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1

Microsatellite analysis of paternity and reproduction in Arctic grizzly bears.  

PubMed

We report data from analyses of microsatellite loci of 30 grizzly bear family groups which demonstrate that each cub in a litter can be sired independently, and we derive estimates of maximum reproductive success for males, from an Arctic population in northwestern Alaska that is minimally affected by human activities. These analyses were made possible by the use of single-locus primers that amplified both of an individual's alleles at eight microsatellite loci and by detailed knowledge of maternal/offspring relationships that allowed the identification of paternal alleles. No single male was responsible for more than approximately 11% of known offspring, and no more than 49% of breeding-age males successfully bred. These data contribute to an understanding of the genetic and demographic basis of male reproductive success, which is of vital importance in the maintenance of small, isolated grizzly bear populations. PMID:7657992

Craighead, L; Paetkau, D; Reynolds, H V; Vyse, E R; Strobeck, C

2

High prevalence of multiple paternity within fruits in natural populations of Silene latifolia, as revealed by microsatellite DNA analysis.  

PubMed

Data on multiple paternity within broods has been gathered in several animal species, and comparable data in plants would be of great importance to understand the evolution of reproductive traits in a common framework. In this study, we first isolated and characterized six microsatellite loci from the dioecious plant Silene latifolia (Caryophyllaceae). The polymorphism of the loci was assessed in 60 individual females from four different populations. Two of the investigated loci showed a pattern of inheritance consistent with X-linkage. These microsatellite loci were highly polymorphic and therefore useful tools for parentage analysis. We then used four of the markers to determine paternity within naturally pollinated fruits in four European populations. This study revealed widespread multiple paternity in all populations investigated. The minimum number of fathers per fruit varied from one to nine, with population means ranging from 3.4 to 4.9. The number of fathers per fruit was not significantly correlated with offspring sex ratios. High prevalence of multiple paternity within fruits strongly suggest that pollen competition is likely to occur in this species. This may substantially impact male reproductive success and possibly contribute to increase female and offspring fitness, either through postpollination selection or increased genetic diversity. Wide variation in outcrossing rates may be an overlooked aspect of plant mating systems. PMID:17784922

Teixeira, Sara; Bernasconi, Giorgina

2007-09-04

3

Multiple paternity and female-biased mutation at a microsatellite locus in the olive ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea).  

PubMed

Multiple paternity in the olive ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea) population nesting in Suriname was demonstrated using two microsatellite loci, viz., Ei8 and Cm84. The large number of offspring sampled per clutch (70 on average, ranging from 15 to 103) and the number of alleles found at the two loci (18 and eight alleles, respectively) enabled unambiguous assessment of the occurrence of multiple paternity. In two out of 10 clutches analysed, the offspring had been sired by at least two males, which was confirmed at both loci. In both clutches, unequal paternity occurred: 73% and 92% of the offspring had been sired by the primary male. The probability of detecting multiple paternity was 0.903, and therefore there is a small chance that multiple paternity occurred but remained undetected in some of the eight clutches that appeared to be singly sired. Analysis of 703 offspring revealed a high mutation rate for locus Ei8 (micro = 2.3 x 10(-2)) with all 33 mutations occurring in maternal alleles. In particular, one allele of 274 bp mutated at a high frequency in a clutch to which the mother contributed the allele, but in another clutch where the father contributed the same allele, no such mutations were observed. Inferred allele-specific mutation rates for Ei8 and expected numbers of mutations per clutch confirmed that maternal alleles for Ei8 are more likely to mutate in the olive ridley sea turtle than paternal alleles. Possible explanations are discussed. PMID:12136412

Hoekert, W E J; Neuféglise, H; Schouten, A D; Menken, S B J

2002-08-01

4

Multiple paternity assessed using microsatellite markers, in green turtles Chelonia mydas (Linnaeus, 1758) of Ascension Island, South Atlantic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paternity was determined for three clutches and up to 20 offspring per clutch in the green turtle (Chelonia mydas) from Ascension Island, South Atlantic, using microsatellite markers. All three clutches were sired by at least two different males. The results were compared with those of previous studies of multiple paternity in turtles. No significant difference among studies was observed in

J. S. Ireland; A. C. Broderick; F. Glen; B. J. Godley; G. C. Hays; P. L. M. Lee; D. O. F. Skibinski

2003-01-01

5

Multiple paternity in side-neck turtles Podocnemis expansa: evidence from microsatellite DNA data.  

PubMed

Multiple paternity was found in two clutches of Podocnemis expansa using eight microsatellite loci. When loci were analysed separately a minimum of two males was estimated for nest N23, and three for nest C17. When all loci were combined, three patrilines were detected in N23, and six in C17. The distribution of full-sib cluster sizes indicated a disproportionate contribution of one male to clutch C17, consistent with possible sperm competition, or the mixing of leftover and newly acquired sperm. High mutation rates were detected at several loci. Multiple paternity has positive implications for this endangered species as it may slow the loss of genetic variability caused by drift. This is the first report of multiple paternity in the suborder Pleurodira. PMID:10652079

Valenzuela, N

2000-01-01

6

Mutations at Y-STR loci: implications for paternity testing and forensic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge about mutation rates and the mutational process of Y-chromosomal short-tandem-repeat (STR) or microsatellite loci used in paternity testing and forensic analysis is crucial for the correct interpretation of resulting genetic profiles. Therefore, we recently analysed a total of 4999 male germline transmissions from father\\/son pairs of confirmed paternity (probability?99.9%) at 15 Y-STR loci which are commonly applied to forensics.

Manfred Kayser; Antti Sajantila

2001-01-01

7

Multiple paternity and female-biased mutation at a microsatellite locus in the olive ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple paternity in the olive ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea) population nesting in Suriname was demonstrated using two microsatellite loci, viz., Ei8 and Cm84. The large number of offspring sampled per clutch (70 on average, ranging from 15 to 103) and the number of alleles found at the two loci (18 and eight alleles, respectively) enabled unambiguous assessment of the

W. E. J. Hoekert; H Neuféglise; A. D. Schouten; S. B. J. Menken

2002-01-01

8

Automated analysis of multiplex microsatellites.  

PubMed Central

The use of automated DNA fragment analysis with the Applied Biosystems 672 Genescanner system was evaluated in a routine diagnostic setting. The aim of the study was to compare automated fragment detection and analysis with conventional methods. For cystic fibrosis analysis the delta F508 mutation in exon 10 of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) gene was multiplexed with two intragenic microsatellites. The analysis of the Prader-Willi/Angelman region of chromosome 15 used a panel of five microsatellites. For dystrophin, seven microsatellites covering the entire dystrophin gene were co-amplified. Automated analysis was faster and more accurate than analysis using radiolabelled products with sequencing gels, although some inconsistencies in the sizing of microsatellite alleles were seen. Images

Taylor, G R; Noble, J S; Mueller, R F

1994-01-01

9

Mutations of microsatellite autosomal loci in paternity investigations of the Southern Poland population.  

PubMed

In this study, germline mutations were analyzed for 26,040 parent-child allelic transfers among subjects referred to paternity testing and originating from the Slavonic population of the Southern Poland. Mutation rates were estimated for 15 autosomal microsatellite loci: D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D3S1358, TH01, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433, vWA, TPOX, D18S51, D5S818 and FGA. There were 35 mutation events observed at 11 from 15 analyzed loci. No mutations were found at TH01, D2S1338, D19S433 and TPOX loci. The mutation rate estimate was 0.0019 [0.0012-0.0028 95% CI] for paternal and 0.0004 [0.0002-0.0009] for maternal meiosis, while 25% mutations remained unassigned. The locus-specific mutation rate ranged from 0.0000 [0.0000-0.0014] to 0.0046 [0.0022-0.0087]. Mutations observed in male germlines were more frequent than in female germlines. PMID:23333809

Wojtas, Marta; Piniewska, Danuta; Pola?ska, Nina; Stawowiak, Agnieszka; Sanak, Marek

2013-01-18

10

Microsatellite DNA loci identify individuals and provide no evidence for multiple paternity in wild tuatara ( Sphenodon : Reptilia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six new microsatellite DNA loci are isolated from a genomic library of the sphenodontid reptile tuatara (Sphenodon) and presented here as a tool for identifying individuals for future paternity and kinship studies. These loci, in combination\\u000a with four previously published loci, are sufficient to discriminate between clutch-mate siblings from Stephens Island and\\u000a Brothers Island populations. These populations represent high and

Jennifer M. Hay; David M. Lambert

2008-01-01

11

Pollination in the marine realm: microsatellites reveal high outcrossing rates and multiple paternity in eelgrass Zostera marina.  

PubMed

The mating system was examined in two annual populations of eelgrass (Zostera marina), a marine angiosperm displaying subaqueous pollination. Multilocus genotyping using microsatellite DNA markers allowed the assessment of the pollen source based on single progeny as units of observation. Outcrossing was detectable by the presence of non-maternal alleles at one or more of the loci. In outcrossing cases, three microsatellite alleles were present in unripe seeds, consisting of both maternal alleles and the paternal allele composing the triploid primary endosperm. In ripe seeds, only the diploid embryonal genotype was amplifiable by PCR. Two intertidal populations situated in the German Wadden Sea were almost entirely outcrossing (t +/- SE 0.96 +/- 0.03, N=60 and 0.97 +/- 0.029, N=37). Because of the high polymorphism displayed by the eight chosen microsatellites, representing a total of 69 and 76 alleles, the likelihood of erroneously inferring selfing was small (alpha=0.0026 and 0.0007). In order to study the correlation of paternity, the coefficient of relatedness was determined within sibships. Relatedness (r +/- SE) was calculated as 0.357 +/- 0.059 and 0.343 +/- 0.037, indicating multiple paternities within inflorescences. Small amounts of tissue (< or = 0.1 mg) such as the developing seeds of recently fertilized ovules, were sufficient for PCR-amplification. Hence, PCR-based methods, such as multilocus microsatellite genotyping, allow the detection of pollen origin early in the development of progeny. They will be useful to distinguish postfertilization processes such as selective abortion and germination from other prefertilization determinants of plant mating systems. PMID:11122424

Reusch, T B

2000-11-01

12

A tale of two siblings: multiple paternity in big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) demonstrated using microsatellite markers.  

PubMed

In many bat species, the opportunity for sperm competition or other mechanisms of post-copulatory paternity biasing is thought to be great, due to the long delay between copulation and fertilization, demonstrated sperm storage capabilities, and observed promiscuity. We present the results of the first study to assess whether litters of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) containing dizygotic twins share the same father. We sampled 26 mother-offspring triads from three colonies in Indiana and Illinois, as well as 299 additional adults (237 females and 62 males) from these colonies and six other maternity colonies in the same area in 1997-1998. All individuals were genotyped at nine highly variable autosomal microsatellite loci and one X-linked locus. We assessed multiple paternity using autosomal and X-linked locus exclusions, and using maximum-likelihood methods. All methods confirmed multiple paternity within litters, and the maximum-likelihood analyses indicated that almost half of the sampled litters were composed of maternal half-siblings rather than full-siblings. Our results highlight the potential importance of post-copulatory mechanisms of paternity determination in the mating system of big brown bats, and have important implications for gene flow and population structuring in this species. PMID:16367843

Vonhof, M J; Barber, D; Fenton, M B; Strobeck, C

2006-01-01

13

Multiple paternity in side-neck turtles Podocnemis expansa: evidence from microsatellite DNA data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple paternity was found in two clutches of Podocnemis expansa using eight micro- satellite loci. When loci were analysed separately a minimum of two males was esti- mated for nest N23, and three for nest C17. When all loci were combined, three patrilines were detected in N23, and six in C17. The distribution of full-sib cluster sizes indicated a disproportionate

N. Valenzuela

2000-01-01

14

EVALUATION OF (CA)n DINUCLEOTIDE MARKERS IN PATERNITY ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developing robust molecular markers for forensic DNA fingerprinting is an important issue, as stringent criteria for their selection and use have to be met. In our study, the effectiveness of several (CA)n dinucleotide molecular markers was evaluated in several random individuals from various ethnic backgrounds of Kerala, for paternity analysis. We used the most advanced technique of PCR genotyping, us-

Moinak BANERJEE

15

[Family law, witness of the analysis of prenatal paternity].  

PubMed

The authors analyse from a scientific and legal perspective, how paternity analysis in the prenatal period can be reliably performed exactly the same as with newborns, and therefore, establish kinship in accordance with established regulations. In other words, there is an option for those who might not want to wait until birth to establish kinship. PMID:19860347

Rodríguez López, Raquel; Marfil, Jorge A; González Poveda, Pedro

16

Microsatellite analysis of kinkajou social organization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kinkajou social groups generally consist of one adult female, two males, one subadult and one juvenile. Based on analysis of variation in 11 microsatellite loci, we assess the degree of kinship within and between four social groups totaling 25 kinkajous. We use exclusion and likelihood analyses to assign parents for seven of the eight offspring sampled, five with ? ?

R. W. Kays; J. L. Gittleman; R. K. Wayne

2000-01-01

17

Microsatellite analysis in FVB/N mice.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study reported here was to identify, by size, a set of microsatellite markers for use in diagnostic genetic monitoring of FVB/N mouse colonies. A large panel of microsatellite markers were chosen on the basis oftheir high degree of allelic variability. These markers were then tested for their ability to amplify well under a standard set of polymerase chain reaction analysis conditions and to present an easily identifiable band on an agarose gel. From this panel, we chose at least one marker on each chromosome that amplified well under our standard high-throughput conditions. Using this approach, we identified the allele sizes for 27 microsatellite markers in the FVB/N strain of mice. Each autosomal chromosome and the X chromosome were analyzed using at least one locus marker. We have determined a precise size for FVB/N microsatellite alleles, as opposed to a description of size in relation to that of a known allele. PMID:15575365

Basta, Patricia V; Whitmore, Sarah P; Basham, Karen B; Whisnant, Carol C

2004-10-01

18

Laser Microdissection for Microsatellite Analysis in Colon and Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Microsatellite analysis is a frequently used method for detection of chromosomal deletions by loss of heterozygosity studies and for detection of microsatellite instability. For reliable microsatellite analyses, a tumor cell content of at least 80% is required. Therefore, laser microdissection is an important prerequisite for those studies, allowing the contamination-free isolation of morphologically defined pure tumor cell populations. The

Peter J. Wild; Robert Stoehr; Ruth Knuechel; Arndt Hartmann; Wolfgang Dietmaier

19

The use of restriction fragment length polymorphisms in paternity analysis.  

PubMed Central

This paper examines the utility of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) for paternity analysis. While, on the average, 99% of falsely accused males can be excluded with the standard battery of blood group antigens, red cell enzymes, serum proteins, and HLA antigens, there are still mother-child pairs for whom the exclusion probability is not high. It has been suggested that additional resolution would be available with RFLPs. We have examined the strategic aspects of using RFLPs for paternity analysis, comparing the efficacy and cost of a multimarker haplotypic set with those of a comparable set of unlinked RFLPs, using published frequencies for the beta-globin complex, the serum albumin region, and the growth hormone region. There are four major findings. (1) Greater resolution is obtained with a carefully chosen set of tightly linked RFLPs producing chromosomal haplotypes than with a comparable set (same allele frequencies) of unlinked markers, but only if it is possible to establish linkage phase unambiguously. (2) Assay of linked sets is cheaper than is the assay of unlinked markers, but the cost advantage is optimized with sets of no more than two or three linked markers. (3) Also, with more than two or three tightly linked markers, the haplotypic frequencies are too poorly estimated to provide a reliable measure of the probability of paternity for unexcluded males, given the sample sizes likely to be available in the near future. (4) Optimal resolution, minimal cost, and acceptable accuracy are obtained with several independent sets of no more than two or three tightly linked RFLP markers each. With current technology, RFLP analysis is more expensive for the same level of genetic resolution than is the standard battery, but gradual replacement of the latter can be anticipated as economies of scale reduce the cost of the DNA technology.

Smouse, P E; Chakraborty, R

1986-01-01

20

Autosomal microsatellite analysis of the Azorean population  

Microsoft Academic Search

The knowledge of population history, demography and genetic structure has proven to be fundamental to address research in human genetics. Here, we describe the genetic diversity of the Azorean population and its affinity with other populations by the analysis of 13 microsatellite loci (TPOX, D3S1358, FGA, CSF1PO, D5S818, D7S820, D8S1179, TH01, vWA, D13S317, D16S539, D18S51 and D21S11) in 222 unrelated

C. C. Branco; P. R. Pacheco; R. Cabral; L. de Fez; B. R. Peixoto; L. Mota-Vieira

2006-01-01

21

Microsatellite analysis in organelle genomes of Chlorophyta.  

PubMed

Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) or microsatellites constitute a significant portion of genomes however; their significance in organellar genomes has not been completely understood. The availability of organelle genome sequences allows us to understand the organization of SSRs in their genic and intergenic regions. In the present work, SSRs were identified and categorized in 14 mitochondrial and 22 chloroplast genomes of algal species belonging to Chlorophyta. Based on the study, it was observed that number of SSRs in non-coding region were more as compared to coding region and frequency of mononucleotides repeats were highest followed by dinucleotides in both mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes. It was also observed that maximum number of SSRs was found in genes encoding for beta subunit of RNA polymerase in chloroplast genomes and NADH dehydrogenase in mitochondrial genomes. This is the first and original report on whole genomes sequence analysis of organellar genomes of green algae. PMID:22493532

Kuntal, Himani; Sharma, Vinay; Daniell, Henry

2012-03-31

22

Analysis of Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers for Typing Penicillium marneffei Isolates  

PubMed Central

Penicillium marneffei is an emerging opportunistic dimorphic fungal pathogen that is endemic in Southeast Asia. A typing method based on the analysis of size polymorphisms in microsatellite loci was investigated. Three loci available from the GenBank database were identified to harbor microsatellites. PCR primers flanking the microsatellite repeats were designed with one primer in the set fluorescently labeled. PCR products were then sized by automated capillary electrophoresis. As expected for a haploid fungus, a single band was observed for each microsatellite locus for all isolates. Polymorphic microsatellite marker (PMM) analysis detected a total of 22 different allelic types for 35 isolates of P. marneffei with a high discriminatory power (D = 0.956). Microsatellites I, II, and III detected 14, 10, and 7 alleles, respectively. The reproducibility of length polymorphisms was confirmed by using different DNA preparations from the same isolate or by repeated runs from the same DNA preparation. PMM profiles for eight isolates passaged in vitro for 7 to 8 weeks were identical to the original culture, demonstrating short-term stability and reproducibility. PCR products were not observed for other dimorphic fungi or human DNA. Comparison of allelic frequencies in isolates obtained from China and Thailand identified distinct allele combinations, suggesting the potential geographic isolation of populations. Due to the high discriminatory power, reproducibility, and potential for high throughput, PMM analysis may provide a good typing method for epidemiologic and surveillance investigations of P. marneffei.

Lasker, Brent A.; Ran, Yuping

2004-01-01

23

Network analysis of human Y microsatellite haplotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the utility of Y chromosome micro- satellites for studying human male-lineage evolution, we typed samples from three populations for five tetranucleotide repeats and an Alu insertion poly- morphism. We found very high levels of haplotype diversity and evidence that most mutations involve the gain or loss of only one repeat unit, implying that any given microsatellite haplotype may

Gillian Cooper; William Amos; Dorota Hoffman; David C. Rubinsztein

1996-01-01

24

MICROSATELIGHT--pipeline to expedite microsatellite analysis.  

PubMed

MICROSATELIGHT is a Perl/Tk pipeline with a graphical user interface that facilitates several tasks when scoring microsatellites. It implements new subroutines in R and PERL and takes advantage of features provided by previously developed freeware. MICROSATELIGHT takes raw genotype data and automates the peak identification through PeakScanner. The PeakSelect subroutine assigns peaks to different microsatellite markers according to their multiplex group, fluorochrome type, and size range. After peak selection, binning of alleles can be carried out 1) automatically through AlleloBin or 2) by manual bin definition through Binator. In both cases, several features for quality checking and further binning improvement are provided. The genotype table can then be converted into input files for several population genetics programs through CREATE. Finally, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium tests and confidence intervals for null allele frequency can be obtained through GENEPOP. MICROSATELIGHT is the only freely available public-domain software that facilitates full multiplex microsatellite scoring, from electropherogram files to user-defined text files to be used with population genetics software. MICROSATELIGHT has been created for the Windows XP operating system and has been successfully tested under Windows 7. It is available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/microsatelight/. PMID:21127193

Palero, Ferran; González-Candelas, Fernando; Pascual, Marta

2010-12-02

25

Paternity assessment: application on estimation of breeding value in body-weight at first egg trait of egg-laying duck ( Anas platyrhynchos )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paternity index was analyzed using five microsatellite loci among Chinese egg-laying ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). Based on the paternity relationship that was identified by paternity index analysis, the estimated breeding value (EBV)\\u000a was calculated using BLUP (best linear unbiased predictor) method. Body weight at first egg (BWF) is the only considered trait\\u000a in this study. In total, 12 sires, 31 dams

Jindong Ren; Lizhi Lu; Xiaolin Liu; Zhengrong Tao; Congcong Zhang; Deqian Wang; Junda Shen; Weimeng Liu; Yong Tian; Zhigang Zhu

2009-01-01

26

Paternal Smoking and Risk of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective. To investigate the association between paternal smoking and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Method. We identified 18 published epidemiologic studies that reported data on both paternal smoking and childhood ALL risk. We performed a meta-analysis and analyzed dose-response relationships on ALL risk for smoking during preconception, during pregnancy, after birth, and ever smoking. Results. The summary odds ratio (OR) of childhood ALL associated with paternal smoking was 1.11 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.05–1.18, I2 = 18%) during any time period, 1.25 (95% CI: 1.08–1.46, I2 = 53%) preconception; 1.24 (95% CI: 1.07–1.43, I2 = 54%) during pregnancy, and 1.24 (95% CI: 0.96–1.60, I2 = 64%) after birth, with a dose-response relationship between childhood ALL and paternal smoking preconception or after birth. Conclusion. The evidence supports a positive association between childhood ALL and paternal ever smoking and at each exposure time period examined. Future epidemiologic studies should assess paternal smoking during well-defined exposure windows and should include biomarkers to assess smoking exposure and toxicological mechanisms.

Liu, Ruiling; Zhang, Luoping; McHale, Cliona M.; Hammond, S. Katharine

2011-01-01

27

Mosaic Analysis with Double Markers Reveals Cell-Type Specific Paternal Growth Dominance  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Genomic imprinting leads to preferred expression of either the maternal or paternal alleles of a subset of genes. Imprinting is essential for mammalian development and its deregulation causes many diseases. However, the functional relevance of imprinting at the cellular level is poorly understood for most imprinted genes. We used Mosaic Analysis with Double Markers (MADM) in mice to create uniparental chromosomal disomies (UPDs) and to visualize imprinting effects with unprecedented single cell resolution. While Chr.12 UPD did not produce detectable phenotypes, Chr.7 UPD caused highly significant paternal growth dominance in the liver and lung but not the brain or heart. A single gene on Chr.7, encoding the secreted Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2), accounts for most of the paternal dominance effect. Mosaic analyses implied additional imprinted loci on Chr. 7 acting cell-autonomously to transmit the IGF2 signal. Our study reveals chromosome- and cell-type specificity of genomic imprinting effects.

Hippenmeyer, Simon; Johnson, Randy L.; Luo, Liqun

2013-01-01

28

Fluorescent Microsatellite Analysis of Urine Sediment in Patients with Urothelial Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To detect microsatellite loci alterations by fluorescent multiplex PCR in urine sediment cell of urothelial carcinoma, and to determine if they can be used as genetic markers for diagnosis of urothelial carcinoma. Materials and Methods: Microsatellite alteration analysis was conducted using fluorescent multiplex PCR with samples from 64 cases of urothelial carcinomas of the bladder. Three microsatellites spanning the

Jian-Fang Liang; Hui-Xia Zheng; Ning Li; Yan Yin; Cai-Xia Cheng; Hong-Kun Wang; Li-Na Wu; Hong Xiao

2010-01-01

29

DNA Analysis and Paternity Testing/DNA Technology and the Legal System of the U.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lecture I - DNA analysis and paternity testing by D. Dykes, Memorial Blood Center, discuss work on nonorganic extraction of DNA and criteria for DNA testing by blood banks. Lecture II - DNA technology and the legal system of the U.S. by G. Clarker, focuse...

1994-01-01

30

Genealogical analysis of maternal and paternal lineages in the Quebec population.  

PubMed

The Quebec population is one of the rare populations of its size for which genealogical information is available for an uninterrupted period of almost four centuries. This allows for in-depth studies on the formation and evolution of a young founder population. Using data from two major population registers, in this study we focus on the maternal and paternal lineages (i.e., strictly female or male genealogical lines) that can be traced back within the Quebec genealogies. Through the analysis of these lineages it is possible to characterize the founders who transmitted to the contemporary population their mitochondrial (for females) and Y-chromosome (for males) DNA. The basic material consists of 2,221 ascending genealogies of subjects who married in the Quebec population between 1945 and 1965. On average, more than nine generations of ancestors were identified among the lineages. Analyses of maternal and paternal lineages show that the number of paternal founders is higher and their origins and genetic contributions are more variable than that of maternal founders, leading to a larger effective population size and greater diversity of Y chromosomes than of mtDNA. This is explained for the most part by differential migratory patterns among male and female founders of the Quebec population. Comparisons of sex-specific genetic contributions with total genetic contribution showed a strong correlation between the two values, with some discrepancies related to sex ratio differences among the founders' first descendants. PMID:20649399

Tremblay, Marc; Vézina, Hélène

2010-04-01

31

Paternity and relatedness in wild chimpanzee communities  

PubMed Central

The genetic structure of three contiguous wild chimpanzee communities in West Africa was examined to determine the extent to which the community, the mixed-sex social unit of chimpanzees, represents a closed reproductive unit. An analysis of paternity for 41 offspring resulted in 34 cases of paternity assignment to an adult male belonging to the same community. Among the 14 offspring for which all potential within-community fathers have been tested, one likely case of extra-group paternity (EGP) has been identified, suggesting an incidence of EGP of 7%. This more extensive analysis contradicts a previous genetic study of the Taï chimpanzees that inferred 50% extra-group fathers. We suggest, based on direct comparison of results for 33 individuals at 1 microsatellite locus and direct comparison of paternity assignments for 11 offspring, that the error rate in the previous study was too high to produce accurate genotypes and assignments of paternity and hence caused the false inference of a high rate of EGP. Thus, the community is the primary but not exclusive unit for reproduction in wild chimpanzees, and females do not typically reproduce with outside males. Despite the inferred low level of gene flow from extra-community males, relatedness levels among the community males are not significantly higher than among community females, and the distribution of genetic relationships within the group suggests that, rather than a primarily male-bonded social structure, the group is bonded through relationships between males and females. Kinship may explain cooperative behaviors directed against other communities, but is unlikely to explain the high levels of affiliation and cooperation seen for male within-community interactions.

Vigilant, Linda; Hofreiter, Michael; Siedel, Heike; Boesch, Christophe

2001-01-01

32

Analysis of microsatellite markers in the genome of the plant pathogen Ceratocystis fimbriata.  

PubMed

Ceratocystis fimbriata sensu lato represents a complex of cryptic and commonly plant pathogenic species that are morphologically similar. Species in this complex have been described using morphological characteristics, intersterility tests and phylogenetics. Microsatellite markers have been useful to study the population structure and origin of some species in the complex. In this study we sequenced the genome of C. fimbriata. This provided an opportunity to mine the genome for microsatellites, to develop new microsatellite markers, and map previously developed markers onto the genome. Over 6000 microsatellites were identified in the genome and their abundance and distribution was determined. Ceratocystis fimbriata has a medium level of microsatellite density and slightly smaller genome when compared with other fungi for which similar microsatellite analyses have been performed. This is the first report of a microsatellite analysis conducted on a genome sequence of a fungal species in the order Microascales. Forty-seven microsatellite markers have been published for population genetic studies, of which 35 could be mapped onto the C. fimbriata genome sequence. We developed an additional ten microsatellite markers within putative genes to differentiate between species in the C. fimbriata s.l. complex. These markers were used to distinguish between 12 species in the complex. PMID:23931120

Simpson, Melissa C; Wilken, P Markus; Coetzee, Martin P A; Wingfield, Michael J; Wingfield, Brenda D

2013-06-26

33

Molecular Detection of Primary Bladder Cancer by Microsatellite Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsatellite DNA markers have been widely used as a tool for the detection of loss of heterozygosity and genomic instability in primary tumors. In a blinded study, urine samples from 25 patients with suspicious bladder lesions that had been identified cystoscopically were analyzed by this molecular method and by conventional cytology. Microsatellite changes matching those in the tumor were detected

Li Mao; Mark P. Schoenberg; Marshall Scicchitano; Yener S. Erozan; Adrian Merlo; Donna Schwab; David Sidransky

1996-01-01

34

A multivariate analysis of phenotype and paternity in male harbor seals, Phoca vitulina, at Sable Island, Nova Scotia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the links between phenotype and reproductive success is critical to the study of the evolution of mating systems and life-history patterns. We examined the relationship between phenotype and mating success of male harbor seals (Phoca vitulina concolour) at Sable Island, Canada. Cluster analyses of eight traits including mating success determined by genetic paternity analysis, haul-out behavior, body mass, and

David W. Coltman; W. Don Bowen; Jonathan M. Wrighta

1999-01-01

35

Paternal Child Care and Relationship Quality: A Longitudinal Analysis of Reciprocal Associations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study explored reciprocal associations between paternal child-care involvement and relationship quality by following British couples from the birth of a child until he or she reached school age. It extends the literature by distinguishing between paternal engagement in absolute terms and relative to the mother and by considering relationship…

Schober, Pia S.

2012-01-01

36

Single paternity of clutches and sperm storage in the promiscuous green turtle (Chelonia mydas).  

PubMed

Paternity of 22 green turtle (Chelonia mydas) clutches from 13 females of the southern Great Barrier Reef breeding population was determined through microsatellite analyses at five loci, including the analysis of successive clutches for nine of the females. A large number of alleles per locus (10-40) provided probabilities of detecting multiple paternity that were quite high, particularly at all loci combined (99.9%). Although green turtles are promiscuous breeders and there was an expectation of finding extensive multiple paternity, only two clutches were multiply sired and, in these, very few eggs had been fertilized by a secondary male. The rarity of multiple paternity may reflect either a low proportion of multiple matings by females in this population, or sperm competition, possibly resulting from a first-male sperm preference. Additionally, the analysis of > 900 offspring provided data on mutations, which included 20 mutation events that were observed in 27 offspring and involved both maternal and paternal lineages. Most mutations (n = 16) occurred at a single highly variable locus and their presence emphasizes the need to use multiple loci in paternity studies. PMID:9633101

Fitzsimmons, N N

1998-05-01

37

Microsatellite DNA Analysis of Wild Hops, Humulus lupulus L  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the relationships and genetic diversity among wild hops, Humulus lupulus, we analyzed 133 samples of wild hops collected from Europe, Asia and North America using polymorphism on 11 microsatellite loci. Although only three primers showed bands in Japanese hops, all other samples showed polymorphic bands at most loci. There were no duplicate genotypes among samples of European, Chinese

Atsushi Murakami; Peter Darby; Branka Javornik; Maria S. S. Pais; Elisabeth Seigner; Anton Lutz; Petr Svoboda

2006-01-01

38

Microsatellites in Different Eukaryotic Genomes: Survey and Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the abundance of microsatellites with repeated unit lengths of 1-6 base pairs in several eukaryotic taxonomic groups: primates, rodents, other mammals, nonmammalian vertebrates, arthropods, Caenorhabditis elegans, plants, yeast, and other fungi. Distribution of simple sequence repeats was compared between exons, introns, and intergenic regions. Tri- and hexanucleotide repeats prevail in protein-coding exons of all taxa, whereas the dependence

Gabor Toth; Zoltan Gaspari; Jerzy Jurka

2000-01-01

39

Deletion Analysis of the Selfish B Chromosome, Paternal Sex Ratio (Psr), in the Parasitic Wasp Nasonia Vitripennis  

PubMed Central

Paternal Sex Ratio (PSR) is a ``selfish'' B chromosome in the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis. It is transmitted via sperm, but causes supercondensation and destruction of the paternal chromosomes in early fertilized eggs. Because this wasp has haplodiploid sex determination, the effect of PSR is to convert diploid (female) eggs into haploid (male) eggs that carry PSR. Characterizing its genetic structure is a first step toward understanding mechanisms of PSR action. The chromosome is largely heterochromatic and contains several tandemly repeated DNA sequences that are not present on the autosomes. A deletion analysis of PSR was performed to investigate organization of repeats and location of functional domains causing paternal chromosome destruction. Deletion profiles using probes to PSR-specific repetitive DNA indicate that most repeats are organized in blocks on the chromosome. This study shows that the functional domains of PSR can be deleted, resulting in nonfunctional PSR chromosomes that are transmitted to daughters. A functional domain may be linked with the psr22 repeat, but function may also depend on abundance of PSR-specific repeats on the chromosome. It is hypothesized that the repeats act as a ``sink'' for a product required for proper paternal chromosome processing. Almost all deletion chromosomes remained either functional of nonfunctional in subsequent generations following their creation. One chromosome was exceptional in that it reverted from nonfunctionality to functionality in one lineage. Transmission rates of nonfunctional deletion chromosomes were high through haploid males, but low through diploid females.

Beukeboom, L. W.; Werren, J. H.

1993-01-01

40

A retrospective assessment of the accuracy of the paternity inference program cervus  

Microsoft Academic Search

CERVUS is a Windows-based software package written to infer paternity in natural popula- tions. It offers advantages over exclusionary-based methods of paternity inference in that multiple nonexcluded males can be statistically distinguished, laboratory typing error is considered and statistical confidence is determined for assigned paternities through simulation. In this study we use a panel of 84 microsatellite markers to retrospectively

Jon Slate; Tristan Marshall; Josephine Pemberton

2000-01-01

41

Characteristics and Frequency of Germline Mutations at Microsatellite Loci from the Human Y Chromosome, as Revealed by Direct Observation in Father\\/Son Pairs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of applications of analysis of human Y-chromosome microsatellite loci to human evolution and forensic science require reliable estimates of the mutation rate and knowledge of the mutational mechanism. We therefore screened a total of 4,999 meioses from father\\/son pairs with confirmed paternity (probability >99.9%) at 15 Y- chromosomal microsatellite loci and identified 14 mutations. The locus-specific mutation-rate estimates

Manfred Kayser; Lutz Roewer; Minttu Hedman; Lotte Henke; Jürgen Henke; Silke Brauer; Carmen Krüger; Michael Krawczak; Marion Nagy; Tadeusz Dobosz; Reinhard Szibor; Peter de Knijff; Mark Stoneking; Antti Sajantila

2000-01-01

42

Microsatellites in Different Eukaryotic Genomes: Survey and Analysis  

PubMed Central

We examined the abundance of microsatellites with repeated unit lengths of 1–6 base pairs in several eukaryotic taxonomic groups: primates, rodents, other mammals, nonmammalian vertebrates, arthropods, Caenorhabditis elegans, plants, yeast, and other fungi. Distribution of simple sequence repeats was compared between exons, introns, and intergenic regions. Tri- and hexanucleotide repeats prevail in protein-coding exons of all taxa, whereas the dependence of repeat abundance on the length of the repeated unit shows a very different pattern as well as taxon-specific variation in intergenic regions and introns. Although it is known that coding and noncoding regions differ significantly in their microsatellite distribution, in addition we could demonstrate characteristic differences between intergenic regions and introns. We observed striking relative abundance of (CCG)n•(CGG)n trinucleotide repeats in intergenic regions of all vertebrates, in contrast to the almost complete lack of this motif from introns. Taxon-specific variation could also be detected in the frequency distributions of simple sequence motifs. Our results suggest that strand-slippage theories alone are insufficient to explain microsatellite distribution in the genome as a whole. Other possible factors contributing to the observed divergence are discussed.

Toth, Gabor; Gaspari, Zoltan; Jurka, Jerzy

2000-01-01

43

Patterns of pollen dispersal in a small population of Pinus sylvestris L. revealed by total-exclusion paternity analysis.  

PubMed

Patterns of pollen dispersal were investigated in a small, isolated, relict population of Pinus sylvestris L., consisting of 36 trees. A total-exclusion battery comprising four chloroplast and two nuclear microsatellites (theoretical paternity exclusion probability EP=0.996) was used to assign paternity to 813 seeds, collected from 34 trees in the stand. Long-distance pollen immigration accounted for 4.3% of observed matings. Self-fertilization rate was very high (0.25), compared with typical values in more widespread populations of the species. The average effective pollen dispersal distance within the stand was 48 m (or 83 m excluding selfs). Half of effective pollen was dispersed within 11 m, and 7% beyond 200 m. A strong correlation was found between the distance to the closest tree and the mean mating-distance calculated for single-tree progenies. The effective pollen dispersal distribution showed a leptokurtic shape, with a large and significant departure from that expected under uniform dispersal. A maximum-likelihood procedure was used to fit an individual pollen dispersal distance probability density function (dispersal kernel). The estimated kernel indicated fairly leptokurtic dispersal (shape parameter b=0.67), with an average pollen dispersal distance of 135 m, and 50% of pollen dispersed beyond 30 m. A marked directionality pattern of pollen dispersal was found, mainly caused by the uneven distribution of trees, coupled with restricted dispersal and unequal male success. Overall, results show that the number and distribution of potential pollen donors in small populations may strongly influence the patterns of effective pollen dispersal. PMID:15292910

Robledo-Arnuncio, J J; Gil, L

2005-01-01

44

Paternal gonadal mosaicism detected in a couple with recurrent abortions undergoing PGD: FISH analysis of sperm nuclei proves valuable.  

PubMed

Many couples are now seeking preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) and fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) as an alternative approach to avoid spontaneous abortion by ensuring transfer of presumed chromosomally normal embryos. This case report describes unexpected findings in a couple having three spontaneous abortions and two failed IVF cycles. In two IVF PGD cycles, four of 13 (30.8%) embryos (blastomeres) demonstrated duplication involving the Down syndrome critical region, detectable by a locus specific chromosome 21 probe. The same duplication was subsequently detected by FISH in 66 of 1002 (6.6%) sperm nuclei, demonstrating paternal gonadal mosaicism. Cytogenetic studies of peripheral blood revealed normal karyotypes in both the male and female partners. This identification of paternal germ cell or gonadal mosaicism suggests that analysis of sperm nuclei prior to undergoing IVF with PGD may be of value in patients with recurrent spontaneous abortions or multiple failed IVF. PMID:15333256

Somprasit, Charintip; Aguinaga, Monica; Cisneros, Pauline L; Torsky, Sergey; Carson, Sandra A; Buster, John E; Amato, Paula; McAdoo, Sallie Lou; Simpson, Joe Leigh; Bischoff, Farideh Z

2004-08-01

45

The analysis of microsatellite instability in extracolonic gastrointestinal malignancy.  

PubMed

Microsatellite instability (MSI) is a genetic feature of sporadic and familial cancers of multiple sites and is related to defective mismatch repair (MMR) protein function. Lynch syndrome (LS) is a familial form of MMR deficiency that may present with a spectrum of MSI positive cancers including gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies. The incidence of high level MSI (MSI-H) in colorectal carcinoma is well defined in both familial and sporadic cases and these tumours portend a better overall prognosis in colorectal carcinoma (CRC). There are certain morphological features that suggest MSI-H CRC and international guidelines have been established for the evaluation of MSI in CRC. The prevalence and morphological features of extracolonic GI MSI-H tumours are less well documented. Furthermore, it is unclear whether the guidelines for the assessment of MSI in CRC are appropriate for application to extracolonic GI malignancies. This review aims to summarise the recent literature on MSI in extracolonic LS-related GI tract malignancies with special attention to the assessment of the MMR system by evaluation of specific microsatellite markers and/or immunohistochemical evaluation of MMR protein expression. The reported prevalence of sporadic and LS-related MSI-H tumours along with their associated unique morphological patterns and related prognostic or therapeutic implications will be discussed. PMID:24018804

Williams, Andrew S; Huang, Weei-Yuarn

2013-10-01

46

Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers and analysis of genetic variability in Curculigo latifolia Dryand.  

PubMed

Curculin, a sweet protein found in Curculigo latifolia fruit has great potential for the pharmaceutical industry. This protein interestingly has been found to have both sweet taste and taste-modifying capacities comparable with other natural sweeteners. According to our knowledge this is the first reported case on the isolation of microsatellite loci in this genus. Hence, the current development of microsatellite markers for C. latifolia will facilitate future population genetic studies and breeding programs for this valuable plant. In this study 11 microsatellite markers were developed using 3' and 5' ISSR markers. The primers were tested on 27 accessions from all states of Peninsular Malaysia. The number of alleles per locus ranged from three to seven, with allele size ranging from 141 to 306 bp. The observed and expected heterozygosity ranged between 0.00-0.65 and 0.38-0.79, respectively. The polymorphic information content ranged from 0.35 to 0.74 and the Shannon's information index ranged from 0.82 to 1.57. These developed polymorphic microsatellites were used for constructing a dendrogram by unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean cluster analysis using the Dice's similarity coefficient. Accessions association according to their geographical origin was observed. Based on characteristics of isolated microsatellites for C. latifolia accessions all genotype can be distinguished using these 11 microsatellite markers. These polymorphic markers could also be applied to studies on uniformity determination and somaclonal variation of tissue culture plantlets, varieties identification, genetic diversity, analysis of phylogenetic relationship, genetic linkage maps and quantitative trait loci in C. latifolia. PMID:22752726

Babaei, Nahid; Abdullah, Nur Ashikin Psyquay; Saleh, Ghizan; Abdullah, Thohirah Lee

2012-06-30

47

Development of microsatellite markers from an enriched genomic library for genetic analysis of melon (Cucumis melo L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Despite the great advances in genomic technology observed in several crop species, the availability of molecular tools such as microsatellite markers has been limited in melon (Cucumis melo L.) and cucurbit species. The development of microsatellite markers will have a major impact on genetic analysis and breeding of melon, especially on the generation of marker saturated genetic maps and

Patricia Silva Ritschel; Tulio Cesar de Lima Lins; Rodrigo Lourenço Tristan; Gláucia Salles Cortopassi Buso; José Amauri Buso; Márcio Ferreira

2004-01-01

48

A diallel analysis of heterosis in elite hybrid rice based on RFLPs and microsatellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid rice has contributed significantly to the dramatic increase of rice production in the world. Despite this, little attention has been given to studying the genetic basis of heterosis in rice. In this paper, we report a diallel analysis of heterosis using two classes of molecular markers: restriction fragment length polymorphisms, (RFLPs) and microsatellites. Eight lines, which represent a significant

Qifa Zhang; Y. J. Gao; S. H. Yang; R. A. Ragab; M. A. Saghai Maroof; Z. B. Li

1994-01-01

49

Microsatellite analysis of Toxoplasma gondii shows considerable polymorphism structured into two main clonal groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies on Toxoplasma gondii population structure, based essentially on multilocus restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis or on multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, indicated that T. gondii comprises three clonal lineages. These studies showed a weak polymorphism of the markers (2–4 alleles by locus). In this study, we used eight microsatellite markers to type 84 independent isolates from humans and animals. Two

Daniel Ajzenberg; Anne-Laure Bañuls; Michel Tibayrenc; Marie Laure Dardé

2002-01-01

50

First analysis of multiple paternity in an oviparous shark, the small-spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula L.).  

PubMed

Multiple paternity (MP) has been demonstrated in a variety of sharks, although its prevalence and the number of sires per litter vary considerably among species. To date, such analyses have focused on viviparous species that possess only part of the wide spectrum of reproductive strategies developed in elasmobranchs. We analyzed MP in an oviparous species, the small-spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula). In total, 150 neonates originating from 13 different mothers were genotyped using 12 microsatellite loci. MP was commonplace, with progeny from 92% of females sired by multiple males. This result is consistent with the reproductive biology of the species, particularly its protracted breeding season and potential for long-term sperm storage. The significance of these findings is discussed in light of small-spotted catshark behavior, which suggests that the cost of avoiding mating attempts initiated by males may be high and is therefore supportive of convenience polyandry as an explanation for MP. Eggs were followed from the time they were laid to when they hatched, offering a rare opportunity to investigate juvenile development in more detail. PMID:22058410

Griffiths, Andrew M; Jacoby, David M P; Casane, Didier; McHugh, Matthew; Croft, Darren P; Genner, Martin J; Sims, David W

2011-11-03

51

[Genetic diversity in goat breeds based on microsatellite analysis].  

PubMed

Fluorescence PCR was applied to investigate the genetic diversities of 9 indigenous Chinese goat breeds and 1 exotic breed with 10 microsatellite DNA markers recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the International Livestock Research Institute of Animal Genetics, which provide data for the preservation and utilization of indigenous goat breeds genetic resource. We found that the 7 breeds were high polymorphic while 3 breeds were moderate polymorphic. We also detected 119 alleles, and the effective allele number ranged from 1.4641 to 9.2911. The average heterozygosity of loci and breeds respectively varied from 0.2618 to 0.7672 and from 0.5196 to 0.7024. As well as SRCRSP23 site and Hexi cashmere goat had the highest average heterozygosity. Then we analyzed the phylogenetic trees (NJ and UPGMA), and found both of them were generally in accordance with their original breeding history and localities. PMID:20684301

Xu, Limei; Liu, Chousheng; Zhang, Liping; Wang, Zhigang; Han, Xu; Li, Xiaoxia; Chang, Shuang

2010-05-01

52

Validation of short tandem repeat analysis for the investigation of cases of disputed paternity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study details validation of two separate multiplex STR systems for use in paternity investigations. These are the Second Generation Multiplex (SGM) developed by the UK Forensic Science Service and the PowerPlex™1 multiplex commercially available from Promega Inc. (Madison, WI, USA). These multiplexes contain 12 different STR systems (two are duplicated in the two systems). Population databases from Caucasian, Asian

J. A. Thomson; V. Pilotti; P. Stevens; K. L. Ayres; P. G. Debenham

1999-01-01

53

Validation of short tandem repeat analysis for the investigation of cases of disputed paternity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study details validation of two separate multiplex STR systems for use in paternity investigations. These are the Second Generation Multiplex (SGM) developed by the UK Forensic TM Science Service and the PowerPlex 1 multiplex commercially available from Promega Inc. (Madison, WI, USA). These multiplexes contain 12 different STR systems (two are duplicated in the two systems). Population databases from

J. A. Thomson; V. Pilotti; P. Stevens; K. L. Ayres; P. G. Debenham

1999-01-01

54

Why Do Cuckolded Males Provide Paternal Care?  

PubMed Central

In most species, males do not abandon offspring or reduce paternal care when they are cuckolded by other males. This apparent lack of adjustment of paternal investment with the likelihood of paternity presents a potential challenge to our understanding of what drives selection for paternal care. In a comparative analysis across birds, fish, mammals, and insects we identify key factors that explain why cuckolded males in many species do not reduce paternal care. Specifically, we show that cuckolded males only reduce paternal investment if both the costs of caring are relatively high and there is a high risk of cuckoldry. Under these circumstances, selection is expected to favour males that reduce paternal effort in response to cuckoldry. In many species, however, these conditions are not satisfied and tolerant males have outcompeted males that abandon young.

Griffin, Ashleigh S.; Alonzo, Suzanne H.; Cornwallis, Charlie K.

2013-01-01

55

Multiple paternity in an aggregate breeding amphibian: the effect of reproductive skew on estimates of male reproductive success  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aggregate, or explosive, breeding is widespread among vertebrates and likely increases the probability of multiple paternity. We assessed paternity in seven field-collected clutches of the explosively breeding spotted salamander ( Ambystoma maculatum ) using 10 microsatellite loci to determine the frequency of multiple paternity and the number of males contributing to a female's clutch. Using the Minimum Method of allele

E. M. M YERS; K. R. ZAMUDIO

2004-01-01

56

Molecular characterization of herpes simplex virus 2 strains by analysis of microsatellite polymorphism.  

PubMed

The complete 154-kbp linear double-stranded genomic DNA sequence of herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2), consisting of two extended regions of unique sequences bounded by a pair of inverted repeat elements, was published in 1998 and since then has been widely employed in a wide range of studies. Throughout the HSV-2 genome are scattered 150 microsatellites (also referred to as short tandem repeats) of 1- to 6-nucleotide motifs, mainly distributed in noncoding regions. Microsatellites are considered reliable markers for genetic mapping to differentiate herpesvirus strains, as shown for cytomegalovirus and HSV-1. The aim of this work was to characterize 12 polymorphic microsatellites within the HSV-2 genome by use of 3 multiplex PCR assays in combination with length polymorphism analysis for the rapid genetic differentiation of 56 HSV-2 clinical isolates and 2 HSV-2 laboratory strains (gHSV-2 and MS). This new system was applied to a specific new HSV-2 variant recently identified in HIV-1-infected patients originating from West Africa. Our results confirm that microsatellite polymorphism analysis is an accurate tool for studying the epidemiology of HSV-2 infections. PMID:23966512

Burrel, Sonia; Ait-Arkoub, Zaïna; Voujon, Delphine; Deback, Claire; Abrao, Emiliana P; Agut, Henri; Boutolleau, David

2013-08-21

57

Issues in analysis of data on paternal age and 47,+21: implications for genetic counseling for Down syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data and analyses on paternal age and 47,+21 are reviewed. It is concluded that there are few, if any, grounds to justify the inference of a paternal age effect independent of maternal age for those paternal age-maternal age combinations on which there are prenatal diagnostic data. It is suggested that genetic counseling as to increased (or decreased) risk of Down

Ernest B. Hook

1987-01-01

58

The problem of single parent\\/child paternity analysis—Practical results involving 336 children and 348 unrelated men  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a certain amount of paternity investigations, only DNA from child and alleged father is analyzed, thus increasing the possibility of false paternity inclusions. The aim of this study was to determine how many wrong paternity inclusions could be detected in a rather small geographical area comparing empirical results from 336 children and 348 men (13–15 STRs were investigated per

Micaela Poetsch; Christina Lüdcke; Antje Repenning; Lutz Fischer; Victoria Mályusz; Eva Simeoni; Eberhard Lignitz; Manfred Oehmichen; Nicole von Wurmb-Schwark

2006-01-01

59

The new guidelines for paternity analysis in Germany-how many STR loci are necessary when investigating duo cases?  

PubMed

The requirements in the new German guidelines for paternity analysis have not only changed according to the so-called Gendiagnostikgesetz, the new German law regulating human genetic as well as paternity analyses, but also regarding the minimal number of short tandem repeats (STRs) which should be investigated (15 STRs) and the minimal required average exclusion chance (99.999 %). Even in paternity analyses involving only two people (e.g., father and child or mother and child), this exclusion chance is mandatory. A retrospective analysis of 330 father-child cases from our routine investigations showed in 142 cases (43 %) an individual exclusion chance below 99.999 % when using 15 STRs as required, in our routine work provided by the Powerplex® 16 kit which is reported to have an average exclusion chance of 99.988 %. Therefore, these same 330 father-child pairs were additionally analysed using the Powerplex® 21 kit and 120 of these duos were additionally analysed using the Powerplex® ESX17 kit enabling the analysis of 20 or 16 loci respectively. Now, an individual exclusion chance of more than 99.999 % could be achieved in 95.5 % (Powerplex® 21; calculation without the results of D6S1043), 98.8 % (Powerplex® 21; calculation with the results of D6S1043, using allele frequencies established in this study for a German and a West African population) and 98.3 % (Powerplex® ESX17). These data clearly demonstrate that in duo cases, more than the required 15 STR loci have to be investigated to obtain sufficient results. PMID:23649555

Poetsch, Micaela; Preusse-Prange, Andrea; Schwark, Thorsten; von Wurmb-Schwark, Nicole

2013-05-07

60

Phylogenetic analysis of the tribe Bovini using microsatellites.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to determine if the generally accepted phylogenetic relationships in the tribe Bovini correspond to a phylogenetic scheme derived from polymorphisms at 20 bovine microsatellite loci. This study comprises 17 representative populations: eight Bos taurus, two Bos indicus, one Poëphagus, one Bibos, one Bison, three Bubalus and one Syncerus. Phylogenetic analyses using (delta mu)2 and chord (DC) distances revealed substantial divergence among species. Neighbor-joining trees with both distance measures showed only minor differences. Bos taurus and Bos indicus grouped first, followed by Bos frontalis (Mithan) and Bos grunniens (Yak), Bison bison branched off next and Bubalus bubalis and Syncerus caffer emerged as the two most divergent species from the Bos clade. These findings would suggest that Bos, Poëphagus, and Bibos should be integrated into the Bos genus with each group classified as a subgenus. On the other hand, Bison, Bubalus and Syncerus should each be considered a separate genus. Direct estimates of the divergence times were calculated using the (delta mu)2 genetic distance. Bos taurus and Bos indicus were estimated to have diverged 0.31-0.82 MYA, Bos and Poëphagus: 0.57-1.53 MYA, Bos and Bibos: 0.57-1.52 MYA, Bos and Bison: 0.46-1.23 MYA, Bos and Bubalus: 1.85-4.93 MYA and Bos and Syncerus: 0.98-2.61 MYA. PMID:10895308

Ritz, L R; Glowatzki-Mullis, M L; MacHugh, D E; Gaillard, C

2000-06-01

61

Thermal fatigue analysis of solar panel structure for micro-satellite applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal fatigue analysis based on 2D finite difference and 3D finite element methods is carried out to study the performance\\u000a of solar panel structure during micro-satellite life time. Solar panel primary structure consists of honeycomb structure and\\u000a composite laminates. The 2D finite difference (I-DEAS) model yields predictions of the temperature profile during one orbit.\\u000a Then, 3D finite element analysis (ANSYS)

Gasser Farouk Abdelal; Ayman Atef

2008-01-01

62

Development, characterization and variability analysis of microsatellites in lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn., Sapindaceae).  

PubMed

We report 12 microsatellites enriched in CT repeats obtained from a genomic library of the lychee ( Litchi chinensis Sonn.) cultivar Mauritius. The polymorphisms revealed by these microsatellites were evaluated in a collection of 21 lychee cultivars. A total of 59 fragments were detected with these 12 SSRs, with an average of 4.9 bands/SSR. Three primer pairs seem to amplify more than a single locus. The mean expected and observed heterozygosities over the 9 single-locus SSRs averaged 0.571 (range: 0.137-0.864) and 0.558 (range: 0.169-0.779) respectively. The total value for the probability of identity was 7.53 x 10(-5). In addition, the selected SSRs were used to amplify DNA from four longan cultivars. Eleven of the 12 SSRs produced amplification fragments in longan, and eight of these fragments were polymorphic. All except two of the products amplified from longan were the same size as those amplified from lychee, suggesting a close genetic proximity between the two species. The SSRs studied produced 22 different patterns, allowing the unambiguous identification of 16 lychee and the 4 longan cultivars studied. Discrimination was possible with just four selected microsatellites. Two groups with two and three undistinguishable cultivars were obtained, reflecting probable synonymies. Unweighted pair-group method of artimetic averages (UPGMA) cluster analysis divided the lychee cultivars studied into two main groups, one consisting of ancient cultivars and the other with more diverse recent cultivars. This is the first report of microsatellite development in the Sapindaceae, and the results demonstrate the usefulness of microsatellites for identification, similarity studies and germplasm conservation in lychee and related species. PMID:14605809

Viruel, M A; Hormaza, J I

2003-11-05

63

Multiple paternity in free-living root voles ( Microtus oeconomus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used 10 microsatellite loci to determine the mating system and male reproductive success in a natural population of the root vole (Microtus oeconomus). By genotyping 21 females and their 111 offspring (5.28±0.27 S.E. pups per female), we found evidence for multiple paternity in 38% of the litters sired by two or three males. Paternity was not significantly skewed away

Anetta Borkowska; Zbigniew Borowski; Kamil Krysiuk

2009-01-01

64

Inter-population variation in multiple paternity and reproductive skew in the guppy.  

PubMed

We use microsatellite loci to detail the multiple paternity patterns in broods from 10 wild populations of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) found in Northern Trinidad. The populations span two major drainages comprising the Caroni and the Oropouche, and include sites that are characterized by either high or low predation. Across the populations the frequency of multiple paternity is high with 95% (range: 70%-100%) of broods having multiple sires. Broods have an average of 3.5 sires (range: 1-9) and a mixed-model analysis suggests that broods from high predation sites have marginally more sires than do those from low predation sites, but this is true only in the Oropouche drainage. There is no difference in sire number between predation sites in the Caroni drainage. Brood size, but not female body length, is correlated with the number of sires and the correlation cannot be attributed solely to the stochastic process associated with sperm competition and a 'fair raffle'. Within broods there is significant skew in reproductive success among males, which may reflect variation in sperm competitiveness or female choice. There is, however, no difference in the skew among populations from different predation regimes or drainages. Finally, high predation populations were characterized by increased genetic variability at the microsatellite loci, suggesting a larger effective population size. We discuss explanations for the high degree of multiple paternity but the general lack of any major differences among broods from ecologically different populations. PMID:18494765

Neff, Bryan D; Pitcher, Trevor E; Ramnarine, Indar W

2008-05-20

65

Paternal inheritance or a de novo mutation in a Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy pedigree from South India.  

PubMed

A six year old boy presented with classical features of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) and was confirmed by absent dystrophin staining on muscle biopsy. In the paternal line there were 5 affected individuals across two generations with classical DMD. There was no family history of the illness in the maternal line. Molecular genetics analysis by PCR of the exons showed a deletion in exon 45 in two affected individuals. Microsatellite analysis showed that though the deletion was observed in the same locus in exon 45 it is a new independent mutation. PMID:18031759

Purushottam, Meera; Murthy, A Ram; Shubha, G N; Gayathri, N; Nalini, A

2007-11-26

66

Variogram analysis of the spatial genetic structure of continuous populations using multilocus microsatellite data.  

PubMed

A geostatistical perspective on spatial genetic structure may explain methodological issues of quantifying spatial genetic structure and suggest new approaches to addressing them. We use a variogram approach to (i) derive a spatial partitioning of molecular variance, gene diversity, and genotypic diversity for microsatellite data under the infinite allele model (IAM) and the stepwise mutation model (SMM), (ii) develop a weighting of sampling units to reflect ploidy levels or multiple sampling of genets, and (iii) show how variograms summarize the spatial genetic structure within a population under isolation-by-distance. The methods are illustrated with data from a population of the epiphytic lichen Lobaria pulmonaria, using six microsatellite markers. Variogram-based analysis not only avoids bias due to the underestimation of population variance in the presence of spatial autocorrelation, but also provides estimates of population genetic diversity and the degree and extent of spatial genetic structure accounting for autocorrelation. PMID:15654102

Wagner, Helene H; Holderegger, Rolf; Werth, Silke; Gugerli, Felix; Hoebee, Susan E; Scheidegger, Christoph

2005-01-16

67

STAMP: Extensions to the STADEN sequence analysis package for high throughput interactive microsatellite marker design  

PubMed Central

Background Microsatellites (MSs) are DNA markers with high analytical power, which are widely used in population genetics, genetic mapping, and forensic studies. Currently available software solutions for high-throughput MS design (i) have shortcomings in detecting and distinguishing imperfect and perfect MSs, (ii) lack often necessary interactive design steps, and (iii) do not allow for the development of primers for multiplex amplifications. We present a set of new tools implemented as extensions to the STADEN package, which provides the backbone functionality for flexible sequence analysis workflows. The possibility to assemble overlapping reads into unique contigs (provided by the base functionality of the STADEN package) is important to avoid developing redundant markers, a feature missing from most other similar tools. Results Our extensions to the STADEN package provide the following functionality to facilitate microsatellite (and also minisatellite) marker design: The new modules (i) integrate the state-of-the-art tandem repeat detection and analysis software PHOBOS into workflows, (ii) provide two separate repeat detection steps – with different search criteria – one for masking repetitive regions during assembly of sequencing reads and the other for designing repeat-flanking primers for MS candidate loci, (iii) incorporate the widely used primer design program PRIMER3 into STADEN workflows, enabling the interactive design and visualization of flanking primers for microsatellites, and (iv) provide the functionality to find optimal locus- and primer pair combinations for multiplex primer design. Furthermore, our extensions include a module for storing analysis results in an SQLite database, providing a transparent solution for data access from within as well as from outside of the STADEN Package. Conclusion The STADEN package is enhanced by our modules into a highly flexible, high-throughput, interactive tool for conventional and multiplex microsatellite marker design. It gives the user detailed control over the workflow, enabling flexible combinations of manual and automated analysis steps. The software is available under the OpenBSD License [1,2]. The high efficiency of our automated marker design workflow has been confirmed in three microsatellite development projects.

Kraemer, Lars; Beszteri, Bank; Gabler-Schwarz, Steffi; Held, Christoph; Leese, Florian; Mayer, Christoph; Pohlmann, Kevin; Frickenhaus, Stephan

2009-01-01

68

Microsatellite analysis of sporadic flat and depressed lesions of the colon.  

PubMed

Prior studies of molecular and genetic derangements in flat and depressed lesions of the colon have revealed lower frequencies in a number of markers commonly present in exophytic lesions. These and other differences suggest that flat lesions are driven by alternative pathways. We reviewed a database of patients who had undergone endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) for flat and depressed lesions at the University of Chicago from January 2001 to April 2003. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded colonic samples were retrieved from the tissue bank, and five standardized mononucleotide and dinucleotide microsatellite regions were analyzed for instability (MSI) using fluorescently labeled forward primers in nonmultiplex reactions. Sixteen patients were identified with flat or depressed lesions who had adequate tissue specimens available for MSI analysis. Of these specimens, eight were tubular adenomas, three were tubulovillous adenomas, and five were carcinomas in situ. Four of the lesions were microsatellite unstable, each at a single locus, and one lesion showed probable instability at a second locus. Eleven lesions were microsatellite stable. Aberrations in DNA repair mechanisms do not appear to significantly contribute to the molecular derangements underlying sporadic flat or depressed colonic lesions. The molecular bases that underlie the aggressive behavior of sporadic flat and depressed lesions remain to be determined, and further investigation is warranted. PMID:15745095

Kinney, Timothy P; Merel, Nina; Hart, John; Joseph, Loren; Waxman, Irving

2005-02-01

69

Identification of geographically distributed sub-populations of Leishmania (Leishmania) major by microsatellite analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Leishmania (Leishmania) major, one of the agents causing cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in humans, is widely distributed in the Old World where different species of wild rodent and phlebotomine sand fly serve as animal reservoir hosts and vectors, respectively. Despite this, strains of L. (L.) major isolated from many different sources over many years have proved to be relatively uniform. To investigate the population structure of the species highly polymorphic microsatellite markers were employed for greater discrimination among it's otherwise closely related strains, an approach applied successfully to other species of Leishmania. Results Multilocus Microsatellite Typing (MLMT) based on 10 different microsatellite markers was applied to 106 strains of L. (L.) major from different regions where it is endemic. On applying a Bayesian model-based approach, three main populations were identified, corresponding to three separate geographical regions: Central Asia (CA); the Middle East (ME); and Africa (AF). This was congruent with phylogenetic reconstructions based on genetic distances. Re-analysis separated each of the populations into two sub-populations. The two African sub-populations did not correlate well with strains' geographical origin. Strains falling into the sub-populations CA and ME did mostly group according to their place of isolation although some anomalies were seen, probably, owing to human migration. Conclusion The model- and distance-based analyses of the microsatellite data exposed three main populations of L. (L.) major, Central Asia, the Middle East and Africa, each of which separated into two sub-populations. This probably correlates with the different species of rodent host.

2008-01-01

70

Autosomal microsatellite and mtDNA genetic analysis in Sicily (Italy).  

PubMed

DNA samples from 465 blood donors living in 7 towns of Sicily, the largest island of Italy, have been collected according to well defined criteria, and their genetic heterogeneity tested on the basis of 9 autosomal microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms for a total of 85 microsatellite allele and 10 mtDNA haplogroup frequencies. A preliminary account of the results shows that: a) the samples are genetically heterogeneous; b) the first principal coordinates of the samples are correlated more with their longitude than with their latitude, and this result is even more remarkable when one outlier sample (Butera) is not considered; c) distances among samples calculated from allele and haplogroup frequencies and from the isonymy matrix are weakly correlated (r = 0.43, P = 0.06) but such correlation disappears (r = 0.16) if the mtDNA haplogroups alone are taken into account; d) mtDNA haplogroups and microsatellite distances suggest settlements of people occurred at different times: divergence times inferred from microsatellite data seem to describe a genetic composition of the town of Sciacca mainly derived from settlements after the Roman conquest of Sicily (First Punic war, 246 BC), while all other divergence times take root from the second to the first millennium BC, and therefore seem to backdate to the pre-Hellenistic period. A more reliable association of these diachronic genetic strata to different historical populations (e.g. Sicani, Elymi, Siculi), if possible, must be postponed to the analysis of more samples and hopefully more informative uniparental DNA markers such as the recently available DHPLC-SNP polymorphisms of the Y chromosome. PMID:12556234

Romano, V; Calì, F; Ragalmuto, A; D'Anna, R P; Flugy, A; De Leo, G; Giambalvo, O; Lisa, A; Fiorani, O; Di Gaetano, C; Salerno, A; Tamouza, R; Charron, D; Zei, G; Matullo, G; Piazza, A

2003-01-01

71

Microsatellite instability analysis for the screening of synchronous endometrial and ovarian cancer in lynch syndrome.  

PubMed

We report on a case of synchronous endometrial and ovarian cancer in a patient with Lynch syndrome. An endometrial biopsy performed during routine screening revealed microsatellite instability (MSI) and loss of expression of human mutL homolog-1 (MLH1) and postmeiotic segregation increased-2 (PMS2) in a setting of complex hyperplasia. Whereas gynaecological screening including clinical examination, pelvic ultrasound, and endometrial biopsy, has not proven its benefit, our case report points out the place of MSI analysis and immunohistochemical investigation of mismatch repair protein expression in endometrial samples during gynaecological screening. PMID:24023337

Bats, Anne-Sophie; Roussel, Helene; Narjoz, Celine; LE Frere-Belda, Marie-Aude; Chamming's, Foucauld; Blons, Helene; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Lecuru, Fabrice

2013-09-01

72

Limiting dilution analysis of the allo-MHC anti-paternal cytotoxic T cell response. I: Normal primigravid and multiparous pregnancies.  

PubMed Central

Anti-paternal cytotoxic T lymphocyte precursor frequencies (CTLpF) were determined by limiting dilution analysis (LDA) in the peripheral blood of eight primigravid and seven multiparous women during the three trimesters of pregnancy. In five of these women the responses to cord blood lymphocytes (CBL) and paternal lymphocytes were also determined at the time of delivery and at 6 weeks post delivery. As controls, CTLpF against unrelated third party donors were determined. A wide range of CTLpF against all three groups of targets was found in both the primigravid and multiparous women, reflecting the wide range of frequencies found in random populations. These frequencies remained fairly constant during and 6 weeks after the pregnancy. Splitwell analysis demonstrated that the responses generated in our culture system were specific to the stimulator. The LDA data conform to single-hit kinetics, indicating that only cytotoxic T cells were limiting in the assay. Proliferative responses of maternal lymphocytes to paternal, cord blood and third party MHC antigens also remained unchanged as determined by time-course mixed lymphocyte reactions (MLR). Our data suggest that there is no significant allo-stimulation or suppression of the maternal immune system during normal pregnancy. The mother remains immunocompetent and is capable of both cytotoxic and proliferative responses to paternally-derived fetal MHC antigens. Our findings confirm that in normal pregnancy the trophoblast, which is devoid of classical MHC antigens, forms an effective immune barrier which prevents interaction of the maternal and fetal immune systems.

Manyonda, I T; Pereira, R S; Pearce, J M; Sharrock, C E

1993-01-01

73

Development and characterization of highly polymorphic long TC repeat microsatellite markers for genetic analysis of peanut  

PubMed Central

Background Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is a crop of economic and social importance, mainly in tropical areas, and developing countries. Its molecular breeding has been hindered by a shortage of polymorphic genetic markers due to a very narrow genetic base. Microsatellites (SSRs) are markers of choice in peanut because they are co-dominant, highly transferrable between species and easily applicable in the allotetraploid genome. In spite of substantial effort over the last few years by a number of research groups, the number of SSRs that are polymorphic for A. hypogaea is still limiting for routine application, creating the demand for the discovery of more markers polymorphic within cultivated germplasm. Findings A plasmid genomic library enriched for TC/AG repeats was constructed and 1401 clones sequenced. From the sequences obtained 146 primer pairs flanking mostly TC microsatellites were developed. The average number of repeat motifs amplified was 23. These 146 markers were characterized on 22 genotypes of cultivated peanut. In total 78 of the markers were polymorphic within cultivated germplasm. Most of those 78 markers were highly informative with an average of 5.4 alleles per locus being amplified. Average gene diversity index (GD) was 0.6, and 66 markers showed a GD of more than 0.5. Genetic relationship analysis was performed and corroborated the current taxonomical classification of A. hypogaea subspecies and varieties. Conclusions The microsatellite markers described here are a useful resource for genetics and genomics in Arachis. In particular, the 66 markers that are highly polymorphic in cultivated peanut are a significant step towards routine genetic mapping and marker-assisted selection for the crop.

2012-01-01

74

Assessment of Use of Microsatellite Polymorphism Analysis for Improving Spatial Distribution Tracking of Echinococcus multilocularis?  

PubMed Central

Alveolar echinococcosis (AE)—caused by the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis—is a severe zoonotic disease found in temperate and arctic regions of the northern hemisphere. Even though the transmission patterns observed in different geographical areas are heterogeneous, the nuclear and mitochondrial targets usually used for the genotyping of E. multilocularis have shown only a marked genetic homogeneity in this species. We used microsatellite sequences, because of their high typing resolution, to explore the genetic diversity of E. multilocularis. Four microsatellite targets (EmsJ, EmsK, and EmsB, which were designed in our laboratory, and NAK1, selected from the literature) were tested on a panel of 76 E. multilocularis samples (larval and adult stages) obtained from Alaska, Canada, Europe, and Asia. Genetic diversity for each target was assessed by size polymorphism analysis. With the EmsJ and EmsK targets, two alleles were found for each locus, yielding two and three genotypes, respectively, discriminating European isolates from the other groups. With NAK1, five alleles were found, yielding seven genotypes, including those specific to Tibetan and Alaskan isolates. The EmsB target, a tandem repeated multilocus microsatellite, found 17 alleles showing a complex pattern. Hierarchical clustering analyses were performed with the EmsB findings, and 29 genotypes were identified. Due to its higher genetic polymorphism, EmsB exhibited a higher discriminatory power than the other targets. The complex EmsB pattern was able to discriminate isolates on a regional and sectoral level, while avoiding overdistinction. EmsB will be used to assess the putative emergence of E. multilocularis in Europe.

Knapp, J.; Bart, J. M.; Glowatzki, M. L.; Ito, A.; Gerard, S.; Maillard, S.; Piarroux, R.; Gottstein, B.

2007-01-01

75

[Genetic polymorphism of a pelagic fish species, little Baikal oilfish Comephorus dybowski, deduced from analysis of microsatellite loci].  

PubMed

Intraspecific genetic polymorphism of a Baikal Lake endemic, little Baikal oilfish (Comephorus dybowski Korotneff, 1905), was evaluated based on microsatellite analysis. Six microsatellite loci designed for the European sculpin, Cottus gobio, were used. Each locus was typed using 25 to 35 individuals from each of the Baikal trenches (southern, middle, and northern). Analysis of genetic differentiation (F(ST) and R(ST)) revealed no statistical significant differences between the samples. The data showed that the target species was represented by a single panmictic stable population. PMID:16152796

Teterina, V I; Sukhanova, L V; Bogdanov, B E; Anoshko, P N; Kirilchik, S V

2005-07-01

76

Identification of chromosomes 3, 6, and 8 aberrations in uveal melanoma by microsatellite analysis in comparison to comparative genomic hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In uveal melanoma, monosomy 3 is strongly associated with metastic disease and poor prognosis. Cytogenetic analysis and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) have been used to identify chromosomal aberrations in uveal melanoma. As these methods are costly and time consuming in routine diagnostic settings, we evaluated whether tumors with monosomy 3 can be reliably identified by microsatellite analysis (MSA). In addition,

Frank Tschentscher; Gabriele Prescher; Michael Zeschnigk; Bernhard Horsthemke; Dietmar R Lohmann

2000-01-01

77

Narrow genetic basis for the Australian dingo confirmed through analysis of paternal ancestry.  

PubMed

The dingo (Canis lupus dingo) is an iconic animal in the native culture of Australia, but archaeological and molecular records indicate a relatively recent history on the continent. Studies of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) imply that the current dingo population was founded by a small population of already tamed dogs from Southeast Asia. However, the maternal genetic data might give a unilateral picture, and the gene pool has yet to be screened for paternal ancestry. We sequenced 14,437 bp of the Y-chromosome (Y-chr) from two dingoes and one New Guinea Singing Dog (NGSD). This positioned dingo and NGSD within the domestic dog Y-chr phylogeny, and produced one haplotype not detected before. With this data, we characterized 47 male dingoes in 30 Y-chr single-nucleotide polymorphism sites using protease-mediated allele-specific extension technology. Only two haplotypes, H3 and H60, were found among the dingoes, at frequencies of 68.1 and 31.9 %, respectively, compared to 27 haplotypes previously established in the domestic dog. While H3 is common among Southeast Asian dogs, H60 was specifically found in dingoes and the NGSD, but was related to Southeast Asian dog Y-chr haplotypes. H3 and H60 were observed exclusively in the western and eastern parts of Australia, respectively, but had a common range in Southeast. Thus, the Y-chr diversity was very low, similar to previous observations for d-loop mtDNA. Overall genetic evidence suggests a very restricted introduction of the first dingoes into Australia, possibly from New Guinea. This study further confirms the dingo as an isolated feral dog. PMID:22618967

Ardalan, Arman; Oskarsson, Mattias; Natanaelsson, Christian; Wilton, Alan N; Ahmadian, Afshin; Savolainen, Peter

2012-05-23

78

Multilocus microsatellite analysis of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' associated with citrus Huanglongbing worldwide  

PubMed Central

Background Huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most destructive citrus diseases in the world. The disease is associated with the presence of a fastidious, phloem-limited ?- proteobacterium, 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus', 'Ca. Liberibacter africanus' or 'Ca. Liberibacter americanus'. HLB-associated Liberibacters have spread to North America and South America in recent years. While the causal agents of HLB have been putatively identified, information regarding the worldwide population structure and epidemiological relationships for 'Ca. L. asiaticus' is limited. The availability of the 'Ca. L. asiaticus' genome sequence has facilitated development of molecular markers from this bacterium. The objectives of this study were to develop microsatellite markers and conduct genetic analyses of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' from a worldwide collection. Two hundred eighty seven isolates from USA (Florida), Brazil, China, India, Cambodia, Vietnam, Taiwan, Thailand, and Japan were analyzed. Results A panel of seven polymorphic microsatellite markers was developed for 'Ca. L. asiaticus'. Microsatellite analyses across the samples showed that the genetic diversity of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' is higher in Asia than Americas. UPGMA and STRUCTURE analyses identified three major genetic groups worldwide. Isolates from India were genetically distinct. East-southeast Asian and Brazilian isolates were generally included in the same group; a few members of this group were found in Florida, but the majority of the isolates from Florida were clustered separately. eBURST analysis predicted three founder haplotypes, which may have given rise to three groups worldwide. Conclusions Our results identified three major genetic groups of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' worldwide. Isolates from Brazil showed similar genetic makeup with east-southeast Asian dominant group, suggesting the possibility of a common origin. However, most of the isolates recovered from Florida were clustered in a separate group. While the sources of the dominant 'Ca. L. asiaticus' in Florida were not clearly understood, the less-pervasive groups may have been introduced directly from Asia or via Brazil. Notably, the recent outbreak of HLB in Florida probably occurred through multiple introductions. Microsatellite markers developed in this study provide adequate discriminatory power for the identification and differentiation of closely-related isolates, as well as for genetic studies of 'Ca. L. asiaticus'.

2012-01-01

79

Geographic Structure of Plasmodium vivax: Microsatellite Analysis of Parasite Populations from Sri Lanka, Myanmar, and Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Genetic diversity and population structure of Plasmodium vivax parasites can predict the origin and spread of novel variants within a population enabling population specific malaria control measures. We analyzed the genetic diversity and population structure of 425 P. vivax isolates from Sri Lanka, Myanmar, and Ethiopia using 12 trinucleotide and tetranucleotide microsatellite markers. All three parasite populations were highly polymorphic with 3–44 alleles per locus. Approximately 65% were multiple-clone infections. Mean genetic diversity (HE) was 0.7517 in Ethiopia, 0.8450 in Myanmar, and 0.8610 in Sri Lanka. Significant linkage disequilibrium was maintained. Population structure showed two clusters (Asian and African) according to geography and ancestry. Strong clustering of outbreak isolates from Sri Lanka and Ethiopia was observed. Predictive power of ancestry using two-thirds of the isolates as a model identified 78.2% of isolates accurately as being African or Asian. Microsatellite analysis is a useful tool for mapping short-term outbreaks of malaria and for predicting ancestry.

Gunawardena, Sharmini; Karunaweera, Nadira D.; Ferreira, Marcelo U.; Phone-Kyaw, Myatt; Pollack, Richard J.; Alifrangis, Michael; Rajakaruna, Rupika S.; Konradsen, Flemming; Amerasinghe, Priyanie H.; Schousboe, Mette L.; Galappaththy, Gawrie N. L.; Abeyasinghe, Rabindra R.; Hartl, Daniel L.; Wirth, Dyann F.

2010-01-01

80

Differentiation of the Italian wolf and the domestic dog based on microsatellite analysis.  

PubMed

The Italian wolf is in the process of regaining the Alpine region which comes into conflict with the extensive sheep keeping practiced in Switzerland during the summer. As in Switzerland, the wolf is a protected species, the government reimburses losses caused by wolves. Therefore we wanted to know whether the Italian wolf could be distinguished from the domestic dog by microsatellite analysis if DNA samples of the predators could be secured. The evaluation of combined genotypes for the microsatellites CanBern6, CPH4, CPH7, CPH9, CPH12, CPH22 and ZuBeCa1 made it possible to identify an individual as either a domestic dog or an Italian wolf. The assignment of an individual to either one of the two populations is based on the logarithm of the likelihood ratio of an individual being an Italian wolf rather than a domestic dog, given a specific combined genotype. The distribution of the Italian wolf combined genotypes (n=42) is clearly distinct from the distribution of the domestic dog combined genotypes (n=90). The likelihood ratio for the "worst" Italian wolf combined genotype was 2.3 E+5 and for the "worst" domestic dog combined genotype was 3.8 E-5. PMID:14736381

Dolf, G; Schläpfer, J; Gaillard, C; Randi, E; Lucchini, V; Breitenmoser, U; Stahlberger-Saitbekova, N

81

Multiple paternity in wild-caught Drosophila mojavensis.  

PubMed

Female remating frequency and sperm allocation patterns can strongly influence levels of sperm competition and reproductive success in natural populations. In the laboratory, Drosophila mojavensis males transfer very few sperm per copulation and females remate often, suggesting multiple paternity should be common in nature. Here, we examine female sperm loads, incidence of multiple paternity, and sperm utilization by genotyping progeny from 20 wild-caught females at four highly polymorphic microsatellite loci. Based on indirect paternity analyses of 814 flies, we found evidence for high levels of multiple paternity coupled with relatively low reproductive output, consistent with the high levels of female remating predicted in this sperm-limited species. Overall, we found little evidence for last -- male sperm precedence though some temporal variation in sperm utilization was observed, consistent with laboratory findings. PMID:16780438

Good, Jeffrey M; Ross, Charles L; Markow, Therese A

2006-07-01

82

Multiple paternity in the freshwater snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum  

PubMed Central

Mating multiply may incur costs, such as exposure to predators and to sexually transmitted diseases. Nevertheless, it may be favored, in spite of these costs, as a way to increase the genetic diversity of offspring through fertilization by multiple males. Here, we tested for multiple paternity in a freshwater snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum), which is host to several species of sterilizing trematode worms. Using microsatellites markers, we found multiple paternity in two different snail populations, with as many as seven males fertilizing a single female. In addition, high evenness of sire fertilization was found within individual broods. Multiple paternity can occur for a variety of reasons; however, given that these populations experience high risk of infection by a sterilizing trematode, one potential explanation may be that multiple paternity and high evenness of sire fertilizations increase the chances of the production of parasite-resistant offspring.

Soper, Deanna M; Delph, Lynda F; Lively, Curt M

2012-01-01

83

Microsatellite analysis of olive fly populations in the Mediterranean indicates a westward expansion of the species.  

PubMed

Bactrocera oleae is the major insect pest of the olive fruit. Twelve microsatellite loci isolated from the genome of this insect were used in a Mediterranean-wide population analysis. These loci were highly polymorphic with a mean number of alleles per locus of 10.42 and a mean effective number of alleles of 2.76. The analysis was performed on a sample of 671 flies collected from nineteen locations around the European part of the Mediterranean basin. Despite the high level of gene flow across the Mediterranean, results support the notion of a differentiation of three subpopulations: one of the Iberian Peninsula, one of Greece and Italy and one of Cyprus. In addition, the gradual decrease of heterozygosity from the Eastern to the Western part of the Mediterranean indicates a westward expansion of the species. PMID:16247695

Augustinos, A A; Mamuris, Z; Stratikopoulos, E E; D'Amelio, S; Zacharopoulou, A; Mathiopoulos, K D

2005-11-01

84

Discrimination of Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine strains using microsatellite multiplex PCR and band pattern analysis.  

PubMed

We propose a rapid method for Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain identification based on multiplex PCR analysis of polymorphic microsatellite loci. Simple DNA extraction without the use of phenol, followed by a rapid PCR procedure optimised for multiplex amplification of loci SC8132X, YOR267C and SCPTSY7 and band pattern analysis of the fragments generated by agarose and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, has allowed us to distinguish among a panel of 30 tested commercial wine strains. This method was successfully performed in an ecological study where dominance between two strains was checked at two fermentation temperatures: 15 and 20 degrees C. The method should be useful for routine and low-budget discrimination of yeast strains, both in the wine and yeast production industries. PMID:17993377

Vaudano, Enrico; Garcia-Moruno, Emilia

2007-08-21

85

Polymorphism in ornamental and common carp strains ( Cyprinus carpio L.) as revealed by AFLP analysis and a new set of microsatellite markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-seven new microsatellite markers were generated and applied, together with the AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) technique using two different enzyme combinations, to the genetic analysis of two carp species, Cyprinus carpio L. and Ctenopharyngodon idella. The extent of polymorphism and the genetic relationships between nine carp populations were studied. The incidence of microsatellites containing CA and CT motifs was

L. David; P. Rajasekaran; J. Fang; J. Hillel; U. Lavi

2001-01-01

86

Potential Errors with Rapid Analysis Techniques: Partial Duplication 21q Resulting from a Paternal Paracentric Insertion Uncovered in Chorionic Villus Sampling by Fluorescence in situ Hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on partial duplication 21q resulting from a paternal insertion identified during prenatal diagnosis. While performing interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (I-FISH), we were able to identify 3 signals of the LSI 21 Spectrum Orange probe with chorionic villus sampling. Using standard cytogenetic analysis, I-FISH and GTG banding, structural aberrations in 21q in the parents and in the fetus

N. Ehrhardt; A. Kujat; R. Faber; L.-C. Horn; U. G. Froster

2009-01-01

87

Analysis of genetic diversity in early introduced clones of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) using RAPD and microsatellite markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic analysis in 53 early introduced clones of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) collected from different areas in Southern Thailand was performed using RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) and microsatellite markers. Seven- teen cultivated clones (34 samples) were also included to compare DNA patterns. DNA was isolated from leaf samples using CTAB buffer. One hundred and ninety two 10-base oligonucleotide primers

Korakot Nakkanong; Charassri Nualsri; Sayan Sdoodee

2008-01-01

88

Variation in multiple paternity in natural populations of a free-spawning marine invertebrate.  

PubMed

For free-spawning marine invertebrates, fertilization processes control the genetic diversity of offspring. Each egg can potentially be fertilized by a sperm from a different male, and hence genetic diversity within a brood varies with levels of multiple paternity. Yet, few studies have characterized the frequency of multiple paternity in natural spawns. We analysed patterns of multiple paternity in two populations of the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri using microsatellites. Because previous studies have shown that at moderate to high population densities, competition among male-phase B. schlosseri colonies results in the nearest male dominating the paternity of a brood, we specifically tested the effect of population density on patterns of paternity. Paternity was estimated using three multilocus indices: minimum number of fathers, counts of sperm haplotypes, and effective paternity (K(E)). Multiple paternity was evident in more than 92% of the broods analysed, but highly variable, with a few broods displaying unequal contributions of different males. We found no effect of population density on multiple paternity, suggesting that other factors may control paternity levels. Indirect benefits from increasing the genetic diversity of broods are a possible explanation for the high level of multiple paternity in this species. PMID:17651201

Johnson, Sheri L; Yund, Philip O

2007-08-01

89

In-silico analysis of simple and imperfect microsatellites in diverse tobamovirus genomes.  

PubMed

An in-silico analysis of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in 30 species of tobamoviruses was done. SSRs (mono to hexa) were present with variant frequency across species. Compound microsatellites, primarily of variant motifs accounted for up to 11.43% of the SSRs. Motif duplications were observed for A, T, AT, and ACA repeats. (AG)-(TC) was the most prevalent SSR-couple. SSRs were differentially localized in the coding region with ~54% on the 128kDa protein while 20.37% was exclusive to 186kDa protein. Characterization of such variations is important for elucidating the origin, sequence variations, and structure of these widely used, but incompletely understood sequences. PMID:23981776

Alam, Chaudhary Mashhood; Singh, Avadhesh Kumar; Sharfuddin, Choudhary; Ali, Safdar

2013-08-25

90

Paternity fraud and compensation for misattributed paternity  

PubMed Central

Claims for reimbursement of child support, the reversal of property settlements and compensation can arise when misattributed paternity is discovered. The ethical justifications for such claims seem to be related to the financial cost of bringing up children, the absence of choice about taking on these expenses, the hard work involved in child rearing, the emotional attachments that are formed with children, the obligation of women to make truthful claims about paternity, and the deception involved in infidelity. In this paper it is argued that there should not be compensation for infidelity and that reimbursement is appropriate where the claimant has made child support payments but has not taken on the social role of father. Where the claimant's behaviour suggests a social view of fatherhood, on the other hand, claims for compensation are less coherent. Where the genetic model of fatherhood dominates, the “other” man (the woman's lover and progenitor of the children) might also have a claim for the loss of the benefits of fatherhood. It is concluded that claims for reimbursement and compensation in cases of misattributed paternity produce the same distorted and thin view of what it means to be a father that paternity testing assumes, and underscores a trend that is not in the interests of children.

Draper, Heather

2007-01-01

91

Microsatellite analysis of Damask rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) accessions from various regions in Iran reveals multiple genotypes  

PubMed Central

Background Damask roses (Rosa damascena Mill.) are mainly used for essential oil production. Previous studies have indicated that all production material in Bulgaria and Turkey consists of only one genotype. Nine polymorphic microsatellite markers were used to analyze the genetic diversity of 40 accessions of R. damascena collected across major and minor rose oil production areas in Iran. Results All microsatellite markers showed a high level of polymorphism (5–15 alleles per microsatellite marker, with an average of 9.11 alleles per locus). Cluster analysis of genetic similarities revealed that these microsatellites identified a total of nine different genotypes. The genotype from Isfahan province, which is the major production area, was by far the most common genotype (27/40 accessions). It was identical to the Bulgarian genotype. Other genotypes (each represented by 1–4 accessions) were collected from minor production areas in several provinces, notably in the mountainous Northwest of Iran. Conclusion This is the first study that uncovered genetic diversity within Damask rose. Our results will guide new collection activities to establish larger collections and manage the Iranian Damask rose genetic resources. The genotypes identified here may be directly useful for breeding.

Babaei, Alireza; Tabaei-Aghdaei, Seyed Reza; Khosh-Khui, Morteza; Omidbaigi, Reza; Naghavi, Mohammad Reza; Esselink, Gerhard D; Smulders, Marinus JM

2007-01-01

92

Efficient molecular sexing in dioecious Silene latifolia and S. dioica and paternity analysis in F(1) hybrids.  

PubMed

Two polymerase chain reaction-based assays have been developed that work in combination with an efficient DNA extraction protocol to rapidly and reliably determine sex in the dioecious plant species Silene latifolia and S. dioica. In addition, one of the assays allows assessing paternity in the F(1) generation of intra- and interspecific matings involving the two species. PMID:21586019

Hobza, R; Widmer, A

2008-11-01

93

Evaluation of an extended set of 15 candidate STR loci for paternity and kinship analysis in an Austrian population sample.  

PubMed

We investigated 15 polymorphic short tandem repeat (STR) loci (D1S1656, D7S1517, D8S306, D8S639, D9S304, D10S2325, D11S488, D12S391, D14S608, D16S3253, D17S976, D18S1270, D19S253, D20S161, and D21S1437) which are not included in the standard sets of forensic loci. The markers were selected according to the complexity of the polymorphic region: Of the 15 investigated loci, 7 loci showed a simple repeat structure (D9S304, D10S2325, D14S608, D16S3253, D18S1270, D19S253, and D21S1437), 3 loci (D7S1517, D12S391, and D20S161) consisted of compound repeat units, and 5 loci (D1S1656, D8S306, D8S639, D11S488, and D17S976) showed a more complex polymorphic region partly including different repeat blocks and incomplete repeat units, which resulted in a relatively high proportion of intermediate alleles. A population study on a sample of 270 unrelated persons from Austria was carried out. We did not observe significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg expectations. The combined probability of exclusion for the 15 loci was 0.99999998. In combination with the conventional set of STR markers included in commercially available kits (no linkage was observed between these 15 loci and the Powerplex 16 System loci), these markers are approved as highly discriminating forensic tools, also suitable for the analysis of difficult paternity and kinship constellations. PMID:16642351

Grubwieser, P; Zimmermann, B; Niederstätter, H; Pavlic, M; Steinlechner, M; Parson, W

2006-04-28

94

[Genetic variation analysis of wild populations of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) using microsatellite markers].  

PubMed

Twelve microsatellites were used to analyze the genetic diversity and genetic structure of eight wild populations of grass carp, among which six populations from Yangtze River (Hanjiang, Wujian, Jiujiang, Shishou, Mudong, and Wanzhou), one population from Pearl River and Heilongjiang River for each, Zhaoqing, and Nenjiang, respectively. Twelve markers showed highly polymorphic and all the eight populations contained high genetic variations. The variations of six populations of Yangtze River and Zhaoqing population of Pearl River were higher than Nenjiang population of Heilongjiang River. Bottleneck analysis revealed that four populations (Zhaoqing, Nenjiang, Mudong, and Wangzhou) had experienced a recent genetic bottleneck, and the effective population size was reduced. Pairwise FST and AMOVA analysis detected significant genetic difference among populations. The pairwise population genetic distances and the UPGMA tree demonstrated that the genetic distances between six populations of Yangtze River and Zhaoqing population were closer and clustered together earlier, as compared to those populations with Nenjiang population. The genetic structure simulation analysis suggested that there were five logic populations of all individuals. The genetic structures of Zhaoqing and Nenjiang populations were shown with independent separation, but the genetic structures of populations from Yangtze River were shown with fuzzy distribution. The high diversity was found in the wild grass carp from three major watersheds in China, which would supply a basis for future genetic improvement. However, the bottleneck effect of some populations should be taken into account in the practical breeding programs. PMID:23448932

Fu, Jian-Jun; Li, Jia-Le; Shen, Yu-Bang; Wang, Rong-Quan; Xuan, Yun-Feng; Xu, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Yong

2013-02-01

95

Microsatellite analysis of genetic diversity and population structure of Arabian horse populations.  

PubMed

The Arabian horse ignites imagination throughout the world. Populations of this breed exist in many countries, and recent genetic work has examined the diversity and ancestry of a few of these populations in isolation. Here, we explore 7 different populations of Arabians represented by 682 horses. Three of these are Middle Eastern populations from near the historical origin of the breed, including Syrian, Persian, and Saudi Arabian. The remaining Western populations are found in Europe (the Shagya Arabian and Polish Arabian) and in America (American Arabian). Analysis of genetic structure was carried out using 15 microsatellite loci. Genetic distances, analysis of molecular variance, factorial correspondence analysis, and a Bayesian method were applied. The results consistently show higher level of diversity within the Middle Eastern populations than the Western populations. The Western Arabian populations were the main source among population variation. Genetic differentiation was not strong among all Middle Eastern populations, but all American Arabians showed differentiation from Middle Eastern populations and were somewhat uniform among themselves. Here, we explore the diversities of many different populations of Arabian horses and find that populations not from the Middle East have noticeably lower levels of diversity, which may adversely affect the health of these populations. PMID:23450090

Khanshour, Anas; Conant, Eleanore; Juras, Rytis; Cothran, Ernest Gus

2013-02-28

96

Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) amplification for analysis of microsatellite motif frequency and fingerprinting in rice (Oryza sativa L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) amplification was used to analyze microsatellite motif frequency in the rice genome and\\u000a to evaluate genetic diversity among rice cultivars. A total of 32 primers, containing different simple sequence repeat (SSR)\\u000a motifs, were tested for amplification on a panel of 59 varieties, representative of the diversity of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.). The ISSR analysis provided

M. W. Blair; O. Panaud; S. R. McCouch

1999-01-01

97

Maternal and paternal genealogy of Eurasian taurine cattle (Bos taurus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has been used extensively to determine origin and diversity of taurine cattle (Bos taurus) but global surveys of paternally inherited Y-chromosome diversity are lacking. Here, we provide mtDNA information on previously uncharacterised Eurasian breeds and present the most comprehensive Y-chromosomal microsatellite data on domestic cattle to date. The mitochondrial haplogroup T3 was the most frequent,

J Kantanen; C J Edwards; D G Bradley; H Viinalass; S Thessler; Z Ivanova; T Kiselyova; M ?inkulov; R Popov; S Stojanovi?; I Ammosov; J Vilkki

2009-01-01

98

Microsatellite analysis revealed genetic diversity and population structure among Chinese cashmere goats.  

PubMed

Most cashmere goats are found in northern China and Mongolia. They are regarded as precious resources for their production of high quality natural fibre for the textile industry. It was the first time that the genetic diversity and population structure of nine Chinese cashmere populations has been assessed using 14 ISAG/FAO microsatellite markers. In addition, two Iranian populations and one West African goat population were genotyped for comparison. Results indicated that the genetic diversity of Chinese cashmere goats was rich, but less than those of the Iranian goat populations. All pairwise F(ST) values between the Chinese cashmere goat populations reached a highly significant level (P < 0.001), suggesting that they should all be considered as separate breeds. Finally, clustering analysis divided Chinese cashmere goats into at least two clusters, with the Tibetan Hegu goats alone in one cluster. An extensive admixture was detected among the Chinese goat breeds (except the Hegu), which have important implications for breeding management. PMID:20497158

Di, R; Vahidi, S M Farhad; Ma, Y H; He, X H; Zhao, Q J; Han, J L; Guan, W J; Chu, M X; Sun, W; Pu, Y P

2010-05-18

99

Microsatellite markers for identification and parentage analysis in the European wild boar (Sus scrofa)  

PubMed Central

Background The wild boar (Sus scrofa) is among the most widespread mammal species throughout the old world. Presently, studies concerning microsatellites in domestic pigs and wild boars have been carried out in order to investigate domestication, social behavior and general diversity patterns among either populations or breeds. The purpose of the current study is to develop a robust set of microsatellites markers for parentage analyses and individual identification. Findings A set of 14 previously reported microsatellites markers have been optimized and tested in three populations from Hungary, Portugal and Spain, in a total of 167 samples. The results indicate high probabilities of exclusion (0.99999), low probability of identity (2.0E-13 – 2.5E-9) and a parentage assignment of 100%. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that this set of markers is a useful and efficient tool for the individual identification and parentage assignment in wild boars.

2012-01-01

100

Genetic structure of the Korean black scraper Thamnaconus modestus inferred from microsatellite marker analysis.  

PubMed

The Korean black scraper, Thamnaconus modestus, is one of the most economically important maricultural fish species in Korea. However, the annual catch of this fish has been continuously declining over the past several decades. In this study, the genetic diversity and relationships among four wild populations and two hatchery stocks of Korean black scraper were assessed based on 16 microsatellite (MS) markers. A total of 319 different alleles were detected over all loci with an average of 19.94 alleles per locus. The hatchery stocks [mean number of alleles (N(A)) = 12, allelic richness (A(R)) = 12, expected heterozygosity (He) = 0.834] showed a slight reduction (P > 0.05) in genetic variability in comparison with wild populations (mean N(A) = 13.86, A(R) = 12.35, He = 0.844), suggesting a sufficient level of genetic variation in the hatchery populations. Similarly low levels of inbreeding and significant Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium deviations were detected in both wild and hatchery populations. The genetic subdivision among all six populations was low but significant (overall F(ST) = 0.008, P < 0.01). Pairwise F(ST), a phylogenetic tree, and multidimensional scaling analysis suggested the existence of three geographically structured populations based on different sea basin origins, although the isolation-by-distance model was rejected. This result was corroborated by an analysis of molecular variance. This genetic differentiation may result from the co-effects of various factors, such as historical dispersal, local environment and ocean currents. These three geographical groups can be considered as independent management units. Our results show that MS markers may be suitable not only for the genetic monitoring of hatchery stocks but also for revealing the population structure of Korean black scraper populations. These results will provide critical information for breeding programs, the management of cultured stocks and the conservation of this species. PMID:23471506

An, Hye Suck; Lee, Jang Wook; Park, Jung Yeon; Jung, Hyung Taek

2013-03-08

101

Comparative genomic analysis reveals species-dependent complexities that explain difficulties with microsatellite marker development in molluscs.  

PubMed

Reliable population DNA molecular markers are difficult to develop for molluscs, the reasons for which are largely unknown. Identical protocols for microsatellite marker development were implemented in three gastropods. Success rates were lower for Gibbula cineraria compared to Littorina littorea and L. saxatilis. Comparative genomic analysis of 47.2?kb of microsatellite containing sequences (MCS) revealed a high incidence of cryptic repetitive DNA in their flanking regions. The majority of these were novel, and could be grouped into DNA families based upon sequence similarities. Significant inter-specific variation in abundance of cryptic repetitive DNA and DNA families was observed. Repbase scans show that a large proportion of cryptic repetitive DNA was identified as transposable elements (TEs). We argue that a large number of TEs and their transpositional activity may be linked to differential rates of DNA multiplication and recombination. This is likely to be an important factor explaining inter-specific variation in genome stability and hence microsatellite marker development success rates. Gastropods also differed significantly in the type of TEs classes (autonomous vs non-autonomous) observed. We propose that dissimilar transpositional mechanisms differentiate the TE classes in terms of their propensity for transposition, fixation and/or silencing. Consequently, the phylogenetic conservation of non-autonomous TEs, such as CvA, suggests that dispersal of these elements may have behaved as microsatellite-inducing elements. Results seem to indicate that, compared to autonomous, non-autonomous TEs maybe have a more active role in genome rearrangement processes. The implications of the findings for genomic rearrangement, stability and marker development are discussed. PMID:20424639

McInerney, C E; Allcock, A L; Johnson, M P; Bailie, D A; Prodöhl, P A

2010-04-28

102

Comparative genomic analysis reveals species-dependent complexities that explain difficulties with microsatellite marker development in molluscs  

PubMed Central

Reliable population DNA molecular markers are difficult to develop for molluscs, the reasons for which are largely unknown. Identical protocols for microsatellite marker development were implemented in three gastropods. Success rates were lower for Gibbula cineraria compared to Littorina littorea and L. saxatilis. Comparative genomic analysis of 47.2?kb of microsatellite containing sequences (MCS) revealed a high incidence of cryptic repetitive DNA in their flanking regions. The majority of these were novel, and could be grouped into DNA families based upon sequence similarities. Significant inter-specific variation in abundance of cryptic repetitive DNA and DNA families was observed. Repbase scans show that a large proportion of cryptic repetitive DNA was identified as transposable elements (TEs). We argue that a large number of TEs and their transpositional activity may be linked to differential rates of DNA multiplication and recombination. This is likely to be an important factor explaining inter-specific variation in genome stability and hence microsatellite marker development success rates. Gastropods also differed significantly in the type of TEs classes (autonomous vs non-autonomous) observed. We propose that dissimilar transpositional mechanisms differentiate the TE classes in terms of their propensity for transposition, fixation and/or silencing. Consequently, the phylogenetic conservation of non-autonomous TEs, such as CvA, suggests that dispersal of these elements may have behaved as microsatellite-inducing elements. Results seem to indicate that, compared to autonomous, non-autonomous TEs maybe have a more active role in genome rearrangement processes. The implications of the findings for genomic rearrangement, stability and marker development are discussed.

McInerney, C E; Allcock, A L; Johnson, M P; Bailie, D A; Prodohl, P A

2011-01-01

103

Microsatellites provide insight into contrasting mating patterns in arribada vs. non-arribada olive ridley sea turtle rookeries.  

PubMed

Molecular studies of sea turtles have shown that the frequency of multiple paternity (MP) varies between species, and between rookeries of the same species. This study uses nuclear microsatellite markers to compare the incidence of MP in two neighbouring olive ridley rookeries on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, with contrasting nesting behaviours -- the 'arribada' population nesting at Ostional and the solitary nesters of Playa Hermosa. Using two highly polymorphic microsatellite markers, we tested 13 nests from each location and found a significant difference (P < 0.001) between the level of MP of the arribada rookery (92%- the highest found for marine turtles) and that of the solitary nesting rookery (30%). Additional analyses based on six microsatellite loci revealed no genetic differentiation between nesting females from the two locations, or between nesting females and attendant males from the Ostional breeding area. Sixty-nine per cent of the nests with MP were fathered by a minimum of three different males, and three nests showed evidence of at least four fathers. The results suggest that the differences observed in levels of MP between arribada and solitary rookeries are due to an effect of abundance of individuals on the mating system. This is supported by a regression analysis combining other paternity studies on sea turtles which shows that levels of MP increase with increasing abundance of nesting females. PMID:16842427

Jensen, M P; Abreu-Grobois, F A; Frydenberg, J; Loeschcke, V

2006-08-01

104

Deletions at 14q in malignant mesothelioma detected by microsatellite marker analysis  

PubMed Central

Previous molecular cytogenetic studies by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) on primary tumours of human malignant mesothelioma have revealed that loss of genetic material at chromosome 14q is one of the most frequently occurring aberrations. Here we further verify the frequency and pattern of deletions at 14q in mesothelioma. A high-resolution deletion mapping analysis of 23 microsatellite markers was performed on 18 primary mesothelioma tumours. Eight of these had previously been analysed by CGH. Loss of heterozygosity or allelic imbalance with at least one marker was detected in ten of 18 tumours (56%). Partial deletions of varying lengths were more common than loss of all informative markers, which occurred in only one tumour. The highest number of tumours with deletions at a specific marker was detected at 14q11.1–q12 with markers D14S283 (five tumours), D14S972 (seven tumours) and D14S64 (five tumours) and at 14q23–q24 with markers D14S258 (five tumours), D14S77 (five tumours) and D14S284 (six tumours). We conclude from these data that genomic deletions at 14q are more common than previously reported in mesothelioma. Furthermore, confirmation of previous CGH results was obtained in all tumours but one. This tumour showed deletions by allelotyping, but did not show any DNA copy number change at 14q by CGH. Although the number of tumours allelotyped was small and the deletion pattern was complex, 14q11.1–q12 and 14q23–q24 were found to be the most involved regions in deletions. These regions provide a good basis for further molecular analyses and may highlight chromosomal locations of tumour suppressor genes that could be important in the tumorigenesis of malignant mesothelioma. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign

Bjorkqvist, A-M; Wolf, M; Nordling, S; Tammilehto, L; Knuuttila, A; Kere, J; Mattson, K; Knuutila, S

1999-01-01

105

Patterns and levels of gene flow in Rhododendron metternichii var. hondoense revealed by microsatellite analysis.  

PubMed

Parentage analysis was conducted to elucidate the patterns and levels of gene flow in Rhododendron metternichii Sieb. et Zucc. var. hondoense Nakai in a 150 x 70 m quadrant in Hiroshima Prefecture, western Japan. The population of R. metternichii occurred as three subpopulations at the study site. Seventy seedlings were randomly collected from each of three 10 x 10 m plots (S1, S2, and S3) on the forest floor of each subpopulation (A1, A2, and A3). Almost all parents (93.8%) of the 70 seedlings were unambiguously identified by using 12 pairs of microsatellite markers. Within the quadrant, adult trees less than 5 m from the centre of the seedling bank (plots S1, S2, and S3) produced large numbers of seedlings. The effects of tree height and distance from the seedling bank on the relative fertilities of adult trees were highly variable among subpopulations because of the differences in population structure near the seedling bank: neither distance nor tree height had any significant effect in subpopulation A1; distance from the seedling bank had a significant effect in subpopulation A2; and tree height had a significant effect in subpopulation A3. Although gene flow within each subpopulation was highly restricted to less than 25 m and gene flow among the three subpopulations was extremely small (0-2%), long-distance gene flow from outside the quadrant reached 50%. This long-distance gene flow may be caused by a combination of topographical and vegetational heterogeneity, differences in flowering phenology, and genetic substructuring within subpopulations. PMID:11251799

Kameyama, Y; Isagi, Y; Nakagoshi, N

2001-01-01

106

Microsatellite gene diversity analysis in anadromous arctic char, Salvelinus alpinus , from Labrador, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analysed six loci among 257 Arctic char ( Salvelinus alpinus) representing seven locations in Labrador and Newfoundland to provide a first assessment of microsatellites gene diversity in anadromous char and to determine the geographic scale of population structuring within the species. The number of alleles per locus varied between 9 and 48, and gene diversity ranged from 0.190 to

Louis Bernatchez; J. Brian Dempson; Sylvain Martin

1998-01-01

107

Genetic analysis of four wild chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta populations in China based on microsatellite markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis To assess the genetic variation and population structure of wild chum salmon in China, we analyzed microsatellite loci for populations in the Amur, Wusuli, Suifen Current and the Tumen rivers. We evaluated expected heterozygosity with two estimators of genetic differentiation (FST and GST) and Nei’s standard genetic distance. The average expected heterozygosity across the 10 loci was 0.65 in

Jin-Ping Chen; Da-Jiang Sun; Chong-Zhi Dong; Bing Liang; Wen-Hua Wu; Shu-Yi Zhang

2005-01-01

108

Microsatellite Analysis of Genetic Variation in Sturgeon: New Primer Sequences for Scaphirhynchus and Acipenser  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low levels of genetic variation at tradi- tional molecular markers have hampered genetic re- search within the family Acipenseridae. In an effort to develop a large set of polymorphic genetic markers, 172 clones were sequenced from three subgenomic libraries of shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus ; the libraries were enriched for two dinucleotide and one tetranucleotide microsatellite motifs (CA, GA, and

Eve C. McQuown; Brian L. Sloss; Robert J. Sheehan; Jeff Rodzen; Gregory J. Tranah; Bernie May

2000-01-01

109

Analysis of Microsatellites in 13 Hemiascomycetous Yeast Species: Mechanisms Involved in Genome Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have analyzed all di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide repeats in the partially sequenced genomes of 13 hemiascomycetous yeast species, and compared their sequences, lengths, and distributions to those observed in the genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that most of the 13 species exhibit a unique distribution of microsatellites, not correlated to the base composition of their genome. Species close

Alain Malpertuy; Bernard Dujon; Guy-Franck Richard

2003-01-01

110

Characterization of 14 Microsatellite Markers for Genetic Analysis and Cultivar Identifi cation of Walnut  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred and forty-seven primer pairs originally designed to amplify microsatellites, also known as simple sequence repeats (SSR), in black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) were screened for utility in persian walnut (J. regia L.). Based on scorability and number of informative polymorphisms, the best 14 loci were selected to analyze a di- verse group of 47 persian walnut accessions and

Gerald S. Dangl; Keith Woeste; Mallikarjuna K. Aradhya; Anne Koehmstedt; Chuck Simon; Daniel Potter; Charles A. Leslie; Gale McGranahan

111

Admixture Analysis of Florida Largemouth Bass and Northern Largemouth Bass using Microsatellite Loci  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsatellite DNA variation was examined at 11 loci in five populations of Florida largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides floridanus (N = 175) and eight populations of northern largemouth bass M. s. salmoides (N = 249). Distinct allele frequencies with 33 private alleles between subspecies (threshold frequency, ?0.05) and 19 private alleles among three geographic regions distinguished between Florida largemouth bass and

Dijar J. Lutz-Carrillo; Chris C. Nice; Timothy H. Bonner; Michael R. J. Forstner; Loraine T. Fries

2006-01-01

112

Microsatellite analysis of genetic diversity in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) populations throughout Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic diversity in nine African buffalo ( Syncerus caffer ) populations throughout Africa was analysed with 14 microsatellites to study the effects of rinderpest epidemics and habitat fragmentation during the 20th century. A gradient of declining expected heterozygosity was observed among populations in Save Valley Conservancy (Zimbabwe), and northern and southern Kruger National Park (South Africa). This was explained by

W. F. Van Hooft; A. F. Groen; H. H. T. Prins

2000-01-01

113

Population genetics of Leishmania infantum in Israel and the Palestinian Authority through microsatellite analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multilocus microsatellite typing (MLMT) was used to investigate the genetic variation among 44 Israeli and Palestinian strains of L. infantum isolated from infected dogs and human cases to determine their population structure and to compare them with strains isolated from different European countries. Most of the Israeli and Palestinian strains had their own individual MLMT profiles; a few shared the

Ahmad Amro; Gabriele Schönian; Mohamed Barakat Al-Sharabati; Kifaya Azmi; Abedelmajeed Nasereddin; Ziad Abdeen; Lionel F. Schnur; Gad Baneth; Charles L. Jaffe; Katrin Kuhls

2009-01-01

114

Paternity in Eusocial Hymenoptera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variation in paternity frequency in colonies of eusocial insects has profound effects on the relatedness among offspring and on the genetic diversity of colonies. Data on queen `mating-frequency' in eusocial Hymenoptera vary in both quality and the phase of the `mating' process they address. Some are observational studies of the range or maximum number of copulations; others are derived from

Jacobus J. Boomsma; Francis L. W. Ratnieks

1996-01-01

115

Paternal Filicide in Quebec  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this retrospective study, relevant demographic, social, and clinical variables were examined in 77 cases of paternal filicide. Between 1991 and 2001, all consecutive coroners' files on domestic homicide in Quebec, Canada, were reviewed, and 77 child victims of 60 male parent perpetrators were identified. The results support data indicating that more fathers commit filicide than do mothers. A history

Dominique Bourget; Pierre Gagne ´

116

Intracommunity relationships, dispersal pattern and paternity success in a wild living community of Bonobos (Pan paniscus) determined from DNA analysis of faecal samples.  

PubMed Central

Differences in social relationships among community members are often explained by differences in genetic relationships. The current techniques of DNA analysis allow explicit testing of such a hypothesis. Here, we have analysed the genetic relationships for a community of wild bonobos (Pan paniscus) using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers extracted from faecal samples. Bonobos show an opportunistic and promiscuous mating behaviour, even with mates from outside the community. Nonetheless, we find that most infants were sired by resident males and that two dominant males together attained the highest paternity success. Intriguingly, the latter males are the sons of high-ranking females, suggesting an important influence of mothers on the paternity success of their sons. The molecular data support previous inferences on female dispersal and male philopatry. We find a total of five different mitochondrial haplotypes among 15 adult females, suggesting a frequent migration of females. Moreover, for most adult and subadult males in the group we find a matching mother, while this is not the case for most females, indicating that these leave the community during adolescence. Our study demonstrates that faecal samples can be a useful source for the determination of kinship in a whole community.

Gerloff, U; Hartung, B; Fruth, B; Hohmann, G; Tautz, D

1999-01-01

117

Potential errors with rapid analysis techniques: partial duplication 21q resulting from a paternal paracentric insertion uncovered in chorionic villus sampling by fluorescence in situ hybridization.  

PubMed

We report on partial duplication 21q resulting from a paternal insertion identified during prenatal diagnosis. While performing interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (I-FISH), we were able to identify 3 signals of the LSI 21 Spectrum Orange probe with chorionic villus sampling. Using standard cytogenetic analysis, I-FISH and GTG banding, structural aberrations in 21q in the parents and in the fetus could not be reliably determined. Applying metaphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (M-FISH), we identified a recombinant chromosome 21 carrying an interstitial duplication of the Down syndrome critical region inherited from the father. Both data from our analysis and published literature recommend the use of rapid testing methods such as I-FISH and standard cytogenetic analysis in prenatal diagnosis. It became obvious that I-FISH would not detect such a particular aberration. Thus, karyotyping, I-FISH and M-FISH should be performed in all Down syndrome cases. PMID:20029221

Ehrhardt, N; Kujat, A; Faber, R; Horn, L-C; Froster, U G

2009-12-17

118

Male dominance, paternity, and relatedness in the Jamaican fruit-eating bat ( Artibeus jamaicensis )  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analysed variation at 14 nuclear microsatellite loci to assess the genetic structure, relatedness, and paternity of polygynous Jamaican fruit-eating bats. A total of 84 adults captured in two caves exhibited little genetic differentiation between caves ( F ST = 0.008). Average relatedness among adult females in 10 harem groups was very low ( R = 0.014 ± ± ±

JORGE ORTEGA; JESÚS E. MALDONADO; GERALD S. WILKINSON; HÉCTOR T. ARITA; ROBERT C. FLEISCHER

2003-01-01

119

Multiple paternity and sperm storage lead to increased genetic diversity in Anolis lizards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Question: Are multiple mating and sperm storage important in the evolution of Anolis lizards? Data description: Rates of multiple paternity in field-caught dams, timing of sperm storage from field-caught dams, sire order effects, genetic diversity of progeny, timing of sperm storage from controlled matings in the laboratory. Data are based on the use of eight microsatellite loci, natural and controlled

Ryan Calsbeek; Camille Bonneaud; Setal Prabhu; Nicholas Manoukis; Thomas B. Smith

2007-01-01

120

Inferred Paternity and Male Reproductive Success in a Killer Whale (Orcinus orca) Population.  

PubMed

We used data from 78 individuals at 26 microsatellite loci to infer parental and sibling relationships within a community of fish-eating ("resident") eastern North Pacific killer whales (Orcinus orca). Paternity analysis involving 15 mother/calf pairs and 8 potential fathers and whole-pedigree analysis of the entire sample produced consistent results. The variance in male reproductive success was greater than expected by chance and similar to that of other aquatic mammals. Although the number of confirmed paternities was small, reproductive success appeared to increase with male age and size. We found no evidence that males from outside this small population sired any of the sampled individuals. In contrast to previous results in a different population, many offspring were the result of matings within the same "pod" (long-term social group). Despite this pattern of breeding within social groups, we found no evidence of offspring produced by matings between close relatives, and the average internal relatedness of individuals was significantly less than expected if mating were random. The population's estimated effective size was <30 or about 1/3 of the current census size. Patterns of allele frequency variation were consistent with a population bottleneck. PMID:21757487

Ford, Michael J; Hanson, M Bradley; Hempelmann, Jennifer A; Ayres, Katherine L; Emmons, Candice K; Schorr, Gregory S; Baird, Robin W; Balcomb, Kenneth C; Wasser, Samuel K; Parsons, Kim M; Balcomb-Bartok, Kelly

2011-07-14

121

MICAS: a fully automated web server for microsatellite extraction and analysis from prokaryote and viral genomic sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

MICAS is a web server for extracting microsatellite information from completely sequenced prokaryote and viral genomes, or user-submitted sequences. This server provides an integrated platform for MICdb (database of prokaryote and viral microsatellites), W-SSRF (simple sequence repeat finding program) and Autoprimer (primer design software). MICAS, through dynamic HTML page generation, helps in the systematic extraction of microsatellite information from selected

Vattipally B Sreenu; Gundu Ranjitkumar; Sugavanam Swaminathan; Sasidharan Priya; Buddhaditta Bose; Mogili N Pavan; Geeta Thanu; Javaregowda Nagaraju; Hampapathalu A Nagarajaram

2003-01-01

122

Identification of Microsatellite Markers for Plasmopara viticola and Establishment of High throughput Method for SSR Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Oomycete Plasmopara viticola is the causal organism of downy mildew on grapevine (Vitis spp.). In order to set up the techniques for investigating downy mildew disease dynamics and genetic structure, co-dominant, neutral, highly reproducible and polymorphic microsatellite markers for P. viticola were developed. Five markers, two with a (TC)n repeat (loci BER and ISA), two with a (TC)n(AC)n repeat

Davide Gobbin; Ilaria Pertot; Cesare Gessler

2003-01-01

123

Attitude determination and control system simulation and analysis for low-cost micro-satellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Air Force Academy's latest satellite endeavor, FalconSAT-3, is a 50 kg microsatellite being developed by faculty and cadets, and is the Air Force Academy's first attempt at achieving three axis attitude determination and control (ADCS). FalconSAT-3 carries three payloads to conduct DoD research. The attitude requirements for FalconSAT-3 include pointing the satellite within +\\/- five degrees of ram direction,

Andrew D. Anderson; Jerry J. Sellers; Yoshi Hashida

2004-01-01

124

Attitude determination and control system simulation and analysis for low-cost micro-satellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Air Force Academy's latest satellite endeavor, FalconSAT-3, is a 50 kg microsatellite being developed by faculty and cadets, and is the Air Force Academy's first attempt at achieving three axis attitude determination and control (ADCS). FalconSAT-3 will carry three payloads to conduct DoD research. The attitude requirements for FalconSAT-3 include pointing the satellite within +\\/- five degrees of ram

Andrew D. Anderson; Jerry I. Sellers; Yoshi Hashida

2004-01-01

125

Development and application of microsatellite markers for genomic analysis of papaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya has a relatively small genome, displays high levels of phenotypic diversity, and is amenable to transformation, making\\u000a it attractive as a fruit tree model system. The high level of phenotypic diversity seen among papaya cultivars in the field\\u000a does not correlate with the low levels of genotypic polymorphism thus far elucidated. The highly mutable nature of microsatellites\\u000a or simple

Moriah Eustice; Qingyi Yu; Chun Wan Lai; Shaobin Hou; Jyothi Thimmapuram; Lei Liu; Maqsudul Alam; Paul H. Moore; Gernot G. Presting; Ray Ming

2008-01-01

126

Genome-wide analysis of microsatellite sequence in seven filamentous fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abundance of microsatellites with repeated unit lengths of 1-6 base pairs in seven fungi: Aspergillus nidulans, Coprinus cinereus, Cryptococcus neoformans (serotype A), Fusarium graminearum, Magnaporthe grisea, Neurospora crassa and Ustilago maydis were investigated on genomic scale. The results showed that each species has its specific profile for different types and\\u000a different motifs of SSR loci. Ascomycetes fungi M. grisea, N.

Cheng-Yun Li; Lin Liu; Jing Yang; Jin-Bin Li; Yuan Su; Yue Zhang; Yun-Yue Wang; You-Yong Zhu

2009-01-01

127

Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers for genetic analysis of chub mackerel ( Scomber japonicus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus, is a species of major importance to fisheries, particularly in eastern Asia. To aid in the sustainable management of this\\u000a fisheries resource, we isolated eight novel microsatellite loci from the fish and examined their polymorphisms to estimate\\u000a genetic variability. Genetic variability differed at each locus. The number of alleles ranged from 5 to 14, and observed

Hyung Kee Cha; Hye Suck An; Jung Hwa Choi; Sukyung Kang; Jung Youn Park; Kyung Kil Kim

2010-01-01

128

Analysis of microsatellite instability in gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma.  

PubMed

In Helicobacter pylori gastritis, constant antigenic stimulation triggers a sustained B-cell proliferation. Errors made during this continuous DNA replication are supposed to be corrected by the DNA mismatch repair mechanism. Failure of this mismatch repair mechanism has been described in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) and results in a replication error phenotype. Inherent to their instability during replication, microsatellites are the best markers of this replication error phenotype. We aimed to evaluate the role of defects in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) mechanism and microsatellite instability (MSI) in relation to the most frequent genetic anomaly, translocation t(11;18)(q21;q21), in gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Therefore, we examined 10 microsatellite loci (BAT25, BAT26, D5S346, D17S250, D2S123, TGFB, BAT40, D18S58, D17S787 and D18S69) for instability in 28 patients with MALT lymphomas. In addition, these tumors were also immunostained for MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2, as well as screened for the presence of t(11;18)(q21;q21) by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We found MSI in 5/28 (18%) lymphomas, with MSI occurring in both t(11;18)(q21;q21)-positive and -negative tumors. One tumor displayed high levels of instability, and, remarkably, this was the only case displaying features of a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. All microsatellite unstable lymphomas showed a loss of MSH6 expression. In conclusion, our data suggest that a MMR-defect may be involved in the development of gastric MALT lymphomas, and that a defect of MSH6 might be associated with those MSI-driven gastric lymphomas. PMID:22916837

Degroote, Annemarie; Knippenberg, Lies; Vander Borght, Sara; Spaepen, Marijke; Matthijs, Gert; Schaeffer, David F; Owen, David A; Libbrecht, Louis; Lambein, Kathleen; De Hertogh, Gert; Tousseyn, Thomas; Sagaert, Xavier

2012-09-14

129

Development of a single larva microsatellite analysis to investigate the population structure of Trichinella spiralis.  

PubMed

Trichinella spiralis is the most important etiological agent of human trichinellosis. It has a cosmopolitan distribution and is transmitted to humans mainly through the consumption of pork. In nature, transmission occurs among animals through the ingestion of an infected carcass by one or more hosts. Microsatellite markers have provided insight into how T. spiralis dispersed geographically over its evolutionary history. The objectives of the present study were to develop microsatellite markers capable of differentiating single larvae for investigating the inter- and intra-specific population structure of T. spiralis and to determine their usefulness as genetic markers to study transmission mechanisms of this zoonotic parasite. A panel of 48 larvae derived from each of 22 distinct isolates originating from the Americas, Asia and Europe, were investigated. A total of 27 alleles were detected in these samples using seven new markers. The sequences of the amplified fragments containing the microsatellites support the homology of the amplified products and validate their use for genetic population studies. We documented the first known occurrence of a genetically variable larval admixture, indicating that more than two adults gave rise to the ensuing population of this host's muscle larvae. Globally, T. spiralis was observed to harbor less genetic variation than other nematodes, a result consistent with previous assays of nuclear and mitochondrial variation. PMID:22281873

La Rosa, Giuseppe; Marucci, Gianluca; Rosenthal, Benjamin M; Pozio, Edoardo

2012-01-20

130

Paternal occupation and anencephaly  

SciTech Connect

It has been suggested that paternal occupational exposures to pesticides and solvents increase the risk of neural tube defects in offspring. With the use of Texas livebirth, fetal death, and linked livebirth-death records, the authors conducted a population-based case-control study among 1981-1986 Texas births to examine the association between paternal occupation and anencephalic births. Fathers employed in occupations associated with solvent exposure were more likely to have offspring with anencephaly (odds ratio (OR) = 2.53), with painters having the highest risk (OR = 3.43). A lesser association was found for fathers employed in occupations involving pesticide exposure (OR = 1.28). Further studies are indicated to clarify these associations.

Brender, J.D.; Suarez, L. (Texas Department of Health, Austin (USA))

1990-03-01

131

Fine-Scale Genetic Structure and Gene Dispersal in Centaurea corymbosa (Asteraceae). II. Correlated Paternity Within and Among Sibships  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fine-scale pattern of correlated paternity was characterized within a population of the narrow-endemic model plant species, Centaurea corymbosa, using microsatellites and natural progeny arrays. We used classical approaches to assess correlated mating within sibships and developed a new method based on pairwise kinship coefficients to assess correlated paternity within and among sibships in a spatio-temporal perspec- tive. We also

Olivier J. Hardy; Santiago C. Gonzalez-Martõ; Bruno Colas; Helene Freville; Agnes Mignot; Isabelle Olivieri

2004-01-01

132

Microsatellite analysis of chloroquine resistance associated alleles and neutral loci reveal genetic structure of Indian Plasmodium falciparum.  

PubMed

Efforts to control malignant malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum are hampered by the parasite's acquisition of resistance to antimalarial drugs, e.g., chloroquine. This necessitates evaluating the spread of chloroquine resistance in any malaria-endemic area. India displays highly variable malaria epidemiology and also shares porous international borders with malaria-endemic Southeast Asian countries having multi-drug resistant malaria. Malaria epidemiology in India is believed to be affected by two major factors: high genetic diversity and evolving drug resistance in P. falciparum. How transmission intensity of malaria can influence the genetic structure of chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum population in India is unknown. Here, genetic diversity within and among P. falciparum populations is analyzed with respect to their prevalence and chloroquine resistance observed in 13 different locations in India. Microsatellites developed for P. falciparum, including three putatively neutral and seven microsatellites thought to be under a hitchhiking effect due to chloroquine selection were used. Genetic hitchhiking is observed in five of seven microsatellites flanking the gene responsible for chloroquine resistance. Genetic admixture analysis and F-statistics detected genetically distinct groups in accordance with transmission intensity of different locations and the probable use of chloroquine. A large genetic break between the chloroquine-resistant parasite of the Northeast-East-Island group and Southwest group (FST=0.253, P<0.001) suggests a long period of isolation or a possibility of different origin between them. A pattern of significant isolation by distance was observed in low transmission areas (r=0.49, P=0.003, N=83, Mantel test). An unanticipated pattern of spread of hitchhiking suggests genetic structure for Indian P. falciparum population. Overall, the study suggests that transmission intensity can be an efficient driver for genetic differentiation at both neutral and adaptive loci across India. PMID:23871774

Mallick, Prashant K; Sutton, Patrick L; Singh, Ruchi; Singh, Om P; Dash, Aditya P; Singh, Ashok K; Carlton, Jane M; Bhasin, Virendra K

2013-07-17

133

Advancing paternal age and risk of autism: new evidence from a population-based study and a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced paternal age has been suggested as a risk factor for autism, but empirical evidence is mixed. This study examines whether the association between paternal age and autism in the offspring (1) persists controlling for documented autism risk factors, including family psychiatric history, perinatal conditions, infant characteristics and demographic variables; (2) may be explained by familial traits associated with the

C M Hultman; S Sandin; S Z Levine; P Lichtenstein; A Reichenberg

2011-01-01

134

Molecular and genomic characterisation of cryptic chromosomal alterations leading to paternal duplication of the 11p15.5 Beckwith-Wiedemann region  

PubMed Central

Background Beckwith?Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is an overgrowth disorder with increased risk of paediatric tumours. The aetiology involves epigenetic and genetic alterations affecting the 11p15 region, methylation of the differentially methylated DMR2 region being the most common defect, while less frequent aetiologies include mosaic paternal 11p uniparental disomy (11patUPD), maternally inherited mutations of the CDKN1C gene, and hypermethylation of DMR1. A few patients have cytogenetic abnormalities involving 11p15.5. Methods Screening of 70 trios of BWS probands for 11p mosaic paternal UPD and for cryptic cytogenetic rearrangements using microsatellite segregation analysis identified a profile compatible with paternal 11p15 duplication in two patients. Results Fluorescence in situ hybridisation analysis revealed in one case the unbalanced translocation der(21)t(11;21)(p15.4;q22.3) originated from missegregation of a cryptic paternal balanced translocation. The second patient, trisomic for D11S1318, carried a small de novo dup(11)(p15.5p15.5), resulting from unequal recombination at paternal meiosis I. The duplicated region involves only IC1 and spares IC2/LIT1, as shown by fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) mapping of the proximal duplication breakpoint within the amino?terminal part of KvLQT1. Conclusions An additional patient with Wolf?Hirschorn syndrome was shown by FISH studies to carry a der(4)t(4;11)(p16.3;p15.4), contributed by a balanced translocation father. Interestingly, refined breakpoint mapping on 11p and the critical regions on the partner 21q and 4p chromosomal regions suggested that both translocations affecting 11p15.4 are mediated by segmental duplications. These findings of chromosomal rearrangements affecting 11p15.5–15.4 provide a tool to further dissect the genomics of the BWS region and the pathogenesis of this imprinting disorder.

Russo, S; Finelli, P; Recalcati, M P; Ferraiuolo, S; Cogliati, F; Bernardina, B Dalla; Tibiletti, M G; Agosti, M; Sala, M; Bonati, M T; Larizza, L

2006-01-01

135

Applying microsatellite multiplex PCR analysis (MMPA) for determining allele copy-number status and percentage of normal cells within tumors.  

PubMed

The study of somatic genetic alterations in tumors contributes to the understanding and management of cancer. Genetic alterations, such us copy number or copy neutral changes, generate allelic imbalances (AIs) that can be determined using polymorphic markers. Here we report the development of a simple set of calculations for analyzing microsatellite multiplex PCR data from control-tumor pairs that allows us to obtain accurate information not only regarding the AI status of tumors, but also the percentage of tumor-infiltrating normal cells, the locus copy-number status and the mechanism involved in AI. We validated this new approach by re-analyzing a set of Neurofibromatosis type 1-associated dermal neurofibromas and comparing newly generated data with results obtained for the same tumors in a previous study using MLPA, Paralog Ratio Analysis and SNP-array techniques.Microsatellite multiplex PCR analysis (MMPA) should be particularly useful for analyzing specific regions of the genome containing tumor suppressor genes and also for determining the percentage of infiltrating normal cells within tumors allowing them to be sorted before they are analyzed by more expensive techniques. PMID:22916147

Garcia-Linares, Carles; Mercadé, Jaume; Gel, Bernat; Biayna, Josep; Terribas, Ernest; Lázaro, Conxi; Serra, Eduard

2012-08-15

136

Applying Microsatellite Multiplex PCR Analysis (MMPA) for Determining Allele Copy-Number Status and Percentage of Normal Cells within Tumors  

PubMed Central

The study of somatic genetic alterations in tumors contributes to the understanding and management of cancer. Genetic alterations, such us copy number or copy neutral changes, generate allelic imbalances (AIs) that can be determined using polymorphic markers. Here we report the development of a simple set of calculations for analyzing microsatellite multiplex PCR data from control-tumor pairs that allows us to obtain accurate information not only regarding the AI status of tumors, but also the percentage of tumor-infiltrating normal cells, the locus copy-number status and the mechanism involved in AI. We validated this new approach by re-analyzing a set of Neurofibromatosis type 1-associated dermal neurofibromas and comparing newly generated data with results obtained for the same tumors in a previous study using MLPA, Paralog Ratio Analysis and SNP-array techniques. Microsatellite multiplex PCR analysis (MMPA) should be particularly useful for analyzing specific regions of the genome containing tumor suppressor genes and also for determining the percentage of infiltrating normal cells within tumors allowing them to be sorted before they are analyzed by more expensive techniques.

Garcia-Linares, Carles; Mercade, Jaume; Gel, Bernat; Biayna, Josep; Terribas, Ernest; Lazaro, Conxi; Serra, Eduard

2012-01-01

137

[Genotyping of Vaginal Candida glabrata Isolates Using Microsatellite Marker Analysis and DNA Sequencing to Identify Mutations Associated with Antifungal Resistance].  

PubMed

Vulvovaginal candidosis is the second most common cause of vaginitis (17-39%) after bacterial vaginosis (22-50%). Since the diagnosis of vulvovaginal candidosis mainly depends on clinical findings without mycologic confirmatory tests and treated empirically, the actual incidence rate of vulvovaginal candidosis is unknown. Approximately 70-90% of vulvovaginal candidosis cases are caused by Candida albicans, however the increasing incidence of C.glabrata infections and its reduced susceptibility to azole drug therapy have generated increasing attention. The epidemiology and population structure of vulvovaginal candidosis due to C.glabrata are poorly characterized. This study was aimed to genotype the C.glabrata strains isolated from vaginal samples in Cukurova region, Turkey by microsatellite markers, to investigate the antifungal susceptibility profiles of the strains and to determine the molecular mechanisms leading to phenotypical azole resistance. A total of 34 unrelated vaginal C.glabrata strains isolated from patients with acute (n= 11) and recurrent (n= 14) vulvovaginal candidosis, control group (n= 9) without vaginitis symptoms, and a reference strain of C.glabrata CBS 138 (ATCC 2001) were included in the study. These isolates were genotyped using multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis of three microsatellite markers (RPM2, MTI, and Cg6). Analysis of microsatellite markers was performed by fragment size determination of RPM2, MTI, and Cg6 PCR products through capillary electrophoresis. For each of the evaluated strains, DNA sequence analysis was performed for one gene (CgERG11) and four loci (CgPDR1, NTM1, TRP1, and URA3) to detect mutations possibly associated with antifungal resistance in each strain. In vitro susceptibility profiles of the strains to 13 antifungals and boric acid were determined according to CLSI document M27-A3 to investigate possible relationships between detected mutations and phenotypic resistance. C.glabrata CBS 138 strain was found to be susceptible to all the antifungals tested, while one of (%2.9) 34 vaginal C.glabrata isolates was found to be dose-dependent susceptible to fluconazole, 13 (38.2%) to itraconazole and 3 (8.8%) to voriconazole. No resistant strain were detected in the study population. Only three isolates were found to be resistant to clotrimazole (8.8%), however no relationship was identified between the genotypes and phenotypic resistance (p> 0.05). Thirteen genotypes were detected by microsatellite marker analysis, with high discrimination power (DP= 0.877). As a result, microsatellite marker analysis was validated as a rapid, reliable method for genotyping C.glabrata strains with good, but not optimal discriminatory power. Further studies examining larger numbers of isolates are needed to verify possible relationships between mutations and phenotypic resistance. PMID:23390908

Dö?en, Aylin; Durukan, Hüseyin; Güzel, Ahmet Bar??; Oksüz, Zehra; Kaplan, Engin; Serin, Mehmet Sami; Serin, Ay?e; Emekda?, Gürol; Aslan, Gönül; Tezcan, Seda; Kalkanc?, Ay?e; Ilkit, Macit

2013-01-01

138

Linkage disequilibrium analysis of D12S391 and vWA in U.S. population and paternity samples.  

PubMed

Recently, the European Network of Forensic Science Institutes voted to adopt five additional STR loci (D12S391, D1S1656, D2S441, D10S1248, and D22S1045) to their existing European Standard Set of seven STRs (TH01, vWA, FGA, D8S1179, D18S51, D21S11, and D3S1358). The D12S391 and vWA loci are located 6.3megabases (Mb) apart on chromosome 12. Ideally for use in forensic analyses, genetic markers on the same chromosome should be more than 50Mb in physical distance in order to ensure full recombination and thus independent inheritance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if the closely located D12S391 and vWA loci are independent and, consequently, if these loci can be included in the product rule calculation for forensic and kinship analyses. Departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and linkage disequilibrium between the D12S391 and vWA loci were tested using n=654 unrelated U.S. African American, Caucasian, and Hispanic samples, and n=764 father/son paternity samples. In the unrelated U.S. population samples, no significant departures from HWE were detected for D12S391 or vWA. No significant evidence of linkage disequilibrium was observed between the loci in the population samples. However, significant linkage disequilibrium was detected in U.S. African American, Caucasian, and Asian father/son samples with phased genotypes. No significant linkage disequilibrium was detected for U.S. Hispanic paternity samples. The use of phased father/son pairs allowed for robust detection of linkage disequilibrium between D12S391 and vWA. In unrelated population samples, linkage disequilibrium is present but more difficult to detect due to the large number of possible haplotype combinations and unknown allelic phase. For casework analyses that involve unrelated or related individuals, the single-locus genotype probabilities for D12S391 and vWA should not be multiplied to determine the match probability of an autosomal STR profile. Since the D12S391 and vWA loci are not independent, it is recommended that the observed combination of alleles at D12S391 and vWA should be treated as a non-independent diplotype for profile probability calculations. The observed haplotype frequencies for U.S. African American, Caucasian, Hispanic, and Asian populations are provided for match probability calculations. PMID:21067983

O'Connor, Kristen Lewis; Hill, Carolyn R; Vallone, Peter M; Butler, John M

2010-11-09

139

Meta-analysis of telomere length in 19?713 subjects reveals high heritability, stronger maternal inheritance and a paternal age effect.  

PubMed

Telomere length (TL) has been associated with aging and mortality, but individual differences are also influenced by genetic factors, with previous studies reporting heritability estimates ranging from 34 to 82%. Here we investigate the heritability, mode of inheritance and the influence of parental age at birth on TL in six large, independent cohort studies with a total of 19?713 participants. The meta-analysis estimate of TL heritability was 0.70 (95% CI 0.64-0.76) and is based on a pattern of results that is highly similar for twins and other family members. We observed a stronger mother-offspring (r=0.42; P-value=3.60 × 10(-61)) than father-offspring correlation (r=0.33; P-value=7.01 × 10(-5)), and a significant positive association with paternal age at offspring birth (?=0.005; P-value=7.01 × 10(-5)). Interestingly, a significant and quite substantial correlation in TL between spouses (r=0.25; P-value=2.82 × 10(-30)) was seen, which appeared stronger in older spouse pairs (mean age ?55 years; r=0.31; P-value=4.27 × 10(-23)) than in younger pairs (mean age<55 years; r=0.20; P-value=3.24 × 10(-10)). In summary, we find a high and very consistent heritability estimate for TL, evidence for a maternal inheritance component and a positive association with paternal age. PMID:23321625

Broer, Linda; Codd, Veryan; Nyholt, Dale R; Deelen, Joris; Mangino, Massimo; Willemsen, Gonneke; Albrecht, Eva; Amin, Najaf; Beekman, Marian; de Geus, Eco J C; Henders, Anjali; Nelson, Christopher P; Steves, Claire J; Wright, Margie J; de Craen, Anton J M; Isaacs, Aaron; Matthews, Mary; Moayyeri, Alireza; Montgomery, Grant W; Oostra, Ben A; Vink, Jacqueline M; Spector, Tim D; Slagboom, P Eline; Martin, Nicholas G; Samani, Nilesh J; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Boomsma, Dorret I

2013-01-16

140

Demographic estimates from Y chromosome microsatellite polymorphisms: Analysis of a worldwide sample  

PubMed Central

Polymorphisms in microsatellites on the human Y chromosome have been used to estimate important demographic parameters of human history. We compare two coalescent-based statistical methods that give estimates for a number of demographic parameters using the seven Y chromosome polymorphisms in the HGDP-CEPH Cell Line Panel, a collection of samples from 52 worldwide populations. The estimates for the time to the most recent common ancestor vary according to the method used and the assumptions about the prior distributions of model parameters, but are generally consistent with other global Y chromosome studies. We explore the sensitivity of these results to assumptions about the prior distributions and the evolutionary models themselves.

2004-01-01

141

An intelligent maintenance system for earth-based failure analysis and self-repairing of microsatellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a recently developed maintenance system for a microsatellite, which is being constructed and it is expected to be launched shortly. The autonomous maintenance system is going to be installed on a personal computer located in an earth-based control room. As this place will most likely be staffed 24 h a day, 7 days a week, there is a good deal of interest in the use of increased automation in maintenance tasks in order to improve the efficiency with which personnel are used and as a way to reduce costs. The system described here is a good example of emerging automation technology that is intended to replace human operators responsible for system maintenance. The structure of the automation system is based upon an architecture of collaborative intelligent agents designed to detect failure in any of the microsatellites components. The multiagent system consists of a set of different agents devoted to failure detection, prevention and correction. Regarding correction, specific agents for each constitutive part of the microsatellite have been developed that take over the necessary actions to solve any given problem in its operation. The detection agent decides which correction agent control should be transferred, based upon inference obtained from its knowledge base made up of rules for testing and diagnosis. Actions for correction may imply the use of redundant systems, which can reconfigure themselves to avoid defective circuits, among other repairing strategies. The prevention agent uses predictive models that have been developed for each significant failure mode. Statistical models are also used by this agent to determine the shape of the distribution of times to failure. The prevention agent selects the corresponding correction agent to which control is going to be transferred and this agent carries out the necessary actions to prevent the system failure. The overall intelligent system employs a blackboard architecture for communication and collaboration among agents. Several simulations with specially designed test cases used to evaluate the system performance suggest that in order for maintenance automation to be effective, it must be designed in close relationship with human operators who will occasionally troubleshoot, maintain and repair the microsatellite from earth. This human-centered approach of the design implies assigning particular importance to the effectiveness achieved in the process of knowledge acquisition when the intelligent agents are being designed.

Sierra, Enrique A.; Quiroga, Juan J.; Fernández, Roberto; Monte, Gustavo E.

2004-07-01

142

Population structure of the predatory mite Neoseiulus womersleyi in a tea field based on an analysis of microsatellite DNA markers  

PubMed Central

The predatory mite Neoseiulus womersleyi (Schicha) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is an important natural enemy of the Kanzawa spider mite, Tetranychus kanzawaki Kishida (Acari: Tetranychidae), in tea fields. Attraction and preservation of natural enemies by habitat management to reduce the need for acaricide sprays is thought to enhance the activity of N. womersleyi. To better conserve N. womersleyi in the field, however, it is essential to elucidate the population genetic structure of this species. To this end, we developed ten microsatellite DNA markers for N. womersleyi. We then evaluated population structure of N. womersleyi collected from a tea field, where Mexican sunflower, Tithonia rotundifolia (Mill.), was planted to preserve N. womersleyi. Seventy-seven adult females were collected from four sites within 200 m. The fixation indexes FST among subpopulations were not significantly different. The kinship coefficients between individuals did not differ significantly within a site as a function of the sampling dates, but the coefficients gradually decreased with increasing distance. Bayesian clustering analysis revealed that the population consisted of three genetic clusters, and that subpopulations within 100 m, including those collected on T. rotundifolia, were genetically similar to each other. Given the previously observed population dynamics of N. womersleyi, it appears that the area inhabited by a given cluster of the mite did not exceed 100 m. The estimation of population structure using microsatellite markers will provide valuable information in conservation biological control.

Todokoro, Yasuhiro; Higaki, Tomomi

2010-01-01

143

Genome-wide survey and analysis of microsatellites in nematodes, with a focus on the plant-parasitic species Meloidogyne incognita  

PubMed Central

Background Microsatellites are the most popular source of molecular markers for studying population genetic variation in eukaryotes. However, few data are currently available about their genomic distribution and abundance across the phylum Nematoda. The recent completion of the genomes of several nematode species, including Meloidogyne incognita, a major agricultural pest worldwide, now opens the way for a comparative survey and analysis of microsatellites in these organisms. Results Using MsatFinder, the total numbers of 1-6 bp perfect microsatellites detected in the complete genomes of five nematode species (Brugia malayi, Caenorhabditis elegans, M. hapla, M. incognita, Pristionchus pacificus) ranged from 2,842 to 61,547, and covered from 0.09 to 1.20% of the nematode genomes. Under our search criteria, the most common repeat motifs for each length class varied according to the different nematode species considered, with no obvious relation to the AT-richness of their genomes. Overall, (AT)n, (AG)n and (CT)n were the three most frequent dinucleotide microsatellite motifs found in the five genomes considered. Except for two motifs in P. pacificus, all the most frequent trinucleotide motifs were AT-rich, with (AAT)n and (ATT)n being the only common to the five nematode species. A particular attention was paid to the microsatellite content of the plant-parasitic species M. incognita. In this species, a repertoire of 4,880 microsatellite loci was identified, from which 2,183 appeared suitable to design markers for population genetic studies. Interestingly, 1,094 microsatellites were identified in 801 predicted protein-coding regions, 99% of them being trinucleotides. When compared against the InterPro domain database, 497 of these CDS were successfully annotated, and further assigned to Gene Ontology terms. Conclusions Contrasted patterns of microsatellite abundance and diversity were characterized in five nematode genomes, even in the case of two closely related Meloidogyne species. 2,245 di- to hexanucleotide loci were identified in the genome of M. incognita, providing adequate material for the future development of a wide range of microsatellite markers in this major plant parasite.

2010-01-01

144

Multiple paternity in free-living root voles (Microtus oeconomus).  

PubMed

We used 10 microsatellite loci to determine the mating system and male reproductive success in a natural population of the root vole (Microtus oeconomus). By genotyping 21 females and their 111 offspring (5.28+/-0.27 S.E. pups per female), we found evidence for multiple paternity in 38% of the litters sired by two or three males. Paternity was not significantly skewed away from the null expectation of equal proportions of offspring sired in any of the multiple-sired litters, and the most successful male fathered between 40% and 60% of the pups in a litter. The results indicate that promiscuity is a common mode of reproduction, consistent with the previous classification of the mating system based on the spatial structure of the root vole population. PMID:19482071

Borkowska, Anetta; Borowski, Zbigniew; Krysiuk, Kamil

2009-05-29

145

A new source of polymorphic DNA markers for sperm typing: Analysis of microsatellite repeats in single cells  

SciTech Connect

The authors show that dinucleotide and tetranucleotide repeat polymorphisms can be analyzed in single cells without using radioactivity or denaturing gels. This provides a new source of DNA polymorphisms for genetic mapping by sperm typing. The recombination fraction between two CA repeat polymorphisms was determined after whole genome amplification of single sperm, followed by typing of two different aliquots, one aliquot for each polymorphic locus. Single-cell analysis of microsatellites may also be valuable both for preimplantation genetic disease diagnosis based on single-blastomere or polar-body analysis and for the typing of forensic or ancient DNA samples containing very small amounts of nucleic acid. 26 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Hubert, R.; Schmitt, K.; Zhang, L.; Arnheim, N. (Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)); Weber, J.L. (Marshfield Medical Research Foundation, WI (United States))

1992-11-01

146

Dinucleotide microsatellite repeats are essential for the diagnosis of microsatellite instability in colorectal cancer in Asian patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract AIM:The molecular diagnosis of microsatellite instability (MSI) in colorectal cancer (CRC) is based on the analysis of five microsatellite markers. Among them, the two mononu- cleotide microsatellite repeats are considered more,infor- mative for this analysis than the three dinucleotide ones. The aim of this study is to establish the most relevant markers for MSI analysis

Manuel Salto-Tellez; Soo-Yong Tan; Lily-Lily Chiu; Evelyn Siew-Chuan Koay

2005-01-01

147

[Microsatellite analysis of genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship of nine species of grouper in genus Epinephelus].  

PubMed

Thirteen microsatellite markers of Epinephelus awoara previously discovered by our lab were selected to analyze the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship of nine species of grouper (E. awoara, E. merra, E. fario, E. fasciatus, E. lanceolatus, E. akaara, E. septemfasciatus, E. coioides and E. fuscoguttatus) from South China Sea. The results showed that the number of total alleles of these 13 microsatellite loci was 84 in these fishes, the mean number of alleles ranged from 2.69 to 5.38, mean polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.1976 to 0.4267, mean observed heterozygosity (Ho) from 0.4615 to 0.6239, mean expected heterozygosity (He) from 0.3510 to 0.4754 and mean Hardy-Weinberg departure value (D) from 0.1097 to 0.2836, respectively. All of these indicated that genetic diversity of the nine species of grouper was at a medium level. Two NJ dendrograms showed that E. coioides, E. fuscoguttatus and E. lanceolatus were grouped together, while E. awoara, E. akaara and E. septemfasciatus were in a second group, and E. merra, E. fasciatus and E. fario were in a third group which had a relatively closed relationship with the second group. The dendrograms could also support a conclusion that Promicrops lanceolatus (E. lanceolatus) should be included in genus Epinephelus. PMID:17646150

Dong, Qiu-Fen; Liu, Chu-Wu; Guo, Yu-Song; Liu, Li; Wu, Yong

2007-07-01

148

The analysis of genetic diversity and differentiation of six Chinese cattle populations using microsatellite markers.  

PubMed

A total of 321 individuals from six cattle populations of four species in a bovine subfamily in China were studied using 12 pairs of microsatellite markers. The genetic diversities within and between populations were calculated. The phylogenetic trees were constructed by (delta mu)(2) and DA distances, and the divergence times between populations were estimated by (delta mu)(2). Altogether, 144 microsatellite alleles were detected including 24 private alleles and nine shared alleles. Chinese Holstein had the largest number of private alleles (10), whereas, Bohai black and Buffalo had the smallest number of private alleles (2). Chinese Holstein showed the highest genetic variability. Its observed number of alleles (Na), mean effective number of alleles (MNA), and mean heterozygosity (He) were 7.7500, 4.9722, and 0.7719, respectively, whereas, the Buffalo and Yak showed low genetic variability. In the phylogenetic trees, Luxi and Holstein grouped first, followed by Bohai and Minnan. Yak branched next and buffalo emerged as the most divergent population from other cattle populations. Luxi and Bohai were estimated to have diverged 0.039-0.105 million years ago (MYA), however, buffalo and Holstein diverged 0.501-1.337 MYA. The divergence time of Yak versus Minnan, Holstein and buffalo was 0.136-0.363, 0.273-0.729, and 0.326-0.600 MYA, respectively. PMID:18222406

Mao, Yongjiang; Chang, Hong; Yang, Zhangping; Zhang, Liu; Xu, Ming; Chang, Guobin; Sun, Wei; Song, Guangming; Ji, Dejun

2008-01-01

149

Fatal fetal paternalism.  

PubMed

Heuser and colleagues' survey of obstetricians provides a valuable insight into the current management of severe fetal anomalies in the United States. Their survey reveals two striking features - that counselling for these anomalies is far from neutral, and that there is significant variability between clinicians in their approach to management. In this commentary I outline the reasons to be concerned about both of these. Directiveness in counselling arguably represents a form of paternalism, and the evident variability in practice is likely the result of physician personal values. However, Heuser's survey may, by shining a light on practice, provide an important step towards a more consistent approach. PMID:22375079

Wilkinson, Dominic

2012-02-28

150

Blood Group ABO Genotyping in Paternity Testing  

PubMed Central

Background The ABO blood groups result from DNA sequence variations, predominantly single nucleotide and insertion/deletion polymorphisms (SNPs and indels), in the ABO gene encoding a glycosyltransferase. The ABO blood groups A1, A2, B and O predominantly result from the wild type allele A1 and the major gene variants that are characterized by four diallelic markers (261G>del, 802G>A, 803G>C, 1061C>del). Here, we were interested to evaluate the impact of ABO genotyping compared to ABO phenotyping in paternity testing. Methods The major ABO alleles were determined by PCR amplification with sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) in a representative sample of 1,335 blood donors. The genotypes were compared to the ABO blood groups registered in the blood donor files. Then, the ABO phenotypes and genotypes were determined in 95 paternity trio cases that have been investigated by 12 short tandem repeat (STR) markers before. We compared statistical parameters (PL, paternity likelihood; PE, power of exclusion) of both blood grouping approaches. Results The prevalence of the major ABO alleles and genotypes corresponded to the expected occurrence of ABO blood groups in a Caucasian population. The low resolution genotyping of 4 diallelic markers revealed a correct genotype-phenotype correlation in 1,331 of 1,335 samples (99.7%). In 60 paternity trios with confirmed paternity of the alleged father based on STR analysis both PL and PE of the ABO genotype was significantly higher than of the ABO phenotype. In 12 of 35 exclusion cases (34.3%) the ABO genotype also excluded the alleged father, whereas the ABO phenotype excluded the alleged father only in 7 cases (20%). Conclusion In paternity testing ABO genotyping is superior to ABO phenotyping with regard to PL and PE, however, ABO genotyping is not sufficient for valid paternity testing. Due to the much lower mutation rate compared to STR markers, blood group SNPs in addition to anonymous SNPs could be considered for future kinship analysis and genetic identity testing.

Bugert, Peter; Rink, Gabriele; Kemp, Katharina; Kluter, Harald

2012-01-01

151

Generation and analysis of ESTs from the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica Gmelin and identification of microsatellite and SNP markers  

PubMed Central

Background The eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin 1791), is an economically important species cultured in many areas in North America. It is also ecologically important because of the impact of its filter feeding behaviour on water quality. Populations of C. virginica have been threatened by overfishing, habitat degradation, and diseases. Through genome research, strategies are being developed to reverse its population decline. However, large-scale expressed sequence tag (EST) resources have been lacking for this species. Efficient generation of EST resources from this species has been hindered by a high redundancy of transcripts. The objectives of this study were to construct a normalized cDNA library for efficient EST analysis, to generate thousands of ESTs, and to analyze the ESTs for microsatellites and potential single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Results A normalized and subtracted C. virginica cDNA library was constructed from pooled RNA isolated from hemocytes, mantle, gill, gonad and digestive tract, muscle, and a whole juvenile oyster. A total of 6,528 clones were sequenced from this library generating 5,542 high-quality EST sequences. Cluster analysis indicated the presence of 635 contigs and 4,053 singletons, generating a total of 4,688 unique sequences. About 46% (2,174) of the unique ESTs had significant hits (E-value ? 1e-05) to the non-redundant protein database; 1,104 of which were annotated using Gene Ontology (GO) terms. A total of 35 microsatellites were identified from the ESTs, with 18 having sufficient flanking sequences for primer design. A total of 6,533 putative SNPs were also identified using all existing and the newly generated EST resources of the eastern oysters. Conclusion A high quality normalized cDNA library was constructed. A total of 5,542 ESTs were generated representing 4,688 unique sequences. Putative microsatellite and SNP markers were identified. These genome resources provide the material basis for future microarray development, marker validation, and genetic linkage and QTL analysis.

Quilang, Jonas; Wang, Shaolin; Li, Ping; Abernathy, Jason; Peatman, Eric; Wang, Yongping; Wang, Lingling; Shi, Yaohua; Wallace, Richard; Guo, Ximing; Liu, Zhanjiang

2007-01-01

152

Multiyear multiple paternity and mate fidelity in the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis.  

PubMed

We examined multiple paternity during eight breeding events within a 10-year period (1995-2005) for a total of 114 wild American alligator nests in Rockefeller Wildlife Refuge in south-west Louisiana. Our goals included examining (i) within population variation in multiple paternity among years, (ii) variation in multiple paternity in individual females and (iii) the potential for mate fidelity. To accomplish this, in the current study, eggs were sampled from 92 nests over 6 years and analysed along with 22 nests from a previous 2-year study. Genotypes at five microsatellite loci were generated for 1802 alligator hatchlings. Multiple paternity was found in 51% of clutches and paternal contributions to these clutches were highly skewed. Rates of multiple paternity varied widely among years and were consistently higher in the current study than previously reported for the same population. Larger females have larger clutches, but are not more likely to have multiply sired nests. However, small females are unlikely to have clutches with more than two sires. For 10 females, nests from multiple years were examined. Seven (70%) of these females exhibited long-term mate fidelity, with one female mating with the same male in 1997, 2002 and 2005. Five females exhibiting partial mate fidelity (71%) had at least one multiple paternity nest and thus mated with the same male, but not exclusively. These patterns of mate fidelity suggest a potential role for mate choice in alligators. PMID:19804377

Lance, S L; Tuberville, T D; Dueck, L; Holz-Schietinger, C; Trosclair, P L; Elsey, R M; Glenn, T C

2009-10-05

153

Microsatellite loci for population and parentage analysis in the Amazon River dolphin (Inia geoffrensis de Blainville, 1817).  

PubMed

We developed specific primers for microsatellite DNA regions for the Amazon River dolphin or boto Inia geoffrensis, for use in population and conservation genetic studies. We also tested their transferability for two other species, Pontoporia blainvillei (sister taxon of I. geoffrensis) and Sotalia guianensis. A total of 12 microsatellite loci were polymorphic for the boto. An additional 25 microsatellite loci previously isolated from other cetacean species were also tested in the boto. The 26 polymorphic microsatellite loci indicate they will be excellent markers for studies of population structure and kinship relations of the boto. PMID:21564703

Gravena, Waleska; Hrbek, Tomas; DA Silva, Vera M S; Astolfi-Filho, Spartaco; Farias, Izeni P

2009-01-31

154

MICAS: a fully automated web server for microsatellite extraction and analysis from prokaryote and viral genomic sequences.  

PubMed

MICAS is a web server for extracting microsatellite information from completely sequenced prokaryote and viral genomes, or user-submitted sequences. This server provides an integrated platform for MICdb (database of prokaryote and viral microsatellites), W-SSRF (simple sequence repeat finding program) and Autoprimer (primer design software). MICAS, through dynamic HTML page generation, helps in the systematic extraction of microsatellite information from selected genomes hosted on MICdb or from user-submitted sequences. Further, it assists in the design of primers with the help of Autoprimer, for sequences containing selected microsatellite tracts. PMID:15130803

Sreenu, Vattipally B; Ranjitkumar, Gundu; Swaminathan, Sugavanam; Priya, Sasidharan; Bose, Buddhaditta; Pavan, Mogili N; Thanu, Geeta; Nagaraju, Javaregowda; Nagarajaram, Hampapathalu A

2003-01-01

155

Genealogical inference from microsatellite data.  

PubMed Central

Ease and accuracy of typing, together with high levels of polymorphism and widespread distribution in the genome, make microsatellite (or short tandem repeat) loci an attractive potential source of information about both population histories and evolutionary processes. However, microsatellite data are difficult to interpret, in particular because of the frequency of back-mutations. Stochastic models for the underlying genetic processes can be specified, but in the past they have been too complicated for direct analysis. Recent developments in stochastic simulation methodology now allow direct inference about both historical events, such as genealogical coalescence times, and evolutionary parameters, such as mutation rates. A feature of the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm that we propose here is that the likelihood computations are simplified by treating the (unknown) ancestral allelic states as auxiliary parameters. We illustrate the algorithm by analyzing microsatellite samples simulated under the model. Our results suggest that a single microsatellite usually does not provide enough information for useful inferences, but that several completely linked microsatellites can be informative about some aspects of genealogical history and evolutionary processes. We also reanalyze data from a previously published human Y chromosome microsatellite study, finding evidence for an effective population size for human Y chromosomes in the low thousands and a recent time since their most recent common ancestor: the 95% interval runs from approximately 15, 000 to 130,000 years, with most likely values around 30,000 years.

Wilson, I J; Balding, D J

1998-01-01

156

Multiplex automated analysis of microsatellite loci for linkage analysis of the entire human genome  

SciTech Connect

We are evaluating 29 panels of fluorescently labeled markers located at approximately 10 cM intervals. Each chromosome is covered at this marker density in 1-4 panels (11-17 loci/panel). Individual markers are labeled with 1 of 3 different fluorescent dyes, combined after PCR and run in a single gel lane. Genotypes are obtained for each locus using Applied Biosystems automated DNA sequencers and GENESCAN analysis and Genotyper allele scoring software. These programs automate the identification of alleles by distinguishing major peaks from PCR artifacts and facilitate export of data in a format suitable for standard genetic analysis programs. To verify the reported genetic relationships among individuals involved in gene mapping studies, we developed software to determine the number of alleles shared among individuals within a family. We use these statistics to distinguish full and half sibs and parent-child relations from unrelated individuals. Finally, we are developing a database using Fourth Dimension software so that the tremendous amounts of data generated can be processed efficiently in an integrated suite of specialized computer programs for linkage/association studies.

Freas-Lutz, D.L.; Walczak, C.A.; Gillanders, E.M. [NIH, NIDR, MEDIB, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

157

Correlation analysis of economic traits in Liaoning new breed of cashmere goats using microsatellite DNA markers.  

PubMed

The economic traits of Liaoning new breed of cashmere goats, a special Chinese genetic resource, were analyzed in 150 animals by typing 11 microsatellite loci. The association between three economic traits (body weight, cashmere yield and fineness) in this new breed of goats and the marker genotypes were analyzed. The results show that: AA and BC at LSCV13, DE at IDVGA64 and BB at BMS2782 were favorable genotypes for body weight. AB at LSCV13, AD and BE at CSSM11, BD and CC at IDVGA64, BC and DE at BMS2782 were favorable genotypes for cashmere yield. AA at CSSM11, BC and DE at IDVGA64, CD at BMS2782 were favorable genotypes for cashmere fineness. PMID:16553211

Jin, Mei; Guo, Chun-Li; Hu, Jing-Hui; Gao, Wen-Bo; Wang, Wei

2006-03-01

158

Comparative analysis of the within-population genetic structure in wild cherry (Prunus avium L.) at the self-incompatibility locus and nuclear microsatellites.  

PubMed

Gametophytic self-incompatibility (SI) systems in plants exhibit high polymorphism at the SI controlling S-locus because individuals with rare alleles have a higher probability to successfully pollinate other plants than individuals with more frequent alleles. This process, referred to as frequency-dependent selection, is expected to shape number, frequency distribution, and spatial distribution of self-incompatibility alleles in natural populations. We investigated the genetic diversity and the spatial genetic structure within a Prunus avium population at two contrasting gene loci: nuclear microsatellites and the S-locus. The S-locus revealed a higher diversity (15 alleles) than the eight microsatellites (4-12 alleles). Although the frequency distribution of S-alleles differed significantly from the expected equal distribution, the S-locus showed a higher evenness than the microsatellites (Shannon's evenness index for the S-locus: E = 0.91; for the microsatellites: E = 0.48-0.83). Also, highly significant deviations from neutrality were found for the S-locus whereas only minor deviations were found for two of eight microsatellites. A comparison of the frequency distribution of S-alleles in three age-cohorts revealed no significant differences, suggesting that different levels of selection acting on the S-locus or on S-linked sites might also affect the distribution and dynamics of S-alleles. Autocorrelation analysis revealed a weak but significant spatial genetic structure for the multilocus average of the microsatellites and for the S-locus, but could not ascertain differences in the extent of spatial genetic structure between these locus types. An indirect estimate of gene dispersal, which was obtained to explain this spatial genetic pattern, indicated high levels of gene dispersal within our population (sigma(g) = 106 m). This high gene dispersal, which may be partly due to the self-incompatibility system itself, aids the effective gene flow of the microsatellites, thereby decreasing the contrast between the neutral microsatellites and the S-locus. PMID:16968267

Schueler, Silvio; Tusch, Alexandra; Scholz, Florian

2006-10-01

159

Molecular tracking of mountain lions in the Yosemite Valley region in California: genetic analysis using microsatellites and faecal DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve microsatellite loci were characterized in California mountain lions ( Puma concolor ) and sufficient polymorphism was found to uniquely genotype 62 animals sampled at necropsy. Microsatellite genotypes obtained using mountain lion faecal DNA matched those from muscle for all of 15 individuals examined. DNA from potential prey species and animals whose faeces could be misidentified as mountain lion faeces

H. B. Ernest; M. C. T. Penedo; B. P. May; M. SYVANENand; W. M. Boyce

2000-01-01

160

Prenatal paternal depression.  

PubMed

Prenatal depressive symptoms, anxiety, anger and daily hassles were investigated in 156 depressed and non-depressed pregnant women and their depressed and non-depressed partners (fathers-to-be). Depressed versus non-depressed fathers had higher depression, anxiety and daily hassles scores. Although the pregnant women in general had lower anxiety, anger and daily hassles scores than the men, the scores on the measures for depressed fathers and depressed mothers did not differ. Paternal depression appeared to have less effect than maternal depression on their partners' scores. However, the similarity between the scores of depressed mothers and depressed fathers highlights the importance of screening for depression in fathers-to-be as well as mothers-to-be during pregnancy. PMID:17138311

Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Figueiredo, Barbara; Deeds, Osvelia; Contogeorgos, Jennifer; Ascencio, Angela

2006-11-13

161

Prenatal Paternal Depression  

PubMed Central

Prenatal depressive symptoms, anxiety, anger and daily hassles were investigated in 156 depressed and non-depressed pregnant women and their depressed and non-depressed partners (fathers-to-be). Depressed versus non-depressed fathers had higher depression, anxiety and daily hassles scores. Although the pregnant women in general had lower anxiety, anger and daily hassles scores than the men, the scores on the measures for depressed fathers and depressed mothers did not differ. Paternal depression appeared to have less effect than maternal depression on their partners’ scores. However, the similarity between the scores of depressed mothers and depressed fathers highlights the importance of screening for depression in fathers-to-be as well as mothers-to-be as well as during pregnancy.

Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Figueiredo, Barbara; Deeds, Osvelia; Contogeorgos, Jennifer; Ascencio, Angela

2007-01-01

162

Genetic status of Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus) reintroduced into South Korea based on mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite loci analysis.  

PubMed

The Asiatic black bear is one of the most endangered mammals in South Korea owing to population declines resulting from human exploitation and habitat fragmentation. To restore the black bear population in South Korea, 27 bear cubs from North Korea and Russian Far East (Primorsky Krai) were imported and released into Jirisan National Park, a reservoir of the largest wild population in South Korea, in 2004. To monitor the success of this reintroduction, the genetic diversity and population structure of the reintroduced black bears were measured using both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers. Mitochondrial D-loop region DNA sequences (615 bp) of 43 Japanese black bears from previous study and 14 Southeast Asian black bears in this study were employed to obtain phylogenetic inference of the reintroduced black bears. The mitochondrial phylogeny indicated Asiatic black bear populations from Russian Far East and North Korea form a single evolutionary unit distinct from populations from Japan and Southeast Asia. Mean expected heterozygosity (H(E)) across 16 microsatellite loci was 0.648 for Russian and 0.676 for North Korean populations. There was a moderate but significant level of microsatellite differentiation (F(ST) = 0.063) between black bears from the 2 source areas. In addition, genetic evidences revealed that 2 populations are represented as diverging groups, with lingering genetic admixture among individuals of 2 source populations. Relatedness analysis based on genetic markers indicated several discrepancies with the pedigree records. Implication of the phylogenetic and genetic evidences on long-term management of Asiatic black bears in South Korea is discussed. PMID:21325020

Kim, Yung-Kun; Hong, Yoon-Jee; Min, Mi-Sook; Kim, Kyung Seok; Kim, Young-Jun; Voloshina, Inna; Myslenkov, Alexander; Smith, Gavin J D; Cuong, Nguyen Dinh; Tho, Huynh Huu; Han, Sang-Hoon; Yang, Doo-Ha; Kim, Chang-Bae; Lee, Hang

2011-02-15

163

Microsatellites, from molecules to populations and back  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population genetics studies using microsatellites, and data on their molecular dynamics, are on the increase. But, so far, no consensus has emerged on which mutation model should be used, though this is of paramount importance for analysis of population genetic structure. However, this is not surprising given the variety of microsatellite molecular motifs. Null alleles may be disturbing for population

Philippe Jarne; Pierre J. L. Lagoda

1996-01-01

164

Postfertilization autophagy of sperm organelles prevents paternal mitochondrial DNA transmission.  

PubMed

In sexual reproduction of most animals, the spermatozoon provides DNA and centrioles, together with some cytoplasm and organelles, to the oocyte that is being fertilized. Paternal mitochondria and their genomes are generally eliminated in the embryo by an unknown degradation mechanism. We show that, upon fertilization, a Caenorhabditis elegans spermatozoon triggers the recruitment of autophagosomes within minutes and subsequent paternal mitochondria degradation. Whereas the nematode-specific sperm membranous organelles are ubiquitinated before autophagosome formation, the mitochondria are not. The degradation of both paternal structures and mitochondrial DNA requires an LC3-dependent autophagy. Analysis of fertilized mouse embryos shows the localization of autophagy markers, which suggests that this autophagy event is evolutionarily conserved to prevent both the transmission of paternal mitochondrial DNA to the offspring and the establishment of heteroplasmy. PMID:22033522

Al Rawi, Sara; Louvet-Vallée, Sophie; Djeddi, Abderazak; Sachse, Martin; Culetto, Emmanuel; Hajjar, Connie; Boyd, Lynn; Legouis, Renaud; Galy, Vincent

2011-10-27

165

Development of a multiplex PCR assay for fine-scale population genetic analysis of the Komodo monitor Varanus komodoensis based on 18 polymorphic microsatellite loci.  

PubMed

Multiplex PCR assays for the coamplification of microsatellite loci allow rapid and cost-effective genetic analyses and the production of efficient screening protocols for international breeding programs. We constructed a partial genomic library enriched for di-nucleotide repeats and characterized 14 new microsatellite loci for the Komodo monitor (or Komodo dragon, Varanus komodoensis). Using these novel microsatellites and four previously described loci, we developed multiplex PCR assays that may be loaded on a genetic analyser in three separate panels. We tested the novel set of microsatellites for polymorphism using 69 individuals from three island populations and evaluated the resolving power of the entire panel of 18 loci by conducting (i) a preliminary assignment test to determine population(s) of origin and (ii) a parentage analysis for 43 captive Komodo monitors. This panel of polymorphic loci proved useful for both purposes and thus can be exploited for fine-scale population genetic analyses and as part of international captive breeding programs directed at maintaining genetically viable ex situ populations and reintroductions. PMID:21481213

Ciofi, Claudio; Tzika, Athanasia C; Natali, Chiara; Watts, Phillip C; Sulandari, Sri; Zein, Moch S A; Milinkovitch, Michel C

2011-02-06

166

Global population genetic structure and male-mediated gene flow in the green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas): analysis of microsatellite loci.  

PubMed

We assessed the degree of population subdivision among global populations of green sea turtles, Chelonia mydas, using four microsatellite loci. Previously, a single-copy nuclear DNA study indicated significant male-mediated gene flow among populations alternately fixed for different mitochondrial DNA haplotypes and that genetic divergence between populations in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans was more common than subdivisions among populations within ocean basins. Even so, overall levels of variation at single-copy loci were low and inferences were limited. Here, the markedly more variable microsatellite loci confirm the presence of male-mediated gene flow among populations within ocean basins. This analysis generally confirms the genetic divergence between the Atlantic and Pacific. As with the previous study, phylogenetic analyses of genetic distances based on the microsatellite loci indicate a close genetic relationship among eastern Atlantic and Indian Ocean populations. Unlike the single-copy study, however, the results here cannot be attributed to an artifact of general low variability and likely represent recent or ongoing migration between ocean basins. Sequence analyses of regions flanking the microsatellite repeat reveal considerable amounts of cryptic variation and homoplasy and significantly aid in our understanding of population connectivity. Assessment of the allele frequency distributions indicates that at least some of the loci may not be evolving by the stepwise mutation model. PMID:15126404

Roberts, Mark A; Schwartz, Tonia S; Karl, Stephen A

2004-04-01

167

Population genetic analysis among five Indian population groups using six microsatellite markers.  

PubMed

Genetic variation at six tetranucleotide microsatellites (HUMTHO1, HUMVWA, F13A01, D3S1359, D12S66, and D12S67) has heen determined in five endogamous ethnic population groups of India belonging to two major linguistic families. The populations analyzed were Konkanastha Brahmins and Marathas (Maharashtra state) from the Indo-Aryan linguistic family and Nairs, Ezhavas, and Muslims (Kerala state) from the Dravidian family. All six loci show high gene diversity, ranging from 0.63 +/- 0.04 to 0.84 +/- 0.02. The average GST value observed was 1.7%, indicating that the differences between the populations account for less than 2% of the diversity, while the genetic variation is high within the five population groups studied (>98%). The phylogenetic tree fails to show any clear cluster. The absence of any cluster along with low average GST is suggestive of substantial genetic similarity among the studied populations, in spite of clear geographical, linguistic, and cultural barriers. This similarity indicates either a greater gene flow between these groups or, alternatively, may reflect a recent evolution for them, considering that the Indian caste system evolved only about 3000 years ago. PMID:12943158

Ghosh, Anu; Das, Birajalaxmi; Seshadri, M

2003-04-01

168

Genetic structure and gene flow among Komodo dragon populations inferred by microsatellite loci analysis.  

PubMed

A general concern for the conservation of endangered species is the maintenance of genetic variation within populations, particularly when they become isolated and reduced in size. Estimates of gene flow and effective population size are therefore important for any conservation initiative directed to the long-term persistence of a species in its natural habitat. In the present study, 10 microsatellite loci were used to assess the level of genetic variability among populations of the Komodo dragon Varanus komodoensis. Effective population size was calculated and gene flow estimates were compared with palaeogeographic data in order to assess the degree of vulnerability of four island populations. Rinca and Flores, currently separated by an isthmus of about 200 m, retained a high level of genetic diversity and showed a high degree of genetic similarity, with gene flow values close to one migrant per generation. The island of Komodo showed by far the highest levels of genetic divergence, and its allelic distinctiveness was considered of great importance in the maintenance of genetic variability within the species. A lack of distinct alleles and low levels of gene flow and genetic variability were found for the small population of Gili Motang island, which was identified as vulnerable to stochastic threats. Our results are potentially important for both the short- and long-term management of the Komodo dragon, and are critical in view of future re-introduction or augmentation in areas where the species is now extinct or depleted. PMID:10703549

Ciofi, C; Bruford, M W

1999-12-01

169

Microsatellite analysis of different ploidy offspring of artificial gynogenesis in Cyprinus carpio.  

PubMed

Gynogenesis was induced by using UV-irradiated spermatozoa of blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala to activate eggs of common carp Cyprinus carpio. The maternal genome was then duplicated by cold shock in 0 to 4° C cold water to retain the second polar body. Two kinds of fry, normal fry and abnormal tortuous fry, were hatched. Their DNA content was measured by flow cytometry. The normal fry were identified as diploid, representing the successful gynogenesis in C. carpio whereas the abnormal tortuous fry were haploid. Ten microsatellite loci were used to study the genetic diversity among C. carpio, diploid gynogenetic C. carpio and unduplicated haploid tortuous fry. The results indicated that the genetic homozygosity of gynogenetic C. carpio was significantly higher than that of C. carpio. The genetic homozygosity of the haploid C. carpio was intermediate between that of gynogenetic C. carpio and C. carpio. It might be easier for the allogenetic DNA fragments to be integrated into the haploid genome than into diploid gynogenetic genome. PMID:21235552

Xiao, J; Zou, T M; Chen, L; Liu, S J; Xiao, J; Zhang, H; Long, Y; Yan, J P; Zhao, R R; Tao, M; Zhang, C; You, C P; Liu, Y

2010-12-14

170

Determination of microsatellite repeats in the human thyroid peroxidase (TPOX) gene using an automated gene analysis system with nanoscale engineered biomagnetite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of repeat in the microsatellite region (AATG)5-14 of the human thyroid peroxidase gene (TOPX) was determined using an automated DNA analysis system with nano-scale engineered biomagnetite. Thermal melting curve analysis of DNA duplexes on biomagnetite indicated that shorter repeat sequences (less than 9 repeats) were easily discriminated. However, it was difficult to determine the number of repeats at

Takahito Nakagawa; Kohei Maruyama; Haruko Takeyama; Tadashi Matsunaga

2007-01-01

171

The application of microsatellites in molecular pathology.  

PubMed

Present within the genome are large numbers of seemingly unimportant DNA segments arranged in repetitive units. Furthermore, these stretches of DNA contain variations or polymorphisms that are characteristic for an individual and results in a unique DNA fingerprint. Approximately 30% of the DNA repeat sequences are arranged as short tandem repeat sequences, which are called microsatellites. Microsatellites may consist of 1, 2 or 3 nucleotides; dinucleotides being the commonest. Microsatellites are characterised by being: stably inherited and hence highly conserved from one generation to the next, and unique to an individual and the same in different cells from the same individual. As a result of the above features, microsatellites can be used for personal identification, population genetic analysis and construction of evolutionary trees. In addition, they are located in several important gene loci and this allows microsatellites to be used as markers of disease and to provide information about individual gene status, especially in tumors. This can be accomplished by assessing allelic imbalance or loss of heterozygosity of a particular gene by analysing microsatellites located at specific loci in the gene. Recently, mutations within microsatellites have been described as a result of defective DNA repair mechanisms, resulting in the phenomenon of microsatellite instability. This has been implicated in the aetiopathogenesis of several hereditary and non-hereditary conditions. There are several ways of analysing microsatellites, the popular using radioactively-labelled primers and autoradiography. This method has several drawbacks, especially the use of radioactivity and interpretative/technical problems. The use of fluorescently-labelled primers, automated DNA sequencing coupled with a computer software package obviates these problems. This technique has the added advantage of analysing several microsatellites in large numbers of cases, simultaneously. Thus, microsatellite analysis has become an important investigative tool for the molecular biologist and has provided new information in many diseases. PMID:9887364

Naidoo, R; Chetty, R

1998-01-01

172

Advances in understanding paternally transmitted Chromosomal Abnormalities  

SciTech Connect

Multicolor FISH has been adapted for detecting the major types of chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm including aneuploidies for clinically-relevant chromosomes, chromosomal aberrations including breaks and rearrangements, and other numerical abnormalities. The various sperm FISH assays have been used to evaluate healthy men, men of advanced age, and men who have received mutagenic cancer therapy. The mouse has also been used as a model to investigate the mechanism of paternally transmitted genetic damage. Sperm FISH for the mouse has been used to detect chromosomally abnormal mouse sperm, while the PAINT/DAPI analysis of mouse zygotes has been used to evaluate the types of chromosomal defects that can be paternally transmitted to the embryo and their effects on embryonic development.

Marchetti, F; Sloter, E; Wyrobek, A J

2001-03-01

173

Fast versus slow larval growth in an invasive marine mollusc: does paternity matter?  

PubMed

Reproductive strategies and parental effects play a major role in shaping early life-history traits. Although polyandry is a common reproductive strategy, its role is still poorly documented in relation to paternal effects. Here, we used as a case study the invasive sessile marine gastropod Crepidula fornicata, a mollusc with polyandry and extreme larval growth variation among sibling larvae. Based on paternity analyses, the relationships between paternal identity and the variations in a major early life-history trait in marine organisms, that is, larval growth, were investigated. Using microsatellite markers, paternities of 437 fast- and slow-growing larvae from 6 broods were reliably assigned to a set of 20 fathers. No particular fathers were found responsible for the specific growth performances of their offspring. However, the range of larval growth rates within a brood was significantly correlated to 1) an index of sire diversity and 2) the degree of larvae relatedness within broods. Multiple paternity could thus play an important role in determining the extent of pelagic larval duration and consequently the range of dispersal distances achieved during larval life. This study also highlighted the usefulness of using indices based on fathers' relative contribution to the progeny in paternity studies. PMID:19307296

Le Cam, Sabrina; Pechenik, Jan A; Cagnon, Mathilde; Viard, Frédérique

2009-03-23

174

Mining functional microsatellites in legume unigenes  

PubMed Central

Highly polymorphic and transferable microsatellites (SSRs) are important for comparative genomics, genome analysis and phylogenetic studies. Development of novel species-specific microsatellite markers remains a costly and labor-intensive project. Therefore, interest has been shifted from genomic to genic markers owing to their high inter-species transferability as they are developed from conserved coding regions of the genome. This study concentrates on comparative analysis of genic microsatellites in nine important legume (Arachis hypogaea, Cajanus cajan, Cicer arietinum, Glycine max, Lotus japonicus, Medicago truncatula, Phaseolus vulgaris, Pisum sativum and Vigna unguiculata) and two model plant species (Oryza sativa and Arabidopsis thaliana). Screening of a total of 228090 putative unique sequences spanning 219610522 bp using a microsatellite search tool, MISA, identified 12.18% of the unigenes containing 36248 microsatellite motifs excluding mononucleotide repeats. Frequency of legume unigene-derived SSRs was one SSR in every 6.0 kb of analyzed sequences. The trinucleotide repeats were predominant in all the unigenes with the exception of C. cajan, which showed prevalence of dinucleotide repeats over trinucleotide repeats. Dinucleotide repeats along with trinucleotides counted for more than 90% of the total microsatellites. Among dinucleotide and trinucleotide repeats, AG and AAG motifs, respectively, were the most frequent. Microsatellite positive chickpea unigenes were assigned Gene Ontology (GO) terms to identify the possible role of unigenes in various molecular and biological functions. These unigene based microsatellite markers will prove valuable for recording allelic variance across germplasm collections, gene tagging and searching for putative candidate genes.

Roorkiwal, Manish; Sharma, Prakash Chand

2011-01-01

175

Microsatellite and flow cytometry analysis to help understand the origin of Dioscorea alata polyploids.  

PubMed

Background and Aims Dioscorea alata is a polyploid species with a ploidy level ranging from diploid (2n = 2x = 40) to tetraploid (2n = 4x = 80). Ploidy increase is correlated with better agronomic performance. The lack of knowledge about the origin of D. alata spontaneous polyploids (triploids and tetraploids) limits the efficiency of polyploid breeding. The objective of the present study was to use flow cytometry and microsatellite markers to understand the origin of D. alata polyploids. Methods Different progeny generated by intracytotype crosses (2x × 2x) and intercytotype crosses (2x × 4x and 3x × 2x) were analysed in order to understand endosperm incompatibility phenomena and gamete origins via the heterozygosity rate transmitted to progeny. Results This work shows that in a 2x × 2x cross, triploids with viable seeds are obtained only via a phenomenon of diploid female non-gametic reduction. The study of the transmission of heterozygosity made it possible to exclude polyspermy and polyembryony as the mechanisms at the origin of triploids. The fact that no seedlings were obtained by a 3x × 2x cross made it possible to confirm the sterility of triploid females. Flow cytometry analyses carried out on the endosperm of seeds resulting from 2x × 4x crosses revealed endosperm incompatibility phenomena. Conclusions The major conclusion is that the polyploids of D. alata would have appeared through the formation of unreduced gametes. The triploid pool would have been built and diversified through the formation of 2n gametes in diploid females as the result of the non-viability of seeds resulting from the formation of 2n sperm and of the non-viability of intercytotype crosses. The tetraploids would have appeared through bilateral sexual polyploidization via the union of two unreduced gametes due to the sterility of triploids. PMID:23912697

Nemorin, A; David, J; Maledon, E; Nudol, E; Dalon, J; Arnau, G

2013-08-01

176

Microsatellite and flow cytometry analysis to help understand the origin of Dioscorea alata polyploids  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Dioscorea alata is a polyploid species with a ploidy level ranging from diploid (2n = 2x = 40) to tetraploid (2n = 4x = 80). Ploidy increase is correlated with better agronomic performance. The lack of knowledge about the origin of D. alata spontaneous polyploids (triploids and tetraploids) limits the efficiency of polyploid breeding. The objective of the present study was to use flow cytometry and microsatellite markers to understand the origin of D. alata polyploids. Methods Different progeny generated by intracytotype crosses (2x × 2x) and intercytotype crosses (2x × 4x and 3x × 2x) were analysed in order to understand endosperm incompatibility phenomena and gamete origins via the heterozygosity rate transmitted to progeny. Results This work shows that in a 2x × 2x cross, triploids with viable seeds are obtained only via a phenomenon of diploid female non-gametic reduction. The study of the transmission of heterozygosity made it possible to exclude polyspermy and polyembryony as the mechanisms at the origin of triploids. The fact that no seedlings were obtained by a 3x × 2x cross made it possible to confirm the sterility of triploid females. Flow cytometry analyses carried out on the endosperm of seeds resulting from 2x × 4x crosses revealed endosperm incompatibility phenomena. Conclusions The major conclusion is that the polyploids of D. alata would have appeared through the formation of unreduced gametes. The triploid pool would have been built and diversified through the formation of 2n gametes in diploid females as the result of the non-viability of seeds resulting from the formation of 2n sperm and of the non-viability of intercytotype crosses. The tetraploids would have appeared through bilateral sexual polyploidization via the union of two unreduced gametes due to the sterility of triploids.

Nemorin, A.; David, J.; Maledon, E.; Nudol, E.; Dalon, J.; Arnau, G.

2013-01-01

177

Paternal Involvement in Infancy: The Role of Maternal and Paternal Attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relation between maternal and paternal attitudes concerning paternal roles and paternal involvement with their 3-5-month-old infants was examined. A questionnaire-based study revealed that maternal attitudes predicted paternal involvement as reported by mothers. A 2nd study revealed that both maternal and paternal attitudes predicted paternal involvement as reported by both mothers and fathers. In a 3rd observational-based study, patterns of

Ashley H. Beitel; Ross D. Parke

1998-01-01

178

Triallelic patterns in STR loci used for paternity analysis: evidence for a duplication in chromosome 2 containing the TPOX STR locus.  

PubMed

We report triallelic patterns in several short tandem repeat (STR) loci revealed by routine paternity testing using the commercial AMPFlSTR Profiler and AMPFlSTR SGMplus kits. One case where the TPOX-locus (2p25.3) produced three peaks from the blood sample of a child was analysed further. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) and STR typing of the DNAs of the family trio revealed a large (>1.59 Mb) duplication flanking the TPOX-locus in chromosome 2 in both the mother and child. The implications of such genetic anomalies for paternity testing are discussed. PMID:16337759

Lukka, Matti; Tasa, Gunnar; Ellonen, Pekka; Moilanen, Kirsi; Vassiljev, Vitali; Ulmanen, Ismo

2005-12-07

179

Paternal filicide in Québec.  

PubMed

In this retrospective study, relevant demographic, social, and clinical variables were examined in 77 cases of paternal filicide. Between 1991 and 2001, all consecutive coroners' files on domestic homicide in Québec, Canada, were reviewed, and 77 child victims of 60 male parent perpetrators were identified. The results support data indicating that more fathers commit filicide than do mothers. A history of family abuse was characteristic of a substantial number of cases, and most of the cases involved violent means of homicide. Filicide was frequently (60%) followed by the suicide of the perpetrator and more so (86%) in cases involving multiple sibling victims. The abuse of drugs and alcohol was rare. At the time of the offense, most of the perpetrators were suffering from a psychiatric illness, usually depressive disorder. Nearly one-third were in a psychotic state. The proportion of fatal abuse cases was comparatively low. Many of the perpetrators had had contact with health professionals prior to the offense, although none had received treatment for a psychiatric illness. PMID:16186200

Bourget, Dominique; Gagné, Pierre

2005-01-01

180

[The loss of heterozygosity and microsatellite instability analysis in differential diagnostics of leiomyosarcoma and proliferative leiomyoma of the uterus].  

PubMed

Uterine leiomyosarcoma (ULMS) is rare and highly malignant smooth muscle tumor. The different diagnosis between uterine leiomyoma with high proliferative index (ULM) and ULMS is one of the basic problems in the pathology for nowadays. We had investigated the loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and microsatellite instability (MI) to find out a genetic differences between ULM and ULMS. The inicrosatellite analysis was evaluated by PCR using 6 polymorphic markers for chromosomal regions 10q22.1 (D10S1146, D010S218), 10q26.13 (D10S1213), 10p13 (D10S24), 9p21.3 (D9S942), 3p14.3 (D3S1295) in 20 patients with ULMS. 38 patients with ULM were suggested as control group. Our results have demonstrated high frequency allelic imbalance in ULMS samples (average frequency 40%). The comparative analysis between 2 studied groups of patients has been shown higher frequencies of genetic changes for ULMS. Specificity and sensitivity of the LOH and/or MI markers scores 92 and 95% accordingly. PMID:22164433

Shikeeva, A A; Kekeeva, T V; Zavalishina, L É; Andreeva, Iu Iu; Frank, G A

181

Genetic variation based on microsatellite analysis of the oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense from Qiandao Lake in China.  

PubMed

The oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) is an important freshwater prawn species in China. We collected 236 oriental river prawns from four wild stocks from Qiandao Lake, Zhejiang, China, and used nine polymorphic microsatellite markers to investigate their genetic diversity and structure, to facilitate the development of a selective breeding program. We found 185 alleles at nine loci in this sample. The observed heterozygosity (H(O)) and expected heterozygosity (H(E)) ranged from 0.43 to 0.89 and 0.56 to 0.95, respectively. The four stocks of M. nipponense displayed high genetic diversity (14.33-15.89 alleles/locus, H(O) = 0.66-0.77 and H(E) = 0.78-0.88). Genetic diversity of the stock from Weiping town was lower than the stocks from the other locations. Mutation-drift equilibrium analysis showed no significant bottleneck effect. F-statistics among stocks ranged from 0.03 to 0.07, indicating a moderate level of differentiation. Based on genetic structure analysis, the 236 individuals from the four wild stocks could be divided into two potential populations. Overall, the 09CA, 09AY and 09JJ wild stocks had higher allelic and genetic diversity than the upstream 09WP stock. These three wild stocks could be used as founders for selective breeding. PMID:23079984

Ma, K Y; Feng, J B; Li, J L

2012-12-06

182

Analysis of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Engraftment: Use of Loss or Gain of Microsatellite Alleles to Identify Residual Hematopoietic Malignancy  

PubMed Central

Polymorphic short tandem repeat (STR), or microsatellite, loci have been widely used to analyze chimerism status following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The presence of a patient’s DNA, as identified by STR analysis, may indicate residual or recurrent malignant disease or may represent normal hematopoiesis of patient origin. The ratio of patient-derived to donor-derived alleles is used to calculate the relative amount of patient cells (both benign and malignant) to donor cells. STRs on chromosomes known to be gained or lost in a patient’s tumor are generally ignored because it is difficult to perform meaningful calculations of mixed chimerism. However, in this report, we present evidence that STR loci on gained or lost chromosomes are useful in distinguishing the benign or malignant nature of chimeric DNA. In the peripheral blood or bone marrow of four HSCT patients with leukemia or lymphoma, we identified tumor DNA on the basis of STR loci showing copy number alteration. We propose that a targeted evaluation of STR loci showing altered copy number in post-transplant chimerism analysis can provide evidence of residual cancer cells.

Lin, Ming-Tseh; Tseng, Li-Hui; Beierl, Katie; Harada, Shuko; Hafez, Michael J.; Eshleman, James R.; Gocke, Christopher D.

2011-01-01

183

Analysis of Tumor Cell Evolution in a Melanoma: Evidence of Mutational and Selective Pressure for Loss of p16ink4 and for Microsatellite Instability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumorigenesis and tumor progression can be considered an evolutionary process. In order to deduce information on the mutational and selective pressures during melanoma progression we performed microsatellite analysis at 42 autosomal and two X-linked loci in a microdissected primary melanoma and its nine metastases. Loss of heterozygosity at locus D9S259 was the only genetic change observed in all metastases. The

Albert Rübben; Philipp Babilas; Jens M. Baron; Anja Hofheinz; Mark Neis; Florian Sels; Markus Sporkert

2000-01-01

184

Conservation genetics of neotropical pollinators revisited: microsatellite analysis suggests that diploid males are rare in orchid bees.  

PubMed

Allozyme analyses have suggested that Neotropical orchid bee (Euglossini) pollinators are vulnerable because of putative high frequencies of diploid males, a result of loss of sex allele diversity in small hymenopteran populations with single locus complementary sex determination. Our analysis of 1010 males from 27 species of euglossine bees sampled across the Neotropics at 2–11 polymorphic microsatellite loci revealed only five diploid males at an overall frequency of 0.005 (95% CIs 0.002–0.010); errors through genetic nondetection of diploid males were likely small. In contrast to allozyme-based studies, we detected very weak or insignificant population genetic structure, even for a pair of populations >500 km apart, possibly accounting for low diploid male frequencies. Technical flaws in previous allozyme-based analyses have probably led to considerable overestimation of diploid male production in orchid bees. Other factors may have a more immediate impact on population persistence than the genetic load imposed by diploid males on these important Neotropical pollinators. PMID:20662922

Souza, Rogério O; Del Lama, Marco A; Cervini, Marcelo; Mortari, Norma; Eltz, Thomas; Zimmermann, Yvonne; Bach, Carola; Brosi, Berry J; Suni, Sevan; Quezada-Euán, J Javier G; Paxton, Robert J

2010-11-01

185

Microsatellite analysis of genetic population structure of zebu cattle (Bos indicus) breeds from north-western region of India.  

PubMed

The present study aims to understand the existing genetic diversity and structure of six native cattle breeds (Rathi, Tharparkar, Nagori, Mewati, Gir, and Kankrej) adapted to the north-western arid and semi-arid region of India based on microsatellite loci. Various diversity estimates, mean number of alleles (12.84); effective number of alleles (5.02); gene diversity (0.769), and observed heterozygosity (0.667) reflected the existence of substantial within-breed diversity in all the investigated cattle breeds. Mean estimates of F-statistics: F(IT) = 0.144 ± 0.023, F(IS) = 0.071 ± 0.021, and F(ST) = 0.078 ± 0.014 were significantly different from zero (P < 0.05). The interbreed relationships indicated moderate level of breed differentiation between the six cattle breeds with least differentiation between Kankrej-Mewati pair. The phylogeny structuring further supported close grouping of Kankrej and Mewati breeds. Correspondence analysis plotted Rathi, Tharparkar, and Gir individuals into three separate areas of multivariate space; whereas, Kankrej, Mewati, and Nagori cattle showed low breed specific clustering. This reflected the existence of discrete genetic structure for Tharparkar, Rathi, and Gir, the prominent dairy breeds of the region; whereas, admixture was observed for Kankrej, Mewati, and Nagori individuals. PMID:21328102

Sodhi, Monika; Mukesh, M; Mishra, B P; Ahlawat, S P S; Prakash, B; Sobti, R C

2011-01-01

186

Selection and use of SNP markers for animal identification and paternity analysis in U.S. beef cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   DNA marker technology represents a promising means for determining the genetic identity and kinship of an animal. Compared\\u000a with other types of DNA markers, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are attractive because they are abundant, genetically\\u000a stable, and amenable to high-throughput automated analysis. In cattle, the challenge has been to identify a minimal set of\\u000a SNPs with sufficient power for

Michael P. Heaton; Gregory P. Harhay; Gary L. Bennett; Roger T. Stone; W. Michael Grosse; Eduardo Casas; John W. Keele; Timothy P. L. Smith; Carol G. Chitko-McKown; William W. Laegreid

2002-01-01

187

Multiple Paternity in Belding's Ground Squirrel Litters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexually receptive female Spermophilus beldingi (Rodentia: Sciuridae) usually mate with several different males. The paternity of 27 litters born in 1977 and 1978 was ascertained by combining field observations of mating with laboratory paternity exclusion analyses. Most of the litters (78 percent) were multiply sired, usually by two or three males. This may be the highest frequency of multiple paternity

James Hanken; Paul W. Sherman

1981-01-01

188

Paternal determinants of male adolescent marijuana use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examined the interconnection of sets of paternal personality attributes, paternal socialization techniques, and adolescent personality factors with adolescent sons' use of marihuana. 246 male college students and their fathers participated in the study. Results of data from a battery of psychometric scales indicate that paternal personality attributes and socialization techniques were associated with the son's personality attributes, which in turn

Judith S. Brook; Martin Whiteman; David W. Brook; Ann S. Gordon

1981-01-01

189

Patterns of paternity skew among polyandrous social insects: what can they tell us about the potential for sexual selection?  

PubMed

Monogamy results in high genetic relatedness among offspring and thus it is generally assumed to be favored by kin selection. Female multiple mating (polyandry) has nevertheless evolved several times in the social Hymenoptera (ants, bees, and wasps), and a substantial amount of work has been conducted to understand its costs and benefits. Relatedness and inclusive fitness benefits are, however, not only influenced by queen mating frequency but also by paternity skew, which is a quantitative measure of paternity biases among the offspring of polyandrous females. We performed a large-scale phylogenetic analysis of paternity skew across polyandrous social Hymenoptera. We found a general and significant negative association between paternity frequency and paternity skew. High paternity skew, which increases relatedness among colony members and thus maximizes inclusive fitness gains, characterized species with low paternity frequency. However, species with highly polyandrous queens had low paternity skew, with paternity equalized among potential sires. Equal paternity shares among fathers are expected to maximize fitness benefits derived from genetic diversity among offspring. We discuss the potential for postcopulatory sexual selection to influence patterns of paternity in social insects, and suggest that sexual selection may have played a key, yet overlooked role in social evolution. PMID:23206136

Jaffé, Rodolfo; Garcia-Gonzalez, Francisco; den Boer, Susanne P A; Simmons, Leigh W; Baer, Boris

2012-07-15

190

The frequency of multiple paternity suggests that sperm competition is common in house mice (Mus domesticus)  

PubMed Central

Sexual selection is an important force driving the evolution of morphological and genetic traits. To determine the importance of male–male, postcopulatory sexual selection in natural populations of house mice, we estimated the frequency of multiple paternity, defined as the frequency with which a pregnant female carried a litter fertilized by more than one male. By genotyping eight microsatellite markers from 1095 mice, we found evidence of multiple paternity from 33 of 143. Evidence for multiple paternity was especially strong for 29 of these litters. Multiple paternity was significantly more common in higher-density vs. lower-density populations. Any estimate of multiple paternity will be an underestimate of the frequency of multiple mating, defined as the frequency with which a female mates with more than a single male during a single oestrus cycle. We used computer simulations to estimate the frequency of multiple mating, incorporating observed reductions in heterozygosity and levels of allele sharing among mother and father. These simulations indicated that multiple mating is common, occurring in at least 20% of all oestrus cycles. The exact estimate depends on the competitive skew among males, a parameter for which we currently have no data from natural populations. This study suggests that sperm competition is an important aspect of postcopulatory sexual selection in house mice.

DEAN, M. D.; ARDLIE, K. G.; NACHMAN, M . W .

2010-01-01

191

Triallelic patterns in STR loci used for paternity analysis: Evidence for a duplication in chromosome 2 containing the TPOX STR locus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report triallelic patterns in several short tandem repeat (STR) loci revealed by routine paternity testing using the commercial AMPFlSTR®Profiler™ and AMPFlSTR®SGMplus™ kits. One case where the TPOX-locus (2p25.3) produced three peaks from the blood sample of a child was analysed further. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) and STR typing of the DNAs of the family trio revealed a large

Matti Lukka; Gunnar Tasa; Pekka Ellonen; Kirsi Moilanen; Vitali Vassiljev; Ismo Ulmanen

2006-01-01

192

Microsatellite sequences for canine genotyping  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Methods of genotyping canines by analysis of polymorphisms in the number of microsatellite DNA repeats are provided. The internal repeat sequence is amplified by the use of specific primers. The number of repeats, and therefore the distance between the primers, is highly variable in a population, thereby providing an allelic marker for the locus. The combined information from multiple loci provides a means of distinguishing individuals, even among inbred dog breeds, for parentage testing, forensic testing and analysis of individuals relatedness.

Halverson; Joy (Davis, CA); Dvorak; Jan (Davis, CA); Stevenson; Tamara (Davis, CA)

1999-02-23

193

Trypanosoma cruzi IIc: phylogenetic and phylogeographic insights from sequence and microsatellite analysis and potential impact on emergent Chagas disease.  

PubMed

Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, is highly genetically diverse. Numerous lines of evidence point to the existence of six stable genetic lineages or DTUs: TcI, TcIIa, TcIIb, TcIIc, TcIId, and TcIIe. Molecular dating suggests that T. cruzi is likely to have been an endemic infection of neotropical mammalian fauna for many millions of years. Here we have applied a panel of 49 polymorphic microsatellite markers developed from the online T. cruzi genome to document genetic diversity among 53 isolates belonging to TcIIc, a lineage so far recorded almost exclusively in silvatic transmission cycles but increasingly a potential source of human infection. These data are complemented by parallel analysis of sequence variation in a fragment of the glucose-6-phosphate isomerase gene. New isolates confirm that TcIIc is associated with terrestrial transmission cycles and armadillo reservoir hosts, and demonstrate that TcIIc is far more widespread than previously thought, with a distribution at least from Western Venezuela to the Argentine Chaco. We show that TcIIc is truly a discrete T. cruzi lineage, that it could have an ancient origin and that diversity occurs within the terrestrial niche independently of the host species. We also show that spatial structure among TcIIc isolates from its principal host, the armadillo Dasypus novemcinctus, is greater than that among TcI from Didelphis spp. opossums and link this observation to differences in ecology of their respective niches. Homozygosity in TcIIc populations and some linkage indices indicate the possibility of recombination but cannot yet be effectively discriminated from a high genome-wide frequency of gene conversion. Finally, we suggest that the derived TcIIc population genetic data have a vital role in determining the origin of the epidemiologically important hybrid lineages TcIId and TcIIe. PMID:19721699

Llewellyn, Martin S; Lewis, Michael D; Acosta, Nidia; Yeo, Matthew; Carrasco, Hernan J; Segovia, Maikell; Vargas, Jorge; Torrico, Faustino; Miles, Michael A; Gaunt, Michael W

2009-09-01

194

Microsatellite Analysis of Genetic Diversity in Pekin(Anas platyrhynchos) and Muscovy (Cairina moschata)Duck Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study the genetic structure of Pekin and Moscovy duck populations in north of Iran, Mazandaran province were analyzed using thirteen microsatellite markers. One hundred blood samples with equal number from each population were collected and DNA was extracted using modified salting out method. After Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), the PCR products were electrophoresed using 6% polyacrylamide gel.

A. Khan Ahmadi; G. Rahimi; A. Vafaei; H. Sayyazadeh

2007-01-01

195

Microsatellite analysis for determination of the mutagenicity of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields and ionising radiation in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) have been reported to induce lesions in DNA and to enhance the mutagenicity of ionising radiation. However, the significance of these findings is uncertain because the determination of the carcinogenic potential of EMFs has largely been based on investigations of large chromosomal aberrations. Using a more sensitive method of detecting DNA damage involving microsatellite sequences,

Robert J. Mairs; Kate Hughes; Sara Fitzsimmons; Kevin M. Prise; Anne Livingstone; Lesley Wilson; Nazia Baig; Anne Marie Clark; Alan Timpson; Gaurang Patel; M. Folkard; Wilson J. Angerson; Marie Boyd

2006-01-01

196

Analysis of microsatellite DNA resolves genetic structure and diversity of chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ) in California's Central Valley  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use 10 microsatellite DNA markers to assess genetic diversity within and among the four runs (winter, spring, fall, and late fall) of chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ) in California's Central Valley. Forty-one pop- ulation samples are studied, comprising naturally spawning and hatchery stocks collected from 1991 through 1997. Maximum likelihood methods are used to correct for kinship in

Michael A. Banks; Vanessa K. Rashbrook; Marco J. Calavetta; Cheryl A. Dean; Dennis Hedgecock

2000-01-01

197

Genetic diversity analysis of a world-wide collection of Ascochyta rabiei isolates using sequence tagged microsatellite markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A previously characterized compound microsatellite locus ARMS1, containing penta- and decameric repeat units, has been reported to reveal genetic diversity in Ascochyta rabiei (Pass.) Labr. isolates. Therefore, 37 isolates of Ascochyta rabiei collected from different states of India and 38 isolates from fifteen other countries in the world were examined for their diversity at this locus. Twenty-six alleles on the

M. P. Barve; D. K. Santra; P. K. Ranjekar; V. S. Gupta

2004-01-01

198

Population structure of striped marlin ( Kajikia audax ) in the Pacific Ocean based on analysis of microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic variation was surveyed at five microsatellite loci and the mitochondrial control region (819 bp) to test for the presence of genetic stock structure in striped marlin (Kajikia audax) collections taken from seven locations through- out the Pacific Ocean. Temporal replicates separated by 9 years were taken off Japan, and three temporal samples spanning 11 years were collected off the

Jan R. McDowell; John E. Graves

2008-01-01

199

Microsatellite analysis of genetic diversity and population genetic structure of a wild rice ( Oryza rufipogon Griff.) in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic diversity and population genetic structure of natural Oryza rufipogon populations in China were studied based on ten microsatellite loci. For a total of 237 individuals of 12 populations collected from four regions, a moderate to high level of genetic diversity was observed at population levels with the number of alleles per locus ( A) ranging from 2 to 18

Hai-fei Zhou; Zhong-wen Xie; Song Ge

2003-01-01

200

Landscape genetic patterns of the rainbow darter Etheostoma caeruleum : a catchment analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences and nuclear microsatellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catchment population structure and divergence patterns of the rainbow darter Etheostoma caeruleum (Percidae: Teleostei), an eastern North American benthic fish, are tested using a landscape genetics approach. Allelic variation at eight nuclear DNA microsatellite loci and two mitochondrial DNA regions [cytochrome (cyt) b gene and control region; 2056 aligned base pairs (bp)] is analysed from 89 individuals and six sites

A. E. Haponski; T. L. Bollin; M. A. Jedlicka; C. A. Stepien

2009-01-01

201

Analysis of a diverse global Pisum sp. collection and comparison to a Chinese local P. sativum collection with microsatellite markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-one informative microsatellite loci were used to assess and compare the genetic diversity among Pisum genotypes sourced from within and outside China. The Chinese germplasm comprised 1243 P. sativum genotypes from 28 provinces and this was compared to 774 P. sativum genotypes that represented a globally diverse germplasm collection, as well as 103 genotypes from related Pisum species. The Chinese

Xuxiao Zong; Robert J. Redden; Qingchang Liu; Shumin Wang; Jianping Guan; Jin Liu; Yanhong Xu; Xiuju Liu; Jing Gu; Long Yan; Peter Ades; Rebecca Ford

2009-01-01

202

Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci in the Korean crayfish, Cambaroides similis and application to natural population analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Korean freshwater crayfish, Cambaroides similis, has recently suffered from range reduction and habitat degradation caused by environmental changes and water pollution. For the conservation and restoration of this species, it is necessary to understand the current population structures of Korean C. similis using estimation of their genetic variation. In this study, eight microsatellite loci were developed and characterized from

Dong-Ha Ahn; Mi-Hyun Park; Jae-Ho Jung; Mi-Jin Oh; Sanghee Kim; Jongwoo Jung; Gi-Sik Min

2011-01-01

203

Paternal kin discrimination in wild baboons.  

PubMed Central

Mammals commonly avoid mating with maternal kin, probably as a result of selection for inbreeding avoidance. Mating with paternal kin should be selected against for the same reason. However, identifying paternal kin may be more difficult than identifying maternal kin in species where the mother mates with more than one male. Selection should nonetheless favour a mechanism of paternal kin recognition that allows the same level of discrimination among paternal as among maternal kin, but the hypothesis that paternal kin avoid each other as mates is largely untested in large mammals such as primates. Here I report that among wild baboons, Papio cynocephalus, paternal siblings exhibited lower levels of affiliative and sexual behaviour during sexual consortships than non-kin, although paternal siblings were not significantly less likely to consort than non-kin. I also examined age proximity as a possible social cue of paternal relatedness, because age cohorts are likely to be paternal sibships. Pairs born within two years of each other were less likely to engage in sexual consortships than pairs born at greater intervals, and were less affiliative and sexual when they did consort. Age proximity may thus be an important social cue for paternal relatedness, and phenotype matching based on shared paternal traits may play a role as well.

Alberts, S C

1999-01-01

204

Characterization of EST-derived microsatellites for gene mapping and evolutionary genomics in turbot.  

PubMed

The detection of microsatellite sequences within expressed sequence tags (ESTs) connects potential markers with specific genes, generating type I markers. We have developed and mapped by linkage analysis a set of EST-derived microsatellites in the turbot, Scophthalmus maximus. One hundred and ninety-one microsatellites were identified from 9256 turbot ESTs. Primer design was possible with 98 microsatellites. After genotyping 25 wild turbot and the parents of two reference families for linkage analysis, 43 EST-derived microsatellites were selected because they met technical and polymorphism criteria. A final set of 31 EST-derived microsatellites could be mapped to 17 linkage groups of the turbot consensus map based on 242 anonymous microsatellites. Twenty-four microsatellite-containing ESTs were functionally annotated, confirming them as type I markers. Nineteen were mapped in the turbot consensus map. These EST-derived microsatellites constitute useful tools for genome scanning of turbot populations, marker-assisted selection programmes and comparative mapping. PMID:18786152

Bouza, C; Hermida, M; Millán, A; Vilas, R; Vera, M; Fernández, C; Calaza, M; Pardo, B G; Martínez, P

2008-09-11

205

Inherited alleles revealing an incestuous paternity.  

PubMed

(Full text is available at http://www.manu.edu.mk/prilozi). Some rape cases result in the pregnancy of the victim and if the case is not reported to the police after the act with a subsequent gynaecological examination of the girl and the taking of a vaginal swab, there is no way of connecting the rape case with the perpetrator, except by parentage determination using DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) analysis after abortion or induced delivery. In order to solve the rape case of a minor girl of 14 years which resulted with pregnancy, where a 60-year-old man was accused of the rape, DNA was extracted from blood samples from the girl and the putative assailant and from the foetus after its induced delivery. The autosomal short tandem repeats (STR) typing for 15 different loci showed differences in 6 STR loci between the putative assailant as a father and the foetus, thus excluding the tested paternity. A large number of identical loci between the mother's and the child's genotype led us to consider the possibility of incestuous paternity. Analysis of DNA samples from the girl's father and brother clarified the case as brother-sister incest. Key words: rape case, short tandem repeats (STRs) genotype, incest. PMID:21258293

Jankova-Ajanovska, R; Jakovski, Z; Janeska, B; Simjanovska, L; Duma, A

2010-12-01

206

Microsatellite instability markers in breast cancer: A review and study showing MSI was not detected at ‘BAT 25’ and ‘BAT 26’ microsatellite markers in early-onset breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsatellite markers may provide evidence of faulty DNA mismatch repair (MMR) via the detection of microsatellite instability (MSI). The choice of microsatellite markers may impact on the MSI detection rate. In hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer (HNPCC), several informative microsatellite markers have been recommended. Two of these, BAT 25 and BAT 26, are quasi-homozygous, enabling analysis of tumour DNA in the

Shoo Peng Siah; Diana M Quinn; Graeme D Bennett; Graeme Casey; Robert LP Flower; Graeme Suthers; Zbigniew Rudzki

2000-01-01

207

First microsatellite loci of red mullet (Mullus barbatus) and their application to genetic structure analysis of Adriatic shared stock.  

PubMed

In order to study the genetic structure of the Adriatic shared stock of red mullet (Mullus barbatus), we developed a set of dinucleotide microsatellite markers. A dinucleotide-enriched genomic library was obtained, and 6 polymorphic dinucleotide loci were successfully optimized. The markers showed high expected heterozygosity (from 0.68 to 0.92) and allele number (from 12 to 33); thus they appear to be suitable for detecting genetic differences in the population of red mullet. Four Adriatic samples were subsequently analyzed for microsatellite variation, and the results showed subtle but statistically significant genetic differentiation, indicating that the Adriatic red mullet may group into local, genetically isolated populations. No correlation between geographic distance and genetic differentiation was observed. In addition, the evidence of recent bottlenecks in the Adriatic samples indicates that the observed population subdivision might reflect random local allelic variations, generated by reproductive success, survival rates, or fishing pressure. PMID:15791489

Garoia, Flavio; Guarniero, Ilaria; Piccinetti, Corrado; Tinti, Fausto

2004-06-23

208

PATERNITY DETERMINATION WITH DNA FINGERPRINTING IN A GRIZZLY BEAR POPULATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

We extracted DNA from 120 grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) in an arctic population for paternity analysis using DNA fingerprinting. Preliminary results indicate that a combination of several probes and\\/or enzymes will be necessary to identify sires of offspring with known mothers. Development of genetic profiles will provide estimates of population genetics parameters such as inbreeding coefficients, heterozygosity, and degree

LANCE CRAIGHEAD; ERNIE R. VYSE; HARRY V. REYNOLDS

209

Fine-Scale Genetic Structure and Gene Dispersal in Centaurea corymbosa (Asteraceae). II. Correlated Paternity Within and Among Sibships  

PubMed Central

The fine-scale pattern of correlated paternity was characterized within a population of the narrow-endemic model plant species, Centaurea corymbosa, using microsatellites and natural progeny arrays. We used classical approaches to assess correlated mating within sibships and developed a new method based on pairwise kinship coefficients to assess correlated paternity within and among sibships in a spatio-temporal perspective. We also performed numerical simulations to assess the relative significance of different mechanisms promoting correlated paternity and to compare the statistical properties of different estimators of correlated paternity. Our new approach proved very informative to assess which factors contributed most to correlated paternity and presented good statistical properties. Within progeny arrays, we found that about one-fifth of offspring pairs were full-sibs. This level of correlated mating did not result from correlated pollen dispersal events (i.e., pollen codispersion) but rather from limited mate availability, the latter being due to limited pollen dispersal distances, the heterogeneity of pollen production among plants, phenological heterogeneity and, according to simulations, the self-incompatibility system. We point out the close connection between correlated paternity and the “TwoGener” approach recently developed to infer pollen dispersal and discuss the conditions to be met when applying the latter.

Hardy, Olivier J.; Gonzalez-Martinez, Santiago C.; Colas, Bruno; Freville, Helene; Mignot, Agnes; Olivieri, Isabelle

2004-01-01

210

The development and use of microsatellite markers for genetic analysis and plant breeding with emphasis on bread wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, a variety of molecular markers, based on microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) have become the\\u000a markers of choice, thus necessitating their development and use in a variety of plant systems. In this review, the basic principles\\u000a underlying different hybridization-based (oligonucleotide fingerprinting) and PCR based approaches (STMS, MP-PCR, AMP-PCR\\/\\u000a ISSR\\/ ASSR, RAMPs\\/ dRAMPs, SAMPL), making use of

P. K. Gupta; R. K. Varshney

2000-01-01

211

Variation of Mini and Microsatellite DNA Repeats in Parthenogenetic Lizard Darevskia armeniaca as Revealed by DNA Fingerprinting Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population and family samples of two morphological forms (mutant and normal with respect to dorsal color) of parthenogenetic lizard species Darevskia armeniaca were examined by means of DNA fingerprinting using M13 mini- and (GACA)n and (TCC)n microsatellite DNA markers. The morphological forms examined were characterized by clonally inherited, species-specific patterns of the DNA markers, which were different from the species-specific

I. A. Martirosyan; N. G. Kan; V. G. Petrosyan; D. N. Malysheva; A. A. Trofimova; F. D. Danielyan; I. S. Darevskii; L. I. Korochkin; A. P. Ryskov; O. N. Tokarskaya

2003-01-01

212

[Analysis of genetic variation in dogs (American Pit Bull Terrier breed) with high inbreeding level using microsatellite markers].  

PubMed

The level of gene polymorphism of 10 microsatellite loci in 27 American Pit Bull Terrier dogs which have a high value of the percentage of blood and inbreeding coefficient achieved 43.8% was studied. The excess of heterozigosity over expected for this level of inbreeding coefficient was established. Suggestion that the high level of heterozigosity is the result of the selection against homozygotes was made. PMID:20722281

Shinkarenko, L N; Guliakova, O G; Malienko, V A; Mel'nichuk, S D; Spiridonov, V G

213

Analysis of genetic variability in American Pit Bull Terrier breed of dogs with a high inbreeding level using microsatellite markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The level of DNA polymorphism in 10 microsatellite loci of 27 American Pit Bull Terrier dogs with high percentage of blood\\u000a and inbreeding coefficients of up to 43.8% was studied. The observed heterozygosity was higher than expected for this inbreeding\\u000a level. The presence of a selection mechanism that prevents gametes from fusing to form a homozygosity genotype is suggested.

L. N. Shinkarenko; O. G. Guliakova; V. A. Malienko; S. D. Melnychuk; V. G. Spyrydonov

2010-01-01

214

Global relationships amongst black-browed and grey-headed albatrosses: analysis of population structure using mitochondrial DNA and microsatellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The population structure of black-browed ( Thalassarche melanophris and T. impavida ) and grey-headed ( T. chrysostoma ) albatrosses was examined using both mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and microsatellite analyses. mtDNA sequences from 73 black-browed and 50 grey-headed albatrosses were obtained from five island groups in the Southern Ocean. High levels of sequence divergence were found in both taxa (0.55—7.20% in

T. M. Burg; J. P. Croxall

2001-01-01

215

First Microsatellite Loci of Red Mullet ( Mullus barbatus ) and Their Application to Genetic Structure Analysis of Adriatic Shared Stock  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study the genetic structure of the Adriatic shared stock of red mullet (Mullus barbatus), we developed a set of dinucleotide microsatellite markers. A dinucleotide-enriched genomic library was obtained, and 6 polymorphic dinucleotide loci were successfully optimized. The markers showed high expected heterozygosity (from 0.68 to 0.92) and allele number (from 12 to 33); thus they appear to

Flavio Garoia; Ilaria Guarniero; Corrado Piccinetti; Fausto Tinti

2004-01-01

216

Modes of reproduction of the hybridogenetic fish Squalius alburnoides in the Tejo and Guadiana rivers: An approach with microsatellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Squalius alburnoides complex was produced by hybridization between female S. pyrenaicus (PP genome) and an hypothetical paternal ancestor related with Anaecypris hispanica (AA genome). This study examined a diversity of mating types and found that there is the potential for considerable gene exchange among diploid, triploid and tetraploid hybrids. Using microsatellites, genomes were attributed to Squalius pyrenaicus (P) or

María E. Crespo-López; Tiago Duarte; Thomas Dowling; Maria M. Coelho

2006-01-01

217

Landscape genetic patterns of the rainbow darter Etheostoma caeruleum: a catchment analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences and nuclear microsatellites.  

PubMed

Catchment population structure and divergence patterns of the rainbow darter Etheostoma caeruleum (Percidae: Teleostei), an eastern North American benthic fish, are tested using a landscape genetics approach. Allelic variation at eight nuclear DNA microsatellite loci and two mitochondrial DNA regions [cytochrome (cyt) b gene and control region; 2056 aligned base pairs (bp)] is analysed from 89 individuals and six sites in the Lake Erie catchment (Blanchard, Chagrin, Cuyahoga and Grand Rivers) v. the Ohio River catchment (Big Darby Creek and Little Miami River). Genetic and geographic patterning is assessed using phylogenetic trees, pair-wise F(ST) analogues, AMOVA partitioning, Mantel regression, Bayesian assignment, 3D factorial correspondence and barrier analyses. Results identify 34 cyt b haplotypes, 22 control region haplotypes and 137 microsatellite alleles whose distributions demonstrate marked genetic divergence between populations from the Lake Erie and Ohio River catchments. Etheostoma caeruleum populations in the Lake Erie and Ohio River catchments diverged c. 1.6 mya during the Pleistocene glaciations. Greater genetic separations characterize the Ohio River populations, reflecting their older habitat age and less recent connectivity. Divergence levels within the Lake Erie catchment denote more recent post-glacial origins. Notably, the western Lake Erie Blanchard River population markedly differs from the three central basin tributary samples, which are each genetically distinguishable using microsatellites. Overall relationships among the Lake Erie sites refute a genetic isolation by geographic distance hypothesis. Etheostoma caeruleum populations thus exchange few genes and have low migration among tributaries and catchments. PMID:20738685

Haponski, A E; Bollin, T L; Jedlicka, M A; Stepien, C A

2009-12-01

218

Non-Mendelian inheritance revealed in a genetic analysis of sexual progeny of Phytophthora cinnamomi with microsatellite markers.  

PubMed

We report the development of four microsatellite loci into genetic markers for the diploid oomycete plant pathogen Phytophthora cinnamomi and that (AC)(n) and (AG)(n) microsatellites are significantly less frequent than in plant and mammal genomes. A minisatellite motif 14 bp long was also discovered. The four microsatellite loci were used to analyze sexual progeny from four separate crosses of P. cinnamomi. A large proportion of non-Mendelian inheritance was observed across all loci in all four crosses, including inheritance of more than two alleles at a locus and noninheritance of alleles from either parent at a locus. The aberrant inheritance is best explained by nondisjunction at meiosis in both the A1 parent and the A2 trisomic parents, resulting in aneuploid progeny. Two loci on the putative trisomic chromosome showed linkage and no loci were linked to mating type. One aneuploid offspring was shown to have lost alleles at two loci following subculture over 4 years, indicating that aneuploid progeny may not be mitotically stable. PMID:11929210

Dobrowolski, Mark P; Tommerup, I C; Blakeman, Harley D; O'Brien, Philip A

2002-04-01

219

Congenital hyperinsulinism in an infant with paternal uniparental disomy on chromosome 11p15: few clinical features suggestive of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome.  

PubMed

Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is the most common congenital overgrowth syndrome involving tumor predisposition. BWS is caused by various epigenetic or genetic alterations that disrupt the imprinted genes on chromosome 11p15.5 and the clinical findings of BWS are highly variable. Hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia is reported in about half of all babies with BWS. We identified an infant with diazoxide-unresponsive congenital hyperinsulinism (HI) without any apparent clinical features suggestive of BWS, but diagnosed BWS by molecular testing. The patient developed severe hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia within a few hours after birth, with macrosomia and mild hydronephrosis. We excluded mutations in the KATP channel genes on chromosome 11p15.1, but found a rare homozygous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of ABCC8. Parental SNP pattern suggested paternal uniparetal disomy in this region. By microsatellite marker analysis on chromosome 11p15, we could diagnose BWS due to the mosaic of paternal uniparental disomy. Our case suggests that some HI of unknown genetic etiology could involve undiagnosed BWS with no apparent clinical features, which might be diagnosed only by molecular testing. PMID:23197114

Adachi, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Ikuko; Higashimoto, Ken; Tsuchida, Satoko; Noguchi, Atsuko; Tamura, Hiroaki; Arai, Hirokazu; Ito, Tomoo; Masue, Michiya; Nishibori, Hironori; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Soejima, Hidenobu

2012-11-30

220

Analysis of tumor cell evolution in a melanoma: evidence of mutational and selective pressure for loss of p16ink4 and for microsatellite instability.  

PubMed

Tumorigenesis and tumor progression can be considered an evolutionary process. In order to deduce information on the mutational and selective pressures during melanoma progression we performed microsatellite analysis at 42 autosomal and two X-linked loci in a microdissected primary melanoma and its nine metastases. Loss of heterozygosity at locus D9S259 was the only genetic change observed in all metastases. The pattern of loss of heterozygosity at loci D9S162 and D9S171 within the region of common loss on chromosome 9p21 which encompasses the tumor suppressor gene p16ink4 enabled the distinction of four genetically different tumor cell populations. Three cell lineages showed homozygous loss of the p16ink4 gene, which evolved independently in each tumor cell population within the primary tumor. Additional allele losses could be demonstrated at markers D14S53 and DXS998. The fourth lineage did not demonstrate loss of heterozygosity at loci D9S162 and D9S171 and contained the wild type p16ink4 gene but was characterized by abundant microsatellite instability. The evolutionary approach towards tumorigenesis and tumor progression used in this study thus confirms the role of p16ink4 inactivation for melanoma progression but not for melanoma initiation; it suggests the existence of additional putative tumor suppressor genes located on 9p as well as on the long arm of chromosome 14 and shows that microsatellite instability may represent an alternative pathway of tumor cell evolution in malignant melanoma. PMID:10620109

Rübben, A; Babilas, P; Baron, J M; Hofheinz, A; Neis, M; Sels, F; Sporkert, M

2000-01-01

221

New softwares for automated microsatellite marker development.  

PubMed

Microsatellites are repeated small sequence motifs that are highly polymorphic and abundant in the genomes of eukaryotes. Often they are the molecular markers of choice. To aid the development of microsatellite markers we have developed a module that integrates a program for the detection of microsatellites (TROLL), with the sequence assembly and analysis software, the Staden Package. The module has easily adjustable parameters for microsatellite lengths and base pair quality control. Starting with large datasets of unassembled sequence data in the form of chromatograms and/or text data, it enables the creation of a compact database consisting of the processed and assembled microsatellite containing sequences. For the final phase of primer design, we developed a program that accepts the multi-sequence 'experiment file' format as input and produces a list of primer pairs for amplification of microsatellite markers. The program can take into account the quality values of consensus bases, improving success rate of primer pairs in PCR. The software is freely available and simple to install in both Windows and Unix-based operating systems. Here we demonstrate the software by developing primer pairs for 427 new candidate markers for peanut. PMID:16493138

Martins, Wellington; de Sousa, Daniel; Proite, Karina; Guimarães, Patrícia; Moretzsohn, Marcio; Bertioli, David

2006-02-21

222

Low paternity in the hornet Vespa crabro indicates that multiple mating by queens is derived in vespine wasps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Queen mating frequency was studied in the European hornet, Vespa crabro, by analyzing four DNA microsatellite loci in 20 workers from each of 14 nests. Queens were found to be predominantly singly\\u000a mated (9\\/14), although double (4\\/14) and triple mating (1\\/14) also occurred. For most multiply mated queens, paternity was\\u000a significantly biased with the majority male fathering on average 80%

Kevin R. Foster; Perttu Seppä; Francis L. W. Ratnieks; Peter A. Thorén

1999-01-01

223

Microsatellite and morphological analysis of population structure in the parthenogenetic freshwater snail Melanoides tuberculata: insights into the creation of clonal variability.  

PubMed

The distribution of variability was studied at various geographical scales in the tropical freshwater snail Melanoides tuberculata, in order to analyse the role of factors shaping this distribution, including the mating system and population dynamics. This parthenogenetic polyploid species reproduces mainly asexually, with males occurring at low frequency. About 800 individuals (38 sites) were sampled from Africa and the Middle East, where the species originated, and from recently colonized habitats in South and Central America, and especially the island of Martinique. We first described variation of general aspects and ornamentation of the shells. This analysis confirms the existence of discrete morphs. Second, individuals were studied at three microsatellite loci, showing that each morph is a genetic clone with some minor variation compatible with models of microsatellite evolution. The genetic analysis also showed much more variation within than between clones. However, two populations from Africa exhibited a large amount of variability, and a mixture of sexual and asexual reproduction might explain these genetic patterns. The worldwide distribution of variability is, therefore, compatible with the African origin of the species, and the introduction of a few clones in other parts of the world. These results also suggest that the distribution of variability in Martinique is influenced by flooding events, and that two morphs from Martinique can be interpreted as hybrids between two pre-existing morphs, based on morphological, genetic and geographical arguments. PMID:10447855

1999-07-01

224

Genetic Diversity and Differentiation of the Orange-Spotted Grouper (Epinephelus coioides) Between and Within Cultured Stocks and Wild Populations Inferred from Microsatellite DNA Analysis  

PubMed Central

In the present study, we employed microsatellite DNA markers to analyze the genetic diversity and differentiation between and within cultured stocks and wild populations of the orange-spotted grouper originating from the South China Sea and Southeast Asia. Compared to wild populations, genetic changes including reduced genetic diversity and significant differentiation have taken place in cultured grouper stocks, as shown by allele richness and heterozygosity studies, pairwise Fst, structure, molecular variance analysis, as well as multidimensional scaling analysis. Although two geographically adjacent orange-spotted grouper populations in China showed negligible genetic divergence, significant population differentiation was observed in wild grouper populations distributed in a wide geographical area from China, through Malaysia to Indonesia. However, the Mantel test rejected the isolation-by-distance model of genetic structure, which indicated the genetic differentiation among the populations could result from the co-effects of various factors, such as historical dispersal, local environment, ocean currents, river flows and island blocks. Our results demonstrated that microsatellite markers could be suitable not only for genetic monitoring cultured stocks but also for revealing the population structuring of wild orange-spotted grouper populations. Meanwhile, our study provided important information for breeding programs, management of cultured stocks and conservation of wild populations of the orange-spotted grouper.

Wang, Le; Meng, Zining; Liu, Xiaochun; Zhang, Yong; Lin, Haoran

2011-01-01

225

Paternal Psychiatric Symptoms and Maladaptive Paternal Behavior in the Home during the Child Rearing Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from the Children in the Community Study, a community-based longitudinal study were used to investigate associations between paternal psychiatric disorders and child-rearing behaviors. Paternal psychiatric symptoms and behavior in the home were assessed among 782 families during the childhood and adolescence of the offspring. Paternal

Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Cohen, Patricia; Kasen, Stephanie; Brook, Judith S.

2004-01-01

226

Paternal Psychiatric Symptoms and Maladaptive Paternal Behavior in the Home during the Child Rearing Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Data from the Children in the Community Study, a community-based longitudinal study were used to investigate associations between paternal psychiatric disorders and child-rearing behaviors. Paternal psychiatric symptoms and behavior in the home were assessed among 782 families during the childhood and adolescence of the offspring. Paternal

Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Cohen, Patricia; Kasen, Stephanie; Brook, Judith S.

2004-01-01

227

Mutational Dynamics of Microsatellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsatellites are a ubiquitous class of simple repetitive DNA sequences, which are widespread in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic\\u000a genomes. The use of microsatellites as polymorphic DNA markers has considerably increased both in the number of studies and\\u000a in the number of organisms, primarily for genetic mapping, studying genomic instability in cancer, population genetics, forensics,\\u000a conservation biology, molecular anthropology and in

Atul BhargavaF; F. F. Fuentes

2010-01-01

228

Maternal and paternal genealogy of Eurasian taurine cattle (Bos taurus).  

PubMed

Maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has been used extensively to determine origin and diversity of taurine cattle (Bos taurus) but global surveys of paternally inherited Y-chromosome diversity are lacking. Here, we provide mtDNA information on previously uncharacterised Eurasian breeds and present the most comprehensive Y-chromosomal microsatellite data on domestic cattle to date. The mitochondrial haplogroup T3 was the most frequent, whereas T4 was detected only in the Yakutian cattle from Siberia. The mtDNA data indicates that the Ukrainian and Central Asian regions are zones where hybrids between taurine and zebu (B. indicus) cattle have existed. This zebu influence appears to have subsequently spread into southern and southeastern European breeds. The most common Y-chromosomal microsatellite haplotype, termed here as H11, showed an elevated frequency in the Eurasian sample set compared with that detected in Near Eastern and Anatolian breeds. The taurine Y-chromosomal microsatellite haplotypes were found to be structured in a network according to the Y-haplogroups Y1 and Y2. These data do not support the recent hypothesis on the origin of Y1 from the local European hybridization of cattle with male aurochsen. Compared with mtDNA, the intensive culling of breeding males and male-mediated crossbreeding of locally raised native breeds has accelerated loss of Y-chromosomal variation in domestic cattle, and affected the contribution of genetic drift to diversity. In conclusion, to maintain diversity, breeds showing rare Y-haplotypes should be prioritised in the conservation of cattle genetic resources. PMID:19603063

Kantanen, J; Edwards, C J; Bradley, D G; Viinalass, H; Thessler, S; Ivanova, Z; Kiselyova, T; Cinkulov, M; Popov, R; Stojanovi?, S; Ammosov, I; Vilkki, J

2009-07-15

229

Detecting microsatellites within genomes: significant variation among algorithms  

PubMed Central

Background Microsatellites are short, tandemly-repeated DNA sequences which are widely distributed among genomes. Their structure, role and evolution can be analyzed based on exhaustive extraction from sequenced genomes. Several dedicated algorithms have been developed for this purpose. Here, we compared the detection efficiency of five of them (TRF, Mreps, Sputnik, STAR, and RepeatMasker). Results Our analysis was first conducted on the human X chromosome, and microsatellite distributions were characterized by microsatellite number, length, and divergence from a pure motif. The algorithms work with user-defined parameters, and we demonstrate that the parameter values chosen can strongly influence microsatellite distributions. The five algorithms were then compared by fixing parameters settings, and the analysis was extended to three other genomes (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Neurospora crassa and Drosophila melanogaster) spanning a wide range of size and structure. Significant differences for all characteristics of microsatellites were observed among algorithms, but not among genomes, for both perfect and imperfect microsatellites. Striking differences were detected for short microsatellites (below 20 bp), regardless of motif. Conclusion Since the algorithm used strongly influences empirical distributions, studies analyzing microsatellite evolution based on a comparison between empirical and theoretical size distributions should therefore be considered with caution. We also discuss why a typological definition of microsatellites limits our capacity to capture their genomic distributions.

Leclercq, Sebastien; Rivals, Eric; Jarne, Philippe

2007-01-01

230

Love the one you're with: proximity determines paternity success in the barnacle Tetraclita rubescens.  

PubMed

A species' mating system sets limits on the strength of sexual selection. Sexual selection is widespread in dioecious species, but is less well documented in hermaphrodites, and may be less important. We used four highly polymorphic microsatellite markers to assign paternity to broods of the hermaphroditic eastern Pacific volcano barnacle Tetraclita rubescens. These data were used to describe the species' mating system and to examine factors affecting male reproductive success. Tetraclita can sire broods over distances of 11.2 cm, but proximity to the sperm recipient had a highly significant effect on the probability of siring success. There was no effect of body size or the mass of male reproductive tissues on siring success. Broods showed relatively low frequencies of multiple paternity; even at high densities, 75% of broods had only one father. High frequencies of single-paternity broods imply either that this species does not compete via sperm displacement, or that sperm displacement is extremely effective, potentially explaining the lack of a positive relationship between male investment and paternity. In addition, there was low variance in siring success among individuals, suggesting a lack of strong sexual selection on male traits. Low variance among sires and the strong effect of proximity are probably driven by the unusual biology of a sessile copulating species. PMID:22967221

Kelly, Morgan W; Grosberg, Richard K; Sanford, Eric

2012-09-12

231

Paternal relatedness and age proximity regulate social relationships among adult female rhesus macaques  

PubMed Central

Kin selection promotes the evolution of social behavior that increases the survival and reproductive success of close relatives. Among primates, maternal kinship frequently coincides with a higher frequency of grooming and agonistic aiding, but the extent to which paternal kinship influences adult female social relationships has not yet been investigated. Here, we examine the effect of both maternal and paternal kinship, as well as age proximity, on affiliative interactions among semifree-ranging adult female rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta. Kinship was assessed by using both microsatellites and DNA-fingerprinting. Our study confirms that the closest affiliative relationships characterize maternal half-sisters. We provide evidence that adult females are significantly more affiliative with paternal half-sisters than with nonkin. Furthermore, paternal kin discrimination was more pronounced among peers than among nonpeers, indicating that age proximity has an additional regulatory effect on affiliative interactions. We propose that kin discrimination among cercopithecine primates emerges from ontogenetic processes that involve phenotype matching based on shared behavioral traits, such as inherited personality profiles, rather than physiological or physical characteristics.

Widdig, Anja; Nurnberg, Peter; Krawczak, Michael; Streich, Wolf Jurgen; Bercovitch, Fred B.

2001-01-01

232

Analysis of four microsatellite markers on the long arm of chromosome 9 by meiotic recombination in flow-sorted single sperm  

SciTech Connect

Meiotic recombination in flow-sorted single sperm was used to analyze four highly polymorphic microsatellite markers on the long arm of chromosome 9. The microsatellites comprised three tightly linked markers: 9CMP1 (D9S109), 9CMP2 (D9S127), and D9S53, which map to 9q31, and a reference marker, ASS, which is located in 9q34.1. Haplotypes of single sperm were assessed by using PCR in a single-step multiplex reaction to amplify each locus. Recombinant haplotypes were identified by their relative infrequency and were analyzed using THREELOC, a maximum-likelihood-analysis program, and an adaptation of CRI-MAP. The most likely order of these markers was cen-D9S109-D9S127-D9S53-ASS-tel with D9S109, D9S127, and D9S53 being separated by a genetic distance of approximately 3%. The order of the latter three markers did not however achieve statistical significance using the THREELOC program. 21 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Furlong, R.A.; Goudie, D.R.; Carter, N.P.; Lyall, J.E.W.; Affara, N.A.; Ferguson-Smith, M.A. (Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom))

1993-06-01

233

Combining US and Brazilian microsatellite data for a meta-analysis of sheep (Ovis aries) breed diversity: facilitating the FAO Global Plan of Action for Conserving Animal Genetic Resources.  

PubMed

Microsatellites are commonly used to understand genetic diversity among livestock populations. Nevertheless, most studies have involved the processing of samples in one laboratory or with common standards across laboratories. Our objective was to identify an approach to facilitate the merger of microsatellite data for cross-country comparison of genetic resources when samples were not evaluated in a single laboratory. Eleven microsatellites were included in the analysis of 13 US and 9 Brazilian sheep breeds (N = 706). A Bayesian approach was selected and evaluated with and without a shared set of samples analyzed by each country. All markers had a posterior probability of greater than 0.5, which was higher than predicted as reasonable by the software used. Sensitivity analysis indicated no difference between results with or without shared samples. Cluster analysis showed breeds to be partitioned by functional groups of hair, meat, or wool types (K = 7 and 12 of STRUCTURE). Cross-country comparison of hair breeds indicated substantial genetic distances and within breed variability. The selected approach can facilitate the merger and analysis of microsatellite data for cross-country comparison and extend the utility of previously collected molecular markers. In addition, the result of this type of analysis can be used in new and existing conservation programs. PMID:22013019

Paiva, Samuel Rezende; Mariante, Arthur da Silva; Blackburn, Harvey D

234

Discrimination of patients with microsatellite instability colon cancer using 1H HR MAS MR spectroscopy and chemometric analysis.  

PubMed

The primary aim of this study was to analyze human colon cancer and normal adjacent tissue using (1)H HR MAS MR spectroscopy and chemometric analyses, evaluating possible biomarkers for colon cancer. The secondary aim was to investigate metabolic profiles of tissue samples (n = 63, 31 patients) with microsatellite instability (MSI-H) compared to microsatellite stable (MSS) colon tissue. Our hypothesis was that this method may provide an alternative to MSI genotyping. Cancer samples were clearly separated from normal adjacent mucosa by 100% accuracy. Several metabolites such as lactate, taurine, glycine, myo-inositol, scyllo-inositol, phosphocholine (PC), glycerophosphocholine (GPC), creatine, and glucose were identified as potential biomarkers for cancer detection. Adenomas (n = 4) were also separated from cancer and normal samples mainly based on higher GPC and PC levels. Interestingly, metabolic differences in normal colon mucosa between MSI-H and MSS patients were observed. MSI status was validated with 80% accuracy with a sensitivity and specificity of 79% and 82%, respectively, including both cancer and normal samples The metabolic differences between MSI-H and MSS may be very interesting in the early detection of cancer development and of high clinical importance in the work of improving diagnosis and characterization of colon cancer. PMID:20507057

Tessem, May-Britt; Selnaes, Kirsten M; Sjursen, Wenche; Tranø, Gerd; Giskeødegård, Guro F; Bathen, Tone F; Gribbestad, Ingrid S; Hofsli, Eva

2010-07-01

235

Complexities in the genetic structure of Anopheles gambiae populations in west Africa as revealed by microsatellite DNA analysis  

PubMed Central

Chromosomal forms of Anopheles gambiae, given the informal designations Bamako, Mopti, and Savannah, have been recognized by the presence or absence of four paracentric inversions on chromosome 2. Studies of karyotype frequencies at sites where the forms occur in sympatry have led to the suggestion that these forms represent species. We conducted a study of the genetic structure of populations of An. gambiae from two villages in Mali, west Africa. Populations at each site were composed of the Bamako and Mopti forms and the sibling species, Anopheles arabiensis. Karyotypes were determined for each individual mosquito and genotypes at 21 microsatellite loci determined. A number of the microsatellites have been physically mapped to polytene chromosomes, making it possible to select loci based on their position relative to the inversions used to define forms. We found that the chromosomal forms differ at all loci on chromosome 2, but there were few differences for loci on other chromosomes. Geographic variation was small. Gene flow appears to vary among different regions within the genome, being lowest on chromosome 2, probably due to hitchhiking with the inversions. We conclude that the majority of observed genetic divergence between chromosomal forms can be explained by forces that need not involve reproductive isolation, although reproductive isolation is not ruled out. We found low levels of gene flow between the sibling species Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles arabiensis, similar to estimates based on observed frequencies of hybrid karyotypes in natural populations.

Lanzaro, Gregory C.; Toure, Yeya T.; Carnahan, John; Zheng, Liangbiao; Dolo, Guimogo; Traore, Sekou; Petrarca, Vincenzo; Vernick, Kenneth D.; Taylor, Charles E.

1998-01-01

236

Paternalism and the argument from illiteracy.  

PubMed

Throughout this essay, I will consider an argument frequently used to justify paternalistic behavior toward a specific class of persons: illiterate people. The argument states that illiterate people are uneducated, lack information and understanding, and are thus unable to make decisions. Therefore, it is argued, paternalism in their case is justified. The conclusion is that illiterate persons cannot be autonomous. The justification for this view is based on an a priori attitude: since it is impossible to communicate, physicians should decide which kind of treatment the illiterate patient should receive. This argument is frequently used even though its proponents may not be aware of its implications. Given the importance and uncritical acceptance this argument has in Argentina, and also in other Latin American countries, I think it is relevant to analyze carefully what it means. I propose a thorough analysis of this argument, of its implications and an evaluation of whether it is acceptable. PMID:11653044

Luna, Florencia

1995-07-01

237

A measure of population subdivision based on microsatellite allele frequencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsatellite loci, loci that vary in the number of repeats of a simple DNA sequence, are becoming commonly used in the analysis of natural populations. Microsatellite loci are often highly polymorphic and relatively easy to survey and hence offer the hope of greater understanding of population structure. The question is how to make the best use of allele frequencies at

Montgomery Slatkin

1995-01-01

238

Risk Factors for Paternal Physical Child Abuse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study uses the developmental-ecological framework to examine a comprehensive set of paternal factors hypothesized to be linked to risk for paternal child abuse (PCA) among a diverse sample of fathers. Attention was given to fathers' marital status and their race/ethnicity (White, African American, and Hispanic). Methods: Interviews…

Lee, Shawna J.; Guterman, Neil B.; Lee, Yookyong

2008-01-01

239

Beyond traditional paternity and identification cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper extends on the traditional methodology used to quantify DNA evidence in paternity or identification cases. By extending we imply that there are more than two alternatives to choose between. In a standard paternity case the two competing explanations H1: “John Doe is the father of the child” and H2: “A random man is the father of the child”,

T. Egeland; P. F. Mostad; B. Mevåg; M. Stenersen

2000-01-01

240

Multiplexed microsatellite recovery using massively parallel sequencing.  

PubMed

Conservation and management of natural populations requires accurate and inexpensive genotyping methods. Traditional microsatellite, or simple sequence repeat (SSR), marker analysis remains a popular genotyping method because of the comparatively low cost of marker development, ease of analysis and high power of genotype discrimination. With the availability of massively parallel sequencing (MPS), it is now possible to sequence microsatellite-enriched genomic libraries in multiplex pools. To test this approach, we prepared seven microsatellite-enriched, barcoded genomic libraries from diverse taxa (two conifer trees, five birds) and sequenced these on one lane of the Illumina Genome Analyzer using paired-end 80-bp reads. In this experiment, we screened 6.1 million sequences and identified 356,958 unique microreads that contained di- or trinucleotide microsatellites. Examination of four species shows that our conversion rate from raw sequences to polymorphic markers compares favourably to Sanger- and 454-based methods. The advantage of multiplexed MPS is that the staggering capacity of modern microread sequencing is spread across many libraries; this reduces sample preparation and sequencing costs to less than $400 (USD) per species. This price is sufficiently low that microsatellite libraries could be prepared and sequenced for all 1373 organisms listed as 'threatened' and 'endangered' in the United States for under $0.5 M (USD). PMID:21676207

Jennings, T N; Knaus, B J; Mullins, T D; Haig, S M; Cronn, R C

2011-06-16

241

Identification, characterization and utilization of unigene derived microsatellite markers in tea (Camellia sinensis L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Despite great advances in genomic technology observed in several crop species, the availability of molecular tools such as microsatellite markers has been limited in tea (Camellia sinensis L.). The development of microsatellite markers will have a major impact on genetic analysis, gene mapping and marker assisted breeding. Unigene derived microsatellite (UGMS) markers identified from publicly available sequence database have

Ram Kumar Sharma; Pankaj Bhardwaj; Rinu Negi; Trilochan Mohapatra; Paramvir Singh Ahuja

2009-01-01

242

Microsatellite isolation and marker development in carrot - genomic distribution, linkage mapping, genetic diversity analysis and marker transferability across Apiaceae  

PubMed Central

Background The Apiaceae family includes several vegetable and spice crop species among which carrot is the most economically important member, with ~21 million tons produced yearly worldwide. Despite its importance, molecular resources in this species are relatively underdeveloped. The availability of informative, polymorphic, and robust PCR-based markers, such as microsatellites (or SSRs), will facilitate genetics and breeding of carrot and other Apiaceae, including integration of linkage maps, tagging of phenotypic traits and assisting positional gene cloning. Thus, with the purpose of isolating carrot microsatellites, two different strategies were used; a hybridization-based library enrichment for SSRs, and bioinformatic mining of SSRs in BAC-end sequence and EST sequence databases. This work reports on the development of 300 carrot SSR markers and their characterization at various levels. Results Evaluation of microsatellites isolated from both DNA sources in subsets of 7 carrot F2 mapping populations revealed that SSRs from the hybridization-based method were longer, had more repeat units and were more polymorphic than SSRs isolated by sequence search. Overall, 196 SSRs (65.1%) were polymorphic in at least one mapping population, and the percentage of polymophic SSRs across F2 populations ranged from 17.8 to 24.7. Polymorphic markers in one family were evaluated in the entire F2, allowing the genetic mapping of 55 SSRs (38 codominant) onto the carrot reference map. The SSR loci were distributed throughout all 9 carrot linkage groups (LGs), with 2 to 9 SSRs/LG. In addition, SSR evaluations in carrot-related taxa indicated that a significant fraction of the carrot SSRs transfer successfully across Apiaceae, with heterologous amplification success rate decreasing with the target-species evolutionary distance from carrot. SSR diversity evaluated in a collection of 65 D. carota accessions revealed a high level of polymorphism for these selected loci, with an average of 19 alleles/locus and 0.84 expected heterozygosity. Conclusions The addition of 55 SSRs to the carrot map, together with marker characterizations in six other mapping populations, will facilitate future comparative mapping studies and integration of carrot maps. The markers developed herein will be a valuable resource for assisting breeding, genetic, diversity, and genomic studies of carrot and other Apiaceae.

2011-01-01

243

Paternal isodisomy for chromosome 7 and normal growth and development in a patient with congenital chloride diarrhea  

SciTech Connect

Uniparental disomy (UPD) has been reported in an increasing number of patients, occasionally ascertained because of concomitant autosomal recessive disorders. In some cases, additional signs such as growth alteration, mental retardation or minor anomalies are present, suggesting an imprinting effect. For maternal chromosome 7, UPD has been described in three patients with recessive disorders. Severe growth retardation diagnosed in all these patients has been explained by the effect of imprinting of growth related genes on maternal chromosome 7. No cases of paternally derived disomy from chromosome 7 were previously known. Here we report paternal isodisomy for chromosome 7 and normal growth in a patient with a recessive disorder, congenital chloride diarrhea (CLD; MIM 214700). Ten informative microsatellite markers on chromosome 7 demonstrated that the proband did not have any maternal contribution to her genotype for that chromosome. Maternal and paternal alleles could not be distinguished for another 10 markers tested for chromosome 7, but the proband was always homozygous. As most uniparental paternal disomies appear to have a postzygotic origin, the primary event might have been a maternal meiotic nondisjunction. A thorough clinical evaluation with a view to additional signs of imprinted genes localized in chromosome 7 was performed. The physical status and laboratory tests were normal except for a mild high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss. As the patient has normal stature, it is likely that the paternal chromosome 7 lacks the suggested maternal imprinting effect on growth. The origin of the hearing loss remains speculative.

Hoeglund, P.; de la Chapelle, A.; Kere, J. [Univ. of Helsinki, (Finland)] [and others

1994-09-01

244

A measure of population subdivision based on microsatellite allele frequencies  

SciTech Connect

Microsatellite loci, loci that vary in the number of repeats of a simple DNA sequence, are becoming commonly used in the analysis of natural populations. Microsatellite loci are often highly polymorphic and relatively easy to survey and hence offer the hope of greater understanding of population structure. The question is how to make the best use of allele frequencies at microsatellite loci. This paper, like the accompanying paper by Goldstein et al. (1995), discusses how information about the mutation process at microsatellite loci can suggest statistics that are more appropriate for the analysis of microsatellite loci than are existing statistics. In this paper, I will introduce a new statistic analogous to Wright`s (1951) F{sub ST} that can be used to estimate effective migration rates or times since population divergence. This statistic is closely related to the distance measures introduced by Goldstein et al. (1995). 15 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

Slatkin, M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

1995-01-01

245

Power of exclusion of 19 microsatellite markers for parentage testing in river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).  

PubMed

In the present study, 19 microsatellite markers were assessed for their power of exclusion to test parentage in river buffalo. Microsatellite genotypes of 216 unrelated buffaloes belonging to five different breeds were utilized for the study. The probabilities of exclusion were calculated for three hypothetical situations viz. paternity testing (PE1), one parental genotype unavailable (PE2) and exclusion of both parents i.e. substituted offspring (PE3). The mean probability of exclusion across 19 investigated markers in buffalo was 0.578 (PE1), 0.405 (PE2) and 0.764 (PE3) respectively. The probability of exclusion for paternity (PE1) ranged between 0.297 and 0.814 across different markers. The exclusion probability for the cases one parent unavailable (PE2) and substituted offspring (PE3) varied from 0.143 to 0.688 and 0.465 to 0.946 respectively. Polymorphism information content and expected heterozygosity were found to have significantly high correlation with probability of exclusion of microsatellite markers. The cumulative PE1 of nine marker loci was estimated to be 0.9999 while in case of absence of one of the parental genotypes, a minimum of 11 markers were required to achieve a cumulative PE2 of 0.999. In conclusion, the present study proposes two multiplex sets with four and five markers respectively for routine parentage testing in buffalo and an additional set of four markers for doubtful cases of paternity. PMID:22555978

Kathiravan, P; Kataria, R S; Mishra, B P

2012-05-04

246

Compound Evolutionary History of the Rhesus Macaque Mhc Class I B Region Revealed by Microsatellite Analysis and Localization of Retroviral Sequences  

PubMed Central

In humans, the single polymorphic B locus of the major histocompatibility complex is linked to the microsatellite MIB. In rhesus macaques, however, haplotypes are characterized by the presence of unique combinations of multiple B genes, which may display different levels of polymorphism. The aim of the study was to shed light on the evolutionary history of this highly complex region. First, the robustness of the microsatellite MIB-linked to almost half of the B genes in rhesus macaques (Mamu-B)–for accurate B haplotyping was studied. Based on the physical map of an established haplotype comprising 7 MIB loci, each located next to a certain Mamu-B gene, two MIB loci, MIB1 and MIB6, were investigated in a panel of MHC homozygous monkeys. MIB1 revealed a complex genotyping pattern, whereas MIB6 analysis resulted in the detection of one or no amplicon. Both patterns are specific for a given B haplotype, show Mendelian segregation, and even allow a more precise haplotype definition than do traditional typing methods. Second, a search was performed for retroelements that may have played a role in duplication processes as observed in the macaque B region. This resulted in the description of two types of duplicons. One basic unit comprises an expressed Mamu-B gene, adjacent to an HERV16 copy closely linked to MIB. The second type of duplicon comprises a Mamu-B (pseudo)gene, linked to a truncated HERV16 structure lacking its MIB segment. Such truncation seems to coincide with the loss of B gene transcription. Subsequent to the duplication processes, recombination between MIB and Mamu-B loci appears to have occurred, resulting in a hyperplastic B region. Thus, analysis of MIB in addition to B loci allows deciphering of the compound evolutionary history of the class I B region in Old World monkeys.

Doxiadis, Gaby G. M.; Heijmans, Corrine M. C.; Bonhomme, Maxime; Otting, Nel; Crouau-Roy, Brigitte; Bontrop, Ronald E.

2009-01-01

247

Monosomy 1p36.31-33{yields}pter due to a paternal reciprocal translocation: Prognostic significance of FISH analysis  

SciTech Connect

A rare monosomy 1p36.31-33{r_arrow}pter was found in a child with physical anomalies, psycho-motor retardation, and seizures. Cytogenetic investigation suggested an unbalanced translocation between 1p and an acrocentric chromosome, but the rearrangement was difficult to assess accurately using conventional chromosome banding techniques. The half-cryptic translocation was further characterized using fluorescence in situ hybridization, and the aberrant chromosome 1 was shown to be a derivate of a paternal reciprocal translocation t(1;15)(p36.31-33;p11.2-12). The breakpoints on chromosome 1 and 15 were defined in detail using locus specific probes. The rearrangement did not include the region on chromosome 1p which previously has been suggested to predispose to the development of neuroblastoma in a case with a constitutional translocation. At 3 6/12 years, the patient has no clinical signs of this disease, which illustrates the prognostic significance of this investigation. 30 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Blennow, E.; Bui, The-Hung; Wallin, A. [Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden)] [and others

1996-10-02

248

Pattern and Determinants of Paternal Involvement in Childcare: An Empirical Investigation in a Metropolis of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of various aspects of paternal involvement among Indian fathers is presented in this article. The pattern of involvement\\u000a in terms of the activities participated in, and their frequency of participation have been examined. Overall level of involvement\\u000a of fathers in childcare has also been determined. A number of hypotheses regarding predictors of paternal involvement have\\u000a been formulated and

Anjula Saraff; Harish C. Srivastava

2010-01-01

249

Low paternity skew and the influence of maternal kin in an egalitarian, patrilocal primate  

PubMed Central

Levels of reproductive skew vary in wild primates living in multimale groups depending on the degree to which high-ranking males monopolize access to females. Still, the factors affecting paternity in egalitarian societies remain unexplored. We combine unique behavioral, life history, and genetic data to evaluate the distribution of paternity in the northern muriqui (Brachyteles hypoxanthus), a species known for its affiliative, nonhierarchical relationships. We genotyped 67 individuals (22 infants born over a 3-y period, their 21 mothers, and all 24 possible sires) at 17 microsatellite marker loci and assigned paternity to all infants. None of the 13 fathers were close maternal relatives of females with which they sired infants, and the most successful male sired a much lower percentage of infants (18%) than reported for the most successful males in other species. Our findings of inbreeding avoidance and low male reproductive skew are consistent with the muriqui's observed social and sexual behavior, but the long delay (?2.08 y) between the onset of male sexual behavior and the age at which males first sire young is unexpected. The allocation of paternity implicates individual male life histories and access to maternal kin as key factors influencing variation in paternal—and grandmaternal—fitness. The apparent importance of lifelong maternal investment in coresident sons resonates with other recent examinations of maternal influences on offspring reproduction. This importance also extends the implications of the “grandmother hypothesis” in human evolution to include the possible influence of mothers and other maternal kin on male reproductive success in patrilocal societies.

Strier, Karen B.; Chaves, Paulo B.; Mendes, Sergio L.; Fagundes, Valeria; Di Fiore, Anthony

2011-01-01

250

Low paternity skew and the influence of maternal kin in an egalitarian, patrilocal primate.  

PubMed

Levels of reproductive skew vary in wild primates living in multimale groups depending on the degree to which high-ranking males monopolize access to females. Still, the factors affecting paternity in egalitarian societies remain unexplored. We combine unique behavioral, life history, and genetic data to evaluate the distribution of paternity in the northern muriqui (Brachyteles hypoxanthus), a species known for its affiliative, nonhierarchical relationships. We genotyped 67 individuals (22 infants born over a 3-y period, their 21 mothers, and all 24 possible sires) at 17 microsatellite marker loci and assigned paternity to all infants. None of the 13 fathers were close maternal relatives of females with which they sired infants, and the most successful male sired a much lower percentage of infants (18%) than reported for the most successful males in other species. Our findings of inbreeding avoidance and low male reproductive skew are consistent with the muriqui's observed social and sexual behavior, but the long delay (?2.08 y) between the onset of male sexual behavior and the age at which males first sire young is unexpected. The allocation of paternity implicates individual male life histories and access to maternal kin as key factors influencing variation in paternal--and grandmaternal--fitness. The apparent importance of lifelong maternal investment in coresident sons resonates with other recent examinations of maternal influences on offspring reproduction. This importance also extends the implications of the "grandmother hypothesis" in human evolution to include the possible influence of mothers and other maternal kin on male reproductive success in patrilocal societies. PMID:22065786

Strier, Karen B; Chaves, Paulo B; Mendes, Sérgio L; Fagundes, Valéria; Di Fiore, Anthony

2011-11-07

251

Isolating Microsatellite DNA Loci  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of techniques are presented to construct genomic DNA libraries highly enriched for microsatellite DNA loci. The individual techniques used here derive from several published protocols but have been optimized and tested in our research laboratories as well as in classroom settings at the University of South Carolina and University of Georgia, with students achieving nearly 100% success. Reducing

Travis C. Glenn; Nancy A. Schable

2005-01-01

252

Novel microsatellite control system  

SciTech Connect

The authors are developing extremely simple yet quite capable analog pulse-coded neural networks for smaller-faster-cheaper spacecraft attitude and control systems. They will demonstrate a prototype microsatellite that uses the novel control system to autonomously stabilize itself in the ambient magnetic field and point itself at the brightest available light source.

Moore, K.R.; Frigo, J.R.; Tilden, M.W.

1996-12-31

253

Paternal-age and birth-order effect on the human secondary sex ratio.  

PubMed Central

Because of conflicting results in previous analyses of possible maternal and paternal effects on the variation in sex ratio at birth, records of United States live births in 1975 were sorted by offspring sex, live birth order (based on maternal parity), parental races, and, unlike prior studies, ungrouped parental ages. Linear regression and logistic analysis showed significant effects of birth order and paternal age on sex ratio in the white race data (1.67 million births; 10,219 different combinations of independent variables). Contrary to previous reported results, the paternal-age effect cannot be ascribed wholly to the high correlation between paternal age and birth order as maternal age, even more highly correlated with birth order, does not account for a significant additional reduction in sex-ratio variation over that accounted for by birth order alone.

Ruder, A

1985-01-01

254

Effect of genotyping error in model-free linkage analysis using microsatellite or single-nucleotide polymorphism marker maps  

PubMed Central

Errors while genotyping are inevitable and can reduce the power to detect linkage. However, does genotyping error have the same impact on linkage results for single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and microsatellite (MS) marker maps? To evaluate this question we detected genotyping errors that are consistent with Mendelian inheritance using large changes in multipoint identity-by-descent sharing in neighboring markers. Only a small fraction of Mendelian consistent errors were detectable (e.g., 18% of MS and 2.4% of SNP genotyping errors). More SNP genotyping errors are Mendelian consistent compared to MS genotyping errors, so genotyping error may have a greater impact on linkage results using SNP marker maps. We also evaluated the effect of genotyping error on the power and type I error rate using simulated nuclear families with missing parents under 0, 0.14, and 2.8% genotyping error rates. In the presence of genotyping error, we found that the power to detect a true linkage signal was greater for SNP (75%) than MS (67%) marker maps, although there were also slightly more false-positive signals using SNP marker maps (5 compared with 3 for MS). Finally, we evaluated the usefulness of accounting for genotyping error in the SNP data using a likelihood-based approach, which restores some of the power that is lost when genotyping error is introduced.

Thompson, Cheryl L; Baechle, Dan; Lu, Qing; Mathew, George; Song, Yeunjoo; Iyengar, Sudha K; Gray-McGuire, Courtney; Goddard, Katrina AB

2005-01-01

255

[Screening and body correlation analysis of microsatellite markers related to intermuscular bone number in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)].  

PubMed

In this study, 149 polymorphic markers were screened from 200 microsatellite markers. From a family of mirror carp, which included 107 individuals. All samples were analyzed for body correlation, and intermuscular bone number was tested using the General Linear Model (GLM) single marker regression. Determination of the threshold values by 10,000 permutation tests showed that eight markers had significant correlation (P<0.05), in which HLJ3086, HLJ3642 and HLJ3515 had very significant correlation with intermuscular bone number (P<0.01). In addition, the genotypes of the captured correlative loci were determined by Duncan's test using SPSS17.0 software. Markers were used to screen the protein and nucleotide database in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). Blasting results showed that HLJ2891 was highly correlated (92%) with latrophilin-2-like and HLJ3515 was highly correlated (81%) with serine/threonine-protein kinase 32B-like of zebrafish. These functional markers and genotypes may provide an efficient basis for marker-assisted selection of intermuscular bone number in mirror carp. PMID:23913892

Ma, Ji-Min; Kuang, You-Yi; Zheng, Xian-Hu; Cao, Ding-Chen; Lyu, Wei-Hua; Chang, Yu; Zhou, Dan; DU, Ke; Sun, Xiao-Wen

2013-08-01

256

Genetic Evidence for Polygynandry in the Black-Striped Pipefish Syngnathus abaster: A Microsatellite-Based Parentage Analysis.  

PubMed

Sexual selection theory predicts that, in organisms with reversed sex roles, more polyandrous species exhibit higher levels of sexual dimorphism. In the family Syngnathidae (pipefish, seahorses, and seadragons), males provide all parental care by carrying developing embryos on their ventral surfaces, and females develop secondary sex characters. Syngnathids exhibit a variety of genetic mating patterns, making them an ideal group to test predictions of sexual selection theory. Here, we describe the mating system of the black-striped pipefish Syngnathus abaster, using 4 highly variable microsatellites to analyze parentage of 102 embryos. Results revealed that 1) both sexes mate multiple times over the course of a pregnancy (polygynandrous mating system), 2) eggs are spatially segregated by maternity within each brood pouch, and 3) larger females have higher mating success (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test; P < 0.05). Together with similar studies of other syngnathid species, our results support the hypothesis that the mating system is related to the intensity of sexual dimorphism. PMID:23975836

Hübner, Kerstin; Gonzalez-Wanguemert, Mercedes; Diekmann, Onno E; Serrão, Ester A

2013-08-24

257

Paternity leave experiences of NHS doctors.  

PubMed

This study assesses NHS doctors' experiences of paternity leave and evaluates whether practices have changed since the introduction of additional paternity leave (APL) in April 2011. An anonymised online survey designed to discover experiences and uptake of APL and ordinary paternity leave (OPL) was distributed to all members of the London Deanery Synapse® network. In total, 364 fathers responded. Their seniority ranged from foundation trainees to consultants. Following the formal introduction of OPL in 2003, the number of fathers taking any paternity leave increased (from 50% to 95.6%). The majority of respondents (76.7%) felt well supported by their employer. Since the introduction of APL, 3% of respondents took additional leave. Reasons for the low uptake of APL included the impracticalities of the law, poor awareness and perceived attitudes and implications for training. Problems with OPL included the inadequate provision of cover and difficulties in timing the leave appropriately. PMID:24115693

Gordon, Hannah; Szram, Joanna

2013-10-01

258

Development and characterization of new microsatellites for Eugenia dysenterica DC (Myrtaceae).  

PubMed

Microsatellite markers were developed for population genetic analyses of the Neotropical tree Eugenia dysenterica DC (Myrtaceae), after construction of a shotgun genomic library for microsatellite discovery. Nine primers were designed, of which 5 yielded amplified product. These primers were polymorphic for 97 individuals collected in 3 distinct localities. The number of alleles per locus (primer) ranged from 3 to 11 and expected heterozygosities varied from 0.309 to 0.884. The probability of locus identity was ~1.88 x 10(-4) and the probability of paternity exclusion was ~0.9367. The 5 microsatellite primer pairs may be suitable for population genetic studies such as parentage and fine-scale genetic analyses of this species. PMID:23420405

Telles, M P C; Silva, J B; Resende, L V; Vianello, R P; Chaves, L J; Soares, T N; Collevatti, R G

2013-02-06

259

Paternal determinants of female adolescent's marijuana use  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the interrelationship of sets of paternal personality attributes, paternal–daughter relationship variables, and adolescent personality factors with adolescent daughters' use of marijuana. This was a follow-up of a previous study examining father–son factors related to son's marijuana use. Four hundred three female college students and their fathers took part in the study. Results

Judith S. Brook; Martin Whiteman; Ann S. Gordon; David W. Brook

1984-01-01

260

Functionally relevant microsatellites in sugarcane unigenes  

PubMed Central

Background Unigene sequences constitute a rich source of functionally relevant microsatellites. The present study was undertaken to mine the microsatellites in the available unigene sequences of sugarcane for understanding their constitution in the expressed genic component of its complex polyploid/aneuploid genome, assessing their functional significance in silico, determining the extent of allelic diversity at the microsatellite loci and for evaluating their utility in large-scale genotyping applications in sugarcane. Results The average frequency of perfect microsatellite was 1/10.9 kb, while it was 1/44.3 kb for the long and hypervariable class I repeats. GC-rich trinucleotides coding for alanine and the GA-rich dinucleotides were the most abundant microsatellite classes. Out of 15,594 unigenes mined in the study, 767 contained microsatellite repeats and for 672 of these putative functions were determined in silico. The microsatellite repeats were found in the functional domains of proteins encoded by 364 unigenes. Its significance was assessed by establishing the structure-function relationship for the beta-amylase and protein kinase encoding unigenes having repeats in the catalytic domains. A total of 726 allelic variants (7.42 alleles per locus) with different repeat lengths were captured precisely for a set of 47 fluorescent dye labeled primers in 36 sugarcane genotypes and five cereal species using the automated fragment analysis system, which suggested the utility of designed primers for rapid, large-scale and high-throughput genotyping applications in sugarcane. Pair-wise similarity ranging from 0.33 to 0.84 with an average of 0.40 revealed a broad genetic base of the Indian varieties in respect of functionally relevant regions of the large and complex sugarcane genome. Conclusion Microsatellite repeats were present in 4.92% of sugarcane unigenes, for most (87.6%) of which functions were determined in silico. High level of allelic diversity in repeats including those present in the functional domains of proteins encoded by the unigenes demonstrated their use in assay of useful variation in the genic component of complex polyploid sugarcane genome.

2010-01-01

261

THE DEVELOPMENT OF MICROSATELLITE MARKERS FOR PERSEA AMERICANA (AVOCADO).  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Because of their relative abundance, distribution across the genome, hypervariability and co-dominance, microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats are considered to be cost effective and efficient molecular genetic markers for parentage analysis, linkage mapping, association studies, and genetic fi...

262

Testosterone response to courtship predicts future paternal behavior in the California mouse, Peromyscus californicus  

PubMed Central

In the monogamous and biparental California mouse (Peromyscus californicus), paternal care is critical for maximal offspring survival. Animals form pair bonds and do not engage in extrapair matings, and thus female evaluation of paternal quality during courtship is likely to be advantageous. We hypothesized that male endocrine or behavioral response to courtship interactions would be predictive of future paternal behavior. To test this hypothesis, we formed 20 pairs of California mice, and evaluated their behavior during the first hour of courtship interactions and again following the birth of young. We also collected blood from males at baseline, 1-hr after pairing, 3-weeks paired, and when young were four days old to measure testosterone (T). We found that male T-response to courtship interactions predicted future paternal behavior, specifically the amount of time he huddled over young when challenged by the temporary removal of his mate. Males that mounted T increases at courtship also approached pups more quickly during this challenge than males who had a significant decrease in T at courtship. Proximity of the male and female during courtship predicted paternal huddling during a 1-hr observation, and a multiple regression analysis revealed that courtship behavior was also predictive of birth latency. We speculate that male T-response to a female in P. californicus is an honest indicator of paternal quality, and if detectable by females could provide a basis for evaluation during mate choice.

Gleason, Erin D.; Marler, Catherine A.

2009-01-01

263

Analysis of the population structure of Macrolophus pygmaeus (Rambur) (Hemiptera: Miridae) in the Palaearctic region using microsatellite markers.  

PubMed

Macrolophus pygmaeus (Rambur) (Hemiptera: Miridae) is widely distributed throughout the Palaearctic region. The aim was to explain the current geographic distribution of the species by investigating its genetic population structure. Samples of M. pygmaeus were collected in 15 localities through its range of distribution. A sample from a commercial producer was also analyzed. A total of 367 M. pygmaeus were genotyped for nine microsatellite loci. Isolation by distance was tested by Mantel's test. The molecular structure of M. pygmaeus populations was inferred by UPGMA, AMOVA, Principal component and Bayesian analyses. The average number of alleles per locus per population was 5.5 (range: 3.1-7.8). Istanbul (Turkey) and Nimes (France) had the lowest (0.291) and the highest (0.626) expected heterozygosity (H(e)), respectively. There was an increase in H(e) from the Canary Islands to Nimes, and a progressive decrease thereafter. A significant negative correlation was found between allelic richness and H(e), and the distance of each population to the easternmost locality (Canary Islands). Significant linkage disequilibrium was observed in the populations from Turkey. F(ST) (0.004-0.334) indicated a high population differentiation, with isolation by distance supported by a high correlation. Bayesian analyses, PCA, and UPGMA pointed to three main clusters: (1) Greece and Turkey, (2) Italy and France, and (3) southern Iberia and the Canary Islands. The recent evolutionary history of M. pygmaeus is inferred from the data as follows: (1) the reduction in the geographic distribution of the species to the Iberian, Italian, and Balkan peninsulas, and possibly southern France, during glaciations and re-colonization of northern Europe from its southern refuges; (2) the maintenance of high diversity in Iberia and Italy (and possibly southern France) during contraction periods, and bottlenecks in the Balkans; (3) introgression of the Italian-French lineage in northern Spain, naturally or through trade. PMID:23301179

Sanchez, Juan Antonio; Spina, Michelangelo La; Perera, Omaththage P

2012-11-08

264

Survey and analysis of simple sequence repeats in the Laccaria bicolor genome, with development of microsatellite markers  

SciTech Connect

It is becoming clear that simple sequence repeats (SSRs) play a significant role in fungal genome organization, and they are a large source of genetic markers for population genetics and meiotic maps. We identified SSRs in the Laccaria bicolor genome by in silico survey and analyzed their distribution in the different genomic regions. We also compared the abundance and distribution of SSRs in L. bicolor with those of the following fungal genomes: Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Coprinopsis cinerea, Ustilago maydis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus nidulans, Magnaporthe grisea, Neurospora crassa and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using the MISA computer program, we detected 277,062 SSRs in the L. bicolor genome representing 8% of the assembled genomic sequence. Among the analyzed basidiomycetes, L. bicolor exhibited the highest SSR density although no correlation between relative abundance and the genome sizes was observed. In most genomes the short motifs (mono- to trinucleotides) were more abundant than the longer repeated SSRs. Generally, in each organism, the occurrence, relative abundance, and relative density of SSRs decreased as the repeat unit increased. Furthermore, each organism had its own common and longest SSRs. In the L. bicolor genome, most of the SSRs were located in intergenic regions (73.3%) and the highest SSR density was observed in transposable elements (TEs; 6,706 SSRs/Mb). However, 81% of the protein-coding genes contained SSRs in their exons, suggesting that SSR polymorphism may alter gene phenotypes. Within a L. bicolor offspring, sequence polymorphism of 78 SSRs was mainly detected in non-TE intergenic regions. Unlike previously developed microsatellite markers, these new ones are spread throughout the genome; these markers could have immediate applications in population genetics.

Labbe, Jessy L [ORNL; Murat, Claude [INRA, Nancy, France; Morin, Emmanuelle [INRA, Nancy, France; Le Tacon, F [UMR, France; Martin, Francis [INRA, Nancy, France

2011-01-01

265

Analysis of the population structure of Macrolophus pygmaeus (Rambur) (Hemiptera: Miridae) in the Palaearctic region using microsatellite markers  

PubMed Central

Macrolophus pygmaeus (Rambur) (Hemiptera: Miridae) is widely distributed throughout the Palaearctic region. The aim was to explain the current geographic distribution of the species by investigating its genetic population structure. Samples of M. pygmaeus were collected in 15 localities through its range of distribution. A sample from a commercial producer was also analyzed. A total of 367 M. pygmaeus were genotyped for nine microsatellite loci. Isolation by distance was tested by Mantel's test. The molecular structure of M. pygmaeus populations was inferred by UPGMA, AMOVA, Principal component and Bayesian analyses. The average number of alleles per locus per population was 5.5 (range: 3.1–7.8). Istanbul (Turkey) and Nimes (France) had the lowest (0.291) and the highest (0.626) expected heterozygosity (He), respectively. There was an increase in He from the Canary Islands to Nimes, and a progressive decrease thereafter. A significant negative correlation was found between allelic richness and He, and the distance of each population to the easternmost locality (Canary Islands). Significant linkage disequilibrium was observed in the populations from Turkey. FST (0.004–0.334) indicated a high population differentiation, with isolation by distance supported by a high correlation. Bayesian analyses, PCA, and UPGMA pointed to three main clusters: (1) Greece and Turkey, (2) Italy and France, and (3) southern Iberia and the Canary Islands. The recent evolutionary history of M. pygmaeus is inferred from the data as follows: (1) the reduction in the geographic distribution of the species to the Iberian, Italian, and Balkan peninsulas, and possibly southern France, during glaciations and re-colonization of northern Europe from its southern refuges; (2) the maintenance of high diversity in Iberia and Italy (and possibly southern France) during contraction periods, and bottlenecks in the Balkans; (3) introgression of the Italian–French lineage in northern Spain, naturally or through trade.

Sanchez, Juan Antonio; Spina, Michelangelo La; Perera, Omaththage P

2012-01-01

266

A direct characterization of human mutation based on microsatellites  

PubMed Central

Mutations are the raw material of evolution, but have been difficult to study directly. We report the largest study of new mutations to date: 2,058 germline changes discovered by analyzing 85,289 Icelanders at 2,477 microsatellites. The paternal-to-maternal mutation rate ratio is 3.3, and the rate in fathers doubles from age 20 to 58 whereas there is no association with age in mothers. Longer microsatellite alleles are more mutagenic and tend to decrease in length, whereas the opposite is seen for shorter alleles. We use these empirical observations to build a model that we apply to individuals for whom we have both genome sequence and microsatellite data, allowing us to estimate key parameters of evolution without calibration to the fossil record. We infer that the sequence mutation rate is 1.4–2.3×10?8 per base pair per generation (90% credible interval), and that human-chimpanzee speciation occurred 3.7–6.6 million years ago.

Sun, James X.; Helgason, Agnar; Masson, Gisli; Ebenesersdottir, Sigri?ur Sunna; Li, Heng; Mallick, Swapan; Gnerre, Sante; Patterson, Nick; Kong, Augustine; Reich, David; Stefansson, Kari

2012-01-01

267

Comparison of the effectiveness of microsatellites and SNP panels for genetic identification, traceability and assessment of parentage in an inbred Angus herd.  

PubMed

During the last decade, microsatellites (short tandem repeats or STRs) have been successfully used for animal genetic identification, traceability and paternity, although in recent year single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been increasingly used for this purpose. An efficient SNP identification system requires a marker set with enough power to identify individuals and their parents. Genetic diagnostics generally include the analysis of related animals. In this work, the degree of information provided by SNPs for a consanguineous herd of cattle was compared with that provided by STRs. Thirty-six closely related Angus cattle were genotyped for 18 STRs and 116 SNPs. Cumulative SNPs exclusion power values (Q) for paternity and sample matching probability (MP) yielded values greater than 0.9998 and 4.32E(-42), respectively. Generally 2-3 SNPs per STR were needed to obtain an equivalent Q value. The MP showed that 24 SNPs were equivalent to the ISAG (International Society for Animal Genetics) minimal recommended set of 12 STRs (MP ? 10(-11)). These results provide valuable genetic data that support the consensus SNP panel for bovine genetic identification developed by the Parentage Recording Working Group of ICAR (International Committee for Animal Recording). PMID:23885200

Fernández, María E; Goszczynski, Daniel E; Lirón, Juan P; Villegas-Castagnasso, Egle E; Carino, Mónica H; Ripoli, María V; Rogberg-Muñoz, Andrés; Posik, Diego M; Peral-García, Pilar; Giovambattista, Guillermo

2013-06-22

268

Paternity testing using the poisonous sting in captive white-spotted eagle rays Aetobatus narinari: a non-invasive tool for captive sustainability programmes.  

PubMed

A group of captive white-spotted eagle rays Aetobatus narinari produced 20 offspring, with an unknown father. Part of the poisonous sting was removed from each fish and DNA was extracted from the epidermis for paternity research using eight microsatellite markers of which four were from another species Aetobatus flagellum. This non-invasive sampling technique can be applied on all members of Myliobatiformes. PMID:23464564

Janse, M; Kappe, A L; Van Kuijk, B L M

2013-02-14

269

Scientific - Educational Microsatellite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space today is an environment with intensive practical activity of mankind. The results of mastering of space are used in many ways, including education. School is a natural way to inform a broad public about space research. In this paper we will present the Program of Scientific - Educational Micro-satellite http:\\/\\/www.iki.rssi.ru\\/kollibri\\/mission1_e.htm. The space science and technologies that can be used

S. I. Klimov; M. N. Nozdrachev; G. M. Tamkovich; V. A. Grushin; Ye. A. Grachov; O. R. Grigoryan; Yu. V. Afanasyev; A. N. Zaitzev; I. V. Farnakeev; M. Parrot

2002-01-01

270

Germ cells microsatellite instability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mismatch repair (MMR) process confers a type of genomic stability that maintains stable single repeated sequences, hence a failure of this process could deviate in cancer development. A characteristic phenotype of MMR-deficient cells is microsatellite instability (MSI) that could be modulated by mutagenic agents. The induction of MSI by the mutagens, bleomycin (BLM), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF) and ethidium

A. López; N. Xamena; R. Marcos; A. Velázquez

2002-01-01

271

A high incidence of clustered microsatellite mutations revealed by parent-offspring analysis in the African freshwater snail, Bulinus forskalii (Gastropoda, Pulmonata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genotyping of 11 microsatellites in 432 offspring from 28 families of the hermaphroditic, freshwater snail Bulinus forskalii detected 10 de novo mutant alleles. This gave an estimated mutation rate of 1.1 × 10-3 per locus per gamete per generation. There was a trend towards repeat length expansion and, unlike most studies, multi-step mutations predominated, suggesting that the microsatellite mutation process

Jennifer L. Gow; Leslie R. Noble; David Rollinson; Catherine S. Jones

2005-01-01

272

Genetic analysis of DNA microsatellite loci in salivary gland tumours: comparison with immunohistochemical detection of hMSH2 and p53 proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract.To investigate genetic alterations in salivary gland tumours, microsatellite instability at eight representative loci and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosome 17 were analysed by polymerase chain reaction amplification. The results were compared with immunohistochemical expression of the hMSH2 and p53 proteins. Microsatellite instability and expression loss of hMSH2 protein were not recognized in the salivary gland tumours, suggesting a

K. Ohki; H. Kumamoto; R. Ichinohasama; M. Suzuki; T. Yamaguchi; S. Echigo; K. Motegi; K. Ooya

2001-01-01

273

Long microsatellite alleles in Drosophila melanogaster have a downward mutation bias and short persistence times, which cause their genome-wide underrepresentation.  

PubMed Central

Microsatellites are short tandemly repeated DNA sequence motifs that are highly variable in most organisms. In contrast to mammals, long microsatellites (>15 repeats) are extremely rare in the Drosophila melanogaster genome. To investigate this paucity of long microsatellites in Drosophila, we studied 19 loci with exceptionally long microsatellite alleles. Inter- and intraspecific analysis showed that long microsatellite alleles arose in D. melanogaster only very recently. This lack of old alleles with many repeats indicated that long microsatellite alleles have short persistence times. The size distribution of microsatellite mutations in mutation-accumulation lines suggests that long alleles have a mutation bias toward a reduction in the number of repeat units. This bias causes the short persistence times of long microsatellite alleles. We propose that species-specific, size-dependent mutation spectra of microsatellite alleles may provide a general mechanism to account for the observed differences in microsatellite length between species.

Harr, B; Schlotterer, C

2000-01-01

274

Microsatellite instability markers in breast cancer: A review and study showing MSI was not detected at 'BAT 25' and 'BAT 26' microsatellite markers in early-onset breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Microsatellite markers may provide evidence of faulty DNA mismatch repair (MMR) via the detection of mi- crosatellite instability (MSI). The choice of microsatellite markers may impact on the MSI detection rate. In hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer (HNPCC), several informative microsatellite markers have been recom- mended. Two of these, BAT 25 and BAT 26, are quasi-homozygous, enabling analysis of tumour

Shoo Peng Siah; Diana M Quinn; Graeme D Bennett; Graeme Casey; Robert LP Flower; Graeme Suthers; Zbigniew Rudzki

2000-01-01

275

A Consensus Microsatellite-Based Linkage Map for the Hermaphroditic Bay Scallop (Argopecten irradians) and Its Application in Size-Related QTL Analysis  

PubMed Central

Bay scallop (Argopecten irradians) is one of the most economically important aquaculture species in China. In this study, we constructed a consensus microsatellite-based genetic linkage map with a mapping panel containing two hybrid backcross-like families involving two subspecies of bay scallop, A. i. irradians and A. i. concentricus. One hundred sixty-one microsatellite and one phenotypic (shell color) markers were mapped to 16 linkage groups (LGs), which corresponds to the haploid chromosome number of bay scallop. The sex-specific map was 779.2 cM and 781.6 cM long in female and male, respectively, whereas the sex-averaged map spanned 849.3 cM. The average resolution of integrated map was 5.9 cM/locus and the estimated coverage was 81.3%. The proportion of distorted markers occurred more in the hybrid parents, suggesting that the segregation distortion was possibly resulted from heterospecific interaction between genomes of two subspecies of bay scallop. The overall female-to-male recombination rate was 1.13?1 across all linked markers in common to both parents, and considerable differences in recombination also existed among different parents in both families. Four size-related traits, including shell length (SL), shell height (SH), shell width (SW) and total weight (TW) were measured for quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis. Three significant and six suggestive QTL were detected on five LGs. Among the three significant QTL, two (qSW-10 and qTW-10, controlling SW and TW, respectively) were mapped on the same region near marker AiAD121 on LG10 and explained 20.5% and 27.7% of the phenotypic variance, while the third (qSH-7, controlling SH) was located on LG7 and accounted for 15.8% of the phenotypic variance. Six suggestive QTL were detected on four different LGs. The linkage map and size-related QTL obtained in this study may facilitate marker-assisted selection (MAS) in bay scallop.

Li, Hongjun; Liu, Xiao; Zhang, Guofan

2012-01-01

276

Variability in microsatellite instability in sporadic colon cancer  

SciTech Connect

The phenomenon of microsatellite instability recently has been described in colon cancer. However, little attention has been given as to whether different microsatellites have different degrees of instability in cancer patients. We selected a total of 14 microsatellite loci (5 di-, 3 tri-, 6 tetranucleotide) supposed to have different mutation rates in vivo, and spread over 8 different chromosomes. The above microsatellites were typed by PCR analysis of DNA from a total of over 200 paraffin-embedded colon tumors and corresponding normal tissue. None of these patients have an obvious family history of cancer and thus we assumed all tumors were sporadic. Comparison of normal and colon cancer tissues revealed somatic mutations for each of the selected microsatellites. The proportion of patients with instability for any given locus varies from 4.5% to 19.3%, with tetranucleotide repeats having the highest average frequency. In addition, a greater fraction of tumors showed instability in at least 1 locus than previously has been reported, possibly signifying a baseline microsatellite instability in all colon cancers. For cases demonstrating instability at 1 or more loci, we analyzed additional microsatellite loci. We then grouped patients based on the number of loci that showed instability. In order to investigate patterns of instability, we also scored the size of somatic mutations occurring in cancer tissue.

Toomajian, M.; Sisk, B.; DiRienzo, A. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

277

Temporal changes of genetic population structure and diversity in the endangered Blakiston's fish owl (Bubo blakistoni) on Hokkaido Island, Japan, revealed by microsatellite analysis.  

PubMed

The Blakiston's fish owl (Bubo blakistoni) population on Hokkaido Island, Japan, decreased to less than one hundred individuals over the last century due to habitat disruption by human activity. Although the ongoing conservation management has slightly restored the population, it remains endangered. In order to assess the genetic variation and population structure of the Blakiston's fish owl in Hokkaido, we genotyped eight microsatellite loci on 120 individuals sampled over the past three decades. The genotype data set showed low levels of genetic variation and gene flow among the geographically isolated five subpopulations. Comparative analysis of past and current populations indicated that some alleles shared by past individuals had been lost, and that genetic variation had declined over the last three decades. The result suggests that the genetic decline may have resulted from inbreeding and/or genetic drift due to bottlenecks in the Hokkaido population. The present study provides invaluable genetic information for the conservation and management of the endangered Blakiston's fish owl in Hokkaido. PMID:22559963

Omote, Keita; Nishida, Chizuko; Takenaka, Takeshi; Masuda, Ryuichi

2012-05-01

278

Sequence-dependent effect of interruptions on microsatellite mutation rate in mismatch repair-deficient human cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although microsatellite mutation rates generally increase with increasing length of the repeat tract, interruptions in a microsatellite may stabilize it. We have performed a direct analysis of the effect of microsatellite interruptions on mutation rate and spectrum in cultured mammalian cells. Two mononucleotide sequences (G17 and A17) and a dinucleotide [(CA)17] were compared with interrupted repeats of the same size

Jayne C. Boyer; Joshua D. Hawk; Lela Stefanovic; Rosann A. Farber

2008-01-01

279

Microsatellite instability in adenocarcinoma of the prostate.  

PubMed Central

Instability of dinucleotide tandem repeat sequences has been reported to play a major role in the carcinogenic pathway of familial colon cancer, as well as a potential role in the carcinogenesis of other sporadic neoplasms. To determine the frequency of short tandem repeat instability in adenocarcinoma of the prostate, we studied 40 tumors that were stratified according to tumor grade. The tissue samples were screened with di-, tri- and tetranucleotide markers spanning a wide range of chromosomal loci, including an androgen receptor gene trinucleotide repeat. Microsatellite instability was observed overall in only one of the 40 (2.5%) prostate adenocarcinomas studied. This replication error-positive tumor demonstrated repeat length alterations at two loci. Five other tumors showed an alteration in microsatellite size at a single locus. These tumors were not considered to have the microsatellite instability phenotype. All changes were identified either within tetranucleotide sequences or within the androgen receptor gene repeat (4 or 20 total markers analyzed). Both repeat length expansions and contractions were identified. The replication error-positive case also included separate metastatic nodal tissue. Additional microsatellite analysis of the metastatic tumor tissue revealed allelic patterns identical with the normal tissue control. Our data indicate that microsatellite instability is rare in prostate adenocarcinoma. Therefore, observation of this low replication error frequency suggests that most prostate carcinomas develop in the absence of widespread accumulation of somatic mutations in short tandem repeat sequences. Additionally, these genetic alterations appear to occur more often in tetranucleotide repeat sequences as well as in an androgen receptor gene trinucleotide repeat. Images Figure 1 Figure 2

Terrell, R. B.; Wille, A. H.; Cheville, J. C.; Nystuen, A. M.; Cohen, M. B.; Sheffield, V. C.

1995-01-01

280

Microsatellite variation and the differentiation of modern humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents an analysis of 20 tetranucleotide microsatellites in 16 worldwide human populations representing the\\u000a major geographic groups. Global Fst values for the 20 microsatellites are indicators of their relative validity as tools in\\u000a human population genetics. Four different measures of genetic distance (Fst, DSW, ??\\u000a 2 and Rst) have been tested and compared with each other. Neighbor-joining trees

Anna Pérez-Lezaun; Francesc Calafell; Eva Mateu; David Comas; Rosalía Ruiz-Pacheco; Jaume Bertranpetit

1996-01-01

281

A Phylogenetic Perspective on Sequence Evolution in Microsatellite Loci  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   We examined the evolution of the repeat regions of three noncoding microsatellite loci in 58 species of the Polistinae, a\\u000a subfamily of wasps that diverged over 140 million years ago. A phylogenetic approach allows two new kinds of approaches to\\u000a studying microsatellite evolution: character mapping and comparative analysis. The basic repeat structure of the loci was\\u000a highly conserved, but

Yong Zhu; David C. Queller; Joan E. Strassmann

2000-01-01

282

Genealogical Inference From Microsatellite Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ease and accuracy of typing, together with high levels of polymorphism and widespread distribution in the genome, make microsatellite (or short tandem repeat) loci an attractive potential source of information about both population histories and evolutionary processes. However, microsatellite data are difficult to interpret, in particular because of the frequency of back-mutations. Stochastic models for the underlying genetic processes can

Ian J. Wilson; David J. Balding

1998-01-01

283

Microsatellite Markers for Molecular Breeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsatellites are tandem repeats of short sequence motifs that occur ubiquitously in eukaryotic genomes. A key feature of this class of repetitive DNA is an extraordinarily high level of variation among taxa, mainly expressed as a variable copy number of tandem repeats. A multitude of techniques were described that exploit microsatellite variability as molecular markers. Basically, these approaches can be

Kurt Weising; Peter Winter; Bruno Hüttel; GüNter Kahl

1997-01-01

284

Amniotic bands in paternal half-siblings.  

PubMed

We present two paternal half-siblings with constriction rings and limb reduction deformities, which seem to have been caused by amniotic bands. Their father has no evidence of amniotic bands nor any other congenital malformations and there is no wider family history of such malformations. There are few other reports of familial amniotic bands and these are either in mother-child pairs, siblings or in distant relatives. This is the first report of recurrence in paternal half-siblings. Although no exact cause can be identified, this suggests that some genetic fetal factor, or factors, must be responsible for the amniotic bands in these cases. PMID:20038837

Blyth, Moira; Lachlan, Katherine

2010-04-01

285

Characteristic Neurobiological Patterns Differentiate Paternal Responsiveness in Two Peromyscus Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rodent paternal models provide unique opportunities to investigate the emergence of affiliative social behavior in mammals. Using biparental and uniparental Peromyscus species (californicus and maniculatus, respectively) we assessed paternal responsiveness by exposing males to biological offspring, unrelated conspecific pups, or familiar brothers following a 24-hour separation. The putative paternal circuit we investigated included brain areas involved in fear\\/anxiety [cingulate cortex

Kelly G. Lambert; Catherine L. Franssen; Massimo Bardi; Joseph E. Hampton; Leslie Hainley; Stephanie Karsner; Eddie B. Tu; Molly M. Hyer; Ashly Crockett; Anya Baranova; Tajh Ferguson; Tenaj Ferguson; Craig H. Kinsley

2011-01-01

286

Multilocus microsatellite typing for Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii.  

PubMed

Fifteen randomly selected microsatellites (simple sequence repeats; SSRs), from the H99 Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii (serotype A) genome, were sequenced, characterized and applied to sequence 87 clinical and environmental C. neoformans var. grubii isolates from 12 different countries based on Multilocus Microsatellite Typing (MLMT). Among the 15 SSR loci, three (designated CNG1, CNG2 and CNG3) were polymorphic, while the remaining 12 SSR loci showed no variations. The specific PCR primers of the polymorphic microsatellites, i.e., CNG1, CNG2 and CNG3, amplified those loci only from strains of C. neoformans (C. neoformans var. grubii, C. neoformans var. neoformans and the AD hybrid) but not from Cryptococcus gattii, suggesting a species-specific association. The three polymorphic microsatellites are useful markers for strain genotyping, population genetic analysis, epidemiological studies, and may be helpful for the diagnosis of cryptococcosis due to C. neoformans. PMID:18608927

Hanafy, Ahmed; Kaocharoen, Sirada; Jover-Botella, Alejandro; Katsu, Masakazu; Iida, Soji; Kogure, Takahisa; Gonoi, Tohru; Mikami, Yuzuru; Meyer, Wieland

2008-11-01

287

Microsatellite mapping of Mycobacterium leprae populations in infected humans.  

PubMed

To investigate genetic diversity in a bacterial population, we measured the copy numbers of simple sequence repeats, or microsatellites, in Mycobacterium leprae from patients living in and around Hyderabad, India. Three microsatellite loci containing trinucleotide or dinucleotide repeats were amplified from infected tissues, and the copy numbers were established by sequence analysis. Extensive diversity was observed in a cross-sectional survey of 33 patients, but closely related profiles were found for members of a multicase family likely to share a common transmission source. Sampling of multiple tissues from single individuals demonstrated identical microsatellite profiles in the skin, nasal cavity, and bloodstream but revealed differences at one or more loci for M. leprae present in nerves. Microsatellite mapping of M. leprae represents a useful tool for tracking short transmission chains. Comparison of skin and nerve lesions suggests that the evolution of disease within an individual involves the expansion of multiple distinct subpopulations of M. leprae. PMID:15528676

Young, Saroj K; Taylor, G Michael; Jain, Suman; Suneetha, Lavanya M; Suneetha, Sujai; Lockwood, Diana N J; Young, Douglas B

2004-11-01

288

Microsatellite Mapping of Mycobacterium leprae Populations in Infected Humans  

PubMed Central

To investigate genetic diversity in a bacterial population, we measured the copy numbers of simple sequence repeats, or microsatellites, in Mycobacterium leprae from patients living in and around Hyderabad, India. Three microsatellite loci containing trinucleotide or dinucleotide repeats were amplified from infected tissues, and the copy numbers were established by sequence analysis. Extensive diversity was observed in a cross-sectional survey of 33 patients, but closely related profiles were found for members of a multicase family likely to share a common transmission source. Sampling of multiple tissues from single individuals demonstrated identical microsatellite profiles in the skin, nasal cavity, and bloodstream but revealed differences at one or more loci for M. leprae present in nerves. Microsatellite mapping of M. leprae represents a useful tool for tracking short transmission chains. Comparison of skin and nerve lesions suggests that the evolution of disease within an individual involves the expansion of multiple distinct subpopulations of M. leprae.

Young, Saroj K.; Taylor, G. Michael; Jain, Suman; Suneetha, Lavanya M.; Suneetha, Sujai; Lockwood, Diana N. J.; Young, Douglas B.

2004-01-01

289

Microsatellite markers in the tree peony, Paeonia suffruticosa (Paeoniaceae).  

PubMed

• Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed in the tree peony, Paeonia suffruticosa, to perform paternity tests as well as assignment to variety in special Austrian collections. • Methods and Results: Using SSR-enriched libraries and EST-mining, 8 polymorphic primer sets were identified in Austrian collections of Paeonia sect. Moutan DC. The primers amplified di- and trinucleotide repeats with 2-6 alleles per locus. All primers also amplified in P. ostii, P. pontaninii var. trolloides, P. delavayi, and P. lutea, and in the herbaceous species P. peregrina and P. tenuifolia (Paeonia sect. Paeon). • Conclusions: These results show the usefulness of primers in P. suffruticosa for population genetic studies and their ability to cross amplify in related taxa across the genus. PMID:21622456

Homolka, Andreas; Berenyi, Maria; Burg, Kornel; Kopecky, Dieter; Fluch, Silvia

2010-05-24

290

Current State and Future Forecast for Microsatellites Based on Success and Failure Analysis of Their Space Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We conducted various sorts of multiple classification analysis concerning CubeSats primarily developed by universities, based on information published on papers and websites. Single regression analysis led to a future forecast of the numbers of CubeSat launches, and logistic regression analysis predicted accomplishment probability of minimum and full success levels by CubeSats being launched on 2011. Furthermore, we clarified positions of the experienced countries of CubeSat launches, and indicated the direction they should progress for their developments. Thus, we here propose information sharing and collaborative development for beneficial change of CubeSat's success rate.

Ishii, Ryosuke; Sahara, Hironori

291

Paternal Attachment, Parenting Beliefs and Children's Attachment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Relationships between fathers' romantic attachment style, parenting beliefs and father-child attachment security and dependence were examined in a diverse sample of 72 fathers of young children. Paternal romantic attachment style was coded based on fathers' endorsement of a particular style represented in the Hazan and Shaver Three-Category…

Howard, Kimberly S.

2010-01-01

292

Modeling Dad: Animal models of paternal behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

In humans, paternal behaviors have a strong influence on the emotional and social development of children. Fathers, more frequently than mothers, leave the family nucleus, and\\/or become abusive, leading to offspring that are more likely to grow under stressful conditions and greater susceptibility to abnormal health and social outcomes. Literature on parental behaviors, human or animal, has primarily focused on

Amanda C. Kentner; Alfonso Abizaid; Catherine Bielajew

2010-01-01

293

Paternity Testing in a PBL Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Problem Based Learning (PBL) makes use of real-life scenarios to stimulate students' prior knowledge and to provide a meaningful context that is also related to the student's future professional work. In this article, Paternity testing is presented using a PBL approach that involves a combination of classroom, laboratory, and out-of-class…

Casla, Alberto Vicario; Zubiaga, Isabel Smith

2010-01-01

294

Paternal Involvement and Children's Behavior Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from the National Survey of Families and Households, research tests the hypothesis that positive father involvement is associated with fewer behavior problems in children. Positive paternal and maternal involvement was independently and significantly associated with children's behavior problems. Estimated effects were similar for…

Amato, Paul R.; Rivera, Fernando

1999-01-01

295

Hard Paternalism and Clinical Research: Why Not  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jansen and Wall suggest a new way of defending hard paternalism in clinical research. They argue that non-therapeutic research exposing people to more than minimal risk should be banned on egalitarian grounds: in preventing poor decisionmakers from making bad decisions, we will promote equality of welfare. We argue that their proposal is flawed for four reasons. First, the idea of

Sarah JL Edwards; James Wilson BA

296

Paternal Occupational Exposures and Childhood Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study described here was to test the hypothesis that paternal occupational exposure near conception increases the risk of cancer in the offspring. We conducted a cohort study based on a population of 235,635 children born shortly after two different censuses in Sweden. The children were followed from birth to 14 years, and cases of cancer were

Maria Feychting; Nils Plato; Gun Nise; Anders Ahlbom

2001-01-01

297

Paternal occupational exposures and childhood cancer.  

PubMed Central

The objective of the study described here was to test the hypothesis that paternal occupational exposure near conception increases the risk of cancer in the offspring. We conducted a cohort study based on a population of 235,635 children born shortly after two different censuses in Sweden. The children were followed from birth to 14 years, and cases of cancer were identified in the Swedish Cancer Registry. Occupational hygienists assessed the probability of exposure to different agents in each combination of the father's industry and occupation as reported in the censuses. We also analyzed individual job titles. We compared the cancer incidence among children of exposed fathers to that among children of unexposed fathers using Cox proportional hazards modeling. The main findings were an increased risk of nervous system tumors related to paternal occupational exposure to pesticides [relative risk (RR) = 2.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.27-4.39] and work as a painter (RR = 3.65; 95% CI, 1.71-7.80), and an increased risk of leukemia related to wood work by fathers (RR = 2.18; 95% CI, 1.26-3.78). We found no associations between childhood leukemia and paternal exposure to pesticides or paint. Our results support previous findings of an increased risk of childhood brain tumors and leukemia associated with certain paternal occupational exposures. Some findings in previous studies were not confirmed in this study.

Feychting, M; Plato, N; Nise, G; Ahlbom, A

2001-01-01

298

THE KNOWLEDGE PROBLEM OF NEW PATERNALISM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The “new paternalism” is a set of policy prescriptions based on recent findings in behavioral economics whose purpose is to help individuals overcome a wide variety of behavior and cognitive biases. According to its proponents, it does not aim at replacing the preferences of individuals with those of the paternalist but rather to uncover the “true” preferences of individuals, that

Mario J Rizzo; Douglas G Whitman

2008-01-01

299

Discovering misattributed paternity in genetic counselling: different ethical perspectives in two countries.  

PubMed

Misattributed paternity or 'false' paternity is when a man is wrongly thought, by himself and possibly by others, to be the biological father of a child. Nowadays, because of the progression of genetics and genomics the possibility of finding misattributed paternity during familial genetic testing has increased. In contrast to other medical information, which pertains primarily to individuals, information obtained by genetic testing and/or pedigree analysis necessarily has implications for other biologically related members in the family. Disclosing or not a misattributed paternity has a number of different biological and social consequences for the people involved. Such an issue presents important ethical and deontological challenges. The debate centres on whether or not to inform the family and, particularly, whom in the family, about the possibility that misattributed paternity might be discovered incidentally, and whether or not it is the duty of the healthcare professional (HCP) to disclose the results and to whom. In this paper, we consider the different perspectives and reported problems, and analyse their cultural, ethical and legal dimensions. We compare the position of HCPs from an Italian and British point of view, particularly their role in genetic counselling. We discuss whether the Oviedo Convention of the Council of Europe (1997) can be seen as a basis for enriching the debate. PMID:23443210

Tozzo, Pamela; Caenazzo, Luciana; Parker, Michael J

2013-02-26

300

Preferential loss of the paternal alleles in the 18q- syndrome  

SciTech Connect

Individuals with the 18q- syndrome have variable deletions from the long arm of chromosome 18. They also exhibit a highly variable phenotype. To correlate genotype with phenotype accurately, extensive molecular and phenotypic analyses are needed on each affected individual. As a part of this analysis, we have determined the parental origin of the deleted chromosome in 34 individuals with the 18q- syndrome. We have found that 85% of the de novo deletions are paternal in origin. The percentage of fathers of individuals with paternally derived deletions who were >30 years old was (not significantly) greater than that of the general population. The mothers of individuals with maternally derived deletions were near an average age for childbearing compared to the general population. Individuals with maternally derived terminal deletions had breakpoints as varied as those with paternally derived deletions. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the reduced incidence of maternally derived deletions is not due to reduced viability, since individuals with large maternally derived deletions of chromosome 18q were found. We hypothesize that the prevalence of paternally derived deletions is due to an increased frequency of chromosome breakage in male germ cells. These results are consistent with results observed in other segmental aneusomies in which there is a high incidence of paternally derived deletions. 39 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Cody, J.D.; Pierce, J.F.; Brkanac, Z. [Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX (United States)] [and others

1997-03-31

301

PERMANENT GENETIC RESOURCES: Identification of microsatellite loci for parentage analysis in roach Rutilus rutilus and eight other cyprinid fish by cross-species amplification, and a novel test for detecting hybrids between roach and other cyprinids.  

PubMed

In order to identify microsatellite loci for parentage analysis in roach Rutilus rutilus, 59 published primer sets were tested on roach and eight other cyprinid fish. Twenty polymorphic loci were identified for roach, of which the polymerase chain reaction products of seven could be pooled for sequencer analysis. Together, these seven loci have an exclusion probability of 0.997 for parentage, when no parents are known. We also describe a novel test for hybrids between roach and four other cyprinids, based on intraspecies length differences of internal transcribed spacer region 1. PMID:21585822

Hamilton, P B; Tyler, C R

2008-03-01

302

Global Population Genetic Structure and Male-Mediated Gene Flow in the Green Sea Turtle (Chelonia mydas): Analysis of Microsatellite Loci  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the degree of population subdivision among global populations of green sea turtles, Chelonia mydas, using four microsatellite loci. Previously, a single-copy nuclear DNA study indicated significant male- mediated gene flow among populations alternately fixed for different mitochondrial DNA haplotypes and that genetic divergence between populations in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans was more common than subdivisions among populations

Mark A. Roberts; Tonia S. Schwartz; Stephen A. Karl

2004-01-01

303

Stocking impact and temporal stability of genetic composition in a brackish northern pike population (Esox lucius L.), assessed using microsatellite DNA analysis of historical and contemporary samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last decade, brackish northern pike populations in Denmark have been subject to stocking programmes, using nonindigenous pike from freshwater lakes, in order to compensate for drastic population declines. The present study was designed to investigate the genetic impact of stocking freshwater pike into a brackish pike population in Stege Nor, Denmark. We analysed polymorphism at eight microsatellite loci

P F Larsen; M M Hansen; E E Nielsen; L F Jensen; V Loeschcke

2005-01-01

304

Distribution of non-native trout in Slovenia and their introgression with native trout populations as observed through microsatellite DNA analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Slovenia, the Adriatic basin inhabited by native marble trout (S. marmoratus), and the Danubian basin inhabited by native Danubian lineage of brown trout (S. trutta) have been intensively affected by stocking with non-native trout strains. In order to assess spread of non-native strains and their introgression with native trout, a population study based on five microsatellite loci was applied

T. Jug; P. Berrebi; A. Snoj

2005-01-01

305

Interspecific hybridisation in rhinoceroses: Confirmation of a Black × White rhinoceros hybrid by karyotype, fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) and microsatellite analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Black and white rhinoceroses are among the most charismatic megaherbivores and have become flagship species for international conservation. They are often subject to intense management that includes being compressed unnaturally in space and density. We present chromosomal and microsatellite evidence to substantiate the first recorded instance of interspecific hybridisation between them. The data suggest that the genetic integrity of the

T. J. Robinson; V. Trifonov; I. Espie; E. H. Harley

2005-01-01

306

A Comparison of Hybridization between Mottled Ducks ( Anas fulvigula )and Mallards ( A. platyrhynchos ) in Florida and South Carolina using Microsatellite DNA Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interspecific hybridization has been implicated in population declines for some waterfowl species within the mallard complex, and hybridization with mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) is currently considered the largest threat to mottled ducks (A. fulvigula), one North American member of that complex. We assessed genetic variation among 225 mottled ducks and mallards using five microsatellite loci, and detected significant overall differences between

Christen L. Williams; Richard C. Brust; Timothy T. Fendley; Gerald R. Tiller Jr; Olin E. Rhodes Jr

2005-01-01

307

Development of microsatellite markers in peach [ Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] and their use in genetic diversity analysis in peach and sweet cherry ( Prunus avium L.).  

PubMed

We report the sequence of 41 primer pairs of microsatellites from a CT-enriched genomic library of the peach cultivar 'Merrill O'Henry'. Ten microsatellite-containing clones had sequences similar to plant coding sequences in databases and could be used as markers for known functions. For microsatellites segregating at least in one of the two Prunus F(2) progenies analyzed, it was possible to demonstrate Mendelian inheritance. Microsatellite polymorphism was evaluated in 27 peach and 21 sweet cherry cultivars. All primer pairs gave PCR-amplification products on peach and 33 on cherry (80.5%). Six PCR-amplifications revealed several loci (14.6%) in peach and eight (19.5%) in sweet cherry. Among the 33 single-locus microsatellites amplified in peach and sweet cherry, 13 revealed polymorphism both in peach and cherry, 19 were polymorphic only on peach and one was polymorphic only on cherry. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 1 to 9 for peach and from 1 to 6 on sweet cherry with an average of 4.2 and 2.8 in peach and sweet cherry, respectively. Cross-species amplification was tested within the Prunus species: Prunus avium L. (sweet cherry and mazzard), Prunus cerasus L. (sour cherry), Prunus domestica L. (European plum), Prunus amygdalus Batsch. (almond), Prunus armeniaca L. (apricot), Prunus cerasifera Ehrh. (Myrobalan plum). Plants from other genera of the Rosaceae were also tested: Malus (apple) and Fragaria (strawberry), as well as species not belonging to the Rosaceae: Castanea (chestnut tree), Juglans (walnut tree) and Vitis (grapevine). Six microsatellites gave amplification on all the tested species. Among them, one had an amplified region homologous to sequences encoding a MADS-box protein in Malus x domestica. Twelve microsatellites (29.3%) were amplified in all the Rosaceae species tested and 31 (75.6%) were amplified in all the six Prunus species tested. Thirty three (80.5%), 18 (43.9%) and 13 (31.7%) gave amplification on chestnut tree, grapevine and walnut tree, respectively. PMID:12582570

Dirlewanger, E.; Cosson, P.; Tavaud, M.; Aranzana, J.; Poizat, C.; Zanetto, A.; Arús, P.; Laigret, F.

2002-05-23

308

Evolutionary history of partible paternity in lowland South America  

PubMed Central

Partible paternity, the conception belief that more than one man can contribute to the formation of a fetus, is common in lowland South America and characterized by nonexclusive mating relationships and various institutionalized forms of recognition and investment by multiple cofathers. Previous work has emphasized the fitness benefits for women where partible paternity beliefs facilitate paternal investment from multiple men and may reduce the risk of infanticide. In this comparative study of 128 lowland South American societies, the prevalence of partible paternity beliefs may be as much as two times as common as biologically correct beliefs in singular paternity. Partible paternity beliefs are nearly ubiquitous in four large language families—Carib, Pano, Tupi, and Macro-Je. Phylogenetic reconstruction suggests that partible paternity evolved deep in Amazonian prehistory at the root of a tentative Je-Carib-Tupi clade. Partible paternity often occurs with uxorilocal postmarital residence (males transfer), although there are exceptions. Partible paternity may have benefits for both sexes, especially in societies where essentially all offspring are said to have multiple fathers. Despite a decrease in paternity certainty, at least some men probably benefit (or mitigate costs) by increasing their number of extramarital partners, using sexual access to their wives to formalize male alliances, and/or sharing paternity with close kin.

Walker, Robert S.; Flinn, Mark V.; Hill, Kim R.

2010-01-01

309

Rapid divergence of microsatellite abundance among species of Drosophila.  

PubMed

Among major taxonomic groups, microsatellites exhibit considerable variation in composition and allele length, but they also show considerable conservation within many major groups. This variation may be explained by slow microsatellite evolution so that all species within a group have similar patterns of variation, or by taxon-specific mutational or selective constraints. Unfortunately, comparing microsatellites across species and studies can be problematic because of biases that may exist among different isolation and analysis protocols. We present microsatellite data from five Drosophila species in the Drosophila subgenus: D. arizonae, D. mojavensis, and D. pachea (three cactophilic species), and D. neotestacea and D. recens (two mycophagous species), all isolated at the same time using identical protocols. For each species, we compared the relative abundance of motifs, the distribution of repeat size, and the average number of repeats. Dimers were the most abundant microsatellites for each species. However, we found considerable variation in the relative abundance of motif size classes among species, even between sister taxa. Frequency differences among motifs within size classes for the three cactophilic species, but not the two mycophagous species, are consistent with other studied Drosophila. Frequency distributions of repeat number, as well as mean size, show significant differences among motif size classes but not across species. Sizes of microsatellites in these five species are consistent with D. virilis, another species in the subgenus Drosophila, but they have consistently higher means than in D. melanogaster, in the subgenus Sophophora. These results confirm that many aspects of microsatellite variation evolve quickly but also are subject to taxon-specific constraints. In addition, the nature of microsatellite evolution is dependent on temporal and taxonomic scales, and some variation is conserved across broad taxonomic levels despite relatively high rates of mutation for these loci. PMID:12777536

Ross, Charles L; Dyer, Kelly A; Erez, Tamar; Miller, Susan J; Jaenike, John; Markow, Therese A

2003-05-30

310

New microsatellite loci for Narcissus papyraceus (Amarillydaceae) and cross-amplification in other congeneric species.  

PubMed

• Premise of the study: Microsatellite loci from a genomic library of the species Narcissus papyraceus were optimized and characterized for studies of population genetics. • Methods and Results: Eleven markers that were successfully amplified showed polymorphism when tested on 50 individuals from two populations in southern Spain and northern Morocco. Overall, the number of alleles per locus ranged between 4 and 15. Between 8 and 11 loci successfully amplified in other eight Narcissus species. • Conclusions: These markers will enable genetic diversity studies of N. papyraceus across its distribution range and conduct paternity analyses among individuals differing in flower morphology. PMID:21622397

Simón, Violeta I; Picó, F Xavier; Arroyo, Juan

2010-02-19

311

Microsatellite instability in hematological malignancies  

PubMed Central

The genome of colorectal carcinomas displaying pronounced microsatellite instability codes for an extraordinarily high number of mutated proteins that elicit tumor-specific cellular immune responses. We have recently demonstrated that leukemic cells are also vulnerable to T cells specific for tumor-associated antigens produced in the context of microsatellite instability. This finding extends our understanding of secondary and therapy-related leukemogenesis, linking it to the mutual interaction between immune control and escape.

Maletzki, Claudia; Stier, Saskia; Linnebacher, Michael

2013-01-01

312

Managing misaligned paternity findings in research including sickle cell disease screening in Kenya: 'Consulting communities' to inform policy?  

PubMed Central

The management of misaligned paternity findings raises important controversy worldwide. It has mainly, however, been discussed in the context of high-income countries. Genetic and genomics research, with the potential to show misaligned paternity, are becoming increasingly common in Africa. During a genomics study in Kenya, a dilemma arose over testing and sharing information on paternal sickle cell disease status. This dilemma may be paradigmatic of challenges in sharing misaligned paternity findings in many research and health care settings. Using a deliberative approach to community consultation to inform research practice, we explored residents' views on paternal testing and sharing misaligned paternity information. Between December 2009 and November 2010, 63 residents in Kilifi County were engaged in informed deliberative small group discussions, structured to support normative reflection within the groups, with purposive selection to explore diversity. Analysis was based on a modified framework analysis approach, drawing on relevant social science and bioethics literature. The methods generated in-depth individual and group reflection on morally important issues and uncovered wide diversity in views and values. Fundamental and conflicting values emerged around the importance of family interests and openness, underpinned by disagreement on the moral implications of marital infidelity and withholding truth. Wider consideration of ethical issues emerging in these debates supports locally-held reasoning that paternal sickle cell testing should not be undertaken in this context, in contrast to views that testing should be done with or without the disclosure of misaligned paternity information. The findings highlight the importance of facilitating wider testing of family members of affected children, contingent on the development and implementation of national policies for the management of this inherited disorder. Their richness also illustrates the potential for the approach adopted in this study to strengthen community consultation.

Marsh, Vicki; Kombe, Francis; Fitzpatrick, Ray; Molyneux, Sassy; Parker, Michael

2013-01-01

313

Managing misaligned paternity findings in research including sickle cell disease screening in Kenya: 'Consulting communities' to inform policy.  

PubMed

The management of misaligned paternity findings raises important controversy worldwide. It has mainly, however, been discussed in the context of high-income countries. Genetic and genomics research, with the potential to show misaligned paternity, are becoming increasingly common in Africa. During a genomics study in Kenya, a dilemma arose over testing and sharing information on paternal sickle cell disease status. This dilemma may be paradigmatic of challenges in sharing misaligned paternity findings in many research and health care settings. Using a deliberative approach to community consultation to inform research practice, we explored residents' views on paternal testing and sharing misaligned paternity information. Between December 2009 and November 2010, 63 residents in Kilifi County were engaged in informed deliberative small group discussions, structured to support normative reflection within the groups, with purposive selection to explore diversity. Analysis was based on a modified framework analysis approach, drawing on relevant social science and bioethics literature. The methods generated in-depth individual and group reflection on morally important issues and uncovered wide diversity in views and values. Fundamental and conflicting values emerged around the importance of family interests and openness, underpinned by disagreement on the moral implications of marital infidelity and withholding truth. Wider consideration of ethical issues emerging in these debates supports locally-held reasoning that paternal sickle cell testing should not be undertaken in this context, in contrast to views that testing should be done with or without the disclosure of misaligned paternity information. The findings highlight the importance of facilitating wider testing of family members of affected children, contingent on the development and implementation of national policies for the management of this inherited disorder. Their richness also illustrates the potential for the approach adopted in this study to strengthen community consultation. PMID:24034967

Marsh, Vicki; Kombe, Francis; Fitzpatrick, Ray; Molyneux, Sassy; Parker, Michael

2013-08-03

314

Genetic characterization of 12 heterologous microsatellite markers for the giant tropical tree Cariniana legalis (Lecythidaceae)  

PubMed Central

Twelve microsatellite loci previously developed in the tropical tree Cariniana estrellensis were genetically characterized in Cariniana legalis. Polymorphisms were assessed in 28 C. legalis individuals found between the Pardo and Mogi-Guaçu River basins in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Of the 12 loci, 10 were polymorphic and exhibited Mendelian inheritance. The allelic richness at each locus ranged from 2-11, with an average of 7 alleles per locus, and the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.07-0.88. These loci showed a high probability of paternity exclusion. The characteristics of these heterologous microsatellite markers indicate that they are suitable tools for investigating questions concerning population genetics in C. legalis.

2010-01-01

315

Paternal inheritance or a de novo mutation in a Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy pedigree from South India  

Microsoft Academic Search

A six year old boy presented with classical features of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) and was confirmed by absent dystrophin staining on muscle biopsy. In the paternal line there were 5 affected individuals across two generations with classical DMD. There was no family history of the illness in the maternal line. Molecular genetics analysis by PCR of the exons showed

Meera Purushottam; A. Ram Murthy; G. N. Shubha; N. Gayathri; A. Nalini

2008-01-01

316

"I've Fixed Things Up": Paternal Identity of Substance-Dependent Fathers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study deals with how substance-dependent men perceive their paternal identity. Data were based on in-depth semi-structured interviews with 12 Israeli fathers who were enrolled in methadone maintenance treatment. Content analysis revealed that participants had undergone a process of parental identity formation composed of four distinct…

Peled, Einat; Gavriel-Fried, Belle; Katz, Noam

2012-01-01

317

Germ-line chimerism and paternal care in marmosets (Callithrix kuhlii)  

PubMed Central

The formation of viable genetic chimeras in mammals through the transfer of cells between siblings in utero is rare. Using microsatellite DNA markers, we show here that chimerism in marmoset (Callithrix kuhlii) twins is not limited to blood-derived hematopoietic tissues as was previously described. All somatic tissue types sampled were found to be chimeric. Notably, chimerism was demonstrated to be present in germ-line tissues, an event never before documented as naturally occurring in a primate. In fact, we found that chimeric marmosets often transmit sibling alleles acquired in utero to their own offspring. Thus, an individual that contributes gametes to an offspring is not necessarily the genetic parent of that offspring. The presence of somatic and germ-line chimerism may have influenced the evolution of the extensive paternal and alloparental care system of this taxon. Although the exact mechanisms of sociobiological change associated with chimerism have not been fully explored, we show here that chimerism alters relatedness between twins and may alter the perceived relatedness between family members, thus influencing the allocation of parental care. Consistent with this prediction, we found a significant correlation between paternal care effort and the presence of epithelial chimerism, with males carrying chimeric infants more often than nonchimeric infants. Therefore, we propose that the presence of placental chorionic fusion and the exchange of cell lines between embryos may represent a unique adaptation affecting the evolution of cooperative care in this group of primates.

Ross, C. N.; French, J. A.; Orti, G.

2007-01-01

318

Molecular evidence for multiple paternity in a feral population of green swordtails.  

PubMed

Genetic parentage analyses provide insights into mating systems and have revealed widespread evidence for polyandry in natural populations. Here, we use 5 microsatellite markers to estimate female mating rates in a feral population of green swordtails, Xiphophorus helleri, a live-bearing poeciliid fish that has become a model system in the study of precopulatory mate choice and mating competition. Although heralded as a potential model for investigating sperm competition as early as 1950, there has been no attempt to explore postcopulatory sexual selection in its mating system. We thus obtained information on the prevalence, and therefore biological relevance, of polyandry from a wild population. We genotyped the offspring from 14 wild-caught gravid females and determined the number of fathers in each brood using allele counting methods and the programs GERUD and PARENTAGE. Our analyses revealed that 57% (allele counts and GERUD) and 71% (PARENTAGE) of the sampled broods had at least 2 sires, with a global mean 1.74 fathers per brood. Paternity skew was generally high in mixed paternity broods so that our analyses almost certainly underestimate actual mating frequencies in the wild. Our data provide a solid underpinning for future studies of postcopulatory sexual selection in this species. PMID:18579557

Simmons, Leigh W; Beveridge, Maxine; Evans, Jonathan P

2008-06-25

319

Genome-wide analysis of microsatellite repeats in humans: their abundance and density in specific genomic regions  

PubMed Central

Background Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are found in most organisms, and occupy about 3% of the human genome. Although it is becoming clear that such repeats are important in genomic organization and function and may be associated with disease conditions, their systematic analysis has not been reported. This is the first report examining the distribution and density of simple sequence repeats (1-6 base-pairs (bp)) in the entire human genome. Results The densities of SSRs across the human chromosomes were found to be relatively uniform. However, the overall density of SSR was found to be high in chromosome 19. Triplets and hexamers were more predominant in exonic regions compared to intronic and intergenic regions, except for chromosome Y. Comparison of densities of various SSRs revealed that whereas trimers and pentamers showed a similar pattern (500-1,000 bp/Mb) across the chromosomes, di- tetra- and hexa-nucleotide repeats showed patterns of higher (2,000-3,000 bp/Mb) density. Repeats of the same nucleotide were found to be higher than other repeat types. Repeats of A, AT, AC, AAT, AAC, AAG, AGC, AAAC, AAAT, AAAG, AAGG, AGAT predominate, whereas repeats of C, CG, ACT, ACG, AACC, AACG, AACT, AAGC, AAGT, ACCC, ACCG, ACCT, CCCG and CCGG are rare. Conclusions The overall SSR density was comparable in all chromosomes. The density of different repeats, however, showed significant variation. Tri- and hexa-nucleotide repeats are more abundant in exons, whereas other repeats are more abundant in non-coding regions.

Subramanian, Subbaya; Mishra, Rakesh K; Singh, Lalji

2003-01-01

320

Determining paternity in polyploids: Hexaploid simulation studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The breeding of new sweet potato varieties is a highly inefficient process, confounded by incompatibility, poor fertility,\\u000a open-pollination and hexaploidy. Upwards of 12–20 lines are combined in open pollinated nurseries based on horticulturally\\u000a important characteristics. After several years of selection most progeny can be traced back to just 3 or 4 maternal lines.\\u000a A method that would identify the paternal

Mario I. Buteler; Don. R. Labonte; Raúl E. Macchiavelli

1997-01-01

321

Paternal absence, sex typing, and identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of paternal absence, and its relationship to older siblings and a father substitute, on the dependency, aggression, and masculinity-femininity of 60 preschool Negroes were assessed by structured doll-play and maternal interviews. Preschool father-absent (FA) boys were significantly more feminine, less aggressive, and more dependent than their father-present (FP) counterparts, but no significant differences occurred between FA and FP

John W. Santrock

1970-01-01

322

Human mutagens: evidence from paternal exposure  

SciTech Connect

The importance of inherited mutations as a cause of human disease has been established clearly through examples of well-defined genetic anomalies, such as Down syndrome and retinoblastoma. Furthermore, it is suspected that environmental contaminants induce mutations resulting in increased risk for such defects in subsequent generations of persons exposed. The present lack of direct evidence for induced inherited genetic disorders in human beings hampers the development of risk estimation techniques for extrapolation from animal models. The most extensive prospective epidemiologic studies of inherited genetic effects have involved survivors of atomic bomb detonations and patients treated with cancer chemotherapy. In neither case has a significant elevation in inherited genetic effects or cancer been detected in the offspring of exposed individuals. Epidemiologic studies of subjects receiving chronic exposure may be confounded by the effect of maternal exposure during pregnancy. Consideration of only paternal exposure can minimize the confounding influence of teratogenicity, enhancing the resolving power of studies for inherited effects. Using this approach, retrospective (case-control) studies of childhood cancer patients have provided limited but suggestive evidence for inheritance of induced effects. Endpoints, such as congenital malformations and spontaneous abortion following paternal exposure, can also be considered as indicators of heritable mutagenic effects. For example, there is limited evidence suggesting that paternal exposure to anaesthetic gases may cause miscarriage and congenital abnormalities as a result of induced male germ cell mutations. 104 references.

Narod, S.A.; Douglas, G.R.; Nestmann, E.R.; Blakey, D.H.

1988-01-01

323

Religion as a means to assure paternity.  

PubMed

The sacred texts of five world religions (Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism) use similar belief systems to set limits on sexual behavior. We propose that this similarity is a shared cultural solution to a biological problem: namely male uncertainty over the paternity of offspring. Furthermore, we propose the hypothesis that religious practices that more strongly regulate female sexuality should be more successful at promoting paternity certainty. Using genetic data on 1,706 father-son pairs, we tested this hypothesis in a traditional African population in which multiple religions (Islam, Christianity, and indigenous) coexist in the same families and villages. We show that the indigenous religion enables males to achieve a significantly (P = 0.019) lower probability of cuckoldry (1.3% versus 2.9%) by enforcing the honest signaling of menstruation, but that all three religions share tenets aimed at the avoidance of extrapair copulation. Our findings provide evidence for high paternity certainty in a traditional African population, and they shed light on the reproductive agendas that underlie religious patriarchy. PMID:22665788

Strassmann, Beverly I; Kurapati, Nikhil T; Hug, Brendan F; Burke, Erin E; Gillespie, Brenda W; Karafet, Tatiana M; Hammer, Michael F

2012-06-04

324

Religion as a means to assure paternity  

PubMed Central

The sacred texts of five world religions (Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism) use similar belief systems to set limits on sexual behavior. We propose that this similarity is a shared cultural solution to a biological problem: namely male uncertainty over the paternity of offspring. Furthermore, we propose the hypothesis that religious practices that more strongly regulate female sexuality should be more successful at promoting paternity certainty. Using genetic data on 1,706 father–son pairs, we tested this hypothesis in a traditional African population in which multiple religions (Islam, Christianity, and indigenous) coexist in the same families and villages. We show that the indigenous religion enables males to achieve a significantly (P = 0.019) lower probability of cuckoldry (1.3% versus 2.9%) by enforcing the honest signaling of menstruation, but that all three religions share tenets aimed at the avoidance of extrapair copulation. Our findings provide evidence for high paternity certainty in a traditional African population, and they shed light on the reproductive agendas that underlie religious patriarchy.

Strassmann, Beverly I.; Kurapati, Nikhil T.; Hug, Brendan F.; Burke, Erin E.; Gillespie, Brenda W.; Karafet, Tatiana M.; Hammer, Michael F.

2012-01-01

325

Simultaneous Analysis of Six Microsatellite Markers in Atlantic Cod ( Gadus morhua ): A Novel Multiplex Assay System for Use in Selective Breeding Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel hexaplex assay system including Gmo8, Gmo19, Gmo35, Gmo37, Tch11, and Tch12 microsatellites from Atlantic cod, consisting of trinucleotide or tetranucleotide repeat units, is introduced. All 6 loci were coamplified in a single reaction employing dye-labeled primers. Alleles from these loci were sized using an internal standard by automated sample processing in an ABI 310 Genetic Analyser. Amplified alleles

Madjid Delghandi; Atle Mortensen; Jon-Ivar Westgaard

2003-01-01

326

Microsatellite DNA analysis of coastal populations of bull trout ( Salvelinus confluentus ) in British Columbia: zoogeographic implications and its application to recreational fishery management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsatellite DNA variation was assayed among 383 bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) from 20 Pacific coastal localities from the Skeena River (central British Columbia) to the Olympic Peninsula (western Washington State). An average of 1.7 alleles was resolved per population and heterozygosity averaged 0.35. Twenty-six fish were identified as bull trout × Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma) hybrids. Population subdivision was substantial

Eric B. Taylor; A. B. Costello

2006-01-01

327

Maternal and paternal contributions in Jewish populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 107 Jewish individuals (Ashkenazi, Sephardic, North African and Oriental) have been analyzed for the Y-chromosome minimal STR-haplotype and for the HVRI mtDNA. The results have been compared with autosomal microsatellite data obtained previously from the same population samples. Significative sex-specific differences could be observed in these Jewish populations.

A Picornell; P Giménez; G Jiménez; J. A Castro; M. M Ramon

2004-01-01

328

Advanced paternal age increases the risk of schizophrenia and obsessive-compulsive disorder in a Chinese Han population  

PubMed Central

Using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, patient and non-patient version (SCID-P/NP), this study investigated 351 patients with schizophrenia, 122 with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), and 238 unrelated healthy volunteers in a Chinese Han population. The relative risks posed by advanced paternal age for schizophrenia and OCD in offspring were computed under logistic regression analyses and adjusted for the participant's sex, age and co-parent age at birth. Compared to the offspring with paternal age of 25–29 years old, the relative risks rose from 2.660 to 10.183 in the paternal age range of 30–34 and ? 35. The relative risks for OCD increased from 2.225 to 5.413 in 30–34 and ? 35. For offspring with paternal age of < 25, the odds ratios of developing schizophrenia and OCD were 0.628 and 0.289 respectively, whereas an association between increased maternal age and risk for schizophrenia/OCD was not seen. Interaction analysis showed an interaction effect between paternal age and maternal age at birth. Such a tendency of risk affected by parental age for schizophrenia and OCD existed after splitting out the data of early onset patients. Sex-specific analyses found that the relative risks for schizophrenia with paternal age of 30–34 and ? 35 in male offspring were 2.407 and 10.893, and in female offspring were 3.080 and 9.659. The relative risks for OCD with paternal age of 30–34 and ? 35 in male offspring were 3.493 and 7.373, and in female offspring 2.005 and 4.404. The mean paternal age of schizophrenia/OCD patients born before the early 1980s was much greater than that of patients who were born after then. The findings illustrated that advanced paternal age is associated with increased risk for both schizophrenia and OCD in a Chinese Han population, prominently when paternal age is over 35. Biological and non-biological mechanisms may both be involved in the effects of advanced paternal age on schizophrenia and OCD.

Wu, Yuejing; Liu, Xiang; Luo, Hongrong; Deng, Wei; Zhao, Gaofeng; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Lan; Ma, Xiaohong; Liu, Xiehe; Murray, Robin A.; Collier, David A.; Li, Tao

2012-01-01

329

Microsatellite analysis of population structure and genetic differentiation within and between populations of the root vole, Microtus oeconomus in the Netherlands.  

PubMed

Eight microsatellite markers for the root vole (Microtus oeconomus) were developed to assess the amount of genetic variation for nine Dutch root vole populations from four different regions, and to evaluate the degree of differentiation and isolation. All eight microsatellite loci were found to be highly variable with observed heterozygosity values ranging from 0.61 to 0.82. These values are similar to those observed for more distant populations from Norway, Finland and Germany. Therefore, the populations seem not particularly depauperate of genetic variation at the microsatellite level. Genetically, the Dutch populations were found to have diverged considerably. Pairwise comparisons of all populations studied revealed FST values significantly greater than zero for most comparisons. However, the magnitude of these values considerably depends on the compared population pair. The level of differentiation between local populations within Dutch regions is generally significantly lower than the differentiation between Dutch regions. The level of differentiation between Dutch regions, however, is not significantly different from that between populations of larger geographical distance. This implies that the regional Dutch populations are both isolated from each other and from other European populations. The observation that even local populations show low but significant genetic differentiation may be indicative for progressive isolation of these populations. PMID:11050559

van de Zande, L; van Apeldoorn, R C; Blijdenstein, A F; de Jong, D; van Delden, W; Bijlsma, R

2000-10-01

330

Twelve variable microsatellite loci for the North American medicinal leech, Macrobdella decora  

Microsoft Academic Search

We isolated and characterized 12 microsatellite loci for the North American medicinal leech, Macrobdella decora. Macrobdella decora is abundant in central and northern North American freshwater systems. The resulting microsatellite library, the first for any species of leech or any clitellate annelid, demonstrates the efficacy of this type of analysis on unexploited leech populations and should serve as a baseline

REBECCA B. BUDINOFF; AIMEE M. SIDDALL; MARK E. SIDDALL

2004-01-01

331

Development of specific SSR marker for E e genome of Thinopyrum spp. using wheat microsatellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheatgrass, Thinopyrum Love (Elytrigia Nevski), is one of the most important alien resources for wheat improvement. To determine the transferability of wheat microsatellite primers to Thinopyrum spp., 40 wheat microsatellite primer pairs were selected to perform PCR analysis on 17 accessions of Thinopyrum spp. and two common wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivars. Among the 40 primer pairs used, 25 pairs could

Li Bao-Yun; Tian Zhi-Hui; Tang Zhao-Hui; Liu Shou-Bin; Liu Guang-Tian

2004-01-01

332

Characterization of Trypanozoon isolates using a repeated coding sequence and microsatellite markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic variation of microsatellite loci is a widely used method for linkage analysis, individual identification or inter-population studies. Here we analyse a repeated DNA coding sequence and eleven new microsatellites identified within the Trypanosoma (Trypanozoon) brucei genome. Ninety-seven isolates belonging to the five species and subspecies Trypanosoma evansi, T. equiperdum, T. brucei brucei, T. b. rhodesiense and T. b. gambiense

N. Biteau; F. Bringaud; W. Gibson; P. Truc; T. Baltz

2000-01-01

333

Conservation genetics of bull trout: Geographic distribution of variation at microsatellite loci  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the genetic population structure of 65 bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) populations from the northwestern United States using four microsatellite loci. The distribution of genetic variation as measured by microsatellites is consistent with previous allozyme and mitochondrial DNA analysis. There is relatively little genetic variation within populations (HS = 0.000 - 0.404, average HS = 0.186, but substantial divergence

P. Spruell; A. R. Hemmingsen; P. J. Howell; N. Kanda; F. W. Allendorf

2003-01-01

334

DETERMINATION OF OFF-TYPES IN A CACAO BREEDING PROGRAM USING MICROSATELLITES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Microsatellite markers were used as diagnostic tool to detect and label off-types from a cacao breeding evaluation at CATIE, Costa Rica. The analysis was carried out by capillary electrophoresis. The genetic identity of parental trees and progeny were determined. A set of 24 microsatellites was used...

335

Paternity Acknowledgment in 2 Million Birth Records from Michigan  

PubMed Central

Out-of-wedlock childbearing is more common in the U.S. than in other countries and becoming more so. A growing share of such non-marital births identify the father, which can create a legal entitlement to child support. Relatively little is known about individual determinants of the decision to establish paternity, in part because of data limitations. In this paper, we evaluate all birth records in Michigan from 1993 to 2006, which have been merged to the paternity registry. In 2006, 30,231 Michigan children, almost one quarter of all Michigan births, were born to unmarried mothers and had paternity acknowledged. We find that births with paternity acknowledged have worse outcomes along various health and socio-economic dimensions relative to births to married parents, but better outcomes relative to births to unmarried parents without paternity acknowledgement. Furthermore, unmarried men who father sons are significantly more likely to acknowledge paternity than fathers of daughters.

Almond, Douglas; Rossin-Slater, Maya

2013-01-01

336

A microsatellite-based analysis for the detection of selection on BTA1 and BTA20 in northern Eurasian cattle (Bos taurus) populations  

PubMed Central

Background Microsatellites surrounding functionally important candidate genes or quantitative trait loci have received attention as proxy measures of polymorphism level at the candidate loci themselves. In cattle, selection for economically important traits is a long-term strategy and it has been reported that microsatellites are linked to these important loci. Methods We have investigated the variation of seven microsatellites on BTA1 (Bos taurus autosome 1) and 16 on BTA20, using bovine populations of typical production types and horn status in northern Eurasia. Genetic variability of these loci and linkage disequilibrium among these loci were compared with those of 28 microsatellites on other bovine chromosomes. Four different tests were applied to detect molecular signatures of selection. Results No marked difference in locus variability was found between microsatellites on BTA1, BTA20 and the other chromosomes in terms of different diversity indices. Average D' values of pairwise syntenic markers (0.32 and 0.28 across BTA 1 and BTA20 respectively) were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than for non-syntenic markers (0.15). The Ewens-Watterson test, the Beaumont and Nichol's modified frequentist test and the Bayesian FST-test indicated elevated or decreased genetic differentiation, at SOD1 and AGLA17 markers respectively, deviating significantly (P < 0.05) from neutral expectations. Furthermore, lnRV, lnRH and lnR?' statistics were used for the pairwise population comparison tests and were significantly less variable in one population relative to the other, providing additional evidence of selection signatures for two of the 51 loci. Moreover, the three Finnish native populations showed evidence of subpopulation divergence at SOD1 and AGLA17. Our data also indicate significant intergenic linkage disequilibrium around the candidate loci and suggest that hitchhiking selection has played a role in shaping the pattern of observed linkage disequilibrium. Conclusion Hitchhiking due to tight linkage with alleles at candidate genes, e.g. the POLL gene, is a possible explanation for this pattern. The potential impact of selective breeding by man on cattle populations is discussed in the context of selection effects. Our results also suggest that a practical approach to detect loci under selection is to simultaneously apply multiple neutrality tests based on different assumptions and estimations.

2010-01-01

337

Mapping of rabbit microsatellite markers using chromosome-specific libraries.  

PubMed

Recently, rabbit microsatellite markers were developed from a chromosome 1-specific library, and seven new markers were incorporated into the genetic map of the rabbit. We have now developed microsatellite markers from chromosomes 3-, 5-, 6-, 7-, 12-, and 19-specific libraries. Linkage analysis was performed with use of these new markers, five recently physically mapped markers (PMP2, TCRB, ALOX15, MT1, and Sol33), microsatellite markers located in the HBA gene cluster, the MHC region and FABP6 gene, and seven biochemical markers (Es-1, Es-3, Est-2, Est-4, Est-6, Est-X, and HP). This analysis enabled us to verify the specificity of the libraries and to determine the position and orientation of the linkage groups on the chromosomes. PMID:12721228

Korstanje, R; Gillissen, G F; Versteeg, S A; van Oost, B A; Bosma, A A; Rogel-Gaillard, C; van Zutphen, L F M; van Lith, H A

338

Microsatellite alterations in uterine leiomyomas.  

PubMed

Recent studies have shown that microsatellites instability (MI) has a leading role in the development of different types of cancer: a high rate of di-tri or tetranucleotide repeats have been found in familial polyposis and in sporadic colorectal, gastric, breast and endometrial carcinomas. In the present study, we selected the DNA of 23 histological samples from patients with uterine leimyomas, aged between 24 and 65 years. The negative portion was divided from the pathological portion in the same sample of each patient. Each sample was analyzed for 7 microsatellites (D25123, Mfd39, 635. 636. Mfd67, D11S905, SCZD1 and DM) through double amplification with the PCR using external and internal primer couples. Seven of 23 samples analyzed on the denaturant gel of acrylamide (30.4%) were positive for microsatellite alterations. The recurrence of these alterations, which appear in our study, suggest their involvement in benign transformation of smooth muscle cells. PMID:9568101

French, D; Cermele, C; Lombardi, A M; Vecchione, A; Midulla, C; Del Nero, A; Vecchione, A

339

Multilocus methylation analysis in a large cohort of 11p15-related foetal growth disorders (Russell Silver and Beckwith Wiedemann syndromes) reveals simultaneous loss of methylation at paternal and maternal imprinted loci.  

PubMed

Genomic imprinting plays an important role in mammalian development. Loss of imprinting (LOI) through loss (LOM) or gain (GOM) of methylation is involved in many human disorders and cancers. The imprinted 11p15 region is crucial for the control of foetal growth and LOI at this locus is implicated in two clinically opposite disorders: Beckwith Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) with foetal overgrowth associated with an enhanced tumour risk and Russell-Silver syndrome (RSS) with intrauterine and postnatal growth restriction. So far, only a few studies have assessed multilocus LOM in human imprinting diseases. To investigate multilocus LOI syndrome, we studied the methylation status of five maternally and two paternally methylated loci in a large series (n = 167) of patients with 11p15-related foetal growth disorders. We found that 9.5% of RSS and 24% of BWS patients showed multilocus LOM at regions other than ICR1 and ICR2 11p15, respectively. Moreover, over two third of multilocus LOM RSS patients also had LOM at a second paternally methylated locus, DLK1/GTL2 IG-DMR. No additional clinical features due to LOM of other loci were found suggesting an (epi)dominant effect of the 11p15 LOM on the clinical phenotype for this series of patients. Surprisingly, four patients displayed LOM at both ICR1 and ICR2 11p15. Three of them had a RSS and one a BWS phenotype. Our results show for the first time that multilocus LOM can also concern RSS patients. Moreover, LOM can involve both paternally and maternally methylated loci in the same patient. PMID:19755383

Azzi, Salah; Rossignol, Sylvie; Steunou, Virginie; Sas, Theo; Thibaud, Nathalie; Danton, Fabienne; Le Jule, Maryline; Heinrichs, Claudine; Cabrol, Sylvie; Gicquel, Christine; Le Bouc, Yves; Netchine, Irene

2009-09-14

340

Detecting Sex-Biased Gene Flow in African-Americans through the Analysis of Intra- and Inter-Population Variation at Mitochondrial DNA and Y- Chromosome Microsatellites  

PubMed Central

This study reports on variations at the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) hypervariable region 1 (HVR-1) and at seven Y-chromosome microsatellites in an African-American population sample from Chicago, IL, USA. Our results support the hypothesis that the population studied had undergone a European male-biased gene flow. We show that comparisons of intra-and inter-population diversity parameters between African-Americans, Europeans and Africans may help detect sex-biased gene flow, providing a complement to quantitative methods to estimate genetic admixture.

Battaggia, C; Anagnostou, P; Bosch, I; Brisighelli, F; Destro-Bisol, G; Capocasa, M

2012-01-01

341

SNPSTR: a database of compound microsatellite-SNP markers  

PubMed Central

There has been widespread and growing interest in genetic markers suitable for drawing population genetic inferences about past demographic events and to detect the effects of selection. In addition to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), microsatellites (or short tandem repeats, STRs) have received great attention in the analysis of human population history. In the SNPSTR database () we catalogue a relatively new type of compound genetic marker called SNPSTR which combines a microsatellite marker (STR) with one or more tightly linked SNPs. Here, the SNP(s) and the microsatellite are less than 250 bp apart so each SNPSTR can be considered a small haplotype with no recombination occurring between the two individual markers. Thus, SNPSTRs have the potential to become a very useful tool in the field of population genetics. The SNPSTR database contains all inferable human SNPSTRs as well as those in mouse, rat, dog and chicken, i.e. all model organisms for which extensive SNP datasets are available.

Agrafioti, I.; Stumpf, M. P. H.

2007-01-01

342

Evolution and Proximate Expression of Human Paternal Investment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In more than 95% of mammalian species, males provide little direct investment in the well-being of their offspring. Humans are one notable exception to this pattern and, to date, the factors that contributed to the evolution and the proximate expression of human paternal care are unexplained (T. H. Clutton-Brock, 1989). The nature, extent, and influence of human paternal investment on

David C. Geary

2000-01-01

343

Reactivation of the Paternal X Chromosome in Early Mouse Embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is generally accepted that paternally imprinted X inactivation occurs exclusively in extraembryonic lineages of mouse embryos, whereas cells of the embryo proper, derived from the inner cell mass (ICM), undergo only random X inactivation. Here we show that imprinted X inactivation, in fact, occurs in all cells of early embryos and that the paternal X is then selectively reactivated

Winifred Mak; Tatyana B. Nesterova; Mariana de Napoles; Ruth Appanah; Shinya Yamanaka; Arie P. Otte; Neil Brockdorff

2004-01-01

344

Parental Psychopathology and Paternal Child Neglect in Late Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We aimed at determining the association of both severity of paternal and maternal substance use disorder (SUD) and psychiatric disorders with paternal child neglect severity during late childhood. The sample comprised 146 intact SUD (n=71) and non SUD (n=75) families with a 10-12 year old female or male biological offspring. The average age of…

Stewart, Chris; Mezzich, Ada C.; Day, Bang-Shiuh

2006-01-01

345

SPERM STRATIFICATION AND PATERNITY SUCCESS IN RED FLOUR BEETLES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

When females are inseminated by multiple males, male paternity success (sperm precedence) is determined by the underlying processes of sperm storage and sperm utilization. Paternity success is typically studied using two-male sperm competition experiments, but this protocol provides limited insight ...

346

Parental Psychopathology and Paternal Child Neglect in Late Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We aimed at determining the association of both severity of paternal and maternal substance use disorder (SUD) and psychiatric disorders with paternal child neglect severity during late childhood. The sample comprised 146 intact SUD (n=71) and non SUD (n=75) families with a 10-12 year old female or male biological offspring. The average age of…

Stewart, Chris; Mezzich, Ada C.; Day, Bang-Shiuh

2006-01-01

347

Parental Psychopathology and Paternal Child Neglect in Late Childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

We aimed at determining the association of both severity of paternal and maternal substance use disorder (SUD) and psychiatric disorders with paternal child neglect severity during late childhood. The sample comprised 146 intact SUD (n=71) and non SUD (n=75) families with a 10–12 year old female or male biological offspring. The average age of fathers, mothers, and children was 44

Chris Stewart; Ada C. Mezzich; Bang-Shiuh Day

2006-01-01

348

Noncustodial Father and Paternal Grandparent Relationships in Stepfamilies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examined associations between children's psychological adjustment in stepfather families and their relationships with their noncustodial fathers and paternal grandparents. Results from 98 children and their families indicated no differences in contact or relationship quality with noncustodial fathers or paternal grandparents for boys or girls or…

Bray, James H.; Berger, Sandra H.

1990-01-01

349

Paternal uniparental disomy for chromosome 6 causes transient neonatal diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report an infant with intrauterine growth retardation and transient neonatal diabetes who has paternal uniparental disomy for chromosome 6. The infant was not dysmorphic and had no congenital anomalies. To our knowledge, this is the third case of paternal uniparental disomy occurring in an infant with transient neonatal diabetes, thus confirming the association.

M L Whiteford; A Narendra; M P White; A Cooke; A G Wilkinson; K J Robertson; J L Tolmie

1997-01-01

350

Multiple sperm storage organs facilitate female control of paternity  

PubMed Central

It has been proposed that multiple sperm storage organs (spermathecae) could allow polyandrous females to control paternity. There is little conclusive evidence for this since insemination of individual spermathecae is generally not experimentally manipulable. Here, we examined sperm use patterns in the Australian redback spider (Latrodectus hasselti), which has paired, independent spermathecae. We assessed paternity when two rivals were forced to inseminate a single storage organ or opposite storage organs. When males inseminated a single spermatheca, mean paternity of the female's first mate was 79.8% (median 89.4%), and 38% of first mates achieved 100% paternity. In contrast, when males inseminated opposite organs, the mean paternity of the first mate was 49.3% (median 49.9%), only 10% of males achieved complete precedence, and paternity was normally distributed, suggesting sperm mixing. Males responded to this difference by avoiding previously inseminated female reproductive tracts. Complete sperm precedence can only be achieved if females permit males to copulate with both reproductive tracts. Females often cannibalize smaller males during their first copulation, thus limiting their paternity to 50%. These data show that multiple sperm storage organs can increase female control of paternity.

Snow, Lindsay S.E; Andrade, Maydianne C.B

2005-01-01

351

Factors Associated with Perceived Paternal Involvement in Childrearing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Surveyed African American and white fathers living with their young children and the children's mothers regarding variables associated with perceived paternal involvement in child care. Results indicated that ethnicity, gender role orientation, and perceived skill at child care related to higher levels of perceived paternal engagement in and…

Sanderson, Susan; Thompson, Vetta L. Sanders

2002-01-01

352

Female reproductive synchrony predicts skewed paternity across primates  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have uncovered remarkable variation in paternity within primate groups. To date, however, we lack a general understanding of the factors that drive variation in paternity skew among primate groups and across species. Our study focused on hypotheses from reproductive skew theory involving limited control and the use of paternity “concessions” by investigating how paternity covaries with the number of males, female estrous synchrony, and rates of extragroup paternity. In multivariate and phylogenetically controlled analyses of data from 27 studies on 19 species, we found strong support for a limited control skew model, with reproductive skew within groups declining as female reproductive synchrony and the number of males per group increase. Of these 2 variables, female reproductive synchrony explained more of the variation in paternity distributions. To test whether dominant males provide incentives to subordinates to resist matings by extragroup males, that is, whether dominants make concessions of paternity, we derived a novel prediction that skew is lower within groups when threat from outside the group exists. This prediction was not supported as a primary factor underlying patterns of reproductive skew among primate species. However, our approach revealed that if concessions occur in primates, they are most likely when female synchrony is low, as these conditions provide alpha male control of paternity that is assumed by concessions models. Collectively, our analyses demonstrate that aspects of male reproductive competition are the primary drivers of reproductive skew in primates.

Nunn, Charles L.; Schulke, Oliver

2008-01-01

353

Sexual selection resulting from extrapair paternity in collared flycatchers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extrapair paternity has been suggested to represent a potentially important source of sexual selection on male secondary sexual characters, particularly in birds with predominantly socially monogamous mating systems. However, relatively few studies have demonstrated sexual selection within single species by this mechanism, and there have been few attempts to assess the importance of extrapair paternity in relation to other mechanisms

BEN C. SHELDON; HANS ELLEGREN

1999-01-01

354

A microsatellite map of wheat.  

PubMed Central

Hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell) is one of the world's most important crop plants and displays a very low level of intraspecific polymorphism. We report the development of highly polymorphic microsatellite markers using procedures optimized for the large wheat genome. The isolation of microsatellite-containing clones from hypomethylated regions of the wheat genome increased the proportion of useful markers almost twofold. The majority (80%) of primer sets developed are genome-specific and detect only a single locus in one of the three genomes of bread wheat (A, B, or D). Only 20% of the markers detect more than one locus. A total of 279 loci amplified by 230 primer sets were placed onto a genetic framework map composed of RFLPs previously mapped in the reference population of the International Triticeae Mapping Initiative (ITMI) Opata 85 x W7984. Sixty-five microsatellites were mapped at a LOD >2.5, and 214 microsatellites were assigned to the most likely intervals. Ninety-three loci were mapped to the A genome, 115 to the B genome, and 71 to the D genome. The markers are randomly distributed along the linkage map, with clustering in several centromeric regions.

Roder, M S; Korzun, V; Wendehake, K; Plaschke, J; Tixier, M H; Leroy, P; Ganal, M W

1998-01-01

355

Microsatellites from Conyza canadensis (horseweed)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Microsatellite loci were identified from Conyza canadensis (horseweed). Primer pairs for 64 loci were developed and of these eight were optimized and screened using genomic DNA from 22 accessions of horseweed from North America. Most loci were polymorphic and the number of alleles per locus ranged ...

356

Joint Inference of Microsatellite Mutation Models, Population History and Genealogies Using Transdimensional Markov Chain Monte Carlo  

PubMed Central

We provide a framework for Bayesian coalescent inference from microsatellite data that enables inference of population history parameters averaged over microsatellite mutation models. To achieve this we first implemented a rich family of microsatellite mutation models and related components in the software package BEAST. BEAST is a powerful tool that performs Bayesian MCMC analysis on molecular data to make coalescent and evolutionary inferences. Our implementation permits the application of existing nonparametric methods to microsatellite data. The implemented microsatellite models are based on the replication slippage mechanism and focus on three properties of microsatellite mutation: length dependency of mutation rate, mutational bias toward expansion or contraction, and number of repeat units changed in a single mutation event. We develop a new model that facilitates microsatellite model averaging and Bayesian model selection by transdimensional MCMC. With Bayesian model averaging, the posterior distributions of population history parameters are integrated across a set of microsatellite models and thus account for model uncertainty. Simulated data are used to evaluate our method in terms of accuracy and precision of ? estimation and also identification of the true mutation model. Finally we apply our method to a red colobus monkey data set as an example.

Wu, Chieh-Hsi; Drummond, Alexei J.

2011-01-01

357

Joint inference of microsatellite mutation models, population history and genealogies using transdimensional Markov Chain Monte Carlo.  

PubMed

We provide a framework for Bayesian coalescent inference from microsatellite data that enables inference of population history parameters averaged over microsatellite mutation models. To achieve this we first implemented a rich family of microsatellite mutation models and related components in the software package BEAST. BEAST is a powerful tool that performs Bayesian MCMC analysis on molecular data to make coalescent and evolutionary inferences. Our implementation permits the application of existing nonparametric methods to microsatellite data. The implemented microsatellite models are based on the replication slippage mechanism and focus on three properties of microsatellite mutation: length dependency of mutation rate, mutational bias toward expansion or contraction, and number of repeat units changed in a single mutation event. We develop a new model that facilitates microsatellite model averaging and Bayesian model selection by transdimensional MCMC. With Bayesian model averaging, the posterior distributions of population history parameters are integrated across a set of microsatellite models and thus account for model uncertainty. Simulated data are used to evaluate our method in terms of accuracy and precision of estimation and also identification of the true mutation model. Finally we apply our method to a red colobus monkey data set as an example. PMID:21385725

Wu, Chieh-Hsi; Drummond, Alexei J

2011-03-08

358

Assessment of application value of 19 autosomal short tandem repeat loci of GoldenEye 20A kit in forensic paternity testing.  

PubMed

This study was carried out to assess the application value of 19 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci of GoldenEye 20A kit, in which 13 combined DNA index system core STR loci and PentaE, PentaD, D2S1338, D19S433, D12S391, and D6S1043 of six STR loci could be used in forensic paternity testing in Chinese population. We amplified the genomic DNA from blood samples on FTA paper of 289 paternity testing cases by using the GoldenEye 20A kit. The amplified products were detected by capillary electrophoresis, and then the genotypes of 20 genetic markers including 19 STR loci as well as Amelogenin for sex determination were analyzed by GeneMapper v3.2 and GeneMarker HID Software. The results of genotypes were compared to the three commonly used commercial kits including AmpF?STR Identifiler, PowerPlex16, and AmpF?STR Sinofiler kits. Compared to the three other common commercial kits, the GoldenEye 20A kit had higher value of combined paternity index in certainty of paternity or non-exclusion paternity cases, and more numbers of STR loci were excluded in exclusionary paternity cases. Our data in this study showed that the GoldenEye 20A kit has a higher application value in forensic paternity testing and will be of help for kinship analysis. PMID:23483205

Huang, Yan-Mei; Wang, Jie; Jiao, Zhangping; Yang, Liu; Zhang, Xinning; Tang, Hui; Liu, Yacheng

2013-03-13

359

Use of short microsatellites from database sequences to generate polymorphisms among Lycopersicon esculentum cultivars and accessions of other Lycopersicon species  

Microsoft Academic Search

A search of nearly 2000 sequences from Solanaceae species in the EMBL and Genbank databases yielded 220 microsatellites. Among these were 80 microsatellites from 675 Lycopersicon entries. Dinucleotide repeats, as well as (CAA)n and (TAA)n repeats, were over-represented in non-coding DNA. The other trinucleotide repeats were predominantly found in exonic DNA.\\u000a PCR analysis of 44 of the microsatellite-containing Lycopersicon loci

M. J. M. Smulders; G. M. M. Bredemeijer; W. Rus-Kortekaas; P. F. P. Arens; B. Vosman

1997-01-01

360

Conservation of noncoding microsatellites in plants: implication for gene regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Microsatellites are extremely common in plant genomes, and in particular, they are significantly enriched in the 5' noncoding regions. Although some 5' noncoding microsatellites involved in gene regulation have been described, the general properties of microsatellites as regulatory elements are still unknown. To address the question of microsatellites associated with regulatory elements, we have analyzed the conserved noncoding microsatellite

Lida Zhang; Kaijing Zuo; Fei Zhang; Youfang Cao; Jiang Wang; Yidong Zhang; Xiaofen Sun; Kexuan Tang

2006-01-01

361

Male age mediates reproductive investment and response to paternity assurance.  

PubMed

Theory predicts that male response to reduced paternity will depend on male state and interactions between the sexes. If there is little chance of reproducing again, then males should invest heavily in current offspring, regardless of their share in paternity. We tested this by manipulating male age and paternity assurance in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides. We found older males invested more in both mating effort and parental effort than younger males. Furthermore, male age, a component of male state, mediated male response to perceived paternity. Older males provided more prenatal care, whereas younger males provided less prenatal care, when perceived paternity was low. Adjustments in male care, however, did not influence selection acting indirectly on parents, through offspring performance. This is because females adjusted their care in response to the age of their partner, providing less care when paired with older males than younger males. As a result offspring, performance did not differ between treatments. Our study shows, for the first time, that a male state variable is an important modifier of paternity-parental care trade-offs and highlights the importance of social interactions between males and females during care in determining male response to perceived paternity. PMID:23782889

Benowitz, Kyle M; Head, Megan L; Williams, Camellia A; Moore, Allen J; Royle, Nick J

2013-06-19

362

High levels of polymorphism found through cross-amplification of microsatellite loci in a Ctenomys pearsoni (Rodentia, Ctenomyidae) population.  

PubMed

Ctenomys pearsoni (Pearson's tuco-tuco) is a subterranean rodent native to Uruguay. We tested the amplification pattern of 12 microsatellite loci, designed for C. sociabilis and C. haigi in a C. pearsoni population. DNA extractions were made from hair samples, and PCR amplification products were run on an ABI 3100 microcapillary gel. Eight loci were selected to form a highly polymorphic panel that could be used to efficiently screen populations of this species. In DNA from 35 tuco-tucos, the mean polymorphic information content value was 0.6536 and the mean expected heterozygosity was 0.7166. Paternity non-exclusion probabilities for seven independent loci were NE-1P = 0.0766 and NE-2P = 0.0108, and combined non-exclusion P(ID) was 6.2 x 10(-7). This panel of microsatellite loci has sufficient power to make inferences regarding group structure, mating strategies and evolutionary relationships among populations. PMID:23613235

Mannise, N; González, S; Maldonado, J E; Izquierdo, G; Francescoli, G; Cosse, M

2013-04-02

363

Paternity in the classical polyandrous black coucal (Centropus grillii)--a cuckoo accepting cuckoldry?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In birds, a high degree of paternal care is expected to correlate with a relatively low frequency of extrapair paternity. If females seek extrapair copulations, they may lose fitness because their partners may reduce paternal care. Conversely, a high degree of paternal care might give females extra opportunities to pursue extrapair copulations, whereas their mates are occupied with offspring care.

Christina Muck; Bart Kempenaers; Sylvia Kuhn; Mihai Valcu; Wolfgang Goymann

2009-01-01

364

A novel microsatellite control system  

SciTech Connect

The authors are researching extremely simple yet quite capable analog pulse-coded neural networks for ``smaller-faster-cheaper`` spacecraft attitude and control systems. The will demonstrate a prototype microsatellite that uses their novel control method to autonomously stabilize itself in the ambient magnetic field and point itself at the brightest available light source. Though still in design infancy, the ``Nervous Net`` controllers described could allow for space missions not currently possible given conventional satellite hardware. Result, prospects and details are presented.

Moore, K.R.; Frigo, J.R.; Tilden, M.W.

1998-02-01

365

New rangefinder system for microsatellite  

Microsoft Academic Search

CO.RI.S.T.A. (Consortium of Research on Advanced Remote Sensing Systems) performed a feasibility study funded by Italian Space Agency (ASI) to develop a rangefinder system as payload for microsatellite. The satellite considered for the study is UNISAT, an Italian academic satellite. The studied rangefinder offers the possibility to correct the systematic error of stereoscopic images acquired by MHRRC camera (Miniaturised High-Resolution

Stefania Mattei; Maria R. Santovito; Antonio Moccia

2004-01-01

366

Paternal isodisomy for chromosome 5 in a child with spinal muscular atropy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paternal isodisomy for chromosomes 5 was detected in a 2-year-old boy with type III spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), an autosomal recessive degenerative disorder of alpha motor neurons, known to map to 5q11.2-13.3. Examination of 17 short-sequence repeat polymorphisms spanning 5p15.1-15.3. to 5q33.3-qter produced no evidence of maternally inherited alleles. Cytogenetic analysis revealed a normal male karyotype, and FISH with probes

L. M. Brzustowicz; G. K. Penchaszadeh; T. C. Gilliam; B. A. Allitto; R. Theve; L. Michaud; E. Sugarman; B. L. Handelin; S. Chatkupt; M. R. Koenigsberger

1994-01-01

367

Understanding paternal genome demethylation through live-cell imaging and siRNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification of a DNA demethylase responsible for zygotic paternal DNA demethylation has been one of the most challenging\\u000a goals in the field of epigenetics. Several candidate molecules have been proposed, but their involvement in the demethylation\\u000a remains controversial, partly due to the difficulty of preparing a sufficient quantity of materials for biochemical analysis.\\u000a In this review, we utilize a recently

Kazuo Yamagata; Yuki Okada

2011-01-01

368

Demographic characteristics in adult paternity for first births to adolescents under 15 years of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To examine parental demographic characteristics by adult (? 20 years at baby’s conception) and teenage (Methods: This was a population-based, retrospective cohort analysis of all 12,317 very young adolescent mothers residing in California with a first singleton live birth during 1993–1995. Risks for adult, compared to teenage, paternity were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression.Results: Adult fathers, responsible for 26.7%

Don J Taylor; Gilberto F Chavez; Elizabeth J Adams; Anand Chabra; Rugmini S Shah

1999-01-01

369

Paternal Age and Congenital Malformations in Offspring in California, 1989–2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the association between paternal age and a wide range of structural birth defects. Data were drawn from\\u000a The California Birth Defects Monitoring Program, a population-based active surveillance system for collecting information\\u000a on infants and fetuses with defects born between 1989 and 2002. The analysis included 46,114 cases with defects, plus a random\\u000a sample of 36,838 non-malformed births.

Jagteshwar Grewal; Suzan L. Carmichael; Wei Yang; Gary M. Shaw

370

Microsatellite Evolution: Testing the Ascertainment Bias Hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Previous studies suggest the median allele length of microsatellites is longest in the species from which the markers were\\u000a derived, suggesting that an ascertainment bias was operating. We have examined whether the size distribution of microsatellite\\u000a alleles between sheep and cattle is source dependent using a set of 472 microsatellites that can be amplified in both species.\\u000a For those

Allan M. Crawford; Steven M. Kappes; Korena A. Paterson; Mauricio J. deGotari; Ken G. Dodds; Brad A. Freking; Roger T. Stone; Craig W. Beattie

1998-01-01

371

Patrilocal Residence and Father–Child Resemblance Beliefs in Relation to Paternal Investment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The present study investigated the moderating effect of patrilocality—whether a child's mother lives with paternal grandparents—on the relation between father–child resemblance belief and paternal investment. Design and Results. On the basis of 341 children and their parents from rural China, belief in paternal resemblance was found to be related to higher paternal warmth toward the child, higher paternal marital

Lei Chang; Hui Jing Lu; Louis N. Y. Lee; Tong Li; Sha Sha Sui

2010-01-01

372

Colorectal carcinomas with high microsatellite instability: Defining a distinct immunologic and molecular entity with respect to prognostic markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular analysis of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal carcinomas (HNPCC) has identified DNA mismatch repair deficiencies with resulting microsatellite instability (MSI) as a pathway of carcinogenesis that appears to be relevant for prognosis, treatment, and possibly prevention. In this study, expression of cell cycle proteins and other known prognostic markers is correlated with the microsatellite status of colorectal cancers (CRC). One hundred

Tina Bocker Edmonston; Kimberly H. Cuesta; Susan Burkholder; Alan Barusevicius; Deborah Rose; Albert J. Kovatich; Bruce Boman; Robert Fry; Richard Fishel; Juan P. Palazzo

2000-01-01

373

Isolation, characterization and cross-species amplification of eight microsatellite DNA loci in the migratory locust (Locusta migratoria)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight polymorphic di- and trinucleotide microsatellite loci suitable for population genetic analysis were developed in Locusta migratoria from a partial phagemid genomic library enriched for microsatellite inserts. The expected heterozygosity at these loci ranges from 0.45 to 0.97, with the observed allele numbers varying between nine and 45. The overall micro- satellite cloning efficiency in L. migratoria is 14%, suggesting

De-Xing Zhang; Lu-Na Yan; Ya-Jie Ji; Le Kang; Godfrey M. Hewitt; Zu-Shi Huang

2003-01-01

374

Phylogeography and population structure of the saker falcon ( Falco cherrug ) and the influence of hybridization: mitochondrial and microsatellite data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsatellite as well as sequence analysis of the mitochondrial control region were applied to infer phylogeography and population genetic structure of the saker falcon ( Falco cherrug ). Furthermore, we compared the patterns of mitochondrial haplotypes with the variation of microsatellite alleles among the species of the hierofalcon complex ( F. cherrug , Falco rusticolus , Falco biarmicus , Falco

FRANZISKA NITTINGER; ANITA GAMAUF; WILHELM PINSKER; MICHAEL WINK; ELISABETH HARING

375

Canine Paternity Testing--Using Personal Experiences To Teach Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines how an example from the field of animal husbandry is used in a DNA Technology course to motivate students to take a deeper interest in the material. Focuses on paternity testing in dogs. (DDR)

Rascati, Ralph J.

2002-01-01

376

Canine Paternity Testing--Using Personal Experiences To Teach Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Outlines how an example from the field of animal husbandry is used in a DNA Technology course to motivate students to take a deeper interest in the material. Focuses on paternity testing in dogs. (DDR)|

Rascati, Ralph J.

2002-01-01

377

Paternal postpartum depression: what health care providers should know.  

PubMed

Paternal postpartum depression (PPD) is a clinically significant problem for families that is currently underscreened, underdiagnosed, and undertreated. Maternal PPD is a well-known condition and has been extensively researched. In comparison, PPD in fathers and its potential effects on the family are not widely recognized. Studies have shown the importance of optimal mental health in fathers during the postpartum period. Negative effects of paternal PPD affect marital/partner relationships, infant bonding, and child development. To promote optimal health for parents and children, pediatric nurse practitioners must stay up to date on this topic. This article discusses the relationship of paternal PPD to maternal PPD; the consequences, signs, and symptoms; and the pediatric nurse practitioner's role in assessing and managing paternal PPD. PMID:23182851

Musser, Anna K; Ahmed, Azza H; Foli, Karen J; Coddington, Jennifer A

2012-11-22

378

Later paternal age and sex differences in schizophrenia symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveAdvanced paternal age is consistently associated with an increased risk for schizophrenia, accounting for up to a quarter of cases in some populations. If paternal age-related schizophrenia (PARS) involves a distinct etiopathology, then PARS cases may show specific characteristics, vis-à-vis other schizophrenia cases. This study examined if PARS exhibits the symptom profile and sex differences that are consistently observed for

Paul J. Rosenfield; Karine Kleinhaus; Mark Opler; Mary Perrin; Nicole Learned; Raymond Goetz; Arielle Stanford; Julie Messinger; Jill Harkavy-Friedman; Dolores Malaspina

2010-01-01

379

Refusal rights, law and medical paternalism in Turkey.  

PubMed

Dr Tolga Guven and Dr Gurkan Sert argue the Turkish legal principles do not give clear guidance about the permissibility of medical paternalism. They then argue that the best interpretation of these principles requires respect for patients' rights. I agree that medical paternalism is wrong, but the truth of this claim does not depend on legal interpretation or medical culture. Further, the antipaternalist thesis of Guven and Sert may command much more extensive reforms than they acknowledge. PMID:23599425

Flanigan, Jessica

2013-04-17

380

Paternal inheritance of mitochondrial DNA in the sheep ( Ovine aries )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paternal inheritance of mitochondria DNA in sheep was discovered by examination of 152 sheep from 38 hybrid families for mtDNA\\u000a D-loop polymorphisms using PCR-RFLP, amplification of repeated sequence somain, and PCR-SSCP of the D-loop 5? end region of\\u000a a 253 bp fragment. Our findings have provided the first evidence of paternal inheritance of mtDNA in sheep and possible mechanisms\\u000a of

Xingbo Zhao; Mingxing Chu; Ning Li; Changxin Wu

2001-01-01

381

Feto-infant Health and Survival: Does Paternal Involvement Matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lack of paternal involvement during pregnancy and infancy may account for a significant burden of the adverse pregnancy outcomes\\u000a among black women and could therefore, represent an important avenue providing the opportunity to improve feto-infant health\\u000a and survival. This study aimed to review the literature on paternal involvement during the perinatal period and its influence\\u000a on feto-infant health and survival.

Amina P. AlioHamisu; Hamisu M. Salihu; Jennifer L. Kornosky; Alice M. Richman; Phillip J. Marty

2010-01-01

382

Does Libertarian Paternalism Reconcile Merit Goods Theory with Mainstream Economics?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the wake of Musgrave’s move to question the absolute hegemony of individual preferences for normative economics in the\\u000a 1950’s by propounding the existence of merit goods, a recent book by Thaler and Sunstein is now making a similar claim under\\u000a the label of ‘libertarian paternalism’. This paper tackles the question of why the framework of libertarian paternalism has\\u000a received

Stefan Mann; Miriam Gairing

2012-01-01

383

Microsatellite analysis of homozygosity progression of heterozygous genotypes segregating in the rice subspecies cross Pei'ai64s/Nipponbare.  

PubMed

Progression to homozygosity of heterozygous genotypes was studied in a cross of the rice subspecies Pei'ai64s and Nipponbare, using a set of 157 polymorphic microsatellite (SSR) markers. The segregation of heterozygous genotypes ranged from 49.13% in the F(2) population to 4.52% in the F(6) population (progression value 11.15%). The heterozygous genotypes were widely distributed in 180 F(2) plants, 330 F(6) lines, and 157 SSR markers. Homozygosity progression showed a wide distribution in plants and SSR markers but not in chromosomes. The segregation of heterozygous genotypes was not significant between populations but varied greatly in F(2) plants, F(6) lines, and SSR markers. The correlation between the progression to homozygosity and the heterozygosity of SSR markers was significant at the chromosome level. The segregation of heterozygous genotypes in plants, SSR markers, and chromosomes was not completely in accordance with Mendel's law. This information will help rice geneticists and breeders to understand heterozygous genotype segregation at the DNA level and to screen special markers for breeding. PMID:21509472

Liang, Yong-shu; Zhang, Qi-jun; Wang, Shi-quan; Cao, Li-yong; Gao, Zhi-qiang; Li, Ping; Cheng, Shi-hua

2011-04-21

384

Microsatellite analysis of a population crash and bottleneck in the Mauna Kea silversword, Argyroxiphium sandwicense ssp. sandwicense (Asteraceae), and its implications for reintroduction.  

PubMed

The Mauna Kea silversword, Argyroxiphium sandwicense ssp. sandwicense, has experienced both a severe population crash associated with an increase in alien ungulate populations on Mauna Kea, and a population bottleneck associated with reintroduction. In this paper, we address the genetic consequences of both demographic events using eight microsatellite loci. The population crash was not accompanied by a significant reduction in number of alleles or heterozygosity. However, the population bottleneck was accompanied by significant reductions in observed number of alleles, effective number of alleles, and expected heterozygosity, though not in observed heterozygosity. The effective size of the population bottleneck was calculated using both observed heterozygosities and allele frequency variances. Both methods corroborated the historical census size of the population bottleneck of at most three individuals. The results suggest that: (i) small populations, even those that result from severe reductions in historical population size and extent, are not necessarily genetically depauperate; and (ii) species reintroduction plans need to be conceived and implemented carefully, with due consideration to the genetic impact of sampling for reintroduction. PMID:11123615

Friar, E A; Ladoux, T; Roalson, E H; Robichaux, R H

2000-12-01

385

Multiple paternity and postcopulatory sexual selection in a hermaphrodite: what influences sperm precedence in the garden snail Helix aspersa?  

PubMed

Sperm competition has been studied in many gonochoric animals but little is known about its occurrence in simultaneous hermaphrodites, especially in land snails. The reproductive behaviour of the land snail Helix aspersa involves several features, like multiple mating, long-term sperm storage and dart-shooting behaviour, which may promote sperm competition. Cryptic female choice may also occur through a spermatheca subdivided into tubules, which potentially allows compartmentalized sperm storage of successive mates. In order to determine the outcome of postcopulatory sexual selection in this species, we designed a cross-breeding experiment where a recipient ('female') mated with two sperm donors ('males'). Mates came from either the same population as the recipient or from a distinct one. To test for the influence a recipient can have on the paternity of its offspring, we excluded the effects of dart shooting by using only virgin snails as sperm donors because they do not shoot any dart before their first copulation. We measured the effects of size of mates as well as time to first and second mating on second mate sperm precedence (P2; established using microsatellite markers). Multiple paternity was detected in 62.5% of clutches and overall there was first-mate sperm precedence with a mean P2 of 0.24. Generalized linear modelling revealed that the best predictors of paternity were the time between matings and the time before first mating. Overall, both first and second mates that copulated quickly got greater parentage, which may suggest that postcopulatory events influence patterns of sperm precedence in the garden snail. PMID:15723671

Evanno, Guillaume; Madec, Luc; Arnaud, Jean-François

2005-03-01

386

Development and characterization of microsatellite markers in black poplar (Populus nigra L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using an enrichment procedure, we have cloned and sequenced microsatellite loci from black poplar (Populus nigra L.) and developed primers for sequence-tagged microsatellite (STMS) analysis. Twelve primer pairs for dinucleotide repeats\\u000a produced fragments of sufficient quality which were polymorphic in P. nigra. Some of them also showed amplification in other Populus species (P. deltoides, P. tricocarpa, P. tremula, P. tremuloides,

J. van der Schoot; M. Pospíšková; B. Vosman; M. J. M. Smulders

2000-01-01

387

Conservation genetics of bull trout: Geographic distribution of variation at microsatellite loci  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the genetic population structure of65 bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus)populations from the northwestern United Statesusing four microsatellite loci. Thedistribution of genetic variation as measuredby microsatellites is consistent with previousallozyme and mitochondrial DNA analysis. Thereis relatively little genetic variation withinpopulations (HS = 0.000 – 0.404,average HS = 0.186, but substantialdivergence between populations (FST = 0.659). In addition, those populations that

P. Spruell; A. R. Hemmingsen; P. J. Howell; N. Kanda; F. W. Allendorf

2003-01-01

388

Cues of Paternal Uncertainty and Father to Child Physical Abuse as Reported by Mothers in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: Paternity is uncertain, so if paternal feelings evolved to promote fitness, we might expect them to vary in response to variables indicative of paternity probability. We therefore hypothesized that the risk of lapses of paternal affection, including abusive assaults on children, will be exacerbated by cues of non-paternity. Methods:…

Alexandre, Gisele Caldas; Nadanovsky, Paulo; Wilson, Margo; Daly, Martin; Moraes, Claudia Leite; Reichenheim, Michael

2011-01-01

389

Intentional mixed buccal cell reference sample in a paternity case.  

PubMed

We report a case where an alleged father (AF) attempted to substitute someone else's saliva sample for his reference sample in a paternity analysis. Buccal cells were collected from the AF and the child, and DNA analysis was performed using an autosomal STR loci (Identifiler). The profile from the AF showed extra peaks in some loci, as well as a much higher "X" allele peak relative to the "Y" allele peak at the amelogenin locus. After conducting reanalysis by another technician with another set of positive and negative controls, it was concluded that the only source of the mixed profile was by intentional introduction by the AF, at the time of sampling, of some foreign human biological material, most likely saliva from a woman. Owing to the inconclusive results, when the AF was called back to the lab and the peculiar results were explained to him, he admitted that he had introduced into his mouth saliva from another person in an attempt to be excluded as the father of the child. Although tampering with DNA reference samples is not common, some individuals may attempt to contaminate or otherwise adulterate specimens before DNA tests. Personnel responsible for sampling should be aware of this possibility and should try to establish procedures to avoid the problem. PMID:17316239

Martinez-Gonzalez, Luis J; Lorente, Jose A; Martinez-Espin, Esther; Alvarez, J Carlos; Lorente, Miguel; Villanueva, Enrique; Budowle, Bruce

2007-03-01

390

Additional microsatellite markers for mouse genome mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mouse sequence information from the EMBL and GenBank databases, published sequences and genomic clones have been analyzed for simple repetitive elements or microsatellites. Each microsatellite has been amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a single locus marker. PCR primers were designed from unique sequence flanking each repeat. Size variation of PCR products less than 750 base pairs (bp)

Catherine M. Hearne; Marcia A. McAleer; Jennifer M. Love; Timothy J. Aitman; Richard J. Cornall; Soumitra Ghosh; Andrew M. Knight; Jan-Bas Prins; John A. Todd

1991-01-01

391

Individualization of tiger by using microsatellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

In investigating criminal cases of poaching and smuggling involving tigers (Panthera tigris), the number of tiger individuals involved is critical for determining the penalty. Morphological methodologies do not often work because tiger parts do not possess the distinctive characteristics of the individual. Microsatellite DNAs have been proved a reliable marker for the individualization of animals. Seven microsatellite loci derived from

Yan Chun Xu; Bo Li; Wan Shui Li; Su Ying Bai; Yu Jin; Xiao Ping Li; Ming Bo Gu; Song Yan Jing; Wei Zhang

2005-01-01

392

Microsatellite primers for red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In this note, we document polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) primer pairs for 101, nuclear-encoded microsatellites designed and developed from a red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) genomic library. The 101 microsatellites (Genbank Accession Numbers EU015882-EU015982) were amplified successfully and used to...

393

Neither testosterone levels nor aggression decrease when the male Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) displays paternal behavior.  

PubMed

The first studies that correlated mammalian paternal behavior and testosterone levels indicated that the concentration of this steroid hormone decreases when males exhibit paternal care. However, recent studies have also shown that testosterone levels do not decrease when males display paternal behavior. In this study, we measured testosterone levels in plasma throughout the reproductive cycle of the Mongolian gerbil. Testosterone concentrations were correlated with paternal care as well as aggression. We also examined whether there is a trade-off between paternal behavior and aggression in this mammal. Our results show that Mongolian gerbil testosterone levels do not decrease when the males give paternal care. Likewise, male Mongolian gerbils exhibit high levels of aggression while displaying paternal behavior, indicating that there is no trade-off between aggression and paternal behavior. More studies are needed to determine whether testosterone is involved in the regulation of paternal behavior in this rodent. PMID:20036242

Juana, Luis; Bárbara, Vázquez-Gaytán; Martín, Martínez-Torres; Agustín, Carmona; Guillermo, Ramos-Blancas; Guadalupe, Ortíz

2009-12-28

394

The development of 10 novel polymorphic microsatellite markers through next generation sequencing and a preliminary population genetic analysis for the endangered Glenelg spiny crayfish, Euastacus bispinosus.  

PubMed

The Glenelg spiny crayfish, Euastacus bispinosus, is an iconic freshwater invertebrate of south eastern Australia and listed as 'endangered' under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999, and 'vulnerable' under the International Union for Conservation of Nature's Red List. The species has suffered major population declines as a result of over-fishing, low environmental flows, the introduction of invasive fish species and habitat degradation. In order to develop an effective conservation strategy, patterns of gene flow, genetic structure and genetic diversity across the species distribution need to be clearly understood. In this study we develop a suite of polymorphic microsatellite markers by next generation sequencing. A total of 15 polymorphic loci were identified and 10 characterized using 22 individuals from the lower Glenelg River. We observed low to moderate genetic variation across most loci (mean number of alleles per locus = 2.80; mean expected heterozygosity = 0.36) with no evidence of individual loci deviating significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Marker independence was confirmed with tests for linkage disequilibrium, and analyses indicated no evidence of null alleles across loci. Individuals from two additional sites (Crawford River, Victoria; Ewens Ponds Conservation Park, South Australia) were genotyped at all 10 loci and a preliminary investigation of genetic diversity and population structure was undertaken. Analyses indicate high levels of genetic differentiation among sample locations (F ST = 0.49), while the Ewens Ponds population is genetically homogeneous, indicating a likely small founder group and ongoing inbreeding. Management actions will be needed to restore genetic diversity in this and possibly other at risk populations. These markers will provide a valuable resource for future population genetic assessments so that an effective framework can be developed for implementing conservation strategies for E. bispinosus. PMID:23644985

Miller, Adam D; Van Rooyen, Anthony; Sweeney, Oisín F; Whiterod, Nick S; Weeks, Andrew R

2013-05-04

395

Extra-pair paternity confirmed in wild white-handed gibbons.  

PubMed

Knowledge of the genetic mating system of animal species is essential for our understanding of the evolution of social systems and individual reproductive strategies. In recent years, genetic methods have uncovered an unexpected diversity of paternal genetic contributions across diverse animal social mating systems, but particularly in pair-living species. In most pair-living birds, for example, genetic and behavioral observations have confirmed a previously unknown significance of extra-pair copulations (EPCs) and extra-pair paternity. Among mammals, white-handed gibbons (Hylobates lar) are also known to live in pairs and are traditionally believed to be single-male single-female breeders. However, at Khao Yai National Park, Thailand, behavioral observations have confirmed the occurrence of both EPCs and functional multi-male grouping, but knowledge about the genetic mating system is still unavailable. In this study, we genotyped 89 white-handed gibbons of the Khao Yai population based on fecal samplings and were able to determine paternity for 41 offspring through short tandem repeat analysis. We found that females' stable social partners sired the majority (90.5%) of offspring (N?=?38), while only a few (7.1%) offspring (n?=?2 confirmed cases; n?=?1 inferred case) were conceived with extra-pair partners. The paternity of one offspring remained inconclusive (2.4%), because the offspring's genotype did not mismatch with the genotypes of two potential sires. Like other predominantly pair-living species, gibbons appear to follow a mixed-reproductive strategy. The genetic mating system of wild white-handed gibbons is best described as flexible, primarily monogamous and opportunistically promiscuous. Am. J. Primatol. 75:1185-1195, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23877831

Barelli, Claudia; Matsudaira, Kazunari; Wolf, Tanja; Roos, Christian; Heistermann, Michael; Hodges, Keith; Ishida, Takafumi; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda; Reichard, Ulrich H

2013-07-22

396

Association between paternal schizophrenia and low birthweight: a nationwide population-based study.  

PubMed

Using a nationwide population-based dataset, the aim of the present study was to investigate the association between paternal schizophrenia and the risk of low birthweight (LBW). This study linked the 2001 Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Dataset with Taiwan's birth and death certificate registries. In total, 220 465 singleton live births were included. The key dependent variable was whether or not an infant's father was diagnosed with schizophrenia, while the independent variable of interest was whether an infant had LBW. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to explore the relationship between paternal schizophrenia and the risk of LBW, after adjusting for the infant and parents' characteristics. The results show that infants whose fathers had schizophrenia were more likely to have LBW than those whose fathers did not (12.6% vs 8.0%). Infants whose fathers had schizophrenia were found to be 1.58 (95% confidence interval = 1.10-2.52, P < .05) times more likely to have LBW than their counterparts whose fathers did not have schizophrenia, following adjustment for gestational week at birth, parity, paternal age and highest educational level, family monthly incomes, and marital status. We conclude that the offspring whose fathers had a diagnosis of schizophrenia had increased risk of LBW compared with those whose fathers had no schizophrenia. This finding paves the way for further studies and suggests that there may be potential benefit to early intervention to prevent LBW in pregnant women with husbands with schizophrenia. PMID:18628271

Lin, Herng-Ching; Tang, Chao-Hsiun; Lee, Hsin-Chien

2008-07-15

397

Direct selection for paternal inheritance of chloroplasts in sexual progeny of Nicotiana.  

PubMed

The response of Nicotiana tabacum to tentoxin (chlorosis) is inherited with chloroplasts. N. tabacum var. Xanthi, a tentoxin-resistant line, was used to pollinate tentoxin-sensitive N. tabacum line 92, an alloplasmic male-sterile line containing N. undulata plastids. The seeds were mutagenized with nitrosomethylurea and germinated in the presence of tentoxin. Two percent of the seedlings had green sectors in their first true leaves. These plants were grown to maturity under non-selective conditions. Homogeneous tentoxin-resistant lines were obtained in the third generation. DNA analysis indicated, however, that selection for paternal plastids, rather than mutagenesis of maternal ones, had occurred in the tentoxin-resistant progeny. Mitochondria, which were not under selection pressure, were inherited maternally as expected. Inheritance of tentoxin-resistant paternal plastids did not require seed mutagenesis. Normally germinated seedlings that were kept under tentoxin selection consistently produced a low level of resistant green sectors in their first true leaves. Thus, normal, low-frequency transmission of paternal plastids in N. tabacum can be directly revealed by using tentoxin. PMID:2005869

Avni, A; Edelman, M

1991-02-01

398

Uniparental isodisomy for paternal 7p and maternal 7q in a child with growth retardation.  

PubMed Central

Uniparental isodisomy resulting from the simultaneous presence of isochromosomes of the p and q arms of a chromosome and absence of a normal homologue is an exceptionally rare event. We have observed a growth-retarded female infant in whom the normal chromosome 7 homologues were replaced by what appeared cytogenetically to be isochromosomes of 7p and 7q. Polymorphic microsatellite loci spanning the length of 7p and 7q were analyzed in the proband and her parents to ascertain the parental origin and extent of heterozygosity of the proband's rearranged chromosomes. These studies demonstrated that the 7p alleles of the proband were derived only from the father, the 7q alleles were derived only from the mother, and there was homozygosity for all chromosome 7 loci analyzed. The mechanisms leading to the formation of the proband's isochromosomes could reflect abnormalities of cell division occurring at meiosis, postfertilization mitosis, or both. We believe that the present case may result from incomplete mitotic interchange in the pericentromeric regions of chromosome 7 homologues, with resolution by sister-chromatid reunion in an early, if not first, zygotic division. Phenotypically, our proband resembled three previously reported cases of maternal isodisomy for chromosome 7, suggesting that lack of paternal genes from 7q may result in a phenotype of short stature and growth retardation. Images Figure 1

Eggerding, F. A.; Schonberg, S. A.; Chehab, F. F.; Norton, M. E.; Cox, V. A.; Epstein, C. J.

1994-01-01

399

Uniparental isodisomy for paternal 7p and maternal 7q in a child with growth retardation  

SciTech Connect

Uniparental isodisomy resulting from the simultaneous presence of isochromosomes of the p and q arms of a chromosome and absence of a normal homologue is an exceptionally rare event. The authors have observed a growth-retarded female infant in whom the normal chromosome 7 homologues were replaced by what appeared cytogenetically to be isochromosomes of 7p and 7q. Polymorphic microsatellite loci spanning the length of 7p and 7q were analyzed in the proband and her parents to ascertain the parental origin and extent of heterozygosity of the proband's rearranged chromosomes. These studies demonstrated that the 7p alleles of the proband were derived only from the father, the 7q alleles were derived only from the mother, and there was homozygosity for all chromosome 7 loci analyzed. The mechanisms leading to the formation of the proband's isochromosomes could reflect abnormalities of cell division occurring at meiosis, postfertilization mitosis, or both. The authors believe that the present case may result from incomplete mitotic interchange in the pericentromeric regions of chromosome 7 homologues, with resolution by sister-chromatid reunion in an early, if not first, zygotic division. Phenotypically, the proband resembled three previously reported cases of maternal isodisomy for chromosome 7, suggesting that lack of paternal genes from 7q may result in a phenotype of short stature and growth retardation. 76 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Eggerding, F.A.; Schonberg, S.A.; Cox, V.A.; Epstein, C.J. (Perkin Elmer Corp., Foster City, CA (United States) Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)); Chehab, F.F.; Norton, M.E. (Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States))

1994-08-01

400

A genome-wide microsatellite polymorphism database for the indica and japonica rice.  

PubMed

Microsatellite (MS) polymorphism is an important source of genetic diversity, providing support for map-based cloning and molecular breeding. We have developed a new database that contains 52 845 polymorphic MS loci between indica and japonica, composed of ample Class II MS markers, and integrated 18 828 MS loci from IRGSP and genetic markers from RGP. Based on genetic marker positions on the rice genome (http://rise.genomics.org.cn/rice2/index.jsp ), we determined the approximate genetic distances of these MS loci and validated 100 randomly selected markers experimentally with 90% success rate. In addition, we recorded polymorphic MS positions in indica cv. 9311 that is the most important paternal parent of the two-line hybrid rice in China. Our database will undoubtedly facilitate the application of MS markers in genetic researches and marker-assisted breeding. The data set is freely available from www.wigs.zju.edu.cn/achievment/polySSR. PMID:17452422

Zhang, Zhonghua; Deng, Yajun; Tan, Jun; Hu, Songnian; Yu, Jun; Xue, Qingzhong

2007-04-23

401

[Identification of genotypes of grape clones using microsatellite markers].  

PubMed

SSR-analysis of a number of clones of rootstock, technical and table grape cultivars has been carried out. Allele microsatellite loci characteristics can be used for genotype identification of grape cultivar clones. High level of mutational variability among the studied clones of rootstock and technical cultivars has been revealed. DNA-passports of perspective clones were created. The results of genotyping can be used for clone registration and protection of rights of breeders. PMID:20458972

Bocharova, V R; Koval'ova, I A; Mazurenko, L S

402

Maternal and paternal imprisonment in the stress process.  

PubMed

Parental incarceration is now prevalent in community samples (e.g., with 11% of children reporting paternal imprisonment and 3% reporting maternal imprisonment in a national sample), pointing to a potentially important childhood trauma that should be included in work on contemporary childhood stressors in this era of mass incarceration. This paper investigates the influences of maternal and paternal imprisonment on changes in young adult mental health using a nationally representative sample. We assess four perspectives-gendered loss, same-sex role model, intergenerational stress, and maternal salience - on the joint influences of maternal and paternal incarceration within the broader stress process paradigm. The results generalize support for a gendered loss perspective developed in work on parental death and an early small study of parental incarceration. This pattern reveals maternal incarceration increases depressive symptoms while paternal incarceration increases substance role problems. Chronicity of parental imprisonment and its timing are also influential. Analyses further specify a vulnerability of male and minority young adults to high levels of mental health problems following maternal and paternal incarceration in adolescence. PMID:23521986

Foster, Holly; Hagan, John

2013-02-08

403

The Number of Alleles at a Microsatellite Defines the Allele Frequency Spectrum and Facilitates Fast Accurate Estimation of ?  

PubMed Central

Theoretical work focused on microsatellite variation has produced a number of important results, including the expected distribution of repeat sizes and the expected squared difference in repeat size between two randomly selected samples. However, closed-form expressions for the sampling distribution and frequency spectrum of microsatellite variation have not been identified. Here, we use coalescent simulations of the stepwise mutation model to develop gamma and exponential approximations of the microsatellite allele frequency spectrum, a distribution central to the description of microsatellite variation across the genome. For both approximations, the parameter of biological relevance is the number of alleles at a locus, which we express as a function of ?, the population-scaled mutation rate, based on simulated data. Discovered relationships between ?, the number of alleles, and the frequency spectrum support the development of three new estimators of microsatellite ?. The three estimators exhibit roughly similar mean squared errors (MSEs) and all are biased. However, across a broad range of sample sizes and ? values, the MSEs of these estimators are frequently lower than all other estimators tested. The new estimators are also reasonably robust to mutation that includes step sizes greater than one. Finally, our approximation to the microsatellite allele frequency spectrum provides a null distribution of microsatellite variation. In this context, a preliminary analysis of the effects of demographic change on the frequency spectrum is performed. We suggest that simulations of the microsatellite frequency spectrum under evolutionary scenarios of interest may guide investigators to the use of relevant and sometimes novel summary statistics.

Haasl, Ryan J.; Payseur, Bret A.

2010-01-01

404

Genic non-coding microsatellites in the rice genome: characterization, marker design and use in assessing genetic and evolutionary relationships among domesticated groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Completely sequenced plant genomes provide scope for designing a large number of microsatellite markers, which are useful in various aspects of crop breeding and genetic analysis. With the objective of developing genic but non-coding microsatellite (GNMS) markers for the rice (Oryza sativa L.) genome, we characterized the frequency and relative distribution of microsatellite repeat-motifs in 18,935 predicted protein coding

Swarup Kumar Parida; Vivek Dalal; Ashok Kumar Singh; Nagendra Kumar Singh; Trilochan Mohapatra

2009-01-01

405

Micro-satellites thermal control—concepts and components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main idea of this paper is to present the survey of current tendencies in micro-satellites thermal control concepts that can be rational and useful for posterior missions due to intensive expansion of satellites of such type. For this purpose, the available references and lessons learned by the National Technical University of Ukraine during the elaboration of thermal control hardware for micro-satellites Magion 4, 5, BIRD and autonomous thermal control systems for interplanetary missions VEGA, PHOBOS have been used. The main parameters taken into consideration for analysis are the satellite sizes, mass, power consumption, orbit parameters, altitude control peculiarities and thermal control description. It was defined that passive thermal control concepts are widely used, excepting autonomous temperature regulation for sensitive components such as batteries, high-precision optics, and some types of sensors. The practical means for realization of passive thermal control design as multi-layer insulation, optical coatings, heat conductive elements, gaskets are briefly described.

Baturkin, Volodymyr

2005-01-01

406

Microsatellite Instability in Colorectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Microsatellite instability (MSI) is a hypermutable phenotype caused by the loss of DNA mismatch repair activity. MSI is detected in about 15% of all colorectal cancers; 3% are of these are associated with Lynch syndrome and the other 12% are caused by sporadic, acquired hypermethylation of the promoter of the MLH1 gene, which occurs in tumors with the CpG island methylator phenotype. Colorectal tumors with MSI have distinctive features, including a tendency to arise in the proximal colon, lymphocytic infiltrate, and a poorly differentiated, mucinous or signet ring appearance. They have a slightly better prognosis than colorectal tumors without MSI and do not have the same response to chemotherapeutics. Discovery of MSI in colorectal tumors has increased awareness of the diversity of colorectal cancers and implications for specialized management of patients.

Boland, C. Richard; Goel, Ajay

2011-01-01

407

New rangefinder system for microsatellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CO.RI.S.T.A. (Consortium of Research on Advanced Remote Sensing Systems) performed a feasibility study funded by Italian Space Agency (ASI) to develop a rangefinder system as payload for microsatellite. The satellite considered for the study is UNISAT, an Italian academic satellite. The studied rangefinder offers the possibility to correct the systematic error of stereoscopic images acquired by MHRRC camera (Miniaturised High-Resolution Reconnaissance Camera) integrated on board the satellite. In order to carry out a compact and reliable altimeter for satellite UNISAT a review and comparison have been made with rangefinder systems both for the microwaves (radar systems) and for the visible infrared wavelength range (laser systems). A pulsed laser altimeter system based on Time Of Flight measurement appears the more suitable for the aforementioned application.

Mattei, Stefania; Santovito, Maria R.; Moccia, Antonio

2004-01-01

408

Does multiple paternity improve fitness of the frog Crinia georgiana?  

PubMed

In the Australian myobatrachid frog Crinia georgiana simultaneous polyandry occurs in about half of all matings, which leads to multiple paternity, but reduced fertilization success and occasional female mortality. Multiple paternity may provide benefits to females that compensate for these costs, for example, through enhanced genetic diversity of a clutch. In nature, embryos and tadpoles of C. georgiana develop in shallow, temporary pools and may be exposed to fluctuating water levels and the risk of desiccation between rain events. Fertilization by genetically diverse sires may act as a bet hedge against these conditions. To evaluate this hypothesis, females were artificially mated with one or two males in the field and eggs and larvae reared in the laboratory under constant or fluctuating developmental conditions. Experiment 1 exposed embryos from single- and multiple-paternity clutches to conditions where eggs were completely covered during development or eggs sat in air on a moist substrate. Experiment 2 exposed freshly hatched larvae from single- and multiple-paternity clutches to constant wet conditions, where larvae were completely covered, or fluctuating wet conditions, where larvae ranged from being completely submersed to partially exposed over a 13-day cycle. We measured mean performance and best performance as alternate measures of genetic benefits. There were no effects of paternity on percent survival to hatching, time to hatching, body size at hatching, percent survival to metamorphosis, time to metamorphosis, or body size at metamorphosis. We also analyzed variance within clutches as a measure of genetic diversity. Again there were no predictable effects of multiple paternity. Polyandry does not appear to provide any genetic benefits that compensate for the high costs of polyandry in this species. PMID:10937269

Byrne, P G; Roberts, J D

2000-06-01

409

Evidence for a role of paternal exposures in developmental toxicity.  

PubMed

Experimental evidence from radiation exposure, antimitotic drugs or chemicals such as pesticides or metals does suggest the possibility of transmission of paternally mediated developmental effects across generations. The mechanistic framework is growing with suggestion of transmission of epigenetic modifications as a mechanism alternative to germ-line mutagenesis. There is also ample experimental evidence for a specific susceptibility of the male embryo to the action of endocrine disrupters. In parallel, interpretation of epidemiological findings regarding effects of well-characterized paternal exposures, such as ionizing radiation or persistent organic pollutants (dioxins), on intrauterine development remains equivocal. Many epidemiological studies have included paternal exposures as an add-on to existing studies and focused mainly on birth defects, sex ratio, childhood cancers or spontaneous abortions. Functional alterations such as neurobehavioural parameters or reproductive dysfunction resulting from paternal exposure have been barely studied. Improved knowledge on possible consequences of paternal exposures in future generations is needed and has strong implication in terms of regulation, in the workplace for instance. One may expect human studies to be conducted with a particular focus on male-mediated developmental toxicity making use of biological markers pertinent to hypothesized mechanisms. Recognition of early determinants of disease onset has led to the setup of a number of mother-child cohorts across the world and careful assessment of paternal exposures should be included in these studies. These cohorts will also have the power to evaluate the specific impact of in utero exposure on a number of endpoints of developmental toxicity in males. PMID:18226072

Cordier, Sylvaine

2008-02-01

410

Assessing the Impact of Paternal Involvement on Racial\\/Ethnic Disparities in Infant Mortality Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

We sought to assess the contribution of paternal involvement to racial disparities in infant mortality. Using vital records\\u000a data from singleton births in Florida between 1998 and 2005, we generated odds ratios (OR), 95% confidence intervals (CI),\\u000a and preventative fractions to assess the association between paternal involvement and infant mortality. Paternal involvement\\u000a status was based on presence\\/absence of paternal first

Amina P. AlioAlfred; Alfred K. Mbah; Jennifer L. Kornosky; Deanna Wathington; Phillip J. Marty; Hamisu M. Salihu

2011-01-01

411

TNFa and b microsatellites in Germany.  

PubMed

Allele frequencies of TNFa and TNFb microsatellites were determined from 315 healthy unrelated Germans (mothers and putative fathers) by means of PCR. They were stably inherited and segregated in a Mendelian way. New mutations were not observed. PMID:9826097

Müller, E; Frank, K H; Füssel, M; Hering, S; Kuhlisch, E

1998-01-01

412

Development of microsatellite markers for the endangered Neotropical tree species Tibouchina papyrus (Melastomataceae).  

PubMed

We isolated and characterized 12 microsatellite loci for Tibouchina papyrus (Melastomataceae), an endangered species with narrow and disjunct range, endemics to a few localities in "cerrado rupestre" from Central Brazil. These microsatellites were obtained by sequencing of a genomic shotgun library for primer design. Leaves from 96 individuals collected in the three known local populations were genotyped using the 12 primers designed to analyze the polymorphisms at each locus. The number of alleles per locus ranged from one to six; two loci were monomorphic. Among the polymorphic loci, expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.161 to 0.714. Combined paternity exclusion probability was 0.957 and combined genetic identity (0.051) was high for studies on parentage. Tibouchina papyrus is a rare and endemic tree species of outcrop quartzite and sandstone soils, with highly isolated populations, which may have lead to the low degree of polymorphism that we detected. Also, motifs of most loci are larger than dinucleotide, which typically display lower levels of polymorphism. PMID:21365547

Telles, M P C; Peixoto, F P; Lima, J S; Resende, L V; Vianello, R P; Walter, M E M T; Collevatti, R G

2011-02-22

413

Microsatellites as targets of natural selection.  

PubMed

The ability to survey polymorphism on a genomic scale has enabled genome-wide scans for the targets of natural selection. Theory that connects patterns of genetic variation to evidence of natural selection most often assumes a diallelic locus and no recurrent mutation. Although these assumptions are suitable to selection that targets single nucleotide variants, fundamentally different types of mutation generate abundant polymorphism in genomes. Moreover, recent empirical results suggest that mutationally complex, multiallelic loci including microsatellites and copy number variants are sometimes targeted by natural selection. Given their abundance, the lack of inference methods tailored to the mutational peculiarities of these types of loci represents a notable gap in our ability to interrogate genomes for signatures of natural selection. Previous theoretical investigations of mutation-selection balance at multiallelic loci include assumptions that limit their application to inference from empirical data. Focusing on microsatellites, we assess the dynamics and population-level consequences of selection targeting mutationally complex variants. We develop general models of a multiallelic fitness surface, a realistic model of microsatellite mutation, and an efficient simulation algorithm. Using these tools, we explore mutation-selection-drift equilibrium at microsatellites and investigate the mutational history and selective regime of the microsatellite that causes Friedreich's ataxia. We characterize microsatellite selective events by their duration and cost, note similarities to sweeps from standing point variation, and conclude that it is premature to label microsatellites as ubiquitous agents of efficient adaptive change. Together, our models and simulation algorithm provide a powerful framework for statistical inference, which can be used to test the neutrality of microsatellites and other multiallelic variants. PMID:23104080

Haasl, Ryan J; Payseur, Bret A

2012-10-27

414

Changes in identity and paternal–foetal attachment across a first pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores change across a first pregnancy in the emergence of the father status and its relationship with paternal foetal attachment. A sample of 78 first?time Australian fathers completed measures of their identity as fathers and the paternal antenatal attachment scale at the first and third trimester. There was no change in the identity measures. In contrast, paternal foetal

Cherine Habib; Sandra Lancaster

2010-01-01

415

Observed Paternal Behaviors as Antecedents of Intellectual Functioning in Young Boys  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Paternal nurturance and some of its components were correlated significantly and positively with the children's IQ scores in the retesting, suggesting that these paternal behaviors may foster cognitive development. Indications were also found that other paternal behaviors may affect the intellectual growth of the child. (Author)|

Radin, Norma

1973-01-01

416

Genetic analysis of hybridization and introgression between wild mongoose and brown lemurs  

PubMed Central

Background Hybrid zones generally represent areas of secondary contact after speciation. The nature of the interaction between genes of individuals in a hybrid zone is of interest in the study of evolutionary processes. In this study, data from nuclear microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA sequences were used to genetically characterize hybridization between wild mongoose lemurs (Eulemur mongoz) and brown lemurs (E. fulvus) at Anjamena in west Madagascar. Results Two segments of mtDNA have been sequenced and 12 microsatellite loci screened in 162 brown lemurs and mongoose lemurs. Among the mongoose lemur population at Anjamena, we identified two F1 hybrids (one also having the mtDNA haplotype of E. fulvus) and six other individuals with putative introgressed alleles in their genotype. Principal component analysis groups both hybrids as intermediate between E. mongoz and E. fulvus and admixture analyses revealed an admixed genotype for both animals. Paternity testing proved one F1 hybrid to be fertile. Of the eight brown lemurs genotyped, all have either putative introgressed microsatellite alleles and/or the mtDNA haplotype of E. mongoz. Conclusion Introgression is bidirectional for the two species, with an indication that it is more frequent in brown lemurs than in mongoose lemurs. We conclude that this hybridization occurs because mongoose lemurs have expanded their range relatively recently. Introgressive hybridization may play an important role in the unique lemur radiation, as has already been shown in other rapidly evolving animals.

Pastorini, Jennifer; Zaramody, Alphonse; Curtis, Deborah J; Nievergelt, Caroline M; Mundy, Nicholas I

2009-01-01

417

Inbreeding, microsatellite heterozygosity, and morphological traits in Lipizzan horses.  

PubMed

While the negative effects of inbreeding and reduced heterozygosity on fecundity and survival are well established, only a few investigations have been carried out concerning their influence on morphological traits. This topic is of particular interest for a small and closed population such as the Lipizzan horse. Thus, 27 morphological traits were measured in 360 Lipizzan mares and were regressed on the individual inbreeding coefficients, as well as on the individual heterozygosity and mean squared distances (mean d(2)) between microsatellite alleles within an individual. Both individual heterozygosity and mean d(2) were based on 17 microsatellite loci dispersed over 14 chromosomes. The results obtained by multivariate analysis reveal significant effects of stud (P <.0001), age at measurement (P <.0001), and mean d(2) (P =.0143). In univariate analyses, significant associations were obtained between length of pastern-hindlimbs and inbreeding coefficient (P <.01), length of cannons-hindlimb and mean d(2) (P <.01), and length of neck and mean d(2) (P <.001). After adjustment of single-test P values for multiple tests (Hochberg's step-up Bonferroni method), only the association of the length of neck and mean d(2) remained significant (P =.0213). Thus, no overall large effects of inbreeding, microsatellite heterozygosity, and mean d(2) on morphological traits were observed in the Lipizzan horse. PMID:12721224

Curik, I; Zechner, P; Sölkner, J; Achmann, R; Bodo, I; Dovc, P; Kavar, T; Marti, E; Brem, G

418

Microsatellite instability and cytogenetic survey in myeloid leukemias.  

PubMed

Microsatellites are short tandem repeat sequences dispersed throughout the genome. Their instability at multiple genetic loci may result from mismatch repair errors and it occurs in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. This instability is also found in many sporadic cancers. In order to evaluate the importance of this process in myeloid leukemias, we studied five loci in different chromosomes of 43 patients, 22 with chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) in the chronic phase, 7 with CML in blast crisis, and 14 with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), by comparing leukemic DNA extracted from bone marrow and constitutional DNA obtained from buccal epithelial cells. Only one of the 43 patients (2.1%), with relapsed AML, showed an alteration in the allele length at a single locus. Cytogenetic analysis was performed in order to improve the characterization of leukemic subtypes and to determine if specific chromosome aberrations were associated with the presence of microsatellite instability. Several chromosome aberrations were observed, most of them detected at diagnosis and during follow-up of the patients, according to current literature. These findings suggest that microsatellite instability is an infrequent genetic event in myeloid leukemias, adding support to the current view that the mechanisms of genomic instability in solid tumors differ from those observed in leukemias, where specific chromosome aberrations seem to play a major role. PMID:11847518

Ribeiro, E M S F; Rodriguez, J M; Cóser, V M; Sotero, M G; Fonseca Neto, J M; Pasquini, R; Cavalli, I J

2002-02-01

419

Microsatellite characterization of Cimarron Uruguayo dogs  

PubMed Central

Various genetic markers, including microsatellites, have been used to analyze the genetic polymorphism and heterozygosity in canine breeds. In this work, we used nine microsatellite markers to investigate the genetic variability in Cimarron Uruguayo dogs, the only officially recognized native canine breed in Uruguay. DNA from 30 Cimarron Uruguayo dogs from northeastern and southern Uruguay was analyzed. The allelic frequencies for each microsatellite, the genetic variability and the consanguinity were calculated, as were the polymorphic information content (PIC) and the probability of exclusion (PE). All of the microsatellites studied were polymorphic. FH 2361, FH 2305 and PEZ 03 were the most informative, with PIC values > 0.7, in agreement with results for other canine breeds. The PE values for the markers were within the ranges previously described and were generally greater for microsatellites with higher PIC values. The heterozygosity value (0.649) was considered high since only nine microsatellites were analyzed. Compared with data for other breeds, the results obtained here indicate that Cimarron Uruguayo dogs have high genetic diversity.

Gagliardi, Rosa; Llambi, Silvia; Garcia, Cristina; Arruga, Maria Victoria

2011-01-01

420

Maternal Depression, Paternal Psychopathology, and Toddlers' Behavior Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examined the effects of maternal depression during the postpartum period (Time 1) on the later behavior problems of toddlers (Time 3) and tested if this relationship was moderated by paternal psychopathology during toddlers' lives and\\/or mediated by maternal parenting behavior observed during mother–child interaction (Time 2). Of the 101 mothers who participated in this longitudinal study with their

Laura J. Dietz; Kay Donahue Jennings; Sue A. Kelley; Michael Marshal

2009-01-01

421

Dynamic alterations in the paternal epigenetic landscape following fertilization.  

PubMed

Embryonic development is a complex and dynamic process with frequent changes in gene expression, ultimately leading to cellular differentiation and commitment of various cell lines. These changes are likely preceded by changes to signaling cascades and/or alterations to the epigenetic program in specific cells. The process of epigenetic remodeling begins early in development. In fact, soon after the union of sperm and egg massive epigenetic changes occur across the paternal and maternal epigenetic landscape. The epigenome of these cells includes modifications to the DNA itself, in the form of DNA methylation, as well as nuclear protein content and modification, such as modifications to histones. Sperm chromatin is predominantly packaged by protamines, but following fertilization the sperm pronucleus undergoes remodeling in which maternally derived histones replace protamines, resulting in the relaxation of chromatin and ultimately decondensation of the paternal pronucleus. In addition, active DNA demethylation occurs across the paternal genome prior to the first cell division, effectively erasing many spermatogenesis derived methylation marks. This complex interplay begins the dynamic process by which two haploid cells unite to form a diploid organism. The biology of these events is central to the understanding of sexual reproduction, yet our knowledge regarding the mechanisms involved is extremely limited. This review will explore what is known regarding the post-fertilization epigenetic alterations of the paternal chromatin and the implications suggested by the available literature. PMID:23024648

Jenkins, Timothy G; Carrell, Douglas T

2012-07-31

422

The differences among Jewish communities—Maternal and paternal contributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The haplotypes of Y chromosome (paternally inherited) and mtDNA (maternally inherited) were analyzed in representatives of six Jewish communities (Ashkenazic, North African, Near Eastern, Yemenite, Minor Asian\\/Balkanian, and Ethiopian). For both elements, the Ethiopian community has a mixture of typically African and typically Caucasian haplotypes and is significantly different from all others. The other communities, whose haplotypes are mostly Caucasian,

U. Ritte; E. Neufeld; M. Broit; D. Shavit; U. Motro

1993-01-01

423

Assigning a probability for paternity in apparent cases of mutation  

PubMed Central

Any direct estimator of mutation in a human population is subject to error due to nonpaternity. This paper deals with the quantification of this error by producing, under certain assumptions, the probability for paternity. In addition, a new direct estimator of the mutation rate is introduced.

Rothman, Edward D.; Neel, James V.; Hoppe, Fred M.

1981-01-01

424

Testosterone and paternal care in East African foragers and pastoralists  

PubMed Central

The ‘challenge hypothesis’ posits that testosterone facilitates reproductive effort (investment in male–male competition and mate-seeking) at the expense of parenting effort (investment in offspring and mates). Multiple studies, primarily in North America, have shown that men in committed relationships, fathers, or both maintain lower levels of testosterone than unpaired men. Data from non-western populations, however, show inconsistent results. We hypothesized that much of this cross-cultural variation can be attributed to differential investment in mating versus parenting effort, even among married fathers. Here, we directly test this idea by comparing two neighbouring Tanzanian groups that exhibit divergent styles of paternal involvement: Hadza foragers and Datoga pastoralists. We predicted that high levels of paternal care by Hadza fathers would be associated with decreased testosterone in comparison with non-fathers, and that no such difference between fathers and non-fathers would be evident in Datoga men, who provide minimal direct paternal care. Twenty-seven Hadza men and 80 Datoga men between the ages of 17 and 60 provided morning and afternoon saliva samples from which testosterone was assayed. Measurements in both populations confirmed these predictions, adding further support to the hypothesis that paternal care is associated with decreased testosterone production in men.

Muller, Martin N.; Marlowe, Frank W.; Bugumba, Revocatus; Ellison, Peter T.

2008-01-01

425

Change in paternity and recurrence of hyperemesis gravidarum  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether change in paternity changes recurrence risk of hyperemesis gravidarum (HG). Study Design Survey data