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Sample records for microsatellite paternity analysis

  1. Paternity analysis of the olive variety "Istrska belica" and identification of pollen donors by microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Baruca Arbeiter, Alenka; Jakše, Jernej; Bandelj, Dunja

    2014-01-01

    The leading olive variety in Slovenia is "Istrska belica" (Olea europaea L.), which currently represents 70% of all olive trees in productive orchards. Paternity analysis based on microsatellite markers was used for genotyping and identification of the potential pollen donors of "Istrska belica" and for assessing the proportion of self-fertilization in monovarietal olive orchards in the Slovene Istria. Seven microsatellite loci were used for genotyping thirty-one olive embryos from "Istrska belica" trees and for all potential pollen donor varieties, which are grown in the region and could participate as pollinators. Genotyping results and allele identification were performed using the FaMoz software. The most probable pollen donor was assigned to 39% of all analyzed embryos. Among all analyzed embryos no single case of self-fertilization was confirmed. According to the present results, the variety "Istrska belica" was in all cases fertilized by foreign pollen. The results will contribute to defining the new guidelines for farmers regarding the proper management and growing practice in monovarietal olive groves. PMID:25097869

  2. Paternity Analysis of the Olive Variety “Istrska Belica” and Identification of Pollen Donors by Microsatellite Markers

    PubMed Central

    Jakše, Jernej

    2014-01-01

    The leading olive variety in Slovenia is “Istrska belica” (Olea europaea L.), which currently represents 70% of all olive trees in productive orchards. Paternity analysis based on microsatellite markers was used for genotyping and identification of the potential pollen donors of “Istrska belica” and for assessing the proportion of self-fertilization in monovarietal olive orchards in the Slovene Istria. Seven microsatellite loci were used for genotyping thirty-one olive embryos from “Istrska belica” trees and for all potential pollen donor varieties, which are grown in the region and could participate as pollinators. Genotyping results and allele identification were performed using the FaMoz software. The most probable pollen donor was assigned to 39% of all analyzed embryos. Among all analyzed embryos no single case of self-fertilization was confirmed. According to the present results, the variety “Istrska belica” was in all cases fertilized by foreign pollen. The results will contribute to defining the new guidelines for farmers regarding the proper management and growing practice in monovarietal olive groves. PMID:25097869

  3. The reproductive biology of Polytrichum formosum: clonal structure and paternity revealed by microsatellites.

    PubMed

    van der Velde, M; During, H J; van de Zande, L; Bijlsma, R

    2001-10-01

    Using highly polymorphic microsatellite markers, we assessed clonal structure and paternity in a population of the bryophyte species Polytrichum formosum. Identical multilocus genotypes of individual shoots were almost never observed in spatially separated cushions, but were found to be highly clustered within moss cushions. Therefore, asexual reproduction through dispersal of gametophyte fragments is not very important in P. formosum. However, asexual reproduction on a very localized scale through vegetative growth of genets (branching of gametophytes via clonal growth of rhizomes) is very extensive. The patchy spatial distribution of genets and the absence of intermingling among genets suggest that this species follows a 'phalanx' clonal growth strategy. Vegetative proliferation of genets will increase their size, and, consequently, will have considerable fitness consequences for individuals in terms of increased genet longevity and reproductive output. Although paternity analysis of sporophytes confirmed male genet size, i.e. gamete production, to be an important determinant of male reproductive fitness, it also showed that the spatial distance to female genets is the predominant factor that governs male reproductive success. Moreover, we showed that male gamete dispersal distances in P. formosum are much further than generally assumed, and are in the order of metres rather than centimetres. Combining the findings, we conclude that the high genotypic diversity observed for this facultatively clonal species is most likely explained by a preponderance of sexual reproduction over clonal reproduction. PMID:11742546

  4. Behavioral Ecology Vol. 12 No. 5: 633639 Extrapair paternity is influenced by breeding

    E-print Network

    Dunn, Peter O.

    are controversial. We used multilocus DNA fingerprinting and microsatellite analysis to examine the effects analyses. Key words: breeding ecology, DNA fingerprinting, Geothlypis trichas, microsatellites, paternity

  5. Microsatellite Evidence for High Frequency of Multiple Paternity in the Marine Gastropod Rapana venosa

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jin-Xian

    2014-01-01

    Background Inferring of parentage in natural populations is important in understanding the mating systems of a species, which have great effects on its genetic structure and evolution. Muricidae, a large group (approximately 1,600 species) of marine gastropods, are poorly investigated in patterns of multiple paternity and sperm competition based on molecular techniques. The veined Rapa whelk, Rapana venosa, a commercially important muricid species with internal fertilization, is an ideal species to study the occurrence and frequency of multiple paternity and to facilitate understanding of their reproductive strategies. Methodology/Principal Findings We developed five highly polymorphic microsatellites in R. venosa and applied them to identify multiple paternity in 19 broods (1381 embryos) collected from Dandong, China. Multiple paternity was detected in 17 (89.5%) of 19 broods. The number of sires per brood ranged from 1 to 7 (4.3 on average). Of the 17 multiply sired broods, 16 (94.1%) were significantly skewed from equal paternal contributions, and had a dominant sire which was also dominant in each assayed capsule. Conclusions Our results indicate that a high level of multiple paternity occurs in the wild population of R. venosa. Similar patterns of multiple paternity in the 2–6 assayed capsules from each brood imply that fertilization events within the body of a female occur mostly (but not entirely) as random draws from a “well-but-not-perfectly blended sperm pool” of her several mates. Strongly skewed distributions of fertilization success among sires also suggest that sperm competition and/or cryptic female choice might be important for post-copulatory paternity biasing in this species. PMID:24466127

  6. [DNA polymorphism applied to paternity testing. Analysis of 877 cases].

    PubMed

    Van Huffel, V; Rouger, P

    1999-07-01

    Paternity testing is based on biological analyses that have drastically developed during the past 20 years. According to scientific developments, paternity testing was based on red blood groups studies, the analysis of red cell enzymes and plasma proteins polymorphisms, the typing of the HLA-A and B antigens, and the DNA polymorphism in its various forms. This study aims at comparing the various analyses so that each becomes a reference for the others, in order to determine (i) the acceptable level of the paternity probability evaluation, and (ii) the exclusion rules according to new technologies. The relative performances of the various combinations of tests is analyzed in this report, based on a study of 877 cases. Thanks to studies based on the gene amplification of micro-satellites, the efficiency of this technique has been proved: it is however necessary to identify the limits of the tests and to know how to deal with those cases which require further analysis. Beyond the most efficient biological analysis, it is very important to think about paternity testing as a process in which biological tests are only one step. PMID:10472688

  7. Informativeness of minisatellite and microsatellite markers for genetic analysis in papaya.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, G A F; Dantas, J L L; Oliveira, E J

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate information on minisatellite and microsatellite markers in papaya (Carica papaya L.). Forty minisatellites and 91 microsatellites were used for genotyping 24 papaya accessions. Estimates of genetic diversity, genetic linkage and analyses of population structure were compared. A lower average number of alleles per locus was observed in minisatellites (3.10) compared with microsatellites (3.57), although the minisatellites showed rarer alleles (18.54 %) compared with microsatellite (13.85 %). Greater expected (He = 0.52) and observed (Ho = 0.16) heterozygosity was observed in the microsatellites compared with minisatellites (He = 0.42 and Ho = 0.11), possibly due to the high number of hermaphroditic accessions, resulting in high rates of self-fertilization. The polymorphic information content and Shannon-Wiener diversity were also higher for microsatellites (from 0.47 to 1.10, respectively) compared with minisatellite (0.38 and 0.85, respectively). The probability of paternity exclusion was high for both markers (>0.999), and the combined probability of identity was from 1.65(-13) to 4.33(-38) for mini- and micro-satellites, respectively, which indicates that both types of markers are ideal for genetic analysis. The Bayesian analysis indicated the formation of two groups (K = 2) for both markers, although the minisatellites indicated a substructure (K = 4). A greater number of accessions with a low probability of assignment to specific groups were observed for microsatellites. Collectively, the results indicated higher informativeness of microsatellites. However, the lower informative power of minisatellites may be offset by the use of larger number of loci. Furthermore, minisatellites are subject to less error in genotyping because there is greater power to detect genotyping systems when larger motifs are used. PMID:26280323

  8. Comparative analysis of microsatellites and compound microsatellites in T4-like viruses.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lan; Deng, Liang; Fu, Yongzhuo; Wu, Xiaolong; Zhao, Xiangyan; Chen, Yubao; Li, Mingfu; Tan, Zhongyang

    2016-01-10

    Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are known to present ubiquitously in genomes of eukaryotes and prokaryotes, as well as viruses. A comprehensive analysis of microsatellites and compound microsatellites (CM) was performed for 67 T4-like bacteriophage genomes. We found that the number of repeats was generally proportional to the size of the genome. CM were more abundant in genic regions, while their relative abundance was higher in intergenic regions. Meanwhile, the number of CM rapidly decreased with the increase of complexity but gradually increased with higher dMAX (maximum distance between any two adjacent microsatellites). (A)n/(T)n, (AT)n/(TA)n and (AAG)n were the most abundant repeats of mono-, di- and trinucleotide microsatellites, respectively. The number of microsatellites in reference sequences was significantly lower than that in corresponding random sequences. This result was mainly attributed to mono- and dinucleotide repeats which hardly exceeded 6bp in T4-like viruses. These observations may be helpful to understand the distribution of microsatellites and viral genetic diversity in T4-like viruses. PMID:26410414

  9. Optimization of microsatellite analysis for genetic mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, A.E. )

    1993-02-01

    A method for typing microsatellite polymorphisms is described. It involves amplification using the polymerase chain reaction with one primer 5[prime] end-labeled with [sup 32]P. Alleles are separated by denaturing gel electrophoresis and detected by autoradiography. Standardized conditions allow accurate typing of almost all microsatellite polymorphisms, and results are usually obtained within 24 h. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  10. Male biological clock: a critical analysis of advanced paternal age.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, Ranjith; Chiba, Koji; Butler, Peter; Lamb, Dolores J

    2015-06-01

    Extensive research defines the impact of advanced maternal age on couples' fecundity and reproductive outcomes, but significantly less research has been focused on understanding the impact of advanced paternal age. Yet it is increasingly common for couples at advanced ages to conceive children. Limited research suggests that the importance of paternal age is significantly less than that of maternal age, but advanced age of the father is implicated in a variety of conditions affecting the offspring. This review examines three aspects of advanced paternal age: the potential problems with conception and pregnancy that couples with advanced paternal age may encounter, the concept of discussing a limit to paternal age in a clinical setting, and the risks of diseases associated with advanced paternal age. As paternal age increases, it presents no absolute barrier to conception, but it does present greater risks and complications. The current body of knowledge does not justify dissuading older men from trying to initiate a pregnancy, but the medical community must do a better job of communicating to couples the current understanding of the risks of conception with advanced paternal age. PMID:25881878

  11. Mission design and trajectory analysis for inspection of a host spacecraft by a microsatellite

    E-print Network

    Kim, Susan C. (Susan Cecilia)

    2006-01-01

    The trajectory analysis and mission design for inspection of a host spacecraft by a microsatellite is motivated by the current developments in designing and building prototypes of a microsatellite inspector vehicle. Two ...

  12. Establishing paternity in whooping cranes (Grus Americana) by DNA analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longmire, J.L.; Gee, G.F.; Hardekopf, C.L.; Mark, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    DNA fingerprinting was used to study paternity and genetic variability within a captive flock of Whooping Cranes (Grus americana). Fingerprint patterns for 42 individuals were obtained by digesting genomic crane DNAs with HaeIII followed by electrophoresis, blotting, and hybridization to the M13 minisatellite probe. Despite finding reduced levels of genetic variation in the Whooping Crane due to a population 'bottleneck,' these polymorphisms were successfully used to determine paternity in six of seven cases of captive propagation where the maternal-offspring relationship was known, but where the sire was unknown. These determinations of paternity are required for effective genetic management of. the crane flock. These results also revealed a number of heterozygous minisatellite loci that will be valuable in future assessments of genetic variability in this endangered species.

  13. [Screening of peafowl microsatellite primers and analysis of genetic diversity].

    PubMed

    Bao, Wen-Bin; Chen, Guo-Hong; Shu, Jing-Ting; Xu, Qi; Li, Hui-Fang

    2006-10-01

    The applicability of chicken microsatellite primers to peafowl population was analyzed in the present paper, and the results showed 14 of 29 pairs of microsatellite primers from chicken could amplify peafowl DNA and produce specific allele patterns. A mean of 1.71 alleles was found for each locus. Seven pairs were highly polymorphic, and MCW0080 and MCW0098 were ideal markers for peafowl. Genetic diversity analysis within and between the green peafowl and the blue peafowl populations demonstrated that the expected heterozygosity of two peafowl populations were 0.2482 and 0.2744, respectively. The inbreeding index (FST), Reynolds' genetic distance and gene flow between the two populations were 0.078, 0.0603 and 3.896 respectively. These results indicate that the heterozygosity and the genetic diversity of these two peafowl populations were very low, and suggest a tendency towards intermixing. PMID:17035182

  14. Microsatellite Marker Analysis as a Typing System for Candida glabrata

    PubMed Central

    Foulet, F.; Nicolas, N.; Eloy, O.; Botterel, F.; Gantier, J.-C.; Costa, J.-M.; Bretagne, S.

    2005-01-01

    Candida glabrata is one of the most important causes of nosocomial fungal infection. We investigated, using a multiplex PCR, three polymorphic microsatellite markers, RPM2, MTI, and ERG3, in order to obtain a rapid genotyping method for C. glabrata. One set of primers was designed for each locus, and one primer of each set was dye labeled to read PCR signals using an automatic sequencer. Eight reference strains including other Candida species and 138 independent C. glabrata clinical isolates were tested. The clinical isolates were collected from different anatomical sites of adult patients either hospitalized in different wards of two different hospitals or not hospitalized. Since C. glabrata is haploid, one single PCR product for each PCR set was obtained and assigned to an allele. The numbers of different alleles were 5, 7, and 15 for the RPM2, MTI, and ERG3 loci, respectively. The number of allelic associations was 21, leading to a discriminatory power of 0.84. The markers were stable after 25 subcultures, and the amplifications were specific for C. glabrata. A factorial correspondence analysis did not indicate any correlation between the 21 multilocus genotypes and the clinical data (source, sex, ward, anatomical sites). Microsatellite marker analysis is a rapid and reliable technique to investigate clinical issues concerning C. glabrata. However, its discriminatory power should be improved by testing other polymorphic microsatellite loci. PMID:16145109

  15. Microsatellite data analysis for population genetics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Theories and analytical tools of population genetics have been widely applied for addressing various questions in the fields of ecological genetics, conservation biology, and any context where the role of dispersal or gene flow is important. Underlying much of population genetics is the analysis of ...

  16. Segregation studies and linkage analysis of Atlantic salmon microsatellites using haploid genetics.

    PubMed

    Slettan, A; Olsaker, I; Lie, O

    1997-06-01

    A genetic marker map of Atlantic salmon would facilitate the identification of loci influencing economically important traits. In the present paper we describe five new Atlantic salmon microsatellites. Segregation studies and linkage analysis of these and previously published microsatellites were carried out in pedigrees consisting of diploid dams and haploid gynogenetic offspring. We confirm earlier reports that salmon microsatellites tend to have a higher number of repeat units than those of mammals. Linkage analysis revealed that three microsatellites belong to a linkage group spanning approximately 50 cM of the genome, whereas the remaining 10 markers seem to be unlinked. PMID:9203354

  17. Microsatellite (simple sequence repeat) marker-based paternity analysis of a seven-parent sugarcane polycross

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is not feasible to make all possible cross combinations among elite parents used in sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) breeding programs, particularly within a single year. Hence, the polycross approach has been used to maximize the number of cross combinations that can be represented among progeny. Th...

  18. MICROSATELLITE-BASED PATERNITY ANALYSIS OF A SEVEN-PARENT SUGARCANE POLYCROSS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is virtually impossible to make all cross combinations among even the most elite parents used in breeding programs. Hence, the polycross approach has been used in sugarcane breeding to maximize the number of cross combinations that could be represented among progeny at the seedling stage of test...

  19. Microsatellite DNA analysis of parapatric lamprey (Entosphenus spp.) populations: implications for

    E-print Network

    Taylor, Eric B. "Rick"

    Microsatellite DNA analysis of parapatric lamprey (Entosphenus spp.) populations: implications, and Margaret F. Docker Abstract: Parapatric freshwater and anadromous parasitic lampreys (Petromyzontiformes lamprey (Entosphenus macrostomus (Beamish, 1982)) and Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus (Richardson

  20. Challenges in analysis and interpretation of microsatellite data for population genetic studies

    PubMed Central

    Putman, Alexander I; Carbone, Ignazio

    2014-01-01

    Advancing technologies have facilitated the ever-widening application of genetic markers such as microsatellites into new systems and research questions in biology. In light of the data and experience accumulated from several years of using microsatellites, we present here a literature review that synthesizes the limitations of microsatellites in population genetic studies. With a focus on population structure, we review the widely used fixation (FST) statistics and Bayesian clustering algorithms and find that the former can be confusing and problematic for microsatellites and that the latter may be confounded by complex population models and lack power in certain cases. Clustering, multivariate analyses, and diversity-based statistics are increasingly being applied to infer population structure, but in some instances these methods lack formalization with microsatellites. Migration-specific methods perform well only under narrow constraints. We also examine the use of microsatellites for inferring effective population size, changes in population size, and deeper demographic history, and find that these methods are untested and/or highly context-dependent. Overall, each method possesses important weaknesses for use with microsatellites, and there are significant constraints on inferences commonly made using microsatellite markers in the areas of population structure, admixture, and effective population size. To ameliorate and better understand these constraints, researchers are encouraged to analyze simulated datasets both prior to and following data collection and analysis, the latter of which is formalized within the approximate Bayesian computation framework. We also examine trends in the literature and show that microsatellites continue to be widely used, especially in non-human subject areas. This review assists with study design and molecular marker selection, facilitates sound interpretation of microsatellite data while fostering respect for their practical limitations, and identifies lessons that could be applied toward emerging markers and high-throughput technologies in population genetics. PMID:25540699

  1. Multiple paternity and hybridization in two smooth-hound sharks

    PubMed Central

    Marino, Ilaria A. M.; Riginella, Emilio; Gristina, Michele; Rasotto, Maria B.; Zane, Lorenzo; Mazzoldi, Carlotta

    2015-01-01

    Multiple paternity appears to be a common trait of elasmobranch mating systems, with its occurrence likely driven by convenience, due to females seeking to minimize the stress of male harassment. Here we use molecular markers to analyse the frequency of multiple paternity in two related viviparous sharks, Mustelus mustelus and Mustelus punctulatus. We first applied molecular methods to assign pregnant females, embryos and additional reference adults (N?=?792) to one of the two species. Paternity analysis was performed using a total of 9 polymorphic microsatellites on 19 females and 204 embryos of M. mustelus, and on 13 females and 303 embryos of M. punctulatus. Multiple paternity occurs in both species, with 47% of M. mustelus and 54% of M. punctulatus litters sired by at least two fathers. Female fecundity is not influenced by multiple mating and in 56% of polyandrous litters paternity is skewed, with one male siring most of the pups. Genetic analyses also revealed hybridization between the two species, with a M. punctulatus female bearing pups sired by a M. mustelus male. The frequency of polyandrous litters in these species is consistent with aspects of their reproductive biology, such as synchronous ovulation and possible occurrence of breeding aggregations. PMID:26257113

  2. Multiple paternity and hybridization in two smooth-hound sharks.

    PubMed

    Marino, Ilaria A M; Riginella, Emilio; Gristina, Michele; Rasotto, Maria B; Zane, Lorenzo; Mazzoldi, Carlotta

    2015-01-01

    Multiple paternity appears to be a common trait of elasmobranch mating systems, with its occurrence likely driven by convenience, due to females seeking to minimize the stress of male harassment. Here we use molecular markers to analyse the frequency of multiple paternity in two related viviparous sharks, Mustelus mustelus and Mustelus punctulatus. We first applied molecular methods to assign pregnant females, embryos and additional reference adults (N = 792) to one of the two species. Paternity analysis was performed using a total of 9 polymorphic microsatellites on 19 females and 204 embryos of M. mustelus, and on 13 females and 303 embryos of M. punctulatus. Multiple paternity occurs in both species, with 47% of M. mustelus and 54% of M. punctulatus litters sired by at least two fathers. Female fecundity is not influenced by multiple mating and in 56% of polyandrous litters paternity is skewed, with one male siring most of the pups. Genetic analyses also revealed hybridization between the two species, with a M. punctulatus female bearing pups sired by a M. mustelus male. The frequency of polyandrous litters in these species is consistent with aspects of their reproductive biology, such as synchronous ovulation and possible occurrence of breeding aggregations. PMID:26257113

  3. Comparative analysis of microsatellite variability in five macaw species (Psittaciformes, Psittacidae): Application for conservation.

    PubMed

    Presti, Flavia T; Oliveira-Marques, Adriana R; Caparroz, Renato; Biondo, Cibele; Miyaki, Cristina Y

    2011-04-01

    Cross-amplification was tested and variability in microsatellite primers (designed for Neotropical parrots) compared, in five macaw species, viz., three endangered blue macaws (Cyanopsitta spixii [extinct in the wild], Anodorhynchus leari [endangered] and Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus [vulnerable]), and two unthreatened red macaws (Ara chloropterus and Ara macao). Among the primers tested, 84.6% successfully amplified products in C. spixii, 83.3% in A. leari, 76.4% in A. hyacinthinus, 78.6% in A. chloropterus and 71.4% in A. macao. The mean expected heterozygosity estimated for each species, and based on loci analyzed in all the five, ranged from 0.33 (A. hyacinthinus) to 0.85 (A. macao). As expected, the results revealed lower levels of genetic variability in threatened macaw species than in unthreatened. The low combined probability of genetic identity and the moderate to high potential for paternity exclusion, indicate the utility of the microsatellite loci set selected for each macaw species in kinship and population studies, thus constituting an aid in planning in-situ and ex-situ conservation. PMID:21734841

  4. Comparative analysis of microsatellite variability in five macaw species (Psittaciformes, Psittacidae): Application for conservation

    PubMed Central

    Presti, Flavia T.; Oliveira-Marques, Adriana R.; Caparroz, Renato; Biondo, Cibele; Miyaki, Cristina Y.

    2011-01-01

    Cross-amplification was tested and variability in microsatellite primers (designed for Neotropical parrots) compared, in five macaw species, viz., three endangered blue macaws (Cyanopsitta spixii [extinct in the wild], Anodorhynchus leari [endangered] and Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus [vulnerable]), and two unthreatened red macaws (Ara chloropterus and Ara macao). Among the primers tested, 84.6% successfully amplified products in C. spixii, 83.3% in A. leari, 76.4% in A. hyacinthinus, 78.6% in A. chloropterus and 71.4% in A. macao. The mean expected heterozygosity estimated for each species, and based on loci analyzed in all the five, ranged from 0.33 (A. hyacinthinus) to 0.85 (A. macao). As expected, the results revealed lower levels of genetic variability in threatened macaw species than in unthreatened. The low combined probability of genetic identity and the moderate to high potential for paternity exclusion, indicate the utility of the microsatellite loci set selected for each macaw species in kinship and population studies, thus constituting an aid in planning in-situ and ex-situ conservation. PMID:21734841

  5. Paternal Child Care and Relationship Quality: A Longitudinal Analysis of Reciprocal Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schober, Pia S.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored reciprocal associations between paternal child-care involvement and relationship quality by following British couples from the birth of a child until he or she reached school age. It extends the literature by distinguishing between paternal engagement in absolute terms and relative to the mother and by considering relationship…

  6. Mosaic paternal genome-wide uniparental isodisomy with down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Darcy, Diana; Atwal, Paldeep Singh; Angell, Cathy; Gadi, Inder; Wallerstein, Robert

    2015-10-01

    We report on a 6-month-old girl with two apparent cell lines; one with trisomy 21, and the other with paternal genome-wide uniparental isodisomy (GWUPiD), identified using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) based microarray and microsatellite analysis of polymorphic loci. The patient has Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) due to paternal uniparental disomy (UPD) at chromosome location 11p15 (UPD 11p15), which was confirmed through methylation analysis. Hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia is present, which is associated with paternal UPD 11p15.5; and she likely has medullary nephrocalcinosis, which is associated with paternal UPD 20, although this was not biochemically confirmed. Angelman syndrome (AS) analysis was negative but this testing is not completely informative; she has no specific features of AS. Clinical features of this patient include: dysmorphic features consistent with trisomy 21, tetralogy of Fallot, hemihypertrophy, swirled skin hyperpigmentation, hepatoblastoma, and Wilms tumor. Her karyotype is 47,XX,+21[19]/46,XX[4], and microarray results suggest that the cell line with trisomy 21 is biparentally inherited and represents 40-50% of the genomic material in the tested specimen. The difference in the level of cytogenetically detected mosaicism versus the level of mosaicism observed via microarray analysis is likely caused by differences in the test methodologies. While a handful of cases of mosaic paternal GWUPiD have been reported, this patient is the only reported case that also involves trisomy 21. Other GWUPiD patients have presented with features associated with multiple imprinted regions, as does our patient. PMID:26219535

  7. Microsatellite analysis in the genome of Acanthaceae: An in silico approach

    PubMed Central

    Kaliswamy, Priyadharsini; Vellingiri, Srividhya; Nathan, Bharathi; Selvaraj, Saravanakumar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acanthaceae is one of the advanced and specialized families with conventionally used medicinal plants. Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) play a major role as molecular markers for genome analysis and plant breeding. The microsatellites existing in the complete genome sequences would help to attain a direct role in the genome organization, recombination, gene regulation, quantitative genetic variation, and evolution of genes. Objective: The current study reports the frequency of microsatellites and appropriate markers for the Acanthaceae family genome sequences. Materials and Methods: The whole nucleotide sequences of Acanthaceae species were obtained from National Center for Biotechnology Information database and screened for the presence of SSRs. SSR Locator tool was used to predict the microsatellites and inbuilt Primer3 module was used for primer designing. Results: Totally 110 repeats from 108 sequences of Acanthaceae family plant genomes were identified, and the occurrence of dinucleotide repeats was found to be abundant in the genome sequences. The essential amino acid isoleucine was found rich in all the sequences. We also designed the SSR-based primers/markers for 59 sequences of this family that contains microsatellite repeats in their genome. Conclusion: The identified microsatellites and primers might be useful for breeding and genetic studies of plants that belong to Acanthaceae family in the future. PMID:25709226

  8. Comparative analysis of microsatellites in chloroplast genomes of lower and higher plants.

    PubMed

    George, Biju; Bhatt, Bhavin S; Awasthi, Mayur; George, Binu; Singh, Achuit K

    2015-11-01

    Microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats (SSRs), contain repetitive DNA sequence where tandem repeats of one to six base pairs are present number of times. Chloroplast genome sequences have been  shown to possess extensive variations in the length, number and distribution of SSRs. However, a comparative analysis of chloroplast microsatellites is not available. Considering their potential importance in generating genomic diversity, we have systematically analysed the abundance and distribution of simple and compound microsatellites in 164 sequenced chloroplast genomes from wide range of plants. The key findings of these studies are (1) a large number of mononucleotide repeats as compared to SSR(2-6)(di-, tri-, tetra-, penta-, hexanucleotide repeats) are present in all chloroplast genomes investigated, (2) lower plants such as algae show wide variation in relative abundance, density and distribution of microsatellite repeats as compared to flowering plants, (3) longer SSRs are excluded from coding regions of most chloroplast genomes, (4) GC content has a weak influence on number, relative abundance and relative density of mononucleotide as well as SSR(2-6). However, GC content strongly showed negative correlation with relative density (R (2) = 0.5, P < 0.05) and relative abundance (R (2) = 0.6, P < 0.05) of cSSRs. In summary, our comparative studies of chloroplast genomes illustrate the variable distribution of microsatellites and revealed that chloroplast genome of smaller plants possesses relatively more genomic diversity compared to higher plants. PMID:25999216

  9. Meta-analysis of microsatellite data from US and Brazil sheep breeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to adapt a methodology for merging independent microsatellite data sets and exploring the differences between Brazilian (BZ) and US hair breeds of sheep. Eleven markers were in common for the US-BZ dataset and were merged for analysis of genetic structure and diversity. It ...

  10. Sequence analysis of a zinc-finger gene for the examination of paternal lineages and introgressive hybridization in North American deer 

    E-print Network

    Cathey, James Cleveland

    1993-01-01

    By direct sequence analysis of the mammalian zinc-finger Y (Zfy) gene, interspecific and intraspecific variations were documented in a Y-chromosomal locus in North American deer. The evolutionary history of paternal lineages was distinctly different...

  11. Identification and Characterization of Microsatellite Markers Derived from the Whole Genome Analysis of Taenia solium

    PubMed Central

    Pajuelo, Mónica J.; Eguiluz, María; Dahlstrom, Eric; Requena, David; Guzmán, Frank; Ramirez, Manuel; Sheen, Patricia; Frace, Michael; Sammons, Scott; Cama, Vitaliano; Anzick, Sarah; Bruno, Dan; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Wilkins, Patricia; Nash, Theodore; Gonzalez, Armando; García, Héctor H.; Gilman, Robert H.; Porcella, Steve; Zimic, Mirko

    2015-01-01

    Background Infections with Taenia solium are the most common cause of adult acquired seizures worldwide, and are the leading cause of epilepsy in developing countries. A better understanding of the genetic diversity of T. solium will improve parasite diagnostics and transmission pathways in endemic areas thereby facilitating the design of future control measures and interventions. Microsatellite markers are useful genome features, which enable strain typing and identification in complex pathogen genomes. Here we describe microsatellite identification and characterization in T. solium, providing information that will assist in global efforts to control this important pathogen. Methods For genome sequencing, T. solium cysts and proglottids were collected from Huancayo and Puno in Peru, respectively. Using next generation sequencing (NGS) and de novo assembly, we assembled two draft genomes and one hybrid genome. Microsatellite sequences were identified and 36 of them were selected for further analysis. Twenty T. solium isolates were collected from Tumbes in the northern region, and twenty from Puno in the southern region of Peru. The size-polymorphism of the selected microsatellites was determined with multi-capillary electrophoresis. We analyzed the association between microsatellite polymorphism and the geographic origin of the samples. Results The predicted size of the hybrid (proglottid genome combined with cyst genome) T. solium genome was 111 MB with a GC content of 42.54%. A total of 7,979 contigs (>1,000 nt) were obtained. We identified 9,129 microsatellites in the Puno-proglottid genome and 9,936 in the Huancayo-cyst genome, with 5 or more repeats, ranging from mono- to hexa-nucleotide. Seven microsatellites were polymorphic and 29 were monomorphic within the analyzed isolates. T. solium tapeworms were classified into two genetic groups that correlated with the North/South geographic origin of the parasites. Conclusions/Significance The availability of draft genomes for T. solium represents a significant step towards the understanding the biology of the parasite. We report here a set of T. solium polymorphic microsatellite markers that appear promising for genetic epidemiology studies. PMID:26697878

  12. Paternal age related schizophrenia (PARS): latent subgroups detected by k-means clustering analysis

    E-print Network

    Ahn, Hongshik

    and Negative Syndrome Scale; PANSS), cognitive tests (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Revised; WAIS-R) and olfaction (University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test; UPSIT). We conducted a series of k/or psychological treatments (Jindal et al., 2005). Advanced paternal age has been associated with the risk

  13. Do Paternal Arrest and Imprisonment Lead to Child Behaviour Problems and Substance Use? A Longitudinal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinner, Stuart A.; Alati, Rosa; Najman, Jake M.; Williams, Gail M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Children of prisoners are at increased risk of impaired health, behavioural problems and substance misuse; however, the causal pathways to these problems are unclear. Under some circumstances, parental imprisonment may result in improved outcomes for the child. This study investigates the impact of paternal arrest and imprisonment on…

  14. Genome-wide survey and analysis of microsatellites in the Pacific oyster genome: abundance, distribution, and potential for marker development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiafeng; Qi, Haigang; Li, Li; Zhang, Guofan

    2014-01-01

    Microsatellites are a ubiquitous component of the eukaryote genome and constitute one of the most popular sources of molecular markers for genetic studies. However, no data are currently available regarding microsatellites across the entire genome in oysters, despite their importance to the aquaculture industry. We present the first genome-wide investigation of microsatellites in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas by analysis of the complete genome, resequencing, and expression data. The Pacific oyster genome is rich in microsatellites. A total of 604 653 repeats were identified, in average of one locus per 815 base pairs (bp). A total of 12 836 genes had coding repeats, and 7 332 were expressed normally, including genes with a wide range of molecular functions. Compared with 20 different species of animals, microsatellites in the oyster genome typically exhibited 1) an intermediate overall frequency; 2) relatively uniform contents of (A)n and (C)n repeats and abundant long (C)n repeats (?24 bp); 3) large average length of (AG)n repeats; and 4) scarcity of trinucleotide repeats. The microsatellite-flanking regions exhibited a high degree of polymorphism with a heterozygosity rate of around 2.0%, but there was no correlation between heterozygosity and microsatellite abundance. A total of 19 462 polymorphic microsatellites were discovered, and dinucleotide repeats were the most active, with over 26% of loci found to harbor allelic variations. In all, 7 451 loci with high potential for marker development were identified. Better knowledge of the microsatellites in the oyster genome will provide information for the future design of a wide range of molecular markers and contribute to further advancements in the field of oyster genetics, particularly for molecular-based selection and breeding.

  15. STAMP: Extensions to the STADEN sequence analysis package for high throughput interactive microsatellite marker design

    PubMed Central

    Kraemer, Lars; Beszteri, Bánk; Gäbler-Schwarz, Steffi; Held, Christoph; Leese, Florian; Mayer, Christoph; Pöhlmann, Kevin; Frickenhaus, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    Background Microsatellites (MSs) are DNA markers with high analytical power, which are widely used in population genetics, genetic mapping, and forensic studies. Currently available software solutions for high-throughput MS design (i) have shortcomings in detecting and distinguishing imperfect and perfect MSs, (ii) lack often necessary interactive design steps, and (iii) do not allow for the development of primers for multiplex amplifications. We present a set of new tools implemented as extensions to the STADEN package, which provides the backbone functionality for flexible sequence analysis workflows. The possibility to assemble overlapping reads into unique contigs (provided by the base functionality of the STADEN package) is important to avoid developing redundant markers, a feature missing from most other similar tools. Results Our extensions to the STADEN package provide the following functionality to facilitate microsatellite (and also minisatellite) marker design: The new modules (i) integrate the state-of-the-art tandem repeat detection and analysis software PHOBOS into workflows, (ii) provide two separate repeat detection steps – with different search criteria – one for masking repetitive regions during assembly of sequencing reads and the other for designing repeat-flanking primers for MS candidate loci, (iii) incorporate the widely used primer design program PRIMER3 into STADEN workflows, enabling the interactive design and visualization of flanking primers for microsatellites, and (iv) provide the functionality to find optimal locus- and primer pair combinations for multiplex primer design. Furthermore, our extensions include a module for storing analysis results in an SQLite database, providing a transparent solution for data access from within as well as from outside of the STADEN Package. Conclusion The STADEN package is enhanced by our modules into a highly flexible, high-throughput, interactive tool for conventional and multiplex microsatellite marker design. It gives the user detailed control over the workflow, enabling flexible combinations of manual and automated analysis steps. The software is available under the OpenBSD License [1,2]. The high efficiency of our automated marker design workflow has been confirmed in three microsatellite development projects. PMID:19183437

  16. Identification of geographically distributed sub-populations of Leishmania (Leishmania) major by microsatellite analysis

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Leishmania (Leishmania) major, one of the agents causing cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in humans, is widely distributed in the Old World where different species of wild rodent and phlebotomine sand fly serve as animal reservoir hosts and vectors, respectively. Despite this, strains of L. (L.) major isolated from many different sources over many years have proved to be relatively uniform. To investigate the population structure of the species highly polymorphic microsatellite markers were employed for greater discrimination among it's otherwise closely related strains, an approach applied successfully to other species of Leishmania. Results Multilocus Microsatellite Typing (MLMT) based on 10 different microsatellite markers was applied to 106 strains of L. (L.) major from different regions where it is endemic. On applying a Bayesian model-based approach, three main populations were identified, corresponding to three separate geographical regions: Central Asia (CA); the Middle East (ME); and Africa (AF). This was congruent with phylogenetic reconstructions based on genetic distances. Re-analysis separated each of the populations into two sub-populations. The two African sub-populations did not correlate well with strains' geographical origin. Strains falling into the sub-populations CA and ME did mostly group according to their place of isolation although some anomalies were seen, probably, owing to human migration. Conclusion The model- and distance-based analyses of the microsatellite data exposed three main populations of L. (L.) major, Central Asia, the Middle East and Africa, each of which separated into two sub-populations. This probably correlates with the different species of rodent host. PMID:18577226

  17. Application of Microsatellite Markers in Conservation Genetics and Fisheries Management: Recent Advances in Population Structure Analysis and Conservation Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Abdul-Muneer, P. M.

    2014-01-01

    Microsatellites are the most popular and versatile genetic marker with myriads of applications in population genetics, conservation biology, and evolutionary biology. These are the arrays of DNA sequences, consisting of tandemly repeating mono-, di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide units, which are distributed throughout the genomes of most eukaryotic species. Microsatellites are codominant in nature, highly polymorphic, easily typed, and Mendelian inherited, all properties which make them very suitable for the study of population structure and pedigree analysis and capable of detecting differences among closely related species. PCR for microsatellites can be automated for identifying simple sequence repeat polymorphism. Small amount of blood samples or alcohol preserved tissue is adequate for analyzing them. Most of the microsatellites are noncoding, and therefore variations are independent of natural selection. These properties make microsatellites ideal genetic markers for conservation genetics and fisheries management. This review addresses the applications of microsatellite markers in conservation genetics and recent advances in population structure analysis in the context of fisheries management. PMID:24808959

  18. Parentage Reconstruction in Eucalyptus nitens Using SNPs and Microsatellite Markers: A Comparative Analysis of Marker Data Power and Robustness.

    PubMed

    Telfer, Emily J; Stovold, Grahame T; Li, Yongjun; Silva-Junior, Orzenil B; Grattapaglia, Dario G; Dungey, Heidi S

    2015-01-01

    Pedigree reconstruction using molecular markers enables efficient management of inbreeding in open-pollinated breeding strategies, replacing expensive and time-consuming controlled pollination. This is particularly useful in preferentially outcrossed, insect pollinated Eucalypts known to suffer considerable inbreeding depression from related matings. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker panel consisting of 106 markers was selected for pedigree reconstruction from the recently developed high-density Eucalyptus Infinium SNP chip (EuCHIP60K). The performance of this SNP panel for pedigree reconstruction in open-pollinated progenies of two Eucalyptus nitens seed orchards was compared with that of two microsatellite panels with 13 and 16 markers respectively. The SNP marker panel out-performed one of the microsatellite panels in the resolution power to reconstruct pedigrees and out-performed both panels with respect to data quality. Parentage of all but one offspring in each clonal seed orchard was correctly matched to the expected seed parent using the SNP marker panel, whereas parentage assignment to less than a third of the expected seed parents were supported using the 13-microsatellite panel. The 16-microsatellite panel supported all but one of the recorded seed parents, one better than the SNP panel, although there was still a considerable level of missing and inconsistent data. SNP marker data was considerably superior to microsatellite data in accuracy, reproducibility and robustness. Although microsatellites and SNPs data provide equivalent resolution for pedigree reconstruction, microsatellite analysis requires more time and experience to deal with the uncertainties of allele calling and faces challenges for data transferability across labs and over time. While microsatellite analysis will continue to be useful for some breeding tasks due to the high information content, existing infrastructure and low operating costs, the multi-species SNP resource available with the EuCHIP60k, opens a whole new array of opportunities for high-throughput, genome-wide or targeted genotyping in species of Eucalyptus. PMID:26158446

  19. Parentage Reconstruction in Eucalyptus nitens Using SNPs and Microsatellite Markers: A Comparative Analysis of Marker Data Power and Robustness

    PubMed Central

    Telfer, Emily J.; Stovold, Grahame T.; Li, Yongjun; Silva-Junior, Orzenil B.; Grattapaglia, Dario G.; Dungey, Heidi S.

    2015-01-01

    Pedigree reconstruction using molecular markers enables efficient management of inbreeding in open-pollinated breeding strategies, replacing expensive and time-consuming controlled pollination. This is particularly useful in preferentially outcrossed, insect pollinated Eucalypts known to suffer considerable inbreeding depression from related matings. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker panel consisting of 106 markers was selected for pedigree reconstruction from the recently developed high-density Eucalyptus Infinium SNP chip (EuCHIP60K). The performance of this SNP panel for pedigree reconstruction in open-pollinated progenies of two Eucalyptus nitens seed orchards was compared with that of two microsatellite panels with 13 and 16 markers respectively. The SNP marker panel out-performed one of the microsatellite panels in the resolution power to reconstruct pedigrees and out-performed both panels with respect to data quality. Parentage of all but one offspring in each clonal seed orchard was correctly matched to the expected seed parent using the SNP marker panel, whereas parentage assignment to less than a third of the expected seed parents were supported using the 13-microsatellite panel. The 16-microsatellite panel supported all but one of the recorded seed parents, one better than the SNP panel, although there was still a considerable level of missing and inconsistent data. SNP marker data was considerably superior to microsatellite data in accuracy, reproducibility and robustness. Although microsatellites and SNPs data provide equivalent resolution for pedigree reconstruction, microsatellite analysis requires more time and experience to deal with the uncertainties of allele calling and faces challenges for data transferability across labs and over time. While microsatellite analysis will continue to be useful for some breeding tasks due to the high information content, existing infrastructure and low operating costs, the multi-species SNP resource available with the EuCHIP60k, opens a whole new array of opportunities for high-throughput, genome-wide or targeted genotyping in species of Eucalyptus. PMID:26158446

  20. Genetic Diversity and Geographic Population Structure of Bovine Neospora caninum Determined by Microsatellite Genotyping Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Regidor-Cerrillo, Javier; Díez-Fuertes, Francisco; García-Culebras, Alicia; Moore, Dadín P.; González-Warleta, Marta; Cuevas, Carmen; Schares, Gereon; Katzer, Frank; Pedraza-Díaz, Susana; Mezo, Mercedes; Ortega-Mora, Luis M.

    2013-01-01

    The cyst-forming protozoan parasite Neosporacaninum is one of the main causes of bovine abortion worldwide and is of great economic importance in the cattle industry. Recent studies have revealed extensive genetic variation among N. caninum isolates based on microsatellite sequences (MSs). MSs may be suitable molecular markers for inferring the diversity of parasite populations, molecular epidemiology and the basis for phenotypic variations in N. caninum, which have been poorly defined. In this study, we evaluated nine MS markers using a panel of 11 N. caninum-derived reference isolates from around the world and 96 N. caninum bovine clinical samples and one ovine clinical sample collected from four countries on two continents, including Spain, Argentina, Germany and Scotland, over a 10-year period. These markers were used as molecular tools to investigate the genetic diversity, geographic distribution and population structure of N. caninum. Multilocus microsatellite genotyping based on 7 loci demonstrated high levels of genetic diversity in the samples from all of the different countries, with 96 microsatellite multilocus genotypes (MLGs) identified from 108 N. caninum samples. Geographic sub-structuring was present in the country populations according to pairwise FST. Principal component analysis (PCA) and Neighbor Joining tree topologies also suggested MLG segregation partially associated with geographical origin. An analysis of the MLG relationships, using eBURST, confirmed that the close genetic relationship observed between the Spanish and Argentinean populations may be the result of parasite migration (i.e., the introduction of novel MLGs from Spain to South America) due to cattle movement. The eBURST relationships also revealed genetically different clusters associated with the abortion. The presence of linkage disequilibrium, the co-existence of specific MLGs to individual farms and eBURST MLG relationships suggest a predominant clonal propagation for Spanish N. caninum MLGs in cattle. PMID:23940816

  1. Selection of an effective microsatellite marker system for genetic control and analysis of gerbil populations in China.

    PubMed

    Du, X Y; Li, W; Sa, X Y; Li, C L; Lu, J; Wang, Y Z; Chen, Z W

    2015-01-01

    Although gerbils have been widely used in many areas of biological research over many years, there is currently no effective genetic quality control system available. In the present study, we sought to establish a microsatellite marker system for quality control and con-ducted an optimized analysis of 137 microsatellite loci in two labora-tory gerbil populations and one wild population. Independent sample t-tests on the mean effective allele number, mean of Shannon's infor-mation index, and mean HE suggested that 28 of the 137 microsatellite markers were informative for gerbil genetic control. Analysis of 4 labo-ratory gerbil populations and 1 wild population using the 28 microsatel-lite loci indicated that allele numbers varied from 1.9639 (Guangzhou, GZ) to 6.6071 (North-West wild, NW). The average of HO versus HE was 0.6236/0.3802, 0.6671/0.4159, 0.4185/0.3464, 0.4592/0.3821, and 0.3972/0.4167 for the Beijing, NW, Hangzhou, Dalian, and GZ popula-tions, respectively. The GZ population showed the greatest differentia-tion, having higher RST and Nei's standard genetic distances. An AMO-VA revealed high genetic differentiation among the five populations (FST = 0.296). The microsatellite system established here is effective and will be important in future studies for genetic quality control and monitoring of gerbil breeds. PMID:26400333

  2. Development and characterization of highly polymorphic long TC repeat microsatellite markers for genetic analysis of peanut

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is a crop of economic and social importance, mainly in tropical areas, and developing countries. Its molecular breeding has been hindered by a shortage of polymorphic genetic markers due to a very narrow genetic base. Microsatellites (SSRs) are markers of choice in peanut because they are co-dominant, highly transferrable between species and easily applicable in the allotetraploid genome. In spite of substantial effort over the last few years by a number of research groups, the number of SSRs that are polymorphic for A. hypogaea is still limiting for routine application, creating the demand for the discovery of more markers polymorphic within cultivated germplasm. Findings A plasmid genomic library enriched for TC/AG repeats was constructed and 1401 clones sequenced. From the sequences obtained 146 primer pairs flanking mostly TC microsatellites were developed. The average number of repeat motifs amplified was 23. These 146 markers were characterized on 22 genotypes of cultivated peanut. In total 78 of the markers were polymorphic within cultivated germplasm. Most of those 78 markers were highly informative with an average of 5.4 alleles per locus being amplified. Average gene diversity index (GD) was 0.6, and 66 markers showed a GD of more than 0.5. Genetic relationship analysis was performed and corroborated the current taxonomical classification of A. hypogaea subspecies and varieties. Conclusions The microsatellite markers described here are a useful resource for genetics and genomics in Arachis. In particular, the 66 markers that are highly polymorphic in cultivated peanut are a significant step towards routine genetic mapping and marker-assisted selection for the crop. PMID:22305491

  3. Microsatellite and Mitochondrial Diversity Analysis of Native Pigs of Indo-Burma Biodiversity Hotspot.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Nihar Ranjan; Nesa, Nashimun; Naskar, Soumen; Banik, Santanu; Pankaj, Prabhat Kumar; Sahoo, Monalisa

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of genetic diversity in indigenous animals is an important and essential task for animal genetic improvement studies as well as conservation decision-making. The genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships among geographically and phenotypically distinct three pig breeds/types native to Indo-Burma and Eastern Himalayan global biodiversity hotspots were determined by genotyping with a panel of 22 ISAG recommended microsatellite loci as well as sequencing partial MTRNR1gene. The mean number of alleles per locus, effective number of alleles and observed heterozygosity were found to be 11.27 ± 0.85, 5.29 ± 0.34, and 0.795 ± 0.01, respectively. The moderate FST value (0.115 ± 0.01) indicated a fair degree of genetic differentiation among the native breeds. The Nei's unbiased genetic identity estimates indicated less genetic distance (0.2909) between Niang Megha and Tenyi Vo pigs than the both individually with Ghoongroo breed. The divergence time was also estimated from the microsatellite analysis. Analysis of MTRNR1gene revealed distinct clustering of native Indian pigs with Chinese pigs over European pigs. The study revealed the abundance of genetic variation within native Indian pigs and their relationships as well as genetic distances. PMID:26695527

  4. Analysis of Microsatellite Variation in Drosophila melanogaster with Population-Scale Genome Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Fondon, John W.; Martin, Andy; Richards, Stephen; Gibbs, Richard A.; Mittelman, David

    2012-01-01

    Genome sequencing technologies promise to revolutionize our understanding of genetics, evolution, and disease by making it feasible to survey a broad spectrum of sequence variation on a population scale. However, this potential can only be realized to the extent that methods for extracting and interpreting distinct forms of variation can be established. The error profiles and read length limitations of early versions of next-generation sequencing technologies rendered them ineffective for some sequence variant types, particularly microsatellites and other tandem repeats, and fostered the general misconception that such variants are inherently inaccessible to these platforms. At the same time, tandem repeats have emerged as important sources of functional variation. Tandem repeats are often located in and around genes, and frequent mutations in their lengths exert quantitative effects on gene function and phenotype, rapidly degrading linkage disequilibrium between markers and traits. Sensitive identification of these variants in large-scale next-gen sequencing efforts will enable more comprehensive association studies capable of revealing previously invisible associations. We present a population-scale analysis of microsatellite repeats using whole-genome data from 158 inbred isolates from the Drosophila Genetics Reference Panel, a collection of over 200 extensively phenotypically characterized isolates from a single natural population, to uncover processes underlying repeat mutation and to enable associations with behavioral, morphological, and life-history traits. Analysis of repeat variation from next-generation sequence data will also enhance studies of genome stability and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:22427938

  5. Multilocus microsatellite analysis of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' associated with citrus Huanglongbing worldwide

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most destructive citrus diseases in the world. The disease is associated with the presence of a fastidious, phloem-limited ?- proteobacterium, 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus', 'Ca. Liberibacter africanus' or 'Ca. Liberibacter americanus'. HLB-associated Liberibacters have spread to North America and South America in recent years. While the causal agents of HLB have been putatively identified, information regarding the worldwide population structure and epidemiological relationships for 'Ca. L. asiaticus' is limited. The availability of the 'Ca. L. asiaticus' genome sequence has facilitated development of molecular markers from this bacterium. The objectives of this study were to develop microsatellite markers and conduct genetic analyses of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' from a worldwide collection. Two hundred eighty seven isolates from USA (Florida), Brazil, China, India, Cambodia, Vietnam, Taiwan, Thailand, and Japan were analyzed. Results A panel of seven polymorphic microsatellite markers was developed for 'Ca. L. asiaticus'. Microsatellite analyses across the samples showed that the genetic diversity of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' is higher in Asia than Americas. UPGMA and STRUCTURE analyses identified three major genetic groups worldwide. Isolates from India were genetically distinct. East-southeast Asian and Brazilian isolates were generally included in the same group; a few members of this group were found in Florida, but the majority of the isolates from Florida were clustered separately. eBURST analysis predicted three founder haplotypes, which may have given rise to three groups worldwide. Conclusions Our results identified three major genetic groups of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' worldwide. Isolates from Brazil showed similar genetic makeup with east-southeast Asian dominant group, suggesting the possibility of a common origin. However, most of the isolates recovered from Florida were clustered in a separate group. While the sources of the dominant 'Ca. L. asiaticus' in Florida were not clearly understood, the less-pervasive groups may have been introduced directly from Asia or via Brazil. Notably, the recent outbreak of HLB in Florida probably occurred through multiple introductions. Microsatellite markers developed in this study provide adequate discriminatory power for the identification and differentiation of closely-related isolates, as well as for genetic studies of 'Ca. L. asiaticus'. PMID:22433492

  6. Analysis of olive fly invasion in California based on microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Zygouridis, N E; Augustinos, A A; Zalom, F G; Mathiopoulos, K D

    2009-04-01

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the main pest of the olive fruit and its expansion is exclusively restricted to the cultivation zone of the olive tree. Even though olive production has a century-old history in California, the olive fly was first detected in the Los Angeles area in 1998. Within 5 years of the first observation, the insect was reported from all olive cultivation areas of the state. Field-collected flies from five locations in California and another from Israel were analyzed on the basis of microsatellite polymorphisms in 10 microsatellite loci. These results were integrated with those of a previous study of olive fly populations around the European part of the Mediterranean basin. The analysis pointed to the eastern part of the Mediterranean as the putative source of the observed invasion. Moreover, samples from California were quite different from Mediterranean samples implying the participation of phenomena such as genetic drift during the invasion and expansion of the olive fly in California. PMID:19107137

  7. Genetic diversity of Leishmania donovani/infantum complex in China through microsatellite analysis.

    PubMed

    Alam, Mohammad Zahangir; Nakao, Ryo; Sakurai, Tatsuya; Kato, Hirotomo; Qu, Jing-Qi; Chai, Jun-Jie; Chang, Kwang Poo; Schönian, Gabriele; Katakura, Ken

    2014-03-01

    The Leishmania strains from different epidemic areas in China were assessed for their genetic relationship. Twenty-nine strains of Leishmania infantum isolated from 1950 to 2001 were subjected to multilocus microsatellite typing (MLMT) using 14 highly polymorphic microsatellite markers. Twenty-two MLMT profiles were recognized among the 29 L. infantum strains, which differed from one another in 13 loci. Bayesian model-based and distance-based analysis of the data inferred two main populations in China. Sixteen strains belonged to one population, which also comprised previously characterized strains of L. infantum non-MON1 and Leishmania donovani. The parasites within this population are assignable to a distinct cluster that is clearly separable from the populations of L. donovani elsewhere, i.e. India, Sri Lanka and East Africa, and L. infantum non-MON1 from Europe. The remaining 13 Chinese strains grouped together with strains of L. infantum MON1 into another population, but formed a separate cluster which genetically differs from the populations of L. infantum MON1 from Europe, the Middle East, Central Asia and North Africa. The existence of distinct groups of L. infantum MON1 and non-MON1/L. donovani suggests that the extant parasites in China may have been restricted there, but not recently introduced from elsewhere. PMID:24480049

  8. Genotype Reconstruction of Paternity in European Lobsters (Homarus gammarus).

    PubMed

    Ellis, Charlie D; Hodgson, David J; André, Carl; Sørdalen, Tonje K; Knutsen, Halvor; Griffiths, Amber G F

    2015-01-01

    Decapod crustaceans exhibit considerable variation in fertilisation strategies, ranging from pervasive single paternity to the near-ubiquitous presence of multiple paternity, and such knowledge of mating systems and behaviour are required for the informed management of commercially-exploited marine fisheries. We used genetic markers to assess the paternity of individual broods in the European lobster, Homarus gammarus, a species for which paternity structure is unknown. Using 13 multiplexed microsatellite loci, three of which are newly described in this study, we genotyped 10 eggs from each of 34 females collected from an Atlantic peninsula in the south-western United Kingdom. Single reconstructed paternal genotypes explained all observed progeny genotypes in each of the 34 egg clutches, and each clutch was fertilised by a different male. Simulations indicated that the probability of detecting multiple paternity was in excess of 95% if secondary sires account for at least a quarter of the brood, and in excess of 99% where additional sire success was approximately equal. Our results show that multiple paternal fertilisations are either absent, unusual, or highly skewed in favour of a single male among H. gammarus in this area. Potential mechanisms upholding single paternal fertilisation are discussed, along with the prospective utility of parentage assignments in evaluations of hatchery stocking and other fishery conservation approaches in light of this finding. PMID:26566271

  9. Genotype Reconstruction of Paternity in European Lobsters (Homarus gammarus)

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Charlie D.; Hodgson, David J.; André, Carl; Sørdalen, Tonje K.; Knutsen, Halvor; Griffiths, Amber G. F.

    2015-01-01

    Decapod crustaceans exhibit considerable variation in fertilisation strategies, ranging from pervasive single paternity to the near-ubiquitous presence of multiple paternity, and such knowledge of mating systems and behaviour are required for the informed management of commercially-exploited marine fisheries. We used genetic markers to assess the paternity of individual broods in the European lobster, Homarus gammarus, a species for which paternity structure is unknown. Using 13 multiplexed microsatellite loci, three of which are newly described in this study, we genotyped 10 eggs from each of 34 females collected from an Atlantic peninsula in the south-western United Kingdom. Single reconstructed paternal genotypes explained all observed progeny genotypes in each of the 34 egg clutches, and each clutch was fertilised by a different male. Simulations indicated that the probability of detecting multiple paternity was in excess of 95% if secondary sires account for at least a quarter of the brood, and in excess of 99% where additional sire success was approximately equal. Our results show that multiple paternal fertilisations are either absent, unusual, or highly skewed in favour of a single male among H. gammarus in this area. Potential mechanisms upholding single paternal fertilisation are discussed, along with the prospective utility of parentage assignments in evaluations of hatchery stocking and other fishery conservation approaches in light of this finding. PMID:26566271

  10. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers for Bertholletia excelsa (Lecythidaceae) population genetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Sujii, P S; Inglis, P W; Ciampi, A Y; Solferini, V N; Azevedo, V C R

    2013-01-01

    Seven polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed and validated for Bertholletia excelsa (Brazil nut tree) population genetic studies. This species is a widespread monotypic Amazonian tree with high non-timber economic value. Unfortunately, Brazil nut production is currently less than 25% of historical production levels, because of extensive deforestation. All pairs of primers produced clearly interpretable and polymorphic bands. No linkage disequilibrium was observed in an analysis of 46 individuals from one population, three to seven alleles per locus were observed; the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.378 to 0.978, with significant heterozygote excess for four loci. An analysis of individuals from two populations showed private alleles at all loci. These primer pairs will be useful for population studies, especially for comparing samples from different parts of the Amazon forest. PMID:24301788

  11. Characteristics and frequency of germline mutations at microsatellite loci from the human Y chromosome, as revealed by direct observation in father/son pairs.

    PubMed Central

    Kayser, M; Roewer, L; Hedman, M; Henke, L; Henke, J; Brauer, S; Krüger, C; Krawczak, M; Nagy, M; Dobosz, T; Szibor, R; de Knijff, P; Stoneking, M; Sajantila, A

    2000-01-01

    A number of applications of analysis of human Y-chromosome microsatellite loci to human evolution and forensic science require reliable estimates of the mutation rate and knowledge of the mutational mechanism. We therefore screened a total of 4,999 meioses from father/son pairs with confirmed paternity (probability >/=99. 9%) at 15 Y-chromosomal microsatellite loci and identified 14 mutations. The locus-specific mutation-rate estimates were 0-8. 58x10-3, and the average mutation rate estimates were 3.17x10-3 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.89-4.94x10-3) across 8 tetranucleotide microsatellites and 2.80x10-3 (95% CI 1.72-4.27x10-3) across all 15 Y-chromosomal microsatellites studied. Our data show a mutational bias toward length increase, on the basis of observation of more repeat gains than losses (10:4). The data are in almost complete agreement with the stepwise-mutation model, with 13 single-repeat changes and 1 double-repeat change. Sequence analysis revealed that all mutations occurred in uninterrupted homogenous arrays of >/=11 repeats. We conclude that mutation rates and characteristics of human Y-chromosomal microsatellites are consistent with those of autosomal microsatellites. This indicates that the general mutational mechanism of microsatellites is independent of recombination. PMID:10762544

  12. System Performance Analysis of Three Dimensional Reaction Wheel for the Attitude Control of Microsatellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirasawa, Yoji; Tsuda, Yuichi

    This paper presents a novel attitude control device which is called three dimensional reaction wheel (3DRW). 3DRW consists of only one levitated spherical mass which can rotate around arbitrary axes. This leads to the reduction of the weight and volume of the device as compared to existing reaction wheel. Furthermore, this device has no mechanical contact between rotor and stator, so the failure caused by the mechanical contact would be reduced. In this paper, the results of the analysis and experiment on the dynamics and control of 3DRW are shown. In the experiments of the rotation control, the air bearing system is used. Using this device, the characteristics of rotation of the spherical mass are obtained. To verify the feasibility of the concept of 3DRW, the experiments of angular velocity feedback control are carried out. The results of experiments are applied to the numerical simulation of the attitude control for microsatellites, and the feasibility of 3DRW is verified.

  13. Microsatellite analysis using a two-step procedure for fluorescence labeling of PCR products.

    PubMed

    Jouquand, S; Chéron, A; Galibert, F

    1999-05-01

    A method for fluorescent labeling of PCR products has been developed. This method consists in a two-step procedure in which a first exponential classical PCR is followed by a "linear amplification". This second step relies on incorporation of fluorescent dNTP (dUTP or dCTP) in order to label the product on only one strand. The products can be applied without prior purification directly to a gel on a fluorescence-based automated DNA sequencer, for length and allele determination. The reliability of the results equals those of the classical 32P or fluorescent primer labeling methods, and the method is definitely less costly. Since the interpretation of the results is easier than with the method consisting in a fluorescent dNTP uptake in both strands in a single PCR, the present strategy should prove useful in mapping projects requiring analysis of a large number of microsatellites. PMID:10337483

  14. Multiple paternity in the freshwater snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum

    PubMed Central

    Soper, Deanna M; Delph, Lynda F; Lively, Curt M

    2012-01-01

    Mating multiply may incur costs, such as exposure to predators and to sexually transmitted diseases. Nevertheless, it may be favored, in spite of these costs, as a way to increase the genetic diversity of offspring through fertilization by multiple males. Here, we tested for multiple paternity in a freshwater snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum), which is host to several species of sterilizing trematode worms. Using microsatellites markers, we found multiple paternity in two different snail populations, with as many as seven males fertilizing a single female. In addition, high evenness of sire fertilization was found within individual broods. Multiple paternity can occur for a variety of reasons; however, given that these populations experience high risk of infection by a sterilizing trematode, one potential explanation may be that multiple paternity and high evenness of sire fertilizations increase the chances of the production of parasite-resistant offspring. PMID:23301182

  15. Microsatellite markers for an endemic Atlantic Forest tree, Manilkara multifida (Sapotaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Moraes, Ramiris C. S.; Vivas, Caio V.; Oliveira, Fernanda A.; Menezes, Ivandilson P. P.; van den Berg, Cassio; Gaiotto, Fernanda A.

    2013-01-01

    Manilkara multifida is a tropical tree that is endemic to the Atlantic forests of southern Bahia, Brazil. Currently, populations of this species are restricted to fragmented landscapes that are susceptible to anthropogenic disturbances. Considering this issue, and that there is no genetic information available for this endangered species, we developed microsatellite markers for M. multifida to provide resources for future conservation genetics studies. Using an enriched genomic library, we isolated eight polymorphic microsatellite loci and optimized the amplification conditions for M. multifida. For each locus, we estimated the number of alleles, HE and HO, paternity exclusion Q, individual identity I and fixation index F, and examined the presence of null alleles. The mean number of alleles was 11.9, and the heterozygosity was high at all loci (average HE = 0.809 and HO = 0.777). The combined values for both paternity exclusion and individual identity were Q = 0.9959 and I = 5.45 × 10–11, respectively. No evidence of null alleles was detected. The results of our analysis indicated that all eight microsatellites are promising for assessing questions involving inbreeding, gene flow, co-ancestry and mating patterns in M. multifida. PMID:23487575

  16. Microsatellite markers for an endemic Atlantic Forest tree, Manilkara multifida (Sapotaceae).

    PubMed

    Moraes, Ramiris C S; Vivas, Caio V; Oliveira, Fernanda A; Menezes, Ivandilson P P; van den Berg, Cassio; Gaiotto, Fernanda A

    2013-01-01

    Manilkara multifida is a tropical tree that is endemic to the Atlantic forests of southern Bahia, Brazil. Currently, populations of this species are restricted to fragmented landscapes that are susceptible to anthropogenic disturbances. Considering this issue, and that there is no genetic information available for this endangered species, we developed microsatellite markers for M. multifida to provide resources for future conservation genetics studies. Using an enriched genomic library, we isolated eight polymorphic microsatellite loci and optimized the amplification conditions for M. multifida. For each locus, we estimated the number of alleles, H E and H O, paternity exclusion Q, individual identity I and fixation index F, and examined the presence of null alleles. The mean number of alleles was 11.9, and the heterozygosity was high at all loci (average H E = 0.809 and H O = 0.777). The combined values for both paternity exclusion and individual identity were Q = 0.9959 and I = 5.45 × 10(-11), respectively. No evidence of null alleles was detected. The results of our analysis indicated that all eight microsatellites are promising for assessing questions involving inbreeding, gene flow, co-ancestry and mating patterns in M. multifida. PMID:23487575

  17. The impact of extensive clonal growth on fine-scale mating patterns: a full paternity analysis of a lily-of-the-valley population (Convallaria majalis)

    PubMed Central

    Vandepitte, Katrien; De Meyer, Tim; Jacquemyn, Hans; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel; Honnay, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The combination of clonality and a mating system promoting outcrossing is considered advantageous because outcrossing avoids the fitness costs of selfing within clones (geitonogamy) while clonality assures local persistence and increases floral display. The spatial spread of genetically identical plants (ramets) may, however, also decrease paternal diversity (the number of sires fertilizing a given dam) and fertility, particularly towards the centre of large clumped clones. This study aimed to quantify the impact of extensive clonal growth on fine-scale paternity patterns in a population of the allogamous Convallaria majalis. Methods A full analysis of paternity was performed by genotyping all flowering individuals and all viable seeds produced during a single season using AFLP. Mating patterns were examined and the spatial position of ramets was related to the extent of multiple paternity, fruiting success and seed production. Key Results The overall outcrossing rate was high (91 %) and pollen flow into the population was considerable (27 %). Despite extensive clonal growth, multiple paternity was relatively common (the fraction of siblings sharing the same father was 0·53 within ramets). The diversity of offspring collected from reproductive ramets surrounded by genetically identical inflorescences was as high as among offspring collected from ramets surrounded by distinct genets. There was no significant relationship between the similarity of the pollen load received by two ramets and the distance between them. Neither the distance of ramets with respect to distinct genets nor the distance to the genet centre significantly affected fruiting success or seed production. Conclusions Random mating and considerable pollen inflow most probably implied that pollen dispersal distances were sufficiently high to mitigate local mate scarcity despite extensive clonal spread. The data provide no evidence for the intrusion of clonal growth on fine-scale plant mating patterns. PMID:23439847

  18. Genetic linkage analysis of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis using human chromosome 21 microsatellite DNA markers

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, D.R.; Sapp, P.; O`Regan, J.; McKenna-Yasek, D.; Schlumpf, K.S.; Haines, J.L.; Gusella, J.F.; Horvitz, H.R.; Brown, R.H. Jr.

    1994-05-15

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS; Lou Gehrig`s Disease) is a lethal neurodegenerative disease of upper and lower motorneurons in the brain and spinal cord. We previously reported linkage of a gene for familial ALS (FALS) to human chromosome 21 using 4 restriction fragment length polymorphism DNA markers and identified disease-associated mutations in the superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1 gene in some ALS families. We report here the genetic linkage data that led us to examine the SOD-1 gene for mutations. We also report a new microsatellite DNA marker for D21S63, derived from the cosmid PW517. Ten microsatellite DNA markers, including the new marker D21S63, were used to reinvestigate linkage of FALS to chromosome 21. Genetic linkage analysis performed with 13 ALS familes for these 10 DNA markers confirmed the presence of a FALS gene on chromosome 21. The highest total 2-point LOD score for all families was 4.33, obtained at a distance of 10 cM from the marker D21S223. For 5 ALS families linked to chromosome 21, a peak 2-point LOD score of 5.94 was obtained at the DNA marker D21S223. A multipoint score of 6.50 was obtained with the markers D21S213, D21S223, D21S167, and FALS for 5 chromosome 21-linked ALS families. The haplotypes of these families for the 10 DNA markers reveal recombination events that further refined the location of the FALS gene to a segment of approximately 5 megabases (Mb) between D21S213 and D21S219. The only characterized gene within this segment was SOD-1, the structural gene for Cu, Zn SOD. 30 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Narrow genetic basis for the Australian dingo confirmed through analysis of paternal ancestry.

    PubMed

    Ardalan, Arman; Oskarsson, Mattias; Natanaelsson, Christian; Wilton, Alan N; Ahmadian, Afshin; Savolainen, Peter

    2012-03-01

    The dingo (Canis lupus dingo) is an iconic animal in the native culture of Australia, but archaeological and molecular records indicate a relatively recent history on the continent. Studies of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) imply that the current dingo population was founded by a small population of already tamed dogs from Southeast Asia. However, the maternal genetic data might give a unilateral picture, and the gene pool has yet to be screened for paternal ancestry. We sequenced 14,437 bp of the Y-chromosome (Y-chr) from two dingoes and one New Guinea Singing Dog (NGSD). This positioned dingo and NGSD within the domestic dog Y-chr phylogeny, and produced one haplotype not detected before. With this data, we characterized 47 male dingoes in 30 Y-chr single-nucleotide polymorphism sites using protease-mediated allele-specific extension technology. Only two haplotypes, H3 and H60, were found among the dingoes, at frequencies of 68.1 and 31.9 %, respectively, compared to 27 haplotypes previously established in the domestic dog. While H3 is common among Southeast Asian dogs, H60 was specifically found in dingoes and the NGSD, but was related to Southeast Asian dog Y-chr haplotypes. H3 and H60 were observed exclusively in the western and eastern parts of Australia, respectively, but had a common range in Southeast. Thus, the Y-chr diversity was very low, similar to previous observations for d-loop mtDNA. Overall genetic evidence suggests a very restricted introduction of the first dingoes into Australia, possibly from New Guinea. This study further confirms the dingo as an isolated feral dog. PMID:22618967

  20. Rapid and cost-effective screening of newly identified microsatellite loci by high-resolution melting analysis.

    PubMed

    Arthofer, Wolfgang; Steiner, Florian M; Schlick-Steiner, Birgit C

    2011-10-01

    This study describes a new method for identifying microsatellite loci that will reliably amplify and show high degree of polymorphism in a given species. Microsatellites are the most powerful codominant markers available today, but the development of novel loci remains a labour-intensive and expensive process. In de novo isolation, approaches using next generation sequencing (NGS) are gradually replacing ones using Escherichia coli libraries, resulting in unparalleled numbers of candidate loci available. We present a systematic review of published microsatellite primer notes and show that, on average, about half of all candidate loci are lost due to insufficient PCR amplification, monomorphism or multicopy status in the genome, no matter what isolation strategy is used. Thus, the screening of candidate loci remains a major step in marker development. Re-assessing capillary-electrophoresis genotyped loci via high-resolution melting analysis (HRM), we evaluate the usefulness of HRM for this step. We demonstrate its applicability in a genotyping case study and introduce a fast, HRM-based workflow for the screening of microsatellite loci. This workflow may readily be applied to NGS-based marker development and has the potential to cut the costs of traditional testing by half to three quarters. PMID:21847526

  1. Population genetic structure and phylogeography of cyprinid fish, Labeo dero (Hamilton, 1822) inferred from allozyme and microsatellite DNA marker analysis.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Anshumala; Mohindra, Vindhya; Singh, Rajeev K; Lal, Kuldeep K; Punia, Peyush; Bhaskar, Ranjana; Mandal, Anup; Narain, Lalit; Lakra, W S

    2011-06-01

    We examined population structure of Labeo dero (Hamilton, 1822) from different riverine locations in India using 10 polymorphic allozyme and eight microsatellite loci. For analysis, 591 different tissue samples were obtained from commercial catches covering a wide geographic range. Allozyme variability (An = 1.28-1.43, Ho = 0.029-0.071) was much lower than for microsatellites (An = 4.625-6.125, Ho = 0.538-0.633). Existence of rare alleles was found at three allozyme (MDH-2, GPI and PGDH) and at two microsatellite loci (R-3 and MFW-15). Deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P < 0.05, after the critical probability levels were adjusted for sequential Bonferroni adjustment) could be detected at three loci (EST-1, -2 and XDH) whereas, after correction for null alleles, two microsatellite loci (MFW-1,-15) deviated from HWE in the river Yamuna. Fst for all the samples combined over all allozyme loci was found to be 0.059 suggesting that 5.9% of the total variation was due to genetic differentiation while microsatellite analysis yielded 0.019 which was concordant to mean Rst (0.02). Hierarchical partition of genetic diversity (AMOVA) showed that greater variability (approx. 95%) was due to within population component than between geographical regions. Based on distribution of genetic differentiation detected by both markers, at least five different genetic stocks of L. dero across its natural distribution could be identified. These results are useful for the evaluation and conservation of L. dero in natural water bodies. PMID:21132388

  2. Microsatellite analysis of genetic diversity and population structure of Arabian horse populations.

    PubMed

    Khanshour, Anas; Conant, Eleanore; Juras, Rytis; Cothran, Ernest Gus

    2013-01-01

    The Arabian horse ignites imagination throughout the world. Populations of this breed exist in many countries, and recent genetic work has examined the diversity and ancestry of a few of these populations in isolation. Here, we explore 7 different populations of Arabians represented by 682 horses. Three of these are Middle Eastern populations from near the historical origin of the breed, including Syrian, Persian, and Saudi Arabian. The remaining Western populations are found in Europe (the Shagya Arabian and Polish Arabian) and in America (American Arabian). Analysis of genetic structure was carried out using 15 microsatellite loci. Genetic distances, analysis of molecular variance, factorial correspondence analysis, and a Bayesian method were applied. The results consistently show higher level of diversity within the Middle Eastern populations than the Western populations. The Western Arabian populations were the main source among population variation. Genetic differentiation was not strong among all Middle Eastern populations, but all American Arabians showed differentiation from Middle Eastern populations and were somewhat uniform among themselves. Here, we explore the diversities of many different populations of Arabian horses and find that populations not from the Middle East have noticeably lower levels of diversity, which may adversely affect the health of these populations. PMID:23450090

  3. Paternal obesity negatively affects male fertility and assisted reproduction outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Jared M; Lane, Michelle; Owens, Julie A; Bakos, Hassan W

    2015-11-01

    This systematic review investigated the effect of paternal obesity on reproductive potential. Databases searched were Pubmed, Ovid, Web of Science, Scopus, Cinahl and Embase. Papers were critically appraised by two reviewers, and data were extracted using a standardized tool. Outcomes were: likelihood of infertility, embryo development, clinical pregnancy, live birth, pregnancy viability, infant development, sperm; concentration, morphology, motility, volume, DNA fragmentation, chromatin condensation, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and seminal plasma factors. Thirty papers were included, with a total participant number of 115,158. Obese men were more likely to experience infertility (OR = 1.66, 95% CI 1.53-1.79), their rate of live birth per cycle of assisted reproduction technology (ART) was reduced (OR = 0.65, 95% CI 0.44-0.97) and they had a 10% absolute risk increase of pregnancy non-viability. Additionally, obese men had an increased percentage of sperm with low MMP, DNA fragmentation, and abnormal morphology. Clinically significant differences were not found for conventional semen parameters. From these findings it can be concluded that male obesity is associated with reduced reproductive potential. Furthermore, it may be informative to incorporate DNA fragmentation analysis and MMP assessment into semen testing, especially for obese men whose results suggest they should have normal fertility. PMID:26380863

  4. Genetic Analysis Workshop 14: microsatellite and single-nucleotide polymorphism marker loci for genome-wide scans

    E-print Network

    2005-12-30

    Allen, Christopher I. Amos, Allison Ashley-Koch, Melissa Austin, Larry Atwood, Michael Badzioch, Agnes Baffoe-Bonnie, M. Michael Barmada, Terri Beaty, Lars Beckmann, Laura Bierut, Timothy Bishop, Michael Boehnke, Stefan Bohringer, George Bonney... AcceIntroduction Genetic Analysis Workshop 14: microsatellite and single-nucleotide polymorphism marker loci for genome-wide scans Joan E Bailey-Wilson*1, Laura Almasy2, Mariza de Andrade3, Julia Bailey4, Heike Bickeböller5, Heather J Cordell6, E...

  5. Spatio-temporal Genetic Structuring of Leishmania major in Tunisia by Microsatellite Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Harrabi, Myriam; Bettaieb, Jihène; Ghawar, Wissem; Toumi, Amine; Zaâtour, Amor; Yazidi, Rihab; Chaâbane, Sana; Chalghaf, Bilel; Hide, Mallorie; Bañuls, Anne-Laure; Ben Salah, Afif

    2015-01-01

    In Tunisia, cases of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major are increasing and spreading from the south-west to new areas in the center. To improve the current knowledge on L. major evolution and population dynamics, we performed multi-locus microsatellite typing of human isolates from Tunisian governorates where the disease is endemic (Gafsa, Kairouan and Sidi Bouzid governorates) and collected during two periods: 1991–1992 and 2008–2012. Analysis (F-statistics and Bayesian model-based approach) of the genotyping results of isolates collected in Sidi Bouzid in 1991–1992 and 2008–2012 shows that, over two decades, in the same area, Leishmania parasites evolved by generating genetically differentiated populations. The genetic patterns of 2008–2012 isolates from the three governorates indicate that L. major populations did not spread gradually from the south to the center of Tunisia, according to a geographical gradient, suggesting that human activities might be the source of the disease expansion. The genotype analysis also suggests previous (Bayesian model-based approach) and current (F-statistics) flows of genotypes between governorates and districts. Human activities as well as reservoir dynamics and the effects of environmental changes could explain how the disease progresses. This study provides new insights into the evolution and spread of L. major in Tunisia that might improve our understanding of the parasite flow between geographically and temporally distinct populations. PMID:26302440

  6. An Extensive Analysis of Y-Chromosomal Microsatellite Haplotypes in Globally Dispersed Human Populations

    PubMed Central

    Kayser, Manfred; Krawczak, Michael; Excoffier, Laurent; Dieltjes, Patrick; Corach, Daniel; Pascali, Vincente; Gehrig, Christian; Bernini, Luigi F.; Jespersen, Jørgen; Bakker, Egbert; Roewer, Lutz; de Knijff, Peter

    2001-01-01

    The genetic variance at seven Y-chromosomal microsatellite loci (or short tandem repeats [STRs]) was studied among 986 male individuals from 20 globally dispersed human populations. A total of 598 different haplotypes were observed, of which 437 (73.1%) were each found in a single male only. Population-specific haplotype-diversity values were .86–.99. Analyses of haplotype diversity and population-specific haplotypes revealed marked population-structure differences between more-isolated indigenous populations (e.g., Central African Pygmies or Greenland Inuit) and more-admixed populations (e.g., Europeans or Surinamese). Furthermore, male individuals from isolated indigenous populations shared haplotypes mainly with male individuals from their own population. By analysis of molecular variance, we found that 76.8% of the total genetic variance present among these male individuals could be attributed to genetic differences between male individuals who were members of the same population. Haplotype sharing between populations, ?ST statistics, and phylogenetic analysis identified close genetic affinities among European populations and among New Guinean populations. Our data illustrate that Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes are an ideal tool for the study of the genetic affinities between groups of male subjects and for detection of population structure. PMID:11254455

  7. Evaluation of maize microsatellite markers for genetic diversity analysis and fingerprinting in sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Selvi, A; Nair, N V; Balasundaram, N; Mohapatra, T

    2003-06-01

    The use of maize microsatellite markers as a potential cost-effective method for molecular analysis of sugarcane was evaluated. Of the 34 primer pairs obtained from maize genomic libraries, 14 showed repeatable amplifications in Saccharum species clones, commercial hybrids, and the related genera Erianthus, accounting for 41.17% cross transferability. Complex banding patterns were encountered in sugarcane with the number of amplified fragments ranging from 7 to 14 with an average of 10 per primer, indicating the high polyploidy and heterozygosity existing in sugarcane. Phenetic analysis of the SSR polymorphisms produced by nine primers could clearly differentiate the different species of Saccharum and Erianthus and revealed the relationships that existed between them. Genetic similarity co-efficient indicated low diversity existing among the S. officinarum clones (82%) and a relatively higher level of diversity in the S. spontaneum clones (69.7%). Higher level of divergence of Erianthus from Saccharum was also clearly estabilished. Five primers produced genus- and species-specific fragments for Erianthus, S. spontaneum, S. officinarum, and S. barberi. The polymorphic primers, when tested on a panel of 30 commercial sugarcane cultivars, revealed a broad range (32.4-83.3%) of pair-wise similarity values, indicating their ability to detect high levels of polymorphism. A combination of two primers could differentiate all the varieties, further emphasizing their potential in fingerprinting and varietal identification. PMID:12834055

  8. Genetic diversity analysis of the Uruguayan Creole cattle breed using microsatellites and mtDNA markers.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, E; Iriarte, A; Martínez, A M; Feijoo, M; Vega-Pla, J L; Delgado, J V; Postiglioni, A

    2013-01-01

    The Uruguayan Creole cattle population (N = 600) is located in a native habitat in south-east Uruguay. We analyzed its genetic diversity and compared it to other populations of American Creole cattle. A random sample of 64 animals was genotyped for a set of 17 microsatellite loci, and the D-loop hyper-variable region of mtDNA was sequenced for 28 calves of the same generation. We identified an average of 5.59 alleles per locus, with expected heterozygosities between 0.466 and 0.850 and an expected mean heterozygosity of 0.664. The polymorphic information content ranged from 0.360 to 0.820, and the global FIS index was 0.037. The D-loop analysis revealed three haplotypes (UY1, UY2 and UY3), belonging to the European matriline group, with a haplotype diversity of 0.532. The history of the population, changes in the effective population size, bottlenecks, and genetic drift are possible causes of the genetic variability patterns that we detected. PMID:23661437

  9. Microsatellite Analysis of the Population Genetic Structure of Anolis carolinensis Introduced to the Ogasawara Islands.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Hirotaka; Takahashi, Hiroo; Hayashi, Fumio

    2015-01-01

    DNA analysis can reveal the origins and dispersal patterns of invasive species. The green anole Anolis carolinensis is one such alien animal, which has been dispersed widely by humans from its native North America to many Pacific Ocean islands. In the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands, this anole was recorded from Chichi-jima at the end of the 1960s, and then from Haha-jima in the early 1980s. These two islands are inhabited. In 2013, it was also found on the uninhabited Ani-jima, close to Chichi-jima. Humans are thought to have introduced the anole to Haha-jima, while the mode of introduction to Ani-jima is unknown. To clarify its dispersal patterns within and among these three islands, we assessed the fine-scale population genetic structure using five microsatellite loci. The results show a homogeneous genetic structure within islands, but different genetic structures among islands, suggesting that limited gene flow occurs between islands. The recently established Ani-jima population may have originated from several individuals simultaneously, or by repeated immigration from Chichi-jima. We must consider frequent incursions among these islands to control these invasive lizard populations and prevent their negative impact on native biodiversity. PMID:25660696

  10. [MICROSATELLITE ANALYSIS OF HOMOEOLOGOUS CHROMOSOME GROUP 5 OF INTROGRESSIVE WHEAT LINES TRITICUM AESTIVUM/AMBLYOPYRUM MUTICUM].

    PubMed

    Iefimenko, T S; Fedak, Yu G; Antonyuk, M Z; Ternovska, T K

    2015-01-01

    Introgressive hybridization of common wheat is still one of the most effective way of wheat genome enrichment with resistance genes to stresses. In this context, T genome of Amblyopyrum muticum is a promising one for such wheat improvement. Genome substitution amphidiploid Aurotica (AABBTT) with A and B subgenomes from common wheat cultivar Aurora and with T subgenome from Amblyopyrum muticum is characterized by high level of cold resistance. In wheat, this characteristic associated with chromosomes of the homoeologous group 5. Comparative microsatellite analysis of Aurora and Aurotica identified 9 SSR loci specific to D genome which produced other amplicons with Aurotica DNA spectrum. Primers for these loci were used for screening (Aurora x Aurotica)F5 progeny (234 plants) in purpose to find those individuals, which carry 5T chromosome or its fragments in their genomes. In this study were detected 24 plants with disomic substitutions 5D/5T. All of them were offspring of five F4 plants, which in turn derived from two F2 individuals. A significant number of plants contain recombinant chromosome 5D/5T. The recombination event could occur in any generation since F2. PMID:26214905

  11. Microsatellite and Wolbachia analysis in Rhagoletis cerasi natural populations: population structuring and multiple infections

    PubMed Central

    Augustinos, Antonios A; Asimakopoulou, Anastasia K; Moraiti, Cleopatra A; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos T; Bourtzis, Kostas

    2014-01-01

    Rhagoletis cerasi (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a major pest of sweet and sour cherries in Europe and parts of Asia. Despite its economic significance, there is a lack of studies on the genetic structure of R. cerasi populations. Elucidating the genetic structure of insects of economic importance is crucial for developing phenological-predictive models and environmental friendly control methods. All natural populations of R. cerasi have been found to harbor the endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis, which widely affects multiple biological traits contributing to the evolution of its hosts, and has been suggested as a tool for the biological control of insect pests and disease vectors. In the current study, the analysis of 18 R. cerasi populations collected in Greece, Germany, and Russia using 13 microsatellite markers revealed structuring of R. cerasi natural populations, even at close geographic range. We also analyzed the Wolbachia infection status of these populations using 16S rRNA-, MLST- and wsp-based approaches. All 244 individuals screened were positive for Wolbachia. Our results suggest the fixation of the wCer1 strain in Greece while wCer2, wCer4, wCer5, and probably other uncharacterized strains were also detected in multiply infected individuals. The role of Wolbachia and its potential extended phenotypes needs a thorough investigation in R. cerasi. Our data suggest an involvement of this symbiont in the observed restriction in the gene flow in addition to a number of different ecological factors. PMID:24963388

  12. Map and Analysis of Microsatellites in Genome of Populus: the First Sequenced Perennial Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Shuxian; Yin, Tongming

    2007-01-01

    We mapped and analyzed the microsatellites throughout 284295605 base pairs of the unambiguously assembled sequence scaffolds along 19 chromosomes of the haploid poplar genome. Totally, we found 150985 SSRs with repeat unit lengths between 2 and 5 bp. The established microsatellite physical map demonstrated that SSRs were distributed relatively evenly across the genome of Populus. On average, These SSRs occurred every 1883 bp within the poplar genome and the SSR densities in intergenic regions, introns, exons and UTRs were 85.4%, 10.7%, 2.7% and 1.2%, respectively. We took di-, tri-, tetra-and pentamers as the four classes of repeat units and found that the density of each class of SSRs decreased with the repeat unit lengths except for the tetranucleotide repeats. It was noteworthy that the length diversification of microsatellite sequences was negatively correlated with their repeat unit length and the SSRs with shorter repeat units gained repeats faster than the SSRs with longer repeat units. We also found that the GC content of poplar sequence significantly correlated with densities of SSRs with uneven repeat unit lengths (tri- and penta-), but had no significant correlation with densities of SSRs with even repeat unit lengths (di- and tetra-). In poplar genome, there were evidences that the occurrence of different microsatellites was under selection and the GC content in SSR sequences was found to significantly relate to the functional importance of microsatellites.

  13. Comparative genomic analysis reveals species-dependent complexities that explain difficulties with microsatellite marker development in molluscs

    PubMed Central

    McInerney, C E; Allcock, A L; Johnson, M P; Bailie, D A; Prodöhl, P A

    2011-01-01

    Reliable population DNA molecular markers are difficult to develop for molluscs, the reasons for which are largely unknown. Identical protocols for microsatellite marker development were implemented in three gastropods. Success rates were lower for Gibbula cineraria compared to Littorina littorea and L. saxatilis. Comparative genomic analysis of 47.2?kb of microsatellite containing sequences (MCS) revealed a high incidence of cryptic repetitive DNA in their flanking regions. The majority of these were novel, and could be grouped into DNA families based upon sequence similarities. Significant inter-specific variation in abundance of cryptic repetitive DNA and DNA families was observed. Repbase scans show that a large proportion of cryptic repetitive DNA was identified as transposable elements (TEs). We argue that a large number of TEs and their transpositional activity may be linked to differential rates of DNA multiplication and recombination. This is likely to be an important factor explaining inter-specific variation in genome stability and hence microsatellite marker development success rates. Gastropods also differed significantly in the type of TEs classes (autonomous vs non-autonomous) observed. We propose that dissimilar transpositional mechanisms differentiate the TE classes in terms of their propensity for transposition, fixation and/or silencing. Consequently, the phylogenetic conservation of non-autonomous TEs, such as CvA, suggests that dispersal of these elements may have behaved as microsatellite-inducing elements. Results seem to indicate that, compared to autonomous, non-autonomous TEs maybe have a more active role in genome rearrangement processes. The implications of the findings for genomic rearrangement, stability and marker development are discussed. PMID:20424639

  14. High resolution melt-curve analysis to fine map a locus controlling the paternal sorting of mitochondria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mitochondria are required for normal growth and development and play an important role in programmed cell death and aging. The mitochondrial DNA is maternally transmitted in the vast majority of eukaryotes. One exception is cucumber (Cucumis sativus), whose mitochondrial DNA is paternally transmit...

  15. Abstract High-resolution Y chromosome haplotype anal-ysis was performed in 143 paternally unrelated Israeli and

    E-print Network

    Weale, Michael E.

    Abstract High-resolution Y chromosome haplotype anal- ysis was performed in 143 paternally the Arabs was observed in the high- lands of Samaria and Judea. Y chromosome variation in the I&P Arabs level, defined by the binary polymor- phisms only, the Y chromosome distribution in Arabs and Jews

  16. Analysis of genetic diversity of flowering dogwood natural stands using microsatellites the effects of dogwood anthracnose

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) populations recently have experienced severe declines caused by dogwood anthracnose. Mortality ranged from 48-98%, raising the concern that genetic diversity has been reduced significantly. Microsatellite data was used to evaluate the level and distribution of ge...

  17. Paternal absence and sex-role development: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, M R; Black, K N

    1988-06-01

    A meta-analysis was based on every available study that has compared father-present and father-absent children on a measure of sex typing. 67 studies produced 222 estimates of effect size. Owing to the inappropriateness of conventional statistics, Hedges's approach to meta-analysis was employed. Results show that published studies produced larger estimates of effect size than dissertations and conference papers. Effect-size estimates based on clinical and incarcerated samples were significantly different from those based on more typical samples. Generalizable differences between father-present and father-absent females were conspicuously absent. Preschool father-absent boys were shown to make less stereotypical choices of toys and activities when compared to father-present age-mates. When compared to father-present boys, older father-absent boys were more stereotypical in their overt behavior, particularly in terms of aggression. Discussion focused on interpretation of the results within a multidimensional conception of sex role. PMID:3289841

  18. Paternal and Maternal Genetic Analysis of a Desert Keriyan Population: Keriyans Are Not the Descendants of Guge Tibetans

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kaixu; Ablimit, Abdurahman; Ling, Fengjun; Wu, Weiwei; Shan, Wenjuan; Qin, Wenbei; Keweier, Tuerhong; Zuo, Hongli; Zhang, Fuchun; Ma, Zhenghai; Zheng, Xiufen

    2014-01-01

    The Keriyan people live in an isolated village in the Taklimakan Desert in Xinjiang, Western China. The origin and migration of the Keriyans remains unclear. We studied paternal and maternal genetic variance through typing Y-STR loci and sequencing the complete control region of the mtDNA and compared them with other adjacent populations. Data show that the Keriyan have relatively low genetic diversity on both the paternal and maternal lineages and possess both European and Asian specific haplogroups, indicating Keriyan is an admixture population of West and East. There is a gender-bias in the extent of contribution from Europe vs. Asia to the Keriyan gene pool. Keriyans have more genetic affinity to Uyghurs than to Tibetans. The Keriyan are not the descendants of the Guge Tibetans. PMID:24968299

  19. Taxonomy of the Rhizopogon vinicolor species complex based on analysis of ITS sequences and microsatellite loci.

    PubMed

    Kretzer, Annette M; Luoma, Daniel L; Molina, Randy; Spatafora, Joseph W

    2003-01-01

    We are re-addressing species concepts in the Rhizopogon vinicolor species complex (Boletales, Basidiomycota) using sequence data from the internal-transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal repeat, as well as genotypic data from five microsatellite loci. The R. vinicolor species complex by our definition includes, but is not limited to, collections referred to as R. vinicolor Smith, R. diabolicus Smith, R. ochraceisporus Smith, R. parvulus Smith or R. vesiculosus Smith. Holo- and/or paratype material for the named species is included. Analyses of both ITS sequences and microsatellite loci separate collections of the R. vinicolor species complex into two distinct clades or clusters, suggestive of two biological species that subsequently are referred to as R. vinicolor sensu Kretzer et al and R. vesiculosus sensu Kretzer et al. Choice of the latter names, as well as morphological characters, are discussed. PMID:21156637

  20. Genome-Wide Survey and Analysis of Microsatellite Sequences in Bovid Species

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Wen-Hua; Jiang, Xue-Mei; Du, Lian-Ming; Xiao, Guo-Sheng; Hu, Ting-Zhang; Yue, Bi-Song; Quan, Qiu-Mei

    2015-01-01

    Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) have become the most popular source of genetic markers, which are ubiquitously distributed in many eukaryotic and prokaryotic genomes. This is the first study examining and comparing SSRs in completely sequenced genomes of the Bovidae. We analyzed and compared the number of SSRs, relative abundance, relative density, guanine-cytosine (GC) content and proportion of SSRs in six taxonomically different bovid species: Bos taurus, Bubalus bubalis, Bos mutus, Ovis aries, Capra hircus, and Pantholops hodgsonii. Our analysis revealed that, based on our search criteria, the total number of perfect SSRs found ranged from 663,079 to 806,907 and covered from 0.44% to 0.48% of the bovid genomes. Relative abundance and density of SSRs in these Bovinae genomes were non-significantly correlated with genome size (Pearson, r < 0.420, p > 0.05). Perfect mononucleotide SSRs were the most abundant, followed by the pattern: perfect di- > tri- > penta- > tetra- > hexanucleotide SSRs. Generally, the number of SSRs, relative abundance, and relative density of SSRs decreased as the motif repeat length increased in each species of Bovidae. The most GC-content was in trinucleotide SSRs and the least was in the mononucleotide SSRs in the six bovid genomes. The GC-contents of tri- and pentanucleotide SSRs showed a great deal of similarity among different chromosomes of B. taurus, O. aries, and C. hircus. SSR number of all chromosomes in the B. taurus, O.aries, and C. hircus is closely positively correlated with chromosome sequence size (Pearson, r > 0.980, p < 0.01) and significantly negatively correlated with GC-content (Pearson, r < -0.638, p < 0.01). Relative abundance and density of SSRs in all chromosomes of the three species were significantly negatively correlated with GC-content (Pearson, r < -0.333, P < 0.05) but not significantly correlated with chromosome sequence size (Pearson, r < -0.185, P > 0.05). Relative abundances of the same nucleotide SSR type showed great similarity among different chromosomes of B. taurus, O. aries, and C. hircus. PMID:26196922

  1. Detection of plasma tumor DNA in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma by microsatellite typing and p53 mutation analysis.

    PubMed

    Coulet, F; Blons, H; Cabelguenne, A; Lecomte, T; Lacourreye, O; Brasnu, D; Beaune, P; Zucman, J; Laurent-Puig, P

    2000-02-01

    Recent arguments have suggested that tumor DNA in cancer patients could be found in plasma, but different points remain unclear. Using a series of 117 head and neck squamous cell carcinoma tumors, our goals for this study were: (a) to quantify the amount of plasma DNA; (b) to evaluate the presence of plasma tumor DNA; and (c) to analyze the clinical relevance of tests based on plasma DNA analyses. Low levels of plasma DNA were found in most samples, but all were successfully amplified. Two different methods were used to detect tumor-specific genetic alterations: (a) microsatellite instability at UT5085 with an established sensitivity of 1:500; and (b) p53 mutation screening. Of the 117 tumors typed at UT5085, 65 demonstrated bandshifts (55%). Plasma and tumor DNA a showed similar alteration in only one case among these samples, and the prevalence of tumor DNA in plasma was estimated to be <2% using microsatellite analysis. Tumor DNA was detected in plasma at a higher prevalence (2 of 11 cases) when using p53 mutant allele-specific amplification. These results showed that in plasma, tumor DNA is largely diluted by normal DNA. By comparison with previously published studies, the prevalence of microsatellite alterations in plasma in this series of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas is very low, despite the fact that a large series of tumors was analyzed. To explain this discrepancy, we analyzed the possibility of PCR artifacts as suspected by the presence of loss of heterozygosity in two plasma DNA samples without a similar tumor DNA alteration. When DNA concentrations were under the threshold of detection (<100 ng/ml), we demonstrated that PCR artifacts could occur at random, and, if misinterpreted, these false genetic alterations could artificially enhance the frequency of plasma DNA alterations. This may have been suspected in previously published series, but it has never been discussed before. Microsatellite analysis on plasma DNA is difficult to interpret and can frequently be misleading. Plasma DNA should be analyzed with very sensitive and specific methods such as mutant allele-specific amplification, which excludes artifacts but requires specific optimization that is probably not compatible with routine and clinical use. PMID:10676657

  2. Development of novel DNA markers for genetic analysis of grey hamsters by cross-species amplification of microsatellites.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Zhang, S J; Du, X Y; Xu, Y M; Huo, X Y; Liao, L F; Chen, Z W

    2015-01-01

    The grey hamster has been used in biomedical research for decades. However, effective molecular methods for evaluating the genetic structure of this species are lacking, which hinders its wider usage. In this study, we employed cross-amplification of microsatellite loci of species within the same genus by polymerase chain reaction. Loci screened included 107 from the Mongolian gerbil (MG) and 60 from the Chinese hamster (CH); of these, 15 polymorphic loci were identified for the grey hamster. Of the 167 loci screened, 95 (56.9%) with clear bands on agarose gel were initially identified. After sequencing, 74 (77.9%) of these matched the criteria for microsatellite characteristics, including 41 from MG and 33 from CH. Lastly, 15 (20.3%) loci with more than two alleles for each locus were identified through capillary electrophoresis scanning. To justify the applicability of the 15 grey hamster loci, genetic indexes of grey hamsters were evaluated using 46 generations of outbred stock, established 20 years ago, from Xinjiang, China. Mean effective allele numbers and expected heterozygosity of stock were as low as, respectively, 1.2 and 0.14; these were 2.8 and 4.0 times inferior, respectively, to wild grey hamsters. This finding suggests that the genetic structure of the stock-bred population is too weak to resist artificial and natural selection, mutation and genetic drifting. In conclusion, we have developed de novo microsatellite markers for genetic analysis of the grey hamster, providing data and methodology for the enrichment of a genetic library for this species. PMID:26600493

  3. Intracommunity relationships, dispersal pattern and paternity success in a wild living community of Bonobos (Pan paniscus) determined from DNA analysis of faecal samples.

    PubMed Central

    Gerloff, U; Hartung, B; Fruth, B; Hohmann, G; Tautz, D

    1999-01-01

    Differences in social relationships among community members are often explained by differences in genetic relationships. The current techniques of DNA analysis allow explicit testing of such a hypothesis. Here, we have analysed the genetic relationships for a community of wild bonobos (Pan paniscus) using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers extracted from faecal samples. Bonobos show an opportunistic and promiscuous mating behaviour, even with mates from outside the community. Nonetheless, we find that most infants were sired by resident males and that two dominant males together attained the highest paternity success. Intriguingly, the latter males are the sons of high-ranking females, suggesting an important influence of mothers on the paternity success of their sons. The molecular data support previous inferences on female dispersal and male philopatry. We find a total of five different mitochondrial haplotypes among 15 adult females, suggesting a frequent migration of females. Moreover, for most adult and subadult males in the group we find a matching mother, while this is not the case for most females, indicating that these leave the community during adolescence. Our study demonstrates that faecal samples can be a useful source for the determination of kinship in a whole community. PMID:10406131

  4. Non-invasive prenatal diagnosis for cystic fibrosis: detection of paternal mutations, exploration of patient preferences and cost analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Melissa; Twiss, Philip; Verhoef, Talitha I; Drury, Suzanne; McKay, Fiona; Mason, Sarah; Jenkins, Lucy; Morris, Stephen; Chitty, Lyn S

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives We aim to develop non-invasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD) for cystic fibrosis (CF) and determine costs and implications for implementation. Methods A next-generation sequencing assay was developed to detect ten common CF mutations for exclusion of the paternal mutation in maternal plasma. Using uptake data from a study exploring views on NIPD for CF, total test-related costs were estimated for the current care pathway and compared with those incorporating NIPD. Results The assay reliably predicted mutation status in all control and maternal plasma samples. Of carrier or affected adults with CF (n?=?142) surveyed, only 43.5% reported willingness to have invasive testing for CF with 94.4% saying they would have NIPD. Using these potential uptake data, the incremental costs of NIPD over invasive testing per 100 pregnancies at risk of CF are £9025 for paternal mutation exclusion, and £26?510 for direct diagnosis. Conclusions We have developed NIPD for risk stratification in around a third of CF families. There are economic implications due to potential increased test demand to inform postnatal management rather than to inform decisions around termination of an affected pregnancy. © 2015 The Authors. Prenatal Diagnosis published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25708280

  5. Simultaneous analysis of hundreds of Y-chromosomal SNPs for high-resolution paternal lineage classification using targeted semiconductor sequencing.

    PubMed

    Ralf, Arwin; van Oven, Mannis; Zhong, Kaiyin; Kayser, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    SNPs from the non-recombining part of the human Y chromosome (Y-SNPs) are informative to classify paternal lineages in forensic, genealogical, anthropological, and evolutionary studies. Although thousands of Y-SNPs were identified thus far, previous Y-SNP multiplex tools target only dozens of markers simultaneously, thereby restricting the provided Y-haplogroup resolution and limiting their applications. Here, we overcome this shortcoming by introducing a high-resolution multiplex tool for parallel genotyping-by-sequencing of 530 Y-SNPs using the Ion Torrent PGM platform, which allows classification of 432 worldwide Y haplogroups. Contrary to previous Y-SNP multiplex tools, our approach covers branches of the entire Y tree, thereby maximizing the paternal lineage classification obtainable. We used a default DNA input amount of 10 ng per reaction but preliminary sensitivity testing revealed positive results from as little as 100 pg input DNA. Furthermore, we demonstrate that sample pooling using barcodes is feasible, allowing increased throughput for lower per-sample costs. In addition to the wetlab protocol, we provide a software tool for automated data quality control and haplogroup classification. The unique combination of ultra-high marker density and high sensitivity achievable from low amounts of potentially degraded DNA makes this new multiplex tool suitable for a wide range of Y-chromosome applications. PMID:25338970

  6. A new source of polymorphic DNA markers for sperm typing: Analysis of microsatellite repeats in single cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hubert, R.; Schmitt, K.; Zhang, L.; Arnheim, N. ); Weber, J.L. )

    1992-11-01

    The authors show that dinucleotide and tetranucleotide repeat polymorphisms can be analyzed in single cells without using radioactivity or denaturing gels. This provides a new source of DNA polymorphisms for genetic mapping by sperm typing. The recombination fraction between two CA repeat polymorphisms was determined after whole genome amplification of single sperm, followed by typing of two different aliquots, one aliquot for each polymorphic locus. Single-cell analysis of microsatellites may also be valuable both for preimplantation genetic disease diagnosis based on single-blastomere or polar-body analysis and for the typing of forensic or ancient DNA samples containing very small amounts of nucleic acid. 26 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. ANALYSIS OF GENETIC DIVERSITY AND POPULATION STRUCTURE WITHIN FLORIDA COCONUT (COCOS NUCIFERA L.) GERMPLASM USING MICROSATELLITE DNA, WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON THE FIJI DWARF CULTIVAR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using fifteen simple sequence repeat (SSR) microsatellite DNA loci, we analyzed genetic variation within Cocos nucifera germplasm collections at two locations in south Florida, representing eight cultivars. The loci were also used in a parentage analysis of progeny of the 'Fiji Dwarf' variety at bo...

  8. Genetic structure of Mesoamerican populations of Big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) inferred from microsatellite analysis.

    PubMed

    Novick, Rachel Roth; Dick, Christopher W; Lemes, Maristerra R; Navarro, Carlos; Caccone, Adalgisa; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2003-11-01

    While microsatellites have been used to examine genetic structure in local populations of Neotropical trees, genetic studies based on such high-resolution markers have not been carried out for Mesoamerica as a whole. Here we assess the genetic structure of the Mesoamerican mahogany Swietenia macrophylla King (big-leaf mahogany), a Neotropical tree species recently listed as endangered in CITES which is commercially extinct through much of its native range. We used seven variable microsatellite loci to assess genetic diversity and population structure in eight naturally established mahogany populations from six Mesoamerican countries. Measures of genetic differentiation (FST and RST) indicated significant differences between most populations. Unrooted dendrograms based on genetic distances between populations provide evidence of strong phylogeographic structure in Mesoamerican mahogany. The two populations on the Pacific coasts of Costa Rica and Panama were genetically distant from all the others, and from one another. The remaining populations formed two clusters, one comprised of the northern populations of Mexico, Belize and Guatemala and the other containing the southern Atlantic populations of Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Significant correlation was found between geographical distance and all pairwise measures of genetic divergence, suggesting the importance of regional biogeography and isolation by distance in Mesoamerican mahogany. The results of this study demonstrate greater phylogeographic structure than has been found across Amazon basin S. macrophylla. Our findings suggest a relatively complex Mesoamerican biogeographic history and lead to the prediction that other Central American trees will show similar patterns of regional differentiation. PMID:14629370

  9. Population genetic structure of Myzus persicae nicotianae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in China by microsatellite analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, C; Yang, X M; Tang, S H; Xu, P J; Bian, W J; Wang, X F; Wang, X W; Ren, G W

    2015-01-01

    The tobacco aphid, Myzus persicae nicotianae (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is an important agricultural pest that feeds on host plants and transmits plant viruses in China. To effectively control this pest, we investigated the genetic variation and genetic structure of 54 populations of tobacco aphids collected in China, using five microsatellite loci. An average of 7 alleles with effective number ranging from 1.5 to 6.6 was detected using these five loci, and the average polymorphic information content (PIC) was 0.652, suggesting that the five selected microsatellite loci were polymorphic and suitable for the study of population genetics. The expected heterozygosities in the populations studied ranged from 0.128 and 0.653, with an average value of 0.464. However, the observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.250 and 0.942 (average = 0.735), revealing a high genetic variability and heterozygosity excess in the Chinese tobacco aphid populations. The global fixation index (FST) and mean gene flow (Nm) were 0.34 (P < 0.0001) and 0.50, respectively, suggesting the high genetic differentiation among Chinese populations. The 54 populations of tobacco aphids were classified into two groups. The populations did not cluster geographically, as populations from the same provinces were usually present in different clusters. This was also confirmed by the Mantel test, which showed no significant correlation between the genetic distance and geographical distance or altitude. Long distance migration might be responsible for the lack of distance-related isolation. PMID:26681063

  10. Development and characterization of novel microsatellite loci for Lusitanian toadfish, Halobatrachus didactylus.

    PubMed

    Sousa-Santos, Carla; Fonseca, Paulo J; Amorim, Maria Clara P

    2015-01-01

    The Lusitanian toadfish Halobatrachus didactylus is an eastern Atlantic polygynous species showing male paternal care. In this paper we describe 5 novel microsatellite loci obtained by 454 GS-FLX Titanium pyrosequencing of a microsatellite-enriched library. The number of alleles per polymorphic locus varied between 2 and 4, and the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.082 to 0.600. No significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was found and there was no evidence for linkage disequilibrium. These markers will be of great value for paternity studies and population genetics of this species. PMID:25653909

  11. Development and characterization of novel microsatellite loci for Lusitanian toadfish, Halobatrachus didactylus

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Paulo J.; Amorim, Maria Clara P.

    2015-01-01

    The Lusitanian toadfish Halobatrachus didactylus is an eastern Atlantic polygynous species showing male paternal care. In this paper we describe 5 novel microsatellite loci obtained by 454 GS-FLX Titanium pyrosequencing of a microsatellite-enriched library. The number of alleles per polymorphic locus varied between 2 and 4, and the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.082 to 0.600. No significant deviation from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium was found and there was no evidence for linkage disequilibrium. These markers will be of great value for paternity studies and population genetics of this species. PMID:25653909

  12. A comparative analysis of distribution and conservation of microsatellites in the transcripts of sequenced Fusarium species and development of genic-SSR markers for polymorphism analysis.

    PubMed

    Mahfooz, Sahil; Srivastava, Arpita; Srivastava, Alok K; Arora, Dilip K

    2015-09-01

    We used an in silico approach to survey and compare microsatellites in transcript sequences of four sequenced members of genus Fusarium. G + C content of transcripts was found to be positively correlated with the frequency of SSRs. Our analysis revealed that, in all the four transcript sequences studied, the occurrence, relative abundance and density of microsatellites varied and was not influenced by transcript sizes. No correlation between relative abundance and transcript sizes was observed. The relative abundance and density of microsatellites were highest in the transcripts of Fusarium solani when compared with F. graminearum, F. verticillioides and F. oxysporum. The maximum frequency of SSRs among all four sequence sets was of trinucleotide repeats (67.8%), whereas the dinucleotide repeat represents <1%. Among all classes of repeats, 36.5% motifs were found conserved within Fusarium species. In order to study polymorphism within Fusarium isolates, 11 polymorphic genic-SSR markers were developed. Of the 11 markers, 5 were from F. oxysporum and remaining 6 belongs to F. solani. SSR markers from F. oxysporum were found to be more polymorphic (38%) as compared to F. solani (26%). Eleven polymorphic markers obtained in this study clearly demonstrate the utility of newly developed SSR markers in establishing genetic relationships among different isolates of Fusarium. PMID:26269381

  13. Microsatellites in the HLA region: 1999 update.

    PubMed

    Foissac, A; Salhi, M; Cambon-Thomsen, A

    2000-06-01

    In this third update of a series of reviews on microsatellites in the HLA region or close to it we report 155 microsatellites, corresponding to 51 newly described markers, in addition to the 103 reported in the 1997 and 1998 reviews. This work is based both on a literature review and on data publicly available in molecular databases on the internet (http://www.gdb.org; http://bioinfo.weizmann.ac.il/cards/; http://cedar.genetics.soton.ac.uk/) up to September 1999. Thanks to numerous studies involving major histocompatibility complex (MHC) microsatellites, documentation on HLA region is proposed, including information on microsatellites described through MHC sequence projects and presenting documented location, polymorphism and amplification condition, together with additional information on previously described microsatellites when available and information on data in the literature regarding gametic associations between HLA region loci and alleles and microsatellite alleles. As basic information are presented various documents: i) a table showing the following characteristics of the 155 microsatellites: name, localisation, polymorphism, primer sequences, reference; ii) an integrated map of some HLA region genes and the 155 microsatellites considered; and iii) a summary table on HLA and microsatellites association patterns. In addition, an overview on HLA microsatellite analysis application is presented, with a special focus on disease genetics studies in the form of recent references where the use of microsatellites of the HLA region was a key tool. This review aims at providing the human immunogenetics community with a tool for helping optimal choice of microsatellites to be used in various studies. PMID:10902606

  14. An analysis of consanguinity and social structure within the UK Asian population using microsatellite data.

    PubMed

    Overall, A D J; Ahmad, M; Thomas, M G; Nichols, R A

    2003-11-01

    We analysed microsatellite genotypes sampled from the Pakistani and Indian communities in Nottingham, UK, to investigate the genetic consequences of substructuring mediated by traditional marriage customs. The application of a recently developed likelihood approach identified significant levels of population substructure within the Pakistani community as a whole, as well as within the finer divisions of castes and biradheri. In addition, high levels of cryptic or unacknowledged consanguinity were detected within subgroups of this community, including biradheri. The Indian sample showed no significant evidence of either substructure or consanguinity. We demonstrate that estimates of disease gene frequencies can be inaccurate unless they are made jointly with estimates of population substructure and consanguinity ((theta congruent to FST) and C). The magnitude of these estimates also highlights the importance of accounting for the finer scale of social structuring when making decisions regarding the risk of recessive disorders in offspring. PMID:14641240

  15. Microsatellite analysis of genetic diversity in wild and farmed Emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae).

    PubMed

    Hammond, E L; Lymbery, A J; Martin, G B; Groth, D; Wetherall, J D

    2002-01-01

    The emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) occupies most regions of the Australian continent and in recent times has been farmed for meat, oil, and leather. Very little is known about the genetic structure of natural or farmed populations of these birds. We report a preliminary study of genetic variation in emus undertaken by typing birds from five farms and two natural populations at five polymorphic microsatellite loci. Genetic diversity was high for all populations and there was little evidence of inbreeding, with most populations conforming to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for most loci. Significant heterozygote deficiencies at one locus in a number of populations were detected and may indicate the presence of null alleles. Comparisons of allele frequencies showed little evidence of genetic differentiation either among farmed populations or between farmed and natural populations. PMID:12547928

  16. Are clownfish groups composed of close relatives? An analysis of microsatellite DNA variation in Amphiprion percula.

    PubMed

    Buston, Peter M; Bogdanowicz, Steven M; Wong, Alex; Harrison, Richard G

    2007-09-01

    A central question of evolutionary ecology is: why do animals live in groups? Answering this question requires that the costs and benefits of group living are measured from the perspective of each individual in the group. This, in turn, requires that the group's genetic structure is elucidated, because genetic relatedness can modulate the individuals' costs and benefits. The clown anemonefish, Amphiprion percula, lives in groups composed of a breeding pair and zero to four nonbreeders. Both breeders and nonbreeders stand to gain by associating with relatives: breeders might prefer to tolerate nonbreeders that are relatives because there is little chance that relatives will survive to breed elsewhere; nonbreeders might prefer to associate with breeders that are relatives because of the potential to accrue indirect genetic benefits by enhancing anemone and, consequently, breeder fitness. Given the potential benefits of associating with relatives, we use microsatellite loci to investigate whether or not individuals within groups of A. percula are related. We develop seven polymorphic microsatellite loci, with a number of alleles (range 2-24) and an observed level of heterozygosity (mean = 0.5936) sufficient to assess fine-scale genetic structure. The mean coefficient of relatedness among group members is 0.00 +/- 0.10 (n = 9 groups), and there are no surprising patterns in the distribution of pairwise relatedness. We conclude that A. percula live in groups of unrelated individuals. This study lays the foundation for further investigations of behavioural, population and community ecology of anemonefishes which are emerging as model systems for evolutionary ecology in the marine environment. PMID:17845439

  17. Paternal age bioethics.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kevin R

    2015-09-01

    Modern genetic sequencing studies have confirmed that the sperm of older men contain a greater number of de novo germline mutations than the sperm of younger men. Although most of these mutations are neutral or of minimal phenotypic impact, a minority of them present a risk to the health of future children. If demographic trends towards later fatherhood continue, this will likely lead to a more children suffering from genetic disorders. A trend of later fatherhood will accelerate the accumulation of paternal-origin de novo mutations in the gene pool, gradually reducing human fitness in the long term. These risks suggest that paternal age is of ethical importance. Children affected by de novo mutations arising from delayed fatherhood can be said to be harmed, in the sense of 'impersonal' harm or 'non-comparative' harm. Various strategies are open at societal and individual levels towards reducing deleterious paternal age effects. Options include health education to promote earlier fatherhood, incentives for young sperm donors and state-supported universal sperm banking. The latter approach would likely be of the greatest benefit and could in principle be implemented immediately. More futuristically, human germline genetic modification offers the potential to repair heritable mutational damage. PMID:26037282

  18. Global population genetic structure and male-mediated gene flow in the green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas): analysis of microsatellite loci.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Mark A; Schwartz, Tonia S; Karl, Stephen A

    2004-01-01

    We assessed the degree of population subdivision among global populations of green sea turtles, Chelonia mydas, using four microsatellite loci. Previously, a single-copy nuclear DNA study indicated significant male-mediated gene flow among populations alternately fixed for different mitochondrial DNA haplotypes and that genetic divergence between populations in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans was more common than subdivisions among populations within ocean basins. Even so, overall levels of variation at single-copy loci were low and inferences were limited. Here, the markedly more variable microsatellite loci confirm the presence of male-mediated gene flow among populations within ocean basins. This analysis generally confirms the genetic divergence between the Atlantic and Pacific. As with the previous study, phylogenetic analyses of genetic distances based on the microsatellite loci indicate a close genetic relationship among eastern Atlantic and Indian Ocean populations. Unlike the single-copy study, however, the results here cannot be attributed to an artifact of general low variability and likely represent recent or ongoing migration between ocean basins. Sequence analyses of regions flanking the microsatellite repeat reveal considerable amounts of cryptic variation and homoplasy and significantly aid in our understanding of population connectivity. Assessment of the allele frequency distributions indicates that at least some of the loci may not be evolving by the stepwise mutation model. PMID:15126404

  19. Validation of microsatellite multiplexes for parentage analysis and species discrimination in two hybridizing species of coral reef fish (Plectropomus spp., Serranidae).

    PubMed

    Harrison, Hugo B; Feldheim, Kevin A; Jones, Geoffrey P; Ma, Kayan; Mansour, Hicham; Perumal, Sadhasivam; Williamson, David H; Berumen, Michael L

    2014-06-01

    Microsatellites are often considered ideal markers to investigate ecological processes in animal populations. They are regularly used as genetic barcodes to identify species, individuals, and infer familial relationships. However, such applications are highly sensitive the number and diversity of microsatellite markers, which are also prone to error. Here, we propose a novel framework to assess the suitability of microsatellite datasets for parentage analysis and species discrimination in two closely related species of coral reef fish, Plectropomus leopardus and P. maculatus (Serranidae). Coral trout are important fisheries species throughout the Indo-Pacific region and have been shown to hybridize in parts of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. We first describe the development of 25 microsatellite loci and their integration to three multiplex PCRs that co-amplify in both species. Using simulations, we demonstrate that the complete suite of markers provides appropriate power to discriminate between species, detect hybrid individuals, and resolve parent-offspring relationships in natural populations, with over 99.6% accuracy in parent-offspring assignments. The markers were also tested on seven additional species within the Plectropomus genus with polymorphism in 28-96% of loci. The multiplex PCRs developed here provide a reliable and cost-effective strategy to investigate evolutionary and ecological dynamics and will be broadly applicable in studies of wild populations and aquaculture brood stocks for these closely related fish species. PMID:25360247

  20. Development of a multiplex PCR assay for fine-scale population genetic analysis of the Komodo monitor Varanus komodoensis based on 18 polymorphic microsatellite loci.

    PubMed

    Ciofi, Claudio; Tzika, Athanasia C; Natali, Chiara; Watts, Phillip C; Sulandari, Sri; Zein, Moch S A; Milinkovitch, Michel C

    2011-05-01

    Multiplex PCR assays for the coamplification of microsatellite loci allow rapid and cost-effective genetic analyses and the production of efficient screening protocols for international breeding programs. We constructed a partial genomic library enriched for di-nucleotide repeats and characterized 14 new microsatellite loci for the Komodo monitor (or Komodo dragon, Varanus komodoensis). Using these novel microsatellites and four previously described loci, we developed multiplex PCR assays that may be loaded on a genetic analyser in three separate panels. We tested the novel set of microsatellites for polymorphism using 69 individuals from three island populations and evaluated the resolving power of the entire panel of 18 loci by conducting (i) a preliminary assignment test to determine population(s) of origin and (ii) a parentage analysis for 43 captive Komodo monitors. This panel of polymorphic loci proved useful for both purposes and thus can be exploited for fine-scale population genetic analyses and as part of international captive breeding programs directed at maintaining genetically viable ex situ populations and reintroductions. PMID:21481213

  1. SUGAR BEET MICROSATELLITES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microsatellite have become important molecular markers for studying the genetic diversity of many eukaryotic organisms. Currently, there are few publically available microsatellite markers (four report by Moerchen and coworkers in 1996) from the economically important crop species, Beta vulgaris, L....

  2. Comparative analysis of microsatellites in five different antagonistic Trichoderma species for diversity assessment.

    PubMed

    Rai, Shalini; Kashyap, Prem Lal; Kumar, Sudheer; Srivastava, Alok Kumar; Ramteke, Pramod W

    2016-01-01

    Microsatellites provide an ideal molecular markers system to screen, characterize and evaluate genetic diversity of several fungal species. Currently, there is very limited information on the genetic diversity of antagonistic Trichoderma species as determined using a range of molecular markers. In this study, expressed and whole genome sequences available in public database were used to investigate the occurrence, relative abundance and relative density of SSRs in five different antagonistic Trichoderma species: Trichoderma atroviride, T. harzianum, T. reesei, T. virens and T. asperellum. Fifteen SSRs loci were used to evaluate genetic diversity of twenty isolates of Trichoderma spp. from different geographical regions of India. Results indicated that relative abundance and relative density of SSRs were higher in T. asperellum followed by T. reesei and T. atroviride. Tri-nucleotide repeats (80.2 %) were invariably the most abundant in all species. The abundance and relative density of SSRs were not influenced by the genome sizes and GC content. Out of eighteen primer sets, only 15 primer pairs showed successful amplification in all the test species. A total of 24 alleles were detected and five loci were highly informative with polymorphism information content values greater than 0.40, these markers provide useful information on genetic diversity and population genetic structure, which, in turn, can exploit for establishing conservation strategy for antagonistic Trichoderma isolates. PMID:26712623

  3. Short communication: development and characterization of novel transcriptome-derived microsatellites for genetic analysis of persimmon.

    PubMed

    Luo, C; Zhang, Q L; Luo, Z R

    2014-01-01

    Oriental persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) (2n = 6x = 90) is a major commercial and deciduous fruit tree that is believed to have originated in China. However, rare transcriptomic and genomic information on persimmon is available. Using Roche 454 sequencing technology, the transcriptome from RNA of the flowers of D. kaki was analyzed. A total of 1,250,893 reads were generated and 83,898 unigenes were assembled. A total of 42,711 SSR loci were identified from 23,494 unigenes and 289 polymerase chain reaction primer pairs were designed. Of these 289 primers, 155 (53.6%) showed robust PCR amplification and 98 revealed polymorphism between 15 persimmon genotypes, indicating a polymorphic rate of 63.23% of the productive primers for characterization and genotyping of the genus Diospyros. Transcriptome sequence data generated from next-generation sequencing technology to identify microsatellite loci appears to be rapid and cost-efficient, particularly for species with no genomic sequence information available. PMID:24782136

  4. [Analysis of microsatellite loci from Bactrocera dorsalis based on transcriptome dataset].

    PubMed

    Wei, Dan-Dan; Shi, Jun-Xia; Zhang, Xia-Xuan; Chen, Shi-Chun; Wei, Dong; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2014-06-01

    The transcriptome database of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), was used to identify the functional gene-microsatellite (EST-SSR) markers and to analyze the SSR loci information. In total, 1890 EST-SSR loci were identified, of which, 1296 SSR sequences could be used for primer design. The average distribution frequency of the transcriptomic SSRs was 1/10. 21 kb. However, these distribution frequencies varied considerably among different types of repeat SSRs. The tri-nucleotide repeat SSRs were found to have the highest frequency among the different types of repeat SSRs in the EST-SSR of B. dorsalis. Combining with other literatures, we inferred that the tri-nucleotide repeat SSRs were the most abundant EST-SSR in all of insects. In this study, 42 pairs of EST-SSR primers were designed and 18 pairs produced amplification bands of expected sizes. According to the results of other related literatures, the practices and challenges of strategy for SSR isolation from insect transcriptome databases were discussed, and the problems which should be considered in the screening of insect transcriptomic EST-SSR were put forward. PMID:25223041

  5. Genetic structure and gene flow among Komodo dragon populations inferred by microsatellite loci analysis.

    PubMed

    Ciofi, C; Bruford, M W

    1999-12-01

    A general concern for the conservation of endangered species is the maintenance of genetic variation within populations, particularly when they become isolated and reduced in size. Estimates of gene flow and effective population size are therefore important for any conservation initiative directed to the long-term persistence of a species in its natural habitat. In the present study, 10 microsatellite loci were used to assess the level of genetic variability among populations of the Komodo dragon Varanus komodoensis. Effective population size was calculated and gene flow estimates were compared with palaeogeographic data in order to assess the degree of vulnerability of four island populations. Rinca and Flores, currently separated by an isthmus of about 200 m, retained a high level of genetic diversity and showed a high degree of genetic similarity, with gene flow values close to one migrant per generation. The island of Komodo showed by far the highest levels of genetic divergence, and its allelic distinctiveness was considered of great importance in the maintenance of genetic variability within the species. A lack of distinct alleles and low levels of gene flow and genetic variability were found for the small population of Gili Motang island, which was identified as vulnerable to stochastic threats. Our results are potentially important for both the short- and long-term management of the Komodo dragon, and are critical in view of future re-introduction or augmentation in areas where the species is now extinct or depleted. PMID:10703549

  6. [Molecular analysis of the triticale lines with different Vrn gene systems using microsatellite markers and hybridization in situ].

    PubMed

    Leonova, I N; Dobrovol'skaia, O B; Kminskaia, L N; Adogina, I G; Koren', L V; Khotyleva, L V; Salina, E A

    2005-09-01

    Hexaploid triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack) lines were examined using molecular markers and the hybridization in situ technique. Triticale lines were generated based on wheat varieties differing by the Vrn gene systems and the earing times. Molecular analysis was performed using Xgwm and Xrms microsatellite markers with the known chromosomal localization in the common wheat Triticum aestivum, and rye Secale cereale genomes. Comparative molecular analysis of triticale lines and their parental forms showed that all lines contained A and B genomes of common wheat and also rye homeologous chromosomes. In the three lines the presence of D genome markers, mapped to the chromosomes 2D and 7D, was demonstrated. This was probably the consequence of the translocations of homeologous chromosomes from wheat genomes, which took part during the process of triticale formation. The data obtained by use of genomic in situ hybridization supported the data of molecular genetic analysis. In none of the lines wheat--rye translocations or recombinations were observed. These findings suggest that the change of the period between the seedling appearance and earing time in triticale lines compared to the initial wheat lines, resulted from the inhibitory effect of rye genome on wheat vernalization genes. PMID:16240635

  7. Haplotype analysis of DNA microsatellites tightly linked to the locus of Usher syndrome type I on chromosome 11q

    SciTech Connect

    Korostishevsky, M.; Kalinsky, H.; Seroussi, E.

    1994-09-01

    Usher syndrome type I (USHI), an autosomal recessive disorder associated with congenital sensorineural deafness and progressive visual loss, is closely linked to the D11S533 locus. The availability of 7 other polymorphic markers within few centimorgans spanning the disease locus allowed us to identify a unique and single haplotype among all carriers of USHI gene in the Samaritan kindred. Occurrence of recombination in this small chromosomal interval is rare, hindering the detection of the mitotic recombination events needed for analysis by traditional linkage methods. Attempts to order the eight loci by linkage disequilibrium models proved to be problematic. However, our haplotype analysis implied that recombinations which had arisen in past generations may be utilized in fine mapping of the USHI gene and in resolving the conflicting linkage maps previously obtained for this region. We have developed a simple algorithm for predicting the order of the microsatellites on the basis of haplotype resemblance. The following chromosomal map in which the USHI gene is closest to D11S533 (location score of 31.0 by multipoint analysis) is suggested: D11S916, GARP, D11S527, D11S533, OMP, D11S906, D11S911, D11S937. Physical mapping efforts are currently directed to verify and to detail the map of this chromosomal region.

  8. Sad dads: paternal postpartum depression.

    PubMed

    Kim, Pilyoung; Swain, James E

    2007-02-01

    The postpartum period is associated with many adjustments to fathers that pose risks for depression. Estimates of the prevalence of paternal postpartum depression (PPD) in the first two months postpartum vary in the postpartum period from 4 to 25 percent. Paternal PPD has high comorbidity with maternal PPD and might also be associated with other postpartum psychiatric disorders. Studies so far have only used diagnostic criteria for maternal PPD to investigate paternal PPD, so there is an urgent need to study the validity of these scales for men and develop accurate diagnostic tools for paternal PPD. Paternal PPD has negative impacts on family, including increasing emotional and behavioral problems among their children (either directly or through the mother) and increasing conflicts in the marital relationship. Changes in hormones, including testosterone, estrogen, cortisol, vasopressin, and prolactin, during the postpartum period in fathers may be biological risk factors in paternal PPD. Fathers who have ecological risk factors, such as excessive stress from becoming a parent, lack of social supports for parenting, and feeling excluded from mother-infant bonding, may be more likely to develop paternal PPD. Support from their partner, educational programs, policy for paid paternal leave, as well as consideration of psychiatric care may help fathers cope with stressful experiences during the postpartum period. PMID:20805898

  9. Genetic relatedness of polygyne queens in the red imported fire ant Solenopsis invicta determined by microsatellite analysis 

    E-print Network

    Lu, Lanying

    1998-01-01

    Genetic relatedness is thought to be an important graphics. factor in the development of socialite. Microsatellite markers are ideal to estimate relatedness in social insects due to their highly polymorphism. In this study, we developed five...

  10. Microsatellite Marker Analysis Reveals the Complex Phylogeographic History of Rhododendron ferrugineum (Ericaceae) in the Pyrenees

    PubMed Central

    Charrier, Olivia; Dupont, Pierre; Pornon, André; Escaravage, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Genetic variation within plant species is determined by a number of factors such as reproductive mode, breeding system, life history traits and climatic events. In alpine regions, plants experience heterogenic abiotic conditions that influence the population's genetic structure. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic structure and phylogeographic history of the subalpine shrub Rhododendron ferrugineum across the Pyrenees and the links between the populations in the Pyrenees, the Alps and Jura Mountains. We used 27 microsatellite markers to genotype 645 samples from 29 Pyrenean populations, three from the Alps and one from the Jura Mountains. These data were used to estimate population genetics statistics such as allelic richness, observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity, fixation index, inbreeding coefficient and number of migrants. Genetic diversity was found to be higher in the Alps than in the Pyrenees suggesting colonization waves from the Alps to the Pyrenees. Two separate genetic lineages were found in both the Alps and Pyrenees, with a substructure of five genetic clusters in the Pyrenees where a loss of genetic diversity was noted. The strong differentiation among clusters is maintained by low gene flow across populations. Moreover, some populations showed higher genetic diversity than others and presented rare alleles that may indicate the presence of alpine refugia. Two lineages of R. ferrugineum have colonized the Pyrenees from the Alps. Then, during glaciation events R. ferrugineum survived in the Pyrenees in different refugia such as lowland refugia at the eastern part of the chain and nunataks at high elevations leading to a clustered genetic pattern. PMID:24667824

  11. Higher levels of multiple paternities increase seedling survival in the long-lived tree Eucalyptus gracilis.

    PubMed

    Breed, Martin F; Christmas, Matthew J; Lowe, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Studying associations between mating system parameters and fitness in natural populations of trees advances our understanding of how local environments affect seed quality, and thereby helps to predict when inbreeding or multiple paternities should impact on fitness. Indeed, for species that demonstrate inbreeding avoidance, multiple paternities (i.e. the number of male parents per half-sib family) should still vary and regulate fitness more than inbreeding--named here as the 'constrained inbreeding hypothesis'. We test this hypothesis in Eucalyptus gracilis, a predominantly insect-pollinated tree. Fifty-eight open-pollinated progeny arrays were collected from trees in three populations. Progeny were planted in a reciprocal transplant trial. Fitness was measured by family establishment rates. We genotyped all trees and their progeny at eight microsatellite loci. Planting site had a strong effect on fitness, but seed provenance and seed provenance × planting site did not. Populations had comparable mating system parameters and were generally outcrossed, experienced low biparental inbreeding and high levels of multiple paternity. As predicted, seed families that had more multiple paternities also had higher fitness, and no fitness-inbreeding correlations were detected. Demonstrating that fitness was most affected by multiple paternities rather than inbreeding, we provide evidence supporting the constrained inbreeding hypothesis; i.e. that multiple paternity may impact on fitness over and above that of inbreeding, particularly for preferentially outcrossing trees at life stages beyond seed development. PMID:24587373

  12. Mitogenomic analysis of a 50-generation chicken pedigree reveals a rapid rate of mitochondrial evolution and evidence for paternal mtDNA inheritance.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Michelle; Ho, Simon Y W; Molak, Martyna; Barnett, Ross; Carlborg, Örjan; Dorshorst, Ben; Honaker, Christa; Besnier, Francois; Wahlberg, Per; Dobney, Keith; Siegel, Paul; Andersson, Leif; Larson, Greger

    2015-10-01

    Mitochondrial genomes represent a valuable source of data for evolutionary research, but studies of their short-term evolution have typically been limited to invertebrates, humans and laboratory organisms. Here we present a detailed study of 12 mitochondrial genomes that span a total of 385 transmissions in a well-documented 50-generation pedigree in which two lineages of chickens were selected for low and high juvenile body weight. These data allowed us to test the hypothesis of time-dependent evolutionary rates and the assumption of strict maternal mitochondrial transmission, and to investigate the role of mitochondrial mutations in determining phenotype. The identification of a non-synonymous mutation in ND4L and a synonymous mutation in CYTB, both novel mutations in Gallus, allowed us to estimate a molecular rate of 3.13 × 10(-7) mutations/site/year (95% confidence interval 3.75 × 10(-8)-1.12 × 10(-6)). This is substantially higher than avian rate estimates based upon fossil calibrations. Ascertaining which of the two novel mutations was present in an additional 49 individuals also revealed an instance of paternal inheritance of mtDNA. Lastly, an association analysis demonstrated that neither of the point mutations was strongly associated with the phenotypic differences between the two selection lines. Together, these observations reveal the highly dynamic nature of mitochondrial evolution over short time periods. PMID:26510672

  13. Mitogenomic analysis of a 50-generation chicken pedigree reveals a rapid rate of mitochondrial evolution and evidence for paternal mtDNA inheritance

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Michelle; Ho, Simon Y. W.; Molak, Martyna; Barnett, Ross; Carlborg, Örjan; Dorshorst, Ben; Honaker, Christa; Besnier, Francois; Wahlberg, Per; Dobney, Keith; Siegel, Paul; Andersson, Leif; Larson, Greger

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial genomes represent a valuable source of data for evolutionary research, but studies of their short-term evolution have typically been limited to invertebrates, humans and laboratory organisms. Here we present a detailed study of 12 mitochondrial genomes that span a total of 385 transmissions in a well-documented 50-generation pedigree in which two lineages of chickens were selected for low and high juvenile body weight. These data allowed us to test the hypothesis of time-dependent evolutionary rates and the assumption of strict maternal mitochondrial transmission, and to investigate the role of mitochondrial mutations in determining phenotype. The identification of a non-synonymous mutation in ND4L and a synonymous mutation in CYTB, both novel mutations in Gallus, allowed us to estimate a molecular rate of 3.13 × 10?7 mutations/site/year (95% confidence interval 3.75 × 10?8–1.12 × 10?6). This is substantially higher than avian rate estimates based upon fossil calibrations. Ascertaining which of the two novel mutations was present in an additional 49 individuals also revealed an instance of paternal inheritance of mtDNA. Lastly, an association analysis demonstrated that neither of the point mutations was strongly associated with the phenotypic differences between the two selection lines. Together, these observations reveal the highly dynamic nature of mitochondrial evolution over short time periods. PMID:26510672

  14. Paternal Uniparental Isodisomy of Chromosome 11p15.5 within the Pancreas Causes Isolated Hyperinsulinemic Hypoglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, S. E.; Kapoor, R. R.; Smith, V. V.; Hussain, K.; Ellard, Sian

    2011-01-01

    Background: Loss of function mutations in the genes encoding the pancreatic ?-cell ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel are identified in approximately 80% of patients with diazoxide unresponsive hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia (HH). For a small number of patients HH can occur as part of a multisystem disease such as Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome (BWS). In approximately 20% of patients, BWS results from chromosome 11 paternal uniparental disomy (UPD), which causes dysregulation of imprinted growth regulation genes at 11p15.5. There is a considerable range in the clinical features and phenotypic severity associated with BWS which is likely to be due to somatic mosaicism. The cause of HH in these patients is not known. Research Design and Methods: We undertook microsatellite analysis of 12 markers spanning chromosome 11p in two patients with severe HH and diffuse disease requiring a pancreatectomy. In both patients mutations in the KATP channel genes had not been identified. Results: We identified segmental paternal UPD in DNA extracted from pancreatic tissue in both patients. UPD was not observed in DNA extracted from the patient’s leukocytes or buccal samples. In both cases the UPD encompassed the differentially methylated region at chromosome 11p15.5. Despite this neither patient had any further features of BWS. Conclusion: Paternal UPD of the chromosome 11p15.5 differentially methylated region limited to the pancreatic tissue may represent a novel cause of isolated diazoxide unresponsive HH. Loss of heterozygosity studies should therefore be considered in all patients with severe HH who have undergone pancreatic surgery when KATP channel mutation(s) have not been identified. PMID:22654821

  15. Advances in understanding paternally transmitted Chromosomal Abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Marchetti, F; Sloter, E; Wyrobek, A J

    2001-03-01

    Multicolor FISH has been adapted for detecting the major types of chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm including aneuploidies for clinically-relevant chromosomes, chromosomal aberrations including breaks and rearrangements, and other numerical abnormalities. The various sperm FISH assays have been used to evaluate healthy men, men of advanced age, and men who have received mutagenic cancer therapy. The mouse has also been used as a model to investigate the mechanism of paternally transmitted genetic damage. Sperm FISH for the mouse has been used to detect chromosomally abnormal mouse sperm, while the PAINT/DAPI analysis of mouse zygotes has been used to evaluate the types of chromosomal defects that can be paternally transmitted to the embryo and their effects on embryonic development.

  16. The impact of paternity leave on fathers' future earnings.

    PubMed

    Rege, Mari; Solli, Ingeborg F

    2013-12-01

    Using Norwegian registry data, we investigate the effect of paternity leave on fathers' long-term earnings. If the paternity leave increased long-term father involvement, then we should expect a reduction in fathers' long-term earnings as they shift time and effort from market to home production. For identification, we use the Norwegian introduction of a paternity-leave quota in 1993, reserving four weeks of the total of 42 weeks of paid parental leave exclusively for the father. The introduction of the paternity-leave quota led to a sharp increase in rates of leave-taking for fathers. We estimate a difference-in-differences model that exploits differences in fathers' exposure to the paternity-leave quota by the child's age and year of observation. Our analysis suggests that four weeks of paternity leave during the child's first year decreases fathers' future earnings, an effect that persists through our last point of observation, when the child is 5 years old. A battery of robustness tests supports our results. PMID:24135861

  17. Development of Genomic Microsatellite Markers in Carthamus tinctorius L. (Safflower) Using Next Generation Sequencing and Assessment of Their Cross-Species Transferability and Utility for Diversity Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Variath, Murali Tottekkad; Joshi, Gopal; Bali, Sapinder; Agarwal, Manu; Kumar, Amar; Jagannath, Arun; Goel, Shailendra

    2015-01-01

    Background Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.), an Asteraceae member, yields high quality edible oil rich in unsaturated fatty acids and is resilient to dry conditions. The crop holds tremendous potential for improvement through concerted molecular breeding programs due to the availability of significant genetic and phenotypic diversity. Genomic resources that could facilitate such breeding programs remain largely underdeveloped in the crop. The present study was initiated to develop a large set of novel microsatellite markers for safflower using next generation sequencing. Principal Findings Low throughput genome sequencing of safflower was performed using Illumina paired end technology providing ~3.5X coverage of the genome. Analysis of sequencing data allowed identification of 23,067 regions harboring perfect microsatellite loci. The safflower genome was found to be rich in dinucleotide repeats followed by tri-, tetra-, penta- and hexa-nucleotides. Primer pairs were designed for 5,716 novel microsatellite sequences with repeat length ? 20 bases and optimal flanking regions. A subset of 325 microsatellite loci was tested for amplification, of which 294 loci produced robust amplification. The validated primers were used for assessment of 23 safflower accessions belonging to diverse agro-climatic zones of the world leading to identification of 93 polymorphic primers (31.6%). The numbers of observed alleles at each locus ranged from two to four and mean polymorphism information content was found to be 0.3075. The polymorphic primers were tested for cross-species transferability on nine wild relatives of cultivated safflower. All primers except one showed amplification in at least two wild species while 25 primers amplified across all the nine species. The UPGMA dendrogram clustered C. tinctorius accessions and wild species separately into two major groups. The proposed progenitor species of safflower, C. oxyacantha and C. palaestinus were genetically closer to cultivated safflower and formed a distinct cluster. The cluster analysis also distinguished diploid and tetraploid wild species of safflower. Conclusion Next generation sequencing of safflower genome generated a large set of microsatellite markers. The novel markers developed in this study will add to the existing repertoire of markers and can be used for diversity analysis, synteny studies, construction of linkage maps and marker-assisted selection. PMID:26287743

  18. Children's Delinquency After Paternal Incarceration 

    E-print Network

    Mathis, Carlton William

    2013-07-12

    This dissertation seeks to build on the growing research literature concerning the intergenerational consequences of paternal imprisonment for their children. The existing literature has explored the cumulative process of disadvantage that can...

  19. Microsatellite markers from the 'South American fruit fly' Anastrepha fraterculus: a valuable tool for population genetic analysis and SIT applications

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Anastrepha fraterculus Wiedemann is a horticultural pest which causes significant economic losses in the fruit-producing areas of the American continent and limits the access of products to international markets. The use of environmentally friendly control strategies against this pest is constrained due to the limited knowledge of its population structure. Results We developed microsatellite markers for A. fraterculus from four genomic libraries, which were enriched in CA, CAA, GA and CAT microsatellite motifs. Fifty microsatellite regions were evaluated and 14 loci were selected for population genetics studies. Genotypes of 122 individuals sampled from four A. fraterculus populations were analyzed. The level of polymorphism ranged from three to 13 alleles per locus and the mean expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.60 to 0.64. Comparison between allelic and genotypic frequencies showed significant differences among all pairs of populations. Conclusions This novel set of microsatellite markers provides valuable information for the description of genetic variability and population structure of wild populations and laboratory strains of A. fraterculus. This information will be used to identify and characterize candidate strains suitable to implement effective pest control strategies and might represent a first step towards having a more comprehensive knowledge about the genetics of this pest. PMID:25471285

  20. Microsatellite DNA Analysis Revealed a Drastic Genetic Change of Plasmodium vivax Population in the Republic of Korea During 2002 and 2003

    PubMed Central

    Iwagami, Moritoshi; Hwang, Seung-Young; Kim, So-Hee; Park, So-Jung; Lee, Ga-Young; Matsumoto-Takahashi, Emilie Louise Akiko; Kho, Weon-Gyu; Kano, Shigeyuki

    2013-01-01

    Background Vivax malaria was successfully eliminated in the Republic of Korea (South Korea) in the late 1970s, but it was found to have re-emerged from 1993. In order to control malaria and evaluate the effectiveness of malaria controls, it is important to develop a spatiotemporal understanding of the genetic structure of the parasite population. Here, we estimated the population structure and temporal dynamics of the transmission of Plasmodium vivax in South Korea by analyzing microsatellite DNA markers of the parasite. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed 14 microsatellite DNA loci of the P. vivax genome from 163 South Korean isolates collected from 1994 to 2008. Allelic data were used to analyze linkage disequilibrium (LD), genetic differentiation and population structure, in order to make a detailed estimate of temporal change in the parasite population. The LD analysis showed a gradual decrease in LD levels, while the levels of genetic differentiation between successive years and analysis of the population structure based on the Bayesian approach suggested that a drastic genetic change occurred in the South Korean population during 2002 and 2003. Conclusions/Significance Although relapse and asymptomatic parasite carriage might influence the population structure to some extent, our results suggested the continual introduction of P. vivax into South Korea through other parasite population sources. One possible source, particularly during 2002 and 2003, is North Korea. Molecular epidemiology using microsatellite DNA of the P. vivax population is effective for assessing the population structure and temporal dynamics of parasite transmission; information that can assist in the elimination of vivax malaria in endemic areas. PMID:24205429

  1. Detection of Sequence Polymorphism in Rubus Occidentalis L. Monomorphic Microsatellite Markers by High Resolution Melting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microsatellite, or simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, are valuable as co-dominant genetic markers with a variety of applications such as DNA fingerprinting, linkage mapping, and population structure analysis. Development of microsatellite primers through the identification of appropriate repeate...

  2. Genome-Wide Analysis of Microsatellite Markers Based on Sequenced Database in Chinese Spring Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Zhaohui; Ren, Yongkang; Li, Yali; Zhang, Dayong; Dong, Yanhui; Zhao, Xinghua

    2015-01-01

    Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are distributed across both prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes and have been widely used for genetic studies and molecular marker-assisted breeding in crops. Though an ordered draft sequence of hexaploid bread wheat have been announced, the researches about systemic analysis of SSRs for wheat still have not been reported so far. In the present study, we identified 364,347 SSRs from among 10,603,760 sequences of the Chinese spring wheat (CSW) genome, which were present at a density of 36.68 SSR/Mb. In total, we detected 488 types of motifs ranging from di- to hexanucleotides, among which dinucleotide repeats dominated, accounting for approximately 42.52% of the genome. The density of tri- to hexanucleotide repeats was 24.97%, 4.62%, 3.25% and 24.65%, respectively. AG/CT, AAG/CTT, AGAT/ATCT, AAAAG/CTTTT and AAAATT/AATTTT were the most frequent repeats among di- to hexanucleotide repeats. Among the 21 chromosomes of CSW, the density of repeats was highest on chromosome 2D and lowest on chromosome 3A. The proportions of di-, tri-, tetra-, penta- and hexanucleotide repeats on each chromosome, and even on the whole genome, were almost identical. In addition, 295,267 SSR markers were successfully developed from the 21 chromosomes of CSW, which cover the entire genome at a density of 29.73 per Mb. All of the SSR markers were validated by reverse electronic-Polymerase Chain Reaction (re-PCR); 70,564 (23.9%) were found to be monomorphic and 224,703 (76.1%) were found to be polymorphic. A total of 45 monomorphic markers were selected randomly for validation purposes; 24 (53.3%) amplified one locus, 8 (17.8%) amplified multiple identical loci, and 13 (28.9%) did not amplify any fragments from the genomic DNA of CSW. Then a dendrogram was generated based on the 24 monomorphic SSR markers among 20 wheat cultivars and three species of its diploid ancestors showing that monomorphic SSR markers represented a promising source to increase the number of genetic markers available for the wheat genome. The results of this study will be useful for investigating the genetic diversity and evolution among wheat and related species. At the same time, the results will facilitate comparative genomic studies and marker-assisted breeding (MAS) in plants. PMID:26536014

  3. Increasing paternal responsibility.

    PubMed

    Cutright, P

    1985-01-01

    Increasing numbers of fathers of children born out of wedlock are not contributing to these children's economic support. In 1981, a tiny minority (14%) of the 1.7 million never-married mothers living with a child with an absent father had a child-support award, and of these, just 112,000 actually received some payment in 1981. The high rates of noncompliance, and the low level of legal efforts to enforce child support, are the result of attempts to collect payments through inefficient traditional methods, not the inability of fathers to pay, a Wisconsin study has shown. A basic problem with collecting child support under the present system is that it relies on fathers to control their expenditures and voluntarily to send the payment on a weekly, biweekly or monthly basis, year after year. As a Wisconsin study shows, full compliance with court-ordered payments dropped from 38% in the 1st year to below 20% by the 5th year among 163 ex-husbands tracked. A proposal by researchers at the University of Wisconsin's Institute for Research on Poverty calls for an "absent-parent tax." The Wisconsin Plan, as it is known, is simply a withholding tax based on the father's gross income and the number of his absent children. If his income falls below a certain level, payments will stop automatically, but will resume if and when it rises above the cutoff point. The Wisconsin plan removes all judicial discretion and lawyer's skill as factors in child-support awards, thus eliminating erratic awards. It also insures that support payments will be maintained during periods of conflict between the father and mother. However, before the Wisconsin Plan can effectively protect children both out of wedlock, a feature needs to be added that will establish paternity at birth. Imposing a real child-support obligation on fathers of children born outside of marriage will introduce a potentially powerful economic incentive for responsible male reproductive and parental behavior. PMID:3842810

  4. Can paternal leakage maintain sexually antagonistic polymorphism in the cytoplasm?

    PubMed Central

    Kuijper, B; Lane, N; Pomiankowski, A

    2015-01-01

    A growing number of studies in multicellular organisms highlight low or moderate frequencies of paternal transmission of cytoplasmic organelles, including both mitochondria and chloroplasts. It is well established that strict maternal inheritance is selectively blind to cytoplasmic elements that are deleterious to males – ’mother's curse’. But it is not known how sensitive this conclusion is to slight levels of paternal cytoplasmic leakage. We assess the scope for polymorphism when individuals bear multiple cytoplasmic alleles in the presence of paternal leakage, bottlenecks and recurrent mutation. When fitness interactions among cytoplasmic elements within an individual are additive, we find that sexually antagonistic polymorphism is restricted to cases of strong selection on males. However, when fitness interactions among cytoplasmic elements are nonlinear, much more extensive polymorphism can be supported in the cytoplasm. In particular, mitochondrial mutants that have strong beneficial fitness effects in males and weak deleterious fitness effects in females when rare (i.e. ’reverse dominance’) are strongly favoured under paternal leakage. We discuss how such epistasis could arise through preferential segregation of mitochondria in sex-specific somatic tissues. Our analysis shows how paternal leakage can dampen the evolution of deleterious male effects associated with predominant maternal inheritance of cytoplasm, potentially explaining why ’mother's curse’ is less pervasive than predicted by earlier work. PMID:25653025

  5. Can paternal leakage maintain sexually antagonistic polymorphism in the cytoplasm?

    PubMed

    Kuijper, B; Lane, N; Pomiankowski, A

    2015-02-01

    A growing number of studies in multicellular organisms highlight low or moderate frequencies of paternal transmission of cytoplasmic organelles, including both mitochondria and chloroplasts. It is well established that strict maternal inheritance is selectively blind to cytoplasmic elements that are deleterious to males - 'mother's curse'. But it is not known how sensitive this conclusion is to slight levels of paternal cytoplasmic leakage. We assess the scope for polymorphism when individuals bear multiple cytoplasmic alleles in the presence of paternal leakage, bottlenecks and recurrent mutation. When fitness interactions among cytoplasmic elements within an individual are additive, we find that sexually antagonistic polymorphism is restricted to cases of strong selection on males. However, when fitness interactions among cytoplasmic elements are nonlinear, much more extensive polymorphism can be supported in the cytoplasm. In particular, mitochondrial mutants that have strong beneficial fitness effects in males and weak deleterious fitness effects in females when rare (i.e. 'reverse dominance') are strongly favoured under paternal leakage. We discuss how such epistasis could arise through preferential segregation of mitochondria in sex-specific somatic tissues. Our analysis shows how paternal leakage can dampen the evolution of deleterious male effects associated with predominant maternal inheritance of cytoplasm, potentially explaining why 'mother's curse' is less pervasive than predicted by earlier work. PMID:25653025

  6. SWANSEA UNIVERSITY PATERNITY/PARTNER

    E-print Network

    Martin, Ralph R.

    to care for a child after birth or adoption. This procedure is designed to ensure that all members for a parental order in the 6 months after the baby's birth. 3. Pay Entitlement If you meet the eligibility period of paternity/partner leave at a time even if more than one baby is born as a result of the same

  7. University of Sussex Paternity Guide

    E-print Network

    Sussex, University of

    a baby (this includes same-sex partners); (ii) who is the biological father of an expected baby; (iii) who is adopting a child with a partner, or whose partner is adopting a child. 1.2 Paternity leave or adopted child and/or to support the mother following birth or following the adoption of a child. 1

  8. Fine-Scale Genetic Structure and Gene Dispersal in Centaurea corymbosa (Asteraceae). II. Correlated Paternity Within and Among Sibships

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Olivier J.; González-Martínez, Santiago C.; Colas, Bruno; Fréville, Hélène; Mignot, Agnès; Olivieri, Isabelle

    2004-01-01

    The fine-scale pattern of correlated paternity was characterized within a population of the narrow-endemic model plant species, Centaurea corymbosa, using microsatellites and natural progeny arrays. We used classical approaches to assess correlated mating within sibships and developed a new method based on pairwise kinship coefficients to assess correlated paternity within and among sibships in a spatio-temporal perspective. We also performed numerical simulations to assess the relative significance of different mechanisms promoting correlated paternity and to compare the statistical properties of different estimators of correlated paternity. Our new approach proved very informative to assess which factors contributed most to correlated paternity and presented good statistical properties. Within progeny arrays, we found that about one-fifth of offspring pairs were full-sibs. This level of correlated mating did not result from correlated pollen dispersal events (i.e., pollen codispersion) but rather from limited mate availability, the latter being due to limited pollen dispersal distances, the heterogeneity of pollen production among plants, phenological heterogeneity and, according to simulations, the self-incompatibility system. We point out the close connection between correlated paternity and the “TwoGener” approach recently developed to infer pollen dispersal and discuss the conditions to be met when applying the latter. PMID:15579710

  9. Fine-scale genetic structure and gene dispersal in Centaurea corymbosa (Asteraceae). II. Correlated paternity within and among sibships.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Olivier J; González-Martínez, Santiago C; Colas, Bruno; Fréville, Hélène; Mignot, Agnès; Olivieri, Isabelle

    2004-11-01

    The fine-scale pattern of correlated paternity was characterized within a population of the narrow-endemic model plant species, Centaurea corymbosa, using microsatellites and natural progeny arrays. We used classical approaches to assess correlated mating within sibships and developed a new method based on pairwise kinship coefficients to assess correlated paternity within and among sibships in a spatio-temporal perspective. We also performed numerical simulations to assess the relative significance of different mechanisms promoting correlated paternity and to compare the statistical properties of different estimators of correlated paternity. Our new approach proved very informative to assess which factors contributed most to correlated paternity and presented good statistical properties. Within progeny arrays, we found that about one-fifth of offspring pairs were full-sibs. This level of correlated mating did not result from correlated pollen dispersal events (i.e., pollen codispersion) but rather from limited mate availability, the latter being due to limited pollen dispersal distances, the heterogeneity of pollen production among plants, phenological heterogeneity and, according to simulations, the self-incompatibility system. We point out the close connection between correlated paternity and the "TwoGener" approach recently developed to infer pollen dispersal and discuss the conditions to be met when applying the latter. PMID:15579710

  10. Analysis of four microsatellite markers on the long arm of chromosome 9 by meiotic recombination in flow-sorted single sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Furlong, R.A.; Goudie, D.R.; Carter, N.P.; Lyall, J.E.W.; Affara, N.A.; Ferguson-Smith, M.A. )

    1993-06-01

    Meiotic recombination in flow-sorted single sperm was used to analyze four highly polymorphic microsatellite markers on the long arm of chromosome 9. The microsatellites comprised three tightly linked markers: 9CMP1 (D9S109), 9CMP2 (D9S127), and D9S53, which map to 9q31, and a reference marker, ASS, which is located in 9q34.1. Haplotypes of single sperm were assessed by using PCR in a single-step multiplex reaction to amplify each locus. Recombinant haplotypes were identified by their relative infrequency and were analyzed using THREELOC, a maximum-likelihood-analysis program, and an adaptation of CRI-MAP. The most likely order of these markers was cen-D9S109-D9S127-D9S53-ASS-tel with D9S109, D9S127, and D9S53 being separated by a genetic distance of approximately 3%. The order of the latter three markers did not however achieve statistical significance using the THREELOC program. 21 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Analysis of genetic polymorphism in select vaccine candidate antigens and microsatellite loci in Plasmodium falciparum from endemic areas at varying altitudes

    PubMed Central

    Mlambo, Godfree; Sullivan, David; Mutambu, Susan L.; Soko, White; Mbedzi, Joel; Chivenga, James; Jaenisch, Thomas; Gemperli, Armin; Kumar, Nirbhay

    2009-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum parasites obtained from symptomatic patients attending clinics in Bindura (altitude 1,100 m), Chiredzi (600 m) and Kariba (< 600 m), previously reported to differ in malaria endemicity were genotyped on the msp-1, msp-2 and glurp loci to examine the extent of parasite genetic diversity. While the parasites were monomorphic for msp-1 allele RO33 from the three locations, the K1 allele was overrepresented in Kariba (p=0.02) and Mad20 alleles occurred at a higher frequency in Bindura. A similar PCR analysis for glurp and the two main allelic families of msp-2, i.e IC/3D7 and FC-27 revealed minimal differences in the parasite population. A total of 8 msp-1 Block 2 and 11 msp-2 genotypes were identified from the three locations combined. On the glurp locus, thirteen different genotypes ranging in size from 660 to 1160 bp were detected in parasites obtained from Bindura and Kariba. To gain further insight into P. falciparum genetic diversity in the three different geographical locations, parasites were examined for neutral microsatellite markers (C4M8, C13M30 and TA81). The number of microsatellite alleles ranged from 8 to 17 and the average expected heterozygosity (HE) for the three areas combined was 0.83 suggesting that the parasite population of Zimbabwe is genetically heterogeneous. These findings have implications in understanding the impact of genetic variation on immunity and possibly emergence of drug resistance. PMID:17568548

  12. Paternity testing in an autotetraploid alfalfa breeding polycross

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Determining unknown parentage in autotetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) (2n = 4x = 32) can improve breeding gains. Exclusion analysis based paternity testing SAS code is presented, amenable to genotyping errors, for autotetraploid species utilizing co-dominant molecular markers with ambiguous d...

  13. Complexities in the genetic structure of Anopheles gambiae populations in west Africa as revealed by microsatellite DNA analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lanzaro, Gregory C.; Touré, Yeya T.; Carnahan, John; Zheng, Liangbiao; Dolo, Guimogo; Traoré, Sekou; Petrarca, Vincenzo; Vernick, Kenneth D.; Taylor, Charles E.

    1998-01-01

    Chromosomal forms of Anopheles gambiae, given the informal designations Bamako, Mopti, and Savannah, have been recognized by the presence or absence of four paracentric inversions on chromosome 2. Studies of karyotype frequencies at sites where the forms occur in sympatry have led to the suggestion that these forms represent species. We conducted a study of the genetic structure of populations of An. gambiae from two villages in Mali, west Africa. Populations at each site were composed of the Bamako and Mopti forms and the sibling species, Anopheles arabiensis. Karyotypes were determined for each individual mosquito and genotypes at 21 microsatellite loci determined. A number of the microsatellites have been physically mapped to polytene chromosomes, making it possible to select loci based on their position relative to the inversions used to define forms. We found that the chromosomal forms differ at all loci on chromosome 2, but there were few differences for loci on other chromosomes. Geographic variation was small. Gene flow appears to vary among different regions within the genome, being lowest on chromosome 2, probably due to hitchhiking with the inversions. We conclude that the majority of observed genetic divergence between chromosomal forms can be explained by forces that need not involve reproductive isolation, although reproductive isolation is not ruled out. We found low levels of gene flow between the sibling species Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles arabiensis, similar to estimates based on observed frequencies of hybrid karyotypes in natural populations. PMID:9826688

  14. A New Electrophoresis Technique to Seperate Microsatellite Alleles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditional agarose and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis have been used commonly for microsatellite (simple sequence repeats, SSRs) analysis, but they are labor- intensive and not always able to provide accurate sizes for different alleles. Capillary sequencers provide automated analysis and accur...

  15. Density drives polyandry and relatedness influences paternal success in the Pacific gooseneck barnacle, Pollicipes elegans

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Polyandry is a common mating strategy in animals, increasing female fitness through direct (material) and indirect (genetic) benefits. Most theories about the benefits of polyandry come from studies of terrestrial animals, which have relatively complex mating systems and behaviors; less is known about the potential benefits of polyandry in sessile marine animals, for which potential mates may be scarce and females have less control over pre-copulatory mate choice. Here, we used microsatellite markers to examine multiple paternity in natural aggregations of the Pacific gooseneck barnacle Pollicipes elegans, testing the effect of density on paternity and mate relatedness on male reproductive success. Results We found that multiple paternity was very common (79% of broods), with up to five fathers contributing to a brood, though power was relatively low to detect more than four fathers. Density had a significant and positive linear effect on the number of fathers siring a brood, though this relationship leveled off at high numbers of fathers, which may reflect a lack of power and/or an upper limit to polyandry in this species. Significant skew in male reproductive contribution in multiply-sired broods was observed and we found a positive and significant relationship between the proportion of offspring sired and the genetic similarity between mates, suggesting that genetic compatibility may influence reproductive success in this species. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study to show high levels of multiple paternity in a barnacle, and overall, patterns of paternity in P. elegans appear to be driven primarily by mate availability. Evidence of paternity bias for males with higher relatedness suggests some form of post-copulatory sexual selection is taking place, but more work is needed to determine whether it operates during or post-fertilization. Overall, our results suggest that while polyandry in P. elegans is driven by mate availability, it may also provide a mechanism for females to ensure fertilization by compatible gametes and increase reproductive success in this sessile species. PMID:24739102

  16. Microsatellite isolation and marker development in carrot - genomic distribution, linkage mapping, genetic diversity analysis and marker transferability across Apiaceae

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Apiaceae family includes several vegetable and spice crop species among which carrot is the most economically important member, with ~21 million tons produced yearly worldwide. Despite its importance, molecular resources in this species are relatively underdeveloped. The availability of informative, polymorphic, and robust PCR-based markers, such as microsatellites (or SSRs), will facilitate genetics and breeding of carrot and other Apiaceae, including integration of linkage maps, tagging of phenotypic traits and assisting positional gene cloning. Thus, with the purpose of isolating carrot microsatellites, two different strategies were used; a hybridization-based library enrichment for SSRs, and bioinformatic mining of SSRs in BAC-end sequence and EST sequence databases. This work reports on the development of 300 carrot SSR markers and their characterization at various levels. Results Evaluation of microsatellites isolated from both DNA sources in subsets of 7 carrot F2 mapping populations revealed that SSRs from the hybridization-based method were longer, had more repeat units and were more polymorphic than SSRs isolated by sequence search. Overall, 196 SSRs (65.1%) were polymorphic in at least one mapping population, and the percentage of polymophic SSRs across F2 populations ranged from 17.8 to 24.7. Polymorphic markers in one family were evaluated in the entire F2, allowing the genetic mapping of 55 SSRs (38 codominant) onto the carrot reference map. The SSR loci were distributed throughout all 9 carrot linkage groups (LGs), with 2 to 9 SSRs/LG. In addition, SSR evaluations in carrot-related taxa indicated that a significant fraction of the carrot SSRs transfer successfully across Apiaceae, with heterologous amplification success rate decreasing with the target-species evolutionary distance from carrot. SSR diversity evaluated in a collection of 65 D. carota accessions revealed a high level of polymorphism for these selected loci, with an average of 19 alleles/locus and 0.84 expected heterozygosity. Conclusions The addition of 55 SSRs to the carrot map, together with marker characterizations in six other mapping populations, will facilitate future comparative mapping studies and integration of carrot maps. The markers developed herein will be a valuable resource for assisting breeding, genetic, diversity, and genomic studies of carrot and other Apiaceae. PMID:21806822

  17. CERISE microsatellite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaced, J.

    1993-01-01

    The main CERISE objective is measurement and characterization of the radioelectrical environment onboard a low orbit satellite in a wide frequency band. It involves a microsatellite with a mass less than 50 kg, microsatellite command/control, a ground station for telemetry scientific exploitation. Mission design and constraints are reviewed: satellite orbit in terms of the launch opportunity, no orbit control, simplified attitude control, onboard data storage capacity, short life time, low cost, launch opportunities. CERISE system is built from the UoSAT-5 concept improved as regards electrical power, flight software, telemetry/telecommand frequency modifications. Details of the CERISE payload (computer, hyperfrequency sensor, onboard testing and qualification) and groundstation (microsatellite position acquisition, orbital acceptance, telemetry exploiting unit) are dealt with.

  18. Evidence for Widespread Convergent Evolution around Human Microsatellites

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Microsatellites are a major component of the human genome, and their evolution has been much studied. However, the evolution of microsatellite flanking sequences has received less attention, with reports of both high and low mutation rates and of a tendency for microsatellites to cluster. From the human genome we generated a database of many thousands of (AC)n flanking sequences within which we searched for common characteristics. Sequences flanking microsatellites of similar length show remarkable levels of convergent evolution, indicating shared mutational biases. These biases extend 25–50 bases either side of the microsatellite and may therefore affect more than 30% of the entire genome. To explore the extent and absolute strength of these effects, we quantified the observed convergence. We also compared homologous human and chimpanzee loci to look for evidence of changes in mutation rate around microsatellites. Most models of DNA sequence evolution assume that mutations are independent and occur randomly. Allowances may be made for sites mutating at different rates and for general mutation biases such as the faster rate of transitions over transversions. Our analysis suggests that these models may be inadequate, in that proximity to even very short microsatellites may alter the rate and distribution of mutations that occur. The elevated local mutation rate combined with sequence convergence, both of which we find evidence for, also provide a possible resolution for the apparently contradictory inferences of mutation rates in microsatellite flanking sequences. PMID:15314644

  19. Novel microsatellite control system

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, K.R.; Frigo, J.R.; Tilden, M.W.

    1996-12-31

    The authors are developing extremely simple yet quite capable analog pulse-coded neural networks for smaller-faster-cheaper spacecraft attitude and control systems. They will demonstrate a prototype microsatellite that uses the novel control system to autonomously stabilize itself in the ambient magnetic field and point itself at the brightest available light source.

  20. Paternal isodisomy for chromosome 7 and normal growth and development in a patient with congenital chloride diarrhea

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeglund, P.; de la Chapelle, A.; Kere, J.

    1994-09-01

    Uniparental disomy (UPD) has been reported in an increasing number of patients, occasionally ascertained because of concomitant autosomal recessive disorders. In some cases, additional signs such as growth alteration, mental retardation or minor anomalies are present, suggesting an imprinting effect. For maternal chromosome 7, UPD has been described in three patients with recessive disorders. Severe growth retardation diagnosed in all these patients has been explained by the effect of imprinting of growth related genes on maternal chromosome 7. No cases of paternally derived disomy from chromosome 7 were previously known. Here we report paternal isodisomy for chromosome 7 and normal growth in a patient with a recessive disorder, congenital chloride diarrhea (CLD; MIM 214700). Ten informative microsatellite markers on chromosome 7 demonstrated that the proband did not have any maternal contribution to her genotype for that chromosome. Maternal and paternal alleles could not be distinguished for another 10 markers tested for chromosome 7, but the proband was always homozygous. As most uniparental paternal disomies appear to have a postzygotic origin, the primary event might have been a maternal meiotic nondisjunction. A thorough clinical evaluation with a view to additional signs of imprinted genes localized in chromosome 7 was performed. The physical status and laboratory tests were normal except for a mild high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss. As the patient has normal stature, it is likely that the paternal chromosome 7 lacks the suggested maternal imprinting effect on growth. The origin of the hearing loss remains speculative.

  1. THE DEVELOPMENT OF MICROSATELLITE MARKERS FOR PERSEA AMERICANA (AVOCADO).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because of their relative abundance, distribution across the genome, hypervariability and co-dominance, microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats are considered to be cost effective and efficient molecular genetic markers for parentage analysis, linkage mapping, association studies, and genetic fi...

  2. Risk Factors for Paternal Physical Child Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Shawna J.; Guterman, Neil B.; Lee, Yookyong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study uses the developmental-ecological framework to examine a comprehensive set of paternal factors hypothesized to be linked to risk for paternal child abuse (PCA) among a diverse sample of fathers. Attention was given to fathers' marital status and their race/ethnicity (White, African American, and Hispanic). Methods: Interviews…

  3. Paternal inheritance in mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kol-Maimon, Hofit; Mendel, Zvi; Franco, José Carlos; Ghanim, Murad

    2014-10-01

    Mealybugs have a haplodiploid reproduction system, with paternal genome elimination (PGE); the males are diploid soon after fertilization, but during embryogenesis, the male paternal set of chromosomes becomes heterochromatic (HC) and therefore inactive. Previous studies have suggested that paternal genes can be passed on from mealybug males to their sons, but not necessarily by any son, to the next generation. We employed crosses between two mealybug species— Planococcus ficus (Signoret) and Planococcus citri (Risso)—and between two populations of P. ficus, which differ in their mode of pheromone attraction, in order to demonstrate paternal inheritance from males to F2 through F1 male hybrids. Two traits were monitored through three generations: mode of male pheromone attraction (pherotype) and sequences of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) gene segment (genotype). Our results demonstrate that paternal inheritance in mealybugs can occur from males to their F2 offspring, through F1 males (paternal line). F2 backcrossed hybrid males expressed paternal pherotypes and ITS2 genotypes although their mother originated through a maternal population. Further results revealed other, hitherto unknown, aspects of inheritance in mealybugs, such as that hybridization between the two species caused absence of paternal traits in F2 hybrid females produced by F1 hybrid females. Furthermore, hybridization between the two species raised the question of whether unattracted males have any role in the interactions between P. ficus and P. citri.

  4. [Genetic analysis of 32 microsatellite loci in 13 families of Wuzhishan pig by multiplex PCR and gene scanning technique].

    PubMed

    Huang, Li-Guang; Wang, Xi-Long; Ou, Jiang-Tao; Guo, Chun-Hua; Li, Xiao-Cheng; Wang, Feng; Zheng, Xin-Li

    2005-01-01

    Wuzhishan pig is one of the rare and endangered breeds in china. They have the following characteristics such as :light body weight and small size, early sexually maturity, high meat quality and genetic identification with 6 approximately 8 pares litter size,body weight of born 0.3 approximately 0.4 kg, 15 approximately 16 kg at 6 month old, 35 kg at 2 years old, and so on. They may be used for laboratory utilization, comparative studies on human medical model, embryonic engineering, nutrition metabolism, sensitivity test on virus and bacteria, skin brut and tranfer, removing lipid, teeth and mouth cavity diseases, studies on cardiovascular model and evaluation of new medicine products. The polymorphisms of 32 microsatellites in 13 families of Wuzhishan pig in Hainan were Analysed. Number of alleles in each family was counted, mean heterozygosity and polymorphism Information content(PIC) were calculated. The results showed that number of alleles was 13.66, mean heterozygosity was 0.559 while polymorphism information content was 0.731. This revealed that genetic diversity is abundant in Wuzhishan pig in Hainan. These results have instructional significance for preserving breeds, selection and breeding, development and utilization of Wuzhishan pig in Hainan. PMID:15730963

  5. Microsatellite Analysis of Museum Specimens Reveals Historical Differences in Genetic Diversity between Declining and More Stable Bombus Species

    PubMed Central

    Maebe, Kevin; Meeus, Ivan; Ganne, Maarten; De Meulemeester, Thibaut; Biesmeijer, Koos; Smagghe, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide most pollinators, e.g. bumblebees, are undergoing global declines. Loss of genetic diversity can play an essential role in these observed declines. In this paper, we investigated the level of genetic diversity of seven declining Bombus species and four more stable species with the use of microsatellite loci. Hereto we genotyped a unique collection of museum specimens. Specimens were collected between 1918 and 1926, in 6 provinces of the Netherlands which allowed us to make interspecific comparisons of genetic diversity. For the stable species B. pascuorum, we also selected populations from two additional time periods: 1949–1955 and 1975–1990. The genetic diversity and population structure in B. pascuorum remained constant over the three time periods. However, populations of declining bumblebee species showed a significantly lower genetic diversity than co-occurring stable species before their major declines. This historical difference indicates that the repeatedly observed reduced genetic diversity in recent populations of declining bumblebee species is not caused solely by the decline itself. The historically low genetic diversity in the declined species may be due to the fact that these species were already rare, making them more vulnerable to the major drivers of bumblebee decline. PMID:26061732

  6. Microsatellite analysis of genetic diversity and genetic structure in five consecutive breeding generations of mandarin fish Siniperca chuatsi (Basilewsky).

    PubMed

    Yi, T L; Guo, W J; Liang, X F; Yang, M; Lv, L Y; Tian, C X; Song, Y; Zhao, C; Sun, J

    2015-01-01

    In this report, 10 polymorphic microsatellites were applied to assess the genetic diversity and genetic differentiation of 5 consecutive breeding generations of mandarin fish, Siniperca chuatsi (Basilewsky). The results from total number of alleles, average polymorphism information content, and average homozygosity and heterozygosity showed that the genetic diversity of the breeding population was decreasing. The genetic identity between F1 and its descendant generations (F2, F3, F4, F5) decreased (from 0.9248 to 0.8803), while the genetic distance (from 0.0782 to 0.1275) and fixation index (from 0.03796 to 0.07393) increased. The allele frequency of SS181-235 and SS211-246 changed regularly in the 5 breeding generations, and they may be negatively associated with the selected trait, which needs to be confirmed by further research. Our study indicated that selective breeding was an efficient strategy for mandarin fish. In the process of breeding, some deleterious genes were phased out, and the genetic structure of the breeding populations became stable. PMID:25867407

  7. Microsatellites reveal heterosis in red deer.

    PubMed Central

    Coulson, T N; Pemberton, J M; Albon, S D; Beaumont, M; Marshall, T C; Slate, J; Guinness, F E; Clutton-Brock, T H

    1998-01-01

    The fitness consequences of inbreeding and outbreeding are poorly understood in natural populations. We explore two microsatellite-based variables, individual heterozygosity (likely to correlate with recent inbreeding) and a new individual-specific internal distance measure, mean d2 (focusing on events deeper in the pedigree), in relation to two measures of fitness expressed early in life, birth weight and neonatal survival, in 670 red deer calves (Cervus elaphus) born on the Isle of Rum between 1982 and 1996. For comparison, we also analyse inbreeding coefficients derived from pedigrees in which paternity was inferred by molecular methods. Only 14 out of 231 calves (6.1%) had non-zero inbreeding coefficients, and neither inbreeding coefficient nor individual heterozygosity was consistently related to birth weight or neonatal survival. However, mean d2 was consistently related to both fitness measures. Low mean d2 was associated with low birth weight, especially following cold Aprils, in which foetal growth is reduced. Low mean d2 was also associated with low neonatal survival, but this effect was probably mediated by birth weight because fitting birth weight to the neonatal survival model displaced mean d2 as an explanatory variable. We conclude that in the deer population fitness measures expressed early in life do not show evidence of inbreeding depression, but they do show evidence of heterosis, possibly as a result of population mixing. We also demonstrate the practical problems of estimating inbreeding via pedigrees compared with a direct marker-based estimate of individual heterozygosity. We suggest that, together, individual heterozygosity and mean d2, estimated using microsatellites, are useful tools for exploring inbreeding and outbreeding in natural population. PMID:9569667

  8. Molecular Evidence for High Frequency of Multiple Paternity in a Freshwater Shrimp Species Caridina ensifera

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Gen Hua; Chang, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Background Molecular genetic analyses of parentage provide insights into mating systems. Although there are 22,000 members in Malacostraca, not much has been known about mating systems in Malacostraca. The freshwater shrimp Caridina ensifera blue, is a new species belonging to Malacostraca which was discovered recently in Sulawesi, Indonesia. Due to its small body size and low fecundity, this species is an ideal species to study the occurrence and frequency of multiple paternity and to understand of how the low fecundity species persist and evolve. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we developed four polymorphic microsatellites from C. ensifera and applied them to investigate the occurrence and frequency of multiple paternity in 20 C. ensifera broods caught from Lake Matano, Sulawesi. By genotyping the mother and all offspring from each brood we discovered multiple paternity in all 20 broods. In most of the 20 broods, fathers contributed skewed numbers of offspring and there was an apparent inverse correlation between reproductive success of sires and their relatedness to mothers. Conclusions/Significance Our results in combination with recent reports on multiple paternity in crayfish, crab and lobster species suggests that multiple paternity is common in Malacostraca. Skewed contribution of fathers to the numbers of offspring and inverse correlation between reproductive success of sires and their relatedness to mothers suggest that sperm competition occurred and/or pre- and postcopulatory female choice happen, which may be important for avoiding the occurrence of inbreeding and optimize genetic variation in offspring and for persistence and evolution of low fecundity species. PMID:20856862

  9. Microsatellite deletion mapping on chromosome 10q and mutation analysis of MMAC1, FAS, and MXI1 in human glioblastoma multiforme.

    PubMed

    Fults, D; Pedone, C A; Thompson, G E; Uchiyama, C M; Gumpper, K L; Iliev, D; Vinson, V L; Tavtigian, S V; Perry, W L

    1998-04-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an end-stage brain tumor of glial origin. Allelic deletions encompassing all or part of chromosome 10q occur frequently in GBMs, indicating that loss of one or more tumor suppressor genes on 10q plays a role in GBM formation. One of these genes is MMAC1 (PTEN), a gene on 10q23 which encodes a dual-specificity protein phosphatase. We carried out a loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analysis of 66 GBM patients using microsatellite markers for 27 loci on 10q. Overall, LOH was detected in 70% of cases, most showing LOH with every informative marker. Eleven patients showed partial 10q deletions, the smallest spanning a 35 cM region distal to D10S187. Sequence analysis of the MMAC1 gene in 45 of these tumors revealed mutations in eleven cases (24%), all with LOH on 10q. None of these mutations was present in normal DNA from the same patients. In addition, we utilized SSCP analysis to test two other candidate genes on 10q: FAS, a cell surface receptor which transduces an apoptotic, cell death signal and MXI1, a transcriptional repressor. The absence of mutations in these genes suggested that FAS and MXI1 are not likely to be tumor suppressor genes physiologically relevant to GBM. These data do support a significant role for MMAC1 in GBM. PMID:9499454

  10. Analysis of the population structure of Macrolophus pygmaeus (Rambur) (Hemiptera: Miridae) in the Palaearctic region using microsatellite markers

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Juan Antonio; Spina, Michelangelo La; Perera, Omaththage P

    2012-01-01

    Macrolophus pygmaeus (Rambur) (Hemiptera: Miridae) is widely distributed throughout the Palaearctic region. The aim was to explain the current geographic distribution of the species by investigating its genetic population structure. Samples of M. pygmaeus were collected in 15 localities through its range of distribution. A sample from a commercial producer was also analyzed. A total of 367 M. pygmaeus were genotyped for nine microsatellite loci. Isolation by distance was tested by Mantel's test. The molecular structure of M. pygmaeus populations was inferred by UPGMA, AMOVA, Principal component and Bayesian analyses. The average number of alleles per locus per population was 5.5 (range: 3.1–7.8). Istanbul (Turkey) and Nimes (France) had the lowest (0.291) and the highest (0.626) expected heterozygosity (He), respectively. There was an increase in He from the Canary Islands to Nimes, and a progressive decrease thereafter. A significant negative correlation was found between allelic richness and He, and the distance of each population to the easternmost locality (Canary Islands). Significant linkage disequilibrium was observed in the populations from Turkey. FST (0.004–0.334) indicated a high population differentiation, with isolation by distance supported by a high correlation. Bayesian analyses, PCA, and UPGMA pointed to three main clusters: (1) Greece and Turkey, (2) Italy and France, and (3) southern Iberia and the Canary Islands. The recent evolutionary history of M. pygmaeus is inferred from the data as follows: (1) the reduction in the geographic distribution of the species to the Iberian, Italian, and Balkan peninsulas, and possibly southern France, during glaciations and re-colonization of northern Europe from its southern refuges; (2) the maintenance of high diversity in Iberia and Italy (and possibly southern France) during contraction periods, and bottlenecks in the Balkans; (3) introgression of the Italian–French lineage in northern Spain, naturally or through trade. PMID:23301179

  11. Survey and analysis of simple sequence repeats in the Laccaria bicolor genome, with development of microsatellite markers

    SciTech Connect

    Labbe, Jessy L; Murat, Claude; Morin, Emmanuelle; Le Tacon, F; Martin, Francis

    2011-01-01

    It is becoming clear that simple sequence repeats (SSRs) play a significant role in fungal genome organization, and they are a large source of genetic markers for population genetics and meiotic maps. We identified SSRs in the Laccaria bicolor genome by in silico survey and analyzed their distribution in the different genomic regions. We also compared the abundance and distribution of SSRs in L. bicolor with those of the following fungal genomes: Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Coprinopsis cinerea, Ustilago maydis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus nidulans, Magnaporthe grisea, Neurospora crassa and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using the MISA computer program, we detected 277,062 SSRs in the L. bicolor genome representing 8% of the assembled genomic sequence. Among the analyzed basidiomycetes, L. bicolor exhibited the highest SSR density although no correlation between relative abundance and the genome sizes was observed. In most genomes the short motifs (mono- to trinucleotides) were more abundant than the longer repeated SSRs. Generally, in each organism, the occurrence, relative abundance, and relative density of SSRs decreased as the repeat unit increased. Furthermore, each organism had its own common and longest SSRs. In the L. bicolor genome, most of the SSRs were located in intergenic regions (73.3%) and the highest SSR density was observed in transposable elements (TEs; 6,706 SSRs/Mb). However, 81% of the protein-coding genes contained SSRs in their exons, suggesting that SSR polymorphism may alter gene phenotypes. Within a L. bicolor offspring, sequence polymorphism of 78 SSRs was mainly detected in non-TE intergenic regions. Unlike previously developed microsatellite markers, these new ones are spread throughout the genome; these markers could have immediate applications in population genetics.

  12. Paternal environmental exposures and gene expression during spermatogenesis: research review to research framework.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Deborah A

    2008-06-01

    The primary objective is to review Dioxin toxicity, the potential impact on spermatogenesis, what is known and unknown about paternal exposures, and the potential mechanisms whereby paternal preconception exposures result in neural tube defects (NTD). The secondary goal is to suggest a versatile research framework utilizing gene expression microarray to evaluate the impact of acute, intermittent, and chronic paternal exposures to environmental agents on gene expression during the stages of spermatogenesis. There are multiple barriers to establishing a paradigm whereby paternal environmental exposures result in adverse birth outcomes. Microarray expression studies are unique in their ability to detect transcription dysregulation, thereby facilitating the identification of molecular and developmental pathways through hierarchical and pathway analysis. To date there are no studies of gene expression during spermatogenesis following exposure to environmental agents. PMID:18546338

  13. Microsatellites in the Genome of the Edible Mushroom, Volvariella volvacea

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mingjie; Wang, Hong; Bao, Dapeng

    2014-01-01

    Using bioinformatics software and database, we have characterized the microsatellite pattern in the V. volvacea genome and compared it with microsatellite patterns found in the genomes of four other edible fungi: Coprinopsis cinerea, Schizophyllum commune, Agaricus bisporus, and Pleurotus ostreatus. A total of 1346 microsatellites have been identified, with mono-nucleotides being the most frequent motif. The relative abundance of microsatellites was lower in coding regions with 21?No./Mb. However, the microsatellites in the V. volvacea gene models showed a greater tendency to be located in the CDS regions. There was also a higher preponderance of trinucleotide repeats, especially in the kinase genes, which implied a possible role in phenotypic variation. Among the five fungal genomes, microsatellite abundance appeared to be unrelated to genome size. Furthermore, the short motifs (mono- to tri-nucleotides) outnumbered other categories although these differed in proportion. Data analysis indicated a possible relationship between the most frequent microsatellite types and the genetic distance between the five fungal genomes. PMID:24575404

  14. Monosomy 1p36.31-33{yields}pter due to a paternal reciprocal translocation: Prognostic significance of FISH analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Blennow, E.; Bui, The-Hung; Wallin, A.

    1996-10-02

    A rare monosomy 1p36.31-33{r_arrow}pter was found in a child with physical anomalies, psycho-motor retardation, and seizures. Cytogenetic investigation suggested an unbalanced translocation between 1p and an acrocentric chromosome, but the rearrangement was difficult to assess accurately using conventional chromosome banding techniques. The half-cryptic translocation was further characterized using fluorescence in situ hybridization, and the aberrant chromosome 1 was shown to be a derivate of a paternal reciprocal translocation t(1;15)(p36.31-33;p11.2-12). The breakpoints on chromosome 1 and 15 were defined in detail using locus specific probes. The rearrangement did not include the region on chromosome 1p which previously has been suggested to predispose to the development of neuroblastoma in a case with a constitutional translocation. At 3 6/12 years, the patient has no clinical signs of this disease, which illustrates the prognostic significance of this investigation. 30 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Contribution of Lidia cattle breed historical castes to the paternal genetic stock of Spain.

    PubMed

    Pelayo, R; Valera, M; Molina, A; Royo, L J

    2015-06-01

    The main objective of this work was to determine whether the five founding castes defined in the Lidia cattle breed actually have an important contribution to the Spanish paternal genetic stock as well as to the paternal genetic origin support. A total of 1300 Bos taurus male individuals were genotyped for five microsatellites (INRA189, UMN0103, UMN0307, BM861 and BYM1) and one indel (ZFY10). Microsatellite and indel alleles were combined into haplotypes, identifying a total of 38 haplotypes, 11 of them belonging to haplogroup Y1 and 27 to haplogroup Y2. Ten different haplotypes were found in the Lidia cattle breed, with five being exclusive to this breed. Our results agree with different male genetic stocks in the Lidia breed: one hypothetically representing the ancient Iberian bovine genetic stock (Gallardo, Navarra and Cabrera castes and some encastes from Vistahermosa) and a second one that is the result of the more recent breeding strategy of choosing the most aggressive individuals from traditional herds (including some Vistahermosa encastes and the Vazqueña caste). In terms of conservation, it would be better to not consider this breed as a unit but to consider the caste, or even better the encaste, as the target of putative conservation efforts. PMID:25728408

  16. The incidence of mini- and micro-satellite repetitive DNA in the canine genome.

    PubMed

    Rothuizen, J; Wolfswinkel, J; Lenstra, J A; Frants, R R

    1994-10-01

    We have estimated the incidence of microand mini-satellites in the dog genome. A genomic phage library from canine liver, with an average insert size of 16 kb, was screened to detect potentially polymorphic microand mini-satellite sequences, which may be useful for the development of markers of inherited diseases, for fingerprinting, or for population genetics. Synthetic oligonucleotide probes were used to search for microsatellite sequences, and minisatellites were investigated with eight heterologous VNTR probes. (CA)n.(GT)n sequences were by far the most frequent, with a calculated average distance between consecutive loci of 42 kb. The average distance between loci of tri- or tetra-nucleotide repeats was about 330 kb. Mean inter-locus distances were 320 kb for (GGC)n, 205 kb for (GTG)n, 563 kb for (AGG)n, 320 kb for (TCG)n, 233 kb for (TTA)n, 384 kb for (CCTA)n, 368 kb for (CTGT)n, 122 kb for (TTCC)n, 565 kb for (TCTA)n, and 229 kb for (TAGG)n. Cross-hybridization with eight human minisatellite probes was found at average distances of 1400 kb; only one did not hybridize at all. We conclude that the di-, tri and tetra-nucleotide short tandem repeats, as well as some minisatellite sequences, are potentially useful as genetic markers, for mapping of the canine genome, and also for paternity testing and the analysis of population characteristics. PMID:24177887

  17. Effect of Paternal Age on Reproductive Outcomes of In Vitro Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Haiyan; Liu, Haiying; Liu, Jianqiao

    2015-01-01

    Although the adverse effects of maternal aging on reproductive outcomes have been investigated widely, there is no consensus on the impact of paternal age. Therefore, we investigated the effect of paternal age on reproductive outcomes in a retrospective analysis of 9,991 in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles performed at the Reproductive Medicine Center of the Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University (China) between January 2007 and October 2013. Samples were grouped according to maternal age [<30 (3,327 cycles), 30–34 (4,587 cycles), and 35–38 (2,077 cycles)] and then subgrouped according to paternal age (<30, 30–32, 33–35, 36–38, 39–41, and ?42). The groups did not differ in terms of fertilization rate, numbers of viable and high-quality embryos and miscarriage rate when controlling maternal age (P >0.05). Chi-squared analysis revealed that there were no differences in implantation and pregnancy rates among the different paternal age groups when maternal age was <30 and 35–38 years (P >0.05). However, implantation and pregnancy rates decreased with paternal age in the 31–34 y maternal age group (P <0.05). Our study indicates that paternal age has no impact on fertilization rate, embryo quality at the cleavage stage and miscarriage rate. For the 30–34 y maternal age group, the implantation rate decreased with increased paternal age, with the pregnancy rate in this group being significantly higher in the paternal <30 y and 30–32 y age groups, compared with those in the 36–38 y and 39–41 y groups. PMID:26352861

  18. A Consensus Microsatellite-Based Linkage Map for the Hermaphroditic Bay Scallop (Argopecten irradians) and Its Application in Size-Related QTL Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongjun; Liu, Xiao; Zhang, Guofan

    2012-01-01

    Bay scallop (Argopecten irradians) is one of the most economically important aquaculture species in China. In this study, we constructed a consensus microsatellite-based genetic linkage map with a mapping panel containing two hybrid backcross-like families involving two subspecies of bay scallop, A. i. irradians and A. i. concentricus. One hundred sixty-one microsatellite and one phenotypic (shell color) markers were mapped to 16 linkage groups (LGs), which corresponds to the haploid chromosome number of bay scallop. The sex-specific map was 779.2 cM and 781.6 cM long in female and male, respectively, whereas the sex-averaged map spanned 849.3 cM. The average resolution of integrated map was 5.9 cM/locus and the estimated coverage was 81.3%. The proportion of distorted markers occurred more in the hybrid parents, suggesting that the segregation distortion was possibly resulted from heterospecific interaction between genomes of two subspecies of bay scallop. The overall female-to-male recombination rate was 1.13?1 across all linked markers in common to both parents, and considerable differences in recombination also existed among different parents in both families. Four size-related traits, including shell length (SL), shell height (SH), shell width (SW) and total weight (TW) were measured for quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis. Three significant and six suggestive QTL were detected on five LGs. Among the three significant QTL, two (qSW-10 and qTW-10, controlling SW and TW, respectively) were mapped on the same region near marker AiAD121 on LG10 and explained 20.5% and 27.7% of the phenotypic variance, while the third (qSH-7, controlling SH) was located on LG7 and accounted for 15.8% of the phenotypic variance. Six suggestive QTL were detected on four different LGs. The linkage map and size-related QTL obtained in this study may facilitate marker-assisted selection (MAS) in bay scallop. PMID:23077533

  19. Energetic Neutral Atom Imaging at Low Altitudes from the Swedish Microsatellite Astrid: Images and Spectral Analysis. Paper 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, Pontus C:son; Barabash, Stas; Norberg, Olle; Lundin, Rickard; Roelof, Rdmond C.; Chase, Christopher J.

    1999-01-01

    Observations of energetic neutral atoms (ENA) in the energy range 26- 52 keV are reported from four occasions during geomagnetically disturbed periods. The data were acquired by the ENA imager flown on the Swedish microsatellite Astrid in a 1000 km circular orbit with 83 deg inclination. The ENA imager separates charged particles from neutrals through an electrostatic deflection system in the energy range between 0.1 and 114 keV. ENA images obtained from vantage points in the polar cap and in the afternoon magnetic local time (MLT) hours looking into the antisunward hemisphere show intense ENA fluxes (approx. 10(exp 4)/sq cm sr s over 26-37 keV) coming from the dusk region and low altitudes (approx. 300 km). The morphology shows no relation to local magnetic field excluding the possibility of charged particle detection. It is concluded that the source of these ENAs are precipitating/mirroring ions from the ring current/trapped radiation interacting with the exobase on auroral L-shells and in the dusk region. The observed ENA fluxes show a relation with Kp and Dst geomagnetic indices. The observed ENA spectrum from a geomagnetic storm on February 8, 1995, is investigated in more detail and compared to the parent ion spectrum obtained by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Project (DMSP) satellite, Fl2, during the same period on L = 6 +/- 2 around dusk. The observed ENA spectral slope is used to derive the parent ion spectral temperature. The derived ion temperatures range is 3.0 - 6.0 keV for H and 4.5 - 8.5 keV for O. The higher of these ion temperatures comes closest in agreement to the extrapolated DMSP spectrum leading us to favor O over H as the species of the detected ENAS. It is shown that the detected ENAs must have been produced at L greater than or equal to 6 to reach the detector without atmospheric attenuation and that the main energy dependence of the ENA spectrum, apart from the parent ion spectrum, is governed by the energy dependence of the charge exchange cross section between ions and exospheric oxygen.

  20. Paternal isodisomy of chromosome 6 in association with a maternal supernumerary marker chromosome (6)

    SciTech Connect

    James, R.S.; Crolla, J.A.; Sitch, F.L.

    1994-09-01

    Uniparental disomy may arise by a number of different mechanisms of aneuploidy correction. A population that has been identified as being at increased risk of aneuploidy are those individuals bearing supernumerary marker chromosomes (SMCs). There have been a number of cases reported of trisomy 21 in association with bi-satellited marker chromosomes have described two individuals with small inv dup (15) markers. One had paternal isodisomy of chromosome 15 and Angelman syndrome. The other had maternal heterodisomy (15) and Prader-Willi syndrome. At the Wessex Regional Genetics Laboratory we have conducted a search for uniparental disomy of the normal homologues of the chromosomes from which SMCs originated. Our study population consists of 39 probands with SMCs originating from a number of different autosomes, including 17 with SMCs of chromosome 15 origin. Using PCR amplification of microsatellite repeat sequences located distal to the regions included in the SMCs we have determined the parental origin of the two normal homologues in each case. We have identified paternal isodisomy of chromosome 6 in a female child with a supernumerary marker ring chromosome 6 in approximately 70% of peripheral blood lymphocytes. The marker was found to be of maternal origin. This is the second case of paternal isodisomy of chromosome 6 to be reported, and the first in association with a SMC resulting in a partial trisomy for a portion of the short arm of chromosome 6. In spite of this, the patient appears to be functioning appropriately for her age.

  1. Combined Microsatellite Instability, MLH1 Methylation Analysis, and Immunohistochemistry for Lynch Syndrome Screening in Endometrial Cancers From GOG210: An NRG Oncology and Gynecologic Oncology Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Goodfellow, Paul J.; Billingsley, Caroline C.; Lankes, Heather A.; Ali, Shamshad; Cohn, David E.; Broaddus, Russell J.; Ramirez, Nilsa; Pritchard, Colin C.; Hampel, Heather; Chassen, Alexis S.; Simmons, Luke V.; Schmidt, Amy P.; Gao, Feng; Brinton, Louise A.; Backes, Floor; Landrum, Lisa M.; Geller, Melissa A.; DiSilvestro, Paul A.; Pearl, Michael L.; Lele, Shashikant B.; Powell, Matthew A.; Zaino, Richard J.; Mutch, David

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The best screening practice for Lynch syndrome (LS) in endometrial cancer (EC) remains unknown. We sought to determine whether tumor microsatellite instability (MSI) typing along with immunohistochemistry (IHC) and MLH1 methylation analysis can help identify women with LS. Patients and Methods ECs from GOG210 patients were assessed for MSI, MLH1 methylation, and mismatch repair (MMR) protein expression. Each tumor was classified as having normal MMR, defective MMR associated with MLH1 methylation, or probable MMR mutation (ie, defective MMR but no methylation). Cancer family history and demographic and clinical features were compared for the three groups. Lynch mutation testing was performed for a subset of women. Results Analysis of 1,002 ECs suggested possible MMR mutation in 11.8% of tumors. The number of patients with a family history suggestive of LS was highest among women whose tumors were classified as probable MMR mutation (P = .001). Lynch mutations were identified in 41% of patient cases classified as probable mutation (21 of 51 tested). One of the MSH6 Lynch mutations was identified in a patient whose tumor had intact MSH6 expression. Age at diagnosis was younger for mutation carriers than noncarriers (54.3 v 62.3 years; P < .01), with five carriers diagnosed at age > 60 years. Conclusion Combined MSI, methylation, and IHC analysis may prove useful in Lynch screening in EC. Twenty-four percent of mutation carriers presented with ECs at age > 60 years, and one carrier had an MSI-positive tumor with no IHC defect. Restricting Lynch testing to women diagnosed at age < 60 years or to women with IHC defects could result in missing a substantial fraction of genetic disease. PMID:26552419

  2. Microsatellite analysis supports clonal propagation and reduced divergence of Trypanosoma vivax from asymptomatic to fatally infected livestock in South America compared to West Africa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mechanical transmission of the major livestock pathogen Trypanosoma vivax by other biting flies than tsetse allows its spread from Africa to the New World. Genetic studies are restricted to a small number of isolates and based on molecular markers that evolve too slowly to resolve the relationships between American and West African populations and, thus, unable us to uncover the recent history of T. vivax in the New World. Methods T. vivax genetic diversity, population structure and the source of outbreaks was investigated through the microsatellite multiloci (7 loci) genotype (MLGs) analysis in South America (47isolates from Brazil, Venezuela and French Guiana) and West Africa (12 isolates from The Gambia, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Benin and Nigeria). Relationships among MLGs were explored using phylogenetic, principal component and STRUCTURE analyses. Results Although closely phylogenetically related, for the first time, genetic differences were detected between T. vivax isolates from South America (11 genotypes/47 isolates) and West Africa (12 genotypes/12 isolates) with no MLGs in common. Diversity was far greater across West Africa than in South America, where genotypes from Brazil (MLG1-6), Venezuela (MLG7-10) and French Guiana (MLG11) shared similar but not identical allele composition. No MLG was exclusive to asymptomatic (endemic areas) or sick (outbreaks in non-endemic areas) animals, but only MLGs1, 2 and 3 were responsible for severe haematological and neurological disorders. Conclusions Our results revealed closely related genotypes of T. vivax in Brazil and Venezuela, regardless of endemicity and clinical conditions of the infected livestock. The MLGs analysis from T. vivax across SA and WA support clonal propagation, and is consistent with the hypothesis that the SA populations examined here derived from common ancestors recently introduced from West Africa. The molecular markers defined here are valuable to assess the genetic diversity, to track the source and dispersion of outbreaks, and to explore the epidemiological and pathological significance of T. vivax genotypes. PMID:24885708

  3. Mini- and microsatellites.

    PubMed

    Ramel, C

    1997-06-01

    While the faithful transmission of genetic information requires a fidelity and stability of DNA that is involved in translation into proteins, it has become evident that a large part of noncoding DNA is organized in repeated sequences, which often exhibit a pronounced instability and dynamics. This applies both to longer repeated sequences, minisatellites (about 10-100 base pairs), and microsatellites (mostly 2-4 base pairs). Although these satellite DNAs are abundantly distributed in all kinds of organisms, no clear function has been discerned for them. However, extension of trinucleotide microsatellite sequences has been associated with several severe human disorders, such as Fragile X syndrome and Huntington's disease. Rare alleles of a minisatellite sequence have been reported to be associated with the ras oncogene leading to an increased risk for several human cancers. A dynamic behavior of repeated DNA sequences also applies to telomeres, constituting the ends of the chromosomes. Repeated DNA sequences protect the chromosome ends from losing coding sequences at cell divisions. The telomeres are maintained by the enzyme telomerase. Somatic cells, however, lose telomerase function and gradually die. Cancer cells have activated telomerase and therefore they acquire immortality. PMID:9255562

  4. Segmental Paternal Uniparental Disomy (patUPD) of 14q32 With Abnormal Methylation Elicits the Characteristic Features of Complete patUPD14

    PubMed Central

    Irving, Melita D.; Buiting, Karin; Kanber, Deniz; Donaghue, Celia; Schulz, Reiner; Offiah, Amaka; Mohammed, Shehla N.; Oakey, Rebecca J.

    2013-01-01

    Uniparental disomy (UPD) for chromosome 14 is associated with well-recognized phenotypes, depending on the parent of origin. Studies in mouse models and human patients have implicated the involvement of the distal region of the long arm of chromosome 14 in the distinctive phenotypes. This involvement is supported by the identification of an imprinting cluster at chromosome 14q32, encompassing the differentially methylated regions (DMRs), IG-DMR and MEG3-DMR, as well as the maternally expressed genes GTL2, DIO3, and RTL1 and the paternally expressed genes DLK1, RTL1as, and MEG8. Here we report on a preterm female infant with distal segmental paternal UPD14 (upd(14)pat) of 14q32-14q32.33, which resulted in thoracic deformity secondary to rib abnormalities (“coat-hanger” rib sign), polyhydramnios, and other congenital abnormalities characteristically described in cases of complete upd(14)pat. Microsatellite investigation demonstrated UPD of markers D14S250 and D14S1010, encompassing a ~3.5 Mb region of distal 14q and involving the imprinting cluster. This case provided insight into the etiology of the phenotypic effects of upd(14)pat, prompting methylation analysis of the GTL2 promoter and the DMR between GTL2 and DLK1. We compare the physical findings seen in this case with those of patients with other causes of abnormal methylation of 14q32, which consistently result in certain distinct clinical features, regardless of the cytogenetic and molecular etiology. PMID:20602488

  5. A Preliminary Microsatellite Linkage Map of the Red Drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) 

    E-print Network

    Hollenbeck, Christopher

    2011-01-11

    genotyped at 60 nuclear-encoded microsatellites and analysis of the data enabled identification of 13 linkage groups. The linear arrangement of the microsatellites within each linkage group was determined and map distances between adjacent markers were................................................................................. 2 II METHODOLOGY...................................................................................... 4 Data collection................................................................................. 4 Data analysis...

  6. Paternity assignment and demographic closure in the New Zealand southern right whale.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Emma L; Childerhouse, Simon J; Christie, Mark; Lavery, Shane; Patenaude, Nathalie; Alexander, Alana; Constantine, Rochelle; Steel, Debbie; Boren, Laura; Scott Baker, C

    2012-08-01

    The identification and characterization of reproductively isolated subpopulations or 'stocks' are essential for effective conservation and management decisions. This can be difficult in vagile marine species like marine mammals. We used paternity assignment and 'gametic recapture' to examine the reproductive autonomy of southern right whales (Eubalaena australis) on their New Zealand (NZ) calving grounds. We derived DNA profiles for 34 mother-calf pairs from skin biopsy samples, using sex-specific markers, 13 microsatellite loci and mtDNA haplotypes. We constructed DNA profiles for 314 adult males, representing 30% of the census male abundance of the NZ stock, previously estimated from genotypic mark-recapture modelling to be 1085 (95% CL 855, 1416). Under the hypothesis of demographic closure and the assumption of equal reproductive success among males, we predict: (i) the proportion of paternities assigned will reflect the proportion of the male population sampled and (ii) the gametic mark-recapture (GMR) estimate of male abundance will be equivalent to the census male estimate for the NZ stock. Consistent with these predictions, we found that the proportion of assigned paternities equalled the proportion of the census male population size sampled. Using the sample of males as the initial capture, and paternity assignment as the recapture, the GMR estimate of male abundance was 1001 (95% CL 542, 1469), similar to the male census estimate. These findings suggest that right whales returning to the NZ calving ground are reproductively autonomous on a generational timescale, as well as isolated by maternal fidelity on an evolutionary timescale, from others in the Indo-Pacific region. PMID:22726223

  7. Paternity and inheritance of wealth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartung, John

    1981-06-01

    One of the oldest conjectures in anthropology is that men transfer wealth to their sister's son when the biological paternity of their `own' children is in doubt1-12. Because maternity is certain, a man is necessarily related to his sister's son and his brother (see Fig. 1). It is argued here that relatedness to male heirs can be assured by passing wealth to sister's sons or down a line of brothers, whether the prevailing kinship system reckons those brothers matrilineally or patrilineally. It is also argued that when several transfers of wealth are considered, a man's likelihood of being cuckolded need not be unrealistically high13 for his successive matrilineal heirs to be more related to him than his successive patrilineal heirs (see Fig. 2). Cross-cultural data on sister's son/brother inheritance14 and frequency of extramarital sex for females15 support the hypothesis that men tend to transmit wealth to their sister's son and/or brother when the probability that their putative children are their genetic children is relatively low.

  8. Microsatellite evolution: Mutations, sequence variation, and homoplasy in the hypervariable avian microsatellite locus HrU10

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Microsatellites are frequently used genetic markers in a wide range of applications, primarily due to their high length polymorphism levels that can easily be genotyped by fragment length analysis. However, the mode of microsatellite evolution is yet not fully understood, and the role of interrupting motifs for the stability of microsatellites remains to be explored in more detail. Here we present a sequence analysis of mutation events and a description of the structure of repeated regions in the hypervariable, pentanucleotide microsatellite locus HrU10 in barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) and tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor). Results In a large-scale parentage analysis in barn swallows and tree swallows, broods were screened for mutations at the HrU10 locus. In 41 cases in the barn swallows and 15 cases in the tree swallows, mutations corresponding to the loss or gain of one or two repeat units were detected. The parent and mutant offspring alleles were sequenced for 33 of these instances (26 in barn swallows and 7 in tree swallows). Replication slippage was considered the most likely mutational process. We tested the hypothesis that HrU10, a microsatellite with a wide allele size range, has an increased probability of introductions of interruptive motifs (IMs) with increasing length of the repeated region. Indeed, the number and length of the IMs was strongly positively correlated with the total length of the microsatellite. However, there was no significant correlation with the length of the longest stretch of perfectly repeated units, indicating a threshold level for the maximum length of perfectly repeated pentanucleotide motifs in stable HrU10 alleles. The combination of sequence and pedigree data revealed that 15 barn swallow mutations (58%) produced alleles that were size homoplasic to other alleles in the data set. Conclusion Our results give further insights into the mode of microsatellite evolution, and support the assumption of increased slippage rate with increased microsatellite length and a stabilizing effect of interrupting motifs for microsatellite regions consisting of perfect repeats. In addition, the observed extent of size homoplasy may impose a general caution against using hypervariable microsatellites in genetic diversity measures when alleles are identified by fragment length analysis only. PMID:18471288

  9. Development of microsatellite markers in peach [ Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] and their use in genetic diversity analysis in peach and sweet cherry ( Prunus avium L.).

    PubMed

    Dirlewanger, E.; Cosson, P.; Tavaud, M.; Aranzana, J.; Poizat, C.; Zanetto, A.; Arús, P.; Laigret, F.

    2002-07-01

    We report the sequence of 41 primer pairs of microsatellites from a CT-enriched genomic library of the peach cultivar 'Merrill O'Henry'. Ten microsatellite-containing clones had sequences similar to plant coding sequences in databases and could be used as markers for known functions. For microsatellites segregating at least in one of the two Prunus F(2) progenies analyzed, it was possible to demonstrate Mendelian inheritance. Microsatellite polymorphism was evaluated in 27 peach and 21 sweet cherry cultivars. All primer pairs gave PCR-amplification products on peach and 33 on cherry (80.5%). Six PCR-amplifications revealed several loci (14.6%) in peach and eight (19.5%) in sweet cherry. Among the 33 single-locus microsatellites amplified in peach and sweet cherry, 13 revealed polymorphism both in peach and cherry, 19 were polymorphic only on peach and one was polymorphic only on cherry. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 1 to 9 for peach and from 1 to 6 on sweet cherry with an average of 4.2 and 2.8 in peach and sweet cherry, respectively. Cross-species amplification was tested within the Prunus species: Prunus avium L. (sweet cherry and mazzard), Prunus cerasus L. (sour cherry), Prunus domestica L. (European plum), Prunus amygdalus Batsch. (almond), Prunus armeniaca L. (apricot), Prunus cerasifera Ehrh. (Myrobalan plum). Plants from other genera of the Rosaceae were also tested: Malus (apple) and Fragaria (strawberry), as well as species not belonging to the Rosaceae: Castanea (chestnut tree), Juglans (walnut tree) and Vitis (grapevine). Six microsatellites gave amplification on all the tested species. Among them, one had an amplified region homologous to sequences encoding a MADS-box protein in Malus x domestica. Twelve microsatellites (29.3%) were amplified in all the Rosaceae species tested and 31 (75.6%) were amplified in all the six Prunus species tested. Thirty three (80.5%), 18 (43.9%) and 13 (31.7%) gave amplification on chestnut tree, grapevine and walnut tree, respectively. PMID:12582570

  10. PCR and microsatellite analysis of diminazene aceturate resistance of bovine trypanosomes correlated to knowledge, attitude and practice of livestock keepers in South-Western Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Moti, Y; De Deken, R; Thys, E; Van Den Abbeele, J; Duchateau, L; Delespaux, V

    2015-06-01

    African Animal Trypanosomosis is threatening the agricultural production and cattle breeding more severely than any other livestock disease in the continent, even more since the advent of drug resistance. A longitudinal study was conducted from November 2012 to May 2013 in the Ghibe valley to evaluate diminazene aceturate (DA) resistance and assess livestock owner's perception of trypanocidal drug use. Four Peasant Associations (PAs) were purposively selected and the cattle randomly sampled in each PAs. At the beginning of the study (t0), 106 bovines positive for trypanosomes by the haematocrit centrifugation technique (HCT) and 119 negative control animals were recruited for six months follow-up using HCT, 18S-PCR-RFLP, DpnII-PCR-RFLP and microsatellite analysis. Prevalence of trypanosomosis was 18.1% based on the HCT technique and the mean PCV value was 23.6±5.1% for the 587 sampled cattle. Out of the 106 HCT positive, 64 (60.4%) were positive for the presence of trypanosomes using the 18S-PCR-RFLP. Species detection showed 38 (59.4%) Trypanosoma congolense savannah, 18 (28.1%) Trypanosoma vivax, 5 (7.8%) Trypanosoma theileri and 3 (4.7%) T. congolense Kilifi. Among the T. congolense savannah samples, 31 (81.6%) showed a DA resistant RFLP profile, 2 (5.3%) a mixed profile and 5 did not amplify using the DpnII-PCR-RFLP. A positive HCT had a significant effect on PCV (p<0.001) with the mean PCV value equal to 24.4±0.2% in the absence of trypanosomes and to 20.9±0.3% in the presence of trypanosomes. PCV increased significantly (p<0.001) with 4.4±0.5% one month after treatment. All T. congolense savannah type were analyzed using microsatellite markers TCM1, TCM3 and TCM4. The main events were new infections (40.0%) and relapses (37.5%) with cures lagging at 22.5%. In 10 purposively selected PAs a semi-structured questionnaire was used. The average herd size was the highest in Abelti PA (6.7±1.8 TLU) and the mean herd size was statistically different (p=0.01) in the 10 PAs. Trypanosomosis was designated as the main disease affecting cattle by 97% of the respondents. DA was used by 95.5% of the farmers though more than half of them (51.9%) were not familiar with isometamidium (ISM). There was a trend to overdose young small animals and to underdose large ones. Oxen were treated very frequently (nearly 20 times/year) and calves almost never. To improve the situation in the Ghibe valley, extension messages should be delivered to promote a rational drug use, improved livestock management and the application of strategic vector control methods. PMID:25738729

  11. Population structure of spotted seatrout, Cynoscion nebulosus, in Texas bays and estuaries as revealed by analysis of microsatellite DNA 

    E-print Network

    Stewart, Leah Beth

    2013-02-22

    analysis ~c:1&age. Journal of Heredity, 83, 157-158. ~~~ fFett: ~~W (1961) Movements and growth of spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus Cuvier) in ~~~st Florida. State of Florida Board of Conservation, Technical Series, 36, 1-33. ~~miler %4 ~ Murphy MD... for exact test ecumenism. Journal of Heredity, 86, 248-249. Rice WR (1989) Analyzing tables of statistical tests. Evolution, 43, 223-225. Roff'DA, Bentzen P (1989) The statistical analysis of mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms: X and the problem of small...

  12. Relationships of maternal and paternal anthropometry with neonatal body size, proportions and adiposity in an Australian cohort.

    PubMed

    Pomeroy, Emma; Wells, Jonathan C K; Cole, Tim J; O'Callaghan, Michael; Stock, Jay T

    2015-04-01

    The patterns of association between maternal or paternal and neonatal phenotype may offer insight into how neonatal characteristics are shaped by evolutionary processes, such as conflicting parental interests in fetal investment and obstetric constraints. Paternal interests are theoretically served by maximizing fetal growth, and maternal interests by managing investment in current and future offspring, but whether paternal and maternal influences act on different components of overall size is unknown. We tested whether parents' prepregnancy height and body mass index (BMI) were related to neonatal anthropometry (birthweight, head circumference, absolute and proportional limb segment and trunk lengths, subcutaneous fat) among 1,041 Australian neonates using stepwise linear regression. Maternal and paternal height and maternal BMI were associated with birthweight. Paternal height related to offspring forearm and lower leg lengths, maternal height and BMI to neonatal head circumference, and maternal BMI to offspring adiposity. Principal components analysis identified three components of variability reflecting neonatal "head and trunk skeletal size," "adiposity," and "limb lengths." Regression analyses of the component scores supported the associations of head and trunk size or adiposity with maternal anthropometry, and limb lengths with paternal anthropometry. Our results suggest that while neonatal fatness reflects environmental conditions (maternal physiology), head circumference and limb and trunk lengths show differing associations with parental anthropometry. These patterns may reflect genetics, parental imprinting and environmental influences in a manner consistent with parental conflicts of interest. Paternal height may relate to neonatal limb length as a means of increasing fetal growth without exacerbating the risk of obstetric complications. PMID:25502164

  13. W-SPECIFIC MICROSATELLITE LOCI DETECTED BY IN SILICO ANALYSIS, MAP TO CHROMOSOME Z OF THE CHICKEN GENOME

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unlike mammals, avian females are the heterogametic gender (ZW) and males are the homogametic (ZZ). The non-recombining, female-specific regions are maternally inherited. As such, they have a special value for matrilineal phylogenetic analysis of chicken populations and possibly for avian species in...

  14. Polymorphic microsatellites and Wilson disease (WD)

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, E. A.; White, A.; Tomfohrde, J.; Osborne-Lawrence, S.; Prestridge, L.; Bonne-Tamir, B.; Scheinberg, I. H.; George-Hyslop, P. St; Giagheddu, M.; Kim, J.-W.; Seo, J. K.; Lo, W. H.-y.; Ivanova-Smolenskaya, I. A.; Limborska, S. A.; Cavalli-Sforza, L. L.; Farrer, L. A.; Bowcock, A. M.

    1993-01-01

    Wilson disease (WD), an autosomal recessive disorder of copper metabolism, has been previously mapped to chromosome 13q. Highly informative PCR-based polymorphic microsatellites closely linked to the WD locus (WND) at 13q14.3, as well as sequence-tagged sites for closely linked loci, are described. Two polymorphic microsatellite markers at D13S118 and D13S119 lie within 3 cM of WND. Two others (D13S227 and D13S228) were derived from a yeast artificial chromosome containing D13S31. These were placed on a genetic linkage map of chromosome 13 and were typed in 74 multiplex WD families from a variety of geographic origins (166 affected members). Multipoint analysis provides very high odds that the location of WND is between D13S31/D13S227/D13S228 and D13S59. Previous odds with RFLP-based markers were only 7:1 more likely than any other location. Current odds are 5,000:1. Preclinical testing of three cases of WD by using the highly informative polymorphic microsatellite markers is described. The markers described here ensure that 95% of predictive tests using DNA from both parents and from at least one affected sib will have an accuracy >99%. PMID:8213814

  15. Relationship of Paternity Status, Welfare Reform Period, and Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Infant Mortality.

    PubMed

    Ngui, Emmanuel M; Cortright, Alicia L; Michalski, Karen

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship of paternity status, welfare reform period, and racial/ethnic disparities in infant mortality. The study used retrospective analysis of birth outcomes data from singleton birth/infant death data in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, from 1993 to 2009. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between paternity status, welfare reform period, and infant mortality, adjusting for maternal and infant characteristics. Data consisted of almost 185,000 singleton live births and 1,739 infant deaths. Although unmarried women with no father on record made up about 32% of the live births, they accounted for over two thirds of the infant deaths compared with married women with established paternity who made up 39% of live births but had about a quarter of infant deaths. After adjustments, any form of paternity establishment was protective against infant mortality across all racial/ethnic groups. Unmarried women with no father on record had twice to triple the odds of infant mortality among all racial/ethnic groups. The likelihood of infant mortality was only significantly greater for African American women in the postwelfare (1999-2004; odds ratio = 1.27; 95% confidence interval = 1.10-1.46) period compared with the 1993 to 1998 period. Study findings suggest that any form of paternity establishment may have protective effect against infant mortality. Welfare reform changes may have reduced some of the protection against infant mortality among unmarried African American women that was present before the welfare legislation. Policies and programs that promote or support increased paternal involvement and establishment of paternity may improve birth outcomes and help reduce infant mortality. PMID:25061086

  16. 45 CFR 303.5 - Establishment of paternity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...establish paternity in any case involving incest or forcible rape, or in any case in which legal proceedings for adoption are...voluntarily acknowledge paternity, (C) Notice, orally or through video or audio equipment, and in writing, of the alternatives...

  17. 45 CFR 303.5 - Establishment of paternity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...establish paternity in any case involving incest or forcible rape, or in any case in which legal proceedings for adoption are...voluntarily acknowledge paternity, (C) Notice, orally or through video or audio equipment, and in writing, of the alternatives...

  18. 45 CFR 303.5 - Establishment of paternity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...establish paternity in any case involving incest or forcible rape, or in any case in which legal proceedings for adoption are...voluntarily acknowledge paternity, (C) Notice, orally or through video or audio equipment, and in writing, of the alternatives...

  19. Microsatellites for Carpotroche brasiliensis (Flacourtiaceae), a useful species for agroforestry and ecosystem conservation1

    PubMed Central

    Bittencourt, Flora; Alves, Jackeline S.; Gaiotto, Fernanda A.

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: We developed microsatellite markers for Carpotroche brasiliensis (Flacourtiaceae), a dioecious tree that is used as a food resource by midsize animals of the Brazilian fauna. Methods and Results: We designed 30 primer pairs using next-generation sequencing and classified 25 pairs as polymorphic. Observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.5 to 1.0, and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.418 to 0.907. The combined probability of exclusion was greater than 0.999 and the combined probability of identity was less than 0.001, indicating that these microsatellites are appropriate for investigations of genetic structure, individual identification, and paternity testing. Conclusions: The developed molecular tools may contribute to future studies of population genetics, answering ecological and evolutionary questions regarding efficient conservation strategies for C. brasiliensis. PMID:26697275

  20. Low paternal dietary folate alters the mouse sperm epigenome and is associated with negative pregnancy outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Lambrot, R.; Xu, C.; Saint-Phar, S.; Chountalos, G.; Cohen, T.; Paquet, M.; Suderman, M.; Hallett, M.; Kimmins, S.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that a father’s diet can influence offspring health. A proposed mechanism for paternal transmission of environmental information is via the sperm epigenome. The epigenome includes heritable information such as DNA methylation. We hypothesize that the dietary supply of methyl donors will alter epigenetic reprogramming in sperm. Here we feed male mice either a folate-deficient or folate-sufficient diet throughout life. Paternal folate deficiency is associated with increased birth defects in the offspring, which include craniofacial and musculoskeletal malformations. Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis and the subsequent functional analysis identify differential methylation in sperm of genes implicated in development, chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, autism and schizophrenia. While >300 genes are differentially expressed in offspring placenta, only two correspond to genes with differential methylation in sperm. This model suggests epigenetic transmission may involve sperm histone H3 methylation or DNA methylation and that adequate paternal dietary folate is essential for offspring health. PMID:24326934

  1. An example of microsatellite length variation in the mitochondrial genome of conifers

    E-print Network

    Provan, Jim

    nuclear microsatellites, or sim- ple sequence repeats (SSRs), has revolutionized the analysis of genetic that chloroplast genomes also contain polymorphic microsatellites (Powell et al. 1995a, 1995b) and chloroplast SSRs (cpSSRs) have been used to study inter- and intraspecific variation in conifers (Powell et al. 1995

  2. Molecular diversity and population structure of Chinese green foxtail [Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv.] revealed by microsatellite analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Guanqing; Shi, Shenkui; Wang, Chunfang; Niu, Zhengang; Chai, Yang; Zhi, Hui; Diao, Xianmin

    2013-01-01

    Green foxtail (Setaria viridis) is a new model plant for the genomic investigation of C4 photosynthesis biology. As the ancestor of foxtail millet (Setaria italica), an ancient cereal of great importance in arid regions of the world, green foxtail is crucial for the study of domestication and evolution of this ancient crop. In the present study, 288 green foxtail accessions, which were collected from all geographical regions of China, were analysed using 77 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) that cover the whole genome. A high degree of molecular diversity was detected in these accessions, with an average of 33.5 alleles per locus. Two clusters, which were inconsistent with the distribution of eco-geographical regions in China, were inferred from STRUCTURE, Neighbor–Joining, and principal component analysis, indicating a partially mixed distribution of Chinese green foxtails. The higher subpopulation diversity was from accessions mainly collected from North China. A low level of linkage disequilibrium was observed in the green foxtail genome. Furthermore, a combined analysis of green foxtail and foxtail millet landraces was conducted, and the origin and domestication of foxtail millet was inferred in North China. PMID:23956411

  3. Paternal kin discrimination in wild baboons Susan C. Alberts

    E-print Network

    Alberts, Susan C

    Paternal kin discrimination in wild baboons Susan C. Alberts Department of Zoology, Duke University. Here I report that among wild baboons, Papio cynocephalus, paternal siblings exhibited lower levels untested in large mammals. For baboons, as for other animals, two possible mechan- isms of paternal kin

  4. Microsatellite analysis in serum DNA as a diagnostic tool for distinction of patients with unknown pancreatic masses.

    PubMed

    Wachowiak, Robin; Kaifi, Jussuf; Schwarzenbach, Heidi; Yekebas, Emre; Merkert, Petra; Schurr, Paulus; Hansen, Bente; Reichelt, Uta; Strate, Tim; Pantel, Klaus; Izbicki, Jakob R

    2007-09-01

    The clinical distinction between cancer and chronic pancreatitis is difficult in patients with pancreatic masses. To test whether detection of aberrant serum DNA could assist in this important differential diagnosis, we tested a panel of 12 microsatellitemarkers from chromosomes 17p, 17q, 13q, 9p, 5q, and 2p in the blood of 35 pancreatic cancer patients, 22 patients with chronic pancreatitis, and 20 healthy individuals. An average of 2.8 loss of heterozygosity (LOH) was found in 32 of 35 cancer patients of whom 30 (86%) had 2 or more LOH. LOH was also found in 7 of 22 pancreatitis patients but all these patients had only 1 LOH. No LOH was detected in healthy donors of comparable age. These data suggest that LOH analysis may be a substantial help for diagnosing pancreatic masses. An extension of the panel, perhaps in combination with a better selection of markers may further improve this assay. PMID:17721326

  5. Microsatellite instability: an update.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Imai, Kohzoh

    2015-06-01

    Deficient DNA mismatch repair (MMR) results in a strong mutator phenotype known as microsatellite instability (MSI), which is a hallmark of Lynch syndrome-associated cancers. MSI is characterized by length alterations within simple repeated sequences that are called microsatellites. Lynch syndrome is primarily caused by mutations in the MMR genes, mainly MLH1 and MSH2, and less frequently in MSH6, and rarely PMS2, and large genomic rearrangements account for 5-20 % of all mutations. Germ line hemiallelic methylations of MLH1 or MSH2 are termed as epimutations and have been identified as causative of Lynch syndrome. Moreover, germ line 3' deletions of EPCAM gene is involved in MSH2 methylation. MSI is also observed in about 15 % of sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC), gastric cancer (GC), and endometrial cancer (EC), and at lower frequencies in other cancers, often in association with hypermethylation of the MLH1 gene. Trimethylation of histone H3 on Lys36 (H3K36 me3) is an epigenetic histone mark that was required for DNA MMR in vivo. Thus, mutations in the H3K36 trimethyltransferase SETD2 have been reported as a potential cause of MSI. Genetic, epigenetic, and transcriptomic differences have been identified between cancers with and without MSI. Recent comprehensive molecular characterizations of CRC, EC, and GC by The Cancer Genome Atlas indicate that MSI+ cancers are distinct biological entities. The BRAF V600E mutation is specifically associated with sporadic MSI+ CRCs with methylated MLH1, but is not associated with Lynch syndrome-related CRCs. Accumulating evidence indicates a role of interactions between MSI and microRNA (miRNA) in the pathogenesis of MSI-positive (MSI+) cancer. As another new mechanism underlying MSI, overexpression of miR-155 or miR-21 has been shown to downregulate the expression of the MMR genes. Gene targets of frameshift mutations caused by MSI are involved in various cellular functions, including DNA repair (MSH3 and MSH6), cell signaling (TGFBR2 and ACVR2A), apoptosis (BAX), epigenetic regulation (HDAC2 and ARID1A), and miRNA processing (TARBP2 and XPO5), and a subset of MSI+ CRCs reportedly shows the mutated miRNA machinery phenotype. Moreover, microsatellite repeats in miRNA genes, such as hsa-miR-1273c, may be novel MSI targets for CRC, and mutations in noncoding regulatory regions of MRE11, BAX (Bax?2), and HSP110 (HSP110?E9) may affect the efficiency of chemotherapy. Thus, analyses of MSI and its related molecular alterations in cancers are increasingly relevant in clinical settings, and MSI is a useful screening marker for identifying patients with Lynch syndrome and a prognostic factor for chemotherapeutic interventions. In this review, we summarize recent advances in the pathogenesis of MSI and focus on genome-wide analyses that indicate the potential use of MSI and related alterations as biomarkers and novel therapeutic targets. PMID:25701956

  6. In-silico mining, type and frequency analysis of genic microsatellites of finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.): a comparative genomic analysis of NBS-LRR regions of finger millet with rice.

    PubMed

    Kalyana Babu, B; Pandey, Dinesh; Agrawal, P K; Sood, Salej; Kumar, Anil

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, the increased availability of the DNA sequences has given the possibility to develop and explore the expressed sequence tags (ESTs) derived SSR markers. In the present study, a total of 1956 ESTs of finger millet were used to find the microsatellite type, distribution, frequency and developed a total of 545 primer pairs from the ESTs of finger millet. Thirty-two EST sequences had more than two microsatellites and 1357 sequences did not have any SSR repeats. The most frequent type of repeats was trimeric motif, however the second place was occupied by dimeric motif followed by tetra-, hexa- and penta repeat motifs. The most common dimer repeat motif was GA and in case of trimeric SSRs, it was CGG. The EST sequences of NBS-LRR region of finger millet and rice showed higher synteny and were found on nearly same positions on the rice chromosome map. A total of eight, out of 15 EST based SSR primers were polymorphic among the selected resistant and susceptible finger millet genotypes. The primer FMBLEST5 could able to differentiate them into resistant and susceptible genotypes. The alleles specific to the resistant and susceptible genotypes were sequenced using the ABI 3130XL genetic analyzer and found similarity to NBS-LRR regions of rice and finger millet and contained the characteristic kinase-2 and kinase 3a motifs of plant R-genes belonged to NBS-LRR region. The In-silico and comparative analysis showed that the genes responsible for blast resistance can be identified, mapped and further introgressed through molecular breeding approaches for enhancing the blast resistance in finger millet. PMID:24477586

  7. Preferential loss of the paternal alleles in the 18q- syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Cody, J.D.; Pierce, J.F.; Brkanac, Z.

    1997-03-31

    Individuals with the 18q- syndrome have variable deletions from the long arm of chromosome 18. They also exhibit a highly variable phenotype. To correlate genotype with phenotype accurately, extensive molecular and phenotypic analyses are needed on each affected individual. As a part of this analysis, we have determined the parental origin of the deleted chromosome in 34 individuals with the 18q- syndrome. We have found that 85% of the de novo deletions are paternal in origin. The percentage of fathers of individuals with paternally derived deletions who were >30 years old was (not significantly) greater than that of the general population. The mothers of individuals with maternally derived deletions were near an average age for childbearing compared to the general population. Individuals with maternally derived terminal deletions had breakpoints as varied as those with paternally derived deletions. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the reduced incidence of maternally derived deletions is not due to reduced viability, since individuals with large maternally derived deletions of chromosome 18q were found. We hypothesize that the prevalence of paternally derived deletions is due to an increased frequency of chromosome breakage in male germ cells. These results are consistent with results observed in other segmental aneusomies in which there is a high incidence of paternally derived deletions. 39 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Transferability of cucumber microsatellite markers used for phylogenetic analysis and population structure study in bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standl.).

    PubMed

    Bhawna; Abdin, M Z; Arya, L; Verma, M

    2015-02-01

    Improved breeding for developing fruit quality in bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standl.) necessitates knowledge regarding its genetic diversity. To achieve this, a set of 108 locus-specific SSR markers has been developed in bottle gourd by cross-species transferability from 995 mapped Cucumis sativus SSR markers. During screening, 280 primer pairs amplified in the bottle gourd germplasm, which were further evaluated in a diverse set of 42 lines, resulting in 19 polymorphic, 89 monomorphic, 15 with multiple bands, and the rest 157 showed no or very non-specific amplification. The 19 polymorphic primer pairs produced a total of 54 alleles. Gene diversity, Shannon's information index, and Nei's coefficient of differentiation were calculated suggesting a moderate genetic variation at the species level. A model-based population structure analysis divided these germplasm into two subpopulations. This marker set will be applicable for evaluating the genetic structure for association mapping, DNA fingerprinting, and mounting linkage maps and will be a practical tool set for further genetics. This study provides one of the first quantitative views of population genetic variation in bottle gourd. PMID:25471016

  9. Development of Microsatellite Markers Derived from Expressed Sequence Tags of Polyporales for Genetic Diversity Analysis of Endangered Polyporus umbellatus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuejin; Chen, Yuanyuan; Wang, Ruihong; Zeng, Ailin; Deyholos, Michael K.; Shu, Jia; Guo, Hongbo

    2015-01-01

    A large scale of EST sequences of Polyporales was screened in this investigation in order to identify EST-SSR markers for various applications. The distribution of EST sequences and SSRs in five families of Polyporales was analyzed, respectively. Mononucleotide was the most abundant type, followed by trinucleotide. Among five families, Ganodermataceae occupied the most SSR markers, followed by Coriolaceae. Functional prediction of SSR marker-containing EST sequences in Ganoderma lucidum obtained three main groups, namely, cellular component, biological process, and molecular function. Thirty EST-SSR primers were designed to evaluate the genetic diversity of 13 natural Polyporus umbellatus accessions. Twenty one EST-SSRs were polymorphic with average PIC value of 0.33 and transferability rate of 71%. These 13 P. umbellatus accessions showed relatively high genetic diversity. The expected heterozygosity, Nei's gene diversity, and Shannon information index were 0.41, 0.39, and 0.57, respectively. Both UPGMA dendrogram and principal coordinate analysis (PCA) showed the same cluster result that divided the 13 accessions into three or four groups. PMID:26146636

  10. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers and analysis of genetic diversity in Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Siqi; Liu, Ying; Ma, Liying; Liu, Huabo; Tang, Yan; Wu, Liping; Wang, Zhe; Li, Yingyue; Wu, Rongling; Pang, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill, 2n = 2× = 24, Rhamnaceae) is an economically important Chinese native species. It has high nutritional value, and its medicinal properties have led to extensive use in traditional oriental medicine. The characterization of genotypes using molecular markers is important for genetic studies and plant breeding. However, few simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are available for this species. In this study, 1,488 unique SSR clones were isolated from Z. jujuba 'Dongzao' using enriched genomic libraries coupled with a three-primer colony PCR screening strategy, yielding a high enrichment rate of 73.3%. Finally, 1,188 (80.87%) primer pairs were amplified successfully in the size expected for 'Dongzao'. A total of 350 primer pairs were further selected and evaluated for their ability to detect polymorphisms across a panel of six diverse cultivars; among these, 301 primer pairs detected polymorphisms, and the polymorphism information content (PIC) value across all loci ranged from 0.15 to 0.82, with an average of 0.52. An analysis of 76 major cultivars employed in Chinese jujube production using 31 primer pairs revealed comparatively high genetic diversity among these cultivars. Within-population differences among individuals accounted for 98.2% of the observed genetic variation. Neighbor-joining clustering divided the cultivars into three main groups, none of which correspond to major geographic regions, suggesting that the genetics and geographical origin of modern Chinese jujube cultivars might not be linked. The current work firstly reports the large-scale development of Chinese jujube SSR markers. The development of these markers and their polymorphic information represent a significant improvement in the available Chinese jujube genomic resources and will facilitate both genetic and breeding applications, further accelerating the development of new cultivars. PMID:24932973

  11. Isolation and Characterization of Microsatellite Markers and Analysis of Genetic Diversity in Chinese Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huabo; Tang, Yan; Wu, Liping; Wang, Zhe; Li, Yingyue; Wu, Rongling; Pang, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill, 2n?=?2×?=?24, Rhamnaceae) is an economically important Chinese native species. It has high nutritional value, and its medicinal properties have led to extensive use in traditional oriental medicine. The characterization of genotypes using molecular markers is important for genetic studies and plant breeding. However, few simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are available for this species. In this study, 1,488 unique SSR clones were isolated from Z. jujuba ‘Dongzao’ using enriched genomic libraries coupled with a three-primer colony PCR screening strategy, yielding a high enrichment rate of 73.3%. Finally, 1,188 (80.87%) primer pairs were amplified successfully in the size expected for ‘Dongzao’. A total of 350 primer pairs were further selected and evaluated for their ability to detect polymorphisms across a panel of six diverse cultivars; among these, 301 primer pairs detected polymorphisms, and the polymorphism information content (PIC) value across all loci ranged from 0.15 to 0.82, with an average of 0.52. An analysis of 76 major cultivars employed in Chinese jujube production using 31 primer pairs revealed comparatively high genetic diversity among these cultivars. Within-population differences among individuals accounted for 98.2% of the observed genetic variation. Neighbor-joining clustering divided the cultivars into three main groups, none of which correspond to major geographic regions, suggesting that the genetics and geographical origin of modern Chinese jujube cultivars might not be linked. The current work firstly reports the large-scale development of Chinese jujube SSR markers. The development of these markers and their polymorphic information represent a significant improvement in the available Chinese jujube genomic resources and will facilitate both genetic and breeding applications, further accelerating the development of new cultivars. PMID:24932973

  12. Genome-wide semiquantitative microsatellite analysis of human hepatocellular carcinoma: discrete mapping of smallest region of overlap of recurrent chromosomal gains and losses.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Takafumi; Nishida, Naoshi; Komeda, Toshiki; Fukuda, Yoshihiro; Ikai, Iwao; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Nakao, Kazuwa

    2006-05-01

    Recurrent chromosomal gains at 1q, 6p, 8q, and 17q, or losses at 1p, 4q, 6q, 8p, 9p, 13q, 16q, and 17p are common features of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). For precise determination of the shortest region of overlap (SRO), 49 HCC obtained at the time of surgery or autopsy were subjected to comprehensive microsatellite analysis by using 400 markers distributed at almost equal distances throughout the 22 autosomes and X chromosomes. Each allele showing imbalance was subjected to comparative duplex polymerase chain reaction using a retained allele as an internal control to determine whether the imbalance was the result of chromosomal gain or loss. The following SRO of recurrent chromosomal gains and losses were determined: -1p36.22 approximately p36.33, D1S450-D1S2893, 5.0 mega-base pairs (Mbp); +1q23.3 approximately q25.3, D1S2878-D1S2619, 16.9 Mbp; -4q21.2 approximately q24, D4S2964-D4S1572, 23.0 Mbp; -6q23.3 approximately qter, D6S292-qter, 34.7 Mb; -8p22 approximately p23.1, D8S549-D8S550, 4.8 Mbp; +8q12.2 approximately q24.13, D8S260-D8S514, 61.8 Mbp; -13q13.3 approximately q22.1, D13S218-D13S156, 35.6 Mbp; -16q22.1 approximately qter, D16S503-qter, 26.7 Mbp; and -17p12 approximately pter, D17S921-pter, 14.2 Mbp. Contrary to our initial expectations, many HCC showed major deletions or additions of chromosome arms, so that a number of genes were included in the SRO. Although some putative oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes mapped in these SRO may be important, relative copy number changes of numerous other genes may affect pathogenesis of HCC. PMID:16682288

  13. Risk factors of paternal depression in the early postnatal period in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Akiko; Ohashi, Kazutomo

    2010-06-01

    This study investigated risk factors of depression in fathers at 4 weeks post-partum using a cross-sectional design. Mothers were recruited at the 4 week postnatal health check between March and July 2007. A total of 510 mothers agreed to participate in the study. One-hundred-and-fifty-six fathers and 181 mothers returned the questionnaires. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale were filled out to assess depressive symptoms. There was no association between paternal and maternal depression. According to the logistic regression analysis, paternal depression was associated with employment status, history of psychiatric treatment, and unintended pregnancy. Of eight fathers with unstable employment, seven were temporary employees and one was unemployed, suggesting that perinatal care-providers should independently screen for depression in fathers and mothers and focus attention on paternal employment status, especially temporary employment. PMID:20602688

  14. Displays of paternal mouse pup retrieval following communicative interaction with maternal mates

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hong-Xiang; Lopatina, Olga; Higashida, Chiharu; Fujimoto, Hiroko; Akther, Shirin; Inzhutova, Alena; Liang, Mingkun; Zhong, Jing; Tsuji, Takahiro; Yoshihara, Toru; Sumi, Kohei; Ishiyama, Mizuho; Ma, Wen-Jie; Ozaki, Mitsunori; Yagitani, Satoshi; Yokoyama, Shigeru; Mukaida, Naofumi; Sakurai, Takeshi; Hori, Osamu; Yoshioka, Katsuji; Hirao, Atsushi; Kato, Yukio; Ishihara, Katsuhiko; Kato, Ichiro; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Cherepanov, Stanislav M.; Salmina, Alla B.; Hirai, Hirokazu; Asano, Masahide; Brown, David A.; Nagano, Isamu; Higashida, Haruhiro

    2013-01-01

    Compared with the knowledge of maternal care, much less is known about the factors required for paternal parental care. Here we report that new sires of laboratory mice, though not spontaneously parental, can be induced to show maternal-like parental care (pup retrieval) using signals from dams separated from their pups. During this interaction, the maternal mates emit 38-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations to their male partners, which are equivalent to vocalizations that occur following pheromone stimulation. Without these signals or in the absence of maternal mates, the sires do not retrieve their pups within 5?min. These results show that, in mice, the maternal parent communicates to the paternal parent to encourage pup care. This new paradigm may be useful in the analysis of the parental brain during paternal care induced by interactive communication. PMID:23299896

  15. Daddy issues: paternal effects on phenotype.

    PubMed

    Rando, Oliver J

    2012-11-01

    The once popular and then heretical idea that ancestral environment can affect the phenotype of future generations is coming back into vogue due to advances in the field of epigenetic inheritance. How paternal environmental conditions influence the phenotype of progeny is now a tractable question, and researchers are exploring potential mechanisms underlying such effects. PMID:23141533

  16. A microsatellite-based analysis for the detection of selection on BTA1 and BTA20 in northern Eurasian cattle (Bos taurus) populations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Microsatellites surrounding functionally important candidate genes or quantitative trait loci have received attention as proxy measures of polymorphism level at the candidate loci themselves. In cattle, selection for economically important traits is a long-term strategy and it has been reported that microsatellites are linked to these important loci. Methods We have investigated the variation of seven microsatellites on BTA1 (Bos taurus autosome 1) and 16 on BTA20, using bovine populations of typical production types and horn status in northern Eurasia. Genetic variability of these loci and linkage disequilibrium among these loci were compared with those of 28 microsatellites on other bovine chromosomes. Four different tests were applied to detect molecular signatures of selection. Results No marked difference in locus variability was found between microsatellites on BTA1, BTA20 and the other chromosomes in terms of different diversity indices. Average D' values of pairwise syntenic markers (0.32 and 0.28 across BTA 1 and BTA20 respectively) were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than for non-syntenic markers (0.15). The Ewens-Watterson test, the Beaumont and Nichol's modified frequentist test and the Bayesian FST-test indicated elevated or decreased genetic differentiation, at SOD1 and AGLA17 markers respectively, deviating significantly (P < 0.05) from neutral expectations. Furthermore, lnRV, lnRH and lnR?' statistics were used for the pairwise population comparison tests and were significantly less variable in one population relative to the other, providing additional evidence of selection signatures for two of the 51 loci. Moreover, the three Finnish native populations showed evidence of subpopulation divergence at SOD1 and AGLA17. Our data also indicate significant intergenic linkage disequilibrium around the candidate loci and suggest that hitchhiking selection has played a role in shaping the pattern of observed linkage disequilibrium. Conclusion Hitchhiking due to tight linkage with alleles at candidate genes, e.g. the POLL gene, is a possible explanation for this pattern. The potential impact of selective breeding by man on cattle populations is discussed in the context of selection effects. Our results also suggest that a practical approach to detect loci under selection is to simultaneously apply multiple neutrality tests based on different assumptions and estimations. PMID:20691068

  17. Evolutionary history of partible paternity in lowland South America

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Robert S.; Flinn, Mark V.; Hill, Kim R.

    2010-01-01

    Partible paternity, the conception belief that more than one man can contribute to the formation of a fetus, is common in lowland South America and characterized by nonexclusive mating relationships and various institutionalized forms of recognition and investment by multiple cofathers. Previous work has emphasized the fitness benefits for women where partible paternity beliefs facilitate paternal investment from multiple men and may reduce the risk of infanticide. In this comparative study of 128 lowland South American societies, the prevalence of partible paternity beliefs may be as much as two times as common as biologically correct beliefs in singular paternity. Partible paternity beliefs are nearly ubiquitous in four large language families—Carib, Pano, Tupi, and Macro-Je. Phylogenetic reconstruction suggests that partible paternity evolved deep in Amazonian prehistory at the root of a tentative Je-Carib-Tupi clade. Partible paternity often occurs with uxorilocal postmarital residence (males transfer), although there are exceptions. Partible paternity may have benefits for both sexes, especially in societies where essentially all offspring are said to have multiple fathers. Despite a decrease in paternity certainty, at least some men probably benefit (or mitigate costs) by increasing their number of extramarital partners, using sexual access to their wives to formalize male alliances, and/or sharing paternity with close kin. PMID:20974947

  18. Managing misaligned paternity findings in research including sickle cell disease screening in Kenya: ‘Consulting communities’ to inform policy?

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Vicki; Kombe, Francis; Fitzpatrick, Ray; Molyneux, Sassy; Parker, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The management of misaligned paternity findings raises important controversy worldwide. It has mainly, however, been discussed in the context of high-income countries. Genetic and genomics research, with the potential to show misaligned paternity, are becoming increasingly common in Africa. During a genomics study in Kenya, a dilemma arose over testing and sharing information on paternal sickle cell disease status. This dilemma may be paradigmatic of challenges in sharing misaligned paternity findings in many research and health care settings. Using a deliberative approach to community consultation to inform research practice, we explored residents' views on paternal testing and sharing misaligned paternity information. Between December 2009 and November 2010, 63 residents in Kilifi County were engaged in informed deliberative small group discussions, structured to support normative reflection within the groups, with purposive selection to explore diversity. Analysis was based on a modified framework analysis approach, drawing on relevant social science and bioethics literature. The methods generated in-depth individual and group reflection on morally important issues and uncovered wide diversity in views and values. Fundamental and conflicting values emerged around the importance of family interests and openness, underpinned by disagreement on the moral implications of marital infidelity and withholding truth. Wider consideration of ethical issues emerging in these debates supports locally-held reasoning that paternal sickle cell testing should not be undertaken in this context, in contrast to views that testing should be done with or without the disclosure of misaligned paternity information. The findings highlight the importance of facilitating wider testing of family members of affected children, contingent on the development and implementation of national policies for the management of this inherited disorder. Their richness also illustrates the potential for the approach adopted in this study to strengthen community consultation. PMID:24034967

  19. "I've Fixed Things Up": Paternal Identity of Substance-Dependent Fathers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peled, Einat; Gavriel-Fried, Belle; Katz, Noam

    2012-01-01

    This study deals with how substance-dependent men perceive their paternal identity. Data were based on in-depth semi-structured interviews with 12 Israeli fathers who were enrolled in methadone maintenance treatment. Content analysis revealed that participants had undergone a process of parental identity formation composed of four distinct stages:…

  20. MICROSATELLITE LETTERS Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite loci

    E-print Network

    Bohonak, Andrew J.

    of vernal pool habitat in San Diego due to human disturbance has been extensive, with only small remnants libraries yielded a total of 98 cloned sequences containing microsatellites, and 66 of these sequences have suitable flanking regions. Primers were designed and tested by GIS against fifteen individuals and genomic

  1. Advanced paternal age increases the risk of schizophrenia and obsessive–compulsive disorder in a Chinese Han population

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yuejing; Liu, Xiang; Luo, Hongrong; Deng, Wei; Zhao, Gaofeng; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Lan; Ma, Xiaohong; Liu, Xiehe; Murray, Robin A.; Collier, David A.; Li, Tao

    2012-01-01

    Using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, patient and non-patient version (SCID-P/NP), this study investigated 351 patients with schizophrenia, 122 with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), and 238 unrelated healthy volunteers in a Chinese Han population. The relative risks posed by advanced paternal age for schizophrenia and OCD in offspring were computed under logistic regression analyses and adjusted for the participant's sex, age and co-parent age at birth. Compared to the offspring with paternal age of 25–29 years old, the relative risks rose from 2.660 to 10.183 in the paternal age range of 30–34 and ? 35. The relative risks for OCD increased from 2.225 to 5.413 in 30–34 and ? 35. For offspring with paternal age of < 25, the odds ratios of developing schizophrenia and OCD were 0.628 and 0.289 respectively, whereas an association between increased maternal age and risk for schizophrenia/OCD was not seen. Interaction analysis showed an interaction effect between paternal age and maternal age at birth. Such a tendency of risk affected by parental age for schizophrenia and OCD existed after splitting out the data of early onset patients. Sex-specific analyses found that the relative risks for schizophrenia with paternal age of 30–34 and ? 35 in male offspring were 2.407 and 10.893, and in female offspring were 3.080 and 9.659. The relative risks for OCD with paternal age of 30–34 and ? 35 in male offspring were 3.493 and 7.373, and in female offspring 2.005 and 4.404. The mean paternal age of schizophrenia/OCD patients born before the early 1980s was much greater than that of patients who were born after then. The findings illustrated that advanced paternal age is associated with increased risk for both schizophrenia and OCD in a Chinese Han population, prominently when paternal age is over 35. Biological and non-biological mechanisms may both be involved in the effects of advanced paternal age on schizophrenia and OCD. PMID:22424906

  2. Transferability of Rubus Microsatellite Markers for use in Black Raspberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are valuable as co-dominant genetic markers with a variety of applications such as DNA fingerprinting, linkage mapping, and population structure analysis. To date, SSR marker development in Rubus has focused on red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L., subgenu...

  3. Applications of Redwood Genotyping by Using Microsatellite Markers1

    E-print Network

    markers have been developed in coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens). Two loci in particular (Seq18D7 and conservation. Key words: genotyping, microsatellites, redwood, Sequoia, simple sequence repeats Introduction and Langenheim 1987), and allozyme analysis (Rogers 1997, 1999, 2000) show that coast redwood [Sequoia

  4. Mosaicism for genome-wide paternal uniparental disomy with features of multiple imprinting disorders: diagnostic and management issues.

    PubMed

    Inbar-Feigenberg, Michal; Choufani, Sanaa; Cytrynbaum, Cheryl; Chen, Yi-An; Steele, Leslie; Shuman, Cheryl; Ray, Peter N; Weksberg, Rosanna

    2013-01-01

    Mosaicism for genome-wide paternal uniparental disomy (UPD) has been reported in only seven live born individuals to date. Clinical presentation includes manifestations of multiple paternal UPD syndromes with high variability, likely due to the variable levels of mosaicism in different somatic tissues. We report an eighth case in a female patient with mosaicism for genome-wide paternal UPD which highlights the complex clinical presentation. Our patient had features of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS), Angelman syndrome, and congenital hyperinsulinism. The clinical findings included prematurity, organomegaly, hemihyperplasia, developmental delay, benign tumors, and cystic lesions. The diagnosis in our patient was established utilizing microarray-based genome-wide DNA methylation analysis performed on leukocyte DNA. Targeted multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis of chromosome regions 11p15 and 15q13 confirmed mosaicism for paternal UPD at these genomic regions. This case represents the first report of microarray-based genome-wide DNA methylation analysis in the diagnosis of genome-wide paternal UPD. The application of microarray-based genome-wide DNA methylation analysis on selected individuals with complex clinical presentations could be a valuable diagnostic tool to improve the detection rate of mosaic genome-wide paternal UPD. This approach, which screens many loci simultaneously, is more cost-effective and less labor-intensive than performing multiple targeted DNA methylation-based assays. Identification of individuals with mosaicism for genome-wide paternal UPD is an important goal as it confers a low recurrence risk for the family and identifies individuals who require surveillance due to increased tumor risk. PMID:23239666

  5. Paternal Age, Paternal Presence and Children’s Health: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, Julian; Sutcliffe, Alastair G.; Melhuish, Edward; Barnes, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    In an observational study of 31,257 children we investigated the effects of paternal age at the time of the child’s birth, paternal absence and non-biological fathers on children’s health. Results are per 5 year change in paternal age. Older fathers were associated with lower rates of unintentional injuries, odds ratio (OR)=0.966, P=0.0027. There was a quadratic association between paternal age and risk of hospital admission, ?=0.0121, P=0.0109, with minimum risk at paternal age 37.7. Absent fathers were associated with increased risk of hospital admission, OR=1.19, P<10?3, lower rates of complete immunizations to 9 months, OR=0.562, P<10?3, higher Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) difficulties scores: ?=0.304, P=0.0024 (3 year olds), ?=0.697, P<10?3 (5 year olds). Non-biological fathers were associated with increased risk of unintentional injury, OR=1.16, P=0.0319 and hospital admission, OR=1.26, P=0.0166; lower rates of complete immunizations to 9 months, OR=0.343, P=0.0309 and higher SDQ difficulties scores: ?=0.908, P<10?3. PMID:25918623

  6. Microsatellites from Conyza canadensis (horseweed)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microsatellite loci were identified from Conyza canadensis (horseweed). Primer pairs for 64 loci were developed and of these eight were optimized and screened using genomic DNA from 22 accessions of horseweed from North America. Most loci were polymorphic and the number of alleles per locus ranged ...

  7. Blueberry Microsatellite Markers Identify Cranberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forty-six blueberry simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers or microsatellites were tested for the ability to amplify a polymorphic marker in eight American cranberry accessions. Sixteen SSRs resulted in informative and polymorphic SSR primer pairs and were used to fingerprint 16 economically important...

  8. Religion as a means to assure paternity

    PubMed Central

    Strassmann, Beverly I.; Kurapati, Nikhil T.; Hug, Brendan F.; Burke, Erin E.; Gillespie, Brenda W.; Karafet, Tatiana M.; Hammer, Michael F.

    2012-01-01

    The sacred texts of five world religions (Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism) use similar belief systems to set limits on sexual behavior. We propose that this similarity is a shared cultural solution to a biological problem: namely male uncertainty over the paternity of offspring. Furthermore, we propose the hypothesis that religious practices that more strongly regulate female sexuality should be more successful at promoting paternity certainty. Using genetic data on 1,706 father–son pairs, we tested this hypothesis in a traditional African population in which multiple religions (Islam, Christianity, and indigenous) coexist in the same families and villages. We show that the indigenous religion enables males to achieve a significantly (P = 0.019) lower probability of cuckoldry (1.3% versus 2.9%) by enforcing the honest signaling of menstruation, but that all three religions share tenets aimed at the avoidance of extrapair copulation. Our findings provide evidence for high paternity certainty in a traditional African population, and they shed light on the reproductive agendas that underlie religious patriarchy. PMID:22665788

  9. Human mutagens: evidence from paternal exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Narod, S.A.; Douglas, G.R.; Nestmann, E.R.; Blakey, D.H.

    1988-01-01

    The importance of inherited mutations as a cause of human disease has been established clearly through examples of well-defined genetic anomalies, such as Down syndrome and retinoblastoma. Furthermore, it is suspected that environmental contaminants induce mutations resulting in increased risk for such defects in subsequent generations of persons exposed. The present lack of direct evidence for induced inherited genetic disorders in human beings hampers the development of risk estimation techniques for extrapolation from animal models. The most extensive prospective epidemiologic studies of inherited genetic effects have involved survivors of atomic bomb detonations and patients treated with cancer chemotherapy. In neither case has a significant elevation in inherited genetic effects or cancer been detected in the offspring of exposed individuals. Epidemiologic studies of subjects receiving chronic exposure may be confounded by the effect of maternal exposure during pregnancy. Consideration of only paternal exposure can minimize the confounding influence of teratogenicity, enhancing the resolving power of studies for inherited effects. Using this approach, retrospective (case-control) studies of childhood cancer patients have provided limited but suggestive evidence for inheritance of induced effects. Endpoints, such as congenital malformations and spontaneous abortion following paternal exposure, can also be considered as indicators of heritable mutagenic effects. For example, there is limited evidence suggesting that paternal exposure to anaesthetic gases may cause miscarriage and congenital abnormalities as a result of induced male germ cell mutations. 104 references.

  10. Paternal dietary folate, B6 and B12 intake, and the risk of childhood brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Greenop, Kathryn R; Miller, Margaret; Bailey, Helen D; Scott, Rodney J; Attia, John; Bower, Carol; van Bockxmeer, Frank M; Ashton, Lesley J; Armstrong, Bruce K; Milne, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    It is biologically plausible that a paternal preconception diet low in nutrients related to DNA integrity could affect sperm DNA and subsequently risk of cancer in the offspring. The aim of this analysis was to investigate whether paternal preconception dietary folate, B6, or B12 intake was associated with the risk of childhood brain tumors (CBT) in an Australian case-control study. Cases <15 years of age were recruited from 10 Australian pediatric oncology centers between 2005 and 2010, and controls from random-digit dialing, frequency-matched to cases on age, sex, and state of residence. Paternal dietary information was obtained by food-frequency questionnaires. Nutrient values were energy adjusted and divided into tertiles for analysis by unconditional logistic regression. In fathers with relevant data (237 cases and 629 controls), no association with dietary folate and B6 and risk of CBT was seen; high B12 intake was associated with an increased risk of CBT (odds ratio highest vs. lowest tertile: 1.74, 95% confidence interval: 1.14, 2.66) without an increasing trend. These results do not support the hypothesis that paternal dietary folate intake influences the risk of CBT. The increased OR observed between dietary B12 intake and risk of CBT is without any certain explanation. PMID:25625505

  11. Addressing policy barriers to paternal involvement during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Alio, Amina P; Bond, M Jermane; Padilla, Yolanda C; Heidelbaugh, Joel J; Lu, Michael; Parker, Willie J

    2011-05-01

    Efforts to reduce infant mortality in the United States have failed to incorporate paternal involvement. Research suggests that paternal involvement, which has been recognized as contributing to child development and health for many decades, is likely to affect infant mortality through the mother's well-being, primarily her access to resources and support. In spite of that, systemic barriers facing the father and the influence on his involvement in the pregnancy have received little attention. The Commission on Paternal Involvement in Pregnancy Outcomes (CPIPO) has identified the most important social barriers to paternal involvement during pregnancy and outlined a set of key policy priorities aimed at fostering paternal involvement. This article summarizes the key recommendations, including equitable paternity leave, elimination of marriage as a tax and public assistance penalty, integration of fatherhood initiatives in MCH programs, support of low-income fathers through employment training, father inclusion in family planning services, and expansion of birth data collection to include father information. PMID:21472512

  12. Characterisation of microsatellite markers from sugarcane (Saccharum sp.), a highly polyploid species.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro; Taylor; Henry

    2000-06-29

    Cultivated sugarcane varieties (Saccharum spp) are derived from complex interspecific hybridisations between the species S. spontaneum (2n=40-128) and S. officinarum (2n=60 or 80). To analyse this complex genome, the potential of microsatellite repeats as genetic markers in sugarcane with respect to their abundance, variability and ability to detect polymorphisms was investigated. A set of microsatellite markers for genome analysis in cultivated sugarcane was identified from an enriched genomic DNA library constructed from Saccharum sp. cv Q124. Sequencing of 798 sugarcane genomic DNA clones from an enriched microsatellite library, yielded 457 inserts containing microsatellite repeat motifs. Just over 84% of the microsatellites contained dinucleotide or trinucleotide repeats averaging 15 and 13 repeat motifs, respectively. Primer sets were designed and synthesised for over 100 microsatellite sequences and tested on a set of five sugarcane cultivars. Both, heterozygosity as witnessed by the number of alleles, and length polymorphisms as seen in the differences in PCR product size for a particular allele were observed. Microsatellite markers are likely to have many applications in sugarcane genetics and breeding including germplasm analysis, cultivar identification, parent evaluation and marker assisted breeding. PMID:10814819

  13. An Epigenetic Role for Disrupted Paternal Gene Expression in Postzygotic Seed Abortion in Arabidopsis Interspecific Hybrids.

    PubMed

    Kirkbride, Ryan C; Yu, Helen Hong; Nah, Gyoungju; Zhang, Changqing; Shi, Xiaoli; Chen, Z Jeffrey

    2015-12-01

    Interspecific hybrids often increase the levels of heterozygosity and hybrid vigor, but some interspecific hybrid seeds are aborted shortly after fertilization. The mechanism behind this postzygotic seed abortion is poorly understood. Here, we report genome-wide analysis of allelic expression changes in developing siliques and seeds in three F1 interspecific crosses between Arabidopsis thaliana (Col, Ler, or C24) and Arabidopsis arenosa. The majority of maternally expressed genes (MEGs) were shared among all three F1 interspecific crosses, whereas ?90% of 272 paternally expressed genes (PEGs) were found only in one or two F1 crosses, suggesting a role for disrupted paternal gene expression in seed abortion that varies in different crosses. Consistent with this notion, 12 PEGs in the infertile interspecific hybrids matched MEGs in fertile intraspecific hybrids. This disruption of PEGs in the interspecific hybrids was consistent with the upregulation of the genes in the paternal-excess interploidy cross (2X6) between a diploid mother and a hexaploid father, leading to the seed abortion. Moreover, a subset of PEGs in the interspecific crosses were also upregulated in the intraspecific hybrid met1XWT or meaXWT, in which the mutant of MET1 (DNA METHYLTRANSFERASE1) or MEDEA, a Polycomb Repressive Complex2 gene, was used as the maternal parent. These data suggest that maternal epigenetic factors and paternal gene expression play important roles in the postzygotic seed abortion in interspecific hybrids or neo-allopolyploids. PMID:26409189

  14. Coding Microsatellite Frameshift Mutations Accumulate in Atherosclerotic Carotid Artery Lesions: Evaluation of 26 Cases and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Kurz, Carolin; Hakimi, Maani; Kloor, Matthias; Grond-Ginsbach, Caspar; Gross-Weissmann, Marie-Luise; Böckler, Dittmar; von Knebel Doeberitz, Magnus; Dihlmann, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Somatic DNA alterations are known to occur in atherosclerotic carotid artery lesions; however, their significance is unknown. The accumulation of microsatellite mutations in coding DNA regions may reflect a deficiency of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system. Alternatively, accumulation of these coding microsatellite mutations may indicate that they contribute to the pathology. To discriminate between these two possibilities, we compared the mutation frequencies in coding microsatellites (likely functionally relevant) with those in noncoding microsatellites (likely neutral). Genomic DNA was isolated from carotid endarterectomy (CEA) specimens of 26 patients undergoing carotid surgery and from 15 nonatherosclerotic control arteries. Samples were analyzed by DNA fragment analysis for instability at three noncoding (BAT25, BAT26, CAT25) and five coding (AIM2, ACVR2, BAX, CASP5, TGFBR2) microsatellite loci, with proven validity for detection of microsatellite instability in neoplasms. We found an increased frequency of coding microsatellite mutations in CEA specimens compared with control specimens (34.6 versus 0%; p = 0.0013). Five CEA specimens exhibited more than one frameshift mutation, and ACVR2 and CASP5 were affected most frequently (5/26 and 6/26). Moreover, the rate of coding microsatellite alterations (15/130) differed significantly from that of noncoding alterations (0/78) in CEA specimens (p = 0.0013). In control arteries, no microsatellite alterations were observed, neither in coding nor in noncoding microsatellite loci. In conclusion, the specific accumulation of coding mutations suggests that these mutations play a role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic carotid lesions, since the absence of mutations in noncoding microsatellites argues against general microsatellite instability, reflecting MMR deficiency. PMID:26070012

  15. Twelve polymorphic microsatellite loci from the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, the vector for citrus greening disease Huanglongbing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twelve polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed from microsatellite-enriched DNA libraries and mined from an EST library of Diaphorina citri, the vector of the devastating citrus greening disease (Huanglongbing). Analysis of 288 individuals from Florida, Texas, and Brazil showed allelic di...

  16. A novel microsatellite control system

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, K.R.; Frigo, J.R.; Tilden, M.W.

    1998-02-01

    The authors are researching extremely simple yet quite capable analog pulse-coded neural networks for ``smaller-faster-cheaper`` spacecraft attitude and control systems. The will demonstrate a prototype microsatellite that uses their novel control method to autonomously stabilize itself in the ambient magnetic field and point itself at the brightest available light source. Though still in design infancy, the ``Nervous Net`` controllers described could allow for space missions not currently possible given conventional satellite hardware. Result, prospects and details are presented.

  17. Relationships of maternal and paternal anthropometry with neonatal body size, proportions and adiposity in an Australian cohort

    PubMed Central

    Pomeroy, Emma; Wells, Jonathan CK; Cole, Tim J; O'Callaghan, Michael; Stock, Jay T

    2015-01-01

    The patterns of association between maternal or paternal and neonatal phenotype may offer insight into how neonatal characteristics are shaped by evolutionary processes, such as conflicting parental interests in fetal investment and obstetric constraints. Paternal interests are theoretically served by maximizing fetal growth, and maternal interests by managing investment in current and future offspring, but whether paternal and maternal influences act on different components of overall size is unknown. We tested whether parents' prepregnancy height and body mass index (BMI) were related to neonatal anthropometry (birthweight, head circumference, absolute and proportional limb segment and trunk lengths, subcutaneous fat) among 1,041 Australian neonates using stepwise linear regression. Maternal and paternal height and maternal BMI were associated with birthweight. Paternal height related to offspring forearm and lower leg lengths, maternal height and BMI to neonatal head circumference, and maternal BMI to offspring adiposity. Principal components analysis identified three components of variability reflecting neonatal “head and trunk skeletal size,” “adiposity,” and “limb lengths.” Regression analyses of the component scores supported the associations of head and trunk size or adiposity with maternal anthropometry, and limb lengths with paternal anthropometry. Our results suggest that while neonatal fatness reflects environmental conditions (maternal physiology), head circumference and limb and trunk lengths show differing associations with parental anthropometry. These patterns may reflect genetics, parental imprinting and environmental influences in a manner consistent with parental conflicts of interest. Paternal height may relate to neonatal limb length as a means of increasing fetal growth without exacerbating the risk of obstetric complications. Am J Phys Anthropol 156:625–636, 2015. PMID:25502164

  18. Paternal phylogeography and genetic diversity of East Asian goats.

    PubMed

    Waki, A; Sasazaki, S; Kobayashi, E; Mannen, H

    2015-06-01

    This study was a first analysis of paternal genetic diversity for extensive Asian domestic goats using SRY gene sequences. Sequencing comparison of the SRY 3'-untranslated region among 210 Asian goats revealed four haplotypes (Y1A, Y1B, Y2A and Y2B) derived from four variable sites including a novel substitution detected in this study. In Asian goats, the predominant haplotype was Y1A (62%) and second most common was Y2B (30%). Interestingly, the Y2B was a unique East Asian Y chromosomal variant, which differentiates eastern and western Eurasian goats. The SRY geographic distribution in Myanmar and Cambodia indicated predominant the haplotype Y1A in plains areas and a high frequency of Y2B in mountain areas. The results suggest recent genetic infiltration of modern breeds into South-East Asian goats and an ancestral SRY Y2B haplotype in Asian native goats. PMID:25917305

  19. Psychological issues surrounding paternal perinatal mental health.

    PubMed

    Currid, Thomas J

    It has become widely accepted that the perinatal period can be a time of heightened risk for mental health problems and emotional responses in women. However, there has been less research on men in this area and it has remained a somewhat neglected area. While perinatal mental health services are increasing for women, few exist for men. While the author acknowledges the greater impact perinatal mental health problems can have on women, this article explores psychological issues relating to paternal perinatal mental health. PMID:15732493

  20. Moral Status and the Wrongness of Paternalism

    PubMed Central

    Birks, David

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I consider the view that paternalism is wrong when it demeans or diminishes the paternalizee’s moral status (the Moral Status Argument). I argue that we should reject the Moral Status Argument because it is both too narrow and too broad. It is too narrow because it cannot account for the wrongness of some of the most objectionable paternalistic interventions, namely strong paternalistic interventions. It is too broad because it is unable to distinguish between wrongful paternalistic acts that are plausibly considered more wrong than other wrongful paternalistic acts. PMID:25075133

  1. Linkage analysis of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy and microsatellite loci spanning 61 cM of human chromosome 6p in 19 nuclear pedigrees provides no evidence for a susceptibility locus in this region

    SciTech Connect

    Elmslie, F.V.; Williamson, M.P.; Rees, M.

    1996-09-01

    Linkage analysis in separately ascertained families of probands with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) has previously provided evidence both for and against the existence of a locus (designated {open_quotes}EJM1{close_quotes}), on chromosome 6p, predisposing to a trait defined as either clinical JME, its associated electroencephalographic abnormality, or idiopathic generalized epilepsy. Linkage analysis was performed in 19 families in which a proband and at least one first- or two second-degree relatives have clinical JME. Family members were typed for seven highly polymorphic microsatellite markers on chromosome 6p: D6S260, D6S276, D6S291, D6S271, D6S465, D6S257, and D6S254. Pairwise and multipoint linkage analysis was carried out under the assumptions of autosomal dominant inheritance at 70% and 50% penetrance and autosomal recessive inheritance at 70% and 50% penetrance. No significant evidence in favor of linkage to the clinical trait of JME was obtained for any locus. The region formally excluded (LOD score <-2) by using multipoint analysis varies depending on the assumptions made concerning inheritance parameters and the proportion of linked families, {alpha} - that is, the degree of locus heterogeneity. Further analysis either classifying all unaffected individuals as unknown or excluding a subset of four families in which pyknoleptic absence seizures were present in one or more individuals did not alter these conclusions. 24 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  2. 45 CFR 302.31 - Establishing paternity and securing support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... assignment as defined in § 301.1 of this chapter is effective, to secure support for a child or children from... activities to establish paternity or secure support until notified of a final determination by the appropriate agency. (c) The IV-D agency will not undertake to establish paternity or secure support in...

  3. Female reproductive synchrony predicts skewed paternity across primates

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, Charles L.; Schülke, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have uncovered remarkable variation in paternity within primate groups. To date, however, we lack a general understanding of the factors that drive variation in paternity skew among primate groups and across species. Our study focused on hypotheses from reproductive skew theory involving limited control and the use of paternity “concessions” by investigating how paternity covaries with the number of males, female estrous synchrony, and rates of extragroup paternity. In multivariate and phylogenetically controlled analyses of data from 27 studies on 19 species, we found strong support for a limited control skew model, with reproductive skew within groups declining as female reproductive synchrony and the number of males per group increase. Of these 2 variables, female reproductive synchrony explained more of the variation in paternity distributions. To test whether dominant males provide incentives to subordinates to resist matings by extragroup males, that is, whether dominants make concessions of paternity, we derived a novel prediction that skew is lower within groups when threat from outside the group exists. This prediction was not supported as a primary factor underlying patterns of reproductive skew among primate species. However, our approach revealed that if concessions occur in primates, they are most likely when female synchrony is low, as these conditions provide alpha male control of paternity that is assumed by concessions models. Collectively, our analyses demonstrate that aspects of male reproductive competition are the primary drivers of reproductive skew in primates. PMID:19018288

  4. The prognostic value of anti-paternal antibodies and leukocyte immunizations on the proportion of live births in couples with consecutive recurrent miscarriages.

    PubMed

    Orgad, S; Loewenthal, R; Gazit, E; Sadetzki, S; Novikov, I; Carp, H

    1999-12-01

    Anti-paternal antibodies directed towards paternal leukocytes have been used to predict the prognosis for the subsequent pregnancy in women with consecutive recurrent miscarriages (CRM) and also to determine if the patient has become immune after paternal leukocyte immunization. The predictive value is controversial, as these antibodies are not essential for pregnancy to develop, and only occur in a minority of parous women. This study tried to determine the predictive value of these antibodies when assessed separately for women with five or more abortions and compared to women with three or four abortions. The patients were assessed separately so that the higher live birth rate in the latter group would not obscure meaningful results in the former group with a poor prognosis. Antibody production, whether spontaneous, or induced by immunization, raised the live birth rate in primary and tertiary aborters with three, four, five or more abortions. Anti-paternal antibodies increased the proportion of live births from 18.5 to 53. 7% (P /= 5 CRM and 3-4 CRM respectively. Both immunization with paternal leukocytes per se and the ability to express anti-paternal antibodies were associated with an increased proportion of live births in the next pregnancy. Multivariate analysis showed that that the odds ratio for a live birth was approximately four times greater in women who were immunized and produced anti-paternal antibodies than in control patients. The lack of anti-paternal antibodies at initial testing could serve as a marker for the benefit of immunization with paternal leukocytes; the subsequent presence as a prognostic marker for the subsequent pregnancy. PMID:10601081

  5. Relatedness threshold for the production of female sexuals in colonies of a polygynous ant, Myrmica tahoensis, as revealed by microsatellite DNA analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, J D

    1995-01-01

    The genetic relationships of colony members in the ant Myrmica tahoensis were determined on the basis of highly polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci. These analyses show that colonies fall into one of two classes. In roughly half of the sampled colonies, workers and female offspring appear to be full sisters. The remaining colonies contain offspring produced by two or more queens. Colonies that produce female sexuals are always composed of highly related females, while colonies that produce males often show low levels of nestmate relatedness. These results support theoretical predictions that workers should skew sex allocation in response to relatedness asymmetries found within colonies. The existence of a relatedness threshold below which female sexuals are not produced suggests a possible mechanism for worker perception of relatedness. Two results indicate that workers use genetic cues, not queen number, in making sex-allocation decisions. (i) The number of queens in a colony was not significantly correlated with either the level of relatedness asymmetry or the sex ratio. (ii) Sex-ratio shifts consistent with a genetically based mechanism of relatedness assessment were seen in an experiment involving transfers of larvae among unrelated nests. Thus workers appear to make sex-allocation decisions on the basis of larval cues and appear to be able to adjust sex ratios long after egg laying. Images Fig. 2 PMID:7604024

  6. Genetic characterization of four native Italian shepherd dog breeds and analysis of their relationship to cosmopolitan dog breeds using microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Bigi, D; Marelli, S P; Randi, E; Polli, M

    2015-12-01

    Very little research into genetic diversity of Italian native dog breeds has been carried out so far. In this study we aimed to estimate and compare the genetic diversity of four native Italian shepherd dog breeds: the Maremma, Bergamasco, Lupino del Gigante and Oropa shepherds. Therefore, some cosmopolitan dog breeds, which have been widely raised in Italy for a long time past, have also been considered to check possible influence of these dog populations on the Italian autochthonous breeds considered here. A total of 212 individuals, belonging to 10 different dog breeds, were sampled and genotyped using 18 autosomal microsatellite loci. We analyzed the genetic diversity of these breeds, within breed diversity, breed relationship and population structure. The 10 breeds considered in this study were clearly genetically differentiated from each other, regardless of current population sizes and the onset of separate breeding history. The level of genetic diversity explained 20% of the total genetic variation. The level of H E found here is in agreement with that found by other studies. The native Italian breeds showed generally higher genetic diversity compared with the long established, well-defined cosmopolitan dog breeds. As the Border Collie seems closer to the Italian breeds than the other cosmopolitan shepherd dogs considered here, a possible utilization of this breed to improve working performance in Italian traditional working shepherd dogs cannot be ignored. The data and information found here can be utilized in the organization of conservation programs planned to reduce inbreeding and to minimize loss of genetic variability. PMID:26245492

  7. Genetic diversity and population structure analysis of the tropical pasture grass Brachiaria humidicola based on microsatellites, cytogenetics, morphological traits, and geographical origin.

    PubMed

    Jungmann, L; Vigna, B B Z; Boldrini, K R; Sousa, A C B; do Valle, C B; Resende, R M S; Pagliarini, M S; Zucchi, M I; de Souza, A P

    2010-09-01

    Brachiaria humidicola (Rendle) Schweick. is a warm-season grass commonly used as forage in the tropics. Accessions of this species were collected in eastern Africa and massively introduced into South America in the 1980s. Several of these accessions form a germplasm collection at the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation. However, apomixis, ploidy, and limited knowledge of the genetic basis of this germplasm collection have constrained breeding activities. The objectives of this work were to identify genetic variability in the Brazilian B. humidicola germplasm collection using microsatellite markers and to compare the results with information on the following: (1) collection sites of the accessions; (2) reproductive mode and ploidy levels; and (3) genetic diversity revealed by morphological traits. The evaluated germplasm population is highly structured into four major groups. The sole sexual accession did not group with any of the clusters. Genetic dissimilarities did not correlate with either geographic distances or genetic distances inferred from morphological descriptors. Additionally, the genetic structure identified in this collection did not correspond to differences in ploidy level. Alleles exclusive to either sexual or apomictic accessions were identified, suggesting that further evaluation of the association of these loci with apospory should be carried out. PMID:20924419

  8. Karyotypic analysis and FISH mapping of microsatellite motifs reveal highly differentiated XX/XY sex chromosomes in the pink-tailed worm-lizard (Aprasia parapulchella, Pygopodidae, Squamata)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The infraorder Gekkota is intriguing because it contains multiple chromosomal and environmental sex determination systems that vary even among closely related taxa. Here, we compare male and females karyotypes of the pink-tailed worm-lizard (Aprasia parapulchella), a small legless lizard belonging to the endemic Australian family Pygopodidae. Results We applied comparative genomic hybridization to reveal an XX/XY sex chromosome system in which the Y chromosome is highly differentiated from the X in both gross morphology and DNA sequence. In addition, FISH mapping has revealed that two microsatellite repeat motifs, (AGAT)n and (AC)n, have been amplified multiple times on the Y chromosome. Conclusion XY karyotypes are found in other pygopodids (Delma inornata and Lialis burtonis), suggesting that the common ancestor of Pygopodidae also had XY sex chromosomes. However, the morphology and size of the Y chromosomes are different among the three species, suggesting that the processes underlying the evolution of sex chromosomes in the Pygopodidae involved chromosome rearrangements and accumulation and amplification of repeats. PMID:24344753

  9. Microsatellite analysis of a population crash and bottleneck in the Mauna Kea silversword, Argyroxiphium sandwicense ssp. sandwicense (Asteraceae), and its implications for reintroduction.

    PubMed

    Friar, E A; Ladoux, T; Roalson, E H; Robichaux, R H

    2000-12-01

    The Mauna Kea silversword, Argyroxiphium sandwicense ssp. sandwicense, has experienced both a severe population crash associated with an increase in alien ungulate populations on Mauna Kea, and a population bottleneck associated with reintroduction. In this paper, we address the genetic consequences of both demographic events using eight microsatellite loci. The population crash was not accompanied by a significant reduction in number of alleles or heterozygosity. However, the population bottleneck was accompanied by significant reductions in observed number of alleles, effective number of alleles, and expected heterozygosity, though not in observed heterozygosity. The effective size of the population bottleneck was calculated using both observed heterozygosities and allele frequency variances. Both methods corroborated the historical census size of the population bottleneck of at most three individuals. The results suggest that: (i) small populations, even those that result from severe reductions in historical population size and extent, are not necessarily genetically depauperate; and (ii) species reintroduction plans need to be conceived and implemented carefully, with due consideration to the genetic impact of sampling for reintroduction. PMID:11123615

  10. Impact of a chromosome X STR Decaplex in deficiency paternity cases

    PubMed Central

    Trindade-Filho, Aluisio; Ferreira, Samuel; Oliveira, Silviene F.

    2013-01-01

    Deficiency paternity cases, characterized by the absence of the alleged father, are a challenge for forensic genetics. Here we present four cases with a female child and a deceased alleged father in which the analysis of a set of 21 or 22 autosomal STRs (AS STRs) produced results within a range of doubt when genotyping relatives of the alleged father. Aiming to increase the Paternity Index (PI) and obtain more reliable results, a set of 10 X-linked STR markers, developed by the Spanish and Portuguese Group of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG), was then added. Statistical analysis substantially shifted the results towards the alleged fatherhood in all four cases, with more dramatic changes when the supposed half-sister and respective mother were the relatives tested. PMID:24385853

  11. Genetic evidence of extra-pair paternity and intraspecific brood parasitism in the monk parakeet

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The monk parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus) is a widespread invasive species native to southern South America that has become established in many regions of the world. Monk parakeets breed in a large, fully enclosed structure built from twigs, which consist of one to many individual brooding chambers. The species has been considered to be socially and genetically monogamous. However, genetic relatedness of adults to juveniles in the native area was found to be lower than expected for monogamy. To assess the significance of this discrepancy, we examined individual and population genetic patterns of microsatellite loci at two sites in Córdoba province, Argentina. Results We sampled 154 nestlings and 42 adults in Córdoba, Argentina. Mean value of pairwise relatedness of nestlings within chambers was about 0.40. Contrarily, relatedness of nestlings between chambers was close to zero. We found a considerable degree of variation in nestling pairwise relatedness and parentage within chambers, including chambers with combinations of unrelated, half-sib, and full-sib nestlings. The proportion of sibling relatedness indicated monogamy in 47% and extra pair-paternity in 40% of the chambers. We also found intra-brood parasitism in 3% of the chambers. Conclusions Our results indicate that the monk parakeet is sexually polygamous in its native range in Argentina, which is consistent with the observed mean value of relatedness of adults to juveniles of about 0.4. We also confirm the existence of intra-brood parasitism. High density of monk parakeets may favor occurrence of extra-pair paternity and intra-brood parasitism in the native sites. PMID:24209709

  12. The impact of paternity on male-infant association in a primate with low paternity certainty

    PubMed Central

    Langos, Doreen; Kulik, Lars; Mundry, Roger; Widdig, Anja

    2013-01-01

    In multi-male groups where females mate promiscuously, male-infant associations have rarely been studied. However, recent studies have shown that males selectively support their offspring during agonistic conflicts with other juveniles and that father’s presence accelerates offspring maturation. Furthermore, it was shown that males invest in unrelated infants to enhance future mating success with the infant’s mother. Hence, infant care might provide fitness gain for males. Here we investigate male-infant associations in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), a primate with low paternity certainty as females mate with multiple partners and males ensure paternity less efficiently through mate-guarding. We combined behavioral data with genetic paternity analyses of one cohort of the semifree-ranging population of Cayo Santiago (Puerto Rico) and recorded affiliative and aggressive interactions between focal subjects and adult males from birth to sexual maturation (0–4 years) of focal subjects. Our results revealed, that 9.6% of all interactions of focal subjects involved an adult male and 94% of all male-infant interactions were affiliative, indicating the rareness of male-infant aggression. Second and most interestingly, sires were more likely to affiliate with their offspring than non-sires with unrelated infants. This preference was independent of mother’s proximity and emphasized during early infancy. Male-infant affiliation rose with infant age and was pronounced between adult males and male rather than female focal subjects. Overall our results suggest that male-infant affiliation are also an important component in structuring primate societies and affiliation directed towards own offspring presumably represent low cost paternal care. PMID:23682587

  13. The number of alleles at a microsatellite defines the allele frequency spectrum and facilitates fast accurate estimation of theta.

    PubMed

    Haasl, Ryan J; Payseur, Bret A

    2010-12-01

    Theoretical work focused on microsatellite variation has produced a number of important results, including the expected distribution of repeat sizes and the expected squared difference in repeat size between two randomly selected samples. However, closed-form expressions for the sampling distribution and frequency spectrum of microsatellite variation have not been identified. Here, we use coalescent simulations of the stepwise mutation model to develop gamma and exponential approximations of the microsatellite allele frequency spectrum, a distribution central to the description of microsatellite variation across the genome. For both approximations, the parameter of biological relevance is the number of alleles at a locus, which we express as a function of ?, the population-scaled mutation rate, based on simulated data. Discovered relationships between ?, the number of alleles, and the frequency spectrum support the development of three new estimators of microsatellite ?. The three estimators exhibit roughly similar mean squared errors (MSEs) and all are biased. However, across a broad range of sample sizes and ? values, the MSEs of these estimators are frequently lower than all other estimators tested. The new estimators are also reasonably robust to mutation that includes step sizes greater than one. Finally, our approximation to the microsatellite allele frequency spectrum provides a null distribution of microsatellite variation. In this context, a preliminary analysis of the effects of demographic change on the frequency spectrum is performed. We suggest that simulations of the microsatellite frequency spectrum under evolutionary scenarios of interest may guide investigators to the use of relevant and sometimes novel summary statistics. PMID:20605970

  14. The Number of Alleles at a Microsatellite Defines the Allele Frequency Spectrum and Facilitates Fast Accurate Estimation of ?

    PubMed Central

    Haasl, Ryan J.; Payseur, Bret A.

    2010-01-01

    Theoretical work focused on microsatellite variation has produced a number of important results, including the expected distribution of repeat sizes and the expected squared difference in repeat size between two randomly selected samples. However, closed-form expressions for the sampling distribution and frequency spectrum of microsatellite variation have not been identified. Here, we use coalescent simulations of the stepwise mutation model to develop gamma and exponential approximations of the microsatellite allele frequency spectrum, a distribution central to the description of microsatellite variation across the genome. For both approximations, the parameter of biological relevance is the number of alleles at a locus, which we express as a function of ?, the population-scaled mutation rate, based on simulated data. Discovered relationships between ?, the number of alleles, and the frequency spectrum support the development of three new estimators of microsatellite ?. The three estimators exhibit roughly similar mean squared errors (MSEs) and all are biased. However, across a broad range of sample sizes and ? values, the MSEs of these estimators are frequently lower than all other estimators tested. The new estimators are also reasonably robust to mutation that includes step sizes greater than one. Finally, our approximation to the microsatellite allele frequency spectrum provides a null distribution of microsatellite variation. In this context, a preliminary analysis of the effects of demographic change on the frequency spectrum is performed. We suggest that simulations of the microsatellite frequency spectrum under evolutionary scenarios of interest may guide investigators to the use of relevant and sometimes novel summary statistics. PMID:20605970

  15. Genetic differentiation and genetic diversity of Castanopsis (Fagaceae), the dominant tree species in Japanese broadleaved evergreen forests, revealed by analysis of EST-associated microsatellites.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Kyoko; Ueno, Saneyoshi; Kamijo, Takashi; Setoguchi, Hiroaki; Murakami, Noriaki; Kato, Makoto; Tsumura, Yoshihiko

    2014-01-01

    The broadleaved evergreen forests of the East Asian warm temperate zone are characterised by their high biodiversity and endemism, and there is therefore a need to extend our understanding of its genetic diversity and phylogeographic patterns. Castanopsis (Fagaceae) is one of the dominant tree species in the broadleaved evergreen forests of Japan. In this study we investigate the genetic diversity, genetic structure and leaf epidermal morphology of 63 natural populations of C. sieboldii and C. cuspidata, using 32 Expressed Sequence Tag associated microsatellites. The overall genetic differentiation between populations was low (GST?=?0.069 in C. sieboldii and GST?=?0.057 in C. cuspidata). Neighbor-joining tree and Bayesian clustering analyses revealed that the populations of C. sieboldii and C. cuspidata were genetically clearly differentiated, a result which is consistent with the morphology of their epidermal cell layers. This suggests that C. sieboldii and C. cuspidata should be treated as independent species, although intermediate morphologies are often observed, especially at sites where the two species coexist. The higher level of genetic diversity observed in the Kyushu region (for both species) and the Ryukyu Islands (for C. sieboldii) is consistent with the available fossil pollen data for Castanopsis-type broadleaved evergreen trees during the Last Glacial Maximum and suggests the existence of refugia for Castanopsis forests in southern Japan. Within the C. sieboldii populations, Bayesian clustering analyses detected three clusters, in the western and eastern parts of the main islands and in the Ryukyu Islands. The west-east genetic differentiation observed for this species in the main islands, a pattern which is also found in several plant and animal species inhabiting Castanopsis forests in Japan, suggests that they have been isolated from each other in the western and eastern populations for an extended period of time, and may imply the existence of eastern refugia. PMID:24498103

  16. Genetic Differentiation and Genetic Diversity of Castanopsis (Fagaceae), the Dominant Tree Species in Japanese Broadleaved Evergreen Forests, Revealed by Analysis of EST-Associated Microsatellites

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, Kyoko; Ueno, Saneyoshi; Kamijo, Takashi; Setoguchi, Hiroaki; Murakami, Noriaki; Kato, Makoto; Tsumura, Yoshihiko

    2014-01-01

    The broadleaved evergreen forests of the East Asian warm temperate zone are characterised by their high biodiversity and endemism, and there is therefore a need to extend our understanding of its genetic diversity and phylogeographic patterns. Castanopsis (Fagaceae) is one of the dominant tree species in the broadleaved evergreen forests of Japan. In this study we investigate the genetic diversity, genetic structure and leaf epidermal morphology of 63 natural populations of C. sieboldii and C. cuspidata, using 32 Expressed Sequence Tag associated microsatellites. The overall genetic differentiation between populations was low (GST?=?0.069 in C. sieboldii and GST?=?0.057 in C. cuspidata). Neighbor-joining tree and Bayesian clustering analyses revealed that the populations of C. sieboldii and C. cuspidata were genetically clearly differentiated, a result which is consistent with the morphology of their epidermal cell layers. This suggests that C. sieboldii and C. cuspidata should be treated as independent species, although intermediate morphologies are often observed, especially at sites where the two species coexist. The higher level of genetic diversity observed in the Kyushu region (for both species) and the Ryukyu Islands (for C. sieboldii) is consistent with the available fossil pollen data for Castanopsis-type broadleaved evergreen trees during the Last Glacial Maximum and suggests the existence of refugia for Castanopsis forests in southern Japan. Within the C. sieboldii populations, Bayesian clustering analyses detected three clusters, in the western and eastern parts of the main islands and in the Ryukyu Islands. The west-east genetic differentiation observed for this species in the main islands, a pattern which is also found in several plant and animal species inhabiting Castanopsis forests in Japan, suggests that they have been isolated from each other in the western and eastern populations for an extended period of time, and may imply the existence of eastern refugia. PMID:24498103

  17. The development of 10 novel polymorphic microsatellite markers through next generation sequencing and a preliminary population genetic analysis for the endangered Glenelg spiny crayfish, Euastacus bispinosus.

    PubMed

    Miller, Adam D; Van Rooyen, Anthony; Sweeney, Oisín F; Whiterod, Nick S; Weeks, Andrew R

    2013-07-01

    The Glenelg spiny crayfish, Euastacus bispinosus, is an iconic freshwater invertebrate of south eastern Australia and listed as 'endangered' under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999, and 'vulnerable' under the International Union for Conservation of Nature's Red List. The species has suffered major population declines as a result of over-fishing, low environmental flows, the introduction of invasive fish species and habitat degradation. In order to develop an effective conservation strategy, patterns of gene flow, genetic structure and genetic diversity across the species distribution need to be clearly understood. In this study we develop a suite of polymorphic microsatellite markers by next generation sequencing. A total of 15 polymorphic loci were identified and 10 characterized using 22 individuals from the lower Glenelg River. We observed low to moderate genetic variation across most loci (mean number of alleles per locus = 2.80; mean expected heterozygosity = 0.36) with no evidence of individual loci deviating significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Marker independence was confirmed with tests for linkage disequilibrium, and analyses indicated no evidence of null alleles across loci. Individuals from two additional sites (Crawford River, Victoria; Ewens Ponds Conservation Park, South Australia) were genotyped at all 10 loci and a preliminary investigation of genetic diversity and population structure was undertaken. Analyses indicate high levels of genetic differentiation among sample locations (F ST = 0.49), while the Ewens Ponds population is genetically homogeneous, indicating a likely small founder group and ongoing inbreeding. Management actions will be needed to restore genetic diversity in this and possibly other at risk populations. These markers will provide a valuable resource for future population genetic assessments so that an effective framework can be developed for implementing conservation strategies for E. bispinosus. PMID:23644985

  18. Development of Chloroplast Microsatellite Markers and Analysis of Chloroplast Diversity in Chinese Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) and Wild Jujube (Ziziphus acidojujuba Mill.).

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian; Yang, Xiaoting; Zhang, Chunmei; Yin, Xiao; Liu, Shipeng; Li, Xingang

    2015-01-01

    Ziziphus is an important genus within the family Rhamnaceae. This genus includes several important fruit tree species that are widely planted in China and India, such as the Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.), the wild jujube (Z. acidojujuba), and the Indian jujube (Z. mauritiana). However, information about their domestication based on the chlorotype diversity of Chinese jujube population is lacking. In this study, chloroplast microsatellite (cpSSR) markers were developed and used to investigate the genetic relationships between and domestication of jujube cultivars and wild jujube populations. Primer sets flanking each of the 46 cpSSR loci in non-coding regions of the chloroplast genome sequence of Z. jujuba Mill. cv. 'Junzao' were designed. In total, 10 markers showed polymorphisms from 15 samples (9 jujube cultivars and 6 wild jujube individuals), of which 8 loci were due to variations in the number of mononucleotide (A/T) repeats and 2 were due to indels. Six cpSSR markers were used in further analyses of 81 additional samples (63 jujube cultivars, 17 wild jujube samples, and 1 Indian jujube). Using these cpSSR markers, the number of alleles per locus ranged from two to four. In general, the Shannon Index (I) for each cpSSR ranged from 0.159 to 0.1747, and the diversity indices (h) and uh were 0.061 to 0.435 and 0.062 to 0.439, respectively. Seven chlorotypes were found; the Indian jujube showed distinct chlorotypes, and both the Chinese and wild jujube had four chlorotypes and shared two chlorotypes. A dominant chlorotype (G) accounted for 53 of 72 jujube cultivars and 13 of 23 wild jujube individuals. All chlorotypes were highly localized along the Yellow River, from the mid- to the lower reaches, suggesting a wide origin of jujube. These cpSSR markers can be applied to population and evolution studies of Chinese jujube and wild jujube. PMID:26406601

  19. Development of Chloroplast Microsatellite Markers and Analysis of Chloroplast Diversity in Chinese Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) and Wild Jujube (Ziziphus acidojujuba Mill.)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jian; Yang, Xiaoting; Zhang, Chunmei; Yin, Xiao; Liu, Shipeng; Li, Xingang

    2015-01-01

    Ziziphus is an important genus within the family Rhamnaceae. This genus includes several important fruit tree species that are widely planted in China and India, such as the Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.), the wild jujube (Z. acidojujuba), and the Indian jujube (Z. mauritiana). However, information about their domestication based on the chlorotype diversity of Chinese jujube population is lacking. In this study, chloroplast microsatellite (cpSSR) markers were developed and used to investigate the genetic relationships between and domestication of jujube cultivars and wild jujube populations. Primer sets flanking each of the 46 cpSSR loci in non-coding regions of the chloroplast genome sequence of Z. jujuba Mill. cv. ‘Junzao’ were designed. In total, 10 markers showed polymorphisms from 15 samples (9 jujube cultivars and 6 wild jujube individuals), of which 8 loci were due to variations in the number of mononucleotide (A/T) repeats and 2 were due to indels. Six cpSSR markers were used in further analyses of 81 additional samples (63 jujube cultivars, 17 wild jujube samples, and 1 Indian jujube). Using these cpSSR markers, the number of alleles per locus ranged from two to four. In general, the Shannon Index (I) for each cpSSR ranged from 0.159 to 0.1747, and the diversity indices (h) and uh were 0.061 to 0.435 and 0.062 to 0.439, respectively. Seven chlorotypes were found; the Indian jujube showed distinct chlorotypes, and both the Chinese and wild jujube had four chlorotypes and shared two chlorotypes. A dominant chlorotype (G) accounted for 53 of 72 jujube cultivars and 13 of 23 wild jujube individuals. All chlorotypes were highly localized along the Yellow River, from the mid- to the lower reaches, suggesting a wide origin of jujube. These cpSSR markers can be applied to population and evolution studies of Chinese jujube and wild jujube. PMID:26406601

  20. A genome-wide microsatellite polymorphism database for the indica and japonica rice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhonghua; Deng, Yajun; Tan, Jun; Hu, Songnian; Yu, Jun; Xue, Qingzhong

    2007-02-28

    Microsatellite (MS) polymorphism is an important source of genetic diversity, providing support for map-based cloning and molecular breeding. We have developed a new database that contains 52 845 polymorphic MS loci between indica and japonica, composed of ample Class II MS markers, and integrated 18 828 MS loci from IRGSP and genetic markers from RGP. Based on genetic marker positions on the rice genome (http://rise.genomics.org.cn/rice2/index.jsp ), we determined the approximate genetic distances of these MS loci and validated 100 randomly selected markers experimentally with 90% success rate. In addition, we recorded polymorphic MS positions in indica cv. 9311 that is the most important paternal parent of the two-line hybrid rice in China. Our database will undoubtedly facilitate the application of MS markers in genetic researches and marker-assisted breeding. The data set is freely available from www.wigs.zju.edu.cn/achievment/polySSR. PMID:17452422

  1. A likelihood-based approach for assessment of extra-pair paternity and conspecific brood parasitism in natural populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lemons, Patrick R.; Marshall, T.C.; McCloskey, Sarah E.; Sethi, S.A.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Sedinger, James S.

    2015-01-01

    Genotypes are frequently used to assess alternative reproductive strategies such as extra-pair paternity and conspecific brood parasitism in wild populations. However, such analyses are vulnerable to genotyping error or molecular artifacts that can bias results. For example, when using multilocus microsatellite data, a mismatch at a single locus, suggesting the offspring was not directly related to its putative parents, can occur quite commonly even when the offspring is truly related. Some recent studies have advocated an ad-hoc rule that offspring must differ at more than one locus in order to conclude that they are not directly related. While this reduces the frequency with which true offspring are identified as not directly related young, it also introduces bias in the opposite direction, wherein not directly related young are categorized as true offspring. More importantly, it ignores the additional information on allele frequencies which would reduce overall bias. In this study, we present a novel technique for assessing extra-pair paternity and conspecific brood parasitism using a likelihood-based approach in a new version of program cervus. We test the suitability of the technique by applying it to a simulated data set and then present an example to demonstrate its influence on the estimation of alternative reproductive strategies.

  2. O father where art thou? Paternity analyses in a natural population of the haploid-diploid seaweed Chondrus crispus.

    PubMed

    Krueger-Hadfield, S A; Roze, D; Correa, J A; Destombe, C; Valero, M

    2015-02-01

    The link between life history traits and mating systems in diploid organisms has been extensively addressed in the literature, whereas the degree of selfing and/or inbreeding in natural populations of haploid-diploid organisms, in which haploid gametophytes alternate with diploid sporophytes, has been rarely measured. Dioecy has often been used as a proxy for the mating system in these organisms. Yet, dioecy does not prevent the fusion of gametes from male and female gametophytes originating from the same sporophyte. This is likely a common occurrence when spores from the same parent are dispersed in clumps and recruit together. This pattern of clumped spore dispersal has been hypothesized to explain significant heterozygote deficiency in the dioecious haploid-diploid seaweed Chondrus crispus. Fronds and cystocarps (structures in which zygotes are mitotically amplified) were sampled in two 25?m(2) plots located within a high and a low intertidal zone and genotyped at 5 polymorphic microsatellite loci in order to explore the mating system directly using paternity analyses. Multiple males sired cystocarps on each female, but only one of the 423 paternal genotypes corresponded to a field-sampled gametophyte. Nevertheless, larger kinship coefficients were detected between males siring cystocarps on the same female in comparison with males in the entire population, confirming restricted spermatial and clumped spore dispersal. Such dispersal mechanisms may be a mode of reproductive assurance due to nonmotile gametes associated with putatively reduced effects of inbreeding depression because of the free-living haploid stage in C. crispus. PMID:25227258

  3. Survey of compound microsatellites in multiple Lactobacillus genomes.

    PubMed

    Basharat, Zarrin; Yasmin, Azra

    2015-12-01

    Distinct simple sequence repeats with 2 or more individual microsatellites joined together or lying adjacent to each other are identified as compound microsatellites. Investigation of such composite microsatellites in the genomes of genus Lactobacillus was the aim of this study. In silico inspection of microsatellite clustering in genomes of 14 Lactobacillus species revealed a wealth of compound microsatellites. All of the mined compound microsatellites were imperfect, were composed of variant motifs, and increased in all genomes, with maximum distance (dMAX) increments of 10 to 50. The majority of these repeats were present in the coding regions. A correlation of microsatellite to compound microsatellite density was detected. The difference established in compound microsatellite division among eukaryotes, Escherichia coli, and lactobacilli is suggestive of diverse genomic features and elementary distinction between creation and fixation methods of compound microsatellites among these organisms. PMID:26445296

  4. Characterization of 14 microsatellite markers for Silene acaulis (Caryophyllaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Eike; Hlavá?ková, Iva; Svoen, Mildrid Elvik; Alsos, Inger Greve; Eidesen, Pernille Bronken

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: Fifty candidate microsatellite markers, generated using 454 shotgun sequencing, were tested for the widespread arctic/alpine herb Silene acaulis (Caryophyllaceae). Methods and Results: Fourteen out of 50 markers resulted in polymorphic products with profiles that enabled interpretation. The numbers of alleles per locus ranged from two to six, and the expected heterozygosity per locus ranged from 0.06 to 0.68. Analysis of F0 and F1 samples proved that one allele was always inherited maternally. Four multiplex mixes have been developed. Conclusions: Microsatellite markers for this species will be a valuable tool to study detailed small-scale genetic patterns in an arctic/alpine herb and to relate them to demographic parameters. PMID:26421249

  5. FishMicrosat: a microsatellite database of commercially important fishes and shellfishes of the Indian subcontinent

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Microsatellite DNA is one of many powerful genetic markers used for the construction of genetic linkage maps and the study of population genetics. The biological databases in public domain hold vast numbers of microsatellite sequences for many organisms including fishes. The microsatellite data available in these data sources were extracted and managed into a database that facilitates sequences analysis and browsing relevant information. The system also helps to design primer sequences for flanking regions of repeat loci for PCR identification of polymorphism within populations. Description FishMicrosat is a database of microsatellite sequences of fishes and shellfishes that includes important aquaculture species such as Lates calcarifer, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Penaeus monodon, Labeo rohita, Oreochromis niloticus, Fenneropenaeus indicus and Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The database contains 4398 microsatellite sequences of 41 species belonging to 15 families from the Indian subcontinent. GenBank of NCBI was used as a prime data source for developing the database. The database presents information about simple and compound microsatellites, their clusters and locus orientation within sequences. The database has been integrated with different tools in a web interface such as primer designing, locus finding, mapping repeats, detecting similarities among sequences across species, and searching using motifs and keywords. In addition, the database has the ability to browse information on the top 10 families and the top 10 species, through record overview. Conclusions FishMicrosat database is a useful resource for fish and shellfish microsatellite analyses and locus identification across species, which has important applications in population genetics, evolutionary studies and genetic relatedness among species. The database can be expanded further to include the microsatellite data of fishes and shellfishes from other regions and available information on genome sequencing project of species of aquaculture importance. PMID:24047532

  6. Canine Paternity Testing--Using Personal Experiences To Teach Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rascati, Ralph J.

    2002-01-01

    Outlines how an example from the field of animal husbandry is used in a DNA Technology course to motivate students to take a deeper interest in the material. Focuses on paternity testing in dogs. (DDR)

  7. Testosterone, Paternal Behavior, and Aggression in the Monogamous California Mouse

    E-print Network

    Marler, Catherine A.

    in this year-round territorial species. Castration reduced paternal behavior, whereas T replacement maintained was not reduced by castration. Interestingly, only sham males showed an increase in aggression across three

  8. Microsatellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, W. W.

    2007-06-01

    Asteroseismology is the most efficient method for investigating the interiors of stars and for testing current theories of stellar structure and evolution. One of the most important ingredients for this research field are pulsation eigenfrequencies of the target stars. The determination of such frequency spectra poses a challenge to observers, as the amplitudes can be extremely small and the frequencies need to be known to high accuracy. These requirements call for long and uninterrupted photometric data sets with a high duty cycle, and a reduction of all noise sources to achieve the photon noise limit in the optimum case. Already since the early days of asteroseismology two strategies were followed to pursue this goal: establishment of observatory networks on ground, and photometry from space. While various observatory networks are working successfully since 20 years and more, attempts to launch a dedicated space photometer were unsuccessful until June 2003, when MOST was brought into orbit. The potential of the stable space environment for photometry, however, was demonstrated already by, e.g., HST, WIRE, the IUE star tracker, but no large continuous photon noise limited data sets with a large duty cycle could be obtained with these satellites. With MOST already in orbit, COROT, due for launch end of December 2006, and Kepler in 2008, the situation has recently improved dramatically. Largely unnoticed by the asteroseismological community another technical development boosted the potential for space photometry: 3-axes stabilized nanosatellites. These satellites with less than 10 kg mass and typically a shape of a cube with not more than 30 cm in size basically can be built by students, launched and operated from rather small University institutes. The total budget needed is comparable to the costs of a smaller auxiliary instrument of one of the larger observatories. We in Austria have embarked together with our colleagues from Canada (Universities of Montreal, Toronto, and Vancouver) on the development of a network of up to four nanosatellites, called BRITE-Constellation. The two Austrian components are already funded. This ensemble of satellites will be launched in 2008 and will allow high precision two-colour photometry of bright and luminous stars. This group of objects is particularly interesting as it determines largely the ecology of our Universe.

  9. Cues of Paternal Uncertainty and Father to Child Physical Abuse as Reported by Mothers in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexandre, Gisele Caldas; Nadanovsky, Paulo; Wilson, Margo; Daly, Martin; Moraes, Claudia Leite; Reichenheim, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Paternity is uncertain, so if paternal feelings evolved to promote fitness, we might expect them to vary in response to variables indicative of paternity probability. We therefore hypothesized that the risk of lapses of paternal affection, including abusive assaults on children, will be exacerbated by cues of non-paternity. Methods:…

  10. Regulatory Elements Associated with Paternally-Expressed Genes in the Imprinted Murine Angelman/Prader-Willi Syndrome Domain

    PubMed Central

    Khadake, Jyoti; Heggestad, Arnold D.; Ma, Xiaojie; Johnstone, Karen A.; Resnick, James L.; Yang, Thomas P.

    2013-01-01

    The Angelman/Prader-Willi syndrome (AS/PWS) domain contains at least 8 imprinted genes regulated by a bipartite imprinting center (IC) associated with the SNRPN gene. One component of the IC, the PWS-IC, governs the paternal epigenotype and expression of paternal genes. The mechanisms by which imprinting and expression of paternal genes within the AS/PWS domain – such as MKRN3 and NDN – are regulated by the PWS-IC are unclear. The syntenic region in the mouse is organized and imprinted similarly to the human domain with the murine PWS-IC defined by a 6 kb interval within the Snrpn locus that includes the promoter. To identify regulatory elements that may mediate PWS-IC function, we mapped the location and allele-specificity of DNase I hypersensitive (DH) sites within the PWS-IC in brain cells, then identified transcription factor binding sites within a subset of these DH sites. Six major paternal-specific DH sites were detected in the Snrpn gene, five of which map within the 6 kb PWS-IC. We postulate these five DH sites represent functional components of the murine PWS-IC. Analysis of transcription factor binding within multiple DH sites detected nuclear respiratory factors (NRF's) and YY1 specifically on the paternal allele. NRF's and YY1 were also detected in the paternal promoter region of the murine Mrkn3 and Ndn genes. These results suggest that NRF's and YY1 may facilitate PWS-IC function and coordinately regulate expression of paternal genes. The presence of NRF's also suggests a link between transcriptional regulation within the AS/PWS domain and regulation of respiration. 3C analyses indicated Mkrn3 lies in close proximity to the PWS-IC on the paternal chromosome, evidence that the PWS-IC functions by allele-specific interaction with its distal target genes. This could occur by allele-specific co-localization of the PWS-IC and its target genes to transcription factories containing NRF's and YY1. PMID:23390487

  11. Microsatellite Instability in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Boland, C. Richard; Goel, Ajay

    2011-01-01

    Microsatellite instability (MSI) is a hypermutable phenotype caused by the loss of DNA mismatch repair activity. MSI is detected in about 15% of all colorectal cancers; 3% are of these are associated with Lynch syndrome and the other 12% are caused by sporadic, acquired hypermethylation of the promoter of the MLH1 gene, which occurs in tumors with the CpG island methylator phenotype. Colorectal tumors with MSI have distinctive features, including a tendency to arise in the proximal colon, lymphocytic infiltrate, and a poorly differentiated, mucinous or signet ring appearance. They have a slightly better prognosis than colorectal tumors without MSI and do not have the same response to chemotherapeutics. Discovery of MSI in colorectal tumors has increased awareness of the diversity of colorectal cancers and implications for specialized management of patients. PMID:20420947

  12. Genetic analysis of hybridization and introgression between wild mongoose and brown lemurs

    PubMed Central

    Pastorini, Jennifer; Zaramody, Alphonse; Curtis, Deborah J; Nievergelt, Caroline M; Mundy, Nicholas I

    2009-01-01

    Background Hybrid zones generally represent areas of secondary contact after speciation. The nature of the interaction between genes of individuals in a hybrid zone is of interest in the study of evolutionary processes. In this study, data from nuclear microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA sequences were used to genetically characterize hybridization between wild mongoose lemurs (Eulemur mongoz) and brown lemurs (E. fulvus) at Anjamena in west Madagascar. Results Two segments of mtDNA have been sequenced and 12 microsatellite loci screened in 162 brown lemurs and mongoose lemurs. Among the mongoose lemur population at Anjamena, we identified two F1 hybrids (one also having the mtDNA haplotype of E. fulvus) and six other individuals with putative introgressed alleles in their genotype. Principal component analysis groups both hybrids as intermediate between E. mongoz and E. fulvus and admixture analyses revealed an admixed genotype for both animals. Paternity testing proved one F1 hybrid to be fertile. Of the eight brown lemurs genotyped, all have either putative introgressed microsatellite alleles and/or the mtDNA haplotype of E. mongoz. Conclusion Introgression is bidirectional for the two species, with an indication that it is more frequent in brown lemurs than in mongoose lemurs. We conclude that this hybridization occurs because mongoose lemurs have expanded their range relatively recently. Introgressive hybridization may play an important role in the unique lemur radiation, as has already been shown in other rapidly evolving animals. PMID:19196458

  13. Microsatellite instability in prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Shan, A.L.; Wick, M.J.; Persons, D.L.

    1994-09-01

    Microsatellite instability (MIN) has been documented in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) as well as in sporadic forms of human cancers. Two of the genes which appear to be responsible for this particular tumor phenotype, hMSH2 and hMLH1, have now been identified. To determine the potential role of these mutator genes in prostate cancer, we have examined 95 prostate adenocarcinomas (40 paraffin embedded and 55 fresh frozen) for the presence of genetic instability at four microsatellite markers. The markers are localized to chromosome arms 5q(APC-CA1), 8p(Mfd 210Z), 15q(635/636), and 17q(p53-CA). Patients from whom paraffin embedded material was obtained were divided into short term (<3 years, n=18), and long term (>3 years, n=22) survivors. Of the 95 tumors examined, only four tumors (4%) demonstrated MIN: two tumors demonstrated MIN at 3 loci (p53-CA, APC-CA1, 635/636), one tumor demonstrated MIN at 2 loci (APC-CA1 and 635/636), and one tumor demonstrated instability at 635/636 only. All tumors exhibiting MIN had Gleason scores of {ge} 4+4. A correlation between MIN and survival was not observed. Information on family history was limited. However, of the two patients demonstrating MIN at three loci, one patient was diagnosed with a second malignancy (TCC of the ureter), but otherwise had a negative family history, while the second patient had one first degree relative with esophageal cancer. The patient demonstrating MIN at two loci had a negative family history, while the remaining patient had two first degree relatives with cancer (prostate and stomach). These results suggest that hMSH2 and hMLH1 (as reflected by the small percentage of tumors displaying MIN) do not play a prominent role in the process of prostate tumorigenesis.

  14. Uniparental isodisomy for paternal 7p and maternal 7q in a child with growth retardation

    SciTech Connect

    Eggerding, F.A.; Schonberg, S.A.; Cox, V.A.; Epstein, C.J. Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA ); Chehab, F.F.; Norton, M.E. )

    1994-08-01

    Uniparental isodisomy resulting from the simultaneous presence of isochromosomes of the p and q arms of a chromosome and absence of a normal homologue is an exceptionally rare event. The authors have observed a growth-retarded female infant in whom the normal chromosome 7 homologues were replaced by what appeared cytogenetically to be isochromosomes of 7p and 7q. Polymorphic microsatellite loci spanning the length of 7p and 7q were analyzed in the proband and her parents to ascertain the parental origin and extent of heterozygosity of the proband's rearranged chromosomes. These studies demonstrated that the 7p alleles of the proband were derived only from the father, the 7q alleles were derived only from the mother, and there was homozygosity for all chromosome 7 loci analyzed. The mechanisms leading to the formation of the proband's isochromosomes could reflect abnormalities of cell division occurring at meiosis, postfertilization mitosis, or both. The authors believe that the present case may result from incomplete mitotic interchange in the pericentromeric regions of chromosome 7 homologues, with resolution by sister-chromatid reunion in an early, if not first, zygotic division. Phenotypically, the proband resembled three previously reported cases of maternal isodisomy for chromosome 7, suggesting that lack of paternal genes from 7q may result in a phenotype of short stature and growth retardation. 76 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. A Testis-Specific Chaperone and the Chromatin Remodeler ISWI Mediate Repackaging of the Paternal Genome.

    PubMed

    Doyen, Cécile M; Chalkley, Gillian E; Voets, Olaf; Bezstarosti, Karel; Demmers, Jeroen A; Moshkin, Yuri M; Verrijzer, C Peter

    2015-11-17

    During spermatogenesis, the paternal genome is repackaged into a non-nucleosomal, highly compacted chromatin structure. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that Drosophila sperm chromatin proteins are characterized by a motif related to the high-mobility group (HMG) box, which we termed male-specific transcript (MST)-HMG box. MST77F is a MST-HMG-box protein that forms an essential component of sperm chromatin. The deposition of MST77F onto the paternal genome requires the chaperone function of tNAP, a testis-specific NAP protein. MST77F, in turn, enables the stable incorporation of MST35Ba and MST35Bb into sperm chromatin. Following MST-HMG-box protein deposition, the ATP-dependent chromatin remodeler ISWI mediates the appropriate organization of sperm chromatin. Conversely, at fertilization, maternal ISWI targets the paternal genome and drives its repackaging into de-condensed nucleosomal chromatin. Failure of this transition in ISWI mutant embryos is followed by mitotic defects, aneuploidy, and haploid embryonic divisions. Thus, ISWI enables bi-directional transitions between two fundamentally different forms of chromatin. PMID:26549447

  16. Associations between 2 paternal casein haplotypes and milk yield traits of Swiss Fleckvieh cattle.

    PubMed

    Braunschweig, Martin H

    2008-01-01

    Associations between casein haplotypes and milk yield traits of offspring from 5 Swiss Fleckvieh AI test bulls were investigated. The analysis was performed by using a daughter design, where each daughter inherited either paternal haplotype B-A1-A-A or B-A2-A-A for alleles of alpha s1-, beta-, alpha s2- and kappa-casein genes. The substitution effects of paternal CSN2 A1 versus A2 on protein yield deviations (YDs) were significant (P < 0.05), whereas their effects on milk and fat YDs were not. The paternal substitution effects of the CSN2 A1 versus the A2 allele on protein YDs within the 5 sires did not reach the significance level. This is due to the contrary allele substitution effect of a sire compared to the other 4 sires. The effects of maternal haplotypes on milk, protein and fat YDs were not significant. However, it is noteworthy that the effects of haplotypes with a low frequency in the population deviate largely from the most frequent haplotype B-A2-A-A. The effects of beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) genotypes were significant for protein YDs but not for milk and fat YDs. The association between the paternal CSN2 A1 and A2 alleles and milk protein YDs within sires but not milk and fat YDs indicate an interaction, which might be a consequence of CSN2 heterogeneity or a closely linked gene that is contributing to the estimated effects. PMID:18263971

  17. Transgenerational inheritance of enhanced susceptibility to radiation-induced medulloblastoma in newborn Ptch1+/- mice after paternal irradiation.

    PubMed

    Paris, Lorena; Giardullo, Paola; Leonardi, Simona; Tanno, Barbara; Meschini, Roberta; Cordelli, Eugenia; Benassi, Barbara; Longobardi, Maria Grazia; Izzotti, Alberto; Pulliero, Alessandra; Mancuso, Mariateresa; Pacchierotti, Francesca

    2015-11-01

    The hypothesis of transgenerational induction of increased cancer susceptibility after paternal radiation exposure has long been controversial because of inconsistent results and the lack of a mechanistic interpretation. Here, exploiting Ptch1 heterozygous knockout mice, susceptible to spontaneous and radiation-induced medulloblastoma, we show that exposure of paternal germ cells to 1 Gy X-rays, at the spermatogonial stage, increased by a considerable 1.4-fold the offspring susceptibility to medulloblastoma induced by neonatal irradiation. This effect gained further biological significance thanks to a number of supporting data on the immunohistochemical characterization of the target tissue and preneoplastic lesions (PNLs). These results altogether pointed to increased proliferation of cerebellar granule cell precursors and PNLs cells, which favoured the development of frank tumours. The LOH analysis of tumor DNA showed Ptch1 biallelic loss in all tumor samples, suggesting that mechanisms other than interstitial deletions, typical of radiation-induced medulloblastoma, did not account for the observed increased cancer risk. This data was supported by comet analysis showing no differences in DNA damage induction and repair in cerebellar cells as a function of paternal irradiation. Finally, we provide biological plausibility to our results offering evidence of a possible epigenetic mechanism of inheritance based on radiation-induced changes of the microRNA profile of paternal sperm. PMID:26452034

  18. Mitochondrial microsatellite instability in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Venderbosch, S; van Vliet, S; Craenmehr, M H C; Simmer, F; de Haan, A F J; Punt, C J A; Koopman, M; Nagtegaal, I D

    2015-05-01

    Mitochondrial microsatellite instability (mtMSI), a change in length in mtDNA microsatellite sequences between normal and tumor tissue, has been described as a frequent occurrence in colorectal cancer (CRC). We evaluated the prevalence and prognostic value of mtMSI and its relation to nuclear microsatellite instability (MSI) in patients with metastatic CRC (mCRC). At six loci (D310, D514, D16184, ND1, ND5, and COX1), the mitochondrial DNA sequence was analyzed in normal and tumor tissue, and the mtMSI status was determined. We evaluated the prevalence and outcome in terms of overall survival (OS) in 83 CRC patients with a MSI tumor (including 39 patients with Lynch syndrome) and in 99 mCRC patients with a microsatellite stable (MSS) tumor. A meta-analysis was performed to compare our findings with existing data. mtMSI at the D-loop region was found in 54.4 % (99 out of 182) of all patients. Prevalence of mtMSI was most pronounced at the D310 locus (50.5 %). Prevalence of mtMSI at the D-loop region was not different among patients with MSI compared to MSS tumors. There was no effect of mtMSI on prognosis in patients with MSI or MSS tumors. Prevalence of mtMSI was high in mCRC patients with both MSI and MSS tumors, but there was no correlation with prognosis. mtMSI was particularly present at the D310 locus. PMID:25697538

  19. Microsatellite mutations and inferences about human demography.

    PubMed Central

    Gonser, R; Donnelly, P; Nicholson, G; Di Rienzo, A

    2000-01-01

    Microsatellites have been widely used as tools for population studies. However, inference about population processes relies on the specification of mutation parameters that are largely unknown and likely to differ across loci. Here, we use data on somatic mutations to investigate the mutation process at 14 tetranucleotide repeats and carry out an advanced multilocus analysis of different demographic scenarios on worldwide population samples. We use a method based on less restrictive assumptions about the mutation process, which is more powerful to detect departures from the null hypothesis of constant population size than other methods previously applied to similar data sets. We detect a signal of population expansion in all samples examined, except for one African sample. As part of this analysis, we identify an "anomalous" locus whose extreme pattern of variation cannot be explained by variability in mutation size. Exaggerated mutation rate is proposed as a possible cause for its unusual variation pattern. We evaluate the effect of using it to infer population histories and show that inferences about demographic histories are markedly affected by its inclusion. In fact, exclusion of the anomalous locus reduces interlocus variability of statistics summarizing population variation and strengthens the evidence in favor of demographic growth. PMID:10747070

  20. Adolescents' paternal attachment and Internet use.

    PubMed

    Lei, Li; Wu, Yana

    2007-10-01

    As children approach middle childhood and adolescence, the influence of fathers on children's behavior and development becomes more equivalent to that of mothers. The quality of father-child attachment operates as a stronger predictor of adolescents' cognitive and emotional development. During adolescence, symbolic communication by means of the Internet becomes increasingly more important than physical approximate-seeking behavior in infancy and childhood. Adolescents might regard the Internet as their new attachment figure or may seek new attachment figures through the Internet. This study was designed to address the impacts of father-adolescent attachment on adolescents' Internet use. Seven hundred twelve adolescent participants completed questionnaires to assess the associations among their paternal attachment, intensity of Internet use, and Internet services preference. The result revealed that alienation positively predicted pathological Internet use (PIU) directly and also indirectly mediated by leisure services preference. Trust predicted PIU negatively. These results help to provide parents and educators with guidance in adolescents' more appropriate Internet use. PMID:17927530

  1. An integrative review of paternal depression.

    PubMed

    Edward, Karen-leigh; Castle, David; Mills, Cally; Davis, Leigh; Casey, June

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this project was to review current research regarding postnatal depression in fathers and to present potential screening and referral options. The search was limited to scholarly (peer reviewed) journals and all articles were retrieved with date limits. Initial search parameters were the following: antenatal depression OR pregnancy depression OR postnatal depression OR perinatal depression AND father* OR men OR paternal. The search yielded 311 abstracts returned. With reference to the inclusion criteria and primary and secondary outcomes intended for the focus of this review, N=63 articles were retrieved and read in full by the researchers. These articles were included in the final integrative review. Depression in fathers following the birth of their child was associated with a personal history of depression and with the existence of depression in their partner during pregnancy and soon after delivery. Based on the review the authors suggest routine screening and assessment of both parents should occur across the pregnancy and postnatal period. The use of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale for screening of depression in men needs to be linked to referral guidelines for those individuals who require further investigation and care. PMID:24626601

  2. Effective Population Sizes with Multiple Paternity

    PubMed Central

    Sugg, D. W.; Chesser, R. K.

    1994-01-01

    While the concept of effective population size is of obvious applicability to many questions in population genetics and conservation biology, its utility has suffered due to a lack of agreement among its various formulations. Often, mathematical formulations for effective sizes apply restrictive assumptions that limit their applicability. Herein, expressions for effective sizes of populations that account for mating tactics, biases in sex ratios, and differential dispersal rates (among other parameters) are developed. Of primary interest is the influence of multiple paternity on the maintenance of genetic variation in a population. In addition to the standard inbreeding and variance effective sizes, intragroup (coancestral) and intergroup effective sizes also are developed. Expressions for effective sizes are developed for the beginning of nonrandom gene exchanges (initial effective sizes), the transition of gene correlations (instantaneous effective sizes), and the steady-state (asymptotic effective size). Results indicate that systems of mating that incorporate more than one male mate per female increase all effective sizes above those expected from polygyny and monogamy. Instantaneous and asymptotic sizes can be expressed relative to the fixation indices. The parameters presented herein can be utilized in models of effective sizes for the study of evolutionary biology and conservation genetics. PMID:7982568

  3. The paternal function in Winnicott: the psychoanalytical frame.

    PubMed

    Faimberg, Haydée

    2014-08-01

    My first aim has been to identify the implicit assumptions underlying Winnicott's detailed notes on a fragment of an analysis dating from 1955 and published after his death. The importance given by Winnicott to the father figure as early as 1955 is one of my discoveries; another is the deep Freudian roots of his thinking. In this essay I propose a new way of linking together the concepts of 'paternal function' and the 'psychoanalytical frame'. Developing my hypothesis, I compare my reading of Winnicott and my way of reading José Bleger's study on the frame. Like Winnicott, I explore in detail a process of discovery, focusing on what the analyst and the patient are nor fully aware of …'as yet'. I am not proposing to unify Winnicott's and Bleger's thinking. My aim is to avoid the pitfall of eclecticism and, in so doing, to recognize both the related depths they sound in their thinking and their otherness. I want to share with the readers their 'meeting' in my mind. PMID:25229543

  4. Maternal and paternal diversity in Xinjiang Kazakh population from China.

    PubMed

    Shan, W; Ren, Zh; Wu, W; Hao, H; Abulimiti, A; Chen, K; Zhang, F; Ma, Z; Zheng, X

    2014-11-01

    The ancient silk road of China passed through Xinjiang and facilitated gene exchanges from the East and the West which impacted on the genetic variation and structure of the nomadic Kazakh population residing there. In order to understand the nature of this genetic variation; 151 Xinjiang Kazakh samples were obtained from four main Kazakh groups and were analyzed using mtDNA and Y-chromosome markers. The Xinjiang Kazakh population is heterogeneous, showing the coexistence of matrilineal lineages with different origins. No genetic differentiation of mtDNA is observed among the four different regional Xinjiang Kazakh populations in Xinjiang by AMOVA and Networks. The genetic diversity of Y-STR loci is higher in Xinjiang Kazakhs (0.968 ± 0.014) than the Kazakhs from Kazakhstan (0.629 ± 0.071) and Russia (0.835 ± 0.020). East Eurasians make a more than 50% contribution to the maternal and paternal lineages of Xinjiang Kazakhs. There is more gene flow from West Eurasian into the maternal lineages of Xinjiang Kazakh than to the Kazakhs from Russia and Kazakhstan. Moreover, mtDNA and Y-STR displayed high polymorphism in Xinjiang Kazakhs (the haplotype diversity and power of discrimination were 0.990 ± 0.003, 0.9137 for mtDNA HVS and 0.968 ± 0.014, 0.9489 for Y-STR system, respectively), suggesting they would be very useful and important markers for forensic analysis and population genetic studies. PMID:25739291

  5. TWO SEX-CHROMOSOME-LINKED MICROSATELLITE LOCI SHOW GEOGRAPHIC VARIANCE AMONG NORTH AMERICAN OSTRINIA NUBILALIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A (GAAAAT)n repeat microsatellite was isolated from a partial Ostrinia nubilalis genomic library. Pedigree analysis indicated the marker was female specific, and referred to as Ostrinia nubilalis W-chromosome marker 1 (ONW1). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequence analysis indicated that ...

  6. Microsatellite instability in colorectal cancer: clinicopathological significance.

    PubMed

    Setaffy, L; Langner, C

    2015-12-01

    Although often viewed as a single disease, colorectal cancer more accurately represents a constellation of heterogeneous subtypes that result from different combinations of genetic events and epigenetic alterations. Chromosomal instability (CIN), microsatellite instability (MSI) and CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) have been identified as the three major molecular characteristics, which interact with other significant mutations, such as mutations in the KRAS and BRAF genes. High-level MSI (MSI-H) is of eminent clinical importance. It is the seminal molecular feature for the identification of individuals with Lynch syndrome, but it may also occur in sporadic cancers with CIMP phenotype, which arise from serrated precursor lesions. MSI-H status is a marker of favorable prognosis and may be used for outcome prediction, that is, molecular grading. Among others, mucinous and medullary histology, signet-ring cell differentiation, and a marked anti-tumoral immune response are histological features suggesting MSI. Universal tumor testing is recommended and may be performed using immunohistochemistry (mismatch repair protein expression) or molecular analysis, as has recently been recommended by an international task force. In this review, we consider in detail the molecular pathogenesis of colorectal cancer, focusing on the diagnosis of MSI in both hereditary and sporadic tumors. PMID:26619098

  7. Allelic imbalance regions on chromosomes 8p, 17p and 19p related to metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma: comparison between matched primary and metastatic lesions in 22 patients by genome-wide microsatellite analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lian-Hai; Qin, Lun-Xiu; Ma, Zeng-Chen; Ye, Sheng-Long; Liu, Yin-Kun; Ye, Qing-Hai; Wu, Xin; Huang, Wei; Tang, Zhao-You

    2003-05-01

    To understand the molecular mechanisms of metastasis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), it is necessary to identify the accumulating genetic alterations during its progression as well as those responsible for the acquisition of metastatic potential in cancer cells. In our previous study, using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), we found that loss on chromosome 8p is more frequent in metastatic lesions than in matched primary tumors of HCC. Thus, 8p deletion might contribute to HCC metastasis. To narrow the location of metastasis-related alteration regions, we analyzed 22 primary and matched metastatic lesions of HCC by genome-wide microsatellite analysis. Common regions with high levels of allelic imbalance (AI) were identified on 17p, 8p11-cen, 8p21-23, 4q32-qter, 4q13-23, 16q, and 1p33. Regions with increased AI in metastatic lesions were 8p23.3, 8p11.2, 17p11.2-13.3, 4q21-22, 4q32-qter, 8q24.1, 9p11, 9q31, 11q23.1, 13q14.1-31, 13q32-qter, 16p13.3, 16q13, 16q22, and 19p13.1, and these were considered to be related to the metastasis phenotype. Among them, loss on 8p was again proved to be related to progression and metastasis of HCC, and 8p23.3 and 8p11.2 were two likely regions harboring metastasis-related genes. It was also shown for the first time in HCC that AI of 19p13.1 might also be related to metastatic potential. These results provide some candidate regions for further study to identify putative genes suppressing metastasis of HCC. PMID:12734753

  8. Combining US and Brazilian microsatellite data for a meta-analysis of sheep (Ovis aries) breed diversity: Facilitating the FAO Global Plan of Action for conserving animal genetic resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microsatellites have been used to understand genetic diversity among livestock populations. Nevertheless, most studies have involved the processing of samples in one laboratory or with common standards across laboratories. Our objective was to identify an approach to facilitate the merger of microsa...

  9. Design and control of microsatellite clusters for tracking missions

    E-print Network

    Griffith, John Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Space-based tracking missions are an emerging interest that could be accomplished using a cluster of microsatellites. This thesis addresses the design of microsatellite clusters to accurately track a target in a probabilistic ...

  10. Experimental parasite infection reveals costs and benefits of paternal effects

    PubMed Central

    Kaufmann, Joshka; Lenz, Tobias L; Milinski, Manfred; Eizaguirre, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Forces shaping an individual's phenotype are complex and include transgenerational effects. Despite low investment into reproduction, a father's environment and phenotype can shape its offspring's phenotype. Whether and when such paternal effects are adaptive, however, remains elusive. Using three-spined sticklebacks in controlled infection experiments, we show that sperm deficiencies in exposed males compared to their unexposed brothers functionally translated into reduced reproductive success in sperm competition trials. In non-competitive fertilisations, offspring of exposed males suffered significant costs of reduced hatching success and survival but they reached a higher body condition than their counterparts from unexposed fathers after experimental infection. Interestingly, those benefits of paternal infection did not result from increased resistance but from increased tolerance to the parasite. Altogether, these results demonstrate that parasite resistance and tolerance are shaped by processes involving both genetic and non-genetic inheritance and suggest a context-dependent adaptive value of paternal effects. PMID:25168056

  11. [Genetic diversity of microsatellite loci in captive Amur tigers].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Gaung; Li, Di-Qiang; Xiao, Qi-Ming; Rao, Li-Qun; Zhang, Xue-Wen

    2004-09-01

    The tiger is one of the most threatened wildlife species since the abundance and distribution of tiger have decreased dramatically in the last century. The wild Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) only distributed in northeast China, the far east area of Russia and the north Korea and its size of wild population is about 450 in the world and 20 in China. Several hundred captive populations of Amur tigers are the main source to protect gene library of tiger and the source of recovering the wild populations. The Breeding Center for Felidae at Hengdaohezi and Haoerbin Tiger Park in Heilongjiang Province is the biggest captive breeding base in China. How to make clear the genetic pedigree and establish reasonable breeding system is the urgent issues. So we use the microsatellite DNA markers and non-invasive technology to research on the genetic diversity of captive Amur tiger in this study. Ten microsatellite loci (Fca005, Fca075, Fca094, Fca152, Fca161, Fca294, Pti002, Pti003, Pti007 and Pti010), highly variable nuclear markers, were studied their genetic diversity in 113 captive Amur tigers. The PCR amplified products of microsatellite loci were detected by non-denatured polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Allele numbers, allelic frequency, gene heterozygosity(H(e)), polymorphism information content(PIC) and effective number of allele(N(e)) were calculated. 41 alleles were found and their size were ranged from 110bp to 250bp in ten microsatellite loci, Fca152 had 6 alleles, Fca075, Fca094 and Fca294 had 5 alleles, Fca005 and Pti002 had 4 alleles and the others had 3 alleles in all tiger samples, respectively. The allelic frequencies were from 0.009 to 0.767; The He ranged from 0.385 to 0.707, and Fca294 and Pti010 locus had the highest and lowest value; the PIC were from 0.353 to 0.658, Fca294 and Pti010 locus had the highest and lowest value; and N(e) were from 1.626 to 3.409, Fca294 and Pti010 locus had the highest and lowest value, which showed the ten microsatellie loci had high or medium polymorphism in these Amur tigers and had high genetic diversity. At the same time, we only found even bases variability which showed the even bases repeat sequence (CA/GT) maybe the basic unit for length variability of microsatellite in all loci. In this study, the samples were made up of 75 hair specimens, 23 blood specimens and 15 tissue specimens, we obtained the genome DNA from hairs using the non-invasive DNA technology and demonstrated that DNA derived from hair samples is as good as that obtained from blood samples for the analysis of microsatellite polymorphism. These results imply that microsatellite DNA markers and non-invasive DNA technology can help study the genetic diversity of Amur tiger. This method could be used in the captive management of other endangered species. PMID:15640074

  12. Similar frequency of paternal uniparental disomy involving chromosome 20q (patUPD20q) in Japanese and Caucasian patients affected by sporadic pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib (sporPHP1B).

    PubMed

    Takatani, Rieko; Minagawa, Masanori; Molinaro, Angelo; Reyes, Monica; Kinoshita, Kaori; Takatani, Tomozumi; Kazukawa, Itsuro; Nagatsuma, Misako; Kashimada, Kenichi; Sato, Kenichi; Matsushita, Kazuyuki; Nomura, Fumio; Shimojo, Naoki; Jüppner, Harald

    2015-10-01

    Pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib (PHP1B) is caused by proximal tubular resistance to parathyroid hormone that occurs in most cases in the absence of Albright's Hereditary Osteodystrophy (AHO). Familial forms of PHP1B are caused by maternally inherited microdeletions within STX16, the gene encoding syntaxin 16, or within GNAS, a complex genetic locus on chromosome 20q13.3 encoding Gs? and several splice variants thereof. These deletions lead either to a loss-of-methylation affecting GNAS exon A/B alone or to epigenetic changes involving multiple differentially methylated regions (DMRs) within GNAS. Broad GNAS methylation abnormalities are also observed in most sporadic PHP1B (sporPHP1B) cases. However, with the exception of paternal uniparental disomy involving chromosome 20q (patUPD20q), the molecular mechanism leading to this disease variant remains unknown. We now investigated 23 Japanese sporPHP1B cases, who presented with hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, elevated PTH levels, and occasionally with TSH elevations and mild AHO features. Age at diagnosis was 10.6 ± 1.45 years. Calcium, phosphate, and PTH were 6.3 ± 0.23 mg/dL, 7.7 ± 0.33 mg/dL, and 305 ± 34.5 pg/mL, respectively, i.e. laboratory findings that are indistinguishable from those previously observed for Caucasian sporPHP1B cases. All investigated patients showed broad GNAS methylation changes. Eleven individuals were homozygous for SNPs within exon NESP and a pentanucleotide repeat in exon A/B. Two of these patients furthermore revealed homozygosity for numerous microsatellite markers on chromosome 20q raising the possibility of patUPD20q, which was confirmed through the analysis of parental DNA. Based on this and our previous reports, paternal duplication of the chromosomal region comprising the GNAS locus appears to be a fairly common cause of sporPHP1B that is likely to occur with equal frequency in Caucasians and Asians. PMID:25997889

  13. The Association of Paternal Mood and Infant Temperament: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dave, Shreya; Nazareth, Irwin; Sherr, Lorraine; Senior, Rob

    2005-01-01

    Maternal depression is associated with adverse child development, but little is known about the effects of paternal depression. This pilot study estimated the prevalence of paternal depression and mood state, and assessed the relationship between paternal mood and infant temperament. The participants in the study were 98 fathers of newborn babies.…

  14. The Doctor's Dilemma: Paternalisms in the Medicolegal History of Assisted Reproduction and Abortion.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Kara W

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes the comparative history of the law and practice of abortion and assisted reproduction in the United States to consider the interplay between medical paternalism and legal paternalism. It supplements existing critiques of paternalism as harmful to women's equality with the medical perspective, as revealed through the writings of Alan F. Guttmacher, to consider when legal regulation might be warranted. PMID:26242953

  15. Microsatellite loci in the phytoparasitic nematode Globodera.

    PubMed

    Thiéry, M; Mugniéry, D

    2000-02-01

    A Globodera pallida genomic library, population Guiclan (Pa2/3), was screened for TG and TC microsatellite motifs. Screening of 50,000 clones revealed 48 positive matches. After sequencing, primers were designed to amplify 14 microsatellite loci. The specificity of the loci was tested with DNA templates of other populations of G. pallida, and also on other species of Globodera. Appearance of amplification products on several of these DNA templates showed that the microsatellite flanking regions are relatively conserved between G. pallida populations as well as between Globodera species. Evidence for allele polymorphism between individuals was demonstrated by using nine loci primers, in G. pallida population Guiclan and from a population of a closely related species G. "mexicana". Some alleles appeared to be species specific. PMID:10701125

  16. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers for Amomum tsaoko (Zingiberaceae), an economically important plant in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y-W; Yang, Z-Y; Yan, M-R; Qian, Z-G; Guan, K-Y

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-four microsatellite markers were isolated from the genomic DNA of Amomum tsaoko Crevost et Lemaire, an important economic plant in China, using the method fast isolation by AFLP of sequences containing repeats (FIASCO). Polymorphism within each locus was assessed in 60 individuals from three populations in Yunnan Province, China, and nine of them were polymorphic. The number of alleles per polymorphic locus was 2, and the expected and observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.224 to 0.513, and from 0.050 to 0.600, respectively. Among nine microsatellite markers with polymorphism, five showed significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P < 0.01), probably due to anthropic selection and short-cloning history in cultivation. No significant linkage disequilibrium was detected between loci in our analysis. These polymorphic microsatellite markers will facilitate further studies of gene flow, population structure, identification of cultivated variety, and evaluation of germplasm resources. PMID:25299206

  17. A Generic Estimation of Population Subdivision Using Distances between Alleles with Special Reference for Microsatellite Loci

    PubMed Central

    Michalakis, Y.; Excoffier, L.

    1996-01-01

    Several estimators of population differentiation have been proposed in the recent past to deal with various types of genetic markers (i.e., allozymes, nucleotide sequences, restriction fragment length polymorphisms, or microsatellites). We discuss the relationships among these estimators and show how a single analysis of variance framework can accomodate these qualitatively different data types. PMID:8849912

  18. Characterization of genetic resistance to helminths in goats using microsatellite genetic markers 

    E-print Network

    Kogi, Joseph Kan'gethe

    1994-01-01

    cell volume (PCV) as measures of haemonchosis, were used in an analysis to detect associations with the m-icrosatellite markers. SAS GLM was used to fit a fixed effects model that included year of birth, season of birth, sex of the kid, type of birth...

  19. High resolution melting detects sequence polymorphism in rubus occidentalis L. monomorphic microsatellite markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microsatellite, or simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, are valuable as co-dominant genetic markers with a variety of applications such as DNA fingerprinting, linkage mapping, and population structure analysis. However, primer pairs designed from the regions that flank SSRs often generate fragment...

  20. 45 CFR 303.5 - Establishment of paternity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT (CHILD SUPPORT... child to establish paternity. (c) The IV-D agency must identify and use through competitive procurement... Food Stamp Act of 1977 who are required to cooperate with the child support program, there has been...

  1. 45 CFR 303.5 - Establishment of paternity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT (CHILD SUPPORT... child to establish paternity. (c) The IV-D agency must identify and use through competitive procurement... Food Stamp Act of 1977 who are required to cooperate with the child support program, there has been...

  2. Dynamic adjustment of parental care in response to perceived paternity

    E-print Network

    Gross, Mart

    of genetic relatedness between an adult and their young while holding everything else constant. Experimental Theories of parental care evolution predict that genetic relatedness will be an important variable a unique test that controls for individual life histories and demonstrates paternity-related dynamic adjust

  3. Paternal Involvement with Children: The Influence of Gender Ideologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulanda, Ronald E.

    2004-01-01

    Although prior social science research has established the ability of gender ideologies to influence the domestic division of labor, it has neglected to disentangle their potentially unique influence on paternal involvement with children. Past research examining the influence of gender ideology on parenting behaviors does not acknowledge potential…

  4. True paternal care in a multi-male primate society

    E-print Network

    Clifton, Ken

    of wild savannah baboons (Papio cynocephalus) and collected data on interventions in agonistic disputes baboon groups in Amboseli, Kenya, and adjacent areas at the foot of Mount Kilimanjaro; the study of paternal care in baboons could be limited by the fact that males regularly transfer between social groups

  5. 45 CFR 303.5 - Establishment of paternity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., State birth record agencies, and other entities designated by the State and participating in the State's... services focusing on the period immediately before and after the birth of a child born out-of-wedlock. (ii) The voluntary paternity establishment services program must also be available at the State...

  6. 45 CFR 303.5 - Establishment of paternity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., State birth record agencies, and other entities designated by the State and participating in the State's... services focusing on the period immediately before and after the birth of a child born out-of-wedlock. (ii) The voluntary paternity establishment services program must also be available at the State...

  7. 45 CFR 303.5 - Establishment of paternity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., State birth record agencies, and other entities designated by the State and participating in the State's... services focusing on the period immediately before and after the birth of a child born out-of-wedlock. (ii) The voluntary paternity establishment services program must also be available at the State...

  8. Maternal Depression, Paternal Psychopathology, and Toddlers' Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietz, Laura J.; Jennings, Kay Donahue; Kelley, Sue A.; Marshal, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This article examined the effects of maternal depression during the postpartum period (Time 1) on the later behavior problems of toddlers (Time 3) and tested if this relationship was moderated by paternal psychopathology during toddlers' lives and/or mediated by maternal parenting behavior observed during mother-child interaction (Time 2). Of the…

  9. POLICY ON MATERNITY, PATERNITY AND ADOPTION IN RELATION TO Introduction

    E-print Network

    Molinari, Marc

    note that where a couple are adopting a child (which may include same sex couples) only one of them may had a child, are in the process of adopting a child, or are the partner of a person in one period that applies to employees. Paternity Leave #12;If you are the father of a child, or partner

  10. Mechanisms and consequences of paternally transmitted chromosomal abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Marchetti, F; Wyrobek, A J

    2005-04-05

    Paternally transmitted chromosomal damage has been associated with pregnancy loss, developmental and morphological defects, infant mortality, infertility, and genetic diseases in the offspring including cancer. There is epidemiological evidence linking paternal exposure to occupational or environmental agents with an increased risk of abnormal reproductive outcomes. There is also a large body of literature on germ cell mutagenesis in rodents showing that treatment of male germ cells with mutagens has dramatic consequences on reproduction producing effects such as those observed in human epidemiological studies. However, we know very little about the etiology, transmission and early embryonic consequences of paternally-derived chromosomal abnormalities. The available evidence suggests that: (1) there are distinct patterns of germ cell-stage differences in the sensitivity of induction of transmissible genetic damage with male postmeiotic cells being the most sensitive; (2) cytogenetic abnormalities at first metaphase after fertilization are critical intermediates between paternal exposure and abnormal reproductive outcomes; and, (3) there are maternally susceptibility factors that may have profound effects on the amount of sperm DNA damage that is converted into chromosomal aberrations in the zygote and directly affect the risk for abnormal reproductive outcomes.

  11. REVIEW ARTICLE Patterns of multiple paternity and maternity in fishes

    E-print Network

    Jones, Adam

    REVIEW ARTICLE Patterns of multiple paternity and maternity in fishes SETH W. COLEMAN1 * and ADAM G with parental care and mate choice. Over the last 15 years, fishes have been particularly well studied. The present review focusses on the impressive literature on genetic parentage in fishes. In studies of natural

  12. Fine mapping of paternal sorting of mitochondria (psm) in cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumber is unique among plants because its mitochondrial DNA shows paternal transmission, is one of the largest known among all plants, due largely to short repetitive DNA motifs, and undergoes recombination among repeats to produce rearranged mitochondrial DNAs associated with strongly mosaic (MSC...

  13. Paternal Banking and Maternal Gatekeeping in Postdivorce Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Elena

    2012-01-01

    The research explores the way in which postseparated parents continue to exert a bidirectional force on each other following divorce and separation. The study draws on qualitative interviews with 39 separated mothers and fathers in Ireland, including five marital sets of former couples. The study found many fathers adopted a range of "paternal

  14. Genetic Analyses of Sorting of Paternally Transmitted Mitochondrial DNA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The organelles are maternally transmitted in the vast majority of eukaryotes. However paternal transmission of plastids and mitochondria occurs rarely in plants. Cucumber is a unique model plant for organellar genetics because its three genomes show differential transmission: maternal for chlorop...

  15. Age-Related Changes in Paternal Responses of Gerbils

    E-print Network

    Galef Jr., Bennett G.

    Age-Related Changes in Paternal Responses of Gerbils Parallel Changes in Their Testosterone Mongolian gerbils. Here, we examined developmental changes in parental responses of male gerbils before that T inhibits parental response in male gerbils, we predicted that (a) 75-day-old male gerbils would be less

  16. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Proximal traits and mechanisms for biasing paternity

    E-print Network

    Lewis, Sara

    Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) Tatyana Yu Fedina & Sara M. Lewis Received: 4 November 2005 of traits that might influence male paternity share in Tribolium castaneum. We then conducted experiments.fedina@tufts.edu #12;In the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, both sexes mate multiple times over an adult life

  17. Father Involvement: The Importance of Paternal Solo Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Katherine R.; Prior, Margot R.

    2010-01-01

    Paternal time spent caring for children alone is qualitatively different from time together mediated by the presence of the mother and may be particularly relevant to father-child relations. Many fathers spend minimal time alone with their children. Indeed, it is still commonly referred to as "babysitting". We explored the concept of Solo Care as…

  18. Natural variation in paternal behavior is associated with central estrogen receptor alpha and oxytocin levels.

    PubMed

    Li, Yani; Lian, Zhenmin; Wang, Bo; Tai, Fadao; Wu, Ruiyong; Hao, Ping; Qiao, Xufeng

    2015-03-01

    In monogamous mammals paternal care plays an important role in the neural and behavioral development of offspring. However, the neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying paternal behavior remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate the association between natural variation in paternal responsiveness and central levels of oxytocin (OT) and estrogen receptor alpha (ER?). We used the frequency of licking and grooming behavior to distinguish low paternal responsiveness and high paternal responsiveness in virgin mandarin voles (Microtus mandarinus). Males that engaged in high paternal behavior had elevated levels of OT immunoreactive neurons in the paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus compared with males that displayed low paternal behavior. Likewise, males of high paternal responsiveness had more ER? immunoreactive neurons in the medial preoptic area, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and medial amygdaloid nucleus compared to low responsive males. The level of ER? immunoreactive neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus was lower in highly paternal males compared to less paternal males. These results suggest that natural variation in paternal responsiveness may be directly related to variation in central OT and ER?. PMID:25652439

  19. Microsatellites and Their Appliation in Flowering Dogwood

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microsatellites, also known as simple sequence repeats (SSRs), are repeat units that are 1 to 6 base pairs long and repeat six or more times and are present throughout the entire eukaryotic genome. SSRs are useful genetic markers for studying genetic diversity and for creating linkage maps of plant...

  20. MICROSATELLITE MARKERS FOR VERIFYING PARENTAGE OF PECANS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microsatellite or Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers are being developed in ongoing research in the USDA ARS Pecan Breeding Program. These co-dominant markers provide a powerful tool for the verification of parentage. To confirm their utility, SSR profiles were used to confirm the parentage of 1...

  1. Microsatellites from Kousa dogwood (Cornus Kousa)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microsatellite loci were identified from Cornus kousa ‘National’. Primer pairs for 86 loci were developed and of these eight were optimized and screened using genomic DNA from 22 kousa cultivars. All optimized loci were polymorphic and the number of alleles per locus ranged from 3 to 17. Observed h...

  2. EVALUATION OF AVOCADO GERMPLASM USING MICROSATELLITE MARKERS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three horticultural races of avocado are known: Guatemalan, Mexican, and West Indian. Each races has unique characteristics and current commercial varieties have been selected from within the races or from interracial hybrids. Utilizing 14 microsatellite loci we investigated the genetic variation in...

  3. Nudging towards nutrition? Soft paternalism and obesity-related reform.

    PubMed

    Hector, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is one of the most contentious issues facing the United States today. Some researchers warn of an obesity "epidemic" that poses a grave threat to our nation's health, while others attack these claims as alarmist and misguided. This divide reinforces the political schism between advocates of government intervention and anti-regulatory groups. As a result, obesity science finds itself entangled in partisan battles that leave little room for compromise. This paper explores the potential for the political philosophy of soft paternalism to provide a regulatory framework that may appeal to both sides of the obesity reform debate. Soft paternalism draws upon social science research in order to develop policies that encourage better decision-making, while preserving individual choice. Applying this framework to the issue of obesity, I look at two areas of potential reform: 1) information-based policies such as nutritional label design, and 2) policies that affect default choices, such as portion size norms. I find that while soft paternalism is an appealing framework that offers many promising reforms, it is not a panacea. Instead, I argue that these proposals should be considered on their own merit, not as a complete solution precluding other measures. In addition, in light of potential criticism concerning the stigmatizing effect of some obesity-related measures, I suggest that reforms based on soft paternalism can and should be tailored to promote more mindful eating habits. With these concerns in mind, I conclude that soft paternalism is a promising approach that warrants serious consideration by policymakers. PMID:24624651

  4. Multicolor FISH studies of male non-disjunction: Evidence for a paternal age effect

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, D.K.; Millie, E.A.; Sheean, L.A.

    1994-09-01

    Approximately 5-10% of autosomal trisomies and the majority of sex chromosome aneuploidies are paternally derived, thus paternal non-disjunction is an important contributor to human chromosomal syndromes. We have been using multicolor FISH to screen for aneuploidy in sperm of normal males and to determine whether there is, among individuals or among chromosomes, variation in the likelihood of non-disjunction. Our initial studies based on analysis of 5000 sperm scored per chromosome in nine males identified significant differences in disomy rates for chromosomes 16, 18 and the sex chromosomes. We have now extended those analyses to a new series of 10 donors aged 22 to 45 to confirm or refute our observations of chromosome-specific differences in rates of disomy; to determine if the size of the centromeric (alpha satellite) sequences is related to non-disjunction frequency; and to determine if there is a paternal as well as a maternal age effect on non-disjunction. For these studies, we have used 3 color FISH for chromosomes 18 and the X and Y chromosomes to now score {approximately}20,000 sperm for each of 10 new donors. Our results provide little evidence for an effect of the size of the Y chromosome centromere on the frequency of sex chromosome disomy. However, we have found considerable variation in rates of disomy among individuals and have confirmed significant differences among chromosomes in the likelihood of non-disjunction; i.e., the rate of non-disjunction of the sex chromosomes is 3.5 -4 times greater than that of chromosome 18 and meiosis II errors are significantly more likely for the Y chromosome than for the X chromosome. Specifically, we have identified increases in the frequency of disomy 18 and both meiosis I (XY) and meiosis II (XX and YY) sex chromosome disomy although the effect is only significant for total sex chromosome disomy.

  5. Estimating pollen flow using SSR markers and paternity exclusion: accounting for mistyping.

    PubMed

    Slavov, G T; Howe, G T; Gyaourova, A V; Birkes, D S; Adams, W T

    2005-09-01

    Highly informative genetic markers, such as simple sequence repeats (SSRs), can be used to directly measure pollen flow by parentage analysis. However, mistyping (i.e. false inference of genotypes caused by the occurrence of null alleles, mutations, and detection errors) can lead to substantial biases in the estimates obtained. Using computer simulations, we evaluated a direct method for estimating pollen immigration using SSR markers and a paternity exclusion approach. This method accounts for mistyping and does not rely on assumptions about the distribution of male reproductive success. If ignored, even minor rates of mistyping (1.5%) resulted in overestimating pollen immigration by up to 150%. When we required at least two mismatching loci before excluding candidate fathers from paternity, the resulting pollen immigration estimates had small biases for rates of mistyping up to 4.5%. Requiring at least three mismatches for exclusion was needed to minimize the upward biases of pollen immigration caused by rates of mistyping up to 10.5%. The minimum number of highly variable SSR loci needed to minimize cryptic gene flow and obtain reliable estimates of pollen immigration varied from five to seven for a sampling scheme applicable to most conifers (i.e. when paternal haplotypes can be unambiguously determined). Between five and nine highly variable SSR loci were needed for a more general sampling scheme that is applicable to all diploid seed plants. With moderately variable SSR markers, consistently accurate estimates of pollen immigration could be obtained only for rates of mistyping up to 4.5%. We developed the POLLEN FLOW (PFL) computer program which can be used to obtain unbiased and precise estimates of pollen immigration under a wide range of conditions, including population sizes as large as 600 parents and mistyping rates as high as 10.5%. PMID:16101777

  6. Next generation sequencing and FISH reveal uneven and nonrandom microsatellite distribution in two grasshopper genomes.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Ruano, Francisco J; Cuadrado, Ángeles; Montiel, Eugenia E; Camacho, Juan Pedro M; López-León, María Dolores

    2015-06-01

    Simple sequence repeats (SSRs), also known as microsatellites, are one of the prominent DNA sequences shaping the repeated fraction of eukaryotic genomes. In spite of their profuse use as molecular markers for a variety of genetic and evolutionary studies, their genomic location, distribution, and function are not yet well understood. Here we report the first thorough joint analysis of microsatellite motifs at both genomic and chromosomal levels in animal species, by a combination of 454 sequencing and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques performed on two grasshopper species. The in silico analysis of the 454 reads suggested that microsatellite expansion is not driving size increase of these genomes, as SSR abundance was higher in the species showing the smallest genome. However, the two species showed the same uneven and nonrandom location of SSRs, with clear predominance of dinucleotide motifs and association with several types of repetitive elements, mostly histone gene spacers, ribosomal DNA intergenic spacers (IGS), and transposable elements (TEs). The FISH analysis showed a dispersed chromosome distribution of microsatellite motifs in euchromatic regions, in coincidence with chromosome location patterns previously observed for many mobile elements in these species. However, some SSR motifs were clustered, especially those located in the histone gene cluster. PMID:25387401

  7. AB163. Microsatellite markers for preimplantation genetic diagnosis in Vietnamese DMD and hemophilia: a female carriers

    PubMed Central

    Tuan-Pham, Le Anh; Tran, Thinh Huy; Tran, Dat Quoc; Minh, Nguyen Thi; Huong, Nguyen Lien; Tien, Nguyen Viet; Ta, Van Thanh; Bui, The Hung; Tran, Van Khanh

    2015-01-01

    Microsatellite polymorphic markers were powerful tool to perform single cell diagnosis for preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) in X-linked recessive disorders. This type of analysis requires haplotypes information of carrier mothers and affected sons. We present 12 Vietnamese families with duchenne muscular dystrophin (DMD) or Hemophilia A affected sons, six with each disorder. We established haplotypes based on linked microsatellite polymorphic markers in these families and performed diagnosis enabling embryo transfer from the PGD cycle. We also perform haplotypes analysis in five more families for each disease to identify more informative markers among other, in order to construct better strategy for future diagnosis. Microsatellite polymorphic markers flanking the F8 and DMD gene were used to identify haplotypes. Polar bodies (PB) were biopsied and analyzed to determine allelic association between the mutation and markers in multiplex PCR reaction. The results showed that 13 out of 28 embryos were found to be not affected by F8 or DMD gene inherited mutations and were available for transfer. Marker DXS9907, DSTR44, DSTR49 for DMD gene and marker FXS1073, DXS9897, DXS1073 for F8 gene were identified as the most frequent markers shown heterozygous alleles in mother carriers. PB analysis by microsatellite markers were proved to be useful technique for PGD of DMD and Hemophilia A families. Better strategy for PB diagnosis was built.

  8. Identification and characterization of paternal-preferentially expressed gene NF-YC8 in maize endosperm.

    PubMed

    Mei, Xiupeng; Liu, Chaoxian; Yu, Tingting; Liu, Xiaoli; Xu, De; Wang, Jiuguang; Wang, Guoqiang; Cai, Yilin

    2015-10-01

    Gene imprinting describes an epigenetic phenomenon, whereby genetically identical alleles are differentially expressed dependent on parent-of-origin. Some imprinted genes belonged to NUCLEAR FACTOR Y (NF-Y) transcription factors, which were involved in many important metabolic processes in plant. The characterizations of imprinted genes are of great importance for their function exploration. In this paper, 15 non-redundant NF-YC genes were identified in the maize genome and the paternally expressed gene NF-YC8 was further analyzed. NF-YC8 primarily expressed in maize immature ear and tassel and phylogenetic analysis showed that NF-YC8 was highly homologous with Arabidopsis thaliana NF-YC2 genes which function in regulation of the flowering processes, ER stress response. Furthermore, NF-YC8 was a differential, gene-specific imprinted gene at 14 DAP and persistently imprinted throughout later endosperm development in the B73/Mo17 genetic background. Bisulfite sequencing for NF-YC8 in maize endosperm showed that the paternal alleles were higher methylated (CG, CHG and CHH contexts) than maternal alleles in the 5' upstream region, and the coding region was highly methylated in CG context. Additionally, TE (CG, CHG and CHH contexts) and repetitive region (CG and CHG contexts) were all highly methylated. These results are the first description of evolution and molecular characterization of maize NF-YC8 and will provide new references for maize NF-YC genetic analysis. PMID:25851237

  9. A study on the depression levels of children who are brought to the forensic DNA laboratory for paternity testing.

    PubMed

    Akduman, Gülümser Gültekin

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to identify the depression levels of children who were brought to the forensic DNA laboratory for paternity testing. A total of 35 such children were enrolled in the study. Data were gathered using the parent interview form, general information form for children, and the "Child Depression Scale" as it had been tested for validity and reliability in the 6-17 year age group in the country. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Scheffe test. The results showed that the age of children who were brought in for paternity testing created a meaningful difference in their depression scores (p < 0.01) while gender did not. In addition, c. 63% of the children in this study did not know why they were in the laboratory, which also caused a meaningful difference in depression scores (p < 0.01). PMID:21827483

  10. Non-invasive prenatal diagnosis using fetal DNA in maternal plasma: a preliminary study for identification of paternally-inherited alleles using single nucleotide polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Chen, J J; Tan, J A M A; Chua, K H; Tan, P C; George, E

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) with a mutation can be used to identify the presence of the paternally-inherited wild-type or mutant allele as result of the inheritance of either allele in the fetus and allows the prediction of the fetal genotype. This study aims to identify paternal SNPs located at the flanking regions upstream or downstream from the ?-globin gene mutations at CD41/42 (HBB:c.127_130delCTTT), IVS1-5 (HBB:c.92+5G>C) and IVS2-654 (HBB:c.316-197C>T) using free-circulating fetal DNA. Setting Haematology Lab, Department of Biomedical Science, University of Malaya. Participants Eight couples characterised as ?-thalassaemia carriers where both partners posed the same ?-globin gene mutations at CD41/42, IVS1-5 and IVS2-654, were recruited in this study. Outcome measures Genotyping was performed by allele specific-PCR and the locations of SNPs were identified after sequencing alignment. Results Genotype analysis revealed that at least one paternal SNP was present for each of the couples. Amplification on free-circulating DNA revealed that the paternal mutant allele of SNP was present in three fcDNA. Thus, the fetuses may be ?-thalassaemia carriers or ?-thalassaemia major. Paternal wild-type alleles of SNP were present in the remaining five fcDNA samples, thus indicating that the fetal genotypes would not be homozygous mutants. Conclusions This preliminary research demonstrates that paternal allele of SNP can be used as a non-invasive prenatal diagnosis approach for at-risk couples to determine the ?-thalassaemia status of the fetus. PMID:26201722

  11. Chloroplast microsatellites reveal colonization and metapopulation dynamics in the Canary Island pine

    PubMed Central

    Navascués, Miguel; Vaxevanidou, Zafeiro; González-Martínez, Santiago C; Climent, José; Gil, Luis; Emerson, Brent C

    2006-01-01

    Chloroplast microsatellites are becoming increasingly popular markers for population genetic studies in plants, but there has been little focus on their potential for demographic inference. In this work the utility of chloroplast microsatellites for the study of population expansions was explored. First, we investigated the power of mismatch distribution analysis and the FS test with coalescent simulations of different demographic scenarios. We then applied those methods to empirical data obtained for the Canary Island pine (Pinus canariensis). The results of the simulations showed that chloroplast microsatellites are sensitive to sudden population growth. The power of the FS test and accuracy of demographic parameter estimates, such as the time of expansion, were reduced proportionally to the level of homoplasy within the data. The analysis of Canary Island pine chloroplast microsatellite data indicated population expansions for almost all sample localities. Demographic expansions at the island level can be explained by the colonisation of the archipelago by the pine, while population expansions of different ages in different localities within an island appear to be the result of local extinctions and recolonisation dynamics. Comparable mitochondrial DNA sequence data from a parasite of P. canariensis, the weevil Brachyderes rugatus, supports this scenario, suggesting a key role for volcanism in the evolution of pine forest communities in the Canary Islands. PMID:16911194

  12. Chloroplast microsatellites reveal colonization and metapopulation dynamics in the Canary Island pine.

    PubMed

    Navascués, Miguel; Vaxevanidou, Zafeiro; González-Martínez, Santiago C; Climent, José; Gil, Luis; Emerson, Brent C

    2006-09-01

    Chloroplast microsatellites are becoming increasingly popular markers for population genetic studies in plants, but there has been little focus on their potential for demographic inference. In this work the utility of chloroplast microsatellites for the study of population expansions was explored. First, we investigated the power of mismatch distribution analysis and the F(S) test with coalescent simulations of different demographic scenarios. We then applied these methods to empirical data obtained for the Canary Island pine (Pinus canariensis). The results of the simulations showed that chloroplast microsatellites are sensitive to sudden population growth. The power of the F(S) test and accuracy of demographic parameter estimates, such as the time of expansion, were reduced proportionally to the level of homoplasy within the data. The analysis of Canary Island pine chloroplast microsatellite data indicated population expansions for almost all sample localities. Demographic expansions at the island level can be explained by the colonization of the archipelago by the pine, while population expansions of different ages in different localities within an island could be the result of local extinctions and recolonization dynamics. Comparable mitochondrial DNA sequence data from a parasite of P. canariensis, the weevil Brachyderes rugatus, supports this scenario, suggesting a key role for volcanism in the evolution of pine forest communities in the Canary Islands. PMID:16911194

  13. [Paternal GNAS mutations: Which phenotypes? What genetic counseling?].

    PubMed

    Kottler, Marie-Laure

    2015-05-01

    Parental imprinting and the type of the genetic alteration play a determinant role in the phenotype expression of GNAS locus associated to pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP). GNAS locus gives rise to several different messenger RNA transcripts that are derived from the paternal allele, the maternal allele, or both and can be either coding or non-coding. As a consequence, GNAS mutations lead to a wide spectrum of phenotypes. An alteration in the coding sequence of the gene leads to a haplo-insufficiency and a dysmorphic phenotype (Albright's syndrome or AHO). AHO is a clinical syndrome defined by specific physical features including short stature, obesity, round-shaped face, subcutaneous ossifications, brachymetarcapy (mainly of the 4th and 5th ray). If the alteration is on the maternal allele, there is a hormonal resistance to the PTH at the kidney level and to the TSH at the thyroid level. The phenotype is known as pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1a (PHP1a). If the alteration is on the paternal allele, there are few clinical signs with no hormonal resistance and the phenotype is known as pseudopseudo hypoparathyroidism (pseudo-PPHP). Heterozygous GNAS mutations on the paternal GNAS allele were associated with intra uterin growth retardation (IUGR). Moreover, birth weights were lower with paternal GNAS mutations affecting exon 2-13 than with exon 1/intron 1 mutations suggesting a role for loss of function XL?s. Progressive osseous heteroplasia (POH) is a rare disease of ectopic bone formation, characterized by cutaneous and subcutaneous ossifications progressing towards deep connective and muscular tissues. POH is caused by a heterozygous GNAS inactivating mutation and has been associated with paternal inheritance. However, genotype/phenotype correlations suggest that there is no direct correlation between the ossifying process and parental origin, as there is high variability in heterotopic ossification. Clinical heterogeneity makes genetic counseling a very delicate matter, specifically where paternal inheritance is concerned as it can lead either to a mild expression of pseudo-PHP or to a severe one of POH. PMID:25952723

  14. Genetic variability of watermelon accessions based on microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    de S Gama, R N C; Santos, C A F; de C S Dias, R

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed the genetic variability of 40 watermelon accessions collected from 8 regions of Northeastern Brazil using microsatellite markers, in order to suggest strategies of conservation and utilization of genetic variability in this species. These accessions are not commercial cultivars. They were sampled in areas of traditional farmers that usually keep their own seeds for future plantings year after year. An UPGMA dendrogram was generated from a distance matrix of the Jaccard coefficient, based on 41 alleles of 13 microsatellite loci. Analysis of molecular variance was made by partitioning between and within geographical regions. The similarity coefficient between accessions ranged from 37 to 96%; the dendrogram gave a co-phenetic value of 0.80. The among population genetic variability was high ( (^)?ST = 0.319). Specific clusters of accessions sampled in 3 regions of Maranhão were observed while the other 5 regions did not presented specific clusters by regions. We conclude that watermelon genetic variability is not uniformly dispersed in the regions analyzed, indicating that geographical barriers or edaphoclimatic conditions have limited open mating. We suggest sampling a greater number of populations, so regional species diversity will be better represented and preserved in the germplasm bank. PMID:23546958

  15. A first-generation microsatellite linkage map of the ruff

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, Lindsay L; Burke, Terry; Slate, Jon; Lank, David B

    2013-01-01

    A linkage map of the ruff (Philomachus pugnax) genome was constructed based on segregation analysis of 58 microsatellite loci from 381 captive-bred individuals spanning fourteen breeding years and comprising 64 families. Twenty-eight of the markers were resolved into seven linkage groups and five single marker loci, homologous to known chicken (Gallus gallus) and zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) chromosomes. Linkage groups range from 10.1 to 488.7 cM in length and covered a total map distance of 641.6 cM, corresponding to an estimated 30–35% coverage of the ruff genome, with a mean spacing of 22.9 cM between loci. Through comparative mapping, we are able to assign linkage groups Ppu1, Ppu2, Ppu6, Ppu7, Ppu10, Ppu13, and PpuZ to chromosomes and identify several intrachromosomal rearrangements between the homologs of chicken, zebra finch, and ruff microsatellite loci. This is the first linkage map created in the ruff and is a major step toward providing genomic resources for this enigmatic species. It will provide an essential framework for mapping of phenotypically and behaviorally important loci in the ruff. PMID:24363892

  16. Genetic variability in Brazilian wheat cultivars assessed by microsatellite markers

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum) is one of the most important food staples in the south of Brazil. Understanding genetic variability among the assortment of Brazilian wheat is important for breeding. The aim of this work was to molecularly characterize the thirty-six wheat cultivars recommended for various regions of Brazil, and to assess mutual genetic distances, through the use of microsatellite markers. Twenty three polymorphic microsatellite markers (PMM) delineated all 36 of the samples, revealing a total of 74 simple sequence repeat (SSR) alleles, i.e. an average of 3.2 alleles per locus. Polymorphic information content (PIC value) calculated to assess the informativeness of each marker ranged from 0.20 to 0.79, with a mean of 0.49. Genetic distances among the 36 cultivars ranged from 0.10 (between cultivars Ocepar 18 and BRS 207) to 0.88 (between cultivars CD 101 and Fudancep 46), the mean distance being 0.48. Twelve groups were obtained by using the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means analysis (UPGMA), and thirteen through the Tocher method. Both methods produced similar clusters, with one to thirteen cultivars per group. The results indicate that these tools may be used to protect intellectual property and for breeding and selection programs. PMID:21637519

  17. Ontology and diversity of transcript-associated microsatellites mined from a globe artichoke EST database

    PubMed Central

    Scaglione, Davide; Acquadro, Alberto; Portis, Ezio; Taylor, Christopher A; Lanteri, Sergio; Knapp, Steven J

    2009-01-01

    Background The globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus L.) is a significant crop in the Mediterranean basin. Despite its commercial importance and its both dietary and pharmaceutical value, knowledge of its genetics and genomics remains scant. Microsatellite markers have become a key tool in genetic and genomic analysis, and we have exploited recently acquired EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence data (Composite Genome Project - CGP) to develop an extensive set of microsatellite markers. Results A unigene assembly was created from over 36,000 globe artichoke EST sequences, containing 6,621 contigs and 12,434 singletons. Over 12,000 of these unigenes were functionally assigned on the basis of homology with Arabidopsis thaliana reference proteins. A total of 4,219 perfect repeats, located within 3,308 unigenes was identified and the gene ontology (GO) analysis highlighted some GO term's enrichments among different classes of microsatellites with respect to their position. Sufficient flanking sequence was available to enable the design of primers to amplify 2,311 of these microsatellites, and a set of 300 was tested against a DNA panel derived from 28 C. cardunculus genotypes. Consistent amplification and polymorphism was obtained from 236 of these assays. Their polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.04 to 0.90 (mean 0.66). Between 176 and 198 of the assays were informative in at least one of the three available mapping populations. Conclusion EST-based microsatellites have provided a large set of de novo genetic markers, which show significant amounts of polymorphism both between and within the three taxa of C. cardunculus. They are thus well suited as assays for phylogenetic analysis, the construction of genetic maps, marker-assisted breeding, transcript mapping and other genomic applications in the species. PMID:19785740

  18. Investigation into the ability of SNP chipsets and microsatellites to detect association with a disease locus.

    PubMed

    Curtis, D; Vine, A E; Knight, J

    2008-07-01

    We wished to investigate the ability of different SNP chipsets to detect association with a disease and to investigate the linkage disequilibrium (LD) relationships between microsatellites and nearby SNPs in order to assess their potential usefulness to detect association. SNP genotypes were obtained from HapMap and microsatellite genotypes from CEPH. 5000 SNPs were simulated as disease genes which increased penetrance from 0.01 to 0.02 in a sample of 400 cases and 400 controls. The power of flanking SNPs to detect association was tested using sets of 1, 2, 3 or 4 markers analysed with haplotype analysis or logistic regression and using either all HapMap markers or those from the Affymetrix 500K, Illumina 300K or Illumina 550K chipsets. Additionally, LD relationships between 10 microsatellites and SNPs within 2Mb of each other were studied. The power for one of the markers to detect association at p = 0.001 was around 0.4. Power was slightly better for logistic regression than haplotype analysis and for two-marker as opposed to single marker analysis but analysing with larger numbers markers had little benefit. The Illumina 550K marker set was better able to detect association than the other two and was almost as powerful as using all HapMap markers. Microsatellites had detectable LD with only a small number of nearby SNPs and the pattern of LD was very variable. Available chipsets have quite good ability to detect association although obviously results will be critically dependent on the nature of the genetic effect on risk, sample size and the actual LD relationships of the susceptibility polymorphisms involved. Microsatellites seem ill-suited for systematic studies to detect association. PMID:18355389

  19. The Genetic Relationship between Leishmania aethiopica and Leishmania tropica Revealed by Comparing Microsatellite Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Krayter, Lena; Schnur, Lionel F.; Schönian, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Background Leishmania (Leishmania) aethiopica and L. (L.) tropica cause cutaneous leishmaniases and appear to be related. L. aethiopica is geographically restricted to Ethiopia and Kenya; L. tropica is widely dispersed from the Eastern Mediterranean, through the Middle East into eastern India and in north, east and south Africa. Their phylogenetic inter-relationship is only partially revealed. Some studies indicate a close relationship. Here, eight strains of L. aethiopica were characterized genetically and compared with 156 strains of L. tropica from most of the latter species' geographical range to discern the closeness. Methodology/Principal Findings Twelve unlinked microsatellite markers previously used to genotype strains of L. tropica were successfully applied to the eight strains of L. aethiopica and their microsatellite profiles were compared to those of 156 strains of L. tropica from various geographical locations that were isolated from human cases of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, hyraxes and sand fly vectors. All the microsatellite profiles were subjected to various analytical algorithms: Bayesian statistics, distance-based and factorial correspondence analysis, revealing: (i) the species L. aethiopica, though geographically restricted, is genetically very heterogeneous; (ii) the strains of L. aethiopica formed a distinct genetic cluster; and (iii) strains of L. aethiopica are closely related to strains of L. tropica and more so to the African ones, although, by factorial correspondence analysis, clearly separate from them. Conclusions/Significance The successful application of the 12 microsatellite markers, originally considered species-specific for the species L. tropica, to strains of L. aethiopica confirmed the close relationship between these two species. The Bayesian and distance-based methods clustered the strains of L. aethiopica among African strains of L. tropica, while the factorial correspondence analysis indicated a clear separation between the two species. There was no correlation between microsatellite profiles of the eight strains of L. aethiopica and the type of leishmaniasis, localized (LCL) versus diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL), displayed by the human cases. PMID:26196393

  20. Clinical features of three girls with mosaic genome-wide paternal uniparental isodisomy.

    PubMed

    Kalish, Jennifer M; Conlin, Laura K; Bhatti, Tricia R; Dubbs, Holly A; Harris, Mary Catherine; Izumi, Kosuke; Mostoufi-Moab, Sogol; Mulchandani, Surabhi; Saitta, Sulagna; States, Lisa J; Swarr, Daniel T; Wilkens, Alisha B; Zackai, Elaine H; Zelley, Kristin; Bartolomei, Marisa S; Nichols, Kim E; Palladino, Andrew A; Spinner, Nancy B; Deardorff, Matthew A

    2013-08-01

    Here we describe three subjects with mosaic genome-wide paternal uniparental isodisomy (GWpUPD) each of whom presented initially with overgrowth, hemihyperplasia (HH), and hyperinsulinism (HI). Due to the severity of findings and the presence of additional features, SNP array testing was performed, which demonstrated mosaic GWpUPD. Comparing these individuals to 10 other live-born subjects reported in the literature, the predominant phenotype is that of pUPD11 and notable for a very high incidence of tumor development. Our subjects developed non-metastatic tumors of the adrenal gland, kidney, and/or liver. All three subjects had pancreatic hyperplasia resulting in HI. Notably, our subjects to date display minimal features of other diseases associated with paternal UPD loci. Both children who survived the neonatal period have displayed near-normal cognitive development, likely due to a favorable tissue distribution of the mosaicism. To understand the range of UPD mosaicism levels, we studied multiple tissues using SNP array analysis and detected levels of 5-95%, roughly correlating with the extent of tissue involvement. Given the rapidity of tumor growth and the difficulty distinguishing malignant and benign tumors in these GWpUPD subjects, we have utilized increased frequency of ultrasound (US) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) screening in the first years of life. Because of a later age of onset of additional tumors, continued tumor surveillance into adolescence may need to be considered in these rare patients. PMID:23804593

  1. Clinical Features of Three Girls With Mosaic Genome-Wide Paternal Uniparental Isodisomy

    PubMed Central

    Kalish, Jennifer M.; Conlin, Laura K.; Bhatti, Tricia R.; Dubbs, Holly A.; Harris, Mary Catherine; Izumi, Kosuke; Mostoufi-Moab, Sogol; Mulchandani, Surabhi; Saitta, Sulagna; States, Lisa J.; Swarr, Daniel T.; Wilkens, Alisha B.; Zackai, Elaine H.; Zelley, Kristin; Bartolomei, Marisa S.; Nichols, Kim E.; Palladino, Andrew A.; Spinner, Nancy B.; Deardorff, Matthew A.

    2014-01-01

    Here we describe three subjects with mosaic genome-wide paternal uniparental isodisomy (GWpUPD) each of whom presented initially with overgrowth, hemihyperplasia (HH), and hyperinsulinism (HI). Due to the severity of findings and the presence of additional features, SNP array testing was performed, which demonstrated mosaic GWpUPD. Comparing these individuals to 10 other live-born subjects reported in the literature, the predominant phenotype is that of pUPD11 and notable for a very high incidence of tumor development. Our subjects developed non-metastatic tumors of the adrenal gland, kidney, and/or liver.AllthreesubjectshadpancreatichyperplasiaresultinginHI. Notably, our subjects to date display minimal features of other diseases associated with paternal UPD loci. Both children who survived the neonatal period have displayed near-normal cognitive development, likely due to a favorable tissue distribution of the mosaicism.Tounderstandthe rangeofUPDmosaicismlevels, we studied multiple tissues using SNP array analysis and detected levels of 5–95%, roughly correlating with the extent of tissue involvement.Giventherapidityoftumorgrowthandthedifficulty distinguishing malignant and benign tumors in these GWpUPD subjects, we have utilized increased frequency of ultrasound (US) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) screening in the first years of life. Because of a later age of onset of additional tumors, continued tumor surveillance into adolescence may need to be considered in these rare patients. PMID:23804593

  2. Waveform dynamics of spermatozeugmata during the transfer from paternal to maternal individuals of Membranipora membranacea.

    PubMed

    Temkin, M H; Bortolami, S B

    2004-02-01

    Analysis of standard (60 frames/s) and high-speed (200 frames/s) video records revealed that unencapsulated sperm aggregates (spermatozeugmata) of the gymnolaemate bryozoan Membranipora membranacea spontaneously generate at least three types of waveforms: small amplitude, large amplitude, and reverse. All three waveforms significantly differed from one another in amplitude. Additionally, small- and large-amplitude waveforms propagated from the base to the tip of axonemes, whereas the reverse waveform propagated from the tip to the base of axonemes. Small-amplitude waveforms, which were generated most frequently by spermatozeugmata in the paternal perivisceral coelom and in the water column after spawning, produced almost no curvature of the axoneme. Large-amplitude waveforms were produced by spermatozeugmata in the water column and within lophophores. Reverse waveforms were produced while spermatozeugmata moved tail-end forward through the paternal tentacles during spawning and after spermatozeugmata had contacted the intertentacular organ (ITO), a tubular structure that spermatozeugmata pass through to enter the maternal coelom and that eggs pass through to enter the seawater. The production of reverse waveforms by spermatozeugmata after reaching the ITO may be evidence for a behavioral response of bryozoan sperm to conspecific maternal individuals. PMID:14977728

  3. Paternal isodisomy for chromosome 5 in a child with spinal muscular atropy

    SciTech Connect

    Brzustowicz, L.M.; Penchaszadeh, G.K.; Gilliam, T.C.; Allitto, B.A.; Theve, R.; Michaud, L.; Sugarman, E.; Handelin, B.L.; Chatkupt, S.; Koenigsberger, M.R. )

    1994-03-01

    Paternal isodisomy for chromosomes 5 was detected in a 2-year-old boy with type III spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), an autosomal recessive degenerative disorder of alpha motor neurons, known to map to 5q11.2-13.3. Examination of 17 short-sequence repeat polymorphisms spanning 5p15.1-15.3. to 5q33.3-qter produced no evidence of maternally inherited alleles. Cytogenetic analysis revealed a normal male karyotype, and FISH with probes closely flanking the SMA locus confirmed the presence of two copies of chromosome 5. No developmental abnormalities, other than those attributable to classical childhood-onset SMA, were present. While the absence of a maternally derived chromosome 5 could have produced the symptoms of SMA through the mechanism of genomic imprinting, the lack of more global developmental abnormalities would be unusual. Paternal transmission of two copies of a defective gene at the SMA locus seems to be the most likely cause of disease, but proof of this will have to await the identification of the SMA gene. While uniparental isodisomy is a rare event, it must be considered as a possible mechanism involved in SMA when conducting prenatal testing and counseling for this disorder. 37 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Paternal signature in kin recognition cues of a social insect: concealed in juveniles, revealed in adults.

    PubMed

    Wong, Janine W Y; Meunier, Joël; Lucas, Christophe; Kölliker, Mathias

    2014-10-22

    Kin recognition is a key mechanism to direct social behaviours towards related individuals or avoid inbreeding depression. In insects, recognition is generally mediated by cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) compounds, which are partly inherited from parents. However, in social insects, potential nepotistic conflicts between group members from different patrilines are predicted to select against the expression of patriline-specific signatures in CHC profiles. Whereas this key prediction in the evolution of insect signalling received empirical support in eusocial insects, it remains unclear whether it can be generalized beyond eusociality to less-derived forms of social life. Here, we addressed this issue by manipulating the number of fathers siring clutches tended by females of the European earwig, Forficula auricularia, analysing the CHC profiles of the resulting juvenile and adult offspring, and using discriminant analysis to estimate the information content of CHC with respect to the maternal and paternal origin of individuals. As predicted, if paternally inherited cues are concealed during family life, increases in mating number had no effect on information content of CHC profiles among earwig juveniles, but significantly decreased the one among adult offspring. We suggest that age-dependent expression of patriline-specific cues evolved to limit the risks of nepotism as family-living juveniles and favour sibling-mating avoidance as group-living adults. These results highlight the role of parental care and social life in the evolution of chemical communication and recognition cues. PMID:25165768

  5. Paternal signature in kin recognition cues of a social insect: concealed in juveniles, revealed in adults

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Janine W. Y.; Meunier, Joël; Lucas, Christophe; Kölliker, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    Kin recognition is a key mechanism to direct social behaviours towards related individuals or avoid inbreeding depression. In insects, recognition is generally mediated by cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) compounds, which are partly inherited from parents. However, in social insects, potential nepotistic conflicts between group members from different patrilines are predicted to select against the expression of patriline-specific signatures in CHC profiles. Whereas this key prediction in the evolution of insect signalling received empirical support in eusocial insects, it remains unclear whether it can be generalized beyond eusociality to less-derived forms of social life. Here, we addressed this issue by manipulating the number of fathers siring clutches tended by females of the European earwig, Forficula auricularia, analysing the CHC profiles of the resulting juvenile and adult offspring, and using discriminant analysis to estimate the information content of CHC with respect to the maternal and paternal origin of individuals. As predicted, if paternally inherited cues are concealed during family life, increases in mating number had no effect on information content of CHC profiles among earwig juveniles, but significantly decreased the one among adult offspring. We suggest that age-dependent expression of patriline-specific cues evolved to limit the risks of nepotism as family-living juveniles and favour sibling-mating avoidance as group-living adults. These results highlight the role of parental care and social life in the evolution of chemical communication and recognition cues. PMID:25165768

  6. Paternal diet defines offspring chromatin state and intergenerational obesity.

    PubMed

    Öst, Anita; Lempradl, Adelheid; Casas, Eduard; Weigert, Melanie; Tiko, Theodor; Deniz, Merdin; Pantano, Lorena; Boenisch, Ulrike; Itskov, Pavel M; Stoeckius, Marlon; Ruf, Marius; Rajewsky, Nikolaus; Reuter, Gunter; Iovino, Nicola; Ribeiro, Carlos; Alenius, Mattias; Heyne, Steffen; Vavouri, Tanya; Pospisilik, J Andrew

    2014-12-01

    The global rise in obesity has revitalized a search for genetic and epigenetic factors underlying the disease. We present a Drosophila model of paternal-diet-induced intergenerational metabolic reprogramming (IGMR) and identify genes required for its encoding in offspring. Intriguingly, we find that as little as 2 days of dietary intervention in fathers elicits obesity in offspring. Paternal sugar acts as a physiological suppressor of variegation, desilencing chromatin-state-defined domains in both mature sperm and in offspring embryos. We identify requirements for H3K9/K27me3-dependent reprogramming of metabolic genes in two distinct germline and zygotic windows. Critically, we find evidence that a similar system may regulate obesity susceptibility and phenotype variation in mice and humans. The findings provide insight into the mechanisms underlying intergenerational metabolic reprogramming and carry profound implications for our understanding of phenotypic variation and evolution. PMID:25480298

  7. Epigenetic effects of paternal diet on offspring: emphasis on obesity.

    PubMed

    Slyvka, Yuriy; Zhang, Yizhu; Nowak, Felicia V

    2015-02-01

    Overnutrition, obesity, and the rise in associated comorbidities are widely recognized as preventable challenges to global health. Behavioral, metabolic, and epigenetic influences that alter the epigenome, when passed on to offspring, can increase their risk of developing an altered metabolic profile. This review is focused on the role of paternal inheritance as demonstrated by clinical, epidemiological, and experimental models. Development of additional experimental models that resemble the specific epigenetic sensitive situations in human studies will be essential to explore paternally induced trans-generational effects that are mediated, primarily, by epigenetic effects. Further elucidation of epigenetic marks will help identify preventive and therapeutic targets, which in combination with healthy lifestyle choices, can diminish the growing tide of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and other related disorders. PMID:24997644

  8. Evidence for multiple paternity in the school shark Galeorhinus galeus found in New Zealand waters.

    PubMed

    Hernández, S; Duffy, C; Francis, M P; Ritchie, P A

    2014-11-01

    This study assessed the levels of relatedness of Galeorhinus galeus of progeny arrays using six microsatellite DNA markers. A parentage analysis from five families (mother and litter) from the North Island of New Zealand suggested the occurrence of genetic polyandry in G. galeus with two of the five litters showing multiple sires involved in the progeny arrays. This finding may be consistent with the reproductive characteristics of G. galeus, in which females can potentially store sperm for long periods of time after the mating season. PMID:25130757

  9. Paid maternity and paternity leave: rights and choices.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Claire

    2007-01-01

    From April 2007 onwards, maternity leave will be raised to nine months Paid maternity leave is associated with significant health benefits for babies, including reduced infant mortality The Government proposes to increase paid maternity leave to one year and introduce additional paternity leave by around 2009 The U.K's provision for maternity leave and child care is more generous than the U.S.A. or Australia but less than in the Scandinavian countries PMID:17385479

  10. [Transferrin variants: significance and identification in paternity cases (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Mauff, G; Doppelfeld, E; Weber, W

    1975-08-01

    Transferrin phenotypes were determined in 3380 sera of unrelated persons of the western region of Germany with 97.60 percent for TfC and 2.40 percent for Tf variants. Identification was achieved by immunochemical means or through autoradiography. Relative mobilities in some variants were measured using Tf B2C (0.7) as reference. Application of Tf variants is demonstrated in paternity cases. PMID:171873

  11. Five Hundred Microsatellite Loci for Peromyscus

    PubMed Central

    WEBER, JESSE N.; PETERS, MAUREEN B; TSYUSKO, OLGA V.; LINNEN, CATHERINE R.; HAGEN, CRIS; SCHABLE, NANCY A.; TUBERVILLE, TRACEY D.; MCKEE, ANNA M.; LANCE, STACEY L.; JONES, KENNETH L.; FISHER, HEIDI S.; DEWEY, MICHAEL J.; HOEKSTRA, HOPI E.; GLENN, TRAVIS C.

    2009-01-01

    Mice of the genus Peromyscus, including several endangered subspecies, occur throughout North America and have been important models for conservation research. We describe 526 primer pairs that amplify microsatellite DNA loci for P. maniculatus bairdii, 467 of which also amplify in P. polionotus subgriseus. For 12 of these loci, we report diversity data from a natural population. These markers will be an important resource for future genomic studies of Peromyscus evolution and mammalian conservation. PMID:20563244

  12. Multiple paternity in polyandrous barn owls (Tyto alba).

    PubMed

    Henry, Isabelle; Antoniazza, Sylvain; Dubey, Sylvain; Simon, Céline; Waldvogel, Céline; Burri, Reto; Roulin, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    In polyandrous species females produce successive clutches with several males. Female barn owls (Tyto alba) often desert their offspring and mate to produce a 2(nd) annual brood with a second male. We tested whether copulating during chick rearing at the 1(st) annual brood increases the male's likelihood to obtain paternity at the 2(nd) annual breeding attempt of his female mate in case she deserts their brood to produce a second brood with a different male. Using molecular paternity analyses we found that 2 out of 26 (8%) second annual broods of deserting females contained in total 6 extra-pair young out of 15 nestlings. These young were all sired by the male with whom the female had produced the 1(st) annual brood. In contrast, none of the 49 1(st) annual breeding attempts (219 offspring) and of the 20 2(nd) annual breeding attempts (93 offspring) of non-deserting females contained extra-pair young. We suggest that female desertion can select male counter-strategies to increase paternity and hence individual fitness. Alternatively, females may copulate with the 1(st) male to derive genetic benefits, since he is usually of higher quality than the 2(nd) male which is commonly a yearling individual. PMID:24244622

  13. Multiple paternity does not depend on male genetic diversity

    PubMed Central

    Thonhauser, Kerstin E.; Raveh, Shirley; Penn, Dustin J.

    2014-01-01

    Polyandry is common in many species and it has been suggested that females engage in multiple mating to increase the genetic diversity of their offspring (genetic diversity hypothesis). Multiple paternity occurs in 30% of litters in wild populations of house mice, Mus musculus musculus, and multiple-sired litters are genetically more diverse than single-sired ones. Here, we aimed to test whether female house mice produce multiple-sired litters when they have the opportunity to produce genetically diverse litters. We assessed the rates of multiple paternity when females could choose to mate with two males that were genetically dissimilar to each other (i.e. nonsiblings and MHC dissimilar) compared with when females could choose to mate with two males that were genetically similar to each other (i.e. siblings and shared MHC alleles). Multiple mating may depend upon a female's own condition, and, therefore, we also tested whether inbred (from full-sibling matings) females were more likely to produce multiple-sired progeny than outbred controls. Overall we found that 29% of litters had multiple sires, but we found no evidence that females were more likely to produce multiple-sired litters when they had the opportunity to mate with genetically dissimilar males compared with controls, regardless of whether females were inbred or outbred. Thus, our findings do not support the idea that female mice increase multiple paternity when they have the opportunity to increase the genetic diversity of their offspring, as expected from the genetic diversity hypothesis. PMID:25018559

  14. Multiple Paternity in Polyandrous Barn Owls (Tyto alba)

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Sylvain; Simon, Céline; Waldvogel, Céline; Burri, Reto; Roulin, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    In polyandrous species females produce successive clutches with several males. Female barn owls (Tyto alba) often desert their offspring and mate to produce a 2nd annual brood with a second male. We tested whether copulating during chick rearing at the 1st annual brood increases the male's likelihood to obtain paternity at the 2nd annual breeding attempt of his female mate in case she deserts their brood to produce a second brood with a different male. Using molecular paternity analyses we found that 2 out of 26 (8%) second annual broods of deserting females contained in total 6 extra-pair young out of 15 nestlings. These young were all sired by the male with whom the female had produced the 1st annual brood. In contrast, none of the 49 1st annual breeding attempts (219 offspring) and of the 20 2nd annual breeding attempts (93 offspring) of non-deserting females contained extra-pair young. We suggest that female desertion can select male counter-strategies to increase paternity and hence individual fitness. Alternatively, females may copulate with the 1st male to derive genetic benefits, since he is usually of higher quality than the 2nd male which is commonly a yearling individual. PMID:24244622

  15. Y-Chromosome Variation in Altaian Kazakhs Reveals a Common Paternal Gene Pool for Kazakhs and the Influence of Mongolian Expansions

    PubMed Central

    Dulik, Matthew C.; Osipova, Ludmila P.; Schurr, Theodore G.

    2011-01-01

    Kazakh populations have traditionally lived as nomadic pastoralists that seasonally migrate across the steppe and surrounding mountain ranges in Kazakhstan and southern Siberia. To clarify their population history from a paternal perspective, we analyzed the non-recombining portion of the Y-chromosome from Kazakh populations living in southern Altai Republic, Russia, using a high-resolution analysis of 60 biallelic markers and 17 STRs. We noted distinct differences in the patterns of genetic variation between maternal and paternal genetic systems in the Altaian Kazakhs. While they possess a variety of East and West Eurasian mtDNA haplogroups, only three East Eurasian paternal haplogroups appear at significant frequencies (C3*, C3c and O3a3c*). In addition, the Y-STR data revealed low genetic diversity within these lineages. Analysis of the combined biallelic and STR data also demonstrated genetic differences among Kazakh populations from across Central Asia. The observed differences between Altaian Kazakhs and indigenous Kazakhs were not the result of admixture between Altaian Kazakhs and indigenous Altaians. Overall, the shared paternal ancestry of Kazakhs differentiates them from other Central Asian populations. In addition, all of them showed evidence of genetic influence by the 13th century CE Mongol Empire. Ultimately, the social and cultural traditions of the Kazakhs shaped their current pattern of genetic variation. PMID:21412412

  16. Development of microsatellite loci in Artocarpus altilis (Moraceae) and cross-amplification in congeneric species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized from enriched genomic libraries of Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit) and tested in three other Artocarpus species and one hybrid. The microsatellite markers provide new tools for further studies in Artocarpus. Nineteen microsatellite primers were tes...

  17. Characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers and genetic diversity in wild bronze featherback, Notopterus notopterus (Pallas, 1769).

    PubMed

    Gupta, Arti; Lal, Kuldeep K; Punia, Peyush; Singh, Rajeev K; Mohindra, Vindhya; Sah, Rama S; Kumar, Rajesh; Luhariya, Rupesh K; Dwivedi, Arvind K; Masih, Prachi; Mishra, R M; Jena, J K

    2013-12-01

    Six polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci were identified in the primitive fish, bronze featherback, Notopterus notopterus for the first time and demonstrated significant population genetic structure. Out of the six primers, one primer (NN90) was specific to N. notopterus (microsatellite sequence within the RAG1 gene) and five primers were product of successful cross-species amplification. Sixty-four primers available from 3 fish species of order Osteoglossiformes and families Notopteridae and Osteoglossidae were tested to amplify homologous microsatellite loci in N. notopterus. Fifteen primer pairs exhibited successful cross-priming PCR product. However, polymorphism was detected only at five loci. To assess the significance of these six loci (including NN90) in population genetic study, 215 samples of N. notopterus from five rivers, viz Satluj, Gomti, Yamuna, Brahmaputra and Mahanadi were analyzed. The five sample sets displayed different diversity levels and observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.6036 to 0.7373. Significant genotype heterogeneity (P < 0.0001) and high FST (0.2205) over all loci indicated that the samples are not drawn from the same genepool. The identified microsatellite loci are promising for use in fine-scale population structure analysis of N. notopterus. PMID:24072656

  18. First haploid genetic map based on microsatellite markers in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis, Kaup 1858).

    PubMed

    Molina-Luzón, Ma Jesús; Hermida, Miguel; Navajas-Pérez, Rafael; Robles, Francisca; Navas, José Ignacio; Ruiz-Rejón, Carmelo; Bouza, Carmen; Martínez, Paulino; de la Herrán, Roberto

    2015-02-01

    The Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis, Kaup 1858) is a flatfish species of great value for aquaculture. In this study, we develop the first linkage map in this species based on microsatellite markers characterized from genomic DNA libraries and EST databases of Senegalese sole and from other flatfish species. Three reference gynogenetic families were obtained by chromosome-manipulation techniques: two haploid gynogenetics, used to assign and order microsatellites to linkage groups and another diploid gynogenetic family, used for estimating marker-centromere distances. The consensus map consists of 129 microsatellites distributed in 27 linkage groups (LG), with an average density of 4.7 markers per LG and comprising 1,004 centimorgans (cM). Additionally, 15 markers remained unlinked. Through half-tetrad analysis, we were able to estimate the centromere distance for 81 markers belonging to 24 LG, representing an average of 3 markers per LG. Comparative mapping was performed between flatfish species LG and model fish species chromosomes (stickleback, Tetraodon, medaka, fugu and zebrafish). The usefulness of microsatellite markers and the genetic map as tools for comparative mapping and evolution studies is discussed. PMID:25107689

  19. Study of Genetic Diversity among Simmental Cross Cattle in West Sumatra Based on Microsatellite Markers.

    PubMed

    Agung, Paskah Partogi; Saputra, Ferdy; Septian, Wike Andre; Lusiana; Zein, Moch Syamsul Arifin; Sulandari, Sri; Anwar, Saiful; Wulandari, Ari Sulistyo; Said, Syahruddin; Tappa, Baharuddin

    2016-02-01

    A study was conducted to assess the genetic diversity among Simmental Cross cattle in West Sumatra using microsatellite DNA markers. A total of 176 individual cattle blood samples was used for obtaining DNA samples. Twelve primers of microsatellite loci as recommended by FAO were used to identify the genetic diversity of the Simmental Cross cattle population. Multiplex DNA fragment analysis method was used for allele identification. All the microsatellite loci in this study were highly polymorphic and all of the identified alleles were able to classify the cattle population into several groups based on their genetic distance. The heterozygosity values of microsatellite loci in this study ranged from 0.556 to 0.782. The polymorphism information content (PIC) value of the 12 observed loci is high (PIC>0.5). The highest PIC value in the Simmental cattle population was 0.893 (locus TGLA53), while the lowest value was 0.529 (locus BM1818). Based on the genetic distance value, the subpopulation of the Simmental Cross-Agam and the Simmental Cross-Limapuluh Kota was exceptionally close to the Simmental Purebred thus indicating that a grading-up process has taken place with the Simmental Purebred. In view of the advantages possessed by the Simmental Cross cattle and the evaluation of the genetic diversity results, a number of subpopulations in this study can be considered as the initial (base) population for the Simmental Cross cattle breeding programs in West Sumatra, Indonesia. PMID:26732442

  20. SIMONE: interplanetary microsatellites for NEO rendezvous missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Nigel; Walker, Roger; Green, Simon; Ball, Andrew

    2003-11-01

    The paper summarises a novel mission concept called SIMONE (Smallsat Intercept Missions to Objects Near Earth), whereby a fleet of microsatellites may be deployed to individually rendezvous with a number of Near Earth Objects (NEOs), at very low cost. The mission enables, for the first time, the diverse properties of a range of spectral and physical type NEOs to be determined. Such data are invaluable to the scientific study, impact damage prediction, and impact countermeasure planning of NEOs. The five identical 120kg spacecraft are designed for low-cost piggyback launch on Ariane-5 into GTO, from where each uses a gridded-ion engine to escape the Earth and ultimately to rendezvous with a different NEO target. The primary challenge with such a mission is the ability to accommodate the necessary electric propulsion, power, payload and other onboard systems within the constraints of a microsatellite. The paper describes the way in which the latest technological advancements have been selected and applied to the mission design. The SIMONE design is feasible and clearly demonstrates that the concept of an "interplanetary microsatellite" is now realisable.

  1. Postnatal paternal depressive symptoms associated with fathers' subsequent parenting: findings from the Millennium Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Nath, Selina; Russell, Ginny; Ford, Tamsin; Kuyken, Willem; Psychogiou, Lamprini

    2015-12-01

    Impaired parenting may lie on the causal pathway between paternal depression and children's outcomes. We use the first four surveys of the Millennium Cohort Study to investigate the association between paternal depressive symptoms and fathers' parenting (negative, positive and involvement). Findings suggest that postnatal paternal depressive symptoms are associated with fathers' negative parenting. This has implications for the design of intervention programmes for parents with depression and young children. PMID:26494871

  2. Microsatellite-based evidences of genetic bottlenecks in the cryptic species "Andrographis paniculata Nees": a potential anticancer agent.

    PubMed

    Valdiani, Alireza; Javanmard, Arash; Talei, Daryush; Tan, Soon Guan; Nikzad, Sonia; Kadir, Mihdzar Abdul; Abdullah, Siti Nor Akmar

    2013-02-01

    Andrographis paniculata (AP) is a medicinal plant species introduced into Malaysia. To address the genetic structure and evolutionary connectedness of the Malaysian AP with the Indian AP, a DNA sequence analysis was conducted based on 24 microsatellite markers. Out of the 24 primer sets, seven novel microsatellite primers were designed and amplified intra-specifically according to the available Indian AP sequences at the National Centre for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), where 17 of them were amplified using the cross-species strategy by employing the primers belonging to Acanthus ilicifolius Linn (Acanthaceae) and Lumnitzera racemosa Wild (Combretaceae). The primers were then applied on the Malaysian AP accessions. Sixteen of the new microsatellite loci were amplified successfully. Analysis of these microsatellite sequences, revealed some significant differences between the Indian and Malaysian AP accessions in terms of the size and type of the repeat motifs. These findings depicted the cryptic feature of this species. Despite identifying several heterozygous alleles no polymorphism was observed in the detected loci of the selected accessions. This situation was in concordance with the presence of "fixed heterozygosity" phenomenon in the mentioned loci. Accordingly, this was fully consistent with the occurrence of the genetic bottleneck and founder effect within Malaysian AP population. Apart from the amplification of new microsatellites in this species, our observations could be in agreement with the risk of genetic depletion and consequently extinction of this precious herb in Malaysia. This issue should be taken into consideration in the future studies. PMID:23086278

  3. Paternally inherited ABCC8 mutation causing diffuse congenital hyperinsulinism

    PubMed Central

    Chandran, Suresh; Peng, Fabian Yap Kok; Rajadurai, Victor Samuel; Lu, Yap Te; Chang, Kenneth T E; Flanagan, S E; Ellard, S; Hussain, Khalid

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background: Congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) is a rare genetic disorder characterised by inappropriate insulin secretion in the face of severe hypoglycaemia. There are two histological subtypes of CHI namely diffuse and focal. Diffuse CHI is most common due to recessive mutations in ABCC8/KCNJ11 (which encode the SUR/KIR6.2 components of the pancreatic ?-cell KATP channel) whereas focal CHI is due to a paternally inherited ABCC8/KCNJ11 mutation and somatic loss of heterozygosity for the 11p allele inside the focal lesion. Fluorine-18-l-dihydroxyphenylalanine positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-DOPA-PET/CT) is used in the pre-operative localisation of focal lesions prior to surgery. Diffuse CHI if medically unresponsive will require a near total pancreatectomy whereas focal CHI will only require a limited lesionectomy, thus curing the patient from the hypoglycaemia. Aims: To report the first case of genetically confirmed CHI in Singapore from a heterozygous paternally inherited ABCC8 mutation. Methods/Results: A term male infant presented with severe hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia (HH) after birth and failed medical treatment with diazoxide and octreotide. Genetic testing (paternally inherited mutation in ABCC8/p.D1472N) suggested focal disease, but due to the unavailability of 18F-DOPA-PET/CT to confirm focal disease, a partial pancreatectomy was performed. Interestingly, histology of the resected pancreatic tissue showed changes typical of diffuse disease. Conclusion: Heterozygous paternally inherited ABCC8/KCNJ11 mutations can lead to diffuse or focal CHI. Learning points HH is a cause of severe hypoglycaemia in the newborn period.Paternal mutations in ABCC8/KCNJ11 can lead to diffuse or focal disease. 18F-DOPA-PET/CT scan is the current imaging of choice for localising focal lesions.Gallium-68 tetra-aza-cyclododecane-N N?N?N-?-tetra-acetate octreotate PET scan is not a useful imaging tool for localising focal lesions.The molecular mechanism by which a heterozygous ABCC8 mutation leads to diffuse disease is currently unclear.Focal lesions are curable by lesionectomy and so genetic studies in patients with HH must be followed by imaging using 18F-DOPA-PET/CT scan. PMID:24616771

  4. Toward Microsatellite Based Space Situational Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, L.; Wallace, B.; Sale, M.; Thorsteinson, S.

    2013-09-01

    The NEOSSat microsatellite is a dual mission space telescope which will perform asteroid detection and Space Situational Awareness (SSA) observation experiments on deep space, earth orbiting objects. NEOSSat was launched on 25 February 2013 into a 800 dawn-dusk sun synchronous orbit and is currently undergoing satellite commissioning. The microsatellite consists of a small aperture optical telescope, GPS receiver, high performance attitude control system, and stray light rejection baffle designed to reject stray light from the Sun while searching for asteroids with elongations 45 degrees along the ecliptic. The SSA experimental mission, referred to as HEOSS (High Earth Orbit Space Surveillance), will focus on objects in deep space orbits. The HEOSS mission objective is to evaluate the utility of microsatellites to perform catalog maintenance observations of resident space objects in a manner consistent with the needs of the Canadian Forces. The advantages of placing a space surveillance sensor in low Earth orbit are that the observer can conduct observations without the day-night interruption cycle experienced by ground based telescopes, the telescope is insensitive to adverse weather and the system has visibility to deep space resident space objects which are not normally visible from ground based sensors. Also, from a photometric standpoint, the microsatellite is able to conduct observations on objects with a rapidly changing observer position. The possibility of spin axis estimation on geostationary satellites may be possible and an experiment characterize spin axis of distant resident space objects is being planned. Also, HEOSS offers the ability to conduct observations of satellites at high phase angles which can potentially extend the trackable portion of space in which deep space objects' orbits can be monitored. In this paper we describe the HEOSS SSA experimental data processing system and the preliminary findings of the catalog maintenance experiments. The placement of a space based space surveillance sensor in low Earth orbit introduces tasking and image processing complexities such as cosmic ray rejection, scattered light from Earth's limb and unique scheduling limitations due to the observer's rapid positional change and we describe first-look microsatellite space surveillance lessons from this unique orbital vantage point..

  5. Maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 14 in a boy with t(14q14q) associated with a paternal t(13q14q)

    SciTech Connect

    Tomkins, D.J.; Waye, J.S.; Whelan, D.T.

    1994-09-01

    An 11-year-old boy was referred for chromosomal analysis because of precocious development and behavioral problems suggestive of the fragile X syndrome. The cytogenetic fragile X studies were normal, but a routine GTG-banded karyotype revealed an abnormal male karyotype with a Robertsonian translocation between the two chromosome 14`s: 46,XY,t(14q14q). Paternal karyotyping revealed another abnormal karyotype: 46,XY,t(13q14q). A brother had the same karyotype as the father; the mother was deceased. In order to determine if the apparently balanced t(14q14q) in the proband might be the cause of the clinical findings, molecular analysis of the origin of the chromosome 14`s was initiated. Southern blotting and hybridization with D4S13 showed that the proband had two copies of one maternal allele which was shared by his brother. The brother`s second allele corresponded to one of the paternal alleles; the proband had no alleles from the father. Analysis of four other VNTRs demonstrated the probability of paternity to be greater than 99%. Thus, the t(14q14q) was most likely composed of two maternal chromosome 14`s. Further characterization of the t(14q14q) by dinucleotide repeat polymorphic markers is in progress to determine whether it has arisen from maternal isodisomy or heterodisomy. Several cases of uniparental disomy for chromosome 14 have been reported recently. Paternal disomy appears to be associated with more severe congenital anomalies and mental retardation, whereas maternal disomy may be associated with premature puberty and minimal intellectual impairment. The origin of the t(14q14q) in the present case may be related to the paternal translocation, as the segregation of the t(13q14q) in meiosis could lead to sperm that are nullisomic for chromosome 14.

  6. No evidence of increased mutation rates at microsatellite loci in offspring of A-bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Kodaira, M; Ryo, H; Kamada, N; Furukawa, K; Takahashi, N; Nakajima, H; Nomura, T; Nakamura, N

    2010-02-01

    To evaluate the genetic effects of A-bomb radiation, we examined mutations at 40 microsatellite loci in exposed families (father-mother-offspring, mostly uni-parental exposures), which consisted of 66 offspring having a mean paternal dose of 1.87 Gy and a mean maternal dose of 1.27 Gy. The control families consisted of 63 offspring whose parents either were exposed to low doses of radiation (< 0.01 Gy) or were not in the cities of Hiroshima or Nagasaki at the time of the bombs. We found seven mutations in the exposed alleles (7/2,789; mutation rate 0.25 x 10(-2)/locus/generation) and 26 in the unexposed alleles (26/7,465; 0.35 x 10(-2)/locus/generation), which does not indicate an effect from parental exposure to radiation. Although we could not assign the parental origins of four mutations, the conclusion may hold since even if we assume that these four mutations had occurred in the exposed alleles, the estimated mean mutation rate would be 0.39 x 10(-2) in the exposed group [(7 + 4)/2,789)], which is slightly higher than 0.35 x 10(-2) in the control group, but the difference is not statistically significant. PMID:20095853

  7. Partner report of paternal depression using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale-Partner.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Sheehan D; Kopelman, Robin; O'Hara, Michael W

    2012-08-01

    Similar to maternal depression, paternal depression may have adverse effects on the family environment (e.g., partner mental health, child behavior). Detection of paternal depression is rare because the maternal-child health care system usually only screens for maternal depression. The scarcity of paternal depression screening and detection is due to fathers not usually being involved in the maternal-child health care system and, therefore, unavailable for depression screening. The purpose of this study was to assess the psychometric characteristics of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale-Partner Version (EPDS-P) in detecting paternal depression through maternal report. The EPDS-P, rated by the mother, was found to be a reliable and valid measure of paternal depression when compared to other well-validated measures of depression. The EPDS-P has clinical utility in the maternal-child health care system by making it possible to screen for paternal depression without the father being present. Proxy screening for paternal depression can be beneficial for early detection and treatment of paternal depression both in the perinatal period and through a child's early life. Detection and treatment of paternal depression reduces the risk of long-term depression in fathers. PMID:22648681

  8. Spatial patterns of extra-pair paternity: beyond paternity gains and losses.

    PubMed

    Schlicht, Lotte; Valcu, Mihai; Kempenaers, Bart

    2015-03-01

    Most studies on extra-pair paternity (EPP) focus either on a specific male's extra-pair gains or his extra-pair losses. For an individual bird however, mate choice or mate availability may underlie strong spatial restrictions. Disregarding this spatial aspect may underestimate or mask effects of parameters influencing observed EPP patterns. Here, we propose a spatially explicit model for investigating the probability of having extra-pair offspring (EPO) within local networks of breeding pairs. The data set includes all realized and unrealized potential extra-pair matings. This method is biologically meaningful because it allows (a) considering both members of an extra-pair mating and their social mates, and (b) direct modelling of the spatial context in which extra-pair behaviour occurs. The method has the advantage that it can provide inference about the relative contribution of spatial and non-spatial parameters, and about the relative importance of male and female neighbourhoods. We apply this method to parentage data from 1025 broods collected over 12 breeding seasons in two independent study populations of blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus). We investigate a set of predictions based on the EPP literature, namely that EPP depends on male age and body size, breeding density and breeding synchrony. In all analyses, we control for breeding distance, a parameter that is expected to influence EPP even under random mating. The results show that older and larger males were more likely to sire EPO, but both effects decreased with increasing breeding distance. Local breeding density but not synchrony predicted whether a particular male-female combination had EPO, at least in one of the study areas. Apart from breeding distance, male age had the strongest effect on EPP, followed by a measure of breeding density. The method thus allows a comprehensive assessment of the relative importance of different types of spatial and non-spatial parameters to explain variation in the occurrence of EPP, while controlling for the fact that individuals that breed further apart are less likely to have EPO. The proposed approach is not limited to investigate EPP, but can be applied to other behavioural interactions between two individuals, such as dominance, competition and (social) mating. PMID:25266005

  9. NCAM: a polymorphic microsatellite locus conserved across eutherian mammal species.

    PubMed

    Moore, S S; Hale, P; Byrne, K

    1998-02-01

    A dinucleotide microsatellite was found to be conserved at the 3' untranslated end of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) gene in cattle, rat and human. The high level of sequence conservation found in this gene allows the use of a single set of PCR primers to amplify sequence spanning the repeat in many species. Sequence analysis revealed the conservation of the dinucleotide repeat in all eutherian mammal species studied with variation in length as well as internal structure caused by base substitutions. Polymorphisms were seen across five mammalian orders, in rat, buffalo, sheep, cow, whale and dolphin, with polymorphisms predicted in pig and dugong based on the length of the uninterrupted dinucleotide repeat. PMID:9682447

  10. Isolation and characterization of novel microsatellite markers from the sika deer (Cervus nippon) genome.

    PubMed

    Li, Y M; Bai, C Y; Niu, W P; Yu, H; Yang, R J; Yan, S Q; Zhang, J Y; Zhang, M J; Zhao, Z H

    2015-01-01

    Microsatellite markers are widely and evenly distributed, and are highly polymorphic. Rapid and convenient detection through automated analysis means that microsatellite markers are widely used in the construction of plant and animal genetic maps, in quantitative trait loci localization, marker-assisted selection, identification of genetic relationships, and genetic diversity and phylogenetic tree construction. However, few microsatellite markers remain to be isolated. We used streptavidin magnetic beads to affinity-capture and construct a (CA)n microsatellite DNA-enriched library from sika deer. We selected sequences containing more than six repeats to design primers. Clear bands were selected, which were amplified using non-specific primers following PCR amplification to screen polymorphisms in a group of 65 unrelated sika deer. The positive clone rate reached 82.9% by constructing the enriched library, and we then selected positive clones for sequencing. There were 395 sequences with CA repeats, and the CA repeat number was 4-105. We selected sequences containing more than six repeats to design primers, of which 297 pairs were designed. We next selected clear bands and used non-specific primers to amplify following PCR amplification. In total, 245 pairs of primers were screened. We then selected 50 pairs of primers to randomly screen for polymorphisms. We detected 47 polymorphic and 3 monomorphic loci in 65 unrelated sika deer. These newly isolated and characterized microsatellite loci can be used to construct genetic maps and for lineage testing in deer. In addition, they can be used for comparative genomics between Cervidae species. PMID:26436393

  11. Microsatellite primers in Agave utahensis (Asparagaceae), a keystone species in the Mojave Desert and Colorado Plateau1

    PubMed Central

    Byers, Charlee; Maughan, Peter J.; Clouse, Jared; Stewart, J. Ryan

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Utah agave (Agave utahensis) and its putative subspecies, A. utahensis subsp. kaibabensis and A. utahensis subsp. utahensis, are keystone species of the Mojave Desert and Colorado Plateau in the southwestern United States. Here we developed microsatellite markers to study population structure and genetic diversity of the two subspecies of A. utahensis. • Methods and Results: We analyzed 22,386 454-pyrosequencing large contigs (>400 bp), derived from a genome reduction experiment consisting of A. utahensis accessions, for putative microsatellites. The use of unique multiplex barcodes for each of the Agave accessions allowed for the identification of putatively polymorphic microsatellites based solely on sequence alignment analysis. We report the characteristics of 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci based on a panel of 104 individuals from the two subspecies. The number of alleles per locus varied from three to eight, with an average of 5.5 alleles per locus. Observed and expected heterozygosity values ranged from 0.038 to 0.777 and 0.038 to 0.707, respectively. • Conclusions: The microsatellites identified here will be invaluable for future studies of population structure, polyploidy, and genetic diversity across the species. PMID:25225631

  12. Genome-Based Microsatellite Development in the Culex pipiens Complex and Comparative Microsatellite

    E-print Network

    Severson, David

    . However, detailed genetic studies in the complex are limited by the number of genetic markers available previously mapped genetic marker sequences. We identified and validated 12 new microsatellite markers1-AI079125-A1 from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes

  13. A case-control study of paternal occupational exposures and the risk of childhood sporadic bilateral retinoblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Abdolahi, Amir; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; McClean, Michael D.; Herrick, Robert F.; Allen, Joe G.; Ganguly, Arupa; Bunin, Greta R.

    2013-01-01

    Background The risk factors for sporadic (i.e. non-familial) retinoblastoma remain largely unknown. However, some studies have suggested a role for paternal work activities, primarily in farming and the metalworking industry, in the development of childhood retinoblastoma. Objectives We examined the relationship between paternal occupational exposures from jobs held 10 years and one year prior to conception and the risk of sporadic bilateral retinoblastoma in children. Methods Paternal occupational data were obtained for 198 incident cases diagnosed with sporadic bilateral retinoblastoma from January 1998 to May 2006 and 245 referral-based controls from the case child’s relatives and friends who were matched to 135 of the cases on birth year. Industrial hygienists independently assigned exposure scores for nine agents, including estimates of probability, intensity, and frequency as well as an overall summary exposure score. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using logistic regression models, using the full sample of cases and controls as well as subset of cases with matched controls only. Results There was some indication of an elevated risk associated with paternal pesticide exposure in the 10 years prior to conception (OR= 1.64; 95% CI: 1.08-2.50) as well as in the year before conception (OR= 2.12; 95% CI: 1.25-3.61). However, results for pesticide exposure were inconsistent and varied by analysis approach. An increased risk was also observed for non-welding metal exposure during the 10 years prior to conception in the full (OR= 1.35; 95% CI: 0.86-2.12) and matched (OR= 1.40; 95% CI: 0.82-2.37) samples, but not in the year before conception. Exposure-response trends were observed for pesticides in the full sample (p for trend < 0.0001), and consistently across both samples for non-welding metal exposures. Conclusions Our findings suggest a potential role of paternal occupational exposures to non-welding metals and perhaps pesticides in the etiology of childhood retinoblastoma. PMID:23503471

  14. TECHNICAL NOTE Thirteen polymorphic microsatellite markers for the European

    E-print Network

    Perrin, Nicolas

    TECHNICAL NOTE Thirteen polymorphic microsatellite markers for the European green toad Bufo viridis.V. 2010 Abstract We report 13 new polymorphic microsatellite markers for the European green toad Bufo also cross-amplify in related West- Mediterranean green toad species (Bufo balearicus, B. siculus and B

  15. A microsatellite genetic linkage map of black rockfish ( Sebastes schlegeli)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Guannan; Jiang, Liming; He, Yan; Yu, Haiyang; Wang, Zhigang; Jiang, Haibin; Zhang, Quanqi

    2014-12-01

    Ovoviviparous black rockfish ( Sebastes schlegeli) is an important marine fish species for aquaculture and fisheries in China. Genetic information of this species is scarce because of the lack of microsatellite markers. In this study, a large number of microsatellite markers of black rockfish were isolated by constructing microsatellite-enriched libraries. Female- and male-specific genetic linkage maps were constructed using 435 microsatellite markers genotyped in a full-sib family of the fish species. The female linkage map contained 140 microsatellite markers, in which 23 linkage groups had a total genetic length of 1334.1 cM and average inter-marker space of 13.3 cM. The male linkage map contained 156 microsatellite markers, in which 25 linkage groups had a total genetic length of 1359.6 cM and average inter-marker distance of 12.4 cM. The genome coverage of the female and male linkage maps was 68.6% and 69.3%, respectively. The female-to-male ratio of the recombination rate was approximately 1.07:1 in adjacent microsatellite markers. This paper presents the first genetic linkage map of microsatellites in black rockfish. The collection of polymorphic markers and sex-specific linkage maps of black rockfish could be useful for further investigations on parental assignment, population genetics, quantitative trait loci mapping, and marker-assisted selection in related breeding programs.

  16. CMD: A Cotton Microsatellite Database Resource for Gossypium Genomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Cotton Microsatellite Database (CMD) is a curated and integrated web-based database providing centralized access to all publicly available cotton microsatellite markers (SSRs) (http://www.cottonssr.org). At present it contains DNA sequence, SSR marker, mapping and similarity data for nine cotton...

  17. Microsatellite Variation and Differentiation in North Atlantic Eels

    E-print Network

    Avise, John

    Microsatellite Variation and Differentiation in North Atlantic Eels J. E. MANK AND J. C. AVISE From, and Icelandic eels (Anguillidae) for allelic variation and genetic divergence at six polymorphic microsatellite proved ineffective for addressing hypotheses about the possible hybrid origins of some Icelandic eels

  18. SELECTION OF INTERSPECIFIC SUGARCANE HYBRIDS USING MICROSATELLITE DNA MARKERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three types of species-specific DNA markers, namely, PCR, RAPD, and microsatellites, have been recently developed at the USDA-ARS, SRRC, Sugarcane Research Unit, Houma, Louisiana. Of these, the microsatellite markers are the most polymorphic and can produce distinctive fingerprints (or molecular al...

  19. Novel microsatellite markers suitable for genetic studies in the white button mushroom Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed

    Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Spataro, Cathy; Savoie, Jean-Michel

    2009-10-01

    Co-dominant microsatellite molecular markers were obtained from the Agaricus bisporus cultivated mushroom. Their potential for both the molecular characterisation of commercial strains and the monitoring of the intraspecific genetic variation was demonstrated. The analysis of 673 unique sequences issued from public database and 59 from an enriched A. bisporus genomic library resulted in the development of a total of 33 single sequence repeat or microsatellite (SSR) markers. Their usefulness for genetic analysis was assessed on 28 strains, which include six cultivars representative of traditional lineage, two hybrids and 20 strains originating from wild populations. A. bisporus SSR markers displayed each from two to ten alleles, with an average of 5.6 alleles per locus. The observed heterozygosity ranged from 0 to 0.88. Cluster analysis resulting from SSR fingerprintings was in agreement with published A. bisporus population structure. A combination of only three selected SSR markers was sufficient to discriminate unambiguously 27 out of 28 distinct genotypes. However, the two genetically related hybrids were not distinguishable. Multiplexing was tested, and up to seven loci could be genotyped simultaneously. We are therefore reporting the first development in A. bisporus of a set of microsatellite markers powerful and suitable for genetic analysis. PMID:19455324

  20. Global Microsatellite Content Distinguishes Humans, Primates, Animals, and Plants

    PubMed Central

    McIver, L.J.; McCormick, J.F.; Skinner, M.A.; Xie, Y.; Gelhausen, R.A.; Ng, K.; Kumar, N.M.; Garner, H.R.

    2009-01-01

    Microsatellites are highly mutable, repetitive sequences commonly used as genetic markers, but they have never been studied en masse. Using a custom microarray to measure hybridization intensities of every possible repetitive nucleotide motif from 1-mers to 6-mers, we examined 25 genomes. Here, we show that global microsatellite content varies predictably by species, as measured by array hybridization signal intensities, correlating with established taxonomic relationships, and particular motifs are characteristic of one species versus another. For instance, hominid-specific microsatellite motifs were identified despite alignment of the human reference, Celera, and Venter genomic sequences indicating substantial variation (30–50%) among individuals. Differential microsatellite motifs were mainly associated with genes involved in developmental processes, whereas those found in intergenic regions exhibited no discernible pattern. This is the first description of a method for evaluating microsatellite content to classify individual genomes. PMID:19717526

  1. Genetic structure of Tunisian ethnic groups revealed by paternal lineages.

    PubMed

    Fadhlaoui-Zid, Karima; Martinez-Cruz, Begoña; Khodjet-el-khil, Houssein; Mendizabal, Isabel; Benammar-Elgaaied, Amel; Comas, David

    2011-10-01

    Tunisia has experienced a variety of human migrations that have modeled the myriad cultural groups inhabiting the area. Both Arabic and Berber-speaking populations live in Tunisia. Berbers are commonly considered as in situ descendants of peoples who settled roughly in Palaeolithic times, and posterior demographic events such as the arrival of the Neolithic, the Arab migrations, and the expulsion of the "Moors" from Spain, had a strong cultural influence. Nonetheless, the genetic structure and the population relationships of the ethnic groups living in Tunisia have been poorly assessed. In order to gain insight into the paternal genetic landscape and population structure, more than 40 Y-chromosome single nucleotide polymorphisms and 17 short tandem repeats were analyzed in five Tunisian ethnic groups (three Berber-speaking isolates, one Andalusian, and one Cosmopolitan Arab). The most common lineage was the North African haplogroup E-M81 (71%), being fixed in two Berber samples (Chenini-Douiret and Jradou), suggesting isolation and genetic drift. Differential levels of paternal gene flow from the Near East were detected in the Tunisian samples (J-M267 lineage over 30%); however, no major sub-Saharan African or European influence was found. This result contrasts with the high amount of sub-Saharan and Eurasian maternal lineages previously described in Tunisia. Overall, our results reveal a certain genetic inter-population diversity, especially among Berber groups, and sexual asymmetry, paternal lineages being mostly of autochthonous origin. In addition, Andalusians, who are supposed to be migrants from southern Spain, do not exhibit any substantial contribution of European lineages, suggesting a North African origin for this ethnic group. PMID:21915847

  2. Paternal influences on pregnancy complications and birth outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Cleghorn de Rohrmoser, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of selected characteristics of the paternal work environment and occupational history to the incidence of complications in pregnancy, complications in labor and anomalies in birth outcomes. The literature suggested that male exposure to teratogenic hazards in the form of radiation and chemical compounds, primarily in the form of solvents, has been implicated in reproductive disorders and malformed offspring in animals. Similarly, some recent research suggests that the exposure of male workers to such hazards on their job may have consequences for their spouses and children. Based on these experimental research studies and analyses of persons working in high risk occupations, a broader study of the potential contribution of paternal work environment variables to the success of pregnancy and birth outcomes seemed warranted. Based upon the literature review, a model was proposed for predicting complications in pregnancy, complications in labor and birth outcome (normal birth, low birth weight, congenital malformations and fetal death). From the 1980 National Natality Survey and the 1980 National Fetal Mortality Survey, four sub-samples of married couples, with both husband and wife employed, were selected on the basis of one of the four birth outcomes. The model called for controlling a range of maternal intrinsic and extrinsic health and behavioral variables known to be related to birth outcomes. Multiple logistic regression procedures were used to analyze the effects of father's exposure to radiation and solvents on the job, to complications in pregnancy and labor, and to birth outcome, while controlling for maternal variables. The results indicated that none of the paternal variables were predictors of complications in labor. Further, there was no clear pattern of results, though father's degree of exposure to solvents, and exposures to radiation did reach significance in some analyses.

  3. Epigenetics and the origins of paternal effects James P. Curley, Rahia Mashoodh, Frances A. Champagne

    E-print Network

    Champagne, Frances A.

    Review Epigenetics and the origins of paternal effects James P. Curley, Rahia Mashoodh, Frances A June 2010 Accepted 24 June 2010 Available online 8 July 2010 Keywords: Paternal effect Epigenetic influence their offspring, recent studies of environmentally induced epigenetic variation have highlighted

  4. Paternity, parental behavior and circulating steroid hormone concentrations in nest-tending male bluegill

    E-print Network

    Neff, Bryan D.

    Paternity, parental behavior and circulating steroid hormone concentrations in nest-tending male, we examined the relationships between circulating steroid hormones, paternity, and parental behavior. There also was no relationship between the hormones and care behavior comprising fanning of the eggs, nest

  5. Mechanisms of Association between Paternal Alcoholism and Abuse of Alcohol and Other Illicit Drugs among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peleg-Oren, Neta; Hospital, Michelle; Morris, Staci Leon; Wagner, Eric F.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the effect of paternal alcohol problems on adolescent use of alcohol and other illicit drugs as a function of maternal communication, as well as adolescent social and coping skills (N = 145). Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses indicated that adolescents with a paternal history of alcohol problems reported higher…

  6. Vasopressin and the Transmission of Paternal Behavior Across Generations in Mated, Cross-Fostered Peromyscus Mice

    E-print Network

    Marler, Catherine A.

    parents and displayed no changes in pup retrieval behavior. AVP-immunoreactive staining in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis may predict paternal behavior because it correlated positively with retrievalsVasopressin and the Transmission of Paternal Behavior Across Generations in Mated, Cross

  7. A Journal of Integrative Biology Evidence of Multiple Paternity in Morelet's Crocodile

    E-print Network

    Dever, Jennifer A.

    A Journal of Integrative Biology Evidence of Multiple Paternity in Morelet's Crocodile (Crocodylus from ten nests of Morelet's Crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) from New River Lagoon and Gold Button. These data suggest the presence of multiple paternity as a mating strategy in the true crocodiles

  8. Paternal Incarceration and Children's Physically Aggressive Behaviors: Evidence from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildeman, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    This study extends research on the consequences of mass imprisonment and the causes of children's behavioral problems by considering the effects of paternal incarceration on children's physical aggression at age 5 using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study. Results suggest that paternal incarceration is associated with…

  9. Pectoral ns and paternal quality in sticklebacks Reto Ku nzler and Theo C. M. Bakker*

    E-print Network

    on paternal quality in male three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.). After reductions of ¢n area¢ts of mate choice, inclusive of indicators of parental quality. The three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.) is a typical ¢sh species with paternal care. During the parental phase, stickleback males

  10. LETTER Exclusive male care despite extreme female promiscuity and low paternity in a marine snail

    E-print Network

    Grosberg, Rick

    in the evolution of male parental care. Keywords Conflict, gastropod, mating system, parental care, paternity-Brock 1991), presumably because males in most species maximise their reproductive success by desertingLETTER Exclusive male care despite extreme female promiscuity and low paternity in a marine snail

  11. A role for the elongator complex in zygotic paternal genome demethylation.

    PubMed

    Okada, Yuki; Yamagata, Kazuo; Hong, Kwonho; Wakayama, Teruhiko; Zhang, Yi

    2010-01-28

    The life cycle of mammals begins when a sperm enters an egg. Immediately after fertilization, both the maternal and paternal genomes undergo dramatic reprogramming to prepare for the transition from germ cell to somatic cell transcription programs. One of the molecular events that takes place during this transition is the demethylation of the paternal genome. Despite extensive efforts, the factors responsible for paternal DNA demethylation have not been identified. To search for such factors, we developed a live cell imaging system that allows us to monitor the paternal DNA methylation state in zygotes. Through short-interfering-RNA-mediated knockdown in mouse zygotes, we identified Elp3 (also called KAT9), a component of the elongator complex, to be important for paternal DNA demethylation. We demonstrate that knockdown of Elp3 impairs paternal DNA demethylation as indicated by reporter binding, immunostaining and bisulphite sequencing. Similar results were also obtained when other elongator components, Elp1 and Elp4, were knocked down. Importantly, injection of messenger RNA encoding the Elp3 radical SAM domain mutant, but not the HAT domain mutant, into MII oocytes before fertilization also impaired paternal DNA demethylation, indicating that the SAM radical domain is involved in the demethylation process. Our study not only establishes a critical role for the elongator complex in zygotic paternal genome demethylation, but also indicates that the demethylation process may be mediated through a reaction that requires an intact radical SAM domain. PMID:20054296

  12. Brief Report: Phenotypic Differences and Their Relationship to Paternal Age and Gender in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vierck, Esther; Silverman, Jeremy M.

    2015-01-01

    Two modes of inheritance have been proposed in autism spectrum disorder, transmission though pre-existing variants and de novo mutations. Different modes may lead to different symptom expressions in affected individuals. De novo mutations become more likely with advancing paternal age suggesting that paternal age may predict phenotypic…

  13. Genetic Mapping of Psm, A Unique Locus Controlling Paternal Sorting of the Mitochondrial DNA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Passage of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) through cell cultures produces plants with a distinctive mosaic (MSC) phenotype that shows paternal transmission. The mitochondrial (mt) DNA of cucumber is paternally transmitted and the MSC phenotype is associated with rearrangements in the mt DNA. We identif...

  14. Sex allocation in a species with paternal genome elimination: the roles of crowding and female age

    E-print Network

    Shuker, David

    Sex allocation in a species with paternal genome elimination: the roles of crowding and female age with paternal genome elimination, both sexes are diploid. However, in males the chromosomes inherited from the father are deactivated during early development and eliminated from the germ line. Sex allocation theory

  15. Visual Phenotype Matching: Cues to Paternity Are Present in Rhesus Macaque Faces

    E-print Network

    Widdig, Anja

    Visual Phenotype Matching: Cues to Paternity Are Present in Rhesus Macaque Faces Anahita J. N experimentally investigate whether parent-offspring relationships are discernible in rhesus macaque (Macaca Matching: Cues to Paternity Are Present in Rhesus Macaque Faces. PLoS ONE 8(2): e55846. doi:10

  16. Paternal Depression and Risk for Child Neglect in Father-Involved Families of Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Shawna J.; Taylor, Catherine A.; Bellamy, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association of paternal depression with risk for parental neglect of young children. Study design: The sample was derived from a birth cohort study of 1,089 families in which both biological parents resided in the home when the target child was 3- and 5-years old. Prospective analyses examined the contribution of paternal

  17. Development and validation of microsatellite markers for Brachiaria ruziziensis obtained by partial genome assembly of Illumina single-end reads

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Brachiaria ruziziensis is one of the most important forage species planted in the tropics. The application of genomic tools to aid the selection of superior genotypes can provide support to B. ruziziensis breeding programs. However, there is a complete lack of information about the B. ruziziensis genome. Also, the availability of genomic tools, such as molecular markers, to support B. ruziziensis breeding programs is rather limited. Recently, next-generation sequencing technologies have been applied to generate sequence data for the identification of microsatellite regions and primer design. In this study, we present a first validated set of SSR markers for Brachiaria ruziziensis, selected from a de novo partial genome assembly of single-end Illumina reads. Results A total of 85,567 perfect microsatellite loci were detected in contigs with a minimum 10X coverage. We selected a set of 500 microsatellite loci identified in contigs with minimum 100X coverage for primer design and synthesis, and tested a subset of 269 primer pairs, 198 of which were polymorphic on 11 representative B. ruziziensis accessions. Descriptive statistics for these primer pairs are presented, as well as estimates of marker transferability to other relevant brachiaria species. Finally, a set of 11 multiplex panels containing the 30 most informative markers was validated and proposed for B. ruziziensis genetic analysis. Conclusions We show that the detection and development of microsatellite markers from genome assembled Illumina single-end DNA sequences is highly efficient. The developed markers are readily suitable for genetic analysis and marker assisted selection of Brachiaria ruziziensis. The use of this approach for microsatellite marker development is promising for species with limited genomic information, whose breeding programs would benefit from the use of genomic tools. To our knowledge, this is the first set of microsatellite markers developed for this important species. PMID:23324172

  18. Longitudinal associations among fathers' perception of coparenting, partner relationship quality, and paternal stress during early childhood.

    PubMed

    Fagan, Jay; Lee, Yookyong

    2014-03-01

    This study examined the longitudinal and concurrent associations among fathers' perceptions of partner relationship quality (happiness, conflict), coparenting (shared decision making, conflict), and paternal stress. The sample consisted of 6,100 children who lived with both biological parents at 24 and 48 months in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort data set. The results showed that there are significant and concurrent associations between fathers' perceptions of the coparenting relationship and paternal stress, and between partner relationship quality and paternal stress. There was also a positive direct longitudinal association between partner relationship conflict and paternal stress. However, we found only one longitudinal cross-system mediation effect: fathers' perception of coparenting conflict at 48 months mediated the association between partner relationship conflict at 24 months and paternal stress at 48 months. The family practice implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:24236848

  19. Paternal Autonomy Restriction, Neighborhood Safety, and Child Anxiety Trajectory in Community Youth

    PubMed Central

    Cooper-Vince, Christine E.; Chan, Priscilla T.; Pincus, Donna B.; Comer, Jonathan S.

    2014-01-01

    Intrusive parenting, primarily examined among middle to upper-middle class mothers, has been positively associated with the presence and severity of anxiety in children. This study employed cross-sectional linear regression and longitudinal latent growth curve analyses to evaluate the main and interactive effects of early childhood paternal autonomy restriction (AR) and neighborhood safety (NS) on the trajectory of child anxiety in a sample of 596 community children and fathers from the NICHD SECYD. Longitudinal analyses revealed that greater paternal AR at age 6 was actually associated with greater decreases in child anxiety in later childhood. Cross-sectional analyses revealed main effects for NS across childhood, and interactive effects of paternal AR and NS that were present only in early childhood, whereby children living in safer neighborhoods demonstrated increased anxiety when experiencing lower levels of paternal AR. Findings further clarify for whom and when paternal AR impacts child anxiety in community youth. PMID:25242837

  20. Trajectories Leading to Autism Spectrum Disorders Are Affected by Paternal Age: Findings from Two Nationally Representative Twin Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundstrom, Sebastian; Haworth, Claire M. A.; Carlstrom, Eva; Gillberg, Christopher; Mill, Jonathan; Rastam, Maria; Hultman, Christina M.; Ronald, Angelica; Anckarsater, Henrik; Plomin, Robert; Lichtenstein, Paul; Reichenberg, Abraham

    2010-01-01

    Background: Despite extensive efforts, the causes of autism remain unknown. Advancing paternal age has been associated with various neurodevelopmental disorders. We aim to investigate three unresolved questions: (a) What is the association between paternal age and autism spectrum disorders (ASD)?; (b) Does paternal age moderate the genetic and…

  1. Microsatellite variation in the Australian dingo.

    PubMed

    Wilton, A N; Steward, D J; Zafiris, K

    1999-01-01

    The dingo is thought to have arrived in Australia from Asia about 5,000 years ago. It is currently in danger because of interbreeding with domestic dogs. Several morphological, behavioral, and reproductive characteristics distinguish dingoes from domestic dog. Skull morphometrics are currently used to try to classify wild canids as pure dingo, dog, or hybrid. Molecular techniques based on diagnostic DNA differences between dogs and dingoes would make a much more reliable and practical test. A small number of markers (about 10) would allow detection of animals with domestic dog in their ancestry several generations back. We have typed 16 dingoes and 16 dogs of mixed breed for 14 microsatellites. The amount of variation in the Australian dingo is much less than in domestic dogs. The size distributions of microsatellites in the two groups usually overlap. The number of alleles in the dingo is much smaller in all cases. One dinucleotide repeat locus shows a size difference of 1 bp in allele classes between dog and dingo. This locus may be diagnostic for dog or dingo ancestry. The differences in distributions of alleles at other loci can also be used to classify animals using a likelihood method. PMID:9987915

  2. Microsatellite primer resource for Populus developed from

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Tongming; Yang, Xiaohan; Gunter, Lee E; Tuskan, Gerald A; Wullschleger, Stan D; Huang, Prof. Minren; Li, Shuxian; Zhang, Xinye

    2008-01-01

    In this study, 148 428 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primer pairs were designed from the unambiguously mapped sequence scaffolds of the Nisqually-1 genome. The physical position of the priming sites were identified along each of the 19 Populus chromosomes, and it was specified whether the priming sequences belong to intronic, intergenic, exonic or UTR regions. A subset of 150 SSR loci were amplified and a high amplification success rate (72%) was obtained in P. tremuloides, which belongs to a divergent subgenus of Populus relative to Nisqually-1. PCR reactions showed that the amplification success rate of exonic primer pairs was much higher than that of the intronic/intergenic primer pairs. Applying ANOVA and regression analyses to the flanking sequences of microsatellites, the repeat lengths, the GC contents of the repeats, the repeat motif numbers, the repeat motif length and the base composition of the repeat motif, it was determined that only the base composition of the repeat motif and the repeat motif length significantly affect the microsatellite variability in P. tremuloides samples. The SSR primer resource developed in this study provides a database for selecting highly transferable SSR markers with known physical position in the Populus genome and provides a comprehensive genetic tool to extend the genome sequence of Nisqually-1 to genetic studies in different Populus species.

  3. FEMALE AND MALE GENETIC EFFECTS ON OFFSPRING PATERNITY: ADDITIVE GENETIC (CO)VARIANCES IN FEMALE EXTRA-PAIR REPRODUCTION AND MALE PATERNITY SUCCESS IN SONG SPARROWS (MELOSPIZA MELODIA)

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Jane M; Arcese, Peter; Keller, Lukas F; Losdat, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    Ongoing evolution of polyandry, and consequent extra-pair reproduction in socially monogamous systems, is hypothesized to be facilitated by indirect selection stemming from cross-sex genetic covariances with components of male fitness. Specifically, polyandry is hypothesized to create positive genetic covariance with male paternity success due to inevitable assortative reproduction, driving ongoing coevolution. However, it remains unclear whether such covariances could or do emerge within complex polyandrous systems. First, we illustrate that genetic covariances between female extra-pair reproduction and male within-pair paternity success might be constrained in socially monogamous systems where female and male additive genetic effects can have opposing impacts on the paternity of jointly reared offspring. Second, we demonstrate nonzero additive genetic variance in female liability for extra-pair reproduction and male liability for within-pair paternity success, modeled as direct and associative genetic effects on offspring paternity, respectively, in free-living song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). The posterior mean additive genetic covariance between these liabilities was slightly positive, but the credible interval was wide and overlapped zero. Therefore, although substantial total additive genetic variance exists, the hypothesis that ongoing evolution of female extra-pair reproduction is facilitated by genetic covariance with male within-pair paternity success cannot yet be definitively supported or rejected either conceptually or empirically. PMID:24724612

  4. AIAA 2001-4030 CONSTRAINED TRAJECTORY GENERATION FOR MICRO-SATELLITE

    E-print Network

    AIAA 2001-4030 CONSTRAINED TRAJECTORY GENERATION FOR MICRO-SATELLITE FORMATION FLYING Mark B. Milam-keeping and reorientation control of a cluster of fully-actuated low-thrust micro-satellites is considered in this paper. We of the micro-satellite, it is possible to compute the control on-board the micro-satellites. Performance

  5. Measuring paternal discrepancy and its public health consequences

    PubMed Central

    Bellis, M.; Hughes, K.; Hughes, S.; Ashton, J.

    2005-01-01

    Paternal discrepancy (PD) occurs when a child is identified as being biologically fathered by someone other than the man who believes he is the father. This paper examines published evidence on levels of PD and its public health consequences. Rates vary between studies from 0.8% to 30% (median 3.7%, n = 17). Using information from genetic and behavioural studies, the article identifies those who conceive younger, live in deprivation, are in long term relationships (rather than marriages), or in certain cultural groups are at higher risk. Public health consequences of PD being exposed include family break up and violence. However, leaving PD undiagnosed means cases having incorrect information on their genetics and fathers continuing to suspect that children may not be theirs. Increasing paternity testing and use of DNA techniques in clinical and judicial procedures means more cases of PD will be identified. Given developing roles for individual's genetics in decisions made by health services, private services (for example, insurance), and even in personal lifestyle decisions, the dearth of intelligence on how and when PD should be exposed urgently needs addressing. PMID:16100312

  6. Polyandry in dragon lizards: inbred paternal genotypes sire fewer offspring

    PubMed Central

    Frère, Celine H; Chandrasoma, Dani; Whiting, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    Multiple mating in female animals is something of a paradox because it can either be risky (e.g., higher probability of disease transmission, social costs) or provide substantial fitness benefits (e.g., genetic bet hedging whereby the likelihood of reproductive failure is lowered). The genetic relatedness of parental units, particularly in lizards, has rarely been studied in the wild. Here, we examined levels of multiple paternity in Australia's largest agamid lizard, the eastern water dragon (Intellagama lesueurii), and determined whether male reproductive success is best explained by its heterozygosity coefficient or the extent to which it is related to the mother. Female polyandry was the norm: 2/22 clutches (9.2%) were sired by three or more fathers, 17/22 (77.2%) were sired by two fathers, and only 3/22 (13.6%) clutches were sired by one father. Moreover, we reconstructed the paternal genotypes for 18 known mother–offspring clutches and found no evidence that females were favoring less related males or that less related males had higher fitness. However, males with greater heterozygosity sired more offspring. While the postcopulatory mechanisms underlying this pattern are not understood, female water dragons likely represent another example of reproduction through cryptic means (sperm selection/sperm competition) in a lizard, and through which they may ameliorate the effects of male-driven precopulatory sexual selection. PMID:25937911

  7. Epigenetic inheritance and evolution: A paternal perspective on dietary influences.

    PubMed

    Soubry, Adelheid

    2015-07-01

    The earliest indications for paternally induced transgenerational effects from the environment to future generations were based on a small number of long-term epidemiological studies and some empirical observations. Only recently have experimental animal models and a few analyses on human data explored the transgenerational nature of phenotypic changes observed in offspring. Changes include multiple metabolic disorders, cancer and other chronic diseases. These phenotypes cannot always be explained by Mendelian inheritance, DNA mutations or genetic damage. Hence, a new compelling theory on epigenetic inheritance is gaining interest, providing new concepts that extend Darwin's evolutionary theory. Epigenetic alterations or "epimutations" are being considered to explain transgenerational inheritance of parentally acquired traits. The responsible mechanisms for these epimutations include DNA methylation, histone modification, and RNA-mediated effects. This review explores the literature on a number of time-dependent environmentally induced epigenetic alterations, specifically those from dietary exposures. We suggest a role for the male germ line as one of nature's tools to capture messages from our continuously changing environment and to transfer this information to subsequent generations. Further, we open the discussion that the paternally inherited epigenetic information may contribute to evolutionary adaptation. PMID:25769497

  8. Normal phenotype with paternal uniparental isodisomy for chromosome 21

    SciTech Connect

    Blouin, J.L.; Avramopoulos, D. ); Pangalos, C.; Antonarakis, S.E.

    1993-11-01

    Uniparental disomy (UPD) involving several different chromosomes has been described in several cases of human pathologies. In order to investigate whether UPD for chromosome 21 is associated with abnormal phenotypes, the authors analyzed DNA polymorphisms in DNA from a family with de novo Robertsonian translocation t(21q;21q). The proband was a healthy male with 45 dup(21q) who was ascertained through his trisomy 21 offspring. No phenotypic abnormalities were noted in the physical exam, and his past medical history was unremarkable. The authors obtained genotypes for the proband and his parents' leukocyte DNAs from 17 highly informative short sequence repeat polymorphisms that map in the pericentromeric region and along the entire length of 21q. The order of the markers has been previously determined through the linkage and physical maps of this chromosome. For the nine informative markers there was no maternal allele contribution to the genotype of the proband; in addition, there was always reduction to homozygosity of a paternal allele. These data indicated that there was paternal uniparental isodisomy for chromosome 21 (pUPiD21). The authors conclude that pUPiD21 is not associated with abnormal phenotypes and that there are probably no imprinted genes on chromosome 21. 36 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Paternal RHD zygosity determination in Tunisians: evaluation of three molecular tests

    PubMed Central

    Kacem, Narjes; Jemni-Yacoub, Saloua; Chiaroni, Jacques; Bailly, Pascal; Silvy, Monique

    2015-01-01

    Background The choice of a molecular test for first intention determination of paternal RHD zygosity, before entering into invasive diagnostics, is important for the management of pregnancies at risk of haemolytic disease of the foetus and newborn related to anti-RhD. Materials and methods RHD zygosity was evaluated in 370 RH:1 Tunisian donors by polymerase chain reaction - sequence-specific polymorphism (PCR-SSP) analysis and polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) amplification of hybrid Rhesus box and by real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR) specific for RHD exon 5. To evaluate the accuracy of molecular tests in the cases of discordant results, the ten exons of RHD and Rhesus boxes were amplified by PCR and sequenced. Results Molecular investigations revealed that our 370 donors comprise 193 dizygous and 145 hemizygous individuals and 32 subjects whose zygosity remains unknown. Positive predictive values were higher than 99% for all the methods, reaching 100% for RQ-PCR. Negative predictive values were 83.24%, 87.27% and 98% for PCR-SSP, PCR-RFLP and RQ-PCR respectively. This study also revealed 19 novel Rhesus box polymorphisms and three novel RHD alleles: RHD(Trp185Stop), RHD(Ala176Thr) and RHD(Ile342Ile). Discussion RQ-PCR is the most convenient method for first intention determination of paternal RHD zygosity in Tunisians. However, taking into account positive and negative predictive values, PCR-RFLP could be an alternative despite the heterogeneity of Rhesus boxes and the complexity of RHD. PMID:24960665

  10. CERISE microsatellite recovery from first detected collision in low Earth orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeting, M. N.; Hashida, Y.; Bean, N. P.; Hodgart, M. S.; Steyn, H.

    2004-07-01

    The first ever collision between two catalogued space objects was detected in low Earth orbit in July 1996. After one year of perfect operation in space, controllers at the Space Mission Control Groundstation, Surrey Space Centre, UK observed a sudden change to the attitude dynamics of the CERISE microsatellite as it tumbled rapidly end-over-end in its 700 km polar Earth orbit. After initial investigations, a collision with a piece of space debris was suspected. The paper describes the analysis of the collision dynamics and the subsequent re-programming of the on-board computers with novel magnetic control algorithms to re-stabilise the otherwise undamaged microsatellite and regain almost full operational mission capability.

  11. Genetic diversity of Tunisian figs (Ficus carica L.) as revealed by nuclear microsatellites.

    PubMed

    Saddoud, O; Chatti, K; Salhi-Hannachi, A; Mars, M; Rhouma, A; Marrakchi, M; Trifi, M

    2007-09-01

    The present study portrays the achievement of the genetic polymorphism surveying and the establishment of an ecotypes identification key on the basis of simple sequence repeats data. Seventy-two Tunisian fig ecotypes in situ and ex situ conserved were analyzed using six microsatellite loci. A total of 58 alleles and 124 genotypes were revealed and permitted to evidence high degree of genetic diversity mainly explained at the intra group level. Cluster analysis based on genetic distances proved that a typical continuous genetic diversity characterizes the local germplasm. In addition, the microsatellite multilocus genotyping has permitted to unambiguously distinguish 70 well-defined ecotypes (resolving power of 97.22%). Data are discussed in relation with the reliability of the used markers to check the conformity of the plant material and to rationally manage the conservation of this crop. PMID:17850599

  12. Development of novel polymorphic microsatellite markers for the silver fox (Vulpes vulpes).

    PubMed

    Yan, S Q; Bai, C Y; Qi, S M; Li, Y M; Li, W J; Sun, J H

    2015-01-01

    The silver fox (Vulpes vulpes), a coat color variant of the red fox, is one of the most important fur-bearing animals. To date, development of microsatellite loci for the silver fox has been limited and mainly based on cross-amplification by using canine SSR primers. In this study, 28 polymorphic microsatellite markers were isolated and identified for silver fox through the construction and screening of an (AC)n-enriched library. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 8 based on 48 individuals tested. The expected and observed hetero- zygosity and polymorphism information content per locus ranged from 0.2544 to 0.859, 0.2083 to 0.7917, and 0.2181 to 0.821, respectively. The polymorphic markers presented in this study may be useful for fu-ture analysis of the genetic diversity and population structure of farmed silver fox and wild red fox. PMID:26125788

  13. Segregation and genetic linkage analyses of river catfish, Mystus nemurus, based on microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Hoh, B P; Siraj, S S; Tan, S G; Yusoff, K

    2013-01-01

    The river catfish Mystus nemurus is an important fresh water species for aquaculture in Malaysia. We report the first genetic linkage map of M. nemurus based on segregation analysis and a linkage map using newly developed microsatellite markers of M. nemurus. A total of 70 of the newly developed polymorphic DNA microsatellite markers were analyzed on pedigrees generated using a pseudo-testcross strategy from 2 mapping families. In the first mapping family, 100 offspring were produced from randomly selected dams of the same populations; dams of the second family were selected from 2 different populations, and this family had 50 offspring. Thirty-one of the 70 markers segregated according to the Mendelian segregation ratio. Linkage analysis revealed that 17 microsatellite markers belonging to 7 linkage groups were obtained at a logarithm of the odds score of 1.2 spanning 584 cM by the Kosambi mapping function, whereas the other 14 remained unlinked. The results from this study will act as primer to a more extensive genetic mapping study aimed towards identifying genetic loci involved in determining economically important traits. PMID:23479146

  14. The Landscape of Microsatellite Instability in Colorectal and Endometrial Cancer Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Min; Laird, Peter W.; Park, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Microsatellites - simple tandem repeats present at millions of sites in the human genome - can shorten or lengthen due to a defect in DNA mismatch repair. We present here the first comprehensive genome-wide analysis of the prevalence, mutational spectrum and functional consequences of microsatellite instability (MSI) in cancer genomes. We analyzed MSI in 277 colorectal and endometrial cancer genomes (including 57 microsatellite-unstable ones) using exome and whole-genome sequencing data. Recurrent MSI events in coding sequences showed tumor type-specificity, elevated frameshift-to-inframe ratios, and lower transcript levels than wildtype alleles. Moreover, genome-wide analysis revealed differences in the distribution of MSI versus point mutations, including overrepresentation of MSI in euchromatic and intronic regions compared to heterochromatic and intergenic regions, respectively, and depletion of MSI at nucleosome-occupied sequences. Our results provide a panoramic view of MSI in cancer genomes, highlighting their tumor type-specificity, impact on gene expression, and the role of chromatin organization. PMID:24209623

  15. Development of microsatellite markers for the rapid and reliable genotyping of Brettanomyces bruxellensis at strain level.

    PubMed

    Albertin, Warren; Panfili, Aurélie; Miot-Sertier, Cécile; Goulielmakis, Aurélie; Delcamp, Adline; Salin, Franck; Lonvaud-Funel, Aline; Curtin, Chris; Masneuf-Pomarede, Isabelle

    2014-09-01

    Although many yeasts are useful for food production and beverage, some species may cause spoilage with important economic loss. This is the case of Dekkera/Brettanomyces bruxellensis, a contaminant species that is mainly associated with fermented beverages (wine, beer, cider and traditional drinks). To better control Brettanomyces spoilage, rapid and reliable genotyping methods are necessary to determine the origins of the spoilage, to assess the effectiveness of preventive treatments and to develop new control strategies. Despite several previously published typing methods, ranging from classical molecular methods (RAPD, AFLP, REA-PFGE, mtDNA restriction analysis) to more engineered technologies (infrared spectroscopy), there is still a lack of a rapid, reliable and universal genotyping approach. In this work, we developed eight polymorphic microsatellites markers for the Brettanomyces/Dekkera bruxellensis species. Microsatellite typing was applied to the genetic analysis of wine and beer isolates from Europe, Australia and South Africa. Our results suggest that B. bruxellensis is a highly disseminated species, with some strains isolated from different continents being closely related at the genetic level. We also focused on strains isolated from two Bordeaux wineries on different substrates (grapes, red wines) and for different vintages (over half a century). We showed that all B. bruxellensis strains within a cellar are strongly related at the genetic level, suggesting that one clonal population may cause spoilage over decades. The microsatellite tool now paves the way for future population genetics research of the B. bruxellensis species. PMID:24929736

  16. Breakdown of phylogenetic signal: a survey of microsatellite densities in 454 shotgun sequences from 154 non model eukaryote species.

    PubMed

    Meglécz, Emese; Nève, Gabriel; Biffin, Ed; Gardner, Michael G

    2012-01-01

    Microsatellites are ubiquitous in Eukaryotic genomes. A more complete understanding of their origin and spread can be gained from a comparison of their distribution within a phylogenetic context. Although information for model species is accumulating rapidly, it is insufficient due to a lack of species depth, thus intragroup variation is necessarily ignored. As such, apparent differences between groups may be overinflated and generalizations cannot be inferred until an analysis of the variation that exists within groups has been conducted. In this study, we examined microsatellite coverage and motif patterns from 454 shotgun sequences of 154 Eukaryote species from eight distantly related phyla (Cnidaria, Arthropoda, Onychophora, Bryozoa, Mollusca, Echinodermata, Chordata and Streptophyta) to test if a consistent phylogenetic pattern emerges from the microsatellite composition of these species. It is clear from our results that data from model species provide incomplete information regarding the existing microsatellite variability within the Eukaryotes. A very strong heterogeneity of microsatellite composition was found within most phyla, classes and even orders. Autocorrelation analyses indicated that while microsatellite contents of species within clades more recent than 200 Mya tend to be similar, the autocorrelation breaks down and becomes negative or non-significant with increasing divergence time. Therefore, the age of the taxon seems to be a primary factor in degrading the phylogenetic pattern present among related groups. The most recent classes or orders of Chordates still retain the pattern of their common ancestor. However, within older groups, such as classes of Arthropods, the phylogenetic pattern has been scrambled by the long independent evolution of the lineages. PMID:22815847

  17. Breakdown of Phylogenetic Signal: A Survey of Microsatellite Densities in 454 Shotgun Sequences from 154 Non Model Eukaryote Species

    PubMed Central

    Meglécz, Emese; Nève, Gabriel; Biffin, Ed; Gardner, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Microsatellites are ubiquitous in Eukaryotic genomes. A more complete understanding of their origin and spread can be gained from a comparison of their distribution within a phylogenetic context. Although information for model species is accumulating rapidly, it is insufficient due to a lack of species depth, thus intragroup variation is necessarily ignored. As such, apparent differences between groups may be overinflated and generalizations cannot be inferred until an analysis of the variation that exists within groups has been conducted. In this study, we examined microsatellite coverage and motif patterns from 454 shotgun sequences of 154 Eukaryote species from eight distantly related phyla (Cnidaria, Arthropoda, Onychophora, Bryozoa, Mollusca, Echinodermata, Chordata and Streptophyta) to test if a consistent phylogenetic pattern emerges from the microsatellite composition of these species. It is clear from our results that data from model species provide incomplete information regarding the existing microsatellite variability within the Eukaryotes. A very strong heterogeneity of microsatellite composition was found within most phyla, classes and even orders. Autocorrelation analyses indicated that while microsatellite contents of species within clades more recent than 200 Mya tend to be similar, the autocorrelation breaks down and becomes negative or non-significant with increasing divergence time. Therefore, the age of the taxon seems to be a primary factor in degrading the phylogenetic pattern present among related groups. The most recent classes or orders of Chordates still retain the pattern of their common ancestor. However, within older groups, such as classes of Arthropods, the phylogenetic pattern has been scrambled by the long independent evolution of the lineages. PMID:22815847

  18. Linkage analysis in familial Angelman syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Wagstaff, J. ); Shugart, Y.Y. ); Lalande, M. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Boston, MA )

    1993-07-01

    Familial Angelman syndrome (AS) can result from mutations in chromosome 15q11q13 that, when transmitted from father to child, result in no phenotypic abnormality but, when transmitted from mother to child, cause AS. These mutations therefore behave neither as dominant nor as recessive mutations but, rather, show an imprinted mode of inheritance. The authors have analyzed two sibling pairs with AS and a larger family with four AS offspring of three sisters with several recently described microsatellite polymorphisms in the AS region. AS siblings inherited the same maternal alleles at the GABRB3 and GABRA5 loci, and the unaffected siblings of AS individuals inherited the other maternal alleles at these loci. In one of the AS sibling pairs, analysis of a recombination event indicates that the mutation responsible for AS is distal to locus D15S63. This result is consistent with a previously described imprinted submicroscopic deletion causing AS, a deletion that includes loci D15S10, D15S113, and GABRB3, all distal to D15S63. The analysis of the larger AS family provides the first clear demonstration of a new mutation in nondeletion AS. Analysis of linkage of AS to GABRB3 in these three families, on the assumption of imprinted inheritance (i.e., penetrance of an AS mutation is 1 if transmitted maternally and is 0 if transmitted paternally), indicates a maximum lod score of 3.52 at 6 = 0. 34 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Microsatellite instability induced mutations in DNA repair genes CtIP and MRE11 confer hypersensitivity to poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors in myeloid malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Gaymes, Terry J.; Mohamedali, Azim M.; Patterson, Miranda; Matto, Nazia; Smith, Alexander; Kulasekararaj, Austin; Chelliah, Rajani; Curtin, Nicola; Farzaneh, Farzin; Shall, Sydney; Mufti, Ghulam J.

    2013-01-01

    Inactivation of the DNA mismatch repair pathway manifests as microsatellite instability, an accumulation of mutations that drives carcinogenesis. Here, we determined whether microsatellite instability in acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome correlated with chromosomal instability and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor sensitivity through disruption of DNA repair function. Acute myeloid leukemia cell lines (n=12) and primary cell samples (n=18), and bone marrow mononuclear cells from high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome patients (n=63) were profiled for microsatellite instability using fluorescent fragment polymerase chain reaction. PARP inhibitor sensitivity was performed using cell survival, annexin V staining and cell cycle analysis. Homologous recombination was studied using immunocytochemical analysis. SNP karyotyping was used to study chromosomal instability. RNA silencing, Western blotting and gene expression analysis was used to study the functional consequences of mutations. Acute myeloid leukemia cell lines (4 of 12, 33%) and primary samples (2 of 18, 11%) exhibited microsatellite instability with mono-allelic mutations in CtIP and MRE11. These changes were associated with reduced expression of mismatch repair pathway components, MSH2, MSH6 and MLH1. Both microsatellite instability positive primary acute myeloid leukemia samples and cell lines demonstrated a downregulation of homologous recombination DNA repair conferring marked sensitivity to PARP inhibitors. Similarly, bone marrow mononuclear cells from 11 of 56 (20%) patients with de novo high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome exhibited microsatellite instability. Significantly, all 11 patients with microsatellite instability had cytogenetic abnormalities with 4 of them (36%) possessing a mono-allelic microsatellite mutation in CtIP. Furthermore, 50% reduction in CtIP expression by RNA silencing also down-regulated homologous recombination DNA repair responses conferring PARP inhibitor sensitivity, whilst CtIP differentially regulated the expression of homologous recombination modulating RecQ helicases, WRN and BLM. In conclusion, microsatellite instability dependent mutations in DNA repair genes, CtIP and MRE11 are detected in myeloid malignancies conferring hypersensitivity to PARP inhibitors. Microsatellite instability is significantly correlated with chromosomal instability in myeloid malignancies. PMID:23349304

  20. Is there an association between advanced paternal age and endophenotype deficit levels in schizophrenia?

    PubMed

    Tsuang, Debby; Esterberg, Michelle; Braff, David; Calkins, Monica; Cadenhead, Kristin; Dobie, Dorcas; Freedman, Robert; Green, Michael F; Greenwood, Tiffany; Gur, Raquel; Gur, Ruben; Horan, William; Lazzeroni, Laura C; Light, Gregory A; Millard, Steven P; Olincy, Ann; Nuechterlein, Keith; Seidman, Larry; Siever, Larry; Silverman, Jeremy; Stone, William; Sprock, Joyce; Sugar, Catherine; Swerdlow, Neal; Tsuang, Ming; Turetsky, Bruce; Radant, Allen

    2014-01-01

    The children of older fathers have increased risks of developing schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and among those who develop these disorders, those with older fathers present with more severe clinical symptoms. However, the influence of advanced paternal age on other important domains related to schizophrenia, such as quantitative endophenotype deficit levels, remains unknown. This study investigated the associations between paternal age and level of endophenotypic impairment in a well-characterized family-based sample from the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia (COGS). All families included at least one affected subject and one unaffected sibling. Subjects met criteria for schizophrenia (probands; n?=?293) or were unaffected first-degree siblings of those probands (n?=?382). Paternal age at the time of subjects' birth was documented. Subjects completed a comprehensive clinical assessment and a battery of tests that measured 16 endophenotypes. After controlling for covariates, potential paternal age-endophenotype associations were analyzed using one model that included probands alone and a second model that included both probands and unaffected siblings. Endophenotype deficits in the Identical Pairs version of the 4-digit Continuous Performance Test and in the Penn Computerized Neurocognitive Battery verbal memory test showed significant associations with paternal age. However, after correcting for multiple comparisons, no endophenotype was significantly associated with paternal age. These findings suggest that factors other than advanced paternal age at birth may account for endophenotypic deficit levels in schizophrenia. PMID:24523888

  1. Paternal care and the evolution of exaggerated sexual swellings in primates

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Courtney L.

    2012-01-01

    The exaggerated sexual swellings exhibited by females of some primate species have been of interest to evolutionary biologists since the time of Darwin. We summarize existing hypotheses for their function and evolution and categorize these hypotheses within the context of 3 types of variation in sexual swelling size: 1) variation within a single sexual cycle, 2) variation between the sexual cycles of a single female, and 3) differences between females. We then propose the Paternal Care Hypothesis for the function of sexual swellings, which posits that exaggerated sexual swellings function to elicit the right quantity and quality of male care for a female's infant. As others have noted, swellings may allow females to engender paternity confusion, or they may allow females to confer relative paternal certainty on one male. Key to our hypothesis is that both of these scenarios create an incentive for one or more males to provide care. This hypothesis builds on previous hypotheses but differs from them by highlighting the elicitation of paternal care as a key function of swellings. Our hypothesis predicts that true paternal care (in which males accurately differentiate and provide assistance to their own offspring) will be most common in species in which exaggerated swellings accurately signal the probability of conception, and males can monopolize females during the window of highest conception probability. Our hypothesis also predicts that females will experience selection to behave in ways that either augment paternity confusion or enhance paternal certainty depending on their social and demographic contexts. PMID:24771988

  2. Paternal behavior in the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus): Estrogenic and androgenic regulation.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Ana; Ramos, Guillermo; Martínez-Torres, Martín; Nicolás, Leticia; Carmona, Agustín; Cárdenas, Mario; Luis, Juana

    2015-05-01

    Here, we analyzed the effects of testosterone (T) and its metabolites, estradiol (E2) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT), on the onset of paternal behavior in virgin male Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). We hypothesized that T and E2, but not DHT, would facilitate the onset of paternal behavior. Seventy males displaying aggression toward pups were selected through a paternal behavior screening test. Forty males were bilaterally castrated. Of them, 10 were implanted with T, 10 with E2, and 10 with DHT, and 10 received no treatment. Another 30 males underwent a sham procedure. In these gerbils, T, E2 and DHT were measured to obtain the basal levels of these hormones. After treatment, the paternal behavior test was conducted again. Blood samples were obtained immediately after the administration of the test for the quantification of T, E2 and DHT by radioimmunoassay. Surprisingly, 100% of the males that received T, E2 and DHT implants stopped being aggressive and became paternal. Castrated and sham-operated males displayed no changes in their aggressive behaviors. This is the first report that T and its metabolites are involved in neuroendocrine mechanisms that inhibit aggression toward pups and facilitate paternal behavior in virgin male Mongolian gerbils. In addition, this is the first report of regulation of paternal behavior in a rodent by estrogenic and androgenic pathways. PMID:25935727

  3. Morphological and microsatellite DNA diversity of Nigerian indigenous sheep

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sheep is important in the socio-economic lives of people around the world. It is estimated that more than half of our once common livestock breeds are now endangered. Since genetic characterization of Nigerian sheep is still lacking, we analyzed ten morphological traits on 402 animals and 15 microsatellite DNA markers in 384 animals of the 4 Nigerian sheep breeds to better understand genetic diversity for breeding management and germplasm conservation. Results Morphological traits of Uda and Balami were significantly (P?analysis showed tail length, rump height, chest girth, ear length and chest depth as the most discriminating variables for classification. Mahalanobis distances show the least differentiation between Uda and Balami and the largest between WAD and Balami sheep. While 93.3% of WAD sheep were correctly assigned to their source genetic group, 63.9% of Yankasa, 61.2% of Balami and 45.2% of Uda were classified correctly by nearest neighbour discriminant analysis. The overall high Polymorphism Information Content (PIC) of all microsatellite markers ranged from 0.751 to 0.927 supporting their use in genetic characterization. Expected heterozygosity was high for all loci (0.783 to 0.93). Mean heterozygote deficiency across all populations (0.171 to 0.534) possibly indicate significant inbreeding (P?analysis and population structure assessed by STRUCTURE. Conclusions These results suggest that within-breed genetic variation in Nigerian sheep is higher than between-breeds and may be a valuable tool for genetic improvement and conservation. The higher genetic variability in Yankasa suggests the presence of unique ancestral alleles reflecting the presence of certain functional genes which may result in better adaptability in more agro-ecological zones of Nigeria. These genetic characteristics are potentially useful in planning improvement and conservation strategies in Nigerian indigenous sheep. PMID:23176051

  4. Flying the nest: male dispersal and multiple paternity enables extrafamilial matings for the invasive bark beetle Dendroctonus micans

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, C I; Brahy, O; Mardulyn, P; Dohet, L; Mayer, F; Grégoire, J-C

    2014-01-01

    There is an evolutionary trade-off between the resources that a species invests in dispersal versus those invested in reproduction. For many insects, reproductive success in patchily-distributed species can be improved by sibling-mating. In many cases, such strategies correspond to sexual dimorphism, with males–whose reproductive activities can take place without dispersal–investing less energy in development of dispersive resources such as large body size and wings. This dimorphism is particularly likely when males have little or no chance of mating outside their place of birth, such as when sperm competition precludes successful fertilisation in females that have already mated. The economically important bark beetle pest species Dendroctonus micans (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) has been considered to be exclusively sibling-mating, with 90% of females having already mated with their brothers by emergence. The species does not, however, show strong sexual dimorphism; males closely resemble females, and have been observed flying through forests. We hypothesised that this lack of sexual dimorphism indicates that male D. micans are able to mate with unrelated females, and to sire some or all of their offspring, permitting extrafamilial reproduction. Using novel microsatellite markers, we carried out cross-breeding laboratory experiments and conducted paternity analyses of resulting offspring. Our results demonstrate that a second mating with a less-related male can indeed lead to some offspring being sired by the latecomer, but that most are sired by the first, sibling male. We discuss these findings in the context of sperm competition versus possible outbreeding depression. PMID:24736784

  5. Advanced Paternal Age at Birth: Phenotypic and Etiologic Associations with Eating Pathology in Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Racine, Sarah E.; Culbert, Kristen M.; Burt, S. Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Advanced paternal age at birth has been linked to several psychiatric disorders in offspring (e.g., schizophrenia), and genetic mechanisms are thought to underlie these associations. This study is the first to investigate whether advanced paternal age at birth is associated with eating disorder risk using a twin study design capable of examining both phenotypic and genetic associations. Methods In a large, population-based sample of female twins ages 8–17 years in mid-puberty or beyond (N = 1,722), we investigated whether advanced paternal age was positively associated with disordered eating symptoms and an eating disorder history (i.e., anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or binge eating disorder) in offspring. Biometric twin models examined whether genetic and/or environmental factors underlie paternal age effects for disordered eating symptoms. Results Advanced paternal age was positively associated with disordered eating symptoms and an eating disorder history, where the highest level of pathology was observed in offspring born to fathers ? 40 years old. Results were not accounted for by maternal age at birth, body mass index, socioeconomic status, fertility treatment, or parental psychiatric history. Twin models indicated decreased genetic, and increased environmental, effects on disordered eating with advanced paternal age. Conclusions Advanced paternal age increased risk for the full spectrum of eating pathology, independent of several important covariates. However, contrary to leading hypotheses, environmental rather than genetic factors accounted for paternal age-disordered eating associations. These data highlight the need to explore novel (potentially environmental) mechanisms underlying the effects of advanced paternal age on offspring eating disorder risk. PMID:23795717

  6. SSR_pipeline: a bioinformatic infrastructure for identifying microsatellites from paired-end Illumina high-throughput DNA sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Miller, Mark P; Knaus, Brian J; Mullins, Thomas D; Haig, Susan M

    2013-01-01

    SSR_pipeline is a flexible set of programs designed to efficiently identify simple sequence repeats (e.g., microsatellites) from paired-end high-throughput Illumina DNA sequencing data. The program suite contains 3 analysis modules along with a fourth control module that can automate analyses of large volumes of data. The modules are used to 1) identify the subset of paired-end sequences that pass Illumina quality standards, 2) align paired-end reads into a single composite DNA sequence, and 3) identify sequences that possess microsatellites (both simple and compound) conforming to user-specified parameters. The microsatellite search algorithm is extremely efficient, and we have used it to identify repeats with motifs from 2 to 25 bp in length. Each of the 3 analysis modules can also be used independently to provide greater flexibility or to work with FASTQ or FASTA files generated from other sequencing platforms (Roche 454, Ion Torrent, etc.). We demonstrate use of the program with data from the brine fly Ephydra packardi (Diptera: Ephydridae) and provide empirical timing benchmarks to illustrate program performance on a common desktop computer environment. We further show that the Illumina platform is capable of identifying large numbers of microsatellites, even when using unenriched sample libraries and a very small percentage of the sequencing capacity from a single DNA sequencing run. All modules from SSR_pipeline are implemented in the Python programming language and can therefore be used from nearly any computer operating system (Linux, Macintosh, and Windows). PMID:24052535

  7. SSR_pipeline: a bioinformatic infrastructure for identifying microsatellites from paired-end Illumina high-throughput DNA sequencing data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Mark P.; Knaus, Brian J.; Mullins, Thomas D.; Haig, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    SSR_pipeline is a flexible set of programs designed to efficiently identify simple sequence repeats (e.g., microsatellites) from paired-end high-throughput Illumina DNA sequencing data. The program suite contains 3 analysis modules along with a fourth control module that can automate analyses of large volumes of data. The modules are used to 1) identify the subset of paired-end sequences that pass Illumina quality standards, 2) align paired-end reads into a single composite DNA sequence, and 3) identify sequences that possess microsatellites (both simple and compound) conforming to user-specified parameters. The microsatellite search algorithm is extremely efficient, and we have used it to identify repeats with motifs from 2 to 25bp in length. Each of the 3 analysis modules can also be used independently to provide greater flexibility or to work with FASTQ or FASTA files generated from other sequencing platforms (Roche 454, Ion Torrent, etc.). We demonstrate use of the program with data from the brine fly Ephydra packardi (Diptera: Ephydridae) and provide empirical timing benchmarks to illustrate program performance on a common desktop computer environment. We further show that the Illumina platform is capable of identifying large numbers of microsatellites, even when using unenriched sample libraries and a very small percentage of the sequencing capacity from a single DNA sequencing run. All modules from SSR_pipeline are implemented in the Python programming language and can therefore be used from nearly any computer operating system (Linux, Macintosh, and Windows).

  8. Determination of Phylogenetic and Molecular Characteristics of Three Malaysian Ginger Cultivars (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) Using Microsatellite DNA

    PubMed Central

    Mahdi, Harith Jameel; Andayani, Retno; Aziz, Ishak

    2013-01-01

    Three Malaysian ginger cultivars (Bukit Tinggi, Tanjung Sepat and Sabah) were collected and examined for genetic polymorphisms using microsatellite DNA primers. The single microsatellite oligonucleotide primers (CATA)5, (GATA)5 and (GAC)6 were used in polymerase chain reactions (PCRs). These PCR reactions produced 7 polymorphic bands with an average of 2.334 polymorphic bands per primer, leading to an average polymorphism rate of 17.9%. Cluster analysis revealed 87.50% similarity between Bukit Tinggi and Tanjung Sepat, 64.27% similarity between Bukit Tinggi and Sabah and 56.25% similarity between Tanjung Sepat and Sabah. DNA sequencing of the polymorphic PCR products of Tanjung Sepat ginger revealed the characteristic features of a putative new gene: a core promoter sequence, an enhancer and a transcription start site. Cluster analysis using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA) was used to construct a phylogenetic tree, which indicated that Bukit Tinggi ginger is genetically more closely related to Tanjung Sepat ginger than to Sabah ginger. Based on the results of this study, we concluded that there is genotypic variation among ginger cultivars, and the microsatellite DNA primers described here are useful for detecting polymorphic DNA in Malaysian ginger cultivars. Additionally, these microsatellite DNA primers may be used as molecular markers for discriminating among select Malaysian ginger cultivars. PMID:24575249

  9. Parental Divorce, Maternal-Paternal Alcohol Problems, and Adult Offspring Lifetime Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    THOMPSON, RONALD G.; ALONZO, DANA; HASIN, DEBORAH S.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the influences of parental divorce and maternal-paternal histories of alcohol problems on adult offspring lifetime alcohol dependence using data from the 2001–2002 National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Parental divorce and maternal-paternal alcohol problems interacted to differentially influence the likelihood of offspring lifetime alcohol dependence. Experiencing parental divorce and either maternal or paternal alcohol problems doubled the likelihood of alcohol dependence. Divorce and history of alcohol problems for both parents tripled the likelihood. Offspring of parental divorce may be more vulnerable to developing alcohol dependence, particularly when one or both parents have alcohol problems. PMID:24678271

  10. Development of microsatellite markers for Carallia brachiata (Rhizophoraceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Qiang, Yinmeng; Xie, Hongxian; Qiao, Sitan; Yuan, Yang; Liu, Ying; Shi, Xianggang; Shu, Mi; Jin, Jianhua; Shi, Suhua; Tan, Fengxiao; Huang, Yelin

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed for Carallia brachiata to assess the genetic diversity and structure of this terrestrial species of the Rhizophoraceae. Methods and Results: Based on transcriptome data for C. brachiata, 40 primer pairs were initially designed and tested, of which 18 were successfully amplified and 11 were polymorphic. For these microsatellites, one to three alleles per locus were identified. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0 to 0.727 and 0 to 0.520, respectively. In addition, all primers were successfully amplified in two congeners: C. pectinifolia and C. garciniifolia. Conclusions: The microsatellite markers described here will be useful in population genetic studies of C. brachiata and related species, suggesting that developing microsatellite markers from next-generation sequencing data can be efficient for genetic studies across this genus. PMID:25798345

  11. Development and characterization of microsatellite markers for blackfin tuna

    E-print Network

    , NOAA. Abstract--Twenty homologous mi- crosatellite markers, or simple se- quence repeats (SSRs), were of this work was to develop homologous microsatellite markers, or simple sequence repeats (SSRs), for studies

  12. JOURNAL OF HERPETOLOGY Microsatellites in Morelet's Crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii)

    E-print Network

    Dever, Jennifer A.

    JOURNAL OF HERPETOLOGY Microsatellites in Morelet's Crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii), is a New World species that inhabits the Mexican coast of the Gulf the ecotoxicoligy and genetics of Morelet's crocodiles in Belize, Central America, we examined accessible

  13. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers in the equine genome 

    E-print Network

    Mathiason, Kelli Janae

    1997-01-01

    Nine microsatellite markers were isolated from a horse genomic library in lambda bacteriophage. The markers were typed by PCR in 72 horses representing 14 breeds and in 36 parental animals of two Arabian half-sib families. Number of alleles...

  14. TECHNICAL NOTE Microsatellite marker isolation and development for the giant

    E-print Network

    Scheel, David

    TECHNICAL NOTE Microsatellite marker isolation and development for the giant Pacific Octopus Pacific octopus (Enteroctopus dofleini) and examined them for 31 individuals from Prince William Sound genetics The giant Pacific octopus, Enteroctopus dofleini (Wu¨lker 1910), previously Octopus dofleini

  15. Microsatellite Evolution: Markov Transition Functions for a Suite of Models

    E-print Network

    Watkins, Joseph C.

    Microsatellite Evolution: Markov Transition Functions for a Suite of Models Joseph C. Watkins an overview, see the book edited by Goldstein and Schotterer, 1999. For a popular account, see Moxon and Wills

  16. Development and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers for Chinese raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides procyonoides).

    PubMed

    Yan, S Q; Li, Y M; Bai, C Y; Ding, X M; Li, W J; Hou, J N; Zhao, Z H; Sun, J H

    2013-01-01

    Chinese raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides procyonoides) is one of the most important fur-bearing animal species. Information about the genetic background of farmed Chinese raccoon dogs is limited. In this study, 17 polymorphic microsatellite markers were isolated and identified from an (AC)n-microsatellite-enriched library of Chinese raccoon dogs. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 8 based on 48 individuals tested. The expected and observed heterozygosity and polymorphism information content per locus ranged from 0.383 to 0.8378, 0.3200 to 0.8696, and 0.3047 to 0.7947, respectively. Cross-species amplification of these loci in 2 other Canidae species indicated that 9 and 11 of these loci could also be amplified successfully in the arctic and silver fox, respectively. These microsatellite loci developed in the present report will provide useful tools for population genetic studies, individual identification, and phylogenetic analysis in the Chinese raccoon dog and other Canidae species. PMID:24390984

  17. Characterization of Demographic Expansions From Pairwise Comparisons of Linked Microsatellite Haplotypes

    PubMed Central

    Navascués, Miguel; Hardy, Olivier J.; Burgarella, Concetta

    2009-01-01

    This work extends the methods of demographic inference based on the distribution of pairwise genetic differences between individuals (mismatch distribution) to the case of linked microsatellite data. Population genetics theory describes the distribution of mutations among a sample of genes under different demographic scenarios. However, the actual number of mutations can rarely be deduced from DNA polymorphisms. The inclusion of mutation models in theoretical predictions can improve the performance of statistical methods. We have developed a maximum-pseudolikelihood estimator for the parameters that characterize a demographic expansion for a series of linked loci evolving under a stepwise mutation model. Those loci would correspond to DNA polymorphisms of linked microsatellites (such as those found on the Y chromosome or the chloroplast genome). The proposed method was evaluated with simulated data sets and with a data set of chloroplast microsatellites that showed signal for demographic expansion in a previous study. The results show that inclusion of a mutational model in the analysis improves the estimates of the age of expansion in the case of older expansions. PMID:19104073

  18. Characterization of demographic expansions from pairwise comparisons of linked microsatellite haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Navascués, Miguel; Hardy, Olivier J; Burgarella, Concetta

    2009-03-01

    This work extends the methods of demographic inference based on the distribution of pairwise genetic differences between individuals (mismatch distribution) to the case of linked microsatellite data. Population genetics theory describes the distribution of mutations among a sample of genes under different demographic scenarios. However, the actual number of mutations can rarely be deduced from DNA polymorphisms. The inclusion of mutation models in theoretical predictions can improve the performance of statistical methods. We have developed a maximum-pseudolikelihood estimator for the parameters that characterize a demographic expansion for a series of linked loci evolving under a stepwise mutation model. Those loci would correspond to DNA polymorphisms of linked microsatellites (such as those found on the Y chromosome or the chloroplast genome). The proposed method was evaluated with simulated data sets and with a data set of chloroplast microsatellites that showed signal for demographic expansion in a previous study. The results show that inclusion of a mutational model in the analysis improves the estimates of the age of expansion in the case of older expansions. PMID:19104073

  19. Microsatellite typing of Aspergillus flavus from clinical and environmental avian isolates.

    PubMed

    Hadrich, Inès; Drira, Inès; Neji, Sourour; Mahfoud, Nedia; Ranque, Stéphane; Makni, Fattouma; Ayadi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Aspergillosis is one of the most common causes of death in captive birds. Aspergillus fumigatus accounts for approximately 95 % of aspergillosis cases and Aspergillus flavus is the second most frequent organism associated with avian infections. In the present study, the fungi were grown from avian clinical samples (post-mortem lung material) and environmental samples (eggs, food and litter). Microsatellite markers were used to type seven clinical avian isolates and 22 environmental isolates of A. flavus. A. flavus was the only species (28 % prevalence) detected in the avian clinical isolates, whereas this species ranked third (19 %) after members of the genera Penicillium (39 %) and Cladosporium (21 %) in the environmental samples. Upon microsatellite analysis, five to eight distinct alleles were detected for each marker. The marker with the highest discriminatory power had eight alleles and a 0.852 D value. The combination of all six markers yielded a 0.991 D value with 25 distinct genotypes. One clinical avian isolate (lung biopsy) and one environmental isolate (egg) shared the same genotype. Microsatellite typing of A. flavus grown from avian and environmental samples displayed an excellent discriminatory power and 100 % reproducibility. This study showed a clustering of clinical and environmental isolates, which were clearly separated. Based upon these results, aspergillosis in birds may be induced by a great diversity of isolates. PMID:22977077

  20. Machine Learning Based Classification of Microsatellite Variation: An Effective Approach for Phylogeographic Characterization of Olive Populations

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, Soraya; Mariotti, Roberto; Baldoni, Luciana; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil; Ebrahimi, Mansour; Hosseini-Mazinani, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Finding efficient analytical techniques is overwhelmingly turning into a bottleneck for the effectiveness of large biological data. Machine learning offers a novel and powerful tool to advance classification and modeling solutions in molecular biology. However, these methods have been less frequently used with empirical population genetics data. In this study, we developed a new combined approach of data analysis using microsatellite marker data from our previous studies of olive populations using machine learning algorithms. Herein, 267 olive accessions of various origins including 21 reference cultivars, 132 local ecotypes, and 37 wild olive specimens from the Iranian plateau, together with 77 of the most represented Mediterranean varieties were investigated using a finely selected panel of 11 microsatellite markers. We organized data in two ‘4-targeted’ and ‘16-targeted’ experiments. A strategy of assaying different machine based analyses (i.e. data cleaning, feature selection, and machine learning classification) was devised to identify the most informative loci and the most diagnostic alleles to represent the population and the geography of each olive accession. These analyses revealed microsatellite markers with the highest differentiating capacity and proved efficiency for our method of clustering olive accessions to reflect upon their regions of origin. A distinguished highlight of this study was the discovery of the best combination of markers for better differentiating of populations via machine learning models, which can be exploited to distinguish among other biological populations. PMID:26599001

  1. Paternally biased cpDNA inheritance in Turnera ulmifolia (Turneraceae).

    PubMed

    Shore, J; Triassi, M

    1998-03-01

    We end-labeled Hin fI restriction digests of a PCR-amplified plastid encoded gene, the large subunit of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase, to investigate patterns of cpDNA inheritance in Turnera ulmifolia. A total of 70 progeny from crosses among plants taken from ten populations revealed varying patterns of inheritance. A majority of progeny inherited the paternal cpDNA (64%), while 19% exhibited maternal and 17% biparental inheritance. Eight variegated progeny showed biparental inheritance and were analyzed in greater detail. We extracted and analyzed the cpDNA content of light- vs. dark- green leaf sectors from these plants. The results showed that vegetative segregation of cpDNA had occurred for seven of the eight plants. PMID:21684915

  2. Brain death, paternalism, and the language of "death".

    PubMed

    Nair-Collins, Michael

    2013-03-01

    The controversy surrounding the dead donor rule and the adequacy of neurological criteria for death continues unabated. However, despite disagreement on fundamental theoretical questions, I argue that there is significant (but not complete) agreement on the permissibility of organ retrieval from heart-beating donors. Many disagreements are rooted in disputes surrounding language meaning and use, rather than the practices of transplant medicine. Thus I suggest that the debate can be fruitfully recast in terms of a dispute about language. Given this recasting, I argue that the language used to describe organ donation is misleading and paternalistic. Finally, I suggest that the near-agreement on the permissibility of heart-beating organ retrieval ought to be reconsidered. If the paternalism is not justified, then either the language used to describe organ transplantation must change radically, or it would seem to follow that much of the transplant enterprise lacks ethical justification. PMID:23678629

  3. Paternally Inherited IGF2 Mutation and Growth Restriction.

    PubMed

    Begemann, Matthias; Zirn, Birgit; Santen, Gijs; Wirthgen, Elisa; Soellner, Lukas; Büttel, Hans-Martin; Schweizer, Roland; van Workum, Wilbert; Binder, Gerhard; Eggermann, Thomas

    2015-07-23

    In humans, mutations in IGF1 or IGF1R cause intrauterine and postnatal growth restriction; however, data on mutations in IGF2, encoding insulin-like growth factor (IGF) II, are lacking. We report an IGF2 variant (c.191C?A, p.Ser64Ter) with evidence of pathogenicity in a multigenerational family with four members who have growth restriction. The phenotype affects only family members who have inherited the variant through paternal transmission, a finding that is consistent with the maternal imprinting status of IGF2. The severe growth restriction in affected family members suggests that IGF-II affects postnatal growth in addition to prenatal growth. Furthermore, the dysmorphic features of affected family members are consistent with a role of deficient IGF-II levels in the cause of the Silver-Russell syndrome. (Funded by Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung and the European Union.). PMID:26154720

  4. Development of a model webserver for breed identification using microsatellite DNA marker

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Identification of true to breed type animal for conservation purpose is imperative. Breed dilution is one of the major problems in sustainability except cases of commercial crossbreeding under controlled condition. Breed descriptor has been developed to identify breed but such descriptors cover only “pure breed” or true to the breed type animals excluding undefined or admixture population. Moreover, in case of semen, ova, embryo and breed product, the breed cannot be identified due to lack of visible phenotypic descriptors. Advent of molecular markers like microsatellite and SNP have revolutionized breed identification from even small biological tissue or germplasm. Microsatellite DNA marker based breed assignments has been reported in various domestic animals. Such methods have limitations viz. non availability of allele data in public domain, thus each time all reference breed has to be genotyped which is neither logical nor economical. Even if such data is available but computational methods needs expertise of data analysis and interpretation. Results We found Bayesian Networks as best classifier with highest accuracy of 98.7% using 51850 reference allele data generated by 25 microsatellite loci on 22 goat breed population of India. The FST values in the study were seen to be low ranging from 0.051 to 0.297 and overall genetic differentiation of 13.8%, suggesting more number of loci needed for higher accuracy. We report here world’s first model webserver for breed identification using microsatellite DNA markers freely accessible at http://cabin.iasri.res.in/gomi/. Conclusion Higher number of loci is required due to less differentiable population and large number of breeds taken in this study. This server will reduce the cost with computational ease. This methodology can be a model for various other domestic animal species as a valuable tool for conservation and breed improvement programmes. PMID:24320218

  5. Paternal occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields and neuroblastoma in offspring

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkins, J.R. 3d.; Hundley, V.D. )

    1990-06-01

    Investigators in Texas have reported an association between paternal employment in jobs linked with exposure to electromagnetic fields and risk of neuroblastoma in offspring. In an attempt to replicate this finding, the authors conducted a case-control study in Ohio. A total of 101 incident cases of neuroblastoma were identified through the Columbus (Ohio) Children's Hospital Tumor Registry. All cases were born sometime during the period 1942-1967. From a statewide roster of birth certificates, four controls were selected for each case, with individual matching on the case's year of birth, race, and sex, and the mother's county of residence at the time of the (index) child's birth. Multiple definitions were employed to infer the potential for paternal occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields from the industry/occupation statements on the birth certificates. Case-control comparisons revealed adjusted odds ratios ranging in magnitude from 0.5 to 1.9. For two of the exposure definitions employed--both of which are similar to one used by the Texas investigators--the corresponding odds ratios were modestly elevated (odds ratios = 1.6 and 1.9). Notably, the magnitude of these odds ratios is not inconsistent with the Texas findings, where the exposure definition referred to yielded an odds ratio of 2.1. Because the point estimates in this study are imprecise, and because the biologic plausibility of the association is uncertain, the results reported here must be interpreted cautiously. However, the apparent consistency between two independent studies suggests that future evaluation of the association is warranted.

  6. Paternal exposure to agricultural pesticides and cause specific fetal death

    PubMed Central

    Regidor, E; Ronda, E; Garcia, A; Dominguez, V

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To study the association between fetal death and paternal agricultural occupation in areas and time periods with different levels of use of agricultural pesticides. Methods: A total of 1 473 146 stillbirths and births occurring in Spain between 1995 and 1999 were analysed. Results: The offspring of agricultural workers had the highest risk of fetal death from congenital anomalies in the southern and eastern area (where pesticide use is greatest) and the lowest risk in the rest of Spain. In both areas the offspring of agricultural workers had a similar excess risk of fetal death from the remaining causes of death. The relative risk of fetal death from congenital anomalies in infants conceived between April and September (the months of greater use of pesticides) in the southern and eastern area was 0.90 in manual workers and 1.62 in agricultural workers, compared to non-manual workers; in individuals who were conceived during the rest of the year, the relative risk was 0.87 and 0.85, respectively. In both periods the offspring of agricultural workers had an excess risk of fetal death from the remaining causes of death. Conclusions: Paternal agricultural work in the areas where pesticides are massively used increases the risk of fetal death from congenital anomalies. The risk is also increased for fetuses conceived during the time periods of maximum use of pesticides The higher risk of fetal death from the remaining causes of death in the offspring of agricultural workers seems unrelated to pesticide exposure. PMID:15031391

  7. Trans-generational parasite protection associated with paternal diet.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, Eleanore D; de Roode, Jacobus C; Hunter, Mark D

    2015-01-01

    Multiple generations of hosts are often exposed to the same pathogens, favouring the evolution of trans-generational defences. Because females have more opportunities to transfer protective molecules to offspring, many studies have focused on maternally derived protection. However, males of many species can transfer compounds along with sperm, including chemicals that could provide protection. Here, we assess maternally and paternally derived protection in a monarch butterfly-protozoan parasite system where parasite resistance is heavily influenced by secondary plant chemicals, known as cardenolides, present in the larval diet of milkweed plants. We reared monarch butterflies on medicinal and non-medicinal milkweed species and then measured resistance of their offspring to infection. We also measured cardenolide content in adult monarchs reared on the two species, and in the eggs that they produced. We found that offspring were more resistant to infection when their fathers were reared on medicinal milkweed, while maternal diet had less of an effect. We also found that eggs contained the highest levels of cardenolides when both parents were reared on the medicinal species. Moreover, females reared on non-medicinal milkweed produced eggs with significantly higher levels of cardenolides if they mated with males reared on the medicinal milkweed species. However, we found an equivocal relationship between the cardenolides present in eggs and parasite resistance in the offspring. Our results demonstrate that males reared on medicinal plants can transfer protection to their offspring, but the exact mechanism remains unresolved. This suggests that paternal protection from parasitism might be important, particularly when there are environmental sources of parasite resistance and when males transfer spermatophores during mating. PMID:25251734

  8. Paternal high-fat diet consumption induces common changes in the transcriptomes of retroperitoneal adipose and pancreatic islet tissues in female rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Ng, Sheau-Fang; Lin, Ruby C Y; Maloney, Christopher A; Youngson, Neil A; Owens, Julie A; Morris, Margaret J

    2014-04-01

    We previously showed that paternal high-fat diet (HFD) consumption programs ?-cell dysfunction in female rat offspring, together with transcriptome alterations in islets. Here we investigated the retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (RpWAT) transcriptome using gene and pathway enrichment and pathway analysis to determine whether commonly affected network topologies exist between these two metabolically related tissues. In RpWAT, 5108 genes were differentially expressed due to a paternal HFD; the top 5 significantly enriched networks identified by pathway analysis in offspring of HFD fathers compared with those of fathers fed control diet were: mitochondrial and cellular response to stress, telomerase signaling, cell death and survival, cell cycle, cellular growth and proliferation, and cancer. A total of 187 adipose olfactory receptor genes were down-regulated. Interrogation against the islet transcriptome identified specific gene networks and pathways, including olfactory receptor genes that were similarly affected in both tissues (411 common genes, P<0.05). In particular, we highlight a common molecular network, cell cycle and cancer, with the same hub gene, Myc, suggesting early onset developmental changes that persist, shared responses to programmed systemic factors, or crosstalk between tissues. Thus, paternal HFD consumption triggers unique gene signatures, consistent with premature aging and chronic degenerative disorders, in both RpWAT and pancreatic islets of daughters. PMID:24421403

  9. Farm-by-farm analysis of microsatellite, mtDNA and SNP genotype data reveals inbreeding and crossbreeding as threats to the survival of a native Spanish pig breed.

    PubMed

    Herrero-Medrano, J M; Megens, H J; Crooijmans, R P; Abellaneda, J M; Ramis, G

    2013-06-01

    The Chato Murciano (CM), a pig breed from the Murcia region in the southeastern region of Spain, is a good model for endangered livestock populations. The remaining populations are bred on approximately 15 small farms, and no herdbook exists. To assess the genetic threats to the integrity and survival of the CM breed, and to aid in designing a conservation program, three genetic marker systems - microsatellites, SNPs and mtDNA - were applied across the majority of the total breeding stock. In addition, mtDNA and SNPs were genotyped in breeds that likely contributed genetically to the current CM gene pool. The analyses revealed the levels of genetic diversity within the range of other European local breeds (H(e) = 0.53). However, when the eight farms that rear at least 10 CM pigs were independently analyzed, high levels of inbreeding were found in some. Despite the evidence for recent crossbreeding with commercial breeds on a few farms, the entire breeding stock remains readily identifiable as CM, facilitating the design of traceability assays. The genetic management of the breed is consistent with farm size, farm owner and presence of other pig breeds on the farm, demonstrating the highly ad hoc nature of current CM breeding. The results of genetic diversity and substructure of the entire breed, as well as admixture and crossbreeding obtained in the present study, provide a benchmark to develop future conservation strategies. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that identifying farm-based practices and farm-based breeding stocks can aid in the design of a sustainable breeding program for minority breeds. PMID:23051150

  10. Discovery of Genome-Wide Microsatellite Markers in Scombridae: A Pilot Study on Albacore Tuna

    PubMed Central

    Nikolic, Natacha; Duthoy, Stéphanie; Destombes, Antoine; Bodin, Nathalie; West, Wendy; Puech, Alexis; Bourjea, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in sequencing technologies and bioinformatics analysis provide a greater amount of DNA sequencing reads at a low cost. Microsatellites are the markers of choice for a variety of population genetic studies, and high quality markers can be discovered in non-model organisms, such as tuna, with these recent developments. Here, we use a high-throughput method to isolate microsatellite markers in albacore tuna, Thunnus alalunga, based on coupling multiplex enrichment and next-generation sequencing on 454 GS-FLX Titanium pyrosequencing. The crucial minimum number of polymorphic markers to infer evolutionary and ecological processes for this species has been described for the first time. We provide 1670 microsatellite design primer pairs, and technical and molecular genetics selection resulting in 43 polymorphic microsatellite markers. On this panel, we characterized 34 random and selectively neutral markers («neutral») and 9 «non-neutral» markers. The variability of «neutral» markers was screened with 136 individuals of albacore tuna from southwest Indian Ocean (42), northwest Indian Ocean (31), South Africa (31), and southeast Atlantic Ocean (32). Power analysis demonstrated that the panel of genetic markers can be applied in diversity and population genetics studies. Global genetic diversity for albacore was high with a mean number of alleles at 16.94; observed heterozygosity 66% and expected heterozygosity 77%. The number of individuals was insufficient to provide accurate results on differentiation. Of the 9 «non-neutral» markers, 3 were linked to a sequence of known function. The one is located to a sequence having an immunity function (ThuAla-Tcell-01) and the other to a sequence having energy allocation function (ThuAla-Hki-01). These two markers were genotyped on the 136 individuals and presented different diversity levels. ThuAla-Tcell-01 has a high number of alleles (20), heterozygosity (87–90%), and assignment index. ThuAla-Hki-01 has a lower number of alleles (9), low heterozygosity (24–27%), low assignment index and significant inbreeding. Finally, the 34 «neutral» and 3 «non-neutral» microsatellites markers were tested on four economically important Scombridae species—Thunnus albacares, Thunnus thynnus, Thunnus obesus, and Acanthocybium solandri. PMID:26544051

  11. A paternal environmental legacy: evidence for epigenetic inheritance through the male germ line.

    PubMed

    Soubry, Adelheid; Hoyo, Cathrine; Jirtle, Randy L; Murphy, Susan K

    2014-04-01

    Literature on maternal exposures and the risk of epigenetic changes or diseases in the offspring is growing. Paternal contributions are often not considered. However, some animal and epidemiologic studies on various contaminants, nutrition, and lifestyle-related conditions suggest a paternal influence on the offspring's future health. The phenotypic outcomes may have been attributed to DNA damage or mutations, but increasing evidence shows that the inheritance of environmentally induced functional changes of the genome, and related disorders, are (also) driven by epigenetic components. In this essay we suggest the existence of epigenetic windows of susceptibility to environmental insults during sperm development. Changes in DNA methylation, histone modification, and non-coding RNAs are viable mechanistic candidates for a non-genetic transfer of paternal environmental information, from maturing germ cell to zygote. Inclusion of paternal factors in future research will ultimately improve the understanding of transgenerational epigenetic plasticity and health-related effects in future generations. PMID:24431278

  12. Paternalism and egregious harm: Prader-Willi Syndrome and the importance of care.

    PubMed

    Groarke, Louis

    2000-07-01

    Paternalism clashes with the usual liberal model. In this paper I argue that attempts to defend even a limited form of paternalism by liberal authors such as Joel Feinberg, Gerald Dworkin and H.L.A. Hart fail. I propose instead a bivalent model for paternalism that appeals to two separate principles: the no-harm principle and the care-principle. The notion of care discussed by contemporary feminist authors is a fundamental moral archetype that permeates history and culture. I go on to consider the case of patients with Prader-Willi Syndrome and argue that paternalism is not only permissible but imperative in cases in egregious harm. This view is enshrined in common law jurisprudence which dismisses consent as a justification in serious crime. PMID:12737184

  13. Paternal Hostility and Maternal Hostility in European American and African American Families.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ed Y; Reeb, Ben T; Martin, Monica J; Gibbons, Frederick X; Simons, Ronald L; Conger, Rand D

    2014-06-01

    The authors examined the hypothesized influence of maternal and paternal hostility on youth delinquency over time. The investigation addressed significant gaps in earlier research on parental hostility, including the neglect of father effects, especially in African American families. Using prospective, longitudinal data from community samples of European American (n = 422) and African American (n = 272) 2-parent families, the authors examined the independent effects of paternal and maternal hostility on youth delinquency. The results indicated that paternal hostility significantly predicted relative increases in youth delinquent behaviors above and beyond the effects of maternal hostility; conversely, maternal hostility did not predict youth delinquency after controlling for paternal hostility. Multiple-group analyses yielded similar results for both ethnic groups and for boys and girls. These results underscore the importance of including both parents in research on diverse families. Neglecting fathers provides an incomplete account of parenting in relation to youth development. PMID:25045174

  14. The association between perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology and depression and anxiety symptoms in adolescent girls

    PubMed Central

    Rasing, Sanne P. A.; Creemers, Daan H. M.; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.; Scholte, Ron H. J.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to parental depression and anxiety is known to heighten the risk of internalizing symptoms and disorders in children and adolescents. Ample research has focused on the influence of maternal depression and anxiety, but the contribution of psychopathology in fathers remains unclear. We studied the relationships of perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology with adolescents’ depression and anxiety symptoms in a general population sample of 862 adolescent girls (age M = 12.39, SD = 0.79). Assessments included adolescents’ self-reports of their own depression and anxiety as well as their reports of maternal and paternal psychopathology. We found that perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology were both related to depression and anxiety symptoms in adolescent girls. A combination of higher maternal and paternal psychopathology was related to even higher levels of depression and anxiety in adolescent girls. Our findings showed that adolescents’ perceptions of their parents’ psychopathology are significantly related to their own emotional problems. PMID:26257664

  15. A paternal environmental legacy: Evidence for epigenetic inheritance through the male germ line

    PubMed Central

    Soubry, Adelheid; Hoyo, Cathrine; Jirtle, Randy L; Murphy, Susan K

    2014-01-01

    Literature on maternal exposures and the risk of epigenetic changes or diseases in the offspring is growing. Paternal contributions are often not considered. However, some animal and epidemiologic studies on various contaminants, nutrition, and lifestyle-related conditions suggest a paternal influence on the offspring's future health. The phenotypic outcomes may have been attributed to DNA damage or mutations, but increasing evidence shows that the inheritance of environmentally induced functional changes of the genome, and related disorders, are (also) driven by epigenetic components. In this essay we suggest the existence of epigenetic windows of susceptibility to environmental insults during sperm development. Changes in DNA methylation, histone modification, and non-coding RNAs are viable mechanistic candidates for a non-genetic transfer of paternal environmental information, from maturing germ cell to zygote. Inclusion of paternal factors in future research will ultimately improve the understanding of transgenerational epigenetic plasticity and health-related effects in future generations. PMID:24431278

  16. To nudge or not to nudge: cancer screening programmes and the limits of libertarian paternalism.

    PubMed

    Ploug, Thomas; Holm, Søren; Brodersen, John

    2012-12-01

    'Nudging--and the underlying idea 'libertarian paternalism'--to an increasing degree influences policy thinking in the healthcare sector. This article discusses the influence exerted upon a woman's choice of participation in the Danish breast screening programme in light of 'libertarian paternalism'. The basic tenet of 'libertarian paternalism' is outlined and the relationship between 'libertarian paternalism' and informed consent investigated. Key elements in the process of enrolling women into the Danish mammography screening programme are introduced. It is shown that for several reasons the influence exerted upon women's choices of participation cannot be justified within a welfare-enhancing libertarian paternalistic framework. The article suggests that screening programmes alternatively adopt a liberty-enhancing approach and considers the practical implications of this alternative. PMID:22766778

  17. Paternal Hostility and Maternal Hostility in European American and African American Families

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ed Y.; Reeb, Ben T.; Martin, Monica J.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Simons, Ronald L.; Conger, Rand D.

    2014-01-01

    The authors examined the hypothesized influence of maternal and paternal hostility on youth delinquency over time. The investigation addressed significant gaps in earlier research on parental hostility, including the neglect of father effects, especially in African American families. Using prospective, longitudinal data from community samples of European American (n = 422) and African American (n = 272) 2-parent families, the authors examined the independent effects of paternal and maternal hostility on youth delinquency. The results indicated that paternal hostility significantly predicted relative increases in youth delinquent behaviors above and beyond the effects of maternal hostility; conversely, maternal hostility did not predict youth delinquency after controlling for paternal hostility. Multiple-group analyses yielded similar results for both ethnic groups and for boys and girls. These results underscore the importance of including both parents in research on diverse families. Neglecting fathers provides an incomplete account of parenting in relation to youth development. PMID:25045174

  18. Sexual motivation suppresses paternal behaviour of male gerbils during their mates' postpartum oestrus

    E-print Network

    Galef Jr., Bennett G.

    Sexual motivation suppresses paternal behaviour of male gerbils during their mates' postpartum; MS. number: A9425) Adult male Mongolian gerbils, Meriones unguiculatus, avoid contact Mongolian ger- bils, Meriones unguiculatus, are very similar (Elwood 1983), except that male gerbils do

  19. PATERNAL WARMTH AND PROXIMITY / Veneziano 2000 World Cultures 11(2): 138-151

    E-print Network

    White, Douglas R.

    the nature of paternal behavior in US research are often conceptually blurred. "Proximity" (or the frequency or nurturance (i.e., the more proximate fathers are, the warmer they are; an idea that has little, if any

  20. Paternal lifestyle as a potential source of germline mutations transmitted to offspring

    PubMed Central

    Linschooten, Joost O.; Verhofstad, Nicole; Gutzkow, Kristine; Olsen, Ann-Karin; Yauk, Carole; Oligschläger, Yvonne; Brunborg, Gunnar; van Schooten, Frederik J.; Godschalk, Roger W. L.

    2013-01-01

    Paternal exposure to high levels of radioactivity causes heritable germline minisatellite mutations. However, the effect of more general paternal exposures, such as cigarette smoking, on germline mutations remains unexplored. We analyzed two of the most commonly used minisatellite loci (CEB1 and B6.7) to identify germline mutations in blood samples of complete mother–father–child triads from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). The presence of mutations was subsequently related to general lifestyle factors, including paternal smoking before the partner became pregnant. Paternally derived mutations at the B6.7 locus (mutation frequency 0.07) were not affected by lifestyle. In contrast, high gross yearly income as a general measure of a healthy lifestyle coincided with low-mutation frequencies at the CEB1 locus (P=0.047). Income was inversely related to smoking behavior, and paternally derived CEB1 mutations were dose dependently increased when the father smoked in the 6 mo before pregnancy, 0.21 vs. 0.05 in smoking and nonsmoking fathers, respectively (P=0.061). These results suggest that paternal lifestyle can affect the chance of heritable mutations in unstable repetitive DNA sequences. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting an effect of lifestyle on germline minisatellite mutation frequencies in a human population with moderate paternal exposures.—Linschooten, J. O., Verhofstad, N., Gutzkow, K., Olsen, A.-K., Yauk, C., Oligschläger, Y., Brunborg, G., van Schooten, F. J., Godschalk, R. W. L. Paternal lifestyle as a potential source of germline mutations transmitted to offspring. PMID:23538710

  1. Drinking beyond a lifetime: New and emerging insights into paternal alcohol exposure on subsequent generations.

    PubMed

    Finegersh, Andrey; Rompala, Gregory R; Martin, David I K; Homanics, Gregg E

    2015-08-01

    Alcohol-use disorder (AUD) is prevalent and associated with substantial socioeconomic costs. While heritability estimates of AUD are ?50%, identifying specific gene variants associated with risk for AUD has proven challenging despite considerable investment. Emerging research into heritability of complex diseases has implicated transmission of epigenetic variants in the development of behavioral phenotypes, including drug preference and drug-induced behavior. Several recent rodent studies have specifically focused on paternal transmission of epigenetic variants, which is especially relevant because sires are not present for offspring rearing and changes to offspring phenotype are assumed to result from modifications to the sperm epigenome. While considerable interest in paternal transmission of epigenetic variants has emerged recently, paternal alcohol exposures have been studied for 30+ years with interesting behavioral and physiologic effects noted on offspring. However, only recently, with improvements in technology to identify epigenetic modifications in germ cells, has it been possible to identify mechanisms by which paternal ethanol exposure alters offspring behavior. This review presents an overview of epigenetic inheritance in the context of paternal ethanol exposure and suggests future studies to identify specific effects of paternal ethanol exposure on offspring behavior and response to ethanol. PMID:25887183

  2. The Effect of Paternal Age on Offspring Intelligence and Personality when Controlling for Parental Trait Levels

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, Ruben C.; Penke, Lars; Johnson, Wendy; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Paternal age at conception has been found to predict the number of new genetic mutations. We examined the effect of father’s age at birth on offspring intelligence, head circumference and personality traits. Using the Minnesota Twin Family Study sample we tested paternal age effects while controlling for parents’ trait levels measured with the same precision as offspring’s. From evolutionary genetic considerations we predicted a negative effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence, but not on other traits. Controlling for parental intelligence (IQ) had the effect of turning an initially positive association non-significantly negative. We found paternal age effects on offspring IQ and Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire Absorption, but they were not robustly significant, nor replicable with additional covariates. No other noteworthy effects were found. Parents’ intelligence and personality correlated with their ages at twin birth, which may have obscured a small negative effect of advanced paternal age (<1% of variance explained) on intelligence. We discuss future avenues for studies of paternal age effects and suggest that stronger research designs are needed to rule out confounding factors involving birth order and the Flynn effect. PMID:24587224

  3. Maternal inheritance of mitochondrial DNA by diverse mechanisms to eliminate paternal mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Sato, Miyuki; Sato, Ken

    2013-08-01

    The mitochondrion is an organelle that has its own DNA (mtDNA). Mitochondria play essential roles in energy production and in various cellular processes such as metabolism and signal transduction. In most animals, including humans, although the sperm-derived paternal mitochondria enter the oocyte cytoplasm after fertilization, their mtDNA is never transmitted to the offspring. This pattern of mtDNA inheritance is well known as "maternal inheritance." However, how the paternal mitochondria and mtDNA are eliminated from the cytoplasm of gametes or zygotes remains an enigma. Recently, a variety of mechanisms, including specific nuclease-dependent systems, ubiquitin-proteasome system, and autophagy have been shown to degrade the paternal mtDNA or the paternal mitochondria themselves in order to prevent paternal mtDNA transmission. In this review, we will address the current state of knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying the elimination of paternal mtDNA or mitochondrial structures for ensuring the maternal transmission of mtDNA. PMID:23524114

  4. Microsatellite Support for Active Inbreeding in a Cichlid Fish

    PubMed Central

    Langen, Kathrin; Schwarzer, Julia; Kullmann, Harald; Bakker, Theo C. M.; Thünken, Timo

    2011-01-01

    In wild animal populations, the degree of inbreeding differs between species and within species between populations. Because mating with kin often results in inbreeding depression, observed inbreeding is usually regarded to be caused by limited outbreeding opportunities due to demographic factors like small population size or population substructuring. However, theory predicts inclusive benefits from mating with kin, and thus part of the observed variation in inbreeding might be due to active inbreeding preferences. Although some recent studies indeed report kin mating preferences, the evidence is still highly ambiguous. Here, we investigate inbreeding in a natural population of the West African cichlid fish Pelvicachromis taeniatus which showed clear kin mating preferences in standardized laboratory experiments but no inbreeding depression. The presented microsatellite analysis reveals that the natural population has, in comparison to two reference populations, a reduced allelic diversity (A?=?3) resulting in a low heterozygosity (Ho?=?0.167) pointing to a highly inbred population. Furthermore, we found a significant heterozygote deficit not only at population (Fis?=?0.116) but also at subpopulation level (Fis?=?0.081) suggesting that inbreeding is not only a by-product of population substructuring but possibly a consequence of behavioral kin preferences. PMID:21980351

  5. Male-Biased Predation and Its Effect on Paternity Skew and Life History in a Population of Common Brushtail Possums (Trichosurus vulpecula)

    PubMed Central

    DeGabriel, Jane L.; Moore, Ben D.; Foley, William J.; Johnson, Christopher N.

    2014-01-01

    Differences in predation risk may exert strong selective pressures on life history strategies of populations. We investigated the potential for predation to shape male mating strategies in an arboreal folivore, the common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula Kerr). We predicted that possums in a tropical population exposed to high natural levels of predation would grow faster and reproduce earlier compared to those in temperate populations with lower predation. We trapped a population of possums in eucalypt woodland in northern Australia each month to measure life history traits and used microsatellites to genotype all individuals and assign paternity to all offspring. We observed very high levels of male-biased predation, with almost 60% of marked male possums being eaten by pythons, presumably as a result of their greater mobility due to mate-searching. Male reproductive success was also highly skewed, with younger, larger males fathering significantly more offspring. This result contrasts with previous studies of temperate populations experiencing low levels of predation, where older males were larger and the most reproductively successful. Our results suggest that in populations exposed to high levels of predation, male possums invest in increased growth earlier in life, in order to maximise their mating potential. This strategy is feasible because predation limits competition from older males and means that delaying reproduction carries a risk of failing to reproduce at all. Our results show that life histories are variable traits that can match regional predation environments in mammal species with widespread distributions. PMID:25372294

  6. Male-biased predation and its effect on paternity skew and life history in a population of common brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula).

    PubMed

    DeGabriel, Jane L; Moore, Ben D; Foley, William J; Johnson, Christopher N

    2014-01-01

    Differences in predation risk may exert strong selective pressures on life history strategies of populations. We investigated the potential for predation to shape male mating strategies in an arboreal folivore, the common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula Kerr). We predicted that possums in a tropical population exposed to high natural levels of predation would grow faster and reproduce earlier compared to those in temperate populations with lower predation. We trapped a population of possums in eucalypt woodland in northern Australia each month to measure life history traits and used microsatellites to genotype all individuals and assign paternity to all offspring. We observed very high levels of male-biased predation, with almost 60% of marked male possums being eaten by pythons, presumably as a result of their greater mobility due to mate-searching. Male reproductive success was also highly skewed, with younger, larger males fathering significantly more offspring. This result contrasts with previous studies of temperate populations experiencing low levels of predation, where older males were larger and the most reproductively successful. Our results suggest that in populations exposed to high levels of predation, male possums invest in increased growth earlier in life, in order to maximise their mating potential. This strategy is feasible because predation limits competition from older males and means that delaying reproduction carries a risk of failing to reproduce at all. Our results show that life histories are variable traits that can match regional predation environments in mammal species with widespread distributions. PMID:25372294

  7. Conservation implications of the mating system of the Pampa Hermosa landrace of peach palm analyzed with microsatellite markers

    PubMed Central

    Picanço-Rodrigues, Doriane; Astolfi-Filho, Spartaco; Lemes, Maristerra R.; Gribel, Rogerio; Sebbenn, Alexandre M.; Clement, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes) is cultivated by many indigenous and traditional communities from Amazonia to Central America for its edible fruits, and is currently important for its heart-of-palm. The objective of this study was to investigate the mating system of peach palm, as this is important for conservation and breeding. Eight microsatellite loci were used to genotype 24 open-pollinated progenies from three populations of the Pampa Hermosa landrace maintained in a progeny trial for genetic improvement. Both the multi-locus outcrossing rates (0.95 to 0.99) and the progeny level multi-locus outcrossing rates (0.9 to 1.0) were high, indicating that peach palm is predominantly allogamous. The outcrossing rates among relatives were significantly different from zero (0.101 to 0.202), providing evidence for considerable biparental inbreeding within populations, probably due to farmers planting seeds of a small number of open-pollinated progenies in the same plot. The correlations of paternity estimates were low (0.051 to 0.112), suggesting a large number of pollen sources (9 to 20) participating in pollination of individual fruit bunches. Effective population size estimates suggest that current germplasm collections are insufficient for long-term ex situ conservation. As with most underutilized crops, on farm conservation is the most important component of an integrated conservation strategy. PMID:25983626

  8. Conservation implications of the mating system of the Pampa Hermosa landrace of peach palm analyzed with microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Picanço-Rodrigues, Doriane; Astolfi-Filho, Spartaco; Lemes, Maristerra R; Gribel, Rogerio; Sebbenn, Alexandre M; Clement, Charles R

    2015-03-01

    Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes) is cultivated by many indigenous and traditional communities from Amazonia to Central America for its edible fruits, and is currently important for its heart-of-palm. The objective of this study was to investigate the mating system of peach palm, as this is important for conservation and breeding. Eight microsatellite loci were used to genotype 24 open-pollinated progenies from three populations of the Pampa Hermosa landrace maintained in a progeny trial for genetic improvement. Both the multi-locus outcrossing rates (0.95 to 0.99) and the progeny level multi-locus outcrossing rates (0.9 to 1.0) were high, indicating that peach palm is predominantly allogamous. The outcrossing rates among relatives were significantly different from zero (0.101 to 0.202), providing evidence for considerable biparental inbreeding within populations, probably due to farmers planting seeds of a small number of open-pollinated progenies in the same plot. The correlations of paternity estimates were low (0.051 to 0.112), suggesting a large number of pollen sources (9 to 20) participating in pollination of individual fruit bunches. Effective population size estimates suggest that current germplasm collections are insufficient for long-term ex situ conservation. As with most underutilized crops, on farm conservation is the most important component of an integrated conservation strategy. PMID:25983626

  9. Spin-Stabilized Microsatellites with Solar Concentrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timmerman, Paul; Shields, Virgil

    2008-01-01

    A document proposes the development of spin-stabilized microsatellites powered by solar photovoltaic cells aided by solar concentrators. Each such satellite would have a cylindrical or other axisymmetric main body with solar cells mounted in a circumferential belt-like array on its exterior surface. The solar concentrator would be a halo-like outrigger cylindrical Fresnel lens array that would be deployed from and would surround the main body, connected to the main body via spokes or similar structural members. The spacecraft would be oriented with its axis of symmetry perpendicular to the line of sight to the Sun and would be set into rotation about this axis. In effect, the solar cells and concentrator would be oriented and rotated in a "rotisserie" mode, making it possible to take advantage of the concentration of solar light while preventing localized overheating of the solar cells. In addition, the mechanical stabilization inherently afforded by the rotation could be exploited as a means of passive attitude control or, at least, of reducing the requirement for active attitude control.

  10. Characterization of microsatellites in the coding regions

    SciTech Connect

    Tuskan, Gerald A; Li, Shuxian; Yin, Tongming; Wang, Prof. Mingxiu

    2009-01-01

    With the development of high-throughput sequencing techniques, transcriptome sequencing projects which provide valuable resources for designing simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers have been carried out for many plants. However, the utility of SSRs for molecular breeding depends on genomewide distribution and coverage, as well as moderately high allelic variability, in the available SSR library. In this study, we characterized the exonic SSRs developed from the publicly available Populus genome as a case study to determine their value for molecular breeding. As expected, our results confirmed that microsatellites occurred approximately three times less often in coding regions than in non-coding regions. Mutability test also showed that exonic SSRs contained less allelic variability than intronic SSRs. More importantly, exonic SSRs were unevenly distributed both among and within chromosomes. Large exonic SSRs deserts were observed on several chromosomes. Differential selection between paralogous chromosomes, at the gene level, appears to be responsible for these SSR deserts, though the mechanisms that cause chromosome-specific SSR deserts are not known. This work provides ample evidence that the candidate gene approach based on unigenes identified from transcribed sequences may not be the best strategy to identify highly polymorphic SSRs.

  11. RNA-mediated paternal heredity of diet-induced obesity and metabolic disorders.

    PubMed

    Grandjean, Valérie; Fourré, Sandra; De Abreu, Diana Andrea Fernandes; Derieppe, Marie-Alix; Remy, Jean-Jacques; Rassoulzadegan, Minoo

    2015-01-01

    The paternal heredity of obesity and diabetes induced by a high-fat and/or high-sugar diet (Western-like diet) has been demonstrated through epidemiological analysis of human cohorts and experimental analysis, but the nature of the hereditary vector inducing this newly acquired phenotype is not yet well defined. Here, we show that microinjection of either testis or sperm RNA of male mice fed a Western-like diet into naive one-cell embryos leads to the establishment of the Western-like diet-induced metabolic phenotype in the resulting progenies, whereas RNAs prepared from healthy controls did not. Among multiple sequence differences between the testis transcriptomes of the sick and healthy fathers, we noted that several microRNAs had increased expression, which was of interest because this class of noncoding RNA is known to be involved in epigenetic control of gene expression. When microinjected into naive one-cell embryos, one of these small RNA, i.e., the microRNA miR19b, induced metabolic alterations that are similar to the diet-induced phenotype. Furthermore, this pathological phenotype was inherited by the offspring after crosses with healthy partners. Our results indicate that acquired food-induced trait inheritance might be enacted by RNA signalling. PMID:26658372

  12. RNA-mediated paternal heredity of diet-induced obesity and metabolic disorders

    PubMed Central

    Grandjean, Valérie; Fourré, Sandra; De Abreu, Diana Andrea Fernandes; Derieppe, Marie-Alix; Remy, Jean-Jacques; Rassoulzadegan, Minoo

    2015-01-01

    The paternal heredity of obesity and diabetes induced by a high-fat and/or high-sugar diet (Western-like diet) has been demonstrated through epidemiological analysis of human cohorts and experimental analysis, but the nature of the hereditary vector inducing this newly acquired phenotype is not yet well defined. Here, we show that microinjection of either testis or sperm RNA of male mice fed a Western-like diet into naive one-cell embryos leads to the establishment of the Western-like diet-induced metabolic phenotype in the resulting progenies, whereas RNAs prepared from healthy controls did not. Among multiple sequence differences between the testis transcriptomes of the sick and healthy fathers, we noted that several microRNAs had increased expression, which was of interest because this class of noncoding RNA is known to be involved in epigenetic control of gene expression. When microinjected into naive one-cell embryos, one of these small RNA, i.e., the microRNA miR19b, induced metabolic alterations that are similar to the diet-induced phenotype. Furthermore, this pathological phenotype was inherited by the offspring after crosses with healthy partners. Our results indicate that acquired food-induced trait inheritance might be enacted by RNA signalling. PMID:26658372

  13. Rediscovering Medicinal Plants' Potential with OMICS: Microsatellite Survey in Expressed Sequence Tags of Eleven Traditional Plants with Potent Antidiabetic Properties

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Jagajjit; Sen, Priyabrata; Choudhury, Manabendra Dutta; Dehury, Budheswar; Barooah, Madhumita; Modi, Mahendra Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Herbal medicines and traditionally used medicinal plants present an untapped potential for novel molecular target discovery using systems science and OMICS biotechnology driven strategies. Since up to 40% of the world's poor people have no access to government health services, traditional and folk medicines are often the only therapeutics available to them. In this vein, North East (NE) India is recognized for its rich bioresources. As part of the Indo-Burma hotspot, it is regarded as an epicenter of biodiversity for several plants having myriad traditional uses, including medicinal use. However, the improvement of these valuable bioresources through molecular breeding strategies, for example, using genic microsatellites or Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) or Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs)-derived SSRs has not been fully utilized in large scale to date. In this study, we identified a total of 47,700 microsatellites from 109,609 ESTs of 11 medicinal plants (pineapple, papaya, noyontara, bitter orange, bermuda brass, ratalu, barbados nut, mango, mulberry, lotus, and guduchi) having proven antidiabetic properties. A total of 58,159 primer pairs were designed for the non-redundant 8060 SSR-positive ESTs and putative functions were assigned to 4483 unique contigs. Among the identified microsatellites, excluding mononucleotide repeats, di-/trinucleotides are predominant, among which repeat motifs of AG/CT and AAG/CTT were most abundant. Similarity search of SSR containing ESTs and antidiabetic gene sequences revealed 11 microsatellites linked to antidiabetic genes in five plants. GO term enrichment analysis revealed a total of 80 enriched GO terms widely distributed in 53 biological processes, 17 molecular functions, and 10 cellular components associated with the 11 markers. The present study therefore provides concrete insights into the frequency and distribution of SSRs in important medicinal resources. The microsatellite markers reported here markedly add to the genetic stock for cross transferability in these plants and the literature on biomarkers and novel drug discovery for common chronic diseases such as diabetes. PMID:24802971

  14. Characterization of 35 novel microsatellite DNA markers from the duck (Anas platyrhynchos) genome and cross-amplification in other birds

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yinhua; Tu, Jianfeng; Cheng, Xuebo; Tang, Bo; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Liu, Zhaoliang; Feng, Jidong; Lou, Yankun; Lin, Li; Xu, Ke; Zhao, Yulong; Li, Ning

    2005-01-01

    In order to study duck microsatellites, we constructed a library enriched for (CA)n, (CAG)n, (GCC)n and (TTTC)n. A total of 35 pairs of primers from these microsatellites were developed and used to detect polymorphisms in 31 unrelated Peking ducks. Twenty-eight loci were polymorphic and seven loci were monomorphic. A total of 117 alleles were observed from these polymorphic microsatellite markers, which ranged from 2 to 14 with an average of 4.18 per locus. The frequencies of the 117 alleles ranged from 0.02 to 0.98. The highest heterozygosity (0.97) was observed at the CAUD019 microsatellite locus and the lowest heterozygosity (0.04) at the CAUD008 locus, and 11 loci had heterozygosities greater than 0.50 (46.43%). The polymorphism information content (PIC) of 28 loci ranged from 0.04 to 0.88 with an average of 0.42. All the above markers were used to screen the polymorphism in other bird species. Two markers produced specific monomorphic products with the chicken DNA. Fourteen markers generated specific fragments with the goose DNA: 5 were polymorphic and 9 were monomorphic. But no specific product was detected with the peacock DNA. Based on sequence comparisons of the flanking sequence and repeat, we conclude that 2 chicken loci and 14 goose loci were true homologous loci of the duck loci. The microsatellite markers identified and characterized in the present study will contribute to the genetic map, quantitative traits mapping, and phylogenetic analysis in the duck and goose. PMID:15943922

  15. The development of RAPD and microsatellite markers in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var.

    E-print Network

    Macdonald, Ellen

    The development of RAPD and microsatellite markers in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) have been developed. We detected 52 decameric oligonucleotides polymorphism, RAPD, microsatellite, SSR, Pinus contorta var. latifolia. Résumé : Deux types de marqueurs

  16. First microsatellites developed from Spodoptera frugiperda and their potential use for population genetics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the first report of sequence-specific microsatellite markers (SSRs) of Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), an economically important pest of the American continent. We developed 178 microsatellite markers using pyrosequencing, and screened 15 individuals from 8 colonies ...

  17. Microsatellite-containing expressed sequence tags for genetic mapping and genotyping Theobroma cacao

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two high-density genetic maps for Theobroma cacao currently exist. Of the approximate 500 markers mapped, 270 are microsatellite markers. Microsatellite markers are preferred molecular markers due to their codominant inheritance, abundance, transferability, locus specificity, reproducibility, PCR-ba...

  18. Low abundance of microsatellite repeats in the genome of the Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longmire, J.L.; Hahn, D.C.; Roach, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    A cosmid library made from brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) DNA was examined for representation of 17 distinct microsatellite motifs including all possible mono-, di-, and trinucleotide microsatellites, and the tetranucleotide repeat (GATA)n. The overall density of microsatellites within cowbird DNA was found to be one repeat per 89 kb and the frequency of the most abundant motif, (AGC)n, was once every 382 kb. The abundance of microsatellites within the cowbird genome is estimated to be reduced approximately 15-fold compared to humans. The reduced frequency of microsatellites seen in this study is consistent with previous observations indicating reduced numbers of microsatellites and other interspersed repeats in avian DNA. In addition to providing new information concerning the abundance of microsatellites within an avian genome, these results provide useful insights for selecting cloning strategies that might be used in the development of locus-specific microsatellite markers for avian studies.

  19. Multiple gene genealogies and microsatellite markers reflect relationships between morphotypes of Sphaeropsis sapinea

    E-print Network

    Multiple gene genealogies and microsatellite markers reflect relationships between morphotypes between isolates representing different S. sapinea morphotypes, using multiple gene genealogies inferred from partial sequences of six protein-coding genes and six microsatellite loci. Genealogies generated

  20. First microsatellites from Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and their potential use for population genetics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the first report of sequence-specific microsatellite markers (SSRs) of Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), an economically important pest of the American continent. We developed 178 microsatellite markers using pyrosequencing, and screened 15 individuals from 8 isofamili...

  1. PCR PRIMERS FOR TRINUCLEOTIDE AND TETRANUCLEOTIDE MICROSATELLITES IN GREATER AMBERJACK, SERIOLA DUMERILI

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eighteen nuclear-encoded microsatellites from a genomic DNA library of greater amberjack, Seriola dumerili, were isolated and characterized. The microsatellites include 13 perfect (five tetranucleotide and eight trinucleotide) and five imperfect (three tetranucleotide, one trinucleotide, and one co...

  2. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers in the Serra Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus brasiliensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirteen nuclear-encoded microsatellites from a genomic DNA library of Serra Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus brasiliensis, were isolated and characterized. The microsatellites include 10 perfect repeats (8 tetranucleotide and 2 dinucleotide) and 3 imperfect repeats (2 tetranucleotide and 1 dinucleo...

  3. Nucleotide sequences flanking dinucleotide microsatellites in the human, mouse and Drosophila genomes.

    PubMed

    Matula, M; Kypr, J

    1999-10-01

    We extracted nucleotide sequences from the EMBL database that flank dinucleotide microsatellites in the long sequenced parts of the human, mouse and drosophila genomes. Comparison of the flanking sequences showed that the microsatellites were mostly connected to the bulk of genomic DNA through conserved, highly non-random and mostly (A+T)-rich sequences having many dozens of nucleotides in length. In many cases, the connectors were mutated versions of the flanked microsatellites whose sequence pattern gradually vanished with the distance from the microsatellite center. Hence many microsatellites have hundreds rather than dozens of nucleotides in length, and their ends are diffuse. In contrast, some microsatellites containing predominantly C and/or G, did not influence their neighborhood at all. These results make us change notions about the microsatellite nature. They also indicate that the microsatellites are the dominant part of eukaryotic genomes. PMID:10563577

  4. Microsatellites as DNA markers in cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    PubMed Central

    He, Guohao; Meng, Ronghua; Newman, Melanie; Gao, Guoqing; Pittman, Roy N; Prakash, CS

    2003-01-01

    Background Genomic research of cultivated peanut has lagged behind other crop species because of the paucity of polymorphic DNA markers found in this crop. It is necessary to identify additional DNA markers for further genetic research in peanut. Results Microsatellite markers in cultivated peanut were developed using the SSR enrichment procedure. The results showed that the GA/CT repeat was the most frequently dispersed microsatellite in peanut. The primer pairs were designed for fifty-six different microsatellites, 19 of which showed a polymorphism among the genotypes studied. The average number of alleles per locus was 4.25, and up to 14 alleles were found at one locus. This suggests that microsatellite DNA markers produce a higher level of DNA polymorphism than other DNA markers in cultivated peanut. Conclusions It is desirable to isolate and characterize more DNA markers in cultivated peanut for more productive genomic studies, such as genetic mapping, marker-assisted selection, and gene discovery. The development of microsatellite markers holds a promise for such studies. PMID:12713672

  5. Genomic Microsatellites as Evolutionary Chronometers: A Test in Wild Cats

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, Carlos A.; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; Nelson, George; Goldstein, David; O'Brien, Stephen J.

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear microsatellite loci (2- to 5-bp tandem repeats) would seem to be ideal markers for population genetic monitoring because of their abundant polymorphism, wide dispersal in vertebrate genomes, near selective neutrality, and ease of assessment; however, questions about their mode of generation, mutation rates and ascertainment bias have limited interpretation considerably. We have assessed the patterns of genomic diversity for ninety feline microsatellite loci among previously characterized populations of cheetahs, lions and pumas in recapitulating demographic history. The results imply that the microsatellite diversity measures (heterozygosity, allele reconstitution and microsatellite allele variance) offer proportionate indicators, albeit with large variance, of historic population bottlenecks and founder effects. The observed rate of reconstruction of new alleles plus the growth in the breadth of microsatellite allele size (variance) was used here to develop genomic estimates of time intervals following historic founder events in cheetahs (12,000 yr ago), in North American pumas (10,000–17,000 yr ago), and in Asiatic lions of the Gir Forest (1000–4000 yr ago). [Supplemental material available online at http://rex.nci.nih.gov/lgd/front_page.htm and at http://www.genome.org.] PMID:11875029

  6. Microsatellite and Chromosome Evolution of Parthenogenetic Sitobion Aphids in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Sunnucks, P.; England, P. R.; Taylor, A. C.; Hales, D. F.

    1996-01-01

    Single-locus microsatellite variation correlated perfectly with chromosome number in Sitobion miscanthi aphids. The microsatellites were highly heterozygous, with up to 10 alleles per locus in this species. Despite this considerable allelic variation, only seven different S. miscanthi genotypes were discovered in 555 individuals collected from a wide range of locations, hosts and sampling periods. Relatedness between genotypes suggests only two successful colonizations of Australia. There was no evidence for genetic recombination in 555 S. miscanthi so the occurrence of recent sexual reproduction must be near zero. Thus diversification is by mutation and chromosomal rearrangement alone. Since the aphids showed no sexual recombination, microsatellites can mutate without meiosis. Five of seven microsatellite differences were a single repeat unit, and one larger jump is likely. The minimum numbers of changes between karyotypes corresponded roughly one-to-one with microsatellite allele changes, which suggests very rapid chromosomal evolution. A chromosomal fission occurred in a cultured line, and a previously unknown chromosomal race was detected. All 121 diverse S. near fragariae were heterozygous but revealed only one genotype. This species too must have a low rate of sexual reproduction and few colonizations of Australia. PMID:8889535

  7. Autonomy and paternalism in medical e-commerce.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Roger Lee

    2015-08-01

    One of the overriding interests of the literature on health care economics is to discover where personal choice in market economies end and corrective government intervention should begin. Our study addresses this question in the context of John Stuart Mill's utilitarian principle of harm. Our primary objective is to determine whether public policy interventions concerning more than 35,000 online pharmacies worldwide are necessary and efficient compared to traditional market-oriented approaches. Secondly, we seek to determine whether government interference could enhance personal  utility maximization, despite its direct and indirect (unintended) costs on medical e-commerce. This study finds that containing the negative externalities of medical e-commerce provides the most compelling raison d'etre of government interference. It asserts that autonomy and paternalism need not be mutually exclusive, despite their direct and indirect consequences on individual choice and decision-making processes. Valuable insights derived from Mill's principle should enrich theory-building in health care economics and policy. PMID:25547271

  8. Rational suicide, assisted suicide, and indirect legal paternalism.

    PubMed

    Schramme, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This article argues in favour of three related claims: First, suicide is not an immoral act. If people autonomously choose to kill themselves, this ought to be respected. Second, we can deem the desire to die comprehensible, and even rational, when the person contemplating suicide does not see a meaning in her life. This assessment is not based on a metaphysically dubious comparison between the actual life of a person and the supposed state of being dead. Third, from the first two theses it does not automatically follow that we should allow other people to help someone who autonomously and rationally chooses to die to pursue this plan. To argue against indirect legal paternalism, the practice of legally preventing someone else to assist a person to perform a suicide or to be killed on request, needs additional reasons. It is argued that assisted suicide and voluntary active euthanasia can indeed be justified by establishing a claim of persons who want to die but are not able to kill themselves. This mainly means that being really free to die should be interpreted as involving the means to fulfil one's desire to die. PMID:23816379

  9. Microsatellite variation in honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) populations: hierarchical genetic structure and test of the infinite allele and stepwise mutation models.

    PubMed

    Estoup, A; Garnery, L; Solignac, M; Cornuet, J M

    1995-06-01

    Samples from nine populations belonging to three African (intermissa, scutellata and capensis) and four European (mellifera, ligustica, carnica and cecropia) Apis mellifera subspecies were scored for seven microsatellite loci. A large amount of genetic variation (between seven and 30 alleles per locus) was detected. Average heterozygosity and average number of alleles were significantly higher in African than in European subspecies, in agreement with larger effective population sizes in Africa. Microsatellite analyses confirmed that A. mellifera evolved in three distinct and deeply differentiated lineages previously detected by morphological and mitochondrial DNA studies. Dendrogram analysis of workers from a given population indicated that super-sisters cluster together when using a sufficient number of microsatellite data whereas half-sisters do not. An index of classification was derived to summarize the clustering of different taxonomic levels in large phylogenetic trees based on individual genotypes. Finally, individual population x loci data were used to test the adequacy of the two alternative mutation models, the infinite allele model (IAM) and the stepwise mutation models. The better fit overall of the IAM probably results from the majority of the microsatellites used including repeats of two or three different length motifs (compound microsatellites). PMID:7498746

  10. Microsatellite Variation in Honey Bee (Apis Mellifera L.) Populations: Hierarchical Genetic Structure and Test of the Infinite Allele and Stepwise Mutation Models

    PubMed Central

    Estoup, A.; Garnery, L.; Solignac, M.; Cornuet, J. M.

    1995-01-01

    Samples from nine populations belonging to three African (intermissa, scutellata and capensis) and four European (mellifera, ligustica, carnica and cecropia) Apis mellifera subspecies were scored for seven microsatellite loci. A large amount of genetic variation (between seven and 30 alleles per locus) was detected. Average heterozygosity and average number of alleles were significantly higher in African than in European subspecies, in agreement with larger effective population sizes in Africa. Microsatellite analyses confirmed that A. mellifera evolved in three distinct and deeply differentiated lineages previously detected by morphological and mitochondrial DNA studies. Dendrogram analysis of workers from a given population indicated that super-sisters cluster together when using a sufficient number of microsatellite data whereas half-sisters do not. An index of classification was derived to summarize the clustering of different taxonomic levels in large phylogenetic trees based on individual genotypes. Finally, individual population X loci data were used to test the adequacy of the two alternative mutation models, the infinite allele model (IAM) and the stepwise mutation models. The better fit overall of the IAM probably results from the majority of the microsatellites used including repeats of two or three different length motifs (compound microsatellites). PMID:7498746

  11. Genome-wide development and use of microsatellite markers for large-scale genotyping applications in foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.)].

    PubMed

    Pandey, Garima; Misra, Gopal; Kumari, Kajal; Gupta, Sarika; Parida, Swarup Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Debasis; Prasad, Manoj

    2013-04-01

    The availability of well-validated informative co-dominant microsatellite markers and saturated genetic linkage map has been limited in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.). In view of this, we conducted a genome-wide analysis and identified 28 342 microsatellite repeat-motifs spanning 405.3 Mb of foxtail millet genome. The trinucleotide repeats (?48%) was prevalent when compared with dinucleotide repeats (?46%). Of the 28 342 microsatellites, 21 294 (?75%) primer pairs were successfully designed, and a total of 15 573 markers were physically mapped on 9 chromosomes of foxtail millet. About 159 markers were validated successfully in 8 accessions of Setaria sp. with ?67% polymorphic potential. The high percentage (89.3%) of cross-genera transferability across millet and non-millet species with higher transferability percentage in bioenergy grasses (?79%, Switchgrass and ?93%, Pearl millet) signifies their importance in studying the bioenergy grasses. In silico comparative mapping of 15 573 foxtail millet microsatellite markers against the mapping data of sorghum (16.9%), maize (14.5%) and rice (6.4%) indicated syntenic relationships among the chromosomes of foxtail millet and target species. The results, thus, demonstrate the immense applicability of developed microsatellite markers in germplasm characterization, phylogenetics, construction of genetic linkage map for gene/quantitative trait loci discovery, comparative mapping in foxtail millet, including other millets and bioenergy grass species. PMID:23382459

  12. Characterization of new microsatellite markers derived from sequence databases for the emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae).

    PubMed

    Yáñez, José M; González, Ruth; Angulo, Jenniffer; Vidal, Rodrigo; Santos, José L; Martínez, Victor

    2008-11-01

    The emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae), a member of ratite family, is native to Australia and has been introduced to other countries worldwide. In this work, 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized for emu from public sequences. Polymorphism was surveyed in 22 individuals from two different populations kept in captivity. Between two and 11 alleles were found per locus, and the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.05 to 0.85, in accordance with expectations. These markers will be useful as tools for detecting levels of genetic variation, reconstructing pedigrees (for quantitative genetic analysis) and identifying markers associated to fitness traits in emu populations. PMID:21586070

  13. Accurate human microsatellite genotypes from high-throughput resequencing data using informed error profiles

    PubMed Central

    Highnam, Gareth; Franck, Christopher; Martin, Andy; Stephens, Calvin; Puthige, Ashwin; Mittelman, David

    2013-01-01

    Repetitive sequences are biologically and clinically important because they can influence traits and disease, but repeats are challenging to analyse using short-read sequencing technology. We present a tool for genotyping microsatellite repeats called RepeatSeq, which uses Bayesian model selection guided by an empirically derived error model that incorporates sequence and read properties. Next, we apply RepeatSeq to high-coverage genomes from the 1000 Genomes Project to evaluate performance and accuracy. The software uses common formats, such as VCF, for compatibility with existing genome analysis pipelines. Source code and binaries are available at http://github.com/adaptivegenome/repeatseq. PMID:23090981

  14. Is there a greater maternal than paternal influence on offspring adiposity in India?

    PubMed

    Corsi, Daniel J; Subramanian, S V; Ackerson, Leland K; Davey Smith, George

    2015-10-01

    Previous research has provided conflicting evidence regarding fetal roots of adiposity in India. To compare the strength of association between maternal and paternal body mass indexes (BMIs) corrected for height with offspring BMI in India to examine the potential for intrauterine mechanisms to influence offspring adiposity in India, we analysed a sample of 16,528 mother-father-offspring trios from the 2005 to 2006 Indian National Family Health Survey. Children were aged 0-59 months with parents aged 15-49 years (mothers) and 15-54 years (fathers). Linear and logistic regression models, specified in multiple ways, were used to estimate associations between parental BMI* (BMI redefined by power term x (kg/m(x)) to be independent from height), and child BMI/top decile of child BMI. Higher values of maternal BMI and paternal BMI were associated with higher values of offspring BMI. In comparing the effects of maternal BMI and paternal BMI, however, no consistent differences were found in the strength of these parental influences on offspring BMI. In the fully adjusted linear model, the standardised coefficient was 0.131 (95% CI 0.110 to 0.154) for maternal BMI* and 0.079 (95% CI 0.056 to 0.103) for paternal BMI*; with evidence of heterogeneity between maternal-offspring and paternal-offspring associations (p=0.005). This was not robust in the unstandardised regression (?=0.056, 95% CI 0.044 to 0.067 for maternal BMI and ?=0.039, 95% CI 0.025 to 0.053 for paternal BMI, p=0.093). Mixed results indicate that compared with paternal BMI, maternal BMI did not have a consistently stronger influence on offspring BMI in India. PMID:26044138

  15. Preconception Maternal and Paternal Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants and Birth Size: The LIFE Study

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Edwina; Mendola, Pauline; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Maisog, Jose; Sweeney, Anne M.; Barr, Dana Boyd; Louis, Germaine M. Buck

    2014-01-01

    Background: Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are developmental toxicants, but the impact of both maternal and paternal exposures on offspring birth size is largely unexplored. Objective: We examined associations between maternal and paternal serum concentrations of 63 POPs, comprising five major classes of pollutants, with birth size measures. Methods: Parental serum concentrations of 9 organochlorine pesticides, 1 polybrominated biphenyl (PBB), 7 perfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs), 10 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and 36 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured before conception for 234 couples. Differences in birth weight, length, head circumference, and ponderal index were estimated using multiple linear regression per 1-SD increase in natural log-transformed (ln-transformed) chemicals. Models were estimated separately for each parent and adjusted for maternal age, maternal prepregnancy body mass index (kilograms per meter squared) and other confounders, and all models included an interaction term between infant sex and each chemical. Results: Among girls (n = 117), birth weight was significantly lower (range, 84–195 g) in association with a 1-SD increase in ln-transformed maternal serum concentrations of DDT, PBDE congeners 28 and 183, and paternal serum concentrations of PBDE-183 and PCB-167. Among boys (n = 113), maternal (PCBs 138, 153, 167, 170, 195, and 209 and perfluorooctane sulfonamide) and paternal (PCBs 172 and 195) serum concentrations of several POPs were statistically associated with lower birth weight (range, 98–170 g), whereas paternal concentrations of PBDEs (66, 99) were associated with higher birth weight. Differences in offspring head circumference, length, and ponderal index were also associated with parental exposures. Conclusions: Preconceptional maternal and paternal concentrations of several POPs were associated with statistically significant differences in birth size among offspring. Citation: Robledo CA, Yeung E, Mendola P, Sundaram R, Maisog J, Sweeney AM, Barr DB, Buck Louis GM. 2015. Preconception maternal and paternal exposure to persistent organic pollutants and birth size: the LIFE Study. Environ Health Perspect 123:88–94;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1308016 PMID:25095280

  16. Developing Clade-Specific Microsatellite Markers: A Case Study in the Filamentous Fungal Genus Aspergillus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microsatellite markers are highly variable and very commonly used in population genetics studies. However, microsatellite loci are typically poorly conserved and cannot be used in distant related species. Thus, development of clade-specific microsatellite markers would increase efficiency and allow ...

  17. Development of microsatellite loci for the endangered species Pityopsis ruthii (Asteraceae)1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite loci were developed for the endangered species Pityopsis ruthii and will permit genetic and conservation studies of the species. Methods and Results:A microsatellite enriched library was used to develop 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci for P. ruthii. The loci ...

  18. Efficient isolation of polymorphic microsatellites from high-throughput sequence data based on number of repeats.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Sara D; Gonçalves, David; Robalo, Joana I; Almada, Vitor C; Canário, Adelino V M; Oliveira, Rui F

    2013-09-01

    Transcriptome data are a good resource to develop microsatellites due to their potential in targeting candidate genes. However, developing microsatellites can be a time-consuming enterprise due to the numerous primer pairs to be tested. Therefore, the use of methodologies that make it efficient to identify polymorphic microsatellites is desirable. Here we used a 62,038 contigs transcriptome assembly, obtained from pyrosequencing a peacock blenny (Salaria pavo) multi-tissue cDNA library, to mine for microsatellites and in silico evaluation of their polymorphism. A total of 4190 microsatellites were identified in 3670 unique unigenes, and from these microsatellites, in silico polymorphism was detected in 733. We selected microsatellites based either on their in silico polymorphism and annotation results or based only on their number of repeats. Using these two approaches, 28 microsatellites were successfully amplified in twenty-six individuals, and all but 2 were found to be polymorphic, being the first genetic markers for this species. Our results showed that the strategy of selection based on number of repeats is more efficient in obtaining polymorphic microsatellites than the strategy of in silico polymorphism (allelic richness was 8.2±3.85 and 4.56±2.45 respectively). This study demonstrates that combining the knowledge of number of repeats with other predictors of variability, for example in silico microsatellite polymorphism, improves the rates of polymorphism, yielding microsatellites with higher allelic richness, and decreases the number of monomorphic microsatellites obtained. PMID:23665344

  19. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite Loci for Cornus sanguniea (Cornaceae) 1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite loci were developed for Cornus sanguinea and will permit genetic and conservation studies of the species. Methods and Results: A microsatellite-enriched library was used to develop 16 polymorphic microsatellite loci for C. sanguinea. The loci amplified 5-11 allel...

  20. DNA fingerprinting of bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) using (GT)n microsatellites and its

    E-print Network

    Gross, Mart

    DNA fingerprinting of bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) using (GT)n microsatellites and its allowing DNA fingerprinting of a variety of centrarchids. Résumé : Les marqueurs à ADN microsatellite, and Mart R. Gross Abstract: Variable microsatellite DNA markers are powerful tools to study parentage

  1. Discovery and Cross-Amplification of Microsatellite Polymorphisms in Asterinid Sea Stars

    E-print Network

    Discovery and Cross-Amplification of Microsatellite Polymorphisms in Asterinid Sea Stars CARSON C) microsatellite mark- ers from a mixed pool of genomic DNA from eight species. We describe cloned sequences genome). The pooled genomic DNA method was an effi- cient way to sample microsatellites from many species

  2. Isolation of nuclear microsatellite markers for Cyperus fuscus (Cyperaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Böckelmann, Jörg; Wieser, David; Tremetsberger, Karin; Šumberová, Kate?ina; Bernhardt, Karl-Georg

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were characterized in the extremely specialized ephemeral wetland plant species Cyperus fuscus (Cyperaceae). The markers will be used for studying population genetics in natural vs. anthropogenic habitats, on a European scale, and the role of the soil seed bank in the life cycle of this ephemeral species. Methods and Results: Twenty-one microsatellite loci were established and scored in two populations, with mean number of alleles of 2.6 and 2.9 and mean expected heterozygosity of 0.405 and 0.470, respectively. Forty-four additional loci with the number of alleles ranging from one to four (mean = 2.1) were successfully amplified in seven individuals. Conclusions: The novel microsatellite markers will be useful for studying the genetic structure of populations of this ephemeral plant as well as their seed bank. PMID:26649269

  3. Discrimination of common bean cultivars using multiplexed microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, P C B; Brondani, C; Menezes, I P P; Valdisser, P A M R; Borba, T C O; Del Peloso, M J; Vianello, R P

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of DNA polymorphisms allows for the genetic identification and precise discrimination of species with a narrow genetic base such as common bean. The primary objectives of the present study were to molecularly characterize commercial common bean varieties developed at various research institutions using microsatellite markers and to determine the degree of genetic diversity among the bean varieties analyzed. Fifty cultivars representing 12 grain classes and 64 genitors, i.e., accessions used to develop these cultivars, were characterized. Based on an analysis of 24 simple sequence repeats, the estimates for the average number of alleles and genetic diversity were 8.29 and 0.646, respectively. The combined probability of identity was estimated at 7.05 x 10(-17), indicating a high individual discriminatory power. Thirty-two percent of the cultivars exhibited heterogeneity for multiple loci that reflected either homozygosity for different alleles of a given locus in different individuals or heterozygosity for the locus. The average genetic diversity for the groups of cultivars and genitors was 0.605 and 0.660, respectively, with no genetic differentiation (FST) between these groups. Although similar estimates of expected heterozygosity were observed when the cultivars were grouped by release date, a greater number of private alleles was observed in the most recent cultivars. The genetic differentiation among cultivars originating from different institutions was not different from zero (FST = 0.01). The molecular profile database derived from these analyses may increase the statistical power of genetic estimates and may be incorporated into breeding programs for common bean. Furthermore, the profiles obtained for the different cultivars may be used as molecular descriptors to complement traditional descriptors used in distinctiveness, uniformity and stability tests, thereby improving the traceability of samples and their derivatives and helping to protect the intellectual property rights of breeders. PMID:24737422

  4. Improved Detection of Microsatellite Instability in Early Colorectal Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Albrecht, Dawn M.; Grimes, Ian C.; Weiss, Jennifer M.; Matkowskyj, Kristina A.; Agni, Rashmi M.; Vyazunova, Irina; Clipson, Linda; Storts, Douglas R.; Thliveris, Andrew T.; Halberg, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    Microsatellite instability (MSI) occurs in over 90% of Lynch syndrome cancers and is considered a hallmark of the disease. MSI is an early event in colon tumor development, but screening polyps for MSI remains controversial because of reduced sensitivity compared to more advanced neoplasms. To increase sensitivity, we investigated the use of a novel type of marker consisting of long mononucleotide repeat (LMR) tracts. Adenomas from 160 patients, ranging in age from 29–55 years old, were screened for MSI using the new markers and compared with current marker panels and immunohistochemistry standards. Overall, 15 tumors were scored as MSI-High using the LMRs compared to 9 for the NCI panel and 8 for the MSI Analysis System (Promega). This difference represents at least a 1.7-fold increase in detection of MSI-High lesions over currently available markers. Moreover, the number of MSI-positive markers per sample and the size of allelic changes were significantly greater with the LMRs (p = 0.001), which increased confidence in MSI classification. The overall sensitivity and specificity of the LMR panel for detection of mismatch repair deficient lesions were 100% and 96%, respectively. In comparison, the sensitivity and specificity of the MSI Analysis System were 67% and 100%; and for the NCI panel, 75% and 97%. The difference in sensitivity between the LMR panel and the other panels was statistically significant (p<0.001). The increased sensitivity for detection of MSI-High phenotype in early colorectal lesions with the new LMR markers indicates that MSI screening for the early detection of Lynch syndrome might be feasible. PMID:26252492

  5. Genetic traceability of black pig meats using microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jae-Don; Song, Ki-Duk; Seo, Joo-Hee; Kim, Duk-Kyung; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Seo, Kang-Seok; Lim, Hyun-Tae; Lee, Jae-Bong; Park, Hwa-Chun; Ryu, Youn-Chul; Kang, Min-Soo; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Eui-Soo; Choe, Ho-Sung; Kong, Hong-Sik; Lee, Hak-Kyo

    2014-07-01

    Pork from Jeju black pig (population J) and Berkshire (population B) has a unique market share in Korea because of their high meat quality. Due to the high demand of this pork, traceability of the pork to its origin is becoming an important part of the consumer demand. To examine the feasibility of such a system, we aim to provide basic genetic information of the two black pig populations and assess the possibility of genetically distinguishing between the two breeds. Muscle samples were collected from slaughter houses in Jeju Island and Namwon, Chonbuk province, Korea, for populations J and B, respectively. In total 800 Jeju black pigs and 351 Berkshires were genotyped at thirteen microsatellite (MS) markers. Analyses on the genetic diversity of the two populations were carried out in the programs MS toolkit and FSTAT. The population structure of the two breeds was determined by a Bayesian clustering method implemented in structure and by a phylogenetic analysis in Phylip. Population J exhibited higher mean number of alleles, expected heterozygosity and observed heterozygosity value, and polymorphism information content, compared to population B. The FIS values of population J and population B were 0.03 and -0.005, respectively, indicating that little or no inbreeding has occurred. In addition, genetic structure analysis revealed the possibility of gene flow from population B to population J. The expected probability of identify value of the 13 MS markers was 9.87×10(-14) in population J, 3.17×10(-9) in population B, and 1.03×10(-12) in the two populations. The results of this study are useful in distinguishing between the two black pig breeds and can be used as a foundation for further development of DNA markers. PMID:25050032

  6. Deep into the roots of the Libyan Tuareg: a genetic survey of their paternal heritage.

    PubMed

    Ottoni, Claudio; Larmuseau, Maarten H D; Vanderheyden, Nancy; Martínez-Labarga, Cristina; Primativo, Giuseppina; Biondi, Gianfranco; Decorte, Ronny; Rickards, Olga

    2011-05-01

    Recent genetic studies of the Tuareg have begun to uncover the origin of this semi-nomadic northwest African people and their relationship with African populations. For centuries they were caravan traders plying the trade routes between the Mediterranean coast and south-Saharan Africa. Their origin most likely coincides with the fall of the Garamantes who inhabited the Fezzan (Libya) between the 1st millennium BC and the 5th century AD. In this study we report novel data on the Y-chromosome variation in the Libyan Tuareg from Al Awaynat and Tahala, two villages in Fezzan, whose maternal genetic pool was previously characterized. High-resolution investigation of 37 Y-chromosome STR loci and analysis of 35 bi-allelic markers in 47 individuals revealed a predominant northwest African component (E-M81, haplogroup E1b1b1b) which likely originated in the second half of the Holocene in the same ancestral population that contributed to the maternal pool of the Libyan Tuareg. A significant paternal contribution from south-Saharan Africa (E-U175, haplogroup E1b1a8) was also detected, which may likely be due to recent secondary introduction, possibly through slavery practices or fusion between different tribal groups. The difference in haplogroup composition between the villages of Al Awaynat and Tahala suggests that founder effects and drift played a significant role in shaping the genetic pool of the Libyan Tuareg. PMID:21312181

  7. Microsatellite-based genotyping of Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto isolates reveals dominance and persistence of a particular epidemiological clone among neonatal intensive care unit patients.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Orazio; Delfino, Demetrio; Cascio, Antonio; Lo Passo, Carla; Amorini, Maria; Romeo, Daniela; Pernice, Ida

    2013-01-01

    In this study, using multilocus microsatellite analysis, we report the genetic characterization of 27 Candida parapsilosis isolates recovered in two different periods of time (2007-2009 and 2011-2012) from infants hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit of a hospital in Messina, Italy. The results revealed the persistence and dominance of a particular infectious genotype among NICU patients and highlight the power of the used microsatellite markers in clarifying epidemiologic associations, detect micro-evolutionary variations and facilitating the recognition of outbreaks. PMID:23022715

  8. Transferability of microsatellite and sequence tagged site markers in Oryza species.

    PubMed

    Brondani, Claudio; Rangel, Paulo Hideo Nakano; Borba, Tereza Cristina Oliveira; Brondani, Rosana Pereira Vianello

    2003-01-01

    The genus Oryza comprises 22 species which are potentially useful as a source of genetic variability that can be introgressed into the worldwide cultivated rice, Oryza sativa. Molecular markers are useful tools for monitoring gene introgressions and for detecting polymorphism among species. In this study, cross-amplification was estimated among 28 accessions of 16 Oryza species, representing the genomes AA, BB, CC, BBCC and CCDD, using 59 microsatellite (OG, OS and RM series) and 15 STS (Sequence Tagged Sites) markers. All markers amplified at least one Oryza species, indicating different levels of transferability across species. Markers based on microsatellite sequences amplified 37 % of the accessions, with an average of 6.58 alleles per locus and an average polymorphism information content (PIC) of 70 %. For STS markers, the amplification level was 53.3 %, and the average number of alleles and PIC values were 1.6 and 10 %, respectively. These Results showed that although the STS markers detected a reduced level of genetic diversity, the transferability was higher, indicating that they can be used for genetic analysis when evaluating less genetically related species of Oryza. Among the microsatellite markers, an analysis of species with an AA genome showed that the OG markers produced the highest level of polymorphic loci (54.6 %), followed by RM markers (48 %). Highly polymorphic and transferable molecular markers in Oryza can be useful for exploiting the genetic resources of this genus, for detecting allelic variants in loci associated with important agronomic traits, and for monitoring alleles introgressed from wild relatives to cultivated rice. PMID:14641482

  9. Microsatellite instability and p53 mutations are characteristic of subgroups of acute myeloid leukemia but independent events.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Gerhard; Lu-Hesselmann, Juxian; Zimmermann, Yvonne; Haferlach, Torsten; Hiddemann, Wolfgang; Dreyling, Martin

    2005-05-01

    Microsatellite instability (MSI) and p53 alterations which may represent major mechanisms of genetic instability, are rarely observed in de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) but may play a substantial role in subgroups characterized by either a myelodysplastic prephase (sAML), previous chemotherapy (tAML) or a complex aberrant karyotype. We performed allelotyping and p53 mutation analysis in 75 patients with morphologically and cytogenetically classified AML. PMID:15921389

  10. Polymorphic microsatellite markers in Euryale ferox Salisb. (Nymphaeaceae).

    PubMed

    Quan, Zhiwu; Pan, Lei; Ke, Weidong; Ding, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Eleven polymorphic microsatellite markers were isolated and identified in the aquatic plant Euryale ferox Salisb. (Nymphaeaceae). This species, which belongs to basal Magnoliophyta, reproduces sexually. All of these 11 microsatellite markers yielded 25 alleles in a survey of a wild population of 34 individuals. Two or three alleles per locus were detected, with expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.056 to 0.634 and observed heterozygosity from 0.000 to 0.088. These simple sequence repeat markers will be useful for evaluating the genetic structure of the E. ferox population in the future. PMID:21564641

  11. Characterization of microsatellite loci isolated in Mountain Plover (Charadrius montanus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    John, J. St; Kysela, R.F.; Oyler-McCance, S.J.

    2007-01-01

    Primers for 15 microsatellite loci were developed for Mountain Plover, a species whose distribution and abundance have been reduced drastically in the past 30 years. In a screen of 126 individuals collected from four breeding locales across the species' range, levels of polymorphism ranged from two to 13 alleles per locus. No two loci were found to be linked, although one locus revealed significant departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. These microsatellite loci can be used in population genetic studies, ultimately aiding in management efforts for Mountain Plover. Additionally, these markers can potentially be used in studies investigating the mating system of Mountain Plover. ?? 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Microsatellite markers for Amazon pellona Pellona castelnaeana (Clupeiformes: Pristigasteridae).

    PubMed

    Ximenes, A M; Hernández-Ruz, E J; Machado, V N; Rodrigues, L R R; Ritter, G C S; Farias, I P

    2015-01-01

    The Amazon pellona is one of the few species of Pristigasteridae with recognized commercial value in the Amazon. We isolated 24 and characterized 8 microsatellite loci for this species. The number of alleles ranges from 2-8 per locus. Observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.052-0.823, while expected heterozygosities from 0.052-0.836. These 8 microsatellites are potentially valuable tools for characterizing the levels and distribution of genetic diversity, population structure, and gene flow. They may also be important parameters for the genetic conservation of this species, as well as for its sister taxon Pellona flavipinnis. PMID:26125704

  13. Characterization of 11 new microsatellite loci in taro (Colocasia esculenta).

    PubMed

    Hu, Kan; Huang, Xing Fang; Ke, Wei Dong; Ding, Yi

    2009-03-01

    Eleven new microsatellite markers were isolated from taro, Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott, a root crop widely distributed all over the world. Forty-eight primer pairs were designed from a microsatellite-enriched genomic library, of which 11 primer pairs have polymorphisms in 30 individuals tested from a population in China, which revealed two to six alleles per locus with the observed and expected heterozygosity levels ranging from 0 to 0.733 and from 0.381 to 0.731, respectively. These new genetic markers will be useful for the study of taro germplasm management and population evolution in the future. PMID:21564697

  14. Space Technology 5 - A Successful Micro-Satellite Constellation Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlisle, Candace; Webb, Evan H.

    2007-01-01

    The Space Technology 5 (ST5) constellation of three micro-satellites was launched March 22, 2006. During the three-month flight demonstration phase, the ST5 team validated key technologies that will make future low-cost micro-sat constellations possible, demonstrated operability concepts for future micro-sat science constellation missions, and demonstrated the utility of a micro-satellite constellation to perform research-quality science. The ST5 mission was successfully completed in June 2006, demonstrating high-quality science and technology validation results.

  15. Paternal age of schizophrenia probands and endophenotypic differences from unaffected siblings

    PubMed Central

    Schmeidler, James; Lazzeroni, Laura C.; Swerdlow, Neal R.; Ferreira, Rui P.; Braff, David L.; Calkins, Monica E.; Cadenhead, Kristin S.; Freedman, Robert; Green, Michael F.; Greenwood, Tiffany A.; Gur, Raquel E.; Gur, Ruben C.; Light, Gregory A.; Olincy, Ann; Nuechterlein, Keith H.; Radant, Allen D.; Seidman, Larry J.; Siever, Larry J.; Stone, William S.; Sprock, Joyce; Sugar, Catherine A.; Tsuang, Debby W.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Turetsky, Bruce I.; Silverman, Jeremy M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the discrepancy of endophenotypic performance between probands with schizophrenia and unaffected siblings by paternal age at proband birth, a possible marker for de novo mutations. Methods Pairs of schizophrenia probands and unaffected siblings (N=220 pairs) were evaluated on 11 neuropsychological or neurophysiological endophenotypes previously identified as heritable. For each endophenotype, the sibling-minus-proband differences were transformed to standardized scores. Then for each pair, the average discrepancy was calculated from its standardized scores. We tested the hypothesis that the discrepancy is associated with paternal age, controlling for the number of endophenotypes shared between proband and his or her sibling, and proband age, which were both associated with paternal age. Results The non-significant association between the discrepancy and paternal age was in the opposite direction from the hypothesis. Of the 11 endophenotypes only sensori-motor dexterity was significant, but in the opposite direction. Eight other endophenotypes were also in the opposite direction, but not significant. Discussion The results did not support the hypothesized association of increased differences between sibling/proband pairs with greater paternal age. A possible explanation is that the identification of heritable endophenotypes was based on samples for which schizophrenia was attributable to inherited rather than de novo/non-inherited causes. PMID:24913833

  16. The evolution of paternal care can lead to population growth in artificial societies.

    PubMed

    Salgado, Mauricio

    2015-09-01

    Evolutionary models of paternal care predict that when female reproductive effort is higher than male reproductive effort, selection might favour the emergence of unconditional male cooperation towards females, even when the latter group does not reciprocate. However, previous models have assumed constant population sizes, so the ecology of interacting individuals and its effects on population dynamics have been neglected. This paper reports an agent-based model that incorporates ecological dynamics into evolutionary game dynamics by allowing populations to vary. As previous models demonstrate, paternal care only evolves when female reproductive effort is higher than that of males, and the optimal strategy for females is to exploit male unconditional cooperation. The model also shows that evolution of this behaviour drives some simulations towards regimes of population growth. Thanks to the evolution of paternal care, females? inter-birth intervals are shortened and causing them to reproduce faster. Thus, it is suggested that the evolution of paternal care in species with differential reproductive effort between sexes could be associated to population growth. Nevertheless, the modelled evolutionary dynamics are stochastic, so differences in reproductive effort are necessary but not sufficient conditions for the evolution of paternal care. PMID:26051195

  17. Paternal smoking is associated with greater food insecurity among poor families in rural Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Semba, Richard D; Campbell, Ashley A; Sun, Kai; de Pee, Saskia; Akhter, Nasima; Moench-Pfanner, Regina; Rah, Jee Hyun; Badham, Jane; Kraemer, Klaus; Bloem, Martin W

    2011-01-01

    Food insecurity is common in developing countries and related to the physical well being of families. Household food insecurity is intended to reflect a household's access, availability, and utilization of food. The relationship between paternal smoking and household food insecurity has not been well characterized. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship of paternal smoking with household food insecurity among poor families in rural Indonesia. In a cross-sectional study of 26,380 rural households in the Indonesian Nutrition Surveillance System in 2003, we examined the relationship between paternal smoking and household food insecurity score, as measured using a 9-item food security questionnaire. The prevalence of paternal smoking was 72.9%. In families with and without a father who smoked, the mean (standard error) household food insecurity score was 1.83 (0.01) and 1.48 (0.02), respectively (p<0.0001). Paternal smoking was associated with greater household food insecurity score (p<0.0001) in a multivariable linear regression model, adjusting for maternal age, maternal education, weekly household expenditure per capita, and province. Among poor families in rural Indonesia, households with a father who smokes are at greater risk of household food insecurity. PMID:22094848

  18. Extensive paternal mtDNA leakage in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Maria D S; Dolezal, Marlies; Schlötterer, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Strict maternal inheritance is considered a hallmark of animal mtDNA. Although recent reports suggest that paternal leakage occurs in a broad range of species, it is still considered an exceptionally rare event. To evaluate the impact of paternal leakage on the evolution of mtDNA, it is essential to reliably estimate the frequency of paternal leakage in natural populations. Using allele-specific real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), we show that heteroplasmy is common in natural populations with at least 14% of the individuals carrying multiple mitochondrial haplotypes. However, the average frequency of the minor mtDNA haplotype is low (0.8%), which suggests that this pervasive heteroplasmy has not been noticed before due to a lack of power in sequencing surveys. Based on the distribution of mtDNA haplotypes in the offspring of heteroplasmic mothers, we found no evidence for strong selection against one of the haplotypes. We estimated that the rate of paternal leakage is 6% and that at least 100 generations are required for complete sorting of mtDNA haplotypes. Despite the high proportion of heteroplasmic individuals in natural populations, we found no evidence for recombination between mtDNA molecules, suggesting that either recombination is rare or recombinant haplotypes are counter-selected. Our results indicate that evolutionary studies using mtDNA as a marker might be biased by paternal leakage in this species. PMID:23452233

  19. Did bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) from the Bering-Chukchi-Beaufort Seas undergo a genetic bottleneck? A test using nuclear microsatellite loci 

    E-print Network

    Hunter, Devra Denise

    2005-11-01

    This study reexamines the nuclear microsatellite analysis by Rooney et al. (1999a) of Bering-Chukchi-Beaufort Seas bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) to determine if this population underwent a genetic bottleneck as a result of 19th and early 20th...

  20. Characterization of 22 highly polymorphic microsatellite loci in the cosmopolitan fungal plant pathogen Verticillium dahliae. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-two microsatellite loci were characterized in the soilborne plant pathogenic fungus Verticillium dahliae by analysis of the genome sequence. All loci were polymorphic in at least two of three populations of V. dahliae tested and collected from lettuce, spinach and tomato. These loci were us...