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1

Paternity analysis in Excel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paternity analysis using microsatellite information is a well studied subject. These markers are ideal for parentage studies and fingerprinting, due to their high discrim- ination power. This type of data is used to assign paternity, to compute the average selfing and outcrossing rates and to estimate the biparental inbreeding. There are several public domain programs that compute all this information

Margarida Rocheta; F. Miguel Dionísio; Luís Fonseca; Ana M. Pires

2007-01-01

2

Paternity Analysis of the Olive Variety “Istrska Belica” and Identification of Pollen Donors by Microsatellite Markers  

PubMed Central

The leading olive variety in Slovenia is “Istrska belica” (Olea europaea L.), which currently represents 70% of all olive trees in productive orchards. Paternity analysis based on microsatellite markers was used for genotyping and identification of the potential pollen donors of “Istrska belica” and for assessing the proportion of self-fertilization in monovarietal olive orchards in the Slovene Istria. Seven microsatellite loci were used for genotyping thirty-one olive embryos from “Istrska belica” trees and for all potential pollen donor varieties, which are grown in the region and could participate as pollinators. Genotyping results and allele identification were performed using the FaMoz software. The most probable pollen donor was assigned to 39% of all analyzed embryos. Among all analyzed embryos no single case of self-fertilization was confirmed. According to the present results, the variety “Istrska belica” was in all cases fertilized by foreign pollen. The results will contribute to defining the new guidelines for farmers regarding the proper management and growing practice in monovarietal olive groves. PMID:25097869

Jakše, Jernej

2014-01-01

3

Paternity determination in captive lowland gorillas and orangutans and wild mountain gorillas by microsatellite analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paternity exclusion studies provide useful information for testing certain theories of behavioral ecology and for the management\\u000a and conservation of both wild and captive populations of endangered species. This study used eight human nuclear microsatellite\\u000a loci, in the absence of species-specific PCR primers, to genetically identify the sires of 12 captive lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and 2 captive orangutans

Dawn Field; Leona Chemnick; Martha Robbins; Karen Garner; Oliver Ryder

1998-01-01

4

High prevalence of multiple paternity within fruits in natural populations of Silene latifolia , as revealed by microsatellite DNA analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on multiple paternity within broods has been gathered in several animal species, and comparable data in plants would be of great importance to understand the evolution of reproductive traits in a common framework. In this study, we first isolated and character- ized six microsatellite loci from the dioecious plant Silene latifolia (Caryophyllaceae). The polymorphism of the loci was assessed

SARA TEIXEIRA; GIORGINA BERNASCONI

2007-01-01

5

Paternity analysis in Excel.  

PubMed

Paternity analysis using microsatellite information is a well-studied subject. These markers are ideal for parentage studies and fingerprinting, due to their high-discrimination power. This type of data is used to assign paternity, to compute the average selfing and outcrossing rates and to estimate the biparental inbreeding. There are several public domain programs that compute all this information from data. Most of the time, it is necessary to export data to some sort of format, feed it to the program and import the output to an Excel book for further processing. In this article we briefly describe a program referred from now on as Paternity Analysis in Excel (PAE), developed at IST and IBET (see the acknowledgments) that computes paternity candidates from data, and other information, from within Excel. In practice this means that the end user provides the data in an Excel sheet and, by pressing an appropriate button, obtains the results in another Excel sheet. For convenience PAE is divided into two modules. The first one is a filtering module that selects data from the sequencer and reorganizes it in a format appropriate to process paternity analysis, assuming certain conventions for the names of parents and offspring from the sequencer. The second module carries out the paternity analysis assuming that one parent is known. Both modules are written in Excel-VBA and can be obtained at the address (www.math.ist.utl.pt/~fmd/pa/pa.zip). They are free for non-commercial purposes and have been tested with different data and against different software (Cervus, FaMoz, and MLTR). PMID:17928093

Rocheta, Margarida; Dionísio, F Miguel; Fonseca, Luís; Pires, Ana M

2007-12-01

6

Homogeneity and distinctiveness of Polish paternal lineages revealed by Y chromosome microsatellite haplotype analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different regional populations from Poland were studied in order to assess the genetic heterogeneity within Poland, investigate the genetic relationships with other European populations and provide a population-specific reference database for anthropological and forensic studies. Nine Y-chromosomal microsatellites were analysed in a total of 919 unrelated males from six regions of Poland and in 1,273 male individuals from nine other

Rafal Ploski; Marcin Wozniak; Ryszard Pawlowski; Dorota Marta Monies; Wojciech Branicki; Tomasz Kupiec; Ate Kloosterman; Tadeusz Dobosz; Elena Bosch; Magdalena Nowak; Rüdiger Lessig; Mark A. Jobling; Lutz Roewer; Manfred Kayser

2002-01-01

7

Paternity identification in sugarcane polycrosses by using microsatellite markers.  

PubMed

Although polycrosses have been used to test the potential of cross-combination of a large number of sugarcane parents, the male parent of the half-sib progenies produced is unknown. The present study aimed to integrate the molecular marker technology to the sugarcane polycross approach by the application of microsatellite markers to identify the male parent of 41 elite clones derived from polycross families. Ten microsatellite [single sequence repeats (SSRs)] primer pairs were used to identify the most likely male parent considering markers present in the selected clone but absent in the female parent. The number of alleles generated by the 10 microsatellite primer pairs ranged from 102 (cross-pollination lantern 4) to 120 (cross-pollination lantern 2) with an average of 113.25 alleles per SSR. The average genetic similarity among the involved parents in the polycrosses was 45.9%. The results of the analysis of the SSR markers absent in the female parent and present only in the selected clone as well as the genetic similarity values allowed the identification of the most likely male parent in 73% of the total clones evaluated and also to detect probable contaminations. The obtained results highlight the importance of using molecular marker technology in the identification and confirmation of the male parent of high-performance clones derived from polycrosses in the sugarcane breeding programs. PMID:24737475

Xavier, M A; Pinto, L R; Fávero, T M; Perecin, D; Carlini-Garcia, L A; Landell, M G A

2014-01-01

8

Microsatellite Evidence for High Frequency of Multiple Paternity in the Marine Gastropod Rapana venosa  

PubMed Central

Background Inferring of parentage in natural populations is important in understanding the mating systems of a species, which have great effects on its genetic structure and evolution. Muricidae, a large group (approximately 1,600 species) of marine gastropods, are poorly investigated in patterns of multiple paternity and sperm competition based on molecular techniques. The veined Rapa whelk, Rapana venosa, a commercially important muricid species with internal fertilization, is an ideal species to study the occurrence and frequency of multiple paternity and to facilitate understanding of their reproductive strategies. Methodology/Principal Findings We developed five highly polymorphic microsatellites in R. venosa and applied them to identify multiple paternity in 19 broods (1381 embryos) collected from Dandong, China. Multiple paternity was detected in 17 (89.5%) of 19 broods. The number of sires per brood ranged from 1 to 7 (4.3 on average). Of the 17 multiply sired broods, 16 (94.1%) were significantly skewed from equal paternal contributions, and had a dominant sire which was also dominant in each assayed capsule. Conclusions Our results indicate that a high level of multiple paternity occurs in the wild population of R. venosa. Similar patterns of multiple paternity in the 2–6 assayed capsules from each brood imply that fertilization events within the body of a female occur mostly (but not entirely) as random draws from a “well-but-not-perfectly blended sperm pool” of her several mates. Strongly skewed distributions of fertilization success among sires also suggest that sperm competition and/or cryptic female choice might be important for post-copulatory paternity biasing in this species. PMID:24466127

Liu, Jin-Xian

2014-01-01

9

Characterization of four microsatellites in an Italian population and their application to paternity testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsatellites have recently been used for linkage analysis of genetic diseases and for DNA fingerprinting in forensic medicine. In the present study the heterozygosity, PIC values and allele distributions of four microsatellites, D8S85, D8S88, D5S346 and D7S460, in an Italian population have been investigated. After amplification with primers specific for each locus, alleles were separated and detected by denaturing gel

S. M. Sirchia; I. Garagiola; C. De Andreis; I. Gazzoli; M. Gramegna; G. Colucci

1996-01-01

10

Paternity analysis in Excel Margarida Rocheta  

E-print Network

modules are written in Excel-VBA and can be obtained at the address wwwPaternity analysis in Excel Margarida Rocheta Centro de Bot^anica Aplicada `a Agricultura, Sec the output to an Excel book for further processing. In this article we briefly describe a program referred

Lisboa, Universidade Técnica de

11

Pollination in the marine realm: microsatellites reveal high outcrossing rates and multiple paternity in eelgrass Zostera marina.  

PubMed

The mating system was examined in two annual populations of eelgrass (Zostera marina), a marine angiosperm displaying subaqueous pollination. Multilocus genotyping using microsatellite DNA markers allowed the assessment of the pollen source based on single progeny as units of observation. Outcrossing was detectable by the presence of non-maternal alleles at one or more of the loci. In outcrossing cases, three microsatellite alleles were present in unripe seeds, consisting of both maternal alleles and the paternal allele composing the triploid primary endosperm. In ripe seeds, only the diploid embryonal genotype was amplifiable by PCR. Two intertidal populations situated in the German Wadden Sea were almost entirely outcrossing (t +/- SE 0.96 +/- 0.03, N=60 and 0.97 +/- 0.029, N=37). Because of the high polymorphism displayed by the eight chosen microsatellites, representing a total of 69 and 76 alleles, the likelihood of erroneously inferring selfing was small (alpha=0.0026 and 0.0007). In order to study the correlation of paternity, the coefficient of relatedness was determined within sibships. Relatedness (r +/- SE) was calculated as 0.357 +/- 0.059 and 0.343 +/- 0.037, indicating multiple paternities within inflorescences. Small amounts of tissue (< or = 0.1 mg) such as the developing seeds of recently fertilized ovules, were sufficient for PCR-amplification. Hence, PCR-based methods, such as multilocus microsatellite genotyping, allow the detection of pollen origin early in the development of progeny. They will be useful to distinguish postfertilization processes such as selective abortion and germination from other prefertilization determinants of plant mating systems. PMID:11122424

Reusch, T B

2000-11-01

12

Retrospective selection of elite parent trees using paternity testing with microsatellite markers: an alternative short term breeding tactic for Eucalyptus.  

PubMed

The conventional way to drive modifications in old forest tree seed orchards is to establish progeny trials involving each parent tree and then evaluate its contribution to the performance of the progeny by estimating its general and specific combining ability (GCA and SCA). In this work, we successfully applied an alternative parent selection tactic based on paternity testing of superior offspring derived from a hybrid seed orchard established with a single Eucalyptus grandis seed parents and six E. urophylla pollen parents. A battery of 14 microsatellite markers was used to carry out parentage tests of 256 progeny individuals including two independent samples of selected trees and one control unselected sample, all derived from 6-year-old forest stands in eastern Brazil. Paternity determination was carried out for all progeny individuals by a sequential paternity exclusion procedure. Exclusion was declared only when the obligatory paternal allele in the progeny tree was not present in the alleged parent tree for at least four independent markers to avoid false exclusions due to mutation or null alleles. After maternity checks to identify seed mixtures and selfed individuals, the paternity tests revealed that approximately 29% of the offspring was sired by pollen parents outside the orchard. No selfed progeny were found in the selected samples. Three pollen parents were found to have sired essentially all of the offspring in the samples of selected and non-selected progeny individuals. One of these three parents sired significantly more selected progeny than unselected ones ( P< or =0.0002 in a Fisher exact test). Based on these results, low-reproductive-successful parents were culled from the orchard, and management procedures were adopted to minimize external pollen contamination. A significant difference ( P<0.01) in mean annual increment was observed between forest stands produced with seed from the orchard before and after selection of parents and revitalization of the orchard. An average realized gain of 24.3% in volume growth was obtained from the selection of parents as measured in forest stands at age 2-4 years. The marker-assisted tree-breeding tactic presented herein efficiently identified top parents in a seed orchard and resulted in an improved seed variety. It should be applicable for rapidly improving the output quality of seed orchards, especially when an emergency demand for improved seed is faced by the breeder. PMID:15004676

Grattapaglia, D; Ribeiro, V J; Rezende, G D S P

2004-06-01

13

MICROSATELLITE DNA FINGBRPRINTINGCONFIRMSDIZYGOTIC TWINNING AND PATERNITY IN THE ALLIED ROCK.WALLABY,  

E-print Network

, such as those of Norbury (1986) and Frith and Sharman (1964). Since 1986, 306 pouch young births have been. The geneticidentity of five of the six twin pouch young was characterisedusing microsatellite markers designed to be indisputablyidentified. A blood samplewas obtained from one pouch young (ID#l; Table 1) from the first set of twins

Marsh, Helene

14

Microsatellite analysis of genetic diversity in the Catalonian donkey breed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A total of 111 individuals (79 females and 32 males) of the endangered Catalonian donkey breed were analysed by using a commercial equine paternity polymerase chain reaction typing kit. Eleven of the 12 horse microsatellites were amplified when using donkey's DNA. One locus, ASB2, did not amplify in any sample. The allele range for HTG4 overlapped with HMS7 and

J. Jordana; P. Folch; J. A. Aranguren

2001-01-01

15

Further evidence for paternal inheritance of mitochondrial DNA in the sheep (Ovis aries)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mitochondrial DNA of 172 sheep from 48 families were typed by using PCR-RFLP, direct amplification of the repeated sequence domain and sequencing analysis. The mitochondrial DNA from three lambs in two half-sib families were found to show paternal inheritance. Our findings provide direct evidence of paternal inheritance of mitochondria DNA in sheep. A total of 12 highly polymorphic microsatellite

X Zhao; N Li; W Guo; X Hu; Z Liu; G Gong; A Wang; J Feng; C Wu

2004-01-01

16

Extrapair paternity is influenced by breeding synchrony and density in the common yellowthroat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of breeding synchrony and density on levels of extrapair paternity in birds are controversial. We used multilocus DNA fingerprinting and microsatellite analysis to examine the effects of breeding synchrony and density on levels of extrapair paternity in the common yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas). As in many Neotropical migrants, breeding synchrony was greatest at the beginning of the breeding season.

Kevin J. Thusius; Peter O. Dunn; Kara A. Peterson; Linda A. Whittingham

2001-01-01

17

Single cell analysis demonstrating somatic mosaicism involving 11p in a patient with paternal isodisomy and Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome  

SciTech Connect

Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome (BWS) is characterized by numerous growth abnormalities including exomphalos, macroglossia, gigantism, and hemihypertrophy or hemihyperplasia. The {open_quotes}BWS gene{close_quotes} appears to be maternally repressed and is suspected to function as a growth factor or regulator of somatic growth, since activation of this gene through a variety of mechanisms appears to result in somatic overgrowth and tumor development. Mosaic paternal isodisomy of 11p has been observed previously by others in patients with BWS by Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA. The interpretation of these results was primarily based on the intensities of the hybridization signals for the different alleles. In our study, we demonstrate somatic mosaicism directly through PCR and single cell analysis. Peripheral blood was obtained from a patient with BWS and initial genomic DNA analysis by PCR was suggestive of somatic mosaicism for paternal isodisomy of 11p. Through micromanipulation, single cells were isolated and subjected to primer extention preamplification. Locus-specific microsatellite marker analyses by PCR were performed to determine the chromosome 11 origins in the preamplified individual cells. Two populations of cells were detected, a population of cells with normal biparental inheritance and a population of cells with paternal isodisomy of 11p and biparental disomy of 11q. Using the powerful approach of single cell analysis, the detected somatic mosaicism provides evidence for a mitotic recombinational event that has resulted in loss of the maternal 11p region and gain of a second copy of paternal 11p in some cells. The direct demonstration of mosaicism may explain the variable phenotypes and hemihypertrophy often observed in BWS.

Bischoff, F.Z.; McCaskill, C.; Subramanian, S. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

18

[Linkage disequilibrium analysis for microsatellite loci in six cattle breeds].  

PubMed

Autosomal microsatellites are valuable tools for investigating genetic diversity and population structure and making conservation decisions to preserve valuable breeds of domestic animals. We carried out a linkage disequilibrium analysis using 29 microsatellite markers in six cattle populations: Suksun, Istoben, Yaroslavl, Kholmogory, Grey Ukrainian and Pechora type Kholmogory breeds. We discovered a significant linkage between microsatellites INRA037 and CSRM60 in Grey Ukrainian breed. PMID:25715448

2014-04-01

19

Analysis of two 47,XXX males reveals X-Y interchange and maternal or paternal nondisjunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two cases of 47,XXX males were studied, one of which has been published previously (Bigozzi et al. 1980). Analysis of X-linked restriction fragment length polymorphisms revealed that in this case, one X chromosome was of paternal and two were of maternal origin, whereas in the other case, two X chromosomes were of paternal and one of maternal origin. Southern blot

G. Scherer; W. Schempp; M. Fraccaro; E. Bausch; V. Bigozzi; P. Maraschio; E. Montali; G. Simoni; U. Wolf

1989-01-01

20

Novel and cross-species microsatellite markers for parentage analysis in Sanderling Calidris alba  

Microsoft Academic Search

We isolated and tested six novel microsatellite loci in Sanderling (Calidris alba) from Greenland for paternity analyses. In addition, we tested 11 already published microsatellite markers which were originally\\u000a developed for the congeneric species, the Pectoral Sandpiper (C. melanotos). All loci were polymorphic, but five of the cross-species loci were not scorable due to suboptimal amplification patterns.\\u000a The 12 successful

Pieternella C. Luttikhuizen; Anneke Bol; Harry Witte; Judith van Bleijswijk; Oliver Haddrath; Allan J. Baker; Theunis Piersma; Jeroen Reneerkens

2011-01-01

21

DNA microsatellites of pronghorn (Antilocapra americana)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a set of eight polymorphic microsatellite loci for pronghorn, Antilocapra americana. We screened 233 individuals from the National Bison Range in Moiese, MT, and found allele numbers from three to 11 and heterozygosity levels ranging from 0.142 to 0.807. These results suggest that these loci will be useful in paternity analysis and basic popula- tion genetics applications.

M. D. CARLING; C. W. PASSAVANT; J. A. BYERS

22

Establishing paternity in whooping cranes (Grus Americana) by DNA analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

DNA fingerprinting was used to study paternity and genetic variability within a captive flock of Whooping Cranes (Grus americana). Fingerprint patterns for 42 individuals were obtained by digesting genomic crane DNAs with HaeIII followed by electrophoresis, blotting, and hybridization to the M13 minisatellite probe. Despite finding reduced levels of genetic variation in the Whooping Crane due to a population 'bottleneck,' these polymorphisms were successfully used to determine paternity in six of seven cases of captive propagation where the maternal-offspring relationship was known, but where the sire was unknown. These determinations of paternity are required for effective genetic management of. the crane flock. These results also revealed a number of heterozygous minisatellite loci that will be valuable in future assessments of genetic variability in this endangered species.

Longmire, J.L.; Gee, G.F.; Hardekopf, C.L.; Mark, G.A.

1992-01-01

23

Paternal Smoking and Risk of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective. To investigate the association between paternal smoking and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Method. We identified 18 published epidemiologic studies that reported data on both paternal smoking and childhood ALL risk. We performed a meta-analysis and analyzed dose-response relationships on ALL risk for smoking during preconception, during pregnancy, after birth, and ever smoking. Results. The summary odds ratio (OR) of childhood ALL associated with paternal smoking was 1.11 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.05–1.18, I2 = 18%) during any time period, 1.25 (95% CI: 1.08–1.46, I2 = 53%) preconception; 1.24 (95% CI: 1.07–1.43, I2 = 54%) during pregnancy, and 1.24 (95% CI: 0.96–1.60, I2 = 64%) after birth, with a dose-response relationship between childhood ALL and paternal smoking preconception or after birth. Conclusion. The evidence supports a positive association between childhood ALL and paternal ever smoking and at each exposure time period examined. Future epidemiologic studies should assess paternal smoking during well-defined exposure windows and should include biomarkers to assess smoking exposure and toxicological mechanisms. PMID:21765828

Liu, Ruiling; Zhang, Luoping; McHale, Cliona M.; Hammond, S. Katharine

2011-01-01

24

The Y chromosome in forensic analysis and paternity testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The male specificity of the human Y chromosome makes it potentially useful in forensic studies and paternity testing, and\\u000a markers are now available which will allow its usefulness to be assessed in practice. However, while it can be used confidently\\u000a for exclusions, the unusual properties of the Y mean that inclusions will be very difficult to make: haplotypes are confined

M. A. Jobling; A. Pandya; C. Tyler-Smith

1997-01-01

25

ORIGINAL PAPER Microsatellite DNA analysis of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus  

E-print Network

the levels of introgression with non-native hatchery fish. We found that native Athabasca rainbow trout didORIGINAL PAPER Microsatellite DNA analysis of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from western Alberta, Canada: native status and evolutionary distinctiveness of ``Athabasca'' rainbow trout Eric B

Taylor, Eric B. "Rick"

26

Mission design and trajectory analysis for inspection of a host spacecraft by a microsatellite  

E-print Network

The trajectory analysis and mission design for inspection of a host spacecraft by a microsatellite is motivated by the current developments in designing and building prototypes of a microsatellite inspector vehicle. Two ...

Kim, Susan C. (Susan Cecilia)

2006-01-01

27

Paternal uniparental disomy for chromosome 1 revealed by molecular analysis of a patient with pycnodysostosis.  

PubMed Central

Molecular analysis of a patient affected by the autosomal recessive skeletal dysplasia, pycnodysostosis (cathepsin K deficiency; MIM 265800), revealed homozygosity for a novel missense mutation (A277V). Since the A277V mutation was carried by the patient's father but not by his mother, who had two normal cathepsin K alleles, paternal uniparental disomy was suspected. Karyotyping of the patient and of both parents was normal, and high-resolution cytogenetic analyses of chromosome 1, to which cathepsin K is mapped, revealed no abnormalities. Evaluation of polymorphic DNA markers spanning chromosome 1 demonstrated that the patient had inherited two paternal chromosome 1 homologues, whereas alleles for markers from other chromosomes were inherited in a Mendelian fashion. The patient was homoallelic for informative markers mapping near the chromosome 1 centromere, but he was heteroallelic for markers near both telomeres, establishing that the paternal uniparental disomy with partial isodisomy was caused by a meiosis II nondisjunction event. Phenotypically, the patient had normal birth height and weight, had normal psychomotor development at age 7 years, and had only the usual features of pycnodysostosis. This patient represents the first case of paternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 1 and provides conclusive evidence that paternally derived genes on human chromosome 1 are not imprinted. PMID:9529353

Gelb, B D; Willner, J P; Dunn, T M; Kardon, N B; Verloes, A; Poncin, J; Desnick, R J

1998-01-01

28

Correlates of multiple paternity in the Aquatic Warbler ( Acrocephalus paludicola )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Aquatic Warblers show a promiscuous mating system and males do not help the female to incubate eggs or feed nestlings. Paternity\\u000a was determined in 64 broods in the Biebrza basin (NE Poland) studied in 1993, 1994 and 1997 by microsatellite PCR analysis.\\u000a A total of 14 broods had been sired by a single male and 50 by two and more

Andrzej Dyrcz; Michael Wink; Astrid Backhaus; Wanda Zdunek; Bernd Leisler; Karl Schulze-Hagen

2002-01-01

29

Behavioral Ecology Vol. 12 No. 5: 633639 Extrapair paternity is influenced by breeding  

E-print Network

analyses. Key words: breeding ecology, DNA fingerprinting, Geothlypis trichas, microsatellites, paternity of breeding synchrony and density on levels of extrapair paternity in the common yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas). As in many Neotropical migrants, breeding synchrony was greatest at the beginning

Dunn, Peter O.

30

Microsatellite analysis reveals remating by wild Mediterranean fruit fly females, Ceratitis capitata.  

PubMed

Accurate estimates of remating in wild female insects are required for an understanding of the causes of variation in remating between individuals, populations and species. Such estimates are also of profound importance for major economic fruit pests such as the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata). A major method for the suppression of this pest is the sterile insect technique (SIT), which relies on matings between mass-reared, sterilized males and wild females. Remating by wild females will thus impact negatively on the success of SIT. We used microsatellite markers to determine the level of remating in wild (field-collected) Mediterranean fruit fly females from the Greek Island of Chios. We compared the four locus microsatellite genotypes of these females and their offspring. Our data showed 7.1% of wild females remated. Skewed paternity among progeny arrays provided further evidence for double matings. Our lowest estimate of remating was 3.8% and the highest was 21%. PMID:12296936

Bonizzoni, M; Katsoyannos, B I; Marguerie, R; Guglielmino, C R; Gasperi, G; Malacrida, A; Chapman, T

2002-10-01

31

MICROSATELLITE-BASED PATERNITY ANALYSIS OF A SEVEN-PARENT SUGARCANE POLYCROSS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

It is virtually impossible to make all cross combinations among even the most elite parents used in breeding programs. Hence, the polycross approach has been used in sugarcane breeding to maximize the number of cross combinations that could be represented among progeny at the seedling stage of test...

32

Microsatellite polymorphism in Dioscorea tokoro, a wild yam species.  

PubMed

Six microsatellite loci were characterized in Dioscorea tokoro, a wild yam species in East Asia. All six loci were polymorphic in a sample of 23 individuals from natural populations in Japan. The microsatellite loci displayed many alleles (6.2 alleles per locus on average), and the observed heterozygosity (Ho = 0.54) as well as expected heterozygosity (He = 0.68) were high. The heterozygosities were far more than that previously detected by allozyme analysis of D. tokoro (Ho = 0.23, He = 0.28). Five microsatellite loci were sufficient to provide a paternity exclusion rate (Q) of Q = 0.98, which enables monitoring of the pollen-mediated gene flow between plants in a population. Microsatellite loci are abundant and highly polymorphic in D. tokoro and other plants and are therefore ideal markers for plant population genetic studies. PMID:8001812

Terauchi, R; Konuma, A

1994-10-01

33

Development of microsatellite markers and analysis of intraspecific genetic variability in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).  

PubMed

Paucity of polymorphic molecular markers in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) has been a major limitation in the improvement of this important legume. Hence, in an attempt to develop sequence-tagged microsatellite sites (STMS) markers from chickpea, a microsatellite enriched library from the C. arietinum cv. Pusa362 nuclear genome was constructed for the identification of (CA/GT)n and (CT/GA)n microsatellite motifs. A total of 92 new microsatellites were identified, of which 74 functional STMS primer pairs were developed. These markers were validated using 9 chickpea and one C. reticulatum accession. Of the STMS markers developed, 25 polymorphic markers were used to analyze the intraspecific genetic diversity within 36 geographically diverse chickpea accessions. The 25 primer pairs amplified single loci producing a minimum of 2 and maximum of 11 alleles. A total of 159 alleles were detected with an average of 6.4 alleles per locus. The observed and expected heterozygosity values averaged 0.32 (0.08-0.91) and 0.74 (0.23-0.89) respectively. The UPGMA based dendrogram was able to distinguish all the accessions except two accessions from Afghanistan establishing that microsatellites could successfully detect intraspecific genetic diversity in chickpea. Further, cloning and sequencing of size variant alleles at two microsatellite loci revealed that the variable numbers of AG repeats in different alleles were the major source of polymorphism. Point mutations were found to occur both within and immediately upstream of the long tracts of perfect repeats, thereby bringing about a conversion of perfect motifs into imperfect or compound motifs. Such events possibly occurred in order to limit the expansion of microsatellites and also lead to the birth of new microsatellites. The microsatellite markers developed in this study will be useful for genetic diversity analysis, linkage map construction as well as for depicting intraspecific microsatellite evolution. PMID:16534564

Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Shokeen, Bhumika; Edwards, Keith J; Bhatia, Sabhyata

2006-05-01

34

Challenges in analysis and interpretation of microsatellite data for population genetic studies  

PubMed Central

Advancing technologies have facilitated the ever-widening application of genetic markers such as microsatellites into new systems and research questions in biology. In light of the data and experience accumulated from several years of using microsatellites, we present here a literature review that synthesizes the limitations of microsatellites in population genetic studies. With a focus on population structure, we review the widely used fixation (FST) statistics and Bayesian clustering algorithms and find that the former can be confusing and problematic for microsatellites and that the latter may be confounded by complex population models and lack power in certain cases. Clustering, multivariate analyses, and diversity-based statistics are increasingly being applied to infer population structure, but in some instances these methods lack formalization with microsatellites. Migration-specific methods perform well only under narrow constraints. We also examine the use of microsatellites for inferring effective population size, changes in population size, and deeper demographic history, and find that these methods are untested and/or highly context-dependent. Overall, each method possesses important weaknesses for use with microsatellites, and there are significant constraints on inferences commonly made using microsatellite markers in the areas of population structure, admixture, and effective population size. To ameliorate and better understand these constraints, researchers are encouraged to analyze simulated datasets both prior to and following data collection and analysis, the latter of which is formalized within the approximate Bayesian computation framework. We also examine trends in the literature and show that microsatellites continue to be widely used, especially in non-human subject areas. This review assists with study design and molecular marker selection, facilitates sound interpretation of microsatellite data while fostering respect for their practical limitations, and identifies lessons that could be applied toward emerging markers and high-throughput technologies in population genetics. PMID:25540699

Putman, Alexander I; Carbone, Ignazio

2014-01-01

35

Plasmodium vivax: Microsatellite analysis of multiple-clone infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used mixtures of genomic DNA from two genetically distinct isolates from Brazil, 42M and 312M, to investigate how accurately 12-locus microsatellite typing describes the overall genetic diversity and characterizes multilocus haplotypes in multiple-clone Plasmodium vivax infections. We found varying PCR amplification efficiencies of microsatellite alleles; for example, from the same 1:1 mixture of 42M and 312M DNA we amplified

Tatiana Havryliuk; Pamela Orjuela-Sánchez; Marcelo U. Ferreira

2008-01-01

36

Molecular differential diagnosis of renal cell carcinomas by microsatellite analysis.  

PubMed

Recent application of molecular cytogenetic techniques has resulted in a new type of genetic classification of renal cell tumors. The key aspect of the novel diagnostic concept is reflected by biologically distinct entities, each characterized by a specific combination of genetic changes. To work out a diagnostic/prognostic approach, we have applied polymorphic microsatellite markers for a quick analysis, based on polymerase chain reaction, of 82 tumor specimens. We compared the results to previously evaluated cytogenetic and histological data. All nonpapillary and chromophobe renal cell carcinomas, which make up approximately 90% of all malignant renal cell tumors, and a subset of renal oncocytomas were correctly diagnosed by detection of loss of heterozygosity at chromosomal sites 1, 2, and 3p. Allelic losses at chromosomal regions 8p, 9p, and 14q are associated with an advanced pathological stage of nonpapillary renal cell carcinomas. A loss of heterozygosity at chromosomes 6, 10, 13, 17, and 21, in addition to those at chromosomes 1 and 2, confirm the diagnosis of chromophobe renal cell tumors. Using this approach, the differential diagnosis of renal cell tumors could be carried out within 1 or 2 days. PMID:8952540

Bugert, P; Kovacs, G

1996-12-01

37

Characterization and analysis of microsatellite loci in Elymus caninus (Triticeae: Poaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsatellites are highly variable DNA sequences that can be used as markers for the genetic analysis of plants. The potential\\u000a of microsatellite markers for use in a genetic diversity study in Elymus species was evaluated. Genomic libraries of Elymus caninus were constructed. The libraries were screened with two dinucleotide, (GA)n and (GT)n, and two trinucleotide repeats, (TCT)n\\u000a and (CAC)n. A

G.-L. Sun; B. Salomon; R. V. Bothmer

1998-01-01

38

Paternal Child Care and Relationship Quality: A Longitudinal Analysis of Reciprocal Associations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored reciprocal associations between paternal child-care involvement and relationship quality by following British couples from the birth of a child until he or she reached school age. It extends the literature by distinguishing between paternal engagement in absolute terms and relative to the mother and by considering relationship…

Schober, Pia S.

2012-01-01

39

Paternal age related schizophrenia (PARS): latent subgroups detected by k-means clustering analysis  

E-print Network

1 Paternal age related schizophrenia (PARS): latent subgroups detected by k-means clustering.antonius@nyumc.org #12;2 Abstract Background: Paternal age related schizophrenia (PARS) has been proposed as a subgroup of schizophrenia with distinct etiology, pathophysiology and symptoms. This study uses a k-means clustering

Ahn, Hongshik

40

Microsatellite analysis of serum DNA in patients with head and neck cancer.  

PubMed

We have shown previously that microsatellite alterations in serum DNA was predictive of distant metastasis in a study with 21 primary head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients. To further investigate serum microsatellite alterations as a prognostic tool, we carried out microsatellite analysis of serum DNA with 10 markers on 152 patients with head and neck cancer. Forty-five percent (68/152) of patients had microsatellite alterations of serum DNA identical to corresponding tumor DNA. In 16 patients that had distant metastasis, 11 patients had a positive serum test (microsatellite alterations detectable in their serum DNA with one or more markers). The difference in distant metastasis rates between the negative and positive serum tests (6.0% [5/84] vs. 16.2% [11/68], RR = 2.7) was clinically significant and almost reached statistical significance (p = 0.06). When the analysis was restricted to patients with recurrent disease, a positive serum test correlated with those who developed distant metastasis (p = 0.04). Other parameters, such as development of recurrence, stage of the cancer, disease-free survival and overall survival, were not associated with a positive serum test. Detecting tumor DNA in serum by microsatellite analysis may help identify patients at risk for distant metastasis. Therefore, circulating tumor cells may contribute to the presence of tumor DNA in the serum. In the future if a serum test is positive, therapeutic approaches may by intensified, such as platinum-based chemoradiation, to reduce distant failures. PMID:15185349

Nawroz-Danish, Homaira; Eisenberger, Claus F; Yoo, George H; Wu, Li; Koch, Wayne; Black, Carri; Ensley, John F; Wei, Wei-Zen; Sidransky, David

2004-08-10

41

Identification of novel microsatellite loci in the sand martin, Riparia riparia , and cross-amplification of loci from other bird species  

Microsoft Academic Search

We isolated and characterised six novel microsatellite loci for paternity analysis in the sand martin Riparia riparia, by screening an enriched genomic library. In addition, we tested 16 already published microsatellite markers, five of which\\u000a were also polymorphic in the sand martin. Only one of these 11 loci exhibited evidence of null alleles, and all were polymorphic\\u000a (mean H\\u000a o = 0.68,

Wouter F. D. van DongenGopi; Gopi K. Munimanda; Jakob Augustin; Donald Blomqvist; Tibor Szép; Richard H. Wagner

2010-01-01

42

Increased informativeness of RAPD analysis by detection of microsatellite motifs.  

PubMed

The recently developed random-amplified microsatellite polymorphism (RAMPO) technique detects second-level amplification products that are useful as molecular markers. In the first step of the procedure, genomic DNA is amplified with a single arbitrary or microsatellite-complementary primer. PCR products are then electrophoretically separated, photographed, blotted and hybridized to a 32P-labeled microsatellite probe. Autoradiography reveals highly reproducible, polymorphic, probe-dependent fingerprints, which are different from the ethidium bromide staining patterns. In this paper, we report the successful application of various mono-, tri- and tetranucleotide repeat motifs as RAMPO probes. We also compare the efficiency of arbitrary vs. microsatellite primers for the generation of RAMPO patterns. Repeated rehybridization to different probes has expanded the information contained in a single random-amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) gel at least fivefold. Pattern complexity varies with the length and sequence of the probe. Application of the technique to a genetic relatedness study in the genus Dioscorea (yam) yielded highly informative markers, mainly at an interspecific level. PMID:9266084

Ramser, J; Weising, K; Chikaleke, V; Kahl, G

1997-08-01

43

Models of Microsatellite Evolution Peter Calabrese1  

E-print Network

, in the search for disease-causing genes, and in identification for both forensics applications and paternity.edu 1 Introduction Microsatellites are simple sequence repeats in DNA, for example the motif AT repeated-resistance allele [46]. In cancer research, hyper-mutable microsatellites with deficient DNA mismatch repair systems

Sainudiin, Raazesh

44

Multiplexed systems of microsatellite markers for genetic analysis of mahogany, Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae), a threatened neotropical timber species.  

PubMed

Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King [Meliaceae]) is the most valuable hardwood species in the neotropics. Its conservation status has been the subject of increasing concern due to overexploitation and habitat destruction. In this work we report the development and characterization of 10 highly variable microsatellite loci for S. macrophylla. Twenty-nine percent of the 126 sequenced mahogany clones yielded useful microsatellite loci. Three high-throughput genotyping systems were developed based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) multiplexing of these mahogany loci. We identified a total of 158 alleles in 121 adult individuals of S. macrophylla, with an average of 15.8 alleles (range 11-25) per locus. All loci showed Mendelian inheritance in open-pollinated half-sib families. The mean expected heterozygosity was 0.84 and the mean observed heterozygosity was 0.73. The combined probability of identity-the probability that two individuals selected at random from a population would have identical genotypes--was 7.0 x 10(-15), and combined probability of paternity exclusion was 0.999998 overall loci. These microsatellite loci permit precise estimates of parameters such as gene flow, mating system, and paternity, thus providing important insights into the population genetics and conservation of S. macrophylla. PMID:12407218

Lemes, M R; Brondani, R P V; Grattapaglia, D

2002-01-01

45

Do Fig Wasps Produce Mixed Paternity Clutches?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollinating fig wasps (Hymenoptera, Agaonidae) have been the focus of numerous studies examining sex ratio evolution. Recently, molecular genetic techniques have been introduced that assume single matings in fig wasps, yet their mating biology has not been investigated genetically. We used recently developed microsatellite markers to investigate whether a pollinating fig wasp (Liporrhopalum tentacularis Grandi) produces single or mixed paternity

M. Zavodna; S. G. Compton; S. Raja; P. M. Gilmartin; J. M. M. van Damme

2005-01-01

46

Microsatellite analysis in the genome of Acanthaceae: An in silico approach  

PubMed Central

Background: Acanthaceae is one of the advanced and specialized families with conventionally used medicinal plants. Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) play a major role as molecular markers for genome analysis and plant breeding. The microsatellites existing in the complete genome sequences would help to attain a direct role in the genome organization, recombination, gene regulation, quantitative genetic variation, and evolution of genes. Objective: The current study reports the frequency of microsatellites and appropriate markers for the Acanthaceae family genome sequences. Materials and Methods: The whole nucleotide sequences of Acanthaceae species were obtained from National Center for Biotechnology Information database and screened for the presence of SSRs. SSR Locator tool was used to predict the microsatellites and inbuilt Primer3 module was used for primer designing. Results: Totally 110 repeats from 108 sequences of Acanthaceae family plant genomes were identified, and the occurrence of dinucleotide repeats was found to be abundant in the genome sequences. The essential amino acid isoleucine was found rich in all the sequences. We also designed the SSR-based primers/markers for 59 sequences of this family that contains microsatellite repeats in their genome. Conclusion: The identified microsatellites and primers might be useful for breeding and genetic studies of plants that belong to Acanthaceae family in the future. PMID:25709226

Kaliswamy, Priyadharsini; Vellingiri, Srividhya; Nathan, Bharathi; Selvaraj, Saravanakumar

2015-01-01

47

High transmission of paternal plastid DNA in alfalfa plants demonstrated by restriction fragment polymorphic analysis.  

PubMed

A high frequency of paternal plastid transmission occurred in progeny from crosses among normal green alfalfa plants. Plastid transmission was analyzed by hybridization of radiolabeled alfalfa plastid DNA (cpDNA) probes to Southern blots of restriction digests of the progeny DNA. Each probe revealed a specific polymorphism differentiating the parental plastid genomes. Of 212 progeny, 34 were heteroplastidic, with their cpDNAs ranging from predominantly paternal to predominantly maternal. Regrowth of shoots from heteroplasmic plants following removal of top growth revealed the persistence of mixed plastids in a given plant. However, different shoots within a green heteroplasmic plant exhibited paternal, maternal, or mixed cpDNAs. Evidence of maternal nuclear genomic influence on the frequency of paternal plastid transmission was observed in some reciprocal crosses. A few tetraploid F1 progeny were obtained from tetraploid (2n=4x=32) Medicago sativa ssp. sativa x diploid (2n=2x=16) M. sativa ssp. falcata crosses, and resulted from unreduced gametes. Here more than the maternal genome alone apparently functioned in controlling plastid transmission. Considering all crosses, only 5 of 212 progeny cpDNAs lacked evidence of a definitive paternal plastid fragment. PMID:24226119

Masoud, S A; Johnson, L B; Sorensen, E L

1990-01-01

48

A new duplex PCR system for YCAII and DXYS156Y microsatellites analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Y-chromosome polymorphisms represent an important tool in forensic genetics for different purposes: paternity testing, special problems of medical genetics, such as incest causing autosomal recessive diseases, analysis of mixed stains and other biological samples in criminal events. The number of Y-chromosome polymorphisms is huge, but only a well-defined number of them are used in official protocols of the international

I Sani; U Ricci; L Giunti; S Guarducci; M Lapini; A Brusaferri; A Lasagni; M. L Giovannucci Uzielli

2003-01-01

49

Evaluating the potential of barley and wheat microsatellite markers for genetic analysis of Elymus trachycaulus complex species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of barley and wheat microsatellite markers for genetic analysis of Elymus trachycaulus complex species was evaluated. A set of 25 barley and 3 wheat microsatellite markers were tested for their ability to cross-amplify DNA from four accessions of E. trachycaulus and two accessions Pseudoroegneria spicata. Thirteen barley (52%) and two (68%) wheat primer pairs successfully amplified consistent products

D. MacRitchie; G. Sun

2004-01-01

50

Why Do Cuckolded Males Provide Paternal Care?  

PubMed Central

In most species, males do not abandon offspring or reduce paternal care when they are cuckolded by other males. This apparent lack of adjustment of paternal investment with the likelihood of paternity presents a potential challenge to our understanding of what drives selection for paternal care. In a comparative analysis across birds, fish, mammals, and insects we identify key factors that explain why cuckolded males in many species do not reduce paternal care. Specifically, we show that cuckolded males only reduce paternal investment if both the costs of caring are relatively high and there is a high risk of cuckoldry. Under these circumstances, selection is expected to favour males that reduce paternal effort in response to cuckoldry. In many species, however, these conditions are not satisfied and tolerant males have outcompeted males that abandon young. PMID:23555193

Griffin, Ashleigh S.; Alonzo, Suzanne H.; Cornwallis, Charlie K.

2013-01-01

51

Population Structure and Covariate Analysis Based on Pairwise Microsatellite Allele Matching Frequencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a general model for pairwise microsatellite allele matching probabilities. The model can be used for analysis of population substructure, and is particularly focused on relating genetic correlation to measurable covariates. The approach is intended for cases when the existence of subpopulations is uncertain and a priori assignment of samples to hypothesized subpopulations is difficult. Such a situation arises,

Geof H. Givens; Isin Ozaksoy

2007-01-01

52

Microsatellite analysis of genetic variation among and within Alpine marmot populations in the French Alps  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic structure of the Alpine marmot, Marmota marmota , was studied by an analysis of five polymorphic microsatellite loci. Eight locations were sampled in the French Alps, one from Les Ecrins valley ( n = 160), another from La Sassière valley ( n = 289) and the six others from the Maurienne valley ( n = 139). Information on

B. Goossens; L. Chikhi; P. Taberlet; L. P. Waits; D. AllainE

2001-01-01

53

Admixture Analysis of Florida Largemouth Bass and Northern Largemouth Bass using Microsatellite Loci  

E-print Network

Admixture Analysis of Florida Largemouth Bass and Northern Largemouth Bass using Microsatellite largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides floridanus (N ¼ 175) and eight populations of northern largemouth bass Florida largemouth bass and northern largemouth bass as well as between northern largemouth bass from

Aspbury, Andrea S. - Department of Biology, Texas State University

54

The analysis of microsatellite instability in extracolonic gastrointestinal malignancy.  

PubMed

Microsatellite instability (MSI) is a genetic feature of sporadic and familial cancers of multiple sites and is related to defective mismatch repair (MMR) protein function. Lynch syndrome (LS) is a familial form of MMR deficiency that may present with a spectrum of MSI positive cancers including gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies. The incidence of high level MSI (MSI-H) in colorectal carcinoma is well defined in both familial and sporadic cases and these tumours portend a better overall prognosis in colorectal carcinoma (CRC). There are certain morphological features that suggest MSI-H CRC and international guidelines have been established for the evaluation of MSI in CRC. The prevalence and morphological features of extracolonic GI MSI-H tumours are less well documented. Furthermore, it is unclear whether the guidelines for the assessment of MSI in CRC are appropriate for application to extracolonic GI malignancies. This review aims to summarise the recent literature on MSI in extracolonic LS-related GI tract malignancies with special attention to the assessment of the MMR system by evaluation of specific microsatellite markers and/or immunohistochemical evaluation of MMR protein expression. The reported prevalence of sporadic and LS-related MSI-H tumours along with their associated unique morphological patterns and related prognostic or therapeutic implications will be discussed. PMID:24018804

Williams, Andrew S; Huang, Weei-Yuarn

2013-10-01

55

Do Paternal Arrest and Imprisonment Lead to Child Behaviour Problems and Substance Use? A Longitudinal Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Children of prisoners are at increased risk of impaired health, behavioural problems and substance misuse; however, the causal pathways to these problems are unclear. Under some circumstances, parental imprisonment may result in improved outcomes for the child. This study investigates the impact of paternal arrest and imprisonment on…

Kinner, Stuart A.; Alati, Rosa; Najman, Jake M.; Williams, Gail M.

2007-01-01

56

Molecular Characterization of Herpes Simplex Virus 2 Strains by Analysis of Microsatellite Polymorphism  

PubMed Central

The complete 154-kbp linear double-stranded genomic DNA sequence of herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2), consisting of two extended regions of unique sequences bounded by a pair of inverted repeat elements, was published in 1998 and since then has been widely employed in a wide range of studies. Throughout the HSV-2 genome are scattered 150 microsatellites (also referred to as short tandem repeats) of 1- to 6-nucleotide motifs, mainly distributed in noncoding regions. Microsatellites are considered reliable markers for genetic mapping to differentiate herpesvirus strains, as shown for cytomegalovirus and HSV-1. The aim of this work was to characterize 12 polymorphic microsatellites within the HSV-2 genome by use of 3 multiplex PCR assays in combination with length polymorphism analysis for the rapid genetic differentiation of 56 HSV-2 clinical isolates and 2 HSV-2 laboratory strains (gHSV-2 and MS). This new system was applied to a specific new HSV-2 variant recently identified in HIV-1-infected patients originating from West Africa. Our results confirm that microsatellite polymorphism analysis is an accurate tool for studying the epidemiology of HSV-2 infections. PMID:23966512

Ait-Arkoub, Zaïna; Voujon, Delphine; Deback, Claire; Abrao, Emiliana P.; Agut, Henri; Boutolleau, David

2013-01-01

57

Behavioral Paternalism Or the Possibility of Paternalism  

E-print Network

de Lyon Abstract: In this article I address the question of the moral legitimacy of paternalism that paternalism is unacceptable today. The aim of this paper is to assess its moral legitimacy (not exclusively, autonomy 1. Introduction The idea of paternalism has suffered dramatically since the decline

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

58

Phylogenetic analysis of the tribe Bovini using microsatellites.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to determine if the generally accepted phylogenetic relationships in the tribe Bovini correspond to a phylogenetic scheme derived from polymorphisms at 20 bovine microsatellite loci. This study comprises 17 representative populations: eight Bos taurus, two Bos indicus, one Poëphagus, one Bibos, one Bison, three Bubalus and one Syncerus. Phylogenetic analyses using (delta mu)2 and chord (DC) distances revealed substantial divergence among species. Neighbor-joining trees with both distance measures showed only minor differences. Bos taurus and Bos indicus grouped first, followed by Bos frontalis (Mithan) and Bos grunniens (Yak), Bison bison branched off next and Bubalus bubalis and Syncerus caffer emerged as the two most divergent species from the Bos clade. These findings would suggest that Bos, Poëphagus, and Bibos should be integrated into the Bos genus with each group classified as a subgenus. On the other hand, Bison, Bubalus and Syncerus should each be considered a separate genus. Direct estimates of the divergence times were calculated using the (delta mu)2 genetic distance. Bos taurus and Bos indicus were estimated to have diverged 0.31-0.82 MYA, Bos and Poëphagus: 0.57-1.53 MYA, Bos and Bibos: 0.57-1.52 MYA, Bos and Bison: 0.46-1.23 MYA, Bos and Bubalus: 1.85-4.93 MYA and Bos and Syncerus: 0.98-2.61 MYA. PMID:10895308

Ritz, L R; Glowatzki-Mullis, M L; MacHugh, D E; Gaillard, C

2000-06-01

59

Microsatellite analysis of North American wapiti (Cervus elaphus) populations.  

PubMed

Eleven populations of wapiti (Cervus elaphus) were analysed for genetic diversity using 12 microsatellite loci. Samples were taken from Vancouver Island, British Columbia; Burwash and French River herds in Ontario; Ya Ha Tinda Ranch, Alberta; and Banff, Elk Island, Jasper, Kootenay, Riding Mountain, Yellowstone and Yoho National Parks. Overall, wapiti populations have on average three to four alleles per locus and an average expected heterozygosity that ranged from 25.75 to 52.85%. The greatest genetic distances were observed between the Vancouver population and all other populations. Using the assignment test, Roosevelt wapiti (C. e. roosevelti Merriam 1897) assigned only to the Vancouver Island population. The distance and assignment values suggest a divergence of the Roosevelt wapiti from other populations and support the subspecific status for the Vancouver Island population. No evidence was found for the existence of unique Eastern wapiti (C. e. canadensis Erxleben 1777) in the Burwash or French River herds in Ontario. The overlapping distribution of genotypes from indigenous populations from Riding Mountain, Elk Island and Yellowstone National Parks suggests that wapiti were once a continuous population before settlers decimated their numbers. The lack of differentiation between these populations raises questions about the status of Manitoban (C. e.manitobensis Millais 1915) and Rocky Mountain (C. e.nelsoni Bailey 1935) subspecies. PMID:11050551

Polziehn, R O; Hamr, J; Mallory, F F; Strobeck, C

2000-10-01

60

Relating paternity to paternal care.  

PubMed Central

Intuition suggests, to most people, that parents should be selected to care for their offspring in relation to how certain they are of being the parents of those offspring. Theoretical models of the relationship between parental investment and certainty of parentage predict the two to be related only when some other assumptions are made, few of which can be taken for granted. I briefly review the models and their assumptions, and discuss two kinds of difficulty facing an empiricist wishing to test the models. The first is the problem of unmeasured (and immeasurable) variables. The second is the problem that even the most extensive models do not capture the complexity that can be demonstrated in real systems. I illustrate some of these problems, and some qualitative tests of the models, with experimental work on a population of the collared flycatcher. My conclusion is that although there are some cases where the models have qualitative support, we are a long way from understanding whether paternal care is commonly adjusted in relation to certainty of paternity. PMID:11958702

Sheldon, Ben C

2002-01-01

61

Sperm competition and sexual selection: a meta-analysis of paternity studies of birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sperm competition (the competition among the sperm of different males for fertilization of the eggs of a female) has been\\u000a suggested to be an important component of sexual selection, but no general assessment has been made of this proposition. We\\u000a used a meta-analytic approach to assess the extensive literature on paternity (the proportion of offspring in a focal nest\\u000a sired

Anders Pape Møller; Paola Ninni

1998-01-01

62

Defining Contributions of Paternally Methylated Imprinted Genes at the Igf2-H19 and Dlk1-Gtl2 Domains to Mouse Placentation by Transcriptomic Analysis*?  

PubMed Central

Parental genome functions in ontogeny are determined by interactions among transcripts from the maternal and paternal genomes, which contain many genes whose expression is strictly dependent on their parental origin as a result of genomic imprinting. Comprehensive recognition of the interactions between parental genomes is important for understanding genomic imprinting in mammalian development. The placenta is a key organ for exploring the biological significance of genomic imprinting. To decipher the unknown roles of paternally methylated imprinted genes on chromosomes 7 and 12 in mouse placentation, we performed a transcriptomic analysis on placentae in three types of bimaternal conceptuses that contained genomes derived from both non-growing and fully grown oocytes. Furthermore, we used the Ingenuity pathway analysis software to predict key networks and identify functions specific to paternally methylated imprinted genes regulated by the Igf2-H19 imprinting control region and Dlk1-Dio3 imprinting control region. The data suggested that dynamic conversion of the gene expression profile by restoring the expression of paternally methylated imprinted genes resulted in phenotypic improvements in bimaternal placentae. These results provide a framework to further explore the role of epigenetic modifications in paternal genome during mouse placentation. PMID:19380578

Kawahara, Manabu; Morita, Shinnosuke; Takahashi, Nozomi; Kono, Tomohiro

2009-01-01

63

Microsatellite analysis of genetic diversity in the Chinese alligator( Alligator sinensis ) Changxing captive population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chinese alligator (Alligator sinensis) is a critically endangered species endemic to China. In this study, the extent of genetic variation in the captive alligators\\u000a of the Changxing Reserve Center was investigated using microsatellite markers derived from American alligators. Out of 22\\u000a loci employed, 21 were successfully amplified in the Chinese alligator. Sequence analysis showed loci in American alligators\\u000a had a

Qianghua Xu; Shengguo Fang; Zhiping Wang; Zhenwei Wang

2005-01-01

64

Microsatellite DNA analysis proves nucleus of interspecies reconstructed blastocyst coming from that of donor giant panda  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for DNA isolation from early development of blastocyst and further analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA was\\u000a developed in present study. Total DNA was prepared from interspecies reconstructed blastocyst and a giant panda specific microsatellite\\u000a locus g010 was successfully amplified. DNA sequencing of the PCR product showed that two sequences of reconstructed blastocysts are\\u000a the same as that

Bo Ding; Peng Shi; Jinggong Xiangyu; Yaping Zhang; Dayuan Chen; Qingyuan Sun; Guangpeng Li; Minkang Wang; Yilong Liu; Li Kang; Zhiming Han; Xiangfen Song; Jingsong Li; Yuchun Chen

2000-01-01

65

Multiyear multiple paternity and mate fidelity in the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis  

E-print Network

Multiyear multiple paternity and mate fidelity in the American alligator, Alligator breeding events within a 10-year period (1995­2005) for a total of 114 wild American alligator nests at five microsatellite loci were generated for 1802 alligator hatchlings. Multiple paternity was found

Georgia, University of

66

Evaluating the potential of barley and wheat microsatellite markers for genetic analysis of Elymus trachycaulus complex species.  

PubMed

The potential of barley and wheat microsatellite markers for genetic analysis of Elymus trachycaulus complex species was evaluated. A set of 25 barley and 3 wheat microsatellite markers were tested for their ability to cross-amplify DNA from four accessions of E. trachycaulus and two accessions Pseudoroegneria spicata. Thirteen barley (52%) and two (68%) wheat primer pairs successfully amplified consistent products from both E. trachycaulus and P. spicata species. Four of the 15 successful primer pairs produced visible polymorphisms among the accessions tested. A higher successful rate of cross-species amplification of barley and wheat microsatellite markers in E. trachycaulus and P. spicata was found in this study. These primer pairs are now available for use as markers in genetic analysis of E. trachycaulus complex species. Our results suggest that publicly available wheat and barley microsatellite markers are a valuable resource for the genetic characterization of wild Triticeae species. PMID:14556051

MacRitchie, D; Sun, G

2004-02-01

67

Variogram analysis of the spatial genetic structure of continuous populations using multilocus microsatellite data.  

PubMed

A geostatistical perspective on spatial genetic structure may explain methodological issues of quantifying spatial genetic structure and suggest new approaches to addressing them. We use a variogram approach to (i) derive a spatial partitioning of molecular variance, gene diversity, and genotypic diversity for microsatellite data under the infinite allele model (IAM) and the stepwise mutation model (SMM), (ii) develop a weighting of sampling units to reflect ploidy levels or multiple sampling of genets, and (iii) show how variograms summarize the spatial genetic structure within a population under isolation-by-distance. The methods are illustrated with data from a population of the epiphytic lichen Lobaria pulmonaria, using six microsatellite markers. Variogram-based analysis not only avoids bias due to the underestimation of population variance in the presence of spatial autocorrelation, but also provides estimates of population genetic diversity and the degree and extent of spatial genetic structure accounting for autocorrelation. PMID:15654102

Wagner, Helene H; Holderegger, Rolf; Werth, Silke; Gugerli, Felix; Hoebee, Susan E; Scheidegger, Christoph

2005-03-01

68

Mosaic analysis and tumor induction in zebrafish by microsatellite instability-mediated stochastic gene expression  

PubMed Central

Mosaic analysis, in which two or more populations of cells with differing genotypes are studied in a single animal, is a powerful approach to study developmental mechanisms and gene function in vivo. Over recent years, several genetic methods have been developed to achieve mosaicism in zebrafish, but despite their advances, limitations remain and different approaches and further refinements are warranted. Here, we describe an alternative approach for creating somatic mosaicism in zebrafish that relies on the instability of microsatellite sequences during replication. We placed the coding sequences of various marker proteins downstream of a microsatellite and out-of-frame; in vivo frameshifting into the proper reading frame results in expression of the protein in random individual cells that are surrounded by wild-type cells. We optimized this approach for the binary Gal4-UAS expression system by generating a driver line and effector lines that stochastically express Gal4-VP16 or UAS:H2A-EGFP and self-maintaining UAS:H2A-EGFP-Kaloop, respectively. To demonstrate the utility of this system, we stochastically expressed a constitutively active form of the human oncogene H-RAS and show the occurrence of hyperpigmentation and sporadic tumors within 5 days. Our data demonstrate that inducing somatic mosaicism through microsatellite instability can be a valuable approach for mosaic analysis and tumor induction in Danio rerio. PMID:24487406

Koole, Wouter; Tijsterman, Marcel

2014-01-01

69

Genome-wide survey and analysis of microsatellites in the Pacific oyster genome: abundance, distribution, and potential for marker development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microsatellites are a ubiquitous component of the eukaryote genome and constitute one of the most popular sources of molecular markers for genetic studies. However, no data are currently available regarding microsatellites across the entire genome in oysters, despite their importance to the aquaculture industry. We present the first genome-wide investigation of microsatellites in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas by analysis of the complete genome, resequencing, and expression data. The Pacific oyster genome is rich in microsatellites. A total of 604 653 repeats were identified, in average of one locus per 815 base pairs (bp). A total of 12 836 genes had coding repeats, and 7 332 were expressed normally, including genes with a wide range of molecular functions. Compared with 20 different species of animals, microsatellites in the oyster genome typically exhibited 1) an intermediate overall frequency; 2) relatively uniform contents of (A)n and (C)n repeats and abundant long (C)n repeats (?24 bp); 3) large average length of (AG)n repeats; and 4) scarcity of trinucleotide repeats. The microsatellite-flanking regions exhibited a high degree of polymorphism with a heterozygosity rate of around 2.0%, but there was no correlation between heterozygosity and microsatellite abundance. A total of 19 462 polymorphic microsatellites were discovered, and dinucleotide repeats were the most active, with over 26% of loci found to harbor allelic variations. In all, 7 451 loci with high potential for marker development were identified. Better knowledge of the microsatellites in the oyster genome will provide information for the future design of a wide range of molecular markers and contribute to further advancements in the field of oyster genetics, particularly for molecular-based selection and breeding.

Wang, Jiafeng; Qi, Haigang; Li, Li; Zhang, Guofan

2014-01-01

70

Genome-wide linkage analysis for alcohol dependence: a comparison between single-nucleotide polymorphism and microsatellite marker assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both theoretical and applied studies have proven that the utility of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in linkage analysis is more powerful and cost-effective than current microsatellite marker assays. Here we performed a whole-genome scan on 115 White, non-Hispanic families segregating for alcohol dependence, using one 10.3-cM microsatellite marker set and two SNP data sets (0.33-cM, 0.78-cM spacing). Two definitions

Qianli Ma; Yi Yu; Yan Meng; John Farrell; Lindsay A Farrer; Marsha A Wilcox

2005-01-01

71

Microsatellite DNA markers for Podocnemis unifilis, the endangered yellow-spotted Amazon River turtle  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed specific primers for microsatellite DNA regions of Podocnemis unifilis and tested their utility in population genetic and paternity studies on the species and other closely related Amazonian chelonians. Seventeen microsatellite loci were polymorphic in P. unifilis and all, plus two monomorphic microsatellites in P. unifilis, were polymorphic in at least one additional chelonian species, including Peltocephalus dumeriliana .

CLEITON FANTIN; CECÍLIA F. CARVALHO; TOMAS HRBEK; JACK W. SITES; LUIZ A. S. MONJELÓ; SPARTACO ASTOLFI-FILHO; IZENI P. FARIAS

2007-01-01

72

Paternity analysis reveals opposing selection pressures on crown coloration in the blue tit (Parus caeruleus).  

PubMed Central

In socially monogamous species, extra-pair paternity can increase the variance in reproductive success and thereby the potential for sexual selection on male ornaments. We studied whether male secondary sexual ornaments are selected through within- and/or extra-pair reproductive success in the blue tit (Parus caeruleus). Male blue tits display a bright blue crown plumage, which reflects substantially in the ultraviolet (UV) and previously has been indicated to be an important sexual signal. We show that males with a more UV-shifted crown hue were less cuckolded, which probably resulted from female preference for more ornamented mates. By contrast, however, older males and males with a less UV-shifted hue sired more extra-pair young. This probably did not reflect direct female preference, since cuckolders were not less UV-ornamented than the males they cuckolded. Alternatively, a trade-off between UV ornamentation and other traits that enhance extra-pair success could explain this pattern. Our results might reflect two alternative male mating tactics, where more UV-ornamented males maximize within-pair success and less UV-ornamented males maximize extra-pair success. Since crown colour was selected in opposite directions by within-pair and extra-pair paternity, directional selection through extra-pair matings seemed weak, at least in this population and breeding season. Reduced intensity of sexual selection due to alternative mating tactics constitutes a potential mechanism maintaining additive genetic variance of male ornaments. PMID:14561295

Delhey, Kaspar; Johnsen, Arild; Peters, Anne; Andersson, Staffan; Kempenaers, Bart

2003-01-01

73

New microsatellite loci for the mandarin fish Siniperca chuatsi and their application in population genetic analysis.  

PubMed

The mandarin fish is a popular fresh water food fish in China. Fifty-three polymorphic microsatellite markers were isolated through construction of an enriched library of genomic DNA of Siniperca chuatsi (Percichthyidae). We found 2 to 7 alleles per locus. The observed and expected heterozygosity values varied from 0.059 to 1.000 and from 0.305 to 0.818, respectively. The polymorphic information content value varied from 0.255 to 0.782. Twelve microsatellite loci deviated significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium after Bonferroni's correction. These markers were evaluated in five species of sinipercine fish; 98% of the 265 locus/taxon combinations tested gave cross-amplification. Eight polymorphic microsatellite markers were randomly selected for genetic characterization of three S. chuatsi populations. The Ganjiang River and Yuanjiang River populations had moderate levels of genetic diversity, while the Mudanjiang River population had a relatively low level genetic diversity. Genetic distance-based cluster analysis showed clustering of the Ganjiang River and Yuanjiang River populations in a single group and the Mudanjiang River population in a separate group. Based on these results, we suggest that S. chuatsi from the Yangtze River watershed are distinct from the Mudanjiang River population. These SSR markers will be useful for diversity, mapping and marker assisted studies of S. chuatsi and other sinipercine fishes. PMID:24535883

Tian, C X; Liang, X-F; Yang, M; Dou, Y Q; Zheng, H Z; Cao, L; Yuan, Y C; Zhao, C

2014-01-01

74

Identification of geographically distributed sub-populations of Leishmania (Leishmania) major by microsatellite analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Leishmania (Leishmania) major, one of the agents causing cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in humans, is widely distributed in the Old World where different species of wild rodent and phlebotomine sand fly serve as animal reservoir hosts and vectors, respectively. Despite this, strains of L. (L.) major isolated from many different sources over many years have proved to be relatively uniform. To investigate the population structure of the species highly polymorphic microsatellite markers were employed for greater discrimination among it's otherwise closely related strains, an approach applied successfully to other species of Leishmania. Results Multilocus Microsatellite Typing (MLMT) based on 10 different microsatellite markers was applied to 106 strains of L. (L.) major from different regions where it is endemic. On applying a Bayesian model-based approach, three main populations were identified, corresponding to three separate geographical regions: Central Asia (CA); the Middle East (ME); and Africa (AF). This was congruent with phylogenetic reconstructions based on genetic distances. Re-analysis separated each of the populations into two sub-populations. The two African sub-populations did not correlate well with strains' geographical origin. Strains falling into the sub-populations CA and ME did mostly group according to their place of isolation although some anomalies were seen, probably, owing to human migration. Conclusion The model- and distance-based analyses of the microsatellite data exposed three main populations of L. (L.) major, Central Asia, the Middle East and Africa, each of which separated into two sub-populations. This probably correlates with the different species of rodent host. PMID:18577226

2008-01-01

75

Quantifying honey bee mating range and isolation in semi-isolated valleys by DNA microsatellite paternity analysis  

E-print Network

by a virgin queen and 2 queenright drone producing hives. The virgin queens were allowed to mate naturally with drones from the hives we had set up and with drones from hives owned by local beekeepers. After mating and drones did occasionally mate across the borders between the two valleys, showing that the dividing

Chittka, Lars

76

Application of Microsatellite Markers in Conservation Genetics and Fisheries Management: Recent Advances in Population Structure Analysis and Conservation Strategies  

PubMed Central

Microsatellites are the most popular and versatile genetic marker with myriads of applications in population genetics, conservation biology, and evolutionary biology. These are the arrays of DNA sequences, consisting of tandemly repeating mono-, di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide units, which are distributed throughout the genomes of most eukaryotic species. Microsatellites are codominant in nature, highly polymorphic, easily typed, and Mendelian inherited, all properties which make them very suitable for the study of population structure and pedigree analysis and capable of detecting differences among closely related species. PCR for microsatellites can be automated for identifying simple sequence repeat polymorphism. Small amount of blood samples or alcohol preserved tissue is adequate for analyzing them. Most of the microsatellites are noncoding, and therefore variations are independent of natural selection. These properties make microsatellites ideal genetic markers for conservation genetics and fisheries management. This review addresses the applications of microsatellite markers in conservation genetics and recent advances in population structure analysis in the context of fisheries management. PMID:24808959

Abdul-Muneer, P. M.

2014-01-01

77

Microsatellite Analysis of Perch (Perca fluviatilis) and its Genetic Authentication of Geographical Localization.  

PubMed

European perch (Perca fluviatilis) is an economically important freshwater species in Europe. In Switzerland, where the demand largely exceeds the production coming from Swiss lakes, nearly 90% of the requirements come from importation with the majority of perch originating from Estonia and Russia. The price of perch fillet varies considerably depending on the origin. Therefore traceability in the fish food sector plays an increasingly important role for consumer protection. Currently the traceability of perch can be assessed through chemical isotopic analysis. The 180/160 isotopic abundance ratio is used as geographical traceability marker, but several aspects affect the accuracy of the method, i.e. the distinct geographical area ratio differs only very slightly with overlapping standard deviation, the need for a large amount of fish material requires the mix of many fillets, the impossibility of analyzing processed matrix, the comparison of the ratio with the ratio of a sample of the presumed originating water makes the analyses more complicated. New application of DNA markers for the traceability of food products plays an increasingly important role for consumer protection. Microsatellites, which are short tandemly repetitive DNA sequences, are genetic markers of choice for traceability because of their abundance and high polymorphism. Moreover, fluorescent labelling and capillary electrophoresis separation increase efficiency and precision of genotyping microsatellites. The method can also be efficiently applied in processed food products where other methods have limited applications. In this study, we tested the efficiency of three polymorphic microsatellites and their combinations for their ability to correctly assign or exclude 195 reference perch to their origin population. Using the maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods computed by the software GeneClass2, the three loci microsatellite were optimized and allowed the correct assignation of all but two Swiss perch (60/62) into Swiss population. The markers also exclude 132/133 imported fish from the Swiss population with a match probability of more than 95%. The number of markers required for correct assignation differs from species to species, and depends on many factors such as genetic diversity and population structure. For perch populations, the results showed that only three polymorphic microsatellite markers are required to perform a reliable attribution or exclusion of a perch to the Swiss population with more than 98% correct assignations. PMID:25437166

Rolli, Joelle; Girardet, Sylvie; Monachon, Cédric; Richard, Christian

2014-10-01

78

Genetic Diversity and Geographic Population Structure of Bovine Neospora caninum Determined by Microsatellite Genotyping Analysis  

PubMed Central

The cyst-forming protozoan parasite Neosporacaninum is one of the main causes of bovine abortion worldwide and is of great economic importance in the cattle industry. Recent studies have revealed extensive genetic variation among N. caninum isolates based on microsatellite sequences (MSs). MSs may be suitable molecular markers for inferring the diversity of parasite populations, molecular epidemiology and the basis for phenotypic variations in N. caninum, which have been poorly defined. In this study, we evaluated nine MS markers using a panel of 11 N. caninum-derived reference isolates from around the world and 96 N. caninum bovine clinical samples and one ovine clinical sample collected from four countries on two continents, including Spain, Argentina, Germany and Scotland, over a 10-year period. These markers were used as molecular tools to investigate the genetic diversity, geographic distribution and population structure of N. caninum. Multilocus microsatellite genotyping based on 7 loci demonstrated high levels of genetic diversity in the samples from all of the different countries, with 96 microsatellite multilocus genotypes (MLGs) identified from 108 N. caninum samples. Geographic sub-structuring was present in the country populations according to pairwise FST. Principal component analysis (PCA) and Neighbor Joining tree topologies also suggested MLG segregation partially associated with geographical origin. An analysis of the MLG relationships, using eBURST, confirmed that the close genetic relationship observed between the Spanish and Argentinean populations may be the result of parasite migration (i.e., the introduction of novel MLGs from Spain to South America) due to cattle movement. The eBURST relationships also revealed genetically different clusters associated with the abortion. The presence of linkage disequilibrium, the co-existence of specific MLGs to individual farms and eBURST MLG relationships suggest a predominant clonal propagation for Spanish N. caninum MLGs in cattle. PMID:23940816

Regidor-Cerrillo, Javier; Díez-Fuertes, Francisco; García-Culebras, Alicia; Moore, Dadín P.; González-Warleta, Marta; Cuevas, Carmen; Schares, Gereon; Katzer, Frank; Pedraza-Díaz, Susana; Mezo, Mercedes; Ortega-Mora, Luis M.

2013-01-01

79

[Identification of European (Capreolus capreolus L.) and Siberian (C. pygargus Pall.) roe deer hybrids by microsatellite marker analysis].  

PubMed

An analysis of 130 tissue specimens of the European (Capreolus capreolus) and the Siberian (C. pygargus) roe deer from nine regions of Russia and Ukraine using microsatellite loci analysis was conducted, aimed at the identification of hybrid animals. An optimized complex of 21 microsatellite loci was selected for the determination of species specificity and the search for interspecies hybrids. Hybrid animals were revealed in the Moscow and Volgograd regions. Their ratio in the total sample obtained in the European part of Russia was 11.9%. PMID:25720144

Plakhina, D A; Zvychanaya, E Yu; Kholodova, M V; Danilkin, A A

2014-07-01

80

The impact of extensive clonal growth on fine-scale mating patterns: a full paternity analysis of a lily-of-the-valley population (Convallaria majalis)  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The combination of clonality and a mating system promoting outcrossing is considered advantageous because outcrossing avoids the fitness costs of selfing within clones (geitonogamy) while clonality assures local persistence and increases floral display. The spatial spread of genetically identical plants (ramets) may, however, also decrease paternal diversity (the number of sires fertilizing a given dam) and fertility, particularly towards the centre of large clumped clones. This study aimed to quantify the impact of extensive clonal growth on fine-scale paternity patterns in a population of the allogamous Convallaria majalis. Methods A full analysis of paternity was performed by genotyping all flowering individuals and all viable seeds produced during a single season using AFLP. Mating patterns were examined and the spatial position of ramets was related to the extent of multiple paternity, fruiting success and seed production. Key Results The overall outcrossing rate was high (91 %) and pollen flow into the population was considerable (27 %). Despite extensive clonal growth, multiple paternity was relatively common (the fraction of siblings sharing the same father was 0·53 within ramets). The diversity of offspring collected from reproductive ramets surrounded by genetically identical inflorescences was as high as among offspring collected from ramets surrounded by distinct genets. There was no significant relationship between the similarity of the pollen load received by two ramets and the distance between them. Neither the distance of ramets with respect to distinct genets nor the distance to the genet centre significantly affected fruiting success or seed production. Conclusions Random mating and considerable pollen inflow most probably implied that pollen dispersal distances were sufficiently high to mitigate local mate scarcity despite extensive clonal spread. The data provide no evidence for the intrusion of clonal growth on fine-scale plant mating patterns. PMID:23439847

Vandepitte, Katrien; De Meyer, Tim; Jacquemyn, Hans; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel; Honnay, Olivier

2013-01-01

81

Multiple paternity in the freshwater snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum  

PubMed Central

Mating multiply may incur costs, such as exposure to predators and to sexually transmitted diseases. Nevertheless, it may be favored, in spite of these costs, as a way to increase the genetic diversity of offspring through fertilization by multiple males. Here, we tested for multiple paternity in a freshwater snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum), which is host to several species of sterilizing trematode worms. Using microsatellites markers, we found multiple paternity in two different snail populations, with as many as seven males fertilizing a single female. In addition, high evenness of sire fertilization was found within individual broods. Multiple paternity can occur for a variety of reasons; however, given that these populations experience high risk of infection by a sterilizing trematode, one potential explanation may be that multiple paternity and high evenness of sire fertilizations increase the chances of the production of parasite-resistant offspring. PMID:23301182

Soper, Deanna M; Delph, Lynda F; Lively, Curt M

2012-01-01

82

Haplogroup-specific deviation from the stepwise mutation model at the microsatellite loci DYS388 and DYS392  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deviation from the stepwise mutation model (SMM) at specific human microsatellite loci has implications for population genetic and forensic investigations. In the present study, data on six Y chromosome-specific microsatellites were pooled for 455 paternally unrelated males from six Middle Eastern populations. All chromosomes were assigned to three haplogroups defined by six binary polymorphisms. Two of the microsatellite loci tested,

Almut Nebel; Dvora Filon; Carsten Hohoff; Marina Faerman; Bernd Brinkmann; Ariella Oppenheim

2001-01-01

83

Narrow genetic basis for the Australian dingo confirmed through analysis of paternal ancestry.  

PubMed

The dingo (Canis lupus dingo) is an iconic animal in the native culture of Australia, but archaeological and molecular records indicate a relatively recent history on the continent. Studies of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) imply that the current dingo population was founded by a small population of already tamed dogs from Southeast Asia. However, the maternal genetic data might give a unilateral picture, and the gene pool has yet to be screened for paternal ancestry. We sequenced 14,437 bp of the Y-chromosome (Y-chr) from two dingoes and one New Guinea Singing Dog (NGSD). This positioned dingo and NGSD within the domestic dog Y-chr phylogeny, and produced one haplotype not detected before. With this data, we characterized 47 male dingoes in 30 Y-chr single-nucleotide polymorphism sites using protease-mediated allele-specific extension technology. Only two haplotypes, H3 and H60, were found among the dingoes, at frequencies of 68.1 and 31.9 %, respectively, compared to 27 haplotypes previously established in the domestic dog. While H3 is common among Southeast Asian dogs, H60 was specifically found in dingoes and the NGSD, but was related to Southeast Asian dog Y-chr haplotypes. H3 and H60 were observed exclusively in the western and eastern parts of Australia, respectively, but had a common range in Southeast. Thus, the Y-chr diversity was very low, similar to previous observations for d-loop mtDNA. Overall genetic evidence suggests a very restricted introduction of the first dingoes into Australia, possibly from New Guinea. This study further confirms the dingo as an isolated feral dog. PMID:22618967

Ardalan, Arman; Oskarsson, Mattias; Natanaelsson, Christian; Wilton, Alan N; Ahmadian, Afshin; Savolainen, Peter

2012-03-01

84

Genetic variation in eight Chinese cattle breeds based on the analysis of microsatellite markers  

PubMed Central

Genetic variability and genetic relationships were investigated among eight Chinese cattle breeds using 12 microsatellite markers. Three hundred and fifty-two alleles were detected and the average number of alleles per locus ranged from 8.33 ± 1.67 in the Jiaxian breed to 21.33 ± 5.60 in the Qinchuan breed with a mean value of 13.91. The total number of alleles per microsatellite ranged from 21 (INRA005, HEL1) to 40 (HEL13), with a mean of 29.33 per locus. The fixation indices at the 12 loci in the eight breeds were very low with a mean of 0.006. A principal components analysis and the construction of a neighborjoining tree showed that these eight Chinese cattle breeds cluster into three groups i.e. the Yanbian andChineseHolstein, theNanyang and Jiaxian, and the four remaining breeds.This clustering agrees with the origin and geographical distributions of these Chinese breeds. PMID:18990358

Sun, Weibin; chen, Hong; Lei, Chuzhao; Lei, Xueqin; Zhang, Yinghan

2008-01-01

85

Microsatellite-Based Parentage Analysis of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Using Nonlethal DNA Sampling  

PubMed Central

To track Aedes aegypti (L.) egg-laying behavior in the field in Iquitos, Peru, we developed methods for 1) sampling DNA from live mosquitoes and 2) high through-put parentage analysis using microsatellite markers. We were able to amplify DNA extracted from a single hind leg, but not from the pupal exuvia. Removal of a leg from teneral females caused no significant changes in female behavioral or life history traits (e.g., longevity, blood feeding frequency, fecundity, egg hatch rate, gonotrophic cycle length, or oviposition behavior). Using a panel of nine microsatellite markers and an exclusion-based software program, we matched offspring to parental pairs in 10 Ae. aegypti test families in which parents originated from natural development sites in Iquitos. By mating known individuals in the laboratory, retaining the male, sampling the female’s DNA before release, and collecting offspring in the field, the technique we developed can be used to genotype large numbers of Ae. aegypti, reconstruct family relationships, and track the egg-laying behavior of individual Ae. aegypti in nature. PMID:22308775

WONG, JACKLYN; CHU, YUI YIN; STODDARD, STEVEN T.; LEE, YOOSOOK; MORRISON, AMY C.; SCOTT, THOMAS W.

2012-01-01

86

Analysis of genetic diversity and differentiation of seven stocks of Litopenaeus vannamei using microsatellite markers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seven microsatellite markers were used to evaluate the genetic diversity and differentiation of seven stocks of Litopenaeus vannamei, which were introduced from Central and South America to China. All seven microsatellite loci were polymorphic, with polymorphism information content ( PIC) values ranging from 0.593 to 0.952. Totally 92 alleles were identified, and the number of alleles ( Na) and effective alleles ( Ne) varied between 4 and 21 and 2.7 and 14.6, respectively. Observed heterozygosity ( H o) values were lower than the expected heterozygosity ( H e) values (0.526-0.754), which indicated that the seven stocks possessed a rich genetic diversity. Thirty-seven tests were detected for reasonable significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. F is values were positive at five loci, suggesting that there was a relatively high degree of inbreeding within stocks. Pairwise F st values ranged from 0.0225 to 0.151, and most of the stock pairs were moderately differentiated. Genetic distance and cluster analysis using UPGMA revealed a close genetic relationship of L. vannamei between Pop2 and Pop3. AMOVA indicated that the genetic variation among stocks (11.3%) was much lower than that within stocks (88.7%). Although the seven stocks had a certain degree of genetic differentiation and a rich genetic diversity, there is an increasing risk of decreased performance due to inbreeding in subsequent generations.

Zhang, Kai; Wang, Weiji; Li, Weiya; Zhang, Quanqi; Kong, Jie

2014-08-01

87

Differentiation of the Italian wolf and the domestic dog based on microsatellite analysis  

PubMed Central

The Italian wolf is in the process of regaining the Alpine region which comes into conflict with the extensive sheep keeping practiced in Switzerland during the summer. As in Switzerland, the wolf is a protected species, the government reimburses losses caused by wolves. Therefore we wanted to know whether the Italian wolf could be distinguished from the domestic dog by microsatellite analysis if DNA samples of the predators could be secured. The evaluation of combined genotypes for the microsatellites CanBern6, CPH4, CPH7, CPH9, CPH12, CPH22 and ZuBeCa1 made it possible to identify an individual as either a domestic dog or an Italian wolf. The assignment of an individual to either one of the two populations is based on the logarithm of the likelihood ratio of an individual being an Italian wolf rather than a domestic dog, given a specific combined genotype. The distribution of the Italian wolf combined genotypes (n = 42) is clearly distinct from the distribution of the domestic dog combined genotypes (n = 90). The likelihood ratio for the "worst" Italian wolf combined genotype was 2.3 E+5 and for the "worst" domestic dog combined genotype was 3.8 E-5. PMID:14736381

Dolf, Gaudenz; Schläpfer, Jörg; Gaillard, Claude; Randi, Ettore; Lucchini, Vittorio; Breitenmoser, Urs; Stahlberger-Saitbekova, Nasikhat

2000-01-01

88

Differentiation of the Italian wolf and the domestic dog based on microsatellite analysis.  

PubMed

The Italian wolf is in the process of regaining the Alpine region which comes into conflict with the extensive sheep keeping practiced in Switzerland during the summer. As in Switzerland, the wolf is a protected species, the government reimburses losses caused by wolves. Therefore we wanted to know whether the Italian wolf could be distinguished from the domestic dog by microsatellite analysis if DNA samples of the predators could be secured. The evaluation of combined genotypes for the microsatellites CanBern6, CPH4, CPH7, CPH9, CPH12, CPH22 and ZuBeCa1 made it possible to identify an individual as either a domestic dog or an Italian wolf. The assignment of an individual to either one of the two populations is based on the logarithm of the likelihood ratio of an individual being an Italian wolf rather than a domestic dog, given a specific combined genotype. The distribution of the Italian wolf combined genotypes (n=42) is clearly distinct from the distribution of the domestic dog combined genotypes (n=90). The likelihood ratio for the "worst" Italian wolf combined genotype was 2.3 E+5 and for the "worst" domestic dog combined genotype was 3.8 E-5. PMID:14736381

Dolf, G; Schläpfer, J; Gaillard, C; Randi, E; Lucchini, V; Breitenmoser, U; Stahlberger-Saitbekova, N

2000-01-01

89

Microsatellite-Based Fingerprinting of Western Blackberries from Plants, IQF Berries and Puree  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The blackberry industry needs a reliable method to ensure trueness-to-type of blackberry products. Microsatellite markers or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are ideal for cultivar fingerprinting, paternity testing and identity certification. Fingerprinting is valuable for variety identification, qual...

90

Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers for Bertholletia excelsa (Lecythidaceae) population genetic analysis.  

PubMed

Seven polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed and validated for Bertholletia excelsa (Brazil nut tree) population genetic studies. This species is a widespread monotypic Amazonian tree with high non-timber economic value. Unfortunately, Brazil nut production is currently less than 25% of historical production levels, because of extensive deforestation. All pairs of primers produced clearly interpretable and polymorphic bands. No linkage disequilibrium was observed in an analysis of 46 individuals from one population, three to seven alleles per locus were observed; the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.378 to 0.978, with significant heterozygote excess for four loci. An analysis of individuals from two populations showed private alleles at all loci. These primer pairs will be useful for population studies, especially for comparing samples from different parts of the Amazon forest. PMID:24301788

Sujii, P S; Inglis, P W; Ciampi, A Y; Solferini, V N; Azevedo, V C R

2013-01-01

91

Polymorphism in ornamental and common carp strains ( Cyprinus carpio L.) as revealed by AFLP analysis and a new set of microsatellite markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-seven new microsatellite markers were generated and applied, together with the AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) technique using two different enzyme combinations, to the genetic analysis of two carp species, Cyprinus carpio L. and Ctenopharyngodon idella. The extent of polymorphism and the genetic relationships between nine carp populations were studied. The incidence of microsatellites containing CA and CT motifs was

L. David; P. Rajasekaran; J. Fang; J. Hillel; U. Lavi

2001-01-01

92

High frequency of multiple paternity in the largest rookery of Mediterranean loggerhead sea turtles.  

PubMed

Mating systems are a central component in the evolution of animal life histories and in conservation genetics. The patterns of male reproductive skew and of paternal shares in batches of offspring, for example, affect genetic effective population size. A prominent characteristic of mating systems of sea turtles seem to be a considerable intra- and interspecific variability in the degree of polyandry. Because of the difficulty of observing the mating behaviour of sea turtles directly in the open sea, genetic paternity analysis is particularly useful for gaining insights into this aspect of their reproductive behaviour. We investigated patterns of multiple paternity in clutches of loggerhead sea turtles in the largest Mediterranean rookery using four highly variable microsatellite loci. Furthermore, we tested for a relationship between the number of fathers detected in clutches and body size of females. More than one father was detected in the clutches of 14 out of 15 females, with two clutches revealing the contribution of at least five males. In more than half the cases, the contributions of different fathers to a clutch did not depart from equality. The number of detected fathers significantly increased with increasing female body size. This relationship indicates that males may prefer to mate with large, and therefore productive, females. Our results suggest that polyandry is likely to increase effective population size compared to a population in which females would mate with only one male; male reproductive contributions being equal. PMID:17845442

Zbinden, Judith A; Largiadèr, Carlo R; Leippert, Fabio; Margaritoulis, Dimitris; Arlettaz, Raphaël

2007-09-01

93

Microsatellite markers for an endemic Atlantic Forest tree, Manilkara multifida (Sapotaceae).  

PubMed

Manilkara multifida is a tropical tree that is endemic to the Atlantic forests of southern Bahia, Brazil. Currently, populations of this species are restricted to fragmented landscapes that are susceptible to anthropogenic disturbances. Considering this issue, and that there is no genetic information available for this endangered species, we developed microsatellite markers for M. multifida to provide resources for future conservation genetics studies. Using an enriched genomic library, we isolated eight polymorphic microsatellite loci and optimized the amplification conditions for M. multifida. For each locus, we estimated the number of alleles, H E and H O, paternity exclusion Q, individual identity I and fixation index F, and examined the presence of null alleles. The mean number of alleles was 11.9, and the heterozygosity was high at all loci (average H E = 0.809 and H O = 0.777). The combined values for both paternity exclusion and individual identity were Q = 0.9959 and I = 5.45 × 10(-11), respectively. No evidence of null alleles was detected. The results of our analysis indicated that all eight microsatellites are promising for assessing questions involving inbreeding, gene flow, co-ancestry and mating patterns in M. multifida. PMID:23487575

Moraes, Ramiris C S; Vivas, Caio V; Oliveira, Fernanda A; Menezes, Ivandilson P P; van den Berg, Cassio; Gaiotto, Fernanda A

2013-01-01

94

Microsatellite markers for an endemic Atlantic Forest tree, Manilkara multifida (Sapotaceae)  

PubMed Central

Manilkara multifida is a tropical tree that is endemic to the Atlantic forests of southern Bahia, Brazil. Currently, populations of this species are restricted to fragmented landscapes that are susceptible to anthropogenic disturbances. Considering this issue, and that there is no genetic information available for this endangered species, we developed microsatellite markers for M. multifida to provide resources for future conservation genetics studies. Using an enriched genomic library, we isolated eight polymorphic microsatellite loci and optimized the amplification conditions for M. multifida. For each locus, we estimated the number of alleles, HE and HO, paternity exclusion Q, individual identity I and fixation index F, and examined the presence of null alleles. The mean number of alleles was 11.9, and the heterozygosity was high at all loci (average HE = 0.809 and HO = 0.777). The combined values for both paternity exclusion and individual identity were Q = 0.9959 and I = 5.45 × 10–11, respectively. No evidence of null alleles was detected. The results of our analysis indicated that all eight microsatellites are promising for assessing questions involving inbreeding, gene flow, co-ancestry and mating patterns in M. multifida. PMID:23487575

Moraes, Ramiris C. S.; Vivas, Caio V.; Oliveira, Fernanda A.; Menezes, Ivandilson P. P.; van den Berg, Cassio; Gaiotto, Fernanda A.

2013-01-01

95

Motherless case in paternity testing.  

PubMed

In paternity test using the DNA evidence, the analysis of the deficient case that the DNA profiles of mother or alleged father are not available is different from that of the trio case analyzed routinely. However, the motherless case that the genotypes of mother is not available has been requested and analyzed like the trio case. In this paper, we compared the motherless case and the trio case through the mean exclusion chance describing the probability of exclusion for a genetic marker system and the distribution of the probability of paternity calculated using the three current methods. We have also shown a case which can be falsely discriminated if it were requested in the analysis of the motherless case, and conclude that the analysis of the motherless case should be carefully conducted and the level for the discrimination should be different from that of the trio case. PMID:10967247

Lee, H S; Lee, J W; Han, G R; Hwang, J J

2000-11-13

96

Population genetics of the Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) in Korea inferred from microsatellite marker analysis.  

PubMed

Populations of the Pacific abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, have been severely overexploited over the past few decades in Korea. Information regarding the levels of genetic variability and structure within populations is insufficient for the development of effective strategies for conservation of genetic diversity of this species. To assess the genetic status of this species, we examined variation at six microsatellite loci in 842 individuals of Pacific abalone collected from three hatchery stocks of the main aquaculture areas and eight wild populations, which were two from the East Sea, two from the West Sea and three from the South Sea. High levels of polymorphism at these microsatellite loci were found in both the wild and hatchery populations. The genetic variation in the hatchery stocks [overall number of alleles (N(A)) = 24.00; allelic richness (A(R)) = 19.71; observed heterozygosity (H(O)) = 0.733] was similar to that of the wild (overall N(A) = 28.13; A(R) = 22.62; H(O) = 0.775) populations. Low levels of inbreeding and significant Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium deviations were detected in both the wild and hatchery populations. Significant F(ST) values were observed for the hatchery stocks and in most cases between the wild and hatchery populations (overall F(ST) = 0.017, P < 0.01); however, only a minor portion of the genetic diversity was distributed between the wild and hatchery populations. These results reflect intensive seedling and stocking practices. This preliminary study showed genetic separation between the eastern and pooled western and southern wild populations in Korea, which was based on the F(ST) value, phylogenetic tree clustering, PCA and MDS analyses, structure analysis, and AMOVA. This strong biogeographic structure of H. d. hannai in Korea may be considered to be independent management units. This study demonstrates the feasibility of microsatellite analyses for the monitoring of genetic diversity and for revealing the population structure of the wild Pacific abalone. This information will be useful for the proper management and conservation of H. d. hannai in Korea. PMID:23212330

An, H S; Lee, J W; Park, J Y

2012-01-01

97

Microsatellite-centromere mapping in common carp through half-tetrad analysis in diploid meiogynogenetic families.  

PubMed

Gene-centromere (G-C) mapping provides insights into the understanding of the composition, structure, and evolution of vertebrate genomes. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is an important aquaculture fish and has been proposed to undertake tetraploidization. In this study, we selected 214 informative microsatellite markers across 50 linkage groups of a common carp genetic map to perform gene-centromere mapping using half-tetrad analysis. A total of 199 microsatellites were segregated under the Mendelian expectations in at least one of the three gynogenetic families and were used for G-C distance estimation. The G-C recombination frequency (y) ranged from 0 to 0.99 (0.43 on average), corresponding to a fixation index (F) of 0.57 after one generation of gynogenesis. Large y values for some loci together with significant correlation between G-C distances and genetic linkage map distances suggested the presence of high interference in common carp. Under the assumption of complete interference, 50 centromeres were localized onto corresponding linkage groups (LGs) of common carp, with G-C distances of centromere-linked markers per LG ranging from 0 to 10.3 cM (2.9 cM on average). Based on the information for centromere positions, we proposed a chromosome formula of 2n?=?100?=?58 m/sm?+?42 t/st with 158 chromosome arms for common carp, which was similar to a study observed by cytogenetic method. The examination of crossover distributions along 10 LGs revealed that the proportion of crossover chromatids was overall higher than that of non-crossover chromatids in gynogenetic progenies, indicating high recombination levels across most LGs. Comparative genomics analyses suggested that the chromosomes of common carp have undergone extensive rearrangement after genome duplication. This study would be valuable to elucidate the mechanism of genome evolution and integrate physical and genetic maps in common carp. PMID:25171918

Feng, Xiu; Wang, Xinhua; Yu, Xiaomu; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Lu, Cuiyun; Sun, Xiaowen; Tong, Jingou

2015-03-01

98

Population genetic structure and phylogeography of cyprinid fish, Labeo dero (Hamilton, 1822) inferred from allozyme and microsatellite DNA marker analysis.  

PubMed

We examined population structure of Labeo dero (Hamilton, 1822) from different riverine locations in India using 10 polymorphic allozyme and eight microsatellite loci. For analysis, 591 different tissue samples were obtained from commercial catches covering a wide geographic range. Allozyme variability (An = 1.28-1.43, Ho = 0.029-0.071) was much lower than for microsatellites (An = 4.625-6.125, Ho = 0.538-0.633). Existence of rare alleles was found at three allozyme (MDH-2, GPI and PGDH) and at two microsatellite loci (R-3 and MFW-15). Deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P < 0.05, after the critical probability levels were adjusted for sequential Bonferroni adjustment) could be detected at three loci (EST-1, -2 and XDH) whereas, after correction for null alleles, two microsatellite loci (MFW-1,-15) deviated from HWE in the river Yamuna. Fst for all the samples combined over all allozyme loci was found to be 0.059 suggesting that 5.9% of the total variation was due to genetic differentiation while microsatellite analysis yielded 0.019 which was concordant to mean Rst (0.02). Hierarchical partition of genetic diversity (AMOVA) showed that greater variability (approx. 95%) was due to within population component than between geographical regions. Based on distribution of genetic differentiation detected by both markers, at least five different genetic stocks of L. dero across its natural distribution could be identified. These results are useful for the evaluation and conservation of L. dero in natural water bodies. PMID:21132388

Chaturvedi, Anshumala; Mohindra, Vindhya; Singh, Rajeev K; Lal, Kuldeep K; Punia, Peyush; Bhaskar, Ranjana; Mandal, Anup; Narain, Lalit; Lakra, W S

2011-06-01

99

High resolution melt-curve analysis to fine map a locus controlling the paternal sorting of mitochondria  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mitochondria are required for normal growth and development and play an important role in programmed cell death and aging. The mitochondrial DNA is maternally transmitted in the vast majority of eukaryotes. One exception is cucumber (Cucumis sativus), whose mitochondrial DNA is paternally transmit...

100

Efficient molecular sexing in dioecious Silene latifolia and S. dioica and paternity analysis in F(1) hybrids.  

PubMed

Two polymerase chain reaction-based assays have been developed that work in combination with an efficient DNA extraction protocol to rapidly and reliably determine sex in the dioecious plant species Silene latifolia and S. dioica. In addition, one of the assays allows assessing paternity in the F(1) generation of intra- and interspecific matings involving the two species. PMID:21586019

Hobza, R; Widmer, A

2008-11-01

101

Microsatellite analysis of genetic relationships between wild and cultivated melons in Northwest and Central China.  

PubMed

The genetic relationships between the wild and cultivated melon accessions from Northwest and Central China were dissected using 22 microsatellite markers. A total of 153 alleles, a high level of expected heterozygosity (0.669), and a low observed heterozygosity (0.156) were detected in the total panel. Differences on the allelic composition and heterozygosity levels were found between the two accession types and the wild accessions revealed a higher level of genetic diversity. The UPGMA analysis of the total panel showed that (a) most wild accessions from Northwest China were clustered independently from the cultivated accessions, and (b) the wild and cultivated accessions from Central China presented a high genetic closeness and showed a divergence from those of Northwest China. Similar positioning of the most accessions was observed with the principal coordinate analysis and STRUCTURE analysis. Pairwise FST and Nei's genetic distance quantified the genetic differentiation among the different accession types and further verified our findings. We concluded that the wild melons from Northwest China have a distinctive genetic background and could be the true wild forms, while the wild melons from Central China showed a close relationship to the local cultivars and could be a return from the cultivated melons in the same region. Our results offer an insight into the genetic resources of the main melon producing regions in China, which is essential for maximizing utilization of the traits of interest in wild melons. PMID:25109253

Hu, Jianbin; Wang, Panqiao; Li, Qiong; Su, Yan

2014-12-01

102

Multiple paternity in egg clutches of hawksbill turtles ( Eretmochelys imbricata )  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the first data collected on the genetic mating system of the hawksbill turtle Eretmochelys imbricata, the only marine turtle not studied to date. We examined paternity within 12 egg clutches from ten female hawksbill turtles\\u000a from Sabah Turtle Islands, Malaysia. A total of 375 hatchlings were analysed using five microsatellite markers. Results demonstrated\\u000a that clutches from two out

J. Joseph; P. W. Shaw

2011-01-01

103

Can paternalism be modernised?  

PubMed Central

The contention that paternalism can be modernised in such a way as to avoid the usual criticisms is examined and dismissed. The alleged 'modernisation' consists simply in going through the motions of achieving the patient's free consent, while leaving the ultimate decision to the physician. Paternalism in this form is no better than the more old-fashioned variety, since it still takes away from patients the fundamental human right to make decisions about their own fate. PMID:3761333

Matthews, E

1986-01-01

104

Developing conversed microsatellite markers and their implications in evolutionary analysis of the Bemisia tabaci complex  

PubMed Central

The study of population genetics among the Bemisia tabaci complex is limited due to the lack of conserved molecular markers. In this study, 358, 433 and 322 new polynucleotide microsatellites are separately identified from the transcriptome sequences of three cryptic species of the B. tabaci complex. The cross species transferability of 57 microsatellites was then experimentally validated. The results indicate that these markers are conserved and have high inter-taxon transferability. Thirteen markers were employed to assess the genetic relationships among six cryptic species of the B. tabaci complex. To our surprise, the inferred phylogeny was consistent with that of mitochondrial COI sequences, indicating that microsatellites have the potential to distinguish species of the B. tabaci complex. Our results demonstrate that development of microsatellites from transcriptome data is a fast and cost-effective approach. These markers can be used to analyze the population genetics and evolutionary patterns of the B. tabaci complex. PMID:25220501

Wang, Hua-Ling; Yang, Jiao; Boykin, Laura M.; Zhao, Qiong-Yi; Wang, Yu-Jun; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Wang, Xiao-Wei

2014-01-01

105

Population structure and covariate analysis based on pairwise microsatellite allele matching frequencies.  

PubMed

We describe a general model for pairwise microsatellite allele matching probabilities. The model can be used for analysis of population substructure, and is particularly focused on relating genetic correlation to measurable covariates. The approach is intended for cases when the existence of subpopulations is uncertain and a priori assignment of samples to hypothesized subpopulations is difficult. Such a situation arises, for example, with western Arctic bowhead whales, where genetic samples are available only from a possibly mixed migratory assemblage. We estimate genetic structure associated with spatial, temporal, or other variables that may confound the detection of population structure. In the bowhead case, the model permits detection of genetic patterns associated with a temporally pulsed multi-population assemblage in the annual migration. Hypothesis tests for population substructure and for covariate effects can be carried out using permutation methods. Simulated and real examples illustrate the effectiveness and reliability of the approach and enable comparisons with other familiar approaches. Analysis of the bowhead data finds no evidence for two temporally pulsed subpopulations using the best available data, although a significant pattern found by other researchers using preliminary data is also confirmed here. Code in the R language is available from www.stat.colostate.edu/~geof/gammmp.html. PMID:18052914

Givens, Geof H; Ozaksoy, Isin

2007-01-01

106

Evaluation of maize microsatellite markers for genetic diversity analysis and fingerprinting in sugarcane.  

PubMed

The use of maize microsatellite markers as a potential cost-effective method for molecular analysis of sugarcane was evaluated. Of the 34 primer pairs obtained from maize genomic libraries, 14 showed repeatable amplifications in Saccharum species clones, commercial hybrids, and the related genera Erianthus, accounting for 41.17% cross transferability. Complex banding patterns were encountered in sugarcane with the number of amplified fragments ranging from 7 to 14 with an average of 10 per primer, indicating the high polyploidy and heterozygosity existing in sugarcane. Phenetic analysis of the SSR polymorphisms produced by nine primers could clearly differentiate the different species of Saccharum and Erianthus and revealed the relationships that existed between them. Genetic similarity co-efficient indicated low diversity existing among the S. officinarum clones (82%) and a relatively higher level of diversity in the S. spontaneum clones (69.7%). Higher level of divergence of Erianthus from Saccharum was also clearly estabilished. Five primers produced genus- and species-specific fragments for Erianthus, S. spontaneum, S. officinarum, and S. barberi. The polymorphic primers, when tested on a panel of 30 commercial sugarcane cultivars, revealed a broad range (32.4-83.3%) of pair-wise similarity values, indicating their ability to detect high levels of polymorphism. A combination of two primers could differentiate all the varieties, further emphasizing their potential in fingerprinting and varietal identification. PMID:12834055

Selvi, A; Nair, N V; Balasundaram, N; Mohapatra, T

2003-06-01

107

A comparative genetic study of two groups of chukar partridges ( Alectoris chukar ) from Cyprus and Argentina, using microsatellite analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present work is to estimate the usefulness of microsatellite genetic markers analysis to characterize and analyze\\u000a the possible differences between a captive reared population and a wild one from the same species. The first sample consists\\u000a of 27 chukar partridges (Alectoris chukar) bred in one farm in Argentina. The second one is composed of 31 chukar

M. V. Arruga; E. Hadjisterkotis; L. V. Monteagudo; M. T. Tejedor

2007-01-01

108

Analysis of genetic relationships between 10 cattle breeds with 17 microsatellites.  

PubMed

To guide genetic conservation programmes with objective criteria, general genetic variability has to be taken into account. This study was conducted to determine the genetic variation between 10 cattle breeds by using 17 microsatellite loci and 13 biochemical markers (11 blood groups, the transferrin and beta-casein loci). Microsatellite loci were amplified in 31-50 unrelated individuals from 10 cattle breeds: Charolais, Limousin, Breton Black Pied, Parthenais, Montbéliard, Vosgien, Maine-Anjou, Normande, Jersey and Holstein. Neighbor-joining trees were calculated from genetic distance estimates. The robustness of tree topology was obtained by bootstrap resampling of loci. A total of 210 alleles of the 17 microsatellites were detected in this study and average heterozygosities ranged from 0.53 in the Jersey breed to 0.66 in the Parthenais breed. In general, low bootstrap values were obtained: with the 17 microsatellites, the highest bootstrap values concerned the Holstein/Maine-Anjou grouping with an occurrence of 74%; with the biochemical markers, this node had an occurrence of 79% and the Charolais/Limousin grouping appeared with an occurrence of 74%; when microsatellites and biochemical polymorphism were analysed together, the occurrence of the Holstein/Maine-Anjou grouping was 90% and that of the Charolais/Limousin grouping was 42%. These results suggest that 30 microsatellites, a number currently considered as sufficient to distinguish closely related breeds is, in fact, probably insufficient. PMID:9363594

Moazami-Goudarzi, K; Laloë, D; Furet, J P; Grosclaude, F

1997-10-01

109

Analysis of microsatellite DNA markers reveals no genetic differentiation between wild and hatchery populations of Pacific threadfin in Hawaii.  

PubMed

Pacific threadfin, Polydactylus sexfilis, is popular fish in recreational fishing, as well as aquaculture in Hawaii. Its natural population has been continuously declining in the past several decades. Microsatellite DNA markers are useful DNA-based tool for monitoring Pacific threadfin populations. In this study, fifteen Microsatellite (MS) DNA markers were identified from a partial genomic Pacific threadfin DNA library enriched in CA repeats, and six highly-polymorphic microsatellite loci were employed to analyze genetic similarity and differences between the wild population and hatchery population in Oahu Island. A total of 37 alleles were detected at the six MS loci in the two populations. Statistical analysis of fixation index (F(ST)) and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed no genetic differentiation between the wild and hatchery populations (F(ST) = 0.001, CI(95%) = -0.01-0.021). Both high genetic diversity (H(o) = 0.664-0.674 and H(e) = 0.710-0.715) and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were observed in the wild and hatchery populations. Results of genetic bottleneck analysis indicated that the hatchery was founded with sufficient numbers of brooders as inbreeding coefficient is very low (F(IS) = 0.052-0.072) in both wild and hatchery populations. Further studies are needed for comprehensive determinations of genetic varieties of primary founder broodstocks and successive offspring of the hatchery and wild populations with increased number of Pacific threadfin sample collections. PMID:21179589

Pan, Gang; Yang, Jinzeng

2010-01-01

110

Analysis of Microsatellite DNA Markers Reveals no Genetic Differentiation between Wild and Hatchery Populations of Pacific Threadfin in Hawaii  

PubMed Central

Pacific threadfin, Polydactylus sexfilis, is popular fish in recreational fishing, as well as aquaculture in Hawaii. Its natural population has been continuously declining in the past several decades. Microsatellite DNA markers are useful DNA-based tool for monitoring Pacific threadfin populations. In this study, fifteen Microsatellite (MS) DNA markers were identified from a partial genomic Pacific threadfin DNA library enriched in CA repeats, and six highly-polymorphic microsatellite loci were employed to analyze genetic similarity and differences between the wild population and hatchery population in Oahu Island. A total of 37 alleles were detected at the six MS loci in the two populations. Statistical analysis of fixation index (FST) and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed no genetic differentiation between the wild and hatchery populations (FST=0.001, CI95%= -0.01-0.021). Both high genetic diversity (Ho=0.664-0.674 and He=0.710-0.715) and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were observed in the wild and hatchery populations. Results of genetic bottleneck analysis indicated that the hatchery was founded with sufficient numbers of brooders as inbreeding coefficient is very low (FIS=0.052-0.072) in both wild and hatchery populations. Further studies are needed for comprehensive determinations of genetic varieties of primary founder broodstocks and successive offspring of the hatchery and wild populations with increased number of Pacific threadfin sample collections. PMID:21179589

Pan, Gang; Yang, Jinzeng

2010-01-01

111

Forensic Applications of Molecular Genetic Analysis: An Italian Collaborative Study on Paternity Testing by the Determination of Variable Number of Tandem Repeat DNA Polymorphisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) DNA polymorphisms detecting different loci (YNH24\\/MspI or TaqI, CMM101\\/MspI or MLJ14\\/MspI, EFD64.2\\/RsaI or Hinfl, YNZ22\\/TaqI, AW101\\/EcoRI, EKMDA2.1\\/PvuII and 3’-HVR\\/PvuII) were used in the analysis of 27 cases of disputed paternity in the Italian population. Fourteen exclusions and 17 attributions were performed. The results were compared with those obtained with immunohematologic analyses. Four exclusions

P. Gasparini; P. Mandich; G. Novelli; E. Bellone; F. Sangiuolo; F. De Stefano; L. Potenza; E. Trabetti; M. Marigo; P. F. Pignatti; B. Dallapiccola; F. Ajmar

1991-01-01

112

Paternal and Maternal Genetic Analysis of a Desert Keriyan Population: Keriyans Are Not the Descendants of Guge Tibetans  

PubMed Central

The Keriyan people live in an isolated village in the Taklimakan Desert in Xinjiang, Western China. The origin and migration of the Keriyans remains unclear. We studied paternal and maternal genetic variance through typing Y-STR loci and sequencing the complete control region of the mtDNA and compared them with other adjacent populations. Data show that the Keriyan have relatively low genetic diversity on both the paternal and maternal lineages and possess both European and Asian specific haplogroups, indicating Keriyan is an admixture population of West and East. There is a gender-bias in the extent of contribution from Europe vs. Asia to the Keriyan gene pool. Keriyans have more genetic affinity to Uyghurs than to Tibetans. The Keriyan are not the descendants of the Guge Tibetans. PMID:24968299

Chen, Kaixu; Ablimit, Abdurahman; Ling, Fengjun; Wu, Weiwei; Shan, Wenjuan; Qin, Wenbei; Keweier, Tuerhong; Zuo, Hongli; Zhang, Fuchun; Ma, Zhenghai; Zheng, Xiufen

2014-01-01

113

Genetic and demographic bottleneck analysis of Indian camel breeds by microsatellite markers.  

PubMed

The genetic and demographic bottleneck analysis of Indian camel breeds was carried out utilizing 40 microsatellite markers. Allelic polymorphism was observed at 20 loci in the Indian dromedary breeds. A total of 66 alleles were scored. The average number of alleles, expected heterozygosity and polymorphic information content were, respectively, 3.25?±?0.27, 0.56?±?0.04 and 0.49?±?0.04 in Bikaneri; 3.25?±?0.25, 0.53?±?0.03 and 0.46?±?0.03 in Jaisalmeri; 3.0?±?0.21, 0.53?±?0.04 and 0.45?±?0.03 in Kachchhi and 3.1?±?0.19, 0.51?±?0.03 and 0.44?±?0.03 in Mewari breed. Higher genetic variation was observed in most numerous Bikaneri breed. Genetic distances were least between the breed pair Bikaneri and Jaisalmeri which was closely placed with the Kachchhi breed. The Mewari camels had relatively higher genetic distance from the other three Indian dromedary breeds. The bottleneck analysis revealed the presence of genetic bottleneck in all four breeds of Indian dromedary. However, the qualitative graphical method resulted in normal L-shaped distribution of allele frequencies in Jaisalmeri breeds and shifted mode in Bikaneri, Kachchhi and Mewari breeds. The demographic bottleneck analysis revealed minimum reduction (-9.65 %) in the population of camels in Jaisalmeri breeding tract as compared to that of Bikaneri (-14.18 %), Kachchhi (-27.78 %) and Mewari (-32 %) breeding tracts. Conclusively, the genetic bottleneck analysis could explain the demographic bottleneck in the Indian dromedary populations. Therefore, appropriate conservation and improvement efforts are needed in all four dromedary breeds with immediate attention on Mewari and Kachchhi breeds. The present study is the first report in demonstrating the genetic basis of demographic bottleneck in the Indian dromedary populations. PMID:25134805

Mehta, Sharat Chandra

2014-12-01

114

Microsatellite Analysis of the Population Genetic Structure of Anolis carolinensis Introduced to the Ogasawara Islands.  

PubMed

DNA analysis can reveal the origins and dispersal patterns of invasive species. The green anole Anolis carolinensis is one such alien animal, which has been dispersed widely by humans from its native North America to many Pacific Ocean islands. In the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands, this anole was recorded from Chichi-jima at the end of the 1960s, and then from Haha-jima in the early 1980s. These two islands are inhabited. In 2013, it was also found on the uninhabited Ani-jima, close to Chichi-jima. Humans are thought to have introduced the anole to Haha-jima, while the mode of introduction to Ani-jima is unknown. To clarify its dispersal patterns within and among these three islands, we assessed the fine-scale population genetic structure using five microsatellite loci. The results show a homogeneous genetic structure within islands, but different genetic structures among islands, suggesting that limited gene flow occurs between islands. The recently established Ani-jima population may have originated from several individuals simultaneously, or by repeated immigration from Chichi-jima. We must consider frequent incursions among these islands to control these invasive lizard populations and prevent their negative impact on native biodiversity. PMID:25660696

Sugawara, Hirotaka; Takahashi, Hiroo; Hayashi, Fumio

2015-01-01

115

Microsatellite and Wolbachia analysis in Rhagoletis cerasi natural populations: population structuring and multiple infections  

PubMed Central

Rhagoletis cerasi (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a major pest of sweet and sour cherries in Europe and parts of Asia. Despite its economic significance, there is a lack of studies on the genetic structure of R. cerasi populations. Elucidating the genetic structure of insects of economic importance is crucial for developing phenological-predictive models and environmental friendly control methods. All natural populations of R. cerasi have been found to harbor the endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis, which widely affects multiple biological traits contributing to the evolution of its hosts, and has been suggested as a tool for the biological control of insect pests and disease vectors. In the current study, the analysis of 18 R. cerasi populations collected in Greece, Germany, and Russia using 13 microsatellite markers revealed structuring of R. cerasi natural populations, even at close geographic range. We also analyzed the Wolbachia infection status of these populations using 16S rRNA-, MLST- and wsp-based approaches. All 244 individuals screened were positive for Wolbachia. Our results suggest the fixation of the wCer1 strain in Greece while wCer2, wCer4, wCer5, and probably other uncharacterized strains were also detected in multiply infected individuals. The role of Wolbachia and its potential extended phenotypes needs a thorough investigation in R. cerasi. Our data suggest an involvement of this symbiont in the observed restriction in the gene flow in addition to a number of different ecological factors. PMID:24963388

Augustinos, Antonios A; Asimakopoulou, Anastasia K; Moraiti, Cleopatra A; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos T; Bourtzis, Kostas

2014-01-01

116

Population genetic structure of chub mackerel Scomber japonicus in the Northwestern Pacific inferred from microsatellite analysis.  

PubMed

Marine pelagic fishes are usually characterized by subtle but complex patterns of genetic differentiation, which are influenced by both historical process and contemporary gene flow. Genetic population differentiation of chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus, was examined across most of its range in the Northwestern Pacific by screening variation of eight microsatellite loci. Our genetic analysis detected a weak but significant genetic structure of chub mackerel, which was characterized by areas of gene flow and isolation by distance. Consistent with previous estimates of stock structure, we found genetic discontinuity between Japan and China samples. Local-scale pattern of genetic differentiation was observed between samples from the Bohai Sea and North Yellow Sea and those from the East China Sea, which we ascribed to differences in spawning time and migratory behavior. Furthermore, the observed homogeneity among collections of chub mackerel from the East and South China Seas could be the result of an interaction between biological characteristics and marine currents. The present study underlies the importance of understanding the biological significance of genetic differentiation to establish management strategies for exploited fish populations. PMID:25366174

Cheng, Jiao; Yanagimoto, Takashi; Song, Na; Gao, Tian-Xiang

2015-02-01

117

Genetic diversity analysis of the Uruguayan Creole cattle breed using microsatellites and mtDNA markers.  

PubMed

The Uruguayan Creole cattle population (N = 600) is located in a native habitat in south-east Uruguay. We analyzed its genetic diversity and compared it to other populations of American Creole cattle. A random sample of 64 animals was genotyped for a set of 17 microsatellite loci, and the D-loop hyper-variable region of mtDNA was sequenced for 28 calves of the same generation. We identified an average of 5.59 alleles per locus, with expected heterozygosities between 0.466 and 0.850 and an expected mean heterozygosity of 0.664. The polymorphic information content ranged from 0.360 to 0.820, and the global FIS index was 0.037. The D-loop analysis revealed three haplotypes (UY1, UY2 and UY3), belonging to the European matriline group, with a haplotype diversity of 0.532. The history of the population, changes in the effective population size, bottlenecks, and genetic drift are possible causes of the genetic variability patterns that we detected. PMID:23661437

Armstrong, E; Iriarte, A; Martínez, A M; Feijoo, M; Vega-Pla, J L; Delgado, J V; Postiglioni, A

2013-01-01

118

Gene flow of Acanthaster planci (L.) in relation to ocean currents revealed by microsatellite analysis.  

PubMed

Population outbreaks of the coral-eating starfish, Acanthaster planci, are hypothesized to spread to many localities in the Indo-Pacific Ocean through dispersal of planktonic larvae. To elucidate the gene flow of A. planci across the Indo-Pacific in relation to ocean currents and to test the larval dispersal hypothesis, the genetic structure among 23 samples over the Indo-Pacific was analysed using seven highly polymorphic microsatellite loci. The F-statistics and genetic admixture analysis detected genetically distinct groups in accordance with ocean current systems, that is, the Southeast African group (Kenya and Mayotte), the Northwestern Pacific group (the Philippines and Japan), Palau, the North Central Pacific group (Majuro and Pohnpei), the Great Barrier Reef, Fiji, and French Polynesia, with a large genetic break between the Indian and Pacific Oceans. A pattern of significant isolation by distance was observed among all samples (P = 0.001, r = 0.88, n = 253, Mantel test), indicating restricted gene flow among the samples in accordance with geographical distances. The data also indicated strong gene flow within the Southeast African, Northwestern Pacific, and Great Barrier Reef groups. These results suggest that the western boundary currents have strong influence on gene flow of this species and may trigger secondary outbreaks. PMID:19302361

Yasuda, Nina; Nagai, Satoshi; Hamaguchi, Masami; Okaji, Ken; Gérard, Karin; Nadaoka, Kazuo

2009-04-01

119

Analysis and injury paterns of walnut tree falls in central anatolia of turkey  

PubMed Central

Introduction Falls are the second most common cause of injury-associated mortality worldwide. This study aimed to analysis the injuries caused by falls from walnut tree and assess their mortality and morbidity risk. Methods This is a retrospective hospital-based study of patients presenting to emergency department (ED) of Ahi Evran Univercity between September and October 2012. For each casualty, we computed the ISS (defined as the sum of the squares of the highest Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score in each of the three most severely injured body regions). Severe injury was defined as ISS???16. The duration of hospital stay and final outcome were recorded. Statistical comparisons were carried out with Chi-Square test for categorical data and non-parametric spearman correlation tests were used to test the association between variables. A p value less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results Fifty-four patients admitted to our emergency department with fall from walnut tree. Fifty (92.6%) patients were male. The mean age was 48?±?14 years. Spinal region (44.4%) and particularly lumbar area (25.9%) sustained the most of the injuries among all body parts. Wedge compression fractures ranked first among all spinal injuries. Extremities injuries were the second most common injury. None of the patients died. Morbidity rate was 9.25%. Conclussion Falls from walnut trees are a significant health problem. Preventive measures including education of farmers and agricultural workers and using mechanized methods for harvesting walnut will lead to a dramatic decrease in mortality and morbidity caused by falls from walnut trees. PMID:25006346

2014-01-01

120

Inheritance and diversity of simple sequence repeat (SSR) microsatellite markers in various families of Picea abies.  

PubMed

A large number of sequence-specific SSRs were screened by using electrophoresis on metaphore agarose gels with the bands visualized by ethidium bromide staining. Many SSRs appeared as codominant and many as dominant markers, with presence or absence of bands. A simple Mendelian inheritance pattern for most codominant and dominant SSR loci was found. For many codominant SSR markers, null alleles were detected. The proportion of dominant microsatellites detected in this study (close to 50 %) was much higher than that commonly reported in many other studies. A high proportion of dominant markers together with a high frequency of codominant markers with null alleles may represent two important limitations for the use of microsatellites in different studies. On the other hand, many polymorphic codominant SSR microsatellite markers were found to be highly repeatable, and can be used for population studies, seed certification, quality control of controlled crosses, paternity analysis, pollen contamination, and mapping of QTL in related families. In this paper, we report on the inheritance pattern and diversity of codominant and dominant SSR microsatellites in seven families of Picea abies sharing a common mother. PMID:14641487

Yazdani, Reza; Scotti, Ivan; Jansson, Gunnar; Plomion, Christophe; Mathur, Gaurav

2003-01-01

121

Characterization of microsatellites revealed by genomic sequencing of Populus trichocarpa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are highly polymorphic, codominant markers that have great value for the construction of genetic maps, comparative mapping, population genetic surveys, and paternity analy- ses. Here, we report the development and testing of a set of SSR markers derived from shotgun sequencing from Populus trichocarpa Torr. & A. Gray, a nonenriched genomic DNA library, and

Gerald A. Tuskan; Lee E. Gunter; Zamin K. Yang; TongMing Yin; Mitchell M. Sewell; Stephen P. DiFazio

2004-01-01

122

DNA fingerprint based analysis of paternal and maternal effects on offspring growth and survival in communally reared rainbow trout  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was initiated to assess the feasibility of establishing pedigrees in mixed aquaculture populations and of selection programs for commercial aquaculture operations based on genetic profiling data from microsatellite markers. Complete factorial crosses between ten sires and ten dams were performed in a small rainbow trout farm. The largest and smallest progenies were sampled after 1 year of communal

Christophe M. Herbinger; Roger W. Doyle; Elizabeth R. Pitman; Danielle Paquet; Kate A. Mesa; Dianne B. Morris; Jonathan M. Wright; Douglas Cook

1995-01-01

123

Is There a Paternal Age Effect for Aneuploidy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Finding a positive association between paternal age and the incidence of aneuploidy is not difficult. A cursory analysis however reveals that any association is indirect, brought about by a close correlation between paternal age and maternal age. Approaches for dissecting out the confounding age effects of the mother has led to a lively exchange among epidemiologists, with perhaps a consensus

K. G. L. Fonseka; D. K. Griffin

2011-01-01

124

Map and Analysis of Microsatellites in Genome of Populus: the First Sequenced Perennial Plant  

SciTech Connect

We mapped and analyzed the microsatellites throughout 284295605 base pairs of the unambiguously assembled sequence scaffolds along 19 chromosomes of the haploid poplar genome. Totally, we found 150985 SSRs with repeat unit lengths between 2 and 5 bp. The established microsatellite physical map demonstrated that SSRs were distributed relatively evenly across the genome of Populus. On average, These SSRs occurred every 1883 bp within the poplar genome and the SSR densities in intergenic regions, introns, exons and UTRs were 85.4%, 10.7%, 2.7% and 1.2%, respectively. We took di-, tri-, tetra-and pentamers as the four classes of repeat units and found that the density of each class of SSRs decreased with the repeat unit lengths except for the tetranucleotide repeats. It was noteworthy that the length diversification of microsatellite sequences was negatively correlated with their repeat unit length and the SSRs with shorter repeat units gained repeats faster than the SSRs with longer repeat units. We also found that the GC content of poplar sequence significantly correlated with densities of SSRs with uneven repeat unit lengths (tri- and penta-), but had no significant correlation with densities of SSRs with even repeat unit lengths (di- and tetra-). In poplar genome, there were evidences that the occurrence of different microsatellites was under selection and the GC content in SSR sequences was found to significantly relate to the functional importance of microsatellites.

Li, Shuxian [Nanjing Forestry University, China; Yin, Tongming [ORNL

2007-01-01

125

Analysis of microsatellite instability and loss of heterozygosity in ovarian cancer: a study in the population of Espírito Santo, Brazil.  

PubMed

Ovarian cancer is currently the most lethal gynecological malignancy in women. It is a heterogeneous and cytogenetically complex disease previously associated with genomic instability. Our purpose was to analyze microsatellite markers to determine patterns and levels of instability as well as possible correlations with histopathological parameters. Polymerase chain reaction was used to characterize microsatellite instability (MSI) and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in 24 ovarian tumors at 12 microsatellite loci. A total of 11 samples displayed MSI or LOH. Only low-level MSI was found. Markers D5S346 and CYP11 showed the highest MSI and LOH frequencies. D17S250 LOH was significantly associated with tumor histological type (P = 0.0003), and estrogen receptor ? was also associated with tumor histological type (P = 0.048) when a combined analysis of LOH and MSI was performed. Furthermore, LOH was observed in a greater number of markers compared with those displaying MSI. Thus, our results support that MSI is less common than LOH in ovarian cancers. PMID:23913383

Alves, L N R; Wolfgramm, E V; de Castro Neto, A K; Louro, I D

2013-01-01

126

Probability and paternity testing.  

PubMed Central

A probability can be viewed as an estimate of a variable that is sometimes 1 and sometimes 0. To have validity, the probability must equal the expected value of that variable. To have utility, the average squared deviation of the probability from the value of that variable should be small. It is shown that probabilities of paternity calculated by the use of Bayes' theorem under appropriate assumptions are valid, but they can vary in utility. In particular, a recently proposed probability of paternity has less utility than the usual one based on the paternity index. Using an arbitrary prior probability in the calculation cannot lead to a valid probability unless, by chance, the chosen prior probability happens to be appropriate. Appropriate assumptions regarding both the prior probability and gene or genotypic frequencies can be estimated from prior experience. Images Fig. 3 PMID:3752078

Elston, R C

1986-01-01

127

Application of bovine microsatellite markers for genetic diversity analysis of European bison (Bison bonasus).  

PubMed

In this study, the cross-amplification of a commercial multiplex set of 11 cattle (Bos taurus) microsatellites was tested on a panel of 35 European bison (Bison bonasus) individuals. After polymerase chain reaction optimization, all loci cross-amplified successfully in investigated bisons. Number of alleles and observed and expected heterozygosity per locus are in the range of 2-4, 0.086-0.629 and 0.288-0.621 respectively. The availability of a heterologous set of multiplexed microsatellite markers derived from cattle opens an avenue for collecting profound genetic data for efficient conservation management strategies of the European bison. PMID:17177698

Roth, T; Pfeiffer, I; Weising, K; Brenig, B

2006-12-01

128

Microsatellite analysis of female mating behaviour in lek-breeding sage grouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used microsatellite DNA markers to genotype chicks in 10 broods of lek-breeding sage grouse, Centrocercus urophasianus , whose mothers' behaviour was studied by radio- tracking and observing leks. Previous behavioural studies suggested that almost all matings are performed by territorial males on leks and that multiple mating is rare. Two broods (20%) were sired by more than one male.

K. Semple; R. K. Wayne; R. M. Gibson

2001-01-01

129

Linkage analysis of complex diseases using microsatellites and single-nucleotide polymorphisms: application to alcoholism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of linkage studies using microsatellites and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was evaluated. Analyzed data were supplied by the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA). Alcoholism was analyzed together with a simulated trait caused by a gene of known position, through a nonparametric linkage test (NPL). For the alcoholism trait, four densities of SNPs (1 SNP per 0.2

Jérémie Nsengimana; Hélène Renard; David Goldgar

2005-01-01

130

New carrot microsatellites – linkage mapping, diversity analysis and transferability to other apiaceae  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nearly 300 new microsatellite, or simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed from genomic sequences of carrot. Efforts to map these markers and evaluate their usefulness in diversity studies are underway. In one F2 carrot population, a total of 51 polymorphic markers, including 37 codominan...

131

An Analysis of Consanguinity and Social Structure Within the UK Asian Population Using Microsatellite Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We analysed microsatellite genotypes sampled from the Pakistani and Indian communities in Nottingham, UK, to investigate the genetic consequences of substructuring mediated by traditional marriage customs. The application of a recently developed likelihood approach identified significant levels of population substructure within the Pakistani community as a whole, as well as within the finer divisions of castes and biradheri. In

A. D. J. Overall; M. Ahmad; M. G. Thomas; R. A. Nichols

2003-01-01

132

Patterns of Differentiation and Hybridization in North American Wolflike Canids, Revealed by Analysis of Microsatellite Loci  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic divergence and gene flow among closely related populations are difficult to measure because mutation rates of most nuclear loci are so low that new mutations have not had sufficient time to appear and become fixed. Microsatellite loci are repeat arrays of simple sequences that have high mutation rates and are abundant in the eukaryotic genome. Large population samples can

Michael S. Roy; Eli GefenJ; Deborah Smith; Elaine A. Ostrander; Robert K. Wayne

133

Microsatellite analysis of relationships among North American plums ( Prunus sect. Prunocerasus , Rosaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen microsatellite primer pairs developed in sweet cherry and peach were used to explore genetic relationships among North American plums ( Prunus section Prunocerasus). In all, 186 putative alleles were detected with a mean value of 12.4 per locus. The Jaccard coefficient of similarity was calculated between all pairs of accessions and their genetic similarities represented by a UPGMA dendrogram.

J. R. Rohrer; R. Ahmad; S. M. Southwick; D. Potter

2004-01-01

134

Characterization of 14 microsatellite markers for genetic analysis and cultivar identification of walnut  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

One hundred and forty-seven primer pairs originally designed to amplify microsatellites, also known as simple sequence repeats (SSR), in black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) were screened for utility in persian walnut (J. regia L.). Based on scorability and number of informative polymorphisms, the best 1...

135

Microsatellite analysis reveals a progressive widening of the genetic basis in the elite durum wheat germplasm  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been argued that the level of genetic diversity in the modern durum wheat ( Triticum turgidum L. var. durum) elite germplasm may have declined due to the high selection pressure applied in breeding programs. In this study, 58 accessions covering a wide spectrum of genetic diversity of the cultivated durum wheat gene pool were characterized with 70 microsatellite

M. Maccaferri; M. C. Sanguineti; P. Donini; R. Tuberosa

2003-01-01

136

Microsatellite analysis of genetic diversity in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) populations throughout Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic diversity in nine African buffalo ( Syncerus caffer ) populations throughout Africa was analysed with 14 microsatellites to study the effects of rinderpest epidemics and habitat fragmentation during the 20th century. A gradient of declining expected heterozygosity was observed among populations in Save Valley Conservancy (Zimbabwe), and northern and southern Kruger National Park (South Africa). This was explained by

W. F. Van Hooft; A. F. Groen; H. H. T. Prins

2000-01-01

137

Genetic structure of Mesoamerican populations of Big-leaf mahogany ( Swietenia macrophylla ) inferred from microsatellite analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

While microsatellites have been used to examine genetic structure in local populations of Neotropical trees, genetic studies based on such high-resolution markers have not been carried out for Mesoamerica as a whole. Here we assess the genetic structure of the Meso- american mahogany Swietenia macrophylla King (big-leaf mahogany), a Neotropical tree species recently listed as endangered in CITES which is

RACHEL ROTH N OVICK; CHRISTOPHER W. D ICK; MARISTERRA R. L EMES; CARLOS NAVARRO; ADALGISA CACCONE; ELDREDGE BERMINGHAM

138

Analysis of genetic diversity of flowering dogwood natural stands using microsatellites the effects of dogwood anthracnose  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) populations recently have experienced severe declines caused by dogwood anthracnose. Mortality ranged from 48-98%, raising the concern that genetic diversity has been reduced significantly. Microsatellite data was used to evaluate the level and distribution of ge...

139

Multiplexed microsatellite markers for the genetic analysis of Eucalyptus leucoxylon (Myrtaceae) and their utility for ecological and breeding studies in other eucalyptus species.  

PubMed

Eucalyptus leucoxylon is a widespread woodland tree species found in southeastern Australia that has suffered from, and continues to be, threatened by the impacts of habitat clearance and degradation. Populations now consist predominantly of scattered individuals, and their conservation status is of increasing concern. We report the development and characterization of a set of eight highly polymorphic microsatellite loci for E. leucoxylon. The loci can be amplified in three PCR multiplexes and electrophoresed in a single lane, allowing rapid throughput of large numbers of samples. A total of 111 alleles were detected in 68 individuals with an average of 12.3 alleles per locus, a mean expected heterozygosity of 0.83, and a mean observed heterozygosity of 0.72. The combined probabilities of identity and probabilities of paternity exclusion allow an extremely precise level of individual identification, indicating that these microsatellite markers will be ideal for population genetic and parentage-type studies in E. leucoxylon. The markers also exhibited an average of 76% conservation within the subgenus Symphyomyrtus, to which E. leucoxylon belongs, and 53% conservation across other subgenera of Eucalyptus, demonstrating the potential of these markers in ecological and breeding studies in a wide range of Eucalyptus species. PMID:15843635

Ottewell, K M; Donnellan, S C; Moran, G F; Paton, D C

2005-01-01

140

Genome-wide linkage analysis of age at onset of alcohol dependence: a comparison between microsatellites and single-nucleotide polymorphisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Using the dataset provided for Genetic Analysis Workshop 14 by the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism, we performed genome-wide linkage analysis of age at onset of alcoholism to compare the utility of microsatellites and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genetic linkage study. METHODS: A multipoint nonparametric variance component linkage analysis method was applied to the survival distribution function

Bamidele O Tayo; Yulan Liang; Saverio Stranges; Maurizio Trevisan

2005-01-01

141

Simultaneous analysis of hundreds of Y-chromosomal SNPs for high-resolution paternal lineage classification using targeted semiconductor sequencing.  

PubMed

SNPs from the non-recombining part of the human Y chromosome (Y-SNPs) are informative to classify paternal lineages in forensic, genealogical, anthropological, and evolutionary studies. Although thousands of Y-SNPs were identified thus far, previous Y-SNP multiplex tools target only dozens of markers simultaneously, thereby restricting the provided Y-haplogroup resolution and limiting their applications. Here, we overcome this shortcoming by introducing a high-resolution multiplex tool for parallel genotyping-by-sequencing of 530 Y-SNPs using the Ion Torrent PGM platform, which allows classification of 432 worldwide Y haplogroups. Contrary to previous Y-SNP multiplex tools, our approach covers branches of the entire Y tree, thereby maximizing the paternal lineage classification obtainable. We used a default DNA input amount of 10 ng per reaction but preliminary sensitivity testing revealed positive results from as little as 100 pg input DNA. Furthermore, we demonstrate that sample pooling using barcodes is feasible, allowing increased throughput for lower per-sample costs. In addition to the wetlab protocol, we provide a software tool for automated data quality control and haplogroup classification. The unique combination of ultra-high marker density and high sensitivity achievable from low amounts of potentially degraded DNA makes this new multiplex tool suitable for a wide range of Y-chromosome applications. PMID:25338970

Ralf, Arwin; van Oven, Mannis; Zhong, Kaiyin; Kayser, Manfred

2015-01-01

142

Population structure of spotted seatrout, Cynoscion nebulosus, in Texas bays and estuaries as revealed by analysis of microsatellite DNA  

E-print Network

). Microsatellites are short, repetitive stretches of DNA composed of tandem repeat units. Microsatellites are thought to be ideal genetic markers for studies of population structure because they are inherited in a Mendelian fashion, highly polymorphic, and easy...

Stewart, Leah Beth

2013-02-22

143

Multistep microsatellite mutation in a case of non-exclusion parentage.  

PubMed

A non-exclusion paternity with multistep mutation in the locus D5S818 was reported. Examination of 39 autosomal short tandem repeats (STR) loci revealed a mismatch of the maternally or paternally transmitted allele in the locus D5S818 in the questioned child. The composition of the alleles of this locus in the mother, the questioned child and the alleged father are 11/13, 7/13 and 13, respectively. The sequence analysis of the regions flanking the locus D5S818 of the mother, the questioned child and the alleged father excluded the possibility of null allele as a cause of the allelic mismatch in the child. The combined paternity index of 39 autosomal STRs is up to 2.461×10(9). Genotyping of sixteen Y-STR loci in the questioned child matched completely with the alleged father. The results prove that the alleged father is the biological father of the questioned child with four-step or six-step microsatellite mutation in the locus D5S818. PMID:25661235

Liu, Yu Xuan; Zhang, Wen Qiong; Jia, Yun Shu; Zhang, Lei; Zhou, Feng Lei; Mei, Kun; Huang, Dai Xin; Yi, Shao Hua

2015-05-01

144

Genetic diversity analysis of BMY cattle based on microsatellite DNA markers.  

PubMed

BMY cattle (1/2 Brahman, 1/4 Murray Grey and 1/4 Yunnan Yellow cattle) has been inter se breeding since 1980s. Genetic diversity of BMY cattle was extensively investigated using 16 microsatellite markers. A total of 130 microsatellite alleles and high allele size variance were detected. All loci displayed high genetic diversity with overall mean of N(a) = 8.13, PIC = 0.7224 and H(e) = 0.7666, which were higher than those of many other beef breeds. The allele-sharing neighbour-joining tree clearly displayed the new genotypic combinations and the minglement from both BMY cattle and Brahman. The results provided the genetic information to match the standards of new beef breed in South China. PMID:22730772

Qu, K X; Huang, B Z; Yang, G R; He, Z X; Zhang, Y P; Zan, L S

2012-04-01

145

Genetic diversity and structure in Leishmania infantum populations from southeastern Europe revealed by microsatellite analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The dynamic re-emergence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in south Europe and the northward shift to Leishmania-free European countries are well-documented. However, the epidemiology of VL due to Leishmania infantum in southeastern (SE) Europe and the Balkans is inadequately examined. Herein, we aim to re-evaluate and compare the population structure of L. infantum in SE and southwestern (SW) Europe. Methods Leishmania strains collected from humans and canines in Turkey, Cyprus, Bulgaria, Greece, Albania and Croatia, were characterized by the K26-PCR assay and multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE). Genetic diversity was assessed by multilocus microsatellite typing (MLMT) and MLM Types were analyzed by model- and distance- based algorithms to infer the population structure of 128?L. infantum strains. Results L. infantum MON-1 was found predominant in SE Europe, whilst 16.8% of strains were MON-98. Distinct genetic populations revealed clear differentiation between SE and SW European strains. Interestingly, Cypriot canine isolates were genetically isolated and formed a monophyletic group, suggesting the constitution of a clonal MON-1 population circulating among dogs. In contrast, two highly heterogeneous populations enclosed all MON-1 and MON-98 strains from the other SE European countries. Structure sub-clustering, phylogenetic and Splitstree analysis also revealed two distinct Croatian subpopulations. A mosaic of evolutionary effects resulted in consecutive sub-structuring, which indicated substantial differentiation and gene flow among strains of both zymodemes. Conclusions This is the first population genetic study of L. infantum in SE Europe and the Balkans. Our findings demonstrate the differentiation between SE and SW European strains; revealing the partition of Croatian strains between these populations and the genetic isolation of Cypriot strains. This mirrors the geographic position of Croatia located in central Europe and the natural isolation of the island of Cyprus. We have analysed the largest number of MON-98 strains so far. Our results indicate extensive gene flow, recombination and no differentiation between MON-1 and MON-98 zymodemes. No correlation either to host specificity or place and year of strain isolation was identified. Our findings may be associated with intensive host migration and common eco-epidemiological characteristics in these countries and give valuable insight into the dynamics of VL. PMID:24308691

2013-01-01

146

Whole-genome linkage analysis in mapping alcoholism genes using single-nucleotide polymorphisms and microsatellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is currently a great interest in using single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genetic linkage and association studies because of the abundance of SNPs as well as the availability of high-throughput genotyping technologies. In this study, we compared the performance of whole-genome scans using SNPs with microsatellites on 143 pedigrees from the Collaborative Studies on Genetics of Alcoholism provided by Genetic

Shuang Wang; Song Huang; Nianjun Liu; Liang Chen; Cheongeun Oh; Hongyu Zhao

2005-01-01

147

Analysis of genetic diversity in flowering dogwood natural stands using microsatellites: the effects of dogwood anthracnose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flowering dogwood (Cornus florida L.) populations recently have experienced severe declines caused by dogwood anthracnose. Mortality has ranged from 48 to\\u000a 98%, raising the concern that genetic diversity has been reduced significantly. Microsatellite data were used to evaluate\\u000a the level and distribution of genetic variation throughout much of the native range of the tree. Genetic variation in areas\\u000a affected by

D. Hadziabdic; B. M. Fitzpatrick; X. Wang; P. A. Wadl; T. A. Rinehart; B. H. Ownley; M. T. Windham; R. N. Trigiano

2010-01-01

148

Microsatellite analysis of chloroquine resistance associated alleles and neutral loci reveal genetic structure of Indian Plasmodium falciparum  

PubMed Central

Efforts to control malignant malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum are hampered by the parasite’s acquisition of resistance to antimalarial drugs, e.g., chloroquine. This necessitates evaluating the spread of chloroquine resistance in any malaria-endemic area. India displays highly variable malaria epidemiology and also shares porous international borders with malaria-endemic Southeast Asian countries having multi-drug resistant malaria. Malaria epidemiology in India is believed to be affected by two major factors: high genetic diversity and evolving drug resistance in P. falciparum. How transmission intensity of malaria can influence the genetic structure of chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum population in India is unknown. Here, genetic diversity within and among P. falciparum populations is analyzed with respect to their prevalence and chloroquine resistance observed in 13 different locations in India. Microsatellites developed for P. falciparum, including three putatively neutral and seven microsatellites thought to be under a hitchhiking effect due to chloroquine selection were used. Genetic hitchhiking is observed in five of seven microsatellites flanking the gene responsible for chloroquine resistance. Genetic admixture analysis and F-statistics detected genetically distinct groups in accordance with transmission intensity of different locations and the probable use of chloroquine. A large genetic break between the chloroquine-resistant parasite of the Northeast-East-Island group and Southwest group (FST = 0.253, P<0.001) suggests a long period of isolation or a possibility of different origin between them. A pattern of significant isolation by distance was observed in low transmission areas (r = 0.49, P=0.003, N = 83, Mantel test). An unanticipated pattern of spread of hitchhiking suggests genetic structure for Indian P. falciparum population. Overall, the study suggests that transmission intensity can be an efficient driver for genetic differentiation at both neutral and adaptive loci across India. PMID:23871774

Mallick, Prashant K.; Sutton, Patrick L.; Singh, Ruchi; Singh, Om P.; Dash, Aditya P.; Singh, Ashok K.; Carlton, Jane M.; Bhasin, Virendra K.

2013-01-01

149

Identification of Epichloë Endophytes In Planta by a Microsatellite-Based PCR Fingerprinting Assay with Automated Analysis  

PubMed Central

Epichloë endophytes are a group of filamentous fungi that include both sexual (Epichloë) and asexual (Neotyphodium) species. As a group they are genetically diverse and form both antagonistic and mutualistic associations with temperate grasses. We report here on the development of a microsatellite-based PCR system for fingerprinting this group of fungi with template isolated from either culture or infected plant material. M13mp19 partial genomic libraries were constructed for size-fractionated genomic DNA from two endophyte strains. These libraries were screened with a mixture of DIG-labeled dinucleotide and trinucleotide repeat probes. Positive clones were sequenced, and nine unique microsatellite loci were identified. An additional microsatellite was serendipitously identified in the 3? untranscribed region of the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase gene from N. lolii Lp19. Primers were designed for each locus and a panel of endophytes, from different taxonomic groupings, was screened to determine the degree of polymorphism. On the basis of these results a multiplex assay was developed for strain identification with fluorescently labeled primers for five of these loci. Using this system the size of the products amplified can be precisely determined by automated analysis, and an allele profile for each strain can be readily generated. The assay was shown to resolve endophyte groupings to the level of known isozyme phenotype groupings. In a blind test the assay was used successfully to identify a set of endophytes in planta. A reference database of allele sizes has been established for the panel of endophytes examined, and this will be expanded as new strains are analyzed. PMID:10049893

Moon, Christina D.; Tapper, Brian A.; Scott, Barry

1999-01-01

150

Microsatellite-based analysis of the genetic structure and diversity of Aleurocanthus spiniferus (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) from tea plants in China.  

PubMed

Although Aleurocanthus spiniferus (Quaintance) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a well known insect pest of tea plants, little information is available about its genetic structure and diversity. The present study used microsatellite markers to assess the genetic structure and diversity of this species on tea plants in China. For this purpose, 193 individuals from ten natural populations were analyzed using ten microsatellite markers. Our results indicated that the average number of alleles (A) across populations was 35.6, and all observed heterozygosities (HO) were greater than 0.7, indicating an excess of heterozygosity and a relatively high level of genetic diversity among populations, and the number of private alleles per population ranged from 3 to 26. Pairwise FST analysis suggested that the number of genetic differentiation events was moderate (0.05analysis revealed that more than 95% of variation was attributed to among samples within populations. High levels of migration rate were detected among five groups and migration rate was generally symmetrical in group pairs. Bottleneck test indicated that most populations had experienced a population bottleneck. PMID:25662872

Tang, Xiao-Tian; Tao, Huan-Huan; Du, Yu-Zhou

2015-04-10

151

Genetic diversity and population structure analysis between Indian red jungle fowl and domestic chicken using microsatellite markers.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to assess the genetic diversity, population structure, and relatedness in Indian red jungle fowl (RJF, Gallus gallus murgi) from northern India and three domestic chicken populations (gallus gallus domesticus), maintained at the institute farms, namely White Leghorn (WL), Aseel (AS) and Red Cornish (RC) using 25 microsatellite markers. All the markers were polymorphic, the number of alleles at each locus ranged from five (MCW0111) to forty-three (LEI0212) with an average number of 19 alleles per locus. Across all loci, the mean expected heterozygosity and polymorphic information content were 0.883 and 0.872, respectively. Population-specific alleles were found in each population. A UPGMA dendrogram based on shared allele distances clearly revealed two major clusters among the four populations; cluster I had genotypes from RJF and WL whereas cluster II had AS and RC genotypes. Furthermore, the estimation of population structure was performed to understand how genetic variation is partitioned within and among populations. The maximum ?K value was observed for K = 4 with four identified clusters. Furthermore, factorial analysis clearly showed four clustering; each cluster represented the four types of population used in the study. These results clearly, demonstrate the potential of microsatellite markers in elucidating the genetic diversity, relationships, and population structure analysis in RJF and domestic chicken populations. PMID:25831041

Kumar, Vinay; Shukla, Sanjeev K; Mathew, Jose; Sharma, Deepak

2015-07-01

152

Population structure of the predatory mite Neoseiulus womersleyi in a tea field based on an analysis of microsatellite DNA markers  

PubMed Central

The predatory mite Neoseiulus womersleyi (Schicha) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is an important natural enemy of the Kanzawa spider mite, Tetranychus kanzawaki Kishida (Acari: Tetranychidae), in tea fields. Attraction and preservation of natural enemies by habitat management to reduce the need for acaricide sprays is thought to enhance the activity of N. womersleyi. To better conserve N. womersleyi in the field, however, it is essential to elucidate the population genetic structure of this species. To this end, we developed ten microsatellite DNA markers for N. womersleyi. We then evaluated population structure of N. womersleyi collected from a tea field, where Mexican sunflower, Tithonia rotundifolia (Mill.), was planted to preserve N. womersleyi. Seventy-seven adult females were collected from four sites within 200 m. The fixation indexes FST among subpopulations were not significantly different. The kinship coefficients between individuals did not differ significantly within a site as a function of the sampling dates, but the coefficients gradually decreased with increasing distance. Bayesian clustering analysis revealed that the population consisted of three genetic clusters, and that subpopulations within 100 m, including those collected on T. rotundifolia, were genetically similar to each other. Given the previously observed population dynamics of N. womersleyi, it appears that the area inhabited by a given cluster of the mite did not exceed 100 m. The estimation of population structure using microsatellite markers will provide valuable information in conservation biological control. PMID:20625919

Todokoro, Yasuhiro; Higaki, Tomomi

2010-01-01

153

Microsatellite analysis to estimate genetic relationships among five bulgarian sheep breeds  

PubMed Central

Herein, genetic relationships among five breeds of Bulgarian sheep were estimated using microsatellite markers. The total number of alleles identified was 226 at the 16 loci examined. DA distance values were used for phylogenetic tree construction with the UPGMA algorithm. The two Tsigai and two Maritza populations were found to be geneticallvery closely related to each other y (0.198, and 0.258 respectively). The Pleven Black Head population was distinct from the other four. These results could be useful for preserving genes in these breeds, thereby ensuring their preservation in Bulgaria. PMID:21637604

2010-01-01

154

Blood Group ABO Genotyping in Paternity Testing.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: The ABO blood groups result from DNA sequence variations, predominantly single nucleotide and insertion/deletion polymorphisms (SNPs and indels), in the ABO gene encoding a glycosyltransferase. The ABO blood groups A(1), A(2), B and O predominantly result from the wild type allele A1 and the major gene variants that are characterized by four diallelic markers (261G>del, 802G>A, 803G>C, 1061C>del). Here, we were interested to evaluate the impact of ABO genotyping compared to ABO phenotyping in paternity testing. METHODS: The major ABO alleles were determined by PCR amplification with sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) in a representative sample of 1,335 blood donors. The genotypes were compared to the ABO blood groups registered in the blood donor files. Then, the ABO phenotypes and genotypes were determined in 95 paternity trio cases that have been investigated by 12 short tandem repeat (STR) markers before. We compared statistical parameters (PL, paternity likelihood; PE, power of exclusion) of both blood grouping approaches. RESULTS: The prevalence of the major ABO alleles and genotypes corresponded to the expected occurrence of ABO blood groups in a Caucasian population. The low resolution genotyping of 4 diallelic markers revealed a correct genotype-phenotype correlation in 1,331 of 1,335 samples (99.7%). In 60 paternity trios with confirmed paternity of the alleged father based on STR analysis both PL and PE of the ABO genotype was significantly higher than of the ABO phenotype. In 12 of 35 exclusion cases (34.3%) the ABO genotype also excluded the alleged father, whereas the ABO phenotype excluded the alleged father only in 7 cases (20%). CONCLUSION: In paternity testing ABO genotyping is superior to ABO phenotyping with regard to PL and PE, however, ABO genotyping is not sufficient for valid paternity testing. Due to the much lower mutation rate compared to STR markers, blood group SNPs in addition to anonymous SNPs could be considered for future kinship analysis and genetic identity testing. PMID:22851933

Bugert, Peter; Rink, Gabriele; Kemp, Katharina; Klüter, Harald

2012-06-01

155

Development and characterization of novel microsatellite loci for Lusitanian toadfish, Halobatrachus didactylus  

PubMed Central

The Lusitanian toadfish Halobatrachus didactylus is an eastern Atlantic polygynous species showing male paternal care. In this paper we describe 5 novel microsatellite loci obtained by 454 GS-FLX Titanium pyrosequencing of a microsatellite-enriched library. The number of alleles per polymorphic locus varied between 2 and 4, and the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.082 to 0.600. No significant deviation from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium was found and there was no evidence for linkage disequilibrium. These markers will be of great value for paternity studies and population genetics of this species. PMID:25653909

Fonseca, Paulo J.; Amorim, Maria Clara P.

2015-01-01

156

Development and characterization of novel microsatellite loci for Lusitanian toadfish, Halobatrachus didactylus.  

PubMed

The Lusitanian toadfish Halobatrachus didactylus is an eastern Atlantic polygynous species showing male paternal care. In this paper we describe 5 novel microsatellite loci obtained by 454 GS-FLX Titanium pyrosequencing of a microsatellite-enriched library. The number of alleles per polymorphic locus varied between 2 and 4, and the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.082 to 0.600. No significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was found and there was no evidence for linkage disequilibrium. These markers will be of great value for paternity studies and population genetics of this species. PMID:25653909

Sousa-Santos, Carla; Fonseca, Paulo J; Amorim, Maria Clara P

2015-01-01

157

Allele frequencies of microsatellite loci for genetic characterization of a Sicilian bovine population.  

PubMed

Short tandem repeats are used as an effective method to trace DNA markers in genotyping. Using a standardized kit, we tested 11 microsatellite markers recommended by the International Society for Animal Genetics (ISAG) in a sample of 495 Sicilian cattle. The aim of this study was to investigate the allele frequencies in the Sicilian cattle population to provide a reference database and at the same time to assess the use of the ISAG microsatellite panel for pedigree analysis. DNA samples were collected from blood and amplified in an 11-plex polymerase chain reaction (PCR); PCR products were injected in a 3130 Genetic Analyzer. All loci showed high mean polymorphism information content (0.768), and the observed mean heterozygosity was less than the expected value (0.732 vs 0.794, respectively). The exact test for Hardy-Weinberg proportions, allele number, and inbreeding coefficient were calculated. Our results indicated that equilibrium was not always maintained. The observed mean homozygote value exceeded the expected value (132.81 vs 102.14), but no evidence for allele dropout was found. These results could be explained by a non-random mating; further studies using a larger number of animals could confirm or invalidate this hypothesis. The probability of identity and exclusion of a locus were also estimated and proved to be useful in paternity testing. The ISAG microsatellite panel is useful to screen the Sicilian bovine kinship. Currently, an allele frequency database is being constructed. PMID:25730006

Cosenza, M; Reale, S; Lupo, T; Vitale, F; Caracappa, S

2015-01-01

158

ANALYSIS OF GENETIC DIVERSITY AND POPULATION STRUCTURE WITHIN FLORIDA COCONUT (COCOS NUCIFERA L.) GERMPLASM USING MICROSATELLITE DNA, WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON THE FIJI DWARF CULTIVAR  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Using fifteen simple sequence repeat (SSR) microsatellite DNA loci, we analyzed genetic variation within Cocos nucifera germplasm collections at two locations in south Florida, representing eight cultivars. The loci were also used in a parentage analysis of progeny of the 'Fiji Dwarf' variety at bo...

159

Generation and analysis of ESTs from the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica Gmelin and identification of microsatellite and SNP markers  

PubMed Central

Background The eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin 1791), is an economically important species cultured in many areas in North America. It is also ecologically important because of the impact of its filter feeding behaviour on water quality. Populations of C. virginica have been threatened by overfishing, habitat degradation, and diseases. Through genome research, strategies are being developed to reverse its population decline. However, large-scale expressed sequence tag (EST) resources have been lacking for this species. Efficient generation of EST resources from this species has been hindered by a high redundancy of transcripts. The objectives of this study were to construct a normalized cDNA library for efficient EST analysis, to generate thousands of ESTs, and to analyze the ESTs for microsatellites and potential single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Results A normalized and subtracted C. virginica cDNA library was constructed from pooled RNA isolated from hemocytes, mantle, gill, gonad and digestive tract, muscle, and a whole juvenile oyster. A total of 6,528 clones were sequenced from this library generating 5,542 high-quality EST sequences. Cluster analysis indicated the presence of 635 contigs and 4,053 singletons, generating a total of 4,688 unique sequences. About 46% (2,174) of the unique ESTs had significant hits (E-value ? 1e-05) to the non-redundant protein database; 1,104 of which were annotated using Gene Ontology (GO) terms. A total of 35 microsatellites were identified from the ESTs, with 18 having sufficient flanking sequences for primer design. A total of 6,533 putative SNPs were also identified using all existing and the newly generated EST resources of the eastern oysters. Conclusion A high quality normalized cDNA library was constructed. A total of 5,542 ESTs were generated representing 4,688 unique sequences. Putative microsatellite and SNP markers were identified. These genome resources provide the material basis for future microarray development, marker validation, and genetic linkage and QTL analysis. PMID:17559679

Quilang, Jonas; Wang, Shaolin; Li, Ping; Abernathy, Jason; Peatman, Eric; Wang, Yongping; Wang, Lingling; Shi, Yaohua; Wallace, Richard; Guo, Ximing; Liu, Zhanjiang

2007-01-01

160

Development and evaluation of microsatellite markers for a native prairie perennial, Echinacea angustifolia (Asteraceae)1  

PubMed Central

• Premise of the study: Microsatellite loci for the native prairie perennial Echinacea angustifolia were developed and evaluated for future use in population structure and paternity studies. • Methods and Results: A total of 50 trinucleotide microsatellite regions were identified though an enrichment protocol that prescreens for microsatellite repeats before ligating into a vector. Of these, 11 loci were polymorphic and in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium in three populations with varying numbers of plants. The loci had between three and 14 alleles and collectively provided high paternity exclusion probabilities. • Conclusions: These sets of microsatellite primers will provide researchers and land managers with valuable information on the population genetic structure and gene flow between fragmented prairie populations. PMID:25202499

Ison, Jennifer L.; Wagenius, Stuart; Reitz, Diedre; Ashley, Mary V.

2013-01-01

161

Polymorphic microsatellite markers for genetic analysis of collagen genes in suspected collagenopathies in dogs.  

PubMed

Defects in collagen proteins cause a variety of disorders in humans. It can be expected that collagen gene mutations are involved in collagenopathies in dogs. The collagen genes COL3A1, COL5A1, COL5A2, COL6A1, COL6A3, COL9A1, COL9A2, COL9A3, COL10A1 and COL11A1 were identified on the canine genome based on the homology with the human genes. Simple sequence repeats (microsatellites) were found in the chromosomal regions of these genes and investigated for polymorphism in Labrador Retrievers, Bernese Mountain dogs, Boxer dogs and German Shepherd dogs by PCR and subsequent detection of the DNA products. Nine informative microsatellite markers were identified. The markers closely situated to COL9A1, COL9A2 and COL9A3 were used to investigate the involvement of the genes in cranial cruciate ligament rupture in Boxer dogs. It was found that these genes are probably not involved in this abnormality. The markers described here will be useful for a candidate gene approach of suspected collagenopathies specific to dog breeds. PMID:17931229

Temwichitr, J; Hazewinkel, H A W; van Hagen, M A; Leegwater, P A J

2007-11-01

162

Genetic structure of Mesoamerican populations of Big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) inferred from microsatellite analysis.  

PubMed

While microsatellites have been used to examine genetic structure in local populations of Neotropical trees, genetic studies based on such high-resolution markers have not been carried out for Mesoamerica as a whole. Here we assess the genetic structure of the Mesoamerican mahogany Swietenia macrophylla King (big-leaf mahogany), a Neotropical tree species recently listed as endangered in CITES which is commercially extinct through much of its native range. We used seven variable microsatellite loci to assess genetic diversity and population structure in eight naturally established mahogany populations from six Mesoamerican countries. Measures of genetic differentiation (FST and RST) indicated significant differences between most populations. Unrooted dendrograms based on genetic distances between populations provide evidence of strong phylogeographic structure in Mesoamerican mahogany. The two populations on the Pacific coasts of Costa Rica and Panama were genetically distant from all the others, and from one another. The remaining populations formed two clusters, one comprised of the northern populations of Mexico, Belize and Guatemala and the other containing the southern Atlantic populations of Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Significant correlation was found between geographical distance and all pairwise measures of genetic divergence, suggesting the importance of regional biogeography and isolation by distance in Mesoamerican mahogany. The results of this study demonstrate greater phylogeographic structure than has been found across Amazon basin S. macrophylla. Our findings suggest a relatively complex Mesoamerican biogeographic history and lead to the prediction that other Central American trees will show similar patterns of regional differentiation. PMID:14629370

Novick, Rachel Roth; Dick, Christopher W; Lemes, Maristerra R; Navarro, Carlos; Caccone, Adalgisa; Bermingham, Eldredge

2003-11-01

163

GMATo: A novel tool for the identification and analysis of microsatellites in large genomes  

PubMed Central

Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR), also called microsatellite, is very useful for genetic marker development and genome application. The increasing whole sequences of more and more large genomes provide sources for SSR mining in silico. However currently existing SSR mining tools can’t process large genomes efficiently and generate no or poor statistics. Genome-wide Microsatellite Analyzing Tool (GMATo) is a novel tool for SSR mining and statistics at genome aspects. It is faster and more accurate than existed tools SSR Locator and MISA. If a DNA sequence was too long, it was chunked to short segments at several Mb followed by motifs generation and searching using Perl powerful pattern match function. Matched loci data from each chunk were then merged to produce final SSR loci information. Only one input file is required which contains raw fasta DNA sequences and output files in tabular format list all SSR loci information and statistical distribution at four classifications. GMATo was programmed in Java and Perl with both graphic and command line interface, either executable alone in platform independent manner with full parameters control. Software GMATo is a powerful tool for complete SSR characterization in genomes at any size. Availability The soft GMATo is freely available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/gmato/files/?source=navbar or on contact PMID:23861572

Wang, Xuewen; Lu, Peng; Luo, Zhaopeng

2013-01-01

164

Microsatellite and mini-exon analysis of Mexican human DTU I Trypanosoma cruzi strains and their susceptibility to nifurtimox and benznidazole.  

PubMed

Chagas disease is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, and it affects as many as 10 million people in North and South America, where it represents a major public health problem. T. cruzi is a parasite with high genetic diversity, and it has been grouped into 6 discrete typing units (DTUs), designated as T. cruzi I (TcI) to T. cruzi VI (TcVI). Mexican isolates from humans and from vector insects have been primarily found to be TcI, and these isolates are likely to be the strains that cause the clinical manifestations observed in Mexico. However, genetic characterization and drug susceptibility assays are limited in Mexican TcI strains. In this work, 24 Mexican T. cruzi strains, obtained primarily from humans, were studied with 7 locus microsatellites and mini-exon gene by PCR. Also, drug susceptibility was evaluated by growth and mobility assays. All of the human strains belonged to TcI, and they could be further grouped through microsatellite analysis into 2 subgroups (microsatellite genotypes 1 and 2), which were not related to the host clinical status or biological origin of the strain. Two strains, both from wild mammals, belonged to the TcII-TcVI groups; these strains and the CL Brener strain constituted microsatellite genotype 3. The number of alleles in each locus was lower than reported for South American strains, and a departure from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was observed. The susceptibility of these strains to nifurtimox and benznidazole was heterogeneous. T. cruzi strains characterized as microsatellite genotypes 2 and 3 were significantly more susceptible to benznidazole than strains of microsatellite genotype 1. Only 1 Mexican strain resistant to both drugs was found in this study. PMID:23421890

Martínez, Ignacio; Nogueda, Benjamín; Martínez-Hernández, Fernando; Espinoza, Bertha

2013-03-01

165

Multiplex automated analysis of microsatellite loci for linkage analysis of the entire human genome  

SciTech Connect

We are evaluating 29 panels of fluorescently labeled markers located at approximately 10 cM intervals. Each chromosome is covered at this marker density in 1-4 panels (11-17 loci/panel). Individual markers are labeled with 1 of 3 different fluorescent dyes, combined after PCR and run in a single gel lane. Genotypes are obtained for each locus using Applied Biosystems automated DNA sequencers and GENESCAN analysis and Genotyper allele scoring software. These programs automate the identification of alleles by distinguishing major peaks from PCR artifacts and facilitate export of data in a format suitable for standard genetic analysis programs. To verify the reported genetic relationships among individuals involved in gene mapping studies, we developed software to determine the number of alleles shared among individuals within a family. We use these statistics to distinguish full and half sibs and parent-child relations from unrelated individuals. Finally, we are developing a database using Fourth Dimension software so that the tremendous amounts of data generated can be processed efficiently in an integrated suite of specialized computer programs for linkage/association studies.

Freas-Lutz, D.L.; Walczak, C.A.; Gillanders, E.M. [NIH, NIDR, MEDIB, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

166

A flexible quantitative methodology for the analysis of gene-flow between conventionally bred maize populations using microsatellite markers.  

PubMed

Previous studies of gene-flow in agriculture have used a range of physical and biochemical markers, including transgenes. However, physical and biochemical markers are not available for all commercial varieties, and transgenes are difficult to use when trying to estimate gene flow in the field where the use of transgenes is often restricted. Here, we demonstrate the use of simple sequence repeat microsatellite markers (SSRs) to study gene flow in maize. Developing the first quantitative analysis of pooled SSR samples resulted in a high sampling efficiency which minimised the use of resources and greatly enhanced the possibility of hybrid detection. We were able to quantitatively distinguish hybrids in pools of ten samples from non-hybrid parental lines in all of the 24 pair-wise combinations of commercial varieties tested. The technique was used to determine gene flow in field studies, from which a simple model describing gene flow in maize was developed. PMID:21109994

Robson, P R H; Kelly, R; Jensen, E F; Giddings, G D; Leitch, M; Davey, C; Gay, A P; Jenkins, G; Thomas, H; Donnison, I S

2011-03-01

167

An analysis of consanguinity and social structure within the UK Asian population using microsatellite data.  

PubMed

We analysed microsatellite genotypes sampled from the Pakistani and Indian communities in Nottingham, UK, to investigate the genetic consequences of substructuring mediated by traditional marriage customs. The application of a recently developed likelihood approach identified significant levels of population substructure within the Pakistani community as a whole, as well as within the finer divisions of castes and biradheri. In addition, high levels of cryptic or unacknowledged consanguinity were detected within subgroups of this community, including biradheri. The Indian sample showed no significant evidence of either substructure or consanguinity. We demonstrate that estimates of disease gene frequencies can be inaccurate unless they are made jointly with estimates of population substructure and consanguinity ((theta congruent to FST) and C). The magnitude of these estimates also highlights the importance of accounting for the finer scale of social structuring when making decisions regarding the risk of recessive disorders in offspring. PMID:14641240

Overall, A D J; Ahmad, M; Thomas, M G; Nichols, R A

2003-11-01

168

Microsatellites, from molecules to populations and back  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population genetics studies using microsatellites, and data on their molecular dynamics, are on the increase. But, so far, no consensus has emerged on which mutation model should be used, though this is of paramount importance for analysis of population genetic structure. However, this is not surprising given the variety of microsatellite molecular motifs. Null alleles may be disturbing for population

Philippe Jarne; Pierre J. L. Lagoda

1996-01-01

169

Higher levels of multiple paternities increase seedling survival in the long-lived tree Eucalyptus gracilis.  

PubMed

Studying associations between mating system parameters and fitness in natural populations of trees advances our understanding of how local environments affect seed quality, and thereby helps to predict when inbreeding or multiple paternities should impact on fitness. Indeed, for species that demonstrate inbreeding avoidance, multiple paternities (i.e. the number of male parents per half-sib family) should still vary and regulate fitness more than inbreeding--named here as the 'constrained inbreeding hypothesis'. We test this hypothesis in Eucalyptus gracilis, a predominantly insect-pollinated tree. Fifty-eight open-pollinated progeny arrays were collected from trees in three populations. Progeny were planted in a reciprocal transplant trial. Fitness was measured by family establishment rates. We genotyped all trees and their progeny at eight microsatellite loci. Planting site had a strong effect on fitness, but seed provenance and seed provenance × planting site did not. Populations had comparable mating system parameters and were generally outcrossed, experienced low biparental inbreeding and high levels of multiple paternity. As predicted, seed families that had more multiple paternities also had higher fitness, and no fitness-inbreeding correlations were detected. Demonstrating that fitness was most affected by multiple paternities rather than inbreeding, we provide evidence supporting the constrained inbreeding hypothesis; i.e. that multiple paternity may impact on fitness over and above that of inbreeding, particularly for preferentially outcrossing trees at life stages beyond seed development. PMID:24587373

Breed, Martin F; Christmas, Matthew J; Lowe, Andrew J

2014-01-01

170

Higher Levels of Multiple Paternities Increase Seedling Survival in the Long-Lived Tree Eucalyptus gracilis  

PubMed Central

Studying associations between mating system parameters and fitness in natural populations of trees advances our understanding of how local environments affect seed quality, and thereby helps to predict when inbreeding or multiple paternities should impact on fitness. Indeed, for species that demonstrate inbreeding avoidance, multiple paternities (i.e. the number of male parents per half-sib family) should still vary and regulate fitness more than inbreeding – named here as the ‘constrained inbreeding hypothesis’. We test this hypothesis in Eucalyptus gracilis, a predominantly insect-pollinated tree. Fifty-eight open-pollinated progeny arrays were collected from trees in three populations. Progeny were planted in a reciprocal transplant trial. Fitness was measured by family establishment rates. We genotyped all trees and their progeny at eight microsatellite loci. Planting site had a strong effect on fitness, but seed provenance and seed provenance × planting site did not. Populations had comparable mating system parameters and were generally outcrossed, experienced low biparental inbreeding and high levels of multiple paternity. As predicted, seed families that had more multiple paternities also had higher fitness, and no fitness-inbreeding correlations were detected. Demonstrating that fitness was most affected by multiple paternities rather than inbreeding, we provide evidence supporting the constrained inbreeding hypothesis; i.e. that multiple paternity may impact on fitness over and above that of inbreeding, particularly for preferentially outcrossing trees at life stages beyond seed development. PMID:24587373

Breed, Martin F.; Christmas, Matthew J.; Lowe, Andrew J.

2014-01-01

171

Validation of microsatellite multiplexes for parentage analysis and species discrimination in two hybridizing species of coral reef fish (Plectropomus spp., Serranidae)  

PubMed Central

Microsatellites are often considered ideal markers to investigate ecological processes in animal populations. They are regularly used as genetic barcodes to identify species, individuals, and infer familial relationships. However, such applications are highly sensitive the number and diversity of microsatellite markers, which are also prone to error. Here, we propose a novel framework to assess the suitability of microsatellite datasets for parentage analysis and species discrimination in two closely related species of coral reef fish, Plectropomus leopardus and P. maculatus (Serranidae). Coral trout are important fisheries species throughout the Indo-Pacific region and have been shown to hybridize in parts of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. We first describe the development of 25 microsatellite loci and their integration to three multiplex PCRs that co-amplify in both species. Using simulations, we demonstrate that the complete suite of markers provides appropriate power to discriminate between species, detect hybrid individuals, and resolve parent–offspring relationships in natural populations, with over 99.6% accuracy in parent–offspring assignments. The markers were also tested on seven additional species within the Plectropomus genus with polymorphism in 28–96% of loci. The multiplex PCRs developed here provide a reliable and cost-effective strategy to investigate evolutionary and ecological dynamics and will be broadly applicable in studies of wild populations and aquaculture brood stocks for these closely related fish species. PMID:25360247

Harrison, Hugo B; Feldheim, Kevin A; Jones, Geoffrey P; Ma, Kayan; Mansour, Hicham; Perumal, Sadhasivam; Williamson, David H; Berumen, Michael L

2014-01-01

172

Global population genetic structure and male-mediated gene flow in the green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas): analysis of microsatellite loci.  

PubMed Central

We assessed the degree of population subdivision among global populations of green sea turtles, Chelonia mydas, using four microsatellite loci. Previously, a single-copy nuclear DNA study indicated significant male-mediated gene flow among populations alternately fixed for different mitochondrial DNA haplotypes and that genetic divergence between populations in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans was more common than subdivisions among populations within ocean basins. Even so, overall levels of variation at single-copy loci were low and inferences were limited. Here, the markedly more variable microsatellite loci confirm the presence of male-mediated gene flow among populations within ocean basins. This analysis generally confirms the genetic divergence between the Atlantic and Pacific. As with the previous study, phylogenetic analyses of genetic distances based on the microsatellite loci indicate a close genetic relationship among eastern Atlantic and Indian Ocean populations. Unlike the single-copy study, however, the results here cannot be attributed to an artifact of general low variability and likely represent recent or ongoing migration between ocean basins. Sequence analyses of regions flanking the microsatellite repeat reveal considerable amounts of cryptic variation and homoplasy and significantly aid in our understanding of population connectivity. Assessment of the allele frequency distributions indicates that at least some of the loci may not be evolving by the stepwise mutation model. PMID:15126404

Roberts, Mark A; Schwartz, Tonia S; Karl, Stephen A

2004-01-01

173

Development of a multiplex PCR assay for fine-scale population genetic analysis of the Komodo monitor Varanus komodoensis based on 18 polymorphic microsatellite loci.  

PubMed

Multiplex PCR assays for the coamplification of microsatellite loci allow rapid and cost-effective genetic analyses and the production of efficient screening protocols for international breeding programs. We constructed a partial genomic library enriched for di-nucleotide repeats and characterized 14 new microsatellite loci for the Komodo monitor (or Komodo dragon, Varanus komodoensis). Using these novel microsatellites and four previously described loci, we developed multiplex PCR assays that may be loaded on a genetic analyser in three separate panels. We tested the novel set of microsatellites for polymorphism using 69 individuals from three island populations and evaluated the resolving power of the entire panel of 18 loci by conducting (i) a preliminary assignment test to determine population(s) of origin and (ii) a parentage analysis for 43 captive Komodo monitors. This panel of polymorphic loci proved useful for both purposes and thus can be exploited for fine-scale population genetic analyses and as part of international captive breeding programs directed at maintaining genetically viable ex situ populations and reintroductions. PMID:21481213

Ciofi, Claudio; Tzika, Athanasia C; Natali, Chiara; Watts, Phillip C; Sulandari, Sri; Zein, Moch S A; Milinkovitch, Michel C

2011-05-01

174

Genetic characterization of the bovine leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) gene: isolation and sequencing, chromosome assignment and microsatellite analysis.  

PubMed

The bovine leukaemia inhibitory factor was isolated from a phage library and sequences for the gene, in addition to 1213 bp of 5' and 432 bp of 3' sequences, were obtained and compared with other mammalian leukaemia inhibitory factor genes. Comparisons indicated amino acid homologies ranging from 89.6% to 77.2% with the human and mouse homologues, respectively. Analysis of 500 bp of 5' regulatory regions indicated homologies ranging from 83.6% to 74.4% with the corresponding human and sheep sequences, respectively. Additionally, bovine leukaemia inhibitory factor-specific primers were prepared, and a panel of bovine x hamster somatic cell lines were analysed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Data indicated 93% concordance of leukaemia inhibitory factor with aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 located on bovine chromosome 17, and concordance of 81% with myelin basic protein situated on bovine chromosome 24. Southern analysis of selected hybrids confirmed the PCR results, thus conclusively assigning the bovine leukaemia inhibitory factor gene to chromosome 17. Sequence analysis also revealed a microsatellite in intron 2 of the bovine leukaemia inhibitory factor. Analysis of this region by PCR in 22 unrelated Bos taurus and 19 unrelated Bos indicus cattle detected nine different alleles. Polymorphic information content values were 0.53 and 0.80 in B. taurus and B. indicus, respectively. Additionally, the same leukaemia inhibitory factor primers successfully detected allelic variants at this locus in Bos javanicus, Bos guarus and Bison bison but not in Odocoileus virginianus. PMID:9124702

Piedrahita, J A; Weaks, R; Petrescu, A; Shrode, T W; Derr, J N; Womack, J E

1997-02-01

175

Male-Biased Sexual Size Dimorphism, Resource Defense Polygyny, and Multiple Paternity in the Emei Moustache Toad (Leptobrachium boringii)  

PubMed Central

We tested the hypotheses that the Emei moustache toad (Leptobrachium boringii) exhibits resource defense polygyny and that combat led to the evolution of male-biased sexual size dimorphism. Between February and March of 2011 and 2012, 26 female and 55 male L. boringii from Mount Emei UNESCO World Heritage Site, Sichuan, China, were observed throughout the breeding season. Prior to the breeding season, males grow 10–16 keratinized maxillary nuptial spines, which fall off once the season has ended. Throughout this time, males construct and defend aquatic nests where they produce advertisement calls to attract females. In a natural setting, we documented 14 cases involving a total of 22 males where males used their moustaches for aggressive interaction, and nest takeover was observed on seven occasions. Males were also observed to possess injuries resulting from combat. Genetic analysis using microsatellite DNA markers revealed several cases of multiple paternity, both within nest and within clutch. This observation indicated that some alternative male reproductive strategy, such as satellite behaviour, is occurring, which may have led to the multiple paternity. Larger males were observed to mate more frequently, and in multiple nests, suggesting that females are selecting for larger males, or that larger males are more capable of defending high quality territories. PMID:23840725

Hudson, Cameron M.; Fu, Jinzhong

2013-01-01

176

Identification of genic moss SSR markers and a comparative analysis of twenty-four algal and plant gene indices reveal species-specific rather than group-specific characteristics of microsatellites  

PubMed Central

Background The moss Physcomitrella patens is an emerging model in comparative plant science. At present, the Physcomitrella genome is sequenced at the Joint Genome Institute (USA). In this study we present our results on the development of expressed sequence tag-derived microsatellite markers for Physcomitrella patens, their classification and applicability as genetic markers on the intra- as well as on the interspecies level. We experienced severe restrictions to compare our results on Physcomitrella with earlier studies for other plant species due to varying microsatellite search criteria and a limited selection of analysed species. As a consequence, we performed a side by side analysis of expressed sequence tag-derived microsatellites among 24 plant species covering a broad phylogenetic range and present our results on the observed frequencies. Results We identified 3,723 microsatellites using the software MISA in a non-redundant Physcomitrella expressed sequence tag database comprising more than 37 megabases of nucleotide information. For 2,951 microsatellites appendant primer sequences have been derived. PCR of 376 microsatellites yielded 88 % successful amplicons and over 30 % polymorphisms between two Physcomitrella accessions. The polymorphism information content of 64 microsatellites based on 21 different Physcomitrella accessions was comparably high with a mean of 0.47 +/- 0.17. Of the 64 Physcomitrella microsatellite markers, 34 % respectively 79.7 % revealed cross-species applicability in two closely related moss species. In our survey of two green algae, two mosses, a fern, a fern palm, the ginkgo tree, two conifers, ten dicots and five monocots we detected an up to sevenfold variation in the overall frequency with a minimum of 37 up to maximal 258 microsatellites per megabase and a high variability among the different microsatellite class and motif frequencies. Numerous species-specific microsatellite frequencies became evident and several deviations to earlier reports were ascertained. Conclusion With the Physcomitrella microsatellite marker set a valuable tool has been made available for further genetic and genomic applications on the intra- as well as on the interspecies level. The comparative survey of expressed sequence tag-derived microsatellites among the plant kingdom is well suited for a classification of future studies on plant microsatellites. PMID:16734891

von Stackelberg, Mark; Rensing, Stefan A; Reski, Ralf

2006-01-01

177

Microsatellite analysis of female mating behaviour in lek-breeding sage grouse.  

PubMed

We used microsatellite DNA markers to genotype chicks in 10 broods of lek-breeding sage grouse, Centrocercus urophasianus, whose mothers' behaviour was studied by radio-tracking and observing leks. Previous behavioural studies suggested that almost all matings are performed by territorial males on leks and that multiple mating is rare. Two broods (20%) were sired by more than one male. Genetic analyses of the broods of eight females that visited an intensively studied lek were consistent with behavioural observations. Four females observed mating produced singly sired broods and males other than the individual observed copulating were excluded as sires for most or all of their chicks. Territorial males at the study lek were excluded as sires of broods of four other females that visited the lek but were not observed mating there. Radio-tracking suggested that two of these females mated at other leks. Our results confirm the reliability of mating observations at leks, but do not rule out a possible unseen component of the mating system. PMID:11555247

Semple, K; Wayne, R K; Gibson, R M

2001-08-01

178

Microsatellite DNA analysis shows that greater sage grouse leks are not kin groups.  

PubMed

The spectacular social courtship displays of lekking birds are thought to evolve via sexual selection, but this view does not easily explain the participation of many males that apparently fail to mate. One of several proposed solutions to this 'lek skew paradox' is that kin selection favours low-ranking males joining leks to increase the fitness of closely related breeders. We investigated the potential for kin selection to operate in leks of the greater sage grouse, Centrocercus urophasianus, by estimating relatedness between lekking males using microsatellite DNA markers. We also calibrated these estimates using data from known families. Mean relatedness within leks was statistically indistinguishable from zero. We also found no evidence for local clustering of kin during lek display, although males tended to range closer to kin when off the lek. These results make kin selection an unlikely solution to the lek skew paradox in sage grouse. Together with other recent studies, they also raise the question of why kin selection apparently promotes social courtship in some lekking species, but not in others. PMID:16313605

Gibson, Robert M; Pires, Debra; Delaney, Kathleen S; Wayne, Robert K

2005-12-01

179

Spatially defined microsatellite analysis reveals extensive genetic mosaicism and clonal complexity in intestinal metaplastic glands.  

PubMed

Intestinal metaplasia (IM) has been recognized as the first irreversible precancerous stage of intestinal-type gastric cancer at which genetic instabilities, such as microsatellite (MS) instability and loss of heterozygosity, can already be detected. However, the extent and clonal relationship of these genetic lesions in the precancerous tissues are not fully appreciated. In this work, we have used well established MS markers to analyze the relatedness of spatially separated individual metaplastic glands as well as subsegments within single glands from the same patients. We found that individual IM glands frequently show different marker lengths even for closely apposed IM glands, suggesting that these tissues have already gained the ability to independently evolve their genome regardless of whether or not they share a common origin. Furthermore, within individual IM glands, there is also significant intra-gland diversity in the MS markers. Since most of these cells are not dividing and only have a limited lifespan, this result indicates that in each IM gland, a single dominant clone is rare and new clones are constantly created by either progenitor cells or stem cells. This greatly enhanced ability to create de novo genetic alterations may underlie the importance of this stage in the eventual progression toward cancer. Given the widely observed phenotype switch in the early stages of many solid tumors, whether this associated genetic stability is also an intrinsic property of metaplastic transformation should be extensively characterized to further our understanding of cancer initiation. PMID:25403721

Guo, Yan; Zhou, Juan; Huang, Ayuan; Li, Jianfang; Yan, Min; Zhu, Zhenggang; Zhao, Xiaodong; Gu, Jianren; Liu, Bingya; Shao, Zhifeng

2015-06-15

180

Mating behaviour of Rhytidoponera sp. 12 ants inferred from microsatellite analysis.  

PubMed

In the queenless ponerine ant Rhytidoponera sp. 12, all workers have a spermatheca and functional ovaries and are potentially able to mate and reproduce. Within a colony gamergates may either be full sisters to each other (Type 1 colony), or they may not be full sisters but still be significantly related to each other (Type 2 colony) due to daughter gamergates reproducing in their natal colonies after mating. Despite many studies the mating behaviour of R. sp. 12 has been poorly understood. In this study, we used microsatellite markers to investigate intracolony relatednesses of male mates to the gamergates (bmq) and between male mates (bmm), and mating frequencies and mating patterns, using gamergate DNA and sperm DNA isolated from the spermathecae of gamergates from five colonies. Average bmm and bmq estimates for all five colonies studied were not significantly different from zero, suggesting that on average, within colonies, mating males were unrelated both to each other and to the gamergates. A low frequency (3%) of multiple mating by gamergates was detected. Multiple mating by individual males with sister gamergates within Type 1 colonies was also detected at 3% and could give rise to half-sister nestmate workers. Polygamy in R. sp. 12 might indicate local female-biased operational sex ratios despite the expectation of overall male biases. Our results concur with previous reports that gamergates mate within the colony or nearby, but indicate more diversity in mating patterns than previously indicated for this polygynous ponerine ant species. PMID:11251795

Tay, W T; Crozier, R H

2001-01-01

181

Genetic structure and gene flow among Komodo dragon populations inferred by microsatellite loci analysis.  

PubMed

A general concern for the conservation of endangered species is the maintenance of genetic variation within populations, particularly when they become isolated and reduced in size. Estimates of gene flow and effective population size are therefore important for any conservation initiative directed to the long-term persistence of a species in its natural habitat. In the present study, 10 microsatellite loci were used to assess the level of genetic variability among populations of the Komodo dragon Varanus komodoensis. Effective population size was calculated and gene flow estimates were compared with palaeogeographic data in order to assess the degree of vulnerability of four island populations. Rinca and Flores, currently separated by an isthmus of about 200 m, retained a high level of genetic diversity and showed a high degree of genetic similarity, with gene flow values close to one migrant per generation. The island of Komodo showed by far the highest levels of genetic divergence, and its allelic distinctiveness was considered of great importance in the maintenance of genetic variability within the species. A lack of distinct alleles and low levels of gene flow and genetic variability were found for the small population of Gili Motang island, which was identified as vulnerable to stochastic threats. Our results are potentially important for both the short- and long-term management of the Komodo dragon, and are critical in view of future re-introduction or augmentation in areas where the species is now extinct or depleted. PMID:10703549

Ciofi, C; Bruford, M W

1999-12-01

182

A microsatellite analysis of five Colonial Spanish horse populations of the southeastern United States.  

PubMed

The domestic horse (Equus caballus) was re-introduced to the Americas by Spanish explorers. Although horses from other parts of Europe were subsequently introduced, some New World populations maintain characteristics ascribed to their Spanish heritage. The southeastern United States has a history of Spanish invasion and settlement, and this influence on local feral horse populations includes two feral-recaptured breeds: the Florida Cracker and the Marsh Tacky, both of which are classified as Colonial Spanish horses. The feral Banker horses found on islands off the coast of North Carolina, which include, among others, the Shackleford Banks, the Corolla and the Ocracoke, are also Colonial Spanish horses. Herein we analyse 15 microsatellite loci from 532 feral and 2583 domestic horses in order to compare the genetic variation of these five Colonial Spanish Horse populations to 40 modern horse breeds. We find that the Corolla horse has very low heterozygosity and that both the Corolla and Ocracoke populations have a low mean number of alleles. We also find that the Florida Cracker population has a heterozygosity deficit. In addition, we find evidence of similarity of the Shackleford Banks, Marsh Tacky and Florida Cracker populations to New World Iberian horse breeds, while the origins of the other two populations are less clear. PMID:22221025

Conant, E K; Juras, R; Cothran, E G

2012-02-01

183

Microsatellite analysis of genetic diversity and population structure of freshwater mussel (Lamprotula leai).  

PubMed

Lamprotula leai is one of the most commercially important freshwater pearl mussels in China, but there is limited data on its genetic diversity and population structure. In the present study, 119 individuals from four major geographical populations were investigated using 15 microsatellite loci identified via cross-species amplification. A total of 114 alleles were detected, with an average of 7.6 alleles per locus (range: 2 to 21). Among the four stocks, those from Hung-tse Lake and Poyang Lake had the lowest (0.412) and highest (0.455) observed heterozygosity respectively. The polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.374 to 0.927 (mean: 0.907). AMOVA showed that 12.56% and 44.68% genetic variances were among populations and within individuals, respectively. Pairwise Fst ranged from 0.073 to 0.146, indicating medium genetic differentiation among the populations. In aggregate, our results suggest that inbreeding is a crucial factor accounting for deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium at 12 loci. Moreover, the genetic distance among four stocks ranged from 0.192 to 0.890. Poyang Lake and Hung-tse Lake were clustered together, joined with Dongting Lake and Anqing Lake. Given that specimens from Hung-tse Lake showed the highest average allele richness, expected heterozygosity and PIC, this location may be the source of the highest quality germplasm resources and the stock from this area may be the best for future breeding efforts. PMID:25730459

Min, Jin-Jin; Ye, Rong-Hui; Zhang, Gen-Fang; Zheng, Rong-Quan

2015-01-01

184

Paternal Uniparental Isodisomy of Chromosome 11p15.5 within the Pancreas Causes Isolated Hyperinsulinemic Hypoglycemia  

PubMed Central

Background: Loss of function mutations in the genes encoding the pancreatic ?-cell ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel are identified in approximately 80% of patients with diazoxide unresponsive hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia (HH). For a small number of patients HH can occur as part of a multisystem disease such as Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome (BWS). In approximately 20% of patients, BWS results from chromosome 11 paternal uniparental disomy (UPD), which causes dysregulation of imprinted growth regulation genes at 11p15.5. There is a considerable range in the clinical features and phenotypic severity associated with BWS which is likely to be due to somatic mosaicism. The cause of HH in these patients is not known. Research Design and Methods: We undertook microsatellite analysis of 12 markers spanning chromosome 11p in two patients with severe HH and diffuse disease requiring a pancreatectomy. In both patients mutations in the KATP channel genes had not been identified. Results: We identified segmental paternal UPD in DNA extracted from pancreatic tissue in both patients. UPD was not observed in DNA extracted from the patient’s leukocytes or buccal samples. In both cases the UPD encompassed the differentially methylated region at chromosome 11p15.5. Despite this neither patient had any further features of BWS. Conclusion: Paternal UPD of the chromosome 11p15.5 differentially methylated region limited to the pancreatic tissue may represent a novel cause of isolated diazoxide unresponsive HH. Loss of heterozygosity studies should therefore be considered in all patients with severe HH who have undergone pancreatic surgery when KATP channel mutation(s) have not been identified. PMID:22654821

Flanagan, S. E.; Kapoor, R. R.; Smith, V. V.; Hussain, K.; Ellard, Sian

2011-01-01

185

Early-onset obesity and paternal 2pter deletion encompassing the ACP1, TMEM18, and MYT1L genes.  

PubMed

Obesity is a common but highly, clinically, and genetically heterogeneous disease. Deletion of the terminal region of the short arm of chromosome 2 is rare and has been reported in about 13 patients in the literature often associated with a Prader-Willi-like phenotype. We report on five unrelated patients with 2p25 deletion of paternal origin presenting with early-onset obesity, hyperphagia, intellectual deficiency, and behavioural difficulties. Among these patients, three had de novo pure 2pter deletions, one presented with a paternal derivative der(2)t(2;15)(p25.3;q26) with deletion in the 2pter region and the last patient presented with an interstitial 2p25 deletion. The size of the deletions was characterized by SNP array or array-CGH and was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) studies. Four patients shared a 2p25.3 deletion with a minimal critical region estimated at 1.97?Mb and encompassing seven genes, namely SH3HYL1, ACP1, TMEMI8, SNTG2, TPO, PXDN, and MYT1L genes. The fifth patient had a smaller interstitial deletion encompassing the TPO, PXDN, and MYT1L genes. Paternal origin of the deletion was determined by genotyping using microsatellite markers. Analysis of the genes encompassed in the deleted region led us to speculate that the ACP1, TMEM18, and/or MYT1L genes might be involved in early-onset obesity. In addition, intellectual deficiency and behavioural troubles can be explained by the heterozygous loss of the SNTG2 and MYT1L genes. Finally, we discuss the parent-of-origin of the deletion. PMID:24129437

Doco-Fenzy, Martine; Leroy, Camille; Schneider, Anouck; Petit, Florence; Delrue, Marie-Ange; Andrieux, Joris; Perrin-Sabourin, Laurence; Landais, Emilie; Aboura, Azzedine; Puechberty, Jacques; Girard, Manon; Tournaire, Magali; Sanchez, Elodie; Rooryck, Caroline; Ameil, Agnès; Goossens, Michel; Jonveaux, Philippe; Lefort, Geneviève; Taine, Laurence; Cailley, Dorothée; Gaillard, Dominique; Leheup, Bruno; Sarda, Pierre; Geneviève, David

2014-04-01

186

Haplotype analysis of DNA microsatellites tightly linked to the locus of Usher syndrome type I on chromosome 11q  

SciTech Connect

Usher syndrome type I (USHI), an autosomal recessive disorder associated with congenital sensorineural deafness and progressive visual loss, is closely linked to the D11S533 locus. The availability of 7 other polymorphic markers within few centimorgans spanning the disease locus allowed us to identify a unique and single haplotype among all carriers of USHI gene in the Samaritan kindred. Occurrence of recombination in this small chromosomal interval is rare, hindering the detection of the mitotic recombination events needed for analysis by traditional linkage methods. Attempts to order the eight loci by linkage disequilibrium models proved to be problematic. However, our haplotype analysis implied that recombinations which had arisen in past generations may be utilized in fine mapping of the USHI gene and in resolving the conflicting linkage maps previously obtained for this region. We have developed a simple algorithm for predicting the order of the microsatellites on the basis of haplotype resemblance. The following chromosomal map in which the USHI gene is closest to D11S533 (location score of 31.0 by multipoint analysis) is suggested: D11S916, GARP, D11S527, D11S533, OMP, D11S906, D11S911, D11S937. Physical mapping efforts are currently directed to verify and to detail the map of this chromosomal region.

Korostishevsky, M.; Kalinsky, H.; Seroussi, E. [Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Ramat-Aviv (Israel)] [and other

1994-09-01

187

How to reveal disguised paternalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a Swedish setting physicians are unlikely to give explicitly paternalistic reasons when asked about their attitudes towards\\u000a patients’ involvement in decision-making. There is considerable risk that they will disguise their paternalism by giving ‘socially\\u000a correct answers’. We suggest that disguised paternalism can be revealed with the help of indexes based on certain responses\\u000a in postal questionnaires. The indexes were

Niels Lynöe; Niklas Juth; Gert Helgesson

2010-01-01

188

Genetic relatedness of polygyne queens in the red imported fire ant Solenopsis invicta determined by microsatellite analysis  

E-print Network

Genetic relatedness is thought to be an important graphics. factor in the development of socialite. Microsatellite markers are ideal to estimate relatedness in social insects due to their highly polymorphism. In this study, we developed five...

Lu, Lanying

1998-01-01

189

Microsatellite Marker Analysis Reveals the Complex Phylogeographic History of Rhododendron ferrugineum (Ericaceae) in the Pyrenees  

PubMed Central

Genetic variation within plant species is determined by a number of factors such as reproductive mode, breeding system, life history traits and climatic events. In alpine regions, plants experience heterogenic abiotic conditions that influence the population's genetic structure. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic structure and phylogeographic history of the subalpine shrub Rhododendron ferrugineum across the Pyrenees and the links between the populations in the Pyrenees, the Alps and Jura Mountains. We used 27 microsatellite markers to genotype 645 samples from 29 Pyrenean populations, three from the Alps and one from the Jura Mountains. These data were used to estimate population genetics statistics such as allelic richness, observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity, fixation index, inbreeding coefficient and number of migrants. Genetic diversity was found to be higher in the Alps than in the Pyrenees suggesting colonization waves from the Alps to the Pyrenees. Two separate genetic lineages were found in both the Alps and Pyrenees, with a substructure of five genetic clusters in the Pyrenees where a loss of genetic diversity was noted. The strong differentiation among clusters is maintained by low gene flow across populations. Moreover, some populations showed higher genetic diversity than others and presented rare alleles that may indicate the presence of alpine refugia. Two lineages of R. ferrugineum have colonized the Pyrenees from the Alps. Then, during glaciation events R. ferrugineum survived in the Pyrenees in different refugia such as lowland refugia at the eastern part of the chain and nunataks at high elevations leading to a clustered genetic pattern. PMID:24667824

Charrier, Olivia; Dupont, Pierre; Pornon, André; Escaravage, Nathalie

2014-01-01

190

Microsatellite and flow cytometry analysis to help understand the origin of Dioscorea alata polyploids  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Dioscorea alata is a polyploid species with a ploidy level ranging from diploid (2n = 2x = 40) to tetraploid (2n = 4x = 80). Ploidy increase is correlated with better agronomic performance. The lack of knowledge about the origin of D. alata spontaneous polyploids (triploids and tetraploids) limits the efficiency of polyploid breeding. The objective of the present study was to use flow cytometry and microsatellite markers to understand the origin of D. alata polyploids. Methods Different progeny generated by intracytotype crosses (2x × 2x) and intercytotype crosses (2x × 4x and 3x × 2x) were analysed in order to understand endosperm incompatibility phenomena and gamete origins via the heterozygosity rate transmitted to progeny. Results This work shows that in a 2x × 2x cross, triploids with viable seeds are obtained only via a phenomenon of diploid female non-gametic reduction. The study of the transmission of heterozygosity made it possible to exclude polyspermy and polyembryony as the mechanisms at the origin of triploids. The fact that no seedlings were obtained by a 3x × 2x cross made it possible to confirm the sterility of triploid females. Flow cytometry analyses carried out on the endosperm of seeds resulting from 2x × 4x crosses revealed endosperm incompatibility phenomena. Conclusions The major conclusion is that the polyploids of D. alata would have appeared through the formation of unreduced gametes. The triploid pool would have been built and diversified through the formation of 2n gametes in diploid females as the result of the non-viability of seeds resulting from the formation of 2n sperm and of the non-viability of intercytotype crosses. The tetraploids would have appeared through bilateral sexual polyploidization via the union of two unreduced gametes due to the sterility of triploids. PMID:23912697

Nemorin, A.; David, J.; Maledon, E.; Nudol, E.; Dalon, J.; Arnau, G.

2013-01-01

191

Microsatellite marker analysis reveals the complex phylogeographic history of Rhododendron ferrugineum (Ericaceae) in the Pyrenees.  

PubMed

Genetic variation within plant species is determined by a number of factors such as reproductive mode, breeding system, life history traits and climatic events. In alpine regions, plants experience heterogenic abiotic conditions that influence the population's genetic structure. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic structure and phylogeographic history of the subalpine shrub Rhododendron ferrugineum across the Pyrenees and the links between the populations in the Pyrenees, the Alps and Jura Mountains. We used 27 microsatellite markers to genotype 645 samples from 29 Pyrenean populations, three from the Alps and one from the Jura Mountains. These data were used to estimate population genetics statistics such as allelic richness, observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity, fixation index, inbreeding coefficient and number of migrants. Genetic diversity was found to be higher in the Alps than in the Pyrenees suggesting colonization waves from the Alps to the Pyrenees. Two separate genetic lineages were found in both the Alps and Pyrenees, with a substructure of five genetic clusters in the Pyrenees where a loss of genetic diversity was noted. The strong differentiation among clusters is maintained by low gene flow across populations. Moreover, some populations showed higher genetic diversity than others and presented rare alleles that may indicate the presence of alpine refugia. Two lineages of R. ferrugineum have colonized the Pyrenees from the Alps. Then, during glaciation events R. ferrugineum survived in the Pyrenees in different refugia such as lowland refugia at the eastern part of the chain and nunataks at high elevations leading to a clustered genetic pattern. PMID:24667824

Charrier, Olivia; Dupont, Pierre; Pornon, André; Escaravage, Nathalie

2014-01-01

192

Microsatellite marker analysis reveals the distinction between the north and south groups of hard clam (Meretrix meretrix) in China.  

PubMed

Meretrix meretrix is one of the important commercial bivalves in China. A total of 198 individual clams were collected from 5 locations characteristic of the clam's 5 main natural habitats in China, that is, Shandong, Jiangsu, Fujian, Guangdong, and Guangxi. Ten polymorphic microsatellite markers were selected to examine the genetic diversity and identify genetic differences between the 5 populations. A total of 183 alleles across 10 loci were detected in the individual clams. The observed heterozygosity and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.197 to 0.7026 and from 0.6264 to 0.9408, respectively. The genetic diversity within samples was high (8.6-11.2 alleles per locus, observed heterozygosity = 0.25-0.875 and expected heterozygosity = 0.6848-0.9259). Most of the genotype distributions significantly deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Genetic structure analysis showed that the 5 populations could be divided into 2 groups, the north and south groups. Neighbor-joining analysis revealed a clear distinction between the north group (Shandong and Jiangsu) and the south group (Fujian, Guangdong, and Guangxi). Locus MM1031 was used to distinguish between groups. Our results can be used for population identification and crossbreeding of M. meretrix. PMID:25730059

Gu, X F; Dong, Y H; Yao, H H; Zhou, X L; Qi, X Y; Lin, Z H

2015-01-01

193

Genetic insights into the population structure of Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Northeastern United States by using microsatellite analysis.  

PubMed

Members of the Culex pipiens complex are considered as biting nuisance and vectors of important arbo-viruses including West Nile virus (WNV). To analyze the genetic structure of urban and rural populations of Cx. pipiens form pipiens and gain insights into behavioral implications, mosquitoes were collected from established WNV transmission foci in Connecticut from October 2006 through October 2007, examined by using microsatellite markers, and compared with other populations from neighboring states in the northeastern United States. The mean numbers of alleles per locus for the aboveground Cx. pipiens form pipiens populations ranged from 11.5 +/- 2.3 to 13.2 +/- 2.4 and were not significantly different. In contrast, Cx. pipiens form molestus had greatly reduced allelic diversities with an average of 4.4 +/- 1.2 alleles per locus, which was significantly lower than that of any of the Cx. pipiens form pipiens populations analyzed. We did not detect significant genetic differences between urban and rural populations of Cx. pipiens form pipiens from Connecticut nor did we observe temporal genetic changes. However, in a comparative analysis with populations of neighboring states, New Jersey, New York, and Massachusetts, genetic variations associated with geographic distance were identified. In the analyses of Bayesian clustering and principal component analysis, we identified two clusters separating Cx. pipiens form molestus from Cx. pipiens form pipiens populations, indicating that Cx. pipiens form molestus was genetically distinct from any of the Cx. pipiens form pipiens populations examined during this study. PMID:18840738

Huang, Shaoming; Molaei, Goudarz; Andreadis, Theodore G

2008-10-01

194

Genetic variability and population structure in Cypriot chukar partridges ( Alectoris chukar cypriotes ) as determined by microsatellite analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the first time, microsatellite loci were used to study the genetic structure in Alectoris chukar cypriotes. Four of the ten tested microsatellite loci were found to be polymorphic in 33 individuals from four regions of Cyprus. The differentiation test between all the pairs of samples gave non-differentiation exact P values in every case (P>0.05). The posterior probability distribution on

M. T. Tejedor; L. V. Monteagudo; E. Hadjisterkotis; M. V. Arruga

2005-01-01

195

Microsatellite based ovine parentage testing to identify the source responsible for the killing of an endangered species.  

PubMed

In this study, we present an animal forensic genetics case in which we applied ovine microsatellite based parentage testing to the resolution of an act against protected wildlife. The aim was to identify the origin of the animal responsible for the death of an Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus) that had been poisoned through consumption of a Latxa Blond Face breed lamb. Thus, we carried out a 22 microsatellite based parentage test in order to identify the parents of the lamb in the flock which grazes in the same place where the vulture's remains were found. Multiple parentage analysis revealed two possible parents, one ewe and one ram, with a combined paternity/maternity index (PI) higher than 9.09E9 and a likelihood (W) value of 99.9999%, assuming 50% probability a priori. This result confirmed the flock of origin of the poisoned lamb and shows that the microsatellite panel described herein is a potentially useful tool for the resolution of animal forensic cases. PMID:20952265

Rendo, Fernando; Iriondo, Mikel; Manzano, Carmen; Estonba, Andone

2011-08-01

196

Facilitating co-existence by tracking gene dispersal in conventional potato systems with microsatellite markers.  

PubMed

Based on international findings, Irish co-existence guidelines for the cultivation of GM potato stipulate that an isolation distance of 20 m is required to minimize the spread of transgenic pollen in accordance with required labeling thresholds. As potato tolerant to Phytophthora infestans is the most applicable GM crop from an Irish context, we tested the efficacy of this isolation distance under Irish environmental conditions using the conventional variety Désirée as a pollen donor and the male-sterile variety British Queen as a pollen receptor. Gene flow was determined by scoring for berry presence on receptor plants and confirmed using a microsatellite marker system designed to assess paternity in F(1) seedlings. 99.1% of seedlings recovered were identified as having Désirée paternity. Whereas 19.9% (140/708) of total berries formed on receptor plants occurred at a distance of 21 m from the pollen source, only 4 of these berries bore viable true potato seed (TPS), from which 23 TPS germinated. TPS-bearing berry formation was negatively correlated with distance from the pollen source, and although overall distribution of berries and seeds was non-random across the plot, no significant correlation was evident with respect to wind direction. Microsatellite markers were also used to confirm that the foraging beetle Meligethes aeneus is a vector for the transmission of potato pollen, but a more detailed statistical analysis of this dataset was limited by inclement weather during the trial. To conclude, we recommend that a two-tiered system be established in regard to establishing isolation distances for the experimental trial and commercial cultivation of GM potato in Ireland, and that responsible crop management be adopted to minimize the establishment of TPS-derived volunteers, which we have noted will emerge through a rotation as a result of pollen-mediated gene flow. PMID:18289498

Petti, Carloalberto; Meade, Conor; Downes, Martin; Mullins, Ewen

2007-01-01

197

Strong male-biased operational sex ratio in a breeding population of loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) inferred by paternal genotype reconstruction analysis  

PubMed Central

Characterization of a species mating systems is fundamental for understanding the natural history and evolution of that species. Polyandry can result in the multiple paternity of progeny arrays. The only previous study of the loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) in the USA showed that within the large peninsular Florida subpopulation, multiple paternity occurs in approximately 30% of clutches. Our study tested clutches from the smaller northern subpopulation for the presence of multiple paternal contributions. We examined mothers and up to 20 offspring from 19.5% of clutches laid across three nesting seasons (2008–2010) on the small nesting beach on Wassaw Island, Georgia, USA. We found that 75% of clutches sampled had multiple fathers with an average of 2.65 fathers per nest (1–7 fathers found). The average number of fathers per clutch varied among years and increased with female size. There was no relationship between number of fathers and hatching success. Finally, we found 195 individual paternal genotypes and determined that each male contributed to no more than a single clutch over the 3-year sampling period. Together these results suggest that the operational sex ratio is male-biased at this site. PMID:24363901

Lasala, Jacob A; Harrison, J Scott; Williams, Kris L; Rostal, David C

2013-01-01

198

Strong male-biased operational sex ratio in a breeding population of loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) inferred by paternal genotype reconstruction analysis.  

PubMed

Characterization of a species mating systems is fundamental for understanding the natural history and evolution of that species. Polyandry can result in the multiple paternity of progeny arrays. The only previous study of the loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) in the USA showed that within the large peninsular Florida subpopulation, multiple paternity occurs in approximately 30% of clutches. Our study tested clutches from the smaller northern subpopulation for the presence of multiple paternal contributions. We examined mothers and up to 20 offspring from 19.5% of clutches laid across three nesting seasons (2008-2010) on the small nesting beach on Wassaw Island, Georgia, USA. We found that 75% of clutches sampled had multiple fathers with an average of 2.65 fathers per nest (1-7 fathers found). The average number of fathers per clutch varied among years and increased with female size. There was no relationship between number of fathers and hatching success. Finally, we found 195 individual paternal genotypes and determined that each male contributed to no more than a single clutch over the 3-year sampling period. Together these results suggest that the operational sex ratio is male-biased at this site. PMID:24363901

Lasala, Jacob A; Harrison, J Scott; Williams, Kris L; Rostal, David C

2013-11-01

199

High genetic diversity in gametophyte clones of Undaria pinnatifida from Vladivostok, Dalian and Qingdao revealed using microsatellite analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Breeding practice for Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar requires the screening of a large number of offspring from gametophyte crossings to obtain an elite variety for large-scale cultivation. To better understand the genetic relationships of different gametophyte cultures isolated from different sources, 20 microsatellite loci were screened and 53 gametophyte clone cultures analyzed for U. pinnatifida isolated from wild sporophytes in Vladivostok, Russia and from cultivated sporophytes from Dalian and Qingdao, China. One locus was abandoned because of poor amplification. At the sex-linked locus of Up-AC-2A8, 3 alleles were detected in 25 female gametophyte clones, with sizes ranging from 307 to 316 bp. At other loci, 3 to 7 alleles were detected with an average of 4.5 alleles per locus. The average number of alleles at each locus was 1.3 and 3.7 for Russian and Chinese gametophyte clones, respectively. The average gene diversity for Russian, Chinese, and for the combined total of gametophyte clones was 0.1, 0.4, and 0.5, respectively. Russian gametophyte clones had unique alleles at 7 out of the 19 loci. In cluster analysis, Russian and Chinese gametophyte clones were separated into two different groups according to genetic distance. Overall, high genetic diversity was detected in gametophyte clones isolated from the two countries. These gametophyte cultures were believed to be appropriate parental materials for conducting breeding programs in the future.

Shan, Tifeng; Pang, Shaojun; Liu, Feng; Xu, Na; Zhao, Xiaobo; Gao, Suqin

2012-03-01

200

32 CFR 584.3 - Paternity claims.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...process paternity claims against male Army soldiers. These procedures apply to claims...court officials, and others. (2) Soldiers will be informed of paternity claims against them. Commanders will ensure that soldiers are advised of their legal rights...

2014-07-01

201

32 CFR 584.3 - Paternity claims.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...process paternity claims against male Army soldiers. These procedures apply to claims...court officials, and others. (2) Soldiers will be informed of paternity claims against them. Commanders will ensure that soldiers are advised of their legal rights...

2013-07-01

202

32 CFR 584.3 - Paternity claims.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...process paternity claims against male Army soldiers. These procedures apply to claims...court officials, and others. (2) Soldiers will be informed of paternity claims against them. Commanders will ensure that soldiers are advised of their legal rights...

2012-07-01

203

The frequency of multiple paternity suggests that sperm competition is common in house mice (Mus domesticus)  

PubMed Central

Sexual selection is an important force driving the evolution of morphological and genetic traits. To determine the importance of male–male, postcopulatory sexual selection in natural populations of house mice, we estimated the frequency of multiple paternity, defined as the frequency with which a pregnant female carried a litter fertilized by more than one male. By genotyping eight microsatellite markers from 1095 mice, we found evidence of multiple paternity from 33 of 143. Evidence for multiple paternity was especially strong for 29 of these litters. Multiple paternity was significantly more common in higher-density vs. lower-density populations. Any estimate of multiple paternity will be an underestimate of the frequency of multiple mating, defined as the frequency with which a female mates with more than a single male during a single oestrus cycle. We used computer simulations to estimate the frequency of multiple mating, incorporating observed reductions in heterozygosity and levels of allele sharing among mother and father. These simulations indicated that multiple mating is common, occurring in at least 20% of all oestrus cycles. The exact estimate depends on the competitive skew among males, a parameter for which we currently have no data from natural populations. This study suggests that sperm competition is an important aspect of postcopulatory sexual selection in house mice. PMID:17054508

DEAN, M. D.; ARDLIE, K. G.; NACHMAN, M . W .

2010-01-01

204

Identification of de novo deletions at the NF1 gene: no preferential paternal origin and phenotypic analysis of patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common autosomal dominant disorder. To date, a relatively small number of NF1 mutations\\u000a have been characterized, thus precluding genotype-phenotype correlations. By genotyping 75 NF1 families, we have detected\\u000a six hemizygous patients (two of whom are members of the same family). The five presumed deletions were confirmed by two quantitative\\u000a methods of analysis of NF1

M. Carmen Valero; Ignacio Pascual-Castroviejo; Eladio Velasco; Felipe Moreno; Concepción Hernández-Chico

1997-01-01

205

How to reveal disguised paternalism.  

PubMed

In a Swedish setting physicians are unlikely to give explicitly paternalistic reasons when asked about their attitudes towards patients' involvement in decision-making. There is considerable risk that they will disguise their paternalism by giving 'socially correct answers'. We suggest that disguised paternalism can be revealed with the help of indexes based on certain responses in postal questionnaires. The indexes were developed using material from a study examining attitudes of Swedish physicians to physician-assisted suicide (PAS). Apart from being asked about their attitudes, they were asked to prioritize between different arguments for and against PAS. One argument for PAS was: "PAS should be permitted out of respect for patients' autonomy". One argument against PAS was: "PAS should not be permitted since the non-maleficence principle in this case takes precedence over respecting patients' autonomy". Responses to the latter argument formed the cornerstone of a disguised-paternalism index, while an autonomy index was based on answers to the former argument. Applying our indexes to data from the PAS survey, we found that female GPs, surgeons, and older male physicians were least paternalistic. Among female physicians one finds both the most autonomy-respecting groups (female surgeons and GPs) and the least autonomy-respecting groups (female oncologists and psychiatrists); together with older male physicians in general, female GPs are the group displaying least disguised paternalism. We suggest that questionnaires exploring paternalism might be improved by including case-specific questions or statements by which to explore disguised paternalism. Here our indexes might be useful tools. PMID:19672696

Lynöe, Niels; Juth, Niklas; Helgesson, Gert

2010-02-01

206

Paternal investment and the human mating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paternal investment has long been considered responsible for the evolution of predominantly monogamous marriage in humans. However, male–male competition resulting in mate-guarding and male coercion could be equally important. In this review, I use a comparative approach to examine the effect of variation in human paternal investment on our mating system. I conclude paternal investment is important but so too

F. Marlowe

2000-01-01

207

Multiple Paternity in Belding's Ground Squirrel Litters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexually receptive female Spermophilus beldingi (Rodentia: Sciuridae) usually mate with several different males. The paternity of 27 litters born in 1977 and 1978 was ascertained by combining field observations of mating with laboratory paternity exclusion analyses. Most of the litters (78 percent) were multiply sired, usually by two or three males. This may be the highest frequency of multiple paternity

James Hanken; Paul W. Sherman

1981-01-01

208

Can paternal leakage maintain sexually antagonistic polymorphism in the cytoplasm?  

PubMed

A growing number of studies in multicellular organisms highlight low or moderate frequencies of paternal transmission of cytoplasmic organelles, including both mitochondria and chloroplasts. It is well established that strict maternal inheritance is selectively blind to cytoplasmic elements that are deleterious to males - 'mother's curse'. But it is not known how sensitive this conclusion is to slight levels of paternal cytoplasmic leakage. We assess the scope for polymorphism when individuals bear multiple cytoplasmic alleles in the presence of paternal leakage, bottlenecks and recurrent mutation. When fitness interactions among cytoplasmic elements within an individual are additive, we find that sexually antagonistic polymorphism is restricted to cases of strong selection on males. However, when fitness interactions among cytoplasmic elements are nonlinear, much more extensive polymorphism can be supported in the cytoplasm. In particular, mitochondrial mutants that have strong beneficial fitness effects in males and weak deleterious fitness effects in females when rare (i.e. 'reverse dominance') are strongly favoured under paternal leakage. We discuss how such epistasis could arise through preferential segregation of mitochondria in sex-specific somatic tissues. Our analysis shows how paternal leakage can dampen the evolution of deleterious male effects associated with predominant maternal inheritance of cytoplasm, potentially explaining why 'mother's curse' is less pervasive than predicted by earlier work. PMID:25653025

Kuijper, B; Lane, N; Pomiankowski, A

2015-02-01

209

Distinguishing minisatellite mutation from non-paternity by MVR-PCR.  

PubMed

Minisatellite variant repeat (MVR) mapping using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was devised to map the interspersion pattern of subtle variant repeats along minisatellite tandem arrays. MVR-PCR has revealed enormous diversity of allele structures at several loci, far more than can be resolved by allele length analysis. We have reported the application of MVR-PCR at minisatellite MS32 (D1S8) and MS31A (D7S21) in a paternity case lacking a mother and showed that it resulted in higher paternity probabilities than for a set of 12 other DNA markers including six STRs. Hypervariable minisatellites like MS32 and MS3lA can however, show significant germline mutation rates to new length alleles which can generate false exclusions in paternity cases although paternity cases showing mutant paternal alleles at more than one locus will be rare when several MVR loci are examined. Detailed knowledge of mutation processes coupled with MVR analysis of allele structure can help distinguish mutation from non-paternity. We now show how similar mutant alleles are to their progenitors using both real and simulated data, and demonstrate how MVR-PCR can be used to identify mutant paternal allele in paternity cases showing apparent exclusions. PMID:10978602

Tamaki, K; Brenner, C H; Jeffreys, A J

2000-09-11

210

Linkage analysis of the GAW14 simulated dataset with microsatellite and single-nucleotide polymorphism markers in large pedigrees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have suggested that a high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker set could provide equivalent or even superior information compared with currently used microsatellite (STR) marker sets for gene mapping by linkage. The focus of this study was to compare results obtained from linkage analyses involving extended pedigrees with STR and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker sets. We also wanted

Kevin Jacobs; Kimberly F Kerstann; Andrew W Bergen; Alisa M Goldstein; Lynn R Goldin

2005-01-01

211

Analysis of microsatellite DNA resolves genetic structure and diversity of chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ) in California's Central Valley  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use 10 microsatellite DNA markers to assess genetic diversity within and among the four runs (winter, spring, fall, and late fall) of chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ) in California's Central Valley. Forty-one pop- ulation samples are studied, comprising naturally spawning and hatchery stocks collected from 1991 through 1997. Maximum likelihood methods are used to correct for kinship in

Michael A. Banks; Vanessa K. Rashbrook; Marco J. Calavetta; Cheryl A. Dean; Dennis Hedgecock

2000-01-01

212

Population structure of striped marlin ( Kajikia audax ) in the Pacific Ocean based on analysis of microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic variation was surveyed at five microsatellite loci and the mitochondrial control region (819 bp) to test for the presence of genetic stock structure in striped marlin (Kajikia audax) collections taken from seven locations through- out the Pacific Ocean. Temporal replicates separated by 9 years were taken off Japan, and three temporal samples spanning 11 years were collected off the

Jan R. McDowell; John E. Graves

2008-01-01

213

Microsatellite markers from the 'South American fruit fly' Anastrepha fraterculus: a valuable tool for population genetic analysis and SIT applications  

PubMed Central

Background Anastrepha fraterculus Wiedemann is a horticultural pest which causes significant economic losses in the fruit-producing areas of the American continent and limits the access of products to international markets. The use of environmentally friendly control strategies against this pest is constrained due to the limited knowledge of its population structure. Results We developed microsatellite markers for A. fraterculus from four genomic libraries, which were enriched in CA, CAA, GA and CAT microsatellite motifs. Fifty microsatellite regions were evaluated and 14 loci were selected for population genetics studies. Genotypes of 122 individuals sampled from four A. fraterculus populations were analyzed. The level of polymorphism ranged from three to 13 alleles per locus and the mean expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.60 to 0.64. Comparison between allelic and genotypic frequencies showed significant differences among all pairs of populations. Conclusions This novel set of microsatellite markers provides valuable information for the description of genetic variability and population structure of wild populations and laboratory strains of A. fraterculus. This information will be used to identify and characterize candidate strains suitable to implement effective pest control strategies and might represent a first step towards having a more comprehensive knowledge about the genetics of this pest. PMID:25471285

2014-01-01

214

Characterisation of microsatellites from Actinidia chinensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have identified a set of informative microsatellite markers for genome analysis in kiwifruit and related Actinidia species. A small-insert genomic library was constructed from Actinidia chinensis DNA, and screened for microsatellites. About 1.2% of the total colonies hybridised to a (GA)8 probe, 0.4% to (GT)8, and 0.1% to a mixture of three different trinucleotide repeat probes, (CAA)5, (GAA)5 and

Kurt Weising; Raymond W. M. Fung; D. Jeannette Keeling; Ross G. Atkinson; Richard C. Gardner

1996-01-01

215

Gel Electrophoresis Lab: Paternity Case  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lab activity from the Biotechnology Alliance for Suncoast Biology Educators provides instructions for conducting a gel electrophoresis lab. Students will try to solve a paternity case with this activity by obtaining a DNA fingerprint from each potential father, the mother and the child. This activity may be downloaded in PDF file format. A data collection sheet and student questions are also included.

216

Paternal involvement among unwed fathers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paternal involvement among unwed fathers is examined during pregnancy and at birth. The effects of relationship status, race and ethnicity, age, education, income, family structure and father values on father involvement are also examined. The findings suggest that overall there is a high degree of involvement among all the fathers examined. Relationship status is statistically significant and most predictive in

Waldo E. Johnson

2001-01-01

217

Fine-Scale Genetic Structure and Gene Dispersal in Centaurea corymbosa (Asteraceae). II. Correlated Paternity Within and Among Sibships  

PubMed Central

The fine-scale pattern of correlated paternity was characterized within a population of the narrow-endemic model plant species, Centaurea corymbosa, using microsatellites and natural progeny arrays. We used classical approaches to assess correlated mating within sibships and developed a new method based on pairwise kinship coefficients to assess correlated paternity within and among sibships in a spatio-temporal perspective. We also performed numerical simulations to assess the relative significance of different mechanisms promoting correlated paternity and to compare the statistical properties of different estimators of correlated paternity. Our new approach proved very informative to assess which factors contributed most to correlated paternity and presented good statistical properties. Within progeny arrays, we found that about one-fifth of offspring pairs were full-sibs. This level of correlated mating did not result from correlated pollen dispersal events (i.e., pollen codispersion) but rather from limited mate availability, the latter being due to limited pollen dispersal distances, the heterogeneity of pollen production among plants, phenological heterogeneity and, according to simulations, the self-incompatibility system. We point out the close connection between correlated paternity and the “TwoGener” approach recently developed to infer pollen dispersal and discuss the conditions to be met when applying the latter. PMID:15579710

Hardy, Olivier J.; González-Martínez, Santiago C.; Colas, Bruno; Fréville, Hélène; Mignot, Agnès; Olivieri, Isabelle

2004-01-01

218

Microsatellite Analysis of Genetic Variation and Population Subdivision for the Black Muntjac, Muntiacus crinifrons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The black muntjac (Muntiacus crinifrons) is a rare deer found only in a restricted region in east China. Recent studies of mitochondrial DNA diversity have shown\\u000a a markedly low level of nucleotide diversity for the species, and the Suichang population was genetically differentiated from\\u000a the two other populations, in Huangshan and Tianmushan mountains. In this study, we extended the analysis

Hai-Long Wu; Qiu-Hong Wan; Sheng-Guo Fang

2007-01-01

219

Microsatellite DNA Analysis Revealed a Drastic Genetic Change of Plasmodium vivax Population in the Republic of Korea During 2002 and 2003  

PubMed Central

Background Vivax malaria was successfully eliminated in the Republic of Korea (South Korea) in the late 1970s, but it was found to have re-emerged from 1993. In order to control malaria and evaluate the effectiveness of malaria controls, it is important to develop a spatiotemporal understanding of the genetic structure of the parasite population. Here, we estimated the population structure and temporal dynamics of the transmission of Plasmodium vivax in South Korea by analyzing microsatellite DNA markers of the parasite. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed 14 microsatellite DNA loci of the P. vivax genome from 163 South Korean isolates collected from 1994 to 2008. Allelic data were used to analyze linkage disequilibrium (LD), genetic differentiation and population structure, in order to make a detailed estimate of temporal change in the parasite population. The LD analysis showed a gradual decrease in LD levels, while the levels of genetic differentiation between successive years and analysis of the population structure based on the Bayesian approach suggested that a drastic genetic change occurred in the South Korean population during 2002 and 2003. Conclusions/Significance Although relapse and asymptomatic parasite carriage might influence the population structure to some extent, our results suggested the continual introduction of P. vivax into South Korea through other parasite population sources. One possible source, particularly during 2002 and 2003, is North Korea. Molecular epidemiology using microsatellite DNA of the P. vivax population is effective for assessing the population structure and temporal dynamics of parasite transmission; information that can assist in the elimination of vivax malaria in endemic areas. PMID:24205429

Iwagami, Moritoshi; Hwang, Seung-Young; Kim, So-Hee; Park, So-Jung; Lee, Ga-Young; Matsumoto-Takahashi, Emilie Louise Akiko; Kho, Weon-Gyu; Kano, Shigeyuki

2013-01-01

220

Detection of Sequence Polymorphism in Rubus Occidentalis L. Monomorphic Microsatellite Markers by High Resolution Melting  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Microsatellite, or simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, are valuable as co-dominant genetic markers with a variety of applications such as DNA fingerprinting, linkage mapping, and population structure analysis. Development of microsatellite primers through the identification of appropriate repeate...

221

Comparison of SNPs and microsatellites in identifying offtypes of cacao clones from Cameroon  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers are increasingly being used in crop breeding programs, slowly replacing microsatellites and other markers. SNPs provide many benefits over microsatellites, including ease of analysis and unambiguous results across various platforms. We compare SNPs to m...

222

Characterization of microsatellite loci and repeat density in the gooseneck barnacle, Pollicipes elegans, using next generation sequencing.  

PubMed

Pollicipes elegans is a commercially important and biogeographically significant rocky-shore gooseneck barnacle found along the eastern Pacific coasts of Peru, El Salvador, and Mexico. Little is known about its reproductive biology, and no genetic resources exist despite its growing importance as a fisheries species in the region. Next generation sequencing methods can provide rapid and cost-effective development of molecular markers such as microsatellites, which can be applied to studies of paternity, parentage, and population structure in this understudied species. Here, we used Roche 454 pyrosequencing to develop microsatellite markers in P. elegans and made genomic comparisons of repeat density and repeat class frequency with other arthropods and more distantly related taxa. We identified 13 809 repeats of 1-6 bp, or a density of 9744 bp of repeat per megabase queried, which was intermediate in the range of taxonomic groups compared. Comparison of repeat class frequency distributions revealed that P. elegans was most similar to Drosophila melanogaster rather than the more closely related crustacean Daphnia pulex. We successfully isolated 15 polymorphic markers with an average of 9.4 alleles per locus and average observed and expected heterozygosities of 0.501 and 0.597, respectively. Four loci were found to be out of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, likely due to the presence of null alleles. A preliminary population genetic analysis revealed low but significant differentiation between a Peruvian (n = 47) and Mexican (n = 48) population (F(ST) = 0.039) and markedly reduced genetic diversity in Peru. These markers should facilitate future studies of paternity, parentage, and population structure in this species. PMID:24115106

Plough, Louis V; Marko, Peter B

2014-01-01

223

The development and use of microsatellite markers for genetic analysis and plant breeding with emphasis on bread wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, a variety of molecular markers, based on microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) have become the\\u000a markers of choice, thus necessitating their development and use in a variety of plant systems. In this review, the basic principles\\u000a underlying different hybridization-based (oligonucleotide fingerprinting) and PCR based approaches (STMS, MP-PCR, AMP-PCR\\/\\u000a ISSR\\/ ASSR, RAMPs\\/ dRAMPs, SAMPL), making use of

P. K. Gupta; R. K. Varshney

2000-01-01

224

Reproductive and Mating Success in the Small-Mouthed Salamander ( Ambystoma texanum ) Estimated via Microsatellite Parentage Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bateman’s principles of sexual selection predict that the sex with “cheaper” gametes may maximize reproductive efforts by\\u000a mating multiply and so display greater positive covariance between reproductive and mating success. We conducted a semi-controlled\\u000a breeding experiment to genetically quantify sexual selection in adult Ambystoma texanum, a sexually monomorphic salamander with simple courtship behaviors. We used four polymorphic microsatellite loci to

David Gopurenko; Rod N. Williams; James Andrew DeWoody

2007-01-01

225

Density drives polyandry and relatedness influences paternal success in the Pacific gooseneck barnacle, Pollicipes elegans  

PubMed Central

Background Polyandry is a common mating strategy in animals, increasing female fitness through direct (material) and indirect (genetic) benefits. Most theories about the benefits of polyandry come from studies of terrestrial animals, which have relatively complex mating systems and behaviors; less is known about the potential benefits of polyandry in sessile marine animals, for which potential mates may be scarce and females have less control over pre-copulatory mate choice. Here, we used microsatellite markers to examine multiple paternity in natural aggregations of the Pacific gooseneck barnacle Pollicipes elegans, testing the effect of density on paternity and mate relatedness on male reproductive success. Results We found that multiple paternity was very common (79% of broods), with up to five fathers contributing to a brood, though power was relatively low to detect more than four fathers. Density had a significant and positive linear effect on the number of fathers siring a brood, though this relationship leveled off at high numbers of fathers, which may reflect a lack of power and/or an upper limit to polyandry in this species. Significant skew in male reproductive contribution in multiply-sired broods was observed and we found a positive and significant relationship between the proportion of offspring sired and the genetic similarity between mates, suggesting that genetic compatibility may influence reproductive success in this species. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study to show high levels of multiple paternity in a barnacle, and overall, patterns of paternity in P. elegans appear to be driven primarily by mate availability. Evidence of paternity bias for males with higher relatedness suggests some form of post-copulatory sexual selection is taking place, but more work is needed to determine whether it operates during or post-fertilization. Overall, our results suggest that while polyandry in P. elegans is driven by mate availability, it may also provide a mechanism for females to ensure fertilization by compatible gametes and increase reproductive success in this sessile species. PMID:24739102

2014-01-01

226

A polymorphic microsatellite from the Squalius alburnoides complex (Osteichthyes, Cyprinidae) cloned by serendipity can be useful in genetic analysis of polyploids  

PubMed Central

A new microsatellite locus (SAS1) for Squalius alburnoides was obtained through cloning by serendipity. The possible usefulness of this new species-specific microsatellite in genetic studies of this hybrid-species complex, was explored. The polymorphism exhibited by SAS1 microsatellite is an important addition to the set of microsatellites previously used in genetic studies in S. alburnoides complex, that mostly relied in markers described for other species. Moreover, the SAS1 microsatellite could be used to identify the parental genomes of the complex, complementing other methods recently described for the same purpose.. PMID:21931529

Boto, Luis; Cunha, Carina; Doadrio, Ignacio

2011-01-01

227

Analysis of transferability of microsatellite primers (SSR) in wild Passiflora species and intraspecific genetic diversity in Passiflora alata.  

PubMed

The genus Passiflora L. is the most representative of Passifloraceae, with over 500 known species, among which 150-200 originated from Brazil. In addition to the great commercial importance of this genus for the fruit market, many of the species have exotic flowers with a huge diversity of colors and can thereby be exploited as ornamental plants. This study was aimed at investigating the transferability of microsatellite primers in wild Passiflora species (P. cacao, P. cincinnata, P. glandulosa, P. gibertii, and P. mucronata) and characterizing 29 P. alata accessions using microsatellite primers that were previously developed in a library enriched with microsatellites from P. edulis f. flavicarpa for P. alata. The interspecies cross-amplification rate varied, and P. cacao exhibited the highest rate of amplification, suggesting a greater degree of proximity to P. edulis. The study of intraspecific accessions in P. alata found genetic similarity, with values ranging from 0.47 to 1.00 and an average similarity of 0.74. Hence, this study revealed the intraspecific genetic variability of P. alata in the Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz's Active Germplasm Bank and will lead to the adoption of mating strategies between accessions; thus making their use more suitable for breeding purposes. PMID:25117349

Silva, M A A; Souza, M M; Silva, G S; Melo, C A F; Corrêa, R X; Araújo, I S; Conceição, L D H C S

2014-01-01

228

[Genetic variation analysis of two silver carp populations in the middle and upper Yangtze River by microsatellite.  

PubMed

Thirty nine microsatellite markers were applied to analyze the genetic diversity of two silver carp populations in the middle and upper reaches of the Yangtze River. The following parameters were calculated: average observed number of alleles, average effective number of alleles, genetic heterozygosity, polymorphism information content (PIC), genetic similarity coefficient, genetic distance, Hardy-Weinberg balance deflection index. These results indicated that the average observed number of alleles in each microsatellite locus of the Wanzhou population and Jianli populations is 6.128 and 4.974, respectively; the average effective number of alleles is 4.107 and 3.395, respectively; and the number of total alleles of these 39 microsatellite loci is 259. The PIC of polymorphic loci varies between 0.077-0.865, and the average PIC is 0.617. The average observed heterozygosity (Ho) of two populations is 0.834 and 0.775, respectively, and the average expective heterzygosity (He) is 0.713 and 0.623, respectively. The genetic similarity coefficient of two populations is 0.618 and the genetic distance of these populations is 0.482. These results indicated that the two populations belong to different popula-tions for the obvious genetic differentiation. PMID:18930896

Wang, Chang-Zhong; Liang, Hong-Wei; Zou, Gui-Wei; Luo, Xiang-Zhong; Li, Zhong; Tian, Hua1; Hu, Guang-Fu

2008-10-01

229

New softwares for automated microsatellite marker development.  

PubMed

Microsatellites are repeated small sequence motifs that are highly polymorphic and abundant in the genomes of eukaryotes. Often they are the molecular markers of choice. To aid the development of microsatellite markers we have developed a module that integrates a program for the detection of microsatellites (TROLL), with the sequence assembly and analysis software, the Staden Package. The module has easily adjustable parameters for microsatellite lengths and base pair quality control. Starting with large datasets of unassembled sequence data in the form of chromatograms and/or text data, it enables the creation of a compact database consisting of the processed and assembled microsatellite containing sequences. For the final phase of primer design, we developed a program that accepts the multi-sequence 'experiment file' format as input and produces a list of primer pairs for amplification of microsatellite markers. The program can take into account the quality values of consensus bases, improving success rate of primer pairs in PCR. The software is freely available and simple to install in both Windows and Unix-based operating systems. Here we demonstrate the software by developing primer pairs for 427 new candidate markers for peanut. PMID:16493138

Martins, Wellington; de Sousa, Daniel; Proite, Karina; Guimarães, Patrícia; Moretzsohn, Marcio; Bertioli, David

2006-01-01

230

Paternity and relatedness in wild chimpanzee communities Linda Vigilant, Michael Hofreiter, Heike Siedel, and Christophe Boesch  

E-print Network

(EGP) has been identified, suggesting an incidence of EGP of 7%. This more extensive analysis accurate genotypes and assignments of paternity and hence caused the false inference of a high rate of EGP

231

Genetic diversity and differentiation of the Korean starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus) between and within cultured stocks and wild populations inferred from microsatellite DNA analysis.  

PubMed

The Korean starry flounder, Platichthys stellatus, is economically valuable coastal resident fish species. However, the annual catch of this fish has fluctuated and suffered major declines in Korea. We examined the genetic diversity and population structure for four wild populations and three hatchery stocks of Korean starry flounder to protect its genetic integrity using nine microsatellites. A group of 339 genotypes belonging to seven populations were screened. High degrees of polymorphism at the microsatellite loci were observed within both the wild and hatchery populations. Compared to the wild populations, genetic changes, including reduced genetic diversity and highly significant differentiation, have occurred in cultured stocks. Significant population differentiation was also observed in wild starry flounder populations. Similar degrees of inbreeding and significant Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium deviations were detected in both the wild and the hatchery populations. The genetic connectivity pattern identified four distinct metapopulations of starry flounder in Korea by clustering in the phylogenetic tree, Bayesian analyses, molecular variance analysis, PCA and multidimensional scaling analysis. A pattern of isolation-by-distance was not significant. This genetic differentiation may be the result of the co-effects of various factors, such as historic dispersal, local environment or anthropogenic activities. These results provide useful information for the genetic monitoring of P. stellatus hatchery stocks, for the genetic improvement of this species by selective breeding and for designing suitable management guidelines for the conservation of this species. PMID:25064574

An, Hye Suck; Nam, Myung Mo; Myeong, Jeong In; An, Chul Min

2014-11-01

232

Multiple paternity in the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae).  

PubMed

The reproductive strategies and variation in reproductive success of ticks are poorly understood. We determined variation in multiple paternity in the American dog tick Dermancentor variabilis . In total, 48 blood-engorged female ticks and 22 male companion ticks were collected from 13 raccoon ( Procyon lotor ) hosts. In the laboratory, 56.3% of blood-engorged females laid eggs, of which 37.0% hatched or showed signs of development. We examined the presence of multiple paternity in the ensuing clutches by genotyping groups of eggs and larvae at 5 microsatellite loci and subtracting the known maternal alleles, thereby identifying male-contributed alleles. Seventy-five percent of the clutches presented multiple paternity, with a mode of 2 fathers siring the clutch. Males associated with the females on the host always sired some offspring. In 1 case, a male was the sire of clutches derived from 2 females, indicating both polygyny and polyandry may occur for this species. These results, combined with those of several other recent studies, suggest that multiple paternity might be frequent for ixodid ticks. PMID:22257158

Ruiz-López, María José; Chaskelson, Saskia; Gompper, Matthew E; Eggert, Lori S

2012-06-01

233

Efficient human paternity testing with a panel of 40 short insertion-deletion polymorphisms.  

PubMed

We developed a panel of 40 multiplexed short insertion-deletion (indel) polymorphic loci with widespread chromosomal locations and allele frequencies close to 0.50 in the European population. We genotyped these markers in 360 unrelated self-classified White Brazilians and 50 mother-child-probable father trios with proven paternity. The average heterozygosity (gene diversity) per locus was 0.48, and the combined probability of identity (matching probability) for the 40-locus set was 3.48 x 10(-17). The combined power of exclusion of the indel panel was 0.9997. The efficiency of the 40 indel set in the exclusion of falsely accused individuals in paternity casework was equivalent to the CODIS set of 13 microsatellites. The geometric mean of the paternity indices of the 50 mother-child-probable father trios was 17,607. This panel of 40 short indels was found to have excellent performance. Thus, especially because of its simplicity and low cost, and the fact that it is composed of genomic markers that have very low mutation rates, it represents a useful new tool for human paternity testing. PMID:20391344

Pimenta, J R; Pena, S D J

2010-01-01

234

Certainty of paternity and paternal investment in eastern bluebirds and tree swallows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extra-pair paternity is common in many socially monogamous passerine birds with biparental care. Thus, males often invest in offspring to which they are not related. Models of optimal parental investment predict that, under certain assumptions, males should lower their investment in response to reduced certainty of paternity. We attempted to reduce certainty of paternity experimentally in two species, the eastern

BART KEMPENAERS; RICHARD B. LANCTOT; RALEIGH J. ROBERTSON

1998-01-01

235

Paternal Psychiatric Symptoms and Maladaptive Paternal Behavior in the Home During the Child Rearing Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from the Children in the Community Study, a community-based longitudinal study were used to investigate associations between paternal psychiatric disorders and child-rearing behaviors. Paternal psychiatric symptoms and behavior in the home were assessed among 782 families during the childhood and adolescence of the offspring. Paternal anxiety, disruptive, mood, personality, and substance use disorders were independently associated with specific types

Jeffrey G. Johnson; Patricia Cohen; Stephanie Kasen; Judith S. Brook

2004-01-01

236

Identification of visual paternity cues in humans  

PubMed Central

Understanding how individuals identify their relatives has implications for the evolution of social behaviour. Kinship cues might be based on familiarity, but in the face of paternity uncertainty and costly paternal investment, other mechanisms such as phenotypic matching may have evolved. In humans, paternal recognition of offspring and subsequent discriminative paternal investment have been linked to father–offspring facial phenotypic similarities. However, the extent to which paternity detection is impaired by environmentally induced facial information is unclear. We used 27 portraits of fathers and their adult sons to quantify the level of paternity detection according to experimental treatments that manipulate the location, type and quantity of visible facial information. We found that (i) the lower part of the face, that changes most with development, does not contain paternity cues, (ii) paternity can be detected even if relational information within the face is disrupted and (iii) the signal depends on the presence of specific information rather than their number. Taken together, the results support the view that environmental effects have little influence on the detection of paternity using facial similarities. This suggests that the cognitive dispositions enabling the facial detection of kinship relationships ignore genetic irrelevant facial information. PMID:24759368

Alvergne, Alexandra; Perreau, Fanny; Mazur, Allan; Mueller, Ulrich; Raymond, Michel

2014-01-01

237

Analysis of four microsatellite markers on the long arm of chromosome 9 by meiotic recombination in flow-sorted single sperm  

SciTech Connect

Meiotic recombination in flow-sorted single sperm was used to analyze four highly polymorphic microsatellite markers on the long arm of chromosome 9. The microsatellites comprised three tightly linked markers: 9CMP1 (D9S109), 9CMP2 (D9S127), and D9S53, which map to 9q31, and a reference marker, ASS, which is located in 9q34.1. Haplotypes of single sperm were assessed by using PCR in a single-step multiplex reaction to amplify each locus. Recombinant haplotypes were identified by their relative infrequency and were analyzed using THREELOC, a maximum-likelihood-analysis program, and an adaptation of CRI-MAP. The most likely order of these markers was cen-D9S109-D9S127-D9S53-ASS-tel with D9S109, D9S127, and D9S53 being separated by a genetic distance of approximately 3%. The order of the latter three markers did not however achieve statistical significance using the THREELOC program. 21 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Furlong, R.A.; Goudie, D.R.; Carter, N.P.; Lyall, J.E.W.; Affara, N.A.; Ferguson-Smith, M.A. (Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom))

1993-06-01

238

Models of Microsatellite Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsatellites are simple sequence repeats in DNA, for example the motif AT repeated twenty-flve times in a row. Microsatellites mutate by changing the number of their repeats, for example the (AT)25 mentioned in the previous sentence might become an (AT)24 or (AT)26 in that individual's ofispring. These length-changing mutations occur at rates several orders of magnitude higher than point mutations.

Peter Calabrese; Raazesh Sainudiin

239

The Role of Paternal Drinking Problems in the Psychological Characteristics of High School Students  

PubMed Central

Background It has been reported that children with parental drinking problems are at increased risk of drinking problems or psychiatric diseases in adulthood. The present study was conducted to examine the psychiatric characteristics of high school students according to paternal drinking problems. Methods The subjects were 950 high school students (390 male and 560 female). The paternal drinking problems were assessed by using the Father-Short Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Beck's depression inventory, and Beck's anxiety inventory were used to evaluate the drinking behavior, depression, and anxiety of high school students. Results While male students with paternal drinking problems showed significantly increased risk of anxiety (odds ratio [OR], 2.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05 to 4.63), female students with paternal drinking problems showed significantly increased risk of depression (OR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.24 to 2.74) according to the results of logistic regression analysis with adjustments for participants' age, whether they live together with parents, their religion, club activities, and smoking habits on the basis of students without paternal drinking problems. Conclusion The above results suggest that paternal drinking problems lead to unstable mentalities in both male and female students, and that a family physician should address the mental state of teenagers with paternal drinking problems during clinical encounters. PMID:24340159

Choi, Dong Hyun; Jung, Jin Gyu; Ryou, Young Il; Kim, Young Seok; Uh, Won Chul

2013-01-01

240

Phenotypic characterization and nuclear microsatellite analysis reveal genomic changes and rearrangements underlying androgenesis in tetraploid potatoes ( Solanum tuberosum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two (di)haploids (2n = 2x = 24) and nine tetraploids (2n = 4x = 48) obtained from Solanum tuberosum through anther culture were characterized for nDNA variation, phenotypic variation and nuclear microsatellite polymorphism.\\u000a Androgenic (di)haploids were also characterized for late blight resistance. The (di)haploid C-13 was derived from Indian tetraploid\\u000a potato cv. Kufri Chipsona-2, while D4 from TPS (true potato seed) parental line JTH\\/C-107, which is an interspecific

Sushruti Sharma; Debabrata Sarkar; Suman Kumar Pandey

2010-01-01

241

Complex Microsatellite Dynamics in the Myostatin Gene Within Ruminants  

E-print Network

activity (length polymorphism) is uncovered in both deer and bovids. The dynamic process of microsatellite genomes. Keywords Microsatellite evolution Á Phylogenetic analysis Á Myostatin Á Ruminants Á Artiodactyls base-pair motifs that are repeated in tandem. They occur across the genome in various types of gene

Liberles, David

242

A measure of population subdivision based on microsatellite allele frequencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsatellite loci, loci that vary in the number of repeats of a simple DNA sequence, are becoming commonly used in the analysis of natural populations. Microsatellite loci are often highly polymorphic and relatively easy to survey and hence offer the hope of greater understanding of population structure. The question is how to make the best use of allele frequencies at

Montgomery Slatkin

1995-01-01

243

Sex chromosome microsatellite markers from an Australian marsupial  

E-print Network

79 Method outline 79 DNA extraction, quantitation and dilution 79 PCR conditions 82 Reconstruction experiments and SP-PCR from sperm DNA 83 Analysis of genotyping results: reconstruction experiments 85 with this thesis 14 1 Introduction 15 Microsatellite DNA 15 Mutational mechanisms at microsatellite DNA 16 Models

Canberra, University of

244

[Analysis of genetic structure and differentiation of the bog and dry land populations of Pinus sibirica du tour based on nuclear microsatellite loci].  

PubMed

We evaluated the population structure of the bog and dry land populations of the Siberian pine Pinus sibirica (P. sibrica) in Western Siberia using nuclear genome markers. Six pairs of nuclear microsatellite loci were used for this analysis. We detected 30 allelic variants in 120 individuals of four populations of P. Sibirica. We established that the studied populations differ by genetic structure. The most essential differences were identified between the Siberian pine population from oligotrophic bog and the group of populations from dry land within eutrophic bogs and near settlements P. sibirica forest (F(ST) = 0.019; D(N) = 0.053). We estimated that diversification of the West Siberian populations of P. sibirica exceeded 2.4% (F(ST) = 0.024), based on an analysis of SSR markers. PMID:25735136

Oreshkova, N V; Sedel'nikova, T S; Pimenov, A V; Efremov, S P

2014-09-01

245

Non-equivalent contributions of maternal and paternal genomes to early plant embryogenesis.  

PubMed

Zygotic genome activation in metazoans typically occurs several hours to a day after fertilization, and thus maternal RNAs and proteins drive early animal embryo development. In plants, despite several molecular studies of post-fertilization transcriptional activation, the timing of zygotic genome activation remains a matter of debate. For example, two recent reports that used different hybrid ecotype combinations for RNA sequence profiling of early Arabidopsis embryo transcriptomes came to divergent conclusions. One identified paternal contributions that varied by gene, but with overall maternal dominance, while the other found that the maternal and paternal genomes are transcriptionally equivalent. Here we assess paternal gene activation functionally in an isogenic background, by performing a large-scale genetic analysis of 49 EMBRYO DEFECTIVE genes and testing the ability of wild-type paternal alleles to complement phenotypes conditioned by mutant maternal alleles. Our results demonstrate that wild-type paternal alleles for nine of these genes are completely functional 2 days after pollination, with the remaining 40 genes showing partial activity beginning at 2, 3 or 5 days after pollination. Using our functional assay, we also demonstrate that different hybrid combinations exhibit significant variation in paternal allele activation, reconciling the apparently contradictory results of previous transcriptional studies. The variation in timing of gene function that we observe confirms that paternal genome activation does not occur in one early discrete step, provides large-scale functional evidence that maternal and paternal genomes make non-equivalent contributions to early plant embryogenesis, and uncovers an unexpectedly profound effect of hybrid genetic backgrounds on paternal gene activity. PMID:25209660

Del Toro-De León, Gerardo; García-Aguilar, Marcelina; Gillmor, C Stewart

2014-10-30

246

Paternal isodisomy for chromosome 7 and normal growth and development in a patient with congenital chloride diarrhea  

SciTech Connect

Uniparental disomy (UPD) has been reported in an increasing number of patients, occasionally ascertained because of concomitant autosomal recessive disorders. In some cases, additional signs such as growth alteration, mental retardation or minor anomalies are present, suggesting an imprinting effect. For maternal chromosome 7, UPD has been described in three patients with recessive disorders. Severe growth retardation diagnosed in all these patients has been explained by the effect of imprinting of growth related genes on maternal chromosome 7. No cases of paternally derived disomy from chromosome 7 were previously known. Here we report paternal isodisomy for chromosome 7 and normal growth in a patient with a recessive disorder, congenital chloride diarrhea (CLD; MIM 214700). Ten informative microsatellite markers on chromosome 7 demonstrated that the proband did not have any maternal contribution to her genotype for that chromosome. Maternal and paternal alleles could not be distinguished for another 10 markers tested for chromosome 7, but the proband was always homozygous. As most uniparental paternal disomies appear to have a postzygotic origin, the primary event might have been a maternal meiotic nondisjunction. A thorough clinical evaluation with a view to additional signs of imprinted genes localized in chromosome 7 was performed. The physical status and laboratory tests were normal except for a mild high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss. As the patient has normal stature, it is likely that the paternal chromosome 7 lacks the suggested maternal imprinting effect on growth. The origin of the hearing loss remains speculative.

Hoeglund, P.; de la Chapelle, A.; Kere, J. [Univ. of Helsinki, (Finland)] [and others

1994-09-01

247

Epigenetics and the Origins of Paternal Effects  

PubMed Central

Though there are multiple routes through which parents can influence their offspring, recent studies of environmentally induced epigenetic variation have highlighted the role of non-genomic pathways. In addition to the experience-dependent modification of DNA methylation that can be achieved via mother-infant interactions, there has been increasing interest in the epigenetic mechanisms through which paternal influences on offspring development can be achieved. Epidemiological and laboratory studies suggest that paternal nutritional and toxicological exposures as well as paternal age and phenotypic variation can lead to variations in offspring and, in some cases, grand-offspring development. These findings suggest a potential epigenetic germline inheritance of paternal effects. However, it may be important to consider the interplay between maternal and paternal influences as well as the experimental dissociation between experience-dependent and germline transmission when exploring the role of epigenetic variation within the germline as a mediator of these effects. In this review, we will explore these issues, with a particular focus on the potential role of paternally-induced maternal investment, highlight the literature illustrating the transgenerational impact of paternal experiences, and discuss the evidence supporting the role of epigenetic mechanisms in maintaining paternal effects both within and across generations. PMID:20620140

Curley, James P.; Mashoodh, Rahia; Champagne, Frances A.

2010-01-01

248

Paternal inheritance in mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae).  

PubMed

Mealybugs have a haplodiploid reproduction system, with paternal genome elimination (PGE); the males are diploid soon after fertilization, but during embryogenesis, the male paternal set of chromosomes becomes heterochromatic (HC) and therefore inactive. Previous studies have suggested that paternal genes can be passed on from mealybug males to their sons, but not necessarily by any son, to the next generation. We employed crosses between two mealybug species--Planococcus ficus (Signoret) and Planococcus citri (Risso)--and between two populations of P. ficus, which differ in their mode of pheromone attraction, in order to demonstrate paternal inheritance from males to F2 through F1 male hybrids. Two traits were monitored through three generations: mode of male pheromone attraction (pherotype) and sequences of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) gene segment (genotype). Our results demonstrate that paternal inheritance in mealybugs can occur from males to their F2 offspring, through F1 males (paternal line). F2 backcrossed hybrid males expressed paternal pherotypes and ITS2 genotypes although their mother originated through a maternal population. Further results revealed other, hitherto unknown, aspects of inheritance in mealybugs, such as that hybridization between the two species caused absence of paternal traits in F2 hybrid females produced by F1 hybrid females. Furthermore, hybridization between the two species raised the question of whether unattracted males have any role in the interactions between P. ficus and P. citri. PMID:25091548

Kol-Maimon, Hofit; Mendel, Zvi; Franco, José Carlos; Ghanim, Murad

2014-10-01

249

Paternal inheritance in mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mealybugs have a haplodiploid reproduction system, with paternal genome elimination (PGE); the males are diploid soon after fertilization, but during embryogenesis, the male paternal set of chromosomes becomes heterochromatic (HC) and therefore inactive. Previous studies have suggested that paternal genes can be passed on from mealybug males to their sons, but not necessarily by any son, to the next generation. We employed crosses between two mealybug species— Planococcus ficus (Signoret) and Planococcus citri (Risso)—and between two populations of P. ficus, which differ in their mode of pheromone attraction, in order to demonstrate paternal inheritance from males to F2 through F1 male hybrids. Two traits were monitored through three generations: mode of male pheromone attraction (pherotype) and sequences of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) gene segment (genotype). Our results demonstrate that paternal inheritance in mealybugs can occur from males to their F2 offspring, through F1 males (paternal line). F2 backcrossed hybrid males expressed paternal pherotypes and ITS2 genotypes although their mother originated through a maternal population. Further results revealed other, hitherto unknown, aspects of inheritance in mealybugs, such as that hybridization between the two species caused absence of paternal traits in F2 hybrid females produced by F1 hybrid females. Furthermore, hybridization between the two species raised the question of whether unattracted males have any role in the interactions between P. ficus and P. citri.

Kol-Maimon, Hofit; Mendel, Zvi; Franco, José Carlos; Ghanim, Murad

2014-10-01

250

Beyond traditional paternity and identification cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper extends on the traditional methodology used to quantify DNA evidence in paternity or identification cases. By extending we imply that there are more than two alternatives to choose between. In a standard paternity case the two competing explanations H1: “John Doe is the father of the child” and H2: “A random man is the father of the child”,

T. Egeland; P. F. Mostad; B. Mevåg; M. Stenersen

2000-01-01

251

Risk Factors for Paternal Physical Child Abuse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study uses the developmental-ecological framework to examine a comprehensive set of paternal factors hypothesized to be linked to risk for paternal child abuse (PCA) among a diverse sample of fathers. Attention was given to fathers' marital status and their race/ethnicity (White, African American, and Hispanic). Methods: Interviews…

Lee, Shawna J.; Guterman, Neil B.; Lee, Yookyong

2008-01-01

252

Multiplexed microsatellite recovery using massively parallel sequencing  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Conservation and management of natural populations requires accurate and inexpensive genotyping methods. Traditional microsatellite, or simple sequence repeat (SSR), marker analysis remains a popular genotyping method because of the comparatively low cost of marker development, ease of analysis and high power of genotype discrimination. With the availability of massively parallel sequencing (MPS), it is now possible to sequence microsatellite-enriched genomic libraries in multiplex pools. To test this approach, we prepared seven microsatellite-enriched, barcoded genomic libraries from diverse taxa (two conifer trees, five birds) and sequenced these on one lane of the Illumina Genome Analyzer using paired-end 80-bp reads. In this experiment, we screened 6.1 million sequences and identified 356958 unique microreads that contained di- or trinucleotide microsatellites. Examination of four species shows that our conversion rate from raw sequences to polymorphic markers compares favourably to Sanger- and 454-based methods. The advantage of multiplexed MPS is that the staggering capacity of modern microread sequencing is spread across many libraries; this reduces sample preparation and sequencing costs to less than $400 (USD) per species. This price is sufficiently low that microsatellite libraries could be prepared and sequenced for all 1373 organisms listed as 'threatened' and 'endangered' in the United States for under $0.5M (USD).

Jennings, T.N.; Knaus, B.J.; Mullins, T.D.; Haig, S.M.; Cronn, R.C.

2011-01-01

253

No evidence of extra?pair paternity in a colonial seabird, the common tern (Sterna hirundo)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of extra?pair paternity and egg dumping was investigated in a colony of common terns (Sterna hirundo), a colonial seabird, in the Venetian lagoon. Ten families were sampled and multilocus DNA fingerprinting analysis was performed. No indication of extra?pair paternity or egg dumping was found in any of the families. The results are discussed in the light of life?history

Matteo Griggio; Giuliano Matessi; Guglielmo Marin

2004-01-01

254

Pattern and Determinants of Paternal Involvement in Childcare: An Empirical Investigation in a Metropolis of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of various aspects of paternal involvement among Indian fathers is presented in this article. The pattern of involvement\\u000a in terms of the activities participated in, and their frequency of participation have been examined. Overall level of involvement\\u000a of fathers in childcare has also been determined. A number of hypotheses regarding predictors of paternal involvement have\\u000a been formulated and

Anjula Saraff; Harish C. Srivastava

2010-01-01

255

Molecular Evidence for High Frequency of Multiple Paternity in a Freshwater Shrimp Species Caridina ensifera  

PubMed Central

Background Molecular genetic analyses of parentage provide insights into mating systems. Although there are 22,000 members in Malacostraca, not much has been known about mating systems in Malacostraca. The freshwater shrimp Caridina ensifera blue, is a new species belonging to Malacostraca which was discovered recently in Sulawesi, Indonesia. Due to its small body size and low fecundity, this species is an ideal species to study the occurrence and frequency of multiple paternity and to understand of how the low fecundity species persist and evolve. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we developed four polymorphic microsatellites from C. ensifera and applied them to investigate the occurrence and frequency of multiple paternity in 20 C. ensifera broods caught from Lake Matano, Sulawesi. By genotyping the mother and all offspring from each brood we discovered multiple paternity in all 20 broods. In most of the 20 broods, fathers contributed skewed numbers of offspring and there was an apparent inverse correlation between reproductive success of sires and their relatedness to mothers. Conclusions/Significance Our results in combination with recent reports on multiple paternity in crayfish, crab and lobster species suggests that multiple paternity is common in Malacostraca. Skewed contribution of fathers to the numbers of offspring and inverse correlation between reproductive success of sires and their relatedness to mothers suggest that sperm competition occurred and/or pre- and postcopulatory female choice happen, which may be important for avoiding the occurrence of inbreeding and optimize genetic variation in offspring and for persistence and evolution of low fecundity species. PMID:20856862

Yue, Gen Hua; Chang, Alex

2010-01-01

256

Compound Evolutionary History of the Rhesus Macaque Mhc Class I B Region Revealed by Microsatellite Analysis and Localization of Retroviral Sequences  

PubMed Central

In humans, the single polymorphic B locus of the major histocompatibility complex is linked to the microsatellite MIB. In rhesus macaques, however, haplotypes are characterized by the presence of unique combinations of multiple B genes, which may display different levels of polymorphism. The aim of the study was to shed light on the evolutionary history of this highly complex region. First, the robustness of the microsatellite MIB-linked to almost half of the B genes in rhesus macaques (Mamu-B)–for accurate B haplotyping was studied. Based on the physical map of an established haplotype comprising 7 MIB loci, each located next to a certain Mamu-B gene, two MIB loci, MIB1 and MIB6, were investigated in a panel of MHC homozygous monkeys. MIB1 revealed a complex genotyping pattern, whereas MIB6 analysis resulted in the detection of one or no amplicon. Both patterns are specific for a given B haplotype, show Mendelian segregation, and even allow a more precise haplotype definition than do traditional typing methods. Second, a search was performed for retroelements that may have played a role in duplication processes as observed in the macaque B region. This resulted in the description of two types of duplicons. One basic unit comprises an expressed Mamu-B gene, adjacent to an HERV16 copy closely linked to MIB. The second type of duplicon comprises a Mamu-B (pseudo)gene, linked to a truncated HERV16 structure lacking its MIB segment. Such truncation seems to coincide with the loss of B gene transcription. Subsequent to the duplication processes, recombination between MIB and Mamu-B loci appears to have occurred, resulting in a hyperplastic B region. Thus, analysis of MIB in addition to B loci allows deciphering of the compound evolutionary history of the class I B region in Old World monkeys. PMID:19172173

Doxiadis, Gaby G. M.; Heijmans, Corrine M. C.; Bonhomme, Maxime; Otting, Nel; Crouau-Roy, Brigitte; Bontrop, Ronald E.

2009-01-01

257

Relatedness structure detected by microsatellite analysis and attempted pedigree reconstruction in an endangered marsupial, the northern hairy-nosed wombat Lasiorhinus krefftii.  

PubMed

The northern hairy-nosed (NHN) wombat is perhaps Australia's most endangered mammal. Being fossorial and nocturnal as well as rare, NHN wombats are difficult to observe in the wild. Hence little is known of their social biology, such as their mating and dispersal systems. A hypothesis has been advanced that adult females of the species disperse post-breeding, leaving their young to inhabit the natal burrow. Female-biased dispersal is expected to result in higher relatedness amongst males in a burrow cluster than amongst females in a burrow cluster. The usefulness of a panel of microsatellite markers in estimating the relatedness structure, and in reconstructing pedigrees for, the sole known population of NHN wombats was assessed. Microsatellite genotypes at eight or nine loci were obtained from 58 of the 85 known individuals, and used to estimate pairwise individual relatedness using Queller & Goodnight's (1989) RELATEDNESS 4.2. Our analysis gave the unexpected result that both males and females were significantly more closely related to their same-sex burrow cluster mates than random, while opposite-sex animals sharing burrows were only slightly (nonsignificantly) more related than random. This raises the possibility of dispersal patterns which lead to association of same-sex relatives. The observed relatedness structure is not expected to make likely a high incidence of inbred matings, as close relatives of the opposite sex are not significantly associated in space. Parentage analysis was attempted using genetic exclusion and LOD likelihood ratios, but proved difficult because of low genetic variation, incomplete sampling of potential parents, and paucity of ecological data such as known mother/offspring pairs and ages of individuals. PMID:9004516

Taylor, A C; Horsup, A; Johnson, C N; Sunnucks, P; Sherwin, B

1997-01-01

258

Analysis of microsatellite polymorphisms within the GLC1F locus in Japanese patients with normal tension glaucoma  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate whether the GLC1F locus is associated with normal tension glaucoma (NTG) in Japanese patients. Methods We recruited 242 unrelated Japanese subjects, including, 141 NTG patients and 101 healthy controls. The patients exhibiting a comparatively early onset were selected as they suggest that genetic factors may show stronger involvement. Genotyping and assessment of allelic diversity was performed on 11 highly polymorphic microsatellite markers in and around the GLC1F locus. Results Individuals carrying the 163 allele of D7S1277i had a statistically significant increased risk of NTG (p=0.0013, pc=0.016, OR=2.47, 95%CI=1.42–4.30). None of the other markers identified significant loci (pc>0.05) after Bonferroni’s correction. Conclusions These findings suggested that the genes in the GLC1F locus may be associated with the pathogenesis of NTG. PMID:20309402

Murakami, Kaori; Ota, Masao; Shiota, Tomoko; Nomura, Naoko; Kashiwagi, Kenji; Mabuchi, Fumihiko; Iijima, Hiroyuki; Kawase, Kazuhide; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Nakamura, Makoto; Negi, Akira; Sagara, Takeshi; Nishida, Teruo; Inatani, Masaru; Tanihara, Hidenobu; Aihara, Makoto; Araie, Makoto; Fukuchi, Takeo; Abe, Haruki; Higashide, Tomomi; Sugiyama, Kazuhisa; Kanamoto, Takashi; Kiuchi, Yoshiaki; Iwase, Aiko; Ohno, Shigeaki; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Mizuki, Nobuhisa

2010-01-01

259

DEVELOPMENT OF MICROSATELLITE MARKERS IN HESSIAN FLY (MAYETIOLA DESTRUCTOR) AND ANALYSIS OF HESSIAN FLY BIOTYPES. INDICATIONS FOR CONTROL OF PEST IN THE FIELD  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A microsatellite library was prepared from size-selected genomic DNA of the Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor). Over 52,000 microsatellite containing clones were recovered and several candidate loci were subsequently characterized and used to determine amounts of gene flow within and between biotyp...

260

Centromere mapping in the Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) through half-tetrad analysis in gynogenetic diploid families.  

PubMed

Centromere mapping is an essential prerequisite for our understanding of the composition and structure of genomes. For centromere mapping, in two meiogynogenetic families of the Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai), we screened 97 microsatellite markers that cover all linkage groups from a currently available abalone linkage map. Microsatellite analysis showed that no unique paternal allele was found in all gynogenetic progeny, which confirmed 100% success of induction of gynogenesis. In the control crosses, all 97 microsatellite loci were compatible with Mendelian inheritance, while in meiogynogenetic progeny, 5.2% of the microsatellite loci showed segregation distortions from an expected 1:1 ratio of two homozygote classes. The second division segregation frequency of the microsatellites ranged from 0.037 to 0.950 with a mean of 0.399, indicating the existence of interference. Heterogeneity among linkage groups in the crossover distribution was observed. Centromere location was mostly in accordance with the abalone karyotype, but differences in marker order between linkage and centromere maps occurred. Information on the positions of centromeres in relation to the microsatellite loci will represent a contribution towards assembly of genetic maps in the commercially important abalone species. PMID:22486500

Nie, H; Li, Q; Kong, L

2012-06-01

261

Siring Success and Paternal Effects in Heterodichogamous Acer opalus  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Heterodichogamy (a dimorphic breeding system comprising protandrous and protogynous individuals) is a potential starting point in the evolution of dioecy from hermaphroditism. In the genus Acer, previous work suggests that dioecy evolved from heterodichogamy through an initial spread of unisexual males. Here, the question is asked as to whether the different morphs in Acer opalus, a species in which males co-exist with heterodichogamous hermaphrodites, differ in various components of male in fitness. Methods Several components of male fertility were analysed. Pollination rates in the male phase were recorded across one flowering period. Pollen viability was compared among morphs through hand pollinations both with pollen from a single sexual morph and also simulating a situation of pollen competition; in the latter experiment, paternity was assessed with microsatellite markers. It was also determined whether effects of genetic relatedness between pollen donors and recipients could influence the siring success. Finally, paternal effects occurring beyond the fertilization process were tested for by measuring the height reached by seedlings with different sires over three consecutive growing seasons. Key Results The males and protandrous morphs had higher pollination rates than the protogynous morph, and the seedlings they sired grew taller. No differences in male fertility were found between males and protandrous individuals. Departures from random mating due to effects of genetic relatedness among sires and pollen recipients were also ruled out. Conclusions Males and protandrous individuals are probably better sires than protogynous individuals, as shown by the higher pollination rates and the differential growth of the seedlings sired by these morphs. In contrast, the fertility of males was not higher than the male fertility of the protandrous morph. While the appearance of males in sexually specialized heterodichogamous populations is possible, even in the absence of a fitness advantage, it is not clear that males can be maintained at an evolutionary equilibrium with two classes of heterodichogamous hermaphrodites. PMID:18319287

Gleiser, Gabriela; Segarra-Moragues, José Gabriel; Pannell, John Richard; Verdú, Miguel

2008-01-01

262

Phylogeographic sympatry and isolation of the Eurasian badgers (Meles, Mustelidae, Carnivora): Implications for an alternative analysis using maternally as well as paternally inherited genes.  

PubMed

In the present study, to further understand the phylogenetic relationships among the Eurasian badgers (Meles, Mustelidae, Carnivora), which are distributed widely in the Palearctic, partial sequences of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region (539-545 base-pairs) as a maternal genetic marker, and the sex-determining region on the Y-chromosome gene (SRY: 1052-1058 base-pairs), as a paternal genetic marker, were examined. The present study revealed ten SRY haplotypes from 47 males of 112 individuals of the Eurasian Continent and Japan. In addition, 39 mtDNA haplotypes were identified from those animals. From the phylogeography of both the uniparentally inherited genes, four lineages were recognized as Japanese, eastern Eurasian, Caucasian, and western Eurasian. The distribution patterns of the mtDNA lineages showed the existence of a sympatric zone between the eastern and western Eurasian lineages around the Volga River in western Russia. Furthermore, the present study suggested that in the Japanese badgers, the larger genetic differentiation of the Shikoku population was attributable to geographic history in the Japanese islands. PMID:21466348

Tashima, Sara; Kaneko, Yayoi; Anezaki, Tomoko; Baba, Minoru; Yachimori, Shuuji; Abramov, Alexei V; Saveljev, Alexander P; Masuda, Ryuichi

2011-04-01

263

Non-Density Dependent Pollen Dispersal of Shorea maxwelliana (Dipterocarpaceae) Revealed by a Bayesian Mating Model Based on Paternity Analysis in Two Synchronized Flowering Seasons  

PubMed Central

Pollinator syndrome is one of the most important determinants regulating pollen dispersal in tropical tree species. It has been widely accepted that the reproduction of tropical forest species, especially dipterocarps that rely on insects with weak flight for their pollination, is positively density-dependent. However differences in pollinator syndrome should affect pollen dispersal patterns and, consequently, influence genetic diversity via the mating process. We examined the pollen dispersal pattern and mating system of Shorea maxwelliana, the flowers of which are larger than those of Shorea species belonging to section Mutica which are thought to be pollinated by thrips (weak flyers). A Bayesian mating model based on the paternity of seeds collected from mother trees during sporadic and mass flowering events revealed that the estimated pollen dispersal kernel and average pollen dispersal distance were similar for both flowering events. This evidence suggests that the putative pollinators – small beetles and weevils – effectively contribute to pollen dispersal and help to maintain a high outcrossing rate even during sporadic flowering events. However, the reduction in pollen donors during a sporadic event results in a reduction in effective pollen donors, which should lead to lower genetic diversity in the next generation derived from seeds produced during such an event. Although sporadic flowering has been considered less effective for outcrossing in Shorea species that depend on thrips for their pollination, effective pollen dispersal by the small beetles and weevils ensures outcrossing during periods of low flowering tree density, as occurs in a sporadic flowering event. PMID:24391712

Masuda, Shinsuke; Tani, Naoki; Ueno, Saneyoshi; Lee, Soon Leong; Muhammad, Norwati; Kondo, Toshiaki; Numata, Shinya; Tsumura, Yoshihiko

2013-01-01

264

Monosomy 1p36.31-33{yields}pter due to a paternal reciprocal translocation: Prognostic significance of FISH analysis  

SciTech Connect

A rare monosomy 1p36.31-33{r_arrow}pter was found in a child with physical anomalies, psycho-motor retardation, and seizures. Cytogenetic investigation suggested an unbalanced translocation between 1p and an acrocentric chromosome, but the rearrangement was difficult to assess accurately using conventional chromosome banding techniques. The half-cryptic translocation was further characterized using fluorescence in situ hybridization, and the aberrant chromosome 1 was shown to be a derivate of a paternal reciprocal translocation t(1;15)(p36.31-33;p11.2-12). The breakpoints on chromosome 1 and 15 were defined in detail using locus specific probes. The rearrangement did not include the region on chromosome 1p which previously has been suggested to predispose to the development of neuroblastoma in a case with a constitutional translocation. At 3 6/12 years, the patient has no clinical signs of this disease, which illustrates the prognostic significance of this investigation. 30 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Blennow, E.; Bui, The-Hung; Wallin, A. [Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden)] [and others] [Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); and others

1996-10-02

265

Searching microsatellites in DNA sequences: approaches used and tools developed.  

PubMed

Microsatellite instability associated genomic activities and evolutionary changes have led to a renewed focus on microsatellite research. In last decade, a number of microsatellite mining tools have been introduced based on different computational approaches. The choice is generally made between slow but exhaustive dynamic programming based approaches, or fast and incomplete heuristic methods. Tools based on stochastic approaches are more popular due to their simplicity and added ornamental features. We have performed a comparative evaluation of the relative efficiency of some microsatellite search tools with their default settings. The graphical user interface, the statistical analysis of the output and ability to mine imperfect repeats are the most important criteria in selecting a tool for a particular investigation. However, none of the available tools alone provides complete and accurate information about microsatellites, and a lot depends on the discretion of the user. PMID:23573036

Grover, Atul; Aishwarya, Veenu; Sharma, P C

2012-01-01

266

Characterization and molecular genetic mapping of microsatellite loci in pepper.  

PubMed

Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats are highly variable DNA sequences that can be used as informative markers for the genetic analysis of plants and animals. For the development of microsatellite markers in Capsicum, microsatellites were isolated from two small-insert genomic libraries and the GenBank database. Using five types of oligonucleotides, (AT)(15), (GA)(15), (GT)(15), (ATT)(10) and (TTG)(10), as probes, positive clones were isolated from the genomic libraries, and sequenced. Out of 130 positive clones, 77 clones showed microsatellite motifs, out of which 40 reliable microsatellite markers were developed. (GA)(n) and (GT)(n) sequences were found to occur most frequently in the pepper genome, followed by (TTG)(n) and (AT)(n). Additional 36 microsatellite primers were also developed from GenBank and other published data. To measure the information content of these markers, the polymorphism information contents (PICs) were calculated. Capsicum microsatellite markers from the genomic libraries have shown a high level of PIC value, 0.76, twice the value for markers from GenBank data. Forty six microsatellite loci were placed on the SNU-RFLP linkage map, which had been derived from the interspecific cross between Capsicum annuum "TF68" and Capsicum chinense "Habanero". The current "SNU2" pepper map with 333 markers in 15 linkage groups contains 46 SSR and 287 RFLP markers covering 1,761.5 cM with an average distance of 5.3 cM between markers. PMID:14647898

Lee, J M; Nahm, S H; Kim, Y M; Kim, B D

2004-02-01

267

Survey and analysis of microsatellites in the silkworm, Bombyx mori: frequency, distribution, mutations, marker potential and their conservation in heterologous species.  

PubMed

We studied microsatellite frequency and distribution in 21.76-Mb random genomic sequences, 0.67-Mb BAC sequences from the Z chromosome, and 6.3-Mb EST sequences of Bombyx mori. We mined microsatellites of >/=15 bases of mononucleotide repeats and >/=5 repeat units of other classes of repeats. We estimated that microsatellites account for 0.31% of the genome of B. mori. Microsatellite tracts of A, AT, and ATT were the most abundant whereas their number drastically decreased as the length of the repeat motif increased. In general, tri- and hexanucleotide repeats were overrepresented in the transcribed sequences except TAA, GTA, and TGA, which were in excess in genomic sequences. The Z chromosome sequences contained shorter repeat types than the rest of the chromosomes in addition to a higher abundance of AT-rich repeats. Our results showed that base composition of the flanking sequence has an influence on the origin and evolution of microsatellites. Transitions/transversions were high in microsatellites of ESTs, whereas the genomic sequence had an equal number of substitutions and indels. The average heterozygosity value for 23 polymorphic microsatellite loci surveyed in 13 diverse silkmoth strains having 2-14 alleles was 0.54. Only 36 (18.2%) of 198 microsatellite loci were polymorphic between the two divergent silkworm populations and 10 (5%) loci revealed null alleles. The microsatellite map generated using these polymorphic markers resulted in 8 linkage groups. B. mori microsatellite loci were the most conserved in its immediate ancestor, B. mandarina, followed by the wild saturniid silkmoth, Antheraea assama. PMID:15371363

Prasad, M Dharma; Muthulakshmi, M; Madhu, M; Archak, Sunil; Mita, K; Nagaraju, J

2005-01-01

268

Comparison of the effectiveness of microsatellites and SNP panels for genetic identification, traceability and assessment of parentage in an inbred Angus herd  

PubMed Central

During the last decade, microsatellites (short tandem repeats or STRs) have been successfully used for animal genetic identification, traceability and paternity, although in recent year single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been increasingly used for this purpose. An efficient SNP identification system requires a marker set with enough power to identify individuals and their parents. Genetic diagnostics generally include the analysis of related animals. In this work, the degree of information provided by SNPs for a consanguineous herd of cattle was compared with that provided by STRs. Thirty-six closely related Angus cattle were genotyped for 18 STRs and 116 SNPs. Cumulative SNPs exclusion power values (Q) for paternity and sample matching probability (MP) yielded values greater than 0.9998 and 4.32E?42, respectively. Generally 2–3 SNPs per STR were needed to obtain an equivalent Q value. The MP showed that 24 SNPs were equivalent to the ISAG (International Society for Animal Genetics) minimal recommended set of 12 STRs (MP ? 10?11). These results provide valuable genetic data that support the consensus SNP panel for bovine genetic identification developed by the Parentage Recording Working Group of ICAR (International Committee for Animal Recording). PMID:23885200

Fernández, María E.; Goszczynski, Daniel E.; Lirón, Juan P.; Villegas-Castagnasso, Egle E.; Carino, Mónica H.; Ripoli, María V.; Rogberg-Muñoz, Andrés; Posik, Diego M.; Peral-García, Pilar; Giovambattista, Guillermo

2013-01-01

269

Original article Microsatellite markers  

E-print Network

Original article Microsatellite markers and management of brown trout Salmo trutta fario, Salmo trutta fario, dans le sud-ouest de la France. La truite commune peu- plant l'ouest des Pyrénées fish, and especially the brown trout (Salmo trutta fario L.), present some interesting biological

Boyer, Edmond

270

Assignment of paternity groups without access to parental genotypes: multiple mating and developmental plasticity in squid.  

PubMed

We present a novel approach to investigating sibling relationships and reconstructing parental genotypes from a progeny array. The Bayesian method we have employed is flexible and may be applicable to a variety of situations in addition to the one presented here. While mutation rates and breeding population allele frequencies can be taken into account, the model requires relatively few loci and makes few assumptions. Paternity of 270 veined squid (Loligo forbesi) hatchlings from three egg strings collected from one location was assigned using five microsatellite loci. Paternal and maternal genotypes reconstructed for each of the three strings were identical, strongly indicating that a single female produced the strings that were fertilized by the same four males. The proportion of eggs fertilized was not equal between males in all three strings, with male 1 siring most offspring (up to 68% in string 1), through to male 4 siring the least (as low as 2.4% in string 1). Although temperature had a profound effect on incubation time, paternity did not affect this trait at 12 degrees C or 8 degrees C. PMID:11380883

Emery, A M; Wilson, I J; Craig, S; Boyle, P R; Noble, L R

2001-05-01

271

Microsatellites reveal heterosis in red deer.  

PubMed Central

The fitness consequences of inbreeding and outbreeding are poorly understood in natural populations. We explore two microsatellite-based variables, individual heterozygosity (likely to correlate with recent inbreeding) and a new individual-specific internal distance measure, mean d2 (focusing on events deeper in the pedigree), in relation to two measures of fitness expressed early in life, birth weight and neonatal survival, in 670 red deer calves (Cervus elaphus) born on the Isle of Rum between 1982 and 1996. For comparison, we also analyse inbreeding coefficients derived from pedigrees in which paternity was inferred by molecular methods. Only 14 out of 231 calves (6.1%) had non-zero inbreeding coefficients, and neither inbreeding coefficient nor individual heterozygosity was consistently related to birth weight or neonatal survival. However, mean d2 was consistently related to both fitness measures. Low mean d2 was associated with low birth weight, especially following cold Aprils, in which foetal growth is reduced. Low mean d2 was also associated with low neonatal survival, but this effect was probably mediated by birth weight because fitting birth weight to the neonatal survival model displaced mean d2 as an explanatory variable. We conclude that in the deer population fitness measures expressed early in life do not show evidence of inbreeding depression, but they do show evidence of heterosis, possibly as a result of population mixing. We also demonstrate the practical problems of estimating inbreeding via pedigrees compared with a direct marker-based estimate of individual heterozygosity. We suggest that, together, individual heterozygosity and mean d2, estimated using microsatellites, are useful tools for exploring inbreeding and outbreeding in natural population. PMID:9569667

Coulson, T N; Pemberton, J M; Albon, S D; Beaumont, M; Marshall, T C; Slate, J; Guinness, F E; Clutton-Brock, T H

1998-01-01

272

[Geographical structure of the sable (Martes zibellina L.) gene pool on the basis of microsatellite loci analysis].  

PubMed

The genetic structure of seven natural sable populations was investigated with the use of the original panel of 10 microsatellite loci. The populations were selected on the basis of the historical data on sable numbers fluctuations for the last 300 years, as well as on data on natural and artificial migrations affecting neighboring populations. We have demonstrated that the populations are in a state of genetic equilibrium for the majority of the loci. The genetic differences between three samplings from Central Siberia populations were insignificant, and the fixation index values were relatively low. At the same time, populations from the margins of the species habitation areal were characterized by the highest fixation index values. We have shown for the first time that populations from different regions of the sable habitation areal maintain their specific features despite the influence of natural and artificial migrations. The current study, performed with nuclear genetic markers, made it possible to get insight into the genetic structure of the analyzed species as a whole. PMID:25857195

2015-01-01

273

A direct characterization of human mutation based on microsatellites  

PubMed Central

Mutations are the raw material of evolution, but have been difficult to study directly. We report the largest study of new mutations to date: 2,058 germline changes discovered by analyzing 85,289 Icelanders at 2,477 microsatellites. The paternal-to-maternal mutation rate ratio is 3.3, and the rate in fathers doubles from age 20 to 58 whereas there is no association with age in mothers. Longer microsatellite alleles are more mutagenic and tend to decrease in length, whereas the opposite is seen for shorter alleles. We use these empirical observations to build a model that we apply to individuals for whom we have both genome sequence and microsatellite data, allowing us to estimate key parameters of evolution without calibration to the fossil record. We infer that the sequence mutation rate is 1.4–2.3×10?8 per base pair per generation (90% credible interval), and that human-chimpanzee speciation occurred 3.7–6.6 million years ago. PMID:22922873

Sun, James X.; Helgason, Agnar; Masson, Gisli; Ebenesersdóttir, Sigrí?ur Sunna; Li, Heng; Mallick, Swapan; Gnerre, Sante; Patterson, Nick; Kong, Augustine; Reich, David; Stefansson, Kari

2012-01-01

274

Functionally relevant microsatellites in sugarcane unigenes  

PubMed Central

Background Unigene sequences constitute a rich source of functionally relevant microsatellites. The present study was undertaken to mine the microsatellites in the available unigene sequences of sugarcane for understanding their constitution in the expressed genic component of its complex polyploid/aneuploid genome, assessing their functional significance in silico, determining the extent of allelic diversity at the microsatellite loci and for evaluating their utility in large-scale genotyping applications in sugarcane. Results The average frequency of perfect microsatellite was 1/10.9 kb, while it was 1/44.3 kb for the long and hypervariable class I repeats. GC-rich trinucleotides coding for alanine and the GA-rich dinucleotides were the most abundant microsatellite classes. Out of 15,594 unigenes mined in the study, 767 contained microsatellite repeats and for 672 of these putative functions were determined in silico. The microsatellite repeats were found in the functional domains of proteins encoded by 364 unigenes. Its significance was assessed by establishing the structure-function relationship for the beta-amylase and protein kinase encoding unigenes having repeats in the catalytic domains. A total of 726 allelic variants (7.42 alleles per locus) with different repeat lengths were captured precisely for a set of 47 fluorescent dye labeled primers in 36 sugarcane genotypes and five cereal species using the automated fragment analysis system, which suggested the utility of designed primers for rapid, large-scale and high-throughput genotyping applications in sugarcane. Pair-wise similarity ranging from 0.33 to 0.84 with an average of 0.40 revealed a broad genetic base of the Indian varieties in respect of functionally relevant regions of the large and complex sugarcane genome. Conclusion Microsatellite repeats were present in 4.92% of sugarcane unigenes, for most (87.6%) of which functions were determined in silico. High level of allelic diversity in repeats including those present in the functional domains of proteins encoded by the unigenes demonstrated their use in assay of useful variation in the genic component of complex polyploid sugarcane genome. PMID:21083898

2010-01-01

275

Evaluation of the paternity probability on an application of minisatellite variant repeat mapping using polymerase chain reaction (MVR-PCR) to paternity testing.  

PubMed

Minisatellite variant repeat (MVR) mapping using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was applied to a practical case of paternity testing to evaluate the paternity probability. In order to obtain single allele mapping by allele-specific MVR-PCR, three flanking polymorphic sites for each of the MS31A and MS32 loci were investigated and all three individuals were typed as heterozygous for at least one flanking polymorphic site at each locus. Allele-specific MVR-PCR was then performed using genomic DNA. It was confirmed that one allele in the child was identical to that from the mother and the other one in the child was identical to that from the alleged father. Mapped allele codes were also compared with those in the database by dot-matrix analysis, and no identical allele was found although some motifs were shared with Japanese alleles. The paternity index and the probability of paternity exclusion in the case at these two MVR loci were calculated using the presumed values of the allele frequencies. These studies seem to illustrate the practical value of MVR mapping of MS31A and MS32 loci in paternity testing. PMID:12935513

Huang, X L; Tamaki, K; Yamamoto, T; Yoshimoto, T; Mizutani, M; Leong, Y K; Tanaka, M; Nozawa, H; Uchihi, R; Katsumata, Y

1999-09-01

276

Molecular phylogenetics and microsatellite analysis reveal cryptic species of speckled dace (Cyprinidae: Rhinichthys osculus) in Oregon's Great Basin.  

PubMed

Speckled dace (Rhinichthys osculus) is a small cyprinid that occurs throughout western North America and is the most commonly occurring fish in Oregon. Because of the high genetic and morphological variation in this species across its range, it has been referred to as a species complex; however, no revision to its taxonomy has occurred since 1984. Here, the phylogenetics and population genetics of speckled dace are examined throughout Oregon's Great Basin to describe genetic variation and infer the geographic boundaries between distinct taxonomic entities and populations. We tested the validity of a putative subspecies, Foskett Spring speckled dace, that occurs in a single spring within Warner Valley in Southeast Oregon and is listed Federally as threatened. Dace were collected from Foskett Spring and all surrounding basins containing speckled dace (Warner, Goose Lake, Lake Abert, Silver Lake, and Malheur), as well as Stinking Lake Spring (located within Malheur), created phylogenetic trees from mitochondrial ND2 and nuclear S7 sequence data, and genotyped eight microsatellite loci for population-level analyses. Three highly divergent clades warrant species-level status: Malheur stream dace, Stinking Lake Spring dace, and dace from the other four basins combined. Although Foskett Spring dace were not monophyletic, substantial population structure occurs at the basin-level and separates Foskett Spring dace from other dace in the surrounding Warner Valley. Thus, we recommend ESU status for the isolated population of speckled dace in Foskett Spring. The high, previously unrecognized, taxonomic diversity within this region indicates a need for a range-wide phylogeographic study of speckled dace and an investigation of the morphological distinctiveness of the putative new species. PMID:24795214

Hoekzema, Kendra; Sidlauskas, Brian L

2014-08-01

277

Mutational analysis of mononucleotide repeats in dual specificity tyrosine phosphatase genes in gastric and colon carcinomas with microsatellite instability.  

PubMed

Coordinated protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation are crucial in the regulation of cell signaling, and disruption of the coordination is known to play important roles in cancer development. Recent reports revealed that classical protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP)-encoded genes are somatically mutated in human colorectal cancer. However, data on dual specificity phosphatase (DPTP) gene mutations in human cancers are lacking. By analyzing a public genomic database, we found that five DPTP genes, CDC14A, MTM1, MTMR3, SSH1, and SSH2, have mononucleotide repeats in their coding DNA sequences. To see whether these genes are mutated in cancers with microsatellite instability (MSI), we analyzed the mononucleotide repeats in 26 gastric cancers (GC) with MSI (MSI-H), 12 GC with low MSI (MSI-L), 45 GC with stable MSI (MSS), 33 colorectal cancers (CRC) with MSI-H, 14 CRC with MSI-L, and 45 CRC with MSS by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP). We found CDC14A and MTMR3 mutations in five and one cancer (s), respectively. These mutations were detected in MSI-H cancers, but not in MSI-L or MSS cancers. The GC and CRC with MSI-H harbored the mutations in 15% and 6%, respectively. The CDC14A and MTMR3 mutations detected in the GC and CRC were deletion or duplication mutations of one base in the nucleotide repeats that would result in premature stops of the amino acid syntheses. Our data show that frameshift mutations of DPTP genes in MSI-H cancers occur at moderate frequencies. The data suggested that alterations in the CDC14A and MTMR3 genes may play a role in the development of GC and CRC with MSI-H by deregulating phosphatase functions possibly together with mutations of classical PTP genes. PMID:20477815

Song, Sang Yong; Kang, Mi Ran; Yoo, Nam Jin; Lee, Sug Hyung

2010-05-01

278

Analysis of the population structure of Macrolophus pygmaeus (Rambur) (Hemiptera: Miridae) in the Palaearctic region using microsatellite markers  

PubMed Central

Macrolophus pygmaeus (Rambur) (Hemiptera: Miridae) is widely distributed throughout the Palaearctic region. The aim was to explain the current geographic distribution of the species by investigating its genetic population structure. Samples of M. pygmaeus were collected in 15 localities through its range of distribution. A sample from a commercial producer was also analyzed. A total of 367 M. pygmaeus were genotyped for nine microsatellite loci. Isolation by distance was tested by Mantel's test. The molecular structure of M. pygmaeus populations was inferred by UPGMA, AMOVA, Principal component and Bayesian analyses. The average number of alleles per locus per population was 5.5 (range: 3.1–7.8). Istanbul (Turkey) and Nimes (France) had the lowest (0.291) and the highest (0.626) expected heterozygosity (He), respectively. There was an increase in He from the Canary Islands to Nimes, and a progressive decrease thereafter. A significant negative correlation was found between allelic richness and He, and the distance of each population to the easternmost locality (Canary Islands). Significant linkage disequilibrium was observed in the populations from Turkey. FST (0.004–0.334) indicated a high population differentiation, with isolation by distance supported by a high correlation. Bayesian analyses, PCA, and UPGMA pointed to three main clusters: (1) Greece and Turkey, (2) Italy and France, and (3) southern Iberia and the Canary Islands. The recent evolutionary history of M. pygmaeus is inferred from the data as follows: (1) the reduction in the geographic distribution of the species to the Iberian, Italian, and Balkan peninsulas, and possibly southern France, during glaciations and re-colonization of northern Europe from its southern refuges; (2) the maintenance of high diversity in Iberia and Italy (and possibly southern France) during contraction periods, and bottlenecks in the Balkans; (3) introgression of the Italian–French lineage in northern Spain, naturally or through trade. PMID:23301179

Sanchez, Juan Antonio; Spina, Michelangelo La; Perera, Omaththage P

2012-01-01

279

Survey and analysis of simple sequence repeats in the Laccaria bicolor genome, with development of microsatellite markers  

SciTech Connect

It is becoming clear that simple sequence repeats (SSRs) play a significant role in fungal genome organization, and they are a large source of genetic markers for population genetics and meiotic maps. We identified SSRs in the Laccaria bicolor genome by in silico survey and analyzed their distribution in the different genomic regions. We also compared the abundance and distribution of SSRs in L. bicolor with those of the following fungal genomes: Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Coprinopsis cinerea, Ustilago maydis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus nidulans, Magnaporthe grisea, Neurospora crassa and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using the MISA computer program, we detected 277,062 SSRs in the L. bicolor genome representing 8% of the assembled genomic sequence. Among the analyzed basidiomycetes, L. bicolor exhibited the highest SSR density although no correlation between relative abundance and the genome sizes was observed. In most genomes the short motifs (mono- to trinucleotides) were more abundant than the longer repeated SSRs. Generally, in each organism, the occurrence, relative abundance, and relative density of SSRs decreased as the repeat unit increased. Furthermore, each organism had its own common and longest SSRs. In the L. bicolor genome, most of the SSRs were located in intergenic regions (73.3%) and the highest SSR density was observed in transposable elements (TEs; 6,706 SSRs/Mb). However, 81% of the protein-coding genes contained SSRs in their exons, suggesting that SSR polymorphism may alter gene phenotypes. Within a L. bicolor offspring, sequence polymorphism of 78 SSRs was mainly detected in non-TE intergenic regions. Unlike previously developed microsatellite markers, these new ones are spread throughout the genome; these markers could have immediate applications in population genetics.

Labbe, Jessy L [ORNL; Murat, Claude [INRA, Nancy, France; Morin, Emmanuelle [INRA, Nancy, France; Le Tacon, F [UMR, France; Martin, Francis [INRA, Nancy, France

2011-01-01

280

Paternity and paternal behaviour in the red-winged blackbird, Agelaius phoeniceus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between paternity and male parental behaviour was investigated in an eastern population of red-winged blackbirds. Data collected over four seasons revealed substantial variation in paternity and the frequency of male provisioning. The feeding of nestlings by males increased non-linearly with the age of the nestlings but did not differ within or between seasons. Average relative provisioning by males

David F. Westneat

1995-01-01

281

The unexpected but understandable dynamics of mating, paternity and paternal care in the ocellated wrasse  

PubMed Central

Although theory generally predicts that males should reduce paternal care in response to cues that predict increased sperm competition and decreased paternity, empirical patterns are equivocal. Some studies have found the predicted decrease in male care with increased sperm competition, while even more studies report no effect of paternity or sperm competition on male care. Here, we report the first example, to our knowledge, of paternal care increasing with the risk and intensity of sperm competition, in the ocellated wrasse (Symphodus ocellatus). Theory also predicts that if paternal care varies and is important to female fitness, female choice among males and male indicators traits of expected paternal care should evolve. Despite a non-random distribution of mating success among nests, we found no evidence for female choice among parental males. Finally, we document the highest published levels of extra-pair paternity for a species with exclusive and obligate male care: genetic paternity analyses revealed cuckoldry at 100 per cent of nests and 28 per cent of all offspring were not sired by the male caring for them. While not predicted by any existing theory, these unexpected reproductive patterns become understandable if we consider how male and female mating and parental care interact simultaneously in this and probably many other species. PMID:19812085

Alonzo, Suzanne H.; Heckman, Kellie L.

2010-01-01

282

Identification of the skeletal remains of Josef Mengele by DNA analysis.  

PubMed

There has been considerable controversy over the identity of the skeletal remains exhumed in Brazil in 1985 and believed to be those of Dr Josef Mengele, the Auschwitz 'Angel of Death'. Bone DNA analysis was therefore conducted in an attempt to provide independent evidence of identity. Trace amounts of highly degraded human DNA were successfully extracted from the shaft of the femur. Despite the presence of a potent inhibitor of DNA amplification, microsatellite alleles could be reproducibly amplified from the femur DNA. Comparison of the femur DNA with DNA from Josef Mengele's son and wife revealed a bone genotype across 10 different loci fully compatible with paternity of Mengele's son. Less than 1 in 1800 Caucasian individuals unrelated to Mengele's son would by chance show full paternal inclusion. DNA analysis therefore provides very strong independent evidence that the remains exhumed from Brazil are indeed those of Josef Mengele. PMID:1398379

Jeffreys, A J; Allen, M J; Hagelberg, E; Sonnberg, A

1992-09-01

283

Reconstructing paternal genotypes to infer patterns of sperm storage and sexual selection in the hawksbill turtle.  

PubMed

Postcopulatory sperm storage can serve a range of functions, including ensuring fertility, allowing delayed fertilization and facilitating sexual selection. Sperm storage is likely to be particularly important in wide-ranging animals with low population densities, but its prevalence and importance in such taxa, and its role in promoting sexual selection, are poorly known. Here, we use a powerful microsatellite array and paternal genotype reconstruction to assess the prevalence of sperm storage and test sexual selection hypotheses of genetic biases to paternity in one such species, the critically endangered hawksbill turtle, Eretmochelys imbricata. In the majority of females (90.7%, N = 43), all offspring were sired by a single male. In the few cases of multiple paternity (9.3%), two males fertilized each female. Importantly, the identity and proportional fertilization success of males were consistent across all sequential nests laid by individual females over the breeding season (up to five nests over 75 days). No males were identified as having fertilized more than one female, suggesting that a large number of males are available to females. No evidence for biases to paternity based on heterozygosity or relatedness was found. These results indicate that female hawksbill turtles are predominantly monogamous within a season, store sperm for the duration of the nesting season and do not re-mate between nests. Furthermore, females do not appear to be using sperm storage to facilitate sexual selection. Consequently, the primary value of storing sperm in marine turtles may be to uncouple mating and fertilization in time and avoid costly re-mating. PMID:23379838

Phillips, Karl P; Jorgensen, Tove H; Jolliffe, Kevin G; Jolliffe, San-Marie; Henwood, Jock; Richardson, David S

2013-04-01

284

Paternity and inheritance of wealth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the oldest conjectures in anthropology is that men transfer wealth to their sister's son when the biological paternity of their `own' children is in doubt1-12. Because maternity is certain, a man is necessarily related to his sister's son and his brother (see Fig. 1). It is argued here that relatedness to male heirs can be assured by passing wealth to sister's sons or down a line of brothers, whether the prevailing kinship system reckons those brothers matrilineally or patrilineally. It is also argued that when several transfers of wealth are considered, a man's likelihood of being cuckolded need not be unrealistically high13 for his successive matrilineal heirs to be more related to him than his successive patrilineal heirs (see Fig. 2). Cross-cultural data on sister's son/brother inheritance14 and frequency of extramarital sex for females15 support the hypothesis that men tend to transmit wealth to their sister's son and/or brother when the probability that their putative children are their genetic children is relatively low.

Hartung, John

1981-06-01

285

Paternal origins of Chinese cattle.  

PubMed

To determine the genetic diversity and paternal origin of Chinese cattle, 302 males from 16 Chinese native cattle breeds as well as 30 Holstein males and four Burma males as controls were analysed using four Y-SNPs and two Y-STRs. In Chinese bulls, the taurine Y1 and Y2 haplogroups and indicine Y3 haplogroup were detected in seven, 172 and 123 individuals respectively, and these frequencies varied among the Chinese cattle breeds examined. Y2 dominates in northern China (91.4%), and Y3 dominates in southern China (90.8%). Central China is an admixture zone, although Y2 predominates overall (72.0%). The geographical distributions of the Y2 and Y3 haplogroup frequencies revealed a pattern of male indicine introgression from south to north China. The three Y haplogroups were further classified into one Y1 haplotype, five Y2 haplotypes and one Y3 haplotype in Chinese native bulls. Due to the interplay between taurine and indicine types, Chinese cattle represent an extensive reservoir of genetic diversity. The Y haplotype distribution of Chinese cattle exhibited a clear geographical structure, which is consistent with mtDNA, historical and geographical information. PMID:23347145

Li, R; Zhang, X M; Campana, M G; Huang, J P; Chang, Z H; Qi, X B; Shi, H; Su, B; Zhang, R F; Lan, X Y; Chen, H; Lei, C Z

2013-08-01

286

Assignment of allelic configuration in polyploids using the MAC-PR (microsatellite DNA allele counting—peak ratios) method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polysomic inheritance frequently results in the simultaneous occurrence of several microsatellite DNA alleles on a single locus. The MAC-PR (microsatellite DNA allele counting—peak ratios) method was recently developed for the analysis of polyploid plants and makes use of the quantitative values for microsatellite allele peak areas. To date, this approach has only been used in plants with known genetic relationships.

G. D. Esselink; H. Nybom; B. J. Vosman

2004-01-01

287

Microsatellites in the genome of the edible mushroom, Volvariella volvacea.  

PubMed

Using bioinformatics software and database, we have characterized the microsatellite pattern in the V. volvacea genome and compared it with microsatellite patterns found in the genomes of four other edible fungi: Coprinopsis cinerea, Schizophyllum commune, Agaricus bisporus, and Pleurotus ostreatus. A total of 1346 microsatellites have been identified, with mono-nucleotides being the most frequent motif. The relative abundance of microsatellites was lower in coding regions with 21?No./Mb. However, the microsatellites in the V. volvacea gene models showed a greater tendency to be located in the CDS regions. There was also a higher preponderance of trinucleotide repeats, especially in the kinase genes, which implied a possible role in phenotypic variation. Among the five fungal genomes, microsatellite abundance appeared to be unrelated to genome size. Furthermore, the short motifs (mono- to tri-nucleotides) outnumbered other categories although these differed in proportion. Data analysis indicated a possible relationship between the most frequent microsatellite types and the genetic distance between the five fungal genomes. PMID:24575404

Wang, Ying; Chen, Mingjie; Wang, Hong; Wang, Jing-Fang; Bao, Dapeng

2014-01-01

288

Low paternal dietary folate alters the mouse sperm epigenome and is associated with negative pregnancy outcomes  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological studies suggest that a father’s diet can influence offspring health. A proposed mechanism for paternal transmission of environmental information is via the sperm epigenome. The epigenome includes heritable information such as DNA methylation. We hypothesize that the dietary supply of methyl donors will alter epigenetic reprogramming in sperm. Here we feed male mice either a folate-deficient or folate-sufficient diet throughout life. Paternal folate deficiency is associated with increased birth defects in the offspring, which include craniofacial and musculoskeletal malformations. Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis and the subsequent functional analysis identify differential methylation in sperm of genes implicated in development, chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, autism and schizophrenia. While >300 genes are differentially expressed in offspring placenta, only two correspond to genes with differential methylation in sperm. This model suggests epigenetic transmission may involve sperm histone H3 methylation or DNA methylation and that adequate paternal dietary folate is essential for offspring health. PMID:24326934

Lambrot, R.; Xu, C.; Saint-Phar, S.; Chountalos, G.; Cohen, T.; Paquet, M.; Suderman, M.; Hallett, M.; Kimmins, S.

2013-01-01

289

Paternal kin discrimination in wild baboons Susan C. Alberts  

E-print Network

Paternal kin discrimination in wild baboons Susan C. Alberts Department of Zoology, Duke University. Here I report that among wild baboons, Papio cynocephalus, paternal siblings exhibited lower levels untested in large mammals. For baboons, as for other animals, two possible mechan- isms of paternal kin

Alberts, Susan C

290

Maternal and paternal origin of extra chromosome in trisomy 21  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorescence markers were studied in 40 patients with Down's syndrome and their parents. In 11 cases maternal and in 5 cases paternal non-disjunction could be shown. The disjunctional event occurred in the first meiotic division in 5 maternal and in 2 paternal cases. A second division failure was found in 4 maternal and 2 paternal cases. In 3 cases the

Margareta Mikkelsen; Anni Hallberg; Hanne Poulsen

1976-01-01

291

A Microsatellite Map of Wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell) is one of the world's most important crop plants and displays a very low level of intraspecific polymorphism. We report the development of highly polymorphic microsatellite markers using procedures optimized for the large wheat genome. The isolation of microsatellite-containing clones from hypomethylated regions of the wheat genome increased the proportion of useful

Marion S. Roder; Victor Korzun; Katja Wendehake; Jens Plaschke; Marie-Helene Tixier; Philippe Leroy; Martin W. Ganal

292

Evidence for heterozygote instability in microsatellite loci in house wrens.  

PubMed

Microsatellite loci have high mutation rates and high levels of allelic variation, but the factors influencing their mutation rate are not well understood. The proposal that heterozygosity may increase mutation rates has profound implications for understanding the evolution of microsatellite loci, but currently has limited empirical support. We examined 20 microsatellite mutations identified in an analysis of 12 260 meiotic events across three loci in two populations of a songbird, the house wren (Troglodytes aedon). We found that for an allele of a given length, mutation was significantly more likely when there was a relatively large difference in size between the allele and its homologue (i.e. a large 'allele span'). Our results support the proposal of heterozygote instability at microsatellite loci. PMID:20702452

Masters, Brian S; Johnson, L Scott; Johnson, Bonnie G P; Brubaker, Jessica L; Sakaluk, Scott K; Thompson, Charles F

2011-02-23

293

Evidence for heterozygote instability in microsatellite loci in house wrens  

PubMed Central

Microsatellite loci have high mutation rates and high levels of allelic variation, but the factors influencing their mutation rate are not well understood. The proposal that heterozygosity may increase mutation rates has profound implications for understanding the evolution of microsatellite loci, but currently has limited empirical support. We examined 20 microsatellite mutations identified in an analysis of 12 260 meiotic events across three loci in two populations of a songbird, the house wren (Troglodytes aedon). We found that for an allele of a given length, mutation was significantly more likely when there was a relatively large difference in size between the allele and its homologue (i.e. a large ‘allele span’). Our results support the proposal of heterozygote instability at microsatellite loci. PMID:20702452

Masters, Brian S.; Johnson, L. Scott; Johnson, Bonnie G. P.; Brubaker, Jessica L.; Sakaluk, Scott K.; Thompson, Charles F.

2011-01-01

294

Microsatellite analysis supports clonal propagation and reduced divergence of Trypanosoma vivax from asymptomatic to fatally infected livestock in South America compared to West Africa  

PubMed Central

Background Mechanical transmission of the major livestock pathogen Trypanosoma vivax by other biting flies than tsetse allows its spread from Africa to the New World. Genetic studies are restricted to a small number of isolates and based on molecular markers that evolve too slowly to resolve the relationships between American and West African populations and, thus, unable us to uncover the recent history of T. vivax in the New World. Methods T. vivax genetic diversity, population structure and the source of outbreaks was investigated through the microsatellite multiloci (7 loci) genotype (MLGs) analysis in South America (47isolates from Brazil, Venezuela and French Guiana) and West Africa (12 isolates from The Gambia, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Benin and Nigeria). Relationships among MLGs were explored using phylogenetic, principal component and STRUCTURE analyses. Results Although closely phylogenetically related, for the first time, genetic differences were detected between T. vivax isolates from South America (11 genotypes/47 isolates) and West Africa (12 genotypes/12 isolates) with no MLGs in common. Diversity was far greater across West Africa than in South America, where genotypes from Brazil (MLG1-6), Venezuela (MLG7-10) and French Guiana (MLG11) shared similar but not identical allele composition. No MLG was exclusive to asymptomatic (endemic areas) or sick (outbreaks in non-endemic areas) animals, but only MLGs1, 2 and 3 were responsible for severe haematological and neurological disorders. Conclusions Our results revealed closely related genotypes of T. vivax in Brazil and Venezuela, regardless of endemicity and clinical conditions of the infected livestock. The MLGs analysis from T. vivax across SA and WA support clonal propagation, and is consistent with the hypothesis that the SA populations examined here derived from common ancestors recently introduced from West Africa. The molecular markers defined here are valuable to assess the genetic diversity, to track the source and dispersion of outbreaks, and to explore the epidemiological and pathological significance of T. vivax genotypes. PMID:24885708

2014-01-01

295

Estradiol and progesterone in paternal and non-paternal hamsters ( Phodopus) becoming fathers: conflict with hypothesized roles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phodopus campbelli has an extensive paternal behavior repertoire whereas the closely-related Phodopus sungorus is not paternally responsive to a displaced pup. For the first time in a naturally paternal mammal, male estradiol and progesterone were determined during two critical phases: (1) the transition from sexually naive male to paired, expectant father that occurs in the absence of stimuli from pups

Jennifer E. Schum; Katherine E. Wynne-Edwards

2005-01-01

296

Risk factors of paternal depression in the early postnatal period in Japan.  

PubMed

This study investigated risk factors of depression in fathers at 4 weeks post-partum using a cross-sectional design. Mothers were recruited at the 4 week postnatal health check between March and July 2007. A total of 510 mothers agreed to participate in the study. One-hundred-and-fifty-six fathers and 181 mothers returned the questionnaires. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale were filled out to assess depressive symptoms. There was no association between paternal and maternal depression. According to the logistic regression analysis, paternal depression was associated with employment status, history of psychiatric treatment, and unintended pregnancy. Of eight fathers with unstable employment, seven were temporary employees and one was unemployed, suggesting that perinatal care-providers should independently screen for depression in fathers and mothers and focus attention on paternal employment status, especially temporary employment. PMID:20602688

Nishimura, Akiko; Ohashi, Kazutomo

2010-06-01

297

[Association of microsatellite loci alleles of the group-5 chromosomes with frost resistance of winter wheat].  

PubMed

Analysis of frost resistance and microsatellite analysis of the group-5 chromosomes were performed on parental varieties and recombinant-inbred lines F7 Luzanovka odesskaya/Odesskaya krasnokolosaya. Allelic differences for Xcfd7-5B Xwmc415-5B and Xgwm 182-5D microsatellite loci were associated with the level of frost resistance of the lines. PMID:24228492

Halaieva, M V; Fa?t, V I; Chebotar, S V; Halaiev, O V; Syvolap, Iu M

2013-01-01

298

Paternal Attachment, Parenting Beliefs and Children's Attachment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relationships between fathers' romantic attachment style, parenting beliefs and father-child attachment security and dependence were examined in a diverse sample of 72 fathers of young children. Paternal romantic attachment style was coded based on fathers' endorsement of a particular style represented in the Hazan and Shaver Three-Category…

Howard, Kimberly S.

2010-01-01

299

Paternal Occupational Exposures and Childhood Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study described here was to test the hypothesis that paternal occupational exposure near conception increases the risk of cancer in the offspring. We conducted a cohort study based on a population of 235,635 children born shortly after two different censuses in Sweden. The children were followed from birth to 14 years, and cases of cancer were

Maria Feychting; Nils Plato; Gun Nise; Anders Ahlbom

2001-01-01

300

Advancing Paternal Age and Simplex Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

De novo events appear more common in female and simplex autism spectrum disorder (ASD) cases and may underlie greater ASD risk in older fathers' offspring. This study examined whether advancing paternal age predicts an increase in simplex (n = 90) versus multiplex ASD cases (n = 587) in 677 participants (340 families). Whether or not controlling…

Puleo, Connor Morrow; Schmeidler, James; Reichenberg, Abraham; Kolevzon, Alexander; Soorya, Latha V.; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Silverman, Jeremy M.

2012-01-01

301

A Postdoc's Guide to Paternity Leave  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guide provides general information on paternity leave for postdoc fathers following the birth of a child. It is intended as a companion guide to A Postdoc's Guide to Pregnancy and Maternity Leave. Adopting postdoc parents may want to consult our forthcoming companion guide on adoption leave.

Kathleen Flint Ehm (National Postdoctoral Association)

2012-06-01

302

Paternal transmission of congenital myotonic dystrophy.  

PubMed

We report a rare case of paternally transmitted congenital myotonic dystrophy (DM). The proband is a 23 year old, mentally retarded male who suffers severe muscular weakness. He presented with respiratory and feeding difficulties at birth. His two sibs suffer from childhood onset DM. Their late father had the adult type of DM, with onset around 30 years. Only six other cases of paternal transmission of congenital DM have been reported recently. We review the sex related effects on transmission of congenital DM. Decreased fertility of males with adult onset DM and contraction of the repeat upon male transmission contribute to the almost absent occurrence of paternal transmission of congenital DM. Also the fathers of the reported congenitally affected children showed, on average, shorter CTG repeat lengths and hence less severe clinical symptoms than the mothers of children with congenital DM. We conclude that paternal transmission of congenital DM is rare and preferentially occurs with onset of DM past 30 years in the father. PMID:9391889

de Die-Smulders, C E; Smeets, H J; Loots, W; Anten, H B; Mirandolle, J F; Geraedts, J P; Höweler, C J

1997-11-01

303

Paternity Testing in a PBL Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem Based Learning (PBL) makes use of real-life scenarios to stimulate students' prior knowledge and to provide a meaningful context that is also related to the student's future professional work. In this article, Paternity testing is presented using a PBL approach that involves a combination of classroom, laboratory, and out-of-class…

Casla, Alberto Vicario; Zubiaga, Isabel Smith

2010-01-01

304

Paternally expressed genes predominate in the placenta  

PubMed Central

The discovery of genomic imprinting through studies of manipulated mouse embryos indicated that the paternal genome has a major influence on placental development. However, previous research has not demonstrated paternal bias in imprinted genes. We applied RNA sequencing to trophoblast tissue from reciprocal hybrids of horse and donkey, where genotypic differences allowed parent-of-origin identification of most expressed genes. Using this approach, we identified a core group of 15 ancient imprinted genes, of which 10 were paternally expressed. An additional 78 candidate imprinted genes identified by RNA sequencing also showed paternal bias. Pyrosequencing was used to confirm the imprinting status of six of the genes, including the insulin receptor (INSR), which may play a role in growth regulation with its reciprocally imprinted ligand, histone acetyltransferase-1 (HAT1), a gene involved in chromatin modification, and lymphocyte antigen 6 complex, locus G6C, a newly identified imprinted gene in the major histocompatibility complex. The 78 candidate imprinted genes displayed parent-of-origin expression bias in placenta but not fetus, and most showed less than 100% silencing of the imprinted allele. Some displayed variability in imprinting status among individuals. This variability results in a unique epigenetic signature for each placenta that contributes to variation in the intrauterine environment and thus presents the opportunity for natural selection to operate on parent-of-origin differential regulation. Taken together, these features highlight the plasticity of imprinting in mammals and the central importance of the placenta as a target tissue for genomic imprinting. PMID:23754418

Wang, Xu; Miller, Donald C.; Harman, Rebecca; Antczak, Douglas F.; Clark, Andrew G.

2013-01-01

305

Analysis of genetic diversity and population structure within Florida coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) germplasm using microsatellite DNA, with special emphasis on the Fiji Dwarf cultivar.  

PubMed

Using 15 simple sequence repeat (SSR) microsatellite DNA loci, we analyzed genetic variation within Cocos nucifera germplasm collections at two locations in south Florida, representing eight cultivars. The loci were also used in a parentage analysis of progeny of the 'Fiji Dwarf' variety at both locations. A total of 67 alleles were detected, with eight the highest number at any one locus. These loci identified 83 of the 110 individual palms. Gene diversity of the 15 loci ranged from 0.778 to 0.223, with a mean of 0.574. 'Fiji Dwarf', 'Malayan Dwarf', 'Green Niño' and 'Red Spicata' cultivars resolve as distinct clusters in a neighbor joining tree using modified Rogers distance, while the tall varieties form two aggregates. The highest gene diversity was found in the tall cultivars (H = 0.583 cumulatively), and the lowest in the 'Malayan Dwarf' (H = 0.202). After the tall coconuts, the 'Fiji Dwarf' was most genetically diverse (H = 0.436), and had the largest number of unique alleles. Genetic identity is highest among the 'Malayan Dwarf' phenotypes, and between the tall varieties. The 'Red Malayan Dwarf' is genetically distinct from the 'Green' and 'Yellow Malayan Dwarf' phenotypes, which cannot be distinguished with the SSR loci used. Off-type 'Malayan Dwarf' phenotypes (putative hybrids with talls) can be identified genotypically. Parentage analyses of 30 'Fiji Dwarf' progeny propagated from five adults surrounded by other cultivars estimate that only 20% of the progeny were out-crossed to the other varieties, while 40-46% were possible selfs. This suggests that a seed-production orchard of the variety maintained at reasonable distance from other varieties, will likely yield only 'Fiji Dwarf' genotypes. Our data are discussed in the context of hypotheses of coconut dissemination around the world. PMID:12596002

Meerow, Alan W; Wisser, Randall J; Brown, J Steven; Kuhn, David N; Schnell, Raymond J; Broschat, Timothy K

2003-02-01

306

Flow cytometric analysis and microsatellite genotyping reveal extensive DNA content variation in Trypanosoma cruzi populations and expose contrasts between natural and experimental hybrids  

PubMed Central

Trypanosoma cruzi exhibits remarkable genetic heterogeneity. This is evident at the nucleotide level but also structurally, in the form of karyotypic variation and DNA content differences between strains. Although natural populations of T. cruzi are predominantly clonal, hybrid lineages (TcIId and TcIIe) have been identified and hybridisation has been demonstrated in vitro, raising the possibility that genetic exchange may continue to shape the evolution of this pathogen. The mechanism of genetic exchange identified in the laboratory is unusual, apparently involving fusion of diploid parents followed by genome erosion. We investigated DNA content diversity in natural populations of T. cruzi in the context of its genetic subdivisions by using flow cytometric analysis and multilocus microsatellite genotyping to determine the relative DNA content and estimate the ploidy of 54 cloned isolates. The maximum difference observed was 47.5% between strain Tu18 cl2 (TcIIb) and strain C8 cl1 (TcI), which we estimated to be equivalent to ?73 Mb of DNA. Large DNA content differences were identified within and between discrete typing units (DTUs). In particular, the mean DNA content of TcI strains was significantly less than that for TcII strains (P < 0.001). Comparisons of hybrid DTUs TcIId/IIe with corresponding parental DTUs TcIIb/IIc indicated that natural hybrids are predominantly diploid. We also measured the relative DNA content of six in vitro-generated TcI hybrid clones and their parents. In contrast to TcIId/IIe hybrid strains these experimental hybrids comprised populations of sub-tetraploid organisms with mean DNA contents 1.65–1.72 times higher than the parental organisms. The DNA contents of both parents and hybrids were shown to be relatively stable after passage through a mammalian host, heat shock or nutritional stress. The results are discussed in the context of hybridisation mechanisms in both natural and in vitro settings. PMID:19393242

Lewis, Michael D.; Llewellyn, Martin S.; Gaunt, Michael W.; Yeo, Matthew; Carrasco, Hernán J.; Miles, Michael A.

2009-01-01

307

Integrated analysis of genome-wide copy number alterations and gene expression in microsatellite stable, CpG island methylator phenotype-negative colon cancer.  

PubMed

Microsatellite stable (MSS), CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP)-negative colorectal tumors, the most prevalent molecular subtype of colorectal cancer, are associated with extensive copy number alteration (CNA) events and aneuploidy. We report on the identification of characteristic recurrent CNA (with frequency >25%) events and associated gene expression profiles for a total of 40 paired tumor and adjacent normal colon tissues using genome-wide microarrays. We observed recurrent CNAs, namely gains at 1q, 7p, 7q, 8p12-11, 8q, 12p13, 13q, 20p, 20q, Xp, and Xq and losses at 1p36, 1p31, 1p21, 4p15-12, 4q12-35, 5q21-22, 6q26, 8p, 14q, 15q11-12, 17p, 18p, 18q, 21q21-22, and 22q. Within these genomic regions we identified 356 genes with significant differential expression (P < 0.0001 and ±1.5-fold change) in the tumor compared to adjacent normal tissue. Gene ontology and pathway analyses indicated that many of these genes were involved in functional mechanisms that regulate cell cycle, cell death, and metabolism. An amplicon present in >70% of the tumor samples at 20q11-20q13 contained several cancer-related genes (AHCY, POFUT1, RPN2, TH1L, and PRPF6) that were upregulated and demonstrated a significant linear correlation (P < 0.05) for gene dosage and gene expression. Copy number loss at 8p, a CNA associated with adenocarcinoma and poor prognosis, was observed in >50% of the tumor samples and demonstrated a significant linear correlation for gene dosage and gene expression for two potential tumor suppressor genes, MTUS1 (8p22) and PPP2CB (8p12). The results from our integration analysis illustrate the complex relationship between genomic alterations and gene expression in colon cancer. PMID:23341073

Loo, Lenora W M; Tiirikainen, Maarit; Cheng, Iona; Lum-Jones, Annette; Seifried, Ann; Church, James M; Gryfe, Robert; Weisenberger, Daniel J; Lindor, Noralane M; Gallinger, Steven; Haile, Robert W; Duggan, David J; Thibodeau, Stephen N; Casey, Graham; Le Marchand, Loïc

2013-05-01

308

Development of highly polymorphic simple sequence repeat markers using genome-wide microsatellite variant analysis in Foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.  

PubMed Central

Background Foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) Beauv.) is an important gramineous grain-food and forage crop. It is grown worldwide for human and livestock consumption. Its small genome and diploid nature have led to foxtail millet fast becoming a novel model for investigating plant architecture, drought tolerance and C4 photosynthesis of grain and bioenergy crops. Therefore, cost-effective, reliable and highly polymorphic molecular markers covering the entire genome are required for diversity, mapping and functional genomics studies in this model species. Result A total of 5,020 highly repetitive microsatellite motifs were isolated from the released genome of the genotype 'Yugu1’ by sequence scanning. Based on sequence comparison between S. italica and S. viridis, a set of 788 SSR primer pairs were designed. Of these primers, 733 produced reproducible amplicons and were polymorphic among 28 Setaria genotypes selected from diverse geographical locations. The number of alleles detected by these SSR markers ranged from 2 to 16, with an average polymorphism information content of 0.67. The result obtained by neighbor-joining cluster analysis of 28 Setaria genotypes, based on Nei’s genetic distance of the SSR data, showed that these SSR markers are highly polymorphic and effective. Conclusions A large set of highly polymorphic SSR markers were successfully and efficiently developed based on genomic sequence comparison between different genotypes of the genus Setaria. The large number of new SSR markers and their placement on the physical map represent a valuable resource for studying diversity, constructing genetic maps, functional gene mapping, QTL exploration and molecular breeding in foxtail millet and its closely related species. PMID:24472631

2014-01-01

309

Managing misaligned paternity findings in research including sickle cell disease screening in Kenya: ‘Consulting communities’ to inform policy?  

PubMed Central

The management of misaligned paternity findings raises important controversy worldwide. It has mainly, however, been discussed in the context of high-income countries. Genetic and genomics research, with the potential to show misaligned paternity, are becoming increasingly common in Africa. During a genomics study in Kenya, a dilemma arose over testing and sharing information on paternal sickle cell disease status. This dilemma may be paradigmatic of challenges in sharing misaligned paternity findings in many research and health care settings. Using a deliberative approach to community consultation to inform research practice, we explored residents' views on paternal testing and sharing misaligned paternity information. Between December 2009 and November 2010, 63 residents in Kilifi County were engaged in informed deliberative small group discussions, structured to support normative reflection within the groups, with purposive selection to explore diversity. Analysis was based on a modified framework analysis approach, drawing on relevant social science and bioethics literature. The methods generated in-depth individual and group reflection on morally important issues and uncovered wide diversity in views and values. Fundamental and conflicting values emerged around the importance of family interests and openness, underpinned by disagreement on the moral implications of marital infidelity and withholding truth. Wider consideration of ethical issues emerging in these debates supports locally-held reasoning that paternal sickle cell testing should not be undertaken in this context, in contrast to views that testing should be done with or without the disclosure of misaligned paternity information. The findings highlight the importance of facilitating wider testing of family members of affected children, contingent on the development and implementation of national policies for the management of this inherited disorder. Their richness also illustrates the potential for the approach adopted in this study to strengthen community consultation. PMID:24034967

Marsh, Vicki; Kombe, Francis; Fitzpatrick, Ray; Molyneux, Sassy; Parker, Michael

2013-01-01

310

Identification of microsatellite DNA markers for the giant anteater Myrmecophaga tridactyla.  

PubMed

The giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) is found from Belize and Guatemala to Paraguay and Argentina. Its conservation status is considered vulnerable by IUCN. Here we report the isolation and characterization of six microsatellite loci. Positive loci for (GT)(n) were isolated using a magnetic bead hybridization selection protocol. The number of alleles per locus as well as the heterozygosity and PCR conditions are described. These loci will be useful for studying population structure, genetic diversity, and paternity in M. tridactyla wild populations. PMID:15994414

Garcia, J E; Vilas Boas, L A; Lemos, M V F; de Macedo Lemos, E G; Contel, E P B

2005-01-01

311

High resolution microsatellite based analysis of the mating system allows the detection of significant biparental inbreeding in Caryocar brasiliense, an endangered tropical tree species  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we investigate the mating system of four populations of the endangered tropical tree species Caryocar brasiliense, using genetic data from 10 microsatellite loci. Eight to 10 open-pollinated progeny arrays of 16 individuals, together with their mother tree, were sampled per population. Mating system parameters were estimated under the mixed mating model, implemented by the software MLTR. The

Rosane Garcia Collevatti; Dario Grattapaglia; John Duvall Hay

2001-01-01

312

Interspecific hybridisation in rhinoceroses: Confirmation of a Black × White rhinoceros hybrid by karyotype, fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) and microsatellite analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Black and white rhinoceroses are among the most charismatic megaherbivores and have become flagship species for international conservation. They are often subject to intense management that includes being compressed unnaturally in space and density. We present chromosomal and microsatellite evidence to substantiate the first recorded instance of interspecific hybridisation between them. The data suggest that the genetic integrity of the

T. J. Robinson; V. Trifonov; I. Espie; E. H. Harley

2005-01-01

313

Sequence conservation of microsatellites between Bos taurus (cattle), Capra hircus (goat) and related species. Examples of use in parentage testing and phylogeny analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A panel of 70 bovine microsatellites was tested for amplification from goat DNA. Forty-three could be successfully amplified by PCR, 20 of which were tested for polymorphism. Three were applied for parentage testing in goat families and their exclusion probability evaluated. Fourteen were cloned and sequenced from goat DNA, and goat and bovine sequences were compared to evaluate interspecific conservation.

Laurent Pépin; Yves Amigues; Andrée Lépingle; Jean-Luc Berthier; Albert Bensaid; Daniel Vaiman

1995-01-01

314

Taiwanese aborigines: genetic heterogeneity and paternal contribution to Oceania.  

PubMed

In the present study, for the first time, 293 Taiwanese aboriginal males from all nine major tribes (Ami, Atayal, Bunun, Rukai, Paiwan, Saisat, Puyuma, Tsou, Yami) were genotyped with 17 YSTR loci in a attend to reveal migrational patterns connected with the Austronesian expansion. We investigate the paternal genetic relationships of these Taiwanese aborigines to 42 Asia-Pacific reference populations, geographically selected to reflect various locations within the Austronesian domain. The Tsou and Puyuma tribes exhibit the lowest (0.1851) and the highest (0.5453) average total genetic diversity, respectively. Further, the fraction of unique haplotypes is also relatively high in the Puyuma (86.7%) and low in Tsou (33.3%) suggesting different demographic histories. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed several notable findings: 1) the Taiwan indigenous populations are highly diverse. In fact, the level of inter-population heterogeneity displayed by the Taiwanese aboriginal populations is close to that exhibited among all 51 Asia-Pacific populations examined; 2) the asymmetrical contribution of the Taiwanese aborigines to the Oceanic groups. Ami, Bunun and Saisiyat tribes exhibit the strongest paternal links to the Solomon and Polynesian island communities, whereas most of the remaining Taiwanese aboriginal groups are more genetically distant to these Oceanic inhabitants; 3) the present YSTR analyses does not reveal a strong paternal affinity of the nine Taiwanese tribes to their continental Asian neighbors. Overall, our current findings suggest that, perhaps, only a few of the tribes were involved in the migration out of Taiwan. PMID:24613753

Zeng, Zhaoshu; Rowold, Diane J; Garcia-Bertrand, Ralph; Calderon, Silvia; Regueiro, Maria; Li, Li; Zhong, Mingxia; Herrera, Rene J

2014-06-01

315

Genetic structure of the paternal lineage of the Roma people.  

PubMed

According to written sources, Roma (Romanies, Gypsies) arrived in the Balkans around 1,000 years ago from India and have subsequently spread through several parts of Europe. Genetic data, particularly from the Y chromosome, have supported this model, and can potentially refine it. We now provide an analysis of Y-chromosomal markers from five Roma and two non-Roma populations (N = 787) in order to investigate the genetic relatedness of the Roma population groups to one another, and to gain further understanding of their likely Indian origins, the genetic contribution of non-Roma males to the Roma populations, and the early history of their splits and migrations in Europe. The two main sources of the Roma paternal gene pool were identified as South Asian and European. The reduced diversity and expansion of H1a-M82 lineages in all Roma groups imply shared descent from a single paternal ancestor in the Indian subcontinent. The Roma paternal gene pool also contains a specific subset of E1b1b1a-M78 and J2a2-M67 lineages, implying admixture during early settlement in the Balkans and the subsequent influx into the Carpathian Basin. Additional admixture, evident in the low and moderate frequencies of typical European haplogroups I1-M253, I2a-P37.2, I2b-M223, R1b1-P25, and R1a1-M198, has occurred in a more population-specific manner. PMID:21484758

Pamjav, Horolma; Zalán, Andrea; Béres, Judit; Nagy, Melinda; Chang, Yuet Meng

2011-05-01

316

Development of microsatellite markers in peach [ Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] and their use in genetic diversity analysis in peach and sweet cherry ( Prunus avium L.).  

PubMed

We report the sequence of 41 primer pairs of microsatellites from a CT-enriched genomic library of the peach cultivar 'Merrill O'Henry'. Ten microsatellite-containing clones had sequences similar to plant coding sequences in databases and could be used as markers for known functions. For microsatellites segregating at least in one of the two Prunus F(2) progenies analyzed, it was possible to demonstrate Mendelian inheritance. Microsatellite polymorphism was evaluated in 27 peach and 21 sweet cherry cultivars. All primer pairs gave PCR-amplification products on peach and 33 on cherry (80.5%). Six PCR-amplifications revealed several loci (14.6%) in peach and eight (19.5%) in sweet cherry. Among the 33 single-locus microsatellites amplified in peach and sweet cherry, 13 revealed polymorphism both in peach and cherry, 19 were polymorphic only on peach and one was polymorphic only on cherry. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 1 to 9 for peach and from 1 to 6 on sweet cherry with an average of 4.2 and 2.8 in peach and sweet cherry, respectively. Cross-species amplification was tested within the Prunus species: Prunus avium L. (sweet cherry and mazzard), Prunus cerasus L. (sour cherry), Prunus domestica L. (European plum), Prunus amygdalus Batsch. (almond), Prunus armeniaca L. (apricot), Prunus cerasifera Ehrh. (Myrobalan plum). Plants from other genera of the Rosaceae were also tested: Malus (apple) and Fragaria (strawberry), as well as species not belonging to the Rosaceae: Castanea (chestnut tree), Juglans (walnut tree) and Vitis (grapevine). Six microsatellites gave amplification on all the tested species. Among them, one had an amplified region homologous to sequences encoding a MADS-box protein in Malus x domestica. Twelve microsatellites (29.3%) were amplified in all the Rosaceae species tested and 31 (75.6%) were amplified in all the six Prunus species tested. Thirty three (80.5%), 18 (43.9%) and 13 (31.7%) gave amplification on chestnut tree, grapevine and walnut tree, respectively. PMID:12582570

Dirlewanger, E.; Cosson, P.; Tavaud, M.; Aranzana, J.; Poizat, C.; Zanetto, A.; Arús, P.; Laigret, F.

2002-07-01

317

PCR and microsatellite analysis of diminazene aceturate resistance of bovine trypanosomes correlated to knowledge, attitude and practice of livestock keepers in South-Western Ethiopia.  

PubMed

African Animal Trypanosomosis is threatening the agricultural production and cattle breeding more severely than any other livestock disease in the continent, even more since the advent of drug resistance. A longitudinal study was conducted from November 2012 to May 2013 in the Ghibe valley to evaluate diminazene aceturate (DA) resistance and assess livestock owner's perception of trypanocidal drug use. Four Peasant Associations (PAs) were purposively selected and the cattle randomly sampled in each PAs. At the beginning of the study (t0), 106 bovines positive for trypanosomes by the haematocrit centrifugation technique (HCT) and 119 negative control animals were recruited for six months follow-up using HCT, 18S-PCR-RFLP, DpnII-PCR-RFLP and microsatellite analysis. Prevalence of trypanosomosis was 18.1% based on the HCT technique and the mean PCV value was 23.6±5.1% for the 587 sampled cattle. Out of the 106 HCT positive, 64 (60.4%) were positive for the presence of trypanosomes using the 18S-PCR-RFLP. Species detection showed 38 (59.4%) Trypanosoma congolense savannah, 18 (28.1%) Trypanosoma vivax, 5 (7.8%) Trypanosoma theileri and 3 (4.7%) T. congolense Kilifi. Among the T. congolense savannah samples, 31 (81.6%) showed a DA resistant RFLP profile, 2 (5.3%) a mixed profile and 5 did not amplify using the DpnII-PCR-RFLP. A positive HCT had a significant effect on PCV (p<0.001) with the mean PCV value equal to 24.4±0.2% in the absence of trypanosomes and to 20.9±0.3% in the presence of trypanosomes. PCV increased significantly (p<0.001) with 4.4±0.5% one month after treatment. All T. congolense savannah type were analyzed using microsatellite markers TCM1, TCM3 and TCM4. The main events were new infections (40.0%) and relapses (37.5%) with cures lagging at 22.5%. In 10 purposively selected PAs a semi-structured questionnaire was used. The average herd size was the highest in Abelti PA (6.7±1.8 TLU) and the mean herd size was statistically different (p=0.01) in the 10 PAs. Trypanosomosis was designated as the main disease affecting cattle by 97% of the respondents. DA was used by 95.5% of the farmers though more than half of them (51.9%) were not familiar with isometamidium (ISM). There was a trend to overdose young small animals and to underdose large ones. Oxen were treated very frequently (nearly 20 times/year) and calves almost never. To improve the situation in the Ghibe valley, extension messages should be delivered to promote a rational drug use, improved livestock management and the application of strategic vector control methods. PMID:25738729

Moti, Y; De Deken, R; Thys, E; Van Den Abbeele, J; Duchateau, L; Delespaux, V

2015-06-01

318

W-SPECIFIC MICROSATELLITE LOCI DETECTED BY IN SILICO ANALYSIS, MAP TO CHROMOSOME Z OF THE CHICKEN GENOME  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Unlike mammals, avian females are the heterogametic gender (ZW) and males are the homogametic (ZZ). The non-recombining, female-specific regions are maternally inherited. As such, they have a special value for matrilineal phylogenetic analysis of chicken populations and possibly for avian species in...

319

Microsatellites and SNPs linkage analysis in a Sardinian genetic isolate confirms several essential hypertension loci previously identified in different populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A multiplicity of study designs such as gene candidate analysis, genome wide search (GWS) and, recently, whole genome association studies have been employed for the identification of the genetic components of essential hypertension (EH). Several genome-wide linkage studies of EH and blood pressure-related phenotypes demonstrate that there is no single locus with a major effect while several genomic regions

Evelina Mocci; Maria P Concas; Manuela Fanciulli; Nicola Pirastu; Mauro Adamo; Valentina Cabras; Cristina Fraumene; Ivana Persico; Alessandro Sassu; Andrea Picciau; Dionigio A Prodi; Donatella Serra; Ginevra Biino; Mario Pirastu; Andrea Angius

2009-01-01

320

"I've Fixed Things Up": Paternal Identity of Substance-Dependent Fathers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study deals with how substance-dependent men perceive their paternal identity. Data were based on in-depth semi-structured interviews with 12 Israeli fathers who were enrolled in methadone maintenance treatment. Content analysis revealed that participants had undergone a process of parental identity formation composed of four distinct stages:…

Peled, Einat; Gavriel-Fried, Belle; Katz, Noam

2012-01-01

321

The ethical debate on present day paternity testing practices.  

PubMed

The last years, the number of paternity tests on buccal swabs sold over the internet as "test kits", has steeply increased. The commercial providers of these services facilitate controversial practices, including clandestine sampling at home, anonymous sending off for analysis, motherless testing and using "stolen" personal objects containing biological material (combs, cigarette butts). This has led to concern on the consequences on the family unit--especially the child--which may suffer emotionally, physically and financially. In reaction, legal initiatives are appearing throughout Europe. The UK Human Genetics Commission has advised that the non-consensual obtaining and analysis of personal genetic information should be a new criminal offence. The German Federal Court of Justice has ruled that paternity tests performed without the mother's knowledge are inadmissible as evidence in lawsuits. French law strictly forbids the application of DNA testing without the involvement of the court system. In Belgium, a proposal for law has been laid down where the offering to PMID:16792338

Mertens, G

2006-01-01

322

Genetic Analysis Workshop 14: microsatellite and single-nucleotide polymorphism marker loci for genome-wide scans  

E-print Network

. GAW attendees must submit an analysis of one of these datasets, or be a workshop organizer or a dataset provider. The purpose of these workshops is to allow the comparison of statistical methodologies for genetic epidemiology using the same, well... (endophenotypes), almost all of which were genetic in origin. The underlying disease model contained four major genes and two modifier genes. The four major genes interacted with each other to produce three different "phenotypes", which were them- selves...

2005-12-30

323

Effect of increasing paternal body mass index on pregnancy and live birth rates in couples undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection.  

PubMed

In this study, our purpose was to investigate the possible effect of paternal obesity on intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes on the basis of clinical pregnancy outcome. Antropometric measurements of 155 couples, referred to our infertility clinic and who underwent an ICSI cycle, have been evaluated. The study sample were divided into three groups with respect to paternal body mass index (BMI), as normal weight (BMI: 20-24.9), overweight (BMI: 25-29.9) and obese (BMI ? 30). Results of conventional semen analysis were also analysed. Clinical pregnancy data, including fertilisation rate, implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate, were evaluated. Paternal obesity was a significant negative factor for sperm concentration and sperm motility (P = 0.03 and P = 0.01 respectively). A significant decrease of clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate was associated with increased paternal BMI (P = 0.04 and P = 0.03 respectively). We have not determined a significant difference among groups in terms of fertilisation rate and implantation rate. This study demonstrates that increasing paternal BMI has a negative influence on ICSI success, including clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate. There is a need for further studies to point the importance of lifestyle changes in order to overcome the negative influence of paternal obesity on couple's fertility. PMID:24717066

Umul, M; Köse, S A; Bilen, E; Altuncu, A G; Oksay, T; Güney, M

2015-04-01

324

Tests of spatial and temporal factors influencing extra-pair paternity in red-winged blackbirds.  

PubMed

Extra-pair paternity (EPP) is a widespread and highly variable reproductive phenomenon in birds. We tested the effects of habitat, spatial factors, and timing of breeding on the occurrence of EPP in red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus). We used PCR-amplified microsatellites to assess the paternity of 1479 nestlings from 537 broods on 235 territories over four breeding seasons. Over 4 years, 40% of nestlings were extra-pair. At least 27% of actual sires were non-neighbours, suggesting that males or females interacted over longer distances than in other populations of red-winged blackbirds. The level of EPP was significantly clumped within broods and males but not within females across broods. EPP was negatively related to the area of a male's territory. The spatial proximity of a female's nest to the territory boundary had no effect on total EPP, but tended to increase the probability of an EPP by a nearby male. We found no influence on EPP of the type of habitat on the territory or the level of nesting activity nearby. The time in the season when a nest was started and the synchrony of breeding also had no significant effect on the level of EPP. The age of the male, the age of his neighbours, and the interaction between the two had no effect on total EPP. However, older males were less likely to have an offspring sired by a neighbour on their territory. Males with older neighbours were also less likely to have offspring sired by a neighbour, particularly if they were new territory owners. The high variability in who gained and lost paternity, and the limited impact of spatial and temporal factors influencing it, have some interesting implications for theories seeking to explain mating patterns. PMID:15910334

Westneat, David F; Mays, Herman L

2005-06-01

325

Molecular diversity and population structure of Chinese green foxtail [Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv.] revealed by microsatellite analysis  

PubMed Central

Green foxtail (Setaria viridis) is a new model plant for the genomic investigation of C4 photosynthesis biology. As the ancestor of foxtail millet (Setaria italica), an ancient cereal of great importance in arid regions of the world, green foxtail is crucial for the study of domestication and evolution of this ancient crop. In the present study, 288 green foxtail accessions, which were collected from all geographical regions of China, were analysed using 77 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) that cover the whole genome. A high degree of molecular diversity was detected in these accessions, with an average of 33.5 alleles per locus. Two clusters, which were inconsistent with the distribution of eco-geographical regions in China, were inferred from STRUCTURE, Neighbor–Joining, and principal component analysis, indicating a partially mixed distribution of Chinese green foxtails. The higher subpopulation diversity was from accessions mainly collected from North China. A low level of linkage disequilibrium was observed in the green foxtail genome. Furthermore, a combined analysis of green foxtail and foxtail millet landraces was conducted, and the origin and domestication of foxtail millet was inferred in North China. PMID:23956411

Zhi, Hui; Diao, Xianmin

2013-01-01

326

Molecular diversity and population structure of Chinese green foxtail [Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv.] revealed by microsatellite analysis.  

PubMed

Green foxtail (Setaria viridis) is a new model plant for the genomic investigation of C4 photosynthesis biology. As the ancestor of foxtail millet (Setaria italica), an ancient cereal of great importance in arid regions of the world, green foxtail is crucial for the study of domestication and evolution of this ancient crop. In the present study, 288 green foxtail accessions, which were collected from all geographical regions of China, were analysed using 77 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) that cover the whole genome. A high degree of molecular diversity was detected in these accessions, with an average of 33.5 alleles per locus. Two clusters, which were inconsistent with the distribution of eco-geographical regions in China, were inferred from STRUCTURE, Neighbor-Joining, and principal component analysis, indicating a partially mixed distribution of Chinese green foxtails. The higher subpopulation diversity was from accessions mainly collected from North China. A low level of linkage disequilibrium was observed in the green foxtail genome. Furthermore, a combined analysis of green foxtail and foxtail millet landraces was conducted, and the origin and domestication of foxtail millet was inferred in North China. PMID:23956411

Jia, Guanqing; Shi, Shenkui; Wang, Chunfang; Niu, Zhengang; Chai, Yang; Zhi, Hui; Diao, Xianmin

2013-09-01

327

A second generation framework for the analysis of microsatellites in expressed sequence tags and the development of EST-SSR markers for a conifer, Cryptomeria japonica  

PubMed Central

Background Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are useful resources for genome analysis because of their abundance, functionality and polymorphism. The advent of commercial second generation sequencing machines has lead to new strategies for developing EST-SSR markers, necessitating the development of bioinformatic framework that can keep pace with the increasing quality and quantity of sequence data produced. We describe an open scheme for analyzing ESTs and developing EST-SSR markers from reads collected by Sanger sequencing and pyrosequencing of sugi (Cryptomeria japonica). Results We collected 141,097 sequence reads by Sanger sequencing and 1,333,444 by pyrosequencing. After trimming contaminant and low quality sequences, 118,319 Sanger and 1,201,150 pyrosequencing reads were passed to the MIRA assembler, generating 81,284 contigs that were analysed for SSRs. 4,059 SSRs were found in 3,694 (4.54%) contigs, giving an SSR frequency lower than that in seven other plant species with gene indices (5.4–21.9%). The average GC content of the SSR-containing contigs was 41.55%, compared to 40.23% for all contigs. Tri-SSRs were the most common SSRs; the most common motif was AT, which was found in 655 (46.3%) di-SSRs, followed by the AAG motif, found in 342 (25.9%) tri-SSRs. Most (72.8%) tri-SSRs were in coding regions, but 55.6% of the di-SSRs were in non-coding regions; the AT motif was most abundant in 3? untranslated regions. Gene ontology (GO) annotations showed that six GO terms were significantly overrepresented within SSR-containing contigs. Forty–four EST-SSR markers were developed from 192 primer pairs using two pipelines: read2Marker and the newly-developed CMiB, which combines several open tools. Markers resulting from both pipelines showed no differences in PCR success rate and polymorphisms, but PCR success and polymorphism were significantly affected by the expected PCR product size and number of SSR repeats, respectively. EST-SSR markers exhibited less polymorphism than genomic SSRs. Conclusions We have created a new open pipeline for developing EST-SSR markers and applied it in a comprehensive analysis of EST-SSRs and EST-SSR markers in C. japonica. The results will be useful in genomic analyses of conifers and other non-model species. PMID:22507374

2012-01-01

328

Mosaicism for genome-wide paternal uniparental disomy with features of multiple imprinting disorders: diagnostic and management issues.  

PubMed

Mosaicism for genome-wide paternal uniparental disomy (UPD) has been reported in only seven live born individuals to date. Clinical presentation includes manifestations of multiple paternal UPD syndromes with high variability, likely due to the variable levels of mosaicism in different somatic tissues. We report an eighth case in a female patient with mosaicism for genome-wide paternal UPD which highlights the complex clinical presentation. Our patient had features of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS), Angelman syndrome, and congenital hyperinsulinism. The clinical findings included prematurity, organomegaly, hemihyperplasia, developmental delay, benign tumors, and cystic lesions. The diagnosis in our patient was established utilizing microarray-based genome-wide DNA methylation analysis performed on leukocyte DNA. Targeted multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis of chromosome regions 11p15 and 15q13 confirmed mosaicism for paternal UPD at these genomic regions. This case represents the first report of microarray-based genome-wide DNA methylation analysis in the diagnosis of genome-wide paternal UPD. The application of microarray-based genome-wide DNA methylation analysis on selected individuals with complex clinical presentations could be a valuable diagnostic tool to improve the detection rate of mosaic genome-wide paternal UPD. This approach, which screens many loci simultaneously, is more cost-effective and less labor-intensive than performing multiple targeted DNA methylation-based assays. Identification of individuals with mosaicism for genome-wide paternal UPD is an important goal as it confers a low recurrence risk for the family and identifies individuals who require surveillance due to increased tumor risk. PMID:23239666

Inbar-Feigenberg, Michal; Choufani, Sanaa; Cytrynbaum, Cheryl; Chen, Yi-An; Steele, Leslie; Shuman, Cheryl; Ray, Peter N; Weksberg, Rosanna

2013-01-01

329

Transcriptome Analysis of the Trachinotus ovatus: Identification of Reproduction, Growth and Immune-Related Genes and Microsatellite Markers  

PubMed Central

Background The Trachinotus ovatus (Teleostei, Carangidae) is an economically important marine fish species in the world. However, the lack of genomic information regarding this species limits our understanding of the genetics and biological mechanisms in Trachinotus ovatus. In this study, high throughput transcriptome sequencing was used to obtain comprehensive genomic information in Trachinotus ovatus. Principal Findings Transcriptome sequencing was performed by using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. The 98,534,862 high quality reads were yielded, and were de novo assembled into 156,094 unigenes with an average sequence length of 1179 bp. Transcriptome annotation revealed that 75,586 and 67,923 unigenes were functionally annotated in the NCBI non-redundant database and Swiss-Prot protein database, respectively. Functional analysis demonstrated that 67,923 unigenes were grouped into 25 Cluster of Orthologous Groups (COG) functional categories, 37,976 unigenes were clustered into 61 Gene Ontology (GO) terms, and 38,172 unigenes were assigned to 275 different Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. Based on the transcriptome dataset, a large number of unigenes associated with reproduction, growth and immunity were identified. Furthermore, a total number of 38,794 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were discovered and 16 polymorphic loci were characterized in Trachinotus ovatus. Conclusion/Significance The present study is the first transcriptome analysis of a fish species belonging to the genus Trachinotus and provides a valuable genomic resource for novel gene discovery, gene expression and regulation studies, and the identification of genetic markers in Trachinotus ovatus and the other fish of the genus Trachinotus. PMID:25303650

Chao, Fang; Qiongyu, Liu; Zihao, Li; Xiaochun, Liu; Yong, Zhang; Shuisheng, Li; Haoran, Lin

2014-01-01

330

Parentage and kinship studies in an obligate brood parasitic bird, the brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater), using microsatellite DNA markers.  

PubMed

Recent studies suggest that single-locus microsatellite DNA markers have the potential to unambiguously resolve parentage among individuals in natural populations where maternity is known. However, their power for determining parentage when neither parent is known is unclear. Here we investigate the usefulness of microsatellite DNA markers to determine parentage in a brood parasitic bird, the brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater), where, for a given offspring, no a priori knowledge of either parent is available. Seven polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers isolated from brown-headed cowbirds and yellow warblers (Dendroica petechia) were used to genetically characterize an individually marked breeding population of male and female cowbirds at Delta Marsh, Manitoba. Forty-four males, 21 females, and 61 cowbird chicks were genotyped at seven loci using DNA amplified from blood and tissue samples. The mean exclusion probabilities pooled across all seven loci were 0.9964 for males and 0.9948 for females. Two null (non-amplifying) alleles at one locus were discovered and accounted for by constructing alternate nonoverlapping primer sets. Exclusion analyses performed using all individuals determined both paternity and maternity for 43 chicks and paternity only for 4 chicks. Another microsatellite locus was then used to determine paternity for three additional chicks. Relatedness analyses placed 12 of the 18 remaining chicks not assigned both maternity and paternity into four unique full sibling groups. Overall, 90.16% (55 of 61) of all offspring examined were placed into distinct parent/sibling groups, demonstrating that this marker set is extremely useful for parentage studies in this species. PMID:9987928

Alderson, G W; Gibbs, H L; Sealy, S G

1999-01-01

331

In-silico mining, type and frequency analysis of genic microsatellites of finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.): a comparative genomic analysis of NBS-LRR regions of finger millet with rice.  

PubMed

In recent years, the increased availability of the DNA sequences has given the possibility to develop and explore the expressed sequence tags (ESTs) derived SSR markers. In the present study, a total of 1956 ESTs of finger millet were used to find the microsatellite type, distribution, frequency and developed a total of 545 primer pairs from the ESTs of finger millet. Thirty-two EST sequences had more than two microsatellites and 1357 sequences did not have any SSR repeats. The most frequent type of repeats was trimeric motif, however the second place was occupied by dimeric motif followed by tetra-, hexa- and penta repeat motifs. The most common dimer repeat motif was GA and in case of trimeric SSRs, it was CGG. The EST sequences of NBS-LRR region of finger millet and rice showed higher synteny and were found on nearly same positions on the rice chromosome map. A total of eight, out of 15 EST based SSR primers were polymorphic among the selected resistant and susceptible finger millet genotypes. The primer FMBLEST5 could able to differentiate them into resistant and susceptible genotypes. The alleles specific to the resistant and susceptible genotypes were sequenced using the ABI 3130XL genetic analyzer and found similarity to NBS-LRR regions of rice and finger millet and contained the characteristic kinase-2 and kinase 3a motifs of plant R-genes belonged to NBS-LRR region. The In-silico and comparative analysis showed that the genes responsible for blast resistance can be identified, mapped and further introgressed through molecular breeding approaches for enhancing the blast resistance in finger millet. PMID:24477586

Kalyana Babu, B; Pandey, Dinesh; Agrawal, P K; Sood, Salej; Kumar, Anil

2014-05-01

332

DETERMINATION OF OFF-TYPES IN A CACAO BREEDING PROGRAM USING MICROSATELLITES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Microsatellite markers were used as diagnostic tool to detect and label off-types from a cacao breeding evaluation at CATIE, Costa Rica. The analysis was carried out by capillary electrophoresis. The genetic identity of parental trees and progeny were determined. A set of 24 microsatellites was used...

333

Transferability of Cucumber Microsatellite Markers Used for Phylogenetic Analysis and Population Structure Study in Bottle Gourd (Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standl.).  

PubMed

Improved breeding for developing fruit quality in bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standl.) necessitates knowledge regarding its genetic diversity. To achieve this, a set of 108 locus-specific SSR markers has been developed in bottle gourd by cross-species transferability from 995 mapped Cucumis sativus SSR markers. During screening, 280 primer pairs amplified in the bottle gourd germplasm, which were further evaluated in a diverse set of 42 lines, resulting in 19 polymorphic, 89 monomorphic, 15 with multiple bands, and the rest 157 showed no or very non-specific amplification. The 19 polymorphic primer pairs produced a total of 54 alleles. Gene diversity, Shannon's information index, and Nei's coefficient of differentiation were calculated suggesting a moderate genetic variation at the species level. A model-based population structure analysis divided these germplasm into two subpopulations. This marker set will be applicable for evaluating the genetic structure for association mapping, DNA fingerprinting, and mounting linkage maps and will be a practical tool set for further genetics. This study provides one of the first quantitative views of population genetic variation in bottle gourd. PMID:25471016

Bhawna; Abdin, M Z; Arya, L; Verma, M

2015-02-01

334

Certainty of paternity and paternal investment in eastern bluebirds and tree swallows.  

PubMed

Extra-pair paternity is common in many socially monogamous passerine birds with biparental care. Thus, males often invest in offspring to which they are not related. Models of optimal parental investment predict that, under certain assumptions, males should lower their investment in response to reduced certainty of paternity. We attempted to reduce certainty of paternity experimentally in two species, the eastern bluebird, Sialia sialis, and the tree swallow, Tachycineta bicolor, by temporarily removing fertile females on two mornings during egg laying. In both species, experimental males usually attempted to copulate with the female immediately after her reappearance, suggesting that they experienced the absence of their mate as a threat to their paternity. Experimental males copulated at a significantly higher rate than control males. However, contrary to the prediction of the model, experimental males did not invest less than control males in their offspring. There was no difference between experimental and control nests in the proportion of male feeds, male and female feeding rates, nestling growth and nestling condition and size at age 14 days. We argue that females might have restored the males' confidence in paternity after the experiment by soliciting or accepting copulations. Alternatively, males may not reduce their effort, because the fitness costs to their own offspring may outweigh the benefits for the males, at least in populations where females cannot fully compensate for reduced male investment. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:9632472

Kempenaers; Lanctot; Robertson

1998-04-01

335

A rapid qPCR method for genetic sex identification of Salmo salar and Salmo trutta including simultaneous elucidation of interspecies hybrid paternity by high-resolution melt analysis.  

PubMed

This study presents an improved duplex quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method using the master sex-determining gene sdY as a marker for simultaneous genetic sex identification of salmonids of the Salmo genus and paternity elucidation for Salmo salar × Salmo trutta hybrids. This method will provide a new, simple and economical molecular tool for ecological studies of these species as well as for aquaculture purposes. PMID:24814478

Anglès d'Auriac, M B; Urke, H A; Kristensen, T

2014-06-01

336

Isolation and Characterization of Microsatellite Markers and Analysis of Genetic Diversity in Chinese Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.)  

PubMed Central

Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill, 2n?=?2×?=?24, Rhamnaceae) is an economically important Chinese native species. It has high nutritional value, and its medicinal properties have led to extensive use in traditional oriental medicine. The characterization of genotypes using molecular markers is important for genetic studies and plant breeding. However, few simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are available for this species. In this study, 1,488 unique SSR clones were isolated from Z. jujuba ‘Dongzao’ using enriched genomic libraries coupled with a three-primer colony PCR screening strategy, yielding a high enrichment rate of 73.3%. Finally, 1,188 (80.87%) primer pairs were amplified successfully in the size expected for ‘Dongzao’. A total of 350 primer pairs were further selected and evaluated for their ability to detect polymorphisms across a panel of six diverse cultivars; among these, 301 primer pairs detected polymorphisms, and the polymorphism information content (PIC) value across all loci ranged from 0.15 to 0.82, with an average of 0.52. An analysis of 76 major cultivars employed in Chinese jujube production using 31 primer pairs revealed comparatively high genetic diversity among these cultivars. Within-population differences among individuals accounted for 98.2% of the observed genetic variation. Neighbor-joining clustering divided the cultivars into three main groups, none of which correspond to major geographic regions, suggesting that the genetics and geographical origin of modern Chinese jujube cultivars might not be linked. The current work firstly reports the large-scale development of Chinese jujube SSR markers. The development of these markers and their polymorphic information represent a significant improvement in the available Chinese jujube genomic resources and will facilitate both genetic and breeding applications, further accelerating the development of new cultivars. PMID:24932973

Liu, Huabo; Tang, Yan; Wu, Liping; Wang, Zhe; Li, Yingyue; Wu, Rongling; Pang, Xiaoming

2014-01-01

337

Paternal dietary folate, b6 and B12 intake, and the risk of childhood brain tumors.  

PubMed

It is biologically plausible that a paternal preconception diet low in nutrients related to DNA integrity could affect sperm DNA and subsequently risk of cancer in the offspring. The aim of this analysis was to investigate whether paternal preconception dietary folate, B6, or B12 intake was associated with the risk of childhood brain tumors (CBT) in an Australian case-control study. Cases <15 years of age were recruited from 10 Australian pediatric oncology centers between 2005 and 2010, and controls from random-digit dialing, frequency-matched to cases on age, sex, and state of residence. Paternal dietary information was obtained by food-frequency questionnaires. Nutrient values were energy adjusted and divided into tertiles for analysis by unconditional logistic regression. In fathers with relevant data (237 cases and 629 controls), no association with dietary folate and B6 and risk of CBT was seen; high B12 intake was associated with an increased risk of CBT (odds ratio highest vs. lowest tertile: 1.74, 95% confidence interval: 1.14, 2.66) without an increasing trend. These results do not support the hypothesis that paternal dietary folate intake influences the risk of CBT. The increased OR observed between dietary B12 intake and risk of CBT is without any certain explanation. PMID:25625505

Greenop, Kathryn R; Miller, Margaret; Bailey, Helen D; Scott, Rodney J; Attia, John; Bower, Carol; van Bockxmeer, Frank M; Ashton, Lesley J; Armstrong, Bruce K; Milne, Elizabeth

2015-01-01

338

Paternal inheritance of mitochondrial DNA in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

FOR nearly 20 years it has been assumed on the basis of low-resolution experiments that mitochondrial (mt)DNA, in contrast to the genes in the nucleus, has an exclusively maternal mode of inheritance in animals1. Using the polymerase chain reaction2, 3, paternally inherited mtDNA molecules have now been detected in mice at a frequency of 10-4, relative to the maternal contributions.

Ulf Gyllensten; Dan Wharton; Agneta Josefsson; Allan C. Wilson

1991-01-01

339

DNA content analysis of colorectal cancer defines a distinct ‘microsatellite and chromosome stable’ group but does not predict response to radiotherapy  

PubMed Central

Colorectal cancers (CRC) are thought to have genetic instability in the form of either microsatellite instability (MSI) or chromosomal instability (CIN). Recently, tumours have been described without either MSI or CIN, that is, microsatellite and chromosome stable (MACS) CRCs. We investigated the (i) frequency of the MACS-CRCs and (ii) whether this genotype predicted responsiveness to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. To examine the frequency of MACS-CRCs, DNA content (ploidy) was examined in 89 sporadic microsatellite-stable CRCs using flow cytometry. The tumours were also screened for mutations in KRAS/BRAF/TP53/PIK3CA by QMC-PCR. To examine the value of tumour ploidy in predicting response to chemoradiotherapy, DNA content was tested in a separate group of 62 rectal cancers treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Fifty-one of 89 CRCs (57%) were aneuploid and 38 (43%) were diploid. There was no significant association between mutations in TP53/KRAS/BRAF/PIK3CA and ploidy. Testing of association between mutations revealed only mutual exclusivity of KRAS/BRAF mutation (P?microsatellite-stable CRCs with a mutation profile overlapping that of CRCs with CIN. A diploid genotype does not, however, predict the responsiveness to radiotherapy. PMID:24456329

Fadhil, Wakkas; Kindle, Karin; Jackson, Darryl; Zaitoun, Abed; Lane, Nina; Robins, Adrian; Ilyas, Mohammad

2014-01-01

340

A program for examining shared paternity among progeny from microsatellite data. By Bill Amos  

E-print Network

Amos Department of Zoology, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ DadShare is a program written as an Excel to programming in VBA could edit it and incorporate new features. Alternatively, I am more than happy generate when analysing other peoples' data. Requirements DadShare was written in Excel 98 for Macintosh

341

A MOLECULAR EXAMINATION OF RELATEDNESS, MULTIPLE PATERNITY, AND COHABITATION OF THE SOUTHERN PLAINS WOODRAT (NEOTOMA MICROPUS)  

PubMed Central

Two hundred twenty-two individuals of the southern plains woodrat (Neotoma micropus) were captured from 198 excavated middens at 10 discrete collecting sites from a single population in south-central Texas. Field data, mitochondrial D-loop haplotypes, and polymorphic microsatellite loci (5–7) were used to determine genetic patterns in parentage, relatedness, and mating strategy. Microsatellite loci were highly polymorphic (average observed heterozygosity = 0.859) and were used to construct genotypes that were unique for each individual (probability of identical genotypes: 1 in 2,104,567). Results indicated a high frequency of multiple paternity (6 of 9 litters), evidence of repeat mating between the same 2 individuals, and no indication of male dominance at any collection site. Examination of these data suggested a promiscuous mating system. Within a site, average relatedness between adult females was similar to that between adult males. A higher level of cohabitation from that previously documented was recorded and finer-scale analyses revealed high levels of relatedness between most cohabiting individuals. Taken with results from other studies of mating behaviors of N. micropus, our results suggest that mating and social behavior of this species are likely influenced by population density. PMID:20011670

Baxter, B. Dnate’; Mendez-Harclerode, Francisca M.; Fulhorst, Charles F.; Bradley, Robert D.

2009-01-01

342

Paternity acknowledgment in 2 million birth records from Michigan.  

PubMed

Out-of-wedlock childbearing is more common in the U.S. than in other countries and becoming more so. A growing share of such non-marital births identify the father, which can create a legal entitlement to child support. Relatively little is known about individual determinants of the decision to establish paternity, in part because of data limitations. In this paper, we evaluate all birth records in Michigan from 1993 to 2006, which have been merged to the paternity registry. In 2006, 30,231 Michigan children, almost one quarter of all Michigan births, were born to unmarried mothers and had paternity acknowledged. We find that births with paternity acknowledged have worse outcomes along various health and socio-economic dimensions relative to births to married parents, but better outcomes relative to births to unmarried parents without paternity acknowledgement. Furthermore, unmarried men who father sons are significantly more likely to acknowledge paternity than fathers of daughters. PMID:23894583

Almond, Douglas; Rossin-Slater, Maya

2013-01-01

343

Human mutagens: evidence from paternal exposure  

SciTech Connect

The importance of inherited mutations as a cause of human disease has been established clearly through examples of well-defined genetic anomalies, such as Down syndrome and retinoblastoma. Furthermore, it is suspected that environmental contaminants induce mutations resulting in increased risk for such defects in subsequent generations of persons exposed. The present lack of direct evidence for induced inherited genetic disorders in human beings hampers the development of risk estimation techniques for extrapolation from animal models. The most extensive prospective epidemiologic studies of inherited genetic effects have involved survivors of atomic bomb detonations and patients treated with cancer chemotherapy. In neither case has a significant elevation in inherited genetic effects or cancer been detected in the offspring of exposed individuals. Epidemiologic studies of subjects receiving chronic exposure may be confounded by the effect of maternal exposure during pregnancy. Consideration of only paternal exposure can minimize the confounding influence of teratogenicity, enhancing the resolving power of studies for inherited effects. Using this approach, retrospective (case-control) studies of childhood cancer patients have provided limited but suggestive evidence for inheritance of induced effects. Endpoints, such as congenital malformations and spontaneous abortion following paternal exposure, can also be considered as indicators of heritable mutagenic effects. For example, there is limited evidence suggesting that paternal exposure to anaesthetic gases may cause miscarriage and congenital abnormalities as a result of induced male germ cell mutations. 104 references.

Narod, S.A.; Douglas, G.R.; Nestmann, E.R.; Blakey, D.H.

1988-01-01

344

Religion as a means to assure paternity  

PubMed Central

The sacred texts of five world religions (Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism) use similar belief systems to set limits on sexual behavior. We propose that this similarity is a shared cultural solution to a biological problem: namely male uncertainty over the paternity of offspring. Furthermore, we propose the hypothesis that religious practices that more strongly regulate female sexuality should be more successful at promoting paternity certainty. Using genetic data on 1,706 father–son pairs, we tested this hypothesis in a traditional African population in which multiple religions (Islam, Christianity, and indigenous) coexist in the same families and villages. We show that the indigenous religion enables males to achieve a significantly (P = 0.019) lower probability of cuckoldry (1.3% versus 2.9%) by enforcing the honest signaling of menstruation, but that all three religions share tenets aimed at the avoidance of extrapair copulation. Our findings provide evidence for high paternity certainty in a traditional African population, and they shed light on the reproductive agendas that underlie religious patriarchy. PMID:22665788

Strassmann, Beverly I.; Kurapati, Nikhil T.; Hug, Brendan F.; Burke, Erin E.; Gillespie, Brenda W.; Karafet, Tatiana M.; Hammer, Michael F.

2012-01-01

345

Religion as a means to assure paternity.  

PubMed

The sacred texts of five world religions (Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism) use similar belief systems to set limits on sexual behavior. We propose that this similarity is a shared cultural solution to a biological problem: namely male uncertainty over the paternity of offspring. Furthermore, we propose the hypothesis that religious practices that more strongly regulate female sexuality should be more successful at promoting paternity certainty. Using genetic data on 1,706 father-son pairs, we tested this hypothesis in a traditional African population in which multiple religions (Islam, Christianity, and indigenous) coexist in the same families and villages. We show that the indigenous religion enables males to achieve a significantly (P = 0.019) lower probability of cuckoldry (1.3% versus 2.9%) by enforcing the honest signaling of menstruation, but that all three religions share tenets aimed at the avoidance of extrapair copulation. Our findings provide evidence for high paternity certainty in a traditional African population, and they shed light on the reproductive agendas that underlie religious patriarchy. PMID:22665788

Strassmann, Beverly I; Kurapati, Nikhil T; Hug, Brendan F; Burke, Erin E; Gillespie, Brenda W; Karafet, Tatiana M; Hammer, Michael F

2012-06-19

346

Paternally inherited markers in bovine hybrid populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic integrity of crossfertile bovine- or cattle-like species may be endangered by species hybridization. Previously, amplified fragment length polymorphism, satellite fragment length polymorphism and microsatellite assays have been used to analyze the species composition of nuclear DNA in taurine cattle, zebu, banteng and bison populations, while mitochondrial DNA reveals the origin of the maternal lineages. Here, we describe species-specific

E L C Verkaar; H Vervaecke; C Roden; L Romero Mendoza; M W Barwegen; T Susilawati; I J Nijman; J A Lenstra

2003-01-01

347

Evolution and proximate expression of human paternal investment.  

PubMed

In more than 95% of mammalian species, males provide little direct investment in the well-being of their offspring. Humans are one notable exception to this pattern and, to date, the factors that contributed to the evolution and the proximate expression of human paternal care are unexplained (T. H. Clutton-Brock, 1989). The nature, extent, and influence of human paternal investment on the physical and social well-being of children are reviewed in light of the social and ecological factors that are associated with paternal investment in other species. On the basis of this review, discussion of the evolution and proximate expression of human paternal investment is provided. PMID:10668350

Geary, D C

2000-01-01

348

Effect of paternal folate deficiency on placental folate content and folate receptor ? expression in rats  

PubMed Central

We investigated the effect of paternal folate status on folate content and expression of the folate transporter folate receptor ? (FR?) in rat placental tissues. Rats were mated after males were fed a diet containing 0 mg of folic acid/kg of diet (paternal folate-deficient, PD) or 8 mg folic acid/kg of diet (paternal folate-supplemented, PS) for 4 weeks. At 20 days of gestation, the litter size, placental weight, and fetal weight were measured, and placental folate content (n = 8/group) and expression of FR? (n = 10/group) were analyzed by microbiological assay and Western blot analysis, respectively. Although there was no difference observed in litter size or fetal weight, but significant reduction (10%) in the weight of the placenta was observed in the PD group compared to that in the PS group. In the PD group, placental folate content was significantly lower (by 35%), whereas FR? expression was higher (by 130%) compared to the PS group. Our results suggest that paternal folate status plays a critical role in regulating placental folate metabolism and transport. PMID:21556224

Kim, Hye Won; Choi, Yun Jung; Kim, Ki Nam; Tamura, Tsunenobu

2011-01-01

349

Relationships of maternal and paternal anthropometry with neonatal body size, proportions and adiposity in an Australian cohort.  

PubMed

The patterns of association between maternal or paternal and neonatal phenotype may offer insight into how neonatal characteristics are shaped by evolutionary processes, such as conflicting parental interests in fetal investment and obstetric constraints. Paternal interests are theoretically served by maximizing fetal growth, and maternal interests by managing investment in current and future offspring, but whether paternal and maternal influences act on different components of overall size is unknown. We tested whether parents' prepregnancy height and body mass index (BMI) were related to neonatal anthropometry (birthweight, head circumference, absolute and proportional limb segment and trunk lengths, subcutaneous fat) among 1,041 Australian neonates using stepwise linear regression. Maternal and paternal height and maternal BMI were associated with birthweight. Paternal height related to offspring forearm and lower leg lengths, maternal height and BMI to neonatal head circumference, and maternal BMI to offspring adiposity. Principal components analysis identified three components of variability reflecting neonatal "head and trunk skeletal size," "adiposity," and "limb lengths." Regression analyses of the component scores supported the associations of head and trunk size or adiposity with maternal anthropometry, and limb lengths with paternal anthropometry. Our results suggest that while neonatal fatness reflects environmental conditions (maternal physiology), head circumference and limb and trunk lengths show differing associations with parental anthropometry. These patterns may reflect genetics, parental imprinting and environmental influences in a manner consistent with parental conflicts of interest. Paternal height may relate to neonatal limb length as a means of increasing fetal growth without exacerbating the risk of obstetric complications. Am J Phys Anthropol 156:625-636, 2015. © 2014 The Authors American Journal of Physical Anthropology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25502164

Pomeroy, Emma; Wells, Jonathan C K; Cole, Tim J; O'Callaghan, Michael; Stock, Jay T

2015-04-01

350

Relationships of maternal and paternal anthropometry with neonatal body size, proportions and adiposity in an Australian cohort  

PubMed Central

The patterns of association between maternal or paternal and neonatal phenotype may offer insight into how neonatal characteristics are shaped by evolutionary processes, such as conflicting parental interests in fetal investment and obstetric constraints. Paternal interests are theoretically served by maximizing fetal growth, and maternal interests by managing investment in current and future offspring, but whether paternal and maternal influences act on different components of overall size is unknown. We tested whether parents' prepregnancy height and body mass index (BMI) were related to neonatal anthropometry (birthweight, head circumference, absolute and proportional limb segment and trunk lengths, subcutaneous fat) among 1,041 Australian neonates using stepwise linear regression. Maternal and paternal height and maternal BMI were associated with birthweight. Paternal height related to offspring forearm and lower leg lengths, maternal height and BMI to neonatal head circumference, and maternal BMI to offspring adiposity. Principal components analysis identified three components of variability reflecting neonatal “head and trunk skeletal size,” “adiposity,” and “limb lengths.” Regression analyses of the component scores supported the associations of head and trunk size or adiposity with maternal anthropometry, and limb lengths with paternal anthropometry. Our results suggest that while neonatal fatness reflects environmental conditions (maternal physiology), head circumference and limb and trunk lengths show differing associations with parental anthropometry. These patterns may reflect genetics, parental imprinting and environmental influences in a manner consistent with parental conflicts of interest. Paternal height may relate to neonatal limb length as a means of increasing fetal growth without exacerbating the risk of obstetric complications. Am J Phys Anthropol 156:625–636, 2015. PMID:25502164

Pomeroy, Emma; Wells, Jonathan CK; Cole, Tim J; O'Callaghan, Michael; Stock, Jay T

2015-01-01

351

Detecting Sex-Biased Gene Flow in African-Americans through the Analysis of Intra- and Inter-Population Variation at Mitochondrial DNA and Y- Chromosome Microsatellites  

PubMed Central

This study reports on variations at the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) hypervariable region 1 (HVR-1) and at seven Y-chromosome microsatellites in an African-American population sample from Chicago, IL, USA. Our results support the hypothesis that the population studied had undergone a European male-biased gene flow. We show that comparisons of intra-and inter-population diversity parameters between African-Americans, Europeans and Africans may help detect sex-biased gene flow, providing a complement to quantitative methods to estimate genetic admixture. PMID:24052726

Battaggia, C; Anagnostou, P; Bosch, I; Brisighelli, F; Destro-Bisol, G; Capocasa, M

2012-01-01

352

Joint inference of microsatellite mutation models, population history and genealogies using transdimensional Markov Chain Monte Carlo.  

PubMed

We provide a framework for Bayesian coalescent inference from microsatellite data that enables inference of population history parameters averaged over microsatellite mutation models. To achieve this we first implemented a rich family of microsatellite mutation models and related components in the software package BEAST. BEAST is a powerful tool that performs Bayesian MCMC analysis on molecular data to make coalescent and evolutionary inferences. Our implementation permits the application of existing nonparametric methods to microsatellite data. The implemented microsatellite models are based on the replication slippage mechanism and focus on three properties of microsatellite mutation: length dependency of mutation rate, mutational bias toward expansion or contraction, and number of repeat units changed in a single mutation event. We develop a new model that facilitates microsatellite model averaging and Bayesian model selection by transdimensional MCMC. With Bayesian model averaging, the posterior distributions of population history parameters are integrated across a set of microsatellite models and thus account for model uncertainty. Simulated data are used to evaluate our method in terms of accuracy and precision of estimation and also identification of the true mutation model. Finally we apply our method to a red colobus monkey data set as an example. PMID:21385725

Wu, Chieh-Hsi; Drummond, Alexei J

2011-05-01

353

Joint Inference of Microsatellite Mutation Models, Population History and Genealogies Using Transdimensional Markov Chain Monte Carlo  

PubMed Central

We provide a framework for Bayesian coalescent inference from microsatellite data that enables inference of population history parameters averaged over microsatellite mutation models. To achieve this we first implemented a rich family of microsatellite mutation models and related components in the software package BEAST. BEAST is a powerful tool that performs Bayesian MCMC analysis on molecular data to make coalescent and evolutionary inferences. Our implementation permits the application of existing nonparametric methods to microsatellite data. The implemented microsatellite models are based on the replication slippage mechanism and focus on three properties of microsatellite mutation: length dependency of mutation rate, mutational bias toward expansion or contraction, and number of repeat units changed in a single mutation event. We develop a new model that facilitates microsatellite model averaging and Bayesian model selection by transdimensional MCMC. With Bayesian model averaging, the posterior distributions of population history parameters are integrated across a set of microsatellite models and thus account for model uncertainty. Simulated data are used to evaluate our method in terms of accuracy and precision of ? estimation and also identification of the true mutation model. Finally we apply our method to a red colobus monkey data set as an example. PMID:21385725

Wu, Chieh-Hsi; Drummond, Alexei J.

2011-01-01

354

Low frequency paternal transmission of plastid genes in Brassicaceae.  

PubMed

Plastid-encoded genes are maternally inherited in most plant species. Transgenes located on the plastid genome are thus within a natural confinement system, preventing their distribution via pollen. However, a low-frequency leakage of plastids via pollen seems to be universal in plants. Here we report that a very low-level paternal inheritance in Arabidopsis thaliana occurs under field conditions. As pollen donor an Arabidopsis accession (Ler-Ely) was used, which carried a plastid-localized atrazine resistance due to a point mutation in the psbA gene. The frequency of pollen transmission into F1 plants, based on their ability to express the atrazine resistance was 1.9 × 10(-5). We extended our analysis to another cruciferous species, the world-wide cultivated crop Brassica napus. First, we isolated a fertile and stable plastid transformant (T36) in a commercial cultivar of B. napus (cv Drakkar). In T36 the aadA and the bar genes were integrated in the inverted repeat region of the B. napus plastid DNA following particle bombardment of hypocotyl segments. Southern blot analysis confirmed transgene integration and homoplasmy of plastid DNA. Line T36 expressed Basta resistance from the inserted bar gene and this trait was used to estimate the frequency of pollen transmission into F1 plants. A frequency of <2.6 × 10(-5) was determined in the greenhouse. Taken together, our data show a very low rate of paternal plastid transmission in Brassicacea. Moreover, the establishment of plastid transformation in B. napus facilitates a safe use of this important crop plant for plant biotechnology. PMID:25343875

Schneider, Anja; Stelljes, Christian; Adams, Caroline; Kirchner, Stefan; Burkhard, Gabi; Jarzombski, Sabine; Broer, Inge; Horn, Patricia; Elsayed, Ashraf; Hagl, Peter; Leister, Dario; Koop, Hans-Ulrich

2015-04-01

355

Maternal and Paternal Depressive Symptoms as Predictors of Toddler Adjustment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study we explored the relation between maternal and paternal depressive symptoms and toddler adjustment in a community sample, testing direct, additive, and interactive models of parental depressive symptoms and child adjustment. Participants were 49 families with 30-month-old children. Data were collected on maternal and paternal…

Weinfield, Nancy S.; Ingerski, Lisa; Moreau, Stacey Coffey

2009-01-01

356

Reexamination of paternal age effect in Down's syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paternal age distribution for 1279 cases of Down's syndrome born in 1952–1968 was compared with the corresponding distribution for the general population, corrected for the maternal age as well as for the year of birth of the patients. Although there was no difference in the mean paternal age, the two distributions differed significantly, largely due to the excess of fathers

Ei Matsunaga; Akira Tonomura; Hidetsune Oishi; Yasumoto Kikuchi

1978-01-01

357

Evolution and Proximate Expression of Human Paternal Investment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In more than 95% of mammalian species, males provide little direct investment in the well-being of their offspring. Humans are one notable exception to this pattern and, to date, the factors that contributed to the evolution and the proximate expression of human paternal care are unexplained (T. H. Clutton-Brock, 1989). The nature, extent, and influence of human paternal investment on

David C. Geary

2000-01-01

358

Female reproductive synchrony predicts skewed paternity across primates  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have uncovered remarkable variation in paternity within primate groups. To date, however, we lack a general understanding of the factors that drive variation in paternity skew among primate groups and across species. Our study focused on hypotheses from reproductive skew theory involving limited control and the use of paternity “concessions” by investigating how paternity covaries with the number of males, female estrous synchrony, and rates of extragroup paternity. In multivariate and phylogenetically controlled analyses of data from 27 studies on 19 species, we found strong support for a limited control skew model, with reproductive skew within groups declining as female reproductive synchrony and the number of males per group increase. Of these 2 variables, female reproductive synchrony explained more of the variation in paternity distributions. To test whether dominant males provide incentives to subordinates to resist matings by extragroup males, that is, whether dominants make concessions of paternity, we derived a novel prediction that skew is lower within groups when threat from outside the group exists. This prediction was not supported as a primary factor underlying patterns of reproductive skew among primate species. However, our approach revealed that if concessions occur in primates, they are most likely when female synchrony is low, as these conditions provide alpha male control of paternity that is assumed by concessions models. Collectively, our analyses demonstrate that aspects of male reproductive competition are the primary drivers of reproductive skew in primates. PMID:19018288

Nunn, Charles L.; Schülke, Oliver

2008-01-01

359

Multiple Paternity in Polyandrous Barn Owls (Tyto alba) Isabelle Henry.  

E-print Network

Multiple Paternity in Polyandrous Barn Owls (Tyto alba) Isabelle Henry. , Sylvain Antoniazza females produce successive clutches with several males. Female barn owls (Tyto alba) often desert Paternity in Polyandrous Barn Owls (Tyto alba). PLoS ONE 8(11): e80112. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0080112

Alvarez, Nadir

360

Factors Associated with Perceived Paternal Involvement in Childrearing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in paternal involvement in child care has increased as the demands on the time and resources of maternal caretakers have increased. The purpose of the present study was to examine variables associated with perceived paternal involvement in child care. Participants were 137 (90 European American and 47 African American) fathers of children between the ages of 2 and 6.

Susan Sanderson; Vetta L. Sanders Thompson

2002-01-01

361

Postdivorce Paternal Disengagement: Failed Mourning and Role Fusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, I suggest that postdivorce paternal disengagement may be rooted in the father's tendency to link his children and ex-wife as a single entity in consequence of his failure to adequately mourn the loss of his ex-wife and to redefine his paternal role and identity in distinction from his spousal role and identity. I also suggest that…

Baum, Nehami

2006-01-01

362

Advanced paternal age and reproductive outcome  

PubMed Central

Women have been increasingly delaying the start of motherhood in recent decades. The same trend is seen also for men. The influence of maternal age on fertility, chromosomal anomalies, pregnancy complications, and impaired perinatal and post-natal outcome of offspring, has been thoroughly investigated, and these aspects are clinically applied during fertility and pregestational counseling. Male aging and reproductive outcome has gained relatively less attention. The purpose of this review is to evaluate updated and relevant literature on the effect of paternal age on reproductive outcome. PMID:22157982

Wiener-Megnazi, Zofnat; Auslender, Ron; Dirnfeld, Martha

2012-01-01

363

Estimated genotype error rates from bowhead whale microsatellite data  

Microsoft Academic Search

We calculate error rates using opportunistic replicate samples in the microsatellite data for bowhead whales. The estimated rate (1%\\/genotype) falls within normal ranges reviewed in this paper. The results of a jackknife analysis identified five individuals that were highly influential on estimates of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for four different markers. In each case, the influential individual was homozygous for a rare

Phillip A Morin; Richard G LeDuc; Eric Archer; Karen K Martien; Barbara L Taylor; Ryan Huebinger; John W. Bickham

364

Transferability of Rubus Microsatellite Markers for use in Black Raspberry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are valuable as co-dominant genetic markers with a variety of applications such as DNA fingerprinting, linkage mapping, and population structure analysis. To date, SSR marker development in Rubus has focused on red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L., subgenu...

365

Characterization of microsatellite loci in the SLA class I region  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study was aimed to investigate genetic variation of repeat sequences in the Swine Leukocyte Antigen class I (SLA-1) region which is believed to be responsible for systematic immune responses. Microsatellite (MS) markers in the SLA-1 region were characterized via sequencing analysis with BAC clo...

366

Microsatellite Variation Indicates Population Genetic Structure of Bocaccio  

Microsoft Academic Search

The California groundfish fishery has recently experienced a severe decline in both the biomass and harvest of bocaccio Sebastes paucispinis. The conservation and management actions necessary to reverse this trend require biological data, including information on the population structure, that reflect the basis of productivity. Using microsatellite loci, we conducted a population genetic analysis of bocaccio with samples from waters

Andrew P. Matala; A. K. Gray; A. J. Gharrett; M. S. Love

2004-01-01

367

Paternal kin discrimination: the evidence and likely mechanisms.  

PubMed

One of the most important assumptions of kin selection theory is that individuals behave differently towards kin than non-kin. In mammals, there is strong evidence that maternal kin are distinguished from non-kin via familiarity. However, little is known about whether or not mammals can also recognize paternal kin as many female mammals, including primates, mate with multiple males near the time of conception, potentially concealing paternal kinship. Genetic data in several mammalian species with a promiscuous mating system and male-biased dispersal reveal a high skew in male reproduction which leads to co-residing paternal half-siblings. In most primates, individuals also form stable bisexual groups creating opportunities for males to interact with their offspring. Here I consider close paternal kin co-resident in the same social group, such as father-offspring and paternal half-siblings (i.e. animals sharing the same father but who were born to different mothers) and review mammalian studies of paternal kin discrimination. Furthermore, I summarize the most likely mechanisms of paternal kin discrimination (familiarity and phenotype matching). When familiarity is the underlying mechanism, mothers and/or the sire could mediate familiarity among paternal half-siblings as well as between fathers and offspring assuming mothers and/or fathers can assess paternity. When animals use phenotype matching, they might use their fathers' template (when the father is present) or self (when the father is absent) to assess paternal kinship in others. Available evidence suggests that familiarity and phenotype matching might be used for paternal kin discrimination and that both mechanisms might apply to a wide range of social mammals characterized by a high skew in male reproduction and co-residence of paternal kin. Among primates, suggested evidence for phenotype matching can often have an alternative explanation, which emphasizes the crucial importance of controlling for familiarity as a potential confounding variable. However, the mechanism/s used to identify paternal kin might differ within a species (as a function of each individual's specific circumstances) as well as among species (depending upon the key sensory modalities of the species considered). Finally, I discuss the possible cues used in paternal kin discrimination and offer suggestions for future studies. PMID:17437563

Widdig, Anja

2007-05-01

368

Genetic diversity in population of largemouth bronze gudgeon (Coreius guichenoti Sauvage et Dabry) from Yangtze River determined by microsatellite DNA analysis.  

PubMed

Largemouth bronze gudgeon (Coreius guichenoti Sauvage et Dabry 1874), one of the endemic fish species in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River in China, is a benthic and potamodromous fish that is typically found in rivers with torrential flow. Three dams in the Yangtze River, Ertan Dam, Three Gorges Dam and Gezhouba Dam, may have had vital impacts on the habitat and spawning behaviors of largemouth bronze gudgeon, and could ultimately threaten the survival of this fish. We studied the population genetic diversity of C. guichenoti samples collected at seven sites (JH, GLP, BX, HJ, MD, SDP and XB) within the Yangtze River and one of its tributaries, the Yalong River. Genetic diversity patterns were determined by analyzing genetic data from 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci. A high genetic diversity among these largemouth bronze gudgeon populations was indicated by the number of microsatellite alleles (A) and the expected heterozygosity (HE). No significant population variation occurred among GLP, BX, HJ and MD populations, but dramatic population differentiation was observed among JH and XB, two dam-blocked populations, versus other populations. Tests for bottlenecks did not indicate recent dramatic population declines and concurrent losses of genetic diversity in any largemouth bronze gudgeon populations. To the contrary, we found that dams accelerated the population differentiation of this fish. PMID:21317547

Zhang, Futie; Tan, Deqing

2010-01-01

369

Blueberry Microsatellite Markers Identify Cranberries  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Forty-six blueberry simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers or microsatellites were tested for the ability to amplify a polymorphic marker in eight American cranberry accessions. Sixteen SSRs resulted in informative and polymorphic SSR primer pairs and were used to fingerprint 16 economically important...

370

Microsatellites from Conyza canadensis (horseweed)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Microsatellite loci were identified from Conyza canadensis (horseweed). Primer pairs for 64 loci were developed and of these eight were optimized and screened using genomic DNA from 22 accessions of horseweed from North America. Most loci were polymorphic and the number of alleles per locus ranged ...

371

Isolation, characterization and multiplex polymerase chain reaction of novel microsatellite loci for the avian parasite Philornis downsi (Diptera: Muscidae).  

PubMed

An enrichment technique was used to isolate 11 di-, tri-, and tetra microsatellites for the parasitic fly Philornis downsi (Diptera: Muscidae). These loci were polymerase chain reaction amplified in singleplexes or two-plexes for P. downsi. The loci showed low to moderate polymorphism, exhibited between three and four alleles, and observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.05 to 0.86. These new markers will be useful for population-level and paternity analyses and will provide valuable information about the ecology of this high-impact parasite of vulnerable bird species. PMID:21585739

Dudaniec, Rachael Y; Gardner, Michael G; Kleindorfer, Sonia

2008-01-01

372

A dominant spinocerebellar ataxia gene (SCA5) in a family descendent from the paternal grandparents of President Lincoln maps to chromosome 11  

SciTech Connect

Four different genes that cause spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA1, SCA2, Machado Joseph`s Disease (MJD)/SCA3 and SCA4) have been mapped to chromosomes 6p, 12q, 14q, and 16q, respectively. We have examined and collected 170 individuals (56 affected) from a previously unreported 10 generation kindred (the Lincoln Family) with a dominant ataxia that is clinically and genetically distinct from those previously mapped. The family has two major branches from Indiana and Kentucky. Of historical interest is that both branches descend from the paternal grandparents of President Abraham Lincoln. While the ataxia in this kindred is disabling, the most striking clinical distinction from SCA1, SCA2 and MJD/SCA3 is that it is generally not life threatening. This clinical difference is explained by the absence of bulbar paralysis and lower motor neuron degeneration that causes respiratory muscle weakness. We have mapped the gene, SCA5, using microsatellite markers spaced at 20-40 cM intervals throughout the genome. After 75 markers, the first to demonstrate a lod score greater than 3.0 was D11S871 (Zmax=5.05). Four additional markers from the centromeric region of chromosome 11 also gave lod scores greater than 3. The highest lod scores were 12.3 for both D11S905 ({theta}=0.056) and D11S913 ({theta}=0.030). Multipoint linkage and haplotype analyses indicate the most likely location for SCA5 is within the 7 cM interval between GATA2A01 and D11S913. A statistical analysis of the age of onset of parent-offspring pairs within the family supports (p<0.0002) the presence of anticipation. Several dramatic examples of anticipation have been observed in which grandmothers have onsets 10-20 years later in life than their daughters who have onsets 10-20 years later than their children. Interestingly, all four of the juvenile onset cases are maternally inherited, suggesting a maternal bias in anticipation for SCA5 rather than a paternal bias as seen with SCA1.

Ranum, L.P.W.; Lundgren, J.K.; Schut, L.J. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

1994-09-01

373

Human paternal lineages, languages, and environment in the Caucasus.  

PubMed

Publications that describe the composition of the human Y-DNA haplogroup in diffferent ethnic or linguistic groups and geographic regions provide no explicit explanation of the distribution of human paternal lineages in relation to specific ecological conditions. Our research attempts to address this topic for the Caucasus, a geographic region that encompasses a relatively small area but harbors high linguistic, ethnic, and Y-DNA haplogroup diversity. We genotyped 224 men that identified themselves as ethnic Georgian for 23 Y-chromosome short tandem-repeat markers and assigned them to their geographic places of origin. The genotyped data were supplemented with published data on haplogroup composition and location of other ethnic groups of the Caucasus. We used multivariate statistical methods to see if linguistics, climate, and landscape accounted for geographical diffferences in frequencies of the Y-DNA haplogroups G2, R1a, R1b, J1, and J2. The analysis showed significant associations of (1) G2 with wellforested mountains, (2) J2 with warm areas or poorly forested mountains, and (3) J1 with poorly forested mountains. R1b showed no association with environment. Haplogroups J1 and R1a were significantly associated with Daghestanian and Kipchak speakers, respectively, but the other haplogroups showed no such simple associations with languages. Climate and landscape in the context of competition over productive areas among diffferent paternal lineages, arriving in the Caucasus in diffferent times, have played an important role in shaping the present-day spatial distribution of patrilineages in the Caucasus. This spatial pattern had formed before linguistic subdivisions were finally shaped, probably in the Neolithic to Bronze Age. Later historical turmoil had little influence on the patrilineage composition and spatial distribution. Based on our results, the scenario of postglacial expansions of humans and their languages to the Caucasus from the Middle East, western Eurasia, and the East European Plain is plausible. PMID:25397702

Tarkhnishvili, David; Gavashelishvili, Alexander; Murtskhvaladze, Marine; Gabelaia, Mariam; Tevzadze, Gigi

2014-01-01

374

Impact of a chromosome X STR Decaplex in deficiency paternity cases  

PubMed Central

Deficiency paternity cases, characterized by the absence of the alleged father, are a challenge for forensic genetics. Here we present four cases with a female child and a deceased alleged father in which the analysis of a set of 21 or 22 autosomal STRs (AS STRs) produced results within a range of doubt when genotyping relatives of the alleged father. Aiming to increase the Paternity Index (PI) and obtain more reliable results, a set of 10 X-linked STR markers, developed by the Spanish and Portuguese Group of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG), was then added. Statistical analysis substantially shifted the results towards the alleged fatherhood in all four cases, with more dramatic changes when the supposed half-sister and respective mother were the relatives tested. PMID:24385853

Trindade-Filho, Aluisio; Ferreira, Samuel; Oliveira, Silviene F.

2013-01-01

375

Impact of a chromosome X STR Decaplex in deficiency paternity cases.  

PubMed

Deficiency paternity cases, characterized by the absence of the alleged father, are a challenge for forensic genetics. Here we present four cases with a female child and a deceased alleged father in which the analysis of a set of 21 or 22 autosomal STRs (AS STRs) produced results within a range of doubt when genotyping relatives of the alleged father. Aiming to increase the Paternity Index (PI) and obtain more reliable results, a set of 10 X-linked STR markers, developed by the Spanish and Portuguese Group of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG), was then added. Statistical analysis substantially shifted the results towards the alleged fatherhood in all four cases, with more dramatic changes when the supposed half-sister and respective mother were the relatives tested. PMID:24385853

Trindade-Filho, Aluisio; Ferreira, Samuel; Oliveira, Silviene F

2013-12-01

376

Phylogenetic split of Larix : evidence from paternally inherited cpDNA trn T- trn F region  

Microsoft Academic Search

A molecular phylogeny of Larix com- prising 12 species was constructed from the sequence analysis of the paternally inherited cpDNA trnT-trnF region of 46 individuals. The most parsimonious tree split Larix into three sister clades: one clade was composed of two North American species, the other two were short-bracted and long-bracted species of Eurasia respectively except that L. sibirica was

X.-X. Wei; X.-Q. Wang

2003-01-01

377

Phylogenetic split of Larix : evidence from paternally inherited cpDNA trn T- trn F region  

Microsoft Academic Search

A molecular phylogeny of Larix comprising 12 species was constructed from the sequence analysis of the paternally inherited cpDNA trnT- trnF region of 46 individuals. The most parsimonious tree split Larix into three sister clades: one clade was composed of two North American species, the other two were short-bracted and long-bracted species of Eurasia respectively except that L. sibirica was

X.-X. Wei; X.-Q. Wang

2003-01-01

378

A microsatellite marker based linkage map of tobacco.  

PubMed

We report the first linkage map of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) generated through microsatellite markers. The microsatellite markers were predominantly derived from genomic sequences of the Tobacco Genome Initiative (TGI) through bioinformatics screening for microsatellite motives. A total of 684 primer pairs were screened for functionality in a panel of 16 tobacco lines. Of those, 637 primer pairs were functional. Potential parents for mapping populations were evaluated for their polymorphism level through genetic similarity analysis. The similarity analysis revealed that the known groups of tobacco varieties (Burley, Flue-cured, Oriental and Dark) form distinct clusters. A mapping population, based on a cross between varieties Hicks Broad Leaf and Red Russian, and consisting of 186 F2 individuals, was selected for mapping. A total of 282 functional microsatellite markers were polymorphic in this population and 293 loci could be mapped together with the morphological trait flower color. Twenty-four tentative linkage groups spanning 1,920 cM could be identified. This map will provide the basis for the genetic mapping of traits in tobacco and for further analyses of the tobacco genome. PMID:17115128

Bindler, Gregor; van der Hoeven, Rutger; Gunduz, Irfan; Plieske, Jörg; Ganal, Martin; Rossi, Luca; Gadani, Ferruccio; Donini, Paolo

2007-01-01

379

Male age mediates reproductive investment and response to paternity assurance  

PubMed Central

Theory predicts that male response to reduced paternity will depend on male state and interactions between the sexes. If there is little chance of reproducing again, then males should invest heavily in current offspring, regardless of their share in paternity. We tested this by manipulating male age and paternity assurance in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides. We found older males invested more in both mating effort and parental effort than younger males. Furthermore, male age, a component of male state, mediated male response to perceived paternity. Older males provided more prenatal care, whereas younger males provided less prenatal care, when perceived paternity was low. Adjustments in male care, however, did not influence selection acting indirectly on parents, through offspring performance. This is because females adjusted their care in response to the age of their partner, providing less care when paired with older males than younger males. As a result offspring, performance did not differ between treatments. Our study shows, for the first time, that a male state variable is an important modifier of paternity–parental care trade-offs and highlights the importance of social interactions between males and females during care in determining male response to perceived paternity. PMID:23782889

Benowitz, Kyle M.; Head, Megan L.; Williams, Camellia A.; Moore, Allen J.; Royle, Nick J.

2013-01-01

380

Characterisation of microsatellite markers from sugarcane (Saccharum sp.), a highly polyploid species.  

PubMed

Cultivated sugarcane varieties (Saccharum spp) are derived from complex interspecific hybridisations between the species S. spontaneum (2n=40-128) and S. officinarum (2n=60 or 80). To analyse this complex genome, the potential of microsatellite repeats as genetic markers in sugarcane with respect to their abundance, variability and ability to detect polymorphisms was investigated. A set of microsatellite markers for genome analysis in cultivated sugarcane was identified from an enriched genomic DNA library constructed from Saccharum sp. cv Q124. Sequencing of 798 sugarcane genomic DNA clones from an enriched microsatellite library, yielded 457 inserts containing microsatellite repeat motifs. Just over 84% of the microsatellites contained dinucleotide or trinucleotide repeats averaging 15 and 13 repeat motifs, respectively. Primer sets were designed and synthesised for over 100 microsatellite sequences and tested on a set of five sugarcane cultivars. Both, heterozygosity as witnessed by the number of alleles, and length polymorphisms as seen in the differences in PCR product size for a particular allele were observed. Microsatellite markers are likely to have many applications in sugarcane genetics and breeding including germplasm analysis, cultivar identification, parent evaluation and marker assisted breeding. PMID:10814819

Cordeiro; Taylor; Henry

2000-06-29

381

Genetic evidence of extra-pair paternity and intraspecific brood parasitism in the monk parakeet  

PubMed Central

Introduction The monk parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus) is a widespread invasive species native to southern South America that has become established in many regions of the world. Monk parakeets breed in a large, fully enclosed structure built from twigs, which consist of one to many individual brooding chambers. The species has been considered to be socially and genetically monogamous. However, genetic relatedness of adults to juveniles in the native area was found to be lower than expected for monogamy. To assess the significance of this discrepancy, we examined individual and population genetic patterns of microsatellite loci at two sites in Córdoba province, Argentina. Results We sampled 154 nestlings and 42 adults in Córdoba, Argentina. Mean value of pairwise relatedness of nestlings within chambers was about 0.40. Contrarily, relatedness of nestlings between chambers was close to zero. We found a considerable degree of variation in nestling pairwise relatedness and parentage within chambers, including chambers with combinations of unrelated, half-sib, and full-sib nestlings. The proportion of sibling relatedness indicated monogamy in 47% and extra pair-paternity in 40% of the chambers. We also found intra-brood parasitism in 3% of the chambers. Conclusions Our results indicate that the monk parakeet is sexually polygamous in its native range in Argentina, which is consistent with the observed mean value of relatedness of adults to juveniles of about 0.4. We also confirm the existence of intra-brood parasitism. High density of monk parakeets may favor occurrence of extra-pair paternity and intra-brood parasitism in the native sites. PMID:24209709

2013-01-01

382

Effects of body size on male mating tactics and paternity in black bears, Ursus americanus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reproductive behaviour of large, solitary mammals is difficult to study. Owing to their secretive nature and wide-ranging habits, aspects of male mating behaviour are poorly documented in solitary than in social species. We used radiotelemetry and microsatellite DNA analysis to investigate the influence of body size on male mating tac- tics and short-term reproductive success in the black bear,

Adrienne I. Kovach; Roger A. Powell

2003-01-01

383

DETERMINATION OF GENETIC DIVERSITY AND PATERNITY IN THE GRAY-TAILED VOLE (MICROTUS CANICAUDUS) BY RAPD-PCR  

EPA Science Inventory

Genetic relatedness of gray-tailed voles (Microtus canicaudus) was determined by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). This work is the first reported use of the RAPD method for pedigree analysis of M. canicaudus and demonstrates the feasibility of RAPD for assessing paternity...

384

Domain-Level Differences in Microsatellite Distribution and Content Result from Different Relative Rates of Insertion and Deletion Mutations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microsatellites (short tandem polynucleotide repeats) are found throughout eukaryotic genomes at frequencies many orders of magnitude higher than the frequencies predicted to occur by chance. Most of these microsatellites appear to have evolved in a generally neutral manner. In contrast, microsatellites are generally absent from bacterial genomes except in locations where they provide adaptive functional variability, and these appear to have evolved under selection. We demonstrate a mutational bias towards deletion (repeat contraction) in a native chromosomal microsatellite of the bacterium Mycoplasma gallisepticum, through the collection and analysis of independent mutations in the absence of natural selection. Using this and similar existing data from two other bacterial species and four eukaryotic species, we find strong evidence that deletion biases resulting in repeat contraction are common in bacteria, while eukaryotic microsatellites generally experience unbiased mutation or a bias towards insertion (repeat expansion). This difference in mutational bias suggests that eukaryotic microsatellites should generally expand wherever selection does not exclude them, whereas bacterial microsatellites should be driven to extinction by mutational pressure wherever they are not maintained by selection. This is consistent with observed bacterial and eukaryotic microsatellite distributions. Hence, mutational biases that differ between eukaryotes and bacteria can account for many of the observed differences in microsatellite DNA content and distribution found in these two groups of organisms.

Metzgar, David; Liu, Li; Hansen, Christian; Dybvig, Kevin; Wills, Christopher

2003-01-01

385

[The fairy tale and modern paternity].  

PubMed

The study presents the interpretation of a hospital delivery from the male's perspective, according to the cultural experiences of the individual, making available the simultaneous discovery of that which conceals and brings out this phenomenon. In seeking answers to the hidden meanings of the paternity process, it points to a literary path of meaning and art: the allegory. The account of the material analyzed is presented in the form of a seemingly ingenuous narrative--a fairy tale--with a symbolic nature and a moral backdrop, using the fable of Charles Perreaut entitled "Little Red Ridding Hood". From this other view, the beauty of the modern world is captured, offering a key for interpretations of the human realities. PMID:14694744

Luz, Anna Maria Hecker; Zanetti, Lou

2003-01-01

386

Twelve polymorphic microsatellite loci from the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, the vector for citrus greening disease Huanglongbing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Twelve polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed from microsatellite-enriched DNA libraries and mined from an EST library of Diaphorina citri, the vector of the devastating citrus greening disease (Huanglongbing). Analysis of 288 individuals from Florida, Texas, and Brazil showed allelic di...

387

High resolution of human evolutionary trees with polymorphic microsatellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

GENETIC variation at hypervariable loci is being used extensively for linkage analysis1 and individual identification2, and may be useful for inter-population studies2-5. Here we show that polymorphic microsatellites (primarily CA repeats) allow trees of human individuals to be constructed that reflect their geographic origin with remarkable accuracy. This is achieved by the analysis of a large number of loci for

A. M. Bowcock; A. Ruiz-Linares; J. Tomfohrde; E. Minch; J. R. Kidd; L. L. Cavalli-Sforza

1994-01-01

388

A likelihood-based approach for assessment of extra-pair paternity and conspecific brood parasitism in natural populations.  

PubMed

Genotypes are frequently used to assess alternative reproductive strategies such as extra-pair paternity and conspecific brood parasitism in wild populations. However, such analyses are vulnerable to genotyping error or molecular artefacts that can bias results. For example, when using multilocus microsatellite data, a mismatch at a single locus, suggesting the offspring was not directly related to its putative parents, can occur quite commonly even when the offspring is truly related. Some recent studies have advocated an ad-hoc rule that offspring must differ at more than one locus in order to conclude that they are not directly related. While this reduces the frequency with which true offspring are identified as not directly related young, it also introduces bias in the opposite direction, wherein not directly related young are categorized as true offspring. More importantly, it ignores the additional information on allele frequencies which would reduce overall bias. In this study, we present a novel technique for assessing extra-pair paternity and conspecific brood parasitism using a likelihood-based approach in a new version of program cervus. We test the suitability of the technique by applying it to a simulated data set and then present an example to demonstrate its influence on the estimation of alternative reproductive strategies. PMID:24989354

Lemons, P R; Marshall, T C; McCloskey, S E; Sethi, S A; Schmutz, J A; Sedinger, J S

2015-01-01

389

O father where art thou? Paternity analyses in a natural population of the haploid-diploid seaweed Chondrus crispus.  

PubMed

The link between life history traits and mating systems in diploid organisms has been extensively addressed in the literature, whereas the degree of selfing and/or inbreeding in natural populations of haploid-diploid organisms, in which haploid gametophytes alternate with diploid sporophytes, has been rarely measured. Dioecy has often been used as a proxy for the mating system in these organisms. Yet, dioecy does not prevent the fusion of gametes from male and female gametophytes originating from the same sporophyte. This is likely a common occurrence when spores from the same parent are dispersed in clumps and recruit together. This pattern of clumped spore dispersal has been hypothesized to explain significant heterozygote deficiency in the dioecious haploid-diploid seaweed Chondrus crispus. Fronds and cystocarps (structures in which zygotes are mitotically amplified) were sampled in two 25?m(2) plots located within a high and a low intertidal zone and genotyped at 5 polymorphic microsatellite loci in order to explore the mating system directly using paternity analyses. Multiple males sired cystocarps on each female, but only one of the 423 paternal genotypes corresponded to a field-sampled gametophyte. Nevertheless, larger kinship coefficients were detected between males siring cystocarps on the same female in comparison with males in the entire population, confirming restricted spermatial and clumped spore dispersal. Such dispersal mechanisms may be a mode of reproductive assurance due to nonmotile gametes associated with putatively reduced effects of inbreeding depression because of the free-living haploid stage in C. crispus. PMID:25227258

Krueger-Hadfield, S A; Roze, D; Correa, J A; Destombe, C; Valero, M

2015-02-01

390

Genome-Based Microsatellite Development in the Culex pipiens Complex and Comparative Microsatellite  

E-print Network

Genome-Based Microsatellite Development in the Culex pipiens Complex and Comparative Microsatellite Background: Mosquitoes in the Culex pipiens complex are among the most medically important vectors for human in the Culex pipiens Complex and Comparative Microsatellite Frequency with Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae

Severson, David

391

MICROSATELLITE LETTERS EST-based microsatellites for northern pike (Esox lucius)  

E-print Network

MICROSATELLITE LETTERS EST-based microsatellites for northern pike (Esox lucius) and cross novel microsatellite markers in North American northern pike, Esox lucius, and tested cross out of 17 loci were successfully cross-amplified on all species. Keywords Esox lucius Á Northern pike

Bernatchez, Louis

392

Microsatellite markers for Lycium ruthenicum (Solananeae).  

PubMed

We developed microsatellite markers in Lycium ruthenicum, a desert plant widely distributed in northwestern China. In order to investigate its population genetic structure, genetic diversity, and its evolutionary history, we have isolated 11 novel microsatellite loci primers and characterized them in 24 individuals from 3 populations of L. ruthenicum using the combined biotin capture technique. For these microsatellites, one to seven alleles per locus were identified. The observed heterozygosities ranged from 0 to 0.958, meanwhile the expected heterozygosities ranged from 0 to 0.841. These microsatellite markers could be first useful for population level studies like genetic diversity and structure in this species. PMID:25028267

Chen, Hai-kui; Zhong, Yang

2014-09-01

393

Paternal postpartum depression: what health care providers should know.  

PubMed

Paternal postpartum depression (PPD) is a clinically significant problem for families that is currently underscreened, underdiagnosed, and undertreated. Maternal PPD is a well-known condition and has been extensively researched. In comparison, PPD in fathers and its potential effects on the family are not widely recognized. Studies have shown the importance of optimal mental health in fathers during the postpartum period. Negative effects of paternal PPD affect marital/partner relationships, infant bonding, and child development. To promote optimal health for parents and children, pediatric nurse practitioners must stay up to date on this topic. This article discusses the relationship of paternal PPD to maternal PPD; the consequences, signs, and symptoms; and the pediatric nurse practitioner's role in assessing and managing paternal PPD. PMID:23182851

Musser, Anna K; Ahmed, Azza H; Foli, Karen J; Coddington, Jennifer A

2013-01-01

394

Canine Paternity Testing--Using Personal Experiences To Teach Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines how an example from the field of animal husbandry is used in a DNA Technology course to motivate students to take a deeper interest in the material. Focuses on paternity testing in dogs. (DDR)

Rascati, Ralph J.

2002-01-01

395

45 CFR 303.5 - Establishment of paternity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the actual costs of the genetic tests. (3) If paternity is established and genetic tests were ordered by...costs of any such additional testing in advance. (4) The...the costs of performing genetic tests to reimburse any...

2010-10-01

396

Paternity uncertainty overrides sex chromosome selection for preferential grandparenting  

E-print Network

Paternity uncertainty overrides sex chromosome selection for preferential grandparenting Elizabeth grandchildren. Because males are heterozygous for sex chromosomes, however, grandparents are asymmetrically related to male and female grandchildren via the sex chromosomes. For example, the Y chromosome from

Getz, Wayne M.

397

Cues of Paternal Uncertainty and Father to Child Physical Abuse as Reported by Mothers in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Paternity is uncertain, so if paternal feelings evolved to promote fitness, we might expect them to vary in response to variables indicative of paternity probability. We therefore hypothesized that the risk of lapses of paternal affection, including abusive assaults on children, will be exacerbated by cues of non-paternity. Methods:…

Alexandre, Gisele Caldas; Nadanovsky, Paulo; Wilson, Margo; Daly, Martin; Moraes, Claudia Leite; Reichenheim, Michael

2011-01-01

398

A Preliminary Microsatellite Linkage Map of the Red Drum (Sciaenops ocellatus)  

E-print Network

?-tailed with an arbitrary primer sequence, in this case taken from the microsatellite primer sequence CATR8 used in the PCR amplification of genomic DNA from the Madagascar periwinkle, Catharanthus roseus (Shokeen et al. 2007). In addition to the tail.... KUMAR and S. BHATIA, 2007 Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers for analysis of molecular variation in the medicinal plant Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don). Plant Science 172: 441-451. SINGER, A., H...

Hollenbeck, Christopher

2011-01-11

399

The making and breaking of paternity secrets in donor insemination.  

PubMed

This paper analyses the complex issues faced by regulators of the infertility treatment industry in response to the social and technological changes that heralded a new openness in knowledge about genetics, paternity and the concomitant need for donor offspring to know their genetic origins. The imperative for full information about their donor and biological father, who contributed to their creation and half of their genome, was an outcome unanticipated by the architects of the donor insemination programme. Genetic paternity testing realised the possibility of fixed and certain knowledge about paternity. This paper outlines medicine's role in the formation of normative families through the use of donor insemination. Extending information from an Australian study on the use of DNA paternity testing, it analyses what the social and scientific changes that have emerged and gained currency in the last several decades mean for the new 'openness' and the role of paternity testing in this context. It concludes with recommendations about how to deal with the verification of paternity in linking donor conceived adult children to their donor. PMID:20605993

Turney, Lyn

2010-07-01

400

Microsatellite and mtDNA analysis of lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, from Great Bear Lake, Northwest Territories: impacts of historical and contemporary evolutionary forces on Arctic ecosystems  

PubMed Central

Resolving the genetic population structure of species inhabiting pristine, high latitude ecosystems can provide novel insights into the post-glacial, evolutionary processes shaping the distribution of contemporary genetic variation. In this study, we assayed genetic variation in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Great Bear Lake (GBL), NT and one population outside of this lake (Sandy Lake, NT) at 11 microsatellite loci and the mtDNA control region (d-loop). Overall, population subdivision was low, but significant (global FST ? = 0.025), and pairwise comparisons indicated that significance was heavily influenced by comparisons between GBL localities and Sandy Lake. Our data indicate that there is no obvious genetic structure among the various basins within GBL (global FST = 0.002) despite the large geographic distances between sampling areas. We found evidence of low levels of contemporary gene flow among arms within GBL, but not between Sandy Lake and GBL. Coalescent analyses suggested that some historical gene flow occurred among arms within GBL and between GBL and Sandy Lake. It appears, therefore, that contemporary (ongoing dispersal and gene flow) and historical (historical gene flow and large founding and present-day effective population sizes) factors contribute to the lack of neutral genetic structure in GBL. Overall, our results illustrate the importance of history (e.g., post-glacial colonization) and contemporary dispersal ecology in shaping genetic population structure of Arctic faunas and provide a better understanding of the evolutionary ecology of long-lived salmonids in pristine, interconnected habitats. PMID:23404390

Harris, Les N; Howland, Kimberly L; Kowalchuk, Matthew W; Bajno, Robert; Lindsay, Melissa M; Taylor, Eric B

2013-01-01

401

Karyotypic analysis and FISH mapping of microsatellite motifs reveal highly differentiated XX/XY sex chromosomes in the pink-tailed worm-lizard (Aprasia parapulchella, Pygopodidae, Squamata)  

PubMed Central

Background The infraorder Gekkota is intriguing because it contains multiple chromosomal and environmental sex determination systems that vary even among closely related taxa. Here, we compare male and females karyotypes of the pink-tailed worm-lizard (Aprasia parapulchella), a small legless lizard belonging to the endemic Australian family Pygopodidae. Results We applied comparative genomic hybridization to reveal an XX/XY sex chromosome system in which the Y chromosome is highly differentiated from the X in both gross morphology and DNA sequence. In addition, FISH mapping has revealed that two microsatellite repeat motifs, (AGAT)n and (AC)n, have been amplified multiple times on the Y chromosome. Conclusion XY karyotypes are found in other pygopodids (Delma inornata and Lialis burtonis), suggesting that the common ancestor of Pygopodidae also had XY sex chromosomes. However, the morphology and size of the Y chromosomes are different among the three species, suggesting that the processes underlying the evolution of sex chromosomes in the Pygopodidae involved chromosome rearrangements and accumulation and amplification of repeats. PMID:24344753

2013-01-01

402

Discerning non-disjunction in Down syndrome patients by means of GluK1-(AGAT)n and D21S2055-(GATA)n microsatellites on chromosome 21  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION: Down syndrome (DS), the leading genetic cause of mental retardation, stems from non-disjunction of chromosome 21. AIM: Our aim was to discern non-disjunction in DS patients by genotyping GluK1-(AGAT)n and D21S2055-(GATA)n microsatellites on chromosome 21 using a family-based study design. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We have used a PCR and automated DNA sequencing followed by appropriate statistical analysis of genotype data for the present study RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: We show that a high power of discrimination and a low probability of matching indicate that both markers may be used to distinguish between two unrelated individuals. That the D21S2055-(GATA)n allele distribution is evenly balanced, is indicated by a high power of exclusion [PE=0.280]. The estimated values of observed heterozygosity and polymorphism information content reveal that relative to GluK1-(AGAT)n[Hobs=0.286], the D21S2055- (GATA)n[Hobs=0.791] marker, is more informative. Though allele frequencies for both polymorphisms do not conform to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium proportions, we were able to discern the parental origin of non-disjunction and also garnered evidence for triallelic (1:1:1) inheritance. The estimated proportion of meiosis-I to meiosis-II errors is 2:1 in maternal and 4:1 in paternal cases for GluK1-(AGAT)n, whereas for D21S2055-(GATA)n, the ratio is 2:1 in both maternal and paternal cases. Results underscore a need to systematically evaluate additional chromosome 21-specific markers in the context of non-disjunction DS. PMID:23162297

Ghosh, Debarati; Sinha, Swagata; Chatterjee, Anindita; Nandagopal, Krishnadas

2012-01-01

403

Paternal obesity in a rodent model affects placental gene expression in a sex-specific manner.  

PubMed

Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a major obstetric complication stemming from poor placental development. We have previously demonstrated that paternal obesity in mice is associated with impaired embryo development and significantly reduced fetal and placental weights. We hypothesised that the FGR observed in our rodent model of paternal diet-induced obesity is associated with alterations in metabolic, cell signalling and stress pathways. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed either a normal or high-fat diet for 10 weeks before sperm collection for IVF and subsequent embryo transfer. On embryonic day 14, placentas were collected and RNA extracted from both male and female placentas to assess mRNA expression of 24 target genes using custom RT-qPCR arrays. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (Ppara) and caspase-12 (Casp12) expression were significantly altered in male placentas from obese fathers compared with normal (P<0.05), but not female placentas. PPARA and CASP12 proteins were localised within the placenta to trophoblast giant cells by immunohistochemistry, and relative protein abundance was determined by western blot analysis. DNA was also extracted from the same placentas to determine methylation status. Global DNA methylation was significantly increased in female placentas from obese fathers compared with normal (P<0.05), but not male placentas. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that paternal obesity is associated with changes in gene expression and methylation status of extraembryonic tissue in a sex-specific manner. These findings reinforce the negative consequences of paternal obesity before conception, and emphasise the need for more lifestyle advice for prospective fathers. PMID:25725082

Binder, Natalie K; Beard, Sally A; Kaitu'u-Lino, Tu'uhevaha J; Tong, Stephen; Hannan, Natalie J; Gardner, David K

2015-05-01

404

Utility of microsatellite markers and amplified fragment length polymorphism in the study of potentially ochratoxigenic black aspergilli.  

PubMed

Microsatellite markers and the results of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) were compared in the characterization of 68 Aspergillus carbonarius and A. niger aggregate strains of differing ochratoxin-producing ability and from different geographic areas, isolated mainly from grapes and soil. AFLP was applied to both A. carbonarius and A. niger aggregate strains, and it clearly differentiated these species. Microsatellite markers were only applied to A. niger aggregate strains because of the species-specific nature of these markers. Both AFLP and microsatellite marker analyses were able to divide A. niger aggregate strains into the two recognized internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-5.8S rDNA RFLP types, N and T. Clustering of A. niger aggregate strains was similar in both AFLP and microsatellite analyses, yielding an additional separation of N type strains into two groups. Both microsatellite marker and AFLP analyses showed high levels of polymorphism in the A. niger aggregate (index of discriminatory power 0.991 and 1.0, respectively). Of the two techniques, microsatellite marker analysis was quicker and more straightforward to perform. In addition, microsatellite marker analysis is more reproducible, and the results can be expressed as quantitative data, making microsatellite markers a good candidate for use in large-scale studies of genetic diversity in A. niger aggregate species. PMID:18668289

Esteban, Alexandre; Leong, Su-lin L; Hocking, Ailsa D; Abarca, M Lourdes; Cabañes, F Javier; Tran-Dinh, Nai

2008-10-01

405

Identification and DUS Testing of Rice Varieties through Microsatellite Markers  

PubMed Central

Identification and registration of new rice varieties are very important to be free from environmental effects and using molecular markers that are more reliable. The objectives of this study were, first, the identification and distinction of 40 rice varieties consisting of local varieties of Iran, improved varieties, and IRRI varieties using PIC, and discriminating power, second, cluster analysis based on Dice similarity coefficient and UPGMA algorithm, and, third, determining the ability of microsatellite markers to separate varieties utilizing the best combination of markers. For this research, 12 microsatellite markers were used. In total, 83 polymorphic alleles (6.91 alleles per locus) were found. In addition, the variation of PIC was calculated from 0.52 to 0.9. The results of cluster analysis showed the complete discrimination of varieties from each other except for IR58025A and IR58025B. Moreover, cluster analysis could detect the most of the improved varieties from local varieties. Based on the best combination of markers analysis, five pair primers together have shown the same results of all markers for detection among all varieties. Considering the results of this research, we can propose that microsatellite markers can be used as a complementary tool for morphological characteristics in DUS tests. PMID:25755666

Pourabed, Ehsan; Jazayeri Noushabadi, Mohammad Reza; Jamali, Seyed Hossein; Moheb Alipour, Naser; Zareyan, Abbas; Sadeghi, Leila

2015-01-01

406

[Identification of sunflower genotypes using microsatellite markers].  

PubMed

Polymorphism of some DNA microsatellite sequences of sunflower breeding genotypes (inbred lines, hybrids) was investigated. Allelic composition on 8 SSR loci is unique characteristic of every analysed genotype allowing their identification. Microsatellite markers are proposed to be used for definition of line genetic purity and of F1 seeds hybridity range. PMID:15131964

Solodenko, A E; Sanalati?, A V; Sivolap, Iu M

2004-01-01

407

Tetranucleotide microsatellites for aquila and haliaeetus eagles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A unique community of four syntopic eagle species exists in north-central Kazakhstan. Questions about behaviour and genetics in these four species would benefit from the development of microsatellite markers. We isolated eight polymorphic microsatellite repeats (AAAG) n from the eastern imperial eagle ( Aquila heliaca ) genome using a hybridiza- tion enrichment technique. These loci revealed moderate diversity in a

JOSEPH D. BUSCH; TODD E. KATZNER; EVGENY BRAGIN; PAUL. KEIM

2005-01-01

408

AN ENHANCED MICROSATELLITE MAP OF DIPLOID FRAGARIA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A total of 45 microsatellites (SSRs) were developed for mapping in Fragaria. They included 31 novel codominant genomic microsatellites (SSRs) from Fragaria nubicola and a further 14 derived from an expressed sequence tagged library (EST-SSRs) of F. x ananassa. These, and an additional, 64 previous...

409

Sequence determinants of human microsatellite variability  

PubMed Central

Background Microsatellite loci are frequently used in genomic studies of DNA sequence repeats and in population studies of genetic variability. To investigate the effect of sequence properties of microsatellites on their level of variability we have analyzed genotypes at 627 microsatellite loci in 1,048 worldwide individuals from the HGDP-CEPH cell line panel together with the DNA sequences of these microsatellites in the human RefSeq database. Results Calibrating PCR fragment lengths in individual genotypes by using the RefSeq sequence enabled us to infer repeat number in the HGDP-CEPH dataset and to calculate the mean number of repeats (as opposed to the mean PCR fragment length), under the assumption that differences in PCR fragment length reflect differences in the numbers of repeats in the embedded repeat sequences. We find the mean and maximum numbers of repeats across individuals to be positively correlated with heterozygosity. The size and composition of the repeat unit of a microsatellite are also important factors in predicting heterozygosity, with tetra-nucleotide repeat units high in G/C content leading to higher heterozygosity. Finally, we find that microsatellites containing more separate sets of repeated motifs generally have higher heterozygosity. Conclusions These results suggest that sequence properties of microsatellites have a significant impact in determining the features of human microsatellite variability. PMID:20015383

2009-01-01

410

Development of 57 novel polymorphic microsatellite markers in half-smooth tongue sole ( Cynoglossus semilaevis)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Half-smooth tongue sole ( Cynoglossus semilaevis) is a promising species for aquaculture in China. The wild population of C. semilaevis is under threat from environmental factors. Microsatellite markers are very suitable for assessing genetic diversity. Four microsatellite-enriched libraries of half smooth tongue sole ( Cynoglossus semilaevis) were constructed, from which 57 polymorphic microsatellites were isolated and characterized. The polymorphism of these microsatellites was assessed by genotyping in 30 individual fish. The number of alleles ranged from 2 to 11, with an average of 4.614 alleles per locus. The values of observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.1000 to 1.0000 and from 0.0966 to 0.8847 respectively. Polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.0905 to 0.862. These markers would be useful for population structure assessment, genetic linkage map construction and parentage analysis for this species.

Miao, Guidong; Xu, Ying; Wang, Di; Chen, Songlin; Fan, Tingjun; Tian, Yongsheng

2011-09-01

411

Microsatellite instability in esophageal adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed

The frequency of microsatellite instability (MSI), a result of defective mismatch repair during DNA replication, has been reported inconsistently in primary esophageal adenocarcinoma (EADC). Using a panel of 15 markers, the primary aim of this study was to analyze the frequency of MSI in a well-characterized series of 27 primary EADCs, defined according to strict clinicopathologic criteria. Polymerase chain reaction was used to amplify the following microsatellite repeat loci: D2S123, D10S197, D2S119, D11S904, D2S147, D3S1764, D7S1830, D7S1805, D2S434, D9S299, BAT25, BAT26, D5S346, D17S250, and TGF-beta-RII. Tumors were classified as microsatellite-stable (MSS) when no alterations were seen in tumor DNA compared to matched normal tissues, low-level MSI (MSI-L) when 1-5 of 15 markers were altered, and high-level MSI (MSI-H) when more than five markers were altered. Using these stringent criteria, 9/27 (33%) tumors were MSS, 18/27 (67%) tumors were MSI-L, and no tumor was MSI-H. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated cell nuclear expression of DNA mismatch repair proteins (both hMLH1 and hMSH2) in 78% (21/27) of tumors. No associations were seen between MSI and immunohistochemical expression of hMLH1, hMSH2, alterations in p53 or MBD4, tumor grade, pathologic stage, or patient survival. In conclusion, the finding of low levels of MSI in most tumors suggests an inherent baseline genomic instability, and potentially increased susceptibility to mutations during the progression of esophageal adenocarcinoma. PMID:15279904

Evans, Susan C; Gillis, Amy; Geldenhuys, Laurette; Vaninetti, Nadine M; Malatjalian, Dickran A; Porter, Geoffrey A; Guernsey, Duane L; Casson, Alan G

2004-08-30

412

Microsatellite and mtDNA analysis of lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, from Great Bear Lake, Northwest Territories: impacts of historical and contemporary evolutionary forces on Arctic ecosystems.  

PubMed

Resolving the genetic population structure of species inhabiting pristine, high latitude ecosystems can provide novel insights into the post-glacial, evolutionary processes shaping the distribution of contemporary genetic variation. In this study, we assayed genetic variation in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Great Bear Lake (GBL), NT and one population outside of this lake (Sandy Lake, NT) at 11 microsatellite loci and the mtDNA control region (d-loop). Overall, population subdivision was low, but significant (global F(ST) ? = 0.025), and pairwise comparisons indicated that significance was heavily influenced by comparisons between GBL localities and Sandy Lake. Our data indicate that there is no obvious genetic structure among the various basins within GBL (global F(ST) = 0.002) despite the large geographic distances between sampling areas. We found evidence of low levels of contemporary gene flow among arms within GBL, but not between Sandy Lake and GBL. Coalescent analyses suggested that some historical gene flow occurred among arms within GBL and between GBL and Sandy Lake. It appears, therefore, that contemporary (ongoing dispersal and gene flow) and historical (historical gene flow and large founding and present-day effective population sizes) factors contribute to the lack of neutral genetic structure in GBL. Overall, our results illustrate the importance of history (e.g., post-glacial colonization) and contemporary dispersal ecology in shaping genetic population structure of Arctic faunas and provide a better understanding of the evolutionary ecology of long-lived salmonids in pristine, interconnected habitats. PMID:23404390

Harris, Les N; Howland, Kimberly L; Kowalchuk, Matthew W; Bajno, Robert; Lindsay, Melissa M; Taylor, Eric B

2012-01-01

413

The development of 10 novel polymorphic microsatellite markers through next generation sequencing and a preliminary population genetic analysis for the endangered Glenelg spiny crayfish, Euastacus bispinosus.  

PubMed

The Glenelg spiny crayfish, Euastacus bispinosus, is an iconic freshwater invertebrate of south eastern Australia and listed as 'endangered' under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999, and 'vulnerable' under the International Union for Conservation of Nature's Red List. The species has suffered major population declines as a result of over-fishing, low environmental flows, the introduction of invasive fish species and habitat degradation. In order to develop an effective conservation strategy, patterns of gene flow, genetic structure and genetic diversity across the species distribution need to be clearly understood. In this study we develop a suite of polymorphic microsatellite markers by next generation sequencing. A total of 15 polymorphic loci were identified and 10 characterized using 22 individuals from the lower Glenelg River. We observed low to moderate genetic variation across most loci (mean number of alleles per locus = 2.80; mean expected heterozygosity = 0.36) with no evidence of individual loci deviating significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Marker independence was confirmed with tests for linkage disequilibrium, and analyses indicated no evidence of null alleles across loci. Individuals from two additional sites (Crawford River, Victoria; Ewens Ponds Conservation Park, South Australia) were genotyped at all 10 loci and a preliminary investigation of genetic diversity and population structure was undertaken. Analyses indicate high levels of genetic differentiation among sample locations (F ST = 0.49), while the Ewens Ponds population is genetically homogeneous, indicating a likely small founder group and ongoing inbreeding. Management actions will be needed to restore genetic diversity in this and possibly other at risk populations. These markers will provide a valuable resource for future population genetic assessments so that an effective framework can be developed for implementing conservation strategies for E. bispinosus. PMID:23644985

Miller, Adam D; Van Rooyen, Anthony; Sweeney, Oisín F; Whiterod, Nick S; Weeks, Andrew R

2013-07-01

414

Genetic Differentiation and Genetic Diversity of Castanopsis (Fagaceae), the Dominant Tree Species in Japanese Broadleaved Evergreen Forests, Revealed by Analysis of EST-Associated Microsatellites  

PubMed Central

The broadleaved evergreen forests of the East Asian warm temperate zone are characterised by their high biodiversity and endemism, and there is therefore a need to extend our understanding of its genetic diversity and phylogeographic patterns. Castanopsis (Fagaceae) is one of the dominant tree species in the broadleaved evergreen forests of Japan. In this study we investigate the genetic diversity, genetic structure and leaf epidermal morphology of 63 natural populations of C. sieboldii and C. cuspidata, using 32 Expressed Sequence Tag associated microsatellites. The overall genetic differentiation between populations was low (GST?=?0.069 in C. sieboldii and GST?=?0.057 in C. cuspidata). Neighbor-joining tree and Bayesian clustering analyses revealed that the populations of C. sieboldii and C. cuspidata were genetically clearly differentiated, a result which is consistent with the morphology of their epidermal cell layers. This suggests that C. sieboldii and C. cuspidata should be treated as independent species, although intermediate morphologies are often observed, especially at sites where the two species coexist. The higher level of genetic diversity observed in the Kyushu region (for both species) and the Ryukyu Islands (for C. sieboldii) is consistent with the available fossil pollen data for Castanopsis-type broadleaved evergreen trees during the Last Glacial Maximum and suggests the existence of refugia for Castanopsis forests in southern Japan. Within the C. sieboldii populations, Bayesian clustering analyses detected three clusters, in the western and eastern parts of the main islands and in the Ryukyu Islands. The west-east genetic differentiation observed for this species in the main islands, a pattern which is also found in several plant and animal species inhabiting Castanopsis forests in Japan, suggests that they have been isolated from each other in the western and eastern populations for an extended period of time, and may imply the existence of eastern refugia. PMID:24498103

Aoki, Kyoko; Ueno, Saneyoshi; Kamijo, Takashi; Setoguchi, Hiroaki; Murakami, Noriaki; Kato, Makoto; Tsumura, Yoshihiko

2014-01-01

415

Lineages differentiation and population structure of the light-vented bulbul Pycnonotus sinensis in China based on mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite analysis.  

PubMed

The light-vented bulbul Pycnonotus sinensis is a small resident passerine that is found widely in central and south China, North Vietnam, and some East Asian islands, including Hainan, Taiwan and the Ryukyu Islands. Its subspecies status has been under considerable debate. A total of 10 subspecies have been proposed, but only 4 are widely recognized, including 1 continental taxon, P. s. sinensis, and 3 insular subspecies: P. s. hainanus, P. s. formosae and P. s. orii. Two mitochondrial DNA genes and 9 microsatellite loci were used to investigate the genetic divergence of this species, to identify the evolutionary status of 2 insular subspecies (P. s. hainanus and P. s. formosae) and to uncover probable historical causes that shaped them. The results reveal that P. s. formosae has diverged significantly from the other 2 subspecies because of a substantial time of isolation for populations on Taiwan Island. There was no significant genetic differentiation between P. s. sinensis and P. s. hainanus. The notable morphological difference in P. s. hainanus might be attributed to a rapid, recent adaptation to the tropical environment of Hainan Island. The low genetic divergence between P. s. sinensis and P. s. hainanus might result from a recent divergence or gene flow between them. Two insular subspecies of light-vented bulbul populations might have diverged recently from their continental relatives through a complex evolution history owing to island isolation, ecological isolation, and possibly even hybridization. Both P. s. hainanus and P. s. formosae should be considered important conservation units because of their morphological and genetic distinctiveness. PMID:22182330

Wu, Yuchun; Li, Hui; Zou, Fasheng; Hsu, Yucheng

2011-12-01

416

Non-LTR retrotransposons and microsatellites  

PubMed Central

The human genome is laden with both non-LTR (long-terminal repeat) retrotransposons and microsatellite repeats. Both types of sequences are able to, either actively or passively, mutagenize the genomes of human individuals and are therefore poised to dynamically alter the human genomic landscape across generations. Non-LTR retrotransposons, such as L1 and Alu, are a major source of new microsatellites, which are born both concurrently and subsequently to L1 and Alu integration into the genome. Likewise, the mutation dynamics of microsatellite repeats have a direct impact on the fitness of their non-LTR retrotransposon parent owing to microsatellite expansion and contraction. This review explores the interactions and dynamics between non-LTR retrotransposons and microsatellites in the context of genomic variation and evolution. PMID:24195012

Grandi, Fiorella C.; An, Wenfeng

2013-01-01

417

Effective Population Sizes with Multiple Paternity  

PubMed Central

While the concept of effective population size is of obvious applicability to many questions in population genetics and conservation biology, its utility has suffered due to a lack of agreement among its various formulations. Often, mathematical formulations for effective sizes apply restrictive assumptions that limit their applicability. Herein, expressions for effective sizes of populations that account for mating tactics, biases in sex ratios, and differential dispersal rates (among other parameters) are developed. Of primary interest is the influence of multiple paternity on the maintenance of genetic variation in a population. In addition to the standard inbreeding and variance effective sizes, intragroup (coancestral) and intergroup effective sizes also are developed. Expressions for effective sizes are developed for the beginning of nonrandom gene exchanges (initial effective sizes), the transition of gene correlations (instantaneous effective sizes), and the steady-state (asymptotic effective size). Results indicate that systems of mating that incorporate more than one male mate per female increase all effective sizes above those expected from polygyny and monogamy. Instantaneous and asymptotic sizes can be expressed relative to the fixation indices. The parameters presented herein can be utilized in models of effective sizes for the study of evolutionary biology and conservation genetics. PMID:7982568

Sugg, D. W.; Chesser, R. K.

1994-01-01

418

Hierarchical patterns of paternity within crowns of Albizia julibrissin (Fabaceae).  

PubMed

The floral architecture and phenology of the tree species Albizia julibrissin (Fabaceae) offer the potential for flowers within inflorescences to share common pollen donors. Patterns of paternity within individual tree crowns may differ among isolated individuals and those in populations due to differences in pollinator foraging behavior. To determine how genetic diversity is partitioned within individual seed pools and whether these patterns differ among isolated and population trees, we obtained all fruits from three inflorescences from four clusters from three isolated trees and from three population trees in Athens, Georgia. We assayed 14 polymorphic allozymes to genotype all progeny within singly sired fruits to determine the multilocus genotype of each fruit's pollen donor. Inflorescences had multiple pollen donors, but simulation analyses revealed that redundancy of pollen donors tended to be more likely within inflorescences than randomly across the crown. Analysis of genetic and genotypic diversity indicated that individual maternal trees received pollen from many donors in uneven frequencies. Results suggest that isolated trees receive pollen from slightly fewer pollen donors and experience more within-plant pollinator movement than trees in populations. However, isolated trees receive qualitatively similar pollen from many sources, suggesting that these trees are not effectively isolated and that pollen moves long distances in this species. PMID:21642213

Pardini, Eleanor A; Hamrick, J L

2007-01-01

419

Maternal and paternal diversity in Xinjiang Kazakh population from China.  

PubMed

The ancient silk road of China passed through Xinjiang and facilitated gene exchanges from the East and the West which impacted on the genetic variation and structure of the nomadic Kazakh population residing there. In order to understand the nature of this genetic variation; 151 Xinjiang Kazakh samples were obtained from four main Kazakh groups and were analyzed using mtDNA and Y-chromosome markers. The Xinjiang Kazakh population is heterogeneous, showing the coexistence of matrilineal lineages with different origins. No genetic differentiation of mtDNA is observed among the four different regional Xinjiang Kazakh populations in Xinjiang by AMOVA and Networks. The genetic diversity of Y-STR loci is higher in Xinjiang Kazakhs (0.968 ± 0.014) than the Kazakhs from Kazakhstan (0.629 ± 0.071) and Russia (0.835 ± 0.020). East Eurasians make a more than 50% contribution to the maternal and paternal lineages of Xinjiang Kazakhs. There is more gene flow from West Eurasian into the maternal lineages of Xinjiang Kazakh than to the Kazakhs from Russia and Kazakhstan. Moreover, mtDNA and Y-STR displayed high polymorphism in Xinjiang Kazakhs (the haplotype diversity and power of discrimination were 0.990 ± 0.003, 0.9137 for mtDNA HVS and 0.968 ± 0.014, 0.9489 for Y-STR system, respectively), suggesting they would be very useful and important markers for forensic analysis and population genetic studies. PMID:25739291

Shan, W; Ren, Zh; Wu, W; Hao, H; Abulimiti, A; Chen, K; Zhang, F; Ma, Z; Zheng, X

2014-11-01

420

The paternal function in Winnicott: the psychoanalytical frame.  

PubMed

My first aim has been to identify the implicit assumptions underlying Winnicott's detailed notes on a fragment of an analysis dating from 1955 and published after his death. The importance given by Winnicott to the father figure as early as 1955 is one of my discoveries; another is the deep Freudian roots of his thinking. In this essay I propose a new way of linking together the concepts of 'paternal function' and the 'psychoanalytical frame'. Developing my hypothesis, I compare my reading of Winnicott and my way of reading José Bleger's study on the frame. Like Winnicott, I explore in detail a process of discovery, focusing on what the analyst and the patient are nor fully aware of …'as yet'. I am not proposing to unify Winnicott's and Bleger's thinking. My aim is to avoid the pitfall of eclecticism and, in so doing, to recognize both the related depths they sound in their thinking and their otherness. I want to share with the readers their 'meeting' in my mind. PMID:25229543

Faimberg, Haydée

2014-08-01

421

Paternalism, autonomy and reciprocity: ethical perspectives in encounters with patients in psychiatric in-patient care  

PubMed Central

Background Psychiatric staff members have the power to decide the options that frame encounters with patients. Intentional as well as unintentional framing can have a crucial impact on patients’ opportunities to be heard and participate in the process. We identified three dominant ethical perspectives in the normative medical ethics literature concerning how doctors and other staff members should frame interactions in relation to patients; paternalism, autonomy and reciprocity. The aim of this study was to describe and analyse statements describing real work situations and ethical reflections made by staff members in relation to three central perspectives in medical ethics; paternalism, autonomy and reciprocity. Methods All staff members involved with patients in seven adult psychiatric and six child and adolescent psychiatric clinics were given the opportunity to freely describe ethical considerations in their work by keeping an ethical diary over the course of one week and 173 persons handed in their diaries. Qualitative theory-guided content analysis was used to provide a description of staff encounters with patients and in what way these encounters were consistent with, or contrary to, the three perspectives. Results The majority of the statements could be attributed to the perspective of paternalism and several to autonomy. Only a few statements could be attributed to reciprocity, most of which concerned staff members acting contrary to the perspective. The result is presented as three perspectives containing eight values. •Paternalism; 1) promoting and restoring the health of the patient, 2) providing good care and 3) assuming responsibility. •Autonomy; 1) respecting the patient’s right to self-determination and information, 2) respecting the patient’s integrity and 3) protecting human rights. •Reciprocity; 1) involving patients in the planning and implementation of their care and 2) building trust between staff and patients. Conclusions Paternalism clearly appeared to be the dominant perspective among the participants, but there was also awareness of patients’ right to autonomy. Despite a normative trend towards reciprocity in psychiatry throughout the Western world, identifying it proved difficult in this study. This should be borne in mind by clinics when considering the need for ethical education, training and supervision. PMID:24314345

2013-01-01

422

Promiscuity, paternity and personality in the great tit  

PubMed Central

Understanding causes of variation in promiscuity within populations remain a major challenge. While most studies have focused on quantifying fitness costs and benefits of promiscuous behaviour, an alternative possibility—that variation in promiscuity within populations is maintained because of linkage with other traits—has received little attention. Here, we examine whether promiscuity in male and female great tits (Parus major)—quantified as extra-pair paternity (EPP) within and between nests—is associated with variation in a well-documented personality trait: exploration behaviour in a novel environment. Exploration behaviour has been shown to correlate with activity levels, risk-taking and boldness, and these are behaviours that may plausibly influence EPP. Exploration behaviour correlated positively with paternity gained outside the social pair among males in our population, but there was also a negative correlation with paternity in the social nest. Hence, while variation in male personality predicted the relative importance of paternity gain within and outside the pair bond, total paternity gained was unrelated to exploration behaviour. We found evidence that males paired with bold females were more likely to sire extra-pair young. Our data thus demonstrate a link between personality and promiscuity, with no net effects on reproductive success, suggesting personality-dependent mating tactics, in contrast with traditional adaptive explanations for promiscuity. PMID:22130602

Patrick, Samantha C.; Chapman, Joanne R.; Dugdale, Hannah L.; Quinn, John L.; Sheldon, Ben C.

2012-01-01

423

Factorial Correspondence Analysis (FCA)  

E-print Network

the literature: Using FCA Typing of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Clinical Strains by Using Microsatellite Sequence compared to S. boulardii reference strains ·Data: 5 microsatellite sequences from 77 strains ·Analysis: FCA

Ernest, Holly

424

Paternity, parental behavior and circulating steroid hormone concentrations in nest-tending male bluegill  

E-print Network

Paternity, parental behavior and circulating steroid hormone concentrations in nest-tending male Parental care Stress Testosterone Like many teleost fishes, bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus, we examined the relationships between circulating steroid hormones, paternity, and parental behavior

Neff, Bryan D.

425

Microsatellite retrieval in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).  

PubMed

By using enriched genomic libraries, microsatellite-containing sequences were isolated from lettuce (Lactuca sativa) with high efficiency. With this approach, a sizeable fraction (up to 55%) of the clones contained a microsatellite. In about half of these clones, primers could be designed for PCR amplification of the microsatellite. This yielded 28 primer sets amplifying unambiguously scorable products, of which 26 showed polymorphisms in a test set of six lettuce varieties. Practically all microsatellite-amplifying primer sets yielded products in lettuce's nearest relative, L. serriola, but only half of the primer sets yielded products in the more distant species L. saligna and L. virosa. An average polymorphism information content (PIC) value of 0.55 and an average number of 3.5 alleles per locus were in the normal range for a self-fertilizing species like lettuce. In addition, the incidental cloning of a microsatellite-containing repeat family, apparently specific for Lactuca, is reported and the implications for the efficient retrieval of single-locus microsatellite sequences are discussed. The microsatellite loci isolated will be useful for distinguishing lettuce cultivars and for screening diversity of genetic resources. PMID:10208007

van de Wiel, C; Arens, P; Vosman, B

1999-02-01

426