Sample records for microsatellite paternity analysis

  1. Outcrossing and paternity analysis of Pinus densiflora (Japanese red pine) by microsatellite polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Lian, C; Miwa, M; Hogetsu, T

    2001-07-01

    This study employed microsatellite loci to analyse outcrossing rate and pollen dispersal in Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) in an isolated stand. The average offspring outcrossing rate for 29 cones was 0.955. Significant differences in outcrossing rates between offspring groups on individual branches that extended in different directions at different heights were not detected. Male parents of 874 offspring collected from the maternal tree were assessed by exclusion using polymorphisms at three microsatellite loci. Paternity analysis indicated that at least 31% of the offspring were fertilized by pollen from trees outside the stand. The average distance of pollen migration within the study stand was 68 m, with a maximum value of 325 m. There was excess mating with nearby P. densiflora trees, of which only a few were predominant pollen donors. In addition, a weakly directional bias in P. densiflora pollination was also detected in the study stand, suggesting that female strobili on a branch of the maternal tree were more easily fertilized by pollen from trees in that direction. PMID:11678991

  2. High prevalence of multiple paternity within fruits in natural populations of Silene latifolia , as revealed by microsatellite DNA analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SARA TEIXEIRA; GIORGINA BERNASCONI

    2007-01-01

    Data on multiple paternity within broods has been gathered in several animal species, and comparable data in plants would be of great importance to understand the evolution of reproductive traits in a common framework. In this study, we first isolated and character- ized six microsatellite loci from the dioecious plant Silene latifolia (Caryophyllaceae). The polymorphism of the loci was assessed

  3. Paternity analysis in Excel.

    PubMed

    Rocheta, Margarida; Dionísio, F Miguel; Fonseca, Luís; Pires, Ana M

    2007-12-01

    Paternity analysis using microsatellite information is a well-studied subject. These markers are ideal for parentage studies and fingerprinting, due to their high-discrimination power. This type of data is used to assign paternity, to compute the average selfing and outcrossing rates and to estimate the biparental inbreeding. There are several public domain programs that compute all this information from data. Most of the time, it is necessary to export data to some sort of format, feed it to the program and import the output to an Excel book for further processing. In this article we briefly describe a program referred from now on as Paternity Analysis in Excel (PAE), developed at IST and IBET (see the acknowledgments) that computes paternity candidates from data, and other information, from within Excel. In practice this means that the end user provides the data in an Excel sheet and, by pressing an appropriate button, obtains the results in another Excel sheet. For convenience PAE is divided into two modules. The first one is a filtering module that selects data from the sequencer and reorganizes it in a format appropriate to process paternity analysis, assuming certain conventions for the names of parents and offspring from the sequencer. The second module carries out the paternity analysis assuming that one parent is known. Both modules are written in Excel-VBA and can be obtained at the address (www.math.ist.utl.pt/~fmd/pa/pa.zip). They are free for non-commercial purposes and have been tested with different data and against different software (Cervus, FaMoz, and MLTR). PMID:17928093

  4. Outcrossing and paternity analysis of Pinus densiflora (Japanese red pine) by microsatellite polymorphism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chunlan Lian; Makoto Miwa; Taizo Hogetsu

    2001-01-01

    This study employed microsatellite loci to analyse outcrossing rate and pollen dispersal in Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) in an isolated stand. The average offspring outcrossing rate for 29 cones was 0.955. Significant differences in outcrossing rates between offspring groups on individual branches that extended in different directions at different heights were not detected. Male parents of 874 offspring collected

  5. Microsatellite markers and multiple paternity in the garter snake thamnophis sirtalis

    PubMed

    McCracken; Burghardt; Houts

    1999-09-01

    Data from four microsatellite loci developed for the common garter snake, Thamnophis sirtalis, show that multiple paternity is common in a natural population on Beaver Island, Michigan. Six of eight litters tested, and all litters with five or more neonates, were multiply sired. At least triple paternity was documented in the largest litter examined (n = 13 neonates). Inheritance patterns and genotype frequencies in the wild population indicate the presence of null allele(s) at one of the microsatellite loci. Garter snakes are widely used in quantitative genetics research, and paternity testing is essential in studies that rely on sibling analysis. PMID:10564453

  6. Genetic variability and efficiency of DNA microsatellite markers for paternity testing in horse breeds from the Brazilian Marajó archipelago

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sávio P. Reis; Evonnildo C. Gonçalves; Artur Silva; Maria P. C. Schneider

    2008-01-01

    In this study, 15 microsatellite DNA loci used in comparative tests by the International Society for Animal Genetics were applied to the evaluation of genetic diversity and management, and the efficiency of paternity testing in Marajoara horses and Puruca ponies from the Marajó Archipelago. Based on the genotyping of 93 animals, mean allelic diversity was estimated as 9.14 and 7.00

  7. Multiple paternity in Littorina obtusata (Gastropoda, Littorinidae) revealed by microsatellite analyses.

    PubMed

    Paterson, I G; Partridge, V; Buckland-Nicks, J

    2001-06-01

    Parental identity for juvenile Littorina obtusata was determined from three egg masses by means of microsatellite DNA markers. Results confirm that the attendant adult female in each case was the dam of the offspring and that at least 4-6 males contributed to each brood. This correlates with our behavioral observations that indicated multiple copulations between the female and several males in each experimental aquarium. A significant number of offspring from each brood were sired by non-sampled males (males that had copulated with females before capture) whose sperm had been stored by the female. This is the first direct evidence of multiple paternity in the Littorinidae. Results are discussed in reference to current theories of sperm competition, male precedence, and cryptic female choice. PMID:11441969

  8. Mutation rate analysis at 19 autosomal microsatellites.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xiao-Qin; Yin, Cai-Yong; Ji, Qiang; Li, Kai; Fan, Han-Ting; Yu, Yan-Fang; Bu, Fan-Li; Hu, Ling-Li; Wang, Jian-Wen; Mu, Hao-Fang; Haigh, Steven; Chen, Feng

    2015-07-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that a large sample size is needed to reliably estimate population- and locus-specific microsatellite mutation rates. Therefore, we conducted a long-term collaboration study and performed a comprehensive analysis on the mutation characteristics of 19 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci. The STR loci located on 15 of 22 autosomal chromosomes were analyzed in a total of 21?106 samples (11?468 parent-child meioses) in a Chinese population. This provided 217?892 allele transfers at 19 STR loci. An overall mutation rate of 1.20 × 10(-3) (95% CI, 1.06-1.36 × 10(-3) ) was observed in the populations across 18 of 19 STR loci, except for the TH01 locus with no mutation found. Most STR mutations (97.7%) were single-step mutations, and only a few mutations (2.30%) comprised two and multiple steps. Interestingly, approximately 93% of mutation events occur in the male germline. The mutation ratios increased with the paternal age at child birth (r = 0.99, p<0.05), but not maternal age. Last, with the combination analysis of the data from the southern Chinese population, we drew a picture of 19 STR mutations in China. In conclusion, the data from this study will provide useful information in parentage testing, kinship analysis, and population genetics. PMID:25820688

  9. Microsatellite analysis of genetic diversity in the Catalonian donkey breed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Jordana; P. Folch; J. A. Aranguren

    2001-01-01

    Summary A total of 111 individuals (79 females and 32 males) of the endangered Catalonian donkey breed were analysed by using a commercial equine paternity polymerase chain reaction typing kit. Eleven of the 12 horse microsatellites were amplified when using donkey's DNA. One locus, ASB2, did not amplify in any sample. The allele range for HTG4 overlapped with HMS7 and

  10. Multiple paternal origins of domestic cattle revealed by Y-specific interspersed multilocus microsatellites.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Pardal, L; Royo, L J; Beja-Pereira, A; Chen, S; Cantet, R J C; Traoré, A; Curik, I; Sölkner, J; Bozzi, R; Fernández, I; Alvarez, I; Gutiérrez, J P; Gómez, E; Ponce de León, F A; Goyache, F

    2010-12-01

    In this study, we show how Y-specific interspersed multilocus microsatellites, which are loci that yield several amplified bands differing in size from the same male individual and PCR reaction, are a powerful source of information for tracing the history of cattle. Our results confirm the existence of three main groups of sires, which are separated by evolutionary time and clearly predate domestication. These three groups are consistent with the haplogroups previously identified by Götherström et al. (2005) using five Y-specific segregating sites: Y1 and Y2 in taurine (Bos taurus) cattle and Y3 in zebu (Bos indicus) cattle. The zebu cattle cluster clearly originates from a domestication process that was geographically and temporally separated from that of taurine clusters. Our analyses further suggest that: (i) introgression of wild sire genetic material into domesticated herds may have a significant role in the formation of modern cattle, including the formation of the Y1 haplogroup; (ii) a putative domestication event in Africa probably included local Y2-like wild sires; (iii) the West African zebu cattle Y-chromosome may have partially originated from an ancient introgression of humped cattle into Africa; and (iv) the high genetic similarity among Asian zebu sires is consistent with a single domestication process. PMID:20332805

  11. Effectiveness of microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphism markers for parentage analysis in European domestic pigs.

    PubMed

    Yu, G C; Tang, Q Z; Long, K R; Che, T D; Li, M Z; Shuai, S R

    2015-01-01

    Parentage analysis and individual identification are recent, promising methods that have been applied to evolutionary and ecological studies, as well as conservation management. Parental exclusion relying on polymorphic microsatellites has been used worldwide in parentage determination, while the low mutation rate and genotyping error rate of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) make them another important marker for pedigree tracing. Here, we compared the effectiveness of microsatellites and SNP markers in European pigs. We also measured and presented the minimum and optimal criteria for SNP markers to be used in paternity and identity analysis. Our findings may contribute to the development of techniques for future molecular evolution and conservation studies, as well as breeding programs. PMID:25730075

  12. Importancia de las pruebas de paternidad basadas en microsatélites para la evaluación genética de ganado de carne en empadre múltiple Importance of microsatellite-based tests in the genetic evaluation of multiple-sire mating systems in beef cattle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana María; Gaspar Manuel; Parra Bracamonte

    A microsatellite panel for paternity assignment\\/verification was used in a Charolais herd in order to determine the importance of the correct identification of individuals involved in a multiple-sire breeding program. The microsatellite panel used was able to assign paternity with 95% confidence every time the dam, the calf and all possible sires were all included in the analysis. The lack

  13. Patterns of pollen dispersal in a small population of Pinus sylvestris L. revealed by total-exclusion paternity analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J J Robledo-Arnuncio; L Gil

    2005-01-01

    Patterns of pollen dispersal were investigated in a small, isolated, relict population of Pinus sylvestris L., consisting of 36 trees. A total-exclusion battery comprising four chloroplast and two nuclear microsatellites (theoretical paternity exclusion probability EP=0.996) was used to assign paternity to 813 seeds, collected from 34 trees in the stand. Long-distance pollen immigration accounted for 4.3% of observed matings. Self-fertilization

  14. Microsatellite analysis in organelle genomes of Chlorophyta

    PubMed Central

    Kuntal, Himani; Sharma, Vinay; Daniell, Henry

    2012-01-01

    Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) or microsatellites constitute a significant portion of genomes however; their significance in organellar genomes has not been completely understood. The availability of organelle genome sequences allows us to understand the organization of SSRs in their genic and intergenic regions. In the present work, SSRs were identified and categorized in 14 mitochondrial and 22 chloroplast genomes of algal species belonging to Chlorophyta. Based on the study, it was observed that number of SSRs in non-coding region were more as compared to coding region and frequency of mononucleotides repeats were highest followed by dinucleotides in both mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes. It was also observed that maximum number of SSRs was found in genes encoding for beta subunit of RNA polymerase in chloroplast genomes and NADH dehydrogenase in mitochondrial genomes. This is the first and original report on whole genomes sequence analysis of organellar genomes of green algae. PMID:22493532

  15. Analysis of two 47,XXX males reveals X-Y interchange and maternal or paternal nondisjunction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Scherer; W. Schempp; M. Fraccaro; E. Bausch; V. Bigozzi; P. Maraschio; E. Montali; G. Simoni; U. Wolf

    1989-01-01

    Two cases of 47,XXX males were studied, one of which has been published previously (Bigozzi et al. 1980). Analysis of X-linked restriction fragment length polymorphisms revealed that in this case, one X chromosome was of paternal and two were of maternal origin, whereas in the other case, two X chromosomes were of paternal and one of maternal origin. Southern blot

  16. Microsatellite analysis of medfly bioinfestations in California.

    PubMed

    Bonizzoni, M; Zheng, L; Guglielmino, C R; Haymer, D S; Gasperi, G; Gomulski, L M; Malacrida, A R

    2001-10-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, is a destructive agricultural pest with a long history of invasion success. This pest has been affecting different regions of the United States for the past 30 years, but a number of studies of medfly bioinfestations has focused on the situation in California. Although some progress has been made in terms of establishing the origin of infestations, the overall status of this pest in this area remains controversial. Specifically, do flies captured over the years represent independent infestations or the persistence of a resident population? We present an effort to answer this question based on the use of multilocus genotyping. Ten microsatellite loci were used to analyse 109 medflies captured in several infestations within California between 1992 and 1998. Using these same markers, 242 medflies from regions of the world having 'established' populations of this pest including Hawaii, Guatemala, El Salvador, Ecuador, Brazil, Argentina and Peru, were also analysed. Although phylogenetic analysis, amova analysis, the IMMANC assignment test and geneclass exclusion test analysis suggest that some of the medflies captured in California are derived from independent invasion events, analysis of specimens from the Los Angeles basin provides support for the hypothesis that an endemic population, probably derived from Guatemala, has been established. PMID:11742551

  17. DNA microsatellites of pronghorn (Antilocapra americana)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D. CARLING; C. W. PASSAVANT; J. A. BYERS

    We developed a set of eight polymorphic microsatellite loci for pronghorn, Antilocapra americana. We screened 233 individuals from the National Bison Range in Moiese, MT, and found allele numbers from three to 11 and heterozygosity levels ranging from 0.142 to 0.807. These results suggest that these loci will be useful in paternity analysis and basic popula- tion genetics applications.

  18. Pollination in the marine realm: microsatellites reveal high outcrossing rates and multiple paternity in eelgrass Zostera marina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    THORSTEN B. H. REUSCH

    2000-01-01

    The mating system was examined in two annual populations of eelgrass (Zostera marina), a marine angiosperm displaying subaqueous pollination. Multilocus genotyping using microsatellite DNA markers allowed the assessment of the pollen source based on single progeny as units of observation. Outcrossing was detectable by the presence of non-maternal alleles at one or more of the loci. In outcrossing cases, three

  19. orchard: Paternity program for autotetraploid species.

    PubMed

    Spielmann, A; Harris, S A; Boshier, D H; Vinson, C C

    2015-07-01

    Advances in molecular marker technology have provided new opportunities to study the population genetics of polyploid taxa. Paternity analysis using microsatellite markers can be used in detection of gene flow between individuals and populations, in mating system analysis, to identify factors that influence fecundity and fertility, to identify behaviour of parent-offspring relationships and in the analysis of the reproductive success of different ecological groups. As there is no specific program for carrying out paternity analysis in tetraploid species, specialized software was designed for the assignment of paternity for autotetraploid species. orchard is a novel implementation of exclusion and likelihood statistics for carrying out paternity analysis of autotetraploids. First, the program performs an exclusion method, and then, a likelihood statistic is used with nonexcluded candidate fathers. Optional features include estimation of allele dosage of known mother trees and the estimation of pollen flow distances. orchard was tested using a data set of microsatellite data of Dipteryx odorata, a tetraploid Amazonian tree species. PMID:25581442

  20. Network analysis of human Y microsatellite haplotypes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gillian Cooper; William Amos; Dorota Hoffman; David C. Rubinsztein

    1996-01-01

    To investigate the utility of Y chromosome micro- satellites for studying human male-lineage evolution, we typed samples from three populations for five tetranucleotide repeats and an Alu insertion poly- morphism. We found very high levels of haplotype diversity and evidence that most mutations involve the gain or loss of only one repeat unit, implying that any given microsatellite haplotype may

  1. Analysis of microsatellite loci in yak

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhao Sujun; Zhong Jincheng; Zhao Sheng; Zhang Qin; He Kai

    Summary The genetic diversity of nine microsatellite loci in five yak populations, including Maiwa yak (Hongyuan and Ruoergai populations), Jiulong yak, Datong yak, Tianzhu white yak, were studied by means of PCR, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and silver staining. The number of alleles was counted, and allele frequencies, polymorphism information content (PIC), heterozygosity (H) and effective number of alleles (Ne) were

  2. Microsatellite markers for the praying mantid Ciulfina rentzi (Liturgusidae).

    PubMed

    Attard, Catherine R M; Holwell, Greg I; Schwartz, Tonia S; Umbers, Kate D L; Stow, Adam; Herberstein, Marie E; Beheregaray, Luciano B

    2009-11-01

    Nine polymorphic microsatellite loci were characterized from an enrichment library of the Australian praying mantid Ciulfina rentzi, a group with a unique reproductive morphology and behaviour. The number of alleles per locus ranged from three to 16 and heterozygosity from 0.24 to 0.94. These markers are the first microsatellites developed for any praying mantid. They will be useful for paternity analysis and for population genetic studies in the Wet Tropics World Heritage Region of Australia. PMID:21564938

  3. Mission design and trajectory analysis for inspection of a host spacecraft by a microsatellite

    E-print Network

    Kim, Susan C. (Susan Cecilia)

    2006-01-01

    The trajectory analysis and mission design for inspection of a host spacecraft by a microsatellite is motivated by the current developments in designing and building prototypes of a microsatellite inspector vehicle. Two ...

  4. Prenatal and newborn paternity testing with DNA analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Csete; Zs. Beer; T. Varga

    2005-01-01

    In rape against youthful girls which yields pregnancy after the abortion DNA examinations can be performed from the aborted foetal material to provide evidence of paternity of the suspect. In our present work we demonstrate six cases: four of them are rape cases and two where the mother abandoned her newborn baby. These cases proved that DNA-STR profiles can be

  5. TECHNICAL NOTE The development and analysis of twenty-one microsatellite loci

    E-print Network

    Brown, Jason

    TECHNICAL NOTE The development and analysis of twenty-one microsatellite loci for three species microsatellite loci isolated from two Peruvian poison frogs (Ranitomeya imitator and R. variabilis). All and are maintained. Here we present primers that amplify 21 microsatellite loci designed for two species of Peruvian

  6. [Isolation of microsatellite markers for Lateolabrax japonicus and polymorphic analysis].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Ji, Xiang-Shan; Zeng, Yong-Qing; Ding, Lei; Yang, Ping-Ping; Wang, Hui

    2011-10-01

    To investigate population structure and marker assisted breeding, fast isolation by AFLP of sequences containing repeats (FIASCO) and GenBank database mining were used to develop novel microsatellite markers for sea perch (Lateolabrax japonicus). Genomic DNA fragments containing SSR sequences were captured by hybridization to (GT)(13) biotin-labeled probe and were ligated to PMD18-T vector. Among 150 randomly chosen clones from the SSR-enriched library, 66 sequences contained microsatellite motif over five repeats. In addition, 540 cDNA sequences and 132 ESTs of Lateolabrax japonicus were downloaded from GenBank and screened for di-, tri- and tetra-nucleotide repeats, while 22 sequences were found to contain microsatellites. As a result, 15 microsatellite loci were shown to be polymorphic in 30 Lateolabrax japonicus individuals, with the alleles ranging from two to ten, the observed heterozygosities from 0.6000-1.0000, and the expected heterozygosities from 0.5079-0.8890. Four loci (SP17, SP52, SP94 and SP468) were deviated from HWE in the sampled population after Bonferroni's correction, and no linkage disequilibrium was found among all loci (P<0.003), whereas null alleles were detected at locus SP52 (P<0.05). Among 15 polymorphic loci, the PIC values, which can be used for related population genetics analysis, were all above 0.5, with the exception of SP17 and SP468. PMID:22006804

  7. Case–control analysis of paternal age and trisomic anomalies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. De Souza; J. K. Morris

    2010-01-01

    ObjectivesTo determine whether older paternal age increases the risk of fathering a pregnancy with Patau (trisomy 13), Edwards (trisomy 18), Klinefelter (XXY) or XYY syndrome.DesignCase–control: cases with each of these syndromes were matched to four controls with Down syndrome from within the same congenital anomaly register and with maternal age within 6 months.SettingData from 22 EUROCAT congenital anomaly registers in

  8. Chloroplast and nuclear microsatellite analysis of Aegilops cylindrica.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Harish T; Vales, M Isabel; Watson, Christy J W; Mallory-Smith, Carol A; Mori, Naoki; Rehman, Maqsood; Zemetra, Robert S; Riera-Lizarazu, Oscar

    2005-08-01

    Aegilops cylindrica Host (2n = 4x = 28, genome CCDD) is an allotetraploid formed by hybridization between the diploid species Ae. tauschii Coss. (2n = 2x = 14, genome DD) and Ae. markgrafii (Greuter) Hammer (2n = 2x = 14, genome CC). Previous research has shown that Ae. tauschii contributed its cytoplasm to Ae. cylindrica. However, our analysis with chloroplast microsatellite markers showed that 1 of the 36 Ae. cylindrica accessions studied, TK 116 (PI 486249), had a plastome derived from Ae. markgrafii rather than Ae. tauschii. Thus, Ae. markgrafii has also contributed its cytoplasm to Ae. cylindrica. Our analysis of chloroplast and nuclear microsatellite markers also suggests that D-type plastome and the D genome in Ae. cylindrica were closely related to, and were probably derived from, the tauschii gene pool of Ae. tauschii. A determination of the likely source of the C genome and the C-type plastome in Ae. cylindrica was not possible. PMID:15986256

  9. Chloroplast and nuclear microsatellite analysis of Aegilops cylindrica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harish T. Gandhi; M. Isabel. Vales; Christy J. W. Watson; Carol A. Mallory-Smith; Naoki Mori; Maqsood Rehman; Robert S. Zemetra; Oscar Riera-Lizarazu

    2005-01-01

    Aegilops cylindrica Host (2n=4x=28, genome CCDD) is an allotetraploid formed by hybridization between the diploid species Ae. tauschii Coss. (2n=2x=14, genome DD) and Ae. markgrafii (Greuter) Hammer (2n=2x=14, genome CC). Previous research has shown that Ae. tauschii contributed its cytoplasm to Ae. cylindrica. However, our analysis with chloroplast microsatellite markers showed that 1 of the 36 Ae. cylindrica accessions studied,

  10. Prenatal and newborn paternity testing with DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Csete, K; Beer, Zs; Varga, T

    2005-01-17

    In rape against youthful girls which yields pregnancy after the abortion DNA examinations can be performed from the aborted foetal material to provide evidence of paternity of the suspect. In our present work we demonstrate six cases: four of them are rape cases and two where the mother abandoned her newborn baby. These cases proved that DNA-STR profiles can be determined from foetus after the abortion and perpetrator of a rape can be found. Due to our result we suggest that not only placenta but also bloody vernix caseosa is useful tissue for identifying the putative mother because vernix caseosa can be the carrier of the mother's blood. PMID:15694732

  11. Correlates of multiple paternity in the Aquatic Warbler ( Acrocephalus paludicola )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrzej Dyrcz; Michael Wink; Astrid Backhaus; Wanda Zdunek; Bernd Leisler; Karl Schulze-Hagen

    2002-01-01

    Summary  Aquatic Warblers show a promiscuous mating system and males do not help the female to incubate eggs or feed nestlings. Paternity\\u000a was determined in 64 broods in the Biebrza basin (NE Poland) studied in 1993, 1994 and 1997 by microsatellite PCR analysis.\\u000a A total of 14 broods had been sired by a single male and 50 by two and more

  12. Paternity cases.

    PubMed

    Raboch, J; Raboch, J

    1978-01-01

    Through analysis of 350 expertises in suits, where the man was accused of paternity, was found that these examinees often lived in a sterile marriage. When examined they often try to influence negatively the result of spermiologic examination. Sterility was ascertained here in only about 10% of cases. In the material consisting of 98 expertises in suits for denial of paternity it was found that about one half of these men were either divorced or in the course of divorce proceedings and about one third of them stated the infidelity of the wife. In more than one third of these cases sterility was proved. The court expert must often express his opinion as to the fertility of the man two or more years previously. His conclusion is especially difficult, where the spermiologic findings repeatedly vary within the limits of severe oligozoospermia with less than 5 million spermatozoids per 1 ml and where the motility is poor. PMID:646146

  13. Analysis of microsatellite instability and loss of heterozygosity in keratoacanthoma.

    PubMed

    Peris, K; Magrini, F; Keller, G; Manente, L; D'Alessandro, E; Onorati, M T; Höfler, H; Chimenti, S

    1997-03-01

    We analyzed microsatellite instability (MSI) and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at 17 microsatellite markers located on chromosomes 2p, 3p, 5q, 6q, 9p, 9q, 17p and 18q in 19 randomly selected keratoacantomas (KAS), in one cutaneous lesion that histologically could not unequivocally be differentiated from squamous cell carcinoma, and in one patient with multiple KAs of longstanding duration. The goals of our study were to determine whether, in a similar manner to some visceral carcinomas, genomic instability could be detected in KAs and to clarify whether molecular analysis might be useful to further characterize KA. MSI was observed in 2 of 21 cases (9.5%) at 5 of 17 loci examined. In one patient with a solitary KA, the presence of MSI and a family history of visceral malignant tumours suggested that the patient might have belonged to a family with Muir-Torre syndrome. In one other MSI+ KA, a definite differential diagnosis in relation to squamous cell carcinoma could not be established. In addition, one sample displayed LOH at 2 of 17 loci analysed whereas in the patient with multiple KAs, LOH at one locus was the only alteration found. In conclusion, the low frequency of MSI and LOH detected in our study suggests that these genetic events are uncommon in KA unless it is associated with a familial disease (e.g. Muir-Torre syndrome) or it has more aggressive histological features. PMID:9143733

  14. Analysis of microsatellites by direct blotting electrophoresis and chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Mekus, F; Dörk, T; Deufel, T; Morral, N; Tümmler, B

    1995-10-01

    We describe a fast and reliable method for the nonradioactive analysis of microsatellites. For three dinucleotide repeats within the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene, the separation of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products generated with biotinylated primers on a direct blotting electrophoresis system and subsequent chemiluminescence detection is shown. In direct blotting electrophoresis, the separation of DNA fragments depended linearly on size. The reproducible resolution allowed reliable assignment of allele lengths to a given signal. The nonradioactive detection protocol was advantageous compared to radioactive methods: samples could be analyzed within one day due to the fast signal development by 3-(4-methoxyspiro[1,2-dioxetane-3,2'-(5'- chloro)tricyclo[3.3.1.1.3,7]decan]-4-yl)phenylphosphate disodium salt (CSPD). Variation of exposure times enabled differentiation between major bands and byproducts of comparable intensity that are due to the slippage of the Taq polymerase during PCR amplification. PMID:8586058

  15. Survey and Analysis of Microsatellites in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, M. Dharma; Muthulakshmi, M.; Madhu, M.; Archak, Sunil; Mita, K.; Nagaraju, J.

    2005-01-01

    We studied microsatellite frequency and distribution in 21.76-Mb random genomic sequences, 0.67-Mb BAC sequences from the Z chromosome, and 6.3-Mb EST sequences of Bombyx mori. We mined microsatellites of ?15 bases of mononucleotide repeats and ?5 repeat units of other classes of repeats. We estimated that microsatellites account for 0.31% of the genome of B. mori. Microsatellite tracts of A, AT, and ATT were the most abundant whereas their number drastically decreased as the length of the repeat motif increased. In general, tri- and hexanucleotide repeats were overrepresented in the transcribed sequences except TAA, GTA, and TGA, which were in excess in genomic sequences. The Z chromosome sequences contained shorter repeat types than the rest of the chromosomes in addition to a higher abundance of AT-rich repeats. Our results showed that base composition of the flanking sequence has an influence on the origin and evolution of microsatellites. Transitions/transversions were high in microsatellites of ESTs, whereas the genomic sequence had an equal number of substitutions and indels. The average heterozygosity value for 23 polymorphic microsatellite loci surveyed in 13 diverse silkmoth strains having 2–14 alleles was 0.54. Only 36 (18.2%) of 198 microsatellite loci were polymorphic between the two divergent silkworm populations and 10 (5%) loci revealed null alleles. The microsatellite map generated using these polymorphic markers resulted in 8 linkage groups. B. mori microsatellite loci were the most conserved in its immediate ancestor, B. mandarina, followed by the wild saturniid silkmoth, Antheraea assama. PMID:15371363

  16. Development of Pineapple Microsatellite Markers and Germplasm Genetic Diversity Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Helin; Chen, You; Wang, Jingyi; Chen, Yeyuan; Sun, Guangming; He, Junhu; Wu, Yaoting

    2013-01-01

    Two methods were used to develop pineapple microsatellite markers. Genomic library-based SSR development: using selectively amplified microsatellite assay, 86 sequences were generated from pineapple genomic library. 91 (96.8%) of the 94 Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) loci were dinucleotide repeats (39 AC/GT repeats and 52 GA/TC repeats, accounting for 42.9% and 57.1%, resp.), and the other three were mononucleotide repeats. Thirty-six pairs of SSR primers were designed; 24 of them generated clear bands of expected sizes, and 13 of them showed polymorphism. EST-based SSR development: 5659 pineapple EST sequences obtained from NCBI were analyzed; among 1397 nonredundant EST sequences, 843 were found containing 1110 SSR loci (217 of them contained more than one SSR locus). Frequency of SSRs in pineapple EST sequences is 1SSR/3.73?kb, and 44 types were found. Mononucleotide, dinucleotide, and trinucleotide repeats dominate, accounting for 95.6% in total. AG/CT and AGC/GCT were the dominant type of dinucleotide and trinucleotide repeats, accounting for 83.5% and 24.1%, respectively. Thirty pairs of primers were designed for each of randomly selected 30 sequences; 26 of them generated clear and reproducible bands, and 22 of them showed polymorphism. Eighteen pairs of primers obtained by the one or the other of the two methods above that showed polymorphism were selected to carry out germplasm genetic diversity analysis for 48 breeds of pineapple; similarity coefficients of these breeds were between 0.59 and 1.00, and they can be divided into four groups accordingly. Amplification products of five SSR markers were extracted and sequenced, corresponding repeat loci were found and locus mutations are mainly in copy number of repeats and base mutations in the flanking region. PMID:24024187

  17. Microsatellite (simple sequence repeat) marker-based paternity analysis of a seven-parent sugarcane polycross

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is not feasible to make all possible cross combinations among elite parents used in sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) breeding programs, particularly within a single year. Hence, the polycross approach has been used to maximize the number of cross combinations that can be represented among progeny. Th...

  18. Microsatellite DNA analysis of coastal populations of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in British

    E-print Network

    Taylor, Eric B. "Rick"

    Microsatellite DNA analysis of coastal populations of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus (Salvelinus confluentus) from 20 Pacific coastal localities from the Skeena River (central British Columbia. [Traduit par la Rédaction] Taylor and Costello 1171 Introduction The bull trout, Salvelinus confluentus

  19. Challenges in analysis and interpretation of microsatellite data for population genetic studies

    PubMed Central

    Putman, Alexander I; Carbone, Ignazio

    2014-01-01

    Advancing technologies have facilitated the ever-widening application of genetic markers such as microsatellites into new systems and research questions in biology. In light of the data and experience accumulated from several years of using microsatellites, we present here a literature review that synthesizes the limitations of microsatellites in population genetic studies. With a focus on population structure, we review the widely used fixation (FST) statistics and Bayesian clustering algorithms and find that the former can be confusing and problematic for microsatellites and that the latter may be confounded by complex population models and lack power in certain cases. Clustering, multivariate analyses, and diversity-based statistics are increasingly being applied to infer population structure, but in some instances these methods lack formalization with microsatellites. Migration-specific methods perform well only under narrow constraints. We also examine the use of microsatellites for inferring effective population size, changes in population size, and deeper demographic history, and find that these methods are untested and/or highly context-dependent. Overall, each method possesses important weaknesses for use with microsatellites, and there are significant constraints on inferences commonly made using microsatellite markers in the areas of population structure, admixture, and effective population size. To ameliorate and better understand these constraints, researchers are encouraged to analyze simulated datasets both prior to and following data collection and analysis, the latter of which is formalized within the approximate Bayesian computation framework. We also examine trends in the literature and show that microsatellites continue to be widely used, especially in non-human subject areas. This review assists with study design and molecular marker selection, facilitates sound interpretation of microsatellite data while fostering respect for their practical limitations, and identifies lessons that could be applied toward emerging markers and high-throughput technologies in population genetics. PMID:25540699

  20. Potential linkage between compound microsatellites and recombination in geminiviruses: Evidence from comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    George, B; Alam, Ch Mashhood; Kumar, R Vinoth; Gnanasekaran, Prabu; Chakraborty, S

    2015-08-01

    The compound microsatellites consist of two or more individual microsatellites, originate from mutation or imperfection in simple repeat sequences. The reports on systematic analysis of the occurrence, size and density of compound microsatellite (cSSR) types are very rare. Our study indicates that cSSRs are clustered at specific regions in the begomovirus genomes. cSSRs were overrepresented in majority of begomovirus genomes indicating that they might have some functional significance. Further, non-random distribution pattern of cSSR in begomovirus genomes was significantly correlated with the recombination breakpoint positions in the genome. The analysis of cSSR regions in the viral genome indicates the presence of stem loop (hairpin) secondary structure. The significance of these findings in biology of geminiviruses is discussed based on our present understanding of recombination and repetitive DNA. To our knowledge, this is the first analysis suggesting the possible association between recombination and microsatellites in any viral genome. PMID:25817404

  1. Identification of novel microsatellite loci in the sand martin, Riparia riparia , and cross-amplification of loci from other bird species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wouter F. D. van DongenGopi; Gopi K. Munimanda; Jakob Augustin; Donald Blomqvist; Tibor Szép; Richard H. Wagner

    2010-01-01

    We isolated and characterised six novel microsatellite loci for paternity analysis in the sand martin Riparia riparia, by screening an enriched genomic library. In addition, we tested 16 already published microsatellite markers, five of which\\u000a were also polymorphic in the sand martin. Only one of these 11 loci exhibited evidence of null alleles, and all were polymorphic\\u000a (mean H\\u000a o = 0.68,

  2. Investigation of paternity with alleged father deceased or missing: analysis of success at the end of the report.

    PubMed

    Basgalupp, Suelen Porto; Rodenbusch, Rodrigo; Schumacher, Simone; Gastaldo, André Zoratto; Santos Silva, Deborah Soares Bispo; Alho, Clarice Sampaio

    2014-09-01

    In this work we present a retrospective study of 858 cases of paternity investigation performed in Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil, from 2007 to 2012, where the alleged father was deceased or missing. These cases represent 3.3% (858/26187) of paternity tests performed in that period. Considering the analysis of 17 DNA short tandem repeat loci, we present here the proportion of cases with conclusive results according to the number of relatives of the unavailable alleged father investigated and their kinship. The results show 81.0% (695/858) of cases with conclusive results and their characteristics. PMID:24929954

  3. Geographic variation of multiple paternity in the American lobster, Homarus americanus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    THIERRY GOSSELIN; BERNARD SAINTE-MARIE; LOUIS BERNATCHEZ

    2005-01-01

    We studied the frequency of multiple paternity for American lobster ( Homarus americanus ) at three Canadian sites differing in exploitation rate and mean adult size. The probability of detecting multiple paternity using four microsatellite loci and 100 eggs per female was in excess of 99% under various scenarios of paternal contribution. Overall, 13% of the 108 examined females carried

  4. Analysis of genetic diversity in Bolivian llama populations using microsatellites.

    PubMed

    Barreta, J; Gutiérrez-Gil, B; Iñiguez, V; Romero, F; Saavedra, V; Chiri, R; Rodríguez, T; Arranz, J J

    2013-08-01

    South American camelids (SACs) have a major role in the maintenance and potential future of rural Andean human populations. More than 60% of the 3.7 million llamas living worldwide are found in Bolivia. Due to the lack of studies focusing on genetic diversity in Bolivian llamas, this analysis investigates both the genetic diversity and structure of 12 regional groups of llamas that span the greater part of the range of distribution for this species in Bolivia. The analysis of 42 microsatellite markers in the considered regional groups showed that, in general, there were high levels of polymorphism (a total of 506 detected alleles; average PIC across per marker: 0.66), which are comparable with those reported for other populations of domestic SACs. The estimated diversity parameters indicated that there was high intrapopulational genetic variation (average number of alleles and average expected heterozygosity per marker: 12.04 and 0.68, respectively) and weak genetic differentiation among populations (FST range: 0.003-0.052). In agreement with these estimates, Bolivian llamas showed a weak genetic structure and an intense gene flow between all the studied regional groups, which is due to the exchange of reproductive males between the different flocks. Interestingly, the groups for which the largest pairwise FST estimates were observed, Sud Lípez and Nor Lípez, showed a certain level of genetic differentiation that is probably due to the pattern of geographic isolation and limited communication infrastructures of these southern localities. Overall, the population parameters reported here may serve as a reference when establishing conservation policies that address Bolivian llama populations. PMID:23855634

  5. A multivariate analysis of phenotype and paternity in male harbor seals, Phoca vitulina, at Sable Island, Nova Scotia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David W. Coltman; W. Don Bowen; Jonathan M. Wrighta

    1999-01-01

    Understanding the links between phenotype and reproductive success is critical to the study of the evolution of mating systems and life-history patterns. We examined the relationship between phenotype and mating success of male harbor seals (Phoca vitulina concolour) at Sable Island, Canada. Cluster analyses of eight traits including mating success determined by genetic paternity analysis, haul-out behavior, body mass, and

  6. Comparative analysis of microsatellite variability in five macaw species (Psittaciformes, Psittacidae): Application for conservation

    PubMed Central

    Presti, Flavia T.; Oliveira-Marques, Adriana R.; Caparroz, Renato; Biondo, Cibele; Miyaki, Cristina Y.

    2011-01-01

    Cross-amplification was tested and variability in microsatellite primers (designed for Neotropical parrots) compared, in five macaw species, viz., three endangered blue macaws (Cyanopsitta spixii [extinct in the wild], Anodorhynchus leari [endangered] and Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus [vulnerable]), and two unthreatened red macaws (Ara chloropterus and Ara macao). Among the primers tested, 84.6% successfully amplified products in C. spixii, 83.3% in A. leari, 76.4% in A. hyacinthinus, 78.6% in A. chloropterus and 71.4% in A. macao. The mean expected heterozygosity estimated for each species, and based on loci analyzed in all the five, ranged from 0.33 (A. hyacinthinus) to 0.85 (A. macao). As expected, the results revealed lower levels of genetic variability in threatened macaw species than in unthreatened. The low combined probability of genetic identity and the moderate to high potential for paternity exclusion, indicate the utility of the microsatellite loci set selected for each macaw species in kinship and population studies, thus constituting an aid in planning in-situ and ex-situ conservation. PMID:21734841

  7. Comparative analysis of microsatellite variability in five macaw species (Psittaciformes, Psittacidae): Application for conservation.

    PubMed

    Presti, Flavia T; Oliveira-Marques, Adriana R; Caparroz, Renato; Biondo, Cibele; Miyaki, Cristina Y

    2011-04-01

    Cross-amplification was tested and variability in microsatellite primers (designed for Neotropical parrots) compared, in five macaw species, viz., three endangered blue macaws (Cyanopsitta spixii [extinct in the wild], Anodorhynchus leari [endangered] and Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus [vulnerable]), and two unthreatened red macaws (Ara chloropterus and Ara macao). Among the primers tested, 84.6% successfully amplified products in C. spixii, 83.3% in A. leari, 76.4% in A. hyacinthinus, 78.6% in A. chloropterus and 71.4% in A. macao. The mean expected heterozygosity estimated for each species, and based on loci analyzed in all the five, ranged from 0.33 (A. hyacinthinus) to 0.85 (A. macao). As expected, the results revealed lower levels of genetic variability in threatened macaw species than in unthreatened. The low combined probability of genetic identity and the moderate to high potential for paternity exclusion, indicate the utility of the microsatellite loci set selected for each macaw species in kinship and population studies, thus constituting an aid in planning in-situ and ex-situ conservation. PMID:21734841

  8. Paternal age related schizophrenia (PARS): latent subgroups detected by k-means clustering analysis

    E-print Network

    Ahn, Hongshik

    1 Paternal age related schizophrenia (PARS): latent subgroups detected by k-means clustering.antonius@nyumc.org #12;2 Abstract Background: Paternal age related schizophrenia (PARS) has been proposed as a subgroup of schizophrenia with distinct etiology, pathophysiology and symptoms. This study uses a k-means clustering

  9. Paternal Child Care and Relationship Quality: A Longitudinal Analysis of Reciprocal Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schober, Pia S.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored reciprocal associations between paternal child-care involvement and relationship quality by following British couples from the birth of a child until he or she reached school age. It extends the literature by distinguishing between paternal engagement in absolute terms and relative to the mother and by considering relationship…

  10. Paternalism: Its scope and limits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kurt Melvin Armsden

    1989-01-01

    Paternalism involves a situation in which A interferes with B primarily to protect B from the harmful consequences of his own actions. To determine if such intervention can be justified a detailed analysis of paternalism is necessary. This is provided in the first chapter.In the second chapter possible strategies of justification are examined. Employing Mill's essay On Liberty as a

  11. Microsatellite analysis in the genome of Acanthaceae: An in silico approach

    PubMed Central

    Kaliswamy, Priyadharsini; Vellingiri, Srividhya; Nathan, Bharathi; Selvaraj, Saravanakumar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acanthaceae is one of the advanced and specialized families with conventionally used medicinal plants. Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) play a major role as molecular markers for genome analysis and plant breeding. The microsatellites existing in the complete genome sequences would help to attain a direct role in the genome organization, recombination, gene regulation, quantitative genetic variation, and evolution of genes. Objective: The current study reports the frequency of microsatellites and appropriate markers for the Acanthaceae family genome sequences. Materials and Methods: The whole nucleotide sequences of Acanthaceae species were obtained from National Center for Biotechnology Information database and screened for the presence of SSRs. SSR Locator tool was used to predict the microsatellites and inbuilt Primer3 module was used for primer designing. Results: Totally 110 repeats from 108 sequences of Acanthaceae family plant genomes were identified, and the occurrence of dinucleotide repeats was found to be abundant in the genome sequences. The essential amino acid isoleucine was found rich in all the sequences. We also designed the SSR-based primers/markers for 59 sequences of this family that contains microsatellite repeats in their genome. Conclusion: The identified microsatellites and primers might be useful for breeding and genetic studies of plants that belong to Acanthaceae family in the future. PMID:25709226

  12. Population analysis of microsatellite genotypes reveals a signature associated with ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fonville, Natalie C.; Vaksman, Zalman; McIver, Lauren J.; Garner, Harold R.

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian cancer (OV) ranks fifth in cancer deaths among women, yet there remain few informative biomarkers for this disease. Microsatellites are repetitive genomic regions which we hypothesize could be a source of novel biomarkers for OV and have traditionally been under-appreciated relative to Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs). In this study, we explore microsatellite variation as a potential novel source of genomic variation associated with OV. Exomes from 305 OV patient germline samples and 54 tumors, sequenced as part of The Cancer Genome Atlas, were analyzed for microsatellite variation and compared to healthy females sequenced as part of the 1,000 Genomes Project. We identified a subset of 60 microsatellite loci with genotypes that varied significantly between the OV and healthy female populations. Using these loci as a signature set, we classified germline genomes as ‘at risk’ for OV with a sensitivity of 90.1% and a specificity of 87.6%. Cross-analysis with a similar set of breast cancer associated loci identified individuals ‘at risk’ for both diseases. This study revealed a genotype-based microsatellite signature present in the germlines of individuals diagnosed with OV, and provides the basis for a potential novel risk assessment diagnostic for OV and new personal genomics targets in tumors. PMID:25779658

  13. Population analysis of microsatellite genotypes reveals a signature associated with ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Fonville, Natalie C; Vaksman, Zalman; McIver, Lauren J; Garner, Harold R

    2015-05-10

    Ovarian cancer (OV) ranks fifth in cancer deaths among women, yet there remain few informative biomarkers for this disease. Microsatellites are repetitive genomic regions which we hypothesize could be a source of novel biomarkers for OV and have traditionally been under-appreciated relative to Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs). In this study, we explore microsatellite variation as a potential novel source of genomic variation associated with OV. Exomes from 305 OV patient germline samples and 54 tumors, sequenced as part of The Cancer Genome Atlas, were analyzed for microsatellite variation and compared to healthy females sequenced as part of the 1,000 Genomes Project. We identified a subset of 60 microsatellite loci with genotypes that varied significantly between the OV and healthy female populations. Using these loci as a signature set, we classified germline genomes as 'at risk' for OV with a sensitivity of 90.1% and a specificity of 87.6%. Cross-analysis with a similar set of breast cancer associated loci identified individuals 'at risk' for both diseases. This study revealed a genotype-based microsatellite signature present in the germlines of individuals diagnosed with OV, and provides the basis for a potential novel risk assessment diagnostic for OV and new personal genomics targets in tumors. PMID:25779658

  14. Sequence analysis of a zinc-finger gene for the examination of paternal lineages and introgressive hybridization in North American deer

    E-print Network

    Cathey, James Cleveland

    1993-01-01

    By direct sequence analysis of the mammalian zinc-finger Y (Zfy) gene, interspecific and intraspecific variations were documented in a Y-chromosomal locus in North American deer. The evolutionary history of paternal lineages was distinctly different...

  15. Development of microsatellite markers from an enriched genomic library for genetic analysis of melon (Cucumis melo L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia Silva Ritschel; Tulio Cesar de Lima Lins; Rodrigo Lourenço Tristan; Gláucia Salles Cortopassi Buso; José Amauri Buso; Márcio Ferreira

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite the great advances in genomic technology observed in several crop species, the availability of molecular tools such as microsatellite markers has been limited in melon (Cucumis melo L.) and cucurbit species. The development of microsatellite markers will have a major impact on genetic analysis and breeding of melon, especially on the generation of marker saturated genetic maps and

  16. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers and analysis of genetic variability in Curculigo latifolia Dryand.

    PubMed

    Babaei, Nahid; Abdullah, Nur Ashikin Psyquay; Saleh, Ghizan; Abdullah, Thohirah Lee

    2012-11-01

    Curculin, a sweet protein found in Curculigo latifolia fruit has great potential for the pharmaceutical industry. This protein interestingly has been found to have both sweet taste and taste-modifying capacities comparable with other natural sweeteners. According to our knowledge this is the first reported case on the isolation of microsatellite loci in this genus. Hence, the current development of microsatellite markers for C. latifolia will facilitate future population genetic studies and breeding programs for this valuable plant. In this study 11 microsatellite markers were developed using 3' and 5' ISSR markers. The primers were tested on 27 accessions from all states of Peninsular Malaysia. The number of alleles per locus ranged from three to seven, with allele size ranging from 141 to 306 bp. The observed and expected heterozygosity ranged between 0.00-0.65 and 0.38-0.79, respectively. The polymorphic information content ranged from 0.35 to 0.74 and the Shannon's information index ranged from 0.82 to 1.57. These developed polymorphic microsatellites were used for constructing a dendrogram by unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean cluster analysis using the Dice's similarity coefficient. Accessions association according to their geographical origin was observed. Based on characteristics of isolated microsatellites for C. latifolia accessions all genotype can be distinguished using these 11 microsatellite markers. These polymorphic markers could also be applied to studies on uniformity determination and somaclonal variation of tissue culture plantlets, varieties identification, genetic diversity, analysis of phylogenetic relationship, genetic linkage maps and quantitative trait loci in C. latifolia. PMID:22752726

  17. Microsatellite analysis reveals genetic structure of Leishmania tropica Jan M. Schwenkenbecher a,

    E-print Network

    Wirth, Thierry

    Microsatellite analysis reveals genetic structure of Leishmania tropica Jan M. Schwenkenbecher a des Leishmania, CHU de Montpellier, Rue de Auguste Broussonet, 34090 Montpellier, France Received 10 rapid spread of leishmaniases caused by Leishmania tropica and the complexity of its clinical spectrum

  18. Systematics of Sphagnum section Sphagnum in New Zealand: A microsatellite?based analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. F. Karlin; S. B. Boles; A. J. Shaw

    2008-01-01

    The systematics of Sphagnum section Sphagnum in New Zealand has been controversial. Two species are currently recognised in the New Zealand flora, S. cristatum and S. perichaetiale, but the presence of the widespread S. magellanicum has been debated. An analysis of 16 microsatellite loci shows that the gametophytes of Sphagnum perichaetiale appear to have one monoploid set of chromosomes (i.e.,

  19. Microsatellite analysis of genetic variation among and within Alpine marmot populations in the French Alps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Goossens; L. Chikhi; P. Taberlet; L. P. Waits; D. AllainE

    2001-01-01

    The genetic structure of the Alpine marmot, Marmota marmota , was studied by an analysis of five polymorphic microsatellite loci. Eight locations were sampled in the French Alps, one from Les Ecrins valley ( n = 160), another from La Sassière valley ( n = 289) and the six others from the Maurienne valley ( n = 139). Information on

  20. Genetic linkage analysis of Canadian spinal muscular atrophy kindreds using flanking microsatellite 5q13 polymorphisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alex MacKenzie; Natalie Roy; Anne Besner; Gabrielle Mettler; Pierre Jacob; Robert Korneluk; Linda Surh

    1993-01-01

    The spinal muscular atrophies (SMA) are among the most common autosomal recessive disorders. We have performed linkage analysis using both standard restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) as well as microsatellite polymorphisms [Ca(n)] on 49 Canadian SMA families (types 1, 2, and 3) that both flank and are linked to SMA. The closest SMA linkage was observed with the MAP1B locus

  1. Mission Design and Trajectory Analysis for Inspection of a Host Spacecraft by a Microsatellite

    E-print Network

    space. Some of the key factors that affect the design of an inspection mission are presentedMission Design and Trajectory Analysis for Inspection of a Host Spacecraft by a Microsatellite by Susan C. Kim S.B., Aerospace Engineering Massachusetts Institute of Technology (2002) Submitted

  2. Multiple paternity in an aggregate breeding amphibian: the effect of reproductive skew on estimates of male reproductive success

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. M. M YERS; K. R. ZAMUDIO

    2004-01-01

    Aggregate, or explosive, breeding is widespread among vertebrates and likely increases the probability of multiple paternity. We assessed paternity in seven field-collected clutches of the explosively breeding spotted salamander ( Ambystoma maculatum ) using 10 microsatellite loci to determine the frequency of multiple paternity and the number of males contributing to a female's clutch. Using the Minimum Method of allele

  3. Assignment of paternity in a judicial dispute between two neighbor Holstein dairy farmers.

    PubMed

    Lirón, Juan Pedro; Ripoli, María Verónica; García, Pilar Peral; Giovambattista, Guillermo

    2004-01-01

    DNA profiling was used as evidence to assign paternity in a dispute between two neighbors in a judicial case of undue appropriation of cattle offspring from five alleged Holstein sires. Five offspring were genotyped using ten genetic markers (nine microsatellites and the BOLA-DRB3 locus). The computer program CERVUS was used to estimate the LOD score values and the confidence of paternity assignments. The results presented here show that three out of five paternity cases were assigned at 95% of confidence to a single sire with a LOD score ranging from 2.53 to 3.55. A fourth male was assigned using its delta value. Finally, all alleged sires were excluded from the paternity of the fifth offspring, probably due to the existence of an non-sampled male in the studied population. We concluded that the likelihood-based approach, included into CERVUS program, was a powerful tool in cattle kinship analysis when dealing with judicial dispute particularly when the dam's genotype was absent, allowing the assignments of paternity at 95% level of confidence in situations usually used by dairy and beef cattle producers in Argentine (e.g., multi-sire pasture mating). PMID:14979351

  4. Development of microsatellite markers from an enriched genomic library for genetic analysis of melon (Cucumis melo L.)

    PubMed Central

    Ritschel, Patricia Silva; Lins, Tulio Cesar de Lima; Tristan, Rodrigo Lourenço; Buso, Gláucia Salles Cortopassi; Buso, José Amauri; Ferreira, Márcio Elias

    2004-01-01

    Background Despite the great advances in genomic technology observed in several crop species, the availability of molecular tools such as microsatellite markers has been limited in melon (Cucumis melo L.) and cucurbit species. The development of microsatellite markers will have a major impact on genetic analysis and breeding of melon, especially on the generation of marker saturated genetic maps and implementation of marker assisted breeding programs. Genomic microsatellite enriched libraries can be an efficient alternative for marker development in such species. Results Seven hundred clones containing microsatellite sequences from a Tsp-AG/TC microsatellite enriched library were identified and one-hundred and forty-four primer pairs designed and synthesized. When 67 microsatellite markers were tested on a panel of melon and other cucurbit accessions, 65 revealed DNA polymorphisms among the melon accessions. For some cucurbit species, such as Cucumis sativus, up to 50% of the melon microsatellite markers could be readily used for DNA polymophism assessment, representing a significant reduction of marker development costs. A random sample of 25 microsatellite markers was extracted from the new microsatellite marker set and characterized on 40 accessions of melon, generating an allelic frequency database for the species. The average expected heterozygosity was 0.52, varying from 0.45 to 0.70, indicating that a small set of selected markers should be sufficient to solve questions regarding genotype identity and variety protection. Genetic distances based on microsatellite polymorphism were congruent with data obtained from RAPD marker analysis. Mapping analysis was initiated with 55 newly developed markers and most primers showed segregation according to Mendelian expectations. Linkage analysis detected linkage between 56% of the markers, distributed in nine linkage groups. Conclusions Genomic library microsatellite enrichment is an efficient procedure for marker development in melon. One-hundred and forty-four new markers were developed from Tsp-AG/TC genomic library. This is the first reported attempt of successfully using enriched library for microsatellite marker development in the species. A sample of the microsatellite markers tested proved efficient for genetic analysis of melon, including genetic distance estimates and identity tests. Linkage analysis indicated that the markers developed are dispersed throughout the genome and should be very useful for genetic analysis of melon. PMID:15149552

  5. Microsatellite Analysis of Pleural Supernatants Could Increase Sensitivity of Pleural Fluid Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Woenckhaus, Matthias; Grepmeier, Ulrike; Werner, Bernhard; Schulz, Christian; Rockmann, Felix; Wild, Peter J.; Röckelein, Georg; Blaszyk, Hagen; Schuierer, Marion; Hofstaedter, Ferdinand; Hartmann, Arndt; Dietmaier, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    Pleural effusions may result from various inflammatory, hemodynamic, or neoplastic conditions. A common diagnostic problem lies in distinguishing malignant from benign pleural effusions using routine cytological evaluation. We studied pleural fluid samples obtained from 14 patients with histologically confirmed malignancy and from 6 patients with benign pleural effusions using 12 microsatellite markers from 8 different chromosomal regions. Supernatants and cellular sediments of all 20 pleural fluid samples were analyzed. Routine cytological examination was 100% specific for malignancy but was only 57% sensitive. Microsatellite analyses of pleural fluid supernatants showed genetic alterations in tumor patients only. However, 50% of pleural effusions that were considered negative for malignancy by routine cytological analysis showed either loss of heterozygosity or microsatellite instability. The sensitivity of pleural fluid examination rose to 79% when routine cytological assessment was supplemented by molecular studies. Our data suggest that microsatellite analysis increases the sensitivity of cytological pleural fluid examination in assessing potential malignancy and that combining cytological and molecular methods may improve yield and certainty in diagnostically challenging cases. PMID:16237222

  6. Comparative analysis of microsatellite loci in four fruit fly species of the genus Ceratitis (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Baliraine, F N; Bonizzoni, M; Osir, E O; Lux, S A; Mulaa, F J; Zheng, L; Gomulski, L M; Gasperi, G; Malacrida, A R

    2003-02-01

    The possibility to cross-species amplify microsatellites in fruit flies of the genus Ceratitis was tested with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by analysing 23 Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) microsatellite markers on the genomic DNA of three other economically important, congeneric species: C. rosa (Karsch), C. fasciventris (Bezzi) and C. cosyra (Walker). Twenty-two primer pairs produced amplification products in at least one of the three species tested. The majority of the products were similar, if not identical in size to those expected in C. capitata. The structures of the repeat motifs and their flanking sequences were examined for a total of 79 alleles from the three species. Sequence analysis revealed the same repeat type as the homologous C. capitata microsatellites in the majority of the loci, suggesting their utility for population analysis across the species range. A total of seven loci were differentially present/absent in C. capitata, C. rosa, C. fasciventris and C. cosyra, suggesting that it may be possible to differentiate these four species using a simple sequence repeat-based PCR assay. It is proposed that medfly-based microsatellite markers could be utilized in the identification and tracing of the geographical origins of colonist pest populations of the four tested species and in the assessment of their risk and invasive potentials; thereby assisting regulatory authorities in implementing quarantine restrictions and other pest control measures. PMID:12593677

  7. High transmission of paternal plastid DNA in alfalfa plants demonstrated by restriction fragment polymorphic analysis.

    PubMed

    Masoud, S A; Johnson, L B; Sorensen, E L

    1990-01-01

    A high frequency of paternal plastid transmission occurred in progeny from crosses among normal green alfalfa plants. Plastid transmission was analyzed by hybridization of radiolabeled alfalfa plastid DNA (cpDNA) probes to Southern blots of restriction digests of the progeny DNA. Each probe revealed a specific polymorphism differentiating the parental plastid genomes. Of 212 progeny, 34 were heteroplastidic, with their cpDNAs ranging from predominantly paternal to predominantly maternal. Regrowth of shoots from heteroplasmic plants following removal of top growth revealed the persistence of mixed plastids in a given plant. However, different shoots within a green heteroplasmic plant exhibited paternal, maternal, or mixed cpDNAs. Evidence of maternal nuclear genomic influence on the frequency of paternal plastid transmission was observed in some reciprocal crosses. A few tetraploid F1 progeny were obtained from tetraploid (2n=4x=32) Medicago sativa ssp. sativa x diploid (2n=2x=16) M. sativa ssp. falcata crosses, and resulted from unreduced gametes. Here more than the maternal genome alone apparently functioned in controlling plastid transmission. Considering all crosses, only 5 of 212 progeny cpDNAs lacked evidence of a definitive paternal plastid fragment. PMID:24226119

  8. Microsatellite Analysis of Olive Fly Populations in the Mediterranean Indicates a Westward Expansion of the Species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Augustinos; Z. Mamuris; E. E. Stratikopoulos; S. D’Amelio; A. Zacharopoulou; K. D. Mathiopoulos

    2005-01-01

    Bactrocera oleae is the major insect pest of the olive fruit. Twelve microsatellite loci isolated from the genome of this insect were used in a Mediterranean-wide population analysis. These loci were highly polymorphic with a mean number of alleles per locus of 10.42 and a mean effective number of alleles of 2.76. The analysis was performed on a sample of

  9. Microsatellite analysis of genetic diversity in the Chinese alligator( Alligator sinensis ) Changxing captive population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qianghua Xu; Shengguo Fang; Zhiping Wang; Zhenwei Wang

    2005-01-01

    Chinese alligator (Alligator sinensis) is a critically endangered species endemic to China. In this study, the extent of genetic variation in the captive alligators\\u000a of the Changxing Reserve Center was investigated using microsatellite markers derived from American alligators. Out of 22\\u000a loci employed, 21 were successfully amplified in the Chinese alligator. Sequence analysis showed loci in American alligators\\u000a had a

  10. Measurement of DNA Copy Number at Microsatellite Loci Using Quantitative PCR Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David G. Ginzinger; Tony E. Godfrey; Janice Nigro; Dan H. Moore; Seiji Suzuki; Maria G. Pallavicini; Joe W. Gray; Ronald H. Jensen

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the development and validation of quantitative microsatellite analysis (QuMA) for rapid measurement of relative DNA sequence copy number. In QuMA, the copy number of a test locus relative to a pooled reference is assessed using quantitative, real-time PCR am- plification of loci carrying simple sequence repeats. Use of simple sequence repeats is advantageous because of the large

  11. Assessing the economic impact of paternal involvement: a comparison of the generalized linear model versus decision analysis trees.

    PubMed

    Salihu, Hamisu M; Salemi, Jason L; Nash, Michelle C; Chandler, Kristen; Mbah, Alfred K; Alio, Amina P

    2014-08-01

    Lack of paternal involvement has been shown to be associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, including infant morbidity and mortality, but the impact on health care costs is unknown. Various methodological approaches have been used in cost minimization and cost effectiveness analyses and it remains unclear how cost estimates vary according to the analytic strategy adopted. We illustrate a methodological comparison of decision analysis modeling and generalized linear modeling (GLM) techniques using a case study that assesses the cost-effectiveness of potential father involvement interventions. We conducted a 12-year retrospective cohort study using a statewide enhanced maternal-infant database that contains both clinical and nonclinical information. A missing name for the father on the infant's birth certificate was used as a proxy for lack of paternal involvement, the main exposure of this study. Using decision analysis modeling and GLM, we compared all infant inpatient hospitalization costs over the first year of life. Costs were calculated from hospital charges using department-level cost-to-charge ratios and were adjusted for inflation. In our cohort of 2,243,891 infants, 9.2% had a father uninvolved during pregnancy. Lack of paternal involvement was associated with higher rates of preterm birth, small-for-gestational age, and infant morbidity and mortality. Both analytic approaches estimate significantly higher per-infant costs for father uninvolved pregnancies (decision analysis model: $1,827, GLM: $1,139). This paper provides sufficient evidence that healthcare costs could be significantly reduced through enhanced father involvement during pregnancy, and buttresses the call for a national program to involve fathers in antenatal care. PMID:24158503

  12. Variogram Analysis of the Spatial Genetic Structure of Continuous Populations Using Multilocus Microsatellite Data

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Helene H.; Holderegger, Rolf; Werth, Silke; Gugerli, Felix; Hoebee, Susan E.; Scheidegger, Christoph

    2005-01-01

    A geostatistical perspective on spatial genetic structure may explain methodological issues of quantifying spatial genetic structure and suggest new approaches to addressing them. We use a variogram approach to (i) derive a spatial partitioning of molecular variance, gene diversity, and genotypic diversity for microsatellite data under the infinite allele model (IAM) and the stepwise mutation model (SMM), (ii) develop a weighting of sampling units to reflect ploidy levels or multiple sampling of genets, and (iii) show how variograms summarize the spatial genetic structure within a population under isolation-by-distance. The methods are illustrated with data from a population of the epiphytic lichen Lobaria pulmonaria, using six microsatellite markers. Variogram-based analysis not only avoids bias due to the underestimation of population variance in the presence of spatial autocorrelation, but also provides estimates of population genetic diversity and the degree and extent of spatial genetic structure accounting for autocorrelation. PMID:15654102

  13. Variogram analysis of the spatial genetic structure of continuous populations using multilocus microsatellite data.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Helene H; Holderegger, Rolf; Werth, Silke; Gugerli, Felix; Hoebee, Susan E; Scheidegger, Christoph

    2005-03-01

    A geostatistical perspective on spatial genetic structure may explain methodological issues of quantifying spatial genetic structure and suggest new approaches to addressing them. We use a variogram approach to (i) derive a spatial partitioning of molecular variance, gene diversity, and genotypic diversity for microsatellite data under the infinite allele model (IAM) and the stepwise mutation model (SMM), (ii) develop a weighting of sampling units to reflect ploidy levels or multiple sampling of genets, and (iii) show how variograms summarize the spatial genetic structure within a population under isolation-by-distance. The methods are illustrated with data from a population of the epiphytic lichen Lobaria pulmonaria, using six microsatellite markers. Variogram-based analysis not only avoids bias due to the underestimation of population variance in the presence of spatial autocorrelation, but also provides estimates of population genetic diversity and the degree and extent of spatial genetic structure accounting for autocorrelation. PMID:15654102

  14. Genome-wide scan for analysis of simple and imperfect microsatellites in diverse carlaviruses.

    PubMed

    Alam, Chaudhary Mashhood; Singh, Avadhesh Kumar; Sharfuddin, Choudhary; Ali, Safdar

    2014-01-01

    An exhaustive compilation and analysis of incidence, distribution and variation of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in viruses are required to understand the evolution and functional aspects of repetitive sequences. Present study focuses on the analysis of SSRs in 32 species of carlaviruses. The full length genome sequences were assessed from NCBI (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.-gov/) and analyzed using IMEx software. Variance in incidence of SSRs was observed, independent of genome size. Though the conversion of SSRs to imperfect microsatellite or compound SSR is low; compound microsatellites constituted by variant motifs accounted for up to 12.5% of the SSRs. Mononucleotide A/T is most prevalent followed by dinucleotide GT/TG and trinucleotide AAG/GAA in these genomes. The SSR and cSSR are predominantly localized to the coding region RDRP (RNA dependent RNA polymerase) and ORF-6 (open reading frame). The relative frequency of different classes of simple and compound microsatellites has been highlighted in accordance with the biology of carlavirus. Characterization of such variations would be pivotal for deciphering the enigma of these widely used, but incompletely understood sequences. PMID:24291012

  15. Extrapair paternity and egg hatchability in tree swallows: evidence for the genetic compatibility hypothesis?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bart Kempenaers; Brad Congdon; Peter Boag; Raleigh J. Robertsona

    1999-01-01

    Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) show one of the highest levels of extrapair paternity in birds, and there is evidence that females have control over who fathers their offspring. However, it is unclear which benefits female tree swallows obtain from mating with multiple males. Using microsatellite DNA fingerprinting, we studied extrapair paternity in relation to nesting success and male, female, and

  16. Multiyear multiple paternity and mate fidelity in the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis

    E-print Network

    Georgia, University of

    Multiyear multiple paternity and mate fidelity in the American alligator, Alligator breeding events within a 10-year period (1995­2005) for a total of 114 wild American alligator nests at five microsatellite loci were generated for 1802 alligator hatchlings. Multiple paternity was found

  17. Single paternity of clutches in American Woodcock

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ziel, H.; McAuley, D.G.; Rhymer, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    Based on behavioral observations, the mating system of American Woodcock has been variously described as monogamous, a dispersed lek, or resource defense polygyny. Males perform elaborate mating displays that attract females to their display sites where copulations occur. We used microsatellite markers, developed for Ruffs (Philomachus pugnax), to assess paternity in American Woodcock. In 3 yr, we collected blood samples from 21 females and broods and 90 males. We found no evidence of multiple paternity within broods; paternity in all broods could be explained by 1 father. For 8 broods, we were able to infer probable fathers from males we sampled in the field. All 8 broods were found close to the singing site of the male or males that matched as possible fathers. Two males may have fathered 2 broods each, suggesting that polygyny may be a component of the woodcock mating system.

  18. New microsatellite loci for the mandarin fish Siniperca chuatsi and their application in population genetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Tian, C X; Liang, X-F; Yang, M; Dou, Y Q; Zheng, H Z; Cao, L; Yuan, Y C; Zhao, C

    2014-01-01

    The mandarin fish is a popular fresh water food fish in China. Fifty-three polymorphic microsatellite markers were isolated through construction of an enriched library of genomic DNA of Siniperca chuatsi (Percichthyidae). We found 2 to 7 alleles per locus. The observed and expected heterozygosity values varied from 0.059 to 1.000 and from 0.305 to 0.818, respectively. The polymorphic information content value varied from 0.255 to 0.782. Twelve microsatellite loci deviated significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium after Bonferroni's correction. These markers were evaluated in five species of sinipercine fish; 98% of the 265 locus/taxon combinations tested gave cross-amplification. Eight polymorphic microsatellite markers were randomly selected for genetic characterization of three S. chuatsi populations. The Ganjiang River and Yuanjiang River populations had moderate levels of genetic diversity, while the Mudanjiang River population had a relatively low level genetic diversity. Genetic distance-based cluster analysis showed clustering of the Ganjiang River and Yuanjiang River populations in a single group and the Mudanjiang River population in a separate group. Based on these results, we suggest that S. chuatsi from the Yangtze River watershed are distinct from the Mudanjiang River population. These SSR markers will be useful for diversity, mapping and marker assisted studies of S. chuatsi and other sinipercine fishes. PMID:24535883

  19. Application of Microsatellite Markers in Conservation Genetics and Fisheries Management: Recent Advances in Population Structure Analysis and Conservation Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Abdul-Muneer, P. M.

    2014-01-01

    Microsatellites are the most popular and versatile genetic marker with myriads of applications in population genetics, conservation biology, and evolutionary biology. These are the arrays of DNA sequences, consisting of tandemly repeating mono-, di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide units, which are distributed throughout the genomes of most eukaryotic species. Microsatellites are codominant in nature, highly polymorphic, easily typed, and Mendelian inherited, all properties which make them very suitable for the study of population structure and pedigree analysis and capable of detecting differences among closely related species. PCR for microsatellites can be automated for identifying simple sequence repeat polymorphism. Small amount of blood samples or alcohol preserved tissue is adequate for analyzing them. Most of the microsatellites are noncoding, and therefore variations are independent of natural selection. These properties make microsatellites ideal genetic markers for conservation genetics and fisheries management. This review addresses the applications of microsatellite markers in conservation genetics and recent advances in population structure analysis in the context of fisheries management. PMID:24808959

  20. Identification of geographically distributed sub-populations of Leishmania (Leishmania) major by microsatellite analysis

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Leishmania (Leishmania) major, one of the agents causing cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in humans, is widely distributed in the Old World where different species of wild rodent and phlebotomine sand fly serve as animal reservoir hosts and vectors, respectively. Despite this, strains of L. (L.) major isolated from many different sources over many years have proved to be relatively uniform. To investigate the population structure of the species highly polymorphic microsatellite markers were employed for greater discrimination among it's otherwise closely related strains, an approach applied successfully to other species of Leishmania. Results Multilocus Microsatellite Typing (MLMT) based on 10 different microsatellite markers was applied to 106 strains of L. (L.) major from different regions where it is endemic. On applying a Bayesian model-based approach, three main populations were identified, corresponding to three separate geographical regions: Central Asia (CA); the Middle East (ME); and Africa (AF). This was congruent with phylogenetic reconstructions based on genetic distances. Re-analysis separated each of the populations into two sub-populations. The two African sub-populations did not correlate well with strains' geographical origin. Strains falling into the sub-populations CA and ME did mostly group according to their place of isolation although some anomalies were seen, probably, owing to human migration. Conclusion The model- and distance-based analyses of the microsatellite data exposed three main populations of L. (L.) major, Central Asia, the Middle East and Africa, each of which separated into two sub-populations. This probably correlates with the different species of rodent host. PMID:18577226

  1. Parentage Reconstruction in Eucalyptus nitens Using SNPs and Microsatellite Markers: A Comparative Analysis of Marker Data Power and Robustness

    PubMed Central

    Telfer, Emily J.; Stovold, Grahame T.; Li, Yongjun; Silva-Junior, Orzenil B.; Grattapaglia, Dario G.; Dungey, Heidi S.

    2015-01-01

    Pedigree reconstruction using molecular markers enables efficient management of inbreeding in open-pollinated breeding strategies, replacing expensive and time-consuming controlled pollination. This is particularly useful in preferentially outcrossed, insect pollinated Eucalypts known to suffer considerable inbreeding depression from related matings. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker panel consisting of 106 markers was selected for pedigree reconstruction from the recently developed high-density Eucalyptus Infinium SNP chip (EuCHIP60K). The performance of this SNP panel for pedigree reconstruction in open-pollinated progenies of two Eucalyptus nitens seed orchards was compared with that of two microsatellite panels with 13 and 16 markers respectively. The SNP marker panel out-performed one of the microsatellite panels in the resolution power to reconstruct pedigrees and out-performed both panels with respect to data quality. Parentage of all but one offspring in each clonal seed orchard was correctly matched to the expected seed parent using the SNP marker panel, whereas parentage assignment to less than a third of the expected seed parents were supported using the 13-microsatellite panel. The 16-microsatellite panel supported all but one of the recorded seed parents, one better than the SNP panel, although there was still a considerable level of missing and inconsistent data. SNP marker data was considerably superior to microsatellite data in accuracy, reproducibility and robustness. Although microsatellites and SNPs data provide equivalent resolution for pedigree reconstruction, microsatellite analysis requires more time and experience to deal with the uncertainties of allele calling and faces challenges for data transferability across labs and over time. While microsatellite analysis will continue to be useful for some breeding tasks due to the high information content, existing infrastructure and low operating costs, the multi-species SNP resource available with the EuCHIP60k, opens a whole new array of opportunities for high-throughput, genome-wide or targeted genotyping in species of Eucalyptus. PMID:26158446

  2. Multiple Paternity in Fruits of Ipomopsis aggregata (Polemoniaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diane R. Campbell

    1998-01-01

    Two different mechanisms can result in multiple paternity within fruits: deposition of a mixed pollen load due to carryover of pollen from flower to flower and multiple pollinator visits in close succession. I investigated the extent of multiple paternity within fruits of Ipompsis aggregata containing from 2 to 14 seeds. A paternity analysis based on ten polymorphic isozyme markers revealed

  3. Paternal Exposures and Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... paternal low-dose methotrexate: an observational cohort study. Rheumatology (Oxford). 53(4):757-63. Zhu JL et ... paternal low-dose methotrexate: an observational cohort study. Rheumatology (Oxford). 53(4):757-63.

  4. In silico whole-genome EST analysis reveals 2322 novel microsatellites for the silver-lipped pearl oyster, Pinctada maxima.

    PubMed

    Jones, D B; Zenger, K R; Jerry, D R

    2011-12-01

    Molecular stock improvement techniques such as marker assisted selection have great potential in accelerating selective breeding programmes for animal production industries. However, the discovery and application of trait/marker associations usually requires a large number of genome-wide polymorphic loci. Here, we present 2322 unique microsatellites for the silver-lipped pearl oyster, Pinctada maxima, a species of aquaculture importance throughout the Indo-Australian Archipelago for production of the highly valued South Sea pearl. More than 1.2 million Roche 454 expressed sequence tag (EST) reads were screened for microsatellite repeat motifs. A total of 12,604 sequences contained either a di, tri, tetra, penta or hexa microsatellite repeat motif (n ? 6), with 6435 of these sequences having sufficient flanking regions for primer development. All identified microsatellites with designed primers were condensed into 2322 unique clusters (i.e., unique loci) of which 360 were shown to be polymorphic based on multiple sequence reads with different repeat motifs. Genotyping of five microsatellite loci demonstrated that in silico evaluation of polymorphism levels was a very useful method for identification of polymorphic loci, with the variation uncovered being a lower bound. Gene Ontology annotations of sequences containing microsatellites suggest that most are derived from a diverse array of unique genes. This EST derived microsatellite database will be a valuable resource for future studies in genetic map construction, diversity analysis, quantitative trait loci analysis, association mapping and marker assisted selection, not only for P. maxima, but also closely related species within the genus Pinctada. PMID:22118641

  5. Genetic diversity and geographic population structure of bovine Neospora caninum determined by microsatellite genotyping analysis.

    PubMed

    Regidor-Cerrillo, Javier; Díez-Fuertes, Francisco; García-Culebras, Alicia; Moore, Dadín P; González-Warleta, Marta; Cuevas, Carmen; Schares, Gereon; Katzer, Frank; Pedraza-Díaz, Susana; Mezo, Mercedes; Ortega-Mora, Luis M

    2013-01-01

    The cyst-forming protozoan parasite Neosporacaninum is one of the main causes of bovine abortion worldwide and is of great economic importance in the cattle industry. Recent studies have revealed extensive genetic variation among N. caninum isolates based on microsatellite sequences (MSs). MSs may be suitable molecular markers for inferring the diversity of parasite populations, molecular epidemiology and the basis for phenotypic variations in N. caninum, which have been poorly defined. In this study, we evaluated nine MS markers using a panel of 11 N. caninum-derived reference isolates from around the world and 96 N. caninum bovine clinical samples and one ovine clinical sample collected from four countries on two continents, including Spain, Argentina, Germany and Scotland, over a 10-year period. These markers were used as molecular tools to investigate the genetic diversity, geographic distribution and population structure of N. caninum. Multilocus microsatellite genotyping based on 7 loci demonstrated high levels of genetic diversity in the samples from all of the different countries, with 96 microsatellite multilocus genotypes (MLGs) identified from 108 N. caninum samples. Geographic sub-structuring was present in the country populations according to pairwise F(ST). Principal component analysis (PCA) and Neighbor Joining tree topologies also suggested MLG segregation partially associated with geographical origin. An analysis of the MLG relationships, using eBURST, confirmed that the close genetic relationship observed between the Spanish and Argentinean populations may be the result of parasite migration (i.e., the introduction of novel MLGs from Spain to South America) due to cattle movement. The eBURST relationships also revealed genetically different clusters associated with the abortion. The presence of linkage disequilibrium, the co-existence of specific MLGs to individual farms and eBURST MLG relationships suggest a predominant clonal propagation for Spanish N. caninum MLGs in cattle. PMID:23940816

  6. Analysis of five Y-specific microsatellite loci in Asian and Pacific populations.

    PubMed

    Parra, E; Shriver, M D; Soemantri, A; McGarvey, S T; Hundrieser, J; Saha, N; Deka, R

    1999-09-01

    We have analyzed five Y-specific microsatellite loci (DYS388, DYS390, DYS391, DYS394, DYS395) in 17 Asian and Pacific populations representing a broad geographical area and different linguistic families, with an emphasis on populations from mainland and insular Southeast Asia. Analysis of gene diversity indicates that several of the studied populations have experienced substantial genetic isolation, and a reduction in male effective sizes (viz. the Northeast Indian populations Nishi, Adi and the Taiwanese aboriginals). The average values of the F(ST) and ((ST) statistics indicate a high degree of genetic differentiation among these populations at the five Y-specific markers (F(ST) =0.21 and ((ST) = 0.33, based on individual loci; F(ST) = 0.09 and ((ST) = 0.36, based on haplotypes), which conform to the expectation of a fourfold smaller effective size of the Y-linked loci compared with the autosomal loci. Dendrogram and principal coordinates analysis, with few exceptions, show a major separation between mainland and insular populations. Among the mainland populations, the Tibeto-Burman speakers from Northeast India cluster in a well-defined group, supported by high bootstrap values. The Southern Chinese, Northern Thai, So, and Cambodian also are integral to this cluster. The other major cluster is rather heterogeneous and includes, among others, the Austronesian-speaking populations. The Samoans of the Pacific, with a distinctive pattern of allelic distributions, stand as an outlier in the tree and PC representations. Although trends of genetic affinities among ethnically and geographically related populations are evident from the Y-specific microsatellite data, microsatellites are not optimal for deciphering complex migratory patterns of human populations, which could possibly be clarified by using additional and more stable genetic markers. PMID:10490464

  7. Assessment of Use of Microsatellite Polymorphism Analysis for Improving Spatial Distribution Tracking of Echinococcus multilocularis?

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, J.; Bart, J. M.; Glowatzki, M. L.; Ito, A.; Gerard, S.; Maillard, S.; Piarroux, R.; Gottstein, B.

    2007-01-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis (AE)—caused by the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis—is a severe zoonotic disease found in temperate and arctic regions of the northern hemisphere. Even though the transmission patterns observed in different geographical areas are heterogeneous, the nuclear and mitochondrial targets usually used for the genotyping of E. multilocularis have shown only a marked genetic homogeneity in this species. We used microsatellite sequences, because of their high typing resolution, to explore the genetic diversity of E. multilocularis. Four microsatellite targets (EmsJ, EmsK, and EmsB, which were designed in our laboratory, and NAK1, selected from the literature) were tested on a panel of 76 E. multilocularis samples (larval and adult stages) obtained from Alaska, Canada, Europe, and Asia. Genetic diversity for each target was assessed by size polymorphism analysis. With the EmsJ and EmsK targets, two alleles were found for each locus, yielding two and three genotypes, respectively, discriminating European isolates from the other groups. With NAK1, five alleles were found, yielding seven genotypes, including those specific to Tibetan and Alaskan isolates. The EmsB target, a tandem repeated multilocus microsatellite, found 17 alleles showing a complex pattern. Hierarchical clustering analyses were performed with the EmsB findings, and 29 genotypes were identified. Due to its higher genetic polymorphism, EmsB exhibited a higher discriminatory power than the other targets. The complex EmsB pattern was able to discriminate isolates on a regional and sectoral level, while avoiding overdistinction. EmsB will be used to assess the putative emergence of E. multilocularis in Europe. PMID:17634311

  8. Multilocus microsatellite analysis of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' associated with citrus Huanglongbing worldwide

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most destructive citrus diseases in the world. The disease is associated with the presence of a fastidious, phloem-limited ?- proteobacterium, 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus', 'Ca. Liberibacter africanus' or 'Ca. Liberibacter americanus'. HLB-associated Liberibacters have spread to North America and South America in recent years. While the causal agents of HLB have been putatively identified, information regarding the worldwide population structure and epidemiological relationships for 'Ca. L. asiaticus' is limited. The availability of the 'Ca. L. asiaticus' genome sequence has facilitated development of molecular markers from this bacterium. The objectives of this study were to develop microsatellite markers and conduct genetic analyses of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' from a worldwide collection. Two hundred eighty seven isolates from USA (Florida), Brazil, China, India, Cambodia, Vietnam, Taiwan, Thailand, and Japan were analyzed. Results A panel of seven polymorphic microsatellite markers was developed for 'Ca. L. asiaticus'. Microsatellite analyses across the samples showed that the genetic diversity of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' is higher in Asia than Americas. UPGMA and STRUCTURE analyses identified three major genetic groups worldwide. Isolates from India were genetically distinct. East-southeast Asian and Brazilian isolates were generally included in the same group; a few members of this group were found in Florida, but the majority of the isolates from Florida were clustered separately. eBURST analysis predicted three founder haplotypes, which may have given rise to three groups worldwide. Conclusions Our results identified three major genetic groups of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' worldwide. Isolates from Brazil showed similar genetic makeup with east-southeast Asian dominant group, suggesting the possibility of a common origin. However, most of the isolates recovered from Florida were clustered in a separate group. While the sources of the dominant 'Ca. L. asiaticus' in Florida were not clearly understood, the less-pervasive groups may have been introduced directly from Asia or via Brazil. Notably, the recent outbreak of HLB in Florida probably occurred through multiple introductions. Microsatellite markers developed in this study provide adequate discriminatory power for the identification and differentiation of closely-related isolates, as well as for genetic studies of 'Ca. L. asiaticus'. PMID:22433492

  9. Microsatellite-Based Fingerprinting of Western Blackberries from Plants, IQF Berries and Puree

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The blackberry industry needs a reliable method to ensure trueness-to-type of blackberry products. Microsatellite markers or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are ideal for cultivar fingerprinting, paternity testing and identity certification. Fingerprinting is valuable for variety identification, qual...

  10. Analysis of genetic diversity and differentiation of seven stocks of Litopenaeus vannamei using microsatellite markers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kai; Wang, Weiji; Li, Weiya; Zhang, Quanqi; Kong, Jie

    2014-08-01

    Seven microsatellite markers were used to evaluate the genetic diversity and differentiation of seven stocks of Litopenaeus vannamei, which were introduced from Central and South America to China. All seven microsatellite loci were polymorphic, with polymorphism information content ( PIC) values ranging from 0.593 to 0.952. Totally 92 alleles were identified, and the number of alleles ( Na) and effective alleles ( Ne) varied between 4 and 21 and 2.7 and 14.6, respectively. Observed heterozygosity ( H o) values were lower than the expected heterozygosity ( H e) values (0.526-0.754), which indicated that the seven stocks possessed a rich genetic diversity. Thirty-seven tests were detected for reasonable significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. F is values were positive at five loci, suggesting that there was a relatively high degree of inbreeding within stocks. Pairwise F st values ranged from 0.0225 to 0.151, and most of the stock pairs were moderately differentiated. Genetic distance and cluster analysis using UPGMA revealed a close genetic relationship of L. vannamei between Pop2 and Pop3. AMOVA indicated that the genetic variation among stocks (11.3%) was much lower than that within stocks (88.7%). Although the seven stocks had a certain degree of genetic differentiation and a rich genetic diversity, there is an increasing risk of decreased performance due to inbreeding in subsequent generations.

  11. Microsatellite-Based Parentage Analysis of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Using Nonlethal DNA Sampling

    PubMed Central

    WONG, JACKLYN; CHU, YUI YIN; STODDARD, STEVEN T.; LEE, YOOSOOK; MORRISON, AMY C.; SCOTT, THOMAS W.

    2012-01-01

    To track Aedes aegypti (L.) egg-laying behavior in the field in Iquitos, Peru, we developed methods for 1) sampling DNA from live mosquitoes and 2) high through-put parentage analysis using microsatellite markers. We were able to amplify DNA extracted from a single hind leg, but not from the pupal exuvia. Removal of a leg from teneral females caused no significant changes in female behavioral or life history traits (e.g., longevity, blood feeding frequency, fecundity, egg hatch rate, gonotrophic cycle length, or oviposition behavior). Using a panel of nine microsatellite markers and an exclusion-based software program, we matched offspring to parental pairs in 10 Ae. aegypti test families in which parents originated from natural development sites in Iquitos. By mating known individuals in the laboratory, retaining the male, sampling the female’s DNA before release, and collecting offspring in the field, the technique we developed can be used to genotype large numbers of Ae. aegypti, reconstruct family relationships, and track the egg-laying behavior of individual Ae. aegypti in nature. PMID:22308775

  12. Sperm storage and low incidence of multiple paternity in the European pond turtle, Emys orbicularis: A secure but costly strategy?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Roques; C. Díaz-Paniagua; A. Portheault; N. Pérez-Santigosa; J. Hidalgo-Vila

    2006-01-01

    The freshwater pond turtle, Emys orbicularis, has recently suffered from population declines throughout its range, mainly due to habitat destruction. The mating strategies of this species were studied using genetic data from successive clutches within and between years. To test for the occurrence and frequency of multiple paternity and sperm storage, genetic paternity at six microsatellite markers was assessed in

  13. Microsatellites in Brassica unigenes: relative abundance, marker design, and use in comparative physical mapping and genome analysis.

    PubMed

    Parida, Swarup K; Yadava, Devendra K; Mohapatra, Trilochan

    2010-01-01

    Microsatellites present in the transcribed regions of the genome have the potential to reveal functional diversity. Unigene sequence databases are the sources of such genic microsatellites with unique flanking sequences and genomic locations even in complex polyploids. The present study was designed to assay the unigenes of Brassica napus and B. rapa for various microsatellite repeats, and to design markers and use them in comparative genome analysis and study of evolution. The average frequency of microsatellites in Brassica unigenes was one in every 7.25 kb of sequence, as compared with one in every 8.57 kb of sequence in Arabidopsis thaliana. Trinucleotide motifs coding for serine and the dinucleotide motif GA were most abundant. We designed 2374 and 347 unigene-based microsatellite (UGMS) markers including 541 and 58 class I types in B. napus and B. rapa, respectively, and evaluated their use across diverse species and genera. Most of these markers (93.3%) gave successful amplification of target microsatellite motifs, which was confirmed by sequencing. Interspecific polymorphism between B. napus and B. rapa detected in silico for the UGMS markers was 4.16 times higher in 5' untranslated regions than in coding sequences. Physical anchoring of Brassica UGMS markers on the A. thaliana genome indicated their significance in studying the evolutionary history of A. thaliana genomic duplications in relation to speciation. Comparative physical mapping identified 85% of Brassica unigenes as single copy and gave clues for the presence of conserved primordial gene order. Complex chromosomal rearrangements such as inversions, tandem and segmental duplications, and insertions/deletions were evident between A. thaliana and B. rapa genomes. The results obtained have encouraging implications for the use of UGMS markers in comparative genome analysis and for understanding evolutionary complexities in the family Brassicaceae. PMID:20130749

  14. Microsatellite and mtDNA analysis of lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, from Great Bear Lake, Northwest Territories

    E-print Network

    Taylor, Eric B. "Rick"

    Microsatellite and mtDNA analysis of lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, from Great Bear Lake genetic variation in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Great Bear Lake (GBL), NT and one population, Salvelinus. Correspondence Les N. Harris, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, MB

  15. Microsatellite analysis of olive fly populations in the Mediterranean indicates a westward expansion of the species.

    PubMed

    Augustinos, A A; Mamuris, Z; Stratikopoulos, E E; D'Amelio, S; Zacharopoulou, A; Mathiopoulos, K D

    2005-11-01

    Bactrocera oleae is the major insect pest of the olive fruit. Twelve microsatellite loci isolated from the genome of this insect were used in a Mediterranean-wide population analysis. These loci were highly polymorphic with a mean number of alleles per locus of 10.42 and a mean effective number of alleles of 2.76. The analysis was performed on a sample of 671 flies collected from nineteen locations around the European part of the Mediterranean basin. Despite the high level of gene flow across the Mediterranean, results support the notion of a differentiation of three subpopulations: one of the Iberian Peninsula, one of Greece and Italy and one of Cyprus. In addition, the gradual decrease of heterozygosity from the Eastern to the Western part of the Mediterranean indicates a westward expansion of the species. PMID:16247695

  16. Evaluation of bull prolificacy on commercial beef cattle ranches using DNA paternity analysis.

    PubMed

    Van Eenennaam, A L; Weber, K L; Drake, D J

    2014-06-01

    SNP-based DNA testing was used to assign paternity to 5,052 calves conceived in natural service multisire breeding pastures from 3 commercial ranches in northern California representing 15 calf crops over 3 yr. Bulls present for 60 to 120 d at a 25:1 cow to bull ratio in both fall and spring breeding seasons in ?40 ha or smaller fenced breeding pastures sired a highly variable (P < 0.001) number of calves (Ncalf), ranging from 0 (4.4% of bulls present in any given breeding season) to 64 calves per bull per breeding season, with an average of 18.9 ± 13.1. There was little variation in Ncalf among ranches (P = 0.90), years (P = 0.96), and seasons (P = 0.94). Bulls varied widely (P < 0.01) in the average individual 205-d adjusted weaning weight (I205) of progeny, and I205 varied between years (P < 0.01) and seasons (P < 0.01) but not ranches (P = 0.29). The pattern for cumulative total 205-d adjusted weaning weight of all progeny sired by a bull (T205) was highly correlated to Ncalf, with small differences between ranches (P = 0.35), years (P = 0.66), and seasons (P = 0.20) but large differences (P < 0.01) between bulls, ranging from an average of 676 to 8,838 kg per bull per calf crop. The peak Ncalf occurred at about 5 yr of age for bulls ranging from 2 to 11 yr of age. Weekly conception rates as assessed by date of calving varied significantly and peaked at wk 3 of the calving season. The distribution of calves born early in the calving season was disproportionately skewed toward the highly prolific bulls. The DNA paternity testing of the subset of those calves born in wk 3 of the calving season was highly predictive of overall bull prolificacy and may offer a reduced-cost DNA-based option for assessing prolificacy. Prolificacy of young bulls in their first breeding season was positively linearly related (P < 0.05) to subsequent breeding seasons, explaining about 20% of the subsequent variation. Prolificacy was also positively linearly related (P < 0.05) to scrotal circumference (SC) EPD for Angus bulls that had SC EPD Beef Improvement Federation accuracies greater than 0.05. Varying prolificacy of herd bulls has implications for the genetic composition of replacement heifers, with the genetics of those bulls siring an increased number of calves being disproportionately represented in the early-born replacement heifer pool. PMID:24753384

  17. Microsatellite markers for an endemic Atlantic Forest tree, Manilkara multifida (Sapotaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Moraes, Ramiris C. S.; Vivas, Caio V.; Oliveira, Fernanda A.; Menezes, Ivandilson P. P.; van den Berg, Cassio; Gaiotto, Fernanda A.

    2013-01-01

    Manilkara multifida is a tropical tree that is endemic to the Atlantic forests of southern Bahia, Brazil. Currently, populations of this species are restricted to fragmented landscapes that are susceptible to anthropogenic disturbances. Considering this issue, and that there is no genetic information available for this endangered species, we developed microsatellite markers for M. multifida to provide resources for future conservation genetics studies. Using an enriched genomic library, we isolated eight polymorphic microsatellite loci and optimized the amplification conditions for M. multifida. For each locus, we estimated the number of alleles, HE and HO, paternity exclusion Q, individual identity I and fixation index F, and examined the presence of null alleles. The mean number of alleles was 11.9, and the heterozygosity was high at all loci (average HE = 0.809 and HO = 0.777). The combined values for both paternity exclusion and individual identity were Q = 0.9959 and I = 5.45 × 10–11, respectively. No evidence of null alleles was detected. The results of our analysis indicated that all eight microsatellites are promising for assessing questions involving inbreeding, gene flow, co-ancestry and mating patterns in M. multifida. PMID:23487575

  18. Microsatellite markers for an endemic Atlantic Forest tree, Manilkara multifida (Sapotaceae).

    PubMed

    Moraes, Ramiris C S; Vivas, Caio V; Oliveira, Fernanda A; Menezes, Ivandilson P P; van den Berg, Cassio; Gaiotto, Fernanda A

    2013-01-01

    Manilkara multifida is a tropical tree that is endemic to the Atlantic forests of southern Bahia, Brazil. Currently, populations of this species are restricted to fragmented landscapes that are susceptible to anthropogenic disturbances. Considering this issue, and that there is no genetic information available for this endangered species, we developed microsatellite markers for M. multifida to provide resources for future conservation genetics studies. Using an enriched genomic library, we isolated eight polymorphic microsatellite loci and optimized the amplification conditions for M. multifida. For each locus, we estimated the number of alleles, H E and H O, paternity exclusion Q, individual identity I and fixation index F, and examined the presence of null alleles. The mean number of alleles was 11.9, and the heterozygosity was high at all loci (average H E = 0.809 and H O = 0.777). The combined values for both paternity exclusion and individual identity were Q = 0.9959 and I = 5.45 × 10(-11), respectively. No evidence of null alleles was detected. The results of our analysis indicated that all eight microsatellites are promising for assessing questions involving inbreeding, gene flow, co-ancestry and mating patterns in M. multifida. PMID:23487575

  19. The impact of extensive clonal growth on fine-scale mating patterns: a full paternity analysis of a lily-of-the-valley population (Convallaria majalis)

    PubMed Central

    Vandepitte, Katrien; De Meyer, Tim; Jacquemyn, Hans; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel; Honnay, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The combination of clonality and a mating system promoting outcrossing is considered advantageous because outcrossing avoids the fitness costs of selfing within clones (geitonogamy) while clonality assures local persistence and increases floral display. The spatial spread of genetically identical plants (ramets) may, however, also decrease paternal diversity (the number of sires fertilizing a given dam) and fertility, particularly towards the centre of large clumped clones. This study aimed to quantify the impact of extensive clonal growth on fine-scale paternity patterns in a population of the allogamous Convallaria majalis. Methods A full analysis of paternity was performed by genotyping all flowering individuals and all viable seeds produced during a single season using AFLP. Mating patterns were examined and the spatial position of ramets was related to the extent of multiple paternity, fruiting success and seed production. Key Results The overall outcrossing rate was high (91 %) and pollen flow into the population was considerable (27 %). Despite extensive clonal growth, multiple paternity was relatively common (the fraction of siblings sharing the same father was 0·53 within ramets). The diversity of offspring collected from reproductive ramets surrounded by genetically identical inflorescences was as high as among offspring collected from ramets surrounded by distinct genets. There was no significant relationship between the similarity of the pollen load received by two ramets and the distance between them. Neither the distance of ramets with respect to distinct genets nor the distance to the genet centre significantly affected fruiting success or seed production. Conclusions Random mating and considerable pollen inflow most probably implied that pollen dispersal distances were sufficiently high to mitigate local mate scarcity despite extensive clonal spread. The data provide no evidence for the intrusion of clonal growth on fine-scale plant mating patterns. PMID:23439847

  20. Molecular analysis of the human orosomucoid gene ORM1*Q0 köln responsible for incompatibility in a German paternity case

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Nakamura; I. Yuasa; K. Umetsu; J. Henke; L. Henke; E. Nanba; K. Kimura

    2000-01-01

    In a German paternity test, an alleged father was excluded only by reverse homozygosity of ORM1 phenotypes (mother ORM1 S,\\u000a child ORM1 S and alleged father ORM1 F1) out of the 28 classical and DNA markers investigated. Without the ORM1 system the\\u000a biostatistical probability of paternity was calculated to exceed 99.9999%. The intensity of the immunoprinted bands of the\\u000a ORM1

  1. Single-molecule PCR analysis of an unstable microsatellite for detecting mutations in sperm of mice exposed to chemical mutagens.

    PubMed

    Beal, Marc A; Rowan-Carroll, Andrea; Campbell, Caleigh; Williams, Andrew; Somers, Christopher M; Marchetti, Francesco; Yauk, Carole L

    2015-05-01

    Single-molecule PCR (SM-PCR) analysis of long and repetitive DNA sequences, known as expanded simple tandem repeats (ESTRs), has been the most efficient method for studying germline mutation induction in endogenous sequences to date. However, the long length of these sequences makes mutation detection imprecise and laborious, and they have been characterized only in mice. Here, we explore the use of unstable microsatellite sequences that can be typed with high precision by capillary electrophoresis as alternative loci for detecting germline mutations. We screened 24 microsatellite loci across inbred mouse strains and identified Mm2.2.1 as the most polymorphic microsatellite locus. We then optimized SM-PCR of Mm2.2.1 to detect mutations in sperm. SM-PCR analysis of sperm from untreated B6C3F1 and Muta™Mouse samples revealed mutation frequencies that are consistent with rates derived from family pedigree analysis (?5×10(-3)). To determine whether this locus can be used to detect chemically induced germline mutations, Muta™Mouse males were exposed by oral gavage to a single dose of 100mg/kg of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) or to 100mg/kg of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) for 28 days alongside vehicle treated controls. Sperm were collected 10 weeks post-ENU exposure to sample sperm exposed as spermatogonial stem cells and 6 weeks post-BaP exposure to sample sperm that were dividing spermatogonia when the exposure was terminated. Both treatments resulted in a significant (approximately 2-fold) increase in mutation frequency in sperm compared to the control animals. The work establishes the utility of this microsatellite for studying mutation induction in the germ cells of mice. Because microsatellites are found in virtually every species, this approach holds promise for other organisms, including humans. PMID:25863182

  2. Genetic Variation Between Two Cucumber Genotypes Inferred from Genome-wide Microsatellite Polymorphism Analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variability at microsatellite loci has been used widely to infer the extent of genetic diversity among related plant taxa. However, typically, only the most polymorphic loci in the genome were analyzed that may result in a biased, and generally overestimated picture of genome-wide microsatellite div...

  3. Genetic Patterns of Paternity and Testes Size in Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Soulsbury, Carl D.

    2010-01-01

    Background Testes size is used as a proxy of male intrasexual competition, with larger testes indicative of greater competition. It has been shown that in some taxa, social mating systems reflect variance in testes size, but results are not consistent, and instead it has been suggested that genetic patterns of mating may reflect testes size. However, there are different measures of genetic patterns of mating. Multiple paternity rates are the most widely used measure but are limited to species that produce multi-offspring litters, so, at least for group living species, other measures such as loss of paternity to males outside the social group (extra group paternity) or the proportion of offspring sired by the dominant male (alpha paternity) might be appropriate. This study examines the relationship between testes size and three genetic patterns of mating: multiple paternity, extragroup paternity and alpha paternity. Methodology/Principal Findings Using data from mammals, phylogenetically corrected general linear models demonstrate that both multiple paternity and alpha paternity, but not extra group paternity, relate to testes size. Testes size is greater in species with high multiple paternity rates, whereas the converse is found for alpha paternity. Additionally, length of mating season, ovulation mode and litter size significantly influenced testes size in one model. Conclusions/Significance These results demonstrate that patterns of mating (multiple paternity and alpha paternity rates) determined by genetic analysis can provide reliable indicators of male postcopulatory intrasexual competition (testes size), and that other variables (length of mating season, ovulation mode, litter size) may also be important. PMID:20221392

  4. Paternity and paternal effort in the pumpkinseed sunfish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oscar Rios-Cardenas; Michael S. Webster

    2005-01-01

    Theoretical models suggest that males should adjust their parental effort according to paternity when parental effort is costly, paternity varies among clutches, and males have a cue to assess paternity. To date, nearly all tests of this theory have been conducted using birds as model organisms. In this study we examined these three factors and the relationship between paternity and

  5. Microsatellite analysis of genetic diversity and population structure of Arabian horse populations.

    PubMed

    Khanshour, Anas; Conant, Eleanore; Juras, Rytis; Cothran, Ernest Gus

    2013-01-01

    The Arabian horse ignites imagination throughout the world. Populations of this breed exist in many countries, and recent genetic work has examined the diversity and ancestry of a few of these populations in isolation. Here, we explore 7 different populations of Arabians represented by 682 horses. Three of these are Middle Eastern populations from near the historical origin of the breed, including Syrian, Persian, and Saudi Arabian. The remaining Western populations are found in Europe (the Shagya Arabian and Polish Arabian) and in America (American Arabian). Analysis of genetic structure was carried out using 15 microsatellite loci. Genetic distances, analysis of molecular variance, factorial correspondence analysis, and a Bayesian method were applied. The results consistently show higher level of diversity within the Middle Eastern populations than the Western populations. The Western Arabian populations were the main source among population variation. Genetic differentiation was not strong among all Middle Eastern populations, but all American Arabians showed differentiation from Middle Eastern populations and were somewhat uniform among themselves. Here, we explore the diversities of many different populations of Arabian horses and find that populations not from the Middle East have noticeably lower levels of diversity, which may adversely affect the health of these populations. PMID:23450090

  6. Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) amplification for analysis of microsatellite motif frequency and fingerprinting in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. W. Blair; O. Panaud; S. R. McCouch

    1999-01-01

    Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) amplification was used to analyze microsatellite motif frequency in the rice genome and\\u000a to evaluate genetic diversity among rice cultivars. A total of 32 primers, containing different simple sequence repeat (SSR)\\u000a motifs, were tested for amplification on a panel of 59 varieties, representative of the diversity of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.). The ISSR analysis provided

  7. Developing conversed microsatellite markers and their implications in evolutionary analysis of the Bemisia tabaci complex.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua-Ling; Yang, Jiao; Boykin, Laura M; Zhao, Qiong-Yi; Wang, Yu-Jun; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Wang, Xiao-Wei

    2014-01-01

    The study of population genetics among the Bemisia tabaci complex is limited due to the lack of conserved molecular markers. In this study, 358, 433 and 322 new polynucleotide microsatellites are separately identified from the transcriptome sequences of three cryptic species of the B. tabaci complex. The cross species transferability of 57 microsatellites was then experimentally validated. The results indicate that these markers are conserved and have high inter-taxon transferability. Thirteen markers were employed to assess the genetic relationships among six cryptic species of the B. tabaci complex. To our surprise, the inferred phylogeny was consistent with that of mitochondrial COI sequences, indicating that microsatellites have the potential to distinguish species of the B. tabaci complex. Our results demonstrate that development of microsatellites from transcriptome data is a fast and cost-effective approach. These markers can be used to analyze the population genetics and evolutionary patterns of the B. tabaci complex. PMID:25220501

  8. Conceptual Mission Analysis for RS MicroSatellite: EgyptIris-1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Elhady

    2007-01-01

    An experimental micro-satellite project accepts a number of characteristics typically denounced in commercial spacecraft development. These include acceptance of high risk, little component redundancy of the experiments, low-precision control, non-optimal designs, and limited mission duration. It is proposed to use a micro-satellite as a platform for the research and development of micro system technology to enhance the knowledge infrastructure of

  9. Paternity testing and behavioral ecology: A case study of jaguars (Panthera

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thannya Nascimento Soares; Mariana P. c. Telles; Lucileide V. Resende; Leandro Silveira; Anah Tereza A. Jácomo; Ronaldo G. Morato; José Alexandre F. Diniz-filho; Eduardo Eizirik; Rosana P. v. Brondani; Claudio Brondani

    Abstract We used microsatellite loci to test the paternity of two male jaguars involved in an infanticide event recorded during a long-term monitoring program,of this species. Seven microsatellite primers originally developed,for domestic,cats and previously selected for Panthera onca were used. In order to deal with uncertainty in the mother’s genotypes,for some of the loci, 10000 values of W were derived

  10. Characterization of microsatellites revealed by genomic sequencing of Populus trichocarpa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerald A. Tuskan; Lee E. Gunter; Zamin K. Yang; TongMing Yin; Mitchell M. Sewell; Stephen P. DiFazio

    2004-01-01

    Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are highly polymorphic, codominant markers that have great value for the construction of genetic maps, comparative mapping, population genetic surveys, and paternity analy- ses. Here, we report the development and testing of a set of SSR markers derived from shotgun sequencing from Populus trichocarpa Torr. & A. Gray, a nonenriched genomic DNA library, and

  11. Efficient molecular sexing in dioecious Silene latifolia and S. dioica and paternity analysis in F(1) hybrids.

    PubMed

    Hobza, R; Widmer, A

    2008-11-01

    Two polymerase chain reaction-based assays have been developed that work in combination with an efficient DNA extraction protocol to rapidly and reliably determine sex in the dioecious plant species Silene latifolia and S. dioica. In addition, one of the assays allows assessing paternity in the F(1) generation of intra- and interspecific matings involving the two species. PMID:21586019

  12. Population genetic structure of chub mackerel Scomber japonicus in the Northwestern Pacific inferred from microsatellite analysis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jiao; Yanagimoto, Takashi; Song, Na; Gao, Tian-Xiang

    2015-02-01

    Marine pelagic fishes are usually characterized by subtle but complex patterns of genetic differentiation, which are influenced by both historical process and contemporary gene flow. Genetic population differentiation of chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus, was examined across most of its range in the Northwestern Pacific by screening variation of eight microsatellite loci. Our genetic analysis detected a weak but significant genetic structure of chub mackerel, which was characterized by areas of gene flow and isolation by distance. Consistent with previous estimates of stock structure, we found genetic discontinuity between Japan and China samples. Local-scale pattern of genetic differentiation was observed between samples from the Bohai Sea and North Yellow Sea and those from the East China Sea, which we ascribed to differences in spawning time and migratory behavior. Furthermore, the observed homogeneity among collections of chub mackerel from the East and South China Seas could be the result of an interaction between biological characteristics and marine currents. The present study underlies the importance of understanding the biological significance of genetic differentiation to establish management strategies for exploited fish populations. PMID:25366174

  13. Microsatellite analysis revealed genetic diversity and population structure among Chinese cashmere goats.

    PubMed

    Di, R; Vahidi, S M Farhad; Ma, Y H; He, X H; Zhao, Q J; Han, J L; Guan, W J; Chu, M X; Sun, W; Pu, Y P

    2011-08-01

    Most cashmere goats are found in northern China and Mongolia. They are regarded as precious resources for their production of high quality natural fibre for the textile industry. It was the first time that the genetic diversity and population structure of nine Chinese cashmere populations has been assessed using 14 ISAG/FAO microsatellite markers. In addition, two Iranian populations and one West African goat population were genotyped for comparison. Results indicated that the genetic diversity of Chinese cashmere goats was rich, but less than those of the Iranian goat populations. All pairwise F(ST) values between the Chinese cashmere goat populations reached a highly significant level (P < 0.001), suggesting that they should all be considered as separate breeds. Finally, clustering analysis divided Chinese cashmere goats into at least two clusters, with the Tibetan Hegu goats alone in one cluster. An extensive admixture was detected among the Chinese goat breeds (except the Hegu), which have important implications for breeding management. PMID:20497158

  14. Selected representative microsatellite loci for genetic monitoring and population structure analysis of miniature swine.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Xu, L L; Wu, Y H; Du, X Y; Huo, X Y; Gao, J; Li, Z K; Li, Y C; Chen, Z W

    2015-01-01

    To optimize the combination of microsatellite loci for genetic control of outbred swine stocks, 32 of 100 loci distributed among almost all chromosomes (except 12) were screened out by 1.5% agarose, 8% polyacrylamide gel and capillary electrophoresis scanning among 3 miniature swine outbred stocks, namely Bama (BM), Guizhou (GZ) and Tibeta (TB). The mean total and effective allele numbers among these stocks were 12.1 and 5.9, respectively. The mean heterozygosity for these breeds was 0.5428, 0.6978 and 0.7646, and polymorphism information content was 0.5469, 0.7296 and 0.7663, respectively. Accordingly, hereditary variation from low to high was BM < GZ < TB. This showed that the genetic relationship between BM and GZ pigs was closer, and both were distant from TB. Additionally, the effectiveness of the 32-locus combination for evaluation of genetic quality was demonstrated in Changchun-junmo-1 (CJ-1), a standard outbred Chinese pig stock, in which the mean total and effective allele numbers and mean heterozygosity were 6.1613, 3.8483 and 0.6903, respectively. Since our results were consistent with the breeding pedigrees, the 32 loci could be used for both genetic monitoring within the individual outbred miniature swine stocks and population structure analysis between them. PMID:25966162

  15. [Analysis of microsatellite loci variations in herring (Clupea pallasii marisalbi) from the White Sea].

    PubMed

    Semenova, A V; Andreeva, A P; Karpov, A K; Stroganov, A N; Rubtsova, G A; Afanas'ev, K I

    2013-06-01

    The genetic diversity among spawning groups of herring from different parts of the White Sea was assessed using ten microsatellite loci. All loci were polymorphic with the expected heterozygosity estimates varying in the range of 12.7-94.1% (mean was 59.5%). The degree of genetic differentiation displayed by White Sea herring was statistically significant (theta = 2.03%). The level of pairwise genetic differentiation F(ST) was 0-0.085, and it was statistically significant in most of the comparison pairs between the herring samples. A hierarchical analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed the statistically significant differentiation of White Sea herring. 96.59% genetic variation was found within the samples and 3.41% variation was found among the populations. The main component of interpopulation diversity (1.85%) falls at the differences between two ecological forms of herring, spring- and summer-spawning. Within the spring-spawning form, the presence of local stocks in Kandalaksha Gulf, Onega Bay, and Dvina Bay was demonstrated. PMID:24450198

  16. Microsatellite and Wolbachia analysis in Rhagoletis cerasi natural populations: population structuring and multiple infections

    PubMed Central

    Augustinos, Antonios A; Asimakopoulou, Anastasia K; Moraiti, Cleopatra A; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos T; Bourtzis, Kostas

    2014-01-01

    Rhagoletis cerasi (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a major pest of sweet and sour cherries in Europe and parts of Asia. Despite its economic significance, there is a lack of studies on the genetic structure of R. cerasi populations. Elucidating the genetic structure of insects of economic importance is crucial for developing phenological-predictive models and environmental friendly control methods. All natural populations of R. cerasi have been found to harbor the endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis, which widely affects multiple biological traits contributing to the evolution of its hosts, and has been suggested as a tool for the biological control of insect pests and disease vectors. In the current study, the analysis of 18 R. cerasi populations collected in Greece, Germany, and Russia using 13 microsatellite markers revealed structuring of R. cerasi natural populations, even at close geographic range. We also analyzed the Wolbachia infection status of these populations using 16S rRNA-, MLST- and wsp-based approaches. All 244 individuals screened were positive for Wolbachia. Our results suggest the fixation of the wCer1 strain in Greece while wCer2, wCer4, wCer5, and probably other uncharacterized strains were also detected in multiply infected individuals. The role of Wolbachia and its potential extended phenotypes needs a thorough investigation in R. cerasi. Our data suggest an involvement of this symbiont in the observed restriction in the gene flow in addition to a number of different ecological factors. PMID:24963388

  17. Genetic and demographic bottleneck analysis of Indian camel breeds by microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Sharat Chandra

    2014-12-01

    The genetic and demographic bottleneck analysis of Indian camel breeds was carried out utilizing 40 microsatellite markers. Allelic polymorphism was observed at 20 loci in the Indian dromedary breeds. A total of 66 alleles were scored. The average number of alleles, expected heterozygosity and polymorphic information content were, respectively, 3.25?±?0.27, 0.56?±?0.04 and 0.49?±?0.04 in Bikaneri; 3.25?±?0.25, 0.53?±?0.03 and 0.46?±?0.03 in Jaisalmeri; 3.0?±?0.21, 0.53?±?0.04 and 0.45?±?0.03 in Kachchhi and 3.1?±?0.19, 0.51?±?0.03 and 0.44?±?0.03 in Mewari breed. Higher genetic variation was observed in most numerous Bikaneri breed. Genetic distances were least between the breed pair Bikaneri and Jaisalmeri which was closely placed with the Kachchhi breed. The Mewari camels had relatively higher genetic distance from the other three Indian dromedary breeds. The bottleneck analysis revealed the presence of genetic bottleneck in all four breeds of Indian dromedary. However, the qualitative graphical method resulted in normal L-shaped distribution of allele frequencies in Jaisalmeri breeds and shifted mode in Bikaneri, Kachchhi and Mewari breeds. The demographic bottleneck analysis revealed minimum reduction (-9.65 %) in the population of camels in Jaisalmeri breeding tract as compared to that of Bikaneri (-14.18 %), Kachchhi (-27.78 %) and Mewari (-32 %) breeding tracts. Conclusively, the genetic bottleneck analysis could explain the demographic bottleneck in the Indian dromedary populations. Therefore, appropriate conservation and improvement efforts are needed in all four dromedary breeds with immediate attention on Mewari and Kachchhi breeds. The present study is the first report in demonstrating the genetic basis of demographic bottleneck in the Indian dromedary populations. PMID:25134805

  18. Paternal occupation and anencephaly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Brender; L. Suarez

    1990-01-01

    It has been suggested that paternal occupational exposures to pesticides and solvents increase the risk of neural tube defects in offspring. With the use of Texas livebirth, fetal death, and linked livebirth-death records, the authors conducted a population-based case-control study among 1981-1986 Texas births to examine the association between paternal occupation and anencephalic births. Fathers employed in occupations associated with

  19. Map and Analysis of Microsatellites in Genome of Populus: the First Sequenced Perennial Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Shuxian [Nanjing Forestry University, China; Yin, Tongming [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    We mapped and analyzed the microsatellites throughout 284295605 base pairs of the unambiguously assembled sequence scaffolds along 19 chromosomes of the haploid poplar genome. Totally, we found 150985 SSRs with repeat unit lengths between 2 and 5 bp. The established microsatellite physical map demonstrated that SSRs were distributed relatively evenly across the genome of Populus. On average, These SSRs occurred every 1883 bp within the poplar genome and the SSR densities in intergenic regions, introns, exons and UTRs were 85.4%, 10.7%, 2.7% and 1.2%, respectively. We took di-, tri-, tetra-and pentamers as the four classes of repeat units and found that the density of each class of SSRs decreased with the repeat unit lengths except for the tetranucleotide repeats. It was noteworthy that the length diversification of microsatellite sequences was negatively correlated with their repeat unit length and the SSRs with shorter repeat units gained repeats faster than the SSRs with longer repeat units. We also found that the GC content of poplar sequence significantly correlated with densities of SSRs with uneven repeat unit lengths (tri- and penta-), but had no significant correlation with densities of SSRs with even repeat unit lengths (di- and tetra-). In poplar genome, there were evidences that the occurrence of different microsatellites was under selection and the GC content in SSR sequences was found to significantly relate to the functional importance of microsatellites.

  20. Factors affecting germline mutations in a hypervariable microsatellite: a comparative analysis of six species of swallows (Aves: Hirundinidae).

    PubMed

    Anmarkrud, Jarl A; Kleven, Oddmund; Augustin, Jakob; Bentz, Kristofer H; Blomqvist, Donald; Fernie, Kim J; Magrath, Michael J L; Pärn, Henrik; Quinn, James S; Robertson, Raleigh J; Szép, Tibor; Tarof, Scott; Wagner, Richard H; Lifjeld, Jan T

    2011-03-15

    Microsatellites mutate frequently by replication slippage. Empirical evidence shows that the probability of such slippage mutations may increase with the length of the repeat region as well as exposure to environmental mutagens, but the mutation rate can also differ between the male and female germline. It has been hypothesized that more intense sexual selection or sperm competition can also lead to elevated mutation rates, but the empirical evidence is inconclusive. Here, we analyzed the occurrence of germline slippage mutations in the hypervariable pentanucleotide microsatellite locus HrU10 across six species of swallow (Aves: Hirundinidae). These species exhibit marked differences in the length range of the microsatellite, as well as differences in the intensity of sperm competition. We found a strong effect of microsatellite length on the probability of mutation, but no residual effect of species or their level of sperm competition when the length effect was accounted for. Neither could we detect any difference in mutation rate between tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) breeding in Hamilton Harbour, Ontario, an industrial site with previous documentation of elevated mutation rates for minisatellite DNA, and a rural reference population. However, our cross-species analysis revealed two significant patterns of sex differences in HrU10 germline mutations: (1) mutations in longer alleles occurred typically in the male germline, those in shorter alleles in the female germline, and (2) male germline mutations were more often expansions than contractions, whereas no directional bias was evident in the female germline. These results indicate some fundamental differences in male and female gametogenesis affecting the probability of slippage mutations. Our study also reflects the value of a comparative, multi-species approach for locus-specific mutation analyses, through which a wider range of influential factors can be assessed than in single-species studies. PMID:21291898

  1. Comparative genomic analysis reveals species-dependent complexities that explain difficulties with microsatellite marker development in molluscs

    PubMed Central

    McInerney, C E; Allcock, A L; Johnson, M P; Bailie, D A; Prodöhl, P A

    2011-01-01

    Reliable population DNA molecular markers are difficult to develop for molluscs, the reasons for which are largely unknown. Identical protocols for microsatellite marker development were implemented in three gastropods. Success rates were lower for Gibbula cineraria compared to Littorina littorea and L. saxatilis. Comparative genomic analysis of 47.2?kb of microsatellite containing sequences (MCS) revealed a high incidence of cryptic repetitive DNA in their flanking regions. The majority of these were novel, and could be grouped into DNA families based upon sequence similarities. Significant inter-specific variation in abundance of cryptic repetitive DNA and DNA families was observed. Repbase scans show that a large proportion of cryptic repetitive DNA was identified as transposable elements (TEs). We argue that a large number of TEs and their transpositional activity may be linked to differential rates of DNA multiplication and recombination. This is likely to be an important factor explaining inter-specific variation in genome stability and hence microsatellite marker development success rates. Gastropods also differed significantly in the type of TEs classes (autonomous vs non-autonomous) observed. We propose that dissimilar transpositional mechanisms differentiate the TE classes in terms of their propensity for transposition, fixation and/or silencing. Consequently, the phylogenetic conservation of non-autonomous TEs, such as CvA, suggests that dispersal of these elements may have behaved as microsatellite-inducing elements. Results seem to indicate that, compared to autonomous, non-autonomous TEs maybe have a more active role in genome rearrangement processes. The implications of the findings for genomic rearrangement, stability and marker development are discussed. PMID:20424639

  2. A battery of 12 microsatellite markers for genetic analysis of the Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis complex.

    PubMed

    Rougeron, V; De Meeûs, T; Hide, M; Waleckx, E; Dereure, J; Arevalo, J; Llanos-Cuentas, A; Bañuls, A L

    2010-11-01

    We used 12 microsatellite markers developed for Leishmania braziliensis to genotype 28 strains of the main species of the Leishmania guyanensis complex (i.e. L. guyanensis and L. panamensis) collected in Ecuador and Peru. The important heterozygote deficits observed in these populations are similar with the previous data obtained in L. braziliensis and raise again the debate on the reproductive mode of these protozoan parasites. The data showed genetic polymorphism and geographical differentiation giving information on population structure of the L. guyanensis complex. Regarding the two species, this study enhances again the debate on the taxonomic status of the different isolates belonging to L. guyanensis s.l. since the results showed substantial heterogeneity within this species complex. In conclusion, this study increases the number of available microsatellite loci for L. guyanensis species complex and raises fundamental biological questions. It confirms that microsatellite markers constitute good tools for population genetic studies on parasites of this complex. PMID:20609264

  3. Paternal and Maternal Genetic Analysis of a Desert Keriyan Population: Keriyans Are Not the Descendants of Guge Tibetans

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kaixu; Ablimit, Abdurahman; Ling, Fengjun; Wu, Weiwei; Shan, Wenjuan; Qin, Wenbei; Keweier, Tuerhong; Zuo, Hongli; Zhang, Fuchun; Ma, Zhenghai; Zheng, Xiufen

    2014-01-01

    The Keriyan people live in an isolated village in the Taklimakan Desert in Xinjiang, Western China. The origin and migration of the Keriyans remains unclear. We studied paternal and maternal genetic variance through typing Y-STR loci and sequencing the complete control region of the mtDNA and compared them with other adjacent populations. Data show that the Keriyan have relatively low genetic diversity on both the paternal and maternal lineages and possess both European and Asian specific haplogroups, indicating Keriyan is an admixture population of West and East. There is a gender-bias in the extent of contribution from Europe vs. Asia to the Keriyan gene pool. Keriyans have more genetic affinity to Uyghurs than to Tibetans. The Keriyan are not the descendants of the Guge Tibetans. PMID:24968299

  4. Population genetic analysis and origin discrimination of snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio) using microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jung-Ha; Park, Jung-Youn; Kim, Eun-Mi; Ko, Hyun-Sook

    2013-10-01

    Major habitats for the snow crab Chionoecetes opilio are mostly found within the northwest Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans. However, the East Sea populations of C. opilio, along with its relative the red snow crab (C. japonicas), are two of the most important commercial crustacean species for fisheries on the east coast of the Korean Peninsula. The East Sea populations of C. opilio are facing declining resources due to overfishing and global climate change. Thus, an analysis of population structure is necessary for future management. Five Korean and one Russian group of C. opilio were analyzed using nine microsatellite markers that were recently developed using next-generation sequencing. No linkage disequilibrium was found between any pair of loci, indicating that the markers were independent. The number of alleles per locus varied from 4 to 18 with a mean of 12, and allelic richness per locus ranged from 4.0 to 17.1 across all populations with a mean of 9.7. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium test revealed significant deviation in three out of nine loci in some populations after sequential Bonferroni correction and all of them had higher expected heterozygosity than observed heterozygosity. Null alleles were presumed in four loci, which explained the homozygosity in three loci. The pairwise fixation index (F ST ) values among the five Korean snow crab populations did not differ significantly, but all of the pairwise F ST values between each of the Korean snow crab populations and the Russian snow crab population differed significantly. An UPGMA dendrogram revealed clear separation of the Russian snow crab population from the Korean snow crab populations. Assignment tests based on the allele distribution discriminated between Korean and Russian origins with 93 % accuracy. Therefore, the snow crab populations around the Korean Peninsula need to be managed separately from the populations in Bering Sea in global scale resource management. Also, this information can be used for identification of snow crab origin which is problematic in worldwide crab trade. PMID:24022521

  5. Patterns of Differentiation and Hybridization in North American Wolflike Canids, Revealed by Analysis of Microsatellite Loci

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael S. Roy; Eli GefenJ; Deborah Smith; Elaine A. Ostrander; Robert K. Wayne

    Genetic divergence and gene flow among closely related populations are difficult to measure because mutation rates of most nuclear loci are so low that new mutations have not had sufficient time to appear and become fixed. Microsatellite loci are repeat arrays of simple sequences that have high mutation rates and are abundant in the eukaryotic genome. Large population samples can

  6. Neural Network System for the Analysis of Transient Phenomena on Board the DEMETER MicroSatellite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franck ELIE; Masashi HAYAKAWA; Michel PARROT; Jean-Louis PINCON; Francois LEFEUVRE

    1999-01-01

    SUMMARY In 2001, the DEMETER micro-satellite will be launched to perform Detection of Electro-Magnetic Emissions Transmitted from Earthquake Regions. Its main scientific ob- jective is related to the investigation of the ionospheric perturba- tions due to the seismic and volcanic activity. A system allowing an onboard identification and characterization of spatially and temporally coherent structures associated with the measurement of

  7. Analysis of genetic diversity of flowering dogwood natural stands using microsatellites the effects of dogwood anthracnose

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) populations recently have experienced severe declines caused by dogwood anthracnose. Mortality ranged from 48-98%, raising the concern that genetic diversity has been reduced significantly. Microsatellite data was used to evaluate the level and distribution of ge...

  8. Characterization of 14 microsatellite markers for genetic analysis and cultivar identification of walnut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One hundred and forty-seven primer pairs originally designed to amplify microsatellites, also known as simple sequence repeats (SSR), in black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) were screened for utility in persian walnut (J. regia L.). Based on scorability and number of informative polymorphisms, the best 1...

  9. Microsatellite Analysis of Genetic Variation in Sturgeon: New Primer Sequences for Scaphirhynchus and Acipenser

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eve C. McQuown; Brian L. Sloss; Robert J. Sheehan; Jeff Rodzen; Gregory J. Tranah; Bernie May

    2000-01-01

    Low levels of genetic variation at traditional molecular markers have hampered genetic research within the family Acipenseridae. In an effort to develop a large set of polymorphic genetic markers, 172 clones were sequenced from three subgenomic libraries of shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus; the libraries were enriched for two dinucleotide and one tetranucleotide microsatellite motifs (CA, GA, and TAGA). Primers were

  10. Microsatellite analysis of female mating behaviour in lek-breeding sage grouse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Semple; R. K. Wayne; R. M. Gibson

    2001-01-01

    We used microsatellite DNA markers to genotype chicks in 10 broods of lek-breeding sage grouse, Centrocercus urophasianus , whose mothers' behaviour was studied by radio- tracking and observing leks. Previous behavioural studies suggested that almost all matings are performed by territorial males on leks and that multiple mating is rare. Two broods (20%) were sired by more than one male.

  11. Microsatellite analysis of relationships among North American plums ( Prunus sect. Prunocerasus , Rosaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Rohrer; R. Ahmad; S. M. Southwick; D. Potter

    2004-01-01

    Fifteen microsatellite primer pairs developed in sweet cherry and peach were used to explore genetic relationships among North American plums ( Prunus section Prunocerasus). In all, 186 putative alleles were detected with a mean value of 12.4 per locus. The Jaccard coefficient of similarity was calculated between all pairs of accessions and their genetic similarities represented by a UPGMA dendrogram.

  12. MICROSATELLITE LETTERS Development and characterization of microsatellite loci

    E-print Network

    Herrera, Carlos M.

    MICROSATELLITE LETTERS Development and characterization of microsatellite loci for the primrose we describe 12 novel microsatellite loci obtained by 454-pyrosequencing of a microsatellite (Brys et al. 2004). Here we characterize 12 novel microsatellite loci for this species that

  13. Population structure of spotted seatrout, Cynoscion nebulosus, in Texas bays and estuaries as revealed by analysis of microsatellite DNA 

    E-print Network

    Stewart, Leah Beth

    2013-02-22

    ). Microsatellites are short, repetitive stretches of DNA composed of tandem repeat units. Microsatellites are thought to be ideal genetic markers for studies of population structure because they are inherited in a Mendelian fashion, highly polymorphic, and easy...

  14. Genetic relatedness of polygyne queens in the red imported fire ant Solenopsis invicta determined by microsatellite analysis 

    E-print Network

    Lu, Lanying

    1998-01-01

    marker Mag in monogyne colonies. . . . 5 Progeny study of microsatellite marker M17 in monogyne colonies. . . . Page . . . 28 6 Electrophoretic pattern of PCR products for microsatellite marker M17 in polygyne dealates of Solenopsis invrcta. 29 7... Electrophoretic pattern of PCR products for microsatellite marker M13 in polygyne dealates of Solenopsis invicru. . . . 30 8 Electrophoretic pattern of PCR products for microsatellite marker Mag in polygyne dealates of Solenopsis rnvrcru. . . . . 31 9...

  15. Effectiveness of microsatellite and SNP markers for parentage and identity analysis in species with low genetic diversity: the case of European bison

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Tokarska; T Marshall; R Kowalczyk; J M Wójcik; C Pertoldi; T N Kristensen; V Loeschcke; V R Gregersen; C Bendixen

    2009-01-01

    The European bison (Bison bonasus) has recovered successfully after a severe bottleneck about 90 years ago but has been left with low genetic variability that may substantially hinder parentage and identity analysis. According to pedigree analysis, over 80% of the genes in the contemporary population descend from just two founder animals and inbreeding coefficients averaged almost 0.5, whereas microsatellite heterozygosity

  16. Genotyping of a Korean isolate of Toxoplasma gondii by multilocus PCR-RFLP and microsatellite analysis.

    PubMed

    Quan, Juan-Hua; Kim, Tae Yun; Choi, In-Uk; Lee, Young-Ha

    2008-06-01

    Although the Korean isolate KI-1 of Toxoplasma gondii has been considered to be a virulent type I lineage because of its virulent clinical manifestations, its genotype is unclear. In the present study, genotyping of the KI-1 was performed by multilocus PCR-RFLP and microsatellite sequencing. For 9 genetic markers (c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, SAG2, SAG3, GRA6, BTUB, and Apico), the KI-1 and RH strains exhibited typical PCR-RFLP patterns identical to the type I strains. DNA sequencing of tandem repeats in 5 microsatellite markers (B17, B18, TUB2, W35, and TgM-A) of the KI-1 also revealed patterns characteristic of the type I. These results provide strong genetic evidence that KI-1 is a type I lineage of T. gondii. PMID:18552548

  17. Wheat Microsatellites: The Prospects of Application for Gene Mapping and Analysis of the Reconstructed Genomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. A. Salina; I. N. Leonova; M. S. Röder; L. I. Laikova; O. I. Maystrenko; E. B. Budashkina; V. K. Shumnyi

    2001-01-01

    Microsatellite markers Xgwmand Xgdmwere used to map the S1, S2, and S3genes of the induced sphaerococcoid mutants of Triticum aestivumL. and to analyze the introgressive lines of common wheat, obtained by crossing several common wheat cultivars to T. timopheeviiZhuk.; these lines carry the Lrgenes of resistance to leaf rust. All sphaerococcoid genes were linked to centromeric markers of the short

  18. Development and application of microsatellite markers for genomic analysis of papaya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Moriah Eustice; Qingyi Yu; Chun Wan Lai; Shaobin Hou; Jyothi Thimmapuram; Lei Liu; Maqsudul Alam; Paul H. Moore; Gernot G. Presting; Ray Ming

    2008-01-01

    Papaya has a relatively small genome, displays high levels of phenotypic diversity, and is amenable to transformation, making\\u000a it attractive as a fruit tree model system. The high level of phenotypic diversity seen among papaya cultivars in the field\\u000a does not correlate with the low levels of genotypic polymorphism thus far elucidated. The highly mutable nature of microsatellites\\u000a or simple

  19. Analysis of genetic diversity in flowering dogwood natural stands using microsatellites: the effects of dogwood anthracnose

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Hadziabdic; B. M. Fitzpatrick; X. Wang; P. A. Wadl; T. A. Rinehart; B. H. Ownley; M. T. Windham; R. N. Trigiano

    2010-01-01

    Flowering dogwood (Cornus florida L.) populations recently have experienced severe declines caused by dogwood anthracnose. Mortality has ranged from 48 to\\u000a 98%, raising the concern that genetic diversity has been reduced significantly. Microsatellite data were used to evaluate\\u000a the level and distribution of genetic variation throughout much of the native range of the tree. Genetic variation in areas\\u000a affected by

  20. Attitude determination and control system simulation and analysis for low-cost micro-satellites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew D. Anderson; Jerry J. Sellers; Yoshi Hashida

    2004-01-01

    The Air Force Academy's latest satellite endeavor, FalconSAT-3, is a 50 kg microsatellite being developed by faculty and cadets, and is the Air Force Academy's first attempt at achieving three axis attitude determination and control (ADCS). FalconSAT-3 carries three payloads to conduct DoD research. The attitude requirements for FalconSAT-3 include pointing the satellite within +\\/- five degrees of ram direction,

  1. Attitude determination and control system simulation and analysis for low-cost micro-satellites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew D. Anderson; Jerry I. Sellers; Yoshi Hashida

    2004-01-01

    The Air Force Academy's latest satellite endeavor, FalconSAT-3, is a 50 kg microsatellite being developed by faculty and cadets, and is the Air Force Academy's first attempt at achieving three axis attitude determination and control (ADCS). FalconSAT-3 will carry three payloads to conduct DoD research. The attitude requirements for FalconSAT-3 include pointing the satellite within +\\/- five degrees of ram

  2. Noninvasive Genotyping and Mendelian Analysis of Microsatellites in African Savannah Elephants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. B. A. Okello; G. WITTEMYER; H. B. RASMUSSEN; I. DOUGLAS-HAMILTON; S. NYAKAANA; P. ARCTANDER; H. R. SIEGISMUND

    2005-01-01

    We obtained fresh dung samples from 202 (133 mother-offspring pairs) savannah elephants (Loxodonta africana) in Samburu, Kenya, and genotyped them at 20 microsatellite loci to assess genotyping success and errors. A total of 98.6% consensus genotypes was successfully obtained, with allelic dropout and false allele rates at 1.6% (n 5 46) and 0.9% (n 5 37) of het- erozygous and

  3. Identification of Epichloë Endophytes In Planta by a Microsatellite-Based PCR Fingerprinting Assay with Automated Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Christina D.; Tapper, Brian A.; Scott, Barry

    1999-01-01

    Epichloë endophytes are a group of filamentous fungi that include both sexual (Epichloë) and asexual (Neotyphodium) species. As a group they are genetically diverse and form both antagonistic and mutualistic associations with temperate grasses. We report here on the development of a microsatellite-based PCR system for fingerprinting this group of fungi with template isolated from either culture or infected plant material. M13mp19 partial genomic libraries were constructed for size-fractionated genomic DNA from two endophyte strains. These libraries were screened with a mixture of DIG-labeled dinucleotide and trinucleotide repeat probes. Positive clones were sequenced, and nine unique microsatellite loci were identified. An additional microsatellite was serendipitously identified in the 3? untranscribed region of the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase gene from N. lolii Lp19. Primers were designed for each locus and a panel of endophytes, from different taxonomic groupings, was screened to determine the degree of polymorphism. On the basis of these results a multiplex assay was developed for strain identification with fluorescently labeled primers for five of these loci. Using this system the size of the products amplified can be precisely determined by automated analysis, and an allele profile for each strain can be readily generated. The assay was shown to resolve endophyte groupings to the level of known isozyme phenotype groupings. In a blind test the assay was used successfully to identify a set of endophytes in planta. A reference database of allele sizes has been established for the panel of endophytes examined, and this will be expanded as new strains are analyzed. PMID:10049893

  4. Paternity in Eusocial Hymenoptera

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacobus J. Boomsma; Francis L. W. Ratnieks

    1996-01-01

    Variation in paternity frequency in colonies of eusocial insects has profound effects on the relatedness among offspring and on the genetic diversity of colonies. Data on queen `mating-frequency' in eusocial Hymenoptera vary in both quality and the phase of the `mating' process they address. Some are observational studies of the range or maximum number of copulations; others are derived from

  5. [Genotyping of Vaginal Candida glabrata Isolates Using Microsatellite Marker Analysis and DNA Sequencing to Identify Mutations Associated with Antifungal Resistance].

    PubMed

    Dö?en, Aylin; Durukan, Hüseyin; Güzel, Ahmet Bar??; Oksüz, Zehra; Kaplan, Engin; Serin, Mehmet Sami; Serin, Ay?e; Emekda?, Gürol; Aslan, Gönül; Tezcan, Seda; Kalkanc?, Ay?e; Ilkit, Macit

    2013-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidosis is the second most common cause of vaginitis (17-39%) after bacterial vaginosis (22-50%). Since the diagnosis of vulvovaginal candidosis mainly depends on clinical findings without mycologic confirmatory tests and treated empirically, the actual incidence rate of vulvovaginal candidosis is unknown. Approximately 70-90% of vulvovaginal candidosis cases are caused by Candida albicans, however the increasing incidence of C.glabrata infections and its reduced susceptibility to azole drug therapy have generated increasing attention. The epidemiology and population structure of vulvovaginal candidosis due to C.glabrata are poorly characterized. This study was aimed to genotype the C.glabrata strains isolated from vaginal samples in Cukurova region, Turkey by microsatellite markers, to investigate the antifungal susceptibility profiles of the strains and to determine the molecular mechanisms leading to phenotypical azole resistance. A total of 34 unrelated vaginal C.glabrata strains isolated from patients with acute (n= 11) and recurrent (n= 14) vulvovaginal candidosis, control group (n= 9) without vaginitis symptoms, and a reference strain of C.glabrata CBS 138 (ATCC 2001) were included in the study. These isolates were genotyped using multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis of three microsatellite markers (RPM2, MTI, and Cg6). Analysis of microsatellite markers was performed by fragment size determination of RPM2, MTI, and Cg6 PCR products through capillary electrophoresis. For each of the evaluated strains, DNA sequence analysis was performed for one gene (CgERG11) and four loci (CgPDR1, NTM1, TRP1, and URA3) to detect mutations possibly associated with antifungal resistance in each strain. In vitro susceptibility profiles of the strains to 13 antifungals and boric acid were determined according to CLSI document M27-A3 to investigate possible relationships between detected mutations and phenotypic resistance. C.glabrata CBS 138 strain was found to be susceptible to all the antifungals tested, while one of (%2.9) 34 vaginal C.glabrata isolates was found to be dose-dependent susceptible to fluconazole, 13 (38.2%) to itraconazole and 3 (8.8%) to voriconazole. No resistant strain were detected in the study population. Only three isolates were found to be resistant to clotrimazole (8.8%), however no relationship was identified between the genotypes and phenotypic resistance (p> 0.05). Thirteen genotypes were detected by microsatellite marker analysis, with high discrimination power (DP= 0.877). As a result, microsatellite marker analysis was validated as a rapid, reliable method for genotyping C.glabrata strains with good, but not optimal discriminatory power. Further studies examining larger numbers of isolates are needed to verify possible relationships between mutations and phenotypic resistance. PMID:23390908

  6. Development and characterization of microsatellite markers for analysis of population differentiation in the tree legume Acacia koa (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae) in the Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Fredua-Agyeman, Rudolph; Adamski, Daniel; Liao, Richard Junfu; Morden, Clifford; Borthakur, Dulal

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this research was to develop and use microsatellite markers to characterize the high-value timber tree Acacia koa (koa), which is endemic to the Hawaiian Islands. Genomic DNA fragments of 300-1000 bp were cloned and sequenced following enrichment for microsatellite motifs by PCR using 7 oligonucleotide repeat primers in separate reactions. Among 96 sequences analyzed, 63 contained unique microsatellite motifs flanked by variable sequences. A dual PCR method involving a primer walking step was used to develop 15 primer pairs. Another 16 primer pairs were developed directly from the variable sequences on both sides of the microsatellite motifs. These 31 primer pairs were tested on 172 koa plants representing 11 populations collected from 4 of the major Hawaiian Islands. Nine of the primers that identified polymorphic microsatellite loci and 3 that detected unique alleles exclusively in some populations were used for genetic diversity studies of koa. Cluster analysis and multidimensional scaling of the allelic phenotype data revealed that koa from Kauai formed a distinct group separate from koa of the neighboring islands of Oahu, Maui, and Hawaii. The oldest of the four islands, Kauai, also had the most diverse populations of koa. PMID:19088813

  7. Development and characterization of novel microsatellite loci for Lusitanian toadfish, Halobatrachus didactylus

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Paulo J.; Amorim, Maria Clara P.

    2015-01-01

    The Lusitanian toadfish Halobatrachus didactylus is an eastern Atlantic polygynous species showing male paternal care. In this paper we describe 5 novel microsatellite loci obtained by 454 GS-FLX Titanium pyrosequencing of a microsatellite-enriched library. The number of alleles per polymorphic locus varied between 2 and 4, and the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.082 to 0.600. No significant deviation from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium was found and there was no evidence for linkage disequilibrium. These markers will be of great value for paternity studies and population genetics of this species. PMID:25653909

  8. Novel microsatellite repeats (MSRs) and linkage disequilibrium analysis in the SMA region of 5q13.1

    SciTech Connect

    Yaraghi, Z.; Roy, N. [Univ. of Ottawa (Canada); MacKenzie, A.E. [Children`s Hospital of Eastern Ontario (Canada)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The spinal muscular atrophies (SMA) are characterized by degeneration of the anterior horn cells of the spinal cord, leading to muscular atrophy associated with progressive paralysis. The gene involved in SMA has been mapped by linkage analysis to a region of 5q13.1 flanked centromerically by D5S435 and telomerically by D5S557. We are in the process of identifying new microsatellite repeats to further define the genetic map of the SMA region. A contiguous array of YAC clones covering the SMA containing D5S435-D56S112 interval of 5q13.1 was established. From this contig, a 700 kb clone 76C1, which contains the 200 kb CMS-1/CATT-1 critical region, was used to generate a partial Sau3A1 phage library. We have previously shown that 2 CATT-1 subloci are in linkage disequilibrium with type I SMA. The 76C1 subloci are in linkage disequilibrium with type I SMA. The 76C1 phage library has been screened for human MSRs. To date we have identified two novel polymorphic microsatellites and four further candidates are being characterized. Results of linkage disequilibrium studies currently underway will be presented. The identification of a linkage disequilibrium maximum will be helpful in the further narrowing of the SMA region.

  9. Primary congenital glaucoma caused by the homozygous F261L CYP1B1 mutation and paternal isodisomy of chromosome 2.

    PubMed

    López-Garrido, M-P; Campos-Mollo, E; Harto, M-A; Escribano, J

    2009-12-01

    Primary congenital glaucoma (PCG), a rare, severe and blinding disease, usually results from mutations in the CYP1B1 gene located in chromosome 2p22.2. Uniparental isodisomy (UPID) is also a rare condition in which a diploid offspring carries two identical copies of a single parental chromosome. By DNA sequence analysis, we found that a proband (female newborn) affected by PCG was homozygous for the null-allele F261L of the CYP1B1 gene. Her father was a heterozygous carrier for this mutation, and unexpectedly her mother carried only the G168D mutation in the heterozygous state. Segregation analysis of eight microsatellite markers which spanned the two arms of chromosome 2 was consistent with paternal isodisomy for this chromosome in the proband. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of UPID resulting in PCG and the fifth reported case of paternal UPID for chromosome 2. In addition, the absence of a clinical phenotype other than PCG confirms previous observations of there being no paternally imprinted genes in chromosome 2 that have major phenotypic effects. These results, along with previous reports, also suggest that UPID may play a relevant role in recessive diseases linked to chromosome 2. PMID:19807744

  10. Development and evaluation of microsatellite markers for a native prairie perennial, Echinacea angustifolia (Asteraceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Ison, Jennifer L.; Wagenius, Stuart; Reitz, Diedre; Ashley, Mary V.

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Microsatellite loci for the native prairie perennial Echinacea angustifolia were developed and evaluated for future use in population structure and paternity studies. • Methods and Results: A total of 50 trinucleotide microsatellite regions were identified though an enrichment protocol that prescreens for microsatellite repeats before ligating into a vector. Of these, 11 loci were polymorphic and in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium in three populations with varying numbers of plants. The loci had between three and 14 alleles and collectively provided high paternity exclusion probabilities. • Conclusions: These sets of microsatellite primers will provide researchers and land managers with valuable information on the population genetic structure and gene flow between fragmented prairie populations. PMID:25202499

  11. Microsatellite analysis to estimate genetic relationships among five bulgarian sheep breeds

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Herein, genetic relationships among five breeds of Bulgarian sheep were estimated using microsatellite markers. The total number of alleles identified was 226 at the 16 loci examined. DA distance values were used for phylogenetic tree construction with the UPGMA algorithm. The two Tsigai and two Maritza populations were found to be geneticallvery closely related to each other y (0.198, and 0.258 respectively). The Pleven Black Head population was distinct from the other four. These results could be useful for preserving genes in these breeds, thereby ensuring their preservation in Bulgaria. PMID:21637604

  12. An intelligent maintenance system for earth-based failure analysis and self-repairing of microsatellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierra, Enrique A.; Quiroga, Juan J.; Fernández, Roberto; Monte, Gustavo E.

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes a recently developed maintenance system for a microsatellite, which is being constructed and it is expected to be launched shortly. The autonomous maintenance system is going to be installed on a personal computer located in an earth-based control room. As this place will most likely be staffed 24 h a day, 7 days a week, there is a good deal of interest in the use of increased automation in maintenance tasks in order to improve the efficiency with which personnel are used and as a way to reduce costs. The system described here is a good example of emerging automation technology that is intended to replace human operators responsible for system maintenance. The structure of the automation system is based upon an architecture of collaborative intelligent agents designed to detect failure in any of the microsatellites components. The multiagent system consists of a set of different agents devoted to failure detection, prevention and correction. Regarding correction, specific agents for each constitutive part of the microsatellite have been developed that take over the necessary actions to solve any given problem in its operation. The detection agent decides which correction agent control should be transferred, based upon inference obtained from its knowledge base made up of rules for testing and diagnosis. Actions for correction may imply the use of redundant systems, which can reconfigure themselves to avoid defective circuits, among other repairing strategies. The prevention agent uses predictive models that have been developed for each significant failure mode. Statistical models are also used by this agent to determine the shape of the distribution of times to failure. The prevention agent selects the corresponding correction agent to which control is going to be transferred and this agent carries out the necessary actions to prevent the system failure. The overall intelligent system employs a blackboard architecture for communication and collaboration among agents. Several simulations with specially designed test cases used to evaluate the system performance suggest that in order for maintenance automation to be effective, it must be designed in close relationship with human operators who will occasionally troubleshoot, maintain and repair the microsatellite from earth. This human-centered approach of the design implies assigning particular importance to the effectiveness achieved in the process of knowledge acquisition when the intelligent agents are being designed.

  13. Advancing paternal age and risk of autism: new evidence from a population-based study and a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C M Hultman; S Sandin; S Z Levine; P Lichtenstein; A Reichenberg

    2011-01-01

    Advanced paternal age has been suggested as a risk factor for autism, but empirical evidence is mixed. This study examines whether the association between paternal age and autism in the offspring (1) persists controlling for documented autism risk factors, including family psychiatric history, perinatal conditions, infant characteristics and demographic variables; (2) may be explained by familial traits associated with the

  14. Paternal occupation and anencephaly

    SciTech Connect

    Brender, J.D.; Suarez, L. (Texas Department of Health, Austin (USA))

    1990-03-01

    It has been suggested that paternal occupational exposures to pesticides and solvents increase the risk of neural tube defects in offspring. With the use of Texas livebirth, fetal death, and linked livebirth-death records, the authors conducted a population-based case-control study among 1981-1986 Texas births to examine the association between paternal occupation and anencephalic births. Fathers employed in occupations associated with solvent exposure were more likely to have offspring with anencephaly (odds ratio (OR) = 2.53), with painters having the highest risk (OR = 3.43). A lesser association was found for fathers employed in occupations involving pesticide exposure (OR = 1.28). Further studies are indicated to clarify these associations.

  15. Microsatellite marker development and Mendelian analysis in the Matschie's tree kangaroo (Dendrolagus matschiei).

    PubMed

    McGreevy, Thomas J; Dabek, Lisa; Husband, Thomas P

    2010-01-01

    Matschie's tree kangaroo (Dendrolagus matschiei) is an endangered arboreal macropodid endemic to the Huon Peninsula, Papua New Guinea (PNG). We developed 5 microsatellite markers for D. matschiei, which are the first markers developed for Dendrolagus. We screened 17 additional markers that were developed for other marsupial taxa and identified 3 that were polymorphic in D. matschiei. We estimated allelic and genetic diversity with the set of 8 markers by analyzing 22 D. matschiei from Wasaunon on the Huon Peninsula, PNG. The number of alleles ranged from 2 to 9 and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.440 to 0.794. We tested for null alleles and Mendelian inheritance by analyzing 19 pairs of D. matschiei parents and offspring from Association of Zoos and Aquariums institutions. Null alleles were not detected and Mendelian inheritance was followed for all 8 markers. We also evaluated the reliability of using the markers to amplify DNA extracted from D. matschiei fecal samples and the ability of the markers to amplify DNA samples from Goodfellow's tree kangaroo (Dendrolagus goodfellowi ssp.), Doria's tree kangaroo (Dendrolagus dorianus ssp.), and Grizzled tree kangaroo (Dendrolagus inustus ssp.). Microsatellite markers can be used to inform management decisions to conserve D. matschiei in captivity and the wild. PMID:19783838

  16. Microsatellite instability and survival in gastric cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    ZHU, LIN; LI, ZHI; WANG, YAN; ZHANG, CHENLU; LIU, YUNPENG; QU, XIUJUAN

    2015-01-01

    Microsatellite instability (MSI) is associated with the prognosis in several cancers and is used for determination of the chemotherapy regimen in stage II colon cancer in the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guideline. However, the association between MSI and the prognosis of gastric cancer remains unclear. PubMed database was searched until January 2014 using MeSH terms and key words to identify the studies evaluating MSI and prognosis of gastric cancer and the references were manually searched. The main outcome was the overall survival rate and the subordinate outcome was the association between high-frequency MSI (MSI-H) and clinicopathological characteristics. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria and the majority of data were collected retrospectively. There were 1,976 patients, 431 of which were MSI-H patients, with a range of 11.68–33.82%. Four studies used the National Cancer Institute panel to define MSI-H, the other four had microsatellite markers ranging 2–11. Significant associations were found in three studies and the overall summary estimate was hazard ratio, 0.63 (95% confidence interval, 0.52–0.77), with no evidence of inter-study heterogeneity (I2=0.0%). MSI-H patients were identified to have a tendency to have less lymph node (LN) metastasis, superficial tumor invasion and to be intestinal type. In conclusion, MSI-H gastric cancers have an improved prognosis, accompanied with reduced risk of LN metastasis, tumor invasion and mortality. PMID:26137290

  17. LOH of PTCH1 region in BCC and ovarian carcinoma: microsatellite vs. HRM analysis.

    PubMed

    Musani, Vesna; Sabol, Maja; Car, Diana; Ozretic, Petar; Oreskovic, Slavko; Leovic, Dinko; Levanat, Sonja

    2012-01-01

    Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of tumor suppressor genes is a frequent event in tumorigenesis. LOH is most often analyzed by microsatellite typing, but here we offer a fast and efficient method for simultaneous SNP genotyping and mutation scanning, which can also be used for LOH detection. High resolution melting (HRM) provides simple variant detection, and can be adopted for a wide range of applications. When a melting profile for a specific SNP is determined, the screening can be done without the need for sequencing, and only the melting profiles differing from the established melting profiles should be sequenced. LOH of PTCH1 gene is often found in a series of different tumors, for example basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and ovarian carcinoma (OC). In this study LOH was detected in 50 % of BCC and 27.27 % of OC, and the detection rates of microsatellite typing and HRM were comparable. Both methods depended only on the heterozygosity of the loci analyzed, but HRM offers an additional advantage of detection of all sequence variants in the gene of interest. PMID:22201935

  18. Fluorescent Random Amplified Microsatellites (F-RAMS) analysis of mushrooms as a forensic investigative tool.

    PubMed

    Kallifatidis, Beatrice; Borovi?ka, Jan; Stránská, Jana; Drábek, Ji?í; Mills, Deetta K

    2014-03-01

    The capability of Fluorescent Random Amplified Microsatellites (F-RAMS) to profile hallucinogenic mushrooms to species and sub-species level was assessed. Fifteen samples of Amanita rubescens and 22 samples of other hallucinogenic and non-hallucinogenic mushrooms of the genera Amanita and Psilocybe were profiled using two fluorescently-labeled, 5'degenerate primers, 5'-6FAM-SpC3-DD (CCA)5 and 5'-6FAM-SpC3-DHB (CGA)5, which target different microsatellite repeat regions. Among the two primers, 5'-6FAM-SpC3-DHB (CGA)5 provided more reliable data for identification purposes, by grouping samples of the same species and clustering closely related species together in a dendrogram based on amplicon similarities. A high degree of intra-specific variation between the 15 A. rubescens samples was shown with both primers and the amplicons generated for all A. rubescens samples were organized into three classes of amplicons (discriminant, private, and marker) based on their individualizing potential. PMID:24528576

  19. Complex Microsatellite Dynamics in the Myostatin Gene Within Ruminants

    E-print Network

    Liberles, David

    Complex Microsatellite Dynamics in the Myostatin Gene Within Ruminants A° sa Tellgren-Roth Æ ruminants. While caprids and ovids share the ancestral state with pigs and other mammals, microsatellite genomes. Keywords Microsatellite evolution Á Phylogenetic analysis Á Myostatin Á Ruminants Á Artiodactyls

  20. Multiple paternity in fruits of Ipomopsis aggregata (Polemoniaceae).

    PubMed

    Campbell, D

    1998-07-01

    Two different mechanisms can result in multiple paternity within fruits: deposition of a mixed pollen load due to carryover of pollen from flower to flower and multiple pollinator visits in close succession. I investigated the extent of multiple paternity within fruits of Ipompsis aggregata containing from 2 to 14 seeds. A paternity analysis based on ten polymorphic isozyme markers revealed multiple paternity in a minimum of 68% (based on simple paternity exclusion) and up to 100% (based on identification of the most likely father) of the multiseeded fruits. The estimated number of fathers increased with the number of seeds in a fruit, with an average of four sires, and up to nine sires, represented in a single fruit. To explore whether this level of multiple paternity could be explained solely by simultaneous deposition of a mixed pollen load, I constructed a computer simulation model based on previous measurements of movement patterns and pollen carryover by the hummingbird pollinators. Model predictions provided a good match to observed values for number of sires per fruit. Thus, the extensive pollen carryover in this species and consequent mixed pollen loads can explain the high levels of multiple paternity in natural populations. PMID:21684986

  1. Microsatellite analysis of genetic diversity in wild and farmed Emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae).

    PubMed

    Hammond, E L; Lymbery, A J; Martin, G B; Groth, D; Wetherall, J D

    2002-01-01

    The emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) occupies most regions of the Australian continent and in recent times has been farmed for meat, oil, and leather. Very little is known about the genetic structure of natural or farmed populations of these birds. We report a preliminary study of genetic variation in emus undertaken by typing birds from five farms and two natural populations at five polymorphic microsatellite loci. Genetic diversity was high for all populations and there was little evidence of inbreeding, with most populations conforming to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for most loci. Significant heterozygote deficiencies at one locus in a number of populations were detected and may indicate the presence of null alleles. Comparisons of allele frequencies showed little evidence of genetic differentiation either among farmed populations or between farmed and natural populations. PMID:12547928

  2. Multiplex automated analysis of microsatellite loci for linkage analysis of the entire human genome

    SciTech Connect

    Freas-Lutz, D.L.; Walczak, C.A.; Gillanders, E.M. [NIH, NIDR, MEDIB, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    We are evaluating 29 panels of fluorescently labeled markers located at approximately 10 cM intervals. Each chromosome is covered at this marker density in 1-4 panels (11-17 loci/panel). Individual markers are labeled with 1 of 3 different fluorescent dyes, combined after PCR and run in a single gel lane. Genotypes are obtained for each locus using Applied Biosystems automated DNA sequencers and GENESCAN analysis and Genotyper allele scoring software. These programs automate the identification of alleles by distinguishing major peaks from PCR artifacts and facilitate export of data in a format suitable for standard genetic analysis programs. To verify the reported genetic relationships among individuals involved in gene mapping studies, we developed software to determine the number of alleles shared among individuals within a family. We use these statistics to distinguish full and half sibs and parent-child relations from unrelated individuals. Finally, we are developing a database using Fourth Dimension software so that the tremendous amounts of data generated can be processed efficiently in an integrated suite of specialized computer programs for linkage/association studies.

  3. Genetic diversity and admixture analysis of Sanfratellano and three other Italian horse breeds assessed by microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Zuccaro, A; Bordonaro, S; Criscione, A; Guastella, A M; Perrotta, G; Blasi, M; D'Urso, G; Marletta, D

    2008-07-01

    Sanfratellano is a native Sicilian horse breed, mainly reared in the north east of the Island, developed in the 19th century from local dams and sires with a restricted introgression of Oriental, African and, more recently, Maremmano stallions. In this study, the genetic relationships and admixture among Sanfratellano, the other two Sicilian autochthonous breeds and Maremmano breed were assessed using a set of microsatellites. The main goals were to infer the impact of Maremmano breed in the current Sanfratellano horse and to provide genetic information useful to improve the selection strategies of the Sanfratellano horse. The whole sample included 384 horses (238 Sanfratellano, 50 Sicilian Oriental Purebred, 30 Sicilian Indigenous and 66 Maremmano), chosen avoiding closely related animals. A total of 111 alleles from 11 microsatellite loci were detected, from four at HTG7 to 15 at ASB2 locus. The mean number of alleles was the lowest in Oriental Purebred (6.7), the highest in Sanfratellano (8.3). All the breeds showed a high level of gene diversity (He) ranging from 0.71 ± 0.04 in Sicilian Oriental Purebred to 0.81 ± 0.02 in Sicilian Indigenous. The genetic differentiation index was low; only about 6% of the diversity was found among breeds. Nei's standards (DS) and Reynolds' (DR) genetic distances reproduced the same population ranking. Individual genetic distances and admixture analysis revealed that: (a) nowadays Maremmano breed does not significantly influence the current Sanfratellano breed; (b) within Sanfratellano breed, it is possible to distinguish two well-defined groups with different proportions of Indigenous blood. PMID:22443698

  4. Male-Biased Sexual Size Dimorphism, Resource Defense Polygyny, and Multiple Paternity in the Emei Moustache Toad (Leptobrachium boringii)

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Cameron M.; Fu, Jinzhong

    2013-01-01

    We tested the hypotheses that the Emei moustache toad (Leptobrachium boringii) exhibits resource defense polygyny and that combat led to the evolution of male-biased sexual size dimorphism. Between February and March of 2011 and 2012, 26 female and 55 male L. boringii from Mount Emei UNESCO World Heritage Site, Sichuan, China, were observed throughout the breeding season. Prior to the breeding season, males grow 10–16 keratinized maxillary nuptial spines, which fall off once the season has ended. Throughout this time, males construct and defend aquatic nests where they produce advertisement calls to attract females. In a natural setting, we documented 14 cases involving a total of 22 males where males used their moustaches for aggressive interaction, and nest takeover was observed on seven occasions. Males were also observed to possess injuries resulting from combat. Genetic analysis using microsatellite DNA markers revealed several cases of multiple paternity, both within nest and within clutch. This observation indicated that some alternative male reproductive strategy, such as satellite behaviour, is occurring, which may have led to the multiple paternity. Larger males were observed to mate more frequently, and in multiple nests, suggesting that females are selecting for larger males, or that larger males are more capable of defending high quality territories. PMID:23840725

  5. Microsatellite analysis of genetic divergence among populations of giant Galápagos tortoises.

    PubMed

    Ciofi, Claudio; Milinkovitch, Michel C; Gibbs, James P; Caccone, Adalgisa; Powell, Jeffrey R

    2002-11-01

    Giant Galápagos tortoises represent an interesting model for the study of patterns of genetic divergence and adaptive differentiation related to island colonization events. Recent mitochondrial DNA work elucidated the evolutionary history of the species and helped to clarify aspects of nomenclature. We used 10 microsatellite loci to assess levels of genetic divergence among and within island populations. In particular, we described the genetic structure of tortoises on the island of Isabela, where discrimination of different taxa is still subject of debate. Individual island populations were all genetically distinct. The island of Santa Cruz harboured two distinct populations. On Isabela, populations of Volcan Wolf, Darwin and Alcedo were significantly different from each other. On the other hand, Volcan Wolf showed allelic similarity with the island of Santiago. On Southern Isabela, lower genetic divergence was found between Northeast Sierra Negra and Volcan Alcedo, while patterns of gene flow were recorded among tortoises of Cerro Azul and Southeast Sierra Negra. These tortoises have endured heavy exploitation during the last three centuries and recently attracted much concern due to the current number of stochastic and deterministic threats to extant populations. Our study complements previous investigation based on mtDNA diversity and provides further information that may help devising tortoise management plans. PMID:12406238

  6. Spatially defined microsatellite analysis reveals extensive genetic mosaicism and clonal complexity in intestinal metaplastic glands.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yan; Zhou, Juan; Huang, Ayuan; Li, Jianfang; Yan, Min; Zhu, Zhenggang; Zhao, Xiaodong; Gu, Jianren; Liu, Bingya; Shao, Zhifeng

    2015-06-15

    Intestinal metaplasia (IM) has been recognized as the first irreversible precancerous stage of intestinal-type gastric cancer at which genetic instabilities, such as microsatellite (MS) instability and loss of heterozygosity, can already be detected. However, the extent and clonal relationship of these genetic lesions in the precancerous tissues are not fully appreciated. In this work, we have used well established MS markers to analyze the relatedness of spatially separated individual metaplastic glands as well as subsegments within single glands from the same patients. We found that individual IM glands frequently show different marker lengths even for closely apposed IM glands, suggesting that these tissues have already gained the ability to independently evolve their genome regardless of whether or not they share a common origin. Furthermore, within individual IM glands, there is also significant intra-gland diversity in the MS markers. Since most of these cells are not dividing and only have a limited lifespan, this result indicates that in each IM gland, a single dominant clone is rare and new clones are constantly created by either progenitor cells or stem cells. This greatly enhanced ability to create de novo genetic alterations may underlie the importance of this stage in the eventual progression toward cancer. Given the widely observed phenotype switch in the early stages of many solid tumors, whether this associated genetic stability is also an intrinsic property of metaplastic transformation should be extensively characterized to further our understanding of cancer initiation. PMID:25403721

  7. Microsatellite analysis of female mating behaviour in lek-breeding sage grouse.

    PubMed

    Semple, K; Wayne, R K; Gibson, R M

    2001-08-01

    We used microsatellite DNA markers to genotype chicks in 10 broods of lek-breeding sage grouse, Centrocercus urophasianus, whose mothers' behaviour was studied by radio-tracking and observing leks. Previous behavioural studies suggested that almost all matings are performed by territorial males on leks and that multiple mating is rare. Two broods (20%) were sired by more than one male. Genetic analyses of the broods of eight females that visited an intensively studied lek were consistent with behavioural observations. Four females observed mating produced singly sired broods and males other than the individual observed copulating were excluded as sires for most or all of their chicks. Territorial males at the study lek were excluded as sires of broods of four other females that visited the lek but were not observed mating there. Radio-tracking suggested that two of these females mated at other leks. Our results confirm the reliability of mating observations at leks, but do not rule out a possible unseen component of the mating system. PMID:11555247

  8. Microsatellite DNA analysis shows that greater sage grouse leks are not kin groups.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Robert M; Pires, Debra; Delaney, Kathleen S; Wayne, Robert K

    2005-12-01

    The spectacular social courtship displays of lekking birds are thought to evolve via sexual selection, but this view does not easily explain the participation of many males that apparently fail to mate. One of several proposed solutions to this 'lek skew paradox' is that kin selection favours low-ranking males joining leks to increase the fitness of closely related breeders. We investigated the potential for kin selection to operate in leks of the greater sage grouse, Centrocercus urophasianus, by estimating relatedness between lekking males using microsatellite DNA markers. We also calibrated these estimates using data from known families. Mean relatedness within leks was statistically indistinguishable from zero. We also found no evidence for local clustering of kin during lek display, although males tended to range closer to kin when off the lek. These results make kin selection an unlikely solution to the lek skew paradox in sage grouse. Together with other recent studies, they also raise the question of why kin selection apparently promotes social courtship in some lekking species, but not in others. PMID:16313605

  9. [Analysis of genetic structure of mirror carp population and correlation of microsatellite markers and economic traits].

    PubMed

    Sun, Xin; Wei, Zhen-Bang; Sun, Xiao-Wen; Zhang, Yan; Lu, Cui-Yun

    2008-03-01

    The genetic structure of one breeding population of mirror carp(Cyprinus carpio L.) was analysed using thirty-five polymorphic microsatellite markers. The effective number of alleles (Ae), observed heterozygosity (Ho), expected heterozygosity (He) and polymorphism information content(PIC) were all determined. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was checked by chi-square test. For each locus, 2-7 alleles were detected, with a total of 118 alleles for 35 loci . The value of Ae, Ho, He and PIC showed that the genetic variation of the population was not high .The average effective number of alleles and the mean polymorphism information content were 2.16 and 0.42, respectively, and the observed and expected heterozygosity were 0.431 and 0.4736 , respectively.The probability value of chi-square test showed that more than half of the thirty-five loci have significantly (Plt;0.01) deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The correlation of genotype of each locus and individual phenotype data was analysed , and 4 loci seemed associated with body weight and body size . When compared with the result of QTL mapping of common carp, HLJ319 locus was consistent with the mapping result approximately, which was significantly correlated with body size . Several significantly deviated loci were also analysed, and the possible cause of the kind of deviation was discussed . PMID:18332007

  10. Early-onset obesity and paternal 2pter deletion encompassing the ACP1, TMEM18, and MYT1L genes

    PubMed Central

    Doco-Fenzy, Martine; Leroy, Camille; Schneider, Anouck; Petit, Florence; Delrue, Marie-Ange; Andrieux, Joris; Perrin-Sabourin, Laurence; Landais, Emilie; Aboura, Azzedine; Puechberty, Jacques; Girard, Manon; Tournaire, Magali; Sanchez, Elodie; Rooryck, Caroline; Ameil, Agnès; Goossens, Michel; Jonveaux, Philippe; Lefort, Geneviève; Taine, Laurence; Cailley, Dorothée; Gaillard, Dominique; Leheup, Bruno; Sarda, Pierre; Geneviève, David

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a common but highly, clinically, and genetically heterogeneous disease. Deletion of the terminal region of the short arm of chromosome 2 is rare and has been reported in about 13 patients in the literature often associated with a Prader–Willi-like phenotype. We report on five unrelated patients with 2p25 deletion of paternal origin presenting with early-onset obesity, hyperphagia, intellectual deficiency, and behavioural difficulties. Among these patients, three had de novo pure 2pter deletions, one presented with a paternal derivative der(2)t(2;15)(p25.3;q26) with deletion in the 2pter region and the last patient presented with an interstitial 2p25 deletion. The size of the deletions was characterized by SNP array or array-CGH and was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) studies. Four patients shared a 2p25.3 deletion with a minimal critical region estimated at 1.97?Mb and encompassing seven genes, namely SH3HYL1, ACP1, TMEMI8, SNTG2, TPO, PXDN, and MYT1L genes. The fifth patient had a smaller interstitial deletion encompassing the TPO, PXDN, and MYT1L genes. Paternal origin of the deletion was determined by genotyping using microsatellite markers. Analysis of the genes encompassed in the deleted region led us to speculate that the ACP1, TMEM18, and/or MYT1L genes might be involved in early-onset obesity. In addition, intellectual deficiency and behavioural troubles can be explained by the heterozygous loss of the SNTG2 and MYT1L genes. Finally, we discuss the parent-of-origin of the deletion. PMID:24129437

  11. Polyandry and multiple paternities in the threatened Agassiz’s desert tortoise, Gopherus agassizii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christina M. Davy; Taylor Edwards; Amy Lathrop; Mark Bratton; Mark Hagan; Brian Henen; Kenneth A. Nagy; Jonathon Stone; L. Scott Hillard; Robert W. Murphy

    We used data from 17 to 20 microsatellite markers to investigate the incidence of multiple paternities in wild Agassiz’s desert\\u000a tortoises, Gopherus agassizii. Neonates were sampled from clutches of eggs laid by wild mothers in nesting enclosures at Edwards Air Force Base and at the\\u000a Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center, California. We genotyped 28 clutches from 26 females sampling

  12. Microsatellites for ecologists: a practical guide to using and evaluating microsatellite markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimberly A. Selkoe; Robert J. Toonen

    2006-01-01

    Recent improvements in genetic analysis and genotyping methods have resulted in a rapid expansion of the power of molecular markers to address ecological questions. Microsatellites have emerged as the most popular and versatile marker type for ecological applications. The rise of commercial services that can isolate microsatellites for new study species and genotype samples at reasonable prices presents ecologists with

  13. Paternal care may influence perceptions of paternal resemblance.

    PubMed

    Volk, Anthony A; Darrell-Cheng, Carolynn; Marini, Zopito A

    2010-01-01

    Father-child resemblance is increasingly attracting attention from researchers interested in studying paternal investment. The current study sought to determine whether a quasi-experimental infant massage intervention would increase father's perceptions of resemblance. The study included a dozen fathers in each of two groups: the first received an intensive series of lessons on infant-father massage along with their infants, while the second group served as a neutral control. We failed to find significant correlations between paternal investment and resemblance, but we found that fathers who participated in the infant massage intervention reported significantly larger post-study ratings of resemblance and lower ratings of paternal stress. This suggests that the relationship between father-child resemblance and paternal investment may be bidirectional. PMID:22947817

  14. Advances in understanding paternally transmitted Chromosomal Abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Marchetti, F; Sloter, E; Wyrobek, A J

    2001-03-01

    Multicolor FISH has been adapted for detecting the major types of chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm including aneuploidies for clinically-relevant chromosomes, chromosomal aberrations including breaks and rearrangements, and other numerical abnormalities. The various sperm FISH assays have been used to evaluate healthy men, men of advanced age, and men who have received mutagenic cancer therapy. The mouse has also been used as a model to investigate the mechanism of paternally transmitted genetic damage. Sperm FISH for the mouse has been used to detect chromosomally abnormal mouse sperm, while the PAINT/DAPI analysis of mouse zygotes has been used to evaluate the types of chromosomal defects that can be paternally transmitted to the embryo and their effects on embryonic development.

  15. Microsatellite and flow cytometry analysis to help understand the origin of Dioscorea alata polyploids

    PubMed Central

    Nemorin, A.; David, J.; Maledon, E.; Nudol, E.; Dalon, J.; Arnau, G.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Dioscorea alata is a polyploid species with a ploidy level ranging from diploid (2n = 2x = 40) to tetraploid (2n = 4x = 80). Ploidy increase is correlated with better agronomic performance. The lack of knowledge about the origin of D. alata spontaneous polyploids (triploids and tetraploids) limits the efficiency of polyploid breeding. The objective of the present study was to use flow cytometry and microsatellite markers to understand the origin of D. alata polyploids. Methods Different progeny generated by intracytotype crosses (2x × 2x) and intercytotype crosses (2x × 4x and 3x × 2x) were analysed in order to understand endosperm incompatibility phenomena and gamete origins via the heterozygosity rate transmitted to progeny. Results This work shows that in a 2x × 2x cross, triploids with viable seeds are obtained only via a phenomenon of diploid female non-gametic reduction. The study of the transmission of heterozygosity made it possible to exclude polyspermy and polyembryony as the mechanisms at the origin of triploids. The fact that no seedlings were obtained by a 3x × 2x cross made it possible to confirm the sterility of triploid females. Flow cytometry analyses carried out on the endosperm of seeds resulting from 2x × 4x crosses revealed endosperm incompatibility phenomena. Conclusions The major conclusion is that the polyploids of D. alata would have appeared through the formation of unreduced gametes. The triploid pool would have been built and diversified through the formation of 2n gametes in diploid females as the result of the non-viability of seeds resulting from the formation of 2n sperm and of the non-viability of intercytotype crosses. The tetraploids would have appeared through bilateral sexual polyploidization via the union of two unreduced gametes due to the sterility of triploids. PMID:23912697

  16. Prenatal Paternal Depression

    PubMed Central

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Figueiredo, Barbara; Deeds, Osvelia; Contogeorgos, Jennifer; Ascencio, Angela

    2007-01-01

    Prenatal depressive symptoms, anxiety, anger and daily hassles were investigated in 156 depressed and non-depressed pregnant women and their depressed and non-depressed partners (fathers-to-be). Depressed versus non-depressed fathers had higher depression, anxiety and daily hassles scores. Although the pregnant women in general had lower anxiety, anger and daily hassles scores than the men, the scores on the measures for depressed fathers and depressed mothers did not differ. Paternal depression appeared to have less effect than maternal depression on their partners’ scores. However, the similarity between the scores of depressed mothers and depressed fathers highlights the importance of screening for depression in fathers-to-be as well as mothers-to-be as well as during pregnancy. PMID:17138311

  17. Children's Delinquency After Paternal Incarceration

    E-print Network

    Mathis, Carlton William

    2013-07-12

    This dissertation seeks to build on the growing research literature concerning the intergenerational consequences of paternal imprisonment for their children. The existing literature has explored the cumulative process of disadvantage that can...

  18. Significant population genetic structure of the Cameroonian fresh water snail, Bulinus globosus, (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) revealed by nuclear microsatellite loci analysis.

    PubMed

    Djuikwo-Teukeng, F F; Da Silva, A; Njiokou, F; Kamgang, B; Ekobo, A Same; Dreyfuss, G

    2014-09-01

    In order to characterize the demographic traits and spatial structure of Cameroonians Bulinus globosus, intermediate host of Schistosoma haematobium, genetic structure of seven different populations, collected from the tropical zone, was studied using six polymorphic microsatellites. Intrapopulation genetic diversity ranged from 0.37 to 0.55. Interpopulation genetic diversity variation clearly illustrated their significant isolation due to distance with gene flow substantially limited to neighbouring populations. The effective population sizes (Ne) were relatively low (from 3.0 to 18.6), which supposes a high rate from which populations would lose their genetic diversity by drift. Analysis of genetic temporal variability indicated fluctuations of allelic frequencies (35 of 42 locus-population combinations, P<0.05) characteristic of stochastic demography, and this is reinforced by events of bottlenecks detected in all populations. These findings demonstrated that Cameroonian B. globosus were mixed-maters with some populations showing clear preference for outcrossing. These data also suggest that genetic drift and gene flow are the main factors shaping the genetic structure of studied populations. PMID:24751417

  19. High genetic diversity in gametophyte clones of Undaria pinnatifida from Vladivostok, Dalian and Qingdao revealed using microsatellite analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Tifeng; Pang, Shaojun; Liu, Feng; Xu, Na; Zhao, Xiaobo; Gao, Suqin

    2012-03-01

    Breeding practice for Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar requires the screening of a large number of offspring from gametophyte crossings to obtain an elite variety for large-scale cultivation. To better understand the genetic relationships of different gametophyte cultures isolated from different sources, 20 microsatellite loci were screened and 53 gametophyte clone cultures analyzed for U. pinnatifida isolated from wild sporophytes in Vladivostok, Russia and from cultivated sporophytes from Dalian and Qingdao, China. One locus was abandoned because of poor amplification. At the sex-linked locus of Up-AC-2A8, 3 alleles were detected in 25 female gametophyte clones, with sizes ranging from 307 to 316 bp. At other loci, 3 to 7 alleles were detected with an average of 4.5 alleles per locus. The average number of alleles at each locus was 1.3 and 3.7 for Russian and Chinese gametophyte clones, respectively. The average gene diversity for Russian, Chinese, and for the combined total of gametophyte clones was 0.1, 0.4, and 0.5, respectively. Russian gametophyte clones had unique alleles at 7 out of the 19 loci. In cluster analysis, Russian and Chinese gametophyte clones were separated into two different groups according to genetic distance. Overall, high genetic diversity was detected in gametophyte clones isolated from the two countries. These gametophyte cultures were believed to be appropriate parental materials for conducting breeding programs in the future.

  20. How to reveal disguised paternalism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Niels Lynöe; Niklas Juth; Gert Helgesson

    2010-01-01

    In a Swedish setting physicians are unlikely to give explicitly paternalistic reasons when asked about their attitudes towards\\u000a patients’ involvement in decision-making. There is considerable risk that they will disguise their paternalism by giving ‘socially\\u000a correct answers’. We suggest that disguised paternalism can be revealed with the help of indexes based on certain responses\\u000a in postal questionnaires. The indexes were

  1. Paternal alleles enhance female reproductive success in tropical pythons.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Thomas; Ujvari, Beata; Olsson, Mats; Shine, Richard

    2005-05-01

    The conventional view that female reproductive success is unlikely to benefit from multiple mating has come under strong challenge in recent years. In the present study, we demonstrate that the time wild-caught reproductive female water pythons (Liasis fuscus) spent in the laboratory prior to oviposition affected both hatching success and the number of male microsatellite alleles detected in the broods. A negative correlation between time in captivity and number of male alleles observed in the broods suggests that reduced hatching success was most likely not caused by environmental factors such as non-optimal temperatures, but rather by restricted mating opportunities. Maternal nutritional status and mean hatchling mass did not affect brood viability. However, our results revealed a positive correlation between number of male microsatellite alleles observed in the broods and hatching success, suggesting that increased paternal genetic variability enhanced female reproductive success. As microsatellite loci are unlikely to be direct targets of selection, we suggest that variability at these loci may cosegregate with other polymorphic genes directly linked to fitness. PMID:15836649

  2. [Comparative analysis of genetic variability of White Sea Cod (Gadus morhua marisalbi) at allozyme and microsatellite markers].

    PubMed

    2013-12-01

    Variability of cod spawning and feeding schools from Kandalaksha Bay of the White Sea, was examined at six allozyme and eight microsatellite loci. The degree of genetic differentiation at allozyme loci constituted 0 = 0.36% [95% bootstrap interval 0.0458; 0.6743]. The differentiation estimates obtained using microsatellite markers were higher, 0 = 1.33% [0.057; 3.11]. It was demonstrated that the level of genetic diversity in the White Seacod was lower than that established for the Atlantic cod from Barents Sea using the same set of al- lozyme and microsatellite markers. The genetic data obtained support the opinion that the White Sea cod is a reproductively independent group formed as a result of the Holocene dispersal of Atlantic cod. PMID:25508130

  3. [Comparative analysis of genetic variability of White Sea Cod (Gadus morhua marisalbi) at allozyme and microsatellite markers].

    PubMed

    Stroganov, A N; Cherenkova, N N; Semenova, A V; Afanas'ev, K I; Andreeva, A P

    2013-12-01

    Variability of cod spawning and feeding schools from Kandalaksha Bay of the White Sea, was examined at six allozyme and eight microsatellite loci. The degree of genetic differentiation at allozyme loci constituted 0 = 0.36% [95% bootstrap interval 0.0458; 0.6743]. The differentiation estimates obtained using microsatellite markers were higher, 0 = 1.33% [0.057; 3.11]. It was demonstrated that the level of genetic diversity in the White Seacod was lower than that established for the Atlantic cod from Barents Sea using the same set of al- lozyme and microsatellite markers. The genetic data obtained support the opinion that the White Sea cod is a reproductively independent group formed as a result of the Holocene dispersal of Atlantic cod. PMID:25438599

  4. Paternal Age, Paternal Presence and Children's Health: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, Julian; Sutcliffe, Alastair G; Melhuish, Edward; Barnes, Jacqueline

    2015-02-24

    In an observational study of 31,257 children we investigated the effects of paternal age at the time of the child's birth, paternal absence and non-biological fathers on children's health. Results are per 5 year change in paternal age. Older fathers were associated with lower rates of unintentional injuries, odds ratio (OR)=0.966, P=0.0027. There was a quadratic association between paternal age and risk of hospital admission, ?=0.0121, P=0.0109, with minimum risk at paternal age 37.7. Absent fathers were associated with increased risk of hospital admission, OR=1.19, P<10(-3), lower rates of complete immunizations to 9 months, OR=0.562, P<10(-3), higher Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) difficulties scores: ?=0.304, P=0.0024 (3 year olds), ?=0.697, P<10(-3) (5 year olds). Non-biological fathers were associated with increased risk of unintentional injury, OR=1.16, P=0.0319 and hospital admission, OR=1.26, P=0.0166; lower rates of complete immunizations to 9 months, OR=0.343, P=0.0309 and higher SDQ difficulties scores: ?=0.908, P<10(-3). PMID:25918623

  5. A comparison of single nucleotide polymorphism and microsatellite markers for analysis of parentage and kinship in a cooperatively breeding bird.

    PubMed

    Weinman, Lucia R; Solomon, Joseph W; Rubenstein, Dustin R

    2015-05-01

    The development of genetic markers has revolutionized molecular studies within and among populations. Although poly-allelic microsatellites are the most commonly used genetic marker for within-population studies of free-living animals, biallelic single nucleotide polymorphisms, or SNPs, have also emerged as a viable option for use in nonmodel systems. We describe a robust method of SNP discovery from the transcriptome of a nonmodel organism that resulted in more than 99% of the markers working successfully during genotyping. We then compare the use of 102 novel SNPs with 15 previously developed microsatellites for studies of parentage and kinship in cooperatively breeding superb starlings (Lamprotornis superbus) that live in highly kin-structured groups. For 95% of the offspring surveyed, SNPs and microsatellites identified the same genetic father, but only when behavioural information about the likely parents at a nest was included to aid in assignment. Moreover, when such behavioural information was available, the number of SNPs necessary for successful parentage assignment was reduced by half. However, in a few cases where candidate fathers were highly related, SNPs did a better job at assigning fathers than microsatellites. Despite high variation between individual pairwise relatedness values, microsatellites and SNPs performed equally well in kinship analyses. This study is the first to compare SNPs and microsatellites for analyses of parentage and relatedness in a species that lives in groups with a complex social and kin structure. It should also prove informative for those interested in developing SNP loci from transcriptome data when published genomes are unavailable. PMID:25224810

  6. Microsatellite instability markers in breast cancer: A review and study showing MSI was not detected at ‘BAT 25’ and ‘BAT 26’ microsatellite markers in early-onset breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shoo Peng Siah; Diana M Quinn; Graeme D Bennett; Graeme Casey; Robert LP Flower; Graeme Suthers; Zbigniew Rudzki

    2000-01-01

    Microsatellite markers may provide evidence of faulty DNA mismatch repair (MMR) via the detection of microsatellite instability (MSI). The choice of microsatellite markers may impact on the MSI detection rate. In hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer (HNPCC), several informative microsatellite markers have been recommended. Two of these, BAT 25 and BAT 26, are quasi-homozygous, enabling analysis of tumour DNA in the

  7. Quantification of the paternal allele bias for new germline mutations in the retinoblastoma gene

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, J.F.; Rapaport, J.M.; Dryia, T.P. [Massachusetts Eye & Ear Infirmary, Boston, MA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    New germline mutations in the human retinoblastoma gene preferentially arise on a paternally derived allele. In nonhereditary retinoblastoma, the initial somatic mutation seems to have no such bias. The few previous reports of these phenomena included relatively few cases (less than a dozen new germline or initial somatic mutations), so that the magnitude of the paternal allele bias for new germline mutations is not known. Knowledge of the magnitude of the bias is valuable for genetic counseling, since, for example, patients with new germline mutations who reproduce transmit risk for retinoblastoma according to the risk that the transmitted allele has a germline mutation. We sought to quantitate the paternal allele bias and to determine whether paternal age is a factor possibly accounting for it. We studied 311 families with retinoblastoma (261 simplex, 50 multiplex) that underwent clinical genetic testing and 5 informative families recruited from earlier research. Using RFLPs and polymorphic microsatellites in the retinoblastoma gene, we could determine the parental origin of 45 new germline mutations and 44 probable initial somatic mutations. Thirty-seven of the 45 new germline mutations, or 82%, arose on a paternal allele while only 24 of the 44 initial somatic mutations (55%) did so. Increased paternal age does not appear to account for the excess of new paternal germline mutations, since the average age of fathers of children with new germline mutations (29.4 years, n=26, incomplete records on 11) was not significantly different from the average age of fathers of children with maternal germline mutations or somatic initial mutations (29.8 years, n=35, incomplete records on 17).

  8. Microsatellite markers from the 'South American fruit fly' Anastrepha fraterculus: a valuable tool for population genetic analysis and SIT applications

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Anastrepha fraterculus Wiedemann is a horticultural pest which causes significant economic losses in the fruit-producing areas of the American continent and limits the access of products to international markets. The use of environmentally friendly control strategies against this pest is constrained due to the limited knowledge of its population structure. Results We developed microsatellite markers for A. fraterculus from four genomic libraries, which were enriched in CA, CAA, GA and CAT microsatellite motifs. Fifty microsatellite regions were evaluated and 14 loci were selected for population genetics studies. Genotypes of 122 individuals sampled from four A. fraterculus populations were analyzed. The level of polymorphism ranged from three to 13 alleles per locus and the mean expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.60 to 0.64. Comparison between allelic and genotypic frequencies showed significant differences among all pairs of populations. Conclusions This novel set of microsatellite markers provides valuable information for the description of genetic variability and population structure of wild populations and laboratory strains of A. fraterculus. This information will be used to identify and characterize candidate strains suitable to implement effective pest control strategies and might represent a first step towards having a more comprehensive knowledge about the genetics of this pest. PMID:25471285

  9. Disputed paternity: the historical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Wee, K P

    1993-01-01

    Requests for blood tests to resolve issues of disputed paternity fall under three main categories: (1) Proof of adultery; (2) Proof of kinship (a) in claims for citizenship, (b) to make material changes to the Birth Certificate, (c) for settlement of family disputes usually in inheritance matters; and (3) Investigation of sex crimes like rape and incest where a child is the result of the union. A broad overview is given on the venous red cell and serum blood groups used for paternity investigations. The laws of inheritance as applied to blood group investigations for disputed paternity are discussed. A survey of cases investigated on red cell and serum genetic markers since 1978 till 1990 showed an average of 5.5 cases a year with exclusion of the putative father in 19% of cases. PMID:8503635

  10. Paternal investment and the human mating system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Marlowe

    2000-01-01

    Paternal investment has long been considered responsible for the evolution of predominantly monogamous marriage in humans. However, male–male competition resulting in mate-guarding and male coercion could be equally important. In this review, I use a comparative approach to examine the effect of variation in human paternal investment on our mating system. I conclude paternal investment is important but so too

  11. ISFG: Recommendations on biostatistics in paternity testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David W. Gjertson; Charles H. Brenner; Max P. Baur; Angel Carracedo; Francois Guidet; Juan A. Luque; Rüdiger Lessig; Wolfgang R. Mayr; Vince L. Pascali; Mechthild Prinz; Peter M. Schneider; Niels Morling

    2007-01-01

    The Paternity Testing Commission (PTC) of the International Society for Forensic Genetics has taken up the task of establishing the biostatistical recommendations in accordance with the ISO 17025 standards and a previous set of ISFG recommendations specific to the genetic investigations in paternity cases. In the initial set, the PTC recommended that biostatistical evaluations of paternity are based on a

  12. Detection of Sequence Polymorphism in Rubus Occidentalis L. Monomorphic Microsatellite Markers by High Resolution Melting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microsatellite, or simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, are valuable as co-dominant genetic markers with a variety of applications such as DNA fingerprinting, linkage mapping, and population structure analysis. Development of microsatellite primers through the identification of appropriate repeate...

  13. Can paternal leakage maintain sexually antagonistic polymorphism in the cytoplasm?

    PubMed

    Kuijper, B; Lane, N; Pomiankowski, A

    2015-02-01

    A growing number of studies in multicellular organisms highlight low or moderate frequencies of paternal transmission of cytoplasmic organelles, including both mitochondria and chloroplasts. It is well established that strict maternal inheritance is selectively blind to cytoplasmic elements that are deleterious to males - 'mother's curse'. But it is not known how sensitive this conclusion is to slight levels of paternal cytoplasmic leakage. We assess the scope for polymorphism when individuals bear multiple cytoplasmic alleles in the presence of paternal leakage, bottlenecks and recurrent mutation. When fitness interactions among cytoplasmic elements within an individual are additive, we find that sexually antagonistic polymorphism is restricted to cases of strong selection on males. However, when fitness interactions among cytoplasmic elements are nonlinear, much more extensive polymorphism can be supported in the cytoplasm. In particular, mitochondrial mutants that have strong beneficial fitness effects in males and weak deleterious fitness effects in females when rare (i.e. 'reverse dominance') are strongly favoured under paternal leakage. We discuss how such epistasis could arise through preferential segregation of mitochondria in sex-specific somatic tissues. Our analysis shows how paternal leakage can dampen the evolution of deleterious male effects associated with predominant maternal inheritance of cytoplasm, potentially explaining why 'mother's curse' is less pervasive than predicted by earlier work. PMID:25653025

  14. Microsatellites: evolution and contribution.

    PubMed

    Madesis, Panagiotis; Ganopoulos, Ioannis; Tsaftaris, Athanasios

    2013-01-01

    Microsatellites are codominant molecular genetic markers, which are universally dispersed within genomes. These markers are highly popular because of their high level of polymorphism, relatively small size, and rapid detection protocols. They are widely used in a variety of fundamental and applied fields of biological sciences for plants and animal studies. Microsatellites are also extensively used in the field of agriculture, where they are used in characterizing genetic materials, plant selection, constructing dense linkage maps, mapping economically important quantitative traits, identifying genes responsible for these traits. In addition microsatellites are used for marker-assisted selection in breeding programs, thus speeding up the process. In this chapter, genomic distribution, evolution, and practical applications of microsatellites are considered, with special emphasis on plant breeding and agriculture. Moreover, novel advances in microsatellite technologies are also discussed. PMID:23546780

  15. Genetic variation of microsatellite markers D1S117, D6S89, D11S35, APOC2, and D21S168 in the Spanish population.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, J J; Banchs, I; Volpini, V; Estivill, X

    1993-01-01

    We have used PCR amplification to analyse the allele frequency, distribution and heterozygosity of 5 microsatellite markers (D1S117, D6S89, D11S35, APOC2, and D21S168), in a sample of 100 unrelated Spanish individuals. The loci tested exhibit wide allelic variability having 7-17 alleles, PIC (polymorphic information content) between 0.79 and 0.86, and heterozygosity between 0.81 and 0.86. D1S117 and D21S168 have unimodal distribution, APOC2 has 4 common alleles which account for 71% of the total variation, D11S35 has a bimodal distribution and D6S89 is trimodal. The allelic distribution observed for each locus is in agreement with slippage and mispairing as the main mechanisms involved in the evolution of microsatellite alleles. Multiplex amplification of loci D6S89 and APOC2 was possible due to their non-overlapping allele sizes. The rapidity with which microsatellites can be analysed, and the accurate determination of alleles, make these markers very powerful tools for genetic typing. The information obtained for loci D1S117, D6S89, D11S35, APOC2, and D21S168, provides a basis for their use for DNA typing and paternity analysis in the Spanish population. PMID:8471544

  16. Fine-Scale Genetic Structure and Gene Dispersal in Centaurea corymbosa (Asteraceae). II. Correlated Paternity Within and Among Sibships

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Olivier J.; González-Martínez, Santiago C.; Colas, Bruno; Fréville, Hélène; Mignot, Agnès; Olivieri, Isabelle

    2004-01-01

    The fine-scale pattern of correlated paternity was characterized within a population of the narrow-endemic model plant species, Centaurea corymbosa, using microsatellites and natural progeny arrays. We used classical approaches to assess correlated mating within sibships and developed a new method based on pairwise kinship coefficients to assess correlated paternity within and among sibships in a spatio-temporal perspective. We also performed numerical simulations to assess the relative significance of different mechanisms promoting correlated paternity and to compare the statistical properties of different estimators of correlated paternity. Our new approach proved very informative to assess which factors contributed most to correlated paternity and presented good statistical properties. Within progeny arrays, we found that about one-fifth of offspring pairs were full-sibs. This level of correlated mating did not result from correlated pollen dispersal events (i.e., pollen codispersion) but rather from limited mate availability, the latter being due to limited pollen dispersal distances, the heterogeneity of pollen production among plants, phenological heterogeneity and, according to simulations, the self-incompatibility system. We point out the close connection between correlated paternity and the “TwoGener” approach recently developed to infer pollen dispersal and discuss the conditions to be met when applying the latter. PMID:15579710

  17. Studies on metatherian sex chromosomes. IV. X linkage of PGK-A with paternal X inactivation confirmed in erythrocytes of grey kangaroos by pedigree analysis.

    PubMed

    VandeBerg, J L; Cooper, D W; Sharman, G B; Poole, W E

    1977-04-01

    Pedigree and population data are presented for erythrocyte phosphoglycerate kinase A (PGK-A) allozymes in the two species of grey kangaroo. The pedigree data confirm the hypothesis that PGK-A is X linked, the paternally derived X chromosomes being inactive in nucleated erythroblast precursors of the enucleate erythrocytes in females. The existence of different allozyme variants in eastern and western grey kangaroos further supports their division into separate species. PMID:901302

  18. Decrease in the CGG{sub n} trinucleotide repeat mutation of the fragile X syndrome to normal size range during paternal transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Vaeisaenen, M.L.; Haataja, R.; Leisti, J. [Oulu Univ. Hospital (Finland)

    1996-09-01

    The fragile X syndrome, the most common inherited form of mental retardation, is caused by the expansion of a CGG{sub n} trinucleotide repeat in the FMR-1 gene. Although the repeat number usually increases during transmission, few cases with reduction of an expanded CGG{sub n} repeat back to the normal size range have been reported. We describe for the first time a family in which such reduction has occurred in the paternal transmission. The paternal premutation ({Delta} = 300 hp) was not detected in one of the five daughters or in the son of this daughter, although he had the grandpaternal RFLP haplotype. Instead, fragments indicating the normal CGG{sub n} repeat size were seen on a Southern blot probed with StB12.3. PCR analysis of the CGG{sub n} repeat confirmed this; in addition to a maternal allele of 30 repeats, an allele of 34 repeats was detected in the daughter and, further, in her son. Sequencing of this new allele revealed a pure CGG{sub n} repeat configuration without AGG interruptions. No evidence for a somatic mosaicism of a premutation allele in the daughter or a normal allele in her father was detected when investigating DNA derived from blood lymphocytes and skin fibroblasts. Another unusual finding in this family was lack of the PCR product of the microsatellite marker RS46 (DXS548) in one of the grandmaternal X chromosomes, detected as incompatible inheritance of RS46 alleles. The results suggest an intergenerational reduction in the CGG{sub n} repeat from premutation size to the normal size range and stable transmission of the contracted repeat to the next generation. However, paternal germ-line mosaicism could not be excluded as an alternative explanation for the reverse mutation. 37 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Gene flow and mating system in five Cryptomeria japonica D. Don seed orchards as revealed by analysis of microsatellite markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshinari Moriguchi; Naoki Tani; Sinji Itoo; Fuminori Kanehira; Kouji Tanaka; Hidetoshi Yomogida; Hideaki Taira; Yoshihiko Tsumura

    2005-01-01

    We investigated gene flow in five Cryptomeria japonica D. Don seed orchards of two different types (common and miniature) at widely spaced locations using microsatellite markers.\\u000a The quality of a seed crop is determined by many factors, including pollen contamination from outside sources, self-fertilization,\\u000a and the proportion of contributions from constituent clones. Contamination rates were found to vary among ramets

  20. Analysis of genetic variability in American Pit Bull Terrier breed of dogs with a high inbreeding level using microsatellite markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. N. Shinkarenko; O. G. Guliakova; V. A. Malienko; S. D. Melnychuk; V. G. Spyrydonov

    2010-01-01

    The level of DNA polymorphism in 10 microsatellite loci of 27 American Pit Bull Terrier dogs with high percentage of blood\\u000a and inbreeding coefficients of up to 43.8% was studied. The observed heterozygosity was higher than expected for this inbreeding\\u000a level. The presence of a selection mechanism that prevents gametes from fusing to form a homozygosity genotype is suggested.

  1. [Analysis of genetic variation in dogs (American Pit Bull Terrier breed) with high inbreeding level using microsatellite markers].

    PubMed

    Shinkarenko, L N; Guliakova, O G; Malienko, V A; Mel'nichuk, S D; Spiridonov, V G

    2010-01-01

    The level of gene polymorphism of 10 microsatellite loci in 27 American Pit Bull Terrier dogs which have a high value of the percentage of blood and inbreeding coefficient achieved 43.8% was studied. The excess of heterozigosity over expected for this level of inbreeding coefficient was established. Suggestion that the high level of heterozigosity is the result of the selection against homozygotes was made. PMID:20722281

  2. Analysis of clonal structure of Melaleuca cajuputi (Myrtaceae) at a barren sandy site in Thailand using microsatellite polymorphism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Miwa; R. Tanaka; T. Yamanoshita; M. Norisada; K. Kojima; T. Hogetsu

    2001-01-01

    The clonal structure of Melaleuca cajuputi growing in Thailand was investigated using ten polymorphic microsatellite markers and excavation of root connections. A large-scale test plot (25Ꮅ m) and a small-scale one (10᎔ m) within it were established in an M. cajuputi population at a barren sandy location in Narathiwat, southern Thailand (6° 30' N, 101° 45' E). Eleven clonal groups

  3. The development and use of microsatellite markers for genetic analysis and plant breeding with emphasis on bread wheat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. K. Gupta; R. K. Varshney

    2000-01-01

    In recent years, a variety of molecular markers, based on microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) have become the\\u000a markers of choice, thus necessitating their development and use in a variety of plant systems. In this review, the basic principles\\u000a underlying different hybridization-based (oligonucleotide fingerprinting) and PCR based approaches (STMS, MP-PCR, AMP-PCR\\/\\u000a ISSR\\/ ASSR, RAMPs\\/ dRAMPs, SAMPL), making use of

  4. PATERNITY DETERMINATION WITH DNA FINGERPRINTING IN A GRIZZLY BEAR POPULATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LANCE CRAIGHEAD; ERNIE R. VYSE; HARRY V. REYNOLDS

    We extracted DNA from 120 grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) in an arctic population for paternity analysis using DNA fingerprinting. Preliminary results indicate that a combination of several probes and\\/or enzymes will be necessary to identify sires of offspring with known mothers. Development of genetic profiles will provide estimates of population genetics parameters such as inbreeding coefficients, heterozygosity, and degree

  5. Use of microsatellite DNA polymorphisms on mouse chromosome 11 for in vitro analysis of thymidine kinase gene mutations.

    PubMed

    Liechty, M C; Hassanpour, Z; Hozier, J C; Clive, D

    1994-09-01

    The mouse lymphoma (L5178Y tk+/- 3.7.2C) in vitro mutagenesis assay can measure the genotoxic effects of a wide variety of chemical agents by inactivation of a single functional thymidine kinase (tk-1) gene. We have previously demonstrated, using cytogenetic and molecular techniques, that the types of molecular lesions associated with tk-1 gene inactivation span a wide range similar to that seen in tumor cells at specific oncogene and tumor suppressor gene loci. We have identified, using polymerase chain reaction techniques, 21 microsatellite, or 'simple sequence repeat', polymorphisms between chromosomes 11a and 11b in 3.7.2C cells. These microsatellite polymorphisms span virtually the entire chromosome, from mapping positions of 3-78 centiMorgans (cM) from the centromere, thus providing landmarks to study loss of genetic material across the entire chromosome. Four of the microsatellite polymorphisms lie within 12 cM of tk-1, and provide a means of mapping loss of genetic material in the immediate vicinity of tk-1, a capability that we have not previously had in the mouse lymphoma assay. Loss of alleles (i.e. loss of heterozygosity) is an important feature of tumor development, having to do with tumor suppressor gene expression. Therefore, the ability to detect loss of heterozygosity in the mouse lymphoma assay will make the assay an extremely valuable tool in the detection of agents capable of inducing loss of heterozygosity. PMID:7837976

  6. Genetic diversity and differentiation of the Korean starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus) between and within cultured stocks and wild populations inferred from microsatellite DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    An, Hye Suck; Nam, Myung Mo; Myeong, Jeong In; An, Chul Min

    2014-11-01

    The Korean starry flounder, Platichthys stellatus, is economically valuable coastal resident fish species. However, the annual catch of this fish has fluctuated and suffered major declines in Korea. We examined the genetic diversity and population structure for four wild populations and three hatchery stocks of Korean starry flounder to protect its genetic integrity using nine microsatellites. A group of 339 genotypes belonging to seven populations were screened. High degrees of polymorphism at the microsatellite loci were observed within both the wild and hatchery populations. Compared to the wild populations, genetic changes, including reduced genetic diversity and highly significant differentiation, have occurred in cultured stocks. Significant population differentiation was also observed in wild starry flounder populations. Similar degrees of inbreeding and significant Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium deviations were detected in both the wild and the hatchery populations. The genetic connectivity pattern identified four distinct metapopulations of starry flounder in Korea by clustering in the phylogenetic tree, Bayesian analyses, molecular variance analysis, PCA and multidimensional scaling analysis. A pattern of isolation-by-distance was not significant. This genetic differentiation may be the result of the co-effects of various factors, such as historic dispersal, local environment or anthropogenic activities. These results provide useful information for the genetic monitoring of P. stellatus hatchery stocks, for the genetic improvement of this species by selective breeding and for designing suitable management guidelines for the conservation of this species. PMID:25064574

  7. Inherited alleles revealing an incestuous paternity.

    PubMed

    Jankova-Ajanovska, R; Jakovski, Z; Janeska, B; Simjanovska, L; Duma, A

    2010-12-01

    (Full text is available at http://www.manu.edu.mk/prilozi). Some rape cases result in the pregnancy of the victim and if the case is not reported to the police after the act with a subsequent gynaecological examination of the girl and the taking of a vaginal swab, there is no way of connecting the rape case with the perpetrator, except by parentage determination using DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) analysis after abortion or induced delivery. In order to solve the rape case of a minor girl of 14 years which resulted with pregnancy, where a 60-year-old man was accused of the rape, DNA was extracted from blood samples from the girl and the putative assailant and from the foetus after its induced delivery. The autosomal short tandem repeats (STR) typing for 15 different loci showed differences in 6 STR loci between the putative assailant as a father and the foetus, thus excluding the tested paternity. A large number of identical loci between the mother's and the child's genotype led us to consider the possibility of incestuous paternity. Analysis of DNA samples from the girl's father and brother clarified the case as brother-sister incest. Key words: rape case, short tandem repeats (STRs) genotype, incest. PMID:21258293

  8. Creation of a Chloroplast Microsatellite Reporter for Detection of Replication Slippage in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monica GuhaMajumdar; Ethan Dawson-Baglien; Barbara B. Sears

    2008-01-01

    Microsatellites are composed of short tandem direct repeats; deletions or duplications of those repeats through the process of replication slippage result in microsatellite instability relative to other genomic loci. Variation in repeat number occurs so frequently that microsatellites can be used for genotyping and forensic analysis. However, an accurate assessment of the rates of change can be difficult because the

  9. A measure of population subdivision based on microsatellite allele frequencies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Montgomery Slatkin

    1995-01-01

    Microsatellite loci, loci that vary in the number of repeats of a simple DNA sequence, are becoming commonly used in the analysis of natural populations. Microsatellite loci are often highly polymorphic and relatively easy to survey and hence offer the hope of greater understanding of population structure. The question is how to make the best use of allele frequencies at

  10. Lack of association with high myopia and the MYP2 locus in the Japanese population by high resolution microsatellite analysis on chromosome 18

    PubMed Central

    Yamane, Takahiro; Mok, Jeewon; Oka, Akira; Okada, Eiichi; Nishizaki, Ritsuko; Meguro, Akira; Yonemoto, Junichi; Kulski, Jerzy K; Ohno, Shigeaki; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Mizuki, Nobuhisa

    2007-01-01

    MYP2 was reported for a candidate locus associated with high grade myopia by linkage analysis, but no candidate gene has been detected. We report an association study in the Japanese population using 750 microsatellite markers on chromosome 18 that include MYP2 locus. 450 Japanese subjects with high myopia whose refractive error was greater than or equal to ?9.25D in at least one eye and equal number of normal control subjects were recruited in this study. Three steps screening on the pooled DNA of patients and the pooled DNA of controls were performed in this study. A total of 722 microsatellite markers could be analyzed, and we obtained 4 positive markers. Then to avoid experimental errors and artifacts, we confirmed true allele frequency by individual genotyping using initial set of 450 patients and controls. Only marker D18S0301i showed statistically significance, and no marker showed statistically significance on the MYP2 locus. Near the marker D18S0301i, GALNT1 gene was located, but its relation to high myopia has remained to be identified. PMID:19668486

  11. Multiple paternity in the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Ruiz-López, María José; Chaskelson, Saskia; Gompper, Matthew E; Eggert, Lori S

    2012-06-01

    The reproductive strategies and variation in reproductive success of ticks are poorly understood. We determined variation in multiple paternity in the American dog tick Dermancentor variabilis . In total, 48 blood-engorged female ticks and 22 male companion ticks were collected from 13 raccoon ( Procyon lotor ) hosts. In the laboratory, 56.3% of blood-engorged females laid eggs, of which 37.0% hatched or showed signs of development. We examined the presence of multiple paternity in the ensuing clutches by genotyping groups of eggs and larvae at 5 microsatellite loci and subtracting the known maternal alleles, thereby identifying male-contributed alleles. Seventy-five percent of the clutches presented multiple paternity, with a mode of 2 fathers siring the clutch. Males associated with the females on the host always sired some offspring. In 1 case, a male was the sire of clutches derived from 2 females, indicating both polygyny and polyandry may occur for this species. These results, combined with those of several other recent studies, suggest that multiple paternity might be frequent for ixodid ticks. PMID:22257158

  12. Paternal relatedness and age proximity regulate social relationships among adult female rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Widdig, Anja; Nürnberg, Peter; Krawczak, Michael; Streich, Wolf Jürgen; Bercovitch, Fred B.

    2001-01-01

    Kin selection promotes the evolution of social behavior that increases the survival and reproductive success of close relatives. Among primates, maternal kinship frequently coincides with a higher frequency of grooming and agonistic aiding, but the extent to which paternal kinship influences adult female social relationships has not yet been investigated. Here, we examine the effect of both maternal and paternal kinship, as well as age proximity, on affiliative interactions among semifree-ranging adult female rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta. Kinship was assessed by using both microsatellites and DNA-fingerprinting. Our study confirms that the closest affiliative relationships characterize maternal half-sisters. We provide evidence that adult females are significantly more affiliative with paternal half-sisters than with nonkin. Furthermore, paternal kin discrimination was more pronounced among peers than among nonpeers, indicating that age proximity has an additional regulatory effect on affiliative interactions. We propose that kin discrimination among cercopithecine primates emerges from ontogenetic processes that involve phenotype matching based on shared behavioral traits, such as inherited personality profiles, rather than physiological or physical characteristics. PMID:11698652

  13. Evolution of paternal care in diploid and haplodiploid populations.

    PubMed

    Davies, N G; Gardner, A

    2014-06-01

    W. D. Hamilton famously suggested that the inflated relatedness of full sisters under haplodiploidy explains why all workers in the social hymenoptera are female. This suggestion has not stood up to further theoretical scrutiny and is not empirically supported. Rather, it appears that altruistic sib-rearing in the social hymenoptera is performed exclusively by females because this behaviour has its origins in parental care, which was performed exclusively by females in the ancestors of this insect group. However, haplodiploidy might still explain the sex of workers if this mode of inheritance has itself been responsible for the rarity of paternal care in this group. Here, we perform a theoretical kin selection analysis to investigate the evolution of paternal care in diploid and haplodiploid populations. We find that haplodiploidy may either inhibit or promote paternal care depending on model assumptions, but that under the most plausible scenarios it promotes - rather than inhibits - paternal care. Our analysis casts further doubt upon there being a causal link between haplodiploidy and eusociality. PMID:24773069

  14. Geographic variation in multiple paternity within natural populations of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata)

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, C. D.; Godin, J.-G. J.; Wright, J. M.

    1999-01-01

    Mating can increase an individual's risk of mortality by predation. In response to predation hazards, males in some species court females less often, but alternatively engage in coerced copulations more frequently and females become less selective. Such predator-mediated shifts in mating tactics may result in higher levels of multiple inseminations in females and, thus, in greater frequencies of females with broods of mixed paternity. We tested this hypothesis using two polymorphic microsatellite loci to estimate conservatively multiple paternity in broods of female guppies (Poecilia reticulata) originating from ten natural populations that have evolved under different fish predation regimes in Trinidad. The frequency of broods that were multiply sired was significantly greater on average in populations experiencing high predation pressure compared to populations experiencing a relatively low predation risk. These results suggest that the intensity of male sperm competition covaries geographically with predation pressure in this species and that the local risk of predation mediates the opportunity for sexual selection within populations.

  15. Multiplexed microsatellite recovery using massively parallel sequencing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jennings, T.N.; Knaus, B.J.; Mullins, T.D.; Haig, S.M.; Cronn, R.C.

    2011-01-01

    Conservation and management of natural populations requires accurate and inexpensive genotyping methods. Traditional microsatellite, or simple sequence repeat (SSR), marker analysis remains a popular genotyping method because of the comparatively low cost of marker development, ease of analysis and high power of genotype discrimination. With the availability of massively parallel sequencing (MPS), it is now possible to sequence microsatellite-enriched genomic libraries in multiplex pools. To test this approach, we prepared seven microsatellite-enriched, barcoded genomic libraries from diverse taxa (two conifer trees, five birds) and sequenced these on one lane of the Illumina Genome Analyzer using paired-end 80-bp reads. In this experiment, we screened 6.1 million sequences and identified 356958 unique microreads that contained di- or trinucleotide microsatellites. Examination of four species shows that our conversion rate from raw sequences to polymorphic markers compares favourably to Sanger- and 454-based methods. The advantage of multiplexed MPS is that the staggering capacity of modern microread sequencing is spread across many libraries; this reduces sample preparation and sequencing costs to less than $400 (USD) per species. This price is sufficiently low that microsatellite libraries could be prepared and sequenced for all 1373 organisms listed as 'threatened' and 'endangered' in the United States for under $0.5M (USD).

  16. A measure of population subdivision based on microsatellite allele frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Slatkin, M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Microsatellite loci, loci that vary in the number of repeats of a simple DNA sequence, are becoming commonly used in the analysis of natural populations. Microsatellite loci are often highly polymorphic and relatively easy to survey and hence offer the hope of greater understanding of population structure. The question is how to make the best use of allele frequencies at microsatellite loci. This paper, like the accompanying paper by Goldstein et al. (1995), discusses how information about the mutation process at microsatellite loci can suggest statistics that are more appropriate for the analysis of microsatellite loci than are existing statistics. In this paper, I will introduce a new statistic analogous to Wright`s (1951) F{sub ST} that can be used to estimate effective migration rates or times since population divergence. This statistic is closely related to the distance measures introduced by Goldstein et al. (1995). 15 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Paternal age and mortality in children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin Liang Zhu; Mogens Vestergaard; Kreesten M. Madsen; Jørn Olsen

    2008-01-01

    Background Since paternal age correlates with some diseases that have a high case-fatality, a paternal age effect on offspring’s survival\\u000a is expected but unsettled. We examined the association between paternal age and mortality in children in a large population-based\\u000a cohort taking maternal age and socioeconomic factors into account. Methods From the Danish Fertility Database (1980–1996), we identified 102,879 couples and

  18. Certainty of paternity and paternal investment in eastern bluebirds and tree swallows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BART KEMPENAERS; RICHARD B. LANCTOT; RALEIGH J. ROBERTSON

    1998-01-01

    Extra-pair paternity is common in many socially monogamous passerine birds with biparental care. Thus, males often invest in offspring to which they are not related. Models of optimal parental investment predict that, under certain assumptions, males should lower their investment in response to reduced certainty of paternity. We attempted to reduce certainty of paternity experimentally in two species, the eastern

  19. Employees of BSA Maternity/Paternity

    E-print Network

    /Paternity Guide FAMILY & MEDICAL LEAVE (FML) What is FML.......................................................................................4 PRIOR TO YOUR LEAVE Review your medical plan coverage....................................................................6 Contact the Employee Assistance Program

  20. Identification of visual paternity cues in humans

    PubMed Central

    Alvergne, Alexandra; Perreau, Fanny; Mazur, Allan; Mueller, Ulrich; Raymond, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how individuals identify their relatives has implications for the evolution of social behaviour. Kinship cues might be based on familiarity, but in the face of paternity uncertainty and costly paternal investment, other mechanisms such as phenotypic matching may have evolved. In humans, paternal recognition of offspring and subsequent discriminative paternal investment have been linked to father–offspring facial phenotypic similarities. However, the extent to which paternity detection is impaired by environmentally induced facial information is unclear. We used 27 portraits of fathers and their adult sons to quantify the level of paternity detection according to experimental treatments that manipulate the location, type and quantity of visible facial information. We found that (i) the lower part of the face, that changes most with development, does not contain paternity cues, (ii) paternity can be detected even if relational information within the face is disrupted and (iii) the signal depends on the presence of specific information rather than their number. Taken together, the results support the view that environmental effects have little influence on the detection of paternity using facial similarities. This suggests that the cognitive dispositions enabling the facial detection of kinship relationships ignore genetic irrelevant facial information. PMID:24759368

  1. [Correlation analysis of microsatellite DNA markers with body weight, length and height of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi-Feng; Zhang, Yan; Lu, Cui-Yun; Cao, Ding-Chen; Sun, Xiao-Wen

    2008-05-01

    Forty-seven microsatellite markers were selected to analyze the genomic DNA of 92 progenies derived from the recombinant inbred lines (RIL) of common carp, which came from the cross between Barbless carp and Hebao-cold tolerance red carp. The results showed that a total of 162 different alleles were found, and the number of alleles in each locus was 2 to 6. The DNA fragment length was 100 bp to 444 bp, and the number of mean valid alleles was 1.3069 to 4.2288. The value of heterozygosity was 0.2361 to 0.7677, and the mean polymorphism information content (PIC) was 0.5368. A GLM procedure was used to analyze the effects of these 47 microsatellites on body weight, length and height. Results uncovered HLJ695, HLJ716, HLJ739, HLJ759, HLJ774 and K16 had a significant impact on body weight, length and height, and HLJ776 had a significant impact on height. In addition, the genotypes of these correlative loci were determined. PMID:18487152

  2. Can paternalism be justified in mental health care?

    PubMed

    Breeze, J

    1998-08-01

    Whilst current mental health care provision has made a substantial move towards empowering its users it retains a paternalistic approach with legislation such as 'supervised discharge'. This apparent paradox creates potential dilemmas for the mental health nurse and suggests there is a need for critical analysis of the justification for paternalism within mental health care. This paper discusses the conflict between the ethical principles of autonomy and beneficence which paternalism invokes. On reviewing the ethical theories of deontology and utilitarianism it appears that a prerequisite for autonomy is rationality, the absence of which provides justification of 'weak' paternalism. However, this paper contends that the assessment of rationality has the potential to be subjective and value laden. The use of competency tests can also be problematic by masking the essential ethical dilemma that is intrinsic to such assessment. A case study is used to illustrate the strengths and weaknesses of the competing arguments. This leads to the conclusion that whilst there may be some situations when the use of paternalism can be justified in mental health care, it should be exercised with caution. When there is disagreement between nurse and patient on what is considered to be in the patient's best interests, it should not be assumed that the patient is wrong or irrational. PMID:9725721

  3. Paternal isodisomy for chromosome 7 and normal growth and development in a patient with congenital chloride diarrhea

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeglund, P.; de la Chapelle, A.; Kere, J. [Univ. of Helsinki, (Finland)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Uniparental disomy (UPD) has been reported in an increasing number of patients, occasionally ascertained because of concomitant autosomal recessive disorders. In some cases, additional signs such as growth alteration, mental retardation or minor anomalies are present, suggesting an imprinting effect. For maternal chromosome 7, UPD has been described in three patients with recessive disorders. Severe growth retardation diagnosed in all these patients has been explained by the effect of imprinting of growth related genes on maternal chromosome 7. No cases of paternally derived disomy from chromosome 7 were previously known. Here we report paternal isodisomy for chromosome 7 and normal growth in a patient with a recessive disorder, congenital chloride diarrhea (CLD; MIM 214700). Ten informative microsatellite markers on chromosome 7 demonstrated that the proband did not have any maternal contribution to her genotype for that chromosome. Maternal and paternal alleles could not be distinguished for another 10 markers tested for chromosome 7, but the proband was always homozygous. As most uniparental paternal disomies appear to have a postzygotic origin, the primary event might have been a maternal meiotic nondisjunction. A thorough clinical evaluation with a view to additional signs of imprinted genes localized in chromosome 7 was performed. The physical status and laboratory tests were normal except for a mild high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss. As the patient has normal stature, it is likely that the paternal chromosome 7 lacks the suggested maternal imprinting effect on growth. The origin of the hearing loss remains speculative.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF MICROSATELLITE MARKERS IN HESSIAN FLY (MAYETIOLA DESTRUCTOR) AND ANALYSIS OF HESSIAN FLY BIOTYPES. INDICATIONS FOR CONTROL OF PEST IN THE FIELD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A microsatellite library was prepared from size-selected genomic DNA of the Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor). Over 52,000 microsatellite containing clones were recovered and several candidate loci were subsequently characterized and used to determine amounts of gene flow within and between biotyp...

  5. Genetic analysis of QTL for eye cross and eye diameter in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) using microsatellites and SNPs.

    PubMed

    Jin, S B; Zhang, X F; Lu, J G; Fu, H T; Jia, Z Y; Sun, X W

    2015-01-01

    A group of 107 F1 hybrid common carp was used to construct a linkage map using JoinMap 4.0. A total of 4877 microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers isolated from a genomic library (978 microsatellite and 3899 SNP markers) were assigned to construct the genetic map, which comprised 50 linkage groups. The total length of the linkage map for the common carp was 4775.90 cM with an average distance between markers of 0.98 cM. Ten quantitative trait loci (QTL) were associated with eye diameter, corresponding to 10.5-57.2% of the total phenotypic variation. Twenty QTL were related to eye cross, contributing to 10.8-36.9% of the total phenotypic variation. Two QTL for eye diameter and four QTL for eye cross each accounted for more than 20% of the total phenotypic variation and were considered to be major QTL. One growth factor related to eye diameter was observed on LG10 of the common carp genome, and three growth factors related to eye cross were observed on LG10, LG35, and LG44 of the common carp genome. The significant positive relationship of eye cross and eye diameter with other commercial traits suggests that eye diameter and eye cross can be used to assist in indirect selection for many commercial traits, particularly body weight. Thus, the growth factor for eye cross may also contribute to the growth of body weight, implying that aggregate breeding could have multiple effects. These findings provide information for future genetic studies and breeding of common carp. PMID:25966124

  6. Risk Factors for Paternal Physical Child Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Shawna J.; Guterman, Neil B.; Lee, Yookyong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study uses the developmental-ecological framework to examine a comprehensive set of paternal factors hypothesized to be linked to risk for paternal child abuse (PCA) among a diverse sample of fathers. Attention was given to fathers' marital status and their race/ethnicity (White, African American, and Hispanic). Methods: Interviews…

  7. Paternal Determinants of Female Adolescent's Marijuana Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Judith S.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Examines the interrelationship of paternal personality attributes, paternal-daughter relationship variables, and adolescent personality factors with adolescent daughters' use of marijuana. Questionnaires were completed by 403 White female college students and their fathers. Findings were similar to those from a study by Brook et al. of fathers and…

  8. Libertarian paternalism is not an oxymoron

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cass R. Sunstein; Richard H. Thaler

    2003-01-01

    The idea of libertarian paternalism might seem to be an oxymoron, but it is both possible and legitimate for private and public institutions to affect behavior while also respecting freedom of choice. Often people's preferences are ill-formed, and their choices will inevitably be influenced by default rules, framing effects, and starting points. In these circumstances, a form of paternalism cannot

  9. Paternal age and risk for schizophrenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. ZAMMIT

    2003-01-01

    Results: Advanced paternal and maternal age was associated with increased risk of schizophrenia in uni- variate analyses. Controlling for socioeconomic factors and family psychiatric history, increased risk of schizophrenia was identified in those with a paternal age of 50 years or older. Sex-specific analyses revealed that the risk of schizophrenia was increased for males with fathers 55 years or older

  10. Paternal contribution: new insights and future challenges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen A. Krawetz

    2005-01-01

    It has been widely held that all that fathers essentially contribute to the next generation is half their genome. However, recent progress towards understanding biological processes such as sperm maturation and fertilization now indicates that the paternal contribution has been underestimated. To tackle some of the misconceptions surrounding the paternal contribution, the factors that are actually delivered by the sperm

  11. Survey and analysis of microsatellites in the silkworm, Bombyx mori: frequency, distribution, mutations, marker potential and their conservation in heterologous species.

    PubMed

    Prasad, M Dharma; Muthulakshmi, M; Madhu, M; Archak, Sunil; Mita, K; Nagaraju, J

    2005-01-01

    We studied microsatellite frequency and distribution in 21.76-Mb random genomic sequences, 0.67-Mb BAC sequences from the Z chromosome, and 6.3-Mb EST sequences of Bombyx mori. We mined microsatellites of >/=15 bases of mononucleotide repeats and >/=5 repeat units of other classes of repeats. We estimated that microsatellites account for 0.31% of the genome of B. mori. Microsatellite tracts of A, AT, and ATT were the most abundant whereas their number drastically decreased as the length of the repeat motif increased. In general, tri- and hexanucleotide repeats were overrepresented in the transcribed sequences except TAA, GTA, and TGA, which were in excess in genomic sequences. The Z chromosome sequences contained shorter repeat types than the rest of the chromosomes in addition to a higher abundance of AT-rich repeats. Our results showed that base composition of the flanking sequence has an influence on the origin and evolution of microsatellites. Transitions/transversions were high in microsatellites of ESTs, whereas the genomic sequence had an equal number of substitutions and indels. The average heterozygosity value for 23 polymorphic microsatellite loci surveyed in 13 diverse silkmoth strains having 2-14 alleles was 0.54. Only 36 (18.2%) of 198 microsatellite loci were polymorphic between the two divergent silkworm populations and 10 (5%) loci revealed null alleles. The microsatellite map generated using these polymorphic markers resulted in 8 linkage groups. B. mori microsatellite loci were the most conserved in its immediate ancestor, B. mandarina, followed by the wild saturniid silkmoth, Antheraea assama. PMID:15371363

  12. Original article Microsatellite markers

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Original article Microsatellite markers and management of brown trout Salmo trutta fario, Salmo trutta fario, dans le sud-ouest de la France. La truite commune peu- plant l'ouest des Pyrénées fish, and especially the brown trout (Salmo trutta fario L.), present some interesting biological

  13. Isolating Microsatellite DNA Loci

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Travis C. Glenn; Nancy A. Schable

    2005-01-01

    A series of techniques are presented to construct genomic DNA libraries highly enriched for microsatellite DNA loci. The individual techniques used here derive from several published protocols but have been optimized and tested in our research laboratories as well as in classroom settings at the University of South Carolina and University of Georgia, with students achieving nearly 100% success. Reducing

  14. Paternal-age and birth-order effect on the human secondary sex ratio.

    PubMed Central

    Ruder, A

    1985-01-01

    Because of conflicting results in previous analyses of possible maternal and paternal effects on the variation in sex ratio at birth, records of United States live births in 1975 were sorted by offspring sex, live birth order (based on maternal parity), parental races, and, unlike prior studies, ungrouped parental ages. Linear regression and logistic analysis showed significant effects of birth order and paternal age on sex ratio in the white race data (1.67 million births; 10,219 different combinations of independent variables). Contrary to previous reported results, the paternal-age effect cannot be ascribed wholly to the high correlation between paternal age and birth order as maternal age, even more highly correlated with birth order, does not account for a significant additional reduction in sex-ratio variation over that accounted for by birth order alone. PMID:3985011

  15. Brief Report: Phenotypic Differences and their Relationship to Paternal Age and Gender in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Vierck, Esther; Silverman, Jeremy M

    2015-06-01

    Two modes of inheritance have been proposed in autism spectrum disorder, transmission though pre-existing variants and de novo mutations. Different modes may lead to different symptom expressions in affected individuals. De novo mutations become more likely with advancing paternal age suggesting that paternal age may predict phenotypic differences. To test this possibility we measured IQ, adaptive behavior, and autistic symptoms in 830 probands from simplex families. We conducted multiple linear regression analysis to estimate the predictive value of paternal age, maternal age, and gender on behavioral measures and IQ. We found a differential effect of parental age and sex on repetitive and restricted behaviors. Findings suggest effects of paternal age on phenotypic differences in simplex families with ASD. PMID:25526953

  16. Paternity and gene dispersal in limber pine (Pinus flexilis James)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William S. F. Schuster; Jeffry B Mitton

    2000-01-01

    This study provides empirical information on intrapopulation gene dispersal via pollen, the size of genetic ‘neighbourhoods’, and interpopulation gene flow in a long-lived conifer, limber pine (Pinus flexilis). We used allozyme loci for a paternity analysis of 518 seeds produced in an isolated population of limber pine located in north-eastern Colorado, U.S.A., separated by 2 km from the nearest conspecific

  17. Contribution of Lidia cattle breed historical castes to the paternal genetic stock of Spain.

    PubMed

    Pelayo, R; Valera, M; Molina, A; Royo, L J

    2015-06-01

    The main objective of this work was to determine whether the five founding castes defined in the Lidia cattle breed actually have an important contribution to the Spanish paternal genetic stock as well as to the paternal genetic origin support. A total of 1300 Bos taurus male individuals were genotyped for five microsatellites (INRA189, UMN0103, UMN0307, BM861 and BYM1) and one indel (ZFY10). Microsatellite and indel alleles were combined into haplotypes, identifying a total of 38 haplotypes, 11 of them belonging to haplogroup Y1 and 27 to haplogroup Y2. Ten different haplotypes were found in the Lidia cattle breed, with five being exclusive to this breed. Our results agree with different male genetic stocks in the Lidia breed: one hypothetically representing the ancient Iberian bovine genetic stock (Gallardo, Navarra and Cabrera castes and some encastes from Vistahermosa) and a second one that is the result of the more recent breeding strategy of choosing the most aggressive individuals from traditional herds (including some Vistahermosa encastes and the Vazqueña caste). In terms of conservation, it would be better to not consider this breed as a unit but to consider the caste, or even better the encaste, as the target of putative conservation efforts. PMID:25728408

  18. A Test for Concordance Between the Multilocus Genealogies of Genes and Microsatellites in the Pathogenic Fungus Coccidioides immitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Fisher; G. Koenig; T. J. White; J. W. Taylor

    Uncovering the correct phylogeny of closely related species requires analysis of multiple gene genealogies or, alternatively, genealogies inferred from the multiple alleles found at highly polymorphic loci, such as microsatellites. However, a concern in using microsatellites is that constraints on allele sizes may occur, resulting in homoplasious distributions of alleles, leading to incorrect phylogenies. Seven microsatellites from the pathogenic fungus

  19. Evaluation of polymorphism in ten microsatellite loci in Uruguayan sheep Ivanna Tomasco, G. Wlasiuk and E.P. Lessa

    E-print Network

    Dean, Matthew D.

    Evaluation of polymorphism in ten microsatellite loci in Uruguayan sheep flocks Ivanna Tomasco, G, Montevideo, Uruguay. Abstract The allele frequencies of 10 microsatellite loci previously described for sheep microsatellite loci in a sample of the Uruguayan flocks considering only pure-breed individuals. The analysis

  20. Microsatellite Analysis of Museum Specimens Reveals Historical Differences in Genetic Diversity between Declining and More Stable Bombus Species

    PubMed Central

    Maebe, Kevin; Meeus, Ivan; Ganne, Maarten; De Meulemeester, Thibaut; Biesmeijer, Koos; Smagghe, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide most pollinators, e.g. bumblebees, are undergoing global declines. Loss of genetic diversity can play an essential role in these observed declines. In this paper, we investigated the level of genetic diversity of seven declining Bombus species and four more stable species with the use of microsatellite loci. Hereto we genotyped a unique collection of museum specimens. Specimens were collected between 1918 and 1926, in 6 provinces of the Netherlands which allowed us to make interspecific comparisons of genetic diversity. For the stable species B. pascuorum, we also selected populations from two additional time periods: 1949–1955 and 1975–1990. The genetic diversity and population structure in B. pascuorum remained constant over the three time periods. However, populations of declining bumblebee species showed a significantly lower genetic diversity than co-occurring stable species before their major declines. This historical difference indicates that the repeatedly observed reduced genetic diversity in recent populations of declining bumblebee species is not caused solely by the decline itself. The historically low genetic diversity in the declined species may be due to the fact that these species were already rare, making them more vulnerable to the major drivers of bumblebee decline. PMID:26061732

  1. Assignment of paternity groups without access to parental genotypes: multiple mating and developmental plasticity in squid.

    PubMed

    Emery, A M; Wilson, I J; Craig, S; Boyle, P R; Noble, L R

    2001-05-01

    We present a novel approach to investigating sibling relationships and reconstructing parental genotypes from a progeny array. The Bayesian method we have employed is flexible and may be applicable to a variety of situations in addition to the one presented here. While mutation rates and breeding population allele frequencies can be taken into account, the model requires relatively few loci and makes few assumptions. Paternity of 270 veined squid (Loligo forbesi) hatchlings from three egg strings collected from one location was assigned using five microsatellite loci. Paternal and maternal genotypes reconstructed for each of the three strings were identical, strongly indicating that a single female produced the strings that were fertilized by the same four males. The proportion of eggs fertilized was not equal between males in all three strings, with male 1 siring most offspring (up to 68% in string 1), through to male 4 siring the least (as low as 2.4% in string 1). Although temperature had a profound effect on incubation time, paternity did not affect this trait at 12 degrees C or 8 degrees C. PMID:11380883

  2. Postdivorce paternal disengagement: failed mourning and role fusion.

    PubMed

    Baum, Nehami

    2006-04-01

    In this article, I suggest that postdivorce paternal disengagement may be rooted in the father's tendency to link his children and ex-wife as a single entity in consequence of his failure to adequately mourn the loss of his ex-wife and to redefine his paternal role and identity in distinction from his spousal role and identity. I also suggest that the ex-spousal conflict that disengaged fathers often blame for their disengagement is the product of these failures and shows the progress from conflict through disengagement. These claims are developed on the basis of findings of other authors and illustrated though a case analysis of an absent father. PMID:16676899

  3. Variability in microsatellite instability in sporadic colon cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Toomajian, M.; Sisk, B.; DiRienzo, A. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The phenomenon of microsatellite instability recently has been described in colon cancer. However, little attention has been given as to whether different microsatellites have different degrees of instability in cancer patients. We selected a total of 14 microsatellite loci (5 di-, 3 tri-, 6 tetranucleotide) supposed to have different mutation rates in vivo, and spread over 8 different chromosomes. The above microsatellites were typed by PCR analysis of DNA from a total of over 200 paraffin-embedded colon tumors and corresponding normal tissue. None of these patients have an obvious family history of cancer and thus we assumed all tumors were sporadic. Comparison of normal and colon cancer tissues revealed somatic mutations for each of the selected microsatellites. The proportion of patients with instability for any given locus varies from 4.5% to 19.3%, with tetranucleotide repeats having the highest average frequency. In addition, a greater fraction of tumors showed instability in at least 1 locus than previously has been reported, possibly signifying a baseline microsatellite instability in all colon cancers. For cases demonstrating instability at 1 or more loci, we analyzed additional microsatellite loci. We then grouped patients based on the number of loci that showed instability. In order to investigate patterns of instability, we also scored the size of somatic mutations occurring in cancer tissue.

  4. Transcripts of paternal and maternal actin gene alleles are present in interspecific sea urchin embryo hybrids.

    PubMed

    Crain, W R; Bushman, F D

    1983-11-01

    Analysis of actin-coding RNAs in interspecific hybrid sea urchin embryos of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and Lytechinus variegatus, and S. purpuratus and S. droebachienis has revealed the presence of transcripts from both paternal and maternal S. purpuratus actin gene alleles. In the L. variegatus female X S. purpuratus male embryos transcripts from at least two different paternal actin gene alleles are present in both the blastula and prism stages. In the reciprocal S. purpuratus female X L. variegatus male embryos, the same two maternal (S. purpuratus) alleles were also expressed as RNA in blastula. The S. droebachiensis female X S. purpuratus male embryos appear to contain transcripts from at least one paternal actin gene allele at the blastula stage. The paternally derived actin-coding RNAs are the same size as the mature actin mRNAs expressed in normal S. purpuratus embryos. Since all known S. purpuratus actin genes contain at least two introns, the paternal alleles are not only transcribed in the hybrid embryos, but also the primary transcripts are probably processed to mature mRNA. An explanation of the diversity of observations in the literature on paternal genome expression in hybrid sea urchin embryos is discussed. PMID:6617991

  5. Models of Microsatellite Evolution Peter Calabrese1

    E-print Network

    Sainudiin, Raazesh

    microsatellites as molecular clocks. By studying the average number of repeat differences in many microsatellite-resistance allele [46]. In cancer research, hyper-mutable microsatellites with deficient DNA mismatch repair systems

  6. Paternity and gene dispersal in limber pine (Pinus flexilis James).

    PubMed

    Schuster, W S; Mitton, J B

    2000-03-01

    This study provides empirical information on intrapopulation gene dispersal via pollen, the size of genetic 'neighbourhoods', and interpopulation gene flow in a long-lived conifer, limber pine (Pinus flexilis). We used allozyme loci for a paternity analysis of 518 seeds produced in an isolated population of limber pine located in north-eastern Colorado, U.S.A., separated by 2 km from the nearest conspecific trees and nearly 100 km from populations in the Rocky Mountains. We also used indirect techniques (FST analyses) to estimate gene flow rates among subdivisions of the study population and among five widely separated populations. Within the main study population limber pine exhibited a polymorphism level of 50%, observed heterozygosity of 0.159, and 2.36 alleles per polymorphic locus. Mountain populations were slightly more variable. The main study population showed significant differentiation in allozymes among neighbouring subpopulations. The mean FST was 0.031 and the gene flow rate among subpopulations was estimated as 7.8 migrants per generation. Among widely separated populations the mean FST was 0.035 and the gene flow rate was estimated as 6.9 migrants per generation. The paternity analysis indicated a best estimate of 6.5% pollen immigration (minimum 1.1%) from populations 2 km to 100+ km away. For 4% of the seeds examined, paternity could be ascribed to a single tree in the study population. Fractional paternity and likelihood methods were used to estimate pollen dispersal distances for the remainder of the seeds. Mean pollen dispersal distance was estimated at 140 m using the fractional method, similar to results from the other techniques. This compares with a mean distance of 172 m between potential mates. These results suggest near-panmictic pollen dispersal over this population, which covers about 15 ha. The observed allozyme differences and surprisingly low estimates of among-subpopulation gene flow are ascribed to a probable restriction of gene dispersal by seeds. PMID:10762405

  7. Identification of the skeletal remains of Josef Mengele by DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Jeffreys, A J; Allen, M J; Hagelberg, E; Sonnberg, A

    1992-09-01

    There has been considerable controversy over the identity of the skeletal remains exhumed in Brazil in 1985 and believed to be those of Dr Josef Mengele, the Auschwitz 'Angel of Death'. Bone DNA analysis was therefore conducted in an attempt to provide independent evidence of identity. Trace amounts of highly degraded human DNA were successfully extracted from the shaft of the femur. Despite the presence of a potent inhibitor of DNA amplification, microsatellite alleles could be reproducibly amplified from the femur DNA. Comparison of the femur DNA with DNA from Josef Mengele's son and wife revealed a bone genotype across 10 different loci fully compatible with paternity of Mengele's son. Less than 1 in 1800 Caucasian individuals unrelated to Mengele's son would by chance show full paternal inclusion. DNA analysis therefore provides very strong independent evidence that the remains exhumed from Brazil are indeed those of Josef Mengele. PMID:1398379

  8. Analysis of the population structure of Macrolophus pygmaeus (Rambur) (Hemiptera: Miridae) in the Palaearctic region using microsatellite markers

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Juan Antonio; Spina, Michelangelo La; Perera, Omaththage P

    2012-01-01

    Macrolophus pygmaeus (Rambur) (Hemiptera: Miridae) is widely distributed throughout the Palaearctic region. The aim was to explain the current geographic distribution of the species by investigating its genetic population structure. Samples of M. pygmaeus were collected in 15 localities through its range of distribution. A sample from a commercial producer was also analyzed. A total of 367 M. pygmaeus were genotyped for nine microsatellite loci. Isolation by distance was tested by Mantel's test. The molecular structure of M. pygmaeus populations was inferred by UPGMA, AMOVA, Principal component and Bayesian analyses. The average number of alleles per locus per population was 5.5 (range: 3.1–7.8). Istanbul (Turkey) and Nimes (France) had the lowest (0.291) and the highest (0.626) expected heterozygosity (He), respectively. There was an increase in He from the Canary Islands to Nimes, and a progressive decrease thereafter. A significant negative correlation was found between allelic richness and He, and the distance of each population to the easternmost locality (Canary Islands). Significant linkage disequilibrium was observed in the populations from Turkey. FST (0.004–0.334) indicated a high population differentiation, with isolation by distance supported by a high correlation. Bayesian analyses, PCA, and UPGMA pointed to three main clusters: (1) Greece and Turkey, (2) Italy and France, and (3) southern Iberia and the Canary Islands. The recent evolutionary history of M. pygmaeus is inferred from the data as follows: (1) the reduction in the geographic distribution of the species to the Iberian, Italian, and Balkan peninsulas, and possibly southern France, during glaciations and re-colonization of northern Europe from its southern refuges; (2) the maintenance of high diversity in Iberia and Italy (and possibly southern France) during contraction periods, and bottlenecks in the Balkans; (3) introgression of the Italian–French lineage in northern Spain, naturally or through trade. PMID:23301179

  9. [Population genetic variation and structure analysis on five populations of mirror carp Cyprinus carpio L. using microsatellites].

    PubMed

    Quan, Ying-Chun; Li, Da-Yu; Cao, Ding-Chen; Sun, Xiao-Wen; Liang, Li-Qun

    2006-12-01

    In this paper, population genetic variability and genetic structure of five populations of an important cultivation species, mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were analyzed using 30 microsatellite loci. The observed (Ho) and expected (He) heterozygosity values, polymorphic information content (PIC) and number of effective alleles (Ae) were all determined. The genetic similarity coefficient and Nei's standard genetic distance were computed based on the allele frequencies. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was checked by chi2 test. Genetic differentiation and hierarchical partition of genetic diversity were evaluated by FST and Nm. A dendrogram was constructed based on UPGMA methods using PHYLIP software package supported by a bootstrap value of 91.0%. Totally 7,083 fragments were procured. Their lengths were from 102 bp to 446 bp. For each locus, 1-16 alleles were amplified, adding up to 356 alleles in all the 5 populations. We found the genetic variability level was relatively high in all five populations, as shown by Ae = 1.07-2.30, He= 0.70-0.78 and PIC=0.69-0.75, respectively. The genetic similarity coefficients were all above 0.52, indicating their close genetic relationships. The UPGMA phylogenetic tree showed mirror carps sampled from Donggang, Fengcheng and Liaozhong were clustered into one group and the other two populations, both collected from Songpu, were grouped together. There were obvious relations between genetic distances and geographical distributions of the five populations. No fragments were amplified from some loci of EST-SSRs, which may suggest the loss of these loci in mirror carp genome or sequence divergence at the primer binding sites. These null alleles may result from selection because functional genes are under more selection pressure than non-encoding loci. Overall, population genetic variation is high for each of the five mirror carp, and the differentiations are also significant among populations. PMID:17138540

  10. A Phylogenetic Perspective on Sequence Evolution in Microsatellite Loci

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong Zhu; David C. Queller; Joan E. Strassmann

    2000-01-01

    .   We examined the evolution of the repeat regions of three noncoding microsatellite loci in 58 species of the Polistinae, a\\u000a subfamily of wasps that diverged over 140 million years ago. A phylogenetic approach allows two new kinds of approaches to\\u000a studying microsatellite evolution: character mapping and comparative analysis. The basic repeat structure of the loci was\\u000a highly conserved, but

  11. Energetic Neutral Atom Imaging at Low Altitudes from the Swedish Microsatellite Astrid: Images and Spectral Analysis. Paper 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, Pontus C:son; Barabash, Stas; Norberg, Olle; Lundin, Rickard; Roelof, Rdmond C.; Chase, Christopher J.

    1999-01-01

    Observations of energetic neutral atoms (ENA) in the energy range 26- 52 keV are reported from four occasions during geomagnetically disturbed periods. The data were acquired by the ENA imager flown on the Swedish microsatellite Astrid in a 1000 km circular orbit with 83 deg inclination. The ENA imager separates charged particles from neutrals through an electrostatic deflection system in the energy range between 0.1 and 114 keV. ENA images obtained from vantage points in the polar cap and in the afternoon magnetic local time (MLT) hours looking into the antisunward hemisphere show intense ENA fluxes (approx. 10(exp 4)/sq cm sr s over 26-37 keV) coming from the dusk region and low altitudes (approx. 300 km). The morphology shows no relation to local magnetic field excluding the possibility of charged particle detection. It is concluded that the source of these ENAs are precipitating/mirroring ions from the ring current/trapped radiation interacting with the exobase on auroral L-shells and in the dusk region. The observed ENA fluxes show a relation with Kp and Dst geomagnetic indices. The observed ENA spectrum from a geomagnetic storm on February 8, 1995, is investigated in more detail and compared to the parent ion spectrum obtained by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Project (DMSP) satellite, Fl2, during the same period on L = 6 +/- 2 around dusk. The observed ENA spectral slope is used to derive the parent ion spectral temperature. The derived ion temperatures range is 3.0 - 6.0 keV for H and 4.5 - 8.5 keV for O. The higher of these ion temperatures comes closest in agreement to the extrapolated DMSP spectrum leading us to favor O over H as the species of the detected ENAS. It is shown that the detected ENAs must have been produced at L greater than or equal to 6 to reach the detector without atmospheric attenuation and that the main energy dependence of the ENA spectrum, apart from the parent ion spectrum, is governed by the energy dependence of the charge exchange cross section between ions and exospheric oxygen.

  12. Transcriptome analysis and microsatellite discovery in the blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) after challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Tran, Ngoc Tuan; Gao, Ze-Xia; Zhao, Hong-Hao; Yi, Shao-Kui; Chen, Bo-Xiang; Zhao, Yu-Hua; Lin, Li; Liu, Xue-Qin; Wang, Wei-Min

    2015-07-01

    The blunt snout bream, Megalobrama amblycephala, is a herbivorous freshwater fish species native to China and a major aquaculture species in Chinese freshwater polyculture systems. In recent years, the bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila has been reported to be its pathogen causing great losses of farmed fish. To understand the immune response of the blunt snout bream to A. hydrophila infection, we used the Solexa/Illumina technology to analyze the transcriptomic profile after artificial bacterial infection. Two nonnormalized cDNA libraries were synthesized from tissues collected from control blunt snout bream or those injected with A. hydrophila. After assembly, 155,052 unigenes (average length 692.8 bp) were isolated. All unigenes were annotated using BLASTX relative to several public databases: the National Center for Biotechnology Information nonreduntant (Nr) database, SwissProt, Eukaryotic Orthologous Groups of proteins (KOG), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), and Gene Ontology (GO). The sequence similarity (86%) of the assembled unigenes was to zebrafish based on the Nr database. A number of unigenes (n = 30,482) were assigned to three GO categories: biological processes (25,242 unigenes), molecular functions (26,096 unigenes), and cellular components (22,778 unigenes). 20,909 unigenes were classified into 25 KOG categories and 28,744 unigenes were assigned into 315 specific signaling pathways. In total, 238 significantly differentially expressed unigenes (mapped to 125 genes) were identified: 101 upregulated genes and 24 downregulated genes. Another 303 unigenes were mapped to unknown or novel genes. Among the known expressed genes identified, 53 were immune-related genes and were distributed in 71 signaling pathways. The expression patterns of selected up- and downregulated genes from the control and injected groups were determined with reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Microsatellites (n = 10,877), including di-to pentanucleotide repeat motifs, were also identified in the blunt snout bream transcriptome profiles. This study extends our understanding of the immune defense mechanisms of the blunt snout bream against A. hydrophila and provides useful data for further studies of the immunogenetics of this species. PMID:25681750

  13. Evidence for heterozygote instability in microsatellite loci in house wrens.

    PubMed

    Masters, Brian S; Johnson, L Scott; Johnson, Bonnie G P; Brubaker, Jessica L; Sakaluk, Scott K; Thompson, Charles F

    2011-02-23

    Microsatellite loci have high mutation rates and high levels of allelic variation, but the factors influencing their mutation rate are not well understood. The proposal that heterozygosity may increase mutation rates has profound implications for understanding the evolution of microsatellite loci, but currently has limited empirical support. We examined 20 microsatellite mutations identified in an analysis of 12 260 meiotic events across three loci in two populations of a songbird, the house wren (Troglodytes aedon). We found that for an allele of a given length, mutation was significantly more likely when there was a relatively large difference in size between the allele and its homologue (i.e. a large 'allele span'). Our results support the proposal of heterozygote instability at microsatellite loci. PMID:20702452

  14. Evidence for heterozygote instability in microsatellite loci in house wrens

    PubMed Central

    Masters, Brian S.; Johnson, L. Scott; Johnson, Bonnie G. P.; Brubaker, Jessica L.; Sakaluk, Scott K.; Thompson, Charles F.

    2011-01-01

    Microsatellite loci have high mutation rates and high levels of allelic variation, but the factors influencing their mutation rate are not well understood. The proposal that heterozygosity may increase mutation rates has profound implications for understanding the evolution of microsatellite loci, but currently has limited empirical support. We examined 20 microsatellite mutations identified in an analysis of 12 260 meiotic events across three loci in two populations of a songbird, the house wren (Troglodytes aedon). We found that for an allele of a given length, mutation was significantly more likely when there was a relatively large difference in size between the allele and its homologue (i.e. a large ‘allele span’). Our results support the proposal of heterozygote instability at microsatellite loci. PMID:20702452

  15. Microsatellite Mapping of Mycobacterium leprae Populations in Infected Humans

    PubMed Central

    Young, Saroj K.; Taylor, G. Michael; Jain, Suman; Suneetha, Lavanya M.; Suneetha, Sujai; Lockwood, Diana N. J.; Young, Douglas B.

    2004-01-01

    To investigate genetic diversity in a bacterial population, we measured the copy numbers of simple sequence repeats, or microsatellites, in Mycobacterium leprae from patients living in and around Hyderabad, India. Three microsatellite loci containing trinucleotide or dinucleotide repeats were amplified from infected tissues, and the copy numbers were established by sequence analysis. Extensive diversity was observed in a cross-sectional survey of 33 patients, but closely related profiles were found for members of a multicase family likely to share a common transmission source. Sampling of multiple tissues from single individuals demonstrated identical microsatellite profiles in the skin, nasal cavity, and bloodstream but revealed differences at one or more loci for M. leprae present in nerves. Microsatellite mapping of M. leprae represents a useful tool for tracking short transmission chains. Comparison of skin and nerve lesions suggests that the evolution of disease within an individual involves the expansion of multiple distinct subpopulations of M. leprae. PMID:15528676

  16. The unexpected but understandable dynamics of mating, paternity and paternal care in the ocellated wrasse

    PubMed Central

    Alonzo, Suzanne H.; Heckman, Kellie L.

    2010-01-01

    Although theory generally predicts that males should reduce paternal care in response to cues that predict increased sperm competition and decreased paternity, empirical patterns are equivocal. Some studies have found the predicted decrease in male care with increased sperm competition, while even more studies report no effect of paternity or sperm competition on male care. Here, we report the first example, to our knowledge, of paternal care increasing with the risk and intensity of sperm competition, in the ocellated wrasse (Symphodus ocellatus). Theory also predicts that if paternal care varies and is important to female fitness, female choice among males and male indicators traits of expected paternal care should evolve. Despite a non-random distribution of mating success among nests, we found no evidence for female choice among parental males. Finally, we document the highest published levels of extra-pair paternity for a species with exclusive and obligate male care: genetic paternity analyses revealed cuckoldry at 100 per cent of nests and 28 per cent of all offspring were not sired by the male caring for them. While not predicted by any existing theory, these unexpected reproductive patterns become understandable if we consider how male and female mating and parental care interact simultaneously in this and probably many other species. PMID:19812085

  17. A Microsatellite Map of Wheat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marion S. Roder; Victor Korzun; Katja Wendehake; Jens Plaschke; Marie-Helene Tixier; Philippe Leroy; Martin W. Ganal

    Hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell) is one of the world's most important crop plants and displays a very low level of intraspecific polymorphism. We report the development of highly polymorphic microsatellite markers using procedures optimized for the large wheat genome. The isolation of microsatellite-containing clones from hypomethylated regions of the wheat genome increased the proportion of useful

  18. Student's Microsatellite Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelentsov, Victor; Kopik, Anatoliy; Karpenko, Stanislav; Mayorova, Victoria

    2002-01-01

    Nowadays BMSTU Youth space center carries on development of the microsatellite project. The project is based on principles of students direct involvement on all stages of development and maintenance of the satellite. The group of students was organized within the university with purpose of coordination of work at the program. Project current condition The work on creation of an experimental model of the micro satellite is performed. The aim is to define the structure and parameters of on-board devices (mass-overall dimensions characteristics, energy consumption and so on). developed. According to the simplified model an active stabilization system (three orthogonal electro-magnetic coils) and orientation characterization system (sunlight detector and magnitometer) are included in OCS structure. most suitable battery storage, power-supply controlling system. Student micro-satellite program goals 1.Scientific Information gaining in the field of Earth study- using perspective research methods. Studying of new devices behavior in space conditions. 2. Educative a. Students derive real experience of projecting, building of a spacecraft from the point of view of an experimenter, a constructor and a researcher. b. Organization of student's cooperation with key men of aerospace industry and other branches. c. Brainpower and material base preparation for micro-satellite systems' development. d. Attraction of youth interest to the topic, by: - Students' and pupils' groups attraction and involvement in experiments conduction and results processing. - Seminars and lections devoted to Earth study from the space organization - Specific scientific data distribution over World Wide Web. 3. International With purpose of program expansion, the developers' group looks to start of an international project. Within the project new experiments conduction and scientific information exchange are expected. 4. Status Bauman Moscow State Technical University's status improvement in the field of satellite system development.

  19. Paternity and inheritance of wealth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartung, John

    1981-06-01

    One of the oldest conjectures in anthropology is that men transfer wealth to their sister's son when the biological paternity of their `own' children is in doubt1-12. Because maternity is certain, a man is necessarily related to his sister's son and his brother (see Fig. 1). It is argued here that relatedness to male heirs can be assured by passing wealth to sister's sons or down a line of brothers, whether the prevailing kinship system reckons those brothers matrilineally or patrilineally. It is also argued that when several transfers of wealth are considered, a man's likelihood of being cuckolded need not be unrealistically high13 for his successive matrilineal heirs to be more related to him than his successive patrilineal heirs (see Fig. 2). Cross-cultural data on sister's son/brother inheritance14 and frequency of extramarital sex for females15 support the hypothesis that men tend to transmit wealth to their sister's son and/or brother when the probability that their putative children are their genetic children is relatively low.

  20. First identification of polymorphic microsatellite markers in the Burgundy truffle, Tuber aestivum (Tuberaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Molinier, Virginie; Murat, Claude; Morin, Emmanuelle; Gollotte, Armelle; Wipf, Daniel; Martin, Francis

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Tuber aestivum, the most common truffle in Europe, plays an important role in the commercial truffle market. For the first time, microsatellite primers were developed to investigate polymorphism within this species. • Methods and Results: Using direct shotgun pyrosequencing, 15 polymorphic microsatellites were identified out of the 7784 perfect microsatellites present in the 534620 reads obtained. Tested on 75 samples, these microsatellites were highly polymorphic. The number of alleles varied from four to 15, and the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.266 to 0.620. A multilocus analysis allowed the identification of 63 genotypes over the 75 samples analyzed. • Conclusions: Direct shotgun pyrosequencing is a fast and relatively low-cost technique allowing identification of microsatellites in nonmodel species. The microsatellites developed in this study will be useful in population genetic studies to infer the evolutionary history of this species. PMID:25202513

  1. Paternal age as a risk factor for schizophrenia: how important is it?

    PubMed

    Torrey, E Fuller; Buka, Stephen; Cannon, Tyrone D; Goldstein, Jill M; Seidman, Larry J; Liu, Tianli; Hadley, Trevor; Rosso, Isabelle M; Bearden, Carrie; Yolken, Robert H

    2009-10-01

    Advanced paternal age has been widely cited as a risk factor for schizophrenia among offspring and even claimed to account for one-quarter of all cases. We carried out a new study on 25,025 offspring from the Collaborative Perinatal Project (CPP), including 168 diagnosed with psychosis and 88 with narrowly defined schizophrenia. We also conducted a meta-analysis of this and nine other studies for which comparable age-cohort data were available. The mean paternal age for the CPP cases was slightly, but not significantly, higher than the matched controls (p=0.28). Meta-analyses including these new results were conducted to determine the relative risk associated with alternative definitions of advanced paternal age (35, 45 or 55 years and older). These yielded pooled odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of 1.28 (1.10, 1.48), 1.38 (0.95, 2.01) and 2.22 (1.46, 3.37), respectively. Thus, increased paternal age appears to be a risk factor for schizophrenia primarily among offspring of fathers ages 55 and over. In these 10 studies, such fathers accounted for only 0.6% of all births. Compared with other known risk factors for schizophrenia, advanced paternal age appears to be intermediate in magnitude. Advanced paternal age is also known to be a risk factor for some chromosomal and neoplastic diseases in the offspring where the cause is thought to be chromosomal aberrations and mutations of the aging germline. Similar mechanisms may account for the relationship between advanced paternal age and schizophrenia risk. PMID:19683417

  2. Microsatellite analysis supports clonal propagation and reduced divergence of Trypanosoma vivax from asymptomatic to fatally infected livestock in South America compared to West Africa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mechanical transmission of the major livestock pathogen Trypanosoma vivax by other biting flies than tsetse allows its spread from Africa to the New World. Genetic studies are restricted to a small number of isolates and based on molecular markers that evolve too slowly to resolve the relationships between American and West African populations and, thus, unable us to uncover the recent history of T. vivax in the New World. Methods T. vivax genetic diversity, population structure and the source of outbreaks was investigated through the microsatellite multiloci (7 loci) genotype (MLGs) analysis in South America (47isolates from Brazil, Venezuela and French Guiana) and West Africa (12 isolates from The Gambia, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Benin and Nigeria). Relationships among MLGs were explored using phylogenetic, principal component and STRUCTURE analyses. Results Although closely phylogenetically related, for the first time, genetic differences were detected between T. vivax isolates from South America (11 genotypes/47 isolates) and West Africa (12 genotypes/12 isolates) with no MLGs in common. Diversity was far greater across West Africa than in South America, where genotypes from Brazil (MLG1-6), Venezuela (MLG7-10) and French Guiana (MLG11) shared similar but not identical allele composition. No MLG was exclusive to asymptomatic (endemic areas) or sick (outbreaks in non-endemic areas) animals, but only MLGs1, 2 and 3 were responsible for severe haematological and neurological disorders. Conclusions Our results revealed closely related genotypes of T. vivax in Brazil and Venezuela, regardless of endemicity and clinical conditions of the infected livestock. The MLGs analysis from T. vivax across SA and WA support clonal propagation, and is consistent with the hypothesis that the SA populations examined here derived from common ancestors recently introduced from West Africa. The molecular markers defined here are valuable to assess the genetic diversity, to track the source and dispersion of outbreaks, and to explore the epidemiological and pathological significance of T. vivax genotypes. PMID:24885708

  3. Multivariate analysis as a method for evaluating the pathogenicity of novel genetic MLH1 variants in patients with colorectal cancer and microsatellite instability.

    PubMed

    Duraturo, Francesca; Liccardo, Raffaella; Cavallo, Angela; De Rosa, Marina; Rossi, Giovanni Battista; Izzo, Paola

    2015-08-01

    Loss of function of mismatch repair (MMR) genes, mainly MLH1 and MSH2, manifests as high levels of microsatellite instability (MSI) that occurs in >90% of carcinomas in patients with Lynch syndrome (LS). The MSI?high status has also been described in sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) associated with BRAF gene mutation (V600E); this mutation was not present in LS?associated cancers. The present study performed MSI analysis on 39 CRC patients selected according to Bethesda guidelines, and BRAF V600E genotyping was performed in 26 cases classified as MSI?high or MSI?low (15 MSI?H and 11 MSI?L). These 26 patients were then screened for MLH1 and MSH2 germ?line mutations. Germ?line mutations in these genes were detected in 11/15 patients with MSI?H tumors (73%) and in 1/11 patients with MSI?L tumors (9%). Overall, 11 germ?line mutations in 12/26 analyzed patients (46%) in these genes were identified. Two of these mutations are novel genetic MLH1 variants not previously described in the literature, c.438A>G and c.1844T>C. A combination of computational approaches, co?segregation analysis and RNA assay suggested that these novel mutations, silent and missense, respectively, were probably pathogenic. The findings of the present study further emphasized the requirement for genetic testing in patients with a risk for hereditary CRC and has broadened the spectrum of known mutations of the MLH1 gene. PMID:26096739

  4. Paternal transmission and anticipation in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Husted, J; Scutt, L E; Bassett, A S

    1998-03-28

    Recent studies have observed anticipation (earlier age at onset (AAO) or increased disease severity in successive generations) in familial schizophrenia. In other disorders, where the molecular mechanism (repeat expansion) is known, anticipation varies in degree depending on the sex of the transmitting parent. We investigated parental sex effects on anticipation in schizophrenia, using a familial sample of affected two-generation pairs in which anticipation had previously been demonstrated using the median intergenerational difference (MID) in AAO. A Wilcoxon rank sum test for independent samples was used to determine whether MID in AAO was significantly different for paternal and maternal transmission. Results suggested that in a sample of 127 parent-offspring pairs, anticipation was greater with paternal than with maternal transmission (MID = 18 and 14 years, respectively, P = 0.05). Paternal effects were strongest in 39 parent-offspring pairs with early-onset offspring (< or = 21 years) (MID = 22 and 17 years, respectively, for paternal and maternal transmission, P = 0.01). However, assessment of the effect of possible selection biases suggests that preferential ascertainment of late-onset fathers may have exerted important effects. While the results support possible paternal effects, further studies are needed to draw firm conclusions about true parent-of-origin effects on anticipation in familial schizophrenia. PMID:9613855

  5. Low paternal dietary folate alters the mouse sperm epigenome and is associated with negative pregnancy outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Lambrot, R.; Xu, C.; Saint-Phar, S.; Chountalos, G.; Cohen, T.; Paquet, M.; Suderman, M.; Hallett, M.; Kimmins, S.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that a father’s diet can influence offspring health. A proposed mechanism for paternal transmission of environmental information is via the sperm epigenome. The epigenome includes heritable information such as DNA methylation. We hypothesize that the dietary supply of methyl donors will alter epigenetic reprogramming in sperm. Here we feed male mice either a folate-deficient or folate-sufficient diet throughout life. Paternal folate deficiency is associated with increased birth defects in the offspring, which include craniofacial and musculoskeletal malformations. Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis and the subsequent functional analysis identify differential methylation in sperm of genes implicated in development, chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, autism and schizophrenia. While >300 genes are differentially expressed in offspring placenta, only two correspond to genes with differential methylation in sperm. This model suggests epigenetic transmission may involve sperm histone H3 methylation or DNA methylation and that adequate paternal dietary folate is essential for offspring health. PMID:24326934

  6. Microsatellite DNA library forCaiman latirostris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodrigo Barban Zucoloto; Luciano Martins Verdade; Luiz Lehmann Coutinho

    2002-01-01

    New genetic markers were characterized for the broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris) by constructing libraries enriched for microsatellite DNA. Construction and character- ization of these libraries are described in the present study. One microsatellite marker was developed from a (ACC-TGG)n enriched microsatellite DNA library, and 12 microsatellite markers were developed from a (AC-TG)n enriched microsatellite DNA library. These markers were tested

  7. Development and characterization of microsatellite markers for the Brazil nut tree Bertholletia excelsa Humb. & Bonpl. (Lecythidaceae).

    PubMed

    Reis, Alessandra M M; Braga, Aline C; Lemes, Maristerra R; Gribel, Rogério; Collevatti, Rosane G

    2009-05-01

    Twelve polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed for the Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa), one of the most valuable non-timber forest products from the Amazon, based on enrichment protocol. Six to 18 (mean 10.4) alleles per locus were identified and the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.663 to 0.923 based on a screen of 40 individuals from one population of B. excelsa. The combined probabilities of genetic identity (8.39 × 10(-17) ) and paternity exclusion (0.999999) indicated that multilocus genotypes are likely to be unique allowing precise analyses of genetic structure, gene flow, and mating system of this economically important species. PMID:21564791

  8. Development of highly polymorphic simple sequence repeat markers using genome-wide microsatellite variant analysis in Foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) Beauv.) is an important gramineous grain-food and forage crop. It is grown worldwide for human and livestock consumption. Its small genome and diploid nature have led to foxtail millet fast becoming a novel model for investigating plant architecture, drought tolerance and C4 photosynthesis of grain and bioenergy crops. Therefore, cost-effective, reliable and highly polymorphic molecular markers covering the entire genome are required for diversity, mapping and functional genomics studies in this model species. Result A total of 5,020 highly repetitive microsatellite motifs were isolated from the released genome of the genotype 'Yugu1’ by sequence scanning. Based on sequence comparison between S. italica and S. viridis, a set of 788 SSR primer pairs were designed. Of these primers, 733 produced reproducible amplicons and were polymorphic among 28 Setaria genotypes selected from diverse geographical locations. The number of alleles detected by these SSR markers ranged from 2 to 16, with an average polymorphism information content of 0.67. The result obtained by neighbor-joining cluster analysis of 28 Setaria genotypes, based on Nei’s genetic distance of the SSR data, showed that these SSR markers are highly polymorphic and effective. Conclusions A large set of highly polymorphic SSR markers were successfully and efficiently developed based on genomic sequence comparison between different genotypes of the genus Setaria. The large number of new SSR markers and their placement on the physical map represent a valuable resource for studying diversity, constructing genetic maps, functional gene mapping, QTL exploration and molecular breeding in foxtail millet and its closely related species. PMID:24472631

  9. Flow cytometric analysis and microsatellite genotyping reveal extensive DNA content variation in Trypanosoma cruzi populations and expose contrasts between natural and experimental hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Michael D.; Llewellyn, Martin S.; Gaunt, Michael W.; Yeo, Matthew; Carrasco, Hernán J.; Miles, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi exhibits remarkable genetic heterogeneity. This is evident at the nucleotide level but also structurally, in the form of karyotypic variation and DNA content differences between strains. Although natural populations of T. cruzi are predominantly clonal, hybrid lineages (TcIId and TcIIe) have been identified and hybridisation has been demonstrated in vitro, raising the possibility that genetic exchange may continue to shape the evolution of this pathogen. The mechanism of genetic exchange identified in the laboratory is unusual, apparently involving fusion of diploid parents followed by genome erosion. We investigated DNA content diversity in natural populations of T. cruzi in the context of its genetic subdivisions by using flow cytometric analysis and multilocus microsatellite genotyping to determine the relative DNA content and estimate the ploidy of 54 cloned isolates. The maximum difference observed was 47.5% between strain Tu18 cl2 (TcIIb) and strain C8 cl1 (TcI), which we estimated to be equivalent to ?73 Mb of DNA. Large DNA content differences were identified within and between discrete typing units (DTUs). In particular, the mean DNA content of TcI strains was significantly less than that for TcII strains (P < 0.001). Comparisons of hybrid DTUs TcIId/IIe with corresponding parental DTUs TcIIb/IIc indicated that natural hybrids are predominantly diploid. We also measured the relative DNA content of six in vitro-generated TcI hybrid clones and their parents. In contrast to TcIId/IIe hybrid strains these experimental hybrids comprised populations of sub-tetraploid organisms with mean DNA contents 1.65–1.72 times higher than the parental organisms. The DNA contents of both parents and hybrids were shown to be relatively stable after passage through a mammalian host, heat shock or nutritional stress. The results are discussed in the context of hybridisation mechanisms in both natural and in vitro settings. PMID:19393242

  10. Maternal and paternal origin of extra chromosome in trisomy 21

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margareta Mikkelsen; Anni Hallberg; Hanne Poulsen

    1976-01-01

    Fluorescence markers were studied in 40 patients with Down's syndrome and their parents. In 11 cases maternal and in 5 cases paternal non-disjunction could be shown. The disjunctional event occurred in the first meiotic division in 5 maternal and in 2 paternal cases. A second division failure was found in 4 maternal and 2 paternal cases. In 3 cases the

  11. Female reproductive synchrony predicts skewed paternity across primates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julia Ostner; Charles L. Nunn; Oliver Schülke

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have uncovered remarkable variation in paternity within primate groups. To date, however, we lack a general understanding of the factors that drive variation in paternity skew among primate groups and across species. Our study focused on hypotheses from reproductive skew theory involving limited control and the use of paternity \\

  12. Sequence conservation of microsatellites between Bos taurus (cattle), Capra hircus (goat) and related species. Examples of use in parentage testing and phylogeny analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurent Pépin; Yves Amigues; Andrée Lépingle; Jean-Luc Berthier; Albert Bensaid; Daniel Vaiman

    1995-01-01

    A panel of 70 bovine microsatellites was tested for amplification from goat DNA. Forty-three could be successfully amplified by PCR, 20 of which were tested for polymorphism. Three were applied for parentage testing in goat families and their exclusion probability evaluated. Fourteen were cloned and sequenced from goat DNA, and goat and bovine sequences were compared to evaluate interspecific conservation.

  13. Interspecific hybridisation in rhinoceroses: Confirmation of a Black × White rhinoceros hybrid by karyotype, fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) and microsatellite analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. J. Robinson; V. Trifonov; I. Espie; E. H. Harley

    2005-01-01

    Black and white rhinoceroses are among the most charismatic megaherbivores and have become flagship species for international conservation. They are often subject to intense management that includes being compressed unnaturally in space and density. We present chromosomal and microsatellite evidence to substantiate the first recorded instance of interspecific hybridisation between them. The data suggest that the genetic integrity of the

  14. A genetic linkage map and comparative genome analysis of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L . ) using microsatellites and SNPs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xianhu Zheng; Youyi Kuang; Xiaofeng Zhang; Cuiyun Lu; Dingchen Cao; Chao Li; Xiaowen Sun

    A genetic linkage map is a powerful research tool for mapping traits of interest and is essential to understanding genome\\u000a evolution. The aim of this study is to provide an expanded genetic linkage map of common carp to effectively carry out quantitative\\u000a trait loci analysis and conduct comparative mapping analysis between lineages. Here, we constructed a genetic linkage map\\u000a of

  15. PCR and microsatellite analysis of diminazene aceturate resistance of bovine trypanosomes correlated to knowledge, attitude and practice of livestock keepers in South-Western Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Moti, Y; De Deken, R; Thys, E; Van Den Abbeele, J; Duchateau, L; Delespaux, V

    2015-06-01

    African Animal Trypanosomosis is threatening the agricultural production and cattle breeding more severely than any other livestock disease in the continent, even more since the advent of drug resistance. A longitudinal study was conducted from November 2012 to May 2013 in the Ghibe valley to evaluate diminazene aceturate (DA) resistance and assess livestock owner's perception of trypanocidal drug use. Four Peasant Associations (PAs) were purposively selected and the cattle randomly sampled in each PAs. At the beginning of the study (t0), 106 bovines positive for trypanosomes by the haematocrit centrifugation technique (HCT) and 119 negative control animals were recruited for six months follow-up using HCT, 18S-PCR-RFLP, DpnII-PCR-RFLP and microsatellite analysis. Prevalence of trypanosomosis was 18.1% based on the HCT technique and the mean PCV value was 23.6±5.1% for the 587 sampled cattle. Out of the 106 HCT positive, 64 (60.4%) were positive for the presence of trypanosomes using the 18S-PCR-RFLP. Species detection showed 38 (59.4%) Trypanosoma congolense savannah, 18 (28.1%) Trypanosoma vivax, 5 (7.8%) Trypanosoma theileri and 3 (4.7%) T. congolense Kilifi. Among the T. congolense savannah samples, 31 (81.6%) showed a DA resistant RFLP profile, 2 (5.3%) a mixed profile and 5 did not amplify using the DpnII-PCR-RFLP. A positive HCT had a significant effect on PCV (p<0.001) with the mean PCV value equal to 24.4±0.2% in the absence of trypanosomes and to 20.9±0.3% in the presence of trypanosomes. PCV increased significantly (p<0.001) with 4.4±0.5% one month after treatment. All T. congolense savannah type were analyzed using microsatellite markers TCM1, TCM3 and TCM4. The main events were new infections (40.0%) and relapses (37.5%) with cures lagging at 22.5%. In 10 purposively selected PAs a semi-structured questionnaire was used. The average herd size was the highest in Abelti PA (6.7±1.8 TLU) and the mean herd size was statistically different (p=0.01) in the 10 PAs. Trypanosomosis was designated as the main disease affecting cattle by 97% of the respondents. DA was used by 95.5% of the farmers though more than half of them (51.9%) were not familiar with isometamidium (ISM). There was a trend to overdose young small animals and to underdose large ones. Oxen were treated very frequently (nearly 20 times/year) and calves almost never. To improve the situation in the Ghibe valley, extension messages should be delivered to promote a rational drug use, improved livestock management and the application of strategic vector control methods. PMID:25738729

  16. Conservation genetics of bull trout: Geographic distribution of variation at microsatellite loci

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Spruell; A. R. Hemmingsen; P. J. Howell; N. Kanda; F. W. Allendorf

    2003-01-01

    We describe the genetic population structure of 65 bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) populations from the northwestern United States using four microsatellite loci. The distribution of genetic variation as measured by microsatellites is consistent with previous allozyme and mitochondrial DNA analysis. There is relatively little genetic variation within populations (HS = 0.000 - 0.404, average HS = 0.186, but substantial divergence

  17. Microsatellite data resolve phylogeographic patterns in European grayling, Thymallus thymallus, Salmonidae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M T Koskinen; J Nilsson; A Je Veselov; A G Potutkin; E Ranta; C R Primmer

    2002-01-01

    The phylogeography of an endangered salmonid, European grayling (Thymallus thymallus), was studied based on analysis of 17 nuclear microsatellite DNA loci. In agreement with earlier mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) studies, phylogenetic relationships of the populations suggested that northern Europe was colonized from two distinct Pleistocene refugia. Furthermore, microsatellites revealed highly supported grouping of mainland Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, German and Slovenian populations,

  18. Displays of paternal mouse pup retrieval following communicative interaction with maternal mates

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hong-Xiang; Lopatina, Olga; Higashida, Chiharu; Fujimoto, Hiroko; Akther, Shirin; Inzhutova, Alena; Liang, Mingkun; Zhong, Jing; Tsuji, Takahiro; Yoshihara, Toru; Sumi, Kohei; Ishiyama, Mizuho; Ma, Wen-Jie; Ozaki, Mitsunori; Yagitani, Satoshi; Yokoyama, Shigeru; Mukaida, Naofumi; Sakurai, Takeshi; Hori, Osamu; Yoshioka, Katsuji; Hirao, Atsushi; Kato, Yukio; Ishihara, Katsuhiko; Kato, Ichiro; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Cherepanov, Stanislav M.; Salmina, Alla B.; Hirai, Hirokazu; Asano, Masahide; Brown, David A.; Nagano, Isamu; Higashida, Haruhiro

    2013-01-01

    Compared with the knowledge of maternal care, much less is known about the factors required for paternal parental care. Here we report that new sires of laboratory mice, though not spontaneously parental, can be induced to show maternal-like parental care (pup retrieval) using signals from dams separated from their pups. During this interaction, the maternal mates emit 38-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations to their male partners, which are equivalent to vocalizations that occur following pheromone stimulation. Without these signals or in the absence of maternal mates, the sires do not retrieve their pups within 5?min. These results show that, in mice, the maternal parent communicates to the paternal parent to encourage pup care. This new paradigm may be useful in the analysis of the parental brain during paternal care induced by interactive communication. PMID:23299896

  19. W-SPECIFIC MICROSATELLITE LOCI DETECTED BY IN SILICO ANALYSIS, MAP TO CHROMOSOME Z OF THE CHICKEN GENOME

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unlike mammals, avian females are the heterogametic gender (ZW) and males are the homogametic (ZZ). The non-recombining, female-specific regions are maternally inherited. As such, they have a special value for matrilineal phylogenetic analysis of chicken populations and possibly for avian species in...

  20. TECHNICAL NOTE Isolation of microsatellite loci from endangered members

    E-print Network

    Helenurm, Kaius

    TECHNICAL NOTE Isolation of microsatellite loci from endangered members of Lotus (Fabaceae throughout the California floristic province. Fifteen polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated from two the characterization of eight microsatellite loci isolated from L. argophyllus var. adsurgens and seven microsatellite

  1. Managing misaligned paternity findings in research including sickle cell disease screening in Kenya: ‘Consulting communities’ to inform policy?

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Vicki; Kombe, Francis; Fitzpatrick, Ray; Molyneux, Sassy; Parker, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The management of misaligned paternity findings raises important controversy worldwide. It has mainly, however, been discussed in the context of high-income countries. Genetic and genomics research, with the potential to show misaligned paternity, are becoming increasingly common in Africa. During a genomics study in Kenya, a dilemma arose over testing and sharing information on paternal sickle cell disease status. This dilemma may be paradigmatic of challenges in sharing misaligned paternity findings in many research and health care settings. Using a deliberative approach to community consultation to inform research practice, we explored residents' views on paternal testing and sharing misaligned paternity information. Between December 2009 and November 2010, 63 residents in Kilifi County were engaged in informed deliberative small group discussions, structured to support normative reflection within the groups, with purposive selection to explore diversity. Analysis was based on a modified framework analysis approach, drawing on relevant social science and bioethics literature. The methods generated in-depth individual and group reflection on morally important issues and uncovered wide diversity in views and values. Fundamental and conflicting values emerged around the importance of family interests and openness, underpinned by disagreement on the moral implications of marital infidelity and withholding truth. Wider consideration of ethical issues emerging in these debates supports locally-held reasoning that paternal sickle cell testing should not be undertaken in this context, in contrast to views that testing should be done with or without the disclosure of misaligned paternity information. The findings highlight the importance of facilitating wider testing of family members of affected children, contingent on the development and implementation of national policies for the management of this inherited disorder. Their richness also illustrates the potential for the approach adopted in this study to strengthen community consultation. PMID:24034967

  2. Managing misaligned paternity findings in research including sickle cell disease screening in Kenya: 'consulting communities' to inform policy.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Vicki; Kombe, Francis; Fitzpatrick, Ray; Molyneux, Sassy; Parker, Michael

    2013-11-01

    The management of misaligned paternity findings raises important controversy worldwide. It has mainly, however, been discussed in the context of high-income countries. Genetic and genomics research, with the potential to show misaligned paternity, are becoming increasingly common in Africa. During a genomics study in Kenya, a dilemma arose over testing and sharing information on paternal sickle cell disease status. This dilemma may be paradigmatic of challenges in sharing misaligned paternity findings in many research and health care settings. Using a deliberative approach to community consultation to inform research practice, we explored residents' views on paternal testing and sharing misaligned paternity information. Between December 2009 and November 2010, 63 residents in Kilifi County were engaged in informed deliberative small group discussions, structured to support normative reflection within the groups, with purposive selection to explore diversity. Analysis was based on a modified framework analysis approach, drawing on relevant social science and bioethics literature. The methods generated in-depth individual and group reflection on morally important issues and uncovered wide diversity in views and values. Fundamental and conflicting values emerged around the importance of family interests and openness, underpinned by disagreement on the moral implications of marital infidelity and withholding truth. Wider consideration of ethical issues emerging in these debates supports locally-held reasoning that paternal sickle cell testing should not be undertaken in this context, in contrast to views that testing should be done with or without the disclosure of misaligned paternity information. The findings highlight the importance of facilitating wider testing of family members of affected children, contingent on the development and implementation of national policies for the management of this inherited disorder. Their richness also illustrates the potential for the approach adopted in this study to strengthen community consultation. PMID:24034967

  3. Parentage and kinship studies in an obligate brood parasitic bird, the brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater), using microsatellite DNA markers.

    PubMed

    Alderson, G W; Gibbs, H L; Sealy, S G

    1999-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that single-locus microsatellite DNA markers have the potential to unambiguously resolve parentage among individuals in natural populations where maternity is known. However, their power for determining parentage when neither parent is known is unclear. Here we investigate the usefulness of microsatellite DNA markers to determine parentage in a brood parasitic bird, the brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater), where, for a given offspring, no a priori knowledge of either parent is available. Seven polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers isolated from brown-headed cowbirds and yellow warblers (Dendroica petechia) were used to genetically characterize an individually marked breeding population of male and female cowbirds at Delta Marsh, Manitoba. Forty-four males, 21 females, and 61 cowbird chicks were genotyped at seven loci using DNA amplified from blood and tissue samples. The mean exclusion probabilities pooled across all seven loci were 0.9964 for males and 0.9948 for females. Two null (non-amplifying) alleles at one locus were discovered and accounted for by constructing alternate nonoverlapping primer sets. Exclusion analyses performed using all individuals determined both paternity and maternity for 43 chicks and paternity only for 4 chicks. Another microsatellite locus was then used to determine paternity for three additional chicks. Relatedness analyses placed 12 of the 18 remaining chicks not assigned both maternity and paternity into four unique full sibling groups. Overall, 90.16% (55 of 61) of all offspring examined were placed into distinct parent/sibling groups, demonstrating that this marker set is extremely useful for parentage studies in this species. PMID:9987928

  4. Daddy issues: paternal effects on phenotype.

    PubMed

    Rando, Oliver J

    2012-11-01

    The once popular and then heretical idea that ancestral environment can affect the phenotype of future generations is coming back into vogue due to advances in the field of epigenetic inheritance. How paternal environmental conditions influence the phenotype of progeny is now a tractable question, and researchers are exploring potential mechanisms underlying such effects. PMID:23141533

  5. Paternal Occupational Exposures and Childhood Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Feychting; Nils Plato; Gun Nise; Anders Ahlbom

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the study described here was to test the hypothesis that paternal occupational exposure near conception increases the risk of cancer in the offspring. We conducted a cohort study based on a population of 235,635 children born shortly after two different censuses in Sweden. The children were followed from birth to 14 years, and cases of cancer were

  6. Advancing Paternal Age and Simplex Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puleo, Connor Morrow; Schmeidler, James; Reichenberg, Abraham; Kolevzon, Alexander; Soorya, Latha V.; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Silverman, Jeremy M.

    2012-01-01

    De novo events appear more common in female and simplex autism spectrum disorder (ASD) cases and may underlie greater ASD risk in older fathers' offspring. This study examined whether advancing paternal age predicts an increase in simplex (n = 90) versus multiplex ASD cases (n = 587) in 677 participants (340 families). Whether or not controlling…

  7. Indentification of 700 new microsatellite loci from cotton (G. hirsutum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microsatellite markers, also known as SSRs, comprise a keystone technology for genetic linkage analysis, QTL mapping, marker-assisted breeding, and genome analysis. In order to contribute to a growing body of molecular marker resources for cotton research and improvement, we developed primers to am...

  8. Genetic structure of the paternal lineage of the Roma people.

    PubMed

    Pamjav, Horolma; Zalán, Andrea; Béres, Judit; Nagy, Melinda; Chang, Yuet Meng

    2011-05-01

    According to written sources, Roma (Romanies, Gypsies) arrived in the Balkans around 1,000 years ago from India and have subsequently spread through several parts of Europe. Genetic data, particularly from the Y chromosome, have supported this model, and can potentially refine it. We now provide an analysis of Y-chromosomal markers from five Roma and two non-Roma populations (N = 787) in order to investigate the genetic relatedness of the Roma population groups to one another, and to gain further understanding of their likely Indian origins, the genetic contribution of non-Roma males to the Roma populations, and the early history of their splits and migrations in Europe. The two main sources of the Roma paternal gene pool were identified as South Asian and European. The reduced diversity and expansion of H1a-M82 lineages in all Roma groups imply shared descent from a single paternal ancestor in the Indian subcontinent. The Roma paternal gene pool also contains a specific subset of E1b1b1a-M78 and J2a2-M67 lineages, implying admixture during early settlement in the Balkans and the subsequent influx into the Carpathian Basin. Additional admixture, evident in the low and moderate frequencies of typical European haplogroups I1-M253, I2a-P37.2, I2b-M223, R1b1-P25, and R1a1-M198, has occurred in a more population-specific manner. PMID:21484758

  9. Molecular diversity and population structure of Chinese green foxtail [Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv.] revealed by microsatellite analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhi, Hui; Diao, Xianmin

    2013-01-01

    Green foxtail (Setaria viridis) is a new model plant for the genomic investigation of C4 photosynthesis biology. As the ancestor of foxtail millet (Setaria italica), an ancient cereal of great importance in arid regions of the world, green foxtail is crucial for the study of domestication and evolution of this ancient crop. In the present study, 288 green foxtail accessions, which were collected from all geographical regions of China, were analysed using 77 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) that cover the whole genome. A high degree of molecular diversity was detected in these accessions, with an average of 33.5 alleles per locus. Two clusters, which were inconsistent with the distribution of eco-geographical regions in China, were inferred from STRUCTURE, Neighbor–Joining, and principal component analysis, indicating a partially mixed distribution of Chinese green foxtails. The higher subpopulation diversity was from accessions mainly collected from North China. A low level of linkage disequilibrium was observed in the green foxtail genome. Furthermore, a combined analysis of green foxtail and foxtail millet landraces was conducted, and the origin and domestication of foxtail millet was inferred in North China. PMID:23956411

  10. "I've Fixed Things Up": Paternal Identity of Substance-Dependent Fathers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peled, Einat; Gavriel-Fried, Belle; Katz, Noam

    2012-01-01

    This study deals with how substance-dependent men perceive their paternal identity. Data were based on in-depth semi-structured interviews with 12 Israeli fathers who were enrolled in methadone maintenance treatment. Content analysis revealed that participants had undergone a process of parental identity formation composed of four distinct stages:…

  11. Transcriptome Analysis of the Trachinotus ovatus: Identification of Reproduction, Growth and Immune-Related Genes and Microsatellite Markers

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Fang; Qiongyu, Liu; Zihao, Li; Xiaochun, Liu; Yong, Zhang; Shuisheng, Li; Haoran, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Background The Trachinotus ovatus (Teleostei, Carangidae) is an economically important marine fish species in the world. However, the lack of genomic information regarding this species limits our understanding of the genetics and biological mechanisms in Trachinotus ovatus. In this study, high throughput transcriptome sequencing was used to obtain comprehensive genomic information in Trachinotus ovatus. Principal Findings Transcriptome sequencing was performed by using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. The 98,534,862 high quality reads were yielded, and were de novo assembled into 156,094 unigenes with an average sequence length of 1179 bp. Transcriptome annotation revealed that 75,586 and 67,923 unigenes were functionally annotated in the NCBI non-redundant database and Swiss-Prot protein database, respectively. Functional analysis demonstrated that 67,923 unigenes were grouped into 25 Cluster of Orthologous Groups (COG) functional categories, 37,976 unigenes were clustered into 61 Gene Ontology (GO) terms, and 38,172 unigenes were assigned to 275 different Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. Based on the transcriptome dataset, a large number of unigenes associated with reproduction, growth and immunity were identified. Furthermore, a total number of 38,794 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were discovered and 16 polymorphic loci were characterized in Trachinotus ovatus. Conclusion/Significance The present study is the first transcriptome analysis of a fish species belonging to the genus Trachinotus and provides a valuable genomic resource for novel gene discovery, gene expression and regulation studies, and the identification of genetic markers in Trachinotus ovatus and the other fish of the genus Trachinotus. PMID:25303650

  12. Paternity testing in case of brother-sister incest.

    PubMed

    Macan, Marijana; Uvodi?, Petra; Botica, Vladimir

    2003-06-01

    We performed a paternity test in a case of incest between brother and sister. DNA from blood samples of the alleged parents and their two children was obtained with Chelex DNA extraction method and quantified with Applied Biosystems QuantiBlot quantitation kit. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of DNA samples was performed with AmpFlSTR SGM Plus PCR amplification kit and GenePrint PowerPlex PCR amplification kit. The amplified products were separated and detected by using the Perkin Elmer's ABI PRISM trade mark 310 Genetic Analyser. DNA and data analysis of 17 loci and Amelogenin confirmed the suspicion of brother-sister incest. Since both children had inherited all of the obligate alleles from the alleged father, we could confirm with certainty of 99.999999% that the oldest brother in the family was the biological father of both children. Calculated data showed that even in a case of brother-sister incest, paternity could be proved by the analysis of Amelogenin and 17 DNA loci. PMID:12808731

  13. Paternal Origin of FGFR2 Mutations in Sporadic Cases of Crouzon Syndrome and Pfeiffer Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Glaser, Rivka L.; Jiang, Wen; Boyadjiev, Simeon A.; Tran, Alissa K.; Zachary, Andrea A.; Van Maldergem, Lionel; Johnson, David; Walsh, Sinead; Oldridge, Michael; Wall, Steven A.; Wilkie, Andrew O. M.; Jabs, Ethylin Wang

    2000-01-01

    Crouzon syndrome and Pfeiffer syndrome are both autosomal dominant craniosynostotic disorders that can be caused by mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) gene. To determine the parental origin of these FGFR2 mutations, the amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) was used. ARMS PCR primers were developed to recognize polymorphisms that could distinguish maternal and paternal alleles. A total of 4,374 bases between introns IIIa and 11 of the FGFR2 gene were sequenced and were assayed by heteroduplex analysis, to identify polymorphisms. Two polymorphisms (1333TA/TATA and 2710 C/T) were found and were used with two previously described polymorphisms, to screen a total of 41 families. Twenty-two of these families were shown to be informative (11 for Crouzon syndrome and 11 for Pfeiffer syndrome). Eleven different mutations in the 22 families were detected by either restriction digest or allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridization of ARMS PCR products. We molecularly proved the origin of these different mutations to be paternal for all informative cases analyzed (P=2.4×10-7; 95% confidence limits 87%–100%). Advanced paternal age was noted for the fathers of patients with Crouzon syndrome or Pfeiffer syndrome, compared with the fathers of control individuals (34.50±7.65 years vs. 30.45±1.28 years, P<.01). Our data on advanced paternal age corroborates and extends previous clinical evidence based on statistical analyses as well as additional reports of advanced paternal age associated with paternal origin of three sporadic mutations causing Apert syndrome (FGFR2) and achondroplasia (FGFR3). Our results suggest that older men either have accumulated or are more susceptible to a variety of germline mutations. PMID:10712195

  14. Microsatellite DNA analysis of coastal populations of bull trout ( Salvelinus confluentus ) in British Columbia: zoogeographic implications and its application to recreational fishery management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric B. Taylor; A. B. Costello

    2006-01-01

    Microsatellite DNA variation was assayed among 383 bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) from 20 Pacific coastal localities from the Skeena River (central British Columbia) to the Olympic Peninsula (western Washington State). An average of 1.7 alleles was resolved per population and heterozygosity averaged 0.35. Twenty-six fish were identified as bull trout × Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma) hybrids. Population subdivision was substantial

  15. Taq DNA polymerase slippage mutation rates measured by PCR and quasi-likelihood analysis: (CA\\/GT)n and (A\\/T)n microsatellites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deepali Shinde; Yinglei Lai; Fengzhu Sun; Norman Arnheim

    2003-01-01

    During microsatellite polymerase chain reaction (PCR), insertion-deletion mutations produce stutter products differing from the original template by multiples of the repeat unit length. We analyzed the PCR slippage products of (CA)n and (A)n tracts cloned in a pUC18 vector. Repeat numbers varied from two to 14 (CA)n and four to 12 (A)n. Data was generated on approximately 10 single molecules

  16. Array-CGH analysis of microsatellite-stable, near-diploid bowel cancers and comparison with other types of colorectal carcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angela M Jones; Eleanor J Douglas; Sarah ER Halford; Heike Fiegler; Patricia A Gorman; Rebecca R Roylance; Nigel P Carter; Ian P M Tomlinson; IPM Tomlinson

    2005-01-01

    Microsatellite-stable, near-diploid (MSI?CIN?) colorectal carcinomas have been reported, but it is not clear as to whether these tumours form a discrete group or represent one end of the distribution of MSI?CIN+ cancers. In order to address this question, we screened 23 MSI?CIN? colorectal cancers for gains and losses using array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) based on large-insert clones at about

  17. Development of Microsatellite Markers Derived from Expressed Sequence Tags of Polyporales for Genetic Diversity Analysis of Endangered Polyporus umbellatus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuejin; Chen, Yuanyuan; Wang, Ruihong; Zeng, Ailin; Deyholos, Michael K.; Shu, Jia; Guo, Hongbo

    2015-01-01

    A large scale of EST sequences of Polyporales was screened in this investigation in order to identify EST-SSR markers for various applications. The distribution of EST sequences and SSRs in five families of Polyporales was analyzed, respectively. Mononucleotide was the most abundant type, followed by trinucleotide. Among five families, Ganodermataceae occupied the most SSR markers, followed by Coriolaceae. Functional prediction of SSR marker-containing EST sequences in Ganoderma lucidum obtained three main groups, namely, cellular component, biological process, and molecular function. Thirty EST-SSR primers were designed to evaluate the genetic diversity of 13 natural Polyporus umbellatus accessions. Twenty one EST-SSRs were polymorphic with average PIC value of 0.33 and transferability rate of 71%. These 13 P. umbellatus accessions showed relatively high genetic diversity. The expected heterozygosity, Nei's gene diversity, and Shannon information index were 0.41, 0.39, and 0.57, respectively. Both UPGMA dendrogram and principal coordinate analysis (PCA) showed the same cluster result that divided the 13 accessions into three or four groups. PMID:26146636

  18. 18F-FDG-PET/CT predicts the distribution of microsatellite lesions in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    OCHI, HIRONORI; HIROOKA, MASASHI; HIRAOKA, ATSUSHI; KOIZUMI, YOHEI; ABE, MASANORI; SOGABE, ICHIRO; ISHIMARU, YOSHIHIRO; FURUYA, KEIZOU; MIYAGAWA, MASAO; KAWASAKI, HIDEKI; MICHITAKA, KOJIRO; TAKADA, YASUTSUGU; MOCHIZUKI, TERUHITO; HIASA, YOICHI

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate whether fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) is useful for predicting the distance of intrahepatic metastases and microvascular invasion from the main tumor and the pattern of postoperative recurrence. A total of 89 consecutive patients who underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT prior to liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) between April, 2006 and December, 2011 were enrolled in this study. The distance between the microsatellite lesion and the main nodule (microsatellite distance) was analyzed and measured pathologically. The correlation between maximal standardized uptake values (SUVmax) and microsatellite distance was analyzed and the independent risk factors for microsatellite distance >1 cm were assessed. The postoperative recurrence patterns were divided into no recurrence, intrahepatic recurrence and extrahepatic recurrence. SUVmax and the distribution of microsatellite lesions were compared among these groups. The postoperative recurrence patterns were also analyzed according to the SUVmax and the microsatellite lesion pattern. SUVmax was found to be significantly correlated with the distance from the microsatellite lesion to the main nodule (r=0.57, P<0.0001). On the multivariate analysis of microsatellite distance >1 cm, the only significant factor was SUVmax [P=0.002; hazard ratio=1.60; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.23–2.26]. The optimal cutoff value of SUVmax for microsatellite distance >1 cm was 8.8. The mean SUVmax and the microsatellite distance were highest in patients with postoperative extrahepatic metastases (8.6 and 9,160 ?m, respectively). In conclusion, the SUVmax of 18F-FDG PET/CT reflects microsatellite distance and the patterns of postoperative recurrence in HCC. Therefore, 18F-FDG PET/CT may be a useful imaging modality for determining the resection margin and the treatment protocol for HCC. PMID:25054048

  19. Isolation and Characterization of Microsatellite Markers and Analysis of Genetic Diversity in Chinese Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huabo; Tang, Yan; Wu, Liping; Wang, Zhe; Li, Yingyue; Wu, Rongling; Pang, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill, 2n?=?2×?=?24, Rhamnaceae) is an economically important Chinese native species. It has high nutritional value, and its medicinal properties have led to extensive use in traditional oriental medicine. The characterization of genotypes using molecular markers is important for genetic studies and plant breeding. However, few simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are available for this species. In this study, 1,488 unique SSR clones were isolated from Z. jujuba ‘Dongzao’ using enriched genomic libraries coupled with a three-primer colony PCR screening strategy, yielding a high enrichment rate of 73.3%. Finally, 1,188 (80.87%) primer pairs were amplified successfully in the size expected for ‘Dongzao’. A total of 350 primer pairs were further selected and evaluated for their ability to detect polymorphisms across a panel of six diverse cultivars; among these, 301 primer pairs detected polymorphisms, and the polymorphism information content (PIC) value across all loci ranged from 0.15 to 0.82, with an average of 0.52. An analysis of 76 major cultivars employed in Chinese jujube production using 31 primer pairs revealed comparatively high genetic diversity among these cultivars. Within-population differences among individuals accounted for 98.2% of the observed genetic variation. Neighbor-joining clustering divided the cultivars into three main groups, none of which correspond to major geographic regions, suggesting that the genetics and geographical origin of modern Chinese jujube cultivars might not be linked. The current work firstly reports the large-scale development of Chinese jujube SSR markers. The development of these markers and their polymorphic information represent a significant improvement in the available Chinese jujube genomic resources and will facilitate both genetic and breeding applications, further accelerating the development of new cultivars. PMID:24932973

  20. Advanced Propulsion for Microsatellites Vadim Khayms

    E-print Network

    Advanced Propulsion for Microsatellites by Vadim Khayms Submitted to the Department of Aeronautics variety of commercial applications. Since many microsatellite missions require consid- erable propulsion capabilities, miniaturization of the propulsion subsystem is critical in the design of most miniature

  1. Investigation of factors associated with paternal nondisjunction of chromosome 21.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Tiffany Renee; Bhise, Archit; Feingold, Eleanor; Tinker, Stuart; Masse, Nirupama; Sherman, Stephanie L

    2009-08-01

    Previous studies on relatively small samples of individuals with trisomy 21 caused by paternally derived errors have shown that: (1) advanced paternal age is not a risk factor for chromosome 21 nondisjunction (NDJ), (2) absence of recombination, but not the location of recombination is associated with paternal NDJ and (3) there is an excess of males among live-births with paternally derived trisomy 21. An excess of males is also observed among all individuals with trisomy 21. Using 128 families that had a child with trisomy 21 due to a paternally derived error, we examined: paternal age, recombination and the male/female sex ratio. We genotyped STRs along 21q to identify the origin of the error and the location of recombination on the paternal chromosome. Results showed that 32% of paternal meiotic errors occurred in meiosis I (MI) and 68% in meiosis II (MII). We confirmed the lack of a paternal age association with either type of error (mean paternal age for controls, MI, and MII errors: 31.3 +/- 6.6, 32.2 +/- 6.3, 30.6 +/- 6.5, respectively). However, contrary to previous findings, we did not find altered patterns of recombination among paternal MI or MII errors. We found an increased male/female sex ratio among paternal (1.28, 95% CI: 0.68-1.91) and maternal (1.16, 95% CI: 1.02-1.33) meiotic errors. While the sex ratio among individuals with paternal errors was not statistically significant, these findings suggest that selection against female fetuses with trisomy 21 may contribute to the excess of males observed among all individuals with trisomy 21. PMID:19606484

  2. Multiple Paternity in Littorina obtusata (Gastropoda, Littorinidae) Revealed by Microsatellite Analyses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    IAN G. PATERSON; VANESSA PARTRIDGE; JOHN BUCKLAND-NICKS

    2001-01-01

    Parental identity for juvenile Littorina obtusata was determined from three egg masses by means of micro- satellite DNA markers. Results confirm that the attendant adult female in each case was the dam of the offspring and that at least 4 - 6 males contributed to each brood. This correlates with our behavioral observations that indicated multiple copulations between the female

  3. Paternal mosaicism of an STXBP1 mutation in OS.

    PubMed

    Saitsu, H; Hoshino, H; Kato, M; Nishiyama, K; Okada, I; Yoneda, Y; Tsurusaki, Y; Doi, H; Miyake, N; Kubota, M; Hayasaka, K; Matsumoto, N

    2011-11-01

    Ohtahara syndrome (OS) is one of the most severe and earliest forms of epilepsy. We have recently identified that the de novo mutations of STXBP1 are important causes for OS. Here we report a paternal somatic mosaicism of an STXBP1 mutation. The affected daughter had onset of spasms at 1 month of age, and interictal electroencephalogram showed suppression-burst pattern, leading to the diagnosis of OS. She had a heterozygous c.902+5G>A mutation of STXBP1, which affects donor splicing of exon 10, resulting in 138-bp insertion of intron 10 sequences in the transcript. The mutant transcript had a premature stop codon, and was degraded by nonsense-mediated mRNA decay in lymphoblastoid cells derived from the patient. High-resolution melting analysis of clinically unaffected parental DNAs suggested that the father was somatic mosaic for the mutation, which was also suggested by sequencing. Cloning of PCR products amplified with the paternal DNA samples extracted from blood, saliva, buccal cells, and nails suggested that 5.3%, 8.7%, 11.9%, and 16.9% of alleles harbored the mutation, respectively. This is a first report of somatic mosaicism of an STXBP1 mutation, which has implications in genetic counseling of OS. PMID:21062273

  4. Paternal genetic history of the Basque population of Spain.

    PubMed

    Young, Kristin L; Sun, Guangyun; Deka, Ranjan; Crawford, Michael H

    2011-08-01

    This study examines the genetic variation in Basque Y chromosome lineages using data on 12 Y-short tandem repeat (STR) loci in a sample of 158 males from four Basque provinces of Spain (Alava, Vizcaya, Guipuzcoa, and Navarre). As reported in previous studies, the Basques are characterized by high frequencies of haplogroup R1b (83%). AMOVA analysis demonstrates genetic homogeneity, with a small but significant amount of genetic structure between provinces (Y-short tandem repeat loci STRs: 1.71%, p = 0.0369). Gene and haplotype diversity levels in the Basque population are on the low end of the European distribution (gene diversity: 0.4268; haplotype diversity: 0.9421). Post-Neolithic contribution to the paternal Basque gene pool was estimated by measuring the proportion of those haplogroups with a Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor (TMRCA) previously dated either prior (R1b, I2a2) or subsequent to (E1b1b, G2a, J2a) the Neolithic. Based on these estimates, the Basque provinces show varying degrees of post-Neolithic contribution in the paternal lineages (10.9% in the combined sample). PMID:21846204

  5. Paternal dietary folate, B6 and B12 intake, and the risk of childhood brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Greenop, Kathryn R; Miller, Margaret; Bailey, Helen D; Scott, Rodney J; Attia, John; Bower, Carol; van Bockxmeer, Frank M; Ashton, Lesley J; Armstrong, Bruce K; Milne, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    It is biologically plausible that a paternal preconception diet low in nutrients related to DNA integrity could affect sperm DNA and subsequently risk of cancer in the offspring. The aim of this analysis was to investigate whether paternal preconception dietary folate, B6, or B12 intake was associated with the risk of childhood brain tumors (CBT) in an Australian case-control study. Cases <15 years of age were recruited from 10 Australian pediatric oncology centers between 2005 and 2010, and controls from random-digit dialing, frequency-matched to cases on age, sex, and state of residence. Paternal dietary information was obtained by food-frequency questionnaires. Nutrient values were energy adjusted and divided into tertiles for analysis by unconditional logistic regression. In fathers with relevant data (237 cases and 629 controls), no association with dietary folate and B6 and risk of CBT was seen; high B12 intake was associated with an increased risk of CBT (odds ratio highest vs. lowest tertile: 1.74, 95% confidence interval: 1.14, 2.66) without an increasing trend. These results do not support the hypothesis that paternal dietary folate intake influences the risk of CBT. The increased OR observed between dietary B12 intake and risk of CBT is without any certain explanation. PMID:25625505

  6. Paternal Age, Paternal Presence and Children’s Health: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, Julian; Sutcliffe, Alastair G.; Melhuish, Edward; Barnes, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    In an observational study of 31,257 children we investigated the effects of paternal age at the time of the child’s birth, paternal absence and non-biological fathers on children’s health. Results are per 5 year change in paternal age. Older fathers were associated with lower rates of unintentional injuries, odds ratio (OR)=0.966, P=0.0027. There was a quadratic association between paternal age and risk of hospital admission, ?=0.0121, P=0.0109, with minimum risk at paternal age 37.7. Absent fathers were associated with increased risk of hospital admission, OR=1.19, P<10?3, lower rates of complete immunizations to 9 months, OR=0.562, P<10?3, higher Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) difficulties scores: ?=0.304, P=0.0024 (3 year olds), ?=0.697, P<10?3 (5 year olds). Non-biological fathers were associated with increased risk of unintentional injury, OR=1.16, P=0.0319 and hospital admission, OR=1.26, P=0.0166; lower rates of complete immunizations to 9 months, OR=0.343, P=0.0309 and higher SDQ difficulties scores: ?=0.908, P<10?3. PMID:25918623

  7. Certainty of paternity and paternal investment in eastern bluebirds and tree swallows.

    PubMed

    Kempenaers; Lanctot; Robertson

    1998-04-01

    Extra-pair paternity is common in many socially monogamous passerine birds with biparental care. Thus, males often invest in offspring to which they are not related. Models of optimal parental investment predict that, under certain assumptions, males should lower their investment in response to reduced certainty of paternity. We attempted to reduce certainty of paternity experimentally in two species, the eastern bluebird, Sialia sialis, and the tree swallow, Tachycineta bicolor, by temporarily removing fertile females on two mornings during egg laying. In both species, experimental males usually attempted to copulate with the female immediately after her reappearance, suggesting that they experienced the absence of their mate as a threat to their paternity. Experimental males copulated at a significantly higher rate than control males. However, contrary to the prediction of the model, experimental males did not invest less than control males in their offspring. There was no difference between experimental and control nests in the proportion of male feeds, male and female feeding rates, nestling growth and nestling condition and size at age 14 days. We argue that females might have restored the males' confidence in paternity after the experiment by soliciting or accepting copulations. Alternatively, males may not reduce their effort, because the fitness costs to their own offspring may outweigh the benefits for the males, at least in populations where females cannot fully compensate for reduced male investment. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:9632472

  8. A rapid qPCR method for genetic sex identification of Salmo salar and Salmo trutta including simultaneous elucidation of interspecies hybrid paternity by high-resolution melt analysis.

    PubMed

    Anglès d'Auriac, M B; Urke, H A; Kristensen, T

    2014-06-01

    This study presents an improved duplex quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method using the master sex-determining gene sdY as a marker for simultaneous genetic sex identification of salmonids of the Salmo genus and paternity elucidation for Salmo salar × Salmo trutta hybrids. This method will provide a new, simple and economical molecular tool for ecological studies of these species as well as for aquaculture purposes. PMID:24814478

  9. Paternity testing in a PBL environment.

    PubMed

    Casla, Alberto Vicario; Zubiaga, Isabel Smith

    2010-01-01

    Problem Based Learning (PBL) makes use of real-life scenarios to stimulate students' prior knowledge and to provide a meaningful context that is also related to the student's future professional work. In this article, Paternity testing is presented using a PBL approach that involves a combination of classroom, laboratory, and out-of-class activities: in relation to a fictitious newborn found on the Campus, students design a PCR based protocol to determine their own genotype for two markers. Pooled class genotypes serve to calculate allelic frequencies and to assess Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Individual results are also evaluated for possible paternity. The goals of the activity and how each step in the process relates to learning outcomes are presented. Classroom discussions, group discussions, tutorial sessions, wiki sites, laboratory activities, and individual reports sum up the situations, in which the students' process of learning and learning outcomes can be evaluated. PMID:21567789

  10. Paternal Age and Epilepsy in the Offspring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mogens Vestergaard; Alissa Mork; Kreesten M. Madsen; Jørn Olsen

    2005-01-01

    Advanced paternal age is associated with a higher rate of de novo mutation in sperm cells and mental disorders in the offspring. In a population based cohort study of 96,654 children, we\\u000a found that fathers aged 35 years or more were slightly more likely to have a child diagnosed with epilepsy compared to fathers\\u000a aged 25–29 years. Our data suggest a modest

  11. Paternity Following Treatment for Testicular Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marianne Brydøy; Sophie D. Fosså; Olbjørn Klepp; Roy M. Bremnes; Erik A. Wist; Tore Wentzel-Larsen; Olav Dahl

    2005-01-01

    Background: Studies of fertility in men treated for testicular cancer have mainly addressed serum follicle-stimulating hor- mone levels and sperm parameters. We assessed post-treatment paternity among long-term survivors of testicular cancer. Methods: Men (n = 1814) who had been treated for unilateral testicular cancer in Norway during 1980 through 1994 were in- vited to participate in a national multi-center follow-up

  12. Polyploid microsatellite data reveal stock complexity among estuarine North American

    E-print Network

    May, Bernie

    Polyploid microsatellite data reveal stock complexity among estuarine North American green sturgeon along the west coast punctuated by summer residence in estuaries; however, little is known about stock composition in these tidal environments. Pairwise comparisons and genetic clustering analysis were used

  13. Detecting microsatellites within genomes: significant variation among algorithms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sébastien Leclercq; Eric Rivals; Philippe Jarne

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Microsatellites are short, tandemly-repeated DNA sequences which are widely distributed among genomes. Their structure, role and evolution can be analyzed based on exhaustive extraction from sequenced genomes. Several dedicated algorithms have been developed for this purpose. Here, we compared the detection efficiency of five of them (TRF, Mreps, Sputnik, STAR, and RepeatMasker). RESULTS: Our analysis was first conducted on

  14. Paternally inherited markers in bovine hybrid populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E L C Verkaar; H Vervaecke; C Roden; L Romero Mendoza; M W Barwegen; T Susilawati; I J Nijman; J A Lenstra

    2003-01-01

    The genetic integrity of crossfertile bovine- or cattle-like species may be endangered by species hybridization. Previously, amplified fragment length polymorphism, satellite fragment length polymorphism and microsatellite assays have been used to analyze the species composition of nuclear DNA in taurine cattle, zebu, banteng and bison populations, while mitochondrial DNA reveals the origin of the maternal lineages. Here, we describe species-specific

  15. Human mutagens: evidence from paternal exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Narod, S.A.; Douglas, G.R.; Nestmann, E.R.; Blakey, D.H.

    1988-01-01

    The importance of inherited mutations as a cause of human disease has been established clearly through examples of well-defined genetic anomalies, such as Down syndrome and retinoblastoma. Furthermore, it is suspected that environmental contaminants induce mutations resulting in increased risk for such defects in subsequent generations of persons exposed. The present lack of direct evidence for induced inherited genetic disorders in human beings hampers the development of risk estimation techniques for extrapolation from animal models. The most extensive prospective epidemiologic studies of inherited genetic effects have involved survivors of atomic bomb detonations and patients treated with cancer chemotherapy. In neither case has a significant elevation in inherited genetic effects or cancer been detected in the offspring of exposed individuals. Epidemiologic studies of subjects receiving chronic exposure may be confounded by the effect of maternal exposure during pregnancy. Consideration of only paternal exposure can minimize the confounding influence of teratogenicity, enhancing the resolving power of studies for inherited effects. Using this approach, retrospective (case-control) studies of childhood cancer patients have provided limited but suggestive evidence for inheritance of induced effects. Endpoints, such as congenital malformations and spontaneous abortion following paternal exposure, can also be considered as indicators of heritable mutagenic effects. For example, there is limited evidence suggesting that paternal exposure to anaesthetic gases may cause miscarriage and congenital abnormalities as a result of induced male germ cell mutations. 104 references.

  16. Families, murder, and insanity: a psychiatric review of paternal neonaticide.

    PubMed

    Kaye, N S; Borenstein, N M; Donnelly, S M

    1990-01-01

    Neonaticide is the killing of a newborn within the first 24 h of life. Although relatively uncommon, numerous cases of maternal neonaticide have been reported. To date, only two cases of paternal neonaticide have appeared in the literature. The authors review neonaticide and present two new case reports of paternal neonaticide. A psychodynamic explanation of paternal neonaticide is formulated. A new definition for neonaticide, more consistent with biological and psychological determinants, is suggested. PMID:2313254

  17. Paternity, parental behavior and circulating steroid hormone concentrations in nest-tending male bluegill

    E-print Network

    Neff, Bryan D.

    Paternity, parental behavior and circulating steroid hormone concentrations in nest-tending male, we examined the relationships between circulating steroid hormones, paternity, and parental behavior a complex relationship between circulating steroid hormone levels, paternity and parental behavior. © 2009

  18. High frequency of submicroscopic chromosomal imbalances in patients with syndromic craniosynostosis detected by a combined approach of microsatellite segregation analysis, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and array-based comparative genome hybridisation.

    PubMed

    Jehee, F S; Krepischi-Santos, A C V; Rocha, K M; Cavalcanti, D P; Kim, C A; Bertola, D R; Alonso, L G; D'Angelo, C S; Mazzeu, J F; Froyen, G; Lugtenberg, D; Vianna-Morgante, A M; Rosenberg, C; Passos-Bueno, M R

    2008-07-01

    We present the first comprehensive study, to our knowledge, on genomic chromosomal analysis in syndromic craniosynostosis. In total, 45 patients with craniosynostotic disorders were screened with a variety of methods including conventional karyotype, microsatellite segregation analysis, subtelomeric multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification) and whole-genome array-based comparative genome hybridisation. Causative abnormalities were present in 42.2% (19/45) of the samples, and 27.8% (10/36) of the patients with normal conventional karyotype carried submicroscopic imbalances. Our results include a wide variety of imbalances and point to novel chromosomal regions associated with craniosynostosis. The high incidence of pure duplications or trisomies suggests that these are important mechanisms in craniosynostosis, particularly in cases involving the metopic suture. PMID:18456720

  19. Microsatellite instability in adenocarcinoma of the prostrate

    SciTech Connect

    Terrell, R.B.; Willie, A.H.; Cheville, J.C. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Instability of tandem repeat sequences (microsatellites) has been reported to play a major etiologic role in familial colon cancer, as well as a potential role in the carcinogenesis of other sporadic neoplasms. These replication errors are the result of faulty DNA excision/repair function controlled at the gene level. In order to examine this phenomenon in prostate cancer, we screened 40 tumors with di-, tri- and tetranucleotide markers spanning eleven chromosomal loci. Microsatellite instability was observed overall in 3 of the 40 cases (7.5%). All changes were identified solely in tetranucleotide sequences (3 of 11 total markers analyzed). One tumor demonstrated repeat length expansions at two loci, while the other tumors did so at a single locus. Both Type 1 (>4 base pairs) and Type II (4 base pairs) mutations were identified. One of these cases also included metastatic nodal disease. Analysis of the metastatic tumor tissue revealed allelic patterns identical to the normal tissue control. A secondary screening of the mutated tumors demonstrated no repeat length alterations in 16 additional markers. A CAG repeat in the androgen receptor (AR) gene was also studied and demonstrated that 3 of 40 (7.5%) tumors contained mutations within this repeat. We concluded that microsatellite instability is uncommon in prostate adenocarcinoma appearing to occur more often in tetranucleotide repeat sequences and in an AR gene repeat. Additionally, these findings suggest that dysfunctional DNA excision/repair mechanisms, as evidenced by the low frequency of replication errors, are unlikely to play a major role in the natural history of prostate cancer.

  20. Individual multilocus genotypes using microsatellite polymorphisms to permit the analysis of the genetic variability within and between Italian beef cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Ciampolini, R; Moazami-Goudarzi, K; Vaiman, D; Dillmann, C; Mazzanti, E; Foulley, J L; Leveziel, H; Cianci, D

    1995-11-01

    We investigated the genetic variability within and between cattle breeds. The polymorphisms of 17 microsatellites were studied in 220 unrelated animals belonging to four Italian beef cattle breeds (Chianina, Marchigiana, Romagnola, and Piemontese). Variations of allelic frequencies were examined to characterize the breeds and their relationships. Wahlund coefficients, Polymorphism Information Content values, and Haldane exact test for Hardy-Weinberg proportions were calculated. The results show that the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium is not always maintained. Moreover, in addition to the classical genetic distances, a new method, based on the consideration of a multilocus genotype of each animal, was set up to measure the genetic similarity between animals or within groups of animals. All the results showed that, whereas Chianina occupies an intermediate position and Piemontese is the most distinct of all four breeds, Marchigiana and Romagnola display the strongest similarity. The new method also provides evidence that average similarities are always higher within breeds than between breeds. By comparing pairwise the multilocus genotypes, it was also possible to discriminate the individuals with higher or lower genetic similarities so that each breed could be subdivided into two groups of animals in relation to their similarity to the average breed multilocus genotype. High similarities between breeds were detected, somewhat surprisingly, when the most homogeneous groups of each breed were compared. The microsatellite multilocus genotype is particularly efficient in evaluating the between- and within-breeds genetic similarities and for subgrouping genetically more homogeneous animals. PMID:8586582

  1. Relationships of maternal and paternal anthropometry with neonatal body size, proportions and adiposity in an Australian cohort

    PubMed Central

    Pomeroy, Emma; Wells, Jonathan CK; Cole, Tim J; O'Callaghan, Michael; Stock, Jay T

    2015-01-01

    The patterns of association between maternal or paternal and neonatal phenotype may offer insight into how neonatal characteristics are shaped by evolutionary processes, such as conflicting parental interests in fetal investment and obstetric constraints. Paternal interests are theoretically served by maximizing fetal growth, and maternal interests by managing investment in current and future offspring, but whether paternal and maternal influences act on different components of overall size is unknown. We tested whether parents' prepregnancy height and body mass index (BMI) were related to neonatal anthropometry (birthweight, head circumference, absolute and proportional limb segment and trunk lengths, subcutaneous fat) among 1,041 Australian neonates using stepwise linear regression. Maternal and paternal height and maternal BMI were associated with birthweight. Paternal height related to offspring forearm and lower leg lengths, maternal height and BMI to neonatal head circumference, and maternal BMI to offspring adiposity. Principal components analysis identified three components of variability reflecting neonatal “head and trunk skeletal size,” “adiposity,” and “limb lengths.” Regression analyses of the component scores supported the associations of head and trunk size or adiposity with maternal anthropometry, and limb lengths with paternal anthropometry. Our results suggest that while neonatal fatness reflects environmental conditions (maternal physiology), head circumference and limb and trunk lengths show differing associations with parental anthropometry. These patterns may reflect genetics, parental imprinting and environmental influences in a manner consistent with parental conflicts of interest. Paternal height may relate to neonatal limb length as a means of increasing fetal growth without exacerbating the risk of obstetric complications. Am J Phys Anthropol 156:625–636, 2015. PMID:25502164

  2. Microsatellite marker diversity in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Blair, M W; Giraldo, M C; Buendía, H F; Tovar, E; Duque, M C; Beebe, S E

    2006-06-01

    A diversity survey was used to estimate allelic diversity and heterozygosity of 129 microsatellite markers in a panel of 44 common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes that have been used as parents of mapping populations. Two types of microsatellites were evaluated, based respectively on gene coding and genomic sequences. Genetic diversity was evaluated by estimating the polymorphism information content (PIC), as well as the distribution and range of alleles sizes. Gene-based microsatellites proved to be less polymorphic than genomic microsatellites in terms of both number of alleles (6.0 vs. 9.2) and PIC values (0.446 vs. 0.594) while greater size differences between the largest and the smallest allele were observed for the genomic microsatellites than for the gene-based microsatellites (31.4 vs. 19.1 bp). Markers that showed a high number of alleles were identified with a maximum of 28 alleles for the marker BMd1. The microsatellites were useful for distinguishing Andean and Mesoamerican genotypes, for uncovering the races within each genepool and for separating wild accessions from cultivars. Greater polymorphism and race structure was found within the Andean gene pool than within the Mesoamerican gene pool and polymorphism rate between genotypes was consistent with genepool and race identity. Comparisons between Andean genotypes had higher polymorphism (53.0%) on average than comparisons among Mesoamerican genotypes (33.4%). Within the Mesoamerican parental combinations, the intra-racial combinations between Mesoamerica and Durango or Jalisco race genotypes showed higher average rates of polymorphism (37.5%) than the within-race combinations between Mesoamerica race genotypes (31.7%). In multiple correspondance analysis we found two principal clusters of genotypes corresponding to the Mesoamerican and Andean gene pools and subgroups representing specific races especially for the Nueva Granada and Peru races of the Andean gene pool. Intra population diversity was higher within the Andean genepool than within the Mesoamerican genepool and this pattern was observed for both gene-based and genomic microsatellites. Furthermore, intra-population diversity within the Andean races (0.356 on average) was higher than within the Mesoamerican races (0.302). Within the Andean gene pool, race Peru had higher diversity compared to race Nueva Granada, while within the Mesoamerican gene pool, the races Durango, Guatemala and Jalisco had comparable levels of diversity which were below that of race Mesoamerica. PMID:16614831

  3. Paternal phylogeography and genetic diversity of East Asian goats.

    PubMed

    Waki, A; Sasazaki, S; Kobayashi, E; Mannen, H

    2015-06-01

    This study was a first analysis of paternal genetic diversity for extensive Asian domestic goats using SRY gene sequences. Sequencing comparison of the SRY 3'-untranslated region among 210 Asian goats revealed four haplotypes (Y1A, Y1B, Y2A and Y2B) derived from four variable sites including a novel substitution detected in this study. In Asian goats, the predominant haplotype was Y1A (62%) and second most common was Y2B (30%). Interestingly, the Y2B was a unique East Asian Y chromosomal variant, which differentiates eastern and western Eurasian goats. The SRY geographic distribution in Myanmar and Cambodia indicated predominant the haplotype Y1A in plains areas and a high frequency of Y2B in mountain areas. The results suggest recent genetic infiltration of modern breeds into South-East Asian goats and an ancestral SRY Y2B haplotype in Asian native goats. PMID:25917305

  4. Phylogeography and population structure of the saker falcon ( Falco cherrug ) and the influence of hybridization: mitochondrial and microsatellite data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FRANZISKA NITTINGER; ANITA GAMAUF; WILHELM PINSKER; MICHAEL WINK; ELISABETH HARING

    Microsatellite as well as sequence analysis of the mitochondrial control region were applied to infer phylogeography and population genetic structure of the saker falcon ( Falco cherrug ). Furthermore, we compared the patterns of mitochondrial haplotypes with the variation of microsatellite alleles among the species of the hierofalcon complex ( F. cherrug , Falco rusticolus , Falco biarmicus , Falco

  5. Development of microsatellite markers and characterization of simple sequence length polymorphism (SSLP) in rice ( Oryza sativa L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Panaud; X. Chen; S. R. McCouch

    1996-01-01

    Microsatellite markers containing simple sequence repeats (SSR) are a valuable tool for genetic analysis. Our objective is to augment the existing RFLP map of rice with simple sequence length polymorphisms (SSLP). In this study, we describe 20 new microsatellite markers that have been assigned to positions along the rice chromosomes, characterized for their allelic diversity in cultivated and wild rice,

  6. Low frequency paternal transmission of plastid genes in Brassicaceae.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Anja; Stelljes, Christian; Adams, Caroline; Kirchner, Stefan; Burkhard, Gabi; Jarzombski, Sabine; Broer, Inge; Horn, Patricia; Elsayed, Ashraf; Hagl, Peter; Leister, Dario; Koop, Hans-Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    Plastid-encoded genes are maternally inherited in most plant species. Transgenes located on the plastid genome are thus within a natural confinement system, preventing their distribution via pollen. However, a low-frequency leakage of plastids via pollen seems to be universal in plants. Here we report that a very low-level paternal inheritance in Arabidopsis thaliana occurs under field conditions. As pollen donor an Arabidopsis accession (Ler-Ely) was used, which carried a plastid-localized atrazine resistance due to a point mutation in the psbA gene. The frequency of pollen transmission into F1 plants, based on their ability to express the atrazine resistance was 1.9 × 10(-5). We extended our analysis to another cruciferous species, the world-wide cultivated crop Brassica napus. First, we isolated a fertile and stable plastid transformant (T36) in a commercial cultivar of B. napus (cv Drakkar). In T36 the aadA and the bar genes were integrated in the inverted repeat region of the B. napus plastid DNA following particle bombardment of hypocotyl segments. Southern blot analysis confirmed transgene integration and homoplasmy of plastid DNA. Line T36 expressed Basta resistance from the inserted bar gene and this trait was used to estimate the frequency of pollen transmission into F1 plants. A frequency of <2.6 × 10(-5) was determined in the greenhouse. Taken together, our data show a very low rate of paternal plastid transmission in Brassicacea. Moreover, the establishment of plastid transformation in B. napus facilitates a safe use of this important crop plant for plant biotechnology. PMID:25343875

  7. Multiple Paternity in Polyandrous Barn Owls (Tyto alba) Isabelle Henry.

    E-print Network

    Alvarez, Nadir

    Multiple Paternity in Polyandrous Barn Owls (Tyto alba) Isabelle Henry. , Sylvain Antoniazza females produce successive clutches with several males. Female barn owls (Tyto alba) often desert Paternity in Polyandrous Barn Owls (Tyto alba). PLoS ONE 8(11): e80112. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0080112

  8. Patterns of multiple paternity in fruits of Mimulus ringens (Phrymaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RANDALL J. MITCHELL; JEFFREY D. KARRON; KARSTEN G. HOLMQUIST; JOHN M. BELL

    2005-01-01

    Multiply sired fruits provide unambiguous evidence that pollen from two or more donors was deposited on a stigma and successfully fertilized ovules. Such multiple paternity within fruits can have important consequences for both parental and offspring fitness, but little is known about the frequency of multiple paternity or the mechanisms causing it. In this study we quantify the extent of

  9. DNA Paternity Testing: Public Perceptions And The Influence Of Gender

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Gilding; Christine Critchley; Penelope Shields; Lisa Bakacs; Kerrie-Anne Butler

    This article reports on the findings of the Swinburne National Technology and Society Monitor in relation to public perceptions of DNA paternity testing, with particular reference to the effects of gender. The Monitor included a large-scale random survey and focus groups. Taken together, the survey and focus groups suggest that most Australians are 'comfortable' with DNA paternity testing in a

  10. Reexamination of paternal age effect in Down's syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ei Matsunaga; Akira Tonomura; Hidetsune Oishi; Yasumoto Kikuchi

    1978-01-01

    Paternal age distribution for 1279 cases of Down's syndrome born in 1952–1968 was compared with the corresponding distribution for the general population, corrected for the maternal age as well as for the year of birth of the patients. Although there was no difference in the mean paternal age, the two distributions differed significantly, largely due to the excess of fathers

  11. RESEARCH REPORT Paternal Transmission of Complex Phenotypes in

    E-print Network

    Champagne, Frances A.

    the possibility of germline paternal inheritance via sperm of complex phenotypes in inbred mice. Future studies paradigms indicating that early life experience affects gene expression and behavior in rodents (1 and fertility (20,21). Human studies also suggest nongenetic paternal effects on the pheno- types of offspring

  12. Reactivation of the Paternal X Chromosome in Early Mouse Embryos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Winifred Mak; Tatyana B. Nesterova; Mariana de Napoles; Ruth Appanah; Shinya Yamanaka; Arie P. Otte; Neil Brockdorff

    2004-01-01

    It is generally accepted that paternally imprinted X inactivation occurs exclusively in extraembryonic lineages of mouse embryos, whereas cells of the embryo proper, derived from the inner cell mass (ICM), undergo only random X inactivation. Here we show that imprinted X inactivation, in fact, occurs in all cells of early embryos and that the paternal X is then selectively reactivated

  13. Maternal and Paternal Depressive Symptoms as Predictors of Toddler Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinfield, Nancy S.; Ingerski, Lisa; Moreau, Stacey Coffey

    2009-01-01

    In this study we explored the relation between maternal and paternal depressive symptoms and toddler adjustment in a community sample, testing direct, additive, and interactive models of parental depressive symptoms and child adjustment. Participants were 49 families with 30-month-old children. Data were collected on maternal and paternal

  14. Female reproductive synchrony predicts skewed paternity across primates

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, Charles L.; Schülke, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have uncovered remarkable variation in paternity within primate groups. To date, however, we lack a general understanding of the factors that drive variation in paternity skew among primate groups and across species. Our study focused on hypotheses from reproductive skew theory involving limited control and the use of paternity “concessions” by investigating how paternity covaries with the number of males, female estrous synchrony, and rates of extragroup paternity. In multivariate and phylogenetically controlled analyses of data from 27 studies on 19 species, we found strong support for a limited control skew model, with reproductive skew within groups declining as female reproductive synchrony and the number of males per group increase. Of these 2 variables, female reproductive synchrony explained more of the variation in paternity distributions. To test whether dominant males provide incentives to subordinates to resist matings by extragroup males, that is, whether dominants make concessions of paternity, we derived a novel prediction that skew is lower within groups when threat from outside the group exists. This prediction was not supported as a primary factor underlying patterns of reproductive skew among primate species. However, our approach revealed that if concessions occur in primates, they are most likely when female synchrony is low, as these conditions provide alpha male control of paternity that is assumed by concessions models. Collectively, our analyses demonstrate that aspects of male reproductive competition are the primary drivers of reproductive skew in primates. PMID:19018288

  15. Modeling paternal attentiveness: distressed pups evoke differential neurobiological and behavioral responses in paternal and nonpaternal mice.

    PubMed

    Lambert, K G; Franssen, C L; Hampton, J E; Rzucidlo, A M; Hyer, M M; True, M; Kaufman, C; Bardi, M

    2013-03-27

    With the exception of parturition and lactation, male California deer mice (Peromyscus californicus) exhibit the same parental responses toward offspring as conspecific females. A closely related species, Peromyscus maniculatus, however, rarely exhibits paternal responses. In the current study, a comparative species approach was used to assess paternal responses in both Peromyscus species with varying levels of paternal experience (biological fathers, pup-exposed virgins, and pup-naïve virgins). Of special interest was the persistence of the males to direct their attention toward a distressed pup housed in a small enclosure (i.e., a barrier existed between males and pups). In addition to pup-directed responses, non-pup-directed responses such as grooming, resting and jumping were recorded. Subsequently, all animals' brains were assessed for fos-immunoreactivity (ir) in several areas previously associated with the paternal brain circuit. Overall, P. californicus exhibited more pup-directed responses as well as less fos-ir in brain areas involved in emotional integration and processing such as the insula and anterior cingulate. In addition to increased activation of emotional regulatory areas, P. maniculatus males, observed to direct their behavior away from the pup, exhibited higher fos-ir in the nucleus accumbens (involved in goal acquisition), perhaps due to a heightened motivation to avoid the pups. Interestingly, experience with pups altered the lateral septum and amygdala activation of P. maniculatus to levels similar to P. californicus biological fathers. Finally, fos-ir was increased in the medial preoptic area, involved in the maintenance of maternal behavior, in the biological fathers of both species. Thus, although biological predispositions toward pup-directed behaviors were observed in P. californicus males, evidence of a few shifts toward the paternal neural activation profile was apparent in P. maniculatus males. Specifically, modifications in fear responses and social processing may represent the cornerstones of the gradual shift from social tentativeness to social attentiveness in the presence of pups. PMID:23262236

  16. Moral Status and the Wrongness of Paternalism

    PubMed Central

    Birks, David

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I consider the view that paternalism is wrong when it demeans or diminishes the paternalizee’s moral status (the Moral Status Argument). I argue that we should reject the Moral Status Argument because it is both too narrow and too broad. It is too narrow because it cannot account for the wrongness of some of the most objectionable paternalistic interventions, namely strong paternalistic interventions. It is too broad because it is unable to distinguish between wrongful paternalistic acts that are plausibly considered more wrong than other wrongful paternalistic acts. PMID:25075133

  17. Paternal kin discrimination: the evidence and likely mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Widdig, Anja

    2007-05-01

    One of the most important assumptions of kin selection theory is that individuals behave differently towards kin than non-kin. In mammals, there is strong evidence that maternal kin are distinguished from non-kin via familiarity. However, little is known about whether or not mammals can also recognize paternal kin as many female mammals, including primates, mate with multiple males near the time of conception, potentially concealing paternal kinship. Genetic data in several mammalian species with a promiscuous mating system and male-biased dispersal reveal a high skew in male reproduction which leads to co-residing paternal half-siblings. In most primates, individuals also form stable bisexual groups creating opportunities for males to interact with their offspring. Here I consider close paternal kin co-resident in the same social group, such as father-offspring and paternal half-siblings (i.e. animals sharing the same father but who were born to different mothers) and review mammalian studies of paternal kin discrimination. Furthermore, I summarize the most likely mechanisms of paternal kin discrimination (familiarity and phenotype matching). When familiarity is the underlying mechanism, mothers and/or the sire could mediate familiarity among paternal half-siblings as well as between fathers and offspring assuming mothers and/or fathers can assess paternity. When animals use phenotype matching, they might use their fathers' template (when the father is present) or self (when the father is absent) to assess paternal kinship in others. Available evidence suggests that familiarity and phenotype matching might be used for paternal kin discrimination and that both mechanisms might apply to a wide range of social mammals characterized by a high skew in male reproduction and co-residence of paternal kin. Among primates, suggested evidence for phenotype matching can often have an alternative explanation, which emphasizes the crucial importance of controlling for familiarity as a potential confounding variable. However, the mechanism/s used to identify paternal kin might differ within a species (as a function of each individual's specific circumstances) as well as among species (depending upon the key sensory modalities of the species considered). Finally, I discuss the possible cues used in paternal kin discrimination and offer suggestions for future studies. PMID:17437563

  18. TECHNICAL NOTE Twelve tetranucleotide microsatellite loci for westslope cutthroat

    E-print Network

    Kalinowski, Steven T

    TECHNICAL NOTE Twelve tetranucleotide microsatellite loci for westslope cutthroat trout isolated 12 tetra-nucleotide microsatellite loci from westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi Oncorhynchus clarki Á Westslope cutthroat trout Á Microsatellite loci Á Population genetics Á Montana

  19. TECHNICAL NOTE Characterization of microsatellite loci markers for the critically

    E-print Network

    Carranza, Salvador

    TECHNICAL NOTE Characterization of microsatellite loci markers for the critically endangered novel tetranucleotide polymorphic microsatellite loci are described and characterized for the critically high resolution genetic markers, such as microsatellite loci are needed to infer the degree of current

  20. Transcriptome analysis of channel catfish ( Ictalurus punctatus): initial analysis of gene expression and microsatellite-containing cDNAs in the skin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Attila Karsi; Dongfeng Cao; Ping Li; Andrea Patterson; Arif Kocabas; Jinian Feng; Zhenlin Ju; Kathryn D. Mickett; Zhanjiang Liu

    2002-01-01

    Previous molecular genetic studies on channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) have focused on limited number of genes and gene products. Recent advancement of molecular techniques made high throughput analysis of transcriptomes possible. As part of our transcriptome analysis of channel catfish, we have analyzed 1909 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) derived from a skin library. Of the 1909 ESTs analyzed, 1376 (72.1%)

  1. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers in the equine genome 

    E-print Network

    Mathiason, Kelli Janae

    1997-01-01

    Chain Reaction. . Microsatellite Typing . Analysis of Polymorphism . . Assignment of Loci to Zebra Synteny Groups. . . . . . . . . . . . Analysis of Amplification in Other Species . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 13 13 18 19 20 20 21 22... or other genetic markers of interest, and therefore require that the markers exhibit variation, or polymorphism, within a species. Loci are considered to be linked if recombination This thesis follows the format of Animal Genetics. occurs between them...

  2. High resolution of human evolutionary trees with polymorphic microsatellites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Bowcock; A. Ruiz-Linares; J. Tomfohrde; E. Minch; J. R. Kidd; L. L. Cavalli-Sforza

    1994-01-01

    GENETIC variation at hypervariable loci is being used extensively for linkage analysis1 and individual identification2, and may be useful for inter-population studies2-5. Here we show that polymorphic microsatellites (primarily CA repeats) allow trees of human individuals to be constructed that reflect their geographic origin with remarkable accuracy. This is achieved by the analysis of a large number of loci for

  3. Microsatellite spreading in the human genome: evolutionary mechanisms and structural implications.

    PubMed Central

    Nadir, E; Margalit, H; Gallily, T; Ben-Sasson, S A

    1996-01-01

    Microsatellites are tandem repeat sequences abundant in the genomes of higher eukaryotes and hitherto considered as "junk DNA." Analysis of a human genome representative data base (2.84 Mb) reveals a distinct juxtaposition of A-rich microsatellites and retroposons and suggests their coevolution. The analysis implies that most microsatellites were generated by a 3'-extension of retrotranscripts, similar to mRNA polyadenylylation, and that they serve in turn as "retroposition navigators," directing the retroposons via homology-driven integration into defined sites. Thus, they became instrumental in the preservation and extension of primordial genomic patterns. A role is assigned to these reiterating A-rich loci in the higher-order organization of the chromatin. The disease-associated triplet repeats are mostly found in coding regions and do not show an association with retroposons, constituting a unique set within the family of microsatellite sequences. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8692839

  4. Impact of a chromosome X STR Decaplex in deficiency paternity cases

    PubMed Central

    Trindade-Filho, Aluisio; Ferreira, Samuel; Oliveira, Silviene F.

    2013-01-01

    Deficiency paternity cases, characterized by the absence of the alleged father, are a challenge for forensic genetics. Here we present four cases with a female child and a deceased alleged father in which the analysis of a set of 21 or 22 autosomal STRs (AS STRs) produced results within a range of doubt when genotyping relatives of the alleged father. Aiming to increase the Paternity Index (PI) and obtain more reliable results, a set of 10 X-linked STR markers, developed by the Spanish and Portuguese Group of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG), was then added. Statistical analysis substantially shifted the results towards the alleged fatherhood in all four cases, with more dramatic changes when the supposed half-sister and respective mother were the relatives tested. PMID:24385853

  5. Human paternal lineages, languages, and environment in the Caucasus.

    PubMed

    Tarkhnishvili, David; Gavashelishvili, Alexander; Murtskhvaladze, Marine; Gabelaia, Mariam; Tevzadze, Gigi

    2014-01-01

    Publications that describe the composition of the human Y-DNA haplogroup in diffferent ethnic or linguistic groups and geographic regions provide no explicit explanation of the distribution of human paternal lineages in relation to specific ecological conditions. Our research attempts to address this topic for the Caucasus, a geographic region that encompasses a relatively small area but harbors high linguistic, ethnic, and Y-DNA haplogroup diversity. We genotyped 224 men that identified themselves as ethnic Georgian for 23 Y-chromosome short tandem-repeat markers and assigned them to their geographic places of origin. The genotyped data were supplemented with published data on haplogroup composition and location of other ethnic groups of the Caucasus. We used multivariate statistical methods to see if linguistics, climate, and landscape accounted for geographical diffferences in frequencies of the Y-DNA haplogroups G2, R1a, R1b, J1, and J2. The analysis showed significant associations of (1) G2 with wellforested mountains, (2) J2 with warm areas or poorly forested mountains, and (3) J1 with poorly forested mountains. R1b showed no association with environment. Haplogroups J1 and R1a were significantly associated with Daghestanian and Kipchak speakers, respectively, but the other haplogroups showed no such simple associations with languages. Climate and landscape in the context of competition over productive areas among diffferent paternal lineages, arriving in the Caucasus in diffferent times, have played an important role in shaping the present-day spatial distribution of patrilineages in the Caucasus. This spatial pattern had formed before linguistic subdivisions were finally shaped, probably in the Neolithic to Bronze Age. Later historical turmoil had little influence on the patrilineage composition and spatial distribution. Based on our results, the scenario of postglacial expansions of humans and their languages to the Caucasus from the Middle East, western Eurasia, and the East European Plain is plausible. PMID:25397702

  6. Paternal and sibling incest: a case report.

    PubMed

    Celbis, Osman; Ozcan, M Erkan; Ozdemir, Bora

    2006-01-01

    A case is reported of a female victim of paternal incest, who had also been raped repeatedly by her elder brother for two years. A survey of the literature showed no other report of such a case from Turkey. This does not necessarily mean that the incidence of paternal and sibling incest does not happen, but may indicate that incestuous abuse is not reported or handled without making it known to legal authorities. The victim was first raped by her 16 year-old brother when she was 9 years old. He raped her repeatedly over a period of two years, until he left home. Her father began raping the victim when she was 13 year-old, leaving her pregnant at age 15. He took her to a doctor for a termination of pregnancy. The father continued abuse after the termination. The victim left home to marry a man. The father filed a lawsuit against the man for taking the victim away from home. More openness and awareness of incest in Turkey may encourage the victims to seek help from medical and legal authorities. PMID:16310400

  7. Linkage analysis of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy and microsatellite loci spanning 61 cM of human chromosome 6p in 19 nuclear pedigrees provides no evidence for a susceptibility locus in this region.

    PubMed Central

    Elmslie, F. V.; Williamson, M. P.; Rees, M.; Kerr, M.; Kjeldsen, M. J.; Pang, K. A.; Sundqvist, A.; Friis, M. L.; Richens, A.; Chadwick, D.; Whitehouse, W. P.; Gardiner, R. M.

    1996-01-01

    Linkage analysis in separately ascertained families of probands with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) has previously provided evidence both for and against the existence of a locus (designated "EJM1"), on chromosome 6p, predisposing to a trait defined as either clinical JME, its associated electroencephalographic abnormality, or idiopathic generalized epilepsy. Linkage analysis was performed in 19 families in which a proband and at least one first- or two second-degree relatives have clinical JME. Family members were typed for seven highly polymorphic microsatellite markers on chromosome 6p: D6S260, D6S276, D6S291, D6S271, D6S465, D6S257, and D6S254. Pairwise and multipoint linkage analysis was carried out under the assumptions of autosomal dominant inheritance at 70% and 50% penetrance and autosomal recessive inheritance at 70% and 50% penetrance. No significant evidence in favor of linkage to the clinical trait of JME was obtained for any locus. The region formally excluded (LOD score < -2) by using multipoint analysis varies depending on the assumptions made concerning inheritance parameters and the proportion of linked families, alpha-that is, the degree of locus heterogeneity. Further analysis either classifying all unaffected individuals as unknown or excluding a subset of four families in which pyknoleptic absence seizures were present in one or more individuals did not alter these conclusions. PMID:8751867

  8. Characterisation of microsatellite markers from sugarcane ( Saccharum sp.), a highly polyploid species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giovanni M Cordeiro; G. O Taylor; Robert J Henry

    2000-01-01

    Cultivated sugarcane varieties (Saccharum spp) are derived from complex interspecific hybridisations between the species S. spontaneum (2n=40–128) and S. officinarum (2n=60 or 80). To analyse this complex genome, the potential of microsatellite repeats as genetic markers in sugarcane with respect to their abundance, variability and ability to detect polymorphisms was investigated. A set of microsatellite markers for genome analysis in

  9. A test of the multiplex pre-amplification approach in microsatellite genotyping of wolverine faecal DNA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva Hedmark; Hans Ellegren

    2006-01-01

    Recently, a two-step PCR approach, referred to as multiplex pre-amplification, was proposed to improve microsatellite amplification\\u000a from non-invasive samples such as faecal DNA. Here, we compare this new approach to standard PCR with respect to amplification\\u000a success and genotyping error rates in microsatellite analysis (18 markers) of wolverine faecal DNA (48 extracts initially\\u000a shown to contain amplifiable DNA). The multiplex

  10. Demographic characteristics in adult paternity for first births to adolescents under 15 years of age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Don J Taylor; Gilberto F Chavez; Elizabeth J Adams; Anand Chabra; Rugmini S Shah

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To examine parental demographic characteristics by adult (? 20 years at baby’s conception) and teenage (Methods: This was a population-based, retrospective cohort analysis of all 12,317 very young adolescent mothers residing in California with a first singleton live birth during 1993–1995. Risks for adult, compared to teenage, paternity were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression.Results: Adult fathers, responsible for 26.7%

  11. Phylogenetic split of Larix : evidence from paternally inherited cpDNA trn T- trn F region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X.-X. Wei; X.-Q. Wang

    2003-01-01

    A molecular phylogeny of Larix com- prising 12 species was constructed from the sequence analysis of the paternally inherited cpDNA trnT-trnF region of 46 individuals. The most parsimonious tree split Larix into three sister clades: one clade was composed of two North American species, the other two were short-bracted and long-bracted species of Eurasia respectively except that L. sibirica was

  12. Phylogenetic split of Larix : evidence from paternally inherited cpDNA trn T- trn F region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X.-X. Wei; X.-Q. Wang

    2003-01-01

    A molecular phylogeny of Larix comprising 12 species was constructed from the sequence analysis of the paternally inherited cpDNA trnT- trnF region of 46 individuals. The most parsimonious tree split Larix into three sister clades: one clade was composed of two North American species, the other two were short-bracted and long-bracted species of Eurasia respectively except that L. sibirica was

  13. Paternal age as a risk factor for schizophrenia: How important is it?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Fuller Torrey; Stephen Buka; Tyrone D. Cannon; Jill M. Goldstein; Larry J. Seidman; Tianli Liu; Trevor Hadley; Isabelle M. Rosso; Carrie Bearden; Robert H. Yolken

    2009-01-01

    Advanced paternal age has been widely cited as a risk factor for schizophrenia among offspring and even claimed to account for one-quarter of all cases. We carried out a new study on 25,025 offspring from the Collaborative Perinatal Project (CPP), including 168 diagnosed with psychosis and 88 with narrowly defined schizophrenia. We also conducted a meta-analysis of this and nine

  14. Advanced paternal age and risk of fetal death: a cohort study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne-Marie Nybo Andersen; textbfKasper D textbfHansen; Per Kragh Andersen; George Davey Smith; Kasper Daniel Hansen

    2004-01-01

    A possible detrimental paternal age effect on offspring health due to mutations of paternal origin should be reflected in an association between paternal age and fetal loss. The authors used data from a prospective study of 23,821 pregnant women recruited consecutively to the Danish National Birth Cohort from 1997 to 1999 to assess the association between paternal age and fetal

  15. SHORT COMMUNICATION Development of 55 novel polymorphic microsatellite loci

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    SHORT COMMUNICATION Development of 55 novel polymorphic microsatellite loci for the critically pyrosequencing, through 454 GS-FLX Titanium technology, 55 polymorphic microsatellites loci with perfect motif

  16. TECHNICAL NOTE Polymorphic microsatellite loci from Brazilian and Hooded

    E-print Network

    Solé-Cava, Antonio M.

    TECHNICAL NOTE Polymorphic microsatellite loci from Brazilian and Hooded slipper lobsters that will be useful for their management and conservation. Microsatellite loci for S. brasiliensis and S. deceptor

  17. Male age mediates reproductive investment and response to paternity assurance

    PubMed Central

    Benowitz, Kyle M.; Head, Megan L.; Williams, Camellia A.; Moore, Allen J.; Royle, Nick J.

    2013-01-01

    Theory predicts that male response to reduced paternity will depend on male state and interactions between the sexes. If there is little chance of reproducing again, then males should invest heavily in current offspring, regardless of their share in paternity. We tested this by manipulating male age and paternity assurance in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides. We found older males invested more in both mating effort and parental effort than younger males. Furthermore, male age, a component of male state, mediated male response to perceived paternity. Older males provided more prenatal care, whereas younger males provided less prenatal care, when perceived paternity was low. Adjustments in male care, however, did not influence selection acting indirectly on parents, through offspring performance. This is because females adjusted their care in response to the age of their partner, providing less care when paired with older males than younger males. As a result offspring, performance did not differ between treatments. Our study shows, for the first time, that a male state variable is an important modifier of paternity–parental care trade-offs and highlights the importance of social interactions between males and females during care in determining male response to perceived paternity. PMID:23782889

  18. Feto-infant health and survival: does paternal involvement matter?

    PubMed

    Alio, Amina P; Salihu, Hamisu M; Kornosky, Jennifer L; Richman, Alice M; Marty, Phillip J

    2010-11-01

    Lack of paternal involvement during pregnancy and infancy may account for a significant burden of the adverse pregnancy outcomes among black women and could therefore, represent an important avenue providing the opportunity to improve feto-infant health and survival. This study aimed to review the literature on paternal involvement during the perinatal period and its influence on feto-infant health and survival. Literature for this review was identified by searching the PubMed database from the National Center for Biotechnology Information at the US National Library of Medicine as well as the ISI Web of Knowledge Databases, OVID, and CINAHL. A total of seven papers were identified and included in this review. There is paucity of data in this domain. Overall findings suggest that paternal involvement during pregnancy may have important implications for maternal prenatal health behaviors and feto-infant health. Although results are limited, results suggest that paternal involvement has a positive influence on prenatal care usage, abstinence from alcohol and smoking, and a reduction in low birth weight and small for gestational age infants. None of the papers examined the relationship between stillbirth and paternal involvement. Additional studies with enhanced measures of paternal involvement are needed to better assess the role of fathers in enhancing prenatal health behaviors and pregnancy outcomes. Efforts should be made to include fathers in future studies and reduce reliance on maternal report and to investigate paternal roles across different racial groups so that appropriate interventions can be developed. PMID:19826935

  19. Paternal age and schizophrenia: a population based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Sipos, Attila; Rasmussen, Finn; Harrison, Glynn; Tynelius, Per; Lewis, Glyn; Leon, David A; Gunnell, David

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association of paternal age at conception with the risk of offspring developing schizophrenia. Design A population based cohort study. Setting Sweden. Subjects 754 330 people born in Sweden between 1973 and 1980 and still alive and resident in Sweden at age 16 years. Main outcome measures Hospital admission with schizophrenia or non-schizophrenic, non-affective psychosis. Results After adjustment for birth related exposures, socioeconomic factors, family history of psychosis, and early parental death the overall hazard ratio for each 10 year increase in paternal age was 1.47 (95% confidence interval 1.23 to 1.76) for schizophrenia and 1.12 (0.98 to 1.29) for non-schizophrenic non-affective psychosis. This association between paternal age and schizophrenia was present in those with no family history of the disorder (hazard ratio for each 10 year increase in paternal age 1.60, 1.32 to 1.92), but not in those with a family history (0.91, 0.44 to 1.89) (P = 0.04 for interaction). Conclusions Advancing paternal age is an important independent risk factor for schizophrenia. The stronger association between paternal age and schizophrenia in people without a family history provides further evidence that accumulation of de novo mutations in paternal sperm contributes to the overall risk of schizophrenia. PMID:15501901

  20. Telomere length, family history, and paternal age in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Malaspina, Dolores; Dracxler, Roberta; Walsh-Messinger, Julie; Harlap, Susan; Goetz, Raymond R; Keefe, David; Perrin, Mary C

    2014-07-01

    Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is longer in association with advanced paternal age, but this association has not been examined along with family history (FH) in schizophrenia. LTL was measured by PCR and compared across cases and controls as part of a study to examine the characteristics of paternal age related schizophrenia. The 53 schizophrenia cases had similar mean LTL as 20 controls, although cases were significantly older than controls and overwhelmingly smoked cigarettes. Multivariate analyses showed that a FH of schizophrenia was associated with longer LTL in both male and female cases. Later paternal age was also related to longer LTL in male cases, but with shorter LTL in female cases. Male cases with older fathers and a FH had the longest LTL. The genetic architecture associated with a familial risk for schizophrenia may include pathways that lengthen LTL. Paternal aging conferred an additional increase in LTL lengthening in male cases, but reduced LTL in female cases. The gender difference in LTL for paternal aging is consistent with the severe illness features reported for female cases with older fathers and could implicate epigenetic alterations in the paternal X chromosomal region with advanced paternal age in association with the risk for schizophrenia. PMID:25077175

  1. O father where art thou? Paternity analyses in a natural population of the haploid-diploid seaweed Chondrus crispus.

    PubMed

    Krueger-Hadfield, S A; Roze, D; Correa, J A; Destombe, C; Valero, M

    2015-02-01

    The link between life history traits and mating systems in diploid organisms has been extensively addressed in the literature, whereas the degree of selfing and/or inbreeding in natural populations of haploid-diploid organisms, in which haploid gametophytes alternate with diploid sporophytes, has been rarely measured. Dioecy has often been used as a proxy for the mating system in these organisms. Yet, dioecy does not prevent the fusion of gametes from male and female gametophytes originating from the same sporophyte. This is likely a common occurrence when spores from the same parent are dispersed in clumps and recruit together. This pattern of clumped spore dispersal has been hypothesized to explain significant heterozygote deficiency in the dioecious haploid-diploid seaweed Chondrus crispus. Fronds and cystocarps (structures in which zygotes are mitotically amplified) were sampled in two 25?m(2) plots located within a high and a low intertidal zone and genotyped at 5 polymorphic microsatellite loci in order to explore the mating system directly using paternity analyses. Multiple males sired cystocarps on each female, but only one of the 423 paternal genotypes corresponded to a field-sampled gametophyte. Nevertheless, larger kinship coefficients were detected between males siring cystocarps on the same female in comparison with males in the entire population, confirming restricted spermatial and clumped spore dispersal. Such dispersal mechanisms may be a mode of reproductive assurance due to nonmotile gametes associated with putatively reduced effects of inbreeding depression because of the free-living haploid stage in C. crispus. PMID:25227258

  2. A likelihood-based approach for assessment of extra-pair paternity and conspecific brood parasitism in natural populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lemons, Patrick R.; Marshall, T.C.; McCloskey, Sarah E.; Sethi, S.A.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Sedinger, James S.

    2015-01-01

    Genotypes are frequently used to assess alternative reproductive strategies such as extra-pair paternity and conspecific brood parasitism in wild populations. However, such analyses are vulnerable to genotyping error or molecular artifacts that can bias results. For example, when using multilocus microsatellite data, a mismatch at a single locus, suggesting the offspring was not directly related to its putative parents, can occur quite commonly even when the offspring is truly related. Some recent studies have advocated an ad-hoc rule that offspring must differ at more than one locus in order to conclude that they are not directly related. While this reduces the frequency with which true offspring are identified as not directly related young, it also introduces bias in the opposite direction, wherein not directly related young are categorized as true offspring. More importantly, it ignores the additional information on allele frequencies which would reduce overall bias. In this study, we present a novel technique for assessing extra-pair paternity and conspecific brood parasitism using a likelihood-based approach in a new version of program cervus. We test the suitability of the technique by applying it to a simulated data set and then present an example to demonstrate its influence on the estimation of alternative reproductive strategies.

  3. The impact of paternity on male-infant association in a primate with low paternity certainty

    PubMed Central

    Langos, Doreen; Kulik, Lars; Mundry, Roger; Widdig, Anja

    2013-01-01

    In multi-male groups where females mate promiscuously, male-infant associations have rarely been studied. However, recent studies have shown that males selectively support their offspring during agonistic conflicts with other juveniles and that father’s presence accelerates offspring maturation. Furthermore, it was shown that males invest in unrelated infants to enhance future mating success with the infant’s mother. Hence, infant care might provide fitness gain for males. Here we investigate male-infant associations in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), a primate with low paternity certainty as females mate with multiple partners and males ensure paternity less efficiently through mate-guarding. We combined behavioral data with genetic paternity analyses of one cohort of the semifree-ranging population of Cayo Santiago (Puerto Rico) and recorded affiliative and aggressive interactions between focal subjects and adult males from birth to sexual maturation (0–4 years) of focal subjects. Our results revealed, that 9.6% of all interactions of focal subjects involved an adult male and 94% of all male-infant interactions were affiliative, indicating the rareness of male-infant aggression. Second and most interestingly, sires were more likely to affiliate with their offspring than non-sires with unrelated infants. This preference was independent of mother’s proximity and emphasized during early infancy. Male-infant affiliation rose with infant age and was pronounced between adult males and male rather than female focal subjects. Overall our results suggest that male-infant affiliation are also an important component in structuring primate societies and affiliation directed towards own offspring presumably represent low cost paternal care. PMID:23682587

  4. Prenatal identification of paternity. HLA typing helpful after rape.

    PubMed

    Pollack, M S; Schafer, I A; Barford, D; Dupont, B

    The HLA antigens system is extremely polymorphic, and HLA typing is now widely used for both the exclusion and the positive assignment of paternity. We have also used HLA typing for identification of paternity of fetal cells in a pregnancy detected a few weeks after the rape of a woman. The HLA typing indicated that the father of the fetus was the woman's husband, with a probability of 25:1 (96%), before the time the rapist could also be tested. Subsequently, the accused rapist was excluded as a potential father because he lacked all of the paternal antigens detected in the fetus. This prediction was confirmed after delivery. PMID:7420705

  5. High multiple paternity and low last-male sperm precedence in a hermaphroditic planarian flatworm: consequences for reciprocity patterns.

    PubMed

    Pongratz, N; Michiels, N K

    2003-06-01

    It is difficult to predict a priori how mating success translates into fertilization success in simultaneous hermaphrodites with internal fertilization. Whereas insemination decisions will be determined by male interests, fertilization will depend on female interests, possibly leading to discrepancies between insemination and fertilization patterns. The planarian flatworm Schmidtea polychroa, a simultaneous hermaphrodite in which mating partners trade sperm was studied. Sperm can be stored for months yet individuals mate frequently. Using microsatellites, maternity and paternity data were obtained from 748 offspring produced in six groups of 10 individuals during four weeks. Adults produced young from four mates on average. Reciprocal fertilization between two mates was found in only 41 out of 110 registered mate combinations, which is clearly less than what is predicted from insemination patterns. Multiple paternity was high: > 80% of all cocoons had two to five fathers for only three to five offspring per cocoon. Because animals were collected from a natural population, 28% of all hatchlings were sired by unknown sperm donors in the field, despite a 10-day period of acclimatization and within-group mating. This percentage decreased only moderately throughout the experiment, showing that sperm can be stored and used for at least a month, despite frequent mating and sperm digestion. The immediate paternity a sperm donor could expect to obtain was only about 25%. Male reproductive success increased linearly with the number of female partners, providing support for Bateman's principle in hermaphrodites. Our results suggest that hermaphrodites do not trade fertilizations when trading sperm during insemination, lending support to the view that such conditional sperm exchange is driven by exchange of resources. PMID:12755872

  6. Maternal High-Fat Diet Effects on Third-Generation Female Body Size via the Paternal Lineage

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Gregory A.

    2011-01-01

    The health consequences of in utero exposure to maternal obesity on future generations are concerning because they contribute to increased rates of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic syndrome. We previously reported that maternal high-fat diet exposure in mice resulted in an increase in body size and reduced insulin sensitivity that persisted across two generations via both maternal and paternal lineages. However, because the first generation's primordial germ cells may be affected by gestational exposure, analysis of phenotype transmission into a third generation (F3) is necessary to determine whether stable epigenetic programming has occurred. Therefore, we have examined the body size and insulin sensitivity of male and female F3 offspring. We found that only females displayed the increased body size phenotype, and this effect was only passed on via the paternal lineage. The finding of a paternally transmitted phenotype to F3 female offspring supports a stable germline-based transgenerational mode of inheritance; thus we hypothesized that imprinted genes may be involved in this epigenetic programming. Using a quantitative TaqMan Array for imprinted genes to examine paternally or maternally expressed loci in F3 female livers, we detected a potential dynamic pattern of paternally expressed genes from the paternal lineage that was not noted in the maternal lineage. These findings suggest that the environmental influence on developmental regulation of growth and body size may be the result of broad programming events at imprinted loci, thereby providing sex specificity to both the transmission and inheritance of traits related to disease predisposition. PMID:21447631

  7. Additional microsatellite markers for mouse genome mapping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine M. Hearne; Marcia A. McAleer; Jennifer M. Love; Timothy J. Aitman; Richard J. Cornall; Soumitra Ghosh; Andrew M. Knight; Jan-Bas Prins; John A. Todd

    1991-01-01

    Mouse sequence information from the EMBL and GenBank databases, published sequences and genomic clones have been analyzed for simple repetitive elements or microsatellites. Each microsatellite has been amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a single locus marker. PCR primers were designed from unique sequence flanking each repeat. Size variation of PCR products less than 750 base pairs (bp)

  8. Quantitative trait locus mapping in dairy cattle by means of selective milk DNA pooling using dinucleotide microsatellite markers: analysis of milk protein percentage.

    PubMed Central

    Lipkin, E; Mosig, M O; Darvasi, A; Ezra, E; Shalom, A; Friedmann, A; Soller, M

    1998-01-01

    "Selective DNA pooling" accomplishes quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping through densitometric estimates of marker allele frequencies in pooled DNA samples of phenotypically extreme individuals. With poly(TG) microsatellites, such estimates are confounded by "shadow" ("stutter") bands. A correction procedure was developed on the basis of an observed linear regression between shadow band intensity and allele TG repeat number. Using this procedure, a selective DNA pooling study with respect to milk protein percentage was implemented in Israel-Holstein dairy cattle. Pools were prepared from milk samples of high and low daughters of each of seven sires and genotyped with respect to 11 markers. Highly significant associations with milk protein percentage were found for 5 of the markers; 4 of these markers confirmed previous reports. Selective DNA pooling accessed 80.6 and 48.3%, respectively, of the information that would have been available through individual selective genotyping or total population genotyping. In effect, the statistical power of 45,600 individual genotypings was obtained from 328 pool genotypings. This methodology can make genome-wide mapping of QTL accessible to moderately sized breeding organizations. PMID:9649542

  9. Cues of Paternal Uncertainty and Father to Child Physical Abuse as Reported by Mothers in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexandre, Gisele Caldas; Nadanovsky, Paulo; Wilson, Margo; Daly, Martin; Moraes, Claudia Leite; Reichenheim, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Paternity is uncertain, so if paternal feelings evolved to promote fitness, we might expect them to vary in response to variables indicative of paternity probability. We therefore hypothesized that the risk of lapses of paternal affection, including abusive assaults on children, will be exacerbated by cues of non-paternity. Methods:…

  10. Testosterone, Paternal Behavior, and Aggression in the Monogamous California Mouse

    E-print Network

    Marler, Catherine A.

    in this year-round territorial species. Castration reduced paternal behavior, whereas T replacement maintained was not reduced by castration. Interestingly, only sham males showed an increase in aggression across three

  11. TECHNICAL NOTE Microsatellite markers in the endangered Australian northern

    E-print Network

    Keogh, Scott

    microsatellite loci that will be used to determine the extent and distribution of genetic diversity in wild. Microsatellite loci were isolated from the genomic DNA of a male northern corroboree frog DNA. Genomic DNA (g) was added to each forward microsatellite primer. Fourteen microsatellite loci with specific and repeated PCR

  12. Maternal and Paternal Depressive Symptoms as Predictors of Toddler Adjustment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy S. Weinfield; Lisa Ingerski; Stacey Coffey Moreau

    2009-01-01

    In this study we explored the relation between maternal and paternal depressive symptoms and toddler adjustment in a community\\u000a sample, testing direct, additive, and interactive models of parental depressive symptoms and child adjustment. Participants\\u000a were 49 families with 30-month-old children. Data were collected on maternal and paternal depressive symptoms and marital\\u000a quality, as well as on toddler internalizing and externalizing

  13. Microsatellite and mtDNA analysis of lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, from Great Bear Lake, Northwest Territories: impacts of historical and contemporary evolutionary forces on Arctic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Harris, Les N; Howland, Kimberly L; Kowalchuk, Matthew W; Bajno, Robert; Lindsay, Melissa M; Taylor, Eric B

    2012-01-01

    Resolving the genetic population structure of species inhabiting pristine, high latitude ecosystems can provide novel insights into the post-glacial, evolutionary processes shaping the distribution of contemporary genetic variation. In this study, we assayed genetic variation in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Great Bear Lake (GBL), NT and one population outside of this lake (Sandy Lake, NT) at 11 microsatellite loci and the mtDNA control region (d-loop). Overall, population subdivision was low, but significant (global F(ST) ? = 0.025), and pairwise comparisons indicated that significance was heavily influenced by comparisons between GBL localities and Sandy Lake. Our data indicate that there is no obvious genetic structure among the various basins within GBL (global F(ST) = 0.002) despite the large geographic distances between sampling areas. We found evidence of low levels of contemporary gene flow among arms within GBL, but not between Sandy Lake and GBL. Coalescent analyses suggested that some historical gene flow occurred among arms within GBL and between GBL and Sandy Lake. It appears, therefore, that contemporary (ongoing dispersal and gene flow) and historical (historical gene flow and large founding and present-day effective population sizes) factors contribute to the lack of neutral genetic structure in GBL. Overall, our results illustrate the importance of history (e.g., post-glacial colonization) and contemporary dispersal ecology in shaping genetic population structure of Arctic faunas and provide a better understanding of the evolutionary ecology of long-lived salmonids in pristine, interconnected habitats. PMID:23404390

  14. FishMicrosat: a microsatellite database of commercially important fishes and shellfishes of the Indian subcontinent

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Microsatellite DNA is one of many powerful genetic markers used for the construction of genetic linkage maps and the study of population genetics. The biological databases in public domain hold vast numbers of microsatellite sequences for many organisms including fishes. The microsatellite data available in these data sources were extracted and managed into a database that facilitates sequences analysis and browsing relevant information. The system also helps to design primer sequences for flanking regions of repeat loci for PCR identification of polymorphism within populations. Description FishMicrosat is a database of microsatellite sequences of fishes and shellfishes that includes important aquaculture species such as Lates calcarifer, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Penaeus monodon, Labeo rohita, Oreochromis niloticus, Fenneropenaeus indicus and Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The database contains 4398 microsatellite sequences of 41 species belonging to 15 families from the Indian subcontinent. GenBank of NCBI was used as a prime data source for developing the database. The database presents information about simple and compound microsatellites, their clusters and locus orientation within sequences. The database has been integrated with different tools in a web interface such as primer designing, locus finding, mapping repeats, detecting similarities among sequences across species, and searching using motifs and keywords. In addition, the database has the ability to browse information on the top 10 families and the top 10 species, through record overview. Conclusions FishMicrosat database is a useful resource for fish and shellfish microsatellite analyses and locus identification across species, which has important applications in population genetics, evolutionary studies and genetic relatedness among species. The database can be expanded further to include the microsatellite data of fishes and shellfishes from other regions and available information on genome sequencing project of species of aquaculture importance. PMID:24047532

  15. Association between paternal schizophrenia and low birthweight: a nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Herng-Ching; Tang, Chao-Hsiun; Lee, Hsin-Chien

    2009-05-01

    Using a nationwide population-based dataset, the aim of the present study was to investigate the association between paternal schizophrenia and the risk of low birthweight (LBW). This study linked the 2001 Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Dataset with Taiwan's birth and death certificate registries. In total, 220 465 singleton live births were included. The key dependent variable was whether or not an infant's father was diagnosed with schizophrenia, while the independent variable of interest was whether an infant had LBW. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to explore the relationship between paternal schizophrenia and the risk of LBW, after adjusting for the infant and parents' characteristics. The results show that infants whose fathers had schizophrenia were more likely to have LBW than those whose fathers did not (12.6% vs 8.0%). Infants whose fathers had schizophrenia were found to be 1.58 (95% confidence interval = 1.10-2.52, P < .05) times more likely to have LBW than their counterparts whose fathers did not have schizophrenia, following adjustment for gestational week at birth, parity, paternal age and highest educational level, family monthly incomes, and marital status. We conclude that the offspring whose fathers had a diagnosis of schizophrenia had increased risk of LBW compared with those whose fathers had no schizophrenia. This finding paves the way for further studies and suggests that there may be potential benefit to early intervention to prevent LBW in pregnant women with husbands with schizophrenia. PMID:18628271

  16. Neither testosterone levels nor aggression decrease when the male Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) displays paternal behavior.

    PubMed

    Juana, Luis; Bárbara, Vázquez-Gaytán; Martín, Martínez-Torres; Agustín, Carmona; Guillermo, Ramos-Blancas; Guadalupe, Ortíz

    2010-03-01

    The first studies that correlated mammalian paternal behavior and testosterone levels indicated that the concentration of this steroid hormone decreases when males exhibit paternal care. However, recent studies have also shown that testosterone levels do not decrease when males display paternal behavior. In this study, we measured testosterone levels in plasma throughout the reproductive cycle of the Mongolian gerbil. Testosterone concentrations were correlated with paternal care as well as aggression. We also examined whether there is a trade-off between paternal behavior and aggression in this mammal. Our results show that Mongolian gerbil testosterone levels do not decrease when the males give paternal care. Likewise, male Mongolian gerbils exhibit high levels of aggression while displaying paternal behavior, indicating that there is no trade-off between aggression and paternal behavior. More studies are needed to determine whether testosterone is involved in the regulation of paternal behavior in this rodent. PMID:20036242

  17. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers from three species of swallows in the genus Tachycineta: T. albilinea, T. bicolor and T. leucorrhoa.

    PubMed

    Makarewich, C A; Stenzler, L M; Ferretti, V; Winkler, D W; Lovette, I J

    2009-03-01

    We describe 30 microsatellite loci developed from three species of swallows in the genus Tachycineta: T. bicolor (tree swallow), T. albilinea (mangrove swallow), and T. leucorrhoa (white-rumped swallow). These commonly studied birds nest in secondary cavities and are distributed from Alaska to Argentina. Primer pairs were designed for each species individually and tested for cross-amplification in 40-48 individuals of all three species. Polymorphism ranged from 5 to 65 alleles per locus (mean = 19.1). These markers will allow comparative studies of extra-pair paternity rates among members of the genus as well as the assessment of population structure. PMID:21564713

  18. Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers in Iberolacerta monticola, and cross-species amplification in Iberolacerta galani and Zootoca vivipara.

    PubMed

    Remón, N; Vila, M; Galán, P; Naveira, H

    2008-11-01

    Fourteen polymorphic microsatellite loci are described for the Iberian rock lizard, Iberolacerta monticola. Genetic variation in a sample of 20 individuals from Piornedo (northwestern Spain) was quantified both by the number of alleles per locus, which ranged from six to 13, and by the expected frequency of heterozygotes under random mating (heterozygosity), which ranged from 0.761 to 0.902. Single locus and global exclusion probabilities were also computed, and indicate a high power of these markers for paternity assignments and mating system studies of I. monticola. All the analysed loci were also polymorphic in Iberolacerta galani, but only seven in Zootoca vivipara. PMID:21586043

  19. An integrative review of paternal depression.

    PubMed

    Edward, Karen-leigh; Castle, David; Mills, Cally; Davis, Leigh; Casey, June

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this project was to review current research regarding postnatal depression in fathers and to present potential screening and referral options. The search was limited to scholarly (peer reviewed) journals and all articles were retrieved with date limits. Initial search parameters were the following: antenatal depression OR pregnancy depression OR postnatal depression OR perinatal depression AND father* OR men OR paternal. The search yielded 311 abstracts returned. With reference to the inclusion criteria and primary and secondary outcomes intended for the focus of this review, N=63 articles were retrieved and read in full by the researchers. These articles were included in the final integrative review. Depression in fathers following the birth of their child was associated with a personal history of depression and with the existence of depression in their partner during pregnancy and soon after delivery. Based on the review the authors suggest routine screening and assessment of both parents should occur across the pregnancy and postnatal period. The use of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale for screening of depression in men needs to be linked to referral guidelines for those individuals who require further investigation and care. PMID:24626601

  20. AFLP fingerprinting for paternity testing in ducks.

    PubMed

    Huang, C-W; Cheng, Y-S; Rouvier, R; Yang, K-T; Wu, C-P; Huang, M-C

    2007-06-01

    1. The accuracy and reproducibility of AFLP fingerprinting was investigated in the duck (Anas Platyrhynchos), using a multicolour fluorescent labeling technique. The fluorescent labelling fragments were separated on a capillary electrophoresis-base ABI PRISM 3100 Genetic Analyzer. 2. A total of 337 AFLP peaks with 103 of them being polymorphic markers were generated by 16 sets consisting of EcoRI/TaqI primer pair combinations. The number and size range of AFLP polymorphisms detected per primer pair varied from 3 to 11 and 58 to 290 bp, respectively. About 30.6% (103/337) of AFLP peaks were detected polymorphisms, with an average of 6.4 polymorphic markers per primer pair. 3. The clear polymorphic peaks were amplified with EcoR+AC/Taq+AC primer combinations. The AFLP peaks showed high reproducibility. From the family testing, we found that the fingerprints of all the offspring were derived from one or other parent. Therefore, we conclude that AFLP fingerprinting might be a suitable method for duck paternity testing. PMID:17578695

  1. Microsatellite primer development for post oak, Quercus stellata (Fagaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Chatwin, Warren B.; Carpenter, Kyrie K.; Jimenez, Felix R.; Elzinga, Dave B.; Johnson, Leigh A.; Maughan, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: The American Cross Timbers forest ecosystem runs from southeastern Kansas to Central Texas and is primarily composed of post oak (Quercus stellata). This old-growth forest currently occupies only about 2% of its ancestral range. To facilitate genetic research on this species, we developed microsatellite primers specific to post oak from reduced genomic libraries. • Methods and Results: Two Q. stellata individuals, sampled from the northern and southern range of the post oak forest, were subject to genomic reduction and 454 pyrosequencing. Bioinformatic analysis identified putative microsatellites from which 12 polymorphic primer sets were screened on three populations. The number of alleles observed ranged from five to 20 across all populations, while observed and expected heterozygosity values ranged from 0.05 to 0.833 and 0.236 to 0.893, respectively, within individual populations. • Conclusions: We report the development of microsatellite markers, specific to post oak, to aid the study of genetic diversity and population structure of extant forest remnants. PMID:25309841

  2. An evaluation of genetic distance for use with microsatellite loci

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, D.B.; Feldman, M.W.; Cavalli-Sforza, L.L. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Mutations of alleles at microsatellite loci tend to result in alleles with repeat scores similar to those of the alleles from which they were derived. Therefore the difference in repeat score between alleles carries information about the amount of time that has passed since they shared a common ancestral allele. This information is ignored by genetic distances based on the infinite alleles model. Here we develop a genetic distance based on the stepwise mutation model that includes allelic repeat score. We adapt earlier treatments of the stepwise mutation model to show analytically that the expectation of this distance is a linear function of time. We then use computer simulations to evaluate the overall reliability of this distance, and to compare it with other distances. Finally, we use a simple approximation to evaluate the effect of restrictions on the maximum repeat score of microsatellite alleles. This analysis shows that, contrary to previous suggestions, typical microsatellite loci may be useful for reconstructing the relationships among taxa separated for up to a million generations.

  3. Mitochondrial microsatellite instability in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Venderbosch, S; van Vliet, S; Craenmehr, M H C; Simmer, F; de Haan, A F J; Punt, C J A; Koopman, M; Nagtegaal, I D

    2015-05-01

    Mitochondrial microsatellite instability (mtMSI), a change in length in mtDNA microsatellite sequences between normal and tumor tissue, has been described as a frequent occurrence in colorectal cancer (CRC). We evaluated the prevalence and prognostic value of mtMSI and its relation to nuclear microsatellite instability (MSI) in patients with metastatic CRC (mCRC). At six loci (D310, D514, D16184, ND1, ND5, and COX1), the mitochondrial DNA sequence was analyzed in normal and tumor tissue, and the mtMSI status was determined. We evaluated the prevalence and outcome in terms of overall survival (OS) in 83 CRC patients with a MSI tumor (including 39 patients with Lynch syndrome) and in 99 mCRC patients with a microsatellite stable (MSS) tumor. A meta-analysis was performed to compare our findings with existing data. mtMSI at the D-loop region was found in 54.4 % (99 out of 182) of all patients. Prevalence of mtMSI was most pronounced at the D310 locus (50.5 %). Prevalence of mtMSI at the D-loop region was not different among patients with MSI compared to MSS tumors. There was no effect of mtMSI on prognosis in patients with MSI or MSS tumors. Prevalence of mtMSI was high in mCRC patients with both MSI and MSS tumors, but there was no correlation with prognosis. mtMSI was particularly present at the D310 locus. PMID:25697538

  4. The paternal function in Winnicott: the psychoanalytical frame.

    PubMed

    Faimberg, Haydée

    2014-08-01

    My first aim has been to identify the implicit assumptions underlying Winnicott's detailed notes on a fragment of an analysis dating from 1955 and published after his death. The importance given by Winnicott to the father figure as early as 1955 is one of my discoveries; another is the deep Freudian roots of his thinking. In this essay I propose a new way of linking together the concepts of 'paternal function' and the 'psychoanalytical frame'. Developing my hypothesis, I compare my reading of Winnicott and my way of reading José Bleger's study on the frame. Like Winnicott, I explore in detail a process of discovery, focusing on what the analyst and the patient are nor fully aware of …'as yet'. I am not proposing to unify Winnicott's and Bleger's thinking. My aim is to avoid the pitfall of eclecticism and, in so doing, to recognize both the related depths they sound in their thinking and their otherness. I want to share with the readers their 'meeting' in my mind. PMID:25229543

  5. Maternal and paternal diversity in Xinjiang Kazakh population from China.

    PubMed

    Shan, W; Ren, Zh; Wu, W; Hao, H; Abulimiti, A; Chen, K; Zhang, F; Ma, Z; Zheng, X

    2014-11-01

    The ancient silk road of China passed through Xinjiang and facilitated gene exchanges from the East and the West which impacted on the genetic variation and structure of the nomadic Kazakh population residing there. In order to understand the nature of this genetic variation; 151 Xinjiang Kazakh samples were obtained from four main Kazakh groups and were analyzed using mtDNA and Y-chromosome markers. The Xinjiang Kazakh population is heterogeneous, showing the coexistence of matrilineal lineages with different origins. No genetic differentiation of mtDNA is observed among the four different regional Xinjiang Kazakh populations in Xinjiang by AMOVA and Networks. The genetic diversity of Y-STR loci is higher in Xinjiang Kazakhs (0.968 ± 0.014) than the Kazakhs from Kazakhstan (0.629 ± 0.071) and Russia (0.835 ± 0.020). East Eurasians make a more than 50% contribution to the maternal and paternal lineages of Xinjiang Kazakhs. There is more gene flow from West Eurasian into the maternal lineages of Xinjiang Kazakh than to the Kazakhs from Russia and Kazakhstan. Moreover, mtDNA and Y-STR displayed high polymorphism in Xinjiang Kazakhs (the haplotype diversity and power of discrimination were 0.990 ± 0.003, 0.9137 for mtDNA HVS and 0.968 ± 0.014, 0.9489 for Y-STR system, respectively), suggesting they would be very useful and important markers for forensic analysis and population genetic studies. PMID:25739291

  6. Strategies for microsatellite isolation: a review.

    PubMed

    Zane, L; Bargelloni, L; Patarnello, T

    2002-01-01

    In the last few years microsatellites have become one of the most popular molecular markers used with applications in many different fields. High polymorphism and the relative ease of scoring represent the two major features that make microsatellites of large interest for many genetic studies. The major drawback of microsatellites is that they need to be isolated de novo from species that are being examined for the first time. The aim of the present paper is to review the various methods of microsatellite isolation described in the literature with the purpose of providing useful guidelines in making appropriate choices among the large number of currently available options. In addition, we propose a fast and easy protocol which is a combination of different published methods. PMID:11903900

  7. Paternal leakage, heteroplasmy, and the evolution of plant mitochondrial genomes.

    PubMed

    McCauley, David E

    2013-12-01

    Plant mitochondrial genomes are usually transmitted to the progeny from the maternal parent. However, cases of paternal transmission are known and are perhaps more common than once thought. This review will consider recent evidence, both direct and indirect, of paternal transmission (leakage) of the mitochondrial genome of seed plants, especially in natural populations, and how this can result in offspring that carry a mixture of maternally and paternally derived copies of the genome; a type of heteroplasmy. It will further consider how this heteroplasmy facilitates recombination between genetically distinct partners; a process that can enhance mitochondrial genotypic diversity. This will then form the basis for a discussion of five evolutionary questions that arise from these observations. Questions include how plant mitochondrial genome evolution can be placed on a sexual to asexual continuum, whether cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) facilitates the evolution of paternal leakage, whether paternal leakage is more likely in populations undergoing admixture, how leakage influences patterns of gene flow, and whether heteroplasmy occurs in natural populations at a frequency greater than predicted by crossing experiments. It is proposed that each of these questions offers fertile ground for future research on a diversity of plant species. PMID:23952142

  8. Paternally induced transgenerational inheritance of susceptibility to diabetes in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yanchang; Yang, Cai-Rong; Wei, Yan-Ping; Zhao, Zhen-Ao; Hou, Yi; Schatten, Heide; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    The global prevalence of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing, and it is contributing to the susceptibility to diabetes and its related epidemic in offspring. Although the impacts of paternal impaired fasting blood glucose and glucose intolerance on the metabolism of offspring have been well established, the exact molecular and mechanistic basis that mediates these impacts remains largely unclear. Here we show that paternal prediabetes increases the susceptibility to diabetes in offspring through gametic epigenetic alterations. In our findings, paternal prediabetes led to glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in offspring. Relative to controls, offspring of prediabetic fathers exhibited altered gene expression patterns in the pancreatic islets, with down-regulation of several genes involved in glucose metabolism and insulin signaling pathways. Epigenomic profiling of offspring pancreatic islets revealed numerous changes in cytosine methylation depending on paternal prediabetes, including reproducible changes in methylation over several insulin signaling genes. Paternal prediabetes altered overall methylome patterns in sperm, with a large portion of differentially methylated genes overlapping with that of pancreatic islets in offspring. Our study uniquely revealed that prediabetes can be inherited transgenerationally through the mammalian germ line by an epigenetic mechanism. PMID:24449870

  9. [Psychopathologic decompensation in paternity and the couvade syndrome].

    PubMed

    Benvenuti, P; Pazzagli, A; Rogari, C; Rossi-Monti, M

    1982-01-01

    Paternity, like maternity, provides an occasion for profound modifications of an individual's social role and internal world. Such modifications may be defined as "the job of becoming a parent". The authors examine psychological symptoms that appear at the advent of paternity, with special attention given to acute disorders and the couvade syndrome. Recalling the anthropological meaning of the term "couvade", this syndrome is regarded as a sort of "individual defense rite" from various conflicting elements that are stimulated by paternity. In the majority of these cases, this syndrome, fairly rare on the whole, is considered a "physiological" paternity symptom which through somatic symptoms expresses the father's conflicting drives toward his wife and child. In detail, the authors examine certain cases of acute disorder in which psychopathological symptoms are preceded by a somatic symptomology identifiable as a couvade syndrome. A hypothesis that a connexion exists between the psychosomatic symptomatology of couvade and acute disorders on a neurotic and psychotic level of paternity is formulated, analogous to what is observed in certain psychosomatic illnesses during whose course somatic symptoms alternate with psychotic symptoms. PMID:7187968

  10. Paternally induced transgenerational inheritance of susceptibility to diabetes in mammals.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yanchang; Yang, Cai-Rong; Wei, Yan-Ping; Zhao, Zhen-Ao; Hou, Yi; Schatten, Heide; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2014-02-01

    The global prevalence of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing, and it is contributing to the susceptibility to diabetes and its related epidemic in offspring. Although the impacts of paternal impaired fasting blood glucose and glucose intolerance on the metabolism of offspring have been well established, the exact molecular and mechanistic basis that mediates these impacts remains largely unclear. Here we show that paternal prediabetes increases the susceptibility to diabetes in offspring through gametic epigenetic alterations. In our findings, paternal prediabetes led to glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in offspring. Relative to controls, offspring of prediabetic fathers exhibited altered gene expression patterns in the pancreatic islets, with down-regulation of several genes involved in glucose metabolism and insulin signaling pathways. Epigenomic profiling of offspring pancreatic islets revealed numerous changes in cytosine methylation depending on paternal prediabetes, including reproducible changes in methylation over several insulin signaling genes. Paternal prediabetes altered overall methylome patterns in sperm, with a large portion of differentially methylated genes overlapping with that of pancreatic islets in offspring. Our study uniquely revealed that prediabetes can be inherited transgenerationally through the mammalian germ line by an epigenetic mechanism. PMID:24449870

  11. Similar frequency of paternal uniparental disomy involving chromosome 20q (patUPD20q) in Japanese and Caucasian patients affected by sporadic pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib (sporPHP1B).

    PubMed

    Takatani, Rieko; Minagawa, Masanori; Molinaro, Angelo; Reyes, Monica; Kinoshita, Kaori; Takatani, Tomozumi; Kazukawa, Itsuro; Nagatsuma, Misako; Kashimada, Kenichi; Sato, Kenichi; Matsushita, Kazuyuki; Nomura, Fumio; Shimojo, Naoki; Jüppner, Harald

    2015-10-01

    Pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib (PHP1B) is caused by proximal tubular resistance to parathyroid hormone that occurs in most cases in the absence of Albright's Hereditary Osteodystrophy (AHO). Familial forms of PHP1B are caused by maternally inherited microdeletions within STX16, the gene encoding syntaxin 16, or within GNAS, a complex genetic locus on chromosome 20q13.3 encoding Gs? and several splice variants thereof. These deletions lead either to a loss-of-methylation affecting GNAS exon A/B alone or to epigenetic changes involving multiple differentially methylated regions (DMRs) within GNAS. Broad GNAS methylation abnormalities are also observed in most sporadic PHP1B (sporPHP1B) cases. However, with the exception of paternal uniparental disomy involving chromosome 20q (patUPD20q), the molecular mechanism leading to this disease variant remains unknown. We now investigated 23 Japanese sporPHP1B cases, who presented with hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, elevated PTH levels, and occasionally with TSH elevations and mild AHO features. Age at diagnosis was 10.6±1.45years. Calcium, phosphate, and PTH were 6.3±0.23mg/dL, 7.7±0.33mg/dL, and 305±34.5pg/mL, respectively, i.e. laboratory findings that are indistinguishable from those previously observed for Caucasian sporPHP1B cases. All investigated patients showed broad GNAS methylation changes. Eleven individuals were homozygous for SNPs within exon NESP and a pentanucleotide repeat in exon A/B. Two of these patients furthermore revealed homozygosity for numerous microsatellite markers on chromosome 20q raising the possibility of patUPD20q, which was confirmed through the analysis of parental DNA. Based on this and our previous reports, paternal duplication of the chromosomal region comprising the GNAS locus appears to be a fairly common cause of sporPHP1B that is likely to occur with equal frequency in Caucasians and Asians. PMID:25997889

  12. TWO SEX-CHROMOSOME-LINKED MICROSATELLITE LOCI SHOW GEOGRAPHIC VARIANCE AMONG NORTH AMERICAN OSTRINIA NUBILALIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A (GAAAAT)n repeat microsatellite was isolated from a partial Ostrinia nubilalis genomic library. Pedigree analysis indicated the marker was female specific, and referred to as Ostrinia nubilalis W-chromosome marker 1 (ONW1). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequence analysis indicated that ...

  13. Experimental parasite infection reveals costs and benefits of paternal effects

    PubMed Central

    Kaufmann, Joshka; Lenz, Tobias L; Milinski, Manfred; Eizaguirre, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Forces shaping an individual's phenotype are complex and include transgenerational effects. Despite low investment into reproduction, a father's environment and phenotype can shape its offspring's phenotype. Whether and when such paternal effects are adaptive, however, remains elusive. Using three-spined sticklebacks in controlled infection experiments, we show that sperm deficiencies in exposed males compared to their unexposed brothers functionally translated into reduced reproductive success in sperm competition trials. In non-competitive fertilisations, offspring of exposed males suffered significant costs of reduced hatching success and survival but they reached a higher body condition than their counterparts from unexposed fathers after experimental infection. Interestingly, those benefits of paternal infection did not result from increased resistance but from increased tolerance to the parasite. Altogether, these results demonstrate that parasite resistance and tolerance are shaped by processes involving both genetic and non-genetic inheritance and suggest a context-dependent adaptive value of paternal effects. PMID:25168056

  14. The Association of Paternal Mood and Infant Temperament: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dave, Shreya; Nazareth, Irwin; Sherr, Lorraine; Senior, Rob

    2005-01-01

    Maternal depression is associated with adverse child development, but little is known about the effects of paternal depression. This pilot study estimated the prevalence of paternal depression and mood state, and assessed the relationship between paternal mood and infant temperament. The participants in the study were 98 fathers of newborn babies.…

  15. Paternal behavior by Peromyscus leucopus in enclosures XUHUAXIA AND JOHNS. MILLAR

    E-print Network

    Xia, Xuhua

    Paternal behavior by Peromyscus leucopus in enclosures XUHUAXIA AND JOHNS. MILLAR Department,X., and MILLAR,J. S. 1988. Paternal behavior by Peromyscus leucopus in enclosures. Can. J. Zool. 66: 1184- 1187. Male Peromyscus leucopus are known to exhibit well-developed paternal behavior in confined cages

  16. Paternal care and egg survival both increase with clutch size in the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Sargent

    1988-01-01

    In some species of fishes with paternal care, females prefer to spawn with males who are already defeding eggs; moreover, in many species, paternal care increases with the number of eggs that a male is defending. If egg survival depends on the level of paternal care, and is largely independent of egg number, then egg survival should increase with clutch

  17. Characteristic neurobiological patterns differentiate paternal responsiveness in two Peromyscus species.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Kelly G; Franssen, Catherine L; Bardi, Massimo; Hampton, Joseph E; Hainley, Leslie; Karsner, Stephanie; Tu, Eddie B; Hyer, Molly M; Crockett, Ashly; Baranova, Anya; Ferguson, Tajh; Ferguson, Tenaj; Kinsley, Craig H

    2011-01-01

    Rodent paternal models provide unique opportunities to investigate the emergence of affiliative social behavior in mammals. Using biparental and uniparental Peromyscus species (californicus and maniculatus, respectively) we assessed paternal responsiveness by exposing males to biological offspring, unrelated conspecific pups, or familiar brothers following a 24-hour separation. The putative paternal circuit we investigated included brain areas involved in fear/anxiety [cingulate cortex (Cg), medial amygdala (MeA), paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), and lateral septum (LS)], parental motivation [medial preoptic area (MPOA)], learning/behavioral plasticity (hippocampus), olfaction [pyriform cortex (PC)], and social rewards (nucleus accumbens). Paternal experience in californicus males reduced fos immunoreactivity (ir) in several fear/anxiety areas; additionally, all californicus groups exhibited decreased fos-ir in the PC. Enhanced arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT)-ir cell bodies and fibers, as well as increased neuronal restructuring in the hippocampus, were also observed in californicus mice. Multidimensional scaling analyses revealed distinct brain activation profiles differentiating californicus biological fathers, pup-exposed virgins, and pup-naïve virgins. Specifically, associations among MPOA fos, CA1 fos, dentate gyrus GFAP, CA2 nestin-, and PVN OT-ir characterized biological fathers; LS fos-, Cg fos-, and AVP-ir characterized pup-exposed virgins, and PC-, PVN-, and MeA fos-ir characterized pup-naïve virgins. Thus, whereas fear/anxiety areas characterized pup-naïve males, neurobiological factors involved in more diverse functions such as learning, motivation, and nurturing responses characterized fatherhood in biparental californicus mice. Less distinct paternal-dependent activation patterns were observed in uniparental maniculatus mice. These data suggest that dual neurobiological circuits, leading to the inhibition of social-dependent anxiety as well as the activation of affiliative responses, characterize the transition from nonpaternal to paternal status in californicus mice. PMID:21546770

  18. Paternal age at childbearing and offspring psychiatric and academic morbidity

    PubMed Central

    D’Onofrio, Brian M.; Rickert, Martin E.; Frans, Emma; Kuja-Halkola, Ralf; Almqvist, Catarina; Sjölander, Arvid; Larsson, Henrik; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Summary Importance Advancing paternal age is associated with increased genetic mutations during spermatogenesis, which research suggests may cause psychiatric morbidity in the offspring. The effects of advancing paternal age at childbearing on offspring morbidity remains unclear, however, because of inconsistent epidemiological findings and the inability of previous studies to rigorously rule out confounding factors. Objective Examine the associations between advancing paternal age at childbearing and numerous indices of offspring morbidity. Setting Population-based cohort study in Sweden. Participants All individuals born in Sweden 1973–2001 (N=2,615,081), with subsets of the data used to predict childhood/adolescent morbidity. Design We estimated the risk for psychiatric and academic morbidity associated with advancing paternal age using several quasi-experimental designs, including the comparison of differentially exposed siblings, cousins, and first-born cousins. Exposure Paternal age at childbearing Main outcomes Psychiatric (autism, ADHD, psychosis, bipolar disorder, suicide attempt, and substance use problem) and academic (failing grades and low educational attainment) morbidity. Results In the population, advancing paternal age was associated with increased risk for some psychiatric disorders (e.g. autism, psychosis, and bipolar disorders) but decreased risk for the other indices of morbidity. In contrast, the sibling-comparison analyses indicated that advancing paternal age had a dose-response relationship with every index of morbidity, with the magnitude of the associations being as large or larger than the estimates in the entire population. Compared to offspring born to fathers 20–25 years old, offspring of fathers 45 years+ were at heightened risk for autism (Hazard Ratio [HR]=3.45, 95% Confidence Intervals [CI]=1.62–7.33), ADHD (HR=13.13, CI=6.85–25.16), psychosis (HR=2.07, CI=1.35–3.20), bipolar disorder (HR=24.70, CI=12.12–50.31), suicide attempts (HR=2.72, CI=2.08–3.56), substance use problems (HR=2.44, CI=1.98–2.99), failing a grade (Odds Ratio [OR]=1.59, CI=1.37–1.85), and low educational attainment (OR=1.70, CI=1.50–1.93) in within-sibling comparisons. Additional analyses using several quasi-experimental designs obtained commensurate results, further strengthening the internal and external validity of the findings. Conclusions and Relevance Advancing paternal age is associated with increased risk for psychiatric and academic morbidity, with the magnitude of the risks being as large or larger than previous estimates. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that new genetic mutations occurring during spermatogenesis are causally related to offspring morbidity. PMID:24577047

  19. Design and control of microsatellite clusters for tracking missions

    E-print Network

    Griffith, John Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Space-based tracking missions are an emerging interest that could be accomplished using a cluster of microsatellites. This thesis addresses the design of microsatellite clusters to accurately track a target in a probabilistic ...

  20. Assessment of microsatellites in estimating inter- and intraspecific variation among Neotropical Crocodylus species.

    PubMed

    Bashyal, A; Gross, B A; Venegas-Anaya, M; Lowrance, F; Densmore Iii, L D

    2014-01-01

    We tested microsatellites that were developed for the saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) for cross-species amplification and to provide an estimate of inter- and intraspecific variation among four species of Neotropical crocodiles (C. rhombifer, C. intermedius, C. acutus, and C. moreletii). Our results indicated that with the exception of 2 loci in C. intermedius, all 10 microsatellite loci were successfully amplified in the 4 species, producing a set of variably sized alleles that ranged in number between 2 and 14 alleles per locus. Similarly, private alleles (i.e., unique alleles) also were reported in all 4 species for at least 3 loci. The mean observed and expected heterozygosities (averaged across species for all 10 loci combined) ranged from 0.39 to 0.77 and from 0.44 to 0.78, respectively. In addition to this, we evaluated these microsatellites in 2 populations of C. acutus and C. moreletii to assess their utility in estimating intraspecific levels of polymorphisms. These microsatellites also showed considerable allelic variation in population level analysis. The set of 10 microsatellite loci in our study had the potential to be used as a tool in population and conservation genetic studies of Neotropical crocodiles. PMID:25117304

  1. Fragile X gene instability: Anchoring AGGs and linked microsatellites

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Nan; Yang, Weihong; Dobkin, C. [Institute for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities, Staten Island, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    Interspersed AGGs within the FMR1 gene CGG repeat region may anchor the sequence and prevent slippage during replication. In order to detect the AGG position variations, we developed a method employing partial MnlI restriction analysis and analyzed X chromosomes from 187 males, including 133 normal controls (17 with 20-34 and 16 with 35-52 repeats), plus 54 fragile X premutations with 56-180 repeats. Among controls, the interspersed AGG positions were highly polymorphic, with heterozygosity of 91%. Among the control samples, 1.5% had no AGG positions, 25% had one, 71% had two, and 3% had three. Among the fragile X premutation samples, 63% had no AGG, while 37% had only one AGG. Analysis of premutation samples within fragile X families showed that variation occurred only within the 3{prime} end of the region. Thus, the instability was polar. Controls with {ge}15 pure CGG repeats were associated with the longest alleles of two nearby microsatellites, FRAXAC1 with 20-21 repeats and DXS548 with 202-206 bp and with increased microsatellite heterzygosity. The association of long pure CGG regions, as with fragile X chromosomes, with the longer and more heterozygous microsatellite alleles suggests they may be related mechanistically. Further, our results do not support a recent suggestion that the frequency of fragile X alleles may be increasing. Finally, analysis of a set of nonhuman primate samples showed that long pure CGG tracks are variable in size and are located within the 3{prime} region, which suggests that polar instability within FMR1 is evolutionarily quite old. 55 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Paternal genetic history of the Vlax Roma.

    PubMed

    Zalán, Andrea; Béres, Judit; Pamjav, Horolma

    2011-03-01

    Romanies constitute the largest minority group belonging to different subgroups in Hungary. Vlax Romanies are one of these Romani subgroups. The Gypsies came to Hungary from the Balkans in two large migrations. The Carpathian Romanies arrived in the 15th century and the Vlax Romanies came in the 19th century. The Carpathian Gypsies speak Hungarian and the Vlax Romanies speak Hungarian and Romani languages. Only a limited number of genetic studies of Y-chromosomal haplotypes/haplogroups have been done before, moreover most studies did not contain information regarding the investigated Roma populations which subgroups belong to. In the present study, we analyzed a wide set of Y-chromosomal markers to do comparable studies of the Vlax Roma in eastern Hungarian regions. The results can be compared in the context of previously published data on other Romani groups, Indian and Hungarian reference populations. Haplogroups H1a-M82 and J2a2-M67 were most common in the investigated population groups. A median-joining network of haplogroup H1a-M82 has demonstrated the sharing of identical Indian specific Y-chromosomal lineages between all Romani populations including Malaysian Indians as well as the Vlax Romanies. This common lineage of haplogroup H1a-M82 represents a common descent from a single ancestor provides a strong genetic link to the ancestral geographical origin of the proto-Gypsies. The detected haplogroups in the Vlax Romani population groups can be classified into two different Y-chromosomal lineages based on their putative origin. These lineages include ancestral Indian (H1a-M82), present-day Eurasian (J2a2-M67, J2*-M172, E1b1b1a-M78, I1-M253, R1a1-M198 and R1b1-P25) Y-chromosome lineages. Presence of these lineages in the paternal gene pool of the Roma people is illustrative of the Gypsy migration route from India through the Balkan to the Carpathian Basin. PMID:20869937

  3. Automated and simultaneous identification of microsatellite instability by fluorescence-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in four loci.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, M; Nakamura, J; Kusaka, H; Hadama, T; Bago, K; Kitajima, M; Baba, S

    1999-01-01

    Genomic instability is sometimes due to impairment of DNA repair systems, which results in a change in the number of microsatellite repeats in tumor cells, produced by slippage during DNA replication. Such abnormal repeats are manifested as microsatellite instability (MSI). We have devised a simple assay using four-color fluorescence for the detection of MSI by an automatic sequencer. Using this method, MSI and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at four microsatellite loci can be identified simultaneously. We have also developed an algorithm and software for automated analysis of MSI and LOH with this method. Using our method for the detection of MSI in four microsatellite loci and the algorithm and software that we developed, 18 (94.7%) of 19 patients with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), meeting the Amsterdam Minimum Criteria, were found to exhibit MSI. PMID:10064114

  4. CMD: a Cotton Microsatellite Database resource for Gossypium genomics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Blenda; Jodi Scheffler; Brian Scheffler; Michael Palmer; Jean-Marc Lacape; John Z Yu; Christopher Jesudurai; Sook Jung; Sriram Muthukumar; Preetham Yellambalase; Stephen Ficklin; Margaret Staton; Robert Eshelman; Mauricio Ulloa; Sukumar Saha; Ben Burr; Shaolin Liu; Tianzhen Zhang; Deqiu Fang; Alan Pepper; Siva Kumpatla; John Jacobs; Jeff Tomkins; Roy Cantrell; Dorrie Main

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Cotton Microsatellite Database (CMD) http:\\/\\/www.cottonssr.org is a curated and integrated web-based relational database providing centralized access to publicly available cotton microsatellites, an invaluable resource for basic and applied research in cotton breeding. DESCRIPTION: At present CMD contains publication, sequence, primer, mapping and homology data for nine major cotton microsatellite projects, collectively representing 5,484 microsatellites. In addition, CMD displays

  5. Characterization of microsatellite markers in peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Sosinski; M. Gannavarapu; L. D. Hager; L. E. Beck; G. J. King; C. D. Ryder; S. Rajapakse; W. V. Baird; R. E. Ballard; A. G. Abbott

    2000-01-01

    Microsatellites have emerged as an important system of molecular markers. We evaluated the potential of microsatellites for\\u000a use in genetic studies of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch]. Microsatellite loci in peach were identified by screening a pUC8 genomic library, a ?ZAPII leaf cDNA library,\\u000a as well as through database searches. Primer sequences for the microsatellite loci were tested from the

  6. Isolation and characterization of microsatellites in trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Dayanandan; O. P. Rajora; K. S. Bawa

    1998-01-01

    We have identified, isolated, and characterized microsatellite\\/simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci in trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) by screening partial genomic libraries. We have also examined the compatibility and use of the P. tremuloides SSR primers to resolve microsatellites in other Populus species. Fourteen microsatellites were identified from 1600 clones screened. The TC\\/AG microsatellites were the most abundant.\\u000a A total of

  7. Distinguishing species of European sturgeons Acipenser spp. using microsatellite allele sequences.

    PubMed

    Chassaing, O; Hänni, C; Berrebi, P

    2011-01-01

    Five microsatellite markers were analysed and their alleles were sequenced for the three sturgeon species that lived in western Europe: the European sturgeon Acipenser sturio, the Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus and the Adriatic sturgeon Acipenser naccarii. A total of 94 different allele sequences were obtained. Fixed mutations in the flanking regions or in the core repeat of microsatellites provided a clear distinction between the different species. Comparison of allele sequences also provided some insights into microsatellites and the evolution of Acipenser species. These nuclear markers can be used to solve species determination problems, and combined with mitochondrial markers, will be useful to identify introgression and hybridization among the three species. Moreover, because they are short and with a limited allele size range, they are particularly suited for analysis of museum specimens or archaeological remains. PMID:21235556

  8. Comparison of microsatellite and blood group diversity among different genotypes of cattle.

    PubMed

    Zidek, Radoslav; Jakabová, Daniela; Trandzík, Jozef; Buleca, Ján; Jakab, Frantisek; Massányi, Peter; Zöldág, László

    2008-09-01

    Genetic variability and relationships among five cattle breeds (Holstein, Pinzgau, Limousin, Slovak Spotted and Charolais) bred in the Slovak Republic were investigated separately using 11 microsatellite markers and 61 blood group systems. Allele frequency, heterozygosity (Ho, HE) and PIC values were investigated. F-statistics were computed separately. For microsatellite markers FIS, FIT, FST and for blood groups HS, HT, GST parameters were calculated. Microsatellite and blood group comparison showed similar results by F-statistics but some differences were marked using the other methods. Both methods were able to detect close relation between Slovak Pinzgau and Slovak Spotted cattle breeds. Their relation was confirmed by genetic distance, principal component analysis (PCA) and coefficient of admixture (mY). Important divergences between different markers used in the study were observed by the characterisation of Limousin and Charolais breeds. PMID:18828484

  9. TECHNICAL NOTE Isolation and characterization of 18 microsatellite loci

    E-print Network

    Donázar, José A.

    TECHNICAL NOTE Isolation and characterization of 18 microsatellite loci in the Egyptian vulture+Business Media B.V. 2007 Abstract We developed 18 new microsatellite loci for the endangered Egyptian vulture Vulture. Keywords Neophron percnopterus Á Microsatellites Á Egyptian vulture Á Conservation genetics Large

  10. TECHNICAL NOTE Five hundred microsatellite loci for Peromyscus

    E-print Network

    Georgia, University of

    that amplify microsatellite DNA loci for Peromyscus maniculatus bairdii, 467 of which also amplify conservation. Keywords Microsatellite Á Peromyscus maniculatus Á Peromyscus polionotus Á SSR Á STR Á PCRTECHNICAL NOTE Five hundred microsatellite loci for Peromyscus Jesse N. Weber Æ Maureen B. Peters Æ

  11. TECHNICAL NOTE Identification and characterization of microsatellite loci

    E-print Network

    Posada, David

    TECHNICAL NOTE Identification and characterization of microsatellite loci in the spiny spider crab (Northeast Atlantic). Here we describe the isolation of nine microsatellite loci for this species. These new to assess the level of genetic diversity in this species we have developed primers for nine microsatellite

  12. TECHNICAL ADVANCES New methods to identify conserved microsatellite loci and

    E-print Network

    Nottingham, University of

    TECHNICAL ADVANCES New methods to identify conserved microsatellite loci and develop primer sets was demonstrated using birds. We selected 35 avian EST microsatellite loci that had a high degree of sequence) 10, 475­494 doi: 10.1111/j.1755-0998.2009.02775.x #12;Introduction Microsatellite loci are much less

  13. TECHNICAL NOTE Development of ten polymorphic microsatellite loci

    E-print Network

    Avise, John

    TECHNICAL NOTE Development of ten polymorphic microsatellite loci for the sea snake Hydrophis.com Abstract We developed ten microsatellite loci for the elegant sea snake, Hydrophis elegans, from partial Microsatellite loci Á Hydrophiinae Á Hydrophis Á Sea snakes Á Connectivity Á Parentage Recently published IUCN

  14. Natural variation in paternal behavior is associated with central estrogen receptor alpha and oxytocin levels.

    PubMed

    Li, Yani; Lian, Zhenmin; Wang, Bo; Tai, Fadao; Wu, Ruiyong; Hao, Ping; Qiao, Xufeng

    2015-03-01

    In monogamous mammals paternal care plays an important role in the neural and behavioral development of offspring. However, the neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying paternal behavior remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate the association between natural variation in paternal responsiveness and central levels of oxytocin (OT) and estrogen receptor alpha (ER?). We used the frequency of licking and grooming behavior to distinguish low paternal responsiveness and high paternal responsiveness in virgin mandarin voles (Microtus mandarinus). Males that engaged in high paternal behavior had elevated levels of OT immunoreactive neurons in the paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus compared with males that displayed low paternal behavior. Likewise, males of high paternal responsiveness had more ER? immunoreactive neurons in the medial preoptic area, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and medial amygdaloid nucleus compared to low responsive males. The level of ER? immunoreactive neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus was lower in highly paternal males compared to less paternal males. These results suggest that natural variation in paternal responsiveness may be directly related to variation in central OT and ER?. PMID:25652439

  15. Patterns of multiple paternity in fruits of Mimulus ringens (Phrymaceae).

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Randall J; Karron, Jeffrey D; Holmquist, Karsten G; Bell, John M

    2005-05-01

    Multiply sired fruits provide unambiguous evidence that pollen from two or more donors was deposited on a stigma and successfully fertilized ovules. Such multiple paternity within fruits can have important consequences for both parental and offspring fitness, but little is known about the frequency of multiple paternity or the mechanisms causing it. In this study we quantify the extent of multiple paternity in replicate experimental arrays of Mimulus ringens (square-stem monkeyflower) and use observations of pollinator behavior to infer mechanisms generating multiply sired fruits. In each array, floral displays were trimmed to two, four, eight, or 16 flowers per plant to span the range of display sizes observed in nature. In our sample of 204 fruits, more than 95% had two or more outcross pollen donors. The number of sires per fruit averaged 4.63 ± 0.10 (mean ± 1 SE), including selfs, and did not vary significantly with floral display treatment. Patterns of bumble bee foraging, combined with limited pollen carryover, suggest that observed levels of multiple paternity cannot be fully explained by single probes that deposited mixed pollen loads. Multiple probes to flowers, each delivering pollen from 1-3 different sires, are more likely to have caused the observed patterns. These sequential visits may reduce the potential for pollen competition and female choice based on pollen tube growth rate. PMID:21652470

  16. HR/OPL JAN 14 ORDINARY PATERNITY/PARTNER

    E-print Network

    Barker, Jon

    dd/mm/yy 3 Date of return to work dd/mm/yy If the child is born early, rights of entitlement with the above) for the child's upbringing, and 3 I am making the application to take time off work to support/placement of child). 2. Please read the Paternity/Partner Leave Policy and Procedure, available via the HR Family

  17. Mechanisms and consequences of paternally transmitted chromosomal abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Marchetti, F; Wyrobek, A J

    2005-04-05

    Paternally transmitted chromosomal damage has been associated with pregnancy loss, developmental and morphological defects, infant mortality, infertility, and genetic diseases in the offspring including cancer. There is epidemiological evidence linking paternal exposure to occupational or environmental agents with an increased risk of abnormal reproductive outcomes. There is also a large body of literature on germ cell mutagenesis in rodents showing that treatment of male germ cells with mutagens has dramatic consequences on reproduction producing effects such as those observed in human epidemiological studies. However, we know very little about the etiology, transmission and early embryonic consequences of paternally-derived chromosomal abnormalities. The available evidence suggests that: (1) there are distinct patterns of germ cell-stage differences in the sensitivity of induction of transmissible genetic damage with male postmeiotic cells being the most sensitive; (2) cytogenetic abnormalities at first metaphase after fertilization are critical intermediates between paternal exposure and abnormal reproductive outcomes; and, (3) there are maternally susceptibility factors that may have profound effects on the amount of sperm DNA damage that is converted into chromosomal aberrations in the zygote and directly affect the risk for abnormal reproductive outcomes.

  18. Fathers' Presence during Birth of Their Infants and Paternal Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossmann, Klaus E.; Volkmer, Hans-Joachim

    1984-01-01

    A year after their firstborn child was delivered, 100 fathers were asked about their attitudes toward and their actual participation in infant care. Results concerned several dimensions of paternal involvement and suggested that fathers' intention to participate in delivery is more important than their actual presence. (Author/RH)

  19. 45 CFR 303.5 - Establishment of paternity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...under State law. (b) The IV-D agency need not attempt to establish paternity in any case involving incest or forcible rape, or in any case in which legal proceedings for adoption are pending, if, in the opinion of the IV-D agency, it would...

  20. 45 CFR 303.5 - Establishment of paternity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...under State law. (b) The IV-D agency need not attempt to establish paternity in any case involving incest or forcible rape, or in any case in which legal proceedings for adoption are pending, if, in the opinion of the IV-D agency, it would...

  1. Father Involvement: The Importance of Paternal Solo Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Katherine R.; Prior, Margot R.

    2010-01-01

    Paternal time spent caring for children alone is qualitatively different from time together mediated by the presence of the mother and may be particularly relevant to father-child relations. Many fathers spend minimal time alone with their children. Indeed, it is still commonly referred to as "babysitting". We explored the concept of Solo Care as…

  2. Maternal Depression, Paternal Psychopathology, and Toddlers' Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietz, Laura J.; Jennings, Kay Donahue; Kelley, Sue A.; Marshal, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This article examined the effects of maternal depression during the postpartum period (Time 1) on the later behavior problems of toddlers (Time 3) and tested if this relationship was moderated by paternal psychopathology during toddlers' lives and/or mediated by maternal parenting behavior observed during mother-child interaction (Time 2). Of the…

  3. Those They Leave behind: Paternal Incarceration and Maternal Instrumental Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turney, Kristin; Schnittker, Jason; Wildeman, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    As the American imprisonment rate has risen, researchers have become increasingly concerned about the implications of mass imprisonment for family life. The authors extend this research by examining how paternal incarceration is linked to perceived instrumental support among the mothers of inmates' children. Results from the Fragile Families and…

  4. Paternalism & Deaf People: An Open Letter to Mme. Umuvyeyi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Harlan

    1988-01-01

    By describing the paternalism inherent in the parallels between the history of Burundi and that of deaf people, a letter to a woman in Burundi with five deaf children attempts to persuade her to allow her youngest to further her education in the United States. (LMO)

  5. Genetic variation among females affects paternity in a dioecious plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sara Teixeira; Anne Burkhardt; Giorgina Bernasconi

    2008-01-01

    Flowering plants rely on vectors for pollen transfer, and cannot choose their mates. Although recipient plants are unable to choose which pollen they receive, post-pollination selection (acting pre- or post-zygotically) may modify the outcome of pollination. Here we show that genetic variation among pollen recipients can predict the outcome of pollen competition (seed paternity) in the dioecious white campion. To

  6. Advanced paternal age: How old is too old?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabelle Bray; David Gunnell; George Davey Smith

    2006-01-01

    Average paternal age in the UK is increasing. The public health implications of this trend have not been widely anticipated or debated. This commentary aims to contribute to such a debate. Accumulated chromosomal aberrations and mutations occurring during the maturation of male germ cells are thought to be responsible for the increased risk of certain conditions with older fathers. Growing

  7. Paternal factors and schizophrenia risk: de novo mutations and imprinting.

    PubMed

    Malaspina, D

    2001-01-01

    There is a strong genetic component for schizophrenia risk, but it is unclear how the illness is maintained in the population given the significantly reduced fertility of those with the disorder. One possibility is that new mutations occur in schizophrenia vulnerability genes. If so, then those with schizophrenia may have older fathers, because advancing paternal age is the major source of new mutations in humans. This review describes several neurodevelopmental disorders that have been associated with de novo mutations in the paternal germ line and reviews data linking increased schizophrenia risk with older fathers. Several genetic mechanisms that could explain this association are proposed, including paternal germ line mutations, trinucleotide repeat expansions, and alterations in genetic imprinting in one or several genes involved in neurodevelopment. Animal models may be useful in exploring these and other explanations for the paternal age effect and they may provide a novel approach for gene identification. Finally, it is proposed that environmental exposures of the father, as well as those of the mother and developing fetus, may be relevant to the etiology of schizophrenia. PMID:11596842

  8. Paternal Factors and Schizophrenia Risk: De Novo Mutations and Imprinting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dolores Malaspina

    2001-01-01

    There is a strong genetic component for schizophrenia risk, but it is unclear how the illness is maintained in the population given the significantly reduced fertility of those with the disorder. One possibility is that new mutations occur in schizophrenia vulnerability genes. If so, then those with schizophrenia may have older fathers, because advancing paternal age is the major source

  9. Advancing Paternal Age and the Risk of Schizophrenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dolores Malaspina; Susan Harlap; Shmuel Fennig; Dov Heiman; Daniella Nahon; Dina Feldman; Ezra S. Susser

    2001-01-01

    Background: A major source of new mutations in hu- mans is the male germ line, with mutation rates mono- tonically increasing as father's age at conception ad- vances, possibly because of accumulating replication errors in spermatogonial cell lines. Method: We investigated whether the risk of schizo- phrenia was associated with advancing paternal age in a population-based birth cohort of 87907

  10. Paternal age and sporadic schizophrenia: evidence for de novo mutations.

    PubMed

    Malaspina, Dolores; Corcoran, Cheryl; Fahim, Cherine; Berman, Ariela; Harkavy-Friedman, Jill; Yale, Scott; Goetz, Deborah; Goetz, Raymond; Harlap, Susan; Gorman, Jack

    2002-04-01

    Schizophrenia is an etiologically heterogeneous syndrome. It has a strong genetic component and exists in clinically indistinguishable familial and nonfamilial (sporadic) forms. A significant role for de novo genetic mutations in genetic schizophrenia vulnerability is suggested by a strong monotonic increase in schizophrenia risk with advancing paternal age. However, an alternative explanation for the paternal age effect in schizophrenia is that childbearing is delayed in fathers who themselves have genetic schizophrenia vulnerability. In this study, we compared paternal birth ages between patient groups with familial (n = 35) and sporadic (n = 68) patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia from an inpatient schizophrenia research unit. If later age of fathering children is related to having some genetic schizophrenia vulnerability, then paternal birth age should be later in familial schizophrenia cases than in sporadic cases, and any association of father's age and schizophrenia risk in offspring would be a spurious finding, unrelated to etiology. However, if de novo mutations cause sporadic schizophrenia, then patients without a family history of schizophrenia would have older fathers than familial patients. We found that patients without a family history of schizophrenia had significantly older fathers (4.7 years) than familial patients; so later childbirth was not attributable to parental psychiatric illness. These findings support the hypothesis that de novo mutations contribute to the risk for sporadic schizophrenia. PMID:11920852

  11. Reduced recombination and paternal age effect in Klinefelter syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabel Lorda-Sanchez; Franz Binkert; Marco Maechler; Wendy P. Robinson; Albert A. Schinzel

    1992-01-01

    The parental origin of the additional sex chromosome was studied in 47 cases with an XXY sex chromosome consitution. In 23 cases (49%), the error occurred during the first paternal meiotic division. Maternal origin of the additional chromosome was found in the remaining 24 cases (51%). Centromeric homo- versus heterozygosity could be determined in 18 out of the 24 maternally

  12. Overcompensation through the paternal component of fitness in Ipomopsis arizonica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken N. Paige; Barry Williams; Tracey Hickox

    2001-01-01

    Estimates of the effects of herbivory on plant fitness based on female fitness alone may be misleading if plants experience either reduced or increased male fitness. Because there are many plants that produce more flowers following herbivory where seed set is unaffected or reduced, total fitness may be enhanced through the paternal component alone. Here we show that herbivory results

  13. University of Sussex A Guide to Paternity Leave and Pay

    E-print Network

    Sussex, University of

    a baby (this includes same-sex partners); (ii) who is the biological father of an expected baby; (iii) who is adopting a child with a partner, or whose partner is adopting a child. 1.2 Paternity leave or adopted child and/or to support the mother following birth or following the adoption of a child. 1

  14. POLICY ON MATERNITY, PATERNITY AND ADOPTION IN RELATION TO Introduction

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Jim

    note that where a couple are adopting a child (which may include same sex couples) only one of them may had a child, are in the process of adopting a child, or are the partner of a person in one period that applies to employees. Paternity Leave #12;If you are the father of a child, or partner

  15. Hypomethylation of the paternally inherited LRRTM1 promoter linked to schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Brucato, Nicolas; DeLisi, Lynn E; Fisher, Simon E; Francks, Clyde

    2014-10-01

    Epigenetic effects on psychiatric traits remain relatively under-studied, and it remains unclear what the sizes of individual epigenetic effects may be, or how they vary between different clinical populations. The gene LRRTM1 (chromosome 2p12) has previously been linked and associated with schizophrenia in a parent-of-origin manner in a set of affected siblings (LOD?=?4.72), indirectly suggesting a disruption of paternal imprinting at this locus in these families. From the same set of siblings that originally showed strong linkage at this locus, we analyzed 99 individuals using 454-bisulfite sequencing, from whole blood DNA, to measure the level of DNA methylation in the promoter region of LRRTM1. We also assessed seven additional loci that would be informative to compare. Paternal identity-by-descent sharing at LRRTM1, within sibling pairs, was linked to their similarity of methylation at the gene's promoter. Reduced methylation at the promoter showed a significant association with schizophrenia. Sibling pairs concordant for schizophrenia showed more similar methylation levels at the LRRTM1 promoter than diagnostically discordant pairs. The alleles of common SNPs spanning the locus did not explain this epigenetic linkage, which can therefore be considered as largely independent of DNA sequence variation and would not be detected in standard genetic association analysis. Our data suggest that hypomethylation at the LRRTM1 promoter, particularly of the paternally inherited allele, was a risk factor for the development of schizophrenia in this set of siblings affected with familial schizophrenia, and that had previously showed linkage at this locus in an affected-sib-pair context. PMID:25111784

  16. Multicolor FISH studies of male non-disjunction: Evidence for a paternal age effect

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, D.K.; Millie, E.A.; Sheean, L.A. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Approximately 5-10% of autosomal trisomies and the majority of sex chromosome aneuploidies are paternally derived, thus paternal non-disjunction is an important contributor to human chromosomal syndromes. We have been using multicolor FISH to screen for aneuploidy in sperm of normal males and to determine whether there is, among individuals or among chromosomes, variation in the likelihood of non-disjunction. Our initial studies based on analysis of 5000 sperm scored per chromosome in nine males identified significant differences in disomy rates for chromosomes 16, 18 and the sex chromosomes. We have now extended those analyses to a new series of 10 donors aged 22 to 45 to confirm or refute our observations of chromosome-specific differences in rates of disomy; to determine if the size of the centromeric (alpha satellite) sequences is related to non-disjunction frequency; and to determine if there is a paternal as well as a maternal age effect on non-disjunction. For these studies, we have used 3 color FISH for chromosomes 18 and the X and Y chromosomes to now score {approximately}20,000 sperm for each of 10 new donors. Our results provide little evidence for an effect of the size of the Y chromosome centromere on the frequency of sex chromosome disomy. However, we have found considerable variation in rates of disomy among individuals and have confirmed significant differences among chromosomes in the likelihood of non-disjunction; i.e., the rate of non-disjunction of the sex chromosomes is 3.5 -4 times greater than that of chromosome 18 and meiosis II errors are significantly more likely for the Y chromosome than for the X chromosome. Specifically, we have identified increases in the frequency of disomy 18 and both meiosis I (XY) and meiosis II (XX and YY) sex chromosome disomy although the effect is only significant for total sex chromosome disomy.

  17. Microsatellite instability in gallbladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Moy, Andrea P; Shahid, Mohammad; Ferrone, Cristina R; Borger, Darrell R; Zhu, Andrew X; Ting, David; Deshpande, Vikram

    2015-04-01

    The genetic abnormalities involved in the pathogenesis of gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) remain unclear. Microsatellite instability (MSI) has been described in many carcinomas, but little is known about the significance of mismatch repair in gallbladder carcinogenesis. Additionally, methylation status of long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1), a surrogate marker of global DNA methylation, has defined distinct subsets of other cancer types but has not been explored in GBC. Immunohistochemical expression of MSH2, MSH6, MLH1, and PMS2 and LINE-1 mRNA in situ hybridization was evaluated in 67 primary and 15 metastatic GBCs from 77 patients. Amplification of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) was evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Genotyping for 24 genes involved in carcinogenesis was performed using a multiplex PCR-based platform. MSI was present in 6 of 77 GBCs (7.8 %). Loss of MSH2/MSH6 was detected in five cases and loss of MLH1/PMS2 in one case. MSI status was not associated with Lynch syndrome, tumor grade, extracellular mucin, or tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. There was no significant difference in mean overall survival of patients with and without MSI. Strong LINE-1 staining was identified in none of the GBC with MSI and in 36 of 69 (52 %) of those without MSI (p?=?0.005), suggesting that LINE-1 in the former cohort was hypermethylated. All MSI tumors were negative for HER2 amplification, and TP53 and NRAS mutations were only found in GBC without MSI. MSI was identified in a minority of GBC cases. The strong correlation between global DNA methylation as measured by LINE-1 and loss of mismatch repair proteins suggests that methylation may account for the loss of these proteins. These hypermethylated tumors appear to represent a genetically unique cohort of gallbladder neoplasms, and the data suggests that demethylating agents may have a therapeutic value in this class of tumors. PMID:25680569

  18. Non-invasive determination of the paternal HLA haplotype of a fetus using kinetic PCR to detect fetal microchimerism in maternal plasma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W Reed; DZ Kong; T-H Lee; MJ Cowan; MP Busch; LA Baxter-Lowe

    2002-01-01

    Knowledge of fetal HLA type can be important if cord blood (CB) is being considered as a stem cell source for transplantation. The feasibility of determining the paternally inherited HLA haplotype of a fetus was explored through analysis of fetal DNA in the maternal circulation. A 5-year-old child with relapsed acute leukemia was a candidate for transplantation. The HLA type

  19. Male-specific DNA markers provide genetic evidence of an XY chromosome system, a recombination arrest and allow the tracing of paternal lineages in date palm.

    PubMed

    Cherif, Emira; Zehdi, Salwa; Castillo, Karina; Chabrillange, Nathalie; Abdoulkader, Sabira; Pintaud, Jean-Christophe; Santoni, Sylvain; Salhi-Hannachi, Amel; Glémin, Sylvain; Aberlenc-Bertossi, Frédérique

    2013-01-01

    Whether sex chromosomes are differentiated is an important aspect of our knowledge of dioecious plants, such as date palm (Phoenix dactylifera). In this crop plant, the female individuals produce dates, and are thus the more valuable sex. However, there is no way to identify the sex of date palm plants before reproductive age, and the sex-determining mechanism is still unclear. To identify sex-linked microsatellite markers, we surveyed a set of 52 male and 55 female genotypes representing the geographical diversity of the species. We found three genetically linked loci that are heterozygous only in males. Male-specific alleles allowed us to identify the gender in 100% of individuals. These results confirm the existence of an XY chromosomal system with a nonrecombining XY-like region in the date palm genome. The distribution of Y haplotypes in western and eastern haplogroups allowed us to trace two male ancestral paternal lineages that account for all known Y diversity in date palm. The very low diversity associated with Y haplotypes is consistent with clonal paternal transmission of a nonrecombining male-determining region. Our results establish the date palm as a biological model with one of the most ancient sex chromosomes in flowering plants. PMID:23231423

  20. New Microsatellite Multiplex PCR for Candida albicans Strain Typing Reveals Microevolutionary Changes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paula Sampaio; Leonor Gusmao; Alexandra Correia; Cõ ´ ntia Alves; Acacio G. Rodrigues; Cidalia Pina-Vaz; Antonio Amorim; Celia Pais

    2005-01-01

    Five new microsatellite loci were described and characterized for use as molecular markers for the identi- fication and genetic differentiation of Candida albicans strains. Following the typing of 72 unrelated clinical isolates, the analysis revealed that they were all polymorphic, presenting from 5 to 30 alleles and 8 to 46 different genotypes. The discriminatory power obtained by combining the information

  1. Bioinformatic Mining of Type I Microsatellites from Expressed Sequence Tags of Channel Catfish ( Ictalurus punctatus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jerry Serapion; Huseyin Kucuktas; Jinian Feng; Zhanjiang Liu

    2004-01-01

    Gene-derived markers are pivotal to the analysis of genome structure, organization, and evolution and necessary for comparative genomics. However, gene-derived markers are relatively difficult to develop. This project utilized the genomic resources of channel catfish expressed sequence tags (ESTs) to identify simple sequence repeats (SSRs), or microsatellites. It took the advantage of ESTs for the establishment of gene identities, and

  2. Microsatellite markers from sugarcane ( Saccharum spp.) ESTs cross transferable to erianthus and sorghum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giovanni M Cordeiro; Rosanne E Casu; C Lynne McIntyre; John M Manners; Robert J Henry

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of a sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) EST (expressed sequence tag) library of 8678 sequences revealed approximately 250 microsatellite or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) sequences. A diversity of dinucleotide and trinucleotide SSR repeat motifs were present although most were of the (CGG)n trinucleotide motif. Primer sets were designed for 35 sequences and tested on five sugarcane genotypes. Twenty-one primer pairs produced

  3. Microsatellite variation and assessment of genetic structure in tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia– Myrtaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maurizio Rossetto; R. W. Slade; Peter R Baverstock; Robert J Henry; L Slade Lee

    1999-01-01

    Analysis of five microsatellite loci in 500 Melaleuca alternifolia individuals produced 98 alleles that were useful for population genetic studies. Considerable levels of observed heterozygosity were recorded (HO = 0.724), with ? 90% of the variability being detected within populations. A low level of selfing (14%) was suggested to be the principal cause of excess homozygosity in a number of

  4. Ten microsatellite markers identify cultivars of black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) in a nut breeding orchard

    E-print Network

    Ten microsatellite markers identify cultivars of black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) in a nut breeding-Busch Natural Resources Bldg. Columbia, MO 65211, USA Abstract Black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) is a large tree analysis P i i d i d t f thi h d i d b f th i f Introduction Black walnut (Juglans nigra L.), is a large

  5. A generic estimation of population subdivision using distances between alleles with special reference for microsatellite loci

    SciTech Connect

    Michalakis, Y. [Universite P. & M. Curie, Paris (France); Excoffier, L. [Univ. of Geneva (Switzerland)

    1996-03-01

    Several estimators of population differentiation have been proposed in the recent past to deal with various types of genetic markers (i.e., allozymes, nucleotide sequences, restriction fragment length polymorphisms, or microsatellites). We discuss the relationships among these estimators and show how a single analysis of variance framework can accomodate these qualitatively different data types. 17 refs., 1 tab.

  6. Microsatellite DNA markers associated with resistance to WSSV in Penaeus ( Fenneropenaeus) chinensis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shirui Dong; Jie Kong; Xianhong Meng; Qingwen Zhang; Tianshi Zhang; Rucai Wang

    2008-01-01

    An F2 family of Chinese shrimp, Penaeus (Fenneropenaeus) chinensis, was used to conduct analysis of an association between microsatellite DNA markers and resistance to WSSV (white spot syndrome virus). The total of 163 individuals from the F2 family was challenged with WSSV by oral infection in an indoor tank. Nested-PCR was used to test for infection of WSSV. Eighteen primer

  7. Multiple paternity is a shared reproductive strategy in the live-bearing surfperches (Embiotocidae) that may be associated with female fitness

    PubMed Central

    LaBrecque, John R; Alva-Campbell, Yvette R; Archambeault, Sophie; Crow, Karen D

    2014-01-01

    According to Bateman's principle, female fecundity is limited relative to males, setting the expectation that males should be promiscuous, while females should be choosy and select fewer mates. However, several surfperches (Embiotocidae) exhibit multiple paternity within broods indicating that females mate with multiple males throughout the mating season. Previous studies found no correlation between mating success and reproductive success (i.e., a Bateman gradient). However, by including samples from a broader range of reproductive size classes, we found evidence of a Bateman gradient in two surfperch species from distinct embiotocid clades. Using microsatellite analyses, we found that 100% of the spotfin surfperch families sampled exhibit multiple paternity (Hyperprosopon anale, the basal taxon from the only clade that has not previously been investigated) indicating that this tactic is a shared reproductive strategy among surfperches. Further, we detected evidence for a Bateman gradient in H. anale; however, this result was not significant after correction for biases. Similarly, we found evidence for multiple paternity in 83% of the shiner surfperch families (Cymatogaster aggregata) sampled. When we combine these data with a previous study on the same species, representing a larger range of reproductive size classes and associated brood sizes, we detect a Bateman gradient in shiner surfperch for the first time that remains significant after several conservative tests for bias correction. These results indicate that sexual selection is likely complex in this system, with the potential for conflicting optima between sexes, and imply a positive shift in fertility (i.e., increasing number) and reproductive tactic with respect to the mating system and number of sires throughout the reproductive life history of females. We argue that the complex reproductive natural history of surfperches is characterized by several traits that may be associated with cryptic female choice, including protracted oogenesis, uterine sac complexity, and sperm storage. PMID:25360270

  8. Multiple paternity is a shared reproductive strategy in the live-bearing surfperches (Embiotocidae) that may be associated with female fitness.

    PubMed

    LaBrecque, John R; Alva-Campbell, Yvette R; Archambeault, Sophie; Crow, Karen D

    2014-06-01

    According to Bateman's principle, female fecundity is limited relative to males, setting the expectation that males should be promiscuous, while females should be choosy and select fewer mates. However, several surfperches (Embiotocidae) exhibit multiple paternity within broods indicating that females mate with multiple males throughout the mating season. Previous studies found no correlation between mating success and reproductive success (i.e., a Bateman gradient). However, by including samples from a broader range of reproductive size classes, we found evidence of a Bateman gradient in two surfperch species from distinct embiotocid clades. Using microsatellite analyses, we found that 100% of the spotfin surfperch families sampled exhibit multiple paternity (Hyperprosopon anale, the basal taxon from the only clade that has not previously been investigated) indicating that this tactic is a shared reproductive strategy among surfperches. Further, we detected evidence for a Bateman gradient in H. anale; however, this result was not significant after correction for biases. Similarly, we found evidence for multiple paternity in 83% of the shiner surfperch families (Cymatogaster aggregata) sampled. When we combine these data with a previous study on the same species, representing a larger range of reproductive size classes and associated brood sizes, we detect a Bateman gradient in shiner surfperch for the first time that remains significant after several conservative tests for bias correction. These results indicate that sexual selection is likely complex in this system, with the potential for conflicting optima between sexes, and imply a positive shift in fertility (i.e., increasing number) and reproductive tactic with respect to the mating system and number of sires throughout the reproductive life history of females. We argue that the complex reproductive natural history of surfperches is characterized by several traits that may be associated with cryptic female choice, including protracted oogenesis, uterine sac complexity, and sperm storage. PMID:25360270

  9. Using a comparative species approach to investigate the neurobiology of paternal responses.

    PubMed

    Franssen, Catherine L; Bardi, Massimo; Lambert, Kelly G

    2011-01-01

    A goal of behavioral neuroscience is to identify underlying neurobiological factors that regulate specific behaviors. Using animal models to accomplish this goal, many methodological strategies require invasive techniques to manipulate the intensity of the behavior of interest (e.g., lesion methods, pharmacological manipulations, microdialysis techniques, genetically-engineered animal models). The utilization of a comparative species approach allows researchers to take advantage of naturally occurring differences in response strategies existing in closely related species. In our lab, we use two species of the Peromyscus genus that differ in paternal responses. The male California deer mouse (Peromyscus californicus) exhibits the same parental responses as the female whereas its cousin, the common deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) exhibits virtually no nurturing/parental responses in the presence of pups. Of specific interest in this article is an exploration of the neurobiological factors associated with the affiliative social responses exhibited by the paternal California deer mouse. Because the behavioral neuroscience approach is multifaceted, the following key components of the study will be briefly addressed: the identification of appropriate species for this type of research; data collection for behavioral analysis; preparation and sectioning of the brains; basic steps involved in immunocytochemistry for the quantification of vasopressin-immunoreactivity; the use of neuroimaging software to quantify the brain tissue; the use of a microsequencing video analysis to score behavior and, finally, the appropriate statistical analyses to provide the most informed interpretations of the research findings. PMID:21968462

  10. Two brothers' alleged paternity for a child: who is the father?

    PubMed

    Dogan, Muhammed; Kara, Umut; Emre, Ramazan; Fung, Wing Kam; Canturk, Kemal Murat

    2015-06-01

    In paternity cases where individuals are close relatives, it may be necessary to evaluate mother's DNA profile (trio test) and to increase the number of polymorphic STR loci that are analyzed. In our case, two alleged fathers who are brothers and the child (duo case) were analyzed based on 20 STR loci; however, no exclusions could be achieved. Then trio test (with mother) was performed using the Identifiler Plus kit (Applied Biosystems) and no exclusions could be achieved again. Analysis performed with the ESS Plex Plus kit (Qiagen), the paternity of one of the two alleged fathers was rejected only on 2 STR loci. We made the calculations of power of exclusion values to interpret our results more properly. The probability of exclusion (PE) is calculated as 0.9776546 in 15 loci of Identifiler Plus kit without mother. The PE is calculated as 0.9942803, if 5 additional loci from ESS Plex Plus kit are typed. The PE becomes 0.9961048 for the Identifiler Plus kit in trio analysis. If both Identifiler Plus and ESS Plex Plus kits are used for testing, the PE is calculated as 0.999431654, which indicates that the combined kits are highly discriminating. PMID:25416555

  11. Widespread differential maternal and paternal genome effects on fetal bone phenotype at mid-gestation.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Ruidong; Lee, Alice M C; Eindorf, Tanja; Javadmanesh, Ali; Ghanipoor-Samami, Mani; Gugger, Madeleine; Fitzsimmons, Carolyn J; Kruk, Zbigniew A; Pitchford, Wayne S; Leviton, Alison J; Thomsen, Dana A; Beckman, Ian; Anderson, Gail I; Burns, Brian M; Rutley, David L; Xian, Cory J; Hiendleder, Stefan

    2014-11-01

    Parent-of-origin-dependent (epi)genetic factors are important determinants of prenatal development that program adult phenotype. However, data on magnitude and specificity of maternal and paternal genome effects on fetal bone are lacking. We used an outbred bovine model to dissect and quantify effects of parental genomes, fetal sex, and nongenetic maternal effects on the fetal skeleton and analyzed phenotypic and molecular relationships between fetal muscle and bone. Analysis of 51 bone morphometric and weight parameters from 72 fetuses recovered at day 153 gestation (54% term) identified six principal components (PC1-6) that explained 80% of the variation in skeletal parameters. Parental genomes accounted for most of the variation in bone wet weight (PC1, 72.1%), limb ossification (PC2, 99.8%), flat bone size (PC4, 99.7%), and axial skeletal growth (PC5, 96.9%). Limb length showed lesser effects of parental genomes (PC3, 40.8%) and a significant nongenetic maternal effect (gestational weight gain, 29%). Fetal sex affected bone wet weight (PC1, p?paternal genome controlled limb ossification (95.1%, p?paternal genome effects on alkaline phosphatase (90.0%, p?paternally controlled limb ossification, respectively. Bone wet weight and flat bone size correlated positively with muscle weight (r?=?0.84 and 0.77, p?

  12. Genetic analysis of the mating system and opportunity for sexual selection in northern water snakes (Nerodia sipedon)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melanie R. Prosser; Patrick J. Weatherhead; H. Lisle Gibbs; Gregory P. Brownb

    2002-01-01

    We used data collected over 3 years at two study sites to quantify the rates and consequences of multiple paternity and to determine the opportunity for selection on male and female northern water snakes (Nerodia sipedon). We sampled litters from 45 females that gave birth to 811 offspring. Using eight microsatellite DNA loci (probability of exclusion of nonparental males >

  13. Fine genetic mapping of the Batten disease locus (CLN3) by haplotype analysis and demonstration of allelic association with chromosome 16p microsatellite loci

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchison, H.M.; McKay, T.R. [Univ. College London Medical School (United Kingdom)] [Univ. College London Medical School (United Kingdom); Thompson, A.D.; Mulley, J.C.; Kozman, H.M.; Richards, R.I.; Callen, D.F. [Women and Children`s Hospital, Adelaide (Australia)] [Women and Children`s Hospital, Adelaide (Australia); Stallings, R.L.; Doggett, N.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Attwood, J. [Galton Lab., London (United Kingdom)] [and others] [Galton Lab., London (United Kingdom); and others

    1993-05-01

    Batten disease, juvenile onset neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by accumulation of autofluorescent lipopigment in neurons and other cell types. The disease locus (CLN3) has previously been assigned to chromosome 16p. The genetic localization of CLN3 has been refined by analyzing 70 families using a high-resolution map of 15 marker loci encompassing the CLN3 region on 16p. Crossovers in three maternal meioses allowed localization of CLN3 to the interval between D16S297 and D16S57. Within that interval alleles at three highly polymorphic dinucleotide repeat loci (D16S288, D16S298, D16S299) were found to be in strong linkage disequilibrium with CLN3. Analysis of haplotypes suggests that a majority of CLN3 chromosomes have arisen from a single founder mutation. 15 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Microsatellite Markers: Valuable in Vaccinium L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nahla V. Bassil

    2012-01-01

    The United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Clonal Germplasm Repository, Corvallis, Oregon, maintains a collection of Vaccinium L. that contains >1,700 accessions representing 66 species from 33 countries. The mission of the National Clonal Germplasm Repository is to acquire, preserve, evaluate, document, and freely distribute crop germplasm. Microsatellite (syn. simple sequence repeat) markers provide a unique fingerprint

  15. A microsatellite marker in Helianthus annuus L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Brunel

    1994-01-01

    The importance of genetic polymorphism detected by ‘microsatellites’ is now well established in mammalian genomes. Sequences with a CA repeat, specific to sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., were found by screening a genomic library in M13. After amplification, some polymorphism was detected on these sequences within a sample of cultivars and populations.

  16. Microsatellite markers isolated from saltgrass (Distichlis spicata)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    OLGA V. TSYUSKO; MAUREEN B. PETERS; TRACEY D. TUBERVILLE; CRIS HAGEN; SARAH M. EPPLEY; TRAVIS C. GLENN

    2007-01-01

    Twelve polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci were isolated from saltgrass ( Distichlis spicata ) and optimized for future studies of its breeding system. The loci were screened for variability among 24 individuals from two populations. The primers amplified loci with numbers of alleles ranging from four to 14 per locus and polymorphic information content from 0.481 to 0.951. Observed heterozygosity varied

  17. Microsatellite instability in adenocarcinoma of the prostrate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. B. Terrell; A. H. Willie; J. C. Cheville

    1994-01-01

    Instability of tandem repeat sequences (microsatellites) has been reported to play a major etiologic role in familial colon cancer, as well as a potential role in the carcinogenesis of other sporadic neoplasms. These replication errors are the result of faulty DNA excision\\/repair function controlled at the gene level. In order to examine this phenomenon in prostate cancer, we screened 40

  18. Microsatellite markers for raspberry and blackberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    welve microsatellites were isolated from SSR-enriched genomic libraries of Rubus idaeus L.‘Meeker’ red raspberry (diploid) and R. loganobaccus L. H. Bailey ‘Marion’ blackberry-raspberry hybrid (hexaploid). These primer pairs, with the addition of one developed from a GenBank R. idaeus sequence, we...

  19. Microsatellite Markers for Raspberries and Blackberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twelve microsatellites were isolated from SSR-enriched genomic libraries of Rubus idaeus L.‘Meeker’ red raspberry (diploid) and R. loganobaccus L. H. Bailey ‘Marion’ blackberry-raspberry hybrid (hexaploid). These primer pairs, with the addition of one developed from a GenBank R. idaeus sequence, w...

  20. A power system for a microsatellite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dan Olsson

    1993-01-01

    A power system for a microsatellite was designed for the Space Technology Research Vehicle (STRV-1) mainly aimed at technology demonstration experiments and studies of radiation effects and planned to be launched into geostationary transfer orbit. The low average solar array power (25 W) and the small volume allocation of the power system electronics (2.8 dm cubed) became a challenge when

  1. Microsatellites and Their Appliation in Flowering Dogwood

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microsatellites, also known as simple sequence repeats (SSRs), are repeat units that are 1 to 6 base pairs long and repeat six or more times and are present throughout the entire eukaryotic genome. SSRs are useful genetic markers for studying genetic diversity and for creating linkage maps of plant...

  2. Microsatellite markers in plant pathogenic fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowing the genetic diversity of plant pathogenic fungi is essential in the management of crops and disease. The genetic variability of fungal pathogens can be evaluated using molecular markers, among which, microsatellites are a relatively inexpensive source of information. We have developed an e...

  3. A microsatellite linkage map of Drosophila mojavensis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Regina Staten; Sheri Dixon Schully; Mohamed AF Noor

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Drosophila mojavensis has been a model system for genetic studies of ecological adaptation and speciation. However, despite its use for over half a century, no linkage map has been produced for this species or its close relatives. RESULTS: We have developed and mapped 90 microsatellites in D. mojavensis, and we present a detailed recombinational linkage map of 34 of

  4. EVALUATION OF AVOCADO GERMPLASM USING MICROSATELLITE MARKERS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three horticultural races of avocado are known: Guatemalan, Mexican, and West Indian. Each races has unique characteristics and current commercial varieties have been selected from within the races or from interracial hybrids. Utilizing 14 microsatellite loci we investigated the genetic variation in...

  5. ORIGINAL PAPER Evolution of chloroplast mononucleotide microsatellites

    E-print Network

    Jakobsson, Mattias

    of chloroplast microsatellites. By fitting the slippage models to the Genbank sequence of chromosome 1, we show to differences in slippage rate. Introduction DNA is a focus of evolutionary studies because of its obvious in SSRs are primarily due to slippage during replication,

  6. TECHNICAL NOTE Hybridization and polymorphic microsatellite markers

    E-print Network

    Heist, Edward J.

    (Genus Sylvilagus): implications for conservation Leah K. Berkman Æ Melody J. Saltzgiver Æ Edward J Eastern cottontails (Sylvilagus floridanus) are a prolific and popular game species in North America and focus- ing further research on factors affecting population status. Keywords Sylvilagus Á Microsatellite

  7. Five hundred microsatellite loci for Peromyscus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jesse N. Weber; Maureen B. Peters; Olga V. Tsyusko; Catherine R. Linnen; Cris Hagen; Nancy A. Schable; Tracey D. Tuberville; Anna M. McKee; Stacey L. Lance; Kenneth L. Jones; Heidi S. Fisher; Michael J. Dewey; Hopi E. Hoekstra; Travis C. Glenn

    2010-01-01

    Mice of the genus Peromyscus, including several endangered subspecies, occur throughout North America and have been important models for conservation\\u000a research. We describe 526 primer pairs that amplify microsatellite DNA loci for Peromyscus maniculatus bairdii, 467 of which also amplify in Peromyscus polionotus subgriseus. For 12 of these loci, we report diversity data from a natural population. These markers will

  8. Microsatellite mutation directed by an external stimulus.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Adele L; Mitter, Vivek

    2004-12-21

    Microsatellites are regions of DNA containing tandem repeats of a core 2-6 bp nucleotide sequence. To test the hypothesis that microsatellite mutation can be directed by exposure to specific external cues, control and treatment groups of resistant and susceptible wheat varieties were grown under controlled conditions and genotyped at a number of microsatellite loci that map to chromosomes known to contain Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance/susceptibility loci. Genotyping was undertaken both prior to and following exposure to Fusarium graminearum, the FHB pathogen. Within a month of inoculation of inflorescences, 58% of experimental plants, and no control plants, had acquired a novel allele at the locus Xgwm112.1. This allele was detected only in head blight affected tissue. Uninoculated control plants, and leaf samples from inoculated plants, showed no mutation. Cloning and sequencing of PCR products indicates that the new allele was generated by contraction of the (CT)(n) repeat motif. Observation of the same deletion-based mutation in all varieties, its absence in control plants not exposed to the head blight pathogen, and the detection of no similar mutational events in a control panel of loci not expected to show mutation, indicates that this example of microsatellite mutation is induced and/or caused by FHB infection. PMID:15542110

  9. [Paternal GNAS mutations: Which phenotypes? What genetic counseling?].

    PubMed

    Kottler, Marie-Laure

    2015-05-01

    Parental imprinting and the type of the genetic alteration play a determinant role in the phenotype expression of GNAS locus associated to pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP). GNAS locus gives rise to several different messenger RNA transcripts that are derived from the paternal allele, the maternal allele, or both and can be either coding or non-coding. As a consequence, GNAS mutations lead to a wide spectrum of phenotypes. An alteration in the coding sequence of the gene leads to a haplo-insufficiency and a dysmorphic phenotype (Albright's syndrome or AHO). AHO is a clinical syndrome defined by specific physical features including short stature, obesity, round-shaped face, subcutaneous ossifications, brachymetarcapy (mainly of the 4th and 5th ray). If the alteration is on the maternal allele, there is a hormonal resistance to the PTH at the kidney level and to the TSH at the thyroid level. The phenotype is known as pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1a (PHP1a). If the alteration is on the paternal allele, there are few clinical signs with no hormonal resistance and the phenotype is known as pseudopseudo hypoparathyroidism (pseudo-PPHP). Heterozygous GNAS mutations on the paternal GNAS allele were associated with intra uterin growth retardation (IUGR). Moreover, birth weights were lower with paternal GNAS mutations affecting exon 2-13 than with exon 1/intron 1 mutations suggesting a role for loss of function XL?s. Progressive osseous heteroplasia (POH) is a rare disease of ectopic bone formation, characterized by cutaneous and subcutaneous ossifications progressing towards deep connective and muscular tissues. POH is caused by a heterozygous GNAS inactivating mutation and has been associated with paternal inheritance. However, genotype/phenotype correlations suggest that there is no direct correlation between the ossifying process and parental origin, as there is high variability in heterotopic ossification. Clinical heterogeneity makes genetic counseling a very delicate matter, specifically where paternal inheritance is concerned as it can lead either to a mild expression of pseudo-PHP or to a severe one of POH. PMID:25952723

  10. Paternal isodisomy for chromosome 5 in a child with spinal muscular atropy

    SciTech Connect

    Brzustowicz, L.M.; Penchaszadeh, G.K.; Gilliam, T.C.; Allitto, B.A.; Theve, R.; Michaud, L.; Sugarman, E.; Handelin, B.L.; Chatkupt, S.; Koenigsberger, M.R. (Univ. of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ (United States))

    1994-03-01

    Paternal isodisomy for chromosomes 5 was detected in a 2-year-old boy with type III spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), an autosomal recessive degenerative disorder of alpha motor neurons, known to map to 5q11.2-13.3. Examination of 17 short-sequence repeat polymorphisms spanning 5p15.1-15.3. to 5q33.3-qter produced no evidence of maternally inherited alleles. Cytogenetic analysis revealed a normal male karyotype, and FISH with probes closely flanking the SMA locus confirmed the presence of two copies of chromosome 5. No developmental abnormalities, other than those attributable to classical childhood-onset SMA, were present. While the absence of a maternally derived chromosome 5 could have produced the symptoms of SMA through the mechanism of genomic imprinting, the lack of more global developmental abnormalities would be unusual. Paternal transmission of two copies of a defective gene at the SMA locus seems to be the most likely cause of disease, but proof of this will have to await the identification of the SMA gene. While uniparental isodisomy is a rare event, it must be considered as a possible mechanism involved in SMA when conducting prenatal testing and counseling for this disorder. 37 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  11. The influence of nonrandom extra-pair paternity on heritability estimates derived from wild pedigrees.

    PubMed

    Firth, Josh A; Hadfield, Jarrod D; Santure, Anna W; Slate, Jon; Sheldon, Ben C

    2015-05-01

    Quantitative genetic analysis is often fundamental for understanding evolutionary processes in wild populations. Avian populations provide a model system due to the relative ease of inferring relatedness among individuals through observation. However, extra-pair paternity (EPP) creates erroneous links within the social pedigree. Previous work has suggested this causes minor underestimation of heritability if paternal misassignment is random and hence not influenced by the trait being studied. Nevertheless, much literature suggests numerous traits are associated with EPP and the accuracy of heritability estimates for such traits remains unexplored. We show analytically how nonrandom pedigree errors can influence heritability estimates. Then, combining empirical data from a large great tit (Parus major) pedigree with simulations, we assess how heritability estimates derived from social pedigrees change depending on the mode of the relationship between EPP and the focal trait. We show that the magnitude of the underestimation is typically small (<15%). Hence, our analyses suggest that quantitative genetic inference from pedigrees derived from observations of social relationships is relatively robust; our approach also provides a widely applicable method for assessing the consequences of nonrandom EPP. PMID:25800997

  12. Genome-Wide Microsatellite Identification in the Fungus Anisogramma anomala Using Illumina Sequencing and Genome Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Guohong; Leadbetter, Clayton W.; Muehlbauer, Megan F.; Molnar, Thomas J.; Hillman, Bradley I.

    2013-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing has been dramatically accelerating the discovery of microsatellite markers (also known as Simple Sequence Repeats). Both 454 and Illumina reads have been used directly in microsatellite discovery and primer design (the “Seq-to-SSR” approach). However, constraints of this approach include: 1) many microsatellite-containing reads do not have sufficient flanking sequences to allow primer design, and 2) difficulties in removing microsatellite loci residing in longer, repetitive regions. In the current study, we applied the novel “Seq-Assembly-SSR” approach to overcome these constraints in Anisogramma anomala. In our approach, Illumina reads were first assembled into a draft genome, and the latter was then used in microsatellite discovery. A. anomala is an obligate biotrophic ascomycete that causes eastern filbert blight disease of commercial European hazelnut. Little is known about its population structure or diversity. Approximately 26 M 146 bp Illumina reads were generated from a paired-end library of a fungal strain from Oregon. The reads were assembled into a draft genome of 333 Mb (excluding gaps), with contig N50 of 10,384 bp and scaffold N50 of 32,987 bp. A bioinformatics pipeline identified 46,677 microsatellite motifs at 44,247 loci, including 2,430 compound loci. Primers were successfully designed for 42,923 loci (97%). After removing 2,886 loci close to assembly gaps and 676 loci in repetitive regions, a genome-wide microsatellite database of 39,361 loci was generated for the fungus. In experimental screening of 236 loci using four geographically representative strains, 228 (96.6%) were successfully amplified and 214 (90.7%) produced single PCR products. Twenty-three (9.7%) were found to be perfect polymorphic loci. A small-scale population study using 11 polymorphic loci revealed considerable gene diversity. Clustering analysis grouped isolates of this fungus into two clades in accordance with their geographic origins. Thus, the “Seq-Assembly-SSR” approach has proven to be a successful one for microsatellite discovery. PMID:24312419

  13. Y-Chromosome Variation in Altaian Kazakhs Reveals a Common Paternal Gene Pool for Kazakhs and the Influence of Mongolian Expansions

    PubMed Central

    Dulik, Matthew C.; Osipova, Ludmila P.; Schurr, Theodore G.

    2011-01-01

    Kazakh populations have traditionally lived as nomadic pastoralists that seasonally migrate across the steppe and surrounding mountain ranges in Kazakhstan and southern Siberia. To clarify their population history from a paternal perspective, we analyzed the non-recombining portion of the Y-chromosome from Kazakh populations living in southern Altai Republic, Russia, using a high-resolution analysis of 60 biallelic markers and 17 STRs. We noted distinct differences in the patterns of genetic variation between maternal and paternal genetic systems in the Altaian Kazakhs. While they possess a variety of East and West Eurasian mtDNA haplogroups, only three East Eurasian paternal haplogroups appear at significant frequencies (C3*, C3c and O3a3c*). In addition, the Y-STR data revealed low genetic diversity within these lineages. Analysis of the combined biallelic and STR data also demonstrated genetic differences among Kazakh populations from across Central Asia. The observed differences between Altaian Kazakhs and indigenous Kazakhs were not the result of admixture between Altaian Kazakhs and indigenous Altaians. Overall, the shared paternal ancestry of Kazakhs differentiates them from other Central Asian populations. In addition, all of them showed evidence of genetic influence by the 13th century CE Mongol Empire. Ultimately, the social and cultural traditions of the Kazakhs shaped their current pattern of genetic variation. PMID:21412412

  14. Genetic diversity does not explain variation in extra-pair paternity in multiple populations of a songbird.

    PubMed

    Liu, I A; Johndrow, J E; Abe, J; Lüpold, S; Yasukawa, K; Westneat, D F; Nowicki, S

    2015-05-01

    Many songbirds are socially monogamous but genetically polyandrous, mating with individuals outside their pair bonds. Extra-pair paternity (EPP) varies within and across species, but reasons for this variation remain unclear. One possible source of variation is population genetic diversity, which has been shown in interspecific meta-analyses to correlate with EPP but which has limited support from intraspecific tests. Using eight populations of the genetically polyandrous red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), including an island population, we investigated whether population-level differences in genetic diversity led to differences in EPP. We first measured genetic diversity over 10 microsatellite loci and found, as predicted, low genetic diversity in the island population. Additional structure analyses with multilocus genotypes and mtDNA showed the island population to be distinct from the continental populations. However, the island population's EPP rate fell in the middle of the continental populations' distribution, whereas the continental populations themselves showed significant variation in EPP. This result suggests that genetic diversity by itself is not a predictor of EPP rate. We discuss reasons for the departure from previous results, including hypotheses for EPP that do not solely implicate female-driven behaviour. PMID:25876793

  15. Creation of a chloroplast microsatellite reporter for detection of replication slippage in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    GuhaMajumdar, Monica; Dawson-Baglien, Ethan; Sears, Barbara B

    2008-04-01

    Microsatellites are composed of short tandem direct repeats; deletions or duplications of those repeats through the process of replication slippage result in microsatellite instability relative to other genomic loci. Variation in repeat number occurs so frequently that microsatellites can be used for genotyping and forensic analysis. However, an accurate assessment of the rates of change can be difficult because the presence of many repeats makes it difficult to determine whether changes have occurred through single or multiple events. The current study was undertaken to experimentally assess the rates of replication slippage that occur in vivo in the chloroplast DNA of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. A reporter construct was created in which a stretch of AAAG repeats was inserted into a functional gene to allow changes to be observed when they occurred at the synthetic microsatellite. Restoration of the reading frame occurred through replication slippage in 15 of every million viable cells. Since only one-third of the potential insertion/deletion events would restore the reading frame, the frequency of change could be deduced to be 4.5 x 10(-5). Analysis of the slippage events showed that template slippage was the primary event, resulting in deletions rather than duplications. These findings contrasted with events observed in Escherichia coli during maintenance of the plasmid, where duplications were the rule. PMID:18263764

  16. Chloroplast microsatellites reveal colonization and metapopulation dynamics in the Canary Island pine

    PubMed Central

    Navascués, Miguel; Vaxevanidou, Zafeiro; González-Martínez, Santiago C; Climent, José; Gil, Luis; Emerson, Brent C

    2006-01-01

    Chloroplast microsatellites are becoming increasingly popular markers for population genetic studies in plants, but there has been little focus on their potential for demographic inference. In this work the utility of chloroplast microsatellites for the study of population expansions was explored. First, we investigated the power of mismatch distribution analysis and the FS test with coalescent simulations of different demographic scenarios. We then applied those methods to empirical data obtained for the Canary Island pine (Pinus canariensis). The results of the simulations showed that chloroplast microsatellites are sensitive to sudden population growth. The power of the FS test and accuracy of demographic parameter estimates, such as the time of expansion, were reduced proportionally to the level of homoplasy within the data. The analysis of Canary Island pine chloroplast microsatellite data indicated population expansions for almost all sample localities. Demographic expansions at the island level can be explained by the colonisation of the archipelago by the pine, while population expansions of different ages in different localities within an island appear to be the result of local extinctions and recolonisation dynamics. Comparable mitochondrial DNA sequence data from a parasite of P. canariensis, the weevil Brachyderes rugatus, supports this scenario, suggesting a key role for volcanism in the evolution of pine forest communities in the Canary Islands. PMID:16911194

  17. Paternal diet defines offspring chromatin state and intergenerational obesity.

    PubMed

    Öst, Anita; Lempradl, Adelheid; Casas, Eduard; Weigert, Melanie; Tiko, Theodor; Deniz, Merdin; Pantano, Lorena; Boenisch, Ulrike; Itskov, Pavel M; Stoeckius, Marlon; Ruf, Marius; Rajewsky, Nikolaus; Reuter, Gunter; Iovino, Nicola; Ribeiro, Carlos; Alenius, Mattias; Heyne, Steffen; Vavouri, Tanya; Pospisilik, J Andrew

    2014-12-01

    The global rise in obesity has revitalized a search for genetic and epigenetic factors underlying the disease. We present a Drosophila model of paternal-diet-induced intergenerational metabolic reprogramming (IGMR) and identify genes required for its encoding in offspring. Intriguingly, we find that as little as 2 days of dietary intervention in fathers elicits obesity in offspring. Paternal sugar acts as a physiological suppressor of variegation, desilencing chromatin-state-defined domains in both mature sperm and in offspring embryos. We identify requirements for H3K9/K27me3-dependent reprogramming of metabolic genes in two distinct germline and zygotic windows. Critically, we find evidence that a similar system may regulate obesity susceptibility and phenotype variation in mice and humans. The findings provide insight into the mechanisms underlying intergenerational metabolic reprogramming and carry profound implications for our understanding of phenotypic variation and evolution. PMID:25480298

  18. Paternal irradiation perturbs the expression of circadian genes in offspring.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Andre M G F; Barber, Ruth C; Dubrova, Yuri E

    2015-05-01

    The circadian system represents a complex network which influences the timing of many biological processes. Recent studies have established that circadian alterations play an important role in the susceptibility to many human diseases, including cancer. Here we report that paternal irradiation in mice significantly affects the expression of genes involved in rhythmic processes in their first-generation offspring. Using microarrays, the patterns of gene expression were established for brain, kidney, liver and spleen samples from the non-exposed offspring of irradiated CBA/Ca and BALB/c male mice. The most over-represented categories among the genes differentially expressed in the offspring of control and irradiated males were those involved in rhythmic process, circadian rhythm and DNA-dependent regulation of transcription. The results of our study therefore provide a plausible explanation for the transgenerational effects of paternal irradiation, including increased transgenerational carcinogenesis described in other studies. PMID:25863183

  19. Epigenetic effects of paternal diet on offspring: emphasis on obesity.

    PubMed

    Slyvka, Yuriy; Zhang, Yizhu; Nowak, Felicia V

    2015-02-01

    Overnutrition, obesity, and the rise in associated comorbidities are widely recognized as preventable challenges to global health. Behavioral, metabolic, and epigenetic influences that alter the epigenome, when passed on to offspring, can increase their risk of developing an altered metabolic profile. This review is focused on the role of paternal inheritance as demonstrated by clinical, epidemiological, and experimental models. Development of additional experimental models that resemble the specific epigenetic sensitive situations in human studies will be essential to explore paternally induced trans-generational effects that are mediated, primarily, by epigenetic effects. Further elucidation of epigenetic marks will help identify preventive and therapeutic targets, which in combination with healthy lifestyle choices, can diminish the growing tide of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and other related disorders. PMID:24997644

  20. Perceived quality of early paternal relationships and mental health in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Renee D; Styron, Thomas H

    2012-09-01

    We aimed to determine the association between perceived paternal relationships and mental health and social functioning among adults in the community. Data were drawn from the National Comorbidity Survey (N = 8098), a nationally representative sample of adults aged 15 to 54 years in the United States. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to assess the relationships between quality of paternal relationship in childhood and current mental disorders, quality of current social relationships, and attachment style. Poor paternal relationship was associated with a significantly increased likelihood of mood and anxiety disorders. Poorer quality of paternal relationships was also associated with poorer current social functioning and avoidant and dependent attachment styles. Our findings suggest that quality of paternal relationships is associated with mental health and social functioning in adulthood and highlight a need for increased understanding of the role of paternal relationships in social/emotional development. PMID:22922234

  1. [Transferrin variants: significance and identification in paternity cases (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Mauff, G; Doppelfeld, E; Weber, W

    1975-08-01

    Transferrin phenotypes were determined in 3380 sera of unrelated persons of the western region of Germany with 97.60 percent for TfC and 2.40 percent for Tf variants. Identification was achieved by immunochemical means or through autoradiography. Relative mobilities in some variants were measured using Tf B2C (0.7) as reference. Application of Tf variants is demonstrated in paternity cases. PMID:171873

  2. Determinants of paternity in the garden snail Helix aspersa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David W. Rogers; Ronald Chase

    2002-01-01

    Despite the likely importance of post-copulatory sexual selection in simultaneous hermaphrodites, the factors influencing sperm competition in these organisms are generally unknown. We have investigated the effects of dart-shooting, mating order, and several other predictors on the proportion of offspring fathered by penultimate (Pn-1) and ultimate (Pn) sperm donors in multiply mated garden snails, Helix aspersa. While paternity ratios were

  3. Ubiquitous technologies, cultural logics and paternalism in industrial workplaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katharina E. Kinder; Linden J. Ball; Jerry S. Busby

    2008-01-01

    Ubiquitous computing is a new kind of computing where devices enhance everyday artefacts and open up previously inaccessible\\u000a situations for data capture. ‘Technology paternalism’ has been suggested by Spiekermann and Pallas (Poiesis & Praxis: Int\\u000a J Technol Assess Ethics Sci 4(1):6–18, 2006) as a concept to gauge the social and ethical impact of these new technologies. In this article we

  4. Serotonin metabolism in directly developing frog embryos during paternal care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary R. Ten Eyck; Patrick J. Ronan; Kenneth J. Renner; Cliff H. Summers

    2005-01-01

    Central serotonin (5-HT) metabolism during embryogenesis and a 3-day post-hatching period was analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography in the directly developing frog, Eleutherodactylus coqui. This anuran bypasses the free-swimming larval stage and embryos hatch as miniature frogs in the adult phenotype. During embryogenesis and for a short time immediately after hatching, male E. coqui provide paternal care by brooding

  5. A first-generation microsatellite linkage map of the ruff

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, Lindsay L; Burke, Terry; Slate, Jon; Lank, David B

    2013-01-01

    A linkage map of the ruff (Philomachus pugnax) genome was constructed based on segregation analysis of 58 microsatellite loci from 381 captive-bred individuals spanning fourteen breeding years and comprising 64 families. Twenty-eight of the markers were resolved into seven linkage groups and five single marker loci, homologous to known chicken (Gallus gallus) and zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) chromosomes. Linkage groups range from 10.1 to 488.7 cM in length and covered a total map distance of 641.6 cM, corresponding to an estimated 30–35% coverage of the ruff genome, with a mean spacing of 22.9 cM between loci. Through comparative mapping, we are able to assign linkage groups Ppu1, Ppu2, Ppu6, Ppu7, Ppu10, Ppu13, and PpuZ to chromosomes and identify several intrachromosomal rearrangements between the homologs of chicken, zebra finch, and ruff microsatellite loci. This is the first linkage map created in the ruff and is a major step toward providing genomic resources for this enigmatic species. It will provide an essential framework for mapping of phenotypically and behaviorally important loci in the ruff. PMID:24363892

  6. Isolation of mini- and microsatellite loci from chromosome 19 library

    SciTech Connect

    Prosnyak, M.I.; Belajeva, O.V.; Polukarova, L.G. [Molecular Genetics, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Mini- and microsatellite sequences are abundant in the human genome and are very useful as genetic markers. We report the isolation of a panel of clones containing marker sequences from chromosome 19. We screened 10,000 clones from the chromosome 19 cosmid library for the presence of di-(CA)n, tri-(TCC)n, (CAC)n microsatellites and M13-like minisatellite sequences. For this we have used synthetic oligonucleotides and polynucleotides, including micro- (CA, TCC, CAC) and minisatellite (M13 core) sequences. Preliminary results indicated that the chromosome 19 cosmid library contained both human and hamster clones. In order to identify human sequences from this library we have developed the technique of colony and blot hybridization with Alu-PCR, L1-PCR and B1-PCR probes. Dozens of clones have been selected, some of which were analyzed by conventional Southern blot analysis and non-radioactive in situ hybridization of chromosomes. Highly informative markers derived from these clones will be used for physical and genetic mapping of chromosome 19.

  7. Genetic structure of Balearic honeybee populations based on microsatellite polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    De la Rúa, Pilar; Galián, José; Serrano, José; Moritz, Robin FA

    2003-01-01

    The genetic variation of honeybee colonies collected in 22 localities on the Balearic Islands (Spain) was analysed using eight polymorphic microsatellite loci. Previous studies have demonstrated that these colonies belong either to the African or west European evolutionary lineages. These populations display low variability estimated from both the number of alleles and heterozygosity values, as expected for the honeybee island populations. Although genetic differentiation within the islands is low, significant heterozygote deficiency is present, indicating a subpopulation genetic structure. According to the genetic differentiation test, the honeybee populations of the Balearic Islands cluster into two groups: Gimnesias (Mallorca and Menorca) and Pitiusas (Ibiza and Formentera), which agrees with the biogeography postulated for this archipelago. The phylogenetic analysis suggests an Iberian origin of the Balearic honeybees, thus confirming the postulated evolutionary scenario for Apis mellifera in the Mediterranean basin. The microsatellite data from Formentera, Ibiza and Menorca show that ancestral populations are threatened by queen importations, indicating that adequate conservation measures should be developed for protecting Balearic bees. PMID:12729553

  8. Paternal alleles enhance female reproductive success in tropical pythons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    THOMAS MADSEN; BEATA UJVARI; MATS OLSSON; RICHARD SHINE

    2005-01-01

    The conventional view that female reproductive success is unlikely to benefit from multiple mating has come under strong challenge in recent years. In the present study, we demon- strate that the time wild-caught reproductive female water pythons ( Liasis fuscus ) spent in the laboratory prior to oviposition affected both hatching success and the number of male microsatellite alleles detected

  9. Maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 14 in a boy with t(14q14q) associated with a paternal t(13q14q)

    SciTech Connect

    Tomkins, D.J.; Waye, J.S.; Whelan, D.T. [McMaster Univ., Ontario (Canada)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    An 11-year-old boy was referred for chromosomal analysis because of precocious development and behavioral problems suggestive of the fragile X syndrome. The cytogenetic fragile X studies were normal, but a routine GTG-banded karyotype revealed an abnormal male karyotype with a Robertsonian translocation between the two chromosome 14`s: 46,XY,t(14q14q). Paternal karyotyping revealed another abnormal karyotype: 46,XY,t(13q14q). A brother had the same karyotype as the father; the mother was deceased. In order to determine if the apparently balanced t(14q14q) in the proband might be the cause of the clinical findings, molecular analysis of the origin of the chromosome 14`s was initiated. Southern blotting and hybridization with D4S13 showed that the proband had two copies of one maternal allele which was shared by his brother. The brother`s second allele corresponded to one of the paternal alleles; the proband had no alleles from the father. Analysis of four other VNTRs demonstrated the probability of paternity to be greater than 99%. Thus, the t(14q14q) was most likely composed of two maternal chromosome 14`s. Further characterization of the t(14q14q) by dinucleotide repeat polymorphic markers is in progress to determine whether it has arisen from maternal isodisomy or heterodisomy. Several cases of uniparental disomy for chromosome 14 have been reported recently. Paternal disomy appears to be associated with more severe congenital anomalies and mental retardation, whereas maternal disomy may be associated with premature puberty and minimal intellectual impairment. The origin of the t(14q14q) in the present case may be related to the paternal translocation, as the segregation of the t(13q14q) in meiosis could lead to sperm that are nullisomic for chromosome 14.

  10. Evidence for multiple paternity in the school shark Galeorhinus galeus found in New Zealand waters.

    PubMed

    Hernández, S; Duffy, C; Francis, M P; Ritchie, P A

    2014-11-01

    This study assessed the levels of relatedness of Galeorhinus galeus of progeny arrays using six microsatellite DNA markers. A parentage analysis from five families (mother and litter) from the North Island of New Zealand suggested the occurrence of genetic polyandry in G. galeus with two of the five litters showing multiple sires involved in the progeny arrays. This finding may be consistent with the reproductive characteristics of G. galeus, in which females can potentially store sperm for long periods of time after the mating season. PMID:25130757

  11. Multiple paternity in polyandrous barn owls (Tyto alba).

    PubMed

    Henry, Isabelle; Antoniazza, Sylvain; Dubey, Sylvain; Simon, Céline; Waldvogel, Céline; Burri, Reto; Roulin, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    In polyandrous species females produce successive clutches with several males. Female barn owls (Tyto alba) often desert their offspring and mate to produce a 2(nd) annual brood with a second male. We tested whether copulating during chick rearing at the 1(st) annual brood increases the male's likelihood to obtain paternity at the 2(nd) annual breeding attempt of his female mate in case she deserts their brood to produce a second brood with a different male. Using molecular paternity analyses we found that 2 out of 26 (8%) second annual broods of deserting females contained in total 6 extra-pair young out of 15 nestlings. These young were all sired by the male with whom the female had produced the 1(st) annual brood. In contrast, none of the 49 1(st) annual breeding attempts (219 offspring) and of the 20 2(nd) annual breeding attempts (93 offspring) of non-deserting females contained extra-pair young. We suggest that female desertion can select male counter-strategies to increase paternity and hence individual fitness. Alternatively, females may copulate with the 1(st) male to derive genetic benefits, since he is usually of higher quality than the 2(nd) male which is commonly a yearling individual. PMID:24244622

  12. Evolution of cytoplasmic sex ratio distorters: Effect of paternal transmission.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Atsushi; Telschow, Arndt; Kobayashi, Yutaka

    2010-09-01

    Eukaryotic organisms carry various genetic factors the so-called cytoplasmic genetic elements (CGEs), in their cytoplasm. Numerous examples are known in which CGEs possess the ability to control sex determination of their host organisms and cause sex ratio distortion (SRD). In general, CGEs are inherited maternally from female hosts, via egg cytoplasm to offspring. Thus, the elements tend to evolve abilities to avoid entrance into "dead-end" males. Previous theoretical studies have revealed that, as long as maternal transmission is perfect, CGEs evolve the highest levels of ability to cause SRD. However, it is recently reported that some CGEs transmit from male to offspring through infection to female in mating. This raises the question of how such a paternal contribution alters selective forces and SRD evolution. In the present study, the evolutionary process of SRD ability of CGEs was analyzed theoretically. The main finding is that paternal transmission results in evolution towards intermediate levels of SRD. Further, coexistence was observed of different CGEs inducing different levels of SRD. These results point to the importance of paternal transmission in the evolution of CGEs. PMID:20558180

  13. Paternal Experience and Stress Responses in California Mice (Peromyscus californicus)

    PubMed Central

    Bardi, Massimo; Franssen, Catherine L; Hampton, Joseph E; Shea, Eleanor A; Fanean, Amanda P; Lambert, Kelly G

    2011-01-01

    Paternal behavior greatly affects the survival, social development, and cognitive development of infants. Nevertheless, little research has been done to assess how paternal experience modifies the behavioral characteristics of fathers, including fear and stress responses to a novel environment. We investigated long-term behavioral and physiologic effects of parental experience in mice (Peromyscus californicus) and how this response activates the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (as measured by corticosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone [DHEA] levels) and interacts with anxiety-related behaviors. Three groups of adult males were tested—fathers exposed to pups, virgins exposed to pups, and virgins never exposed to pups—in 2 environments designed to elicit anxiety response: an open field with a novel object placed in the center and a closed cage containing a sample of a component of fox feces. Behavioral responses were measured by using traditional methods (duration and frequency) and behavioral-chain sequences. Results indicated that paternal experience significantly modifies a male mouse's behavioral and physiologic responses to stress-provoking stimuli. Compared with inexperienced male mice, experienced male mice had a significant decrease in the occurrence of incomplete behavioral chains during the exposure to the novel object, an index of reduced stress. Further, even moderate pup exposure induced behavioral modifications in virgin male mice. These behavioral responses were correlated with changes in corticosterone and DHEA levels. Together, these data provide evidence that interactions between male mice and offspring may have mutually beneficial long-term behavioral and physiologic effects. PMID:21819678

  14. Multiple paternity does not depend on male genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Thonhauser, Kerstin E; Raveh, Shirley; Penn, Dustin J

    2014-07-01

    Polyandry is common in many species and it has been suggested that females engage in multiple mating to increase the genetic diversity of their offspring (genetic diversity hypothesis). Multiple paternity occurs in 30% of litters in wild populations of house mice, Mus musculus musculus, and multiple-sired litters are genetically more diverse than single-sired ones. Here, we aimed to test whether female house mice produce multiple-sired litters when they have the opportunity to produce genetically diverse litters. We assessed the rates of multiple paternity when females could choose to mate with two males that were genetically dissimilar to each other (i.e. nonsiblings and MHC dissimilar) compared with when females could choose to mate with two males that were genetically similar to each other (i.e. siblings and shared MHC alleles). Multiple mating may depend upon a female's own condition, and, therefore, we also tested whether inbred (from full-sibling matings) females were more likely to produce multiple-sired progeny than outbred controls. Overall we found that 29% of litters had multiple sires, but we found no evidence that females were more likely to produce multiple-sired litters when they had the opportunity to mate with genetically dissimilar males compared with controls, regardless of whether females were inbred or outbred. Thus, our findings do not support the idea that female mice increase multiple paternity when they have the opportunity to increase the genetic diversity of their offspring, as expected from the genetic diversity hypothesis. PMID:25018559

  15. Paternal occupational exposures and the risk of Down syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Olshan, A F; Baird, P A; Teschke, K

    1989-01-01

    An exploratory case-control study of paternal occupation as a risk factor for Down syndrome was conducted. With the use of the British Columbia Health Surveillance Registry, 1,008 cases of live-born Down syndrome were identified for the period 1952-73. Two controls were matched to each case by using the birth files of British Columbia. Paternal occupation was obtained from the birth notice. Elevated maternal age-adjusted relative risks of Down syndrome were found for fathers employed as janitors (odds ratio [OR] = 3.26; 95% confidence interval [C.I.] = 1.02-10.44); mechanics (OR = 3.27; C.I. = 1.57-6.80); farm managers/workers (OR = 2.03; C.I. = 1.25-3.03); material-moving equipment operators (OR = 1.88; C.I. = 0.93-3.82); food processors (OR = 1.79; C.I. = 0.96-3.31); sheet-metal workers, iron workers, and other metalworkers (OR = 1.57; C.I. = 0.92-2.69); and sawmill workers (OR = 1.43; C.I. = 0.90-2.66). This large study provides new leads for further evaluation of the role of paternal exposures in the etiology of Down syndrome. PMID:2523192

  16. Paternal influences on offspring development: behavioural and epigenetic pathways.

    PubMed

    Braun, K; Champagne, F A

    2014-10-01

    Although mammalian parent-offspring interactions during early life are primarily through the mother, there is increasing evidence for the impact of fathers on offspring development. A critical issue concerns the pathways through which this paternal influence is achieved. In the present review, we highlight the literature suggesting several of these routes of paternal effects in mammals. First, similar to mothers, fathers can influence offspring development through the direct care of offspring, as has been observed in biparental species. Second, there is growing evidence that, even in the absence of contact with offspring, fathers can transmit environmentally-induced effects (i.e. behavioural, neurobiological and metabolic phenotypes induced by stress, nutrition and toxins) to offspring and it has been speculated that these effects are achieved through inherited epigenetic variation within the patriline. Third, fathers may also impact the quality of mother-infant interactions and thus achieve an indirect influence on offspring. Importantly, these pathways of paternal influence are not mutually exclusive but rather serve as an illustration of the complex mechanisms through which parental influence is achieved. These influences may serve to transmit traits across generations, thus leading to a transgenerational transmission of neurobiological and behavioural phenotypes. PMID:25039356

  17. Development of microsatellite loci in Artocarpus altilis (Moraceae) and cross-amplification in congeneric species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized from enriched genomic libraries of Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit) and tested in three other Artocarpus species and one hybrid. The microsatellite markers provide new tools for further studies in Artocarpus. Nineteen microsatellite primers were tes...

  18. TECHNICAL NOTE Isolation of microsatellite loci for the predatory fish Hoplias

    E-print Network

    Aguirre, Windsor E.

    TECHNICAL NOTE Isolation of microsatellite loci for the predatory fish Hoplias microlepis polymorphic, dinucleotide microsatellite loci for Hoplias microlepis, a large predatory fish from a highly dinucleotide microsatellite loci from the freshwater fish Hoplias microlepis (Characiformes: Erythrinidae

  19. TECHNICAL NOTE Polymorphic microsatellite loci for the Puerto Rican crested anole

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Michele A.

    TECHNICAL NOTE Polymorphic microsatellite loci for the Puerto Rican crested anole (Anolis markers is warranted. Polymorphic microsatellite loci are available for three species: Anolis sagrei we present a set of polymorphic microsatellite loci for this species and test the utility

  20. Characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers and genetic diversity in wild bronze featherback, Notopterus notopterus (Pallas, 1769).

    PubMed

    Gupta, Arti; Lal, Kuldeep K; Punia, Peyush; Singh, Rajeev K; Mohindra, Vindhya; Sah, Rama S; Kumar, Rajesh; Luhariya, Rupesh K; Dwivedi, Arvind K; Masih, Prachi; Mishra, R M; Jena, J K

    2013-12-01

    Six polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci were identified in the primitive fish, bronze featherback, Notopterus notopterus for the first time and demonstrated significant population genetic structure. Out of the six primers, one primer (NN90) was specific to N. notopterus (microsatellite sequence within the RAG1 gene) and five primers were product of successful cross-species amplification. Sixty-four primers available from 3 fish species of order Osteoglossiformes and families Notopteridae and Osteoglossidae were tested to amplify homologous microsatellite loci in N. notopterus. Fifteen primer pairs exhibited successful cross-priming PCR product. However, polymorphism was detected only at five loci. To assess the significance of these six loci (including NN90) in population genetic study, 215 samples of N. notopterus from five rivers, viz Satluj, Gomti, Yamuna, Brahmaputra and Mahanadi were analyzed. The five sample sets displayed different diversity levels and observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.6036 to 0.7373. Significant genotype heterogeneity (P < 0.0001) and high FST (0.2205) over all loci indicated that the samples are not drawn from the same genepool. The identified microsatellite loci are promising for use in fine-scale population structure analysis of N. notopterus. PMID:24072656