dependent expression of patriline-specific cues evolved to limit the risks of nepotism as family-living juveniles and favour sibling-mating avoidance as group-living adults. These results highlight the role of parental care and social life in the evolution of chemical communication and recognition cues. PMID:25165768

Wong, Janine W Y; Meunier, Joël; Lucas, Christophe; Kölliker, Mathias

2014-10-22

398

The nasty neighbour in the striped mouse (Rhabdomys pumilio) steals paternity and elicits aggression  

PubMed Central

Background Territoriality functions to monopolize access to resources including mates, but is costly in terms of energy and time investment. Some species reduce these costs by being less aggressive towards their neighbours than towards unfamiliar strangers, the so called dear enemy phenomenon. However, in other species individuals are more, not less aggressive towards their neighbours. It has been hypothesised that this is due to the fact that neighbours can impose a greater threat than strangers, but this has not been tested previously. Results We tested aggression in wild group-living male striped mice in a neutral test arena and demonstrate that breeders are more aggressive than non-breeding philopatrics, and that more aggression occurs during the breeding than during the non-breeding season. Male breeders were significantly more aggressive towards their neighbours than towards strangers, leading to the prediction that neighbours are the most important competitors for paternity. Using a molecular parentage analysis we show that 28% of offspring are sired by neighbouring males and only 7% by strangers. Conclusions We conclude that in male striped mice the main function of male aggression is defending paternity against their territorial neighbours. PMID:20573184

2010-01-01

399

Epigenetic effects of paternal diet on offspring: emphasis on obesity.  

PubMed

Overnutrition, obesity, and the rise in associated comorbidities are widely recognized as preventable challenges to global health. Behavioral, metabolic, and epigenetic influences that alter the epigenome, when passed on to offspring, can increase their risk of developing an altered metabolic profile. This review is focused on the role of paternal inheritance as demonstrated by clinical, epidemiological, and experimental models. Development of additional experimental models that resemble the specific epigenetic sensitive situations in human studies will be essential to explore paternally induced trans-generational effects that are mediated, primarily, by epigenetic effects. Further elucidation of epigenetic marks will help identify preventive and therapeutic targets, which in combination with healthy lifestyle choices, can diminish the growing tide of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and other related disorders. PMID:24997644

Slyvka, Yuriy; Zhang, Yizhu; Nowak, Felicia V

2015-02-01

400

Modifiers of epigenetic reprogramming show paternal effects in the mouse  

PubMed Central

There is increasing evidence that epigenetic information can be inherited across generations in mammals, despite extensive reprogramming both in the gametes and in the early developing embryo. One corollary to this is that disrupting the establishment of epigenetic state in the gametes of a parent, as a result of heterozygosity for mutations in genes involved in reprogramming, could affect the phenotype of offspring that do not inherit the mutant allele. Here we show that such effects do occur following paternal inheritance in the mouse. We detected changes to transcription and chromosome ploidy in adult animals. Paternal effects of this type have not been reported previously in mammals and suggest that the untransmitted genotype of male parents can influence the phenotype of their offspring. PMID:17450140

Chong, Suyinn; Vickaryous, Nicola; Ashe, Alyson; Zamudio, Natasha; Youngson, Neil; Hemley, Sarah; Stopka, Tomas; Skoultchi, Arthur; Matthews, Jacqui; Scott, Hamish S; de Kretser, David; O’Bryan, Moira; Blewitt, Marnie; Whitelaw, Emma

2011-01-01

401

Paternal diet defines offspring chromatin state and intergenerational obesity.  

PubMed

The global rise in obesity has revitalized a search for genetic and epigenetic factors underlying the disease. We present a Drosophila model of paternal-diet-induced intergenerational metabolic reprogramming (IGMR) and identify genes required for its encoding in offspring. Intriguingly, we find that as little as 2 days of dietary intervention in fathers elicits obesity in offspring. Paternal sugar acts as a physiological suppressor of variegation, desilencing chromatin-state-defined domains in both mature sperm and in offspring embryos. We identify requirements for H3K9/K27me3-dependent reprogramming of metabolic genes in two distinct germline and zygotic windows. Critically, we find evidence that a similar system may regulate obesity susceptibility and phenotype variation in mice and humans. The findings provide insight into the mechanisms underlying intergenerational metabolic reprogramming and carry profound implications for our understanding of phenotypic variation and evolution. PMID:25480298

Öst, Anita; Lempradl, Adelheid; Casas, Eduard; Weigert, Melanie; Tiko, Theodor; Deniz, Merdin; Pantano, Lorena; Boenisch, Ulrike; Itskov, Pavel M; Stoeckius, Marlon; Ruf, Marius; Rajewsky, Nikolaus; Reuter, Gunter; Iovino, Nicola; Ribeiro, Carlos; Alenius, Mattias; Heyne, Steffen; Vavouri, Tanya; Pospisilik, J Andrew

2014-12-01

402

Biased distribution of microsatellite motifs in the rice genome.  

PubMed

Microsatellites are useful tools to study the extent of divergence between two taxonomic groups that show high sequence similarity. We have compared microsatellite distribution to illustrate genetic variation between the two rice genomes, Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica and Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica. Microsatellite distribution proved to be non random as certain regions of very high microsatellite density have been identified. Microsatellite density in the subspecies japonica was computed marginally higher than in the subspecies indica in the genomic regions compared between the two subspecies. Unexpectedly high microsatellite densities were observed in 5'-untranslated regions of genes. These regions also displayed a clear motif bias. Some of the longest microsatellite repeats were found in intron sequences. Frequency, as well as motif bias was also noted with respect to the association of microsatellites with transposable elements. Microsatellite mutability values were exemplarily estimated for 90 loci by aligning the microsatellite containing regions between the two genomes. Poor rates of finding an orthologue corresponded with high microsatellite mutability in rice. These insights are likely to play a significant role in selecting microsatellite loci to be used in molecular breeding and studying evolutionary dynamics of the two subspecies. PMID:17237941

Grover, Atul; Aishwarya, Veenu; Sharma, P C

2007-05-01

403

Isolation and characterization of microsatellites in Brassica rapa L  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report here the isolation and characterization of microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats (SSRs), in Brassica rapa. The size-fractionated genomic library was screened with (GA)15 and (GT)15 oligonucleotide probes. A total of 58 clones were identified as having the microsatellite repeats, and specific primer pairs were designed for 38 microsatellite loci. All primer pairs, except two, amplified fragments having the

K. Suwabe; H. Iketani; T. Nunome; T. Kage; M. Hirai

2002-01-01

404

TECHNICAL NOTE Fourteen novel microsatellite markers for the gopher frog,  

E-print Network

TECHNICAL NOTE Fourteen novel microsatellite markers for the gopher frog, Lithobates capito isolated and characterized a total of 14 microsatellite loci from gopher frogs, Lithobates capito with their decline. Keywords Lithobates Á Rana Á Ranidae Á Gopher frog Á Microsatellite Á PCR primers Á SSR Á STR

Richter, Stephen C.

405

Distinguishing species of European sturgeons Acipenser spp. using microsatellite allele sequences.  

PubMed

Five microsatellite markers were analysed and their alleles were sequenced for the three sturgeon species that lived in western Europe: the European sturgeon Acipenser sturio, the Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus and the Adriatic sturgeon Acipenser naccarii. A total of 94 different allele sequences were obtained. Fixed mutations in the flanking regions or in the core repeat of microsatellites provided a clear distinction between the different species. Comparison of allele sequences also provided some insights into microsatellites and the evolution of Acipenser species. These nuclear markers can be used to solve species determination problems, and combined with mitochondrial markers, will be useful to identify introgression and hybridization among the three species. Moreover, because they are short and with a limited allele size range, they are particularly suited for analysis of museum specimens or archaeological remains. PMID:21235556

Chassaing, O; Hänni, C; Berrebi, P

2011-01-01

406

Chloroplast microsatellite polymorphisms in Vitis species.  

PubMed

The use of consensus chloroplast microsatellites primers for dicotyledonous chloroplast genomes revealed the existence of intra and interspecific length variation within the genus Vitis. Three chloroplast microsatellite loci were found to be polymorphic in samples of Vitis vinifera, Vitis berlandieri, Vitis riparia, and Vitis rupestris out of a total of 10 consensus primer pairs tested. These polymorphisms were always due to a variable number of mononucleotide residues within A and (or) T stretches in the amplified regions. Chloroplast microsatellite polymorphisms were used to demonstrate the maternal inheritance of chloroplast in V. vinifera and to characterise the chloroplast haplotypes present in wine grape cultivars of this species grown in Spain and Greece. The different distribution of haplotype frequencies in the two ends of the Mediterranean growth area suggests the existence of independent domestication events for grapevine. PMID:12502260

Arroyo-García, Rosa; Lefort, Francois; de Andrés, María Teresa; Ibáñaez, Javier; Borrego, Joaquín; Jouve, Nicolas; Cabello, Felix; Martínez-Zapater, José Miguel

2002-12-01

407

Breeding synchrony and paternity in the barn swallow ( Hirundo rustica )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) is a socially monogamous passerine which usually breeds in colonies where extra-pair copulations are frequent. Males intensively\\u000a guard their mates during the female fertile period. Since males are more likely to be available for extra-pair copulations\\u000a when their mate is not fertile, synchrony in timing of breeding may affect paternity of individual males. In this

N. Saino; C. R. Primmer; H. Ellegren; A. P. Møller

1999-01-01

408

MATE GUARDING AND EXTRA-PAIR PATERNITY IN NORTHERN CARDINALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied patterns of mate guarding and paternity in 21 pairs of Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) nesting in~central_Kentucky. DbJA fingerprinting revealed that five of 37 nestlinas (13.5%) resulted from extra-pair fertilizations (EPFs). Of 19 broods sampled, three (16%)-bad at least one extra-pair young. Although our observations of male cardinals making extra-territorial movements suggest that some males in the population may

DAVID F. WESTNEAT

409

Serotonin metabolism in directly developing frog embryos during paternal care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central serotonin (5-HT) metabolism during embryogenesis and a 3-day post-hatching period was analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography in the directly developing frog, Eleutherodactylus coqui. This anuran bypasses the free-swimming larval stage and embryos hatch as miniature frogs in the adult phenotype. During embryogenesis and for a short time immediately after hatching, male E. coqui provide paternal care by brooding

Gary R. Ten Eyck; Patrick J. Ronan; Kenneth J. Renner; Cliff H. Summers

2005-01-01

410

Chloroplast Microsatellite Diversity in Phaseolus vulgaris  

PubMed Central

Evolutionary studies that are aimed at defining the processes behind the present level and organization of crop genetic diversity represent the fundamental bases for biodiversity conservation and use. A Mesoamerican origin of the common bean Phaseolus vulgaris was recently suggested through analysis of nucleotide polymorphism at the nuclear level. Here, we have used chloroplast microsatellites to investigate the origin of the common bean, on the basis of the specific characteristics of these markers (no recombination, haploid genome, uniparental inheritance), to validate these recent findings. Indeed, comparisons of the results obtained through analysis of nuclear and cytoplasmic DNA should allow the resolution of some of the contrasting information available on the evolutionary processes. The main outcomes of the present study are: (i) confirmation at the chloroplast level of the results obtained through nuclear data, further supporting the Mesoamerican origin of P. vulgaris, with central Mexico representing the cradle of its diversity; (ii) identification of a putative ancestral plastidial genome, which is characteristic of a group of accessions distributed from central Mexico to Peru, but which have not been highlighted beforehand through analyses at the nuclear level. Finally, the present study suggests that when a single species is analyzed, there is the need to take into account the complexity of the relationships between P. vulgaris and its closely related and partially intercrossable species P. coccineus and P. dumosus. Thus, the present study stresses the importance for the investigation of the speciation processes of these taxa through comparisons of both plastidial and nuclear variability. This knowledge will be fundamental not only from an evolutionary point of view, but also to put P. coccineus and P. dumosus germplasm to better use as a source of useful diversity for P. vulgaris breeding. PMID:23346091

Desiderio, F.; Bitocchi, E.; Bellucci, E.; Rau, D.; Rodriguez, M.; Attene, G.; Papa, R.; Nanni, L.

2012-01-01

411

The Dose and Dose-Rate Effects of Paternal Irradiation on Transgenerational Instability in Mice: A Radiotherapy Connection  

PubMed Central

The non-targeted effects of human exposure to ionising radiation, including transgenerational instability manifesting in the children of irradiated parents, remains poorly understood. Employing a mouse model, we have analysed whether low-dose acute or low-dose-rate chronic paternal ?-irradiation can destabilise the genomes of their first-generation offspring. Using single-molecule PCR, the frequency of mutation at the mouse expanded simple tandem repeat (ESTR) locus Ms6-hm was established in DNA samples extracted from sperm of directly exposed BALB/c male mice, as well as from sperm and the brain of their first-generation offspring. For acute ?-irradiation from 10–100 cGy a linear dose-response for ESTR mutation induction was found in the germ line of directly exposed mice, with a doubling dose of 57 cGy. The mutagenicity of acute exposure to 100 cGy was more pronounced than that for chronic low-dose-rate irradiation. The analysis of transgenerational effects of paternal irradiation revealed that ESTR mutation frequencies were equally elevated in the germ line (sperm) and brain of the offspring of fathers exposed to 50 and 100 cGy of acute ?-rays. In contrast, neither paternal acute irradiation at lower doses (10–25 cGy), nor low-dose-rate exposure to 100 cGy affected stability of their offspring. Our data imply that the manifestation of transgenerational instability is triggered by a threshold dose of acute paternal irradiation. The results of our study also suggest that most doses of human exposure to ionising radiation, including radiotherapy regimens, may be unlikely to result in transgenerational instability in the offspring children of irradiated fathers. PMID:22911775

Mughal, Safeer K.; Myazin, Andrey E.; Zhavoronkov, Leonid P.; Rubanovich, Alexander V.; Dubrova, Yuri E.

2012-01-01

412

Rapid microsatellite development for tree peony and its implications  

PubMed Central

Background Microsatellites are ubiquitous in genomes of various organisms. With the realization that they play roles in developmental and physiological processes, rather than exist as ‘junk’ DNA, microsatellites are receiving increasing attention. Next-generation sequencing allows acquisition of large-scale microsatellite information, and is especially useful for plants without reference genome sequences. Results In this study, enriched DNA libraries of tree peony, a well-known ornamental woody shrub, were used for high-throughput microsatellite development by 454 GS-FLX Titanium pyrosequencing. We obtained 675,221 reads with an average length of 356 bp. The total size of examined sequences was 240,672,018 bp, from which 237,134 SSRs were identified. Of these sequences, 164,043 contained SSRs, with 27% featuring more than one SSR. Interestingly, a high proportion of SSRs (43%) were present in compound formation. SSRs with repeat motifs of 1–4 bp (mono-, di-, tri-, and tetra-nucleotide repeats) accounted for 99.8% of SSRs. Di-nucleotide repeats were the most abundant. As in most plants, the predominant motif in tree peony was (A/T)n, with (G/C)n less common. The lengths of SSRs were classified into 11 groups. The shortest SSRs (10 bp) represented 1% of the total number, whereas SSRs 21–30 and 101–110 bp long accounted for 26% and 29%, respectively, of all SSRs. Many sequences (42,111) were mapped to CDS (coding domain sequence) regions using Arabidopsis as a reference. GO annotation analysis predicted that CDSs with SSRs performed various functions associated with cellular components, molecular functions, and biological processes. Of 100 validated primer pairs, 24 were selected for polymorphism analysis among 23 genotypes; cluster analysis of the resulting data grouped genotypes according to known relationships, confirming the usefulness of the developed SSR markers. Conclusions The results of our large-scale SSR marker development using tree peony are valuable for investigating plant genomic structural evolution and elucidating phenotypic variation in this species during its evolution and artificial selection. The newly identified SSRs should be useful for genetic linkage map construction, QTL mapping, gene location and cloning, and molecular marker-assisted breeding. In addition, the genome-wide marker resources generated in this study should aid genomic studies of tree peony and related species. PMID:24341681

2013-01-01

413

Multiple Paternity in Polyandrous Barn Owls (Tyto alba)  

PubMed Central

In polyandrous species females produce successive clutches with several males. Female barn owls (Tyto alba) often desert their offspring and mate to produce a 2nd annual brood with a second male. We tested whether copulating during chick rearing at the 1st annual brood increases the male's likelihood to obtain paternity at the 2nd annual breeding attempt of his female mate in case she deserts their brood to produce a second brood with a different male. Using molecular paternity analyses we found that 2 out of 26 (8%) second annual broods of deserting females contained in total 6 extra-pair young out of 15 nestlings. These young were all sired by the male with whom the female had produced the 1st annual brood. In contrast, none of the 49 1st annual breeding attempts (219 offspring) and of the 20 2nd annual breeding attempts (93 offspring) of non-deserting females contained extra-pair young. We suggest that female desertion can select male counter-strategies to increase paternity and hence individual fitness. Alternatively, females may copulate with the 1st male to derive genetic benefits, since he is usually of higher quality than the 2nd male which is commonly a yearling individual. PMID:24244622

Dubey, Sylvain; Simon, Céline; Waldvogel, Céline; Burri, Reto; Roulin, Alexandre

2013-01-01

414

Paternal Experience and Stress Responses in California Mice (Peromyscus californicus)  

PubMed Central

Paternal behavior greatly affects the survival, social development, and cognitive development of infants. Nevertheless, little research has been done to assess how paternal experience modifies the behavioral characteristics of fathers, including fear and stress responses to a novel environment. We investigated long-term behavioral and physiologic effects of parental experience in mice (Peromyscus californicus) and how this response activates the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (as measured by corticosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone [DHEA] levels) and interacts with anxiety-related behaviors. Three groups of adult males were tested—fathers exposed to pups, virgins exposed to pups, and virgins never exposed to pups—in 2 environments designed to elicit anxiety response: an open field with a novel object placed in the center and a closed cage containing a sample of a component of fox feces. Behavioral responses were measured by using traditional methods (duration and frequency) and behavioral-chain sequences. Results indicated that paternal experience significantly modifies a male mouse's behavioral and physiologic responses to stress-provoking stimuli. Compared with inexperienced male mice, experienced male mice had a significant decrease in the occurrence of incomplete behavioral chains during the exposure to the novel object, an index of reduced stress. Further, even moderate pup exposure induced behavioral modifications in virgin male mice. These behavioral responses were correlated with changes in corticosterone and DHEA levels. Together, these data provide evidence that interactions between male mice and offspring may have mutually beneficial long-term behavioral and physiologic effects. PMID:21819678

Bardi, Massimo; Franssen, Catherine L; Hampton, Joseph E; Shea, Eleanor A; Fanean, Amanda P; Lambert, Kelly G

2011-01-01

415

Multiple paternity does not depend on male genetic diversity.  

PubMed

Polyandry is common in many species and it has been suggested that females engage in multiple mating to increase the genetic diversity of their offspring (genetic diversity hypothesis). Multiple paternity occurs in 30% of litters in wild populations of house mice, Mus musculus musculus, and multiple-sired litters are genetically more diverse than single-sired ones. Here, we aimed to test whether female house mice produce multiple-sired litters when they have the opportunity to produce genetically diverse litters. We assessed the rates of multiple paternity when females could choose to mate with two males that were genetically dissimilar to each other (i.e. nonsiblings and MHC dissimilar) compared with when females could choose to mate with two males that were genetically similar to each other (i.e. siblings and shared MHC alleles). Multiple mating may depend upon a female's own condition, and, therefore, we also tested whether inbred (from full-sibling matings) females were more likely to produce multiple-sired progeny than outbred controls. Overall we found that 29% of litters had multiple sires, but we found no evidence that females were more likely to produce multiple-sired litters when they had the opportunity to mate with genetically dissimilar males compared with controls, regardless of whether females were inbred or outbred. Thus, our findings do not support the idea that female mice increase multiple paternity when they have the opportunity to increase the genetic diversity of their offspring, as expected from the genetic diversity hypothesis. PMID:25018559

Thonhauser, Kerstin E; Raveh, Shirley; Penn, Dustin J

2014-07-01

416

Evolution of cytoplasmic sex ratio distorters: Effect of paternal transmission.  

PubMed

Eukaryotic organisms carry various genetic factors the so-called cytoplasmic genetic elements (CGEs), in their cytoplasm. Numerous examples are known in which CGEs possess the ability to control sex determination of their host organisms and cause sex ratio distortion (SRD). In general, CGEs are inherited maternally from female hosts, via egg cytoplasm to offspring. Thus, the elements tend to evolve abilities to avoid entrance into "dead-end" males. Previous theoretical studies have revealed that, as long as maternal transmission is perfect, CGEs evolve the highest levels of ability to cause SRD. However, it is recently reported that some CGEs transmit from male to offspring through infection to female in mating. This raises the question of how such a paternal contribution alters selective forces and SRD evolution. In the present study, the evolutionary process of SRD ability of CGEs was analyzed theoretically. The main finding is that paternal transmission results in evolution towards intermediate levels of SRD. Further, coexistence was observed of different CGEs inducing different levels of SRD. These results point to the importance of paternal transmission in the evolution of CGEs. PMID:20558180

Yamauchi, Atsushi; Telschow, Arndt; Kobayashi, Yutaka

2010-09-01

417

Paternal influences on offspring development: behavioural and epigenetic pathways.  

PubMed

Although mammalian parent-offspring interactions during early life are primarily through the mother, there is increasing evidence for the impact of fathers on offspring development. A critical issue concerns the pathways through which this paternal influence is achieved. In the present review, we highlight the literature suggesting several of these routes of paternal effects in mammals. First, similar to mothers, fathers can influence offspring development through the direct care of offspring, as has been observed in biparental species. Second, there is growing evidence that, even in the absence of contact with offspring, fathers can transmit environmentally-induced effects (i.e. behavioural, neurobiological and metabolic phenotypes induced by stress, nutrition and toxins) to offspring and it has been speculated that these effects are achieved through inherited epigenetic variation within the patriline. Third, fathers may also impact the quality of mother-infant interactions and thus achieve an indirect influence on offspring. Importantly, these pathways of paternal influence are not mutually exclusive but rather serve as an illustration of the complex mechanisms through which parental influence is achieved. These influences may serve to transmit traits across generations, thus leading to a transgenerational transmission of neurobiological and behavioural phenotypes. PMID:25039356

Braun, K; Champagne, F A

2014-10-01

418

Paternal Fenvalerate Exposure Influences Reproductive Functions in the Offspring  

PubMed Central

Fenvalerate (Fen), a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide, has been shown to have adverse effects on male reproductive system. Thus, the aim of the present study was to elucidate whether these adverse effects are passed from exposed male mice to their offspring. Adult male mice received Fen (10 mg/kg) daily for 30 days and mated with untreated females to produce offspring. Fenvalerate significantly changed the methylation status of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (Ace), forkhead box O3 (Foxo3a), huntingtin-associated protein 1 (Hap1), nuclear receptor subfamily 3 (Nr3c2), promyelocytic leukemia (Pml), and Prostaglandin F2 receptor negative regulator (Ptgfrn) genes in paternal mice sperm genomic DNA. Further, Fen significantly increased sperm abnormalities; serum testosterone and estradiol-17ß level in adult male (F0) and their male offspring (F1). Further, paternal Fen treatment significantly increased the length of estrous cycle, serum estradiol-17ß concentration in estrus, and progesterone levels in diestrus in female offspring (F1). These findings suggest that adverse effects of paternal Fen exposure on reproductive functions can be seen not only in treated males (F0) but also in their offsprings. PMID:23548413

Xia, Dong; Parvizi, Nahid; Zhou, Yuchuan; Xu, Kesi; Jiang, Hui; Li, Rongjie; Hang, Yiqiong; Lu, Yang

2013-01-01

419

Y-Chromosome Variation in Altaian Kazakhs Reveals a Common Paternal Gene Pool for Kazakhs and the Influence of Mongolian Expansions  

PubMed Central

Kazakh populations have traditionally lived as nomadic pastoralists that seasonally migrate across the steppe and surrounding mountain ranges in Kazakhstan and southern Siberia. To clarify their population history from a paternal perspective, we analyzed the non-recombining portion of the Y-chromosome from Kazakh populations living in southern Altai Republic, Russia, using a high-resolution analysis of 60 biallelic markers and 17 STRs. We noted distinct differences in the patterns of genetic variation between maternal and paternal genetic systems in the Altaian Kazakhs. While they possess a variety of East and West Eurasian mtDNA haplogroups, only three East Eurasian paternal haplogroups appear at significant frequencies (C3*, C3c and O3a3c*). In addition, the Y-STR data revealed low genetic diversity within these lineages. Analysis of the combined biallelic and STR data also demonstrated genetic differences among Kazakh populations from across Central Asia. The observed differences between Altaian Kazakhs and indigenous Kazakhs were not the result of admixture between Altaian Kazakhs and indigenous Altaians. Overall, the shared paternal ancestry of Kazakhs differentiates them from other Central Asian populations. In addition, all of them showed evidence of genetic influence by the 13th century CE Mongol Empire. Ultimately, the social and cultural traditions of the Kazakhs shaped their current pattern of genetic variation. PMID:21412412

Dulik, Matthew C.; Osipova, Ludmila P.; Schurr, Theodore G.

2011-01-01

420

Paternal behavior is associated with central neurohormone receptor binding patterns in meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus).  

PubMed

Paternal and nonpaternal voles (microtus) have different arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT) receptor patterns in the extended amygdala, a neural pathway associated with parental behavior. Using receptor autoradiography, the authors examined whether AVP and OT receptor patterns were associated with facultative paternal behavior in either sexually and parentally inexperienced or experienced meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus). Experienced, in contrast to inexperienced, males had less AVP binding in the lateral septum (LS), more AVP binding in the anterior olfactory nucleus (AON), and more OT binding in the AON, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, LS, and lateral amygdala. Thus, specific AVP receptor patterns, which co-occur with paternal care in consistently paternal voles, also may be associated with paternal care (when present) in typically nonpaternal species. This study also demonstrated a possible relationship between OT receptor patterns and paternal state in male mammals. PMID:11770064

Parker, K J; Kinney, L F; Phillips, K M; Lee, T M

2001-12-01

421

Utilization of Microsatellite Polymorphism for Differentiating Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Strains ? †  

PubMed Central

The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) genome is a linear double-stranded DNA of 152 kpb. It is divided into long and short regions of unique sequences termed UL and US, respectively, and these are flanked by regions of inverted internal and terminal repeats. Microsatellites are short tandem repeats of 1- to 6-nucleotide motifs; they are often highly variable and polymorphic within the genome, which raises the question of whether they may be used as molecular markers for the precise differentiation of HSV-1 strains. In this study, 79 different microsatellites (mono-, di-, and trinucleotide repeats) in the HSV-1 complete genome were identified by in silico analysis. Among those microsatellites, 45 were found to be distributed in intergenic or noncoding inverted repeat regions, while 34 were in open reading frames. Length polymorphism analysis of the PCR products was used to investigate a set of 12 distinct HSV-1 strains and allowed the identification of 23 polymorphic and 6 monomorphic microsatellites, including two polymorphic trinucleotide repeats (CGT and GGA) within the UL46 and US4 genes, respectively. A multiplex PCR method that amplified 10 polymorphic microsatellites was then developed for the rapid and accurate genetic characterization of HSV-1 strains. Each HSV-1 strain was characterized by its own microsatellite haplotype, which proved to be stable over time in cell culture. This relevant innovative tool was successfully applied both to confirm the close relationship between sequential HSV-1 isolates collected from patients with multiple recurrent infections and to investigate putative nosocomial infections. PMID:19109460

Deback, C.; Boutolleau, D.; Depienne, C.; Luyt, C. E.; Bonnafous, P.; Gautheret-Dejean, A.; Garrigue, I.; Agut, H.

2009-01-01

422

Testosterone, Paternal Behavior, and Aggression in the Monogamous California Mouse ( Peromyscus californicus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Testosterone (T) mediates a trade-off, or negative correlation, between paternal behavior and aggression in several seasonally breeding avian species. However, the presence or absence of a T-mediated trade-off in mammals has received less attention. We examined the relationship between paternal behavior and territorial aggression in the biparental California mouse, Peromyscus californicus. In contrast to seasonally breeding birds, T maintains paternal

Brian C. Trainor; Catherine A. Marler

2001-01-01

423

Genetic variability in reared stocks of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) based on allozymes and microsatellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic variability of cultured stocks of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was studied using two types of genetic markers: allozymes and microsatellites. A comparative analysis was investigated between six strains from extensive aquaculture in two French regions (Dombes and Forez) and five strains from the Czech Republic stemming from artificial selection and maintained in the Research Center of Vodnany. Observed

Jean François Desvignes; Jean Laroche; Jean Dominique Durand; Yvette Bouvet

2001-01-01

424

Application of the microsatellite technique for analyzing genetic diversity in shrimp breeding programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microsatellite technique was employed to demonstrate the use of genetic markers as a genetic analysis tool to manage breeding programs of cultured species. This technique was used on a total of 312 P. vannamei shrimp from Population 1 (Sinaloa, Mexico), Population 2 (Ecuador), Population 3 (hybrid of Population 1 X Population 2), Population 4 (Oaxaca, Mexico), a Guatemalan stock,

Greg M. Wolfus; Denise K. Garcia; Acacia Alcivar-Warren

1997-01-01

425

Ontology and diversity of transcript-associated microsatellites mined from a globe artichoke EST database  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus L.) is a significant crop in the Mediterranean basin. Despite its commercial importance and its both dietary and pharmaceutical value, knowledge of its genetics and genomics remains scant. Microsatellite markers have become a key tool in genetic and genomic analysis, and we have exploited recently acquired EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence data

Davide Scaglione; Alberto Acquadro; Ezio Portis; Christopher A Taylor; Sergio Lanteri; Steven J Knapp

2009-01-01

426

Microsatellite based genetic diversity and population structure of the endangered Spanish Guadarrama goat breed  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Assessing genetic biodiversity and population structure of minor breeds through the information provided by neutral molecular markers, al