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1

Microsatellite analysis of multiple paternity and male reproductive success in the promiscuous snowshoe hare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few genetic studies have addressed patterns of paternity in promiscuous mammals. I used microsatellite DNA primers developed in the European rabbit to analyze paternity in the promiscuous snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus). Sixty-five offspring, their 12 mothers, and their 24 putative fathers were genotyped at seven polymorphic loci (3-22 alleles\\/locus). Paternal allele counts and likelihood-based paternity assignments confirmed that multiple pa

Cole Burton

2002-01-01

2

Eleven polymorphic microsatellite markers for paternity analysis in the pectoral sandpiper, Calidris melanotos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Eleven polymorphic microsatellite markers were isolated for the pectoral sandpiper, Calidris melanotos. The number of alleles observed in a sample of 149 presumably unrelated adults ranged from nine to 23 with an observed heterozygosity ranging from 0.79 to 0.92. The set of markers described here will prove useful for accurately determining paternity and therefore elucidate the hitherto unknown mating

K. L. CARTER; B. KEMPENAERS

2007-01-01

3

Paternity analysis using microsatellite markers to identify pollen donors in an olive grove.  

PubMed

Olive (Olea europaea L.) is a wind-pollinated, allogamous species that is generally not considered to be self-compatible. In addition, cross-incompatibilities exist between cultivars that can result in low fruit set if compatible pollinisers are not planted nearby. In this study, microsatellite markers were used to identify 17 genotypes that were potential pollen donors in a commercial olive orchard. DNA typing with the same primers was also applied to 800 olive embryos collected from five cultivars in the grove over 2 years of study. Pollen donors for the cultivars Barnea, Corregiola, Kalamata, Koroneiki, and Mission were estimated by paternity analysis, based on the parental contribution of alleles in the genotypes of the embryos. The exclusion probability for the marker set was 0.998 and paternity was assigned on the basis of the 'most likely method'. Different pollen donors were identified for each of the maternal cultivars indicating that cross-compatibilities and incompatibilities varied between the genotypes studied. Cross-pollination was the principal method of fertilization, as selfing was only observed in two of the embryos studied and both of these were from the cultivar Mission. This is the first report where these techniques have been applied to survey the pollination patterns in an olive grove. The results indicate that careful planning in orchard design is required for efficient pollination between olive cultivars. PMID:16133312

Mookerjee, Sonali; Guerin, Jenny; Collins, Graham; Ford, Chris; Sedgley, Margaret

2005-10-01

4

Paternity Analysis of the Olive Variety "Istrska Belica" and Identification of Pollen Donors by Microsatellite Markers  

PubMed Central

The leading olive variety in Slovenia is “Istrska belica” (Olea europaea L.), which currently represents 70% of all olive trees in productive orchards. Paternity analysis based on microsatellite markers was used for genotyping and identification of the potential pollen donors of “Istrska belica” and for assessing the proportion of self-fertilization in monovarietal olive orchards in the Slovene Istria. Seven microsatellite loci were used for genotyping thirty-one olive embryos from “Istrska belica” trees and for all potential pollen donor varieties, which are grown in the region and could participate as pollinators. Genotyping results and allele identification were performed using the FaMoz software. The most probable pollen donor was assigned to 39% of all analyzed embryos. Among all analyzed embryos no single case of self-fertilization was confirmed. According to the present results, the variety “Istrska belica” was in all cases fertilized by foreign pollen. The results will contribute to defining the new guidelines for farmers regarding the proper management and growing practice in monovarietal olive groves. PMID:25097869

Jakse, Jernej

2014-01-01

5

High levels of gene flow in bur oak revealed by paternity analysis using microsatellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsatellite analysis was used to characterize pollen dispersal in a stand of 62 adult bur oaks (Quercus macrocarpa) in northern Illinois. Using PCR amplification of four dinucleotide microsatellite loci, pollen donors of 282 acorns collected from three adult trees located in different parts of the stand were determined by exclu- sion. Overall at least 57% of the acorns were pollinated

B. D. Dow; M. V. Ashley

1998-01-01

6

Paternity analysis using microsatellite markers to identify pollen donors in an olive grove  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive (Olea europaea L.) is a wind-pollinated, allogamous species that is generally not considered to be self-compatible. In addition, cross-incompatibilities exist between cultivars that can result in low fruit set if compatible pollinisers are not planted nearby. In this study, microsatellite markers were used to identify 17 genotypes that were potential pollen donors in a commercial olive orchard. DNA typing

Sonali Mookerjee; Jenny Guerin; Graham Collins; Chris Ford; Margaret Sedgley

2005-01-01

7

Microsatellite markers and multiple paternity in the garter snake thamnophis sirtalis  

PubMed

Data from four microsatellite loci developed for the common garter snake, Thamnophis sirtalis, show that multiple paternity is common in a natural population on Beaver Island, Michigan. Six of eight litters tested, and all litters with five or more neonates, were multiply sired. At least triple paternity was documented in the largest litter examined (n = 13 neonates). Inheritance patterns and genotype frequencies in the wild population indicate the presence of null allele(s) at one of the microsatellite loci. Garter snakes are widely used in quantitative genetics research, and paternity testing is essential in studies that rely on sibling analysis. PMID:10564453

McCracken; Burghardt; Houts

1999-09-01

8

Microsatellite assessment of multiple paternity in natural populations of a live-bearing fish, Gambusia holbrooki  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated and employed to examine paternity patterns in two natural populations of live-bearing mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki. Each locus displayed four to five alleles per population in samples of presumably unrelated adults. Nearly 900 embryos from a total of 50 pregnant females were assayed individually, and paternal alleles in each embryo were identified. Counts of paternal

L. ZANE; W. S. NELSON; A. G. JONES; J. C. AVISE

1999-01-01

9

Paternity testing using microsatellite DNA markers in captive Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae).  

PubMed

We investigated the paternity of 39 Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) hatched at the Port of Nagoya Public Aquarium between 1995 and 2005 breeding seasons using microsatellite DNA markers. Among the 13 microsatellite marker loci tested in this study, eight markers amplified and were found to be polymorphic in the colony's founders of the captive population (n?=?26). Multiple marker analysis confirmed that all the hatchlings shared alleles with their social fathers and that none of them were sired by any male (all males ?4 years old in the exhibit tank during each reproductive season; n?=?9-15) other than the one carrying out parental duties, except in the case of two inbred hatchlings whose half-sibling parents shared the same father. These results demonstrated that extra-pair paternity (EPP) did not occur in this captive population and that even if EPP has been detected among them, the probability of excluding all other possible fathers in the exhibit tank is extremely high based on paternity exclusion probabilities across the investigated loci. The paternity exclusion probabilities were almost the same between 1994 and 2005. The probability of identity across the investigated loci declined between the two time points, but was still high. These results are reflected in a very short history of breeding in this captive population. In other words, the parentage analyses using a suite of microsatellite markers will be less effective as generations change in small closed populations, such as zoo and aquarium populations. Zoo Biol. 33:463-470, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals Inc. PMID:25157452

Sakaoka, Ken; Suzuki, Isao; Kasugai, Naeko; Fukumoto, Yohei

2014-09-01

10

Development of a microsatellite set for paternity assignment of captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) from Anhui province, China.  

PubMed

Microsatellites are playing an important role in paternity assignment of animals. Given the cost and effort, it would be optimal to develop a minimal microsatellite marker set for paternity testing. This study was the first to assess paternity in a captive colony of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) from the Chinese province of Anhui using 10 polymorphic microsatellites. Results indicated that if at least 6 loci were genotyped, the probability of paternity assignment success was nearly 100%. Our results provide a panel of 6 markers that is effective for assessing paternity of subspecies M. m. siamica of Anhui origin. PMID:24450153

Xu, Y R; Li, J H; Zhu, Y; Sun, B H

2013-07-01

11

The reproductive biology of Polytrichum formosum: clonal structure and paternity revealed by microsatellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using highly polymorphic microsatellite markers, we assessed clonal structure and patern- ity in a population of the bryophyte species Polytrichum formosum. Identical multilocus genotypes of individual shoots were almost never observed in spatially separated cushions, but were found to be highly clustered within moss cushions. Therefore, asexual reproduc- tion through dispersal of gametophyte fragments is not very important in P.

M. VAN DER VELDE; L. VAN DE ZANDE; R. BIJLSMA

2001-01-01

12

The reproductive biology of Polytrichum formosum: clonal structure and paternity revealed by microsatellites.  

PubMed

Using highly polymorphic microsatellite markers, we assessed clonal structure and paternity in a population of the bryophyte species Polytrichum formosum. Identical multilocus genotypes of individual shoots were almost never observed in spatially separated cushions, but were found to be highly clustered within moss cushions. Therefore, asexual reproduction through dispersal of gametophyte fragments is not very important in P. formosum. However, asexual reproduction on a very localized scale through vegetative growth of genets (branching of gametophytes via clonal growth of rhizomes) is very extensive. The patchy spatial distribution of genets and the absence of intermingling among genets suggest that this species follows a 'phalanx' clonal growth strategy. Vegetative proliferation of genets will increase their size, and, consequently, will have considerable fitness consequences for individuals in terms of increased genet longevity and reproductive output. Although paternity analysis of sporophytes confirmed male genet size, i.e. gamete production, to be an important determinant of male reproductive fitness, it also showed that the spatial distance to female genets is the predominant factor that governs male reproductive success. Moreover, we showed that male gamete dispersal distances in P. formosum are much further than generally assumed, and are in the order of metres rather than centimetres. Combining the findings, we conclude that the high genotypic diversity observed for this facultatively clonal species is most likely explained by a preponderance of sexual reproduction over clonal reproduction. PMID:11742546

van der Velde, M; During, H J; van de Zande, L; Bijlsma, R

2001-10-01

13

Behavioral Ecology Vol. 12 No. 5: 633639 Extrapair paternity is influenced by breeding  

E-print Network

are controversial. We used multilocus DNA fingerprinting and microsatellite analysis to examine the effects analyses. Key words: breeding ecology, DNA fingerprinting, Geothlypis trichas, microsatellites, paternity

Dunn, Peter O.

14

Multiple paternity assessed using microsatellite markers, in green turtles Chelonia mydas (Linnaeus, 1758) of Ascension Island, South Atlantic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paternity was determined for three clutches and up to 20 offspring per clutch in the green turtle (Chelonia mydas) from Ascension Island, South Atlantic, using microsatellite markers. All three clutches were sired by at least two different males. The results were compared with those of previous studies of multiple paternity in turtles. No significant difference among studies was observed in

J. S. Ireland; A. C. Broderick; F. Glen; B. J. Godley; G. C. Hays; P. L. M. Lee; D. O. F. Skibinski

2003-01-01

15

Microsatellite Evidence for High Frequency of Multiple Paternity in the Marine Gastropod Rapana venosa  

PubMed Central

Background Inferring of parentage in natural populations is important in understanding the mating systems of a species, which have great effects on its genetic structure and evolution. Muricidae, a large group (approximately 1,600 species) of marine gastropods, are poorly investigated in patterns of multiple paternity and sperm competition based on molecular techniques. The veined Rapa whelk, Rapana venosa, a commercially important muricid species with internal fertilization, is an ideal species to study the occurrence and frequency of multiple paternity and to facilitate understanding of their reproductive strategies. Methodology/Principal Findings We developed five highly polymorphic microsatellites in R. venosa and applied them to identify multiple paternity in 19 broods (1381 embryos) collected from Dandong, China. Multiple paternity was detected in 17 (89.5%) of 19 broods. The number of sires per brood ranged from 1 to 7 (4.3 on average). Of the 17 multiply sired broods, 16 (94.1%) were significantly skewed from equal paternal contributions, and had a dominant sire which was also dominant in each assayed capsule. Conclusions Our results indicate that a high level of multiple paternity occurs in the wild population of R. venosa. Similar patterns of multiple paternity in the 2–6 assayed capsules from each brood imply that fertilization events within the body of a female occur mostly (but not entirely) as random draws from a “well-but-not-perfectly blended sperm pool” of her several mates. Strongly skewed distributions of fertilization success among sires also suggest that sperm competition and/or cryptic female choice might be important for post-copulatory paternity biasing in this species. PMID:24466127

Liu, Jin-Xian

2014-01-01

16

Characterization of four microsatellites in an Italian population and their application to paternity testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsatellites have recently been used for linkage analysis of genetic diseases and for DNA fingerprinting in forensic medicine. In the present study the heterozygosity, PIC values and allele distributions of four microsatellites, D8S85, D8S88, D5S346 and D7S460, in an Italian population have been investigated. After amplification with primers specific for each locus, alleles were separated and detected by denaturing gel

S. M. Sirchia; I. Garagiola; C. De Andreis; I. Gazzoli; M. Gramegna; G. Colucci

1996-01-01

17

Philippine population database at nine microsatellite loci for forensic and paternity applications.  

PubMed

Allele frequency distributions for a Filipino population from the National Capital Region (NCR) were determined for eight STR loci: HUMF13A01, HUMFES/FPS, HUMvWA, HUMFOLP23, HUMD8S306, HUMCSFIPO, HUMTPOX and HUMTHO1; and a VNTR locus: D1S80. Statistical analysis showed that the nine loci showed no deviations from Hardy-Weinberg and linkage equilibrium rules. The average power of paternity exclusion for the nine loci is 0.9962 and the discriminating power is 1-2 x 10(-9). The data obtained from this study will be used as reference data for forensic DNA typing in the Philippines. PMID:10376334

Halos, S C; Chu, J Y; Ferreon, A C; Magno, M M

1999-04-12

18

A molecular analysis of African lion (Panthera leo) mating structure and extra-group paternity in Etosha National Park.  

PubMed

The recent incorporation of molecular methods into analyses of social and mating systems has provided evidence that mating patterns often differ from those predicted by group social organization. Based on field studies and paternity analyses at a limited number of sites, African lions are predicted to exhibit a strict within-pride mating system. Extra-group paternity has not been previously reported in African lions; however, observations of extra-group associations among lions inhabiting Etosha National Park in Namibia suggest deviation from the predicted within-pride mating pattern. We analysed variation in 14 microsatellite loci in a population of 164 African lions in Etosha National Park. Genetic analysis was coupled with demographic and observational data to examine pride structure, relatedness and extra-group paternity (EGP). EGP was found to occur in 57% of prides where paternity was analysed (n = 7), and the overall rate of EGP in this population was 41% (n = 34). Group sex ratio had a significant effect on the occurrence of EGP (P < 0.05), indicating that variation in pride-level social structure may explain intergroup variation in EGP. Prides with a lower male-to-female ratio were significantly more likely to experience EGP in this population. The results of this study challenge the current models of African lion mating systems and provide evidence that social structure may not reflect breeding structure in some social mammals. PMID:23495802

Lyke, M M; Dubach, J; Briggs, M B

2013-05-01

19

The use of restriction fragment length polymorphisms in paternity analysis.  

PubMed Central

This paper examines the utility of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) for paternity analysis. While, on the average, 99% of falsely accused males can be excluded with the standard battery of blood group antigens, red cell enzymes, serum proteins, and HLA antigens, there are still mother-child pairs for whom the exclusion probability is not high. It has been suggested that additional resolution would be available with RFLPs. We have examined the strategic aspects of using RFLPs for paternity analysis, comparing the efficacy and cost of a multimarker haplotypic set with those of a comparable set of unlinked RFLPs, using published frequencies for the beta-globin complex, the serum albumin region, and the growth hormone region. There are four major findings. (1) Greater resolution is obtained with a carefully chosen set of tightly linked RFLPs producing chromosomal haplotypes than with a comparable set (same allele frequencies) of unlinked markers, but only if it is possible to establish linkage phase unambiguously. (2) Assay of linked sets is cheaper than is the assay of unlinked markers, but the cost advantage is optimized with sets of no more than two or three linked markers. (3) Also, with more than two or three tightly linked markers, the haplotypic frequencies are too poorly estimated to provide a reliable measure of the probability of paternity for unexcluded males, given the sample sizes likely to be available in the near future. (4) Optimal resolution, minimal cost, and acceptable accuracy are obtained with several independent sets of no more than two or three tightly linked RFLP markers each. With current technology, RFLP analysis is more expensive for the same level of genetic resolution than is the standard battery, but gradual replacement of the latter can be anticipated as economies of scale reduce the cost of the DNA technology. PMID:3014872

Smouse, P E; Chakraborty, R

1986-01-01

20

DNA “fingerprints” applied to paternity analysis in apples ( Malus x domestica )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of minisatellite DNA sequences, yielding so called DNA “fingerprints”, has proven useful in paternity analysis for several different organisms. Here 64 apple seedlings, grown from seeds collected in an orchard with three cultivars, were analyzed using the M13 “fingerprint” probe. Paternity could be determined for 56 of the seedlings, 2 of which were derived through selfing. The analysis was

H. Nybom; B. A. Schaal

1990-01-01

21

Pollination in the marine realm: microsatellites reveal high outcrossing rates and multiple paternity in eelgrass Zostera marina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mating system was examined in two annual populations of eelgrass (Zostera marina), a marine angiosperm displaying subaqueous pollination. Multilocus genotyping using microsatellite DNA markers allowed the assessment of the pollen source based on single progeny as units of observation. Outcrossing was detectable by the presence of non-maternal alleles at one or more of the loci. In outcrossing cases, three

THORSTEN B. H. REUSCH

2000-01-01

22

Novel and cross-species microsatellite markers for parentage analysis in Sanderling Calidris alba  

Microsoft Academic Search

We isolated and tested six novel microsatellite loci in Sanderling (Calidris alba) from Greenland for paternity analyses. In addition, we tested 11 already published microsatellite markers which were originally\\u000a developed for the congeneric species, the Pectoral Sandpiper (C. melanotos). All loci were polymorphic, but five of the cross-species loci were not scorable due to suboptimal amplification patterns.\\u000a The 12 successful

Pieternella C. Luttikhuizen; Anneke Bol; Harry Witte; Judith van Bleijswijk; Oliver Haddrath; Allan J. Baker; Theunis Piersma; Jeroen Reneerkens

2011-01-01

23

Effectiveness of microsatellite and SNP markers for parentage and identity analysis in species with low genetic diversity: the case of European bison.  

PubMed

The European bison (Bison bonasus) has recovered successfully after a severe bottleneck about 90 years ago but has been left with low genetic variability that may substantially hinder parentage and identity analysis. According to pedigree analysis, over 80% of the genes in the contemporary population descend from just two founder animals and inbreeding coefficients averaged almost 0.5, whereas microsatellite heterozygosity does not exceed 0.3. We present a comparison of the effectiveness of 17 microsatellite and 960 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for paternity and identity analysis in the European bison. Microsatellite-based paternity and identity analysis was unsuccessful because of low marker heterozygosity and is not a practical approach in this species. Simulations using SNP markers suggest that 80-90 randomly selected loci, or just 50-60 of the most heterozygous loci, would be sufficient to ensure successful paternity and identity analysis in this species. For the purpose of standardizing future analysis, a panel of 50-60 bovine SNPs characterized by high heterozygosity and an even distribution in the genome could be selected. This panel of markers could be typed using VeraCode (Illumina) or similar SNP genotyping systems. The low cost of these SNP genotyping methods compared with a 16 locus microsatellite survey means that off-the-shelf SNP genotyping systems developed for domestic species represent powerful tools for genetic analysis in related species, and can be effective even in bottlenecked species in which heterozygosity of other markers such as microsatellites may be very low. PMID:19623210

Tokarska, M; Marshall, T; Kowalczyk, R; Wójcik, J M; Pertoldi, C; Kristensen, T N; Loeschcke, V; Gregersen, V R; Bendixen, C

2009-10-01

24

DNA microsatellites of pronghorn (Antilocapra americana)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a set of eight polymorphic microsatellite loci for pronghorn, Antilocapra americana. We screened 233 individuals from the National Bison Range in Moiese, MT, and found allele numbers from three to 11 and heterozygosity levels ranging from 0.142 to 0.807. These results suggest that these loci will be useful in paternity analysis and basic popula- tion genetics applications.

M. D. CARLING; C. W. PASSAVANT; J. A. BYERS

25

Network analysis of human Y microsatellite haplotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the utility of Y chromosome micro- satellites for studying human male-lineage evolution, we typed samples from three populations for five tetranucleotide repeats and an Alu insertion poly- morphism. We found very high levels of haplotype diversity and evidence that most mutations involve the gain or loss of only one repeat unit, implying that any given microsatellite haplotype may

Gillian Cooper; William Amos; Dorota Hoffman; David C. Rubinsztein

1996-01-01

26

[HLA antigen typing in paternity disputes. Analysis of results].  

PubMed

Typing of 38-43 HLA antigens ruled out paternity in 33.75% of 726 men suspected, during 198 revisions in 71.72%. In 63.57% the man was ruled out concurrently in loci HLA-A and B incl. in 79.33% where the man and child had all HLA-A, B antigens different. Locus HLA-A alone was ruled out in 8.01%, locus HLA-B in 28.17%; in a single case the man was ruled out in locus HLA-C only. By family investigations the man was ruled out in three of 11 cases. In two cases of paternity of twins the man was ruled out from paternity only of one child. In one case superfecundation was involved, confirmed in systems Duffy, Inv, Hp, AP, in the second case the man was ruled out from paternity of the second child in the Hp system. Male carriers of antigens of haplotypes frequent in the population were not ruled out from paternity in high percentages: with HLA antigens A1, B8 in 37.19%, A2, B7 in 19.54%, A2, B12 in 24.72%, A3, B7 in 37.14%. PMID:2032266

Májský, A

1991-03-22

27

Establishing paternity in whooping cranes (Grus Americana) by DNA analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

DNA fingerprinting was used to study paternity and genetic variability within a captive flock of Whooping Cranes (Grus americana). Fingerprint patterns for 42 individuals were obtained by digesting genomic crane DNAs with HaeIII followed by electrophoresis, blotting, and hybridization to the M13 minisatellite probe. Despite finding reduced levels of genetic variation in the Whooping Crane due to a population 'bottleneck,' these polymorphisms were successfully used to determine paternity in six of seven cases of captive propagation where the maternal-offspring relationship was known, but where the sire was unknown. These determinations of paternity are required for effective genetic management of. the crane flock. These results also revealed a number of heterozygous minisatellite loci that will be valuable in future assessments of genetic variability in this endangered species.

Longmire, J.L.; Gee, G.F.; Hardekopf, C.L.; Mark, G.A.

1992-01-01

28

ORIGINAL PAPER Microsatellite DNA analysis of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Microsatellite DNA analysis of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from western immigrants from adjacent populations of the Fraser River, and (ii) that there is no evidence of widespread 2004). Two of the most important issues in salmonid conservation are: (i) the definition and identifi

Taylor, Eric B. "Rick"

29

Mission design and trajectory analysis for inspection of a host spacecraft by a microsatellite  

E-print Network

The trajectory analysis and mission design for inspection of a host spacecraft by a microsatellite is motivated by the current developments in designing and building prototypes of a microsatellite inspector vehicle. Two ...

Kim, Susan C. (Susan Cecilia)

2006-01-01

30

Case–control analysis of paternal age and trisomic anomalies  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo determine whether older paternal age increases the risk of fathering a pregnancy with Patau (trisomy 13), Edwards (trisomy 18), Klinefelter (XXY) or XYY syndrome.DesignCase–control: cases with each of these syndromes were matched to four controls with Down syndrome from within the same congenital anomaly register and with maternal age within 6 months.SettingData from 22 EUROCAT congenital anomaly registers in

E. De Souza; J. K. Morris

2010-01-01

31

Molecular Ecology (1993)2,315-326 The analysis of paternity and maternity in the marine  

E-print Network

Molecular Ecology (1993)2,315-326 The analysis of paternity and maternity in the marine hydrozoan Hydractinia symbiolongicarpus using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)markers D. R. LEVITAN and R. K genetic markers. The ideal genetic assay would (1)employ highly polymorphic genetic markers

Grosberg, Rick

32

Microsatellite multiplex assay for the analysis of Atlantic sturgeon populations.  

PubMed

We have developed a multiplex assay covering 16 microsatellite loci, amplified in four polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, and loaded on the ABI DNA Analyzer in two separate panels. The assay was tested on 603 individuals originating from wild populations and hatchery stocks of Atlantic sturgeon. The assay was also tested on 12 individuals of European sturgeon and appeared to be almost equally useful. The multiplex assay designed in this study can be successfully applied in studies requiring high genetic resolution, such as relatedness analysis, selective breeding programs, and stock identification of Atlantic sturgeon. PMID:24793446

Panagiotopoulou, H; Popovic, D; Zalewska, K; Weglenski, P; Stankovic, A

2014-11-01

33

Admixture Analysis of Florida Largemouth Bass and Northern Largemouth Bass using Microsatellite Loci  

E-print Network

and Hubbs 1949) was largely influenced by Pliocene sea level fluctuations (Near et al. 2003) and PleistoceneAdmixture Analysis of Florida Largemouth Bass and Northern Largemouth Bass using Microsatellite, USA Abstract.--Microsatellite DNA variation was examined at 11 loci in five populations of Florida

Aspbury, Andrea S. - Department of Biology, Texas State University

34

The problem of single parent/child paternity analysis--practical results involving 336 children and 348 unrelated men.  

PubMed

In a certain amount of paternity investigations, only DNA from child and alleged father is analyzed, thus increasing the possibility of false paternity inclusions. The aim of this study was to determine how many wrong paternity inclusions could be detected in a rather small geographical area comparing empirical results from 336 children and 348 men (13-15 STRs were investigated per person). This comparison between each child and all unrelated men (i.e. all putative fathers from the other cases) with an especially designed computer program resulted in 116,004 man/child pairs. Less than three excluding STRs were found in 1666 child/unrelated man pairs (1.44% of the comparisons). At least one unrelated man with only two or less STR mismatches could be determined for 322 children (95.8% of all investigated children). In 26 comparisons no STR mismatches between a child and an unrelated man were detected, thus at least one and up to three "second father(s)" under 350 men could be found for 23 children, if the mother is excluded. Paternity probabilities between 95.475% and 99.996% were calculated. Our results underline the difficulties in motherless paternity cases using only STR analysis and advise great precaution in assigning verbal predicates such as "paternity proven" in those investigations. PMID:16105725

Poetsch, Micaela; Lüdcke, Christina; Repenning, Antje; Fischer, Lutz; Mályusz, Victoria; Simeoni, Eva; Lignitz, Eberhard; Oehmichen, Manfred; von Wurmb-Schwark, Nicole

2006-06-01

35

Possibility of paternity testing using RFLP analysis on a very small amount of material.  

PubMed

Paternity testing by DNA analysis was carried out using dental pulpal and chorionic villous tissue from two children respectively, and fresh blood samples obtained from the alleged parents. DNA was extracted spectroscopically from the pulp of an upper wisdom tooth (16 micrograms) and the chorionic villi (53 micrograms). The RFLP method was used for DNA analysis of the parent-child relationships because both of the DNAs extracted had a high molecular weight. Distinct bands were detected with 32P-labelled multi-locus (Myo) and single locus (pYNH24) DNA probes. In the case of the dental specimen all of the bands of the child's DNA were found to be derived from either of the alleged parents, demonstrating a consistent parent-child relationship (the probability of established paternity was 99.86%) whilst in the case of the villous specimen the father-child relationship was denied. This procedure can provide much information using very little material for analysis but where the samples are in a good condition. PMID:11494675

Yamada, Y; Kobayashi, M; Takatori, T; Nagao, M; Ohira, H; Yamamoto, I; Ohtani, S

2001-06-01

36

Analysis of microsatellite polymorphism in inbred knockout mice.  

PubMed

Previously, we found that the genotype of 42 out of 198 mouse microsatellite loci, which are distributed among all chromosomes except the Y chromosome, changed from monomorphism to polymorphism (CMP) in a genetically modified inbred mouse strain. In this study, we further examined whether CMP also relates to the homologous recombination in gene knockout (KO) mouse strains. The same 42 microsatellite loci were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 29 KO inbred mouse strains via short tandem sequence repeat (STR) scanning and direct sequence cloning to justify microsatellite polymorphisms. The C57BL/6J and 129 mouse strains, from which these 29 KO mice were derived, were chosen as the background controls. The results indicated that 10 out of 42 (23.8%) loci showed CMP in some of these mouse strains. Except for the trinucleotide repeat locus of D3Mit22, which had microsatellite CMP in strain number 9, the core sequences of the remaining 41 loci were dinucleotide repeats, and 9 out of 41 (21.95%) showed CMPs among detected mouse strains. However, 11 out of 29 (37.9%) KO mice strains were recognized as having CMPs. The popular dinucleotide motifs in CMP were (TG)(n) (50%, 2/4), followed by (GT)(n) (27.27%, 3/11) and (CA)(n) (23.08%, 3/13). The microsatellite CMP in (CT)(n) and (AG)(n) repeats were 20% (1/5). According to cloning sequencing results, 6 KO mouse strains showed insertions of nucleotides whereas 1 showed a deletion. Furthermore, 2 loci (D13Mit3 and D14Mit102) revealed CMP in 2 strains, and mouse strain number 9 showed CMPs in two loci (D3Mit22 and D13Mit3) simultaneously. Collectively, these results indicated that microsatellite polymorphisms were present in the examined inbred KO mice. PMID:22509320

Zuo, Baofen; Du, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Jing; Yang, Huixin; Wang, Chao; Wu, Yanhua; Lu, Jing; Wang, Ying; Chen, Zhenwen

2012-01-01

37

[Paternity analysis in deficiency cases with related putative fathers: simulation of a deficiency analysis in 27 families].  

PubMed

During the last few years, the number of privately ordered paternity investigations has increased considerably. Probably due to financial reasons in more and more cases only the putative father and the child are investigated. Additionally, very often only one method, such as STR analysis, is employed. This raises the question whether such a reduced analysis leads to reliable and clear results when investigating cases with related putative fathers. We investigated 165 individuals from 27 families using the AmpFlSTRIdentifiler multiplex PCR and calculated the paternity probabilities of the children to their biological fathers, uncles, grand fathers and other relatives. In more than 30% less than three exclusions between child and relative were detected. In five cases no exclusions were found between child and uncle, always leading to paternity probabilities >99.9%. These results show that the calculation of high probabilities (>99.9%) does not necessarily lead to the accurate conclusion of fatherhood. In many of our cases misleadingly the brother of the real father or another close relative would have been declared to be the biological father. PMID:15666973

von Wurmb-Schwark, Nicole; Mályusz, Victoria; Simeoni, Eva; Oehmichen, Manfred; Lignitz, Eberhard; Lüdcke, Christina; Repenning, Antje; Poetsch, Micaela

2004-01-01

38

Low or no occurrence of extra-pair paternity in the Black Guillemot Cepphus grylle  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated extra-pair paternity (EPP) among 46 young in 32 broods of 19 social pairs of Black Guillemot Cepphus grylle, using a combination of three polymorphic microsatellite markers. The analysis was based on blood samples collected over\\u000a eight years from a population of individually colour-ringed birds in North Norway. All chicks shared an allele on all three\\u000a loci with both

Tycho Anker-Nilssen; Oddmund Kleven; Tomas Aarvak; Jan T. Lifjeld

2010-01-01

39

Multiplexed systems of microsatellite markers for genetic analysis of mahogany, Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae), a threatened neotropical timber species.  

PubMed

Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King [Meliaceae]) is the most valuable hardwood species in the neotropics. Its conservation status has been the subject of increasing concern due to overexploitation and habitat destruction. In this work we report the development and characterization of 10 highly variable microsatellite loci for S. macrophylla. Twenty-nine percent of the 126 sequenced mahogany clones yielded useful microsatellite loci. Three high-throughput genotyping systems were developed based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) multiplexing of these mahogany loci. We identified a total of 158 alleles in 121 adult individuals of S. macrophylla, with an average of 15.8 alleles (range 11-25) per locus. All loci showed Mendelian inheritance in open-pollinated half-sib families. The mean expected heterozygosity was 0.84 and the mean observed heterozygosity was 0.73. The combined probability of identity-the probability that two individuals selected at random from a population would have identical genotypes--was 7.0 x 10(-15), and combined probability of paternity exclusion was 0.999998 overall loci. These microsatellite loci permit precise estimates of parameters such as gene flow, mating system, and paternity, thus providing important insights into the population genetics and conservation of S. macrophylla. PMID:12407218

Lemes, M R; Brondani, R P V; Grattapaglia, D

2002-01-01

40

Paternal age related schizophrenia (PARS): latent subgroups detected by k-means clustering analysis  

E-print Network

1 Paternal age related schizophrenia (PARS): latent subgroups detected by k-means clustering.antonius@nyumc.org #12;2 Abstract Background: Paternal age related schizophrenia (PARS) has been proposed as a subgroup of schizophrenia with distinct etiology, pathophysiology and symptoms. This study uses a k-means clustering

Ahn, Hongshik

41

Microsatellites in Different Eukaryotic Genomes: Survey and Analysis  

PubMed Central

We examined the abundance of microsatellites with repeated unit lengths of 1–6 base pairs in several eukaryotic taxonomic groups: primates, rodents, other mammals, nonmammalian vertebrates, arthropods, Caenorhabditis elegans, plants, yeast, and other fungi. Distribution of simple sequence repeats was compared between exons, introns, and intergenic regions. Tri- and hexanucleotide repeats prevail in protein-coding exons of all taxa, whereas the dependence of repeat abundance on the length of the repeated unit shows a very different pattern as well as taxon-specific variation in intergenic regions and introns. Although it is known that coding and noncoding regions differ significantly in their microsatellite distribution, in addition we could demonstrate characteristic differences between intergenic regions and introns. We observed striking relative abundance of (CCG)n•(CGG)n trinucleotide repeats in intergenic regions of all vertebrates, in contrast to the almost complete lack of this motif from introns. Taxon-specific variation could also be detected in the frequency distributions of simple sequence motifs. Our results suggest that strand-slippage theories alone are insufficient to explain microsatellite distribution in the genome as a whole. Other possible factors contributing to the observed divergence are discussed. PMID:10899146

Toth, Gabor; Gaspari, Zoltan; Jurka, Jerzy

2000-01-01

42

Microsatellites in different eukaryotic genomes: survey and analysis.  

PubMed

We examined the abundance of microsatellites with repeated unit lengths of 1-6 base pairs in several eukaryotic taxonomic groups: primates, rodents, other mammals, nonmammalian vertebrates, arthropods, Caenorhabditis elegans, plants, yeast, and other fungi. Distribution of simple sequence repeats was compared between exons, introns, and intergenic regions. Tri- and hexanucleotide repeats prevail in protein-coding exons of all taxa, whereas the dependence of repeat abundance on the length of the repeated unit shows a very different pattern as well as taxon-specific variation in intergenic regions and introns. Although it is known that coding and noncoding regions differ significantly in their microsatellite distribution, in addition we could demonstrate characteristic differences between intergenic regions and introns. We observed striking relative abundance of (CCG)(n)*(CGG)(n) trinucleotide repeats in intergenic regions of all vertebrates, in contrast to the almost complete lack of this motif from introns. Taxon-specific variation could also be detected in the frequency distributions of simple sequence motifs. Our results suggest that strand-slippage theories alone are insufficient to explain microsatellite distribution in the genome as a whole. Other possible factors contributing to the observed divergence are discussed. PMID:10899146

Tóth, G; Gáspári, Z; Jurka, J

2000-07-01

43

Paternal exposure to Agent Orange and spina bifida: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to conduct a meta-analysis of published and unpublished studies that examine the association between Agent Orange (AO) exposure and the risk of spina bifida. Relevant studies were identified through a computerized literature search of Medline and Embase from 1966 to 2008; a review of the reference list of retrieved articles and conference proceedings; and by contacting researchers for unpublished studies. Both fixed-effects and random-effects models were used to pool the results of individual studies. The Cochrane Q test and index of heterogeneity (I(2)) were used to evaluate heterogeneity, and a funnel plot and Egger's test were used to evaluate publication bias. Seven studies, including two Vietnamese and five non-Vietnamese studies, involving 330 cases and 134,884 non-cases were included in the meta-analysis. The overall relative risk (RR) for spina bifida associated with paternal exposure to AO was 2.02 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.48-2.74), with no statistical evidence of heterogeneity across studies. Non-Vietnamese studies showed a slightly higher summary RR (RR = 2.22; 95% CI: 1.38-3.56) than Vietnamese studies (RR = 1.92 95% CI: 1.29-2.86). When analyzed separately, the overall association was statistically significant for the three case-control studies (Summary Odds Ratio = 2.25, 95% CI: 1.31-3.86) and the cross sectional study (RR = 1.97, 95% CI: 1.31-2.96), but not for the three cohort studies (RR: 2.11; 95% CI: 0.78-5.73). Paternal exposure to AO appears to be associated with a statistically increased risk of spina bifida. PMID:19894129

Ngo, Anh Duc; Taylor, Richard; Roberts, Christine L

2010-01-01

44

Comparative Analysis of the Korean Population of Magnaporthe oryzae by Multilocus Microsatellite Typing  

PubMed Central

Rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, inflicts serious damage to global rice production. Due to high variability of this fungal pathogen, resistance of newly-released rice cultivars is easily broken down. To understand the population structure of M. oryzae, we analyzed the genetic diversity of the Korean population using multilocus microsatellite typing. Eleven microsatellite markers were applied to the population of 190 rice isolates which had been collected in Korea for two decades since the 1980’s. Average values of gene diversity and allele frequency were 0.412 and 6.5, respectively. Comparative analysis of the digitized allele information revealed that the Korean population exhibited a similar level of allele diversity to the integrated diversity of the world populations, suggesting a particularly high diversity of the Korean population. Therefore, these microsatellite markers and the comprehensive collection of field isolates will be useful genetic resources to identify the genetic diversity of M. oryzae population.

Choi, Jaehyuk; Kim, Hyojung; Lee, Yong-Hwan

2013-01-01

45

Analysis of microsatellite polymorphism in red deer, roe deer, and fallow deer — possible employment in forensic applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA microsatellites play a major role in population genetics, linkage mapping, and parentage studies of mammals. In addition, they may be used for forensic purposes, if an individual identification of a specific animal is necessary. Therefore, we tested a variety of microsatellite polymorphism derived from reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) by PCR and sequencing analysis for use in red deer (Cervus elaphus),

Micaela Poetsch; Sabine Seefeldt; Marina Maschke; Eberhard Lignitz

2001-01-01

46

Microsatellite analysis of genetic variation among and within Alpine marmot populations in the French Alps  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic structure of the Alpine marmot, Marmota marmota , was studied by an analysis of five polymorphic microsatellite loci. Eight locations were sampled in the French Alps, one from Les Ecrins valley ( n = 160), another from La Sassière valley ( n = 289) and the six others from the Maurienne valley ( n = 139). Information on

B. Goossens; L. Chikhi; P. Taberlet; L. P. Waits; D. AllainE

2001-01-01

47

Microsatellite DNA analysis of coastal populations of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in British  

E-print Network

Microsatellite DNA analysis of coastal populations of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus (Salvelinus confluentus) from 20 Pacific coastal localities from the Skeena River (central British Columbia. [Traduit par la Rédaction] Taylor and Costello 1171 Introduction The bull trout, Salvelinus confluentus

Taylor, Eric B. "Rick"

48

[Genetic diversity in goat breeds based on microsatellite analysis].  

PubMed

Fluorescence PCR was applied to investigate the genetic diversities of 9 indigenous Chinese goat breeds and 1 exotic breed with 10 microsatellite DNA markers recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the International Livestock Research Institute of Animal Genetics, which provide data for the preservation and utilization of indigenous goat breeds genetic resource. We found that the 7 breeds were high polymorphic while 3 breeds were moderate polymorphic. We also detected 119 alleles, and the effective allele number ranged from 1.4641 to 9.2911. The average heterozygosity of loci and breeds respectively varied from 0.2618 to 0.7672 and from 0.5196 to 0.7024. As well as SRCRSP23 site and Hexi cashmere goat had the highest average heterozygosity. Then we analyzed the phylogenetic trees (NJ and UPGMA), and found both of them were generally in accordance with their original breeding history and localities. PMID:20684301

Xu, Limei; Liu, Chousheng; Zhang, Liping; Wang, Zhigang; Han, Xu; Li, Xiaoxia; Chang, Shuang

2010-05-01

49

Microsatellite analysis of North American wapiti (Cervus elaphus) populations.  

PubMed

Eleven populations of wapiti (Cervus elaphus) were analysed for genetic diversity using 12 microsatellite loci. Samples were taken from Vancouver Island, British Columbia; Burwash and French River herds in Ontario; Ya Ha Tinda Ranch, Alberta; and Banff, Elk Island, Jasper, Kootenay, Riding Mountain, Yellowstone and Yoho National Parks. Overall, wapiti populations have on average three to four alleles per locus and an average expected heterozygosity that ranged from 25.75 to 52.85%. The greatest genetic distances were observed between the Vancouver population and all other populations. Using the assignment test, Roosevelt wapiti (C. e. roosevelti Merriam 1897) assigned only to the Vancouver Island population. The distance and assignment values suggest a divergence of the Roosevelt wapiti from other populations and support the subspecific status for the Vancouver Island population. No evidence was found for the existence of unique Eastern wapiti (C. e. canadensis Erxleben 1777) in the Burwash or French River herds in Ontario. The overlapping distribution of genotypes from indigenous populations from Riding Mountain, Elk Island and Yellowstone National Parks suggests that wapiti were once a continuous population before settlers decimated their numbers. The lack of differentiation between these populations raises questions about the status of Manitoban (C. e.manitobensis Millais 1915) and Rocky Mountain (C. e.nelsoni Bailey 1935) subspecies. PMID:11050551

Polziehn, R O; Hamr, J; Mallory, F F; Strobeck, C

2000-10-01

50

Phylogenetic analysis of the tribe Bovini using microsatellites.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to determine if the generally accepted phylogenetic relationships in the tribe Bovini correspond to a phylogenetic scheme derived from polymorphisms at 20 bovine microsatellite loci. This study comprises 17 representative populations: eight Bos taurus, two Bos indicus, one Poëphagus, one Bibos, one Bison, three Bubalus and one Syncerus. Phylogenetic analyses using (delta mu)2 and chord (DC) distances revealed substantial divergence among species. Neighbor-joining trees with both distance measures showed only minor differences. Bos taurus and Bos indicus grouped first, followed by Bos frontalis (Mithan) and Bos grunniens (Yak), Bison bison branched off next and Bubalus bubalis and Syncerus caffer emerged as the two most divergent species from the Bos clade. These findings would suggest that Bos, Poëphagus, and Bibos should be integrated into the Bos genus with each group classified as a subgenus. On the other hand, Bison, Bubalus and Syncerus should each be considered a separate genus. Direct estimates of the divergence times were calculated using the (delta mu)2 genetic distance. Bos taurus and Bos indicus were estimated to have diverged 0.31-0.82 MYA, Bos and Poëphagus: 0.57-1.53 MYA, Bos and Bibos: 0.57-1.52 MYA, Bos and Bison: 0.46-1.23 MYA, Bos and Bubalus: 1.85-4.93 MYA and Bos and Syncerus: 0.98-2.61 MYA. PMID:10895308

Ritz, L R; Glowatzki-Mullis, M L; MacHugh, D E; Gaillard, C

2000-06-01

51

Paternal lineage analysis supports an Armenian rather than a Central Asian genetic origin of the Hamshenis.  

PubMed

The Hamshenis are an isolated geographic group of Armenians with a strong ethnic identity who, until the early decades of the twentieth century, inhabited the Pontus area on the southern coast of the Black Sea. Scholars hold alternative views on their origin, proposing Eastern Armenia, Western Armenia, and Central Asia, respectively, as their most likely homeland. To ascertain whether genetic data from the nonrecombining portion of the Y chromosome are supportive of any of these suggestions, we screened 82 Armenian males of Hamsheni descent for 12 biallelic and 6 microsatellite Y-chromosomal markers. These data were compared with the corresponding data set from the representative populations of the three candidate regions. Genetic difference between the Hamshenis and other groups is significant and backs up the hypothesis of the Armenian origin of the Hamshenis, indicating central historical Armenia as a homeland of the ancestral population. This inference is further strengthened by the results of admixture analysis, which does not support the Central-Asian hypothesis of the Hamshenis' origin. Genetic diversity values and patterns of genetic distances suggest a high degree of genetic isolation of the Hamshenis consistent with their retention of a distinct and ancient dialect of the Armenian language. PMID:23249315

Margaryan, Ashot; Harutyunyan, Ashot; Khachatryan, Zaruhi; Khudoyan, Armine; Yepiskoposyan, Levon

2012-08-01

52

Comparison of three microsatellite analysis methods for detecting genetic diversity in Phytophthora sojae (Stramenopila: Oomycete).  

PubMed

Analysis of an organism's genetic diversity requires a method that gives reliable, reproducible results. Microsatellites are robust markers, however, detection of allele sizes can be difficult with some systems as well as consistency among laboratories. In this study, our two laboratories used 219 isolates of Phytophthora sojae to compare three microsatellite methods. Two capillary electrophoresis methods, the Applied Biosystems 3730 Genetic Analyzer and the CEQ 8000 Genetic Analysis system, detected an average of 2.4-fold more alleles compared to gel electrophoresis with a mean of 8.8 and 3.6 alleles per locus using capillary and gel methods, respectively. The two capillary methods were comparable, although allele sizes differed consistently by an average of 3.2 bp across isolates. Differences between capillary methods could be overcome if reference standard DNA genotypes are shared between collaborating laboratories. PMID:21744147

Stewart, Silvina; Wickramasinghe, Damitha; Dorrance, Anne E; Robertson, Alison E

2011-11-01

53

Deployment analysis and test of a coilable mast for BUAA Student Microsatellite  

Microsoft Academic Search

BUAA Student Micro-satellite (BUAA-SAT) is a gravity-gradient stable satellite depending on a coilable mast. The mast , used as the main deploying and supporting members, plays an important part on the whole satellite structure. What's more, deployment test and modal parameter identification results are two important factors of the deployable space mast. This paper describes deployment test and analysis of

Zhou Xu; Yue Guannan; Huang Hai; Wang Xinsheng

2010-01-01

54

Mosaic analysis and tumor induction in zebrafish by microsatellite instability-mediated stochastic gene expression.  

PubMed

Mosaic analysis, in which two or more populations of cells with differing genotypes are studied in a single animal, is a powerful approach to study developmental mechanisms and gene function in vivo. Over recent years, several genetic methods have been developed to achieve mosaicism in zebrafish, but despite their advances, limitations remain and different approaches and further refinements are warranted. Here, we describe an alternative approach for creating somatic mosaicism in zebrafish that relies on the instability of microsatellite sequences during replication. We placed the coding sequences of various marker proteins downstream of a microsatellite and out-of-frame; in vivo frameshifting into the proper reading frame results in expression of the protein in random individual cells that are surrounded by wild-type cells. We optimized this approach for the binary Gal4-UAS expression system by generating a driver line and effector lines that stochastically express Gal4-VP16 or UAS:H2A-EGFP and self-maintaining UAS:H2A-EGFP-Kaloop, respectively. To demonstrate the utility of this system, we stochastically expressed a constitutively active form of the human oncogene H-RAS and show the occurrence of hyperpigmentation and sporadic tumors within 5 days. Our data demonstrate that inducing somatic mosaicism through microsatellite instability can be a valuable approach for mosaic analysis and tumor induction in Danio rerio. PMID:24487406

Koole, Wouter; Tijsterman, Marcel

2014-07-01

55

Genome-wide survey and analysis of microsatellites in the Pacific oyster genome: abundance, distribution, and potential for marker development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microsatellites are a ubiquitous component of the eukaryote genome and constitute one of the most popular sources of molecular markers for genetic studies. However, no data are currently available regarding microsatellites across the entire genome in oysters, despite their importance to the aquaculture industry. We present the first genome-wide investigation of microsatellites in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas by analysis of the complete genome, resequencing, and expression data. The Pacific oyster genome is rich in microsatellites. A total of 604 653 repeats were identified, in average of one locus per 815 base pairs (bp). A total of 12 836 genes had coding repeats, and 7 332 were expressed normally, including genes with a wide range of molecular functions. Compared with 20 different species of animals, microsatellites in the oyster genome typically exhibited 1) an intermediate overall frequency; 2) relatively uniform contents of (A)n and (C)n repeats and abundant long (C)n repeats (?24 bp); 3) large average length of (AG)n repeats; and 4) scarcity of trinucleotide repeats. The microsatellite-flanking regions exhibited a high degree of polymorphism with a heterozygosity rate of around 2.0%, but there was no correlation between heterozygosity and microsatellite abundance. A total of 19 462 polymorphic microsatellites were discovered, and dinucleotide repeats were the most active, with over 26% of loci found to harbor allelic variations. In all, 7 451 loci with high potential for marker development were identified. Better knowledge of the microsatellites in the oyster genome will provide information for the future design of a wide range of molecular markers and contribute to further advancements in the field of oyster genetics, particularly for molecular-based selection and breeding.

Wang, Jiafeng; Qi, Haigang; Li, Li; Zhang, Guofan

2014-01-01

56

The problem of single parent\\/child paternity analysis—Practical results involving 336 children and 348 unrelated men  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a certain amount of paternity investigations, only DNA from child and alleged father is analyzed, thus increasing the possibility of false paternity inclusions. The aim of this study was to determine how many wrong paternity inclusions could be detected in a rather small geographical area comparing empirical results from 336 children and 348 men (13–15 STRs were investigated per

Micaela Poetsch; Christina Lüdcke; Antje Repenning; Lutz Fischer; Victoria Mályusz; Eva Simeoni; Eberhard Lignitz; Manfred Oehmichen; Nicole von Wurmb-Schwark

2006-01-01

57

Sperm competition and sexual selection: a meta-analysis of paternity studies of birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sperm competition (the competition among the sperm of different males for fertilization of the eggs of a female) has been\\u000a suggested to be an important component of sexual selection, but no general assessment has been made of this proposition. We\\u000a used a meta-analytic approach to assess the extensive literature on paternity (the proportion of offspring in a focal nest\\u000a sired

Anders Pape Møller; Paola Ninni

1998-01-01

58

Inter-population variation in multiple paternity and reproductive skew in the guppy.  

PubMed

We use microsatellite loci to detail the multiple paternity patterns in broods from 10 wild populations of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) found in Northern Trinidad. The populations span two major drainages comprising the Caroni and the Oropouche, and include sites that are characterized by either high or low predation. Across the populations the frequency of multiple paternity is high with 95% (range: 70%-100%) of broods having multiple sires. Broods have an average of 3.5 sires (range: 1-9) and a mixed-model analysis suggests that broods from high predation sites have marginally more sires than do those from low predation sites, but this is true only in the Oropouche drainage. There is no difference in sire number between predation sites in the Caroni drainage. Brood size, but not female body length, is correlated with the number of sires and the correlation cannot be attributed solely to the stochastic process associated with sperm competition and a 'fair raffle'. Within broods there is significant skew in reproductive success among males, which may reflect variation in sperm competitiveness or female choice. There is, however, no difference in the skew among populations from different predation regimes or drainages. Finally, high predation populations were characterized by increased genetic variability at the microsatellite loci, suggesting a larger effective population size. We discuss explanations for the high degree of multiple paternity but the general lack of any major differences among broods from ecologically different populations. PMID:18494765

Neff, Bryan D; Pitcher, Trevor E; Ramnarine, Indar W

2008-06-01

59

Application of microsatellite markers in conservation genetics and fisheries management: recent advances in population structure analysis and conservation strategies.  

PubMed

Microsatellites are the most popular and versatile genetic marker with myriads of applications in population genetics, conservation biology, and evolutionary biology. These are the arrays of DNA sequences, consisting of tandemly repeating mono-, di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide units, which are distributed throughout the genomes of most eukaryotic species. Microsatellites are codominant in nature, highly polymorphic, easily typed, and Mendelian inherited, all properties which make them very suitable for the study of population structure and pedigree analysis and capable of detecting differences among closely related species. PCR for microsatellites can be automated for identifying simple sequence repeat polymorphism. Small amount of blood samples or alcohol preserved tissue is adequate for analyzing them. Most of the microsatellites are noncoding, and therefore variations are independent of natural selection. These properties make microsatellites ideal genetic markers for conservation genetics and fisheries management. This review addresses the applications of microsatellite markers in conservation genetics and recent advances in population structure analysis in the context of fisheries management. PMID:24808959

Abdul-Muneer, P M

2014-01-01

60

Application of Microsatellite Markers in Conservation Genetics and Fisheries Management: Recent Advances in Population Structure Analysis and Conservation Strategies  

PubMed Central

Microsatellites are the most popular and versatile genetic marker with myriads of applications in population genetics, conservation biology, and evolutionary biology. These are the arrays of DNA sequences, consisting of tandemly repeating mono-, di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide units, which are distributed throughout the genomes of most eukaryotic species. Microsatellites are codominant in nature, highly polymorphic, easily typed, and Mendelian inherited, all properties which make them very suitable for the study of population structure and pedigree analysis and capable of detecting differences among closely related species. PCR for microsatellites can be automated for identifying simple sequence repeat polymorphism. Small amount of blood samples or alcohol preserved tissue is adequate for analyzing them. Most of the microsatellites are noncoding, and therefore variations are independent of natural selection. These properties make microsatellites ideal genetic markers for conservation genetics and fisheries management. This review addresses the applications of microsatellite markers in conservation genetics and recent advances in population structure analysis in the context of fisheries management. PMID:24808959

Abdul-Muneer, P. M.

2014-01-01

61

Quantifying honey bee mating range and isolation in semi-isolated valleys by DNA microsatellite paternity analysis  

E-print Network

by a virgin queen and 2 queenright drone producing hives. The virgin queens were allowed to mate naturally with drones from the hives we had set up and with drones from hives owned by local beekeepers. After mating and drones did occasionally mate across the borders between the two valleys, showing that the dividing

Chittka, Lars

62

Assessment of multiple paternity in single litters from three species of carcharhinid sharks in Hawaii  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested for presence or absence of multiple paternity in single litters from each of three congeneric shark species in Hawaii: the sandbar shark, Carcharhinus plumbeus, bignose shark, Carcharhinus altimus, and Galapagos shark, Carcharhinus galapagensis. Based on eight polymorphic microsatellite loci, we excluded paternity by a single sire in sandbar and bignose sharks, but could not exclude a single sire

Toby S. Daly-Engel; R. Dean Grubbs; Kim N. Holland; Robert J. Toonen; Brian W. Bowen

2006-01-01

63

Extrapair paternity and egg hatchability in tree swallows: evidence for the genetic compatibility hypothesis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) show one of the highest levels of extrapair paternity in birds, and there is evidence that females have control over who fathers their offspring. However, it is unclear which benefits female tree swallows obtain from mating with multiple males. Using microsatellite DNA fingerprinting, we studied extrapair paternity in relation to nesting success and male, female, and

Bart Kempenaers; Brad Congdon; Peter Boag; Raleigh J. Robertsona

1999-01-01

64

POLYGYNY AND EXTRA-PAIR PATERNITY IN A POPULATION OF SOUTHWESTERN WILLOW FLYCATCHERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although polygyny can potentially increase male reproductive success, the benefits of this strategy could be offset by losses to extra-pair paternity or reduced offspring survival. We developed microsatellite markers to assess the influence of extra- pair offspring (EPO) on reproductive success and paternity in monogamous and polygynous pairs of the facultatively polygynous Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus). Based on

Talima Pearson; Mary J. Whitfield; Tad C. Theimer; Paul Keim

2006-01-01

65

Multilocus microsatellite analysis of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' associated with citrus Huanglongbing worldwide  

PubMed Central

Background Huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most destructive citrus diseases in the world. The disease is associated with the presence of a fastidious, phloem-limited ?- proteobacterium, 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus', 'Ca. Liberibacter africanus' or 'Ca. Liberibacter americanus'. HLB-associated Liberibacters have spread to North America and South America in recent years. While the causal agents of HLB have been putatively identified, information regarding the worldwide population structure and epidemiological relationships for 'Ca. L. asiaticus' is limited. The availability of the 'Ca. L. asiaticus' genome sequence has facilitated development of molecular markers from this bacterium. The objectives of this study were to develop microsatellite markers and conduct genetic analyses of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' from a worldwide collection. Two hundred eighty seven isolates from USA (Florida), Brazil, China, India, Cambodia, Vietnam, Taiwan, Thailand, and Japan were analyzed. Results A panel of seven polymorphic microsatellite markers was developed for 'Ca. L. asiaticus'. Microsatellite analyses across the samples showed that the genetic diversity of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' is higher in Asia than Americas. UPGMA and STRUCTURE analyses identified three major genetic groups worldwide. Isolates from India were genetically distinct. East-southeast Asian and Brazilian isolates were generally included in the same group; a few members of this group were found in Florida, but the majority of the isolates from Florida were clustered separately. eBURST analysis predicted three founder haplotypes, which may have given rise to three groups worldwide. Conclusions Our results identified three major genetic groups of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' worldwide. Isolates from Brazil showed similar genetic makeup with east-southeast Asian dominant group, suggesting the possibility of a common origin. However, most of the isolates recovered from Florida were clustered in a separate group. While the sources of the dominant 'Ca. L. asiaticus' in Florida were not clearly understood, the less-pervasive groups may have been introduced directly from Asia or via Brazil. Notably, the recent outbreak of HLB in Florida probably occurred through multiple introductions. Microsatellite markers developed in this study provide adequate discriminatory power for the identification and differentiation of closely-related isolates, as well as for genetic studies of 'Ca. L. asiaticus'. PMID:22433492

2012-01-01

66

Do male golden egg bugs carry eggs they have fertilized? A microsatellite analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the golden egg bug, Phyllomorpha laciniata (Heteroptera, Coreidae), both males and females carry eggs on their back. Although females cannot carry their own eggs, males may carry eggs that they have fertilized. If males carry eggs they have fertilized, their behavior may be interpreted as paternal care. In this article, we provide genetic data for paternity assignment of eggs

Wee Tek Tay; Minna Miettinen; Arja Kaitalaa

2003-01-01

67

Genetic diversity of Leishmania donovani/infantum complex in China through microsatellite analysis.  

PubMed

The Leishmania strains from different epidemic areas in China were assessed for their genetic relationship. Twenty-nine strains of Leishmania infantum isolated from 1950 to 2001 were subjected to multilocus microsatellite typing (MLMT) using 14 highly polymorphic microsatellite markers. Twenty-two MLMT profiles were recognized among the 29 L. infantum strains, which differed from one another in 13 loci. Bayesian model-based and distance-based analysis of the data inferred two main populations in China. Sixteen strains belonged to one population, which also comprised previously characterized strains of L. infantum non-MON1 and Leishmania donovani. The parasites within this population are assignable to a distinct cluster that is clearly separable from the populations of L. donovani elsewhere, i.e. India, Sri Lanka and East Africa, and L. infantum non-MON1 from Europe. The remaining 13 Chinese strains grouped together with strains of L. infantum MON1 into another population, but formed a separate cluster which genetically differs from the populations of L. infantum MON1 from Europe, the Middle East, Central Asia and North Africa. The existence of distinct groups of L. infantum MON1 and non-MON1/L. donovani suggests that the extant parasites in China may have been restricted there, but not recently introduced from elsewhere. PMID:24480049

Alam, Mohammad Zahangir; Nakao, Ryo; Sakurai, Tatsuya; Kato, Hirotomo; Qu, Jing-Qi; Chai, Jun-Jie; Chang, Kwang Poo; Schönian, Gabriele; Katakura, Ken

2014-03-01

68

Multiple Paternity in Fruits of Ipomopsis aggregata (Polemoniaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two different mechanisms can result in multiple paternity within fruits: deposition of a mixed pollen load due to carryover of pollen from flower to flower and multiple pollinator visits in close succession. I investigated the extent of multiple paternity within fruits of Ipompsis aggregata containing from 2 to 14 seeds. A paternity analysis based on ten polymorphic isozyme markers revealed

Diane R. Campbell

1998-01-01

69

Polymorphism in ornamental and common carp strains ( Cyprinus carpio L.) as revealed by AFLP analysis and a new set of microsatellite markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-seven new microsatellite markers were generated and applied, together with the AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) technique using two different enzyme combinations, to the genetic analysis of two carp species, Cyprinus carpio L. and Ctenopharyngodon idella. The extent of polymorphism and the genetic relationships between nine carp populations were studied. The incidence of microsatellites containing CA and CT motifs was

L. David; P. Rajasekaran; J. Fang; J. Hillel; U. Lavi

2001-01-01

70

Microsatellite and mtDNA analysis of lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, from Great Bear Lake, Northwest Territories  

E-print Network

Microsatellite and mtDNA analysis of lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, from Great Bear Lake genetic variation in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Great Bear Lake (GBL), NT and one population, Salvelinus. Correspondence Les N. Harris, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, MB

Taylor, Eric B. "Rick"

71

Analysis of potential duplicates in barley gene bank collections using re-sampling of microsatellite data.  

PubMed

Redundant duplication among putative Nordic spring barley material held at 12 gene banks worldwide was studied using 35 microsatellite primer pairs covering the entire barley genome. These microsatellite markers revealed an average of 7.1 alleles per locus, and a range of 1 to 17 different alleles per locus. Similarity of accession name was initially used to partition the 174 repatriated accessions into 36 potential duplicate groups, and one group containing 36 apparently unique or unrelated accessions. This partitioning was efficient to produce a distribution of mainly small average genetic distances within potential duplicate groups compared to distances from the group of unique accessions. However, comparisons within potential duplicate groups still contained large genetic distances of the same size as distances between unique accessions indicating classification errors. A bootstrap approach based on re-sampling of both microsatellite markers and alleles within marker loci was used to test for homogeneity within potential duplicate groups. The test was used in each group for sequential elimination of accessions with a significantly large average genetic distance to identify a homogeneous group. Such genetically homogeneous groups of two or more accessions were identified in 22 among the 36 potential duplicate groups studied. Results from the genetic analysis of some potential duplicate groups supported previous conclusions based on passport data through inclusion of the historically most-original accession in the genetically homogeneous group. In other potential duplicate groups the apparently most-original accession according to passport data was not included in the homogeneous set of accessions, indicating that this most-original accession does not have duplicate accessions in the group. During the present study the largest average genetic distance accepted in any homogeneous group was smaller than the smallest distance declared significant in any group, with a threshold average genetic distance of approximately 0.14. The results are discussed with respect to the identification of duplicate accessions within potential duplicate groups, as well as the elimination of genetic off types in such groups. Furthermore, large barley gene bank collections may be screened for potential duplicates with genetic distances below the suggested threshold of 0.14. PMID:12671763

Lund, B; Ortiz, R; Skovgaard, I M; Waugh, R; Andersen, S B

2003-04-01

72

Multiple paternity in the freshwater snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum  

PubMed Central

Mating multiply may incur costs, such as exposure to predators and to sexually transmitted diseases. Nevertheless, it may be favored, in spite of these costs, as a way to increase the genetic diversity of offspring through fertilization by multiple males. Here, we tested for multiple paternity in a freshwater snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum), which is host to several species of sterilizing trematode worms. Using microsatellites markers, we found multiple paternity in two different snail populations, with as many as seven males fertilizing a single female. In addition, high evenness of sire fertilization was found within individual broods. Multiple paternity can occur for a variety of reasons; however, given that these populations experience high risk of infection by a sterilizing trematode, one potential explanation may be that multiple paternity and high evenness of sire fertilizations increase the chances of the production of parasite-resistant offspring. PMID:23301182

Soper, Deanna M; Delph, Lynda F; Lively, Curt M

2012-01-01

73

Multiple paternity in the freshwater snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum.  

PubMed

Mating multiply may incur costs, such as exposure to predators and to sexually transmitted diseases. Nevertheless, it may be favored, in spite of these costs, as a way to increase the genetic diversity of offspring through fertilization by multiple males. Here, we tested for multiple paternity in a freshwater snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum), which is host to several species of sterilizing trematode worms. Using microsatellites markers, we found multiple paternity in two different snail populations, with as many as seven males fertilizing a single female. In addition, high evenness of sire fertilization was found within individual broods. Multiple paternity can occur for a variety of reasons; however, given that these populations experience high risk of infection by a sterilizing trematode, one potential explanation may be that multiple paternity and high evenness of sire fertilizations increase the chances of the production of parasite-resistant offspring. PMID:23301182

Soper, Deanna M; Delph, Lynda F; Lively, Curt M

2012-12-01

74

The impact of extensive clonal growth on fine-scale mating patterns: a full paternity analysis of a lily-of-the-valley population (Convallaria majalis)  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The combination of clonality and a mating system promoting outcrossing is considered advantageous because outcrossing avoids the fitness costs of selfing within clones (geitonogamy) while clonality assures local persistence and increases floral display. The spatial spread of genetically identical plants (ramets) may, however, also decrease paternal diversity (the number of sires fertilizing a given dam) and fertility, particularly towards the centre of large clumped clones. This study aimed to quantify the impact of extensive clonal growth on fine-scale paternity patterns in a population of the allogamous Convallaria majalis. Methods A full analysis of paternity was performed by genotyping all flowering individuals and all viable seeds produced during a single season using AFLP. Mating patterns were examined and the spatial position of ramets was related to the extent of multiple paternity, fruiting success and seed production. Key Results The overall outcrossing rate was high (91 %) and pollen flow into the population was considerable (27 %). Despite extensive clonal growth, multiple paternity was relatively common (the fraction of siblings sharing the same father was 0·53 within ramets). The diversity of offspring collected from reproductive ramets surrounded by genetically identical inflorescences was as high as among offspring collected from ramets surrounded by distinct genets. There was no significant relationship between the similarity of the pollen load received by two ramets and the distance between them. Neither the distance of ramets with respect to distinct genets nor the distance to the genet centre significantly affected fruiting success or seed production. Conclusions Random mating and considerable pollen inflow most probably implied that pollen dispersal distances were sufficiently high to mitigate local mate scarcity despite extensive clonal spread. The data provide no evidence for the intrusion of clonal growth on fine-scale plant mating patterns. PMID:23439847

Vandepitte, Katrien; De Meyer, Tim; Jacquemyn, Hans; Roldan-Ruiz, Isabel; Honnay, Olivier

2013-01-01

75

An analysis of microsatellite loci in Arabidopsis thaliana: mutational dynamics and application.  

PubMed Central

Microsatellite loci are among the most commonly used molecular markers. These loci typically exhibit variation for allele frequency distribution within a species. However, the factors contributing to this variation are not well understood. To expand on the current knowledge of microsatellite evolution, 20 microsatellite loci were examined for 126 accessions of the flowering plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. Substantial variability in mutation pattern among loci was found, most of which cannot be explained by the assumptions of the traditional stepwise mutation model or infinite alleles model. Here it is shown that the degree of locus diversity is strongly correlated with the number of contiguous repeats, more so than with the total number of repeats. These findings support a strong role for repeat disruptions in stabilizing microsatellite loci by reducing the substrate for polymerase slippage and recombination. Results of cluster analyses are also presented, demonstrating the potential of microsatellite loci for resolving relationships among accessions of A. thaliana. PMID:14668396

Symonds, V Vaughan; Lloyd, Alan M

2003-01-01

76

Genetic linkage analysis of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis using human chromosome 21 microsatellite DNA markers  

SciTech Connect

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS; Lou Gehrig`s Disease) is a lethal neurodegenerative disease of upper and lower motorneurons in the brain and spinal cord. We previously reported linkage of a gene for familial ALS (FALS) to human chromosome 21 using 4 restriction fragment length polymorphism DNA markers and identified disease-associated mutations in the superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1 gene in some ALS families. We report here the genetic linkage data that led us to examine the SOD-1 gene for mutations. We also report a new microsatellite DNA marker for D21S63, derived from the cosmid PW517. Ten microsatellite DNA markers, including the new marker D21S63, were used to reinvestigate linkage of FALS to chromosome 21. Genetic linkage analysis performed with 13 ALS familes for these 10 DNA markers confirmed the presence of a FALS gene on chromosome 21. The highest total 2-point LOD score for all families was 4.33, obtained at a distance of 10 cM from the marker D21S223. For 5 ALS families linked to chromosome 21, a peak 2-point LOD score of 5.94 was obtained at the DNA marker D21S223. A multipoint score of 6.50 was obtained with the markers D21S213, D21S223, D21S167, and FALS for 5 chromosome 21-linked ALS families. The haplotypes of these families for the 10 DNA markers reveal recombination events that further refined the location of the FALS gene to a segment of approximately 5 megabases (Mb) between D21S213 and D21S219. The only characterized gene within this segment was SOD-1, the structural gene for Cu, Zn SOD. 30 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Rosen, D.R.; Sapp, P.; O`Regan, J.; McKenna-Yasek, D.; Schlumpf, K.S.; Haines, J.L.; Gusella, J.F.; Horvitz, H.R.; Brown, R.H. Jr. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

1994-05-15

77

Microsatellite analysis of genetic variation among and within Alpine marmot populations in the French Alps.  

PubMed

The genetic structure of the Alpine marmot, Marmota marmota, was studied by an analysis of five polymorphic microsatellite loci. Eight locations were sampled in the French Alps, one from Les Ecrins valley (n = 160), another from La Sassière valley (n = 289) and the six others from the Maurienne valley (n = 139). Information on social group structure was available for both Les Ecrins and La Sassière but not for the other samples. The high levels of genetic diversity observed are at odds with the results obtained using microsatellites, minisatellites and allozymes on Alpine marmots from Germany, Austria and Switzerland. Strong deficits in heterozygotes were found in Les Ecrins and La Sassière. They are caused by a Wahlund effect due to the family structure (i.e. differentiation between the family groups). The family groups exhibit excess of heterozygotes rather than deficits. This may be caused by outbreeding and this is compatible with recent results from the genetics of related social species when information on the social structure is taken into account. The observed outbreeding could be the result of females mating with transient males or males coming from neighbouring colonies. Both indicate that the species may not be as monogamous as is usually believed. The results are also compatible with a male-biased dispersal but do not allow us to exclude some female migration. We also found a significant correlation between geographical and genetic distance indicating that isolation by distance could be an issue in marmots. This study is the first that analysed populations of marmots taking into account the social structure within populations and assessing inbreeding at different levels (region, valley, population, and family groups). Our study clearly demonstrated that the sampling strategy and behavioural information can have dramatic effects on both the results and interpretation of the genetic data. PMID:11251786

Goossens, B; Chikhi, L; Taberlet, P; Waits, L P; Allainé, D

2001-01-01

78

Patterns of multiple paternity within and between annual reproduction cycles of the fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra) under natural conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated patterns of paternity in a population of the fire salamander Salamandra salamandra in Germany under fully natural conditions. Pregnant females were caught after hibernation in their natural habitat and their offspring were genotyped with different sets of microsatellite loci to assess paternity. Each female was marked with a transponder and released at the same place where it

S. Steinfartz; K. Stemshorn; D. Kuesters; D. Taut

79

Developing conversed microsatellite markers and their implications in evolutionary analysis of the Bemisia tabaci complex.  

PubMed

The study of population genetics among the Bemisia tabaci complex is limited due to the lack of conserved molecular markers. In this study, 358, 433 and 322 new polynucleotide microsatellites are separately identified from the transcriptome sequences of three cryptic species of the B. tabaci complex. The cross species transferability of 57 microsatellites was then experimentally validated. The results indicate that these markers are conserved and have high inter-taxon transferability. Thirteen markers were employed to assess the genetic relationships among six cryptic species of the B. tabaci complex. To our surprise, the inferred phylogeny was consistent with that of mitochondrial COI sequences, indicating that microsatellites have the potential to distinguish species of the B. tabaci complex. Our results demonstrate that development of microsatellites from transcriptome data is a fast and cost-effective approach. These markers can be used to analyze the population genetics and evolutionary patterns of the B. tabaci complex. PMID:25220501

Wang, Hua-Ling; Yang, Jiao; Boykin, Laura M; Zhao, Qiong-Yi; Wang, Yu-Jun; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Wang, Xiao-Wei

2014-01-01

80

Developing conversed microsatellite markers and their implications in evolutionary analysis of the Bemisia tabaci complex  

PubMed Central

The study of population genetics among the Bemisia tabaci complex is limited due to the lack of conserved molecular markers. In this study, 358, 433 and 322 new polynucleotide microsatellites are separately identified from the transcriptome sequences of three cryptic species of the B. tabaci complex. The cross species transferability of 57 microsatellites was then experimentally validated. The results indicate that these markers are conserved and have high inter-taxon transferability. Thirteen markers were employed to assess the genetic relationships among six cryptic species of the B. tabaci complex. To our surprise, the inferred phylogeny was consistent with that of mitochondrial COI sequences, indicating that microsatellites have the potential to distinguish species of the B. tabaci complex. Our results demonstrate that development of microsatellites from transcriptome data is a fast and cost-effective approach. These markers can be used to analyze the population genetics and evolutionary patterns of the B. tabaci complex. PMID:25220501

Wang, Hua-Ling; Yang, Jiao; Boykin, Laura M.; Zhao, Qiong-Yi; Wang, Yu-Jun; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Wang, Xiao-Wei

2014-01-01

81

High prevalence of multiple paternity in the invasive crayfish species, Procambarus clarkii  

PubMed Central

Reproductive strategy is a central feature of the ecology of invasive species as it determines the potential for population increase and range expansion. The red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, has invaded many countries and caused serious problems in freshwater ecosystems. However, little is known about the effects of environmental conditions on crayfish paternity and offspring traits in the wild. We studied these reproductive characteristics of P. clarkii in wild populations from two different habitats (ponds and ditches) in three locations with different environmental conditions in China. Genotyping of 1,436 offspring and 30 mothers of 30 broods was conducted by using four microsatellites. An analysis of genotyping results revealed that gravid females were the exclusive mother of the progeny they tended. Twenty-nine of 30 mothers had mated with multiple (2-4) males, each of which contributed differently to the number of offspring in a brood. The average number of fathers per brood and the number of offspring per brood were similar (P > 0.05) among six sampling sites, indicating that in P. clarkii multiple paternity and offspring number per brood are independent of environmental conditions studied. Indirect benefits from increasing the genetic diversity of broods, male and sperm competition, and cryptic female choice are a possible explanation for the high level multiple paternity and different contribution of fathers to offspring in this species. PMID:20186292

Yue, Gen Hua; Li, Jia Le; Wang, Chun Ming; Xia, Jun Hong; Wang, Gen Lin; Feng, Jian Bing

2010-01-01

82

High prevalence of multiple paternity in the invasive crayfish species, Procambarus clarkii.  

PubMed

Reproductive strategy is a central feature of the ecology of invasive species as it determines the potential for population increase and range expansion. The red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, has invaded many countries and caused serious problems in freshwater ecosystems. However, little is known about the effects of environmental conditions on crayfish paternity and offspring traits in the wild. We studied these reproductive characteristics of P. clarkii in wild populations from two different habitats (ponds and ditches) in three locations with different environmental conditions in China. Genotyping of 1,436 offspring and 30 mothers of 30 broods was conducted by using four microsatellites. An analysis of genotyping results revealed that gravid females were the exclusive mother of the progeny they tended. Twenty-nine of 30 mothers had mated with multiple (2-4) males, each of which contributed differently to the number of offspring in a brood. The average number of fathers per brood and the number of offspring per brood were similar (P>0.05) among six sampling sites, indicating that in P. clarkii multiple paternity and offspring number per brood are independent of environmental conditions studied. Indirect benefits from increasing the genetic diversity of broods, male and sperm competition, and cryptic female choice are a possible explanation for the high level multiple paternity and different contribution of fathers to offspring in this species. PMID:20186292

Yue, Gen Hua; Li, Jia Le; Wang, Chun Ming; Xia, Jun Hong; Wang, Gen Lin; Feng, Jian Bing

2010-01-01

83

Unraveling the Processes of Microsatellite Evolution Through Analysis of Germ Line Mutations in Barn Swallows Hirundo rustica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct analysis of mutation events provides important clues for understanding the processes of microsatellite evo- lution. A barn swallow Hirundo rustica (AAAG)n tetranucleotide repeat locus displayed hypervariability and hy- permutability, with 44 mutations observed among 1,209 meioses, yielding an average mutation rate of 3.6%. The magnitude of mutations was compatible with a stepwise mutation model, although not exclusively involving single-

C. R. Primmer; N. Saino; A. P. Møller; H. Ellegren

84

A comparative genetic study of two groups of chukar partridges ( Alectoris chukar ) from Cyprus and Argentina, using microsatellite analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present work is to estimate the usefulness of microsatellite genetic markers analysis to characterize and analyze\\u000a the possible differences between a captive reared population and a wild one from the same species. The first sample consists\\u000a of 27 chukar partridges (Alectoris chukar) bred in one farm in Argentina. The second one is composed of 31 chukar

M. V. Arruga; E. Hadjisterkotis; L. V. Monteagudo; M. T. Tejedor

2007-01-01

85

Analysis of microsatellite DNA of rainbow trout ( Parasalmo ( Oncorhynchus ) mykiss ) of Kamchatka: Selection of loci and optimization of the method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variation of a sample of rainbow trout (Parasalmo (Oncorhynchus) mykiss) from natural populations of several rivers of the Kamchatka Peninsula with respect to 43 microsatellite DNA loci has been\\u000a studied. These loci were earlier used for analysis of Asian populations of closely related salmonids. Ten of them may be regarded\\u000a as markers and seen promising for further studies on

A. V. Semenova; G. A. Rubtsova; K. I. Afanas’ev; S. D. Pavlov

2010-01-01

86

Performance of non-motile male gametes in the sea: analysis of paternity and fertilization success in a natural population of a red seaweed, Gracilaria gracilis  

PubMed Central

In haploid–diploid red seaweeds, the dispersal of male gametes is presumed limited due to their lack of flagella. It has been suggested that this group suffers from sperm limitation and, consequently, that fertilization is relatively inefficient. Fertilization in most floridean rhodophytes results in the formation a cystocarp, a swelling on the haploid female thallus housing the diploid zygote and its thousands of diploid daughter spores. To study the performance of non-motile male gametes in the sea, we evaluated both female and male fertilization success in a natural population of the red marine alga Gracilaria gracilis. Female fertilization success, estimated by cystocarp yield per unit female thallus, was evaluated with respect to the availability of male gametes. Male fertilization success, estimated by the individual contribution of different males to zygotes, was assessed by paternity analyses on 350 cystocarps produced in one reproductive season using two microsatellite loci. The results show that cystocarp yield is not sperm limited and that the large variation in male fertilization success cannot be solely explained by the distance travelled by the male gamete to find a mate. Taken together, the results suggest that, not only is fertilization efficient, but that male–male competition and/or female choice may play a role in shaping population mating patterns.

Engel, C. R.; Wattier, R.; Destombe, C.; Valero, M.

1999-01-01

87

[Analysis of microsatellite loci variations in herring (Clupea pallasii marisalbi) from the White Sea].  

PubMed

The genetic diversity among spawning groups of herring from different parts of the White Sea was assessed using ten microsatellite loci. All loci were polymorphic with the expected heterozygosity estimates varying in the range of 12.7-94.1% (mean was 59.5%). The degree of genetic differentiation displayed by White Sea herring was statistically significant (theta = 2.03%). The level of pairwise genetic differentiation F(ST) was 0-0.085, and it was statistically significant in most of the comparison pairs between the herring samples. A hierarchical analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed the statistically significant differentiation of White Sea herring. 96.59% genetic variation was found within the samples and 3.41% variation was found among the populations. The main component of interpopulation diversity (1.85%) falls at the differences between two ecological forms of herring, spring- and summer-spawning. Within the spring-spawning form, the presence of local stocks in Kandalaksha Gulf, Onega Bay, and Dvina Bay was demonstrated. PMID:24450198

Semenova, A V; Andreeva, A P; Karpov, A K; Stroganov, A N; Rubtsova, G A; Afanas'ev, K I

2013-06-01

88

Microsatellite and Wolbachia analysis in Rhagoletis cerasi natural populations: population structuring and multiple infections.  

PubMed

Rhagoletis cerasi (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a major pest of sweet and sour cherries in Europe and parts of Asia. Despite its economic significance, there is a lack of studies on the genetic structure of R. cerasi populations. Elucidating the genetic structure of insects of economic importance is crucial for developing phenological-predictive models and environmental friendly control methods. All natural populations of R. cerasi have been found to harbor the endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis, which widely affects multiple biological traits contributing to the evolution of its hosts, and has been suggested as a tool for the biological control of insect pests and disease vectors. In the current study, the analysis of 18 R. cerasi populations collected in Greece, Germany, and Russia using 13 microsatellite markers revealed structuring of R. cerasi natural populations, even at close geographic range. We also analyzed the Wolbachia infection status of these populations using 16S rRNA-, MLST- and wsp-based approaches. All 244 individuals screened were positive for Wolbachia. Our results suggest the fixation of the wCer1 strain in Greece while wCer2, wCer4, wCer5, and probably other uncharacterized strains were also detected in multiply infected individuals. The role of Wolbachia and its potential extended phenotypes needs a thorough investigation in R. cerasi. Our data suggest an involvement of this symbiont in the observed restriction in the gene flow in addition to a number of different ecological factors. PMID:24963388

Augustinos, Antonios A; Asimakopoulou, Anastasia K; Moraiti, Cleopatra A; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos T; Bourtzis, Kostas

2014-05-01

89

Genetic diversity analysis of the Uruguayan Creole cattle breed using microsatellites and mtDNA markers.  

PubMed

The Uruguayan Creole cattle population (N = 600) is located in a native habitat in south-east Uruguay. We analyzed its genetic diversity and compared it to other populations of American Creole cattle. A random sample of 64 animals was genotyped for a set of 17 microsatellite loci, and the D-loop hyper-variable region of mtDNA was sequenced for 28 calves of the same generation. We identified an average of 5.59 alleles per locus, with expected heterozygosities between 0.466 and 0.850 and an expected mean heterozygosity of 0.664. The polymorphic information content ranged from 0.360 to 0.820, and the global FIS index was 0.037. The D-loop analysis revealed three haplotypes (UY1, UY2 and UY3), belonging to the European matriline group, with a haplotype diversity of 0.532. The history of the population, changes in the effective population size, bottlenecks, and genetic drift are possible causes of the genetic variability patterns that we detected. PMID:23661437

Armstrong, E; Iriarte, A; Martínez, A M; Feijoo, M; Vega-Pla, J L; Delgado, J V; Postiglioni, A

2013-01-01

90

Microsatellite analysis revealed genetic diversity and population structure among Chinese cashmere goats.  

PubMed

Most cashmere goats are found in northern China and Mongolia. They are regarded as precious resources for their production of high quality natural fibre for the textile industry. It was the first time that the genetic diversity and population structure of nine Chinese cashmere populations has been assessed using 14 ISAG/FAO microsatellite markers. In addition, two Iranian populations and one West African goat population were genotyped for comparison. Results indicated that the genetic diversity of Chinese cashmere goats was rich, but less than those of the Iranian goat populations. All pairwise F(ST) values between the Chinese cashmere goat populations reached a highly significant level (P < 0.001), suggesting that they should all be considered as separate breeds. Finally, clustering analysis divided Chinese cashmere goats into at least two clusters, with the Tibetan Hegu goats alone in one cluster. An extensive admixture was detected among the Chinese goat breeds (except the Hegu), which have important implications for breeding management. PMID:20497158

Di, R; Vahidi, S M Farhad; Ma, Y H; He, X H; Zhao, Q J; Han, J L; Guan, W J; Chu, M X; Sun, W; Pu, Y P

2011-08-01

91

Behavioral Paternalism Or the Possibility of Paternalism  

E-print Network

is not demeaning and does not ostracize any category of people. 1 Early versions of this paper have been presented of the nineteenth-century model of entrepreneurial capitalism. As a social practice, it is widely considered, social or political position. The philosophical debate over the legitimacy of paternalism, however, twice

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

92

Development of microsatellite markers for, and a preliminary population genetic analysis of, the white-backed planthopper.  

PubMed

For a better understanding of the population structure and dispersal rates of Sogatella furcifera, we developed 21 novel polymorphic expressed sequence tags (EST) derived microsatellites, which were successfully amplified in four multiplex polymerase chain reaction sets. These new microsatellites were firstly assessed in 20 individuals sampled from Wenshan in China. The results showed that all 21 loci were highly polymorphic; the number of alleles ranged from 3 to 9, with an average of 4.8 alleles per locus. The observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.200 to 0.900 and from 0.184 to 0.799, respectively. Nineteen of the 21 microsatellites without null allele, were subsequently used for population genetic structure analyses of five S. furcifera populations sampled in south region of China (sites up to 1314 kilometers apart). The observed and expected heterozygosity for each population ranged from 0.436 to 0.494 and from 0.454 to 0.482, respectively. The level of population differentiation was very low, with an average pairwise F ST of 0.002. Bayesian cluster analysis result suggested that the five S. furcifera populations formed one genetic cluster. Discriminant analysis of principle components detected three genetic clusters. The spread of the three clusters across the five populations explained the lack of population differentiation and the Bayesian cluster result. All the results indicated that long-distance migration of this pest allowed genetic mixing between populations from remote geographical origins. These new microsatellites will be powerful tools for population genetics studies of S. furcifera. PMID:25208970

Sun, J-T; Jiang, X-Y; Wang, M-M; Hong, X-Y

2014-12-01

93

Microsatellite analysis of maternal half-sib families of Quercus robur, pedunculate oak: detection of seed contaminations and inference of the seed parents from the offspring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsatellites were used for genetic analysis of maternal half-sib families of Quercus robur, pedunculate oak, a highly outcrossing tree species. A model half-sib family including the mother tree and 28 offspring individuals\\u000a as well as samples from six single tree harvests from a forestry company, 4–8 individuals each, were genotyped at 9 microsatellite\\u000a loci. No prior information about the genotypes

C. Lexer; B. Heinze; H. Steinkellner; S. Kampfer; B. Ziegenhagen; J. Glössl

1999-01-01

94

Efficient molecular sexing in dioecious Silene latifolia and S. dioica and paternity analysis in F(1) hybrids.  

PubMed

Two polymerase chain reaction-based assays have been developed that work in combination with an efficient DNA extraction protocol to rapidly and reliably determine sex in the dioecious plant species Silene latifolia and S. dioica. In addition, one of the assays allows assessing paternity in the F(1) generation of intra- and interspecific matings involving the two species. PMID:21586019

Hobza, R; Widmer, A

2008-11-01

95

Copyright 2001 by the Genetics Society of America Statistical Approaches to Paternity Analysis in Natural Populations and  

E-print Network

, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 and Department of Biometrics, Cornell University success of different ecologically or behaviorally defined groups as well as a new method for estimating paternity whenlogical or behavioral groups (e.g., Smouse and Meagher more than one male cannot be excluded

Nielsen, Rasmus

96

Analysis of microsatellite instability and loss of heterozygosity in ovarian cancer: a study in the population of Espírito Santo, Brazil.  

PubMed

Ovarian cancer is currently the most lethal gynecological malignancy in women. It is a heterogeneous and cytogenetically complex disease previously associated with genomic instability. Our purpose was to analyze microsatellite markers to determine patterns and levels of instability as well as possible correlations with histopathological parameters. Polymerase chain reaction was used to characterize microsatellite instability (MSI) and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in 24 ovarian tumors at 12 microsatellite loci. A total of 11 samples displayed MSI or LOH. Only low-level MSI was found. Markers D5S346 and CYP11 showed the highest MSI and LOH frequencies. D17S250 LOH was significantly associated with tumor histological type (P = 0.0003), and estrogen receptor ? was also associated with tumor histological type (P = 0.048) when a combined analysis of LOH and MSI was performed. Furthermore, LOH was observed in a greater number of markers compared with those displaying MSI. Thus, our results support that MSI is less common than LOH in ovarian cancers. PMID:23913383

Alves, L N R; Wolfgramm, E V; de Castro Neto, A K; Louro, I D

2013-01-01

97

Factors affecting germline mutations in a hypervariable microsatellite: a comparative analysis of six species of swallows (Aves: Hirundinidae).  

PubMed

Microsatellites mutate frequently by replication slippage. Empirical evidence shows that the probability of such slippage mutations may increase with the length of the repeat region as well as exposure to environmental mutagens, but the mutation rate can also differ between the male and female germline. It has been hypothesized that more intense sexual selection or sperm competition can also lead to elevated mutation rates, but the empirical evidence is inconclusive. Here, we analyzed the occurrence of germline slippage mutations in the hypervariable pentanucleotide microsatellite locus HrU10 across six species of swallow (Aves: Hirundinidae). These species exhibit marked differences in the length range of the microsatellite, as well as differences in the intensity of sperm competition. We found a strong effect of microsatellite length on the probability of mutation, but no residual effect of species or their level of sperm competition when the length effect was accounted for. Neither could we detect any difference in mutation rate between tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) breeding in Hamilton Harbour, Ontario, an industrial site with previous documentation of elevated mutation rates for minisatellite DNA, and a rural reference population. However, our cross-species analysis revealed two significant patterns of sex differences in HrU10 germline mutations: (1) mutations in longer alleles occurred typically in the male germline, those in shorter alleles in the female germline, and (2) male germline mutations were more often expansions than contractions, whereas no directional bias was evident in the female germline. These results indicate some fundamental differences in male and female gametogenesis affecting the probability of slippage mutations. Our study also reflects the value of a comparative, multi-species approach for locus-specific mutation analyses, through which a wider range of influential factors can be assessed than in single-species studies. PMID:21291898

Anmarkrud, Jarl A; Kleven, Oddmund; Augustin, Jakob; Bentz, Kristofer H; Blomqvist, Donald; Fernie, Kim J; Magrath, Michael J L; Pärn, Henrik; Quinn, James S; Robertson, Raleigh J; Szép, Tibor; Tarof, Scott; Wagner, Richard H; Lifjeld, Jan T

2011-03-15

98

Comparative genomic analysis reveals species-dependent complexities that explain difficulties with microsatellite marker development in molluscs  

PubMed Central

Reliable population DNA molecular markers are difficult to develop for molluscs, the reasons for which are largely unknown. Identical protocols for microsatellite marker development were implemented in three gastropods. Success rates were lower for Gibbula cineraria compared to Littorina littorea and L. saxatilis. Comparative genomic analysis of 47.2?kb of microsatellite containing sequences (MCS) revealed a high incidence of cryptic repetitive DNA in their flanking regions. The majority of these were novel, and could be grouped into DNA families based upon sequence similarities. Significant inter-specific variation in abundance of cryptic repetitive DNA and DNA families was observed. Repbase scans show that a large proportion of cryptic repetitive DNA was identified as transposable elements (TEs). We argue that a large number of TEs and their transpositional activity may be linked to differential rates of DNA multiplication and recombination. This is likely to be an important factor explaining inter-specific variation in genome stability and hence microsatellite marker development success rates. Gastropods also differed significantly in the type of TEs classes (autonomous vs non-autonomous) observed. We propose that dissimilar transpositional mechanisms differentiate the TE classes in terms of their propensity for transposition, fixation and/or silencing. Consequently, the phylogenetic conservation of non-autonomous TEs, such as CvA, suggests that dispersal of these elements may have behaved as microsatellite-inducing elements. Results seem to indicate that, compared to autonomous, non-autonomous TEs maybe have a more active role in genome rearrangement processes. The implications of the findings for genomic rearrangement, stability and marker development are discussed. PMID:20424639

McInerney, C E; Allcock, A L; Johnson, M P; Bailie, D A; Prodöhl, P A

2011-01-01

99

Application of bovine microsatellite markers for genetic diversity analysis of European bison (Bison bonasus).  

PubMed

In this study, the cross-amplification of a commercial multiplex set of 11 cattle (Bos taurus) microsatellites was tested on a panel of 35 European bison (Bison bonasus) individuals. After polymerase chain reaction optimization, all loci cross-amplified successfully in investigated bisons. Number of alleles and observed and expected heterozygosity per locus are in the range of 2-4, 0.086-0.629 and 0.288-0.621 respectively. The availability of a heterologous set of multiplexed microsatellite markers derived from cattle opens an avenue for collecting profound genetic data for efficient conservation management strategies of the European bison. PMID:17177698

Roth, T; Pfeiffer, I; Weising, K; Brenig, B

2006-12-01

100

Genetic diversity analysis in valencia peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) using microsatellite markers.  

PubMed

Cultivated peanut or groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L) is an important source of oil and protein. Considerable variation has been recorded for morphological, physiological and agronomic traits, whereas few molecular variations have been recorded for this crop. The identification and understanding of molecular genetic diversity in cultivated peanut types will help in effective genetic conservation along with efficient breeding programs in this crop. The New Mexico breeding program has embarked upon a program of improvement of Valencia peanut (belonging to the sub species fastigiata), because efforts to improve the yield potential are lacking due to lack of identified divergent exotic types. For the first time, this study has shown molecular diversity using microsatellite markers in the cultivated Valencia peanut (sub spp. fastigiata) from around the globe. In this investigation, 48 cultivated Valencia peanut genotypes have been selected and analyzed using 18 fluorescently labeled SSR (f-SSR) primer pairs. These primer pairs amplified 120 polymorphic loci among the genotypes screened and amplified from 3 to 19 alleles with an average of 6.9 allele per primer pair. The f-SSR marker data was further analyzed using cluster algorithms and principal component analysis. The results indicated that (1) considerable genetic variations were discovered among the analyzed genotypes; (2) The f-SSR based clustering could identify the putative pedigree types of the present Valencia types of diverse origins, and (3) The f-SSR in general is sufficient to obtain estimates of genetic divergence for the material in study. The results are being utilized in our breeding program for parental selection and linkage map construction. PMID:15647791

Krishna, Girish Kumar; Zhang, Jinfa; Burow, Mark; Pittman, Roy N; Delikostadinov, Stanko G; Lu, Yingzhi; Puppala, Naveen

2004-01-01

101

Genetic analysis of four wild chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta populations in China based on microsatellite markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis To assess the genetic variation and population structure of wild chum salmon in China, we analyzed microsatellite loci for populations in the Amur, Wusuli, Suifen Current and the Tumen rivers. We evaluated expected heterozygosity with two estimators of genetic differentiation (FST and GST) and Nei’s standard genetic distance. The average expected heterozygosity across the 10 loci was 0.65 in

Jin-Ping Chen; Da-Jiang Sun; Chong-Zhi Dong; Bing Liang; Wen-Hua Wu; Shu-Yi Zhang

2005-01-01

102

Energetic neutral atom imaging at low altitudes from the Swedish microsatellite Astrid: Images and spectral analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of energetic neutral atoms (ENA) in the energy range 26-52 keV are reported from four occasions during geomagnetically disturbed periods. The data were acquired by the ENA imager flown on the Swedish microsatellite Astrid in a 1000 km circular orbit with 83° inclination. The ENA imager separates charged particles from neutrals through an electrostatic deflection system in the energy

Pontus C. son Brandt; Stas Barabash; Olle Norberg; Rickard Lundin; Edmond C. Roelof; Christopher J. Chase

1999-01-01

103

TECHNICAL NOTE The development and analysis of twenty-one microsatellite loci  

E-print Network

reaction (PCR) primers and conditions to amplify one poly A, two trinu- cleotide and 18 tetranucleotide the primers developed for R. variabilis work on a closely related species, R. ventrimaculata. These primers). Keywords Dendrobates Á Microsatellites Á Primers Á Ranitomeya imitator Á R. variabilis Á R. ventrimaculata

Brown, Jason

104

Microsatellite analysis of female mating behaviour in lek-breeding sage grouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used microsatellite DNA markers to genotype chicks in 10 broods of lek-breeding sage grouse, Centrocercus urophasianus , whose mothers' behaviour was studied by radio- tracking and observing leks. Previous behavioural studies suggested that almost all matings are performed by territorial males on leks and that multiple mating is rare. Two broods (20%) were sired by more than one male.

K. Semple; R. K. Wayne; R. M. Gibson

2001-01-01

105

Population genetics of Leishmania infantum in Israel and the Palestinian Authority through microsatellite analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multilocus microsatellite typing (MLMT) was used to investigate the genetic variation among 44 Israeli and Palestinian strains of L. infantum isolated from infected dogs and human cases to determine their population structure and to compare them with strains isolated from different European countries. Most of the Israeli and Palestinian strains had their own individual MLMT profiles; a few shared the

Ahmad Amro; Gabriele Schönian; Mohamed Barakat Al-Sharabati; Kifaya Azmi; Abedelmajeed Nasereddin; Ziad Abdeen; Lionel F. Schnur; Gad Baneth; Charles L. Jaffe; Katrin Kuhls

2009-01-01

106

Analysis of population genetic structure of the green sea urchin ( Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis ) using microsatellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured within- and among-population genetic variation in the green sea urchin ( Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) at 11 sites in the north Atlantic and northeast Pacific by using four-locus microsatellite genotypes. We found no differentiation among populations from Atlantic Canada, but strong differentiation across the north Atlantic and between the Atlantic and Pacific samples. High inbreeding coefficients at three loci are

J. A. Addison; M. W. Hart

2004-01-01

107

Microsatellite analysis of genetic diversity and population genetic structure of Aegilops tauschii Coss. in Northern Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic diversity and population genetic structure of Aegilops tauschii in Northern Iran were studied based on nine microsatellite loci. A high level of genetic diversity was observed from the\\u000a accessions collected from six regions (provinces). These accessions include 79 samples of the two subspecies (tauschii and strangulata), the intermediate form (among morphologically distinguished subspecies) and ten accessions of Triticum aestivum.

Mohammad Reza Naghavi; Mariam Hajikram; Ali Reza Taleei; Mohammad Jafar Aghaei

2010-01-01

108

Paternal and Maternal Genetic Analysis of a Desert Keriyan Population: Keriyans Are Not the Descendants of Guge Tibetans  

PubMed Central

The Keriyan people live in an isolated village in the Taklimakan Desert in Xinjiang, Western China. The origin and migration of the Keriyans remains unclear. We studied paternal and maternal genetic variance through typing Y-STR loci and sequencing the complete control region of the mtDNA and compared them with other adjacent populations. Data show that the Keriyan have relatively low genetic diversity on both the paternal and maternal lineages and possess both European and Asian specific haplogroups, indicating Keriyan is an admixture population of West and East. There is a gender-bias in the extent of contribution from Europe vs. Asia to the Keriyan gene pool. Keriyans have more genetic affinity to Uyghurs than to Tibetans. The Keriyan are not the descendants of the Guge Tibetans. PMID:24968299

Chen, Kaixu; Ablimit, Abdurahman; Ling, Fengjun; Wu, Weiwei; Shan, Wenjuan; Qin, Wenbei; Keweier, Tuerhong; Zuo, Hongli; Zhang, Fuchun; Ma, Zhenghai; Zheng, Xiufen

2014-01-01

109

Abstract High-resolution Y chromosome haplotype anal-ysis was performed in 143 paternally unrelated Israeli and  

E-print Network

the Arabs was observed in the high- lands of Samaria and Judea. Y chromosome variation in the I&P Arabs unrelated Israeli and Palestinian Moslem Arabs (I&P Arabs) by screening for 11 binary polymorphisms and six&P Arabs (~14%) was spread throughout the region, while its one-step microsatellite neighbor, the modal

Weale, Michael E.

110

DNA fingerprint based analysis of paternal and maternal effects on offspring growth and survival in communally reared rainbow trout  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was initiated to assess the feasibility of establishing pedigrees in mixed aquaculture populations and of selection programs for commercial aquaculture operations based on genetic profiling data from microsatellite markers. Complete factorial crosses between ten sires and ten dams were performed in a small rainbow trout farm. The largest and smallest progenies were sampled after 1 year of communal

Christophe M. Herbinger; Roger W. Doyle; Elizabeth R. Pitman; Danielle Paquet; Kate A. Mesa; Dianne B. Morris; Jonathan M. Wright; Douglas Cook

1995-01-01

111

Genome-wide analysis of microsatellite polymorphism in chicken circumventing the ascertainment bias  

PubMed Central

Studies of microsatellites evolution based on marker data almost inherently suffer from an ascertainment bias because there is selection for the most mutable and polymorphic loci during marker development. To circumvent this bias we took advantage of whole-genome shotgun sequence data from three unrelated chicken individuals that, when aligned to the genome reference sequence, give sequence information on two chromosomes from about one-fourth (375,000) of all microsatellite loci containing di- through pentanucleotide repeat motifs in the chicken genome. Polymorphism is seen at loci with as few as five repeat units, and the proportion of dimorphic loci then increases to 50% for sequences with ?10 repeat units, to reach a maximum of 75%–80% for sequences with 15 or more repeat units. For any given repeat length, polymorphism increases with decreasing GC content of repeat motifs for dinucleotides, nonhairpin-forming trinucleotides, and tetranucleotides. For trinucleotide repeats which are likely to form hairpin structures, polymorphism increases with increasing GC content, indicating that the relative stability of hairpins affects the rate of replication slippage. For any given repeat length, polymorphism is significantly lower for imperfect compared to perfect repeats and repeat interruptions occur in >15% of loci. However, interruptions are not randomly distributed within repeat arrays but are preferentially located toward the ends. There is negative correlation between microsatellite abundance and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) density, providing large-scale genomic support for the hypothesis that equilibrium microsatellite distributions are governed by a balance between rate of replication slippage and rate of point mutation. PMID:18356314

Brandstrom, Mikael; Ellegren, Hans

2008-01-01

112

Analysis of genetic diversity in flowering dogwood natural stands using microsatellites: the effects of dogwood anthracnose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flowering dogwood (Cornus florida L.) populations recently have experienced severe declines caused by dogwood anthracnose. Mortality has ranged from 48 to\\u000a 98%, raising the concern that genetic diversity has been reduced significantly. Microsatellite data were used to evaluate\\u000a the level and distribution of genetic variation throughout much of the native range of the tree. Genetic variation in areas\\u000a affected by

D. Hadziabdic; B. M. Fitzpatrick; X. Wang; P. A. Wadl; T. A. Rinehart; B. H. Ownley; M. T. Windham; R. N. Trigiano

2010-01-01

113

Captive breeding and reintroduction of the lesser kestrel Falco naumanni : a genetic analysis using microsatellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used microsatellites to assess ongoing captive breeding and reintroduction programs of the lesser kestrel. The extent of\\u000a genetic variation within the captive populations analysed did not differ significantly from that reported in wild populations.\\u000a Thus, the application of widely recommended management practices, such as the registration of crosses between individuals\\u000a in proper stud books and the introduction of new

Miguel Alcaide; Juan J. Negro; David Serrano; José L. Antolín; Sara Casado; Manel Pomarol

2010-01-01

114

Attitude determination and control system simulation and analysis for low-cost micro-satellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Air Force Academy's latest satellite endeavor, FalconSAT-3, is a 50 kg microsatellite being developed by faculty and cadets, and is the Air Force Academy's first attempt at achieving three axis attitude determination and control (ADCS). FalconSAT-3 carries three payloads to conduct DoD research. The attitude requirements for FalconSAT-3 include pointing the satellite within +\\/- five degrees of ram direction,

Andrew D. Anderson; Jerry J. Sellers; Yoshi Hashida

2004-01-01

115

Attitude determination and control system simulation and analysis for low-cost micro-satellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Air Force Academy's latest satellite endeavor, FalconSAT-3, is a 50 kg microsatellite being developed by faculty and cadets, and is the Air Force Academy's first attempt at achieving three axis attitude determination and control (ADCS). FalconSAT-3 will carry three payloads to conduct DoD research. The attitude requirements for FalconSAT-3 include pointing the satellite within +\\/- five degrees of ram

Andrew D. Anderson; Jerry I. Sellers; Yoshi Hashida

2004-01-01

116

Genetic diversity and structure in Leishmania infantum populations from southeastern Europe revealed by microsatellite analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The dynamic re-emergence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in south Europe and the northward shift to Leishmania-free European countries are well-documented. However, the epidemiology of VL due to Leishmania infantum in southeastern (SE) Europe and the Balkans is inadequately examined. Herein, we aim to re-evaluate and compare the population structure of L. infantum in SE and southwestern (SW) Europe. Methods Leishmania strains collected from humans and canines in Turkey, Cyprus, Bulgaria, Greece, Albania and Croatia, were characterized by the K26-PCR assay and multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE). Genetic diversity was assessed by multilocus microsatellite typing (MLMT) and MLM Types were analyzed by model- and distance- based algorithms to infer the population structure of 128?L. infantum strains. Results L. infantum MON-1 was found predominant in SE Europe, whilst 16.8% of strains were MON-98. Distinct genetic populations revealed clear differentiation between SE and SW European strains. Interestingly, Cypriot canine isolates were genetically isolated and formed a monophyletic group, suggesting the constitution of a clonal MON-1 population circulating among dogs. In contrast, two highly heterogeneous populations enclosed all MON-1 and MON-98 strains from the other SE European countries. Structure sub-clustering, phylogenetic and Splitstree analysis also revealed two distinct Croatian subpopulations. A mosaic of evolutionary effects resulted in consecutive sub-structuring, which indicated substantial differentiation and gene flow among strains of both zymodemes. Conclusions This is the first population genetic study of L. infantum in SE Europe and the Balkans. Our findings demonstrate the differentiation between SE and SW European strains; revealing the partition of Croatian strains between these populations and the genetic isolation of Cypriot strains. This mirrors the geographic position of Croatia located in central Europe and the natural isolation of the island of Cyprus. We have analysed the largest number of MON-98 strains so far. Our results indicate extensive gene flow, recombination and no differentiation between MON-1 and MON-98 zymodemes. No correlation either to host specificity or place and year of strain isolation was identified. Our findings may be associated with intensive host migration and common eco-epidemiological characteristics in these countries and give valuable insight into the dynamics of VL. PMID:24308691

2013-01-01

117

Microsatellite analysis of chloroquine resistance associated alleles and neutral loci reveal genetic structure of Indian Plasmodium falciparum.  

PubMed

Efforts to control malignant malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum are hampered by the parasite's acquisition of resistance to antimalarial drugs, e.g., chloroquine. This necessitates evaluating the spread of chloroquine resistance in any malaria-endemic area. India displays highly variable malaria epidemiology and also shares porous international borders with malaria-endemic Southeast Asian countries having multi-drug resistant malaria. Malaria epidemiology in India is believed to be affected by two major factors: high genetic diversity and evolving drug resistance in P. falciparum. How transmission intensity of malaria can influence the genetic structure of chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum population in India is unknown. Here, genetic diversity within and among P. falciparum populations is analyzed with respect to their prevalence and chloroquine resistance observed in 13 different locations in India. Microsatellites developed for P. falciparum, including three putatively neutral and seven microsatellites thought to be under a hitchhiking effect due to chloroquine selection were used. Genetic hitchhiking is observed in five of seven microsatellites flanking the gene responsible for chloroquine resistance. Genetic admixture analysis and F-statistics detected genetically distinct groups in accordance with transmission intensity of different locations and the probable use of chloroquine. A large genetic break between the chloroquine-resistant parasite of the Northeast-East-Island group and Southwest group (FST=0.253, P<0.001) suggests a long period of isolation or a possibility of different origin between them. A pattern of significant isolation by distance was observed in low transmission areas (r=0.49, P=0.003, N=83, Mantel test). An unanticipated pattern of spread of hitchhiking suggests genetic structure for Indian P. falciparum population. Overall, the study suggests that transmission intensity can be an efficient driver for genetic differentiation at both neutral and adaptive loci across India. PMID:23871774

Mallick, Prashant K; Sutton, Patrick L; Singh, Ruchi; Singh, Om P; Dash, Aditya P; Singh, Ashok K; Carlton, Jane M; Bhasin, Virendra K

2013-10-01

118

Intracommunity relationships, dispersal pattern and paternity success in a wild living community of Bonobos (Pan paniscus) determined from DNA analysis of faecal samples.  

PubMed Central

Differences in social relationships among community members are often explained by differences in genetic relationships. The current techniques of DNA analysis allow explicit testing of such a hypothesis. Here, we have analysed the genetic relationships for a community of wild bonobos (Pan paniscus) using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers extracted from faecal samples. Bonobos show an opportunistic and promiscuous mating behaviour, even with mates from outside the community. Nonetheless, we find that most infants were sired by resident males and that two dominant males together attained the highest paternity success. Intriguingly, the latter males are the sons of high-ranking females, suggesting an important influence of mothers on the paternity success of their sons. The molecular data support previous inferences on female dispersal and male philopatry. We find a total of five different mitochondrial haplotypes among 15 adult females, suggesting a frequent migration of females. Moreover, for most adult and subadult males in the group we find a matching mother, while this is not the case for most females, indicating that these leave the community during adolescence. Our study demonstrates that faecal samples can be a useful source for the determination of kinship in a whole community. PMID:10406131

Gerloff, U; Hartung, B; Fruth, B; Hohmann, G; Tautz, D

1999-01-01

119

Intracommunity relationships, dispersal pattern and paternity success in a wild living community of Bonobos (Pan paniscus) determined from DNA analysis of faecal samples.  

PubMed

Differences in social relationships among community members are often explained by differences in genetic relationships. The current techniques of DNA analysis allow explicit testing of such a hypothesis. Here, we have analysed the genetic relationships for a community of wild bonobos (Pan paniscus) using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers extracted from faecal samples. Bonobos show an opportunistic and promiscuous mating behaviour, even with mates from outside the community. Nonetheless, we find that most infants were sired by resident males and that two dominant males together attained the highest paternity success. Intriguingly, the latter males are the sons of high-ranking females, suggesting an important influence of mothers on the paternity success of their sons. The molecular data support previous inferences on female dispersal and male philopatry. We find a total of five different mitochondrial haplotypes among 15 adult females, suggesting a frequent migration of females. Moreover, for most adult and subadult males in the group we find a matching mother, while this is not the case for most females, indicating that these leave the community during adolescence. Our study demonstrates that faecal samples can be a useful source for the determination of kinship in a whole community. PMID:10406131

Gerloff, U; Hartung, B; Fruth, B; Hohmann, G; Tautz, D

1999-06-01

120

[Genotyping of Vaginal Candida glabrata Isolates Using Microsatellite Marker Analysis and DNA Sequencing to Identify Mutations Associated with Antifungal Resistance].  

PubMed

Vulvovaginal candidosis is the second most common cause of vaginitis (17-39%) after bacterial vaginosis (22-50%). Since the diagnosis of vulvovaginal candidosis mainly depends on clinical findings without mycologic confirmatory tests and treated empirically, the actual incidence rate of vulvovaginal candidosis is unknown. Approximately 70-90% of vulvovaginal candidosis cases are caused by Candida albicans, however the increasing incidence of C.glabrata infections and its reduced susceptibility to azole drug therapy have generated increasing attention. The epidemiology and population structure of vulvovaginal candidosis due to C.glabrata are poorly characterized. This study was aimed to genotype the C.glabrata strains isolated from vaginal samples in Cukurova region, Turkey by microsatellite markers, to investigate the antifungal susceptibility profiles of the strains and to determine the molecular mechanisms leading to phenotypical azole resistance. A total of 34 unrelated vaginal C.glabrata strains isolated from patients with acute (n= 11) and recurrent (n= 14) vulvovaginal candidosis, control group (n= 9) without vaginitis symptoms, and a reference strain of C.glabrata CBS 138 (ATCC 2001) were included in the study. These isolates were genotyped using multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis of three microsatellite markers (RPM2, MTI, and Cg6). Analysis of microsatellite markers was performed by fragment size determination of RPM2, MTI, and Cg6 PCR products through capillary electrophoresis. For each of the evaluated strains, DNA sequence analysis was performed for one gene (CgERG11) and four loci (CgPDR1, NTM1, TRP1, and URA3) to detect mutations possibly associated with antifungal resistance in each strain. In vitro susceptibility profiles of the strains to 13 antifungals and boric acid were determined according to CLSI document M27-A3 to investigate possible relationships between detected mutations and phenotypic resistance. C.glabrata CBS 138 strain was found to be susceptible to all the antifungals tested, while one of (%2.9) 34 vaginal C.glabrata isolates was found to be dose-dependent susceptible to fluconazole, 13 (38.2%) to itraconazole and 3 (8.8%) to voriconazole. No resistant strain were detected in the study population. Only three isolates were found to be resistant to clotrimazole (8.8%), however no relationship was identified between the genotypes and phenotypic resistance (p> 0.05). Thirteen genotypes were detected by microsatellite marker analysis, with high discrimination power (DP= 0.877). As a result, microsatellite marker analysis was validated as a rapid, reliable method for genotyping C.glabrata strains with good, but not optimal discriminatory power. Further studies examining larger numbers of isolates are needed to verify possible relationships between mutations and phenotypic resistance. PMID:23390908

Dö?en, Aylin; Durukan, Hüseyin; Güzel, Ahmet Bar??; Oksüz, Zehra; Kaplan, Engin; Serin, Mehmet Sami; Serin, Ay?e; Emekda?, Gürol; Aslan, Gönül; Tezcan, Seda; Kalkanc?, Ay?e; Ilkit, Macit

2013-01-01

121

Paternal Race/Ethnicity and Birth Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Objectives. I sought to identify whether there were associations between paternal race/ethnicity and birth outcomes among infants with parents of same- and mixed-races/ethnicities. Methods. Using the National Center for Health Statistics 2001 linked birth and infant death file, I compared birth outcomes of infants of White mothers and fathers of different races/ethnicities by matching and weighting racial/ethnic groups following a propensity scoring approach so other characteristics were distributed identically. I applied the same analysis to infants of Black parents and infants with a Black mother and White father. Results. Variation in risk factors and outcomes was found in infants of White mothers by paternal race/ethnicity. After propensity score weighting, the disparities in outcomes by paternal or parental race/ethnicity could be largely attributed to nonracial parental characteristics. Infants whose paternal race/ethnicity was unreported on their birth certificates had the worst outcomes. Conclusions. The use of maternal race/ethnicity to refer to infant race/ethnicity in research is problematic. The effects of maternal race/ethnicity on birth outcomes are estimated to be much larger than that of paternal race/ethnicity after I controlled for all covariates. Not listing a father on the birth certificate had a strong association with outcomes, which might be a source of bias in existing data and a marker for identifying infants at risk. PMID:18445802

2008-01-01

122

Autonomy and Paternalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

I wish to determine when one is justified in paternalistic interferences that override a subject’s autonomy. In order to lay the groundwork for discussing paternalistic interferences with autonomous decisions, I first consider different conceptions of autonomy, welfare, and paternalism, and determine which I mean to use. In particular, I proceed with Dworkin’s characterization of autonomy as a combination of authenticity

Ilona K. Phipps-Morgan

2012-01-01

123

An intelligent maintenance system for earth-based failure analysis and self-repairing of microsatellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a recently developed maintenance system for a microsatellite, which is being constructed and it is expected to be launched shortly. The autonomous maintenance system is going to be installed on a personal computer located in an earth-based control room. As this place will most likely be staffed 24 h a day, 7 days a week, there is a good deal of interest in the use of increased automation in maintenance tasks in order to improve the efficiency with which personnel are used and as a way to reduce costs. The system described here is a good example of emerging automation technology that is intended to replace human operators responsible for system maintenance. The structure of the automation system is based upon an architecture of collaborative intelligent agents designed to detect failure in any of the microsatellites components. The multiagent system consists of a set of different agents devoted to failure detection, prevention and correction. Regarding correction, specific agents for each constitutive part of the microsatellite have been developed that take over the necessary actions to solve any given problem in its operation. The detection agent decides which correction agent control should be transferred, based upon inference obtained from its knowledge base made up of rules for testing and diagnosis. Actions for correction may imply the use of redundant systems, which can reconfigure themselves to avoid defective circuits, among other repairing strategies. The prevention agent uses predictive models that have been developed for each significant failure mode. Statistical models are also used by this agent to determine the shape of the distribution of times to failure. The prevention agent selects the corresponding correction agent to which control is going to be transferred and this agent carries out the necessary actions to prevent the system failure. The overall intelligent system employs a blackboard architecture for communication and collaboration among agents. Several simulations with specially designed test cases used to evaluate the system performance suggest that in order for maintenance automation to be effective, it must be designed in close relationship with human operators who will occasionally troubleshoot, maintain and repair the microsatellite from earth. This human-centered approach of the design implies assigning particular importance to the effectiveness achieved in the process of knowledge acquisition when the intelligent agents are being designed.

Sierra, Enrique A.; Quiroga, Juan J.; Fernández, Roberto; Monte, Gustavo E.

2004-07-01

124

Molecular and genomic characterisation of cryptic chromosomal alterations leading to paternal duplication of the 11p15.5 Beckwith-Wiedemann region  

PubMed Central

Background Beckwith?Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is an overgrowth disorder with increased risk of paediatric tumours. The aetiology involves epigenetic and genetic alterations affecting the 11p15 region, methylation of the differentially methylated DMR2 region being the most common defect, while less frequent aetiologies include mosaic paternal 11p uniparental disomy (11patUPD), maternally inherited mutations of the CDKN1C gene, and hypermethylation of DMR1. A few patients have cytogenetic abnormalities involving 11p15.5. Methods Screening of 70 trios of BWS probands for 11p mosaic paternal UPD and for cryptic cytogenetic rearrangements using microsatellite segregation analysis identified a profile compatible with paternal 11p15 duplication in two patients. Results Fluorescence in situ hybridisation analysis revealed in one case the unbalanced translocation der(21)t(11;21)(p15.4;q22.3) originated from missegregation of a cryptic paternal balanced translocation. The second patient, trisomic for D11S1318, carried a small de novo dup(11)(p15.5p15.5), resulting from unequal recombination at paternal meiosis I. The duplicated region involves only IC1 and spares IC2/LIT1, as shown by fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) mapping of the proximal duplication breakpoint within the amino?terminal part of KvLQT1. Conclusions An additional patient with Wolf?Hirschorn syndrome was shown by FISH studies to carry a der(4)t(4;11)(p16.3;p15.4), contributed by a balanced translocation father. Interestingly, refined breakpoint mapping on 11p and the critical regions on the partner 21q and 4p chromosomal regions suggested that both translocations affecting 11p15.4 are mediated by segmental duplications. These findings of chromosomal rearrangements affecting 11p15.5–15.4 provide a tool to further dissect the genomics of the BWS region and the pathogenesis of this imprinting disorder. PMID:16882733

Russo, S; Finelli, P; Recalcati, M P; Ferraiuolo, S; Cogliati, F; Bernardina, B Dalla; Tibiletti, M G; Agosti, M; Sala, M; Bonati, M T; Larizza, L

2006-01-01

125

Genetic structure of Mesoamerican populations of Big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) inferred from microsatellite analysis.  

PubMed

While microsatellites have been used to examine genetic structure in local populations of Neotropical trees, genetic studies based on such high-resolution markers have not been carried out for Mesoamerica as a whole. Here we assess the genetic structure of the Mesoamerican mahogany Swietenia macrophylla King (big-leaf mahogany), a Neotropical tree species recently listed as endangered in CITES which is commercially extinct through much of its native range. We used seven variable microsatellite loci to assess genetic diversity and population structure in eight naturally established mahogany populations from six Mesoamerican countries. Measures of genetic differentiation (FST and RST) indicated significant differences between most populations. Unrooted dendrograms based on genetic distances between populations provide evidence of strong phylogeographic structure in Mesoamerican mahogany. The two populations on the Pacific coasts of Costa Rica and Panama were genetically distant from all the others, and from one another. The remaining populations formed two clusters, one comprised of the northern populations of Mexico, Belize and Guatemala and the other containing the southern Atlantic populations of Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Significant correlation was found between geographical distance and all pairwise measures of genetic divergence, suggesting the importance of regional biogeography and isolation by distance in Mesoamerican mahogany. The results of this study demonstrate greater phylogeographic structure than has been found across Amazon basin S. macrophylla. Our findings suggest a relatively complex Mesoamerican biogeographic history and lead to the prediction that other Central American trees will show similar patterns of regional differentiation. PMID:14629370

Novick, Rachel Roth; Dick, Christopher W; Lemes, Maristerra R; Navarro, Carlos; Caccone, Adalgisa; Bermingham, Eldredge

2003-11-01

126

Genetic structure of a greenhouse population of the spider mite Tetranychus urticae: spatio-temporal analysis with microsatellite markers.  

PubMed

The genetic structure of a greenhouse population of the mite Tetranychus urticae was studied by the analysis of five microsatellite loci. Genetic variation was compared during a crop season between periods of population foundation and rapid population increase and was investigated in two consecutive years. The population displayed significant heterozygote deficiency at all the sampling periods. However, inbreeding tended to decrease with increasing density (FIS coefficient between 0.13 and 0.25). No significant genetic differentiation between samples was found either at a spatial scale within the greenhouse or at a temporal scale between two growing seasons (FST between 0.008 and 0.09). Estimations of the genetic relatedness between pairs of individuals indicated that the distances between pairs of sisters and unrelated mites in the greenhouse were not significantly different, suggesting that mites do not tend to form patches that reside close to the point of birth. PMID:11966881

Navajas, M; Perrot-Minnot, M J; Lagnel, J; Migeon, A; Bourse, T; Cornuet, J M

2002-04-01

127

Microsatellite analysis of Japanese sea cucumber, Stichopus (Apostichopus) japonicus, supports reproductive isolation in color variants.  

PubMed

The genetic relationship among the three color variants (Red, Green, and Black) of the Japanese sea cucumber, S. japonicus, was investigated using 11 microsatellite markers. Genetic differentiation testing among the three sympatric color types showed the strong heterogeneity of Red (p<0.001), while no significant difference was observed between Green and Black (p=0.301 to 0.961). UPGMA trees constructed from 10 sample lots from 5 localities showed two distinct clusters, one from the Red types and the other from the Green and Black types. In addition, the sympatric Green and Black formed one subcluster with strong bootstrap support at each locality. These results indicate the separate species status of Red and the other color types, and also support the population identity of sympatric Green and Black. PMID:17043749

Kanno, Manami; Suyama, Yoshihisa; Li, Qi; Kijima, Akihiro

2006-01-01

128

Molecular tracking of mountain lions in the Yosemite Valley region in California: genetic analysis using microsatellites and faecal DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve microsatellite loci were characterized in California mountain lions ( Puma concolor ) and sufficient polymorphism was found to uniquely genotype 62 animals sampled at necropsy. Microsatellite genotypes obtained using mountain lion faecal DNA matched those from muscle for all of 15 individuals examined. DNA from potential prey species and animals whose faeces could be misidentified as mountain lion faeces

H. B. Ernest; M. C. T. Penedo; B. P. May; M. SYVANENand; W. M. Boyce

2000-01-01

129

Differential paternity in Libya.  

PubMed

Libyan census and vital statistics data from 1973 are compared with genealogical records from Utah males born between 1830 and 1834 as representative of populations not using any method of fertility control. The Libyan vital statistics data contained 97% of paternity by age, but only 85% of maternity by age. These missing data were distributed pro rata, and all data were corrected for errors in reporting. Polygamous unions were excluded because polygamy is relatively rare in Libya. The Utah data were from 185,000 genealogies of the Genealogical Society of Utah. The Libyan child-woman ratio (number of children under age 5 per number of women aged 15-49) is 1112.9, compared to 850 in Morocco, suggesting that Libya is experiencing an increase in fertility, in child survival and probably in quality of statistics. The total fertility rates for females were 11.1 for Libya and 11.2 for Utah; the total paternity rates were 14.3 and 13.7, respectively. Male rates are higher because of remarriage after divorce or death of wives. Age-specific paternity rates are tabulated and graphed: The major difference between the 2 populations is the concave shape of the curve for Libyan men under 30. Age at marriage is late, but marriage is virtually universal for Libyan men over 30. Age-specific paternity rates by occupation show apparent lack of fertility regulation in traditional occupations like farming and sales. There is evidence of some parity-related fertility control in professional and administrative workers. Production workers have a high peak in fertility around age 27.5 and 32.5, and a dip occurring at older ages. These figures can be explained by education, since education is required for professional occupations, and older professionals were trained in the West. Production workers took advantage of rapidly expanding education in Libya late in their youth, postponing marriage. Libya's pronatalist policy forbids sale of contraceptives and provides child allowances, free education, health care, subsidized housing and social security. This paper indicates the utility of paternity data where statistics on maternity are unavailable. PMID:3680318

el-Faedy, M A; Bean, L L

1987-10-01

130

Microsatellites, from molecules to populations and back  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population genetics studies using microsatellites, and data on their molecular dynamics, are on the increase. But, so far, no consensus has emerged on which mutation model should be used, though this is of paramount importance for analysis of population genetic structure. However, this is not surprising given the variety of microsatellite molecular motifs. Null alleles may be disturbing for population

Philippe Jarne; Pierre J. L. Lagoda

1996-01-01

131

Validation of microsatellite multiplexes for parentage analysis and species discrimination in two hybridizing species of coral reef fish (Plectropomus spp., Serranidae)  

PubMed Central

Microsatellites are often considered ideal markers to investigate ecological processes in animal populations. They are regularly used as genetic barcodes to identify species, individuals, and infer familial relationships. However, such applications are highly sensitive the number and diversity of microsatellite markers, which are also prone to error. Here, we propose a novel framework to assess the suitability of microsatellite datasets for parentage analysis and species discrimination in two closely related species of coral reef fish, Plectropomus leopardus and P. maculatus (Serranidae). Coral trout are important fisheries species throughout the Indo-Pacific region and have been shown to hybridize in parts of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. We first describe the development of 25 microsatellite loci and their integration to three multiplex PCRs that co-amplify in both species. Using simulations, we demonstrate that the complete suite of markers provides appropriate power to discriminate between species, detect hybrid individuals, and resolve parent–offspring relationships in natural populations, with over 99.6% accuracy in parent–offspring assignments. The markers were also tested on seven additional species within the Plectropomus genus with polymorphism in 28–96% of loci. The multiplex PCRs developed here provide a reliable and cost-effective strategy to investigate evolutionary and ecological dynamics and will be broadly applicable in studies of wild populations and aquaculture brood stocks for these closely related fish species. PMID:25360247

Harrison, Hugo B; Feldheim, Kevin A; Jones, Geoffrey P; Ma, Kayan; Mansour, Hicham; Perumal, Sadhasivam; Williamson, David H; Berumen, Michael L

2014-01-01

132

Validation of microsatellite multiplexes for parentage analysis and species discrimination in two hybridizing species of coral reef fish (Plectropomus spp., Serranidae).  

PubMed

Microsatellites are often considered ideal markers to investigate ecological processes in animal populations. They are regularly used as genetic barcodes to identify species, individuals, and infer familial relationships. However, such applications are highly sensitive the number and diversity of microsatellite markers, which are also prone to error. Here, we propose a novel framework to assess the suitability of microsatellite datasets for parentage analysis and species discrimination in two closely related species of coral reef fish, Plectropomus leopardus and P. maculatus (Serranidae). Coral trout are important fisheries species throughout the Indo-Pacific region and have been shown to hybridize in parts of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. We first describe the development of 25 microsatellite loci and their integration to three multiplex PCRs that co-amplify in both species. Using simulations, we demonstrate that the complete suite of markers provides appropriate power to discriminate between species, detect hybrid individuals, and resolve parent-offspring relationships in natural populations, with over 99.6% accuracy in parent-offspring assignments. The markers were also tested on seven additional species within the Plectropomus genus with polymorphism in 28-96% of loci. The multiplex PCRs developed here provide a reliable and cost-effective strategy to investigate evolutionary and ecological dynamics and will be broadly applicable in studies of wild populations and aquaculture brood stocks for these closely related fish species. PMID:25360247

Harrison, Hugo B; Feldheim, Kevin A; Jones, Geoffrey P; Ma, Kayan; Mansour, Hicham; Perumal, Sadhasivam; Williamson, David H; Berumen, Michael L

2014-06-01

133

Microsatellite analysis of genetic diversity of the Vietnamese sika deer (Cervus nippon pseudaxis).  

PubMed

The Vietnamese sika deer (Cervus nippon pseudaxis) is an endangered subspecies of economic and traditional value in Vietnam. Most living individuals are held in traditional farms in central Vietnam, others being found in zoos around the world. Here we study the neutral genetic diversity and population structure of this subspecies using nine microsatellite loci in order to evaluate the consequences of the limited number of individuals from which this population was initiated and of the breeding practices (i.e., possible inbreeding). Two hundred individuals were sampled from several villages. Our data show both evidence for limited local inbreeding and isolation by distance with a mean F(ST) value of 0.02 between villages. This suggests that exchange of animals occurs at a local scale, at a rate such that highly inbred mating is avoided. However, the genetic diversity, with an expected heterozygosity (H(e)) of 0.60 and mean number of alleles (k) of 5.7, was not significantly larger than that estimated from zoo populations of much smaller census size (17 animals sampled; H(e) = 0.65, k = 4.11). Our results also suggest that the Vietnamese population might have experienced a slight bottleneck. However, this population is sufficiently variable to constitute a source of individuals for reintroduction in the wild in Vietnam. PMID:14757725

Thévenon, S; Thuy, L T; Ly, L V; Maudet, F; Bonnet, A; Jarne, P; Maillard, J-C

2004-01-01

134

Microsatellite analysis of genetic divergence among populations of giant Galápagos tortoises.  

PubMed

Giant Galápagos tortoises represent an interesting model for the study of patterns of genetic divergence and adaptive differentiation related to island colonization events. Recent mitochondrial DNA work elucidated the evolutionary history of the species and helped to clarify aspects of nomenclature. We used 10 microsatellite loci to assess levels of genetic divergence among and within island populations. In particular, we described the genetic structure of tortoises on the island of Isabela, where discrimination of different taxa is still subject of debate. Individual island populations were all genetically distinct. The island of Santa Cruz harboured two distinct populations. On Isabela, populations of Volcan Wolf, Darwin and Alcedo were significantly different from each other. On the other hand, Volcan Wolf showed allelic similarity with the island of Santiago. On Southern Isabela, lower genetic divergence was found between Northeast Sierra Negra and Volcan Alcedo, while patterns of gene flow were recorded among tortoises of Cerro Azul and Southeast Sierra Negra. These tortoises have endured heavy exploitation during the last three centuries and recently attracted much concern due to the current number of stochastic and deterministic threats to extant populations. Our study complements previous investigation based on mtDNA diversity and provides further information that may help devising tortoise management plans. PMID:12406238

Ciofi, Claudio; Milinkovitch, Michel C; Gibbs, James P; Caccone, Adalgisa; Powell, Jeffrey R

2002-11-01

135

Microsatellite analysis of female mating behaviour in lek-breeding sage grouse.  

PubMed

We used microsatellite DNA markers to genotype chicks in 10 broods of lek-breeding sage grouse, Centrocercus urophasianus, whose mothers' behaviour was studied by radio-tracking and observing leks. Previous behavioural studies suggested that almost all matings are performed by territorial males on leks and that multiple mating is rare. Two broods (20%) were sired by more than one male. Genetic analyses of the broods of eight females that visited an intensively studied lek were consistent with behavioural observations. Four females observed mating produced singly sired broods and males other than the individual observed copulating were excluded as sires for most or all of their chicks. Territorial males at the study lek were excluded as sires of broods of four other females that visited the lek but were not observed mating there. Radio-tracking suggested that two of these females mated at other leks. Our results confirm the reliability of mating observations at leks, but do not rule out a possible unseen component of the mating system. PMID:11555247

Semple, K; Wayne, R K; Gibson, R M

2001-08-01

136

Microsatellite DNA analysis shows that greater sage grouse leks are not kin groups.  

PubMed

The spectacular social courtship displays of lekking birds are thought to evolve via sexual selection, but this view does not easily explain the participation of many males that apparently fail to mate. One of several proposed solutions to this 'lek skew paradox' is that kin selection favours low-ranking males joining leks to increase the fitness of closely related breeders. We investigated the potential for kin selection to operate in leks of the greater sage grouse, Centrocercus urophasianus, by estimating relatedness between lekking males using microsatellite DNA markers. We also calibrated these estimates using data from known families. Mean relatedness within leks was statistically indistinguishable from zero. We also found no evidence for local clustering of kin during lek display, although males tended to range closer to kin when off the lek. These results make kin selection an unlikely solution to the lek skew paradox in sage grouse. Together with other recent studies, they also raise the question of why kin selection apparently promotes social courtship in some lekking species, but not in others. PMID:16313605

Gibson, Robert M; Pires, Debra; Delaney, Kathleen S; Wayne, Robert K

2005-12-01

137

A microsatellite analysis of five Colonial Spanish horse populations of the southeastern United States.  

PubMed

The domestic horse (Equus caballus) was re-introduced to the Americas by Spanish explorers. Although horses from other parts of Europe were subsequently introduced, some New World populations maintain characteristics ascribed to their Spanish heritage. The southeastern United States has a history of Spanish invasion and settlement, and this influence on local feral horse populations includes two feral-recaptured breeds: the Florida Cracker and the Marsh Tacky, both of which are classified as Colonial Spanish horses. The feral Banker horses found on islands off the coast of North Carolina, which include, among others, the Shackleford Banks, the Corolla and the Ocracoke, are also Colonial Spanish horses. Herein we analyse 15 microsatellite loci from 532 feral and 2583 domestic horses in order to compare the genetic variation of these five Colonial Spanish Horse populations to 40 modern horse breeds. We find that the Corolla horse has very low heterozygosity and that both the Corolla and Ocracoke populations have a low mean number of alleles. We also find that the Florida Cracker population has a heterozygosity deficit. In addition, we find evidence of similarity of the Shackleford Banks, Marsh Tacky and Florida Cracker populations to New World Iberian horse breeds, while the origins of the other two populations are less clear. PMID:22221025

Conant, E K; Juras, R; Cothran, E G

2012-02-01

138

Genetic characterization of the bovine leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) gene: isolation and sequencing, chromosome assignment and microsatellite analysis.  

PubMed

The bovine leukaemia inhibitory factor was isolated from a phage library and sequences for the gene, in addition to 1213 bp of 5' and 432 bp of 3' sequences, were obtained and compared with other mammalian leukaemia inhibitory factor genes. Comparisons indicated amino acid homologies ranging from 89.6% to 77.2% with the human and mouse homologues, respectively. Analysis of 500 bp of 5' regulatory regions indicated homologies ranging from 83.6% to 74.4% with the corresponding human and sheep sequences, respectively. Additionally, bovine leukaemia inhibitory factor-specific primers were prepared, and a panel of bovine x hamster somatic cell lines were analysed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Data indicated 93% concordance of leukaemia inhibitory factor with aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 located on bovine chromosome 17, and concordance of 81% with myelin basic protein situated on bovine chromosome 24. Southern analysis of selected hybrids confirmed the PCR results, thus conclusively assigning the bovine leukaemia inhibitory factor gene to chromosome 17. Sequence analysis also revealed a microsatellite in intron 2 of the bovine leukaemia inhibitory factor. Analysis of this region by PCR in 22 unrelated Bos taurus and 19 unrelated Bos indicus cattle detected nine different alleles. Polymorphic information content values were 0.53 and 0.80 in B. taurus and B. indicus, respectively. Additionally, the same leukaemia inhibitory factor primers successfully detected allelic variants at this locus in Bos javanicus, Bos guarus and Bison bison but not in Odocoileus virginianus. PMID:9124702

Piedrahita, J A; Weaks, R; Petrescu, A; Shrode, T W; Derr, J N; Womack, J E

1997-02-01

139

Multiple paternity in fruits of Ipomopsis aggregata (Polemoniaceae).  

PubMed

Two different mechanisms can result in multiple paternity within fruits: deposition of a mixed pollen load due to carryover of pollen from flower to flower and multiple pollinator visits in close succession. I investigated the extent of multiple paternity within fruits of Ipompsis aggregata containing from 2 to 14 seeds. A paternity analysis based on ten polymorphic isozyme markers revealed multiple paternity in a minimum of 68% (based on simple paternity exclusion) and up to 100% (based on identification of the most likely father) of the multiseeded fruits. The estimated number of fathers increased with the number of seeds in a fruit, with an average of four sires, and up to nine sires, represented in a single fruit. To explore whether this level of multiple paternity could be explained solely by simultaneous deposition of a mixed pollen load, I constructed a computer simulation model based on previous measurements of movement patterns and pollen carryover by the hummingbird pollinators. Model predictions provided a good match to observed values for number of sires per fruit. Thus, the extensive pollen carryover in this species and consequent mixed pollen loads can explain the high levels of multiple paternity in natural populations. PMID:21684986

Campbell, D

1998-07-01

140

Human mutations and paternal age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention is drawn to recent findings reported in the literature on paternal age effects in sporadic cases with Marfan's syndrome. It is further shown that in 4 of 6 series with bilateral retinoblastoma a moderate influence of father's age can be detected. The difficulties of interpreting this observation are discussed. Based on the well-known decline in paternal age since the

W. Tiinte

1972-01-01

141

Mining functional microsatellites in legume unigenes  

PubMed Central

Highly polymorphic and transferable microsatellites (SSRs) are important for comparative genomics, genome analysis and phylogenetic studies. Development of novel species-specific microsatellite markers remains a costly and labor-intensive project. Therefore, interest has been shifted from genomic to genic markers owing to their high inter-species transferability as they are developed from conserved coding regions of the genome. This study concentrates on comparative analysis of genic microsatellites in nine important legume (Arachis hypogaea, Cajanus cajan, Cicer arietinum, Glycine max, Lotus japonicus, Medicago truncatula, Phaseolus vulgaris, Pisum sativum and Vigna unguiculata) and two model plant species (Oryza sativa and Arabidopsis thaliana). Screening of a total of 228090 putative unique sequences spanning 219610522 bp using a microsatellite search tool, MISA, identified 12.18% of the unigenes containing 36248 microsatellite motifs excluding mononucleotide repeats. Frequency of legume unigene-derived SSRs was one SSR in every 6.0 kb of analyzed sequences. The trinucleotide repeats were predominant in all the unigenes with the exception of C. cajan, which showed prevalence of dinucleotide repeats over trinucleotide repeats. Dinucleotide repeats along with trinucleotides counted for more than 90% of the total microsatellites. Among dinucleotide and trinucleotide repeats, AG and AAG motifs, respectively, were the most frequent. Microsatellite positive chickpea unigenes were assigned Gene Ontology (GO) terms to identify the possible role of unigenes in various molecular and biological functions. These unigene based microsatellite markers will prove valuable for recording allelic variance across germplasm collections, gene tagging and searching for putative candidate genes. PMID:22125396

Roorkiwal, Manish; Sharma, Prakash Chand

2011-01-01

142

Microsatellite Marker Analysis Reveals the Complex Phylogeographic History of Rhododendron ferrugineum (Ericaceae) in the Pyrenees  

PubMed Central

Genetic variation within plant species is determined by a number of factors such as reproductive mode, breeding system, life history traits and climatic events. In alpine regions, plants experience heterogenic abiotic conditions that influence the population's genetic structure. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic structure and phylogeographic history of the subalpine shrub Rhododendron ferrugineum across the Pyrenees and the links between the populations in the Pyrenees, the Alps and Jura Mountains. We used 27 microsatellite markers to genotype 645 samples from 29 Pyrenean populations, three from the Alps and one from the Jura Mountains. These data were used to estimate population genetics statistics such as allelic richness, observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity, fixation index, inbreeding coefficient and number of migrants. Genetic diversity was found to be higher in the Alps than in the Pyrenees suggesting colonization waves from the Alps to the Pyrenees. Two separate genetic lineages were found in both the Alps and Pyrenees, with a substructure of five genetic clusters in the Pyrenees where a loss of genetic diversity was noted. The strong differentiation among clusters is maintained by low gene flow across populations. Moreover, some populations showed higher genetic diversity than others and presented rare alleles that may indicate the presence of alpine refugia. Two lineages of R. ferrugineum have colonized the Pyrenees from the Alps. Then, during glaciation events R. ferrugineum survived in the Pyrenees in different refugia such as lowland refugia at the eastern part of the chain and nunataks at high elevations leading to a clustered genetic pattern. PMID:24667824

Charrier, Olivia; Dupont, Pierre; Pornon, Andre; Escaravage, Nathalie

2014-01-01

143

Microsatellite and flow cytometry analysis to help understand the origin of Dioscorea alata polyploids  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Dioscorea alata is a polyploid species with a ploidy level ranging from diploid (2n = 2x = 40) to tetraploid (2n = 4x = 80). Ploidy increase is correlated with better agronomic performance. The lack of knowledge about the origin of D. alata spontaneous polyploids (triploids and tetraploids) limits the efficiency of polyploid breeding. The objective of the present study was to use flow cytometry and microsatellite markers to understand the origin of D. alata polyploids. Methods Different progeny generated by intracytotype crosses (2x × 2x) and intercytotype crosses (2x × 4x and 3x × 2x) were analysed in order to understand endosperm incompatibility phenomena and gamete origins via the heterozygosity rate transmitted to progeny. Results This work shows that in a 2x × 2x cross, triploids with viable seeds are obtained only via a phenomenon of diploid female non-gametic reduction. The study of the transmission of heterozygosity made it possible to exclude polyspermy and polyembryony as the mechanisms at the origin of triploids. The fact that no seedlings were obtained by a 3x × 2x cross made it possible to confirm the sterility of triploid females. Flow cytometry analyses carried out on the endosperm of seeds resulting from 2x × 4x crosses revealed endosperm incompatibility phenomena. Conclusions The major conclusion is that the polyploids of D. alata would have appeared through the formation of unreduced gametes. The triploid pool would have been built and diversified through the formation of 2n gametes in diploid females as the result of the non-viability of seeds resulting from the formation of 2n sperm and of the non-viability of intercytotype crosses. The tetraploids would have appeared through bilateral sexual polyploidization via the union of two unreduced gametes due to the sterility of triploids. PMID:23912697

Nemorin, A.; David, J.; Maledon, E.; Nudol, E.; Dalon, J.; Arnau, G.

2013-01-01

144

Genetic structure of Pyrenophora teres net and spot populations as revealed by microsatellite analysis.  

PubMed

The population structure of the fungal pathogen Pyrenophora teres, collected mainly from different regions of the Czech and Slovak Republics, was examined using a microsatellite analyses (SSR). Among 305 P. teres f. teres (PTT) and 82 P. teres f. maculata (PTM) isolates that were collected, the overall gene diversity was similar (? = 0.12 and ? = 0.13, respectively). A high level of genetic differentiation (FST = 0.46; P < 0.001) indicated the existence of population structure. Nine clusters that were found using a Bayesian approach represent the genetic structure of the studied P. teres populations. Two clusters consisted of PTM populations; PTT populations formed another seven clusters. An exact test of population differentiation confirmed the results that were generated by Structure. There was no difference between naturally infected populations over time, and genetic distance did not correlate with geographical distance. The facts that all individuals had unique multilocus genotypes and that the hypothesis of random mating could not be rejected in several populations or subpopulations serve as evidence that a mixed mating system plays a role in the P. teres life cycle. Despite the fact that the genetic differentiation value between PTT and PTM (FST = 0.30; P < 0.001) is lower than it is between the populations within each form (FST = 0.40 (PTT); FST = 0.35 (PTM); P < 0.001) and that individuals with mixed PTT and PTM genomes were found, the two forms of P. teres form genetically separate populations. Therefore, it can be assumed that these populations have most likely undergone speciation. PMID:24528640

Leišová-Svobodová, Leona; Mina?íková, V?ra; Matušinsky, Pavel; Hudcovicová, Martina; Ondrei?ková, Katarína; Gubiš, Jozef

2014-02-01

145

Population genetic analysis of white shrimp, Litopenaeus setiferus, using microsatellite genetic markers.  

PubMed

The white shrimp (Litopenaeus setiferus) is a commercially and recreationally valuable species, yet little is known of its population structure or genetic diversity. White shrimp are distributed along the Atlantic coast of the United States and from the west coast of Florida to the Bay of Campeche, Mexico. In this study, shrimp were collected from North Carolina, South Carolina (four separate collections were taken from 1995 to 1999), Georgia, the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of Florida, Louisiana, Texas and Mexico. DNA was isolated from these individuals, and genetic variation was assessed at six microsatellite loci. These loci were, for the most part, highly polymorphic with an average expected heterozygosity of 0.68. Deviations from Hardy-Weinberg proportions were observed over all samples, but experimental results suggested the presence of null alleles, which confounded a biological interpretation of this result. Pairwise tests of the similarity of allele frequency distributions and distance measure analyses showed broad-scale genetic homogeneity superimposed over occasional indications of random geographical and temporal differentiation. FST and RST estimates over all loci and samples were 0.002 or less and indicated little population structure. Weak but significant genetic differentiation was evident only between pooled western Atlantic and pooled Gulf of Mexico samples. Within the Gulf of Mexico or within the western Atlantic, the large-scale genetic homogeneity observed may be a consequence of genetic mixing resulting from pelagic larvae and adult migrations, while the random local genetic differentiation may be a result of genetic sampling or experimental sampling error. The weak differentiation between shrimp from the Gulf of Mexico and the western Atlantic can be explained by a relatively recent separation of these two populations and/or small amounts of ongoing gene flow. PMID:12919471

Ball, Amy O; Chapman, Robert W

2003-09-01

146

Mutational and expressional analysis of SMC2 gene in gastric and colorectal cancers with microsatellite instability.  

PubMed

Structural maintenance of chromosomes 2 (SMC2) gene encodes condensin complexes that are required for proper chromosome segregation and maintenance of chromosomal stability. Although cells with defective chromosome segregation become aneuploid and are prone to harbor chromosome instability, pathologic implications of SMC2 gene alterations are largely unknown. In a public database, we found that SMC2 gene had mononucleotide repeats that could be mutated in cancers with microsatellite instability (MSI). In this study, we analyzed these repeats in 32 gastric cancers (GC) with high MSI (MSI-H), 59 GC with low MSI (MSI-L)/stable MSI (MSS), 43 colorectal cancers (CRC) with MSI-H and 60 CRC with MSI-L/MSS by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and DNA sequencing. We also analyzed SMC2 protein expression in GC and CRC tissues using immunohistochemistry. We found SMC2 frameshift mutations in two GC and two CRC that would result in truncation of SMC2. The mutations were detected exclusively in MSI-H cancers, but not in MSI-L/MSS cancers. Loss of SMC2 expression was observed in 22% of GC and 25% of CRC. Of note, all of the cancers with SMC2 frameshift mutations displayed loss of SMC2 expression. Also, both GC and CRC with MSI-H had significantly higher incidences in SMC2 frameshift mutations and loss of SMC2 expression than those with MSI-L/MSS. Our data indicate that SMC2 gene is altered by both frameshift mutation and loss of expression in GC and CRC with MSI-H, and suggest that SMC2 gene alterations might be involved in pathogenesis of these cancers. PMID:24483990

Je, Eun Mi; Yoo, Nam Jin; Lee, Sug Hyung

2014-06-01

147

Genetic relatedness of polygyne queens in the red imported fire ant Solenopsis invicta determined by microsatellite analysis  

E-print Network

that the introduced fire ants lost many alleles not only in microsatellite but also in allozyme markers due to the severe founder event. The loss of variation in kin-selecting loci may favor the polygyne forms in the USA....

Lu, Lanying

2012-06-07

148

Population structure of spotted seatrout, Cynoscion nebulosus, in Texas bays and estuaries as revealed by analysis of microsatellite DNA  

E-print Network

Variation in nuclear-encoded microsatellite loci was examined among 162 spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus) sampled from three localities in the northern Gulf of Mexico (Gulf) and one locality along the southeastern coast of Florida (Atlantic...

Stewart, Leah Beth

2013-02-22

149

Genetic variability and population structure in Cypriot chukar partridges ( Alectoris chukar cypriotes ) as determined by microsatellite analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the first time, microsatellite loci were used to study the genetic structure in Alectoris chukar cypriotes. Four of the ten tested microsatellite loci were found to be polymorphic in 33 individuals from four regions of Cyprus. The differentiation test between all the pairs of samples gave non-differentiation exact P values in every case (P>0.05). The posterior probability distribution on

M. T. Tejedor; L. V. Monteagudo; E. Hadjisterkotis; M. V. Arruga

2005-01-01

150

Microsatellite Instability, MLH1 Promoter Methylation, and BRAF Mutation Analysis in Sporadic Colorectal Cancers of Different Ethnic Groups in Israel  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND The molecular mechanisms that underlie colorectal cancer (CRC) include microsatellite instability (MSI), chromosomal instability, and the CpG island methylator phenotype. There is evidence to suggest that CRC incidence varies among different ethnic populations worldwide. The authors of this report hypothesized that environmental factors and lifestyle differences among various ethnic groups may differentially influence the epigenetic regulation of tumor suppressor genes in CRC. METHODS In the current study, microdissection and DNA extraction were performed on 128 samples of CRC from Israeli patients (85 Jews and 43 Arabs). MSI analysis, mutL homolog 1 (MLH1) and mutS homolog 2 (MSH2) protein expression levels, and MLH1 promoter methylation were investigated by combined bisulfite restriction analysis. The v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF) valine-to-glutamic acid mutation at residue 600 was investigated by direct DNA sequencing. RESULTS High MSI (MSI-H), MLH1 methylation, and BRAF mutations were observed in 11.6%, 9.4%, and 23.5% of Jews, respectively, and in 16.2%, 17.6%, and 20.9% of Arabs, respectively (P value nonsignificant). MLH1 promoter methylation was observed in 22.6% of microsatellite-stable (MSS) tumors and in 53.8% of MSI-H tumors (P < .015). Extensive methylation (covering both 5? and 3? promoter regions) was present in all MSI-H tumors with loss of MLH1 expression. BRAF mutation was observed in 15.6% and 46.1% of MSS tumors and MSI-H tumors, respectively (P < .007). BRAF mutation was observed in 66%, 22.2%, and 14.7% of patients who had tumors with extensive MLH1 promoter methylation, methylation of the 5? region alone, or without methylation, respectively (P < .006). CONCLUSIONS There was no difference in molecular signatures examined between Jewish and Arab patients with CRC in Israel. Extensive promoter methylation was associated with MLH1 inactivation, MSI, and BRAF mutation. PMID:19127559

Vilkin, Alex; Niv, Yaron; Nagasaka, Takeshi; Morgenstern, Sarah; Levi, Zohar; Fireman, Zvi; Fuerst, Florentine; Goel, Ajay; Boland, C. Richard

2010-01-01

151

Analysis of Tumor Cell Evolution in a Melanoma: Evidence of Mutational and Selective Pressure for Loss of p16ink4 and for Microsatellite Instability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumorigenesis and tumor progression can be considered an evolutionary process. In order to deduce information on the mutational and selective pressures during melanoma progression we performed microsatellite analysis at 42 autosomal and two X-linked loci in a microdissected primary melanoma and its nine metastases. Loss of heterozygosity at locus D9S259 was the only genetic change observed in all metastases. The

Albert Rübben; Philipp Babilas; Jens M. Baron; Anja Hofheinz; Mark Neis; Florian Sels; Markus Sporkert

2000-01-01

152

An analysis of genetic diversity in coconut ( Cocos nucifera ) populations from across the geographic range using sequence-tagged microsatellites (SSRs) and AFLPs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic diversity in 31 individuals from 14 coconut populations across the entire geographic range (2–3 individuals per population)\\u000a was assessed using sequence-tagged microsatellites (or simple sequence repeats, SSRs) and amplified fragment length polymorphism\\u000a (AFLP). From the 39 SSR primer sets tested, only two gave patterns that could not be scored and used in the data analysis.\\u000a The remainder included five

B. Teulat; C. Aldam; R. Trehin; P. Lebrun; J. H. A. Barker; G. M. Arnold; A. Karp; L. Baudouin; F. Rognon

2000-01-01

153

High genetic diversity in gametophyte clones of Undaria pinnatifida from Vladivostok, Dalian and Qingdao revealed using microsatellite analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Breeding practice for Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar requires the screening of a large number of offspring from gametophyte crossings to obtain an elite variety for large-scale cultivation. To better understand the genetic relationships of different gametophyte cultures isolated from different sources, 20 microsatellite loci were screened and 53 gametophyte clone cultures analyzed for U. pinnatifida isolated from wild sporophytes in Vladivostok, Russia and from cultivated sporophytes from Dalian and Qingdao, China. One locus was abandoned because of poor amplification. At the sex-linked locus of Up-AC-2A8, 3 alleles were detected in 25 female gametophyte clones, with sizes ranging from 307 to 316 bp. At other loci, 3 to 7 alleles were detected with an average of 4.5 alleles per locus. The average number of alleles at each locus was 1.3 and 3.7 for Russian and Chinese gametophyte clones, respectively. The average gene diversity for Russian, Chinese, and for the combined total of gametophyte clones was 0.1, 0.4, and 0.5, respectively. Russian gametophyte clones had unique alleles at 7 out of the 19 loci. In cluster analysis, Russian and Chinese gametophyte clones were separated into two different groups according to genetic distance. Overall, high genetic diversity was detected in gametophyte clones isolated from the two countries. These gametophyte cultures were believed to be appropriate parental materials for conducting breeding programs in the future.

Shan, Tifeng; Pang, Shaojun; Liu, Feng; Xu, Na; Zhao, Xiaobo; Gao, Suqin

2012-03-01

154

Microsatellites for ecologists: a practical guide to using and evaluating microsatellite markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent improvements in genetic analysis and genotyping methods have resulted in a rapid expansion of the power of molecular markers to address ecological questions. Microsatellites have emerged as the most popular and versatile marker type for ecological applications. The rise of commercial services that can isolate microsatellites for new study species and genotype samples at reasonable prices presents ecologists with

Kimberly A. Selkoe; Robert J. Toonen

2006-01-01

155

Higher levels of multiple paternities increase seedling survival in the long-lived tree Eucalyptus gracilis.  

PubMed

Studying associations between mating system parameters and fitness in natural populations of trees advances our understanding of how local environments affect seed quality, and thereby helps to predict when inbreeding or multiple paternities should impact on fitness. Indeed, for species that demonstrate inbreeding avoidance, multiple paternities (i.e. the number of male parents per half-sib family) should still vary and regulate fitness more than inbreeding--named here as the 'constrained inbreeding hypothesis'. We test this hypothesis in Eucalyptus gracilis, a predominantly insect-pollinated tree. Fifty-eight open-pollinated progeny arrays were collected from trees in three populations. Progeny were planted in a reciprocal transplant trial. Fitness was measured by family establishment rates. We genotyped all trees and their progeny at eight microsatellite loci. Planting site had a strong effect on fitness, but seed provenance and seed provenance × planting site did not. Populations had comparable mating system parameters and were generally outcrossed, experienced low biparental inbreeding and high levels of multiple paternity. As predicted, seed families that had more multiple paternities also had higher fitness, and no fitness-inbreeding correlations were detected. Demonstrating that fitness was most affected by multiple paternities rather than inbreeding, we provide evidence supporting the constrained inbreeding hypothesis; i.e. that multiple paternity may impact on fitness over and above that of inbreeding, particularly for preferentially outcrossing trees at life stages beyond seed development. PMID:24587373

Breed, Martin F; Christmas, Matthew J; Lowe, Andrew J

2014-01-01

156

Re-sequencing regions of the ovine Y chromosome in domestic and wild sheep reveals novel paternal haplotypes.  

PubMed

The male-specific region of the ovine Y chromosome (MSY) remains poorly characterized, yet sequence variants from this region have the potential to reveal the wild progenitor of domestic sheep or examples of domestic and wild paternal introgression. The 5' promoter region of the sex-determining gene SRY was re-sequenced using a subset of wild sheep including bighorn (Ovis canadensis), thinhorn (Ovis dalli spp.), urial (Ovis vignei), argali (Ovis ammon), mouflon (Ovis musimon) and domestic sheep (Ovis aries). Seven novel SNPs (oY2-oY8) were revealed; these were polymorphic between but not within species. Re-sequencing and fragment analysis was applied to the MSY microsatellite SRYM18. It contains a complex compound repeat structure and sequencing of three novel size fragments revealed that a pentanucleotide element remained fixed, whilst a dinucleotide element displayed variability within species. Comparison of the sequence between species revealed that urial and argali sheep grouped more closely to the mouflon and domestic breeds than the pachyceriforms (bighorn and thinhorn). SNP and microsatellite data were combined to define six previously undetected haplotypes. Analysis revealed the mouflon as the only species to share a haplotype with domestic sheep, consistent with its status as a feral domesticate that has undergone male-mediated exchange with domestic animals. A comparison of the remaining wild species and domestic sheep revealed that O. aries is free from signatures of wild sheep introgression. PMID:19016675

Meadows, J R S; Kijas, J W

2009-02-01

157

Male-Biased Sexual Size Dimorphism, Resource Defense Polygyny, and Multiple Paternity in the Emei Moustache Toad (Leptobrachium boringii)  

PubMed Central

We tested the hypotheses that the Emei moustache toad (Leptobrachium boringii) exhibits resource defense polygyny and that combat led to the evolution of male-biased sexual size dimorphism. Between February and March of 2011 and 2012, 26 female and 55 male L. boringii from Mount Emei UNESCO World Heritage Site, Sichuan, China, were observed throughout the breeding season. Prior to the breeding season, males grow 10–16 keratinized maxillary nuptial spines, which fall off once the season has ended. Throughout this time, males construct and defend aquatic nests where they produce advertisement calls to attract females. In a natural setting, we documented 14 cases involving a total of 22 males where males used their moustaches for aggressive interaction, and nest takeover was observed on seven occasions. Males were also observed to possess injuries resulting from combat. Genetic analysis using microsatellite DNA markers revealed several cases of multiple paternity, both within nest and within clutch. This observation indicated that some alternative male reproductive strategy, such as satellite behaviour, is occurring, which may have led to the multiple paternity. Larger males were observed to mate more frequently, and in multiple nests, suggesting that females are selecting for larger males, or that larger males are more capable of defending high quality territories. PMID:23840725

Hudson, Cameron M.; Fu, Jinzhong

2013-01-01

158

The impact of paternity leave on fathers' future earnings.  

PubMed

Using Norwegian registry data, we investigate the effect of paternity leave on fathers' long-term earnings. If the paternity leave increased long-term father involvement, then we should expect a reduction in fathers' long-term earnings as they shift time and effort from market to home production. For identification, we use the Norwegian introduction of a paternity-leave quota in 1993, reserving four weeks of the total of 42 weeks of paid parental leave exclusively for the father. The introduction of the paternity-leave quota led to a sharp increase in rates of leave-taking for fathers. We estimate a difference-in-differences model that exploits differences in fathers' exposure to the paternity-leave quota by the child's age and year of observation. Our analysis suggests that four weeks of paternity leave during the child's first year decreases fathers' future earnings, an effect that persists through our last point of observation, when the child is 5 years old. A battery of robustness tests supports our results. PMID:24135861

Rege, Mari; Solli, Ingeborg F

2013-12-01

159

Early-onset obesity and paternal 2pter deletion encompassing the ACP1, TMEM18, and MYT1L genes.  

PubMed

Obesity is a common but highly, clinically, and genetically heterogeneous disease. Deletion of the terminal region of the short arm of chromosome 2 is rare and has been reported in about 13 patients in the literature often associated with a Prader-Willi-like phenotype. We report on five unrelated patients with 2p25 deletion of paternal origin presenting with early-onset obesity, hyperphagia, intellectual deficiency, and behavioural difficulties. Among these patients, three had de novo pure 2pter deletions, one presented with a paternal derivative der(2)t(2;15)(p25.3;q26) with deletion in the 2pter region and the last patient presented with an interstitial 2p25 deletion. The size of the deletions was characterized by SNP array or array-CGH and was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) studies. Four patients shared a 2p25.3 deletion with a minimal critical region estimated at 1.97?Mb and encompassing seven genes, namely SH3HYL1, ACP1, TMEMI8, SNTG2, TPO, PXDN, and MYT1L genes. The fifth patient had a smaller interstitial deletion encompassing the TPO, PXDN, and MYT1L genes. Paternal origin of the deletion was determined by genotyping using microsatellite markers. Analysis of the genes encompassed in the deleted region led us to speculate that the ACP1, TMEM18, and/or MYT1L genes might be involved in early-onset obesity. In addition, intellectual deficiency and behavioural troubles can be explained by the heterozygous loss of the SNTG2 and MYT1L genes. Finally, we discuss the parent-of-origin of the deletion. PMID:24129437

Doco-Fenzy, Martine; Leroy, Camille; Schneider, Anouck; Petit, Florence; Delrue, Marie-Ange; Andrieux, Joris; Perrin-Sabourin, Laurence; Landais, Emilie; Aboura, Azzedine; Puechberty, Jacques; Girard, Manon; Tournaire, Magali; Sanchez, Elodie; Rooryck, Caroline; Ameil, Agnès; Goossens, Michel; Jonveaux, Philippe; Lefort, Geneviève; Taine, Laurence; Cailley, Dorothée; Gaillard, Dominique; Leheup, Bruno; Sarda, Pierre; Geneviève, David

2014-04-01

160

Range-wide population genetic structure of the European bitterling (Rhodeus amarus) based on microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA analysis.  

PubMed

An understanding of recent evolutionary processes is essential for the successful conservation and management of contemporary populations, especially where they concern the introduction or invasion of species outside their natural range. However, the potentially negative implications of intraspecific introductions and invasions have attracted less attention, although they also represent a potential threat to biodiversity, and are commonly facilitated through human activities. The European bitterling (Rhodeus amarus) is a small cyprinid fish that decreased greatly in its distribution during the 1970s and 1980s and was subsequently included on many European conservation lists. This decline appears to have reversed, and the extent of its distribution now exceeds its former range. We used a combination of 12 microsatellite markers and cytochrome b sequences on a large data set (693 individuals) across the current range of the European bitterling to investigate possible scenarios for its colonization of Europe. We show that the inferred history of colonization of Europe was largely congruent between mitochondrial and nuclear markers. The most divergent mtDNA lineages occur in the Aegean region but probably are not reproductively isolated as the Aegean populations also displayed mtDNA haplotypes from other lineages and nuclear data indicated their close relationship to Danubian populations. Much of Europe is currently populated by descendants of two main lineages that came to natural secondary contact in western Europe. An approximate Bayesian computation analysis indicates different dates for admixture events among western and central European populations ranging from the last deglaciation (natural) to the last few centuries (human-assisted translocations). PMID:20958813

Bryja, J; Smith, C; Kone?ný, A; Reichard, M

2010-11-01

161

Trypanosoma cruzi IIc: phylogenetic and phylogeographic insights from sequence and microsatellite analysis and potential impact on emergent Chagas disease.  

PubMed

Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, is highly genetically diverse. Numerous lines of evidence point to the existence of six stable genetic lineages or DTUs: TcI, TcIIa, TcIIb, TcIIc, TcIId, and TcIIe. Molecular dating suggests that T. cruzi is likely to have been an endemic infection of neotropical mammalian fauna for many millions of years. Here we have applied a panel of 49 polymorphic microsatellite markers developed from the online T. cruzi genome to document genetic diversity among 53 isolates belonging to TcIIc, a lineage so far recorded almost exclusively in silvatic transmission cycles but increasingly a potential source of human infection. These data are complemented by parallel analysis of sequence variation in a fragment of the glucose-6-phosphate isomerase gene. New isolates confirm that TcIIc is associated with terrestrial transmission cycles and armadillo reservoir hosts, and demonstrate that TcIIc is far more widespread than previously thought, with a distribution at least from Western Venezuela to the Argentine Chaco. We show that TcIIc is truly a discrete T. cruzi lineage, that it could have an ancient origin and that diversity occurs within the terrestrial niche independently of the host species. We also show that spatial structure among TcIIc isolates from its principal host, the armadillo Dasypus novemcinctus, is greater than that among TcI from Didelphis spp. opossums and link this observation to differences in ecology of their respective niches. Homozygosity in TcIIc populations and some linkage indices indicate the possibility of recombination but cannot yet be effectively discriminated from a high genome-wide frequency of gene conversion. Finally, we suggest that the derived TcIIc population genetic data have a vital role in determining the origin of the epidemiologically important hybrid lineages TcIId and TcIIe. PMID:19721699

Llewellyn, Martin S; Lewis, Michael D; Acosta, Nidia; Yeo, Matthew; Carrasco, Hernan J; Segovia, Maikell; Vargas, Jorge; Torrico, Faustino; Miles, Michael A; Gaunt, Michael W

2009-01-01

162

Analysis of simple sequence repeats in the Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici genome and the development of microsatellite markers.  

PubMed

Understanding the genetic structure of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici is essential for the establishment of efficient disease control strategies. It is becoming clear that microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats (SSRs), play an important role in genome organization and phenotypic diversity, and are a large source of genetic markers for population genetics and meiotic maps. In this study, we examined the G. graminis var. tritici genome (1) to analyze its pattern of SSRs, (2) to compare it with other plant pathogenic filamentous fungi, such as Magnaporthe oryzae and M. poae, and (3) to identify new polymorphic SSR markers for genetic diversity. The G. graminis var. tritici genome was rich in SSRs; a total 13,650 SSRs have been identified with mononucleotides being the most common motifs. In coding regions, the densities of tri- and hexanucleotides were significantly higher than in noncoding regions. The di-, tri-, tetra, penta, and hexanucleotide repeats in the G. graminis var. tritici genome were more abundant than the same repeats in M. oryzae and M. poae. From 115 devised primers, 39 SSRs are polymorphic with G. graminis var. tritici isolates, and 8 primers were randomly selected to analyze 116 isolates from China. The number of alleles varied from 2 to 7 and the expected heterozygosity (He) from 0.499 to 0.837. In conclusion, SSRs developed in this study were highly polymorphic, and our analysis indicated that G. graminis var. tritici is a species with high genetic diversity. The results provide a pioneering report for several applications, such as the assessment of population structure and genetic diversity of G. graminis var. tritici. PMID:24789608

Li, Wei; Feng, Yanxia; Sun, Haiyan; Deng, Yuanyu; Yu, Hanshou; Chen, Huaigu

2014-11-01

163

Population structure of striped marlin ( Kajikia audax ) in the Pacific Ocean based on analysis of microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic variation was surveyed at five microsatellite loci and the mitochondrial control region (819 bp) to test for the presence of genetic stock structure in striped marlin (Kajikia audax) collections taken from seven locations through- out the Pacific Ocean. Temporal replicates separated by 9 years were taken off Japan, and three temporal samples spanning 11 years were collected off the

Jan R. McDowell; John E. Graves

2008-01-01

164

Analysis of microsatellite DNA resolves genetic structure and diversity of chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ) in California's Central Valley  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use 10 microsatellite DNA markers to assess genetic diversity within and among the four runs (winter, spring, fall, and late fall) of chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ) in California's Central Valley. Forty-one pop- ulation samples are studied, comprising naturally spawning and hatchery stocks collected from 1991 through 1997. Maximum likelihood methods are used to correct for kinship in

Michael A. Banks; Vanessa K. Rashbrook; Marco J. Calavetta; Cheryl A. Dean; Dennis Hedgecock

2000-01-01

165

Genetic structure of colonies and a male aggregation in the stingless bee Scaptotrigona postica , as revealed by microsatellite analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Stingless bee queens have for long been assumed to mate once on a nuptial flight, early in life. To evaluate critically monandry in one stingless bee, Scaptotrigona postica, worker offspring (adults or brood) were genetically analysed with microsatellite loci, five of which were developed specifically for the species. Marker loci were highly variable; unbiased estimates of heterozygosity were >

R. J. Paxton

2000-01-01

166

Microsatellite DNA analysis of success in conserving genetic diversity after 33years of refuge management for the desert pupfish complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Refuge populations of Cyprinodon macularius and Cyprinodon eremus, the extant members of the endangered desert pupfish complex, have been maintained for up to 33 years in semi-natural refuges. We examined the success of the refuge program in maintaining diversity at four microsatellite DNA loci in 24 refuge populations of C. macularius and six of C. eremus that include, respectively, seven

H. Koike; A. A. Echelle; D. Loftis; R. A. Van Den Bussche

2008-01-01

167

Strong male-biased operational sex ratio in a breeding population of loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) inferred by paternal genotype reconstruction analysis  

PubMed Central

Characterization of a species mating systems is fundamental for understanding the natural history and evolution of that species. Polyandry can result in the multiple paternity of progeny arrays. The only previous study of the loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) in the USA showed that within the large peninsular Florida subpopulation, multiple paternity occurs in approximately 30% of clutches. Our study tested clutches from the smaller northern subpopulation for the presence of multiple paternal contributions. We examined mothers and up to 20 offspring from 19.5% of clutches laid across three nesting seasons (2008–2010) on the small nesting beach on Wassaw Island, Georgia, USA. We found that 75% of clutches sampled had multiple fathers with an average of 2.65 fathers per nest (1–7 fathers found). The average number of fathers per clutch varied among years and increased with female size. There was no relationship between number of fathers and hatching success. Finally, we found 195 individual paternal genotypes and determined that each male contributed to no more than a single clutch over the 3-year sampling period. Together these results suggest that the operational sex ratio is male-biased at this site. PMID:24363901

Lasala, Jacob A; Harrison, J Scott; Williams, Kris L; Rostal, David C

2013-01-01

168

Testosterone, Paternal Behavior, and Aggression in the Monogamous California Mouse  

E-print Network

- relation, between paternal behavior and aggression in several seasonally breeding avian species. HoweverTestosterone, Paternal Behavior, and Aggression in the Monogamous California Mouse (Peromyscus, which in turn stimulates paternal behavior. In contrast to paternal behavior, aggressive behavior

Marler, Catherine A.

169

Selection and use of SNP markers for animal identification and paternity analysis in U.S. beef cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   DNA marker technology represents a promising means for determining the genetic identity and kinship of an animal. Compared\\u000a with other types of DNA markers, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are attractive because they are abundant, genetically\\u000a stable, and amenable to high-throughput automated analysis. In cattle, the challenge has been to identify a minimal set of\\u000a SNPs with sufficient power for

Michael P. Heaton; Gregory P. Harhay; Gary L. Bennett; Roger T. Stone; W. Michael Grosse; Eduardo Casas; John W. Keele; Timothy P. L. Smith; Carol G. Chitko-McKown; William W. Laegreid

2002-01-01

170

Characterization of microsatellites in wild and sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.)--markers for individual identification and reproductive processes.  

PubMed

Nuclear microsatellites were characterized in Prunus avium and validated as markers for individual and cultivar identification, as well as for studies of pollen- and seed-mediated gene flow. We used 20 primer pairs from a simple sequence repeat (SSR) library of Prunus persica and identified 7 loci harboring polymorphic microsatellite sequences in P. avium. In a natural population of 75 wild cherry trees, the number of alleles per locus ranged from 4 to 9 and expected heterozygosity from 0.39 to 0.77. The variability of the SSR markers allowed an unambiguous identification of individual trees and potential root suckers. Additionally, we analyzed 13 sweet cherry cultivars and differentiated 12 of them. An exclusion probability of 0.984 was calculated, which indicates that the seven loci are suitable markers for paternity analysis. The woody endocarp was successfully used for resolution of all microsatellite loci and exhibited the same multilocus genotype as the mother tree, as shown in a single seed progeny. Hence, SSR fingerprinting of the purely maternal endocarp was also successful in this Prunus species, allowing the identification of the mother tree of the dispersed seeds. The linkage of microsatellite loci with PCR-amplified alleles of the self-incompatibility locus was tested in two full-sib families of sweet cherry cultivars. From low recombination frequencies, we inferred that two loci are linked with the S locus. The present study provides markers that will significantly facilitate studies of spatial genetic variation and gene flow in wild cherry, as well as breeding programs in sweet cherry. PMID:12669801

Schueler, Silvio; Tusch, Alexandra; Schuster, Mirko; Ziegenhagen, Birgit

2003-02-01

171

Microsatellite DNA Analysis Revealed a Drastic Genetic Change of Plasmodium vivax Population in the Republic of Korea During 2002 and 2003  

PubMed Central

Background Vivax malaria was successfully eliminated in the Republic of Korea (South Korea) in the late 1970s, but it was found to have re-emerged from 1993. In order to control malaria and evaluate the effectiveness of malaria controls, it is important to develop a spatiotemporal understanding of the genetic structure of the parasite population. Here, we estimated the population structure and temporal dynamics of the transmission of Plasmodium vivax in South Korea by analyzing microsatellite DNA markers of the parasite. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed 14 microsatellite DNA loci of the P. vivax genome from 163 South Korean isolates collected from 1994 to 2008. Allelic data were used to analyze linkage disequilibrium (LD), genetic differentiation and population structure, in order to make a detailed estimate of temporal change in the parasite population. The LD analysis showed a gradual decrease in LD levels, while the levels of genetic differentiation between successive years and analysis of the population structure based on the Bayesian approach suggested that a drastic genetic change occurred in the South Korean population during 2002 and 2003. Conclusions/Significance Although relapse and asymptomatic parasite carriage might influence the population structure to some extent, our results suggested the continual introduction of P. vivax into South Korea through other parasite population sources. One possible source, particularly during 2002 and 2003, is North Korea. Molecular epidemiology using microsatellite DNA of the P. vivax population is effective for assessing the population structure and temporal dynamics of parasite transmission; information that can assist in the elimination of vivax malaria in endemic areas. PMID:24205429

Iwagami, Moritoshi; Hwang, Seung-Young; Kim, So-Hee; Park, So-Jung; Lee, Ga-Young; Matsumoto-Takahashi, Emilie Louise Akiko; Kho, Weon-Gyu; Kano, Shigeyuki

2013-01-01

172

Multiple Paternity in Belding's Ground Squirrel Litters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexually receptive female Spermophilus beldingi (Rodentia: Sciuridae) usually mate with several different males. The paternity of 27 litters born in 1977 and 1978 was ascertained by combining field observations of mating with laboratory paternity exclusion analyses. Most of the litters (78 percent) were multiply sired, usually by two or three males. This may be the highest frequency of multiple paternity

James Hanken; Paul W. Sherman

1981-01-01

173

Quantification of the paternal allele bias for new germline mutations in the retinoblastoma gene  

SciTech Connect

New germline mutations in the human retinoblastoma gene preferentially arise on a paternally derived allele. In nonhereditary retinoblastoma, the initial somatic mutation seems to have no such bias. The few previous reports of these phenomena included relatively few cases (less than a dozen new germline or initial somatic mutations), so that the magnitude of the paternal allele bias for new germline mutations is not known. Knowledge of the magnitude of the bias is valuable for genetic counseling, since, for example, patients with new germline mutations who reproduce transmit risk for retinoblastoma according to the risk that the transmitted allele has a germline mutation. We sought to quantitate the paternal allele bias and to determine whether paternal age is a factor possibly accounting for it. We studied 311 families with retinoblastoma (261 simplex, 50 multiplex) that underwent clinical genetic testing and 5 informative families recruited from earlier research. Using RFLPs and polymorphic microsatellites in the retinoblastoma gene, we could determine the parental origin of 45 new germline mutations and 44 probable initial somatic mutations. Thirty-seven of the 45 new germline mutations, or 82%, arose on a paternal allele while only 24 of the 44 initial somatic mutations (55%) did so. Increased paternal age does not appear to account for the excess of new paternal germline mutations, since the average age of fathers of children with new germline mutations (29.4 years, n=26, incomplete records on 11) was not significantly different from the average age of fathers of children with maternal germline mutations or somatic initial mutations (29.8 years, n=35, incomplete records on 17).

Morrow, J.F.; Rapaport, J.M.; Dryia, T.P. [Massachusetts Eye & Ear Infirmary, Boston, MA (United States)

1994-09-01

174

A polymorphic microsatellite from the Squalius alburnoides complex (Osteichthyes, Cyprinidae) cloned by serendipity can be useful in genetic analysis of polyploids.  

PubMed

A new microsatellite locus (SAS1) for Squalius alburnoides was obtained through cloning by serendipity. The possible usefulness of this new species-specific microsatellite in genetic studies of this hybrid-species complex, was explored. The polymorphism exhibited by SAS1 microsatellite is an important addition to the set of microsatellites previously used in genetic studies in S. alburnoides complex, that mostly relied in markers described for other species. Moreover, the SAS1 microsatellite could be used to identify the parental genomes of the complex, complementing other methods recently described for the same purpose.. PMID:21931529

Boto, Luis; Cunha, Carina; Doadrio, Ignacio

2011-07-01

175

A polymorphic microsatellite from the Squalius alburnoides complex (Osteichthyes, Cyprinidae) cloned by serendipity can be useful in genetic analysis of polyploids  

PubMed Central

A new microsatellite locus (SAS1) for Squalius alburnoides was obtained through cloning by serendipity. The possible usefulness of this new species-specific microsatellite in genetic studies of this hybrid-species complex, was explored. The polymorphism exhibited by SAS1 microsatellite is an important addition to the set of microsatellites previously used in genetic studies in S. alburnoides complex, that mostly relied in markers described for other species. Moreover, the SAS1 microsatellite could be used to identify the parental genomes of the complex, complementing other methods recently described for the same purpose.. PMID:21931529

Boto, Luis; Cunha, Carina; Doadrio, Ignacio

2011-01-01

176

New softwares for automated microsatellite marker development  

PubMed Central

Microsatellites are repeated small sequence motifs that are highly polymorphic and abundant in the genomes of eukaryotes. Often they are the molecular markers of choice. To aid the development of microsatellite markers we have developed a module that integrates a program for the detection of microsatellites (TROLL), with the sequence assembly and analysis software, the Staden Package. The module has easily adjustable parameters for microsatellite lengths and base pair quality control. Starting with large datasets of unassembled sequence data in the form of chromatograms and/or text data, it enables the creation of a compact database consisting of the processed and assembled microsatellite containing sequences. For the final phase of primer design, we developed a program that accepts the multi-sequence ‘experiment file’ format as input and produces a list of primer pairs for amplification of microsatellite markers. The program can take into account the quality values of consensus bases, improving success rate of primer pairs in PCR. The software is freely available and simple to install in both Windows and Unix-based operating systems. Here we demonstrate the software by developing primer pairs for 427 new candidate markers for peanut. PMID:16493138

Martins, Wellington; de Sousa, Daniel; Proite, Karina; Guimaraes, Patricia; Moretzsohn, Marcio; Bertioli, David

2006-01-01

177

A model for equine breed identification using microsatellites and posterior probability testing  

E-print Network

products were analyzed by polyacrylantide gel electrophoresis followed by autoradiography. Segregation analysis of the 19 n-microsatellite loci did not indicate linkage (Z > 3.0) between any of the loci. Microsatellite allele distributions in the unrelated...

Chastain, Pepper Alise

2012-06-07

178

Gel Electrophoresis Lab: Paternity Case  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lab activity from the Biotechnology Alliance for Suncoast Biology Educators provides instructions for conducting a gel electrophoresis lab. Students will try to solve a paternity case with this activity by obtaining a DNA fingerprint from each potential father, the mother and the child. This activity may be downloaded in PDF file format. A data collection sheet and student questions are also included.

2013-07-05

179

Genetic diversity and differentiation of the Korean starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus) between and within cultured stocks and wild populations inferred from microsatellite DNA analysis.  

PubMed

The Korean starry flounder, Platichthys stellatus, is economically valuable coastal resident fish species. However, the annual catch of this fish has fluctuated and suffered major declines in Korea. We examined the genetic diversity and population structure for four wild populations and three hatchery stocks of Korean starry flounder to protect its genetic integrity using nine microsatellites. A group of 339 genotypes belonging to seven populations were screened. High degrees of polymorphism at the microsatellite loci were observed within both the wild and hatchery populations. Compared to the wild populations, genetic changes, including reduced genetic diversity and highly significant differentiation, have occurred in cultured stocks. Significant population differentiation was also observed in wild starry flounder populations. Similar degrees of inbreeding and significant Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium deviations were detected in both the wild and the hatchery populations. The genetic connectivity pattern identified four distinct metapopulations of starry flounder in Korea by clustering in the phylogenetic tree, Bayesian analyses, molecular variance analysis, PCA and multidimensional scaling analysis. A pattern of isolation-by-distance was not significant. This genetic differentiation may be the result of the co-effects of various factors, such as historic dispersal, local environment or anthropogenic activities. These results provide useful information for the genetic monitoring of P. stellatus hatchery stocks, for the genetic improvement of this species by selective breeding and for designing suitable management guidelines for the conservation of this species. PMID:25064574

An, Hye Suck; Nam, Myung Mo; Myeong, Jeong In; An, Chul Min

2014-11-01

180

Fine-Scale Genetic Structure and Gene Dispersal in Centaurea corymbosa (Asteraceae). II. Correlated Paternity Within and Among Sibships  

PubMed Central

The fine-scale pattern of correlated paternity was characterized within a population of the narrow-endemic model plant species, Centaurea corymbosa, using microsatellites and natural progeny arrays. We used classical approaches to assess correlated mating within sibships and developed a new method based on pairwise kinship coefficients to assess correlated paternity within and among sibships in a spatio-temporal perspective. We also performed numerical simulations to assess the relative significance of different mechanisms promoting correlated paternity and to compare the statistical properties of different estimators of correlated paternity. Our new approach proved very informative to assess which factors contributed most to correlated paternity and presented good statistical properties. Within progeny arrays, we found that about one-fifth of offspring pairs were full-sibs. This level of correlated mating did not result from correlated pollen dispersal events (i.e., pollen codispersion) but rather from limited mate availability, the latter being due to limited pollen dispersal distances, the heterogeneity of pollen production among plants, phenological heterogeneity and, according to simulations, the self-incompatibility system. We point out the close connection between correlated paternity and the “TwoGener” approach recently developed to infer pollen dispersal and discuss the conditions to be met when applying the latter. PMID:15579710

Hardy, Olivier J.; Gonzalez-Martinez, Santiago C.; Colas, Bruno; Freville, Helene; Mignot, Agnes; Olivieri, Isabelle

2004-01-01

181

Characterization of microsatellite loci and repeat density in the gooseneck barnacle, Pollicipes elegans, using next generation sequencing.  

PubMed

Pollicipes elegans is a commercially important and biogeographically significant rocky-shore gooseneck barnacle found along the eastern Pacific coasts of Peru, El Salvador, and Mexico. Little is known about its reproductive biology, and no genetic resources exist despite its growing importance as a fisheries species in the region. Next generation sequencing methods can provide rapid and cost-effective development of molecular markers such as microsatellites, which can be applied to studies of paternity, parentage, and population structure in this understudied species. Here, we used Roche 454 pyrosequencing to develop microsatellite markers in P. elegans and made genomic comparisons of repeat density and repeat class frequency with other arthropods and more distantly related taxa. We identified 13 809 repeats of 1-6 bp, or a density of 9744 bp of repeat per megabase queried, which was intermediate in the range of taxonomic groups compared. Comparison of repeat class frequency distributions revealed that P. elegans was most similar to Drosophila melanogaster rather than the more closely related crustacean Daphnia pulex. We successfully isolated 15 polymorphic markers with an average of 9.4 alleles per locus and average observed and expected heterozygosities of 0.501 and 0.597, respectively. Four loci were found to be out of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, likely due to the presence of null alleles. A preliminary population genetic analysis revealed low but significant differentiation between a Peruvian (n = 47) and Mexican (n = 48) population (F(ST) = 0.039) and markedly reduced genetic diversity in Peru. These markers should facilitate future studies of paternity, parentage, and population structure in this species. PMID:24115106

Plough, Louis V; Marko, Peter B

2014-01-01

182

Population genetics and forensic efficiency of twenty-one novel microsatellite loci of Chinese Yi ethnic group.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated polymorphic distributions of allelic frequencies and forensic genetic parameters of 21 novel autosomal microsatellite loci from 110 unrelated healthy individuals of Chinese Yi ethnic group. Expected heterozygosity, power of discrimination, and polymorphic information content ranged from 0.617 to 0.812, 0.777 to 0.936 and 0.560 to 0.790. The microsatellite loci showed high forensic efficiency. The total discrimination power and cumulate probability of exclusion were 0.99999999999999999986902 and 0.999998818, respectively. Locus-by-locus allelic frequencies were compared using analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) method, and the statistically significant differences were observed between Yi group and Russian, Tujia, Kazak, Bai, Ningxia Han, Salar, Tibetan, and Uigur groups at 5, 6, 7, 7, 7, 8, 12, and 13 loci, respectively. The results of genetic distance comparisons, genetic structure analyses, and principal component analysis all indicated that the Yi group showed relatively short genetic relationships with Russian, Salar, and Bai group. The experimental results showed that the 21 loci in the multiplex system provided highly polymorphic information and forensic efficiency for forensic individual identification and paternity testing, also basic population data for population genetics and anthropological research. PMID:24174224

Zhu, Bo-Feng; Pan, Feng; Shen, Chun-Mei; Yan, Jiang-Wei; Wang, Hong-Dan; Guo, Jian-Xin; Wang, Yan-Li; Meng, Hao-Tian; Liu, Wen-Juan; Zhang, Yu-Dang; Liu, Rui; Jing, Hang; Xu, Peng

2013-12-01

183

Inherited alleles revealing an incestuous paternity.  

PubMed

(Full text is available at http://www.manu.edu.mk/prilozi). Some rape cases result in the pregnancy of the victim and if the case is not reported to the police after the act with a subsequent gynaecological examination of the girl and the taking of a vaginal swab, there is no way of connecting the rape case with the perpetrator, except by parentage determination using DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) analysis after abortion or induced delivery. In order to solve the rape case of a minor girl of 14 years which resulted with pregnancy, where a 60-year-old man was accused of the rape, DNA was extracted from blood samples from the girl and the putative assailant and from the foetus after its induced delivery. The autosomal short tandem repeats (STR) typing for 15 different loci showed differences in 6 STR loci between the putative assailant as a father and the foetus, thus excluding the tested paternity. A large number of identical loci between the mother's and the child's genotype led us to consider the possibility of incestuous paternity. Analysis of DNA samples from the girl's father and brother clarified the case as brother-sister incest. Key words: rape case, short tandem repeats (STRs) genotype, incest. PMID:21258293

Jankova-Ajanovska, R; Jakovski, Z; Janeska, B; Simjanovska, L; Duma, A

2010-12-01

184

Low paternity in the hornet Vespa crabro indicates that multiple mating by queens is derived in vespine wasps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Queen mating frequency was studied in the European hornet, Vespa crabro, by analyzing four DNA microsatellite loci in 20 workers from each of 14 nests. Queens were found to be predominantly singly\\u000a mated (9\\/14), although double (4\\/14) and triple mating (1\\/14) also occurred. For most multiply mated queens, paternity was\\u000a significantly biased with the majority male fathering on average 80%

Kevin R. Foster; Perttu Seppä; Francis L. W. Ratnieks; Peter A. Thorén

1999-01-01

185

Combining US and Brazilian microsatellite data for a meta-analysis of sheep (Ovis aries) breed diversity: facilitating the FAO Global Plan of Action for Conserving Animal Genetic Resources.  

PubMed

Microsatellites are commonly used to understand genetic diversity among livestock populations. Nevertheless, most studies have involved the processing of samples in one laboratory or with common standards across laboratories. Our objective was to identify an approach to facilitate the merger of microsatellite data for cross-country comparison of genetic resources when samples were not evaluated in a single laboratory. Eleven microsatellites were included in the analysis of 13 US and 9 Brazilian sheep breeds (N = 706). A Bayesian approach was selected and evaluated with and without a shared set of samples analyzed by each country. All markers had a posterior probability of greater than 0.5, which was higher than predicted as reasonable by the software used. Sensitivity analysis indicated no difference between results with or without shared samples. Cluster analysis showed breeds to be partitioned by functional groups of hair, meat, or wool types (K = 7 and 12 of STRUCTURE). Cross-country comparison of hair breeds indicated substantial genetic distances and within breed variability. The selected approach can facilitate the merger and analysis of microsatellite data for cross-country comparison and extend the utility of previously collected molecular markers. In addition, the result of this type of analysis can be used in new and existing conservation programs. PMID:22013019

Paiva, Samuel Rezende; Mariante, Arthur da Silva; Blackburn, Harvey D

2011-01-01

186

Development of microsatellite markers in peach [ Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] and their use in genetic diversity analysis in peach and sweet cherry ( Prunus avium L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the sequence of 41 primer pairs of microsatellites from a CT-enriched genomic library of the peach cultivar 'Merrill O'Henry'. Ten microsatellite-containing clones had sequences similar to plant coding sequences in databases and could be used as markers for known functions. For microsatellites segregating at least in one of the two Prunus F2 progenies analyzed, it was possible to

E. Dirlewanger; P. Cosson; M. Tavaud; M. Aranzana; C. Poizat; A. Zanetto; P. Arús; F. Laigret

2002-01-01

187

Multiplexed microsatellite recovery using massively parallel sequencing  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Conservation and management of natural populations requires accurate and inexpensive genotyping methods. Traditional microsatellite, or simple sequence repeat (SSR), marker analysis remains a popular genotyping method because of the comparatively low cost of marker development, ease of analysis and high power of genotype discrimination. With the availability of massively parallel sequencing (MPS), it is now possible to sequence microsatellite-enriched genomic libraries in multiplex pools. To test this approach, we prepared seven microsatellite-enriched, barcoded genomic libraries from diverse taxa (two conifer trees, five birds) and sequenced these on one lane of the Illumina Genome Analyzer using paired-end 80-bp reads. In this experiment, we screened 6.1 million sequences and identified 356958 unique microreads that contained di- or trinucleotide microsatellites. Examination of four species shows that our conversion rate from raw sequences to polymorphic markers compares favourably to Sanger- and 454-based methods. The advantage of multiplexed MPS is that the staggering capacity of modern microread sequencing is spread across many libraries; this reduces sample preparation and sequencing costs to less than $400 (USD) per species. This price is sufficiently low that microsatellite libraries could be prepared and sequenced for all 1373 organisms listed as 'threatened' and 'endangered' in the United States for under $0.5M (USD).

Jennings, T.N.; Knaus, B.J.; Mullins, T.D.; Haig, S.M.; Cronn, R.C.

2011-01-01

188

Density drives polyandry and relatedness influences paternal success in the Pacific gooseneck barnacle, Pollicipes elegans  

PubMed Central

Background Polyandry is a common mating strategy in animals, increasing female fitness through direct (material) and indirect (genetic) benefits. Most theories about the benefits of polyandry come from studies of terrestrial animals, which have relatively complex mating systems and behaviors; less is known about the potential benefits of polyandry in sessile marine animals, for which potential mates may be scarce and females have less control over pre-copulatory mate choice. Here, we used microsatellite markers to examine multiple paternity in natural aggregations of the Pacific gooseneck barnacle Pollicipes elegans, testing the effect of density on paternity and mate relatedness on male reproductive success. Results We found that multiple paternity was very common (79% of broods), with up to five fathers contributing to a brood, though power was relatively low to detect more than four fathers. Density had a significant and positive linear effect on the number of fathers siring a brood, though this relationship leveled off at high numbers of fathers, which may reflect a lack of power and/or an upper limit to polyandry in this species. Significant skew in male reproductive contribution in multiply-sired broods was observed and we found a positive and significant relationship between the proportion of offspring sired and the genetic similarity between mates, suggesting that genetic compatibility may influence reproductive success in this species. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study to show high levels of multiple paternity in a barnacle, and overall, patterns of paternity in P. elegans appear to be driven primarily by mate availability. Evidence of paternity bias for males with higher relatedness suggests some form of post-copulatory sexual selection is taking place, but more work is needed to determine whether it operates during or post-fertilization. Overall, our results suggest that while polyandry in P. elegans is driven by mate availability, it may also provide a mechanism for females to ensure fertilization by compatible gametes and increase reproductive success in this sessile species. PMID:24739102

2014-01-01

189

Microsatellite isolation and marker development in carrot - genomic distribution, linkage mapping, genetic diversity analysis and marker transferability across Apiaceae  

PubMed Central

Background The Apiaceae family includes several vegetable and spice crop species among which carrot is the most economically important member, with ~21 million tons produced yearly worldwide. Despite its importance, molecular resources in this species are relatively underdeveloped. The availability of informative, polymorphic, and robust PCR-based markers, such as microsatellites (or SSRs), will facilitate genetics and breeding of carrot and other Apiaceae, including integration of linkage maps, tagging of phenotypic traits and assisting positional gene cloning. Thus, with the purpose of isolating carrot microsatellites, two different strategies were used; a hybridization-based library enrichment for SSRs, and bioinformatic mining of SSRs in BAC-end sequence and EST sequence databases. This work reports on the development of 300 carrot SSR markers and their characterization at various levels. Results Evaluation of microsatellites isolated from both DNA sources in subsets of 7 carrot F2 mapping populations revealed that SSRs from the hybridization-based method were longer, had more repeat units and were more polymorphic than SSRs isolated by sequence search. Overall, 196 SSRs (65.1%) were polymorphic in at least one mapping population, and the percentage of polymophic SSRs across F2 populations ranged from 17.8 to 24.7. Polymorphic markers in one family were evaluated in the entire F2, allowing the genetic mapping of 55 SSRs (38 codominant) onto the carrot reference map. The SSR loci were distributed throughout all 9 carrot linkage groups (LGs), with 2 to 9 SSRs/LG. In addition, SSR evaluations in carrot-related taxa indicated that a significant fraction of the carrot SSRs transfer successfully across Apiaceae, with heterologous amplification success rate decreasing with the target-species evolutionary distance from carrot. SSR diversity evaluated in a collection of 65 D. carota accessions revealed a high level of polymorphism for these selected loci, with an average of 19 alleles/locus and 0.84 expected heterozygosity. Conclusions The addition of 55 SSRs to the carrot map, together with marker characterizations in six other mapping populations, will facilitate future comparative mapping studies and integration of carrot maps. The markers developed herein will be a valuable resource for assisting breeding, genetic, diversity, and genomic studies of carrot and other Apiaceae. PMID:21806822

2011-01-01

190

Mixed mating in androdioecious Mercurialis annua inferred using progeny arrays and diploid-acting microsatellite loci in a hexaploid background  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The frequency at which males can be maintained with hermaphrodites in androdioecious populations is predicted to depend on the selfing rate, because self-fertilization by hermaphrodites reduces prospective siring opportunities for males. In particular, high selfing rates by hermaphrodites are expected to exclude males from a population. Here, the first estimates are provided of the mating system from two wild hexaploid populations of the androdioecious European wind-pollinated plant M. annua with contrasting male frequencies. Methods Four diploid microsatellite loci were used to genotype 19–20 progeny arrays from two populations of M. annua, one with males and one without. Mating-system parameters were estimated using the program MLTR. Key Results Both populations had similar, intermediate outcrossing rates (tm = 0·64 and 0·52 for the population with and without males, respectively). The population without males showed a lower level of correlated paternity and biparental inbreeding and higher allelic richness and gene diversity than the population with males. Conclusions The results demonstrate the utility of new diploid microsatellite loci for mating system analysis in a hexaploid plant. It would appear that androdioecious M. annua has a mixed-mating system in the wild, an uncommon finding for wind-pollinated species. This study sets a foundation for future research to assess the relative importance of the sexual system, plant-density variation and stochastic processes for the regulation of male frequencies in M. annua over space and time. PMID:21320876

Korbecka, Grazyna; Hamilton, Alastair; Pannell, John R.

2011-01-01

191

Multiple paternity in the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae).  

PubMed

The reproductive strategies and variation in reproductive success of ticks are poorly understood. We determined variation in multiple paternity in the American dog tick Dermancentor variabilis . In total, 48 blood-engorged female ticks and 22 male companion ticks were collected from 13 raccoon ( Procyon lotor ) hosts. In the laboratory, 56.3% of blood-engorged females laid eggs, of which 37.0% hatched or showed signs of development. We examined the presence of multiple paternity in the ensuing clutches by genotyping groups of eggs and larvae at 5 microsatellite loci and subtracting the known maternal alleles, thereby identifying male-contributed alleles. Seventy-five percent of the clutches presented multiple paternity, with a mode of 2 fathers siring the clutch. Males associated with the females on the host always sired some offspring. In 1 case, a male was the sire of clutches derived from 2 females, indicating both polygyny and polyandry may occur for this species. These results, combined with those of several other recent studies, suggest that multiple paternity might be frequent for ixodid ticks. PMID:22257158

Ruiz-López, María José; Chaskelson, Saskia; Gompper, Matthew E; Eggert, Lori S

2012-06-01

192

Indisputable double paternity in dizygous twins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To report a case of heteropaternal superfecundation.Design: Case report.Setting: University paternity laboratory.Patient(s): Father, mother, and a set of twins.Intervention(s): Blood typing conventional markers, as well as polymerase chain reaction loci and restriction fragment length polymorphism loci of DNA.Main Outcome Measure(s): Heteropaternal superfecundation was demonstrated after paternity investigation.Result(s): The probability of paternity for twin 1 was 99.9999998%, whereas that for

Eloy Girela; Jose A. Lorente; J. Carlos Alvarez; Maria D. Rodrigo; Miguel Lorente; Enrique Villanueva

1997-01-01

193

Analysis of a diverse global Pisum sp. collection and comparison to a Chinese local P. sativum collection with microsatellite markers.  

PubMed

Twenty-one informative microsatellite loci were used to assess and compare the genetic diversity among Pisum genotypes sourced from within and outside China. The Chinese germplasm comprised 1243 P. sativum genotypes from 28 provinces and this was compared to 774 P. sativum genotypes that represented a globally diverse germplasm collection, as well as 103 genotypes from related Pisum species. The Chinese P. sativum germplasm was found to contain genotypes genetically distinct from the global gene pool sourced outside China. The Chinese spring type genotypes were separate from the global gene pool and from the other main Chinese gene pool of winter types. The distinct Chinese spring gene pool comprised genotypes from Inner Mongolia and Sha'anxi provinces, with those from Sha'anxi showing the greatest diversity. The other main gene pool within China included both spring types from other northern provinces and winter types from central and southern China, plus some accessions from Inner Mongolia and Sha'anxi. A core collection of Chinese landraces chosen to represent molecular diversity was compared both to the wider Chinese collection and to a geographically diverse core collection of Chinese landraces. The average gene diversity and allelic richness per locus of both the micro-satellite based core and the wider collection were similar, and greater than the geographically diverse core. The genetic diversity of P. sativum within China appears to be quite different to that detected in the global gene pool, including the presence of several rare alleles, and may be a useful source of allelic variation for both major gene and quantitative traits. PMID:18815768

Zong, Xuxiao; Redden, Robert J; Liu, Qingchang; Wang, Shumin; Guan, Jianping; Liu, Jin; Xu, Yanhong; Liu, Xiuju; Gu, Jing; Yan, Long; Ades, Peter; Ford, Rebecca

2009-01-01

194

Paternal Psychiatric Symptoms and Maladaptive Paternal Behavior in the Home during the Child Rearing Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from the Children in the Community Study, a community-based longitudinal study were used to investigate associations between paternal psychiatric disorders and child-rearing behaviors. Paternal psychiatric symptoms and behavior in the home were assessed among 782 families during the childhood and adolescence of the offspring. Paternal…

Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Cohen, Patricia; Kasen, Stephanie; Brook, Judith S.

2004-01-01

195

Microsatellite analysis of Rosa damascena Mill. accessions reveals genetic similarity between genotypes used for rose oil production and old Damask rose varieties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Damask roses are grown in several European and Asiatic countries for rose oil production. Twenty-six oil-bearing Rosa damascena Mill. accessions and 13 garden Damask roses were assayed by molecular markers. Microsatellite genotyping demonstrated that R. damascena Mill. accessions from Bulgaria, Iran, and India and old European Damask rose varieties possess identical microsatellite profiles, suggesting a common origin. At the same

K. Rusanov; N. Kovacheva; B. J. Vosman; L. Zhang; S. Rajapakse; A. Atanassov; I. Atanassov

2005-01-01

196

Paternal inheritance of the primary sex ratio in a copepod.  

PubMed

Uniparentally inherited genetic elements are under strong selection to manipulate sex determination in their host and shift the host sex ratio towards the transmitting sex. For any sex-ratio trait, lineage analysis and quantitative genetics are important tools for characterizing the mode of inheritance (biparental vs. maternal vs. paternal) thereby narrowing the field of possible sex-determining mechanisms (e.g. polygenic, sex chromosomes with meiotic drive, cytoplasmic microorganisms). The primary sex ratio of the harpacticoid copepod, Tigriopus californicus is often male-biased and is highly variable among full sib families. We found that this extra-binomial variation for the primary sex ratio is paternally but not maternally transmitted in T. californicus. Paternal transmission of the primary sex ratio has been well documented in the haplo-diploid hymenoptera but is relatively rare in diplo-diploid organisms. If the sex-ratio trait is paternally transmitted in other closely related harpacticoid copepods it would explain why male biased primary sex ratios are so common in this group. PMID:16135125

Voordouw, M J; Robinson, H E; Anholt, B R

2005-09-01

197

Original article Microsatellite markers  

E-print Network

Original article Microsatellite markers and management of brown trout Salmo trutta fario, Salmo trutta fario, dans le sud-ouest de la France. La truite commune peu- plant l'ouest des Pyrénées fish, and especially the brown trout (Salmo trutta fario L.), present some interesting biological

Boyer, Edmond

198

Paternal isodisomy for chromosome 7 and normal growth and development in a patient with congenital chloride diarrhea  

SciTech Connect

Uniparental disomy (UPD) has been reported in an increasing number of patients, occasionally ascertained because of concomitant autosomal recessive disorders. In some cases, additional signs such as growth alteration, mental retardation or minor anomalies are present, suggesting an imprinting effect. For maternal chromosome 7, UPD has been described in three patients with recessive disorders. Severe growth retardation diagnosed in all these patients has been explained by the effect of imprinting of growth related genes on maternal chromosome 7. No cases of paternally derived disomy from chromosome 7 were previously known. Here we report paternal isodisomy for chromosome 7 and normal growth in a patient with a recessive disorder, congenital chloride diarrhea (CLD; MIM 214700). Ten informative microsatellite markers on chromosome 7 demonstrated that the proband did not have any maternal contribution to her genotype for that chromosome. Maternal and paternal alleles could not be distinguished for another 10 markers tested for chromosome 7, but the proband was always homozygous. As most uniparental paternal disomies appear to have a postzygotic origin, the primary event might have been a maternal meiotic nondisjunction. A thorough clinical evaluation with a view to additional signs of imprinted genes localized in chromosome 7 was performed. The physical status and laboratory tests were normal except for a mild high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss. As the patient has normal stature, it is likely that the paternal chromosome 7 lacks the suggested maternal imprinting effect on growth. The origin of the hearing loss remains speculative.

Hoeglund, P.; de la Chapelle, A.; Kere, J. [Univ. of Helsinki, (Finland)] [and others

1994-09-01

199

Paternal inheritance in mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mealybugs have a haplodiploid reproduction system, with paternal genome elimination (PGE); the males are diploid soon after fertilization, but during embryogenesis, the male paternal set of chromosomes becomes heterochromatic (HC) and therefore inactive. Previous studies have suggested that paternal genes can be passed on from mealybug males to their sons, but not necessarily by any son, to the next generation. We employed crosses between two mealybug species— Planococcus ficus (Signoret) and Planococcus citri (Risso)—and between two populations of P. ficus, which differ in their mode of pheromone attraction, in order to demonstrate paternal inheritance from males to F2 through F1 male hybrids. Two traits were monitored through three generations: mode of male pheromone attraction (pherotype) and sequences of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) gene segment (genotype). Our results demonstrate that paternal inheritance in mealybugs can occur from males to their F2 offspring, through F1 males (paternal line). F2 backcrossed hybrid males expressed paternal pherotypes and ITS2 genotypes although their mother originated through a maternal population. Further results revealed other, hitherto unknown, aspects of inheritance in mealybugs, such as that hybridization between the two species caused absence of paternal traits in F2 hybrid females produced by F1 hybrid females. Furthermore, hybridization between the two species raised the question of whether unattracted males have any role in the interactions between P. ficus and P. citri.

Kol-Maimon, Hofit; Mendel, Zvi; Franco, José Carlos; Ghanim, Murad

2014-10-01

200

Risk Factors for Paternal Physical Child Abuse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study uses the developmental-ecological framework to examine a comprehensive set of paternal factors hypothesized to be linked to risk for paternal child abuse (PCA) among a diverse sample of fathers. Attention was given to fathers' marital status and their race/ethnicity (White, African American, and Hispanic). Methods: Interviews…

Lee, Shawna J.; Guterman, Neil B.; Lee, Yookyong

2008-01-01

201

Paternal inheritance in mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae).  

PubMed

Mealybugs have a haplodiploid reproduction system, with paternal genome elimination (PGE); the males are diploid soon after fertilization, but during embryogenesis, the male paternal set of chromosomes becomes heterochromatic (HC) and therefore inactive. Previous studies have suggested that paternal genes can be passed on from mealybug males to their sons, but not necessarily by any son, to the next generation. We employed crosses between two mealybug species-Planococcus ficus (Signoret) and Planococcus citri (Risso)-and between two populations of P. ficus, which differ in their mode of pheromone attraction, in order to demonstrate paternal inheritance from males to F2 through F1 male hybrids. Two traits were monitored through three generations: mode of male pheromone attraction (pherotype) and sequences of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) gene segment (genotype). Our results demonstrate that paternal inheritance in mealybugs can occur from males to their F2 offspring, through F1 males (paternal line). F2 backcrossed hybrid males expressed paternal pherotypes and ITS2 genotypes although their mother originated through a maternal population. Further results revealed other, hitherto unknown, aspects of inheritance in mealybugs, such as that hybridization between the two species caused absence of paternal traits in F2 hybrid females produced by F1 hybrid females. Furthermore, hybridization between the two species raised the question of whether unattracted males have any role in the interactions between P. ficus and P. citri. PMID:25091548

Kol-Maimon, Hofit; Mendel, Zvi; Franco, José Carlos; Ghanim, Murad

2014-10-01

202

Paternity identification in twins with different fathers.  

PubMed

If a female has sexual intercourse with two males at short intervals within the same ovulatory period, superfecundation may occur. This article reports two cases of paternity identification in twins. The results showed that each twin had come from a different father. Thus, great attention should be paid to such a situation when the twin paternity identification is asked for. PMID:8064269

Lu, H L; Wang, C X; Wu, F Q; Li, J J

1994-07-01

203

Teenage Paternity, Child Support, and Crime.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the relationship between teenage premarital paternity, child support enforcement, and delinquency. The non-random data were gathered from the Marian County, Indiana District Attorney's Office and Juvenile Court. Suggests that the early establishment of paternity should be pursued and that child support enforcement strategies should…

Pirog-Good, Maureen A.

1988-01-01

204

Beyond traditional paternity and identification cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper extends on the traditional methodology used to quantify DNA evidence in paternity or identification cases. By extending we imply that there are more than two alternatives to choose between. In a standard paternity case the two competing explanations H1: “John Doe is the father of the child” and H2: “A random man is the father of the child”,

T. Egeland; P. F. Mostad; B. Mevåg; M. Stenersen

2000-01-01

205

Development and characterization of new microsatellites for Eugenia dysenterica DC (Myrtaceae).  

PubMed

Microsatellite markers were developed for population genetic analyses of the Neotropical tree Eugenia dysenterica DC (Myrtaceae), after construction of a shotgun genomic library for microsatellite discovery. Nine primers were designed, of which 5 yielded amplified product. These primers were polymorphic for 97 individuals collected in 3 distinct localities. The number of alleles per locus (primer) ranged from 3 to 11 and expected heterozygosities varied from 0.309 to 0.884. The probability of locus identity was ~1.88 x 10(-4) and the probability of paternity exclusion was ~0.9367. The 5 microsatellite primer pairs may be suitable for population genetic studies such as parentage and fine-scale genetic analyses of this species. PMID:23420405

Telles, M P C; Silva, J B; Resende, L V; Vianello, R P; Chaves, L J; Soares, T N; Collevatti, R G

2013-01-01

206

Non-equivalent contributions of maternal and paternal genomes to early plant embryogenesis.  

PubMed

Zygotic genome activation in metazoans typically occurs several hours to a day after fertilization, and thus maternal RNAs and proteins drive early animal embryo development. In plants, despite several molecular studies of post-fertilization transcriptional activation, the timing of zygotic genome activation remains a matter of debate. For example, two recent reports that used different hybrid ecotype combinations for RNA sequence profiling of early Arabidopsis embryo transcriptomes came to divergent conclusions. One identified paternal contributions that varied by gene, but with overall maternal dominance, while the other found that the maternal and paternal genomes are transcriptionally equivalent. Here we assess paternal gene activation functionally in an isogenic background, by performing a large-scale genetic analysis of 49 EMBRYO DEFECTIVE genes and testing the ability of wild-type paternal alleles to complement phenotypes conditioned by mutant maternal alleles. Our results demonstrate that wild-type paternal alleles for nine of these genes are completely functional 2 days after pollination, with the remaining 40 genes showing partial activity beginning at 2, 3 or 5 days after pollination. Using our functional assay, we also demonstrate that different hybrid combinations exhibit significant variation in paternal allele activation, reconciling the apparently contradictory results of previous transcriptional studies. The variation in timing of gene function that we observe confirms that paternal genome activation does not occur in one early discrete step, provides large-scale functional evidence that maternal and paternal genomes make non-equivalent contributions to early plant embryogenesis, and uncovers an unexpectedly profound effect of hybrid genetic backgrounds on paternal gene activity. PMID:25209660

Del Toro-De León, Gerardo; García-Aguilar, Marcelina; Gillmor, C Stewart

2014-10-30

207

Microsatellites reveal heterosis in red deer.  

PubMed Central

The fitness consequences of inbreeding and outbreeding are poorly understood in natural populations. We explore two microsatellite-based variables, individual heterozygosity (likely to correlate with recent inbreeding) and a new individual-specific internal distance measure, mean d2 (focusing on events deeper in the pedigree), in relation to two measures of fitness expressed early in life, birth weight and neonatal survival, in 670 red deer calves (Cervus elaphus) born on the Isle of Rum between 1982 and 1996. For comparison, we also analyse inbreeding coefficients derived from pedigrees in which paternity was inferred by molecular methods. Only 14 out of 231 calves (6.1%) had non-zero inbreeding coefficients, and neither inbreeding coefficient nor individual heterozygosity was consistently related to birth weight or neonatal survival. However, mean d2 was consistently related to both fitness measures. Low mean d2 was associated with low birth weight, especially following cold Aprils, in which foetal growth is reduced. Low mean d2 was also associated with low neonatal survival, but this effect was probably mediated by birth weight because fitting birth weight to the neonatal survival model displaced mean d2 as an explanatory variable. We conclude that in the deer population fitness measures expressed early in life do not show evidence of inbreeding depression, but they do show evidence of heterosis, possibly as a result of population mixing. We also demonstrate the practical problems of estimating inbreeding via pedigrees compared with a direct marker-based estimate of individual heterozygosity. We suggest that, together, individual heterozygosity and mean d2, estimated using microsatellites, are useful tools for exploring inbreeding and outbreeding in natural population. PMID:9569667

Coulson, T N; Pemberton, J M; Albon, S D; Beaumont, M; Marshall, T C; Slate, J; Guinness, F E; Clutton-Brock, T H

1998-01-01

208

Low paternity skew and the influence of maternal kin in an egalitarian, patrilocal primate  

PubMed Central

Levels of reproductive skew vary in wild primates living in multimale groups depending on the degree to which high-ranking males monopolize access to females. Still, the factors affecting paternity in egalitarian societies remain unexplored. We combine unique behavioral, life history, and genetic data to evaluate the distribution of paternity in the northern muriqui (Brachyteles hypoxanthus), a species known for its affiliative, nonhierarchical relationships. We genotyped 67 individuals (22 infants born over a 3-y period, their 21 mothers, and all 24 possible sires) at 17 microsatellite marker loci and assigned paternity to all infants. None of the 13 fathers were close maternal relatives of females with which they sired infants, and the most successful male sired a much lower percentage of infants (18%) than reported for the most successful males in other species. Our findings of inbreeding avoidance and low male reproductive skew are consistent with the muriqui's observed social and sexual behavior, but the long delay (?2.08 y) between the onset of male sexual behavior and the age at which males first sire young is unexpected. The allocation of paternity implicates individual male life histories and access to maternal kin as key factors influencing variation in paternal—and grandmaternal—fitness. The apparent importance of lifelong maternal investment in coresident sons resonates with other recent examinations of maternal influences on offspring reproduction. This importance also extends the implications of the “grandmother hypothesis” in human evolution to include the possible influence of mothers and other maternal kin on male reproductive success in patrilocal societies. PMID:22065786

Strier, Karen B.; Chaves, Paulo B.; Mendes, Sergio L.; Fagundes, Valeria; Di Fiore, Anthony

2011-01-01

209

No evidence of extra?pair paternity in a colonial seabird, the common tern (Sterna hirundo)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of extra?pair paternity and egg dumping was investigated in a colony of common terns (Sterna hirundo), a colonial seabird, in the Venetian lagoon. Ten families were sampled and multilocus DNA fingerprinting analysis was performed. No indication of extra?pair paternity or egg dumping was found in any of the families. The results are discussed in the light of life?history

Matteo Griggio; Giuliano Matessi; Guglielmo Marin

2004-01-01

210

Transmission genetics of pancreatic acinar atrophy in the German Shepherd Dog and development of microsatellite DNA-based tools for canine forensics and linkage analysis  

E-print Network

analyses in the study of canine hereditary diseases. This was achieved through the development of 1) multiplexing strategies for the MSS-1, 2) a multiplex of microsatellite markers for use in canine forensics and parentage assays and 3) chromosome...

Clark, Leigh Anne

2004-09-30

211

Monosomy 1p36.31-33{yields}pter due to a paternal reciprocal translocation: Prognostic significance of FISH analysis  

SciTech Connect

A rare monosomy 1p36.31-33{r_arrow}pter was found in a child with physical anomalies, psycho-motor retardation, and seizures. Cytogenetic investigation suggested an unbalanced translocation between 1p and an acrocentric chromosome, but the rearrangement was difficult to assess accurately using conventional chromosome banding techniques. The half-cryptic translocation was further characterized using fluorescence in situ hybridization, and the aberrant chromosome 1 was shown to be a derivate of a paternal reciprocal translocation t(1;15)(p36.31-33;p11.2-12). The breakpoints on chromosome 1 and 15 were defined in detail using locus specific probes. The rearrangement did not include the region on chromosome 1p which previously has been suggested to predispose to the development of neuroblastoma in a case with a constitutional translocation. At 3 6/12 years, the patient has no clinical signs of this disease, which illustrates the prognostic significance of this investigation. 30 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Blennow, E.; Bui, The-Hung; Wallin, A. [Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden)] [and others] [Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); and others

1996-10-02

212

Paternity analysis-based inference of pollen dispersal patterns, male fecundity variation, and influence of flowering tree density and general flowering magnitude in two dipterocarp species  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Knowledge of pollen dispersal patterns and variation of fecundity is essential to understanding plant evolutionary processes and to formulating strategies to conserve forest genetic resources. Nevertheless, the pollen dispersal pattern of dipterocarp, main canopy tree species in palaeo-tropical forest remains unclear, and flowering intensity variation in the field suggests heterogeneity of fecundity. Methods Pollen dispersal patterns and male fecundity variation of Shorea leprosula and Shorea parvifolia ssp. parvifolia on Peninsular Malaysian were investigated during two general flowering seasons (2001 and 2002), using a neighbourhood model modified by including terms accounting for variation in male fecundity among individual trees to express heterogeneity in flowering. Key Results The pollen dispersal patterns of the two dipterocarp species were affected by differences in conspecific tree flowering density, and reductions in conspecific tree flowering density led to an increased selfing rate. Active pollen dispersal and a larger number of effective paternal parents were observed for both species in the season of greater magnitude of general flowering (2002). Conclusions The magnitude of general flowering, male fecundity variation, and distance between pollen donors and mother trees should be taken into account when attempting to predict the effects of management practices on the self-fertilization and genetic structure of key tree species in tropical forest, and also the sustainability of possible management strategies, especially selective logging regimes. PMID:19808773

Tani, Naoki; Tsumura, Yoshihiko; Kado, Tomoyuki; Taguchi, Yuriko; Lee, Soon Leong; Muhammad, Norwati; Ng, Kevin Kit Siong; Numata, Shinya; Nishimura, Sen; Konuma, Akihiro; Okuda, Toshinori

2009-01-01

213

Phylogeographic sympatry and isolation of the Eurasian badgers (Meles, Mustelidae, Carnivora): Implications for an alternative analysis using maternally as well as paternally inherited genes.  

PubMed

In the present study, to further understand the phylogenetic relationships among the Eurasian badgers (Meles, Mustelidae, Carnivora), which are distributed widely in the Palearctic, partial sequences of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region (539-545 base-pairs) as a maternal genetic marker, and the sex-determining region on the Y-chromosome gene (SRY: 1052-1058 base-pairs), as a paternal genetic marker, were examined. The present study revealed ten SRY haplotypes from 47 males of 112 individuals of the Eurasian Continent and Japan. In addition, 39 mtDNA haplotypes were identified from those animals. From the phylogeography of both the uniparentally inherited genes, four lineages were recognized as Japanese, eastern Eurasian, Caucasian, and western Eurasian. The distribution patterns of the mtDNA lineages showed the existence of a sympatric zone between the eastern and western Eurasian lineages around the Volga River in western Russia. Furthermore, the present study suggested that in the Japanese badgers, the larger genetic differentiation of the Shikoku population was attributable to geographic history in the Japanese islands. PMID:21466348

Tashima, Sara; Kaneko, Yayoi; Anezaki, Tomoko; Baba, Minoru; Yachimori, Shuuji; Abramov, Alexei V; Saveljev, Alexander P; Masuda, Ryuichi

2011-04-01

214

Non-Density Dependent Pollen Dispersal of Shorea maxwelliana (Dipterocarpaceae) Revealed by a Bayesian Mating Model Based on Paternity Analysis in Two Synchronized Flowering Seasons  

PubMed Central

Pollinator syndrome is one of the most important determinants regulating pollen dispersal in tropical tree species. It has been widely accepted that the reproduction of tropical forest species, especially dipterocarps that rely on insects with weak flight for their pollination, is positively density-dependent. However differences in pollinator syndrome should affect pollen dispersal patterns and, consequently, influence genetic diversity via the mating process. We examined the pollen dispersal pattern and mating system of Shorea maxwelliana, the flowers of which are larger than those of Shorea species belonging to section Mutica which are thought to be pollinated by thrips (weak flyers). A Bayesian mating model based on the paternity of seeds collected from mother trees during sporadic and mass flowering events revealed that the estimated pollen dispersal kernel and average pollen dispersal distance were similar for both flowering events. This evidence suggests that the putative pollinators – small beetles and weevils – effectively contribute to pollen dispersal and help to maintain a high outcrossing rate even during sporadic flowering events. However, the reduction in pollen donors during a sporadic event results in a reduction in effective pollen donors, which should lead to lower genetic diversity in the next generation derived from seeds produced during such an event. Although sporadic flowering has been considered less effective for outcrossing in Shorea species that depend on thrips for their pollination, effective pollen dispersal by the small beetles and weevils ensures outcrossing during periods of low flowering tree density, as occurs in a sporadic flowering event. PMID:24391712

Masuda, Shinsuke; Tani, Naoki; Ueno, Saneyoshi; Lee, Soon Leong; Muhammad, Norwati; Kondo, Toshiaki; Numata, Shinya; Tsumura, Yoshihiko

2013-01-01

215

The Taranis microsatellite Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TARANIS (Tool for the Analysis of RAdiations from lightNIngs and Sprites) is a microsatellite project of the CNES Myriade program. TARANIS is dedicated to the investigation of impulsive transfers of energy between the neutral atmosphere and the ionospheric and magnetospheric plasmas. The main objective is the determination of the mechanisms at the origin of such transitory processes with a multi-instrument payload dedicated to the measurements of all expected wave and particle emissions. The science objectives include: characterization of TLEs (Transient Luminous Events including sprites, jets elves and halos) and TGFs (Terrestrial Gamma ray Flashes), global mapping and occurrence rates, relation of TLEs, TGFs, associated electromagnetic emissions and high energy electrons in order to determine the source mechanisms, determination of triggering factors and formation conditions, characterization of the parent lightning that cause TLEs and TGFs and precipitate electrons, investigation of Wave Plasma Interactions leading to precipitated (LEP) and accelerated (runaway) electrons, effects on the radiationbelt of low altitude sources, tracking of the variability of the radiation belts from electron and wave measurements, effects on thermospheric parameters (ionisation rate, NOx, O3). The satellite observations will be correlated with observations at ground and by balloon. The project is multidisciplinary, based on different kind of sensors including: two micro cameras and three photometers (NIR to UV) looking at the nadir, X and gamma detectors (20 keV - 10 MeV), energetic electrons detectors (70 keV - 4 MeV) and electric and magnetic sensors in a wide frequency range (1 Hz - 30 MHz for the electric sensors). The orbit will be polar sun-synchronous at 650 km altitude, with a slow drift of the order of 2 local hours per year. The scientific payload weight is 30 kg, the power used by the scientific instrumentation is about 35 W, data of 'event' and 'survey' modes will be stored on a mass memory of 16 Gbits and transmitted by X link, to the CNES control station at Toulouse (F). TARANIS, presently in phase B, could be launched in 2011.

Blanc, Elisabeth; Lefeuvre, Francois; Pincon, Jean-Louis

216

Paternal environmental exposures and gene expression during spermatogenesis: research review to research framework.  

PubMed

The primary objective is to review Dioxin toxicity, the potential impact on spermatogenesis, what is known and unknown about paternal exposures, and the potential mechanisms whereby paternal preconception exposures result in neural tube defects (NTD). The secondary goal is to suggest a versatile research framework utilizing gene expression microarray to evaluate the impact of acute, intermittent, and chronic paternal exposures to environmental agents on gene expression during the stages of spermatogenesis. There are multiple barriers to establishing a paradigm whereby paternal environmental exposures result in adverse birth outcomes. Microarray expression studies are unique in their ability to detect transcription dysregulation, thereby facilitating the identification of molecular and developmental pathways through hierarchical and pathway analysis. To date there are no studies of gene expression during spermatogenesis following exposure to environmental agents. PMID:18546338

Hansen, Deborah A

2008-06-01

217

On paternity determination from multilocus DNA profiles.  

PubMed

Various approaches have been worked out to calculate the probability of paternity from DNA multilocus profiles. Despite promising results, the application and practicability of these approaches are often restricted (due to, e.g., the equality assumption of the a priori probabilities by using Bayes' theorem, no allowance of mutations, etc). Here we present two methods for paternity determination, one of which is an extension of the well-known procedure of Evett et al. J. Forens. Sci. Soc. 1988, 28, 249-254. These methods depend on fewer assumptions and therefore may be applied to a wide spectrum of disputed paternity cases. PMID:2040268

Yassouridis, A; Epplen, J T

1991-01-01

218

Microsatellites in the genome of the edible mushroom, Volvariella volvacea.  

PubMed

Using bioinformatics software and database, we have characterized the microsatellite pattern in the V. volvacea genome and compared it with microsatellite patterns found in the genomes of four other edible fungi: Coprinopsis cinerea, Schizophyllum commune, Agaricus bisporus, and Pleurotus ostreatus. A total of 1346 microsatellites have been identified, with mono-nucleotides being the most frequent motif. The relative abundance of microsatellites was lower in coding regions with 21?No./Mb. However, the microsatellites in the V. volvacea gene models showed a greater tendency to be located in the CDS regions. There was also a higher preponderance of trinucleotide repeats, especially in the kinase genes, which implied a possible role in phenotypic variation. Among the five fungal genomes, microsatellite abundance appeared to be unrelated to genome size. Furthermore, the short motifs (mono- to tri-nucleotides) outnumbered other categories although these differed in proportion. Data analysis indicated a possible relationship between the most frequent microsatellite types and the genetic distance between the five fungal genomes. PMID:24575404

Wang, Ying; Chen, Mingjie; Wang, Hong; Wang, Jing-Fang; Bao, Dapeng

2014-01-01

219

Paternal genotype reconstruction reveals multiple paternity and sex ratios in a breeding population of leatherback turtles ( Dermochelys coriacea )  

Microsoft Academic Search

When animals are difficult to observe while breeding, insights into the mating system may be gained by using molecular techniques.\\u000a Patterns of extra-pair copulation, multiple paternity and parental genotype analysis may elucidate population characteristics\\u000a that help improve knowledge of life history while informing management decisions. During the course of a long-term study of\\u000a leatherback turtles, we assessed the level of

Kelly R. StewartPeter; Peter H. Dutton

2011-01-01

220

A Test for Concordance Between the Multilocus Genealogies of Genes and Microsatellites in the Pathogenic Fungus Coccidioides immitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uncovering the correct phylogeny of closely related species requires analysis of multiple gene genealogies or, alternatively, genealogies inferred from the multiple alleles found at highly polymorphic loci, such as microsatellites. However, a concern in using microsatellites is that constraints on allele sizes may occur, resulting in homoplasious distributions of alleles, leading to incorrect phylogenies. Seven microsatellites from the pathogenic fungus

M. C. Fisher; G. Koenig; T. J. White; J. W. Taylor

221

Molecular heterogeneity of autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia: analysis of flanking microsatellites of the spinocerebellar ataxia 1 locus in a northern European family unequivocally demonstrates non-linkage.  

PubMed

This study addresses the question whether the different forms of autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia (ADCA) are related to different ethnic/geographical regions in Europe. One mutation in families originating from Holland, Prussia and Italy has previously been localized to chromosome 6p (SCA1 locus), whereas the mutation in families of Iberic origin has been excluded from chromosome 6p. In a Danish five-generation pedigree with ADCA and in which previous HLA-serotyping had shown inconclusive linkage results, the present study shows unequivocal exclusion from the SCA1 locus, firstly through the use of the new, highly informative microsatellites D6S89 and D6S109, which closely flank the SCA1 locus, and secondly through the manifestation of disease in four pedigree members previously scored as unaffected. Additional molecular genetic analysis of the HLA DRbeta and F13A polymorphisms also argue against a cluster of ADCA genes on chromosome 6p. Since this study demonstrates the existence of non-SCA1 families and therefore heterogeneity in the North-European population, molecular family counselling remains restricted to the few known SCA1 families. PMID:8099059

Lunkes, A; Gispert, S; Enczmann, J; Auburger, G

1993-05-01

222

Paternal isodisomy of chromosome 6 in association with a maternal supernumerary marker chromosome (6)  

SciTech Connect

Uniparental disomy may arise by a number of different mechanisms of aneuploidy correction. A population that has been identified as being at increased risk of aneuploidy are those individuals bearing supernumerary marker chromosomes (SMCs). There have been a number of cases reported of trisomy 21 in association with bi-satellited marker chromosomes have described two individuals with small inv dup (15) markers. One had paternal isodisomy of chromosome 15 and Angelman syndrome. The other had maternal heterodisomy (15) and Prader-Willi syndrome. At the Wessex Regional Genetics Laboratory we have conducted a search for uniparental disomy of the normal homologues of the chromosomes from which SMCs originated. Our study population consists of 39 probands with SMCs originating from a number of different autosomes, including 17 with SMCs of chromosome 15 origin. Using PCR amplification of microsatellite repeat sequences located distal to the regions included in the SMCs we have determined the parental origin of the two normal homologues in each case. We have identified paternal isodisomy of chromosome 6 in a female child with a supernumerary marker ring chromosome 6 in approximately 70% of peripheral blood lymphocytes. The marker was found to be of maternal origin. This is the second case of paternal isodisomy of chromosome 6 to be reported, and the first in association with a SMC resulting in a partial trisomy for a portion of the short arm of chromosome 6. In spite of this, the patient appears to be functioning appropriately for her age.

James, R.S.; Crolla, J.A.; Sitch, F.L. [Salisbury District Hospital, Wiltshire (United Kingdom)] [and others

1994-09-01

223

Paternity leave experiences of NHS doctors.  

PubMed

This study assesses NHS doctors' experiences of paternity leave and evaluates whether practices have changed since the introduction of additional paternity leave (APL) in April 2011. An anonymised online survey designed to discover experiences and uptake of APL and ordinary paternity leave (OPL) was distributed to all members of the London Deanery Synapse® network. In total, 364 fathers responded. Their seniority ranged from foundation trainees to consultants. Following the formal introduction of OPL in 2003, the number of fathers taking any paternity leave increased (from 50% to 95.6%). The majority of respondents (76.7%) felt well supported by their employer. Since the introduction of APL, 3% of respondents took additional leave. Reasons for the low uptake of APL included the impracticalities of the law, poor awareness and perceived attitudes and implications for training. Problems with OPL included the inadequate provision of cover and difficulties in timing the leave appropriately. PMID:24115693

Gordon, Hannah; Szram, Joanna

2013-10-01

224

A Phylogenetic Perspective on Sequence Evolution in Microsatellite Loci  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   We examined the evolution of the repeat regions of three noncoding microsatellite loci in 58 species of the Polistinae, a\\u000a subfamily of wasps that diverged over 140 million years ago. A phylogenetic approach allows two new kinds of approaches to\\u000a studying microsatellite evolution: character mapping and comparative analysis. The basic repeat structure of the loci was\\u000a highly conserved, but

Yong Zhu; David C. Queller; Joan E. Strassmann

2000-01-01

225

Paternal determinants of female adolescent's marijuana use  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the interrelationship of sets of paternal personality attributes, paternal–daughter relationship variables, and adolescent personality factors with adolescent daughters' use of marijuana. This was a follow-up of a previous study examining father–son factors related to son's marijuana use. Four hundred three female college students and their fathers took part in the study. Results

Judith S. Brook; Martin Whiteman; Ann S. Gordon; David W. Brook

1984-01-01

226

Testosterone response to courtship predicts future paternal behavior in the California mouse, Peromyscus californicus  

PubMed Central

In the monogamous and biparental California mouse (Peromyscus californicus), paternal care is critical for maximal offspring survival. Animals form pair bonds and do not engage in extrapair matings, and thus female evaluation of paternal quality during courtship is likely to be advantageous. We hypothesized that male endocrine or behavioral response to courtship interactions would be predictive of future paternal behavior. To test this hypothesis, we formed 20 pairs of California mice, and evaluated their behavior during the first hour of courtship interactions and again following the birth of young. We also collected blood from males at baseline, 1-hr after pairing, 3-weeks paired, and when young were four days old to measure testosterone (T). We found that male T-response to courtship interactions predicted future paternal behavior, specifically the amount of time he huddled over young when challenged by the temporary removal of his mate. Males that mounted T increases at courtship also approached pups more quickly during this challenge than males who had a significant decrease in T at courtship. Proximity of the male and female during courtship predicted paternal huddling during a 1-hr observation, and a multiple regression analysis revealed that courtship behavior was also predictive of birth latency. We speculate that male T-response to a female in P. californicus is an honest indicator of paternal quality, and if detectable by females could provide a basis for evaluation during mate choice. PMID:19833131

Gleason, Erin D.; Marler, Catherine A.

2009-01-01

227

Microsatellite instability in chicken lymphoma induced by gallid herpesvirus 2.  

PubMed

Microsatellite instability (MSI) has been found in a range of human tumors, and little is known of the links between MSI and herpesvirus. In order to investigate the relationship between MSI and Gallid herpesvirus 2 (GaHV-2)-induced lymphoma, fifteen Marek's disease (MD) lymphomas were analyzed through using 46 microsatellite markers, which were amplified by PCR from DNA specimens of lymphoma and normal muscular tissues from the same chicken. PCR products were evaluated by denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for MSI analysis. MSI was proved in all lymphomas, at least in one locus. Thirty of the 46 microsatellite markers had microsatellite alterations. These results suggested that GaHV-2-induced lymphoma in chickens is related to MSI, and this is the first report to demonstrate that MSI is associated with the GaHV-2 induced lymphoma in chicken. PMID:23844155

Yao, Da-Wei; Xu, Jia-Rong; Zhou, Zhen-Lei; Li, Shang-Tong; Yang, De-Ji

2013-01-01

228

CpG Island Methylator Phenotype, Helicobacter pylori, Epstein-Barr Virus, and Microsatellite Instability and Prognosis in Gastric Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The controversy of CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) in gastric cancer persists, despite the fact that many studies have been conducted on its relation with helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and microsatellite instability (MSI) and prognosis. To drive a more precise estimate of this postulated relationship, a meta-analysis was performed based on existing relevant studies. Methods We combined individual patient data from 12 studies which involved 1000 patients with gastric cancer, which met the criteria. We tabulated and analyzed parameters from each study, including H. pylori, EBV, MSI, and clinical information of patients. Results The overall OR for H. pylori infection in CIMP positive group vs. negative group revealed that significantly elevated risks of positive H. pylori infection in the former were achieved (OR 2.23 95% CI, 1.25–4.00; P?=?0.007, Pheterogeneity?=?0.05). Similarly, strong relation between EBV infection and CIMP was achieved by OR 51.27 (95% CI, 9.39–279.86; P<0.00001, Pheterogeneity?=?0.39). The overall OR for MSI in CIMP positive group vs. negative group was 4.44 (95% CI, 1.17–16.88; P?=?0.03, Pheterogeneity?=?0.01). However, there did not appear to be any correlations with clinical parameters such as tumor site, pathological type, cell differentiation, TNM stage, distant metastasis, lymph node metastasis, and 5-year survival. Conclusions The meta-analysis highlights the strong relation of CIMP with H. pylori, EBV, and MSI, but CIMP can not be used as a prognostic marker for gastric cancer. PMID:24475075

2014-01-01

229

Microsatellite analysis supports clonal propagation and reduced divergence of Trypanosoma vivax from asymptomatic to fatally infected livestock in South America compared to West Africa  

PubMed Central

Background Mechanical transmission of the major livestock pathogen Trypanosoma vivax by other biting flies than tsetse allows its spread from Africa to the New World. Genetic studies are restricted to a small number of isolates and based on molecular markers that evolve too slowly to resolve the relationships between American and West African populations and, thus, unable us to uncover the recent history of T. vivax in the New World. Methods T. vivax genetic diversity, population structure and the source of outbreaks was investigated through the microsatellite multiloci (7 loci) genotype (MLGs) analysis in South America (47isolates from Brazil, Venezuela and French Guiana) and West Africa (12 isolates from The Gambia, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Benin and Nigeria). Relationships among MLGs were explored using phylogenetic, principal component and STRUCTURE analyses. Results Although closely phylogenetically related, for the first time, genetic differences were detected between T. vivax isolates from South America (11 genotypes/47 isolates) and West Africa (12 genotypes/12 isolates) with no MLGs in common. Diversity was far greater across West Africa than in South America, where genotypes from Brazil (MLG1-6), Venezuela (MLG7-10) and French Guiana (MLG11) shared similar but not identical allele composition. No MLG was exclusive to asymptomatic (endemic areas) or sick (outbreaks in non-endemic areas) animals, but only MLGs1, 2 and 3 were responsible for severe haematological and neurological disorders. Conclusions Our results revealed closely related genotypes of T. vivax in Brazil and Venezuela, regardless of endemicity and clinical conditions of the infected livestock. The MLGs analysis from T. vivax across SA and WA support clonal propagation, and is consistent with the hypothesis that the SA populations examined here derived from common ancestors recently introduced from West Africa. The molecular markers defined here are valuable to assess the genetic diversity, to track the source and dispersion of outbreaks, and to explore the epidemiological and pathological significance of T. vivax genotypes. PMID:24885708

2014-01-01

230

Paternity and paternal behaviour in the red-winged blackbird, Agelaius phoeniceus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between paternity and male parental behaviour was investigated in an eastern population of red-winged blackbirds. Data collected over four seasons revealed substantial variation in paternity and the frequency of male provisioning. The feeding of nestlings by males increased non-linearly with the age of the nestlings but did not differ within or between seasons. Average relative provisioning by males

David F. Westneat

1995-01-01

231

Epistemic paternalism in public health.  

PubMed

Receiving information about threats to one's health can contribute to anxiety and depression. In contemporary medical ethics there is considerable consensus that patient autonomy, or the patient's right to know, in most cases outweighs these negative effects of information. Worry about the detrimental effects of information has, however, been voiced in relation to public health more generally. In particular, information about uncertain threats to public health, from-for example, chemicals-are said to entail social costs that have not been given due consideration. This criticism implies a consequentialist argument for withholding such information from the public in their own best interest. In evaluating the argument for this kind of epistemic paternalism, the consequences of making information available must be compared to the consequences of withholding it. Consequences that should be considered include epistemic effects, psychological effects, effects on private decisions, and effects on political decisions. After giving due consideration to the possible uses of uncertain information and rebutting the claims that uncertainties imply small risks and that they are especially prone to entail misunderstandings and anxiety, it is concluded that there is a strong case against withholding of information about uncertain threats to public health. PMID:16269563

Grill, K; Hansson, S O

2005-11-01

232

Paternity and inheritance of wealth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the oldest conjectures in anthropology is that men transfer wealth to their sister's son when the biological paternity of their `own' children is in doubt1-12. Because maternity is certain, a man is necessarily related to his sister's son and his brother (see Fig. 1). It is argued here that relatedness to male heirs can be assured by passing wealth to sister's sons or down a line of brothers, whether the prevailing kinship system reckons those brothers matrilineally or patrilineally. It is also argued that when several transfers of wealth are considered, a man's likelihood of being cuckolded need not be unrealistically high13 for his successive matrilineal heirs to be more related to him than his successive patrilineal heirs (see Fig. 2). Cross-cultural data on sister's son/brother inheritance14 and frequency of extramarital sex for females15 support the hypothesis that men tend to transmit wealth to their sister's son and/or brother when the probability that their putative children are their genetic children is relatively low.

Hartung, John

1981-06-01

233

Paternity and multiple signaling: effects of a secondary sexual character and song on paternity in the barn swallow.  

PubMed

Multiple signals may evolve because they provide independent information on the condition of a signaler. Females should pay attention to male characters relative to their reliability as signals of male attractiveness or quality. Since behavioral traits are flexible and, therefore, subject to strong environmental influences, females should weigh stable morphological signals higher in their choice of mates for genetic benefits than flexible behavioral traits, for example, by paying particular attention to phenotypically plastic traits when produced in combination with an exaggerated morphological signal. Consistent with this prediction, female barn swallows Hirundo rustica, which are known to prefer males with the longest tail feathers (a secondary sexual character), also preferred males with extreme expressions of a behavioral trait (song rate), as determined from patterns of paternity assessed by microsatellites. However, a statistical interaction between tail length and song rate implied that song rate was relatively unimportant for males with a short tail but more important for longtailed males. Since song rate is a flexible behavioral trait, females appear to have responded to this flexibility by devaluing the importance of song rate in assessment of unattractive sires. PMID:18811354

Møller, A P; Saino, N; Taramino, G; Galeotti, P; Ferrario, S

1998-03-01

234

Segmental Paternal Uniparental Disomy (patUPD) of 14q32 With Abnormal Methylation Elicits the Characteristic Features of Complete patUPD14  

PubMed Central

Uniparental disomy (UPD) for chromosome 14 is associated with well-recognized phenotypes, depending on the parent of origin. Studies in mouse models and human patients have implicated the involvement of the distal region of the long arm of chromosome 14 in the distinctive phenotypes. This involvement is supported by the identification of an imprinting cluster at chromosome 14q32, encompassing the differentially methylated regions (DMRs), IG-DMR and MEG3-DMR, as well as the maternally expressed genes GTL2, DIO3, and RTL1 and the paternally expressed genes DLK1, RTL1as, and MEG8. Here we report on a preterm female infant with distal segmental paternal UPD14 (upd(14)pat) of 14q32-14q32.33, which resulted in thoracic deformity secondary to rib abnormalities (“coat-hanger” rib sign), polyhydramnios, and other congenital abnormalities characteristically described in cases of complete upd(14)pat. Microsatellite investigation demonstrated UPD of markers D14S250 and D14S1010, encompassing a ~3.5 Mb region of distal 14q and involving the imprinting cluster. This case provided insight into the etiology of the phenotypic effects of upd(14)pat, prompting methylation analysis of the GTL2 promoter and the DMR between GTL2 and DLK1. We compare the physical findings seen in this case with those of patients with other causes of abnormal methylation of 14q32, which consistently result in certain distinct clinical features, regardless of the cytogenetic and molecular etiology. PMID:20602488

Irving, Melita D.; Buiting, Karin; Kanber, Deniz; Donaghue, Celia; Schulz, Reiner; Offiah, Amaka; Mohammed, Shehla N.; Oakey, Rebecca J.

2013-01-01

235

Identification of the skeletal remains of Josef Mengele by DNA analysis.  

PubMed

There has been considerable controversy over the identity of the skeletal remains exhumed in Brazil in 1985 and believed to be those of Dr Josef Mengele, the Auschwitz 'Angel of Death'. Bone DNA analysis was therefore conducted in an attempt to provide independent evidence of identity. Trace amounts of highly degraded human DNA were successfully extracted from the shaft of the femur. Despite the presence of a potent inhibitor of DNA amplification, microsatellite alleles could be reproducibly amplified from the femur DNA. Comparison of the femur DNA with DNA from Josef Mengele's son and wife revealed a bone genotype across 10 different loci fully compatible with paternity of Mengele's son. Less than 1 in 1800 Caucasian individuals unrelated to Mengele's son would by chance show full paternal inclusion. DNA analysis therefore provides very strong independent evidence that the remains exhumed from Brazil are indeed those of Josef Mengele. PMID:1398379

Jeffreys, A J; Allen, M J; Hagelberg, E; Sonnberg, A

1992-09-01

236

Development of highly polymorphic simple sequence repeat markers using genome-wide microsatellite variant analysis in Foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.  

PubMed Central

Background Foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) Beauv.) is an important gramineous grain-food and forage crop. It is grown worldwide for human and livestock consumption. Its small genome and diploid nature have led to foxtail millet fast becoming a novel model for investigating plant architecture, drought tolerance and C4 photosynthesis of grain and bioenergy crops. Therefore, cost-effective, reliable and highly polymorphic molecular markers covering the entire genome are required for diversity, mapping and functional genomics studies in this model species. Result A total of 5,020 highly repetitive microsatellite motifs were isolated from the released genome of the genotype 'Yugu1’ by sequence scanning. Based on sequence comparison between S. italica and S. viridis, a set of 788 SSR primer pairs were designed. Of these primers, 733 produced reproducible amplicons and were polymorphic among 28 Setaria genotypes selected from diverse geographical locations. The number of alleles detected by these SSR markers ranged from 2 to 16, with an average polymorphism information content of 0.67. The result obtained by neighbor-joining cluster analysis of 28 Setaria genotypes, based on Nei’s genetic distance of the SSR data, showed that these SSR markers are highly polymorphic and effective. Conclusions A large set of highly polymorphic SSR markers were successfully and efficiently developed based on genomic sequence comparison between different genotypes of the genus Setaria. The large number of new SSR markers and their placement on the physical map represent a valuable resource for studying diversity, constructing genetic maps, functional gene mapping, QTL exploration and molecular breeding in foxtail millet and its closely related species. PMID:24472631

2014-01-01

237

Modeling dad: animal models of paternal behavior.  

PubMed

In humans, paternal behaviors have a strong influence on the emotional and social development of children. Fathers, more frequently than mothers, leave the family nucleus, and/or become abusive, leading to offspring that are more likely to grow under stressful conditions and greater susceptibility to abnormal health and social outcomes. Literature on parental behaviors, human or animal, has primarily focused on the interactions between mothers and offspring, with little research directed at understanding paternal behavior. In animal studies, experimenters correlate paternal behaviors with those seen in rodent or primate mothers, often under situations in which behaviors such as nest protection, huddling, pup grooming, and retrieval are artificially induced. In humans, the majority of the studies have looked at paralleling hormonal changes in fathers with those occurring in mothers, or observed paternal behaviors in populations with specific anthropological backgrounds. These studies reveal commonalities in parental behaviors and their underlying neural circuits. However, this work highlights the possibility that paternal behavior has components that are strictly masculine with unique neurobiological mechanisms. This review summarizes this information and provides a current view of a topic that needs further exploration. PMID:19744516

Kentner, Amanda C; Abizaid, Alfonso; Bielajew, Catherine

2010-03-01

238

Coercive paternalism and back-door perfectionism.  

PubMed

In this response piece, I argue that the 'coercive paternalism' that Sarah Conly endorses in her book Against Autonomy veers towards a back-door perfectionism. Although Conly points out that coercive paternalism does not mandate the imposition of alien values upon us in the same way that perfectionism does, I argue that coercive paternalism might yet impose an alien weighting of our own values; this, I suggest, means that coercive paternalism remains perfectionist in spirit, if not in letter. I go on to concede to Conly that coercive paternalism might be warranted in preventing actions that threaten health and that are only carried out on the basis of cognitive error. However, I conclude by claiming that we must take great care about what we presume that people are consuming only on the basis of cognitive error. More specifically, I suggest that it is crucial that we avoid defining our terms in such a manner that it becomes impossible for agents to choose some action that poses a risk to their health without them being accused of making a cognitive error in weighing their values in that way. PMID:24335856

Pugh, Jonathan

2014-05-01

239

Indisputable double paternity in dizygous twins  

E-print Network

Setting: University paternity laboratory. Patient(s): Father, mother, and a set of twins. Intervention(s): Blood typing conventional markers, as well as polymerase chain reaction loci and restriction fragment length polymorphism loci of DNA. Main Outcome Measure(s): Heteropaternal superfecundation was demonstrated after paternity investigation. Result(s): The probability of paternity for twin 1 was 99.9999998%, whereas that for twin 2 was excluded on the basis of the following tests: Fy, Pi, human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQAl, DlS80, D17S.5, HBGG, D5S110, D2S44, and DlOS28. Conclusion(s): Dizygous twins can have different biologic fathers, as demonstrated in this case. According to published data, the frequency of twins with different fathers is probably underestimated, at least in small selected populations such as those of paternity suits. (Fertil Steril @ 1997;67:1159-61. 0 1997 by American Society for Reproductive Medicine.) Key Words: Paternity, superfecundation, superfetation, DNA, twins Twins may originate from a single fertilized egg

Eloy Girela; M. D. Maria; D. Rodrigo; Jose A. Lorente; M. D. Miguel Lorente; J. Carlos Alvarez; M. S. Enrique Villanueva

240

Development of microsatellite markers in peach [ Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] and their use in genetic diversity analysis in peach and sweet cherry ( Prunus avium L.).  

PubMed

We report the sequence of 41 primer pairs of microsatellites from a CT-enriched genomic library of the peach cultivar 'Merrill O'Henry'. Ten microsatellite-containing clones had sequences similar to plant coding sequences in databases and could be used as markers for known functions. For microsatellites segregating at least in one of the two Prunus F(2) progenies analyzed, it was possible to demonstrate Mendelian inheritance. Microsatellite polymorphism was evaluated in 27 peach and 21 sweet cherry cultivars. All primer pairs gave PCR-amplification products on peach and 33 on cherry (80.5%). Six PCR-amplifications revealed several loci (14.6%) in peach and eight (19.5%) in sweet cherry. Among the 33 single-locus microsatellites amplified in peach and sweet cherry, 13 revealed polymorphism both in peach and cherry, 19 were polymorphic only on peach and one was polymorphic only on cherry. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 1 to 9 for peach and from 1 to 6 on sweet cherry with an average of 4.2 and 2.8 in peach and sweet cherry, respectively. Cross-species amplification was tested within the Prunus species: Prunus avium L. (sweet cherry and mazzard), Prunus cerasus L. (sour cherry), Prunus domestica L. (European plum), Prunus amygdalus Batsch. (almond), Prunus armeniaca L. (apricot), Prunus cerasifera Ehrh. (Myrobalan plum). Plants from other genera of the Rosaceae were also tested: Malus (apple) and Fragaria (strawberry), as well as species not belonging to the Rosaceae: Castanea (chestnut tree), Juglans (walnut tree) and Vitis (grapevine). Six microsatellites gave amplification on all the tested species. Among them, one had an amplified region homologous to sequences encoding a MADS-box protein in Malus x domestica. Twelve microsatellites (29.3%) were amplified in all the Rosaceae species tested and 31 (75.6%) were amplified in all the six Prunus species tested. Thirty three (80.5%), 18 (43.9%) and 13 (31.7%) gave amplification on chestnut tree, grapevine and walnut tree, respectively. PMID:12582570

Dirlewanger, E.; Cosson, P.; Tavaud, M.; Aranzana, J.; Poizat, C.; Zanetto, A.; Arús, P.; Laigret, F.

2002-07-01

241

First identification of polymorphic microsatellite markers in the Burgundy truffle, Tuber aestivum (Tuberaceae)1  

PubMed Central

• Premise of the study: Tuber aestivum, the most common truffle in Europe, plays an important role in the commercial truffle market. For the first time, microsatellite primers were developed to investigate polymorphism within this species. • Methods and Results: Using direct shotgun pyrosequencing, 15 polymorphic microsatellites were identified out of the 7784 perfect microsatellites present in the 534620 reads obtained. Tested on 75 samples, these microsatellites were highly polymorphic. The number of alleles varied from four to 15, and the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.266 to 0.620. A multilocus analysis allowed the identification of 63 genotypes over the 75 samples analyzed. • Conclusions: Direct shotgun pyrosequencing is a fast and relatively low-cost technique allowing identification of microsatellites in nonmodel species. The microsatellites developed in this study will be useful in population genetic studies to infer the evolutionary history of this species. PMID:25202513

Molinier, Virginie; Murat, Claude; Morin, Emmanuelle; Gollotte, Armelle; Wipf, Daniel; Martin, Francis

2013-01-01

242

Microsatellites and SNPs linkage analysis in a Sardinian genetic isolate confirms several essential hypertension loci previously identified in different populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A multiplicity of study designs such as gene candidate analysis, genome wide search (GWS) and, recently, whole genome association studies have been employed for the identification of the genetic components of essential hypertension (EH). Several genome-wide linkage studies of EH and blood pressure-related phenotypes demonstrate that there is no single locus with a major effect while several genomic regions

Evelina Mocci; Maria P Concas; Manuela Fanciulli; Nicola Pirastu; Mauro Adamo; Valentina Cabras; Cristina Fraumene; Ivana Persico; Alessandro Sassu; Andrea Picciau; Dionigio A Prodi; Donatella Serra; Ginevra Biino; Mario Pirastu; Andrea Angius

2009-01-01

243

Amniotic bands in paternal half-siblings.  

PubMed

We present two paternal half-siblings with constriction rings and limb reduction deformities, which seem to have been caused by amniotic bands. Their father has no evidence of amniotic bands nor any other congenital malformations and there is no wider family history of such malformations. There are few other reports of familial amniotic bands and these are either in mother-child pairs, siblings or in distant relatives. This is the first report of recurrence in paternal half-siblings. Although no exact cause can be identified, this suggests that some genetic fetal factor, or factors, must be responsible for the amniotic bands in these cases. PMID:20038837

Blyth, Moira; Lachlan, Katherine

2010-04-01

244

Molecular diversity and population structure of Chinese green foxtail [Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv.] revealed by microsatellite analysis  

PubMed Central

Green foxtail (Setaria viridis) is a new model plant for the genomic investigation of C4 photosynthesis biology. As the ancestor of foxtail millet (Setaria italica), an ancient cereal of great importance in arid regions of the world, green foxtail is crucial for the study of domestication and evolution of this ancient crop. In the present study, 288 green foxtail accessions, which were collected from all geographical regions of China, were analysed using 77 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) that cover the whole genome. A high degree of molecular diversity was detected in these accessions, with an average of 33.5 alleles per locus. Two clusters, which were inconsistent with the distribution of eco-geographical regions in China, were inferred from STRUCTURE, Neighbor–Joining, and principal component analysis, indicating a partially mixed distribution of Chinese green foxtails. The higher subpopulation diversity was from accessions mainly collected from North China. A low level of linkage disequilibrium was observed in the green foxtail genome. Furthermore, a combined analysis of green foxtail and foxtail millet landraces was conducted, and the origin and domestication of foxtail millet was inferred in North China. PMID:23956411

Zhi, Hui; Diao, Xianmin

2013-01-01

245

Molecular diversity and population structure of Chinese green foxtail [Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv.] revealed by microsatellite analysis.  

PubMed

Green foxtail (Setaria viridis) is a new model plant for the genomic investigation of C4 photosynthesis biology. As the ancestor of foxtail millet (Setaria italica), an ancient cereal of great importance in arid regions of the world, green foxtail is crucial for the study of domestication and evolution of this ancient crop. In the present study, 288 green foxtail accessions, which were collected from all geographical regions of China, were analysed using 77 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) that cover the whole genome. A high degree of molecular diversity was detected in these accessions, with an average of 33.5 alleles per locus. Two clusters, which were inconsistent with the distribution of eco-geographical regions in China, were inferred from STRUCTURE, Neighbor-Joining, and principal component analysis, indicating a partially mixed distribution of Chinese green foxtails. The higher subpopulation diversity was from accessions mainly collected from North China. A low level of linkage disequilibrium was observed in the green foxtail genome. Furthermore, a combined analysis of green foxtail and foxtail millet landraces was conducted, and the origin and domestication of foxtail millet was inferred in North China. PMID:23956411

Jia, Guanqing; Shi, Shenkui; Wang, Chunfang; Niu, Zhengang; Chai, Yang; Zhi, Hui; Diao, Xianmin

2013-09-01

246

University of Sussex A Guide to Paternity Leave and Pay  

E-print Network

family relationship but is not an immediate relative. This includes a male or a female in a same sex Statutory Paternity Pay 5 7. Return to work dates 6 8. Antenatal care 6 9. Pension arrangements during paternity leave 6 10. Work during paternity leave and keeping in touch 8 11. Sickness prior to or during

Sussex, University of

247

Low paternal dietary folate alters the mouse sperm epigenome and is associated with negative pregnancy outcomes  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological studies suggest that a father’s diet can influence offspring health. A proposed mechanism for paternal transmission of environmental information is via the sperm epigenome. The epigenome includes heritable information such as DNA methylation. We hypothesize that the dietary supply of methyl donors will alter epigenetic reprogramming in sperm. Here we feed male mice either a folate-deficient or folate-sufficient diet throughout life. Paternal folate deficiency is associated with increased birth defects in the offspring, which include craniofacial and musculoskeletal malformations. Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis and the subsequent functional analysis identify differential methylation in sperm of genes implicated in development, chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, autism and schizophrenia. While >300 genes are differentially expressed in offspring placenta, only two correspond to genes with differential methylation in sperm. This model suggests epigenetic transmission may involve sperm histone H3 methylation or DNA methylation and that adequate paternal dietary folate is essential for offspring health. PMID:24326934

Lambrot, R.; Xu, C.; Saint-Phar, S.; Chountalos, G.; Cohen, T.; Paquet, M.; Suderman, M.; Hallett, M.; Kimmins, S.

2013-01-01

248

Transcriptome Analysis of the Trachinotus ovatus: Identification of Reproduction, Growth and Immune-Related Genes and Microsatellite Markers  

PubMed Central

Background The Trachinotus ovatus (Teleostei, Carangidae) is an economically important marine fish species in the world. However, the lack of genomic information regarding this species limits our understanding of the genetics and biological mechanisms in Trachinotus ovatus. In this study, high throughput transcriptome sequencing was used to obtain comprehensive genomic information in Trachinotus ovatus. Principal Findings Transcriptome sequencing was performed by using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. The 98,534,862 high quality reads were yielded, and were de novo assembled into 156,094 unigenes with an average sequence length of 1179 bp. Transcriptome annotation revealed that 75,586 and 67,923 unigenes were functionally annotated in the NCBI non-redundant database and Swiss-Prot protein database, respectively. Functional analysis demonstrated that 67,923 unigenes were grouped into 25 Cluster of Orthologous Groups (COG) functional categories, 37,976 unigenes were clustered into 61 Gene Ontology (GO) terms, and 38,172 unigenes were assigned to 275 different Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. Based on the transcriptome dataset, a large number of unigenes associated with reproduction, growth and immunity were identified. Furthermore, a total number of 38,794 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were discovered and 16 polymorphic loci were characterized in Trachinotus ovatus. Conclusion/Significance The present study is the first transcriptome analysis of a fish species belonging to the genus Trachinotus and provides a valuable genomic resource for novel gene discovery, gene expression and regulation studies, and the identification of genetic markers in Trachinotus ovatus and the other fish of the genus Trachinotus. PMID:25303650

Chao, Fang; Qiongyu, Liu; Zihao, Li; Xiaochun, Liu; Yong, Zhang; Shuisheng, Li; Haoran, Lin

2014-01-01

249

Microsatellite DNA analysis of coastal populations of bull trout ( Salvelinus confluentus ) in British Columbia: zoogeographic implications and its application to recreational fishery management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsatellite DNA variation was assayed among 383 bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) from 20 Pacific coastal localities from the Skeena River (central British Columbia) to the Olympic Peninsula (western Washington State). An average of 1.7 alleles was resolved per population and heterozygosity averaged 0.35. Twenty-six fish were identified as bull trout × Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma) hybrids. Population subdivision was substantial

Eric B. Taylor; A. B. Costello

2006-01-01

250

Microsatellite polymorphisms in the gene promoter of monocyte chemotactic protein-3 and analysis of the association between monocyte chemotactic protein-3 alleles and multiple sclerosis development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monocyte chemotactic protein 3 (MCP-3) is a chemokine that attracts mononuclear cells, including monocytes and lymphocytes, the inflammatory cell types that predominate in multiple sclerosis lesions. We studied the possible association between the presence of a CA\\/GA microsatellite repeat polymorphism in the promoter\\/enhancer region of the MCP-3 gene and the occurrence of multiple sclerosis. DNA samples from 192 Swedish multiple

Pierre Fiten; Koen Vandenbroeck; Bénédicte Dubois; Els Van Coillie; Inge Nelissen; Jo Van Damme; Arturs Ligers; Jan Hillert; Magnus Andersson; Tomas Olsson; Ghislain Opdenakker

1999-01-01

251

Conservation genetics of bull trout: Geographic distribution of variation at microsatellite loci  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the genetic population structure of 65 bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) populations from the northwestern United States using four microsatellite loci. The distribution of genetic variation as measured by microsatellites is consistent with previous allozyme and mitochondrial DNA analysis. There is relatively little genetic variation within populations (HS = 0.000 - 0.404, average HS = 0.186, but substantial divergence

P. Spruell; A. R. Hemmingsen; P. J. Howell; N. Kanda; F. W. Allendorf

2003-01-01

252

Chloroplast microsatellites reveal colonization and metapopulation dynamics in the Canary Island pine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chloroplast microsatellites are becoming increasingly popular markers for population genetic studies in plants, but there has been little focus on their potential for demographic inference. In this work the utility of chloroplast microsatellites for the study of population expansions was explored. First, we investigated the power of mismatch distribution analysis and the F S test with coalescent simulations of different

MIGUEL NAVASCUÉS; SANTIAGO C. GONZÁLEZ-MART; LUIS GIL; BRENT C. E MERSON; U. D. Anatomía

2006-01-01

253

Paternal Attachment, Parenting Beliefs and Children's Attachment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relationships between fathers' romantic attachment style, parenting beliefs and father-child attachment security and dependence were examined in a diverse sample of 72 fathers of young children. Paternal romantic attachment style was coded based on fathers' endorsement of a particular style represented in the Hazan and Shaver Three-Category…

Howard, Kimberly S.

2010-01-01

254

Paternal Occupational Exposures and Childhood Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study described here was to test the hypothesis that paternal occupational exposure near conception increases the risk of cancer in the offspring. We conducted a cohort study based on a population of 235,635 children born shortly after two different censuses in Sweden. The children were followed from birth to 14 years, and cases of cancer were

Maria Feychting; Nils Plato; Gun Nise; Anders Ahlbom

2001-01-01

255

Paternal inheritance of mitochondria in Chlamydomonas.  

PubMed

To analyze mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)inheritance, differences in mtDNA between Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Chlamydomonas smithii, respiration deficiency and antibiotic resistance were used to distinguish mtDNA origins. The analyses indicated paternal inheritance. However, these experiments raised questions regarding whether paternal inheritance occurred normally.Mitochondrial nucleoids were observed in living zygotes from mating until 3 days after mating and then until progeny formation. However, selective disappearance of nucleoids was not observed. Subsequently, experimental serial backcrosses between the two strains demonstrated strict paternal inheritance. The fate of mt+ and mt- mtDNA was followed using the differences in mtDNA between the two strains. The slow elimination of mt+ mtDNA through zygote maturation in darkness was observed, and later the disappearance of mt+ mtDNA was observed at the beginning of meiosis. To explain the different fates of mtDNA, methylation status was investigated; however, no methylation was detected. Variously constructed diploid cells showed biparental inheritance. Thus, when the mating process occurs normally, paternal inheritance occurs. Mutations disrupting mtDNA inheritance have not yet been isolated. Mutations that disrupt maternal inheritance of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) do not disrupt inheritance of mtDNA. The genes responsible for mtDNA inheritance are different from those of chloroplasts. PMID:20069335

Nakamura, Soichi

2010-03-01

256

A Postdoc's Guide to Paternity Leave  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guide provides general information on paternity leave for postdoc fathers following the birth of a child. It is intended as a companion guide to A Postdoc's Guide to Pregnancy and Maternity Leave. Adopting postdoc parents may want to consult our forthcoming companion guide on adoption leave.

Kathleen Flint Ehm (National Postdoctoral Association); Cathee Johnson Phillips (National Postdoctoral Association)

2012-06-01

257

Paternity Testing in a PBL Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem Based Learning (PBL) makes use of real-life scenarios to stimulate students' prior knowledge and to provide a meaningful context that is also related to the student's future professional work. In this article, Paternity testing is presented using a PBL approach that involves a combination of classroom, laboratory, and out-of-class…

Casla, Alberto Vicario; Zubiaga, Isabel Smith

2010-01-01

258

Daddy issues: paternal effects on phenotype  

PubMed Central

The once-popular, then heretical, idea that ancestral environment can affect the phenotype of future generations is coming back into vogue, due to advances in the field of epigenetic inheritance. How paternal environmental conditions influence the phenotype of progeny is now a tractable question, and researchers are exploring potential mechanisms underlying such effects. PMID:23141533

Rando, Oliver J.

2012-01-01

259

The effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence and personality when controlling for paternal trait level.  

PubMed

Paternal age at conception has been found to predict the number of new genetic mutations. We examined the effect of father's age at birth on offspring intelligence, head circumference and personality traits. Using the Minnesota Twin Family Study sample we tested paternal age effects while controlling for parents' trait levels measured with the same precision as offspring's. From evolutionary genetic considerations we predicted a negative effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence, but not on other traits. Controlling for parental intelligence (IQ) had the effect of turning an initially positive association non-significantly negative. We found paternal age effects on offspring IQ and Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire Absorption, but they were not robustly significant, nor replicable with additional covariates. No other noteworthy effects were found. Parents' intelligence and personality correlated with their ages at twin birth, which may have obscured a small negative effect of advanced paternal age (<1% of variance explained) on intelligence. We discuss future avenues for studies of paternal age effects and suggest that stronger research designs are needed to rule out confounding factors involving birth order and the Flynn effect. PMID:24587224

Arslan, Ruben C; Penke, Lars; Johnson, Wendy; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

2014-01-01

260

Superfecundation and dual paternity in a twin pregnancy ending with placental abruption.  

PubMed

A case of superfecundation and dual paternity in a twin pregnancy is presented. Placental abruption developed at week 33 of gestation and the two boys had to be saved by emergency cesarean section. As they shared one placenta, had almost identical weight and had the same sex, they were assumed to be monozygotic. However, a subsequent paternity suit led to the conclusion, based on DNA-analysis, that the twin brothers had been fathered by two different men. Obstetrical implications are discussed. PMID:10641935

Ambach, E; Parson, W; Brezinka, C

2000-01-01

261

Characterization of microsatellite markers in cassava based on microsatellite-AFLP technique.  

PubMed

We developed molecular markers for cassava based on the microsatellite-amplified fragment length polymorphism (M-AFLP) technique. Twenty primer pairs were developed and used for the analysis of 48 samples of Manihot species, consisting of M. esculenta (33), M. esculenta ssp flabellifolia (3), M. chlorosticta (3), M. carthaginensis (3), M. filamentosa (3), and M. tristis (3). Nine microsatellite loci that were polymorphic among these Manihot species were identified, giving 32 polymorphic alleles and from two to seven alleles per locus. Unbiased and direct count heterozygosity varied from 0.0233 to 0.7924 and 0.0000 to 0.7083, respectively. There was significant deviation (P < 0.05) from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium at five loci. Genotypic data from the Manihot species were subjected to genetic diversity analysis. We found that M. chlorosticta and M. esculenta ssp flabellifolia were the closest populations, while M. filamentosa and M. esculenta ssp flabellifolia were the most divergent. Considering within M. esculenta, the samples from Nigeria and Fiji were the most closely related, while those from Venezuela and of unknown origin were the most divergent. We conclude that the M-AFLP technique is an effective method for generating microsatellite markers that are useful for genetic diversity analysis in Manihot species. PMID:22653578

Whankaew, S; Sraphet, S; Thaikert, R; Smith, D R; Triwitayakorn, K

2012-01-01

262

Taiwanese aborigines: genetic heterogeneity and paternal contribution to Oceania.  

PubMed

In the present study, for the first time, 293 Taiwanese aboriginal males from all nine major tribes (Ami, Atayal, Bunun, Rukai, Paiwan, Saisat, Puyuma, Tsou, Yami) were genotyped with 17 YSTR loci in a attend to reveal migrational patterns connected with the Austronesian expansion. We investigate the paternal genetic relationships of these Taiwanese aborigines to 42 Asia-Pacific reference populations, geographically selected to reflect various locations within the Austronesian domain. The Tsou and Puyuma tribes exhibit the lowest (0.1851) and the highest (0.5453) average total genetic diversity, respectively. Further, the fraction of unique haplotypes is also relatively high in the Puyuma (86.7%) and low in Tsou (33.3%) suggesting different demographic histories. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed several notable findings: 1) the Taiwan indigenous populations are highly diverse. In fact, the level of inter-population heterogeneity displayed by the Taiwanese aboriginal populations is close to that exhibited among all 51 Asia-Pacific populations examined; 2) the asymmetrical contribution of the Taiwanese aborigines to the Oceanic groups. Ami, Bunun and Saisiyat tribes exhibit the strongest paternal links to the Solomon and Polynesian island communities, whereas most of the remaining Taiwanese aboriginal groups are more genetically distant to these Oceanic inhabitants; 3) the present YSTR analyses does not reveal a strong paternal affinity of the nine Taiwanese tribes to their continental Asian neighbors. Overall, our current findings suggest that, perhaps, only a few of the tribes were involved in the migration out of Taiwan. PMID:24613753

Zeng, Zhaoshu; Rowold, Diane J; Garcia-Bertrand, Ralph; Calderon, Silvia; Regueiro, Maria; Li, Li; Zhong, Mingxia; Herrera, Rene J

2014-06-01

263

Parentage and kinship studies in an obligate brood parasitic bird, the brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater), using microsatellite DNA markers.  

PubMed

Recent studies suggest that single-locus microsatellite DNA markers have the potential to unambiguously resolve parentage among individuals in natural populations where maternity is known. However, their power for determining parentage when neither parent is known is unclear. Here we investigate the usefulness of microsatellite DNA markers to determine parentage in a brood parasitic bird, the brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater), where, for a given offspring, no a priori knowledge of either parent is available. Seven polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers isolated from brown-headed cowbirds and yellow warblers (Dendroica petechia) were used to genetically characterize an individually marked breeding population of male and female cowbirds at Delta Marsh, Manitoba. Forty-four males, 21 females, and 61 cowbird chicks were genotyped at seven loci using DNA amplified from blood and tissue samples. The mean exclusion probabilities pooled across all seven loci were 0.9964 for males and 0.9948 for females. Two null (non-amplifying) alleles at one locus were discovered and accounted for by constructing alternate nonoverlapping primer sets. Exclusion analyses performed using all individuals determined both paternity and maternity for 43 chicks and paternity only for 4 chicks. Another microsatellite locus was then used to determine paternity for three additional chicks. Relatedness analyses placed 12 of the 18 remaining chicks not assigned both maternity and paternity into four unique full sibling groups. Overall, 90.16% (55 of 61) of all offspring examined were placed into distinct parent/sibling groups, demonstrating that this marker set is extremely useful for parentage studies in this species. PMID:9987928

Alderson, G W; Gibbs, H L; Sealy, S G

1999-01-01

264

Managing misaligned paternity findings in research including sickle cell disease screening in Kenya: 'consulting communities' to inform policy.  

PubMed

The management of misaligned paternity findings raises important controversy worldwide. It has mainly, however, been discussed in the context of high-income countries. Genetic and genomics research, with the potential to show misaligned paternity, are becoming increasingly common in Africa. During a genomics study in Kenya, a dilemma arose over testing and sharing information on paternal sickle cell disease status. This dilemma may be paradigmatic of challenges in sharing misaligned paternity findings in many research and health care settings. Using a deliberative approach to community consultation to inform research practice, we explored residents' views on paternal testing and sharing misaligned paternity information. Between December 2009 and November 2010, 63 residents in Kilifi County were engaged in informed deliberative small group discussions, structured to support normative reflection within the groups, with purposive selection to explore diversity. Analysis was based on a modified framework analysis approach, drawing on relevant social science and bioethics literature. The methods generated in-depth individual and group reflection on morally important issues and uncovered wide diversity in views and values. Fundamental and conflicting values emerged around the importance of family interests and openness, underpinned by disagreement on the moral implications of marital infidelity and withholding truth. Wider consideration of ethical issues emerging in these debates supports locally-held reasoning that paternal sickle cell testing should not be undertaken in this context, in contrast to views that testing should be done with or without the disclosure of misaligned paternity information. The findings highlight the importance of facilitating wider testing of family members of affected children, contingent on the development and implementation of national policies for the management of this inherited disorder. Their richness also illustrates the potential for the approach adopted in this study to strengthen community consultation. PMID:24034967

Marsh, Vicki; Kombe, Francis; Fitzpatrick, Ray; Molyneux, Sassy; Parker, Michael

2013-11-01

265

Managing misaligned paternity findings in research including sickle cell disease screening in Kenya: 'Consulting communities' to inform policy?  

PubMed Central

The management of misaligned paternity findings raises important controversy worldwide. It has mainly, however, been discussed in the context of high-income countries. Genetic and genomics research, with the potential to show misaligned paternity, are becoming increasingly common in Africa. During a genomics study in Kenya, a dilemma arose over testing and sharing information on paternal sickle cell disease status. This dilemma may be paradigmatic of challenges in sharing misaligned paternity findings in many research and health care settings. Using a deliberative approach to community consultation to inform research practice, we explored residents' views on paternal testing and sharing misaligned paternity information. Between December 2009 and November 2010, 63 residents in Kilifi County were engaged in informed deliberative small group discussions, structured to support normative reflection within the groups, with purposive selection to explore diversity. Analysis was based on a modified framework analysis approach, drawing on relevant social science and bioethics literature. The methods generated in-depth individual and group reflection on morally important issues and uncovered wide diversity in views and values. Fundamental and conflicting values emerged around the importance of family interests and openness, underpinned by disagreement on the moral implications of marital infidelity and withholding truth. Wider consideration of ethical issues emerging in these debates supports locally-held reasoning that paternal sickle cell testing should not be undertaken in this context, in contrast to views that testing should be done with or without the disclosure of misaligned paternity information. The findings highlight the importance of facilitating wider testing of family members of affected children, contingent on the development and implementation of national policies for the management of this inherited disorder. Their richness also illustrates the potential for the approach adopted in this study to strengthen community consultation. PMID:24034967

Marsh, Vicki; Kombe, Francis; Fitzpatrick, Ray; Molyneux, Sassy; Parker, Michael

2013-01-01

266

Sequence analysis of a zinc-finger gene for the examination of paternal lineages and introgressive hybridization in North American deer  

E-print Network

Figure Page 1. Agarose gel showing the Zfx/Zfy loci in deer. . . , 2. Agarose gel showing separadon of the Zfx/Zfy bands in deer Nucleotide sequences of the intron region for the Zfy locus of white-tailed deer, mule deer, and black-tailed deer..., an intron region located 2 bp 5' of the zinc- finger exon was targeted for analysis. METHODS Genomic DNA of deer (n=3) was extracted from heart, liver, or kidney tissues using standard phenoVchloroform procedures (Maniatis et aL 1982). Approximately 0. 3...

Cathey, James Cleveland

2012-06-07

267

ORIGINAL PAPER Evolution of chloroplast mononucleotide microsatellites  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Evolution of chloroplast mononucleotide microsatellites in Arabidopsis thaliana in the chloroplast was found to be common, although less common than microsatellite variation in the nucleus. No microsatellite variation was found in coding regions of the chloroplast. To evaluate different models

Jakobsson, Mattias

268

Tests of spatial and temporal factors influencing extra-pair paternity in red-winged blackbirds.  

PubMed

Extra-pair paternity (EPP) is a widespread and highly variable reproductive phenomenon in birds. We tested the effects of habitat, spatial factors, and timing of breeding on the occurrence of EPP in red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus). We used PCR-amplified microsatellites to assess the paternity of 1479 nestlings from 537 broods on 235 territories over four breeding seasons. Over 4 years, 40% of nestlings were extra-pair. At least 27% of actual sires were non-neighbours, suggesting that males or females interacted over longer distances than in other populations of red-winged blackbirds. The level of EPP was significantly clumped within broods and males but not within females across broods. EPP was negatively related to the area of a male's territory. The spatial proximity of a female's nest to the territory boundary had no effect on total EPP, but tended to increase the probability of an EPP by a nearby male. We found no influence on EPP of the type of habitat on the territory or the level of nesting activity nearby. The time in the season when a nest was started and the synchrony of breeding also had no significant effect on the level of EPP. The age of the male, the age of his neighbours, and the interaction between the two had no effect on total EPP. However, older males were less likely to have an offspring sired by a neighbour on their territory. Males with older neighbours were also less likely to have offspring sired by a neighbour, particularly if they were new territory owners. The high variability in who gained and lost paternity, and the limited impact of spatial and temporal factors influencing it, have some interesting implications for theories seeking to explain mating patterns. PMID:15910334

Westneat, David F; Mays, Herman L

2005-06-01

269

Paternal Work Stress and Latent Profiles of Father-Infant Parenting Quality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study used latent profile analysis (LPA) to examine the implications of fathers' experiences of work stress for paternal behaviors with infants across multiple dimensions of parenting in a sample of fathers living in nonmetropolitan communities (N = 492). LPA revealed five classes of fathers based on levels of social-affective…

Goodman, W. Benjamin; Crouter, Ann C.; Lanza, Stephanie T.; Cox, Martha J.; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

2011-01-01

270

Advanced paternal age increases the risk of schizophrenia and obsessive–compulsive disorder in a Chinese Han population  

PubMed Central

Using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, patient and non-patient version (SCID-P/NP), this study investigated 351 patients with schizophrenia, 122 with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), and 238 unrelated healthy volunteers in a Chinese Han population. The relative risks posed by advanced paternal age for schizophrenia and OCD in offspring were computed under logistic regression analyses and adjusted for the participant's sex, age and co-parent age at birth. Compared to the offspring with paternal age of 25–29 years old, the relative risks rose from 2.660 to 10.183 in the paternal age range of 30–34 and ? 35. The relative risks for OCD increased from 2.225 to 5.413 in 30–34 and ? 35. For offspring with paternal age of < 25, the odds ratios of developing schizophrenia and OCD were 0.628 and 0.289 respectively, whereas an association between increased maternal age and risk for schizophrenia/OCD was not seen. Interaction analysis showed an interaction effect between paternal age and maternal age at birth. Such a tendency of risk affected by parental age for schizophrenia and OCD existed after splitting out the data of early onset patients. Sex-specific analyses found that the relative risks for schizophrenia with paternal age of 30–34 and ? 35 in male offspring were 2.407 and 10.893, and in female offspring were 3.080 and 9.659. The relative risks for OCD with paternal age of 30–34 and ? 35 in male offspring were 3.493 and 7.373, and in female offspring 2.005 and 4.404. The mean paternal age of schizophrenia/OCD patients born before the early 1980s was much greater than that of patients who were born after then. The findings illustrated that advanced paternal age is associated with increased risk for both schizophrenia and OCD in a Chinese Han population, prominently when paternal age is over 35. Biological and non-biological mechanisms may both be involved in the effects of advanced paternal age on schizophrenia and OCD. PMID:22424906

Wu, Yuejing; Liu, Xiang; Luo, Hongrong; Deng, Wei; Zhao, Gaofeng; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Lan; Ma, Xiaohong; Liu, Xiehe; Murray, Robin A.; Collier, David A.; Li, Tao

2012-01-01

271

A rapid qPCR method for genetic sex identification of Salmo salar and Salmo trutta including simultaneous elucidation of interspecies hybrid paternity by high-resolution melt analysis.  

PubMed

This study presents an improved duplex quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method using the master sex-determining gene sdY as a marker for simultaneous genetic sex identification of salmonids of the Salmo genus and paternity elucidation for Salmo salar × Salmo trutta hybrids. This method will provide a new, simple and economical molecular tool for ecological studies of these species as well as for aquaculture purposes. PMID:24814478

Anglès d'Auriac, M B; Urke, H A; Kristensen, T

2014-06-01

272

Paternal Fears of Childbirth: A Literature Review  

PubMed Central

To date, most studies on paternal childbirth fears have been exploratory or descriptive, conducted outside of the United States, and focused mainly on White, first-time fathers. Identified fears include harm to the mother or newborn, partner pain, feelings of helplessness, lack of knowledge, and fear of high-risk intervention. Fathers often report that childbirth classes are not helpful and, in some cases, even increase their fears. Some fathers view birth as traumatic, changing their perception of and relationship with their partner. Fathers also voice the need for more information and for reassurance that they are doing the right things for their partner during childbirth. This article summarizes the research findings on paternal childbirth fears and recommends topics for future study. PMID:20808424

Hanson, Suzanne; Hunter, Lauren P.; Bormann, Jill R.; Sobo, Elisa J.

2009-01-01

273

A MOLECULAR EXAMINATION OF RELATEDNESS, MULTIPLE PATERNITY, AND COHABITATION OF THE SOUTHERN PLAINS WOODRAT (NEOTOMA MICROPUS)  

PubMed Central

Two hundred twenty-two individuals of the southern plains woodrat (Neotoma micropus) were captured from 198 excavated middens at 10 discrete collecting sites from a single population in south-central Texas. Field data, mitochondrial D-loop haplotypes, and polymorphic microsatellite loci (5–7) were used to determine genetic patterns in parentage, relatedness, and mating strategy. Microsatellite loci were highly polymorphic (average observed heterozygosity = 0.859) and were used to construct genotypes that were unique for each individual (probability of identical genotypes: 1 in 2,104,567). Results indicated a high frequency of multiple paternity (6 of 9 litters), evidence of repeat mating between the same 2 individuals, and no indication of male dominance at any collection site. Examination of these data suggested a promiscuous mating system. Within a site, average relatedness between adult females was similar to that between adult males. A higher level of cohabitation from that previously documented was recorded and finer-scale analyses revealed high levels of relatedness between most cohabiting individuals. Taken with results from other studies of mating behaviors of N. micropus, our results suggest that mating and social behavior of this species are likely influenced by population density. PMID:20011670

Baxter, B. Dnate'; Mendez-Harclerode, Francisca M.; Fulhorst, Charles F.; Bradley, Robert D.

2009-01-01

274

Paternally inherited markers in bovine hybrid populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic integrity of crossfertile bovine- or cattle-like species may be endangered by species hybridization. Previously, amplified fragment length polymorphism, satellite fragment length polymorphism and microsatellite assays have been used to analyze the species composition of nuclear DNA in taurine cattle, zebu, banteng and bison populations, while mitochondrial DNA reveals the origin of the maternal lineages. Here, we describe species-specific

E L C Verkaar; H Vervaecke; C Roden; L Romero Mendoza; M W Barwegen; T Susilawati; I J Nijman; J A Lenstra

2003-01-01

275

The changing face of "misidentified paternity".  

PubMed

Advances in genetic research and technology can have a profound impact on identity and family dynamics when genetic findings disrupt deeply held assumptions about the nuclear family. Ancestry tracing and paternity testing present parallel risks and opportunities. As these latter uses are now available over the internet directly to the consumer, bypassing the genetic counselor, consumers need adequate warning when making use of these new modalities. PMID:17712708

Davis, Dena S

2007-01-01

276

Consequences of paternal cocaine exposure in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the potential neuroteratological effects of paternal cocaine (COC) exposure using the novel mouse model of inhalational drug administration. In this model, mice were trained to self-administer COC in multi-hour daily inhalation sessions reminiscent of crack binges. The controls included males pair-fed with COC-inhaling animals as well as ad-lib-fed males. All males were bred with drug-naive females.

Fang He; Irina A. Lidow; Michael S. Lidow

2006-01-01

277

Transgenerational effects of preconception paternal contamination with (55)Fe.  

PubMed

The conjecture that germline mutations induced by radiation exposure before conception may predispose subsequent offspring to cancer remains contentious. Previous experimental studies have shown that preconception paternal irradiation with (239)Pu induces perturbations in the hemopoietic systems of offspring and influences sensitivity to a secondary carcinogen. In the present study, male DBA2 mice were injected intravenously with the Auger electron emitter (55)Fe (4 kBq g(-1)) 18 or 84 days before mating with normal females. Comet analysis showed an increased incidence of DNA strand breaks in sperm from contaminated animals after 84 days, but not after 18 days, indicating spermatogonial rather than spermatid damage. Offspring were either assayed for changes in bone marrow stem cells and committed progenitors or challenged with the chemical carcinogen methyl nitrosourea (MNU, 50 mg/kg) at 10 weeks of age and monitored for the onset of malignancy. Offspring from irradiated fathers had normal peripheral blood profiles, although the stem cell population was amplified in offspring arising from those exposed to (55)Fe at 84 days before conception. Exposure to MNU significantly increased the incidence of lympho-hemopoietic malignancies in offspring from the 84-day group, but not in those from the 18-day group. These findings support the hypothesis that aberrations that are potentially leukemogenic may be transmitted to offspring after radiation damage to the paternal germline. PMID:11604061

Hoyes, K P; Lord, B I; McCann, C; Hendry, J H; Morris, I D

2001-11-01

278

High frequency of submicroscopic chromosomal imbalances in patients with syndromic craniosynostosis detected by a combined approach of microsatellite segregation analysis, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and array-based comparative genome hybridisation.  

PubMed

We present the first comprehensive study, to our knowledge, on genomic chromosomal analysis in syndromic craniosynostosis. In total, 45 patients with craniosynostotic disorders were screened with a variety of methods including conventional karyotype, microsatellite segregation analysis, subtelomeric multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification) and whole-genome array-based comparative genome hybridisation. Causative abnormalities were present in 42.2% (19/45) of the samples, and 27.8% (10/36) of the patients with normal conventional karyotype carried submicroscopic imbalances. Our results include a wide variety of imbalances and point to novel chromosomal regions associated with craniosynostosis. The high incidence of pure duplications or trisomies suggests that these are important mechanisms in craniosynostosis, particularly in cases involving the metopic suture. PMID:18456720

Jehee, F S; Krepischi-Santos, A C V; Rocha, K M; Cavalcanti, D P; Kim, C A; Bertola, D R; Alonso, L G; D'Angelo, C S; Mazzeu, J F; Froyen, G; Lugtenberg, D; Vianna-Morgante, A M; Rosenberg, C; Passos-Bueno, M R

2008-07-01

279

Estimated genotype error rates from bowhead whale microsatellite data  

Microsoft Academic Search

We calculate error rates using opportunistic replicate samples in the microsatellite data for bowhead whales. The estimated rate (1%\\/genotype) falls within normal ranges reviewed in this paper. The results of a jackknife analysis identified five individuals that were highly influential on estimates of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for four different markers. In each case, the influential individual was homozygous for a rare

Phillip A Morin; Richard G LeDuc; Eric Archer; Karen K Martien; Barbara L Taylor; Ryan Huebinger; John W. Bickham

280

Addressing policy barriers to paternal involvement during pregnancy.  

PubMed

Efforts to reduce infant mortality in the United States have failed to incorporate paternal involvement. Research suggests that paternal involvement, which has been recognized as contributing to child development and health for many decades, is likely to affect infant mortality through the mother's well-being, primarily her access to resources and support. In spite of that, systemic barriers facing the father and the influence on his involvement in the pregnancy have received little attention. The Commission on Paternal Involvement in Pregnancy Outcomes (CPIPO) has identified the most important social barriers to paternal involvement during pregnancy and outlined a set of key policy priorities aimed at fostering paternal involvement. This article summarizes the key recommendations, including equitable paternity leave, elimination of marriage as a tax and public assistance penalty, integration of fatherhood initiatives in MCH programs, support of low-income fathers through employment training, father inclusion in family planning services, and expansion of birth data collection to include father information. PMID:21472512

Alio, Amina P; Bond, M Jermane; Padilla, Yolanda C; Heidelbaugh, Joel J; Lu, Michael; Parker, Willie J

2011-05-01

281

Paternity, parental behavior and circulating steroid hormone concentrations in nest-tending male bluegill  

E-print Network

Paternity, parental behavior and circulating steroid hormone concentrations in nest-tending male, we examined the relationships between circulating steroid hormones, paternity, and parental behavior a complex relationship between circulating steroid hormone levels, paternity and parental behavior. © 2009

Neff, Bryan D.

282

Female-directed aggression predicts paternal behavior, but female prairie voles prefer affiliative males to paternal males.  

PubMed

In the socially monogamous prairie vole, Microtus ochrogaster, male affiliation and parental care are influenced by the neuropeptide arginine vasopressin and expression of its receptor V1aR. If parental care and adult affiliation can be considered a behavioral syndrome, females might use male affiliative behavior as a cue to choose a good father. We investigated three questions: (1) do females prefer affiliative males; (2) do males that are affiliative with females demonstrate paternal behavior with pups; and (3) is male V1aR expression related to male behavior or female preference? We evaluated paternal behavior of individual males, then offered sexually receptive females a choice between paternal and non-paternal males and measured the proportion of time each male spent engaging in affiliative behavior with the choosing female. Females showed a preference for more affiliative males, but affiliation was not predictive of paternal care. Thus females did not discriminate between paternal and non-paternal males. Perhaps surprisingly, paternal behavior was correlated with the relative amount of aggression males directed toward females. Finally, females did not discriminate between males with high or low V1aR expression and V1aR expression did not predict male affiliative behavior or parental care. These data suggest that male affiliative behavior, but not paternal care, is associated with female mate choice. PMID:17878716

Ophir, Alexander G; Crino, Ondi L; Wilkerson, Quiana C; Wolff, Jerry O; Phelps, Steven M

2008-01-01

283

Transcriptome analysis of channel catfish ( Ictalurus punctatus): initial analysis of gene expression and microsatellite-containing cDNAs in the skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous molecular genetic studies on channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) have focused on limited number of genes and gene products. Recent advancement of molecular techniques made high throughput analysis of transcriptomes possible. As part of our transcriptome analysis of channel catfish, we have analyzed 1909 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) derived from a skin library. Of the 1909 ESTs analyzed, 1376 (72.1%)

Attila Karsi; Dongfeng Cao; Ping Li; Andrea Patterson; Arif Kocabas; Jinian Feng; Zhenlin Ju; Kathryn D. Mickett; Zhanjiang Liu

2002-01-01

284

Paternal Age and Risk of Autism in an Ethnically Diverse, Non-Industrialized Setting: Aruba  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to examine paternal age in relation to risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in a setting other than the industrialized west. Design A case-control study of Aruban-born children (1990–2003). Cases (N?=?95) were identified at the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clinic, the only such clinic in Aruba; gender and age matched controls (N?=?347) were gathered from public health records. Parental age was defined categorically (?29, 30–39, 40–49, ?50y). The analysis was made, using conditional logistic regression. Results Advanced paternal age was associated with increased risk of ASDs in offspring. In comparison to the youngest paternal age group (?29y), risk of autism increased 2.18 times for children born from fathers in their thirties, 2.71 times for fathers in their forties, and 3.22 thereafter. Conclusion This study, part of the first epidemiologic study of autism in the Caribbean, contributes additional evidence, from a distinctive sociocultural setting, of the risk of ASD associated with increased paternal age. PMID:22984615

van Balkom, Ingrid D. C.; Bresnahan, Michaeline; Vuijk, Pieter Jelle; Hubert, Jan; Susser, Ezra; Hoek, Hans W.

2012-01-01

285

Immune defence, extra-pair paternity, and sexual selection in birds  

PubMed Central

Secondary sexual characters have been suggested to reliably reflect the ability of individuals to resist debilitating parasites, and females may gain direct or indirect fitness benefits from preferring the most extravagantly ornamented males. Extra-pair paternity provides an estimate of an important component of sexual selection in birds. Species with a high frequency of extra-pair paternity have a variance in realized reproductive success that is greater than the variance in apparent reproductive success, and extra-pair copulations and hence extra-pair paternity by females are often directly associated with the expression of male secondary sexual characters. If sexually dichromatic species have experienced a long period of antagonistic coevolution with their parasites, such species should have evolved larger immune defence organs than sexually monochromatic species. Bird species with sexual dichromatism had larger spleens for their body size than monochromatic species in a comparative analysis. Furthermore, species with a high frequency of extra-pair paternity were sexually dichromatic and had large spleens for their body size. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that females of dichromatic bird species seek extra-pair copulations to obtain indirect fitness benefits in terms of superior resistance of their offspring to virulent parasites.

M?ller, A. P.

1997-01-01

286

A novel microsatellite control system  

SciTech Connect

The authors are researching extremely simple yet quite capable analog pulse-coded neural networks for ``smaller-faster-cheaper`` spacecraft attitude and control systems. The will demonstrate a prototype microsatellite that uses their novel control method to autonomously stabilize itself in the ambient magnetic field and point itself at the brightest available light source. Though still in design infancy, the ``Nervous Net`` controllers described could allow for space missions not currently possible given conventional satellite hardware. Result, prospects and details are presented.

Moore, K.R.; Frigo, J.R.; Tilden, M.W.

1998-02-01

287

Moral Status and the Wrongness of Paternalism  

PubMed Central

In this paper, I consider the view that paternalism is wrong when it demeans or diminishes the paternalizee’s moral status (the Moral Status Argument). I argue that we should reject the Moral Status Argument because it is both too narrow and too broad. It is too narrow because it cannot account for the wrongness of some of the most objectionable paternalistic interventions, namely strong paternalistic interventions. It is too broad because it is unable to distinguish between wrongful paternalistic acts that are plausibly considered more wrong than other wrongful paternalistic acts. PMID:25075133

Birks, David

2014-01-01

288

Modeling paternal attentiveness: distressed pups evoke differential neurobiological and behavioral responses in paternal and nonpaternal mice.  

PubMed

With the exception of parturition and lactation, male California deer mice (Peromyscus californicus) exhibit the same parental responses toward offspring as conspecific females. A closely related species, Peromyscus maniculatus, however, rarely exhibits paternal responses. In the current study, a comparative species approach was used to assess paternal responses in both Peromyscus species with varying levels of paternal experience (biological fathers, pup-exposed virgins, and pup-naïve virgins). Of special interest was the persistence of the males to direct their attention toward a distressed pup housed in a small enclosure (i.e., a barrier existed between males and pups). In addition to pup-directed responses, non-pup-directed responses such as grooming, resting and jumping were recorded. Subsequently, all animals' brains were assessed for fos-immunoreactivity (ir) in several areas previously associated with the paternal brain circuit. Overall, P. californicus exhibited more pup-directed responses as well as less fos-ir in brain areas involved in emotional integration and processing such as the insula and anterior cingulate. In addition to increased activation of emotional regulatory areas, P. maniculatus males, observed to direct their behavior away from the pup, exhibited higher fos-ir in the nucleus accumbens (involved in goal acquisition), perhaps due to a heightened motivation to avoid the pups. Interestingly, experience with pups altered the lateral septum and amygdala activation of P. maniculatus to levels similar to P. californicus biological fathers. Finally, fos-ir was increased in the medial preoptic area, involved in the maintenance of maternal behavior, in the biological fathers of both species. Thus, although biological predispositions toward pup-directed behaviors were observed in P. californicus males, evidence of a few shifts toward the paternal neural activation profile was apparent in P. maniculatus males. Specifically, modifications in fear responses and social processing may represent the cornerstones of the gradual shift from social tentativeness to social attentiveness in the presence of pups. PMID:23262236

Lambert, K G; Franssen, C L; Hampton, J E; Rzucidlo, A M; Hyer, M M; True, M; Kaufman, C; Bardi, M

2013-03-27

289

Assessment of application value of 19 autosomal short tandem repeat loci of GoldenEye 20A kit in forensic paternity testing.  

PubMed

This study was carried out to assess the application value of 19 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci of GoldenEye 20A kit, in which 13 combined DNA index system core STR loci and PentaE, PentaD, D2S1338, D19S433, D12S391, and D6S1043 of six STR loci could be used in forensic paternity testing in Chinese population. We amplified the genomic DNA from blood samples on FTA paper of 289 paternity testing cases by using the GoldenEye 20A kit. The amplified products were detected by capillary electrophoresis, and then the genotypes of 20 genetic markers including 19 STR loci as well as Amelogenin for sex determination were analyzed by GeneMapper v3.2 and GeneMarker HID Software. The results of genotypes were compared to the three commonly used commercial kits including AmpF?STR Identifiler, PowerPlex16, and AmpF?STR Sinofiler kits. Compared to the three other common commercial kits, the GoldenEye 20A kit had higher value of combined paternity index in certainty of paternity or non-exclusion paternity cases, and more numbers of STR loci were excluded in exclusionary paternity cases. Our data in this study showed that the GoldenEye 20A kit has a higher application value in forensic paternity testing and will be of help for kinship analysis. PMID:23483205

Huang, Yan-Mei; Wang, Jie; Jiao, Zhangping; Yang, Liu; Zhang, Xinning; Tang, Hui; Liu, Yacheng

2013-05-01

290

Dynamic adjustment of parental care in response to perceived paternity  

E-print Network

of genetic relatedness between an adult and their young while holding everything else constant. Experimental- tion on paternity during brood development. Speci¢cally, as parental males detect paternity lost to provide to their young (reviewed by Westneat & Sargent 1996; Wright 1998; see also Kokko & McRae 2000

Gross, Mart

291

Multiple Paternity in Polyandrous Barn Owls (Tyto alba) Isabelle Henry.  

E-print Network

Multiple Paternity in Polyandrous Barn Owls (Tyto alba) Isabelle Henry. , Sylvain Antoniazza females produce successive clutches with several males. Female barn owls (Tyto alba) often desert Paternity in Polyandrous Barn Owls (Tyto alba). PLoS ONE 8(11): e80112. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0080112

Alvarez, Nadir

292

Postdivorce Paternal Disengagement: Failed Mourning and Role Fusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, I suggest that postdivorce paternal disengagement may be rooted in the father's tendency to link his children and ex-wife as a single entity in consequence of his failure to adequately mourn the loss of his ex-wife and to redefine his paternal role and identity in distinction from his spousal role and identity. I also suggest that…

Baum, Nehami

2006-01-01

293

ORIGINS OF RISK Paternal and Neighborhood Influences on  

E-print Network

ORIGINS OF RISK Paternal and Neighborhood Influences on Child and Family Functioning Hiram E of Paternal Behavior and Influence on Children over Time Child Characteristics Father Characteristics Father-Milwaukee WAIMH Symposium The Ecology of Father Involvement: Families, Parental Involvement, Programs

294

45 CFR 302.31 - Establishing paternity and securing support.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...1 of this chapter is effective, to secure support for a child or children...all activities to establish paternity or secure support until notified of a final determination...not undertake to establish paternity or secure support in any case for which it...

2010-10-01

295

Parental Psychopathology and Paternal Child Neglect in Late Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We aimed at determining the association of both severity of paternal and maternal substance use disorder (SUD) and psychiatric disorders with paternal child neglect severity during late childhood. The sample comprised 146 intact SUD (n=71) and non SUD (n=75) families with a 10-12 year old female or male biological offspring. The average age of…

Stewart, Chris; Mezzich, Ada C.; Day, Bang-Shiuh

2006-01-01

296

MICROSATELLITE LETTERS EST-based microsatellites for northern pike (Esox lucius)  

E-print Network

MICROSATELLITE LETTERS EST-based microsatellites for northern pike (Esox lucius) and cross novel microsatellite markers in North American northern pike, Esox lucius, and tested cross out of 17 loci were successfully cross-amplified on all species. Keywords Esox lucius Á Northern pike

Bernatchez, Louis

297

Microsatellite markers for Lycium ruthenicum (Solananeae).  

PubMed

We developed microsatellite markers in Lycium ruthenicum, a desert plant widely distributed in northwestern China. In order to investigate its population genetic structure, genetic diversity, and its evolutionary history, we have isolated 11 novel microsatellite loci primers and characterized them in 24 individuals from 3 populations of L. ruthenicum using the combined biotin capture technique. For these microsatellites, one to seven alleles per locus were identified. The observed heterozygosities ranged from 0 to 0.958, meanwhile the expected heterozygosities ranged from 0 to 0.841. These microsatellite markers could be first useful for population level studies like genetic diversity and structure in this species. PMID:25028267

Chen, Hai-Kui; Zhong, Yang

2014-09-01

298

Skewed paternity and sex allocation in hermaphroditic plants and animals.  

PubMed Central

Models predict a reduced allocation to sperm when females preferentially use one of two males' sperm and the males do not know who is favoured. An analogous discounting occurs in plants when their paternity success is skewed by random, non-heritable factors such as location in the population and pollinator behaviour. We present a model that shows that skewed paternity can affect the sex allocation of hermaphrodites, that is it leads to a female-biased investment. The model highlights the close links between local mate competition and sperm competition. We use paternity data from Ficus in order to illustrate that skews in paternity success can lead to a high degree of sibling gamete competition in an apparently open breeding system. Since skews in paternity are ubiquitous in hermaphroditic plants and animals these findings should apply broadly. PMID:11600078

Greeff, J. M.; Nason, J. D.; Compton, S. G.

2001-01-01

299

Phylogeography and population structure of the saker falcon ( Falco cherrug ) and the influence of hybridization: mitochondrial and microsatellite data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsatellite as well as sequence analysis of the mitochondrial control region were applied to infer phylogeography and population genetic structure of the saker falcon ( Falco cherrug ). Furthermore, we compared the patterns of mitochondrial haplotypes with the variation of microsatellite alleles among the species of the hierofalcon complex ( F. cherrug , Falco rusticolus , Falco biarmicus , Falco

FRANZISKA NITTINGER; ANITA GAMAUF; WILHELM PINSKER; MICHAEL WINK; ELISABETH HARING

300

Population genetic structure of Sorex unguiculatus and Sorex caecutiens (Soricidae, Mammalia) in Hokkaido, based on microsatellite DNA polymorphism  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the genetic structure of Sorex unguiculatus and Sorex caecutiens populations in Hokkaido, Japan, using hypervariable microsatellite DNA markers. We used five microsatellite loci to type 475 S. unguiculatus individuals from 20 localities on the Hokkaido mainland and four localities from each of four offshore islands (and 11 shrews from one locality in southern Sakhalin for a particular analysis).

Yukako Naitoh; Satoshi D. Ohdachi

2006-01-01

301

Reconstruction of Microsatellite Mutation History Reveals a Strong and Consistent Deletion Bias in Invasive Clonal Snails, Potamopyrgus antipodarum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct observations of mutations and comparative analyses suggest that nuclear microsatellites show a tendency to expand, with reports of deletion biases limited to very long alleles or a few loci in multilocus studies. Here we investigate microsatellite evolution in clonal snails, Potamopyrgus antipodarum, since their introduction to Britain in the 19th century, using an analysis based on minimum spanning networks

David Weetman; Lorenz Hauser; Gary R. Carvalho

2002-01-01

302

Survey of microsatellite clustering in eight fully sequenced species sheds light on the origin of compound microsatellites  

PubMed Central

Background Compound microsatellites are a special variation of microsatellites in which two or more individual microsatellites are found directly adjacent to each other. Until now, such composite microsatellites have not been investigated in a comprehensive manner. Results Our in silico survey of microsatellite clustering in genomes of Homo sapiens, Maccaca mulatta, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, Gallus gallus, Danio rerio and Drosophila melanogaster revealed an unexpected high abundance of compound microsatellites. About 4 – 25% of all microsatellites could be categorized as compound microsatellites. Compound microsatellites are approximately 15 times more frequent than expected under the assumption of a random distribution of microsatellites. Interestingly, microsatellites do not only tend to cluster but the adjacent repeat types of compound microsatellites have very similar motifs: in most cases (>90%) these motifs differ only by a single mutation (base substitution or indel). We propose that the majority of the compound microsatellites originates by duplication of imperfections in a microsatellite tract. This process occurs mostly at the end of a microsatellite, leading to a new repeat type and a potential microsatellite repeat track. Conclusion Our findings suggest a more dynamic picture of microsatellite evolution than previously believed. Imperfections within microsatellites might not only cause the "death" of microsatellites they might also result in their "birth". PMID:19091106

Kofler, Robert; Schlotterer, Christian; Luschutzky, Evita; Lelley, Tamas

2008-01-01

303

Successful development of microsatellite markers in a challenging species: the horizontal borer Austroplatypus incompertus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).  

PubMed

The analysis of microsatellite loci has allowed significant advances in evolutionary biology and pest management. However, until very recently, the potential benefits have been compromised by the high costs of developing these neutral markers. High-throughput sequencing provides a solution to this problem. We describe the development of 13 microsatellite markers for the eusocial ambrosia beetle, Austroplatypus incompertus, a significant pest of forests in southeast Australia. The frequency of microsatellite repeats in the genome of A. incompertus was determined to be low, and previous attempts at microsatellite isolation using a traditional genomic library were problematic. Here, we utilised two protocols, microsatellite-enriched genomic library construction and high-throughput 454 sequencing and characterised 13 loci which were polymorphic among 32 individuals. Numbers of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 17, and observed and expected heterozygosities from 0.344 to 0.767 and from 0.507 to 0.860, respectively. These microsatellites have the resolution required to analyse fine-scale colony and population genetic structure. Our work demonstrates the utility of next-generation 454 sequencing as a method for rapid and cost-effective acquisition of microsatellites where other techniques have failed, or for taxa where marker development has historically been both complicated and expensive. PMID:21477421

Smith, S; Joss, T; Stow, A

2011-10-01

304

High resolution of human evolutionary trees with polymorphic microsatellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

GENETIC variation at hypervariable loci is being used extensively for linkage analysis1 and individual identification2, and may be useful for inter-population studies2-5. Here we show that polymorphic microsatellites (primarily CA repeats) allow trees of human individuals to be constructed that reflect their geographic origin with remarkable accuracy. This is achieved by the analysis of a large number of loci for

A. M. Bowcock; A. Ruiz-Linares; J. Tomfohrde; E. Minch; J. R. Kidd; L. L. Cavalli-Sforza

1994-01-01

305

Microsatellite and mtDNA analysis of lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, from Great Bear Lake, Northwest Territories: impacts of historical and contemporary evolutionary forces on Arctic ecosystems  

PubMed Central

Resolving the genetic population structure of species inhabiting pristine, high latitude ecosystems can provide novel insights into the post-glacial, evolutionary processes shaping the distribution of contemporary genetic variation. In this study, we assayed genetic variation in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Great Bear Lake (GBL), NT and one population outside of this lake (Sandy Lake, NT) at 11 microsatellite loci and the mtDNA control region (d-loop). Overall, population subdivision was low, but significant (global FST ? = 0.025), and pairwise comparisons indicated that significance was heavily influenced by comparisons between GBL localities and Sandy Lake. Our data indicate that there is no obvious genetic structure among the various basins within GBL (global FST = 0.002) despite the large geographic distances between sampling areas. We found evidence of low levels of contemporary gene flow among arms within GBL, but not between Sandy Lake and GBL. Coalescent analyses suggested that some historical gene flow occurred among arms within GBL and between GBL and Sandy Lake. It appears, therefore, that contemporary (ongoing dispersal and gene flow) and historical (historical gene flow and large founding and present-day effective population sizes) factors contribute to the lack of neutral genetic structure in GBL. Overall, our results illustrate the importance of history (e.g., post-glacial colonization) and contemporary dispersal ecology in shaping genetic population structure of Arctic faunas and provide a better understanding of the evolutionary ecology of long-lived salmonids in pristine, interconnected habitats. PMID:23404390

Harris, Les N; Howland, Kimberly L; Kowalchuk, Matthew W; Bajno, Robert; Lindsay, Melissa M; Taylor, Eric B

2013-01-01

306

Familial true hermaphroditism: paternal and maternal transmission of true hermaphroditism (46,XX) and XX maleness in the absence of Y-chromosomal sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on 46,XX true hermaphroditism and 46,XX maleness coexisting in the same pedigree, with maternal as well as paternal transmission of the disorder. Molecular genetic analysis showed that both hermaphrodites as well as the 46,XX male were negative for Y-chromosomal sequences. Thus, this pedigree is highly informative and allows the following conclusions: first, the maternal as well as paternal

U. Kuhnle; H. P. Schwarz; U. Löhrs; S. Stengel-Ruthkowski; H. Cleve; A. Braun

1993-01-01

307

Effects of body size on male mating tactics and paternity in black bears, Ursus americanus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reproductive behaviour of large, solitary mammals is difficult to study. Owing to their secretive nature and wide-ranging habits, aspects of male mating behaviour are poorly documented in solitary than in social species. We used radiotelemetry and microsatellite DNA analysis to investigate the influence of body size on male mating tac- tics and short-term reproductive success in the black bear,

Adrienne I. Kovach; Roger A. Powell

2003-01-01

308

Microsatellites: simple sequences with complex evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few genetic markers, if any, have found such widespread use as microsatellites, or simple\\/short tandem repeats. Features such as hypervariability and ubiquitous occurrence explain their usefulness, but these features also pose several questions. For example, why are microsatellites so abundant, why are they so polymorphic and by what mechanism do they mutate? Most importantly, what governs the intricate balance between

Hans Ellegren

2004-01-01

309

Male age mediates reproductive investment and response to paternity assurance  

PubMed Central

Theory predicts that male response to reduced paternity will depend on male state and interactions between the sexes. If there is little chance of reproducing again, then males should invest heavily in current offspring, regardless of their share in paternity. We tested this by manipulating male age and paternity assurance in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides. We found older males invested more in both mating effort and parental effort than younger males. Furthermore, male age, a component of male state, mediated male response to perceived paternity. Older males provided more prenatal care, whereas younger males provided less prenatal care, when perceived paternity was low. Adjustments in male care, however, did not influence selection acting indirectly on parents, through offspring performance. This is because females adjusted their care in response to the age of their partner, providing less care when paired with older males than younger males. As a result offspring, performance did not differ between treatments. Our study shows, for the first time, that a male state variable is an important modifier of paternity–parental care trade-offs and highlights the importance of social interactions between males and females during care in determining male response to perceived paternity. PMID:23782889

Benowitz, Kyle M.; Head, Megan L.; Williams, Camellia A.; Moore, Allen J.; Royle, Nick J.

2013-01-01

310

The impact of paternity on male-infant association in a primate with low paternity certainty.  

PubMed

In multimale groups where females mate promiscuously, male-infant associations have rarely been studied. However, recent studies have shown that males selectively support their offspring during agonistic conflicts with other juveniles and that father's presence accelerates offspring maturation. Furthermore, it was shown that males invest in unrelated infants to enhance future mating success with the infant's mother. Hence, infant care might provide fitness gain for males. Here, we investigate male-infant associations in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), a primate with low paternity certainty as females mate with multiple partners and males ensure paternity less efficiently through mate-guarding. We combined behavioural data with genetic paternity analyses of one cohort of the semi-free-ranging population of Cayo Santiago (Puerto Rico) and recorded affiliative and aggressive interactions between focal subjects and adult males from birth to sexual maturation (0-4 years) of focal subjects. Our results revealed that 9.6% of all interactions of focal subjects involved an adult male and 94% of all male-infant interactions were affiliative, indicating the rareness of male-infant aggression. Second and most interestingly, sires were more likely to affiliate with their offspring than nonsires with unrelated infants. This preference was independent of mother's proximity and emphasized during early infancy. Male-infant affiliation rose with infant age and was pronounced between adult males and male rather than female focal subjects. Overall, our results suggest that male-infant affiliation is also an important component in structuring primate societies and affiliation directed towards own offspring presumably represent low-cost paternal care. PMID:23682587

Langos, Doreen; Kulik, Lars; Mundry, Roger; Widdig, Anja

2013-07-01

311

Paternity testing using Y-STR haplotypes: assigning a probability for paternity in cases of mutations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In parentage testing with male children, Y-chromosomal STR evidence is gaining more and more importance. In some cases, multilocus\\u000a haplotypes of related persons can differ at a single locus due to a mutation. In this work, a likelihood approach is presented\\u000a for the calculation of a probability for paternity under consideration of a single mutation event on the Y-chromosome. The

B. Rolf; W. Keil; B. Brinkmann; L. Roewer; R. Fimmers

2001-01-01

312

Central Vasopressin Administration Regulates the Onset of Facultative Paternal Behavior in Microtus pennsylvanicus (Meadow Voles)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pharmacological experiments have implicated a role for central arginine vasopressin (AVP) in regulating paternal behavior in monogamous prairie voles. Although nonmonogamous meadow voles exhibit appreciable paternal care when housed under winter, short day lengths (SD), no research has examined whether the same neurobiological systems are involved in regulating paternal behavior in a nonmonogamous species when it behaves paternally. The goal

Karen J Parker; Theresa M Lee

2001-01-01

313

Demographic characteristics in adult paternity for first births to adolescents under 15 years of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To examine parental demographic characteristics by adult (? 20 years at baby’s conception) and teenage (Methods: This was a population-based, retrospective cohort analysis of all 12,317 very young adolescent mothers residing in California with a first singleton live birth during 1993–1995. Risks for adult, compared to teenage, paternity were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression.Results: Adult fathers, responsible for 26.7%

Don J Taylor; Gilberto F Chavez; Elizabeth J Adams; Anand Chabra; Rugmini S Shah

1999-01-01

314

Phylogenetic split of Larix : evidence from paternally inherited cpDNA trn T- trn F region  

Microsoft Academic Search

A molecular phylogeny of Larix com- prising 12 species was constructed from the sequence analysis of the paternally inherited cpDNA trnT-trnF region of 46 individuals. The most parsimonious tree split Larix into three sister clades: one clade was composed of two North American species, the other two were short-bracted and long-bracted species of Eurasia respectively except that L. sibirica was

X.-X. Wei; X.-Q. Wang

2003-01-01

315

Phylogenetic split of Larix : evidence from paternally inherited cpDNA trn T- trn F region  

Microsoft Academic Search

A molecular phylogeny of Larix comprising 12 species was constructed from the sequence analysis of the paternally inherited cpDNA trnT- trnF region of 46 individuals. The most parsimonious tree split Larix into three sister clades: one clade was composed of two North American species, the other two were short-bracted and long-bracted species of Eurasia respectively except that L. sibirica was

X.-X. Wei; X.-Q. Wang

2003-01-01

316

The development of 10 novel polymorphic microsatellite markers through next generation sequencing and a preliminary population genetic analysis for the endangered Glenelg spiny crayfish, Euastacus bispinosus.  

PubMed

The Glenelg spiny crayfish, Euastacus bispinosus, is an iconic freshwater invertebrate of south eastern Australia and listed as 'endangered' under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999, and 'vulnerable' under the International Union for Conservation of Nature's Red List. The species has suffered major population declines as a result of over-fishing, low environmental flows, the introduction of invasive fish species and habitat degradation. In order to develop an effective conservation strategy, patterns of gene flow, genetic structure and genetic diversity across the species distribution need to be clearly understood. In this study we develop a suite of polymorphic microsatellite markers by next generation sequencing. A total of 15 polymorphic loci were identified and 10 characterized using 22 individuals from the lower Glenelg River. We observed low to moderate genetic variation across most loci (mean number of alleles per locus = 2.80; mean expected heterozygosity = 0.36) with no evidence of individual loci deviating significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Marker independence was confirmed with tests for linkage disequilibrium, and analyses indicated no evidence of null alleles across loci. Individuals from two additional sites (Crawford River, Victoria; Ewens Ponds Conservation Park, South Australia) were genotyped at all 10 loci and a preliminary investigation of genetic diversity and population structure was undertaken. Analyses indicate high levels of genetic differentiation among sample locations (F ST = 0.49), while the Ewens Ponds population is genetically homogeneous, indicating a likely small founder group and ongoing inbreeding. Management actions will be needed to restore genetic diversity in this and possibly other at risk populations. These markers will provide a valuable resource for future population genetic assessments so that an effective framework can be developed for implementing conservation strategies for E. bispinosus. PMID:23644985

Miller, Adam D; Van Rooyen, Anthony; Sweeney, Oisín F; Whiterod, Nick S; Weeks, Andrew R

2013-07-01

317

Genetic differentiation and genetic diversity of Castanopsis (Fagaceae), the dominant tree species in Japanese broadleaved evergreen forests, revealed by analysis of EST-associated microsatellites.  

PubMed

The broadleaved evergreen forests of the East Asian warm temperate zone are characterised by their high biodiversity and endemism, and there is therefore a need to extend our understanding of its genetic diversity and phylogeographic patterns. Castanopsis (Fagaceae) is one of the dominant tree species in the broadleaved evergreen forests of Japan. In this study we investigate the genetic diversity, genetic structure and leaf epidermal morphology of 63 natural populations of C. sieboldii and C. cuspidata, using 32 Expressed Sequence Tag associated microsatellites. The overall genetic differentiation between populations was low (GST?=?0.069 in C. sieboldii and GST?=?0.057 in C. cuspidata). Neighbor-joining tree and Bayesian clustering analyses revealed that the populations of C. sieboldii and C. cuspidata were genetically clearly differentiated, a result which is consistent with the morphology of their epidermal cell layers. This suggests that C. sieboldii and C. cuspidata should be treated as independent species, although intermediate morphologies are often observed, especially at sites where the two species coexist. The higher level of genetic diversity observed in the Kyushu region (for both species) and the Ryukyu Islands (for C. sieboldii) is consistent with the available fossil pollen data for Castanopsis-type broadleaved evergreen trees during the Last Glacial Maximum and suggests the existence of refugia for Castanopsis forests in southern Japan. Within the C. sieboldii populations, Bayesian clustering analyses detected three clusters, in the western and eastern parts of the main islands and in the Ryukyu Islands. The west-east genetic differentiation observed for this species in the main islands, a pattern which is also found in several plant and animal species inhabiting Castanopsis forests in Japan, suggests that they have been isolated from each other in the western and eastern populations for an extended period of time, and may imply the existence of eastern refugia. PMID:24498103

Aoki, Kyoko; Ueno, Saneyoshi; Kamijo, Takashi; Setoguchi, Hiroaki; Murakami, Noriaki; Kato, Makoto; Tsumura, Yoshihiko

2014-01-01

318

Microsatellite and mtDNA analysis of lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, from Great Bear Lake, Northwest Territories: impacts of historical and contemporary evolutionary forces on Arctic ecosystems.  

PubMed

Resolving the genetic population structure of species inhabiting pristine, high latitude ecosystems can provide novel insights into the post-glacial, evolutionary processes shaping the distribution of contemporary genetic variation. In this study, we assayed genetic variation in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Great Bear Lake (GBL), NT and one population outside of this lake (Sandy Lake, NT) at 11 microsatellite loci and the mtDNA control region (d-loop). Overall, population subdivision was low, but significant (global F(ST) ? = 0.025), and pairwise comparisons indicated that significance was heavily influenced by comparisons between GBL localities and Sandy Lake. Our data indicate that there is no obvious genetic structure among the various basins within GBL (global F(ST) = 0.002) despite the large geographic distances between sampling areas. We found evidence of low levels of contemporary gene flow among arms within GBL, but not between Sandy Lake and GBL. Coalescent analyses suggested that some historical gene flow occurred among arms within GBL and between GBL and Sandy Lake. It appears, therefore, that contemporary (ongoing dispersal and gene flow) and historical (historical gene flow and large founding and present-day effective population sizes) factors contribute to the lack of neutral genetic structure in GBL. Overall, our results illustrate the importance of history (e.g., post-glacial colonization) and contemporary dispersal ecology in shaping genetic population structure of Arctic faunas and provide a better understanding of the evolutionary ecology of long-lived salmonids in pristine, interconnected habitats. PMID:23404390

Harris, Les N; Howland, Kimberly L; Kowalchuk, Matthew W; Bajno, Robert; Lindsay, Melissa M; Taylor, Eric B

2012-01-01

319

Identification of grapevine clone genotypes by use of microsatellite markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

An SSR-analysis of rootstock, technical, and table grapevine cultivar clones was performed. The allelic characteristics of\\u000a grapevine cultivar clones were obtained at microsatellite loci; this characteristic can be used to identify and sertificate\\u000a grapevine clone genotypes. A high level of mutation variability among the rootstock and technical cultivars was discovered.\\u000a DNA passports for prospective clones were created. The genotyping results

B. R. Bocharova; I. A. Kovaliova; L. S. Mazurenko

2009-01-01

320

Evidence of a preferential inactivation of the paternally derived X chromosome in a 46,XX true hermaphrodite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pattern of inheritance of several X polymorphic markers is studied in the pedigree of a 46,XX true hermaphrodite. The results of the Xga, 12E7, and G6PD segregation analysis favour the hypothesis of a preferential inactivation of the paternally derived X chromosome.

C. Boucekkine; D. Nafa; M. Casanova-Bettane; F. Latron; M. Fellous; M. Benmiloud

1985-01-01

321

Dynamic Paternity Allocation as a Function of Male Plumage  

E-print Network

Dynamic Paternity Allocation as a Function of Male Plumage Color in Barn Swallows R. J. Safran,1. erythrogaster (13). We used a paired design to test whether within-season changes in male coloration affect

Safran, Rebecca

322

522 REPRODUCTIVE SUPPRESSION behaviour including brooding and nursing paternal  

E-print Network

522 REPRODUCTIVE SUPPRESSION behaviour ­ including brooding and nursing ­ paternal behaviour and other aspects of parental behaviour, as well as behaviours associated with maximizing reproductive opportunity such as territoriality. (DSM) See also: Reproduction Reproductive suppression Reproductive

Saltzman, Wendy

323

Canine Paternity Testing--Using Personal Experiences To Teach Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines how an example from the field of animal husbandry is used in a DNA Technology course to motivate students to take a deeper interest in the material. Focuses on paternity testing in dogs. (DDR)

Rascati, Ralph J.

2002-01-01

324

Maternal depression, paternal psychopathology, and adolescent diagnostic outcomes  

E-print Network

The authors examined the relationship between maternal depression, paternal psychopathology, and adolescent diagnostic outcomes in a community sample of 522 Australian families. They also examined whether chronic family stress, father’s expressed emotion, and parents ’ marital satisfaction mediated the relationship between parental psychopathology and adolescent outcomes. Mother’s education, child’s gender, and family income were covaried in all analyses. Results revealed that maternal depression and paternal depression had an additive effect on youth externalizing disorders. In addition, maternal depression interacted with both paternal depression and paternal substance abuse in predicting youth depression but not youth nondepressive disorders. Chronic family stress and father’s expressed emotion appeared to mediate the relationship between parental psychopathology and youth depression. There is a large body of research documenting an association between maternal depression and the presence of behavior problems in offspring. In particular, children of depressed parents have been found to be more likely to be depressed themselves (Downey &

Patricia A. Brennan; Constance Hammen; Anna R. Katz; Robyne M. Le Brocque

2002-01-01

325

Microsatellite retrieval in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).  

PubMed

By using enriched genomic libraries, microsatellite-containing sequences were isolated from lettuce (Lactuca sativa) with high efficiency. With this approach, a sizeable fraction (up to 55%) of the clones contained a microsatellite. In about half of these clones, primers could be designed for PCR amplification of the microsatellite. This yielded 28 primer sets amplifying unambiguously scorable products, of which 26 showed polymorphisms in a test set of six lettuce varieties. Practically all microsatellite-amplifying primer sets yielded products in lettuce's nearest relative, L. serriola, but only half of the primer sets yielded products in the more distant species L. saligna and L. virosa. An average polymorphism information content (PIC) value of 0.55 and an average number of 3.5 alleles per locus were in the normal range for a self-fertilizing species like lettuce. In addition, the incidental cloning of a microsatellite-containing repeat family, apparently specific for Lactuca, is reported and the implications for the efficient retrieval of single-locus microsatellite sequences are discussed. The microsatellite loci isolated will be useful for distinguishing lettuce cultivars and for screening diversity of genetic resources. PMID:10208007

van de Wiel, C; Arens, P; Vosman, B

1999-02-01

326

Paternity cues and mating opportunities: what makes fathers good?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human males provide facultative paternal investment to their offspring; that is, the male care is not necessary for the survival\\u000a of his offspring. It is expected that the degree of male investment (1) increases with growing paternity certainty, (2) increases\\u000a when investment increases the survival and later reproductive prospect of offspring and (3) declines when there are opportunities\\u000a to mate

Pavol Prokop; Zuzana Obertová; Peter Fedor

2010-01-01

327

Paternal social enrichment effects on maternal behavior and offspring growth  

PubMed Central

Paternal environmental experiences are significant predictors of developmental outcomes in offspring and can occur even in the absence of paternal care. Although there has been a recent focus on the role of environmentally induced changes in the male germline in producing these effects, the potential mediating role of mothers has not been investigated. A role for mothers in the transmission of paternal effects has been well acknowledged in behavioral ecology, which predicts that females will dynamically adjust their reproductive investment in response to the qualities of their mate. In the present study, we show that a lifetime of socially enriched compared with impoverished housing conditions shifts anxiety-like behavior and gene expression of male mice. Females that mate with enriched-reared males exhibit increased levels of pup nursing and licking toward their offspring, which are associated with changes in gene expression within the maternal hypothalamus. Significantly, these changes in maternal behavior are correlated with the general levels of anxiety exhibited by their male mates. Further, we show that paternal environmental enrichment results in increased growth of their offspring. These results suggest that maternal–paternal interactions at mating may guide offspring development, with significant implications for the transgenerational transmission of paternal environmental experiences. PMID:23045657

Mashoodh, Rahia; Franks, Becca; Curley, James P.; Champagne, Frances A.

2012-01-01

328

FishMicrosat: a microsatellite database of commercially important fishes and shellfishes of the Indian subcontinent  

PubMed Central

Background Microsatellite DNA is one of many powerful genetic markers used for the construction of genetic linkage maps and the study of population genetics. The biological databases in public domain hold vast numbers of microsatellite sequences for many organisms including fishes. The microsatellite data available in these data sources were extracted and managed into a database that facilitates sequences analysis and browsing relevant information. The system also helps to design primer sequences for flanking regions of repeat loci for PCR identification of polymorphism within populations. Description FishMicrosat is a database of microsatellite sequences of fishes and shellfishes that includes important aquaculture species such as Lates calcarifer, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Penaeus monodon, Labeo rohita, Oreochromis niloticus, Fenneropenaeus indicus and Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The database contains 4398 microsatellite sequences of 41 species belonging to 15 families from the Indian subcontinent. GenBank of NCBI was used as a prime data source for developing the database. The database presents information about simple and compound microsatellites, their clusters and locus orientation within sequences. The database has been integrated with different tools in a web interface such as primer designing, locus finding, mapping repeats, detecting similarities among sequences across species, and searching using motifs and keywords. In addition, the database has the ability to browse information on the top 10 families and the top 10 species, through record overview. Conclusions FishMicrosat database is a useful resource for fish and shellfish microsatellite analyses and locus identification across species, which has important applications in population genetics, evolutionary studies and genetic relatedness among species. The database can be expanded further to include the microsatellite data of fishes and shellfishes from other regions and available information on genome sequencing project of species of aquaculture importance. PMID:24047532

2013-01-01

329

The Importance of 10q Status in an Outcomes-Based Comparison Between 1p/19q Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization and PCR-Based Microsatellite Loss of Heterozygosity Analysis of Oligodendrogliomas  

PubMed Central

1p/19q codeletion is a favorable prognostic marker of oligodendrogliomas. While fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and microsatellite-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) are common methods to test for 1p/19q codeletion, it is unclear which test is better at prognostic stratification. This study analyzed outcomes of 111 oligodendrogliomas with both 1p/19q FISH and LOH done at the time of diagnosis. Overall concordance between the 2 assays was 81.1%. In grade III oligodendrogliomas, LOH was better than FISH at survival stratification (p < 0.0001 for LOH vs. p = 0.02 for FISH), although increasing the stringency of FISH interpretation criteria improved concordance and prognostic power. Oligodendrogliomas that were 1p/19q-codeleted by FISH but also had 10q LOH were negative for 1p/19q codeletion by PCR analysis in over 70% of cases, with very poor survival in the grade III subset. Thus, although PCR-based LOH is a better stratifier of 1p/19q status, FISH still has clinical and prognostic utility, especially if 10q data can be incorporated. PMID:22157622

Horbinski, Craig; Nikiforova, Marina N.; Hobbs, Jonathan; Cieply, Kathleen; Dacic, Sanja; Hamilton, Ronald L.

2011-01-01

330

RCUK Briefing on Maternity, Paternity and Adoption Leave and Pay This comprehensive briefing provides information relating to Maternity, Paternity and Adoption Leave and Pay from  

E-print Network

RCUK Briefing on Maternity, Paternity and Adoption Leave and Pay This comprehensive briefing provides information relating to Maternity, Paternity and Adoption Leave and Pay from the Terms, paternity and adoption leave and make provision for additional stipend to be paid where appropriate

Berzins, M.

331

Cues of Paternal Uncertainty and Father to Child Physical Abuse as Reported by Mothers in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Paternity is uncertain, so if paternal feelings evolved to promote fitness, we might expect them to vary in response to variables indicative of paternity probability. We therefore hypothesized that the risk of lapses of paternal affection, including abusive assaults on children, will be exacerbated by cues of non-paternity. Methods:…

Alexandre, Gisele Caldas; Nadanovsky, Paulo; Wilson, Margo; Daly, Martin; Moraes, Claudia Leite; Reichenheim, Michael

2011-01-01

332

Uniparental isodisomy for paternal 7p and maternal 7q in a child with growth retardation  

SciTech Connect

Uniparental isodisomy resulting from the simultaneous presence of isochromosomes of the p and q arms of a chromosome and absence of a normal homologue is an exceptionally rare event. The authors have observed a growth-retarded female infant in whom the normal chromosome 7 homologues were replaced by what appeared cytogenetically to be isochromosomes of 7p and 7q. Polymorphic microsatellite loci spanning the length of 7p and 7q were analyzed in the proband and her parents to ascertain the parental origin and extent of heterozygosity of the proband's rearranged chromosomes. These studies demonstrated that the 7p alleles of the proband were derived only from the father, the 7q alleles were derived only from the mother, and there was homozygosity for all chromosome 7 loci analyzed. The mechanisms leading to the formation of the proband's isochromosomes could reflect abnormalities of cell division occurring at meiosis, postfertilization mitosis, or both. The authors believe that the present case may result from incomplete mitotic interchange in the pericentromeric regions of chromosome 7 homologues, with resolution by sister-chromatid reunion in an early, if not first, zygotic division. Phenotypically, the proband resembled three previously reported cases of maternal isodisomy for chromosome 7, suggesting that lack of paternal genes from 7q may result in a phenotype of short stature and growth retardation. 76 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Eggerding, F.A.; Schonberg, S.A.; Cox, V.A.; Epstein, C.J. (Perkin Elmer Corp., Foster City, CA (United States) Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)); Chehab, F.F.; Norton, M.E. (Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States))

1994-08-01

333

Intentional mixed buccal cell reference sample in a paternity case.  

PubMed

We report a case where an alleged father (AF) attempted to substitute someone else's saliva sample for his reference sample in a paternity analysis. Buccal cells were collected from the AF and the child, and DNA analysis was performed using an autosomal STR loci (Identifiler). The profile from the AF showed extra peaks in some loci, as well as a much higher "X" allele peak relative to the "Y" allele peak at the amelogenin locus. After conducting reanalysis by another technician with another set of positive and negative controls, it was concluded that the only source of the mixed profile was by intentional introduction by the AF, at the time of sampling, of some foreign human biological material, most likely saliva from a woman. Owing to the inconclusive results, when the AF was called back to the lab and the peculiar results were explained to him, he admitted that he had introduced into his mouth saliva from another person in an attempt to be excluded as the father of the child. Although tampering with DNA reference samples is not common, some individuals may attempt to contaminate or otherwise adulterate specimens before DNA tests. Personnel responsible for sampling should be aware of this possibility and should try to establish procedures to avoid the problem. PMID:17316239

Martinez-Gonzalez, Luis J; Lorente, Jose A; Martinez-Espin, Esther; Alvarez, J Carlos; Lorente, Miguel; Villanueva, Enrique; Budowle, Bruce

2007-03-01

334

Extra-pair paternity confirmed in wild white-handed gibbons.  

PubMed

Knowledge of the genetic mating system of animal species is essential for our understanding of the evolution of social systems and individual reproductive strategies. In recent years, genetic methods have uncovered an unexpected diversity of paternal genetic contributions across diverse animal social mating systems, but particularly in pair-living species. In most pair-living birds, for example, genetic and behavioral observations have confirmed a previously unknown significance of extra-pair copulations (EPCs) and extra-pair paternity. Among mammals, white-handed gibbons (Hylobates lar) are also known to live in pairs and are traditionally believed to be single-male single-female breeders. However, at Khao Yai National Park, Thailand, behavioral observations have confirmed the occurrence of both EPCs and functional multi-male grouping, but knowledge about the genetic mating system is still unavailable. In this study, we genotyped 89 white-handed gibbons of the Khao Yai population based on fecal samplings and were able to determine paternity for 41 offspring through short tandem repeat analysis. We found that females' stable social partners sired the majority (90.5%) of offspring (N = 38), while only a few (7.1%) offspring (n = 2 confirmed cases; n = 1 inferred case) were conceived with extra-pair partners. The paternity of one offspring remained inconclusive (2.4%), because the offspring's genotype did not mismatch with the genotypes of two potential sires. Like other predominantly pair-living species, gibbons appear to follow a mixed-reproductive strategy. The genetic mating system of wild white-handed gibbons is best described as flexible, primarily monogamous and opportunistically promiscuous. Inc. PMID:23877831

Barelli, Claudia; Matsudaira, Kazunari; Wolf, Tanja; Roos, Christian; Heistermann, Michael; Hodges, Keith; Ishida, Takafumi; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda; Reichard, Ulrich H

2013-12-01

335

Paternal exposure to mercury and spontaneous abortions.  

PubMed Central

The potential reproductive toxicity of mercury vapour was investigated by comparing the rate of spontaneous abortions among the wives of 152 workers occupationally exposed to mercury vapour with the rate among the wives of 374 controls in the same plant. The results indicate an increase in the rate of spontaneous abortions with an increasing concentration of mercury in the fathers' urine before pregnancy. At concentrations above 50 micrograms/l the risk of spontaneous abortion doubles (odds ratio (OR) = 2.26; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.99-5.23). Special care was taken to avoid bias in reporting abortions and known risk factors of spontaneous abortions do not seem to explain the results. Several biological mechanisms might account for them including, in particular, direct action of mercury on the paternal reproductive system and indirect toxicity to the mother or embryo through transport of mercury from the father. These indications could be of practical importance and should therefore be further documented. PMID:2064975

Cordier, S; Deplan, F; Mandereau, L; Hemon, D

1991-01-01

336

AFLP fingerprinting for paternity testing in ducks.  

PubMed

1. The accuracy and reproducibility of AFLP fingerprinting was investigated in the duck (Anas Platyrhynchos), using a multicolour fluorescent labeling technique. The fluorescent labelling fragments were separated on a capillary electrophoresis-base ABI PRISM 3100 Genetic Analyzer. 2. A total of 337 AFLP peaks with 103 of them being polymorphic markers were generated by 16 sets consisting of EcoRI/TaqI primer pair combinations. The number and size range of AFLP polymorphisms detected per primer pair varied from 3 to 11 and 58 to 290 bp, respectively. About 30.6% (103/337) of AFLP peaks were detected polymorphisms, with an average of 6.4 polymorphic markers per primer pair. 3. The clear polymorphic peaks were amplified with EcoR+AC/Taq+AC primer combinations. The AFLP peaks showed high reproducibility. From the family testing, we found that the fingerprints of all the offspring were derived from one or other parent. Therefore, we conclude that AFLP fingerprinting might be a suitable method for duck paternity testing. PMID:17578695

Huang, C-W; Cheng, Y-S; Rouvier, R; Yang, K-T; Wu, C-P; Huang, M-C

2007-06-01

337

An integrative review of paternal depression.  

PubMed

The aim of this project was to review current research regarding postnatal depression in fathers and to present potential screening and referral options. The search was limited to scholarly (peer reviewed) journals and all articles were retrieved with date limits. Initial search parameters were the following: antenatal depression OR pregnancy depression OR postnatal depression OR perinatal depression AND father* OR men OR paternal. The search yielded 311 abstracts returned. With reference to the inclusion criteria and primary and secondary outcomes intended for the focus of this review, N = 63 articles were retrieved and read in full by the researchers. These articles were included in the final integrative review. Depression in fathers following the birth of their child was associated with a personal history of depression and with the existence of depression in their partner during pregnancy and soon after delivery. Based on the review the authors suggest routine screening and assessment of both parents should occur across the pregnancy and postnatal period. The use of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale for screening of depression in men needs to be linked to referral guidelines for those individuals who require further investigation and care. PMID:24626601

Edward, Karen-Leigh; Castle, David; Mills, Cally; Davis, Leigh; Casey, June

2015-01-01

338

Development of microsatellite markers for the endangered Neotropical tree species Tibouchina papyrus (Melastomataceae).  

PubMed

We isolated and characterized 12 microsatellite loci for Tibouchina papyrus (Melastomataceae), an endangered species with narrow and disjunct range, endemics to a few localities in "cerrado rupestre" from Central Brazil. These microsatellites were obtained by sequencing of a genomic shotgun library for primer design. Leaves from 96 individuals collected in the three known local populations were genotyped using the 12 primers designed to analyze the polymorphisms at each locus. The number of alleles per locus ranged from one to six; two loci were monomorphic. Among the polymorphic loci, expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.161 to 0.714. Combined paternity exclusion probability was 0.957 and combined genetic identity (0.051) was high for studies on parentage. Tibouchina papyrus is a rare and endemic tree species of outcrop quartzite and sandstone soils, with highly isolated populations, which may have lead to the low degree of polymorphism that we detected. Also, motifs of most loci are larger than dinucleotide, which typically display lower levels of polymorphism. PMID:21365547

Telles, M P C; Peixoto, F P; Lima, J S; Resende, L V; Vianello, R P; Walter, M E M T; Collevatti, R G

2011-01-01

339

Microsatellite primer development for post oak, Quercus stellata (Fagaceae)1  

PubMed Central

• Premise of the study: The American Cross Timbers forest ecosystem runs from southeastern Kansas to Central Texas and is primarily composed of post oak (Quercus stellata). This old-growth forest currently occupies only about 2% of its ancestral range. To facilitate genetic research on this species, we developed microsatellite primers specific to post oak from reduced genomic libraries. • Methods and Results: Two Q. stellata individuals, sampled from the northern and southern range of the post oak forest, were subject to genomic reduction and 454 pyrosequencing. Bioinformatic analysis identified putative microsatellites from which 12 polymorphic primer sets were screened on three populations. The number of alleles observed ranged from five to 20 across all populations, while observed and expected heterozygosity values ranged from 0.05 to 0.833 and 0.236 to 0.893, respectively, within individual populations. • Conclusions: We report the development of microsatellite markers, specific to post oak, to aid the study of genetic diversity and population structure of extant forest remnants. PMID:25309841

Chatwin, Warren B.; Carpenter, Kyrie K.; Jimenez, Felix R.; Elzinga, Dave B.; Johnson, Leigh A.; Maughan, Peter J.

2014-01-01

340

Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers from three species of swallows in the genus Tachycineta: T. albilinea, T. bicolor and T. leucorrhoa.  

PubMed

We describe 30 microsatellite loci developed from three species of swallows in the genus Tachycineta: T. bicolor (tree swallow), T. albilinea (mangrove swallow), and T. leucorrhoa (white-rumped swallow). These commonly studied birds nest in secondary cavities and are distributed from Alaska to Argentina. Primer pairs were designed for each species individually and tested for cross-amplification in 40-48 individuals of all three species. Polymorphism ranged from 5 to 65 alleles per locus (mean = 19.1). These markers will allow comparative studies of extra-pair paternity rates among members of the genus as well as the assessment of population structure. PMID:21564713

Makarewich, C A; Stenzler, L M; Ferretti, V; Winkler, D W; Lovette, I J

2009-03-01

341

Microsatellite mutations and inferences about human demography.  

PubMed Central

Microsatellites have been widely used as tools for population studies. However, inference about population processes relies on the specification of mutation parameters that are largely unknown and likely to differ across loci. Here, we use data on somatic mutations to investigate the mutation process at 14 tetranucleotide repeats and carry out an advanced multilocus analysis of different demographic scenarios on worldwide population samples. We use a method based on less restrictive assumptions about the mutation process, which is more powerful to detect departures from the null hypothesis of constant population size than other methods previously applied to similar data sets. We detect a signal of population expansion in all samples examined, except for one African sample. As part of this analysis, we identify an "anomalous" locus whose extreme pattern of variation cannot be explained by variability in mutation size. Exaggerated mutation rate is proposed as a possible cause for its unusual variation pattern. We evaluate the effect of using it to infer population histories and show that inferences about demographic histories are markedly affected by its inclusion. In fact, exclusion of the anomalous locus reduces interlocus variability of statistics summarizing population variation and strengthens the evidence in favor of demographic growth. PMID:10747070

Gonser, R; Donnelly, P; Nicholson, G; Di Rienzo, A

2000-01-01

342

Dynamic paternity allocation as a function of male plumage color in barn swallows.  

PubMed

Paternity in male animals can be influenced by their phenotypic signals of quality. Accordingly, the behavior underlying patterns of paternity should be flexible as signals of quality change. To evaluate the dynamics of paternity allocation, we analyzed paternity before and after manipulating plumage coloration, a known signal of quality, in male barn swallows Hirundo rustica. We found that, in successive breeding bouts, only males whose plumage color was experimentally enhanced received greater paternity from their social mates, demonstrating evidence for flexible and dynamic paternity allocation and the importance for males of maintaining signals of quality well after pair bond formation. PMID:16195460

Safran, R J; Neuman, C R; McGraw, K J; Lovette, I J

2005-09-30

343

Rapid Microsatellite Isolation from a Butterfly by De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing: Performance and a Comparison with AFLP-Derived Distances  

PubMed Central

Background The isolation of microsatellite markers remains laborious and expensive. For some taxa, such as Lepidoptera, development of microsatellite markers has been particularly difficult, as many markers appear to be located in repetitive DNA and have nearly identical flanking regions. We attempted to circumvent this problem by bioinformatic mining of microsatellite sequences from a de novo-sequenced transcriptome of a butterfly (Euphydryas editha). Principal Findings By searching the assembled sequence data for perfect microsatellite repeats we found 10 polymorphic loci. Although, like many expressed sequence tag-derived microsatellites, our markers show strong deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in many populations, and, in some cases, a high incidence of null alleles, we show that they nonetheless provide measures of population differentiation consistent with those obtained by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis. Estimates of pairwise population differentiation between 23 populations were concordant between microsatellite-derived data and AFLP analysis of the same samples (r?=?0.71, p<0.00001, 425 individuals from 23 populations). Significance De novo transcriptional sequencing appears to be a rapid and cost-effective tool for developing microsatellite markers for difficult genomes. PMID:20585453

Mikheyev, Alexander S.; Vo, Tanya; Wee, Brian; Singer, Michael C.; Parmesan, Camille

2010-01-01

344

The paternal function in Winnicott: The psychoanalytical frame.  

PubMed

My first aim has been to identify the implicit assumptions underlying Winnicott's detailed notes on a fragment of an analysis dating from 1955 and published after his death. The importance given by Winnicott to the father figure as early as 1955 is one of my discoveries; another is the deep Freudian roots of his thinking. In this essay I propose a new way of linking together the concepts of 'paternal function' and the 'psychoanalytical frame'. Developing my hypothesis, I compare my reading of Winnicott and my way of reading José Bleger's study on the frame. Like Winnicott, I explore in detail a process of discovery, focusing on what the analyst and the patient are nor fully aware of …'as yet'. I am not proposing to unify Winnicott's and Bleger's thinking. My aim is to avoid the pitfall of eclecticism and, in so doing, to recognize both the related depths they sound in their thinking and their otherness. I want to share with the readers their 'meeting' in my mind. PMID:25229543

Faimberg, Haydée

2014-08-01

345

Combined Use of SMM and Non-SMM Methods to Infer Fine Structure and Evolutionary History of Closely Related Brook Charr (Salvelinus fontinalis, Salmonidae) Populations from Microsatellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we characterized microsatellite and mtDNA variation among 779 individuals representing 26 brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis Mitchill) populations from La Mauricie National Park (LMNP) to test the general hypothesis that microsatellite analysis may provide greater resolution than mtDNA to infer the evolutionary history of closely related and geographically proximate populations. We also assessed the relative efficiency of stepwise

Bernard Angers; Louis Bernatchez

346

Paternalism, autonomy and reciprocity: ethical perspectives in encounters with patients in psychiatric in-patient care  

PubMed Central

Background Psychiatric staff members have the power to decide the options that frame encounters with patients. Intentional as well as unintentional framing can have a crucial impact on patients’ opportunities to be heard and participate in the process. We identified three dominant ethical perspectives in the normative medical ethics literature concerning how doctors and other staff members should frame interactions in relation to patients; paternalism, autonomy and reciprocity. The aim of this study was to describe and analyse statements describing real work situations and ethical reflections made by staff members in relation to three central perspectives in medical ethics; paternalism, autonomy and reciprocity. Methods All staff members involved with patients in seven adult psychiatric and six child and adolescent psychiatric clinics were given the opportunity to freely describe ethical considerations in their work by keeping an ethical diary over the course of one week and 173 persons handed in their diaries. Qualitative theory-guided content analysis was used to provide a description of staff encounters with patients and in what way these encounters were consistent with, or contrary to, the three perspectives. Results The majority of the statements could be attributed to the perspective of paternalism and several to autonomy. Only a few statements could be attributed to reciprocity, most of which concerned staff members acting contrary to the perspective. The result is presented as three perspectives containing eight values. •Paternalism; 1) promoting and restoring the health of the patient, 2) providing good care and 3) assuming responsibility. •Autonomy; 1) respecting the patient’s right to self-determination and information, 2) respecting the patient’s integrity and 3) protecting human rights. •Reciprocity; 1) involving patients in the planning and implementation of their care and 2) building trust between staff and patients. Conclusions Paternalism clearly appeared to be the dominant perspective among the participants, but there was also awareness of patients’ right to autonomy. Despite a normative trend towards reciprocity in psychiatry throughout the Western world, identifying it proved difficult in this study. This should be borne in mind by clinics when considering the need for ethical education, training and supervision. PMID:24314345

2013-01-01

347

Testosterone positively associated with both male mating effort and paternal behavior in savanna baboons (Papio cynocephalus)  

E-print Network

Testosterone positively associated with both male mating effort and paternal behavior in savanna 2012 Available online 30 November 2012 Keywords: Testosterone Mating effort Paternal behavior Baboons Testosterone (T) is often positively associated with male sexual behavior and negatively associated

Alberts, Susan C

348

Experimental parasite infection reveals costs and benefits of paternal effects.  

PubMed

Forces shaping an individual's phenotype are complex and include transgenerational effects. Despite low investment into reproduction, a father's environment and phenotype can shape its offspring's phenotype. Whether and when such paternal effects are adaptive, however, remains elusive. Using three-spined sticklebacks in controlled infection experiments, we show that sperm deficiencies in exposed males compared to their unexposed brothers functionally translated into reduced reproductive success in sperm competition trials. In non-competitive fertilisations, offspring of exposed males suffered significant costs of reduced hatching success and survival but they reached a higher body condition than their counterparts from unexposed fathers after experimental infection. Interestingly, those benefits of paternal infection did not result from increased resistance but from increased tolerance to the parasite. Altogether, these results demonstrate that parasite resistance and tolerance are shaped by processes involving both genetic and non-genetic inheritance and suggest a context-dependent adaptive value of paternal effects. PMID:25168056

Kaufmann, Joshka; Lenz, Tobias L; Milinski, Manfred; Eizaguirre, Christophe

2014-11-01

349

Extensive Microsatellite Variation in Rice Induced by Introgression from Wild Rice (Zizania latifolia Griseb.)  

PubMed Central

Background It is widely accepted that interspecific hybridization may induce genomic instability in the resultant hybrids. However, few studies have been performed on the genomic analysis of homoploid hybrids and introgression lines. We have reported previously that by introgressive hybridization, a set of introgression lines between rice (Oryza sativa L.) and wild rice (Zizania latifolia Griseb.) was successfully generated, and which have led to the release of several cultivars. Methodology Using 96 microsatellite markers located in the nuclear and organelle genomes of rice, we investigated microsatellite stability in three typical introgression lines. Expression of a set of mismatch repair (MMR) genes and microsatellite-containing genes was also analyzed. Results/Conclusions Compared with the recipient rice cultivar (Matsumae), 55 of the 96 microsatellite loci revealed variation in one or more of the introgression lines, and 58.2% of the altered alleles were shared by at least two lines, indicating that most of the alterations had occurred in the early stages of introgression before their further differentiation. 73.9% of the non-shared variations were detected only in one introgression line, i.e. RZ2. Sequence alignment showed that the variations included substitutions and indels that occurred both within the repeat tracts and in the flanking regions. Interestingly, expression of a set of MMR genes altered dramatically in the introgression lines relative to their rice parent, suggesting participation of the MMR system in the generation of microsatellite variants. Some of the altered microsatellite loci are concordant with changed expression of the genes harboring them, suggesting their possible cis-regulatory roles in controlling gene expression. Because these genes bear meaningful homology to known-functional proteins, we conclude that the introgression-induced extensive variation of microsatellites may have contributed to the novel phenotypes in the introgression lines. PMID:23638037

Dong, Zhenying; Wang, Hongyan; Dong, Yuzhu; Wang, Yongming; Liu, Wei; Miao, Gaojian; Lin, Xiuyun; Wang, Daqing; Liu, Bao

2013-01-01

350

Does multiple paternity improve fitness of the frog Crinia georgiana?  

PubMed

In the Australian myobatrachid frog Crinia georgiana simultaneous polyandry occurs in about half of all matings, which leads to multiple paternity, but reduced fertilization success and occasional female mortality. Multiple paternity may provide benefits to females that compensate for these costs, for example, through enhanced genetic diversity of a clutch. In nature, embryos and tadpoles of C. georgiana develop in shallow, temporary pools and may be exposed to fluctuating water levels and the risk of desiccation between rain events. Fertilization by genetically diverse sires may act as a bet hedge against these conditions. To evaluate this hypothesis, females were artificially mated with one or two males in the field and eggs and larvae reared in the laboratory under constant or fluctuating developmental conditions. Experiment 1 exposed embryos from single- and multiple-paternity clutches to conditions where eggs were completely covered during development or eggs sat in air on a moist substrate. Experiment 2 exposed freshly hatched larvae from single- and multiple-paternity clutches to constant wet conditions, where larvae were completely covered, or fluctuating wet conditions, where larvae ranged from being completely submersed to partially exposed over a 13-day cycle. We measured mean performance and best performance as alternate measures of genetic benefits. There were no effects of paternity on percent survival to hatching, time to hatching, body size at hatching, percent survival to metamorphosis, time to metamorphosis, or body size at metamorphosis. We also analyzed variance within clutches as a measure of genetic diversity. Again there were no predictable effects of multiple paternity. Polyandry does not appear to provide any genetic benefits that compensate for the high costs of polyandry in this species. PMID:10937269

Byrne, P G; Roberts, J D

2000-06-01

351

Characteristic neurobiological patterns differentiate paternal responsiveness in two Peromyscus species.  

PubMed

Rodent paternal models provide unique opportunities to investigate the emergence of affiliative social behavior in mammals. Using biparental and uniparental Peromyscus species (californicus and maniculatus, respectively) we assessed paternal responsiveness by exposing males to biological offspring, unrelated conspecific pups, or familiar brothers following a 24-hour separation. The putative paternal circuit we investigated included brain areas involved in fear/anxiety [cingulate cortex (Cg), medial amygdala (MeA), paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), and lateral septum (LS)], parental motivation [medial preoptic area (MPOA)], learning/behavioral plasticity (hippocampus), olfaction [pyriform cortex (PC)], and social rewards (nucleus accumbens). Paternal experience in californicus males reduced fos immunoreactivity (ir) in several fear/anxiety areas; additionally, all californicus groups exhibited decreased fos-ir in the PC. Enhanced arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT)-ir cell bodies and fibers, as well as increased neuronal restructuring in the hippocampus, were also observed in californicus mice. Multidimensional scaling analyses revealed distinct brain activation profiles differentiating californicus biological fathers, pup-exposed virgins, and pup-naïve virgins. Specifically, associations among MPOA fos, CA1 fos, dentate gyrus GFAP, CA2 nestin-, and PVN OT-ir characterized biological fathers; LS fos-, Cg fos-, and AVP-ir characterized pup-exposed virgins, and PC-, PVN-, and MeA fos-ir characterized pup-naïve virgins. Thus, whereas fear/anxiety areas characterized pup-naïve males, neurobiological factors involved in more diverse functions such as learning, motivation, and nurturing responses characterized fatherhood in biparental californicus mice. Less distinct paternal-dependent activation patterns were observed in uniparental maniculatus mice. These data suggest that dual neurobiological circuits, leading to the inhibition of social-dependent anxiety as well as the activation of affiliative responses, characterize the transition from nonpaternal to paternal status in californicus mice. PMID:21546770

Lambert, Kelly G; Franssen, Catherine L; Bardi, Massimo; Hampton, Joseph E; Hainley, Leslie; Karsner, Stephanie; Tu, Eddie B; Hyer, Molly M; Crockett, Ashly; Baranova, Anya; Ferguson, Tajh; Ferguson, Tenaj; Kinsley, Craig H

2011-01-01

352

Compound Microsatellite Repeats: Practical and Theoretical Features  

PubMed Central

Most linkage and population genetic studies that use microsatellites assume that the polymorphism observed at these loci is due simply to variation in the number of units of a single repeat. Variation is far more complex, however, for the numerous microsatellites that contain interruptions within the repeat or contain more than one type of repeat. We observed that for D18S58, a compound microsatellite containing (CG)m, as well as (CA)n repeats, the apparent length of certain alleles varied between genotyping experiments. Similar results were obtained with other (CG)m–(CA)n repeats. Sequencing demonstrated that the D18S58 alleles demonstrating variable mobility contained longer (CG)m stretches than those alleles whose length did not appear to vary between experiments. These results suggest that (CG)m repeats, which are frequently present in compound human microsatellites, are prone to form an unusually stable secondary structure. We discuss the relative frequency of different classes of compound microsatellites identified through database searches, as well as their patterns of sequence and variation. Further characterization of such variation is important for elucidating the origin, mutational processes, and structure of these widely used, but incompletely understood, sequences. PMID:10508841

Bull, Laura N.; Pabon-Pena, Carlos R.; Freimer, Nelson B.

1999-01-01

353

Design and control of microsatellite clusters for tracking missions  

E-print Network

Space-based tracking missions are an emerging interest that could be accomplished using a cluster of microsatellites. This thesis addresses the design of microsatellite clusters to accurately track a target in a probabilistic ...

Griffith, John Daniel

2007-01-01

354

Paternal behavior by Peromyscus leucopus in enclosures XUHUAXIA AND JOHNS. MILLAR  

E-print Network

Paternal behavior by Peromyscus leucopus in enclosures XUHUAXIA AND JOHNS. MILLAR Department,X., and MILLAR,J. S. 1988. Paternal behavior by Peromyscus leucopus in enclosures. Can. J. Zool. 66: 1184- 1187. Male Peromyscus leucopus are known to exhibit well-developed paternal behavior in confined cages

Xia, Xuhua

355

Paternal care and egg survival both increase with clutch size in the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In some species of fishes with paternal care, females prefer to spawn with males who are already defeding eggs; moreover, in many species, paternal care increases with the number of eggs that a male is defending. If egg survival depends on the level of paternal care, and is largely independent of egg number, then egg survival should increase with clutch

R. C. Sargent

1988-01-01

356

Uteroplacental bleeding disorders during pregnancy: do missing paternal characteristics influence risk?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Several studies have assessed the risks of uteroplacental bleeding disorders in relation to maternal characteristics. The association between uteroplacental bleeding disorders and paternal characteristics, however, has received considerably less attention. Data on paternal demographics, notably race and age, from birth certificate data are becoming increasingly incomplete in recent years. This pattern of increasingly underreporting of paternal demographic data led

Darios Getahun; Cande V Ananth; Anthony M Vintzileos

2006-01-01

357

Latino Fathers: The Relationship Among Machismo, Acculturation, Ethnic Identity, and Paternal Involvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paternal involvement with children is associated with better outcomes for children and family functioning. There are, however, few data examining the intersection of cultural norms and paternal involvement. For Latino fathers in the United States, paternal involvement may vary on the basis of cultural and gender norms, acculturation process, and ethnic identity. The current study used self-report surveys to examine

Jon Glass; Jesse Owen

2010-01-01

358

Amplifying dinucleotide microsatellite loci from bone and tooth samples of up to 5000 years of age: more inconsistency than usefulness  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the feasibility of using dinucleotide-repeat microsatellites in the analysis of DNA from ancient bones and teeth. We have used three microsatellites (IVS8CA, IVS17BTA, and IVS17BCA) within the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene in 28 DNA samples from bones and teeth of up to 5000 years of age. PCR amplification was successful in 71.4% of cases. The

M. D. Ramos; C. Lalueza; E. Girbau; A. Pérez-Pérez; S. Quevedo; D. Turbón; X. Estivill

1995-01-01

359

Fragile X gene instability: anchoring AGGs and linked microsatellites.  

PubMed Central

Interspersed AGGs within the FMR1 gene CGG repeat region may anchor the sequence and prevent slippage during replication. In order to detect the AGG position variations, we developed a method employing partial MnlI restriction analysis and analyzed X chromosomes from 187 males, including 133 normal controls (117 with 20-34 and 16 with 35-52 repeats), plus 54 fragile X premutations with 56-180 repeats. Among controls, the interspersed AGG positions were highly polymorphic, with a heterozygosity of 91%. Among the control samples, 1.5% had no AGG positions, 25% had one, 71% had two, and 3% had three. Among the fragile X premutation samples, 63% had no AGG, while 37% had only one AGG. Analysis of premutation samples within fragile X families showed that variation occurred only within the 3' end of the region. Thus, the instability was polar. Controls with > or = 15 pure CGG repeats were associated with the longest alleles of two nearby microsatellites, FRAXAC1 with 20-21 repeats and DXS548 with 202-206 bp and with increased microsatellite heterozygosity. The association of long pure CGG regions, as with fragile X chromosomes, with the longer and more heterozygous microsatellite alleles suggests they may be related mechanistically. Further, our results do not support a recent suggestion that the frequency of fragile X alleles may be increasing. Finally, analysis of a set of nonhuman primate samples showed that long pure CGG tracks are variable in size and are located within the 3' region, which suggests that polar instability within FMR1 is evolutionarily quite old. Images Figure 1 PMID:7668261

Zhong, N; Yang, W; Dobkin, C; Brown, W T

1995-01-01

360

A meta-analysis of chromosome 18 linkage data for bipolar illness.  

PubMed

We find a meta-data set (715 families, up to 1,124 sib pairs) for bipolar illness to have a strong signal in a 10 cM region around D18S40, and excess paternal sharing on the q arm near marker D18S64. We describe a method for meta-analysis of microsatellite marker data using affected sib-pair (ASP) methodology. Inherent difficulties in such analysis include heterogeneity of allele frequencies and protocol design, measurement errors in genotyping, and map construction. Using identity-by-descent (IBD) allele sharing as the dependent variable, a logistic regression to test for heterogeneity finds only mild heterogeneity, and a limited parent-of-origin effect. PMID:9433552

Dorr, D A; Rice, J P; Armstrong, C; Reich, T; Blehar, M

1997-01-01

361

CMD: a Cotton Microsatellite Database resource for Gossypium genomics  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The Cotton Microsatellite Database (CMD) http:\\/\\/www.cottonssr.org is a curated and integrated web-based relational database providing centralized access to publicly available cotton microsatellites, an invaluable resource for basic and applied research in cotton breeding. DESCRIPTION: At present CMD contains publication, sequence, primer, mapping and homology data for nine major cotton microsatellite projects, collectively representing 5,484 microsatellites. In addition, CMD displays

Anna Blenda; Jodi Scheffler; Brian Scheffler; Michael Palmer; Jean-Marc Lacape; John Z Yu; Christopher Jesudurai; Sook Jung; Sriram Muthukumar; Preetham Yellambalase; Stephen Ficklin; Margaret Staton; Robert Eshelman; Mauricio Ulloa; Sukumar Saha; Ben Burr; Shaolin Liu; Tianzhen Zhang; Deqiu Fang; Alan Pepper; Siva Kumpatla; John Jacobs; Jeff Tomkins; Roy Cantrell; Dorrie Main

2006-01-01

362

Inferring population history from microsatellite and enzyme data in serially introduced cane toads, Bufo marinus.  

PubMed Central

Much progress has been made on inferring population history from molecular data. However, complex demographic scenarios have been considered rarely or have proved intractable. The serial introduction of the South-Central American cane toad Bufo marinus in various Caribbean and Pacific islands involves four major phases: a possible genetic admixture during the first introduction, a bottleneck associated with founding, a transitory population boom, and finally, a demographic stabilization. A large amount of historical and demographic information is available for those introductions and can be combined profitably with molecular data. We used a Bayesian approach to combine this information with microsatellite (10 loci) and enzyme (22 loci) data and used a rejection algorithm to simultaneously estimate the demographic parameters describing the four major phases of the introduction history. The general historical trends supported by microsatellites and enzymes were similar. However, there was a stronger support for a larger bottleneck at introductions for microsatellites than enzymes and for a more balanced genetic admixture for enzymes than for microsatellites. Very little information was obtained from either marker about the transitory population boom observed after each introduction. Possible explanations for differences in resolution of demographic events and discrepancies between results obtained with microsatellites and enzymes were explored. Limits of our model and method for the analysis of nonequilibrium populations were discussed. PMID:11779806

Estoup, A; Wilson, I J; Sullivan, C; Cornuet, J M; Moritz, C

2001-01-01

363

Assessment of microsatellites in estimating inter- and intraspecific variation among Neotropical Crocodylus species.  

PubMed

We tested microsatellites that were developed for the saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) for cross-species amplification and to provide an estimate of inter- and intraspecific variation among four species of Neotropical crocodiles (C. rhombifer, C. intermedius, C. acutus, and C. moreletii). Our results indicated that with the exception of 2 loci in C. intermedius, all 10 microsatellite loci were successfully amplified in the 4 species, producing a set of variably sized alleles that ranged in number between 2 and 14 alleles per locus. Similarly, private alleles (i.e., unique alleles) also were reported in all 4 species for at least 3 loci. The mean observed and expected heterozygosities (averaged across species for all 10 loci combined) ranged from 0.39 to 0.77 and from 0.44 to 0.78, respectively. In addition to this, we evaluated these microsatellites in 2 populations of C. acutus and C. moreletii to assess their utility in estimating intraspecific levels of polymorphisms. These microsatellites also showed considerable allelic variation in population level analysis. The set of 10 microsatellite loci in our study had the potential to be used as a tool in population and conservation genetic studies of Neotropical crocodiles. PMID:25117304

Bashyal, A; Gross, B A; Venegas-Anaya, M; Lowrance, F; Densmore Iii, L D

2014-01-01

364

TECHNICAL NOTE Five hundred microsatellite loci for Peromyscus  

E-print Network

that amplify microsatellite DNA loci for Peromyscus maniculatus bairdii, 467 of which also amplify conservation. Keywords Microsatellite Á Peromyscus maniculatus Á Peromyscus polionotus Á SSR Á STR Á PCRTECHNICAL NOTE Five hundred microsatellite loci for Peromyscus Jesse N. Weber � Maureen B. Peters �

Georgia, University of

365

Isolation and characterization of microsatellites in Brassica rapa L  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report here the isolation and characterization of microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats (SSRs), in Brassica rapa. The size-fractionated genomic library was screened with (GA)15 and (GT)15 oligonucleotide probes. A total of 58 clones were identified as having the microsatellite repeats, and specific primer pairs were designed for 38 microsatellite loci. All primer pairs, except two, amplified fragments having the

K. Suwabe; H. Iketani; T. Nunome; T. Kage; M. Hirai

2002-01-01

366

Father involvement: the importance of paternal Solo Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paternal time spent caring for children alone is qualitatively different from time together mediated by the presence of the mother and may be particularly relevant to father–child relations. Many fathers spend minimal time alone with their children. Indeed, it is still commonly referred to as ‘babysitting’. We explored the concept of Solo Care as a conceptually discrete dimension of father

Katherine R. Wilson; Margot R. Prior

2010-01-01

367

Overcompensation through the paternal component of fitness in Ipomopsis arizonica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimates of the effects of herbivory on plant fitness based on female fitness alone may be misleading if plants experience either reduced or increased male fitness. Because there are many plants that produce more flowers following herbivory where seed set is unaffected or reduced, total fitness may be enhanced through the paternal component alone. Here we show that herbivory results

Ken N. Paige; Barry Williams; Tracey Hickox

2001-01-01

368

The snail's love-dart delivers mucus to increase paternity  

E-print Network

Department of Biology, McGill University, Montre´al, Que´bec H3A 1B1, Canada Many of the seemingly bizarre), and it significantly increases relative paternity when a successful dart shooter competes with an unsuccessful shooter

Chase, Ronald

369

Paternal Factors and Schizophrenia Risk: De Novo Mutations and Imprinting  

PubMed Central

There is a strong genetic component for schizophrenia risk, but it is unclear how the illness is maintained in the population given the significantly reduced fertility of those with the disorder. One possibility is that new mutations occur in schizophrenia vulnerability genes. If so, then those with schizophrenia may have older fathers, because advancing paternal age is the major source of new mutations in humans. This review describes several neurodevelopmental disorders that have been associated with de novo mutations in the paternal germ line and reviews data linking increased schizophrenia risk with older fathers. Several genetic mechanisms that could explain this association are proposed, including paternal germ line mutations, trinucleotide repeat expansions, and alterations in genetic imprinting in one or several genes involved in neurodevelopment. Animal models may be useful in exploring these and other explanations for the paternal age effect and they may provide a novel approach for gene identification. Finally, it is proposed that environmental exposures of the father, as well as those of the mother and developing fetus, may be relevant to the etiology of schizophrenia. PMID:11596842

Malaspina, Dolores

2010-01-01

370

Maternal Depression, Paternal Psychopathology, and Toddlers' Behavior Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examined the effects of maternal depression during the postpartum period (Time 1) on the later behavior problems of toddlers (Time 3) and tested if this relationship was moderated by paternal psychopathology during toddlers' lives and\\/or mediated by maternal parenting behavior observed during mother–child interaction (Time 2). Of the 101 mothers who participated in this longitudinal study with their

Laura J. Dietz; Kay Donahue Jennings; Sue A. Kelley; Michael Marshal

2009-01-01

371

Influence of Paternal Age on the Risk of Spontaneous Abortion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The frequency of chromosomal anomalies in spermatozoa appears to increase with male age. Because these anomalies play a role in the etiology of spontaneous abortion, an influence of paternal age on risk of spontaneous abortion is plausible but not established. The aim was to characterize this influence in a prospective study among 5,121 California women, who as members of a

Remy Slama; Jean Bouyer; Gayle Windham; Laura Fenster; Axel Werwatz; Shanna H. Swan

2005-01-01

372

ORIGINAL PAPER Extrapair paternity in the swamp sparrow,  

E-print Network

aggression) relative to the badge size of their immediate neighbors, the interaction of these two measures paternity. The relative size of the aggression badge was positively correlated with the presence, mean territory size, and the maximum size of the aggression badge among neighbors. The size of the male

Walters, Jeffrey R.

373

Statement on Guidance for Genetic Counseling in Advanced Paternal Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced paternal age is associated with an increased risk of new mutations. All populations are at risk. The relative increased risk for these defects is related to advanced age of the father for autosomal dominant conditions and the maternal grandfather for X-linked conditions. Family histories will not provide clues as these types of mutations are sporadic. Examples of autosomal dominant

McKusick VA; Murdoch JL; Walker BA; Domo Biol; Hafn Vol

2007-01-01

374

Paternal Banking and Maternal Gatekeeping in Postdivorce Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research explores the way in which postseparated parents continue to exert a bidirectional force on each other following divorce and separation. The study draws on qualitative interviews with 39 separated mothers and fathers in Ireland, including five marital sets of former couples. The study found many fathers adopted a range of "paternal…

Moore, Elena

2012-01-01

375

Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers for Amomum tsaoko (Zingiberaceae), an economically important plant in China.  

PubMed

Twenty-four microsatellite markers were isolated from the genomic DNA of Amomum tsaoko Crevost et Lemaire, an important economic plant in China, using the method fast isolation by AFLP of sequences containing repeats (FIASCO). Polymorphism within each locus was assessed in 60 individuals from three populations in Yunnan Province, China, and nine of them were polymorphic. The number of alleles per polymorphic locus was 2, and the expected and observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.224 to 0.513, and from 0.050 to 0.600, respectively. Among nine microsatellite markers with polymorphism, five showed significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P < 0.01), probably due to anthropic selection and short-cloning history in cultivation. No significant linkage disequilibrium was detected between loci in our analysis. These polymorphic microsatellite markers will facilitate further studies of gene flow, population structure, identification of cultivated variety, and evaluation of germplasm resources. PMID:25299206

Yang, Y-W; Yang, Z-Y; Yan, M-R; Qian, Z-G; Guan, K-Y

2014-01-01

376

Genetic mapping of paternal sorting of mitochondria in cucumber.  

PubMed

Mitochondria are organelles that have their own DNA; serve as the powerhouses of eukaryotic cells; play important roles in stress responses, programmed cell death, and ageing; and in the vast majority of eukaryotes, are maternally transmitted. Strict maternal transmission of mitochondria makes it difficult to select for better-performing mitochondria, or against deleterious mutations in the mitochondrial DNA. Cucumber is a useful plant for organellar genetics because its mitochondria are paternally transmitted and it possesses one of the largest mitochondrial genomes among all eukaryotes. Recombination among repetitive motifs in the cucumber mitochondrial DNA produces rearrangements associated with strongly mosaic (MSC) phenotypes. We previously reported nuclear control of sorting among paternally transmitted mitochondrial DNAs. The goal of this project was to map paternal sorting of mitochondria as a step towards its eventual cloning. We crossed single plants from plant introduction (PI) 401734 and Cucumis sativus var. hardwickii and produced an F(2) family. A total of 425 F(2) plants were genotyped for molecular markers and testcrossed as the female with MSC16. Testcross families were scored for frequencies of wild-type versus MSC progenies. Discrete segregations for percent wild-type progenies were not observed and paternal sorting of mitochondria was therefore analyzed as a quantitative trait. A major quantitative trait locus (QTL; LOD >23) was mapped between two simple sequence repeats encompassing a 459-kb region on chromosome 3. Nuclear genes previously shown to affect the prevalence of mitochondrial DNAs (MSH1, OSB1, and RECA homologs) were not located near this major QTL on chromosome 3. Sequencing of this region from PI 401734, together with improved annotation of the cucumber genome, should result in the eventual cloning of paternal sorting of mitochondria and provide insights about nuclear control of organellar-DNA sorting. PMID:22350175

Calderon, Claudia I; Yandell, Brian S; Havey, Michael J

2012-06-01

377

A microsatellite marker in Helianthus annuus L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of genetic polymorphism detected by ‘microsatellites’ is now well established in mammalian genomes. Sequences with a CA repeat, specific to sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., were found by screening a genomic library in M13. After amplification, some polymorphism was detected on these sequences within a sample of cultivars and populations.

D. Brunel

1994-01-01

378

TECHNICAL NOTE Characterization of 12 polymorphic microsatellites  

E-print Network

rufescens Austin Hill · M. Clay Green Received: 4 June 2010 / Accepted: 16 June 2010 / Published online: 30 dimor- phic North American heron with disjunct colonies across its range due to habitat specialization Á Egretta rufescens Á Heron Á Microsatellite Á Reddish Egret The Reddish Egret (Egretta rufescens

Green, Clay - Department of Biology, Texas State University

379

An enhanced microsatellite map of diploid Fragaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 45 microsatellites (SSRs) were developed for mapping in Fragaria. They included 31 newly isolated codominant genomic SSRs from F. nubicola and a further 14 SSRs, derived from an expressed sequence tagged library (EST-SSRs) of the cultivated strawberry, F. × ananassa. These, and an additional 64 previously characterised but unmapped SSRs and EST-SSRs, were scored in the diploid

D. J. Sargent; J. Clarke; D. W. Simpson; K. R. Tobutt; P. Arús; A. Monfort; S. Vilanova; B. Denoyes-Rothan; M. Rousseau; K. M. Folta; N. V. Bassil; N. H. Battey

2006-01-01

380

Microsatellite markers isolated from saltgrass (Distichlis spicata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci were isolated from saltgrass ( Distichlis spicata ) and optimized for future studies of its breeding system. The loci were screened for variability among 24 individuals from two populations. The primers amplified loci with numbers of alleles ranging from four to 14 per locus and polymorphic information content from 0.481 to 0.951. Observed heterozygosity varied

OLGA V. TSYUSKO; MAUREEN B. PETERS; TRACEY D. TUBERVILLE; CRIS HAGEN; SARAH M. EPPLEY; TRAVIS C. GLENN

2007-01-01

381

Spatially restricted gene flow and reduced microsatellite polymorphism in the Eurasian otter Lutra lutra in Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although gene flow and population fragmentationwill often have opposed effects on geneticstructure, their actual effects on many elusiveanimal species are unknown. We assessed sucheffects in British populations of the Eurasianotter Lutra lutra by analysis ofgenotypes consisting of 12 microsatellites from618 carcasses representing the period 1982–1998. Spatial patterns of genetic subdivisionand levels of polymorphism in the continuouspopulation in Scotland were estimated.

John F. Dallas; Freda Marshall; Stuart B. Piertney; Philip J. Bacon; Paul A. Racey

2002-01-01

382

Bioinformatic Mining of Type I Microsatellites from Expressed Sequence Tags of Channel Catfish ( Ictalurus punctatus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gene-derived markers are pivotal to the analysis of genome structure, organization, and evolution and necessary for comparative genomics. However, gene-derived markers are relatively difficult to develop. This project utilized the genomic resources of channel catfish expressed sequence tags (ESTs) to identify simple sequence repeats (SSRs), or microsatellites. It took the advantage of ESTs for the establishment of gene identities, and

Jerry Serapion; Huseyin Kucuktas; Jinian Feng; Zhanjiang Liu

2004-01-01

383

Genetic variability in reared stocks of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) based on allozymes and microsatellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic variability of cultured stocks of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was studied using two types of genetic markers: allozymes and microsatellites. A comparative analysis was investigated between six strains from extensive aquaculture in two French regions (Dombes and Forez) and five strains from the Czech Republic stemming from artificial selection and maintained in the Research Center of Vodnany. Observed

Jean François Desvignes; Jean Laroche; Jean Dominique Durand; Yvette Bouvet

2001-01-01

384

Characterization of demographic expansions from pairwise comparisons of linked microsatellite haplotypes  

E-print Network

that inclusion of a mutational model in the analysis improves the estimates of the age of expansion in the case canariensis, pseudolikeli- hood, stepwise mutation model Corresponding author: Miguel Navascu�s �quipe �co microsatellite data. Population genetics theory describes the distribution of mutations among a sample of genes

Boyer, Edmond

385

Central vasopressin administration regulates the onset of facultative paternal behavior in microtus pennsylvanicus (meadow voles).  

PubMed

Pharmacological experiments have implicated a role for central arginine vasopressin (AVP) in regulating paternal behavior in monogamous prairie voles. Although nonmonogamous meadow voles exhibit appreciable paternal care when housed under winter, short day lengths (SD), no research has examined whether the same neurobiological systems are involved in regulating paternal behavior in a nonmonogamous species when it behaves paternally. The goal of these experiments was to determine whether central administration of AVP, but not cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), affected the suppression of pup-directed aggression and/or the onset of paternal behavior in meadow voles. Data from experiment 1 implicated a role for AVP in facilitating changes in male behavior: central administration of 1 ng of AVP (but not 3 ng or CSF) inhibited pup-directed aggression in previously pup-aggressive males, and 3 ng of AVP (but not 1 ng or CSF) induced paternal behavior in previously nonpaternal males. In contrast, AVP (1 and 3 ng) did not enhance paternal behavior in already paternal males. Experiment 2 tested the specificity of AVP. Previous research indicated that 24 h of unmated cohabitation with a female reliably induced paternal behavior in SD males. Hence, experiment 2 examined whether administration of a V(1a) AVP antagonist (AVPA), but not CSF, prior to 24 h of unmated cohabitation would block the onset of paternal behavior. Males that received CSF displayed paternal behavior faster and engaged in more investigatory and paternal behaviors than males that received AVPA. Thus, pharmacological experiments support the hypothesis that AVP likely regulates paternal behavior in both facultatively and consistently paternal vole species. PMID:11374914

Parker, K J; Lee, T M

2001-06-01

386

Genetic analysis of male reproductive success in relation to density in the zebrafish, Danio rerio  

PubMed Central

Background We used behavioural and genetic data to investigate the effects of density on male reproductive success in the zebrafish, Danio rerio. Based on previous measurements of aggression and courtship behaviour by territorial males, we predicted that they would sire more offspring than non-territorial males. Results Microsatellite analysis of paternity showed that at low densities territorial males had higher reproductive success than non-territorial males. However, at high density territorial males were no more successful than non-territorials and the sex difference in the opportunity for sexual selection, based on the parameter Imates, was low. Conclusion Male zebrafish exhibit two distinct mating tactics; territoriality and active pursuit of females. Male reproductive success is density dependent and the opportunity for sexual selection appears to be weak in this species. PMID:16597325

Spence, Rowena; Jordan, William C; Smith, Carl

2006-01-01

387

Male-specific DNA markers provide genetic evidence of an XY chromosome system, a recombination arrest and allow the tracing of paternal lineages in date palm.  

PubMed

Whether sex chromosomes are differentiated is an important aspect of our knowledge of dioecious plants, such as date palm (Phoenix dactylifera). In this crop plant, the female individuals produce dates, and are thus the more valuable sex. However, there is no way to identify the sex of date palm plants before reproductive age, and the sex-determining mechanism is still unclear. To identify sex-linked microsatellite markers, we surveyed a set of 52 male and 55 female genotypes representing the geographical diversity of the species. We found three genetically linked loci that are heterozygous only in males. Male-specific alleles allowed us to identify the gender in 100% of individuals. These results confirm the existence of an XY chromosomal system with a nonrecombining XY-like region in the date palm genome. The distribution of Y haplotypes in western and eastern haplogroups allowed us to trace two male ancestral paternal lineages that account for all known Y diversity in date palm. The very low diversity associated with Y haplotypes is consistent with clonal paternal transmission of a nonrecombining male-determining region. Our results establish the date palm as a biological model with one of the most ancient sex chromosomes in flowering plants. PMID:23231423

Cherif, Emira; Zehdi, Salwa; Castillo, Karina; Chabrillange, Nathalie; Abdoulkader, Sabira; Pintaud, Jean-Christophe; Santoni, Sylvain; Salhi-Hannachi, Amel; Glémin, Sylvain; Aberlenc-Bertossi, Frédérique

2013-01-01

388

Using a comparative species approach to investigate the neurobiology of paternal responses.  

PubMed

A goal of behavioral neuroscience is to identify underlying neurobiological factors that regulate specific behaviors. Using animal models to accomplish this goal, many methodological strategies require invasive techniques to manipulate the intensity of the behavior of interest (e.g., lesion methods, pharmacological manipulations, microdialysis techniques, genetically-engineered animal models). The utilization of a comparative species approach allows researchers to take advantage of naturally occurring differences in response strategies existing in closely related species. In our lab, we use two species of the Peromyscus genus that differ in paternal responses. The male California deer mouse (Peromyscus californicus) exhibits the same parental responses as the female whereas its cousin, the common deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) exhibits virtually no nurturing/parental responses in the presence of pups. Of specific interest in this article is an exploration of the neurobiological factors associated with the affiliative social responses exhibited by the paternal California deer mouse. Because the behavioral neuroscience approach is multifaceted, the following key components of the study will be briefly addressed: the identification of appropriate species for this type of research; data collection for behavioral analysis; preparation and sectioning of the brains; basic steps involved in immunocytochemistry for the quantification of vasopressin-immunoreactivity; the use of neuroimaging software to quantify the brain tissue; the use of a microsequencing video analysis to score behavior and, finally, the appropriate statistical analyses to provide the most informed interpretations of the research findings. PMID:21968462

Franssen, Catherine L; Bardi, Massimo; Lambert, Kelly G

2011-01-01

389

Genome wide survey of microsatellites in ssDNA viruses infecting vertebrates.  

PubMed

Microsatellites or Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) are tandem iterations of one to six base pairs, non-randomly distributed throughout prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes. Limited knowledge is available about distribution of microsatellites in single stranded DNA (ssDNA) viruses, particularly vertebrate infecting viruses. We studied microsatellite distribution in 118 ssDNA virus genomes belonging to three families of vertebrate infecting viruses namely Circoviridae, Parvoviridae, and Anelloviridae, and found that microsatellites constitute an important component of these virus genomes. Mononucleotide repeats were predominant followed by dinucleotide and trinucleotide repeats. A strong positive relationship existed between number of mononucleotide repeats and genome size among all the three virus families. A similar relationship existed for the occurrence of DTTPH (di-, tri-, tetra-, penta- and hexa-nucleotide) repeats in the families Anelloviridae and Parvoviridae only. Relative abundance and relative density of mononucleotide repeats showed a strong positive relationship with genome size in Circoviridae and Parvoviridae. However, in the case of DTTPH repeats, these features showed a strong relationship with genome size in Circoviridae only. On the other hand, relative microsatellite abundance and relative density of mononucleotide repeats were negatively correlated with GC content (%) in Parvoviridae genomes. On the basis of available annotations, our analysis revealed maximum occurrence of mononucleotide as well as DTTPH repeats in the coding regions of these virus genomes. Interestingly, after normalizing the length of the coding and non-coding regions of each virus genome, we found relative density of microsatellites much higher in the non-coding regions. We understand that the present study will help in the better characterization of the stability, genome organization and evolution of these virus classes and may provide useful leads to decipher the etiopathogenesis of these viruses. PMID:25241644

Jain, Ankit; Mittal, Nikhil; Sharma, Prakash C

2014-12-01

390

Multiple paternity is a shared reproductive strategy in the live-bearing surfperches (Embiotocidae) that may be associated with female fitness  

PubMed Central

According to Bateman's principle, female fecundity is limited relative to males, setting the expectation that males should be promiscuous, while females should be choosy and select fewer mates. However, several surfperches (Embiotocidae) exhibit multiple paternity within broods indicating that females mate with multiple males throughout the mating season. Previous studies found no correlation between mating success and reproductive success (i.e., a Bateman gradient). However, by including samples from a broader range of reproductive size classes, we found evidence of a Bateman gradient in two surfperch species from distinct embiotocid clades. Using microsatellite analyses, we found that 100% of the spotfin surfperch families sampled exhibit multiple paternity (Hyperprosopon anale, the basal taxon from the only clade that has not previously been investigated) indicating that this tactic is a shared reproductive strategy among surfperches. Further, we detected evidence for a Bateman gradient in H. anale; however, this result was not significant after correction for biases. Similarly, we found evidence for multiple paternity in 83% of the shiner surfperch families (Cymatogaster aggregata) sampled. When we combine these data with a previous study on the same species, representing a larger range of reproductive size classes and associated brood sizes, we detect a Bateman gradient in shiner surfperch for the first time that remains significant after several conservative tests for bias correction. These results indicate that sexual selection is likely complex in this system, with the potential for conflicting optima between sexes, and imply a positive shift in fertility (i.e., increasing number) and reproductive tactic with respect to the mating system and number of sires throughout the reproductive life history of females. We argue that the complex reproductive natural history of surfperches is characterized by several traits that may be associated with cryptic female choice, including protracted oogenesis, uterine sac complexity, and sperm storage. PMID:25360270

LaBrecque, John R; Alva-Campbell, Yvette R; Archambeault, Sophie; Crow, Karen D

2014-01-01

391

Multiple paternity is a shared reproductive strategy in the live-bearing surfperches (Embiotocidae) that may be associated with female fitness.  

PubMed

According to Bateman's principle, female fecundity is limited relative to males, setting the expectation that males should be promiscuous, while females should be choosy and select fewer mates. However, several surfperches (Embiotocidae) exhibit multiple paternity within broods indicating that females mate with multiple males throughout the mating season. Previous studies found no correlation between mating success and reproductive success (i.e., a Bateman gradient). However, by including samples from a broader range of reproductive size classes, we found evidence of a Bateman gradient in two surfperch species from distinct embiotocid clades. Using microsatellite analyses, we found that 100% of the spotfin surfperch families sampled exhibit multiple paternity (Hyperprosopon anale, the basal taxon from the only clade that has not previously been investigated) indicating that this tactic is a shared reproductive strategy among surfperches. Further, we detected evidence for a Bateman gradient in H. anale; however, this result was not significant after correction for biases. Similarly, we found evidence for multiple paternity in 83% of the shiner surfperch families (Cymatogaster aggregata) sampled. When we combine these data with a previous study on the same species, representing a larger range of reproductive size classes and associated brood sizes, we detect a Bateman gradient in shiner surfperch for the first time that remains significant after several conservative tests for bias correction. These results indicate that sexual selection is likely complex in this system, with the potential for conflicting optima between sexes, and imply a positive shift in fertility (i.e., increasing number) and reproductive tactic with respect to the mating system and number of sires throughout the reproductive life history of females. We argue that the complex reproductive natural history of surfperches is characterized by several traits that may be associated with cryptic female choice, including protracted oogenesis, uterine sac complexity, and sperm storage. PMID:25360270

LaBrecque, John R; Alva-Campbell, Yvette R; Archambeault, Sophie; Crow, Karen D

2014-06-01

392

Widespread differential maternal and paternal genome effects on fetal bone phenotype at mid-gestation.  

PubMed

Parent-of-origin-dependent (epi)genetic factors are important determinants of prenatal development that program adult phenotype. However, data on magnitude and specificity of maternal and paternal genome effects on fetal bone are lacking. We used an outbred bovine model to dissect and quantify effects of parental genomes, fetal sex, and nongenetic maternal effects on the fetal skeleton and analyzed phenotypic and molecular relationships between fetal muscle and bone. Analysis of 51 bone morphometric and weight parameters from 72 fetuses recovered at day 153 gestation (54% term) identified six principal components (PC1-6) that explained 80% of the variation in skeletal parameters. Parental genomes accounted for most of the variation in bone wet weight (PC1, 72.1%), limb ossification (PC2, 99.8%), flat bone size (PC4, 99.7%), and axial skeletal growth (PC5, 96.9%). Limb length showed lesser effects of parental genomes (PC3, 40.8%) and a significant nongenetic maternal effect (gestational weight gain, 29%). Fetal sex affected bone wet weight (PC1, p?paternal genome controlled limb ossification (95.1%, p?paternal genome effects on alkaline phosphatase (90.0%, p?paternally controlled limb ossification, respectively. Bone wet weight and flat bone size correlated positively with muscle weight (r?=?0.84 and 0.77, p?

Xiang, Ruidong; Lee, Alice Mc; Eindorf, Tanja; Javadmanesh, Ali; Ghanipoor-Samami, Mani; Gugger, Madeleine; Fitzsimmons, Carolyn J; Kruk, Zbigniew A; Pitchford, Wayne S; Leviton, Alison J; Thomsen, Dana A; Beckman, Ian; Anderson, Gail I; Burns, Brian M; Rutley, David L; Xian, Cory J; Hiendleder, Stefan

2014-11-01

393

College Policy Statement on Maternity, Adoptive and Paternity Leave Provision for College policy on maternity, adoptive and paternity leave provision for students is as follows  

E-print Network

College Policy Statement on Maternity, Adoptive and Paternity Leave Provision for Students College policy on maternity, adoptive and paternity leave provision for students is as follows: · early; for maternity/adoptive leave, this will normally be for 4 months, but may be less if the individual so wishes

394

Genome-Wide Microsatellite Identification in the Fungus Anisogramma anomala Using Illumina Sequencing and Genome Assembly  

PubMed Central

High-throughput sequencing has been dramatically accelerating the discovery of microsatellite markers (also known as Simple Sequence Repeats). Both 454 and Illumina reads have been used directly in microsatellite discovery and primer design (the “Seq-to-SSR” approach). However, constraints of this approach include: 1) many microsatellite-containing reads do not have sufficient flanking sequences to allow primer design, and 2) difficulties in removing microsatellite loci residing in longer, repetitive regions. In the current study, we applied the novel “Seq-Assembly-SSR” approach to overcome these constraints in Anisogramma anomala. In our approach, Illumina reads were first assembled into a draft genome, and the latter was then used in microsatellite discovery. A. anomala is an obligate biotrophic ascomycete that causes eastern filbert blight disease of commercial European hazelnut. Little is known about its population structure or diversity. Approximately 26 M 146 bp Illumina reads were generated from a paired-end library of a fungal strain from Oregon. The reads were assembled into a draft genome of 333 Mb (excluding gaps), with contig N50 of 10,384 bp and scaffold N50 of 32,987 bp. A bioinformatics pipeline identified 46,677 microsatellite motifs at 44,247 loci, including 2,430 compound loci. Primers were successfully designed for 42,923 loci (97%). After removing 2,886 loci close to assembly gaps and 676 loci in repetitive regions, a genome-wide microsatellite database of 39,361 loci was generated for the fungus. In experimental screening of 236 loci using four geographically representative strains, 228 (96.6%) were successfully amplified and 214 (90.7%) produced single PCR products. Twenty-three (9.7%) were found to be perfect polymorphic loci. A small-scale population study using 11 polymorphic loci revealed considerable gene diversity. Clustering analysis grouped isolates of this fungus into two clades in accordance with their geographic origins. Thus, the “Seq-Assembly-SSR” approach has proven to be a successful one for microsatellite discovery. PMID:24312419

Cai, Guohong; Leadbetter, Clayton W.; Muehlbauer, Megan F.; Molnar, Thomas J.; Hillman, Bradley I.

2013-01-01

395

Mapping of microsatellite instability in endoscopic normal colon.  

PubMed

Genomic instability in colorectal cancer (CRC) occurs as either microsatellite instability (MSI) or chromosomal instability. The present study was aimed at examining the MSI for the MLH1 and MSH2 genes in normal colon and polyps, if detected. Four segments of the colon were sampled in 102 subjects during colonoscopy. DNA samples were analyzed for the MSI status according to the Bethesda consensus panel. Family history of any type of cancer or for colon cancer was present in 44.8% and 9.4% of the individuals, respectively. Forty-eight percent of individuals were microsatellite stable for all five markers at all locations, 20% had low MSI status (MSI-L), and 32% had high MSI status (MSI-H). The frequencies of MSI markers differed significantly from each other (p=0.003). The most frequent positive marker was D17S250. This is the first study which revealed that MSI is present in endoscopically normal-looking colon of normal individuals and, more frequently, in individuals with family histories of CRC. The detection of very early-stage CRC is possible by MSI analysis of DNA mismatch repair genes in colon tissues. This study has revealed crucial information for the use of molecular tests in CRC screening, such as high frequencies of MSI in endoscopically normal colon, which might cause false positivity. PMID:22224632

Tug, Esra; Balaban, Yasemin H; Sahin, Ebru Kaplan

2012-05-01

396

A first-generation microsatellite linkage map of the ruff  

PubMed Central

A linkage map of the ruff (Philomachus pugnax) genome was constructed based on segregation analysis of 58 microsatellite loci from 381 captive-bred individuals spanning fourteen breeding years and comprising 64 families. Twenty-eight of the markers were resolved into seven linkage groups and five single marker loci, homologous to known chicken (Gallus gallus) and zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) chromosomes. Linkage groups range from 10.1 to 488.7 cM in length and covered a total map distance of 641.6 cM, corresponding to an estimated 30–35% coverage of the ruff genome, with a mean spacing of 22.9 cM between loci. Through comparative mapping, we are able to assign linkage groups Ppu1, Ppu2, Ppu6, Ppu7, Ppu10, Ppu13, and PpuZ to chromosomes and identify several intrachromosomal rearrangements between the homologs of chicken, zebra finch, and ruff microsatellite loci. This is the first linkage map created in the ruff and is a major step toward providing genomic resources for this enigmatic species. It will provide an essential framework for mapping of phenotypically and behaviorally important loci in the ruff. PMID:24363892

Farrell, Lindsay L; Burke, Terry; Slate, Jon; Lank, David B

2013-01-01

397

Patient Care and Paternalism: Dilemmas of Family Practice  

PubMed Central

From the clinical records of a country doctor, this vignette concerns a teenaged girl who, having refused treatment, is persuaded, under near duress, to accept a regimen that her family physician considers best for her. Although apparently arrogant paternalism, the practitioner's approach proves, on reflection, to possess considerable merit. The author discusses the ethical principles that have led to rejection of paternalism in the West. Formulated as absolute maxims, they soon require, like all absolutes, a multitude of explanations and additions. Some logical, social, and other “exceptions” are briefly mentioned, because the old doctor's intuitive actions seem to have oddly coincided with a number of them. Yet the questions remain: Should this medical practitioner have become so deeply involved? Should he have interfered with his patient's autonomy to the extent he did? Was he justified? PMID:11659246

Wilbush, Joel

1990-01-01

398

Maternal Depression, Paternal Psychopathology, and Toddlers' Behavior Problems  

PubMed Central

This article examined the effects of maternal depression during the postpartum period (Time 1) on the later behavior problems of toddlers (Time 3) and tested if this relationship was moderated by paternal psychopathology during toddlers’ lives and/or or mediated by maternal parenting behavior observed during mother–child interaction (Time 2). Of the 101 mothers who participated in this longitudinal study with their toddlers, 51 had never experienced an episode of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and 50 had experienced an episode of MDD during the first 18 months of their toddlers’ lives. Maternal depression at Time 1 was significantly associated with toddlers’ externalizing and internalizing behavior problems only when paternal psychopathology was present. As predicted, maternal negativity at Time 2 was found to mediate the relationship between maternal depression at Time 1 and toddlers’ externalizing behavior problems at Time 3. PMID:19130357

Dietz, Laura J.; Jennings, Kay Donahue; Kelley, Sue A.; Marshal, Michael

2013-01-01

399

Creation of a chloroplast microsatellite reporter for detection of replication slippage in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.  

PubMed

Microsatellites are composed of short tandem direct repeats; deletions or duplications of those repeats through the process of replication slippage result in microsatellite instability relative to other genomic loci. Variation in repeat number occurs so frequently that microsatellites can be used for genotyping and forensic analysis. However, an accurate assessment of the rates of change can be difficult because the presence of many repeats makes it difficult to determine whether changes have occurred through single or multiple events. The current study was undertaken to experimentally assess the rates of replication slippage that occur in vivo in the chloroplast DNA of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. A reporter construct was created in which a stretch of AAAG repeats was inserted into a functional gene to allow changes to be observed when they occurred at the synthetic microsatellite. Restoration of the reading frame occurred through replication slippage in 15 of every million viable cells. Since only one-third of the potential insertion/deletion events would restore the reading frame, the frequency of change could be deduced to be 4.5 x 10(-5). Analysis of the slippage events showed that template slippage was the primary event, resulting in deletions rather than duplications. These findings contrasted with events observed in Escherichia coli during maintenance of the plasmid, where duplications were the rule. PMID:18263764

GuhaMajumdar, Monica; Dawson-Baglien, Ethan; Sears, Barbara B

2008-04-01

400

A REFORMULATION OF LIBERTARIAN PATERNALISM Guilhem LECOUTEUX  

E-print Network

. Furthermore, this also questions standard methods of welfare analysis such as cost- benefit analysis, which) enabling a sustainable management of common-pool resources. Keywords: welfare economics, libertarian 2003). Those evidence raise serious issues for welfare economics, since its main results are build

Boyer, Edmond

401

Breeding synchrony and paternity in the barn swallow ( Hirundo rustica )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) is a socially monogamous passerine which usually breeds in colonies where extra-pair copulations are frequent. Males intensively\\u000a guard their mates during the female fertile period. Since males are more likely to be available for extra-pair copulations\\u000a when their mate is not fertile, synchrony in timing of breeding may affect paternity of individual males. In this

N. Saino; C. R. Primmer; H. Ellegren; A. P. Møller

1999-01-01

402

MATE GUARDING AND EXTRA-PAIR PATERNITY IN NORTHERN CARDINALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied patterns of mate guarding and paternity in 21 pairs of Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) nesting in~central_Kentucky. DbJA fingerprinting revealed that five of 37 nestlinas (13.5%) resulted from extra-pair fertilizations (EPFs). Of 19 broods sampled, three (16%)-bad at least one extra-pair young. Although our observations of male cardinals making extra-territorial movements suggest that some males in the population may

DAVID F. WESTNEAT

403

Paid maternity and paternity leave: rights and choices.  

PubMed

From April 2007 onwards, maternity leave will be raised to nine months Paid maternity leave is associated with significant health benefits for babies, including reduced infant mortality The Government proposes to increase paid maternity leave to one year and introduce additional paternity leave by around 2009 The U.K's provision for maternity leave and child care is more generous than the U.S.A. or Australia but less than in the Scandinavian countries PMID:17385479

Jordan, Claire

2007-01-01

404

Clinical Features of Three Girls With Mosaic Genome-Wide Paternal Uniparental Isodisomy  

PubMed Central

Here we describe three subjects with mosaic genome-wide paternal uniparental isodisomy (GWpUPD) each of whom presented initially with overgrowth, hemihyperplasia (HH), and hyperinsulinism (HI). Due to the severity of findings and the presence of additional features, SNP array testing was performed, which demonstrated mosaic GWpUPD. Comparing these individuals to 10 other live-born subjects reported in the literature, the predominant phenotype is that of pUPD11 and notable for a very high incidence of tumor development. Our subjects developed non-metastatic tumors of the adrenal gland, kidney, and/or liver.AllthreesubjectshadpancreatichyperplasiaresultinginHI. Notably, our subjects to date display minimal features of other diseases associated with paternal UPD loci. Both children who survived the neonatal period have displayed near-normal cognitive development, likely due to a favorable tissue distribution of the mosaicism.Tounderstandthe rangeofUPDmosaicismlevels, we studied multiple tissues using SNP array analysis and detected levels of 5–95%, roughly correlating with the extent of tissue involvement.Giventherapidityoftumorgrowthandthedifficulty distinguishing malignant and benign tumors in these GWpUPD subjects, we have utilized increased frequency of ultrasound (US) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) screening in the first years of life. Because of a later age of onset of additional tumors, continued tumor surveillance into adolescence may need to be considered in these rare patients. PMID:23804593

Kalish, Jennifer M.; Conlin, Laura K.; Bhatti, Tricia R.; Dubbs, Holly A.; Harris, Mary Catherine; Izumi, Kosuke; Mostoufi-Moab, Sogol; Mulchandani, Surabhi; Saitta, Sulagna; States, Lisa J.; Swarr, Daniel T.; Wilkens, Alisha B.; Zackai, Elaine H.; Zelley, Kristin; Bartolomei, Marisa S.; Nichols, Kim E.; Palladino, Andrew A.; Spinner, Nancy B.; Deardorff, Matthew A.

2014-01-01

405

Paternal Isodisomy for Chromosome 5 in a Child with Spinal Muscular Atrophy  

PubMed Central

Paternal isodisomy for chromosome 5 was detected in a 2-year-old boy with type III spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), an autosomal recessive degenerative disorder of alpha motor neurons, known to map to 5q11.2-13.3. Examination of 17 short-sequence repeat polymorphisms spanning 5p15.1-15.3 to 5q33.3-qter produced no evidence of maternally inherited alleles. Cytogenetic analysis revealed a normal male karyotype, and FISH with probes closely flanking the SMA locus confirmed the presence of two copies of chromosome 5. No developmental abnormalities, other than those attributable to classical childhood-onset SMA, were present. While the absence of a maternally derived chromosome 5 could have produced the symptoms of SMA through the mechanism of genomic imprinting, the lack of more global developmental abnormalities would be unusual. Paternal transmission of two copies of a defective gene at the SMA locus seems to be the most likely cause of disease, but proof of this will have to await the identification of the SMA gene. While uniparental isodisomy is a rare event, it must be considered as a possible mechanism involved in SMA when conducting prenatal testing and counseling for this disorder. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3 PMID:8116617

Brzustowicz, L. M.; Allitto, B. A.; Matseoane, D.; Theve, R.; Michaud, L.; Chatkupt, S.; Sugarman, E.; Penchaszadeh, G. K.; Suslak, L.; Koenigsberger, M. R.; Gilliam, T. C.; Handelin, B. L.

1994-01-01

406

Paternal isodisomy for chromosome 5 in a child with spinal muscular atropy  

SciTech Connect

Paternal isodisomy for chromosomes 5 was detected in a 2-year-old boy with type III spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), an autosomal recessive degenerative disorder of alpha motor neurons, known to map to 5q11.2-13.3. Examination of 17 short-sequence repeat polymorphisms spanning 5p15.1-15.3. to 5q33.3-qter produced no evidence of maternally inherited alleles. Cytogenetic analysis revealed a normal male karyotype, and FISH with probes closely flanking the SMA locus confirmed the presence of two copies of chromosome 5. No developmental abnormalities, other than those attributable to classical childhood-onset SMA, were present. While the absence of a maternally derived chromosome 5 could have produced the symptoms of SMA through the mechanism of genomic imprinting, the lack of more global developmental abnormalities would be unusual. Paternal transmission of two copies of a defective gene at the SMA locus seems to be the most likely cause of disease, but proof of this will have to await the identification of the SMA gene. While uniparental isodisomy is a rare event, it must be considered as a possible mechanism involved in SMA when conducting prenatal testing and counseling for this disorder. 37 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Brzustowicz, L.M.; Penchaszadeh, G.K.; Gilliam, T.C.; Allitto, B.A.; Theve, R.; Michaud, L.; Sugarman, E.; Handelin, B.L.; Chatkupt, S.; Koenigsberger, M.R. (Univ. of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ (United States))

1994-03-01

407

Multiple paternity does not depend on male genetic diversity  

PubMed Central

Polyandry is common in many species and it has been suggested that females engage in multiple mating to increase the genetic diversity of their offspring (genetic diversity hypothesis). Multiple paternity occurs in 30% of litters in wild populations of house mice, Mus musculus musculus, and multiple-sired litters are genetically more diverse than single-sired ones. Here, we aimed to test whether female house mice produce multiple-sired litters when they have the opportunity to produce genetically diverse litters. We assessed the rates of multiple paternity when females could choose to mate with two males that were genetically dissimilar to each other (i.e. nonsiblings and MHC dissimilar) compared with when females could choose to mate with two males that were genetically similar to each other (i.e. siblings and shared MHC alleles). Multiple mating may depend upon a female's own condition, and, therefore, we also tested whether inbred (from full-sibling matings) females were more likely to produce multiple-sired progeny than outbred controls. Overall we found that 29% of litters had multiple sires, but we found no evidence that females were more likely to produce multiple-sired litters when they had the opportunity to mate with genetically dissimilar males compared with controls, regardless of whether females were inbred or outbred. Thus, our findings do not support the idea that female mice increase multiple paternity when they have the opportunity to increase the genetic diversity of their offspring, as expected from the genetic diversity hypothesis. PMID:25018559

Thonhauser, Kerstin E.; Raveh, Shirley; Penn, Dustin J.

2014-01-01

408

Paternal Fenvalerate Exposure Influences Reproductive Functions in the Offspring  

PubMed Central

Fenvalerate (Fen), a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide, has been shown to have adverse effects on male reproductive system. Thus, the aim of the present study was to elucidate whether these adverse effects are passed from exposed male mice to their offspring. Adult male mice received Fen (10 mg/kg) daily for 30 days and mated with untreated females to produce offspring. Fenvalerate significantly changed the methylation status of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (Ace), forkhead box O3 (Foxo3a), huntingtin-associated protein 1 (Hap1), nuclear receptor subfamily 3 (Nr3c2), promyelocytic leukemia (Pml), and Prostaglandin F2 receptor negative regulator (Ptgfrn) genes in paternal mice sperm genomic DNA. Further, Fen significantly increased sperm abnormalities; serum testosterone and estradiol-17ß level in adult male (F0) and their male offspring (F1). Further, paternal Fen treatment significantly increased the length of estrous cycle, serum estradiol-17ß concentration in estrus, and progesterone levels in diestrus in female offspring (F1). These findings suggest that adverse effects of paternal Fen exposure on reproductive functions can be seen not only in treated males (F0) but also in their offsprings. PMID:23548413

Xia, Dong; Parvizi, Nahid; Zhou, Yuchuan; Xu, Kesi; Jiang, Hui; Li, Rongjie; Hang, Yiqiong; Lu, Yang

2013-01-01

409

Multiple Paternity in Polyandrous Barn Owls (Tyto alba)  

PubMed Central

In polyandrous species females produce successive clutches with several males. Female barn owls (Tyto alba) often desert their offspring and mate to produce a 2nd annual brood with a second male. We tested whether copulating during chick rearing at the 1st annual brood increases the male's likelihood to obtain paternity at the 2nd annual breeding attempt of his female mate in case she deserts their brood to produce a second brood with a different male. Using molecular paternity analyses we found that 2 out of 26 (8%) second annual broods of deserting females contained in total 6 extra-pair young out of 15 nestlings. These young were all sired by the male with whom the female had produced the 1st annual brood. In contrast, none of the 49 1st annual breeding attempts (219 offspring) and of the 20 2nd annual breeding attempts (93 offspring) of non-deserting females contained extra-pair young. We suggest that female desertion can select male counter-strategies to increase paternity and hence individual fitness. Alternatively, females may copulate with the 1st male to derive genetic benefits, since he is usually of higher quality than the 2nd male which is commonly a yearling individual. PMID:24244622

Dubey, Sylvain; Simon, Celine; Waldvogel, Celine; Burri, Reto; Roulin, Alexandre

2013-01-01

410

Multiple paternity in polyandrous barn owls (Tyto alba).  

PubMed

In polyandrous species females produce successive clutches with several males. Female barn owls (Tyto alba) often desert their offspring and mate to produce a 2(nd) annual brood with a second male. We tested whether copulating during chick rearing at the 1(st) annual brood increases the male's likelihood to obtain paternity at the 2(nd) annual breeding attempt of his female mate in case she deserts their brood to produce a second brood with a different male. Using molecular paternity analyses we found that 2 out of 26 (8%) second annual broods of deserting females contained in total 6 extra-pair young out of 15 nestlings. These young were all sired by the male with whom the female had produced the 1(st) annual brood. In contrast, none of the 49 1(st) annual breeding attempts (219 offspring) and of the 20 2(nd) annual breeding attempts (93 offspring) of non-deserting females contained extra-pair young. We suggest that female desertion can select male counter-strategies to increase paternity and hence individual fitness. Alternatively, females may copulate with the 1(st) male to derive genetic benefits, since he is usually of higher quality than the 2(nd) male which is commonly a yearling individual. PMID:24244622

Henry, Isabelle; Antoniazza, Sylvain; Dubey, Sylvain; Simon, Céline; Waldvogel, Céline; Burri, Reto; Roulin, Alexandre

2013-01-01

411

Paternal dioxin, preterm birth, intrauterine growth retardation, and infant death.  

PubMed

We studied paternal exposure to Agent Orange and its dioxin contaminant (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) and preterm birth, intrauterine growth retardation, or infant death in veterans of Operation Ranch Hand, the unit responsible for spraying herbicides during the Vietnam war. A Comparison group of Air Force veterans who served in Southeast Asia during the same time period and who were not occupationally exposed to herbicides was included. We studied children conceived during or after the father's service in Southeast Asia and based exposure on paternal dioxin measured in 1987 or 1992 extrapolated to the time of conception of the child. We assigned each child to one of four exposure categories: Comparison and three Ranch Hand categories (Background, Low, High). Children in the High (relative risk = 1.3) and Background (relative risk = 1.4) categories were at increased risk of preterm birth. The risk of intrauterine growth retardation was not increased in any exposure category. The risk of infant death was increased in all Ranch Hand children, with the greatest increases in the High (relative risk = 4.5) and Background (relative risk = 3.2) categories. These patterns indicate that the increases in the relative risk of preterm birth and infant death may not be related to paternal dioxin level. PMID:9504284

Michalek, J E; Rahe, A J; Boyle, C A

1998-03-01

412

Paternal Experience and Stress Responses in California Mice (Peromyscus californicus)  

PubMed Central

Paternal behavior greatly affects the survival, social development, and cognitive development of infants. Nevertheless, little research has been done to assess how paternal experience modifies the behavioral characteristics of fathers, including fear and stress responses to a novel environment. We investigated long-term behavioral and physiologic effects of parental experience in mice (Peromyscus californicus) and how this response activates the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (as measured by corticosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone [DHEA] levels) and interacts with anxiety-related behaviors. Three groups of adult males were tested—fathers exposed to pups, virgins exposed to pups, and virgins never exposed to pups—in 2 environments designed to elicit anxiety response: an open field with a novel object placed in the center and a closed cage containing a sample of a component of fox feces. Behavioral responses were measured by using traditional methods (duration and frequency) and behavioral-chain sequences. Results indicated that paternal experience significantly modifies a male mouse's behavioral and physiologic responses to stress-provoking stimuli. Compared with inexperienced male mice, experienced male mice had a significant decrease in the occurrence of incomplete behavioral chains during the exposure to the novel object, an index of reduced stress. Further, even moderate pup exposure induced behavioral modifications in virgin male mice. These behavioral responses were correlated with changes in corticosterone and DHEA levels. Together, these data provide evidence that interactions between male mice and offspring may have mutually beneficial long-term behavioral and physiologic effects. PMID:21819678

Bardi, Massimo; Franssen, Catherine L; Hampton, Joseph E; Shea, Eleanor A; Fanean, Amanda P; Lambert, Kelly G

2011-01-01

413

Five Hundred Microsatellite Loci for Peromyscus.  

PubMed

Mice of the genus Peromyscus, including several endangered subspecies, occur throughout North America and have been important models for conservation research. We describe 526 primer pairs that amplify microsatellite DNA loci for P. maniculatus bairdii, 467 of which also amplify in P. polionotus subgriseus. For 12 of these loci, we report diversity data from a natural population. These markers will be an important resource for future genomic studies of Peromyscus evolution and mammalian conservation. PMID:20563244

Weber, Jesse N; Peters, Maureen B; Tsyusko, Olga V; Linnen, Catherine R; Hagen, Cris; Schable, Nancy A; Tuberville, Tracey D; McKee, Anna M; Lance, Stacey L; Jones, Kenneth L; Fisher, Heidi S; Dewey, Michael J; Hoekstra, Hopi E; Glenn, Travis C

2010-06-01

414

Maternal inheritance of mitochondrial DNA: degradation of paternal mitochondria by allogeneic organelle autophagy, allophagy.  

PubMed

Maternal inheritance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is generally observed in many eukaryotes. Sperm-derived paternal mitochondria and their mtDNA enter the oocyte cytoplasm upon fertilization and then normally disappear during early embryogenesis. However, the mechanism underlying this clearance of paternal mitochondria has remained largely unknown. Recently, we showed that autophagy is required for the elimination of paternal mitochondria in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. Shortly after fertilization, autophagosomes are induced locally around the penetrated sperm components. These autophagosomes engulf paternal mitochondria, resulting in their lysosomal degradation during early embryogenesis. In autophagy-defective zygotes, paternal mitochondria and their genomes remain even in the larval stage. Therefore, maternal inheritance of mtDNA is accomplished by autophagic degradation of paternal mitochondria. We also found that another kind of sperm-derived structure, called the membranous organelle, is degraded by zygotic autophagy as well. We thus propose to term this allogeneic (nonself) organelle autophagy as allophagy. PMID:22302002

Sato, Miyuki; Sato, Ken

2012-03-01

415

Paternal behavior is associated with central neurohormone receptor binding patterns in meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus).  

PubMed

Paternal and nonpaternal voles (microtus) have different arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT) receptor patterns in the extended amygdala, a neural pathway associated with parental behavior. Using receptor autoradiography, the authors examined whether AVP and OT receptor patterns were associated with facultative paternal behavior in either sexually and parentally inexperienced or experienced meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus). Experienced, in contrast to inexperienced, males had less AVP binding in the lateral septum (LS), more AVP binding in the anterior olfactory nucleus (AON), and more OT binding in the AON, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, LS, and lateral amygdala. Thus, specific AVP receptor patterns, which co-occur with paternal care in consistently paternal voles, also may be associated with paternal care (when present) in typically nonpaternal species. This study also demonstrated a possible relationship between OT receptor patterns and paternal state in male mammals. PMID:11770064

Parker, K J; Kinney, L F; Phillips, K M; Lee, T M

2001-12-01

416

Evidence for multiple paternity in the school shark Galeorhinus galeus found in New Zealand waters.  

PubMed

This study assessed the levels of relatedness of Galeorhinus galeus of progeny arrays using six microsatellite DNA markers. A parentage analysis from five families (mother and litter) from the North Island of New Zealand suggested the occurrence of genetic polyandry in G. galeus with two of the five litters showing multiple sires involved in the progeny arrays. This finding may be consistent with the reproductive characteristics of G. galeus, in which females can potentially store sperm for long periods of time after the mating season. PMID:25130757

Hernández, S; Duffy, C; Francis, M P; Ritchie, P A

2014-11-01

417

Paternally inherited ABCC8 mutation causing diffuse congenital hyperinsulinism  

PubMed Central

Summary Background: Congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) is a rare genetic disorder characterised by inappropriate insulin secretion in the face of severe hypoglycaemia. There are two histological subtypes of CHI namely diffuse and focal. Diffuse CHI is most common due to recessive mutations in ABCC8/KCNJ11 (which encode the SUR/KIR6.2 components of the pancreatic ?-cell KATP channel) whereas focal CHI is due to a paternally inherited ABCC8/KCNJ11 mutation and somatic loss of heterozygosity for the 11p allele inside the focal lesion. Fluorine-18-l-dihydroxyphenylalanine positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-DOPA-PET/CT) is used in the pre-operative localisation of focal lesions prior to surgery. Diffuse CHI if medically unresponsive will require a near total pancreatectomy whereas focal CHI will only require a limited lesionectomy, thus curing the patient from the hypoglycaemia. Aims: To report the first case of genetically confirmed CHI in Singapore from a heterozygous paternally inherited ABCC8 mutation. Methods/Results: A term male infant presented with severe hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia (HH) after birth and failed medical treatment with diazoxide and octreotide. Genetic testing (paternally inherited mutation in ABCC8/p.D1472N) suggested focal disease, but due to the unavailability of 18F-DOPA-PET/CT to confirm focal disease, a partial pancreatectomy was performed. Interestingly, histology of the resected pancreatic tissue showed changes typical of diffuse disease. Conclusion: Heterozygous paternally inherited ABCC8/KCNJ11 mutations can lead to diffuse or focal CHI. Learning points HH is a cause of severe hypoglycaemia in the newborn period.Paternal mutations in ABCC8/KCNJ11 can lead to diffuse or focal disease. 18F-DOPA-PET/CT scan is the current imaging of choice for localising focal lesions.Gallium-68 tetra-aza-cyclododecane-N N?N?N-?-tetra-acetate octreotate PET scan is not a useful imaging tool for localising focal lesions.The molecular mechanism by which a heterozygous ABCC8 mutation leads to diffuse disease is currently unclear.Focal lesions are curable by lesionectomy and so genetic studies in patients with HH must be followed by imaging using 18F-DOPA-PET/CT scan. PMID:24616771

Chandran, Suresh; Peng, Fabian Yap Kok; Rajadurai, Victor Samuel; Lu, Yap Te; Chang, Kenneth T E; Flanagan, S E; Ellard, S; Hussain, Khalid

2013-01-01

418

Ten microsatellite loci from Northern Bobwhite ( Colinus virginianus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological studies using microsatellite data often require the selection of an optimal marker set for use in parentage and\\u000a relatedness inference. Commonly, this requires a candidate pool of microsatellite markers from which several are selected\\u000a to ensure data are acquired efficiently and accurately. We developed 10 microsatellite loci for use with Northern Bobwhite\\u000a (Colinus virginianus) and tested these loci using

Brant C. Faircloth; Theron M. Terhune; Nancy A. Schable; Travis C. Glenn; William E. Palmer; John P. Carroll

2009-01-01

419

Microsatellite markers for Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia; Elaeagnaceae)1  

PubMed Central

• Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed for the plant species Elaeagnus angustifolia to assist in future investigations of genetic variability in its native and invasive ranges and the precise origins of the United States/Canada invasion. • Methods and Results: Eleven polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed. The number of alleles observed for each locus ranged from three to 11. • Conclusions: These microsatellites have sufficient potential variability to define population structure and origins of the Russian olive invasion. PMID:25202584

Gaskin, John F.; Hufbauer, Ruth A.; Bogdanowicz, Steven M.

2013-01-01

420

Low-level microsatellite instability phenotype in sporadic glioblastoma multiforme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose Genetic instability is a hallmark of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Microsatellite instability (MSI) is a significant event i