This is the first case of Microsporum ferrugineum isolated from a Tunisian patient. A 60-year-old man was admitted for tinea sycosis associated with circinate herpes of the hand. Examination disclosed diffuse erythematic and perifollicular papules and pustules in the beard area. Typical ringworm vesiculo-pustular lesions involved skin of the hand. Isolates were identified as Microsporum sp on the basis of macroscopic and microscopic colony characteristics. The diagnosis of M. ferrugineum was confirmed by PCR sequencing of Chitin Synthase1 gene. The patient was treated successfully with Griseofulvin, which was administered for 4 weeks. PMID:19184525
Neji, S; Makni, F; Sellami, H; Cheikhrouhou, F; Sellami, A; Ayadi, Ali
A 41-year-old woman presented with a pruritic rash on the face that was of 3 months duration. During that time, it had been successively misdiagnosed as psoriasis vulgaris, systemic lupus erythematosus, facial dermatitis at other hospitals, and had been treated with agents that included acitretin and prednisone. Finally, fungi were found in the lesions by optical microscopy, and the fungal culture was positive for Microsporum gypseum, and was diagnosed as a Microsporum gypseum infection. The lesions eventually cleared completely after 8 weeks of antifungal treatment.
Yu, Chunshui; Zhou, Jingguo; Liu, Jianping
A total of 220 lactic acid bacteria isolates were screened for antifungal activity using Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger as the target strains. Four Lactobacillus strains exhibited strong inhibitory activity on agar surfaces. All four were also identified as having strong inhibitory activity against the human pathogenic fungi Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum. One of the four lactobacilli, namely Lb. reuteri ee1p exhibited the most inhibition against dermatophytes. Cell-free culture supernatants of Lb. reuteri ee1p and of the non-antifungal Lb. reuteri M13 were freeze-dried and used to access and compare antifungal activity in agar plate assays and microtiter plate assays. Addition of the Lb. reuteri ee1p freeze-dried cell-free supernatant powder into the agar medium at concentrations greater than 2% inhibited all fungal colony growth. Addition of the powder at 5% to liquid cultures caused complete inhibition of fungal growth on the basis of turbidity. Freeze-dried supernatant of the non-antifungal Lb. reuteri M13 at the same concentrations had a much lesser effect. As Lb. reuteri M13 is very similar to the antifungal strain ee1p in terms of growth rate and final pH in liquid culture, and as it has little antifungal activity, it is clear that other antifungal compounds must be specifically produced (or produced at higher levels) by the anti-dermatophyte strain Lb. reuteri ee1p. Reuterin was undetectable in all four antifungal strains. The cell free supernatant of Lb. reuteri ee1p was analyzed by LC-FTMS using an Accela LC coupled to an LTQ Orbitrap XL mass spectrometer. The high mass accuracy spectrum produced by compounds in the Lb. reuteri ee1p strain was compared with both a multianalyte chromatogram and individual spectra of standard anti-fungal compounds, which are known to be produced by lactic acid bacteria. Ten antifungal metabolites were detected.
Guo, Jiahui; Brosnan, Brid; Furey, Ambrose; Arendt, Elke; Murphy, Padraigin; Coffey, Aidan
SUMMARY: Microsporum canis Bodin, the causative agent of animal ringworm in children and adults, is able to digest human hair keratin in vitro. The process of degradation has been followed by microscopic observation and an analysis of the resulting amino-acids which accumulate in the medium after growth on human hair has been made by chromatographic techniques. In this investigation attempts
Kerion celsi is rarely associated with Microsporum audouinii infection. We report the case of a 3-year-old girl with a kerion celsi caused by M. audouinii and successfully treated with oral terbinafine. Fungi identification was made by macro and microscopical colony morphology analyses and molecular (genotypic) studies. PMID:24432216
Fernandes, Sónia; Amaro, Cristina; da Luz Martins, Maria; Inácio, Joăo; Araújo, Teresa; Vieira, Raquel; Silvestre, Maria José; Cardoso, Jorge
Kerion celsi is rarely associated with Microsporum audouinii infection. We report the case of a 3-year-old girl with a kerion celsi caused by M. audouinii and successfully treated with oral terbinafine. Fungi identification was made by macro and microscopical colony morphology analyses and molecular (genotypic) studies.
Fernandes, Sonia; Amaro, Cristina; da Luz Martins, Maria; Inacio, Joao; Araujo, Teresa; Vieira, Raquel; Silvestre, Maria Jose; Cardoso, Jorge
Tinea incognito is a dermatophytosis of atypical clinical character due to the absence of classic features of ringworm. It is caused by prolonged use of topical steroids, sometimes prescribed as a result of incorrect diagnosis. The cases reported in the literature have different clinical presentations and have generally been in adults. We report three children with tinea incognito in whom the lesions were psoriasis-like, eczema-like, and lichenoid, respectively. Diagnosis was confirmed by mycologic examination, which led to the identification of Microsporum gypseum, a geophilic dermatophyte which is an infrequent agent of mycotic infection in humans. PMID:10720987
Romano, C; Asta, F; Massai, L
We report two cases of dermatophytosis caused by Microsporum (M.) gypseum. One case was a 59-year-old healthy woman who complained of itchy annular erythema on her right forearm. We isolated M. gypseum from scales on the forearm. The other case was a 73-year-old midwife who had developed infiltrated erythema on her face for 6 months. M. gypseum was isolated from scales of the nose. Both women liked gardening and M. gypseum was isolated from the garden soil of these women by a hair-baiting technique. The first case had a cat, a mouse and an owl, and the second had a dog. Hairbrush culture of these pets, however, was negative. So we concluded both cases were infected with M. gypseum from garden soil. We isolated M. gypseum from soil collected in Chigasaki city. Of the 7 fungal cultures from 10 samples, 2 cultures were identified as M. gypseum. PMID:24943212
Microsporum canis is a frequent dermatophyte in France, and causes tinea and herpes circinatus in children. This work shows the superficial and ultrastructural alterations induced by Econazole nitrate on this fungus. PMID:4058564
Mazabrey, D; Nadal, J; Seguela, J P; Linas, M D
Microsporum canis is a zoophilic fungus and it is an important agent of dermatophytosis. Cats act as important reservoirs. Clinically, it is too difficult to differentiate dermatophytosis caused by various species, also this fungus loses its morphological characteristics easily because of subculture; so using of rapid and accurate laboratory techniques for identifying the dermatophytes is important, therefore, RAPD-PCR was applied for the differentiation of the isolates. In this study, 10 M. canis isolates were detected in cats, dog, human, fox and rabbit at the Mycology Research Center, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran. For running the RAPD-PCR, PCR set system and three random primers OPU 15, OPU 13 and OPA 04 were used. Then phylogenetic tree and similarity coefficient table were drawn. The results showed that there were some common bands between M. canis isolates. There were some specific bands for each isolates, as well. Our study showed, despite the typical morphology of the whole isolates, they were placed in different branches in molecular typing. PMID:24635009
Shafiee, Shabnam; Khosravi, Ali Reza; Ashrafi Tamai, Iradj
The ozone is effective against most microorganisms due to its high oxidant power. Low concentrations and short-term contact are sufficient to inactivate bacteria, mold, yeast, parasites, seaweeds, protozoa and fungi. Microsporum canis is an important agent of dermatophitosis in human and animal. The aim of the current study was to assess the efficacy of ozonized oil over Microsporum canis in rabbits. Eighteen male New Zealand white rabbits, weight ranging from 2 to 3.2 kg were depilated in the cranial dorso-lateral and right caudal, and cranial and left caudal regions. The regions were inoculated with Microsporum canis, excepting the right caudal region, and were denominated TM, O, OM and M, respectively. After seven days, the treatment of lesions in TM began with 0.12g of terbinaphine 1% cream; in OM and O with 0.12g of ozonized oil; all animals were treated once a day for 28 days. Region M was not treated. Material was collected from those regions for cultivation in Sabouraud agar at day 28 of treatment. In the evolution of the treatment with terbinaphine, of 14 contaminated regions with Microsporum canis ten evolved to cure. With the ozonized oil, of 15 contaminations, four were cured. Clinically, that is, the macroscopic evaluation of lesions showed improvement in the TM and OM treated regions. We can conclude that there was statistical evidence of the protection action of the oil against the dermatophyte.
Daud, Fernanda Vasquez; Ueda, Suely Mitoi Ykko; Navarini, Alessandra; Mimica, Lycia Mara Jenne
Microsporum canis is a pathogenic fungus that causes a superficial cutaneous infection called dermatophytosis. The complexity of mechanisms involved in dermatophytic infections makes relevant in vivo studies particularly difficult to perform. The aim of this study was to develop a new in vitro model of M. canis dermatophytosis using feline fetal keratinocytes in reconstructed interfollicular epidermis, and to investigate its
Jeremy Tabart; Aline Baldo; Sandy Vermout; Betty Nusgens; Charles Lapiere; Bertrand Losson; Bernard Mignon
An undescribed Microsporum species was isolated from skin scales recovered from a 40-mm large, annular, scaling lesion on the wrist of a 46-year-old woman. The risk factors for dermatophyte infection in the patient were frequent work in the garden, hunting, and contact with dogs and horses. Direct microscopic examination of the scales revealed the presence of dermatophyte hyphae; when the samples were cultured, a morphologically similar fungus grew on all slants in pure culture. Both of these findings strongly suggested that the isolate was the true causal agent of infection. The possible geophilic nature of the species was based on phylogenetic analysis (internal transcribed spacer region of rDNA and ?-tubulin gene) that placed it in between species of the M. gypseum complex. However, its divergencies from all other Microsporum species exceeded 4% base pairs. Based on ?-tubulin phylogeny, the isolated species is a sister to M. gypseum. The species produces abundant chlamydospores and clumps of hyphae similar to those of ascomatal primordia but no conidia and ascospores. The species was unable to grow at 37°C and does not grow on T6 basal medium, which is unlike other Microsporum species; hair perforation and urease tests were positive. The addition of histidine to the T6 medium resulted in rapid growth of the fungus. The phylogenetic evidence, morphology, growth parameters, and physiology justified the proposal that the isolate is a new species, M. aenigmaticum, sp. nov. PMID:24625678
Hubka, Vit; Dobiašova, Stanislava; Dobiaš, Radim; Kola?ik, Miroslav
Microsporum canis is the dermatophyte most commonly responsible for ringworm in cats. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of oral terbinafine (Lamisil; Sandoz) in the treatment of feline ringworm caused by M canis, and to consider this drug as an alternative to griseofulvin or imidazoles. Fifteen cats infected with M canis were treated orally once daily with 30 mg/kg of terbinafine over a 2-week period. All treated animals were checked for dermatophytes on the last day of treatment, a month later and 3 months after the last administration of the drug. Only 12 cats could be used in the whole trial and 11 of these (92%) showed a complete cure. Terbinafine could be an effective alternative to griseofulvin when fungal resistance or idiosyncrasic intolerance are shown and, compared with griseofulvin, could give a faster rate of cure and less relapses. PMID:11919014
Mancianti, F; Pedonese, F; Millanta, F; Guarnieri, L
Keratinous wastes have increasingly become a problem and accumulate in the environment mainly in the form of feathers, generated mainly from a large number of poultry industries. As keratins are very difficult to degrade by general proteases, they pose a major environmental problem. Therefore, microorganisms which would effectively degrade keratins are needed for recycling such wastes. A geophilic dermatophyte, Microsporum fulvum IBRL SD3 which was isolated from a soil sample collected from a chicken feather dumping site using a baiting technique, was capable to produce keratinase significantly. The crude keratinase was able to degrade whole chicken feathers effectively. The end product of the degradation was protein that contained essential amino acids and may have potential application in animal feed production. Thus, M. fulvum could be a novel organism to produce keratinase for chicken feathers degradation. PMID:24013862
Darah, I; Nur-Diyana, A; Nurul-Husna, S; Jain, K; Lim, Sheh-Hong
Two soil isolates of Microsporum gypseum were studied for the production of extracellular proteases. Both the strains secreted protease on glucose-gelatin medium. The enzyme activity peaked on day 15 at 28 °C. Asparagine repressed protease yield. Sugars caused catabolite repression of protease formation. Protease activities of both the isolates were significantly affected by incubation period, culture media and carbohydrates used. Both the strains grew on the skin bait and caused a gravimetrically measurable loss of the substrate. Despite less pronounced differences in the keratinase levels, great variations occurred in the amount of keratin degraded by two isolates. Keratinase production as well as loss in substrate mass was better in glucose-lacking flasks than those containing the sugar. Although the rate of keratin degradation was independent of enzyme production, statistically positive correlations were recorded between loss in substrate mass: yielded dry mycelial weight and substrate degradation: keratinase levels. PMID:20946260
Singh, C J
One hundred thirty-four isolates of Microsporum canis, obtained from cats, were tested for in vitro susceptibility to various antifungal agents. The fungi were classified as susceptible, resistant, and intermediate by measuring the size of the zone of inhibited growth on yeast nitrogen base agar medium. Clotrimazole had the highest activity (99.2%), followed by tioconazole (89.6%), griseofulvin (88.8%), econazole (73.1%), ketoconazole (50.7%), miconazole (15.7%), and isoconazole (12.7%). We found 14.9% of the isolates to be susceptible to all the assayed drugs, whereas the highest resistance frequency (41.8%) was against 2 antimycotics. A simultaneous resistance to all the tested antimycotics was not found. The differences among the antifungal drugs activity were examined, and administration of drugs for which a simultaneous resistance was minimal is suggested. PMID:1429182
Puccini, S; Valdré, A; Papini, R; Mancianti, F
Antifungal activity (reduction in colony diameter) of various extracts (pt. ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethyl alcohol and aqueous) of aerial and root parts of Boerhavia diffusa (Nictaginaceae) was screened against dermatophytic fungi Microsporum fulvum. Statistically significant increase has been recorded in the % inhibition of the target fungal species with increasing test concentrations (1000-5000 ppm) of chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethyl alcohol extracts of the root. The maximum % inhibition observed in various solvent extracts of root was about 26% (chloroform), 46% (ethyl alcohol) and 57% (ethyl acetate) at 5000 ppm concentration with time exposure of 10 days. The colony diameter of the target mycelial colony decreased with increasing supplementation of the phytoextract, showing the presence of significant amount of some antifungal phytochemical moiety. PMID:15847339
Agrawal, Anurag; Srivastava, Shalini; Srivastava, J N; Srivastava, M M
Various extracts petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethyl alcohol) of aerial and root parts of Boerhavia diffusa was sereened for Antitungal activity (Inhibition in sporulation) against dermatophytic fungi Microsporum gypseum, M. fulvum and M. canis by using broth dilution method. Extracts of aerial part not show any noticeable antifungal activity. Ethyl acetate extract of root part of the plant was found to be most effective of against target fungal species. The maximum inhibition of mycelial growth was observed for M. gypseum (78.83%) followed by M. fulvum (62.33%) and M. canis (42.30%) of ethyl acetate in the test concentration of 1000 microg/ml 24 hours of incubation. The sporulation of target fungal species decreases with increasing supplementation of phytoextract, confirms the presence of some antifungal phytochemical moiety in roots of the plant. PMID:16281821
Agrawal, Anurag; Srivastava, Shalini; Srivastava, M M
The purpose of this work was to perform a preliminary screening in the domestic cat to assess the concentration of cortisol in hairs by radioimmunoassay technique (RIA) in presence or absence of Microsporum canis infections. A total of 245 cats (7 with cutaneous lesions referable to dermatophytosis and 238 apparently healthy) coming from 14 shelters were examined. M. canis was isolated in 126 (51.4%) cats. The cortisol levels were significantly higher in cats with lesions or without lesions but with a high number of colonies in the plates (? 10 CFU) than in cats negative or with a lower number of colonies. The results obtained seem to highlight that chronic high levels of cortisol in cats could possibly promote the dermatophytes infections. Furthermore, in High-CFU asymptomatic cats, it could be present a state of infectious, and they, therefore, represents not a simple mechanical carrier. PMID:23962857
Galuppi, R; Leveque, J F C; Beghelli, V; Bonoli, C; Mattioli, M; Ostanello, F; Tampieri, M P; Accorsi, P A
An agar dilution technique was used to assess the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of miconazole, chlorhexidine and a 1:1 combination of both agents for 10 isolates of Microsporum canis. For nine of 10 of the isolates, a combination of miconazole and chlorhexidine was more effective than either agent alone; fractional inhibitory concentration indices indicated a synergistic effect for five isolates and an additive effect for four. These results illustrate the potent antimycotic effect of miconazole and chlorhexidine against M. canis and are in accordance with previous clinical studies that showed the value of using miconazole and chlorhexidine shampoo in association with oral griseofulvin in the treatment of feline dermatophytosis caused by M. canis. PMID:12662267
Perrins, N; Bond, R
A 15-year-old HIV-positive Ugandan boy suffered from several dry and hyperkeratotic lesions of his left hand and forearm with circinated, erythematous and scaly morphology. Microsporum gypseum could be isolated as causative agent of this ringworm. Species differentiation was confirmed and specified by sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer of the ribosomal DNA. Successful topical treatment of the tinea manus was started with clotrimazole-containing ointment. PMID:17305782
Nenoff, P; Gräser, Y; Kibuka-Serunkuma, L; Muylowa, G K
Microsporum canis infection was induced in 21 healthy SPF-derived cats. Once infection was established (4 weeks after inoculation) the cats were divided into three equal groups housed in separate rooms and monitored for 16 weeks. During this time, group A cats received oral griseofulvin at approximately 50mg\\/kg daily and were shampooed twice weekly with a product containing chlorhexidine and miconazole.
AH Sparkes; A Robinson; AD MacKay; SE Shau
Microsporum canis is a worldwide distributed zoophilic and zoonotic dermatophyte which is responsible for most cases of feline ringworm. Its prevalence is on the rise in developed countries. Since 1995, the author and his Laboratory have developed a research programme to better understand the pathogenesis of M. canis dermatophytosis. Both the potential fungal virulence factors and the host immune response were investigated. A 31.5 kDa keratinolytic subtilase (SUB) and a 43.5 kDa keratinolytic metalloprotease (MEP) were purified from a crude exoantigen consisted in a mixture of inducible proteins secreted by the fungus in a medium enriched with keratin. Additionally, two gene families encoding respectively 3 SUBs and 3 MEPs, including the 2 keratinases previously purified (called SUB3 and MEP3), were characterized. The genes encoding several MEPs and SUBs were shown to be transcribed in vivo during infection by nested RT-PCR. Finally, we demonstrated that a specific cellular immune response towards the crude exoantigen, MEP3 and SUB3 was induced in experimentally infected guinea pigs. This indicates that the potential immunoprotective properties of these antigens are interesting to evaluate in the frame of the development of an efficient vaccine against feline ringworm. PMID:16465781
Cats represent the most important source of Microsporum canis infection to people. Terbinafine hydrochloride is commonly used in the treatment of microsporosis. Its fungicidal action permits short period of treatment. It was our objective to evaluate the effectiveness of this drug in treatment of microsporosis in cats. We treated nine experimentally M. canis infected cats with terbinafine at a dose of 10-20mg/kg SID (low-dose group, LDG), nine cats with 30-40mg/kg SID (high-dose group, HDG), and nine cats were left untreated (control group, CG). The drug's levels in cats' plasma and hair were measured by a reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic method (RP-HPLC) and the cats' cure was followed by Wood's lamp illumination, microscopic exam and fungal culture. We showed no difference between the clinical course in CG and LDG, but HDG were significantly differentiated from both other groups. Terbinafine levels in plasma at 120 days of treatment were not statistically different among LDG (4.13 microg/l) and HDG (5.48 microg/l), but levels in hair of LDG (1.24 microg/l) and HDG (3.62 microg/l) were significantly different. Terbinafine can be used for the treatment of microsporosis in cats in the dose of 30-40mg/kg SID. PMID:11557156
Kotnik, T; Kozuh Erzen, N; Kuzner, J; Drobnic-Kosorok, M
Multiple organ invasion by keratinophilic fungi in the green iguana (Iguana iguana) has not been previously reported. In this case, a 1-yr-old female green iguana presented with a nodular, darkly discolored skin lesion surrounded by necrosis in the right ventral abdominal region. A cytologic examination of the fine needle aspiration of the lesion revealed an exuberant proliferation of fibroblasts, macrophages, and multinucleated cells along with frequent filamentous structures consistent with hyphal elements. The necropsy revealed diffuse infiltration of the liver, lung, and cardiac apex with white nodules. A histopathologic examination of the lesions also confirmed a fungal infection associated with granulomatous inflammation. Rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of the chitin synthase 1 gene was conducted for rapid direct detection, and inter-simple sequence repeat fingerprinting was conducted to classify the infectious origin. The PCR analysis definitively demonstrated representative Microsporum canis fungus. The present report is the first case of disseminated M. canis infection with multiorgan involvement in a green iguana. PMID:25000705
Chung, Tae-Ho; Kim, Eun-Ju; Choi, Ul Soo
Either d- or l-leucine (10?3m) and unsaturated long-chain fatty acids such as oleic, linoleic, and arachidonic (10?4m) significantly stimulated macroconidia germination of Microsporum gypseum. Saturated long-chain fatty acids did not affect germination, whereas saturated short-chain fatty acids such as caprylic, hexanoic, and butyric were completely inhibitory. Germination was followed by an increase in endogenous respiration and a decrease in dry weight of approximately 5% at 4 hr. Endogenous fatty acids and soluble carbohydrates were utilized significantly during germination. Tritiated leucine, uridine, and thymidine were incorporated respectively into protein, ribonucleic acid (RNA), and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fractions within the first 5 min of germination. Incorporation of oleic-1-C14 into RNA and protein was significantly increased after germ tube development. Net synthesis of RNA and protein started prior to germ tube protrusion. Increase in DNA could be detected only later. A significant increase in RNA and protein during the 4th hr of germination was correlated with vegetative development. Inhibition of respiration and incorporation of leucine-H3 and uridine-H3 into corresponding macromolecules by dl-fluorophenylalanine and phenethyl alcohol started before germ tube appearance. Griseofulvin significantly inhibited incorporation of uridine-H3 and thymidine-H3, but not of leucine-H3. This inhibition occurred only after initial vegetative development. In contrast to the two other inhibitors, which substantially inhibited germination, griseofulvin only slightly retarded the period of germination and did not affect respiration.
Barash, I.; Conway, M. Loretto; Howard, D. H.
A case of tinea corporis caused by Microsporum gallinae was found in 2011 in Okinawa, located in the southern part of Japan. The patient was a 96-year-old, otherwise healthy, Japanese man, who had been working as a breeder of fighting cocks for more than 70 years. He was bitten on his right forearm by one of the cocks and a few weeks later, two erythematous macules appeared on the right forearm, accompanied by a slight itchy sensation. While the first isolate of this dermatophyte was recovered from the region by Miyasato et al. in 2011, it was not obtained from the same fighting cock owned by the patient. However, frequent exchanges of fighting cocks and special domestic breeds of chickens related to fighting, mating, and/or bird fairs are common among the fans and breeders. We investigated 238 chickens and 71 fighting cocks in Okinawa and in the suburbs of Tokyo (Chiba, Tokyo, Ibaraki, and Sizuoka). One isolate of M. gallinae from a fighting cock in Chiba Prefecture in the Tokyo metropolitan area exhibited a different genotype, with a single base difference from the patient isolate based on the internal transcribed spacer 1-5.8s-ITS2 regions (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) of the ribosomal RNA gene sequence. The isolation of M. gallinae from a fighting cock on the mainland of Japan is the first such finding in animals in our country. PMID:22809243
Murata, Michiko; Takahashi, Hideo; Takahashi, Sana; Takahashi, Yoko; Chibana, Hiroji; Murata, Yoshiteru; Sugiyama, Kazutoshi; Kaneshima, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Sayaka; Miyasato, Hitona; Murakami, Masaru; Kano, Rui; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Uezato, Hiroshi; Hosokawa, Atsushi; Sano, Ayako
Dermatomycoses are among the world's most common diseases and their incidence has increased over recent years, particularly in immunosuppressed patients. In previous studies, the saponin CAY-1 from cayenne pepper (Capsicum frutescens), has shown antifungal activities against Candida albicans and Aspergillus spp. We therefore studied the in vitro antifungal activity of CAY-1 against non-germinating conidia and hyphae of clinical isolates of the dermatophytes Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, T. tonsurans and Microsporum canis. We used a microdilution method to assess the growth inhibitory activities of CAY-1 against conidia (CLSI document M38-A) and a colorimetric procedure (XTT method) to investigate the metabolic inhibitory activity of CAY-1 against hyphae. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (complete visual growth inhibition) of CAY-1 against non-germinating conidia ranged from 10-20 microg/ml for all dermatophyte isolates included in this investigation. In addition, we found >90% inhibition of hyphal metabolic activity of these same isolates with 10-20 microg/ml of CAY-1. Results indicate that CAY-1 merits further investigation as a potential agent for the treatment of dermatomycoses. PMID:18608885
Stergiopoulou, Theodouli; De Lucca, Anthony J; Meletiadis, Joseph; Sein, Tin; Boue, Stephen M; Schaufele, Robert; Roilides, Emmanuel; Ghannoum, Mahmoud; Walsh, Thomas J
The zoophilic dermatophyte species Microsporum canis belongs to the Arthroderma otae complex and is known to mate with tester strains of that teleomorph species, at least in the laboratory. Human infections are likely to be acquired from the fur of cats, dogs and horses. Epidemiological studies to reveal sources and routes of infection have been hampered by a lack of polymorphic molecular markers. Human cases mainly concern moderately inflammatory tinea corporis and tinea capitis, but, as cases of highly inflammatory ringworm are also observed, the question arises as to whether all lineages of M. canis are equally virulent to humans. In this study, two microsatellite markers were developed and used to analyse a global set of 101 M. canis strains to reveal patterns of genetic variation and dispersal. Using a Bayesian and a distance approach for structuring the M. canis samples, three populations could be distinguished, with evidence of recombination in one of them (III). This population contained 44 % of the animal isolates and only 9 % of the human strains. Population I, with strictly clonal reproduction (comprising a single multilocus genotype), contained 74 % of the global collection of strains from humans, but only 23 % of the animal strains. From these findings, it was concluded that population differentiation in M. canis is not allopatric, but rather is due to the emergence of a (virulent) genotype that has a high potential to infect the human host. Adaptation of genotypes resulting in a particular clinical manifestation was not evident. Furthermore, isolates from horses did not show a monophyletic clustering. PMID:17893177
Sharma, Rahul; de Hoog, S; Presber, Wolfgang; Gräser, Yvonne
Microsporum canis is the dermatophyte most frequently recovered from canine and feline ringworm cases. The household environment can be contaminated both by symptomatic animals and through asymptomatic M canis carriage, resulting in a potential human health risk. The load of M canis arthrospores was determined in households harbouring infected pets, in order to evaluate the infectivity of the animals versus the environment. The environments inhabited by 30 symptomatic animals (21 cats and 9 dogs) infected by M canis were examined by sampling both surfaces and indoor air. The surfaces were examined by means of contact plates; the air sampling was performed with a Sas super-100 AIR SAMPLER (PBI, Italy). Environmental contamination was detected in all households with cats, while only four out of nine houses harbouring dogs were found positive. The frequence of isolation in each sampling, and the results in terms of colony forming units per plate in the different houses appeared to be quite homogeneous. Heavily infected environments harboured kittens only. Infected owners were observed in eight households, in all of which at least one infected cat was present. No history of human dermatophytosis in households harbouring dogs was found. On the basis of our results, infected cats appear to cause substantial environmental contamination, and provoke a substantial presence of viable airborne fungal elements. Dogs seem to be of lower importance in the spread of M CANIS: they contaminated surfaces, but they never contaminated the air. The results of this study confirm the potential leading role of the feline species in the environmental spread of M canis. PMID:14623201
Mancianti, F; Nardoni, S; Corazza, M; D'Achille, P; Ponticelli, C
The triazole antifungal pramiconazole (Stiefel, a GSK company) was compared with itraconazole, miconazole, and terbinafine in vitro and in vivo. Potent in vitro activities against Candida spp. (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50], 0.04 to 1.83 ?M) and Microsporum and Trichophyton spp. (IC50, 0.15 to 1.34 ?M) were obtained but not, however, against other filamentous molds and zygomycetes. In the M. canis guinea pig model and C. albicans vulvovaginitis rat model, pramiconazole was superior to the reference compounds after oral and topical administration.
de Wit, Kelly; Paulussen, Caroline; Matheeussen, An; van Rossem, Koen; Cos, Paul; Maes, Louis
An agar dilution technique was used to assess the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of miconazole, chlorhexidine and a 1:1 combination of both agents for 9 isolates of Trichophyton mentagrophytes, 9 isolates of Trichophyton erinacei and 5 isolates of Microsporum persicolor. MICs of chlorhexidine did not vary significantly between the three dermatophyte species tested, but the MICs of miconazole alone and in combination with chlorhexidine for T. erinacei were significantly greater that those for T. mentagrophytes and M. persicolor. A synergistic drug interaction was noted with one isolate of T. erinacei and one isolate of M. persicolor. An additive effect was demonstrated for 13 isolates (5 T. mentagrophytes, 6 T. erinacei, 2 M. persicolor), and indifference was noted in 8 isolates (4 T. mentagrophytes, 2 T. erinacei, 2 M. persicolor). Although synergy was less often seen when compared with a previous study of Microsporum canis, the synergistic or additive effects seen with the majority (15 out of 23) of isolates studied in vitro provides a rationale for the combined use of miconazole and chlorhexidine in the adjunctive topical therapy of dermatophytosis caused by T. mentagrophytes, T. erinacei and M. persicolor. PMID:16238813
Perrins, Natalie; Howell, Susan A; Moore, Mary; Bond, Ross
A method of treatment of tinea capitis is presented in a case of a 10-year-old boy who was referred to the pediatric surgical unit for the treatment of a skin lesion on the scalp, which had persisted for more than two months. The initial dermatologic examination led to the clinical diagnosis of inflammation of the scalp, while mycological analysis revealed an uncommon dermatophyte agent, Microsporum gypseum, in the culture. The lesion was subsequently treated with local and oral antifungal agents, but antifungal therapy was discontinued due to the resulting liver dysfunction and was replaced by treatment with a silver impregnated hydrofiber dressing. During one-month treatment, the patient's scalp lesion cleared completely. The treatment of tinea capitis is discussed. PMID:24476613
Glavan, Nedjeljka; Kaštelan, Marija; Bosak, Ana; Ga?anin, Lana; Pe?ani?, Sanja; Jonji?, Nives
Worldwide, dermatophytoses represent a high percentage of all superficial mycoses. The most frequently isolated dermatophyte is Trichophyton rubrum. Solanum chrysotrichum is a vegetal species widely used in Mexican traditional medicine to treat skin infections; its extract has been used to formulate an herbal medicinal product that is used successfully to treat Tinea pedis. Spirostanic saponin SC-2 from S. Chrysotrichum possesses high activity against dermatophytes. The present study reports the ultrastructural changes observed by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in clinical isolates of T. rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, and Microsporum gypseum induced by saponin SC-2. Strains were grown in RPMI 1640 containing SC-2 (1600 microg/mL). Fungi were harvested at 6, 12, 24, and 48 h; controls without SC-2 were included. T. mentagrophytes was the most susceptible to the SC-2 saponin, followed by M. gypseum, while T. rubrum was the most resistant. The main alterations caused by the SC-2 saponin were as follows: i) loss of cytoplasmic membrane continuity; ii) organelle degradation; iii) to a lesser extent, irreversible damage to the fungal wall; and iv) cellular death. PMID:19551614
López-Villegas, Edgar Oliver; Herrera-Arellano, Armando; de Los Angeles Martínez-Rivera, María; Alvarez, Laura; Cano-Nepauseno, Magally; Marquina, Silvia; Rodríguez-Tovar, Aída Verónica; Tortoriello, Jaime
Autophagy is a self-digestive process that degrades the cytoplasmic constituents. Immunomodulatory protein, one major bioactive component of Ganoderma, has antitumor activity. In this study, recombinant fungal immunomodulatory protein, GMI, was cloned from Ganoderma microsporum and purified. We demonstrated that GMI induces lung cancer cell death by activating autophagy, but does not induce apoptotic cell death. On western blot, GMI increased LC3 conversion and decreased p53 expression in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Cytoplasmic calcium chelator BAPTA-AM was used to prove that GMI promotes autophagy via a calcium-mediated signaling pathway. 3-methyladenine (3-MA), an autophagy inhibitor, enhanced the cytotoxicity of GMI on cell viability assay. Using VZV-G pseudotyped lentivirus-shRNA system for autophagy-related genes silencing, the capabilities of GMI to reduce cell viability and colony formation were abolished in autophagy-defective cells. Furthermore, GMI did not stimulate apoptosis after blocking of autophagy by 3-MA or shRNA knockdown system. In xenograft studies, oral administration of GMI inhibited the tumor growth and induced autophagy significantly in nude mice that had received a subcutaneous injection of A549 cells. This is the first study to reveal the novel function of GMI in activating autophagy. GMI may be a potential chemopreventive agent against non-small cell lung cancer. PMID:21490426
Hsin, I-Lun; Ou, Chu-Chyn; Wu, Tzu-Chin; Jan, Ming-Shiou; Wu, Ming-Fang; Chiu, Ling-Yen; Lue, Ko-Huang; Ko, Jiunn-Liang
In this study, isolated infective Microsporum canis spores were used in an in vitro test model to compare the sporocidal activity of two commercial topical antifungal rinses. The two commercial test solutions used in the study were a lime sulphur solution 97.8% (LymDyp) and miconazole base 5.2%/chlorhexidine gluconate 5.9% mixture (Malaseb Concentrate Rinse). Water and household bleach were used as controls. Isolated infective spores were harvested from infected hairs and 500 microL of the spore suspension was incubated with an equal volume of dilutions of lime sulphur or the miconazole/chlorhexidine gluconate combination for 5 min and 4 h followed by fungal culture. There were too many to count colonies on the water control plates. Lime sulphur was 100% sporocidal at all test dilutions at both times. Miconazole/chlorhexidine gluconate was 100% sporocidal at all but the 1 : 128 dilution after 5 min of incubation and 100% sporocidal when incubated with spores for 4 h. It is not known if the two products have similar antifungal activity against infective spores on or within hairs; however, based on the findings of this study there is good evidence to recommend either rinse as an adjuvant topical therapy in a dermatophyte treatment and control program. PMID:17222242
Moriello, Karen A; Verbrugge, Maria
The treatment of dermatophytoses due to Microsporum canis is cumbersome and relapses can occur. Volatile essential oils (EOs) obtained from plants would seem to represent suitable tools to contrast mycoses both in human and animals. The anti-M. canis activity of some EOs chemically characterized was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. Eleven feline isolates of M. canis were tested by microdilution against EOs extracted from Thymus serpillum, Origanum vulgare, Rosmarinus officinalis, Illicium verum and Citrus limon. A mixture composed by 5% O. vulgare, 5% R. officinalis and 2% T. serpillum, in sweet almond oil was administered to seven infected, symptomatic cats. T. serpillum and O. vulgare showed the lowest MICs, followed by I. verum, R. officinalis and C. limon. The assay performed on mixture showed that antimycotic activity of each component was enhanced. Four out of seven treated cats recovered both clinically and culturally. T. serpillum and O. vulgare EOs showed a strong antifungal activity. Preliminary data suggest a possible application in managing feline microsporiasis. Considering the potential zoonotic impact of this infection, the use of alternative antimycotic compounds would be of aid to limit the risk of environmental spreading of arthrospores. PMID:23518021
Mugnaini, L; Nardoni, S; Pinto, L; Pistelli, L; Leonardi, M; Pisseri, F; Mancianti, F
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Autophagic cell death is considered a self-destructive process that results from large amounts of autophagic flux. In our previous study, GMI, a recombinant fungal immunomodulatory protein cloned from Ganoderma microsporum, induced autophagic cell death in lung cancer cells. The aim of this study was to examine the role of autophagosome accumulation in GMI-mediated cell death. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Western blot analysis, flow cytometry and confocal microscopy were used to evaluate the effects of different treatments, including silencing of ATP6V0A1 by use of short hairpin RNAi, on GMI-mediated cell death, lung cancer cell viability and autophagosome accumulation in vitro. KEY RESULTS Lysosome inhibitors bafilomycin-A1 and chloroquine increased GMI-mediated autophagic cell death. GMI and bafilomycin-A1 co-treatment induced the accumulation of large amounts of autophagosomes, but did not significantly induce apoptosis. GMI elicited autophagy through the PKB (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin signalling pathway. Silencing of ATP6V0A1, one subunit of vesicular H+-ATPases (V-ATPases) that mediates lysosome acidification, spontaneously induced autophagosome accumulation, but did not affect lysosome acidity. GMI-mediated autophagosome accumulation and cytotoxicity was increased in shATP6V0A1 lung cancer cells. Furthermore, ATP6V0A1 silencing decreased autophagosome and lysosome fusion in GMI-treated CaLu-1/GFP-LC3 lung cancer cells. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS We demonstrated that autophagosome accumulation induces autophagic cell death in a GMI treatment model, and ATP6V0A1 plays an important role in mediating autophagosome-lysosome fusion. Our findings provide new insights into the mechanisms involved in the induction of autophagic cell death.
Hsin, I-Lun; Sheu, Gwo-Tarng; Jan, Ming-Shiou; Sun, Hai-Lun; Wu, Tzu-Chin; Chiu, Ling-Yen; Lue, Ko-Huang; Ko, Jiunn-Liang
Microsporum canis infection was induced in 21 healthy SPF-derived cats. Once infection was established (4 weeks after inoculation) the cats were divided into three equal groups housed in separate rooms and monitored for 16 weeks. During this time, group A cats received oral griseofulvin at approximately 50 mg/kg daily and were shampooed twice weekly with a product containing chlorhexidine and miconazole. Group B cats were treated with griseofulvin alone, and group C cats served as untreated controls. The cats were examined on a weekly basis and the severity of lesions was scored semi-quantitatively. In addition, hair samples were collected from each cat on a weekly basis by the MacKenzie brush technique and by the sticky-tape method. A semi-quantitative scoring system was also used for the assessment of fungal (M canis) growth. Generally, significant differences in clinical scores were not seen between the groups although at weeks 3, 4 and 11 there was a significant difference (P< or =0.015) with cats in group A having significantly lower median scores than those in group C. Median times to clinical resolution (return of clinical scores to zero) in groups A, B and C were at treatment weeks 2, 9 and 12, respectively (P>0.05). Median times for mycological resolution (persistently negative culture results) for groups A, B and C were at treatment weeks 2, 9 and 12, respectively, for the MacKenzie brush technique and at weeks 4, 8 and 12 for the sticky-tape technique. For both these results, the groups differed significantly (P< or =0.001) and in both instances group A had significantly more rapid resolution than groups B or C. Median culture scores were significantly different between the three groups using one or both of the sampling techniques at week 2 through to week 12 of treatment with median scores for either group A alone, or groups A and B being significantly lower than group C (P< or =0.026). These results showed a benefit from the addition of twice-weekly chlorhexidine-miconazole shampooing to systemic griseofulvin therapy alone in the treatment of M canis infected cats. PMID:11716608
Sparkes, A H; Robinson, A; MacKay, A D; Shaw, S E; Shau, S E
Oral lufenuron is reportedly an effective treatment for some cats with dermatophytosis. The purpose of this study was to determine if lufenuron, when used as a pre-treatment prior to challenge exposure, would be protective against the development of infection after the direct topical application of fungal macrocondia (Microsporum canis spores). Three groups (n = 6/group) of juvenile cats were treated with either monthly oral lufenuron (30 or 133 mg/kg) or placebo. After 2 months of treatment, kittens were challenged using 10(5)Microsporum canis spores applied to the skin under occlusion. Cats were examined weekly and the following data collected: Wood's lamp examination; scoring for scale/crust, erythema and induration; lesion size; and the development of satellite lesions. Fungal cultures were performed bi-weekly. All cats became infected; the infections progressed, and then regressed, in a similar fashion in all groups. There were no consistent statistically significant differences in weekly infection scores between treated and untreated cats throughout the study. Treated cats did not recover faster than untreated cats. We conclude that oral lufenuron at the dosing schedule and conditions used in this study did not prevent dermatophytosis or alter the course of infection by direct topical challenge. PMID:15585010
Moriello, Karen A; Deboer, Douglas J; Schenker, Rudolf; Blum, Jenifer L; Volk, Lynn M
Twenty-five cases of dermatophytoses caused by Microsporum canis were encountered during a 3-year period (January 2008-December 2010). Their diagnosis was based on detection of fungal elements by direct microscopy and identification of M. canis by fungal culture. There were 17 women and 8 men ; they ranged in age from 4 to 85 years (mean, 34.6). The affected site was the head (n=5), face (n=8), neck (n=5), arm (n=8), leg (n=5), and trunk (n=5) ; exposed sites were those most often affected. A lone eruption was seen in 13 and multiple eruptions in 12 patients. The disease type was tinea corporis in 21 patients, tinea capitis in 5, and a combination of tinea corporis and tinea capitis in one. The disease showed familial onset in 10 patients (5 pairs), including 2 sibling pairs, 2 mother-child pairs, and 1 grandmother-granddaughter pair. Twenty-four patients had a history of contact with animals, and animals kept at home may have served as the infection source (cats in 23 patients and a dog in one). Hairbrush culture of the pets was positive in 9 patients. The patients with a lone eruption were treated with topical antifungal agents, while those with multiple eruptions of tinea capitis and tinea corporis were treated with oral itraconazole or terbinafine hydrochloride for 2-14 weeks, combined with topical antifungal therapy. Although reports of dermatophytoses caused by M. canis have been decreasing, our experience indicates the necessity of considering possible transmission of this disease from pets such as cats. PMID:21788725
Sakae, Hitoko; Noguchi, Hiromitsu; Ichinokawa, Yuko; Hiruma, Masataro
Isolation of Microsporum gypseum in soil samples from different geographical regions of brazil, evaluation of the extracellular proteolytic enzymes activities (keratinase and elastase) and molecular sequencing of selected strains.
A survey of Microsporum gypseum was conducted in soil samples in different geographical regions of Brazil. The isolation of dermatophyte from soil samples was performed by hair baiting technique and the species were identified by morphology studies. We analyzed 692 soil samples and the recuperating rate was 19.2%. The activities of keratinase and elastase were quantitatively performed in 138 samples. The sequencing of the ITS region of rDNA was performed in representatives samples. M. gypseum isolates showed significant quantitative differences in the expression of both keratinase and elastase, but no significant correlation was observed between these enzymes. The sequencing of the representative samples revealed the presence of two teleomorphic species of M. gypseum (Arthroderma gypseum and A. incurvatum). The enzymatic activities may play an important role in the pathogenicity and a probable adaptation of this fungus to the animal parasitism. Using the phenotypical and molecular analysis, the Microsporum identification and their teleomorphic states will provide a useful and reliable identification system. PMID:24031904
Giudice, Mauro Cintra; Reis-Menezes, Adriana Araújo; Rittner, Glauce Mary Gomes; Mota, Adolfo José; Gambale, Walderez
Isolation of Microsporum gypseum in soil samples from different geographical regions of brazil, evaluation of the extracellular proteolytic enzymes activities (keratinase and elastase) and molecular sequencing of selected strains
A survey of Microsporum gypseum was conducted in soil samples in different geographical regions of Brazil. The isolation of dermatophyte from soil samples was performed by hair baiting technique and the species were identified by morphology studies. We analyzed 692 soil samples and the recuperating rate was 19.2%. The activities of keratinase and elastase were quantitatively performed in 138 samples. The sequencing of the ITS region of rDNA was performed in representatives samples. M. gypseum isolates showed significant quantitative differences in the expression of both keratinase and elastase, but no significant correlation was observed between these enzymes. The sequencing of the representative samples revealed the presence of two teleomorphic species of M. gypseum (Arthroderma gypseum and A. incurvatum). The enzymatic activities may play an important role in the pathogenicity and a probable adaptation of this fungus to the animal parasitism. Using the phenotypical and molecular analysis, the Microsporum identification and their teleomorphic states will provide a useful and reliable identification system.
Giudice, Mauro Cintra; Reis-Menezes, Adriana Araujo; Rittner, Glauce Mary Gomes; Mota, Adolfo Jose; Gambale, Walderez
Scalp ringworm is very uncommon in adults. The occurrence and the atypical clinical course of this unusual dermatophytosis in a female renal transplant recipient are described. Furthermore, the prevalence and the clinical features of superficial fungal infection in renal transplant recipients are reviewed. As immunosuppression enhances the risk of antifungal therapy failure, more prolonged treatment and careful follow-up are necessary to obtain complete recovery from any dermatophytosis in renal transplant recipients. PMID:9730705
Virgili, A; Zampino, M R
Tinea capitis is a dermatophyte infection of the scalp that occurs most often in prepubescent children. Tinea capitis may be transmitted by shared use of contaminated hairbrush, by contact with fomites or by direct physical contact with an infected person. Occasionally, outbreak of tinea capitis would happen under some special conditions. Last year, we found an outbreak of tinea capitis
Jin Yu; Zhe Wan; Wei Chen; Wenling Wang; Ruoyu Li
Introduction: Dermatophytes are a closely related group of keratinophilic fungi. They encompass important etiological agents of superficial fungal infections. These fungi are able to invade keratinized tissues of humans and animals, causing dermatophytosis (ringworm) of hair, nails or skin. The aim: Traditional diagnostics of ringworm is based on morphological identification of cultured fungi and is time-consuming. Materials and methods: In this study, we applied a method patented by Brillowska-Dabrowska and coworkers (Brillowska-D?browska A, Saunte DM, Arenderup MC, 2007, Five-hour diagnosis of dermatophyte nail infections with specific detection of Trichophyton rubrum. J Clin Microbiol 45: 1200-1204) which involves extraction of fungal DNA and PCR amplification with pan-dermatophyte primers to confirm the presence of dermatophytes. Results: The method used here is able to confirm the presence of dermatophyte DNA in pure cultures in less than 5 hours. PMID:24945136
D?browska, Iwona; Dworecka-Kaszak, Bo?ena; Brillowska-D?browska, Anna
Dysregulation of human epidermal growth factor receptor pathways by over-expression or constitutive activation can promote lung tumor processing including angiogenesis and metastasis and is associated with poor prognosis in non-small cell lung cancers. Ganoderma also known as Lingzhi has been one of the most popular chemoprevention mushrooms in East Asia for centuries. Among many bioactive components identified from Ganoderma, an
Ching-Hsiung Lin; Gwo-Tarng Sheu; Yu-Wen Lin; Chin-Shui Yeh; Yu-Hsin Huang; Yen-Chein Lai; Jan-Gowth Chang; Jiunn-Liang Ko
In an open non-randomized study, 90 cats with severe dermatophytosis were treated with 21 days of oral itraconazole at 10 mg/kg and one of three topical antifungal rinses applied twice weekly: lime sulphur (LSO); reformulated lime sulphur with an odour-masking agent (LSR); or a 0.2% miconazole nitrate and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate rinse (MC). Weekly examinations and fungal cultures were used to monitor the cats' response to therapy. If at day 42 of treatment cats were still strongly fungal culture positive and/or developing new lesions, they were retreated with oral itraconazole and LSO. Cats were not prevented from licking the solutions and none developed oral ulcerations. Thirty-one cats were treated with LSO, 27 with LSR and 32 with MC. The median number of days to cure was 30 (range 10-69 days) and 34 (range 23-80 days) for LSO and LSR, respectively. Thirty-two cats were treated with MC, and 13 of 32 cats required repeat treatment because of persistent culture-positive status and development of new lesions. Median number of days of treatment for the 19 cats that cured with MC was 48 (range 14-93 days). When the number of days to cure was compared between the groups, there was a significant difference between cats treated with LSO and LSR (P=0.029) and cats treated with LSO and MC (P=0.031), but no significant difference between the number of days to cure for cats treated with LSR and MC (P=0.91). PMID:20604908
Newbury, Sandra; Moriello, Karen A; Kwochka, Kenneth W; Verbrugge, Maria; Thomas, Chester
Four dermatophyte fungi, Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum gypseum, and Microsporum canis, isolated from human and animal tinea infections, were observed in vitro for macroscopic and microscopic growth characteristics at var...
W. J. Cairney
This report describes the application of PCR fingerprinting for the identification of species and varieties of common dermatophytes and related fungi utilizing as a single primer the simple repetitive oligonucleotide (GACA)4. The primer was able to amplify all the strains, producing species-specific profiles for Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton ajelloi, and Epidermophyton floccosum. Intra- specific variability was not
ELISABETTA FAGGI; GABRIELLA PINI; ENZA CAMPISI; CHIARA BERTELLINI; ELISA DIFONZO; FRANCESCA MANCIANTI
The Sensititre YeastOne antifungal panel was used to test 49 dermatophytes belonging to the species Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton rubrum, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The MICs of four antifungals obtained with the Sensititre YeastOne antifungal panel were compared with those obtained by the reference NCCLS microdilution method. The levels of agreement between the two methods (<2
I. Pujol; J. Capilla; B. Fernandez-Torres; M. Ortoneda; J. Guarro
(Full text is available at http://www.manu.edu.mk/prilozi). A total of 1742 clinically suspected samples was examined for the incidence and distribution of dermatophytes in the Republic of Macedonia from June 2007 to Jan. 2009. 600 dermatophytes were isolated and identified. In the studied period 9 different dermatophyte species were isolated, namely Trichophyton rubrum (48.83%), Microsporum canis (20%), Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. interdigitale (16.83%), Epidermophyton floccosum (4.17%), Trichophyton verrucosum (3.83%), Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes (3%), Trichophyton violaceum (1.67%), Microsporum ferrugineum (1%) and Microsporum gypseum (0.67%). The anthropophilic dermatophytic species are predominant. Tinea unguium (onychomycosis) (37.50%) is the most frequently diagnosed dermatophytosis followed by tinea pedis (19.17%), tinea corporis (15.33) and tinea capitis (15.17%). Furthermore there is an increased number of Microsporum canis isolates in tinea capitis patients. Microsporum canis infection of the scalp remains a serious epidemiological problem in R. Macedonia. Key words: dermatophytes, incidence, dermatophytoses, R. of Macedonia. PMID:20693949
Starova, A; Balabanova-Stefanova, M; V'lckova-Laskoska, M
We describe clinical cases caused by Microsporum gypseum in two subadult male California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Dermatomycosis is uncommonly reported in pinnipeds, including this species. In these cases, skin lesions were multifocal to coalescing, involved all flippers, and were most pronounced on the ventral surfaces of flippers. They were well-demarcated, depigmented, and covered with crusts. The definitive diagnosis was obtained through microscopic examination and fungal culture of skin scrapings. Oral terbinafine and topical enilconazole were used as treatments for 65 days, and complete recovery was subsequently achieved. California sea lion, dermatomycosis, Microsporum gypseum, terbinafine, enilconazole PMID:23805567
Sós, Endre; Molnár, Viktor; Lajos, Zoltán; Koroknai, Viktória; Gál, János
An outbreak of dermatophytosis caused by Microsporum nanum in a traditional Iberian extensive farm is described. The morbidity was 100% among lactating sows; however, suckling and weaning pigs, as well as boars never developed the lesions seen in the sows. The clinical aspects of porcine ringworm caused by this fungus are discussed and the ecology of the organism is reviewed. PMID:19821905
García-Sánchez, Alfredo; Bazán, Javier; de Mendoza, Javier Hermoso; Martínez, Remigio; Sánchez, Sergio; de Mendoza, Miguel Hermoso
An outbreak of nosocomial ringworm involved five infants in a neonatal intensive care unit. The index case was a nurse infected with Microsporum canis by her cat. After standard infection control measures were initiated, the outbreak was resolved successfully by an interdisciplinary professional collaboration of physician and veterinary dermatologists and infection control personnel. PMID:11001268
Drusin, L M; Ross, B G; Rhodes, K H; Krauss, A N; Scott, R A
Investigations were carried out to evaluate the therapeutic properties of the seeds and leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam as herbal medicines. Ethanol extracts showed anti-fungal activities in vitro against dermatophytes such as Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Microsporum canis. GC–MS analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oil from leaves showed a total of 44 compounds. Isolated
Ping-Hsien Chuang; Chi-Wei Lee; Jia-Ying Chou; M. Murugan; Bor-Jinn Shieh; Hueih-Min Chen
The mating patterns of Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. interdigitale (74 isolates) and the Microsporum gypseum complex (17 isolates) of diverse origin and T. rubrum (25 isolates) and T. tonsurans (10 isolates) of clinical origin were studied. The results of the study showed that the teleomorph of the Indian isolates\\u000a of T. mentagrophytes belong to Arthroderma vanbreuseghemii, undetermined teleomorphs of T. mentagrophytes
S. Ranganathan; S. A. M. Balajee; T. Menon
Problem statement: Dermatophytes have developed resistance to the exi sting antifungal antibiotics. As a part of our continuous search we had isolated, identified and characterized actinomycetes from the halophilic environment having antagonistic activity against the dermatophytes namely Trichophyton , Microsporum and Epidermophyton . Approach: Actinomycetes were isolated from the soil sample collected from the Ennore salt pan region, Chennai, India
Deepika T. Lakshmipathy; Krishnan Kannabiran
Species of dermatophytes are classified into three anamorphic (asexual) genera, Epidermophyton, Microsporum, and Trichophyton. Conventional methods used to identify dermatophytes are often lengthy and may be inconclusive because of atypical microscopic or colony morphology. Based on the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1) and ITS-2 sequences of the rRNA genes, an oligonucleotide array was developed to identify 17 dermatophyte species. The
HSIN CHIEH LI; JEAN-PHILIPPE BOUCHARA; MARK MING-LONG HSU; RICHARD BARTON; TSUNG CHAIN CHANG
Summary The effect of volatile metabolites produced by 8 Aspergilli (i.e.,Aspergillus candidus, A. chevalieri, A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. nidulans, A. niger, A. ochraceous andA. tamarii) on spore germination were tested againstAuxarthron conjugatum, Chrysosporium pannicola, Keratinomyces ajelloi andMicrosporum gypseum. The volatile metabolites inhibited the spore germination of all the test fungi.
S. K. Deshmukh; S. C. Agrawal
A series of 100 Rwandese medicinal plants (267 plant extracts), used by traditional healers to treat infections, were screened for antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral properties. The results of the testing showed that 45% were active against Staphylococcus aureus, 2% against Escherichia coli, 16% against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 7% against Candida albicans, 80% against Microsporum canis and 60% against Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Not
A. J. Vlietinck; L. Van Hoof; J. Totté; A. Lasure; D. Vanden Berghe; P. C. Rwangabo; J. Mvukiyumwami
The antifungal activity of ether extract of Nigella sativa seed and its active principle thymoquinone was tested against eight species of dermatophytes: four species of Trichophyton rubrum and one each of Trichophyton interdigitale, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum and Microsporum canis. Agar diffusion method with serial dilutions of ether extract of Nigella sativa, thymoquinone and griseofulvin was employed. The incubation was
Salih Hamad Mohamad Aljabre; Mohamad Akram Randhawa; Naeem Akhtar; Omar Mohamad Alakloby; Abdulrahman Mohamad Alqurashi; Ali Aldossary
Homogenates were prepared from various growth phases of Microsporum gypseum grown on different amino acids as the nitrogen source. When analyzed on 7.5% polyacrylamide disc gels, the water-soluble proteins in these homogenates gave essentially identical banding patterns.
Danev, P.; Friedrich, E.; Balabanov, V.
The effect of ozonized olive oil (Oleozone) on some pathogenic fungi (Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum canis & Trichophyton rubrum), were tested. The olive oil was ozonized at Ozomaxe, Egypt, OZO- 3 VTT Cairo, Egypt by an ozone generator. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by the agar dilution method. Oleozone showed antimicrobial activity against all species analysed,
NEVEEN S. I. GEWEELY
Objective To evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of Aegle marmelos leaf extracts and fractions on the clinical isolates of dermatophytic fungi like Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum. Methods The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of various extracts and fractions of the leaves of Aegle marmelos were measured using method of National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). Results Aegle marmelos leaf extracts and fractions were found to have fungicidal activity against various clinical isolates of dermatophytic fungi. The MIC and MFC was found to be high in water and ethyl alcohol extracts and methanol fractions (200µg/mL) against dermatophytic fungi studied. Conclusions Aegle marmelos leaf extracts significantly inhibites the growth of all dermatophytic fungi studied. If this activity is confirmed by in vivo studies and if the compound is isolated and identified, it could be a remedy for dermatophytosis.
Balakumar, S; Rajan, S; Thirunalasundari, T; Jeeva, S
\\u000a Dermatophytes are a unique group of fungi that infect keratinous tissue, including skin, hair, and nails, resulting in cutaneous\\u000a mycoses called dermatophytoses, tinea, or ringworm infections. This closely-related group of organisms can be categorized\\u000a into one of three genera: Trichophyton, Microsporum, and Epidermophyton. Species within these genera that do not invade keratinous tissue are, by definition, not regarded as dermatophytes.
Pranab K. Mukherjee; Nancy Isham; Mahmoud A. Ghannoum
Tinea capitis favosa, a chronic inflammatory dermatophyte infection of the scalp, affects over 90% of patients with anthropophilic\\u000a Trichophyton schoenleinii. T. violaceum, T. verrucosum, zoophilic T. mentagrophytes (referred to as ‘var. quinckeanum’), Microsporum canis, and geophilic M. gypseum have also been recovered from favic lesions. Favus is typically a childhood disease, yet adult cases are not uncommon. Interestingly,\\u000a favus is
We have reviewed all the dermatophytoses diagnosed in Galicia during four consecutive 9-year periods 1951–86 and 1987. From 4571 patients, we isolated 3351 fungal strains belonging, in decreasing order of frequency, to the following dermatophyte species: Microsporum canis (25.5%), Trichophyton rubrum (24.6%), T. mentagrophytes (21.4%), Epidermophyton floccosum (11.8%), M. gypseum (5.2%), T. tonsurans (3.9%), T. verrucosum (3.1%), T. schoenleinii (2.5%),
M. Pereiro Miguens; Mercedes Pereiro
Two hundred and eleven dogs (including strictly house and stray dogs) and 170 cattle in and around the city of Madras, India\\u000a were screened for the presence of dermatophytosis. 106 strains of dermatophytes (89 strains from dogs and 17 strains from\\u000a bovines) were isolated. 57\\/106 strains were Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes and 42\\/106 strains were of the\\u000a Microsporum gypseum complex.
S. Ranganathan; S. Arun Mozhi Balajee; S. Mahendra Raja
During antidermatophytic screening of some essential oils, Curcuma longa L. exhibited the strongest antifungal activity, completely inhibiting the mycelial growth of ringworm, caused by the fungi-\\u000a Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The essential oil from leaves of Curcuma longa was fungicidal at 2.5 ?l\\/ml at which it tolerated heavy doses of inoculum. The fungicidal activity of the oil was thermostable
Kumar Pankaj Pandey; Rohit Kumar Mishra; Ahsan Kamran; Piyush Mishra; A. K. Bajaj; Anupam Dikshit
Dermatophytosis is a relatively common disease in many countries occurring endemically both in companion and food animals.\\u000a Fungi belonging to the genera Trichophyton and Microsporum are most often isolated from clinical cases. Measures to control and prevent dermatophytosis include sanitation, hygienic\\u000a measures and treatment. In some countries, successful control and eradication have been achieved by mass vaccination of cattle\\u000a and
Arve Lund; Douglas J. DeBoer
Between January, 1, 1986 and December, 31, 2000, dermatological specimens from 10.678 animals (7.650 cats and 3.028 dogs) were examined for dermatophytes. All the animals presented clinical signs of ringworm. Two thousand-four hundred fifty-six of the 10.678 (23%) examined animals scored positive for dermatophytes, 566 out of 3.028 canine (18.7%) and 1890 out of 7.650 feline specimens (24.7%). Microsporum canis
F. Mancianti; S. Nardoni; S. Cecchi; M. Corazza; F. Taccini
Investigation of secondary metabolites from the sea fan-derived fungus Curvularia sp. PSU-F22 resulted in isolation of three new metabolites, curvulapyrone (1), curvulalide (2) and curvulalic acid (3) together with six known compounds, modiolides A (4) and B (5), pyrenolide A (6), stagonolide E (7), mycoepoxydiene (8), and deacetylmycoepoxydiene (9). Their antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, methicillin-resistant S. aureus and Microsporum gypseum SH-MU-4 were examined. PMID:21656354
Trisuwan, Kongkiat; Rukachaisirikul, Vatcharin; Phongpaichit, Souwalak; Preedanon, Sita; Sakayaroj, Jariya
The spectrum of dermatophytes isolated from skin lesions had changed in last 70 years. Before the Second World War in Germany,\\u000a Microsporum audouinii and Epidermophyton floccosum ranked the first, whereas Trichophyton rubrum is the most common dermatophyte since the fifties of last century, accounting for 80–90% of the strains, followed by T. mentagrophytes. This evolution is typical for Central and North
Claus Seebacher; Jean-Philippe Bouchara; Bernard Mignon
A total of 4,287 primary school children, comprising 1,740 males and 2,547 females in Arochukwu local government area of Abia state Nigeria were examined for clinical signs of dermatophytoses. About 873 (20.4%), consisting of 505 males and 368 females had lesions consistent with dermatophytoses. The disease was more prevalent in males (29%) than females (14.4%) in a ratio of approximately 2:1 (P < 0.05). The infection rate increased from 16.8% in the 4-6 year age group to a peak of 28.1% in the 10-12 year age bracket and dropped sharply to 5.6% in the 16-18 year group. The highest prevalence (39%) was observed among males aged 10-12 years while females 16-18 years had the lowest prevalence (2.5%). Tinea capitis was the predominant clinical type of dermatophytoses, and occurred in 13.7% of the total population studied and 67% of lesion positive cases. Trichophyton soudanense and Trichophyton tonsurans the predominant aetiological agents of dermatophytoses with a prevalence of 26.2% and 21.6%, respectively. Others include Trichophyton mentagrophytes (18.8%), Epidermophyton floccosum (8.3%), Microsporum audouinii (6.4%), Microsporum gypseum (6.0%), Trichophyton rubrum (5.5%) and Microsporum ferrugineum (7.3%), which was isolated for the first time in Nigeria. PMID:17657581
Ngwogu, Ada C; Otokunefor, Tosanwumi Vincent
Between January, 1, 1986 and December, 31, 2000, dermatological specimens from 10.678 animals (7.650 cats and 3.028 dogs) were examined for dermatophytes. All the animals presented clinical signs of ringworm. Two thousand-four hundred fifty-six of the 10.678 (23%) examined animals scored positive for dermatophytes, 566 out of 3.028 canine (18.7%) and 1890 out of 7.650 feline specimens (24.7%). Microsporum canis constituted 83% and 97% of the isolated dermatophytes respectively in dogs and cats, M. gypseum represented 13% and 2.6% and T. mentagrophytes 5.5% and 0.2%. A sexual predisposition for mycotic infections was not observed. The animals with less than 1 year of age were more frequently infected. Canine toy breeds showed a significantly higher (P < 0.001) prevalence of infections by M. canis. Microsporum gypseum was mostly recorded from sporting (hunting) breeds [such as T. mentagrophytes (6.7%)]. Microsporum canis was isolated from long-haired cats with a ratio of 2:1 versus short-haired cats, while M. gypseum and T. mentagrophytes were never recovered from Persian cats. The annual distribution of the infections in dogs showed a significantly higher incidence for M. gypseum in summer versus winter and spring, while the recovery rate of M. canis from cats was very significantly higher in fall and winter than in summer and spring. Trichophyton mentagrophytes did not show a similar seasonal distribution. PMID:12715942
Mancianti, F; Nardoni, S; Cecchi, S; Corazza, M; Taccini, F
Dermatophytes are a group of closely related fungi that have keratinase and can therefore cause infections in keratinised human and animal tissues (skin, hair and nails), leading to a disease known as dermatophytosis. This group is composed by the genera Epidermophyton, Trichophyton and Microsporum, forming an approximated total of 40 species. Depending on the source of the keratin used, dermatophytes can be divided in geophilic (soil), zoophilic (animals) and anthropophilic (human), with soil, some animals and humans being their primary habitats. Many dermatophytes can be present in both anamorphic (asexual state) or imperfect and teleomorphic state (with sexual reproduction) or perfect fungi. Anamorphic states (genera Epidermophyton, Microsporum and Trichophyton ) belong to the Hyphomycetes and phylum Deuteromycota class and teleomorphic states (the majority of geophilic and zoophilic species of Microsporum and Trichophyton) are classified in the teleomorphic genus Arthroderma, order Onygenales, phylum Ascomycota, and are usually found in their anamorphic state. Dermatophytes have a worldwide distribution, being responsible for most of the skin mycoses in both healthy and immunocompromised patients. The diagnosis and treatment of dermatophytosis are well known by most microbiologists and scientists in general. However, we describe recent techniques for their diagnosis and up-to-date treatments. The main purpose of this review is to provide a detailed description of the three genera of dermatophytes, with special mention of Epidermophyton floccosum, a object of the SEIMC's mycology quality control (M-2/09). PMID:21458709
Molina de Diego, Araceli
An in vitro hair perforation test is used to differentiate isolates of Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum complexes because morphological criteria are insufficient. Here, we performed in vitro hair perforation tests using blond prepubertal hair and albino adult hair to determine whether they differentiate between fungal species. We tested 43 well-characterized dermatophyte strains, Arthroderma spp. [n = 4], Epidermophyton floccosum [n = 1], Microsporum spp. [n = 8], and Trichophyton spp. [n = 30], and examined hair perforation at 3-30 days postinoculation (p.i.). The perforation times were not significantly different between the two hair types (P > 0.05). The T. mentagrophytes complex strains perforated hair 4-5 days p.i., whereas T. rubrum complex strains perforated hair 13-30 days p.i., except for Trichophyton violaceum, which perforated hair after 6-7 days. Thus, the hair perforation test is highly sensitive (100 %) and specific (100 %) for differentiating T. mentagrophytes from T. rubrum complexes 5 days p.i. At 14 and 30 days, the sensitivity and negative predictive value of the test remained unchanged (100 %), but the specificity was reduced (64.3 and 14.3 %, respectively). Consistent with previous reports, we observed "perforating organs" of zoophilic Microsporum canis and geophilic Microsporum gypseum at 4 and 3 days, respectively. This paper offers a "low-cost" and "low-tech" alternative to differentiating dermatophyte species where standard morphological techniques fail and/or where molecular techniques are not a viable option. PMID:23591622
Gümral, Ramazan; Dö?en, Aylin; Durdu, Murat; Ilkit, Macit
Tinea capitis (scalp ringworm) is the most common dermatophyte infection of the scalp affecting mainly children and rarely adults. The epidemiology of tinea capitis varies within different geographical areas throughout the world. It may occur sporadically or epidemically and an increase in its incidence has been noted over the last few decades. The aim of the study is to obtain a general overview of the current state and changing pattern of tinea capitis in Europe. According to the literature, there has been a significant increase in the incidence of tinea capitis and a change in the pattern of infectious agents in particular. Microsporum canis, a zoophilic dermatophyte, is still the most common reported causative agent of tinea capitis in Europe. The countries reporting the highest incidence of M. canis infections are mainly in the Mediterranean but also bordering countries like Austria, Hungary, Germany and Poland. Besides the increase in Microsporum-induced tinea capitis, there is a shift towards anthrophilic tinea capitis mainly in urban areas in Europe. The largest overall increase with anthropophilic dermatophytes has been noted with Trichophyton tonsurans mainly in the UK and with Trichophyton soudanense and Microsporum audouinii in France. The occurrence of anthropophilic infections seems to be geographically restricted and is possibly linked to the immigration from African countries. Children (aged 3-7 years with no predilection of gender) remain the most commonly affected, but recently an increase of tinea capitis has been observed in adults and in the elderly. The results of the study clearly demonstrate the importance of diagnosing and proper treatment of mycotic scalp infection in the Europe. If not diagnosed and treated properly, its prevalence might reach epidemic proportions in the near future. Therefore, an increased level of surveillance (screening in schools), and a highly effective interdisciplinary cooperation among general practitioners, mycologists, veterinarians and dermatologists are strongly recommended. PMID:17681048
Ginter-Hanselmayer, Gabriele; Weger, Wolfgang; Ilkit, Marcit; Smolle, Josef
The antimicrobial activity of 36 ethanol extracts from 24 plants, all of them currently used in the Peruvian traditional medicine for the treatment of several infectious and inflammatory disorders, was tested by means of the agar-well diffusion assay against four bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and four fungi (Candida albicans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum gypseum and Sporothrix schenckii). Twenty-five (69%) extracts showed some degree of antimicrobial activity against at least one microorganism. The plants with the greatest antimicrobial activity were Cestrum auriculatum L. Heritier (Solanaceae), Iryanthera lancifolia Ducke Suesseng (Myristicaceae), Lepechinia meyenii (Walp.) Epling (Lamiaceae) and Ophryosporus peruvianus (Gmelin) King & H. Rob. (Asteraceae). PMID:12963143
Rojas, Rosario; Bustamante, Beatriz; Bauer, José; Fernández, Irma; Albán, Joaquina; Lock, Olga
Dermatophyte species are common keratinophilic fungi responsible for superficial infections called dermatophytosis or ringworm and composed of three anamorphic genera, Trichophyton, Microsporum and Epidermophyton. Through the use of several complementary molecular methods, dermatophytes have been shown to constitute an homogeneous group of species with very low genetic diversity contrasting with high phenotypic heterogeneity. For diagnostic applications, distinction among isolates to the species level was easily performed using polymerase chain reaction-based assays, which could be useful tools in the mycology laboratory, particularly for atypical isolates. In contrast, in all but a few cases distinction between dermatophyte strains has failed, which has hindered the development of molecular-based epidemiological investigations. PMID:11092379
A set of 40 derivatives of 3-hydroxypicolinic acid and 2-sulfanylbenzoic acid, isosteric to salicylanilides was synthesized. The compounds were evaluated for in vitro activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium kansasii and Mycobacterium avium, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida glabrata, Trichosporon beigelii, Aspergillus fumigatus, Absidia corymbifera, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum gypseum. Structure-activity relationships of antimycobacterial activity and antifungal activity against T. mentagrophytes and M. gypseum were analyzed by the Free-Wilson method. An increase in antimycobacterial activity was observed only for the sulfanylbenzoic acid derivatives, especially those with the benzyl moiety. The antifungal activity was not significant. PMID:12953220
Waisser, Karel; Pesina, Milan; Holý, Pavel; Pour, Milan; Bures, Otakar; Kunes, Jisí; Klimesová, Vsra; Buchta, Vladimír; Kubanová, Petra; Kaustová, Jarmila
The keratinophilic fungi of 40 sewage sludge samples from Upper Egypt were studied using a goat hair-baiting technique. 43 species representing 22 genera were isolated, 17 species of which were dermatophytes and closely related fungi: Chrysosporium state of Arthroderma tuberculatum, C. asperatum, C. georgii, C. indicum, C. keratinophilum, C. pseudomerdarium, C. queenslandicum, Chrysosporium state of Thielavia sepedonium, C. tropicum, Microsporum cookei, M. gypseum, Myceliophthora anamorph of Corynascus novoguineensis, M. vellerea and Trichophyton terrestre. 26 species of cycloheximide resistant fungi were collected and these included members of Acremonium, Aspergillus, Alternaria, Chaetomium, Cladosporium, Cunninghamella, Emericella, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Penicillium and others. PMID:1693678
Abdel-Hafez, A I; el-Sharouny, H M
The mating patterns of Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. interdigitale (74 isolates) and the Microsporum gypseum complex (17 isolates) of diverse origin and T. rubrum (25 isolates) and T. tonsurans (10 isolates) of clinical origin were studied. The results of the study showed that the teleomorph of the Indian isolates of T. mentagrophytes belong to Arthroderma vanbreuseghemii, undetermined teleomorphs of T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale (+) mating types, and undetermined teleomorphs of T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale indeterminate mating types. All the isolates of T. rubrum and T. tonsurans were found to be of the (-) mating type. PMID:9208476
Ranganathan, S; Balajee, S A; Menon, T
There are several important zoonotic diseases which can be acquired from procyonids, and nondomestic felids. Baylisascaris procyonis, the raccoon roundworm, is a common parasite of raccoons and can cause visceral, ocular, or neural larval migrans in people. Neural larval migrans can cause severe signs in individuals. Dermatophytosis and enteric pathogens are the most important zoonotic agents found in nondomestic felids. Microsporum canis infections can be spread from nondomestic felids to owners and veterinarians. Toxoplasma gondii can be potentially shed by infected felids, and human infections occurring during pregnancy can cause blindness in the fetus. PMID:21872788
Ramsay, Edward C
One new sesquiterpene and six known compounds were isolated from Dryopteris fragrans (L.) Schot. They were identified as 3-O-?-D-glucopyranosylalbicanol- 11-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (1), dihydroconiferylalcohol (2), (E)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acrylic acid (3), esculetin (4), 5,7-dihydroxy-2-hydroxymethylchromone (5), eriodictyol (6) and isoorientin (7) by UV, MS, 1D-NMR and 2D-NMR spectroscopy. The antifungal activities of the seven isolated compounds were screened. Compounds 2, 3, 4 and 5 showed obvious activities against Microsporum canis and Epidermophyton floccosum. PMID:24451246
Huang, Yu-Hong; Zeng, Wei-Min; Li, Guo-Yu; Liu, Guo-Qing; Zhao, Dan-Dan; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Yan-Long
This report represents the first study of keratinophilic fungi present in soils of Jamaica. Out of the 40 soil samples examined from different habitats, 30 (75%) were positive for the presence of keratinophilic fungi, yielding 36 isolates of keratinophilic fungi. Microsporum gypseum complex (represented by 16 isolates of M. gypseum, and four of M. fulvum) was most frequent, being present in 50% of the samples. A very high occurrence of this dermatophyte in Jamaican soil is of public health significance. The remaining isolates of keratinophilic fungi were represented by Chrysosporium spp (mainly C. indicum and C. tropicum) and Sepedonium sp.
Gugnani, Harish C.; Sharma, Soni; Wright, Kharl
Zoophilic dermatophytes are fungal organisms that primarily infect animals but occasionally infect humans. The most common of these are Microsporum canis and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The clinical lesions of zoophilic fungal infections are more inflammatory than those caused by the typical anthropophilic fungi normally transmitted from person to person. To diagnose zoophilic fungal infections, a potassium hydroxide preparation of the skin scrapings may be examined microscopically or a culture may be obtained. Small lesions located anywhere except on the scalp may be treated with a topical antifungal agent. Oral griseofulvin is preferred for the treatment of scalp infections and extensive cutaneous infections. PMID:2008813
Radentz, W H
Two siblings of African origin presented with multiple scaling patches and alopecia on the scalp four weeks after returning from a vacation in Eritrea. Direct KOH examination revealed fungal elements; Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton terrestre were identified in the fungal culture. We discuss the putative pathogenic role of both microorganisms in causing disease. Although infection with Microsporum canis currently accounts for almost fifty percent of all cases of tinea capitis in Germany, other fungi have gained importance due to tourism and increasing migration. PMID:15340708
Lehmann, S; Ott, H; Barker, M; Heimann, G; Poblete-Gutiérrez, P; Frank, J
In this study the prevalence and causative agents of dermatophytoses in Isfahan, a large province of Iran, were determined. Of 16,578 clinically suspected cases 13.3% were affected with dermatophytoses. Lesions of tinea capitis were the most prevalent clinical type of dermatophytoses (54.1%), followed by tinea corporis (23.8%) and tinea pedis (8.9%). Trichophyton verrucosum was the most frequent causative agent (32.8%), followed by Epidermophyton floccosum (17.6%), T. mentagrophytes (16.2%) and Microsporum canis (12.3%). We found a relationship between the spread of dermatophytoses and live-stock infected with dermatophytoses in Isfahan. PMID:9476518
Chadeganipour, M; Shadzi, S; Dehghan, P; Movahed, M
Most inflammatory skin and hair dermatophytoses are caused by one of four zoophilic dermatophyte species: Microsporum canis (from cats and dogs), Trichophyton verrucosum (from cattle), Arthroderma benhamiae (from Guinea-pigs) and Arthrodermna vanbreuseghemii (generally from cats and dogs). In cases of highly inflammatory tinea corporis, tinea faciae and tinea capitis in humans, it is important to identify with certainty the precise etiologic agent and to examine pets as the possible source of infection. The recurrence of infections or new infections can be prevented by adequately treating incriminated domestic animals and their environments. Cooperation between the medical and veterinary professions is required in this situation. PMID:24772808
Monod, M; Fratti, M; Mignon, B; Baudraz-Rosselet, F
Superficial fungal infections can involve the hair, skin, and nails. Most affected children are healthy, although immunosuppression is a risk factor for more severe presentation. Causative organisms typically are members of the Trichophyton, Microsporum, and Epidermophyton genera (dermatophytes), can be acquired from other infected humans, animals, or soil, and illicit a host inflammatory response. Nondermatophyte infections include pityriasis versicolor. In this article, the most common clinical presentations, diagnostic recommendations, and treatment algorithms for dermatophyte and nondermatophyte mycoses in children and adolescents are described. PMID:24636655
Hawkins, Danielle M; Smidt, Aimee C
This report represents the first study of keratinophilic fungi present in soils of Jamaica. Out of the 40 soil samples examined from different habitats, 30 (75%) were positive for the presence of keratinophilic fungi, yielding 36 isolates of keratinophilic fungi. Microsporum gypseum complex (represented by 16 isolates of M. gypseum, and four of M. fulvum) was most frequent, being present in 50% of the samples. A very high occurrence of this dermatophyte in Jamaican soil is of public health significance. The remaining isolates of keratinophilic fungi were represented by Chrysosporium spp (mainly C. indicum and C. tropicum) and Sepedonium sp. PMID:24879002
Gugnani, Harish C; Sharma, Soni; Wright, Kharl
A total of 577 patients with tinea capitis have been diagnosed at the Mycology laboratory of 'A. Sygros' Hospital of Skin and Venereal Diseases, Athens, Greece between 1996 and 2001. From these patients, 100 were immigrants from Balkan, Near East and African countries. The vast majority of the patients (95%) were children, mainly at preschool and school age and only 5% were adults. Zoophilic dermatophytes accounted for 86.5% followed by anthropophilic (12.4%) and geophilic (1.2%) dermatophytes. The majority of anthropophilic infections (59.5%) were recorded in the sub-population of immigrants. Microsporum canis (84.5%) was the main etiologic agent. PMID:15189185
Frangoulis, E; Athanasopoulou, B; Katsambas, A
Tinea incognito or steroid modified tinea is a dermatophytic infection in which topical or systemic steroids, administered as a result of dermatological misdiagnosis or preexisting pathologies, have modified the clinical appearance of the fungal infection, transforming the typical ringworm and mimicking other skin diseases. This is a retrospective study of the agents, clinical aspects, sources of infection of 200 cases (98 males, 102 females, mean age 42 years) of tinea incognito, observed in Siena and Milan, Italy, in the period 1987-2002. In order of decreasing frequency, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton violaceum and Trichophyton erinacei were isolated. The clinical appearance of the infection was lupus erythematosus discoid-like, eczema-like, rosacea-like, especially on the face, impetigo-like and eczema-like on trunk and limbs. Less often the dermatophytosis resembled psoriasis, purpura, seborrhoic dermatitis and lichen planus. There was folliculitis in 9% of cases and dermatophytid in 3% of cases. Antimycotic therapy brought about clinical and mycological recovery in all patients except one, who had iatrogenic immunodepression. PMID:16922789
Romano, C; Maritati, E; Gianni, C
Dermatophytes are a group of closely related fungi that have the capacity to invade keratinized tissue (skin, hair, and nails) of humans and animals to produce an infection, dermatophytosis, commonly referred to as ringworm. Dermatophytoses are common of world wide: in the United States, Microsporum audouinii and Microsporum canis, once the major agents of tinea capitis, have been superseded by Trichophyton tonsurans. Since the 1950s, T. tonsuranshas advanced from Mexico and the Caribbean and is now the prevalent cause of tinea capitisin North America. M. canisis the prevalent agent of tinea capitis in many regions of the world, including Spain, at this moment. This could be related to close association of humans with their pets. M. canis is more prevalent in urban areas and Trichophyton mentagrophytes in rural ones. The superficial dermatophyte infections of the skin do not represent a single disease, their clinical appearance is dependent largely on the region of the body affected. There are more antifungal preparations available today than at any other time in medical history. Oral antifungals are indicated or required to treat hyperkeratotic areas such as nails, palms, soles and tinea capitis, patients with disabling or extensive disease, patients intolerant to or who have failed topical therapy, tose with chronic infection, those with granulomatous lesions and patients immunosuppressed by disease or by therapy. A successfull eradication of the fungi is now possible with relatively short treatment regimens. PMID:18473586
Rubio, M C; Rezusta, A; Gil Tomás, J; Ruesca, R B
Dermatophytes are a group of morphologically and physiologically related moulds, which cause well-defined infection called dermatophytosis. The enzymatic ability of fungi to decompose keratin has long been interpreted as a key innovation in the evolution of animal dermatology. In the present study, keratinase activity profile among Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis and Microsporum gypseum isolated on keratin substrates such as human hair, human nail and chicken feather at variable environmental conditions of temperature, pH and metal ions was elucidated. All the above-mentioned fungal strains were isolated from soil using To-KA-Va baiting technique and keratinolytic activity was measured spectrophotometrically. In the temperature range of 30-40 °C and slightly alkaline pH (7.0-8.0), Trichophyton produced the highest activity of keratinase. It can be presumed that high enzyme production of Trichophyton species at normal body temperature range and pH could be an attribute for obligate anthropization in some dermatophytes. PMID:22032519
Sharma, Anima; Chandra, Subhash; Sharma, Meenakshi
In this study, in vitro antidermatophytic activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis, and Microsporum gypseum was studied by disk diffusion test and assessment of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using CLSI broth macrodilution method (M38-A2). Moreover, antileishmanial and cytotoxicity activity of B. vulgaris and berberine against promastigotes of Leishmania major and Leishmania tropica were evaluated by colorimetric MTT assay. The findings indicated that the various extracts of B. vulgaris particularly berberine showed high potential antidermatophytic against pathogenic dermatophytes tested with MIC values varying from 0.125 to >4?mg/mL. The results revealed that B. vulgaris extracts as well as berberine were effective in inhibiting L. major and L. tropica promastigotes growth in a dose-dependent manner with IC50 (50% inhibitory concentration) values varying from 2.1 to 26.6??g/mL. Moreover, it could be observed that berberine as compared with B. vulgaris exhibited more cytotoxicity against murine macrophages with CC50 (cytotoxicity concentration for 50% of cells) values varying from 27.3 to 362.6??g/mL. Results of this investigation were the first step in the search for new antidermatophytic and antileishmanial drugs. However, further works are required to evaluate exact effect of these extracts in animal models as well as volunteer human subjects.
Mahmoudvand, Hossein; Ayatollahi Mousavi, Seyyed Amin; Sepahvand, Asghar; Sharififar, Fariba; Ezatpour, Behrouz; Gorohi, Fatemeh; Saedi Dezaki, Ebrahim; Jahanbakhsh, Sareh
Dermatophytes from animal dermatophytoses were investigated, especially for their teleomorphs and molecular characteristics. Microsporum canis, M. equinum, M. gypseum, M. nanum, Trichophyton equinum, T. mentagrophytes complex, T. rubrum and T. verrucosum were isolated as the etiological agents of animal ringworm in Japan. They were morphologically and biochemically identified and their perfect states were examined. The teleomorph of M. canis was first obtained and reported as Nanizzia otae in 1975. The isolates of M. canis of which the teleomorph was confirmed were all "-" excepted two Japanese isolates. Mating experiments indicated that the isolates of M. gypseum were "+" or "-" of A. gypseum and A. incurvatum, respectively. Most of the isolates of T. mentagrophytes complex of which a perfect state was detected were A. vanbreuseghemii. One isolate from a monkey was A. simii and one from a rabbit was A. benhamiae. However, the teleomorph remained unknown in many isolates. Molecular characteristics in random amplification of polymorphic DNA and Southern hybridization analyses were found to be effective to differentiate the species of Microsporum. Nucleotide sequences of chitin synthase 1 (CHS1) gene of dermatophytes were also analyzed for their phylogenetic relatedness. The phylogenetic analysis revealed four clusters: the first cluster consisted of A. benhamiae, A. simii, A. vanbreuseghemii, T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale, T. rubrum and T. violaceum; the second of A. fulvum, A. gypseum and A. incurvatum; the third of A. grubyi and A. otae; and the fourth of Epidermaphyton floccosum, providing useful information for the classification and understanding of their evolution. PMID:10660635
Griseofulvin, an antifungal agent, is a BCS class II drug slowly, erratically, and incompletely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract in humans. The clinical failure of the conventional oral therapy of griseofulvin is most likely attributed to its poor solubility and appreciable inter- and intra-subject variation in bioavailability from different commercial products. Moreover, the conventional oral therapy is associated with numerous adverse effects and interactions with other drugs. The purpose of the study was to formulate a topical application of griseofulvin which would deliver the drug locally in a therapeutically effective concentration. Griseofulvin was solubilized in ethanol, D-?-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS), and combinations of ethanol with varying amounts of TPGS; then, it was incorporated in the Carbopol (980 NF) base. The formulations were characterized and evaluated ex vivo using Laca mice skin, microbiologically against Microsporum gypseum and Microsporum canis and clinically in a small group of patients. The current study suggested that TPGS and ethanol synergistically enhanced the drug permeation and drug retention in the skin. The selected formulation F VII was found to be effective against M. gypseum and M. canis, non-sensitizing, histopathologically safe, stable at 4°C, 25°C, and 40°C with respect to percent drug content, permeation characteristics, pH, transparency, feel, viscosity, and clinically effective in a small group of subjects. The proposed topical formulation of griseofulvin may be an effective and convenient alternative to the currently available oral therapy for the treatment of superficial fungal infections. PMID:22130790
Aggarwal, Nidhi; Goindi, Shishu; Mehta, Swami Dass
Dermatophytoses are one of the most frequent skin diseases of pets and livestock. Contagiousness among animal communities, high cost of treatment, difficulty of control measures, and the public health consequences of animal ringworm explain their great importance. A wide variety of dermatophytes have been isolated from animals, but a few zoophilic species are responsible for the majority of the cases, viz. Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton equinum and Trichophyton verrucosum, as also the geophilic species Microsporum gypseum. According to the host and the fungal species involved, the typical aspect of dermatophytic lesions may be modified. As a consequence, an accurate clinical examination, a good differential diagnosis and laboratory analyses are required for a correct identification. Few antifungal agents are available and licenced for use in veterinary practice, and the use of systemic drugs is limited in livestock due to the problems of residues in products intended for human consumption. The high resistance of the dermatophyte arthroconidia in the environment, the multiplicity of host species, and the confinement of animals in breedings are cause of an enzootic situation in many cases. Prevention is difficult, but research development on the immune response to dermatophytes and the use of vaccination, especially in cattle, have brought some interesting results. PMID:18478363
Chermette, René; Ferreiro, Laerte; Guillot, Jacques
The spectrum of dermatophytes isolated from skin lesions had changed in last 70 years. Before the Second World War in Germany, Microsporum audouinii and Epidermophyton floccosum ranked the first, whereas Trichophyton rubrum is the most common dermatophyte since the fifties of last century, accounting for 80-90% of the strains, followed by T. mentagrophytes. This evolution is typical for Central and North Europe and it needs to be connected with the increase in the incidence of tinea pedis. In contrast, in Southern Europe and in Arabic countries, zoophilic dermatophytes, such as Microsporum canis or Trichophyton verrucosum, are the most frequently isolated. In Europe, especially in Mediterranean countries, the incidence of M. canis infection has strongly increased during the recent years and this dermatophyte is now the most prevalent in tinea capitis in children. An analysis of the frequency and distribution of tinea pedis in different occupations and leisure-time activities as well as the routes of infection are reported. The spreading of this disease in most developed countries of the world represents a considerable economic problem, since it was accompanied by a parallel increase in the frequency of onychomycosis which implies, as tinea pedis, large financial charges. In poor developing countries, mycoses appear endemically, primarily with children, and their treatment often fails because of the lack of efficient antifungals. The particular epidemiological situations of dermatophytoses and the pathogenic spectrum of dermatophytes are examined at the example of numerous countries. PMID:18478365
Seebacher, Claus; Bouchara, Jean-Philippe; Mignon, Bernard
Sexual reproduction in fungi is governed by a specialized genomic region, the mating type (MAT) locus, whose gene identity, organization, and complexity are diverse. We identified the MAT locus of five dermatophyte fungal pathogens (Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton equinum, Trichophyton rubrum, and Trichophyton tonsurans) and a dimorphic fungus, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, and performed phylogenetic analyses. The identified MAT locus idiomorphs of M. gypseum control cell type identity in mating assays, and recombinant progeny were produced. Virulence tests in Galleria mellonella larvae suggest the two mating types of M. gypseum may have equivalent virulence. Synteny analysis revealed common features of the MAT locus shared among these five dermatophytes: namely, a small size ( approximately 3 kb) and a novel gene arrangement. The SLA2, COX13, and APN2 genes, which flank the MAT locus in other Ascomycota are instead linked on one side of the dermatophyte MAT locus. In addition, the transcriptional orientations of the APN2 and COX13 genes are reversed compared to the dimorphic fungi Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides immitis, and Coccidioides posadasii. A putative transposable element, pogo, was found to have inserted in the MAT1-2 idiomorph of one P. brasiliensis strain but not others. In conclusion, the evolution of the MAT locus of the dermatophytes and dimorphic fungi from the last common ancestor has been punctuated by both gene acquisition and expansion, and asymmetric gene loss. These studies further support a foundation to develop molecular and genetic tools for dermatophyte and dimorphic human fungal pathogens. PMID:19880755
Li, Wenjun; Metin, Banu; White, Theodore C; Heitman, Joseph
Sexual reproduction in fungi is governed by a specialized genomic region, the mating type (MAT) locus, whose gene identity, organization, and complexity are diverse. We identified the MAT locus of five dermatophyte fungal pathogens (Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton equinum, Trichophyton rubrum, and Trichophyton tonsurans) and a dimorphic fungus, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, and performed phylogenetic analyses. The identified MAT locus idiomorphs of M. gypseum control cell type identity in mating assays, and recombinant progeny were produced. Virulence tests in Galleria mellonella larvae suggest the two mating types of M. gypseum may have equivalent virulence. Synteny analysis revealed common features of the MAT locus shared among these five dermatophytes: namely, a small size (?3 kb) and a novel gene arrangement. The SLA2, COX13, and APN2 genes, which flank the MAT locus in other Ascomycota are instead linked on one side of the dermatophyte MAT locus. In addition, the transcriptional orientations of the APN2 and COX13 genes are reversed compared to the dimorphic fungi Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides immitis, and Coccidioides posadasii. A putative transposable element, pogo, was found to have inserted in the MAT1-2 idiomorph of one P. brasiliensis strain but not others. In conclusion, the evolution of the MAT locus of the dermatophytes and dimorphic fungi from the last common ancestor has been punctuated by both gene acquisition and expansion, and asymmetric gene loss. These studies further support a foundation to develop molecular and genetic tools for dermatophyte and dimorphic human fungal pathogens.
Li, Wenjun; Metin, Banu; White, Theodore C.; Heitman, Joseph
Skin infections are common diseases in developing countries, of which dermatophytoses are of particular concern in the tropics, especially in infants. Through ethnobotanical surveys and literature review 100 plants were detected as being used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatophytoses. Of these, 44 plants were screened for in vitro activity against the most common dermatophytes (Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum). Results showed that aqueous extracts from 22 of the plants tested inhibit one or more of the dermatophytes. The most commonly inhibited dermatophytes were E. floccosum (43.2%), T. rubrum (36.0%), and T. mentagrophytes (31.8%); the less inhibited were M. canis (22.7%) and M. gypseum (24.0%). Plants of American origin which exhibited anti-dermatophyte activity were: Byrsonima crassifolia, Cassia grandis, Cassia occidentalis, Diphysa carthagenensis, Gliricidia sepium, Piscidia piscipula, Sambucus mexicana, Smilax regelii, Solanum americanum and Solanum nigrescens. Fungicidal and fungistatic activities as well as the minimal inhibitory concentration were demonstrated. These results provide a scientific basis for the use of these plants for the treatment of dermatophyte infections in man. PMID:2056755
Caceres, A; Lopez, B R; Giron, M A; Logemann, H
The aim of the investigation was to determine diversity of the causative agents of dermatophytoses and characterize the epidemiological situation in Lithuania in 2001-2010. During this period, dermatophytes showed a tendency to decline. The following dermatophytes were isolated: Trichophyton (T.) Malamsten, Microsporum (M.) Gruby and Epidermophyton E. Lang. The number of nondermatophytes increased. At the beginning of the investigation, nondermatophytes accounted for 3.4%, whereas at the end their number grew up to 35.9%. Among the agents of dermatomycosis, the incidence of yeasts was observed to have a growing tendency. Among dermatophytes, T. rubrum was the most common pathogen, which in 2001 amounted to 55.7% and in 2010 to only 11.0%. Among the Microsporum species, M. canis and M. gypseum were detected. A small number of Epidermophyton species were observed in 2001-2003, which accounted for 0.2%-0.8% of all isolates. Tinea unguium (75.5%) was the most common type of dermatophytosis, followed by tinea capitis (11.7%), tinea corporis (9.2%) and tinea pedis (1.2%). In 2001-2010, dermatophytes showed a decreasing tendency, whereas the incidence of Candida yeasts and other causative agents of dermatomycosis greatly increased. PMID:24001417
Paškevi?ius, Algimantas; Švedien?, Jurgita
Crude ethanol and water extract of leaves and barks from Cassia alata were tested in vitro against fungi, (Aspergillus fumigatus and Microsporum canis), yeast (Candida albicans) and bacteria (Staphylococcus aereus and Escherichia coli). C. albicans showed concentration-dependent susceptibility towards both the ethanol and water extracts from the barks, but resistant towards the extracts of leaves. The degree of susceptibility varied, the water extract from barks showed bigger inhibition zone than the ethanol extracts (12-16 and 10-14 mm, diameter respectively). The growth of Aspergillus fumigatus and Microsporum canis were not affected by all types of the plant extracts. Results were comparable to standard antifungal drug Tioconazole (18 mm diameter) at equivalent concentration. The anti-bacterial activity of C. alata extracts on S. aureus was detected with only the leaves extracts using water and ethanol. The water extract exhibited higher antibacterial activity than the ethanol extract from leaves (inhibition zones of 11-14 and 9-11 mm, respectively). E. coli showed resistance to all types of extracts. Based on the current findings, it can be concluded that this plant has antimicrobial activity, which is as potent as standard antimicrobial drugs against certain microorganisms. PMID:12499068
Somchit, M N; Reezal, I; Nur, I Elysha; Mutalib, A R
Antibacterial and antifungal activity of crude extracts of medicinally important and traditionally used yam plant, Dioscorea pentaphylla, from mid-Western Ghats was evaluated against 27 bacterial and 5 fungal clinical strains collected of the patients from infectious sources. The clinical strains belonging to their respective species showed concentration-dependent susceptibility toward crude petroleum ether extract, chloroform extract and methanol extract at 100 ?g/100 ?l. The extracts exhibited predominant antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC-20852), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC-29737) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (MTCC-618), respectively, and five clinically isolated pathogenic fungi, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum gypseum, Tricophyton tonsurans, Microsporum audouini, and Candida albicans, with antibacterial drug ciprofloxacin and antifungal drug fluconozole (50 ?g/100 ?l) as standards. Out of the three extracts, ethanol extracts possessed better minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against all the bacterial strains. All the three extracts showed significant activity against all the five fungal pathogen strains. The results are promising and support the traditional use of D. pentaphylla for the treatment of bacterial and fungal infections.
Prakash, G.; Hosetti, B. B.
In this study, we examined dermatophyte infections in patients referred to the Department of Dermatology, EL-Houd El-Marsoud Hospital, Cairo, during March 2004 to June 2005. Of 506 patients enrolled in this investigation, 403 (79.6%) were clinically diagnosed as having dermatophytoses (age range 6-70 years; males 240; females 163). Species identification determined by observation of their macroscopic and microscopic characteristics was complemented with sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA region. The most common dermatophyte infection diagnosed was tinea capitis (76.4%), followed by tinea corporis (22.3%) and tinea unguium (1.2%). The most frequently isolated dermatophyte species was Trichophyton violaceum, which accounted for most (71.1%) of all the recovered dermatophytes, followed by Microsporum canis (21.09%), Trichophyton rubrum (6.2%), and Microsporum boullardii (0.49%); both Epidermophyton floccosum and Trichophyton tonsurans were each only rarely isolated (0.24%). PMID:18972221
Zaki, S M; Ibrahim, N; Aoyama, K; Shetaia, Y M; Abdel-Ghany, K; Mikami, Y
Tinea capitis rarely occurs in renal transplant recipients. We report this living-related renal transplant patient receiving cyclosporine-based therapy who initially presented with severe exfoliation of the scalp with yellowish-white scales and marked hair loss. The lesions extended to the frontal area and both cheeks, resulting in several skin ulcers with perifocal erythematous inflammatory changes, and palpable cervical lymph nodes. A biopsy of a skin lesion revealed fungal infection and culture yielded Microsporum canis. The patient mentioned an outbreak of ringworm in her breeding dogs during this period. After adequate treatment of the patient and her infected animals with griseofulvin and disinfection of the environment, her skin lesions resolved dramatically, with regrowth of hair. PMID:18818142
Chen, Cheng-Hsu; Wen, Mei-Chin; Cheng, Chi-Hung; Wu, Ming-Ju; Yu, Tung-Min; Chuang, Ya-Wen; Shu, Kuo-Hsiung
In order to determine the presence of dermatophytes and saprophytes in healthy toe and finger nails, 120 students (60 male and 60 female) from preparatory schools at Sohag Governorate (Upper Egypt) were studied. 54 species in addition to 3 varieties belonging to 17 genera were isolated. Six species of true dermatophytes were collected: Microsporum audouinii var. rivalieri, M. cookei, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. simii, T. terrestre and T. verrucosum. Chrysosporium, a well-known keratinophilic genus, was prevalent and represented by 7 species (C. asperatum, C. indicum, C. keratinophilum, C. luteum, C. pannorum, C. tropicum and Chrysosporium state of Thielavia sepedonium). The commonest saprophytes in order of frequency were members of the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Alternaria, Scopulariopsis, Fusarium, Paecilomyces, Chaetomium, Syncephalastrum, Mucor, Rhizopus and Acremonium. PMID:2338622
Abdel-Hafez, A I; el-Sharouny, H M
Tea-tree oil (oil of Melaleuca alternifolia) has recently received much attention as a natural remedy for bacterial and fungal infections of the skin and mucosa. As with most naturally occurring agents, claims of effectiveness have been only anecdotal; however, several published studies have recently demonstrated tea-tree oil's antibacterial activity. This study was conducted to determine the activity of tea-tree oil against 58 clinical isolates: Candida albicans (n = 10), Trichophyton rubrum (n = 8), Trichophyton mentagrophytes (n = 9), Trichophyton tonsurans (n = 10), Aspergillus niger (n = 9), Penicillium species (n = 9), Epidermophyton floccosum (n = 2), and Microsporum gypsum (n = 1). Tea-tree oil showed inhibitory activity against all isolates tested except one strain of E floccosum. These in vitro results suggest that tea-tree oil may be useful in the treatment of yeast and fungal mucosal and skin infections. PMID:9791953
Concha, J M; Moore, L S; Holloway, W J
Introduction: Dermatophytosis is defined as the fungal infection of the skin, hair and nails by a group of keratinophillic fungi known as dermatophytes. Aims and Objectives: This study is an attempt to find out various species of dermatophytes in clinically suspected cases of dermatophytosis. Materials and Methods: One hundred samples were subjected to direct microscopy by potassium hydroxide wet mount (KOH) and isolation on culture with Sabourauds dextrose agar. Results: Out of these 80 (80%) samples were KOH positive while 20 (20%) were KOH negative. Overall culture positivity rate was 68%. Dermatophytosis was more common in males, the M:F ratio was 4:1. Conclusion: Total seven species were isolated on culture. Trichophyton rubrum (66.17%) was the commonest isolate followed by Trichophyton mentagrophytes (19.11%), Trichophyton violaceum (7.35%), Trichophyton tonsurans (2.94%) and one isolate each of Epidermophyton floccosum and Microsporum gypseum (1.47%).
Bhagra, Suruchi; Ganju, Sunite A; Kanga, Anil; Sharma, Nand Lal; Guleria, Ramesh C
From the methanol extract of the stem bark of Ficus exasperata, a new sphingolipid named Ficusamide, (2S,3S,4R,11E)-2-[(2',3'-dihydroxyhexacosanoylamino)]-11-octadecene-1,3,4-triol (1), along with three known furanocoumarins, (S)-(-) oxypeucedanin hydrate (2), (R)-(+) oxypeucedanin hydrate (3), bergapten (5-methoxypsoralen) and six other known compounds, were isolated. Their structures were characterized basing on spectroscopic methods and chemical evidence. Compounds (1-3) were analyzed for their antimicrobial activity. Ficusamide (1) showed wick activity (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC)=312.5 µg/mL) against Escherichia coli, while the furanocoumarins (2) and (3) showed significant activity (MIC=9.76 µg/mL) against Bacillus cereus, Candida albicans and Microsporum audouinii. PMID:22863713
Dongfack, Marlise Diane Jiofack; Lallemand, Marie-Christine; Kuete, Victor; Mbazoa, Céline Djama; Wansi, Jean-Duplex; Trinh-van-Dufat, Hanh; Michel, Sylvie; Wandji, Jean
Qualitative and quantitative changes of lipid components during the growth stages were studied in E. floccosum. The acyl group components of total lipids of Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum cookei were also examined. The lipids of E. floccosum amounted to approximately 4% of the dry cell weight. Neutral lipids mainly consisted of triglycerides and sterols, and major polar lipids were phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and an unknown lipid X. The fatty acids in tryglycerides and phospholipids were palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids. The unknown polar lipid X which appeared between phosphatidylethanolamine and cardiolipin on thin layer chromatography plates contained no phosphorus. There was no significant change in the fatty acid components of E. floccosum and T. rubrum during the cell growth, whereas profound changes occurred in M. cookei. The sterol components of E. floccosum showed striking changes depending on the growth stage.
Yamada, T.; Watanabe, R.; Nozawa, Y.; Ito, Y.
The effectiveness of enilconazole (4 weekly rinses with a 0.2% solution) or griseofulvin (50mg/kg twice daily for 40 days) following a pre-treatment with oral lufenuron (100mg/kg by-weekly for 8 weeks) was tested on 25 (11+14) Microsporum canis infected cats. Control animals were treated with lufenuron, griseofulvin and enilconazole alone. At day 150 pre-treated animals were culturally negative and clinically cured. While lufenuron alone was found to be ineffective against M canis infection, an immunomodulatory effect of the drug can be suggested, as reported in literature. Its use could be reserved to long-lasting infections, unsuccessfully treated with conventional drugs. Further studies are required to clearly establish the possible adjuvant effect of this molecule when used prior to enilconazole or griseofulvin. PMID:18684653
Mancianti, Francesca; Dabizzi, Sara; Nardoni, Simona
Twenty-five sediment samples were taken from randomly selected sites in the Shatt Al-Arab River and its creeks and analysed for dermatophytes and related keratinophilic fungi. The results revealed that out of 25 samples only 13 (52%) yielded dermatophytes and related keratinophilic fungi. A total of nine species in four genera were isolated. The most frequent genera isolated in this study were Chrysosporium and its teleomorph Aphanoascus. The species most frequently found were Aphanoascus fulvescens, A. durus, Chrysosporium crassitunicatum, Chr. keratinophilum and Chr. tropicum (each n = 3). Microsporum was represented by two species, namely M. fulvum and M. gypseum. Trichophyton was represented by one species, T. verrucosum. The occurrence of these fungi illustrates that sediments may act as a reservoir for potentially pathogenic fungi for human and animals. PMID:7477095
Abdullah, S K; Hassan, D A
The antifungal activity of hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and aqueous extracts from the rhizome and root of Ferula hermonis was assayed in vitro by the agar disk diffusion method against a panel of human opportunistic and pathogenic fungi. Among them, the hexane and dichloromethane extracts showed the highest activity particularly against the dermatophytes Microsporum gypseum and Tricophyton mentagrophytes as well as the yeast Candida lactis-condensi. Activity-guided fractionation of both extracts using an agar overlay bioautographic method led to the isolation of two antifungal compounds which were identified as the daucane aryl esters jaeschkeanadiol p-hydroxybenzoate (ferutinin) and jaeschkeanadiol benzoate (teferidin). Determination of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) values of both compounds evidenced a stronger antifungal activity for ferutinin than for teferidin. Particularly, T. mentagrophytes was the most sensitive strain with MIC and MFC values ranging from 8 to 256 µg/mL. PMID:22927102
Al-Ja'fari, Abdel-Hadi; Vila, Roser; Freixa, Blanca; Costa, Joan; Cańigueral, Salvador
Chickens of various Oriental breeds (Shamo and Aseel) and crossbreeds in California's Central Valley were observed to have an unusual skin condition and feather loss. The appearance of white plaques on the comb, face, and/or ear lobes was followed by feather loss starting at the caudal base of the comb and progressing down the neck. Although the cocks were affected first, the condition spread to the hens paired with those cocks. The birds showed no other signs of illness. The affected areas were scraped and biopsied. The samples were examined histologically and by culturing on Sabouraud's dextrose agar and dermatophyte test medium. Microsporum gallinae, the causative agent of favus (avian dermatophytosis), was identified by the histological and mycological tests. PMID:8141747
Bradley, F A; Bickford, A A; Walker, R L
Butenafine hydrochloride, N-4-tert-butylbenzyl-N-methyl-1-naphthalenemethylamine hydrochloride (butenafine), is a novel antifungal agent of the class of benzylamine derivatives. Butenafine was investigated for its activity against guinea pig dermatophytosis caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes or Microsporum canis in comparison with those of naftifine, tolnaftate, clotrimazole, and bifonazole. Topical butenafine showed excellent efficacy against dermatophytosis when it was applied once daily, and the effect was superior to those of all four reference drugs. When applied once at 24 or 48 h before infection, the drug exhibited excellent prophylactic efficacy against experimental T. mentagrophytes infection. The concentrations of butenafine in animal skin at 24 and 48 h after application of 0.2 ml of a 1% solution were several hundred times higher than those required to kill T. mentagrophytes and M. canis. The good efficacy of butenafine against dermatophytosis may be attributable to its fungicidal activity and long retention in the skin after topical application.
Arika, T; Yokoo, M; Hase, T; Maeda, T; Amemiya, K; Yamaguchi, H
A total of 242 patients with clinically diagnosed tinea cruris were screened and 181 (74.7 %) were found to be positive in culture for dermatophytes. 93.9% of infections were caused by Trichophyton spp., of which 58.4% were Trichophyton rubrum, 5.5% were Epidermophyton floccosum, 3.8% were Trichophyton tonsurans and we had a single isolate of Microsporum gypseum complex. Incidence of tinea cruris was higher in males (95.6%) than in females (4.4%). 45% of the cases were recurrent and 38% of cases were chronic tinea cruris. Three patients had granulomatous lesion. Zoophilic T mentagrophytes was the major aetiologic agent isolated from all the 3 cases of granulomatous tinea cruris. PMID:20948056
Raja, M S; Menon, T
The species of dermatophyte fungi causing tinea capitis vary from country to country and may also change with time. This study was done to identify the predominant organisms causing tinea capitis in the Jamaican population. It was a retrospective study looking at all fungal culture requests to the Microbiology Department at the University Hospital of the West Indies during the period January 1, 1998 to December 31, 2002. The results showed a gradual switch from the dominance of Microsporum audouinii (61.5%) in 1998 to the dominance of Trichophyton tonsurans (85%) in 2002. The mean age was 8.6. Females constituted 55.7% of positive cases and males, 44.3%. PMID:16921700
East-Innis, A; Rainford, L; Dunwell, P; Barrett-Robinson, D; Nicholson, A M
Human cases of dermatophytoses are occasionally transmitted from animals, and suffered from tinea corporis and sometimes Kerion celsi. The most frequent causative agent of these diseases is Microsporum canis. The other dermatophyte, Arthroderma benhamiae is now prevailing in rabbits, rodents and hedgehogs that are popular household pets in Japan. Therefore, some human cases of A. benhamiae infection were reported and the transmission of this infection from rabbits and rodents was confirmed.Cryptococcosis is regarded as dangerous zoonosis, but its transmission from animal to peoples has not been documented in Japan. Animal cases of cryptococcosis are possible to increase in number by developing immunosuppressive animals as well as by spreading of newly introduced C. gattii to Japan.Animal cases of sporotrichosis are rarely reported in Japan. However, feline sporotrichosis should be prevented and promptly treated since it easily transmitted to people from cat lesions and the exudates where copious numbers of organisms are found in tissues. PMID:22467127
Soluble culture extracts of Bipolaris australiensis, B. hawaiiensis, B. spicifera, Exserohilum longirostratum, E. mcginnisii, E. rostratum, and Helminthosporium solani were used to prepare reference antisera in New Zealand White rabbits. The absorbed reference antisera were tested by a microimmunodiffusion method against concentrated culture filtrates prepared from 115 environmental and clinical isolates of Alternaria spp., Bipolaris spp., Curvularia spp., Dactylaria sp., Drechslera spp., Embellisia spp., Exserohilum spp., Fusarium sp., Helminthosporium sp., Microsporum sp., Scolecobasidium sp., and Scopulariopsis sp. Cross-reactivity did not occur between isolates of the genera tested except for some Bipolaris and Curvularia spp. Antigens shared by species of Bipolaris and Curvularia correlated with their morphologic similarity and phylogenetic closeness. Cross-reactivity was observed among isolates of B. australiensis, B. hawaiiensis, and B. spicifera and among isolates of E. longirostratum, E. mcginnisii, and E. rostratum. The exoantigen test is valuable for differentiating these fungi at the generic level.
Pasarell, L; McGinnis, M R; Standard, P G
Soluble culture extracts of Bipolaris australiensis, B. hawaiiensis, B. spicifera, Exserohilum longirostratum, E. mcginnisii, E. rostratum, and Helminthosporium solani were used to prepare reference antisera in New Zealand White rabbits. The absorbed reference antisera were tested by a microimmunodiffusion method against concentrated culture filtrates prepared from 115 environmental and clinical isolates of Alternaria spp., Bipolaris spp., Curvularia spp., Dactylaria sp., Drechslera spp., Embellisia spp., Exserohilum spp., Fusarium sp., Helminthosporium sp., Microsporum sp., Scolecobasidium sp., and Scopulariopsis sp. Cross-reactivity did not occur between isolates of the genera tested except for some Bipolaris and Curvularia spp. Antigens shared by species of Bipolaris and Curvularia correlated with their morphologic similarity and phylogenetic closeness. Cross-reactivity was observed among isolates of B. australiensis, B. hawaiiensis, and B. spicifera and among isolates of E. longirostratum, E. mcginnisii, and E. rostratum. The exoantigen test is valuable for differentiating these fungi at the generic level. PMID:2380387
Pasarell, L; McGinnis, M R; Standard, P G
The petroleum ether extract of Baccharis darwinii showed activity against Cryptococcus neoformans and dermatophytes. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of Baccharis darwinii has resulted in the isolation of three coumarins: 5'-hydroxy aurapten (anisocoumarin H, 1), aurapten (7-geranyloxycoumarin, 2) and 5'-oxoaurapten (diversinin, 3). The structures of these compounds were characterized by spectroscopic methods. These compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobialactivity against a panel of each, bacteria and fungi. Compound 3 showed the best activities against Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes with MICs = 15.6 microg/mL, followed by compound 1 whose MICs against the same fungi were 62.5 microg/mL. In addition they showed fungicidal rather than fungistatic activity. Both compounds showed moderate activity (MICs = 125 microg/mL) against Cryptococcus neoformans. This is the first report of the presence of compound 1 in B. darwinii. PMID:20657398
Kurdelas, Rita R; Lima, Beatriz; Tapia, Alejandro; Feresin, Gabriela Egly; Gonzalez Sierra, Manuel; Rodríguez, María Victoria; Zacchino, Susana; Enriz, Ricardo D; Freile, Monica L
The present study deals with the first total synthesis of the proline-rich cyclopolypeptide stylisin 2 via a solution phase technique by coupling of the Boc-l-Pro-l-Ile-l-Pro-OH tripeptide unit with the l-Phe-l-Pro-l-Pro-l-Tyr-OMe tetrapeptide unit, followed by cyclization of the resulting linear heptapeptide fragment. The chemical structure of the finally synthesized peptide was elucidated by FTIR, 1H/13C-NMR and FAB MS spectral data, as well as elemental analyses. The newly synthesized peptide was subjected to antimicrobial screening against eight pathogenic microbes and found to exhibit potent antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Candida albicans, in addition to moderate antidermatophyte activity against pathogenic Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum audouinii when compared to standard drugs—gatifloxacin and griseofulvin.
Dahiya, Rajiv; Gautam, Hemendra
The ability of three heterotricyclic dyes to photosensitize dermatophyte fungi was studied with Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum gypseum. In vitro studies showed that methylene blue, neutral red, and proflavine were capable of killing these fungi when used in conjunction with broad-spectrum light. Proflavine, however, killed both fungi most rapidly and was used for further studies. Fungal killing by proflavine plus light was dependent on dye concentration, pH, light wavelength, and light intensity. Based on the in vitro studies, a treatment regimen was developed for in vivo use on experimentally infected animals. When treatment of guinea pigs inoculated with T. mentagrophytes was begun during fungal invasion, lesion formation at inoculated sites was either prevented or substantially reduced. When treatment was begun after lesion formation, however, light-plus-dyed treated sites showed only slightly faster curing than untreated sites.
Propst, C; Lubin, L
Ambruticin is a cyclopropyl-pyran acid, representing a new class of antibiotics. It has a relatively broad antifungal spectrum in vitro and is highly active against dimorphic as well as filamentous organisms. Of 24 strains of dermatophytic fungi tested, the majority were susceptible to ambruticin at 0.049 ?g/ml or less. The minimal inhibitory concentration for the systemic fungi Histoplasma capsulatum and Blastomyces dermatitidis was 0.049 to 0.39 ?g/ml. Ambruticin is fungicidal for metabolizing cells of Microsporum fulvum and does not cause cell leakage of 260-nm absorbing material. The antibiotic is effective orally as well as topically in guinea pigs experimentally infected with Trichophyton mentagrophytes. In mice, a single oral dose of 75 mg/kg produced peak serum levels of 45 ?g/ml in 1 h with a serum half-life of 3.1 h. Excretion of the antibiotic is principally by the biliary route.
Ringel, Samuel M.
In the present study, we determined the incidence of dermatophyte species causing superficial mycoses among outpatients referred to the Department of Dermatology of the "La Sapienza" University of Rome between 2002 and 2004. Of the 3160 subjects studied, 1275 (40.3%) were positive for fungal infection, but only 252 (19.7%) of these had infections caused by dermatophytes. The dermatophyte most frequently isolated was Microsporum canis. Our epidemiological data were compared with those obtained previously by other authors in the same geographic area. For the first time we described an inversion of the T. rubrum/T. mentagrophytes ratio, the latter being more frequently encountered. We also observed the emergence of M. audouinii. PMID:17325945
Panasiti, V; Devirgiliis, V; Borroni, R G; Mancini, M; Curzio, M; Rossi, M; Bottoni, U; Calvieri, S
The essential oil from fresh leaves of Plinia cerrocampanensis Barrie (Myrtaceae), obtained by hydrodistillation, was analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Forty components, representing more than 91% of the oil, were identified. Oxygenated sesquiterpenes represented the main fraction with alpha-bisabolol (42.8%) as the major constituent, making this plant a new and good source of this substance. Biological activity of the essential oil was evaluated against several bacterial and fungal strains as well as larvae from Aedes aegypti. The highest activity was found against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum with MIC values from 32 to 125 microg/ml. The essential oil also showed potent inhibitory and bactericidal activities against three H. pylori strains, with MIC and MBC values of 62.5 microg/ml, and caused 100% mortality of A. aegypti larvae at a concentration of 500 microg/ml. PMID:20015638
Vila, Roser; Santana, Ana Isabel; Pérez-Rosés, Renato; Valderrama, Anayansi; Castelli, M Victoria; Mendonca, Sergio; Zacchino, Susana; Gupta, Mahabir P; Cańigueral, Salvador
From 52 plants screened for antifungal activity, 26 (50%) were active against dermatophytes. This paper reports further evaluation of seven American plants against four pathogenic fungi (Aspergillus flavus, Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton rubrum), the part showing most activity, the best solvent and, in three cases, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) against the fungus in pure culture. Antifungal activity was confirmed in all of the plants, but not all parts; the most active parts were the bark and leaves. The most active species were Byrsonima crassifolia, Cassia grandis, Gliricidia sepium and Malpighia glabra. Diphysa robinioides, Rhizophora mangle and Cassia occidentalis were less active. The most susceptible fungi were E. floccosum and T. rubrum; A. flavus was not susceptible. Ethanol was usually the best solvent and the MIC of C. grandis, C. occidentalis and D. robinioides was 50 micrograms/ml. PMID:8145577
Cáceres, A; López, B; Juárez, X; del Aguila, J; García, S
We analysed 15,101 biological samples from patients presenting with superficial mycoses who attended outpatient services over a 10-year period. Scale samples were processed for direct microscopic examination with 15% KOH and cultured on Sabouraud glucose agar plus chloramphenicol and cycloheximide. Laboratory examination confirmed 4,709 cases of superficial mycosis (31.18%), of which 2,084 (44.26%) were dermatophytoses. The species most frequently encountered was Trichophyton rubrum (71.2%), followed by T. tonsurans (6.9%), T. mentagrophytes (5.5%), Microsporum canis (4.5%) and Epidermophyton floccosum (1.3%). The most frequent clinical form of dermatophytosis was tinea unguium (59.9%), followed by tinea pedis (24.5%). We demonstrate that the number of cases of T. rubrum is increasing in Mexico. PMID:19886762
López-Martínez, R; Manzano-Gayosso, P; Hernández-Hernández, F; Bazán-Mora, E; Méndez-Tovar, L J
Various organic and aqueous extracts of leaves of Indigofera suffruticosa Mill (Fabaceae) obtained by infusion and maceration were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activities. The extracts were tested against 5 different species of human pathogenic bacteria and 17 fungal strains by the agar-solid diffusion method. Most of the extracts were devoid of antifungal and antibacterial activities, except the aqueous extract of leaves of I. suffruticosa obtained by infusion, which showed strong inhibitory activity against the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 5000 µg ml?1. The MIC values to dermatophyte strains were 2500 µg ml?1 against Trichophyton rubrum (LM-09, LM-13) and Microsporum canis. This study suggests that aqueous extracts of leaves of I. suffruticosa obtained by infusion can be used in the treatment of skin diseases caused by dermatophytes.
Leite, Sonia Pereira; Vieira, Jeymesson Raphael Cardoso; de Medeiros, Paloma Lys; Leite, Roberta Maria Pereira; de Menezes Lima, Vera Lucia; Xavier, Haroudo Satiro; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes
The efficacy and safety of the broad-spectrum, topically applied antifungal agent clotrimazole were evaluated in two double-blind, multicentric trials. Ten investigators reported on a total of 1,361 cases in which a 1% solution or a 1% cream formulation was compared with its respective vehicle. Clotrimazole was therapeutically effective, as confirmed by mycological cure (negative microscopy and culture) and clinical improvement, in tinea pedis, tinea cruris, tinea corporis, pityriasis versicolor, and cutaneous candidasis. Furthermore, species identification established the efficacy of clotrimazole against Trichophyton rubrum, T mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum canis, Malassezia furfur (Pityrosporum orbiculare), and Candida albicans. Safety was demonstrated by the low incidence of possibly drug-related adverse experiences, namely, 19 (2.7%) of 699 patients who were treated with clotrimazole, of whom four (0.6%) discontinued treatment. PMID:769697
Spiekermann, P H; Young, M D
Effect of extract of 18 plant species, viz., Acorus calamus, Adhatoda vasica, Amomum subulatum, Andrographis paniculata, Boerhaavia diffusa, Cassia occidentalis, Centella asiatica, Cymbopogon citratus, Hemidesmus indicus, Hyptis suaveolens, Malvestrum sp., Passiflora edulis, Pergularia daemia, Peristrophe bicalyculata, Shuteria hirsuta, Solanum nigrum, Tecoma stans, and Verbascum chinense on the growth of Microsporum gypseum, Chrysosporium tropicum and Trichophyton terrestre was evaluated and discussed. The sensitivity of the keratinophilic fungi was evaluated by dry-weight method. The maximum inhibition of mycelial growth was shown by M. gypseum (86.62%) followed by T. terrestre (81.86%) and C. tropicum (74.06%) when treated with S. hirsuta whereas the minimum inhibition was exhibited by M. gypseum (0.29%), C. tropicum (0.16%) and T. terrestre (1.76%) when tested with the extract of P. edulis, A. vasica and B. diffusa respectively. PMID:10386016
Qureshi, S; Rai, M K; Agrawal, S C
Mycological research was conducted on the mycelial growth, keratinolytic proteinase activity and thermotolerance ofdermatophytes associated with alopecia patients in Uyo, Nigeria. The results revealed that Microsporum sp. - AP1, Epidermophyton sp. - AP2, Trichophyton rubrum - AP4, Trichophyton mentagrophytes - AP5 and a yeast Candida albicans - AP3 isolated exhibited variable growth and keratinase activity at different temperatures. Microsporum sp. - AP1 and T. mentagrophytes - AP5 survived heat treatment at 90 degrees C but exhibited best mycelial growth at 30 degrees C (with 53.41 mg/50 ml biomass dry weight) and 40 degrees C (with 61.32 mg/50 ml biomass dry weight) respectively, after incubation for 2 weeks. Trichophyton rubrum - AP4 and Epidermophyton sp. - AP2 could not survive heat treatment at 90 degrees C but grew better at 40 degrees C (with 38.52 mg/50 ml biomass dry weight) and 30 degrees C (with 48.32 mg/50 ml biomass dry weight) respectively, over the same incubation period, while C. albicans - AP3 grew better at 30 degrees C with 38.7 mg/50 ml biomass dry weight after 2 weeks, but failed to survive at 70 degrees C. All the isolates except Candida albicans - AP3 survived at 80 degrees C and exhibited great potential to elaborate keratinolytic enzymes, with T. mentagrophytes demonstrating the best potential at 30 degrees C and 40 degrees C. Higher temperatures tended to reduce keratinolytic activities and there were significant (P < 0.05) relationships between biomass weight and enzyme productivities of all the isolates except T. mentagrophytes. This indicates that in some dermatophytes keratinolytic proteinase activity is not a function of cell multiplicity. This plus the high thermostability of the enzymes are important attributes in the consideration of preventive and therapeutic methods against dermatophytes in the tropics. PMID:19388557
Essien, J P; Umoh, A A; Akpan, E J; Eduok, S I; Umoiyoho, A
Synthesis and evaluation of antimicrobial and anticonvulsant activities of some new 3-[2- (5-aryl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl/4-carbethoxymethylthiazol-2-yl) imino-4-thiazolidinon-5-ylidene]-5-substituted/nonsubstituted 1H-indole-2-ones and investigation of their structure-activity relationships.
In the present study, 20 new compounds having 3-[2-(5-aryl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl) imino-4-thiazolidinon-5-ylidene]-5-substituted/nonsubstituted 1H-indole-2-one (I-XII) and 3-[2-(4-carbethoxymethylthiazol-2-yl)imino-4-thiazoldinon-5-ylidenel-5-substituted/nonsubstituted IH-indole-2-one (XIII-XX) systems were synthesized. The structures were confirmed by spectral methods (UV, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, 13C-DEPT (135), electron impact mass spectrometry) and elemental analysis. All compounds were tested for in vitro antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 4352, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 1539, Salmonella typhi, Shigella flexneri, Proteus mirabilis ATCC 14153, Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Microsporum gypseum (NCPF-580), Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum and some of them were found to be active. Especially, compound I was more active than cefuroxime sodium (CAS 56238-63-2) which was used as a standard, and the activity of compound XII was close to that of cefuroxime sodium against Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228. Primary screening for antituberculous activity was conducted at 6.25 microg/ml against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv in BACTEC 12B medium using the BACTEC 460 radiometric system. The anticonvulsant activities of selected prototoype compounds (I, IV-VI, VIII, XI, XIII, XVI-XVIII) administered at doses of 50-200 mg/kg (i.p.) were evaluated using the pentetrazol test (PTZ) in mice. PMID:16618017
Altinta?, Handan; Ate?, Oznur; Uyde-Do?an, B Sönmez; Alp, F Ilkay; Kaleli, Deniz; Ozdemir, Osman; Birteksöz, Seher; Otük, Gülten; Atana, Dilek; Uzun, Meltem
The incidence and heat resistance of conidiospores produced by dermatophytes isolated from athlete's kits (canvasses, stockings and spike shoes) stored in Nigerian University Sport's Centre were investigated. Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum oudouinii, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton concentricum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum were isolated and their incidence on the athlete's kits varied with the species and type of kits. Among the isolates T. mentagrophytes, T. rubrum and E. floccosum with 25%, 23% and 20% prevalence rates respectively, were the most common isolates, and are often associated with tinea pedis (athletes foot). Canvasses with the highest incidence of dermatophytes (25 out of 34 fungal isolates) were the most contaminated kits and could serve as effective articles for the transmission of tinea pedis among athletes in Nigeria. The common etiological agents screened, produced asexual spores (conidiospores) that exhibited high resistance to heat treatment at 80 degrees C. Of the three isolates, E. floccosum, with a decimal reduction time (D-value) of D80 = 4.4 min was the most resistant followed by T. mentagrophytes with D80 = 4.0 min and then T. rubrum with D80 = 3.2 min. The spores elimination pattern indicates that increasing the heating duration would decrease the decimal reduction time and possibly denature the fungal propagules but may damage the skin during treatment with hot water compresses. The findings have shown that the use of hot water compresses is palliative but heat treatment especially vapour-heat treatment offers adequate preventive measures if applied for periodic treatment of contaminated kits. However, determining the correct condition for effective decontamination will require detailed understanding of the heat resistance of fungal spores. Otherwise treatment of kits with detergent and chaotropic agent such as urea and guanidinium salt is preferred to heat treatment. PMID:19388558
Essien, J P; Jonah, I; Umoh, A A; Eduok, S I; Akpan, E J; Umoiyoho, A
An enzymatically active pigment-producing clinical isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found to produce a diffusible antifungal product that was shown to be inhibitory to the growth of several dermatophytes, specifically, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum gypseum, and Microsporum audouini. In this study, Trichophyton rubrum was used as the test organism. The antifungal product was partially purified by Sephadex column chromatography and was found to be stable at 5 degrees, 25 degrees, and 37 degrees C. Several investigators have alluded to the fact that as asymptomatic cases of dermatophytosis simplex progress to symptomatic dermatophytosis complex, the bacterial profile changes from a gram-positive bacterial ecosystem to a gram-negative bacterial over-growth. The primary event in the pathogenesis of interdigital athlete's foot is the invasion of the horny layer by dermatophytes. This presents as a mild to moderate scaly lesion and is asymptomatic. As a result of predisposing factors, such as hyperhidrosis, occlusion by tight shoes, minute abrasions due to friction, and fungal-infected skin surfaces, dynamic overgrowth of opportunistic gram-negative bacilli prevails. As the gram-negative population increases, the recovery of dermatophytes dramatically diminishes, until a point is reached when no dermatophytes can be recovered from clinically symptomatic tinea pedis. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is inhibiting its fungal competitor Trichophyton rubrum by producing a diffusible antifungal agent into the infectious environment of the intertriginous foot lesion. Clinically, the patient is diagnosed as having tinea pedis; laboratory culture for fungus and KOH are negative, and what was a paradox just a few years ago can currently be identified and treated appropriately as gram-negative athlete's foot. PMID:6443779
Dermatophytosis is a relatively common disease in many countries occurring endemically both in companion and food animals. Fungi belonging to the genera Trichophyton and Microsporum are most often isolated from clinical cases. Measures to control and prevent dermatophytosis include sanitation, hygienic measures and treatment. In some countries, successful control and eradication have been achieved by mass vaccination of cattle and fur-bearing animals. Vaccines containing live attenuated cells of the fungus stimulate a cell-mediated immune response conferring long-lasting protection against subsequent challenge by the homologous fungus. A delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin test using appropriate dermatophyte antigens is suitable to assess the response. Inactivated dermatophyte vaccines are available for use in cattle, horse, dog, and cat in some countries. However, the scientific literature is scarce making it difficult to conclude on efficacy and appropriate use. Current vaccines are all first generation vaccines. Attempts have been made to prepare subunit vaccines based on new knowledge about virulence factors like the keratinases, so far with limited success. Candidate antigens must be able to stimulate a strong T helper 1 cell response and future research should focus on identification of major T-cell epitopes that specifically elicit a DTH reaction. Dermatophytosis is a zoonotic disease. In Norway and a few other countries, systematic vaccination against cattle ringworm has almost eliminated the disease, and ringworm in man caused by T. verrucosum is almost nonexistent. A similar benefit could be expected if a safe and efficacious vaccine was available for Microsporum canis infection in cats and dogs. PMID:18478355
Lund, Arve; Deboer, Douglas J
The investigation of the antifungal activities of drugs whose primary activities are not related to their antimicrobial potential is in the current forefront of research. Statin compounds, which are routinely used as cholesterol-lowering drugs, may also exert direct antimicrobial effects. In this study, the in vitro antifungal activities of various statins (lovastatin, simvastatin, fluvastatin, atorvastatin, rosuvastatin and pravastatin) were examined against one isolate each of four dermatophyte species (Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis and Microsporum gypseum). Basically, statins were effective in inhibiting all dermatophyte studied, but were particularly active against M. canis and T. mentagrophytes. Fluvastatin and simvastatin were active against all of the tested fungi causing a complete inhibition of their growth at very low concentrations (6.25-12.5 ?g/ml). Lovastatin and rosuvastatin had inhibitory effects at higher concentrations (25-128 ?g/ml), while atorvastatin and pravastatin proved the less effective. The in vitro interactions between statins and different antifungals (ketoconazole, itraconazole, fluconazole, amphotericin B, nystatin, griseofulvin, terbinafine and primycin) were also investigated using a standard chequerboard broth microdilution method. Synergetic interactions were observed in several cases, most of them were noticed when statins were combined with terbinafine and the different azoles. Some combinations were particularly active (ketoconazole-simvastatin or terbinafine-simvastatin), as they were found to exert synergistic effect against all of the investigated isolates. The other antifungals showed synergistic interactions with statins in only certain cases. These results suggest that statins exert substantial antifungal effects against dermatophyte fungi and they should be promising components in a combination therapy as they can act synergistically with a number of clinically used antifungal agents. PMID:24004389
Nyilasi, Ildikó; Kocsubé, Sándor; Krizsán, Krisztina; Galgóczy, László; Papp, Tamás; Pesti, Miklós; Nagy, Katalin; Vágvölgyi, Csaba
Apium graveolens L. (wild celery), belonging to the family of Apiaceae, is a scaposus hemicryptophyte. Instead, the cultivate plant is an annual or biennial herb widely used as a spice and seasoning in food. A broad range of biological activities have been attributed to A. graveolens. These include antimicrobial activity, larvicidal activity, hepatoprotective activity, nematicidal and mosquito repellent potential and antihyperlipidaemic properties.In this study, the authors compare the composition of the volatile fractions of A. graveolens collected in natural populations in Portugal and Italy and evaluate their potential as antifungal agents.The composition of the volatile oils obtained by hydrodistillation and their antifungal activity are reported. The oils were analysed by gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods and their composition were compared with that of the volatile extracts isolated by supercritical CO2. A chemical variability in the extracts depending on the origin of the plants and on the extraction method was observed. The results showed the presence of sedanenolide, neocnidilide and neophytadiene as main components. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal lethal concentration were used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the oils against Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida guilliermondii, Candida parapsilosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale, Trichophyton verrucosum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Epidermophyton floccosum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. The oil from Italy rich in neophytadiene is the more active, with MIC values of 0.04-0.64?µL?mL(-1). Our results show that A. graveolens volatile extracts may be useful in the clinical treatment of fungal diseases. PMID:22974401
Marongiu, B; Piras, A; Porcedda, S; Falconieri, D; Maxia, A; Frau, M A; Gonçalves, M J; Cavaleiro, C; Salgueiro, L
ABSTRACT The major cause of athlete’s foot is Trichophyton rubrum, a dermatophyte or fungal pathogen of human skin. To facilitate molecular analyses of the dermatophytes, we sequenced T. rubrum and four related species, Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton equinum, Microsporum canis, and Microsporum gypseum. These species differ in host range, mating, and disease progression. The dermatophyte genomes are highly colinear yet contain gene family expansions not found in other human-associated fungi. Dermatophyte genomes are enriched for gene families containing the LysM domain, which binds chitin and potentially related carbohydrates. These LysM domains differ in sequence from those in other species in regions of the peptide that could affect substrate binding. The dermatophytes also encode novel sets of fungus-specific kinases with unknown specificity, including nonfunctional pseudokinases, which may inhibit phosphorylation by competing for kinase sites within substrates, acting as allosteric effectors, or acting as scaffolds for signaling. The dermatophytes are also enriched for a large number of enzymes that synthesize secondary metabolites, including dermatophyte-specific genes that could synthesize novel compounds. Finally, dermatophytes are enriched in several classes of proteases that are necessary for fungal growth and nutrient acquisition on keratinized tissues. Despite differences in mating ability, genes involved in mating and meiosis are conserved across species, suggesting the possibility of cryptic mating in species where it has not been previously detected. These genome analyses identify gene families that are important to our understanding of how dermatophytes cause chronic infections, how they interact with epithelial cells, and how they respond to the host immune response.
Martinez, Diego A.; Oliver, Brian G.; Graser, Yvonne; Goldberg, Jonathan M.; Li, Wenjun; Martinez-Rossi, Nilce M.; Monod, Michel; Shelest, Ekaterina; Barton, Richard C.; Birch, Elizabeth; Brakhage, Axel A.; Chen, Zehua; Gurr, Sarah J.; Heiman, David; Heitman, Joseph; Kosti, Idit; Rossi, Antonio; Saif, Sakina; Samalova, Marketa; Saunders, Charles W.; Shea, Terrance; Summerbell, Richard C.; Xu, Jun; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Birren, Bruce W.; Cuomo, Christina A.; White, Theodore C.
Balticidins A-D (1-4), four new antifungal lipopeptides, were isolated from the laboratory-cultivated cyanobacterium Anabaena cylindrica strain Bio33 isolated from a water sample collected from the Baltic Sea, Rügen Island, Germany. Fractionation of the 50% aqueous MeOH extract was performed by bioassay-guided silica gel column chromatography followed by SPE and repeated reversed-phase HPLC. The main fraction containing the compounds exhibited a strong and specific antifungal activity with inhibition zones in an agar-diffusion assay from 21 to 32 mm against Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida maltosa, Aspergillus fumigatus, Microsporum gypseum, Mucor sp., and Microsporum canis. The structures were elucidated by multidimensional (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, HRESIMS, amino acid analysis, and sugar analysis. Spectroscopic data analysis afforded an unambiguous sequence of R.CHO(S1).CHOH.CONH-Thr(1)-Thr(2)-Thr(3)-HOTyr(4)-Dhb(5)-d-Gln(6)-Gly(7)-NMeThr(8)(S2)-l-Gln COOH(9), in which Dhb is dehydroaminobutyric acid, S1 is d(-)-arabinose-(3-1)-d-(+)-galacturonic acid, S2 is d-(+)-mannose, and R is the aliphatic residue -C13H26Cl or -C13H27. Besides NMeThr, d-allo-Thr, d-Thr, and l-Thr were identified, but the position of the enantiomers in the sequence is not clear. The four balticidins differ in their cyclic (2, 4)/linear (1, 3) core and the presence (1, 2)/absence (3, 4) of chlorine in the aliphatic unit. PMID:24937366
Bui, Thanh-Huong; Wray, Victor; Nimtz, Manfred; Fossen, Torgils; Preisitsch, Michael; Schröder, Gudrun; Wende, Kristian; Heiden, Stefan E; Mundt, Sabine
The activity of two chlorine derivates, sodium hypochlorite in water solution with NaCl (product A) and electrolytic chloroxidant (product B) has been tested in vitro against potentially human pathogenic fungi (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Microsporum gypseum, Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis, Epidermophyton floccosum, Trichophyton rubrum, Sporotrix schenkii). For A. niger, the relation of the two compounds has also been considered between mycelial and sporidial forms. Dilutions used ranged from 0.15 to 10% (corresponding to 17.2-1150 ppm of active principle for product A, and to 18.3-1220 ppm of active principle for product B). These were applied for different times in order to assess the minimal inhibitory concentration (M.I.C.) and to evaluate the survival time of the microorganisms tested, which were strains from the collection of the Institute of Mycology, (Faculty of Agrarian Science, Perugia) and recently isolated ones from animal and vegetable tissues, cultivated on Sabouraud medium. The cell suspension to be tested was obtained on nutrient broth in shaken flasks (120 rpm) at 28 degrees C for 48 h, and was separated by centrifugation and 10000 rpm at 5 degrees C for 20 min, repeatedly washed with sterile physiologic saline and resuspended in sterile water where it was submitted to delicate pressure in order to fragment the mycelium. Activity tests were carried out on Sabouraud broth and Sabouraud agar with controls for every case without the active principle. Aliquots of the suspensions (microrganism++ + disinfectant) were transferred at regular intervals (1, 3, 5 and 10 minutes) to the two substrates in liquid and solid state, and the growth of microorganisms was followed at 28 degrees C for 48-72 h in the case of yeasts, and for up to 21 days in the case of sower growing fungi. The cell content of the different suspensions was found to range from 10(4) to 10(9) UFC/ml. The active chlorine contents of the two compounds was evaluated by iodometry simultaneously with the pH of the different solutions. Useful data were obtained from the comparison of the two systems of activity assessment of the fluid and agarized substrate. It was thus found that the two compounds were equally active against the species tested. Some of these (A. fumigatus, M. gypseum, A. niger, C. albicans, C. neoformans) were less sensitive to the compounds examined (doses for cell inactivation 0.62-2.5% for product A, and O.15-1.25% for product B) where at any rate product B was more active.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2483652
Bianchi, P; Repetto, A; Bulletti, S; Mattiacci, P; Rossi, J; Pagiotti, R; Ribaldi, M; Schiaffella, F
Tinea capitis is the most common superficial mycosis in children of school age. Although it is of public health importance, it is not a reportable or notifiable disease; therefore, actual prevalence figures are unknown in many endemic areas. The aim of this work was to determine the prevalence of tinea capitis among primary school children in two states in central Nigeria, highlighting the main aetiological agents of the infection and possible predisposing factors. A total of 28 505 primary school children aged between 3 and 16 years were recruited for the study, from 12 primary schools in two local government areas of Benue and Plateau States of Nigeria. Of them, 796 had lesions, which were clinically suggestive of tinea capitis out of which 248 (31.2%) were confirmed positive by microscopy and culture. Tinea capitis was more frequent in males, 194 (78.2%) than in females, 54 (21.8%). Children aged 10-14 years, followed by 5-9 years were predominantly infected, with 106 (42.7%) and 100 (40.3%) respectively. There was a significant correlation between age group and occurrence of tinea capitis in the study population at 95% confidence level (P = 0.004). Tinea capitis was significantly more frequent in Jos State (44.6%) than in Gboko State (23.2%) (t = .659; 95% confidence level). The prevalence of tinea capitis was influenced by social and cultural habits of the areas rather than by population density. The aetiological agent of tinea capitis in the study population was Trichophyton soudanense, 76 (30.6%), followed by Microsporum ferrugineum, 19 (7.7%) and Microsporum audouinii, 19 (7.7%). Differences in aetiology were observed for Gboko and Jos, except for T. soudanense, which predominated in both areas. The high prevalence of tinea capitis in the areas studied may be attributed to frequent interaction with soil and animals and low level of health education on personal and environmental hygiene. Aetiological agents varied from one geographical area to another. PMID:18422924
Ayanbimpe, Grace M; Taghir, Henry; Diya, Abigail; Wapwera, Samuel
A total of 1,136 school children comprising 433 males and 703 females, within the age groups 4 to 16 years and all resident in Aba municipal town of Abia State were examined for clinical signs of dermatophytoses. Out of this number examined 196 (17.3%), which included 108 males and 88 females, had clinical lesions on various parts of the body including the head, skin, finger nails and toe webs characteristic of dermatophytoses. While the infection occurred highest among children between the ages of 10 and 12 years, male children were significantly more infected than the females (P = 0.05). The most common type of the disease was tinea capitis (10.8%) followed by tinea corporis (5.8%). The dermatophytes identified included Trichophyton mentagrophytes (19.4%). T. tonsurans (12.3%), Microsporum audoninii (7.7%) and M. gypseum (2%). All the isolates grew well at both 25 degrees C and 37 degrees C but none survived at 45 degrees C. On solid media, all, with the exception of M. gypseum produced extracellular lipase enzyme while none produced lecithinase, deoxyribounclease and protease enzymes. Only T. tonsurans and T. mentagrophytes produced urease enzyme. PMID:9842165
Okafor, J I; Agbugbaeruleke, A K
During antidermatophytic screening of some essential oils, Curcuma longa L. exhibited the strongest antifungal activity, completely inhibiting the mycelial growth of ringworm, caused by the fungi- Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The essential oil from leaves of Curcuma longa was fungicidal at 2.5 ?l/ml at which it tolerated heavy doses of inoculum. The fungicidal activity of the oil was thermostable up to 80 °C and self life up to 24 months in storage. The oil also showed a broad fungitoxic spectrum, inhibiting the mycelial growth of other fungi, viz., Epidermophyton floccosum, M. nanum, T. rubrum, T. violaceum. Moreover, up to 5 % concentration it did not exhibit any adverse effect on mammalian skins. The oil has been formulated in the form of an ointment, 1 % w/v and subjected to topical testing on patients of the Out Patient Department (OPD) at Moti Lal Nehru Medical College, Allahabad. Patients were selected on the basis of KOHpositive results and diagnosed tenia corporis. After the second week of treatment, all patients were KOH- negative. At the end of medication, 75 % of patients recovered completely while 15 % showed significant improvement from the disease. The ointment thus, can be exploited commercially after ongoing successful clinical trials. Relationship of the dermatophytes to the toxicity of the oil vis-a-vis phylogeny using molecular data of the pathogens have also been discussed. PMID:23572967
Pandey, Kumar Pankaj; Mishra, Rohit Kumar; Kamran, Ahsan; Mishra, Piyush; Bajaj, A K; Dikshit, Anupam
A survey of tinea capitis conducted under the auspices of the European Confederation of Medical Mycology showed that laboratories contributing to a voluntary scheme for reporting have recently been seeing a different pattern of scalp ringworm. The survey was conducted among 92 medical mycology laboratories across 19 European countries by postal questionnaire comparing the years 1987 with 1997. The survey shows an overall increase in the numbers of cases caused by anthropophilic infections, which, in 1997, were the dominant causes of scalp infection; the greatest increase was seen in laboratories covering urban populations and in African Caribbean children living in Europe. While the commonest infection remains Microsporum canis, the largest overall increase has been in Trichophyton tonsurans, which in 1997 was the second commonest cause of infection overall and the commonest in urban populations. The pattern of change is not uniform in Europe and while some cities have reported large increases in T. tonsurans others, e.g. in France, have seen more cases of infection due to T. soudanense and M. audouinii. While these figures do not necessarily reflect changes in the underlying prevalence of infection, the trends are important to recognize as the control measures for anthropophilic tinea capitis differ from those used in zoophilic infections. In particular there is a need for an increased level of surveillance and more advice on control given to primary care physicians, dermatologists and school health authorities. PMID:11683286
Hay, R J; Robles, W; Midgley, G; Moore, M K
Oxiconazole nitrate was compared in vitro with ketoconazole and econazole nitrate in tests with 96 dermatophytes, 18 isolates of Malassezia furfur, and seven isolates of Exophiala werneckii. An agar dilution procedure was used employing either Kimmig's agar or Sabouraud's dextrose agar supplemented with Olive oil and Tween 80. Econazole was the more active compound in tests with Microsporum species (41 isolates) and most isolates of Trichophyton species (45 isolates). Oxiconazole was the more active compound in tests with T. tonsurans and T. rubrum. However, differences between results for oxiconazole and econazole and the dermatophytes were only marginal. Ketoconazole was the most active compound in tests with M. furfur; some cross resistance on the part of several isolates of M. furfur between oxiconazole and econazole was noted. All three compounds were active against E. werneckii with MIC90 values of either 0.25 or 0.5 microgram/ml. Epidermophyton floccosum was the most susceptible of all organisms tested with all MIC values for all three drugs being less than or equal to 0.063 microgram/ml, the lowest concentration tested. PMID:3180708
Shadomy, S; Wang, H; Shadomy, H J
Dermatomycoses are contagious superficial fungal infections, which are highly prevalent in developed and developing countries. Caused by a range of Epidermophyton, Microsporum and Trichophyton species, dermatomycoses manifest on glabrous skin as 'ringworm', an annular scaly lesion with a variable inflammatory component. Itch is the chief subjective symptom, particularly in tinea cruris. Unless lesions are extensive or resistant to local therapy, dermatomycoses of glabrous skin are treated with topical antifungal agents, such as imidazoles and allylamines. Studies show, however, that the addition of a topical corticosteroid to imidazole therapy increases the bioavailability and prolongs the activity of the antimycotic, while rapidly reducing inflammatory symptoms. Travocort is a combination of 1% isoconazole nitrate (ISN), a broad-spectrum imidazole with established antimicrobial activity and antimycotic efficacy, and 0.1% diflucortolone valerate (DFV), a potent topical corticosteroid with low systemic absorption and therefore a low risk of systemic glucocorticoid side-effects. In randomised, double-blind controlled clinical trials, Travocort therapy showed a more rapid onset of action, faster relief of itch and other inflammatory symptoms, improved overall therapeutic benefits and better mycological cure rate during the first 2 weeks of treatment compared with ISN monotherapy. Travocort is well tolerated and, because of prolonged ISN retention in the skin, provides antifungal protection against reinfection for some weeks after therapy. PMID:18783560
Havlickova, Blanka; Friedrich, Markus
D. Gruby (1842-1844) detected the fungus in tinea as a causative agent and C.P. Robin (1853) described Microsporum mentagrophytes that was transferred to Trichophyton by Blanchard (1896). Sabouraud (1910) established a group of ectothrix microďde which was divided into gypseum type (6 species: T. asteroids, T. granulosum, T. lacticolor and 3 species) and niveum type (T. radians and T. denticulatum). Thereafter, Epidermophyton simii Pinoy, 1912 and T. interdigitale Priestly, 1917 were reported. These species were classified as T. mentagrophytes by C.W. Emmons (1934 and 1940). Arthroderma simii Stockdale et al., 1965, A. benhamiae, Ajello and Cheng, 1967 and A. vanbreuseghemii Takashio, 1973 were discovered as teleomorphs of T. simii, T. mentagrophytes var. granulosum and T. mentagrophytes (mainly granulosum-asteroides form), respectively. Makimura et al., (1998) reported phylogenetic classification of T. mentagrophytes complex strains based on DNA sequences of nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) regions, indicating that A. vanbreuseghemii and T. interdigitale belong to the same clade that was later named T. interdigatale by Gräser et al.(1999). This naming has confused medical and veterinary doctors since anthropophilic isolates (T. interdigitale) and zoophilic isolates (A. vanbreuseghemii) were included as the same species. PMID:24943211
Kano, Rui; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko
The aims of this study were to test the antifungal activity, toxicity and chemical composition of essential oil from C. sativum L. fruits. The essential oil, obtained by hydro-distillation, was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Linalool was the main constituent (58.22%). The oil was considered bioactive, showing an LC?? value of 23 ?g/mL in the Artemia salina lethality test. The antifungal activity was evaluated against Microsporum canis and Candida spp. by the agar-well diffusion method and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) were established by the broth microdilution method. The essential oil induced growth inhibition zones of 28 ± 5.42 and 9.25 ± 0.5 for M. canis and Candida spp. respectively. The MICs and MFCs for M. canis strains ranged from 78 to 620 and 150 to 1,250 ?g/mL, and the MICs and MFCs for Candida spp strains ranged from 310 to 620 and 620 to 1,250 ?g/mL, respectively. C. sativum essential oil is active in vitro against M. canis and Candida spp. demonstrating good antifungal activity. PMID:22785271
Soares, Bruna V; Morais, Selene M; dos Santos Fontenelle, Raquel Oliveira; Queiroz, Vanessa A; Vila-Nova, Nadja S; Pereira, Christiana M C; Brito, Edy S; Neto, Manoel A S; Brito, Erika H S; Cavalcante, Carolina S P; Castelo-Branco, Débora S C M; Rocha, Marcos F G
The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), the minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFCs), the fungal biomass (FB) and hyphal viability employing the dye 3-4,5 dimethyl- 2-thiazolyl- 2,5- diphenyl- 2H tetrazolium bromide (MTT) were used to compare the in vitro effects of fluconazole (FLU) with those of the N-terminal palmitoyl-lipidated peptide, Pal-Lys-Lys-NH(2) (PAL), and a tea tree oil component, gamma-Terpinene (TER), against several clinical isolates of Microsporum canis and Trichophyton rubrum. In general, FLU and PAL MICs were significantly lower than those observed with TER, while no differences in the three drugs were found in the MFCs. However, they were from two to 16-times higher than their respective MICs. FB of M. canis treated with either FLU or PAL, but not with TER, was significantly reduced over untreated controls. Only PAL and TER, in a medium-dependent fashion, but not FLU, reduced the FB of T. rubrum. Finally, PAL was found to be significantly more active than FLU at reducing the hyphal viability against both genera of dermatophytes. This study shows that PAL exerts an in vitro activity against dermatophytes at least similar to that observed with FLU and suggests that this compound might be a promising candidate in the treatment of infections due to dermatophytes. PMID:19115137
Barchiesi, Francesco; Silvestri, Carmela; Arzeni, Daniela; Ganzetti, Giulia; Castelletti, Sefora; Simonetti, Oriana; Cirioni, Oscar; Kamysz, Wojciech; Kamysz, Elzbieta; Spreghini, Elisabetta; Abruzzetti, Alessandra; Riva, Alessandra; Offidani, Anna M; Giacometti, Andrea; Scalise, Giorgio
The antifungal activity of Melaleuca alternifolia Maiden (Myrtaceae) essential oil against yeasts (Candida spp., Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Debaryomyces hansenii) and dermatophytes (Microsporum spp. and Tricophyton spp.) is reported. We focused on the ability of tea tree oil to inhibit Candida albicans conversion from the yeast to the pathogenic mycelial form. Moreover we carried out broth microdilution test and contact tests to evaluate the killing time. M. alternifolia essential oil inhibited the conversion of C. albicans from yeast to the mycelial form at a concentration of 0.16% (v/v). The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranged from 0.12% to 0.50% (v/v) for yeasts and 0.12% to 1% (v/v) for dermatophytes; the cytocidal activity was generally expressed at the same concentration. These results, if considered along with the lipophilic nature of the oil which enables it to penetrate the skin, suggest it may be suitable for topical therapeutic use in the treatment of fungal mucosal and cutaneous infections. PMID:11589479
D'Auria, F D; Laino, L; Strippoli, V; Tecca, M; Salvatore, G; Battinelli, L; Mazzanti, G
DNA sequencing analyses have demonstrated relatively limited polymorphisms within the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions among Trichophyton spp. We sequenced the ITS region (ITS1, 5.8S, and ITS2) for 42 dermatophytes belonging to seven species (Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, T. soudanense, T. tonsurans, Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum canis, and M. gypseum) and developed a novel padlock probe and rolling-circle amplification (RCA)-based method for identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that could be exploited to differentiate between Trichophyton spp. Sequencing results demonstrated intraspecies genetic variation for T. tonsurans, T. mentagrophytes, and T. soudanense but not T. rubrum. Signature sets of SNPs between T. rubrum and T. soudanense (4-bp difference) and T. violaceum and T. soudanense (3-bp difference) were identified. The RCA assay correctly identified five Trichophyton species. Although the use of two “group-specific” probes targeting both the ITS1 and the ITS2 regions were required to identify T. soudanense, the other species were identified by single ITS1- or ITS2-targeted species-specific probes. There was good agreement between ITS sequencing and the RCA assay. Despite limited genetic variation between Trichophyton spp., the sensitive, specific RCA-based SNP detection assay showed potential as a simple, reproducible method for the rapid (2-h) identification of Trichophyton spp.
Kong, Fanrong; Tong, Zhongsheng; Chen, Xiaoyou; Sorrell, Tania; Wang, Bin; Wu, Qixuan; Ellis, David; Chen, Sharon
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of aqueous, ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts from neem leaves on growth of some human pathogens (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus, Candida albicans and Microsporum gypseum) in vitro. Different concentrations (5, 10, 15 and 20%) prepared from these extracts inhibited the growth of the test pathogens and the effect gradually increased with concentration. The 20% ethyl acetate extract gave the strongest inhibition compared with the activity obtained by the same concentration of the other extracts. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis of ethyl acetate extract showed the presence of a main component (nimonol) which was purified and chemically confirmed by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopic analysis. The 20% ethyl acetate extract lost a part of its antifungal effect after pooling out the nimonol and this loss in activity was variable on test pathogens. The purified nimonol as a separate compound did not show any antifungal activity when assayed against all the six fungal pathogens. PMID:24031718
Mahmoud, D A; Hassanein, N M; Youssef, K A; Abou Zeid, M A
The efficacy of oral lufenuron, a chitin synthetase inhibitor, combined with topical enilconazole, was evaluated for the management of Microsporum canis infection in 100 cats housed in two catteries in France. The cats were treated with weekly rinses with enilconazole (0.2 per cent) for four weeks and, in each cattery, one group (A) was also treated with micronised griseofulvin (25 mg/kg administered orally twice a day for five weeks) and a second group (B) was treated with 60 mg/kg lufenuron administered orally once on day 0 and again after 30 days. All the cats were examined individually for cutaneous lesions and mycological cultures were made when the treatment began and after 15, 30, 60 and 90 days. In the first cattery, the cats' clinical scores after 30 and 60 days were significantly lower in group B than in group A. In both catteries and both treatment groups, the mean number of fungal colonies decreased rapidly during the first 15 days of treatment, remained stable for the following 45 days but increased from day 60 to the end of the experiment on day 90. PMID:12081306
Guillot, J; Malandain, E; Jankowski, F; Rojzner, K; Fournier, C; Touati, F; Chermette, R; Seewald, W; Schenker, R
In November 2004, an adult male siamang (Hylobates syndactylus) from The Tisch Family Zoological Gardens-Jerusalem Biblical Zoo (Israel) presented with skin lesions on various body parts. Lesions consisted of alopecia and dry, crusty areas of hyperkeratosis. A diagnosis of dermatophytosis due to Microsporum canis was determined by fungal culture of skin scraping taken from the edge of several lesions. Treatment with various oral and topical antifungal agents such as griseofluvin, itraconozole, and lufenuron resulted in the resolution of most lesions and a decrease in size of the single remaining lesion, which continued to be culture positive for M. canis. The animal was anesthetized and an experimental sustained-release clotrimazole varnish was painted directly on the lesion. Initially there was no change in the lesion, and 2 months later a slightly altered formula was applied under anesthesia. One month later, the lesion began to reduce in size; 3 months after the start of treatment, although 2 years after the onset of clinical signs, the lesion resolved. Minimizing the number of treatments is always an advantage when dealing with exotic animals or zoological collections. PMID:18432106
Avni-Magen, Nili; Elad, Daniel; Friedman, Michael; Gati, Irith; Kaufman, Elizabeth; Lavy, Eran
Abstract A series of three bioactive thiourea (carboxamide) derivatives, N-(dipropylcarbamothioyl)-thiophene-2-carboxamide (L(1)), N-(dipropylcarbamothioyl)-5-methylthiophene-2-carboxamide (L(2)) and 5-bromo-N-(dipropylcarbamothioyl)furan-2-carboxamide (L(3)) and their cobalt(II), copper(II), nickel(II) and zinc(II) complexes (1)-(12) have been synthesized and characterized by their IR,(1)H-NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and elemental analysis data. The Crystal structure of one of the ligand, N-(dipropylcarbamothioyl)thiophene-2-carboxamide (L(1)) and its nickel(II) and copper(II) complexes were determined from single crystal X-ray diffraction data. All the ligands and metal(II) complexes have been subjected to in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activity against six bacterial species (Escherichia coli. Shigella flexneri. Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Salmonella typhi. Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and for antifungal activity against six fungal strains (Trichophyton longifusus. Candida albicans. Aspergillus flavus. Microsporum canis. Fusarium solani and Candida glabrata). The in vitro antibacterial and antifungal bioactivity data showed the metal(II) complexes to be more potent than the parent ligands against one or more bacterial and fungal strains. PMID:23914928
Hanif, Muhammad; Chohan, Zahid H; Winum, Jean-Yves; Akhtar, Javeed
Introduction. Keratinophilic fungi are an important group of fungi that live in soil. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify keratinophilic fungi from the soil of different parks in Shiraz. Materials and Methods. A total of 196 soil samples from 43 parks were collected. Isolation of the fungi was performed by hair bait technique. The isolated colonies were identified by morphologic feature of macro- and microconidia and molecular method, using DNA sequence analysis. ITS region of ribosomal DNA was amplified and the PCR products were sequenced. Results. 411 isolates from 22 genera were identified. Fusarium (23.8%), Chrysosporium (13.13%), Acremonium (12.65%), Penicillium (12.39%), Microsporum gypseum (1.94%), Bionectria ochroleuca (1.21%), Bipolaris spicifera (1.21%), Scedosporium apiospermum (0.82%), Phialophora reptans (0.82%), Cephalosporium curtipes (0.49%), Scedosporium dehoogii (0.24%), Ochroconis constricta (0.24%), Nectria mauritiicola (0.49%), Chaetomium (0.49%), Scopulariopsis (0.24%), Malbranchea (0.24%), and Tritirachium (0.24%) were the most important isolates. Most of the fungi were isolated from the soils with the PH range of 7 to 8. Conclusion. Our study results showed that many keratinophilic fungi isolated from the parks soil are important for public health and children are an important group at a high risk of being exposed to these fungi.
Pakshir, Keyvan; Rahimi Ghiasi, Moosa; Zomorodian, Kamiar; Gharavi, Ali Reza
Nonribosomal peptides (NRPs) and polyketides (PKs) are ecologically important secondary metabolites produced by bacteria and fungi using multidomain enzymes called nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) and polyketide synthases (PKSs), respectively. Previous phylogenetic analyses of fungal NRPSs and PKSs have suggested that a few of these genes were acquired by fungi via horizontal gene transfer (HGT) from bacteria, including a hybrid NPS/PKS found in Cochliobolus heterostrophus (Dothideomycetes, Ascomycota). Here, we identify this hybrid gene in fungi representing two additional classes of Ascomycota (Aspergillus spp., Microsporum canis, Arthroderma spp., and Trichophyton spp., Eurotiomycetes; Chaetomium spp. and Metarhizium spp., Sordariomycetes) and use phylogenetic analyses of the most highly conserved domains from NRPSs (adenylation (A) domain) and PKSs (ketoacyl synthase (KS) domain) to examine the hypothesis that the hybrid NPS7/PKS24 was acquired by fungi from bacteria via HGT relatively early in the evolution of the Pezizomycotina. Our results reveal a unique ancestry of the A domain and KS domain in the hybrid gene relative to known fungal NRPSs and PKSs, provide strong evidence for HGT of the hybrid gene from a putative bacterial donor in the Burkholderiales, and suggest the HGT event occurred early in the evolution of the filamentous Ascomycota.
Lawrence, Daniel P.; Kroken, Scott; Pryor, Barry M.; Arnold, A. Elizabeth
In Germany, infections due to the zoophilic dermatophyte Trichophyton (T.) species of Arthroderma benhamiae are being more frequently diagnosed. The source of infection of this emerging pathogen overlaps with that of the zoophilic species T. interdigitale. The most common source are guinea pigs. T. species of Arthroderma benhamiae causes inflammatory dermatophytosis in children and adolescents. In addition to tinea capitis, it may cause both tinea corporis, tinea manus and frequently tinea faciei. In Germany, T. species of Arthroderma benhamiae is a frequent zoophilic dermatophyte, which in regions is probably more frequent than Microsporum canis. The mycological identification of the isolates with their yellow stained colonies is based on their macroscopic and microscopic features. However, some exhibit colony features consistent with those of T. interdigitale. These strains only can be identified unambiguously by means of molecular techniques. Using detection methods such as PCR-ELISA or real-time PCR, the dermatophyte can be identified directly from clinical material. Sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of the ribosomal DNA has been approved as culture confirmation test for T. species of Arthroderma benhamiae. In addition, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS) is useful. Widespread dermatophytosis due to T. species of Arthroderma benhamiae, in particular of tinea capitis, requires oral antifungal agents. Terbinafine is most effective, alternatives are fluconazole and itraconazole. PMID:24981469
Nenoff, Pietro; Uhrlaß, Silke; Krüger, Constanze; Erhard, Marcel; Hipler, Uta-Christina; Seyfarth, Florian; Herrmann, Jürgen; Wetzig, Tino; Schroedl, Wieland; Gräser, Yvonne
Identification of dermatophytes using the traditional method is sometimes problematic because of atypical microscopic or macroscopic morphology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using sequencing of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS)1 and ITS2 regions for identification of 17 dermatophyte species. The ITS regions of 188 strains (62 reference strains and 126 clinical isolates) were amplified by PCR and sequenced. Species identification was made by sequence comparison with an in-house database comprising ITS sequences of type or neotype strains or by blast searches for homologous sequences in public databases. Strains producing discrepant results between conventional methods and ITS sequence analysis were analysed further by sequencing the D1-D2 domain of the large-subunit rRNA gene for species clarification. The identification rates by ITS1 and ITS2 sequencing were higher than 97 %. Based on reference sequences of type or neotype strains, it was noted that most strains of Trichophyton mentagrophytes were misidentifications of Trichophyton interdigitale. In addition, barcode sequences were present in species of the Microsporum canis complex and Trichophyton rubrum complex. These barcode sequences are useful for species delineation when the results of ITS sequencing are ambiguous. In conclusion, ITS sequencing provides a very accurate and useful method for the identification of dermatophytes. PMID:18436592
Li, Hsin Chieh; Bouchara, Jean-Philippe; Hsu, Mark Ming-Long; Barton, Richard; Su, Shuli; Chang, Tsung Chain
The authors report the results of a study carried out on tinea capitis, in the Department of Dermatology and Venerology at the University Hospital of Donka in Conakry, during one year In this department, the tinea capitis represents 3.2% of the consultations and remains the second mycosis. Out of 414 consulted children, a male predominance of 75% was noted especially regarding the Trichophytic tinea. School children aged of 6-14 years old are the most affected by the disease. The trichophytic tinea is widely spread with 65.5% more than the microsporic 17% and inflammatory tinea 16.5%. The mixed tinea is exceptional and no case of favus has been found. The Trichophyton violaceum is the most dermatophyte to be found 56.70% whereas a survey carried out in 1959 showed the predominance of T. soudanense and M. audouini. The Microsporum canis and an association of M. canis and T. violaceum are also to be found. PMID:16568680
Cisse, M; Diare, F S; Kaba, A; Magassouba, E; Keďta, M; Ecra, E J
Selected plants having a history of use in Polynesian traditional medicine for the treatment of infectious disease were investigated for anti-viral, anti-fungal and anti-bacterial activity in vitro. Extracts from Scaevola sericea, Psychotria hawaiiensis, Pipturus albidus and Eugenia malaccensis showed selective anti-viral activity against Herpes Simplex Virus-1 and 2 and Vesicular Stomatitis Virus. Aleurites moluccana extracts showed anti-bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, while Pipturus albidus and Eugenia malaccensis extracts showed growth inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. Psychotria hawaiiensis and Solanum niger inhibited growth of the fungi Microsporum canis, Trichophyton rubrum and Epidermophyton floccosum, while Ipomoea sp., Pipturus albidus, Scaevola sericea, Eugenia malaccensis, Piper methysticum, Barringtonia asiatica and Adansonia digitata extracts showed anti-fungal activity to a lesser extent. Eugenia malaccensis was also found to inhibit the classical pathway of complement suggesting that an immunological basis for its in vivo activity was identified. This study has confirmed some of the ethnobotanical reports of Hawaiian medicinal plants having curative properties against infections using biological assays in vitro. PMID:8786654
Locher, C P; Burch, M T; Mower, H F; Berestecky, J; Davis, H; Van Poel, B; Lasure, A; Vanden Berghe, D A; Vlietinck, A J
Although dermatophytes are the most common cause of fungal infections in the world, their basic biology is not well understood. The recent sequencing and annotation of the genomes of five representative dermatophyte species allows for the creation of hypotheses as to how they cause disease and have adapted to their distinct environments. An understanding of the microbiology of these strains will be essential for testing these hypotheses. This study is the first to generally characterize these five sequenced strains of dermatophytes for their microbiological aspects. We measured the growth rate on solid medium and found differences between species, with Microsporum gypseum CBS118893 having the fastest growth and Trichophyton rubrum CBS118892 the slowest. We also compared different media for conidia production and found that the highest numbers of conidia were produced when dermatophytes were grown on MAT agar. We determined the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of nine antifungal agents and confirmed susceptibility to antifungals commonly used as selectable markers. Finally, we tested virulence in the Galleria mellonella (wax moth) larvae model but found the results variable. These results increase our understanding of the microbiology and molecular biology of these dermatophyte strains and will be of use in advancing hypothesis-driven research about dermatophytes. PMID:21145410
Achterman, Rebecca R; Smith, Adam R; Oliver, Brian G; White, Theodore C
Novel 1,1'-(5,5'-(1,4-phenylene)bis(3-aryl-1H-pyrazole-5,1-(4H,5H)-diyl))diethanones 7-12 were tested for their antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion and twofold serial dilution method against the tested bacterial and fungal strains. Compounds 7 against Micrococcus luteus, 8 against ?-Heamolytic streptococcus, M. luteus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Microsporum gypseum, 9 against Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella flexneri, Vibreo cholerae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus flavus, Mucor indicus, 10 against Salmonella typhii, S. flexneri, M. gypseum, 11 against K. pneumonia, M. gypseum, 12 against K. pneumonia, and M. gypseum show superior zone of inhibitions and exhibited excellent antibacterial and antifungal activities at a MIC value of 6.25 ?g/mL. Moreover, all the tested compounds 7-12 revealed promising antitubercular activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and INH-resistant M. tuberculosis. Compounds 8 against M. tuberculosis and 11 against INH-resistant M. tuberculosis exhibited the percentage of reduction in RLU at 89 and 85%, respectively. PMID:22373408
Kanagarajan, Vijayakumar; Ezhilarasi, Muthuvel Ramanathan; Gopalakrishnan, Mannathusamy
Commercially available topical formulations consisting of iodoquinol 1%-hydrocortisone acetate 2%, ciclopirox 0.77%, and clotrimazole 1%-betamethasone dipropionate 0.5% were assessed for their antimicrobial activity against cultures of Micrococcus luteus, Propionibacterium acnes, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Corynebacterium aquaticum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Malassezia furfur, Microsporum canis, Candida albicans, Trichophyton rubrum, or Epidermophyton floccosum. At 1 and 5 minutes following inoculation into suspensions of each product, aliquots were removed, serially diluted, and plated onto appropriate agar to determine the log reduction in colony-forming units (CFUs) for each organism. Iodoquinol 1% produced the broadest and greatest antimicrobial activity as measured by a 3-log reduction of CFU, active against all microbes tested following incubation times of 1 or 5 minutes, except M luteus. By contrast, ciclopirox 0.77% and clotrimazole 1% showed activity against P aeruginosa and T rubrum, with ciclopirox also killing M luteus, P acnes, M canis, C albicans, and E floccosum at 5 minutes. Iodoquinol 1%-hydrocortisone acetate 2% also was the only product that showed effective antibacterial reduction of MRSA at 1 minute. PMID:19055171
Burnett, Bruce P; Mitchell, Calvin M
Background The currently available antifungal drugs suffer from toxicity, greatest potential drug interactions with other drugs, insufficient pharmacokinetics properties, and development of resistance. Thus, development of new antifungal agents with optimum pharmacokinetics and less toxicity is urgent task. In the search for new azole antifungals, we have been previously described azolylchromanone oxime ethers as rigid analogs of oxiconazole. In continuation of our work, we incorporated phenylhydrazone moiety instead of oxime ether fragment in azolylchromanone derivatives. Methods The 3-azolyl-4-chromanone phenylhydrazones were synthesized via ring closure of 2-azolyl-2'-hydroxyacetophenones and subsequent reaction with phenylhydrazine. The biological activity of title compounds was evaluated against different pathogenic fungi including Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Aspergillus niger, and Microsporum gypseum. Docking study, in silico toxicity risks and drug-likeness predictions were used to better define of title compounds as antifungal agents. Results The in vitro antifungal activity of compounds based on MIC values revealed that all compounds showed good antifungal activity against C. albicans, S. cerevisiae and M. gypseum at concentrations less than 16 ?g/mL. Among the test compounds, 2-methyl-3-imidazolyl derivative 3b showed the highest values of drug-likeness and drug-score. Conclusion The 3-azolyl-4-chromanone phenylhydrazones considered as analogs of 3-azolyl-4-chromanone oxime ethers basically designed as antifungal agents. The antifungal activity of title compounds was comparable to that of standard drug fluconazole. The drug-likeness data of synthesized compounds make them promising leads for future development of antifungal agents.
Tinea capitis (TC) commonly called scalp ringworm is a worldwide concern and a public health problem in Africa. This study aimed at determining the epidemiologic profile of TC among school-aged children in the savanna zone of Cameroon. All children present at school during this study period, August 2011-July 2012, were examined for signs suggestive of TC. Children not registered at school were excluded from the study. Pathologic specimens were taken from suspected head lesions and cultured. Amongst the 4601 children, average age 10.7±0.16years, 377 presented with suggestive TC lesions giving a prevalence of 8.1%. The proportion of boys with TC was (63.7%) higher than in girls (36.3%) (P?0.05). TC manifestations varied; small plaques of alopecia 59.26% were the most frequent. Communal living was the most incriminated risk factor. Three hundred and thirty six isolates were obtained in culture. The prevalence was significantly higher (P<0.05) in age range between 8 and 12years, followed by that between 13 and 15. The most prevalent isolate was T. soudannense 56.8%, followed by T. rubrum 29.2%. Only 6.0% of the isolates belonged to the genus Microsporum. PMID:24746727
Kechia, F A; Kouoto, E A; Nkoa, T; Nweze, E I; Fokoua, D C M; Fosso, S; Somo, M R
Pramiconazole from Barrier Therapeutics Inc is a new addition to the family of triazole antifungal agents that act by inhibiting fungal cell membrane ergosterol synthesis, thereby leading to increased cell permeability and destruction. Barrier Therapeutics was developing an oral formulation of pramiconazole for the potential treatment of seborrheic dermatitis (erythematosquamous skin disease), onychomycosis and dermatomycosis (including tinea versicolor, tinea pedis and tinea cruris/corporis). In preclinical studies, pramiconazole exhibited similar or superior antifungal activity to ketoconazole and itraconazole, and selectively inhibited ergosterol synthesis with a broad spectrum activity. Pramiconazole was absorbed rapidly and had a long half-life, allowing for once-daily dosing. In phase I and II clinical trials, pramiconazole reduced the growth of Candida albicans, Malassezia globosa, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum, and was generally well tolerated. At the time of publication, Barrier Therapeutics had suspended the development of pramiconazole as part of a series of cost-cutting initiatives; the company had also been acquired by Stiefel Laboratories Inc. No formal announcement had been made regarding the further development of pramiconazole. The results of studies performed to date suggest that pramiconazole may be useful in the treatment of dermatomycoses when oral treatment is mandated. Promising preclinical and early phase II clinical data warrant the further development of the drug in larger clinical trials. PMID:18763217
Geria, Aanand N; Scheinfeld, Noah S
The epidemiology of human dermatophytes was studied in northern Finland in 1982-90. The samples were analysed at the Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Oulu. The total number of samples was 17,822, of which 3185 (18%) were positive. The annual number of samples and positive cultures remained relatively constant. Trichophyton rubrum was the most common species being isolated from 2101 samples (66% of all positive cultures), while Trichophyton mentagrophytes was isolated from 815 samples (26%) and Epidermophyton floccosum from 193 samples (6%). T. verrucosum caused an epidemic among cattle keepers in 1987-90, causing 47 infections. Microsporum canis, T. terrestre and T. violaceum were rare. The same species affected both children and adults. There was a tendency towards a decrease in tinea in the groin and a slight increase in tinea pedis. T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes occurred most frequently in patients aged 41-45 years and as foot infections. E. floccosum usually affected the toe web and the groin in patients aged 21-25 years, more often infecting men. Fifty-four per cent of all positive samples came from men and 46% from women. PMID:8569818
Lehenkari, E; Silvennoinen-Kassinen, S
Infections of the skin, hair and nails by dermatophyte fungi are common in developed and developing countries alike. However, the species involved and the resulting clinical entities vary both geographically and with time. We have surveyed 15,333 dermatophytes obtained from primary isolations at the Mycology Reference Laboratory, Bristol, UK from 1980 through 2005. Several striking trends in dermatophyte prevalence were apparent over this period. The relative frequencies of isolations of Microsporum canis (cat and dog ringworm), Trichophyton verrucosum (cattle ringworm), T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes (rodent ringworm) and Epidermophyton floccosum (a cause of human groin and foot infections) all decreased by 90%. Conversely, the contributions of T. tonsurans and T. violaceum (two anthropophilic scalp-infecting species) to total dermatophyte isolations increased by 1000% over the same period. Finally, T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale, the two common causes of foot infection comprised 80% of all dermatophytes isolated in 1980 and 90% of isolations in 2005. Similar trends in dermatophyte prevalence were evidenced throughout the British Isles, based on the voluntary reporting of isolations from a large number of British laboratories at 5-yearly intervals over the same period. The implications of these changing patterns of dermatophyte species, and the clinical entities they produce are discussed in the context of a review of worldwide dermatophyte isolations over the last three decades, with emphasis on the causal agents of tinea capitis. PMID:17365649
Borman, Andrew M; Campbell, Colin K; Fraser, Mark; Johnson, Elizabeth M
Although dermatophytes are the most common cause of fungal infections in the world, their basic biology is not well understood. The recent sequencing and annotation of the genomes of five representative dermatophyte species allows for the creation of hypotheses as to how they cause disease and have adapted to their distinct environments. An understanding of the microbiology of these strains will be essential for testing these hypotheses. This study is the first to generally characterize these five sequenced strains of dermatophytes for their microbiological aspects. We measured the growth rate on solid medium and found differences between species, with Microsporum gypseum CBS118893 having the fastest growth and Trichophyton rubrum CBS118892 the slowest. We also compared different media for conidia production and found that the highest numbers of conidia were produced when dermatophytes were grown on MAT agar. We determined the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of nine antifungal agents and confirmed susceptibility to antifungals commonly used as selectable markers. Finally, we tested virulence in the Galleria mellonella (wax moth) larvae model but found the results variable. These results increase our understanding of the microbiology and molecular biology of these dermatophyte strains and will be of use in advancing hypothesis-driven research about dermatophytes.
Achterman, Rebecca R.; Smith, Adam R.; Oliver, Brian G.; White, Theodore C.
Algae are bioactive natural resources, and due to the medical importance of superficial mycoses, we focused the action of macroalgae extracts against dermatophytes and Candida species. Seaweed obtained from the Riacho Doce beach, Alagoas (Brazil), were screened for the antifungal activity, through crude extracts using dichloromethane, chloroform, methanol, ethanol, water and chloroform and hexane fractions of green, brown and red algae in assays with standard strains of the dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum, T. tonsurans, T. mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis, M. gypseum and yeasts Candida albicans, C. krusei, C. guilliermondi and C. parapsilosis. The M44-A and M27-A2/M38A manuals by CLSI were followed, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranged from 0.03 to 16.00 ?g ml(-1), and an inhibition halo of 10.00-25.00 mm was observed for dermatophytes, while for yeast, it was from 8.00 to 16.00 ?g ml(-1) and 10.00-15.00 mm. M. canis showed MIC of 0.03 ?g ml(-1) and the largest inhibition halo in T. rubrum (25.00 mm) through the use of the methanol extract. For C. albicans, dichloromethane, methanol and ethanol extracts formed the largest inhibition halo. The ethanol extract was shown to be the best inhibiting fungi growth, and chloroform and hexane fractions of H. musciformis inhibited the growth of all dermatophytes and C. albicans, yielding the conclusion that apolar extracts obtained from algae presented the best activity against important pathogenic fungi. PMID:22528741
Guedes, Elica Amara Cecilia; Araújo, Maria Anilda dos Santos; Souza, Aryanna Kelly Pinheiro; de Souza, Larissa Isabela Oliveira; de Barros, Lurdiana Dayse; Maranhăo, Fernanda Cristina de Albuquerque; Sant'Ana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart
Infection rate, reaction to light, and hair follicle apoptosis are examined in the dogmite, Demodex canis Leydig (Prostigmata: Demodicidae), in dogs from the northern area of Taiwan. An analysis of relevant samples revealed 7.2% (73/1013) prevalence of D. canis infection. Infection during the investigation peaked each winter, with an average prevalence of 12.5% (32/255). The infection rates significantly varied in accordance with month, sex, age, and breed (p < 0.05). Most of the lesions were discovered on the backs of the infected animals, where the infection rate was 52.1% (38/73) (P < 0.05). The epidemiologic analysis of infection based on landscape area factor, found that employing a map-overlapping method showed a higher infection rate in the eastern distribution of Taiwan's northern area than other areas. Isolation tests for Microsporum canis Bodin (Onygenales: Arthrodermataceae) and Trichophyton mentagrophyte Robin (Blanchard) on the D. canis infected dogs revealed prevalence rates of 4.4% (2/45) and 2.2% (1/45), respectively. Observations demonstrated that D. canis slowly moved from a light area to a dark area. Skin samples were examined for cellular apoptosis by activated caspase3 immunohistochemical staining. Cells that surrounded the infected hair follicles were activated caspase3-positive, revealing cell apoptosis in infected follicles via the activation of caspase3.
Tsai, Yu-Jen; Chung, Wen-Cheng; Wang, Lian-Chen; Ju, Yu-Ten; Hong, Chin-Lin; Tsai, Yu-Yang; Li, Yi-Hung; Wu, Ying-Ling
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dermatophytes in stray cats with and without clinical lesions from different colonies in rural and urban areas of Milan and surroundings in northern Italy. Stray cats (273) were caught during a trap-neuter-release (TNR) program conducted in different colonies of northern Italy in both rural and urban areas. Each cat was examined in dark environment with a Wood's lamp prior to sample collection. Hair or scales exhibiting typical fluorescence were removed with a pair of sterile hemostats and cultured. The hair of all cats was then sampled by Mackenzie modified brush technique regardless of the presence or absence of skin lesions attributable to dermatophytosis. All the hair samples were subjected to fungal culture. 15 cats were positive (5.5%). Microsporum canis was the most common dermatophyte isolated (13/15). The only other isolated dermatophyte was Trichophyton mentagrophytes (2/15). Our estimated prevalence of dermatophytes in stray cats was much lower than other Italian studies on the same population.
Proverbio, Daniela; Perego, Roberta; Spada, Eva; Bagnagatti de Giorgi, Giada; Della Pepa, Alessandra
Bactericidal, bacteriostatic, fungistatic and toxicological evaluaton of an emulsion containing 0.25% hexachlorophene (W/V), 9.5% terpineol (V/V), 1.5% oil of terpentine (V/V), 13% ethanol (V/V), 6% castor oil distillate 1201275 degrees C (V/V) and 6% sodium salt of the residue (W/V) in aqueous medium was performed. The bactericidal concentration for Salmonella typhi was found to be 1:400 which increased to 1:350 in the presence of 5% horse serum. The bacteriostatic concentration of the emulsion varied from organism to organism. A 4% solution of the emulsione was found to be most effective against Microsporum vanbreuseghemii showing an inhibition zone of 7.2 cm and was least effective on Aspergillus niger. 1 to 8% solution of the emulsion given orally or instilled into conjunctival sacs of albino mice indicated lethal and insignificant toxic manifestations respectively but a dose equivalent to 50 mg/Kg given subcutaneously was found to produce a subacute lethal effect in guinea pigs. PMID:549568
Siddiqui, M A; Mahmood, I; Basit, N; Ahmed, S; Bukhari, A Q
The aim of the study was to determine zinc, copper and iron levels, erythrocyte oxidant/antioxidant status, vitamin C and ?-carotene in dogs with dermatophytosis. A total of 23 dogs with clinically established diagnosis of dermatophytosis by trichogram and positive fungal culture and six dogs as control were included in this study. On cultural examination 52.17% fungal isolates were found to be Microsporum canis, 30.43% were Trichophyton mentagrophytes and 17.39% were M. gypseum. In comparison to healthy control, the dogs with dermatophytosis had significantly lower levels of zinc (P < 0.01), copper (P < 0.05), ?-carotene and vitamin C levels (P < 0.05) and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) (P < 0.05) and catalase (P < 0.01), whereas the iron (P < 0.05) and malondialdehyde (MDA) (P < 0.01) levels were significantly increased. On correlation analysis, SOD activity was observed to be positively correlated (P < 0.05) with zinc and copper in both healthy and dermatophytosis affected dogs. In dermatophytosis affected dogs the MDA levels were negatively correlated (P < 0.05) with iron, ?-carotene levels and the activities of antioxidant enzymes; SOD and catalase. Our results demonstrated that dermatophytosis in dogs is associated with significant alteration in oxidant/antioxidant balance and trace elements. It might be secondary consequence of dermatophytosis infection or contributing factor in its pathogenesis. PMID:24329950
Beigh, S A; Soodan, J S; Singh, R; Khan, A M; Dar, M A
Griseofulvin has been introduced in 1958, ever since it remained the gold standard for the treatment of tinea capitis in the United States. Despite the availability of new antifungals like terbinafine, itraconazole and fluconazole -with few exceptions not licensed for their use in children - duration of tinea capitis treatment could not be shortened. The reasons therefore are the anatomic structure of the hair follicle, the dormant sebum-production before onset of puberty, and the way of action of the new antifungals. Although data concerning the pharmacokinetics of allylamines and triazoles in childhood-populations are lacking, some experience confirms a correlation of the way of action of modern antifungals and the causative pathogen. In children the treatment of Microsporum infections of the scalp is crucial. That may be explained by the unique pharmacokinetic features of the substance of terbinafine: Terbinafine neither can be excreted by sweat nor by sebum before onset of puberty. Terbinafine is incorporated in the keratin of mature terminal hair in the anagen phase. In children it will not be built in the hair shaft and therefore it will not reach the surface of the scalp where the sheets of arthro-conidia in microsporosis are located. This peculiar fact was not yet considered in clinical studies. PMID:20969728
Ginter-Hanselmayer, Gabriele; Seebacher, Claus
Previous studies have described some antibacterial effects of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) expressed in human skin, but little is known about their possible activity against dermatophytes. Therefore we have tested the effects of human ?-defensin 2 (hBD-2), ribonuclease 7 (RNase 7) and psoriasin on the in vitro growth of four dermatophyte species. Germinating conidia of Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis and Epidermophyton floccosum were exposed in vitro to hBD-2, RNase 7, psoriasin and fluconazole. Subsequent fungal growth was measured photometrically over 168 hours. All AMPs significantly inhibited fungal growth, with the degree of inhibition dependent on the dermatophyte species and the specific AMP. E. floccosum was found to be the most susceptible species in that it was markedly suppressed by all AMPs, whereas M. canis was inhibited only by psoriasin. Overall, psoriasin was the most effective AMP and had even stronger inhibitory effects on some dermatophytes than fluconazole. Our findings show that AMPs expressed in human skin can, in principal, inhibit the growth of dermatophytes in vitro. Therefore the question whether AMPs are relevant for human protection against tineas is justified and should be addressed by investigating their role in vivo. PMID:22332906
Fritz, Peter; Beck-Jendroschek, Vera; Brasch, Jochen
Dermatophytes are keratinophilic fungi that are the most common cause of fungal skin infections worldwide. Melanin has been isolated from several important human fungal pathogens, and the polymeric pigment is now recognized as an important virulence determinant. This study investigated whether dermatophytes, including Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum and Microsporum gypseum, produce melanin or melanin-like compounds in vitro and during infection. Digestion of the pigmented microconidia and macroconidia of dermatophytes with proteolytic enzymes, denaturant and hot concentrated acid yielded dark particles that retained the size and shape of the original fungal cells. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy revealed that particles derived from pigmented conidia contained a stable free radical signal, consistent with the pigments being a melanin. Immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated reactivity of a melanin-binding mAb with the pigmented conidia and hyphae, as well as the isolate particles. Laccase, an enzyme involved in melanization, was detected in the dermatophytes by an agar plate assay using 2,2?-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) as the substrate. Skin scrapings from patients with dermatophytoses contained septate hyphae and arthrospores that were reactive with the melanin-binding mAb. These findings indicate that dermatophytes can produce melanin or melanin-like compounds in vitro and during infection. Based on what is known about the function of melanin as a virulence factor of other pathogenic fungi, this pigment may have a similar role in the pathogenesis of dermatophytic diseases.
Pornsuwan, Soraya; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Dankai, Wiyada; Vanittanakom, Nongnuch
In the framework of a survey on dermatophytoses, 14,619 clinical specimens taken from outpatients with symptoms suggestive of tinea and referred to a Medical Mycology laboratory in Tehran, Iran, were analyzed by direct microscopy and culture. In total, 777 dermatophyte strains recovered in culture were randomly identified by a formerly established RFLP analysis method based on the rDNA ITS regions. For confirmation of species identification, 160 isolates representing the likely entire species spectrum were subjected to ITS-sequencing. Infection was confirmed in 5,175 collected samples (35.4%) by direct microscopy and/or culture. Tinea pedis was the most prevalent type of infection (43.4%), followed by tinea unguium (21.3%), tinea cruris (20.7%), tinea corporis (9.4%), tinea manuum (4.2%), tinea capitis (0.8%) and tinea faciei (0.2%). Trichophyton interdigitale was the most common isolate (40.5%) followed by T. rubrum (34.75%), Epidermophyton floccosum (15.6%), Microsporum canis (3.9%), T. tonsurans (3.5 %) and M. gypseum (0.5%). Other species included M. ferrugineum, T. erinacei, T. violaceum, T. schoenleinii, and a very rare species T. eriotrephon (each one 0.25%). The two strains of T. eriotrephon isolated from tinea manuum and tinea faciei are the second and third reported cases worldwide. Application of DNA-based methods is an important aid in monitoring trends in dermatophytosis in the community. PMID:22587730
Rezaei-Matehkolaei, Ali; Makimura, Koichi; de Hoog, Sybren; Shidfar, Mohammad Reza; Zaini, Farideh; Eshraghian, Mohammadreza; Naghan, Parvaneh Adimi; Mirhendi, Hossein
The antifungal, antibacterial, and insect-repellent activities of the essential oils (EOs) of Acantholippia seriphioides, Artemisia mendozana, Gymnophyton polycephalum, Satureja parvifolia, Tagetes mendocina, and Lippia integrifolia, collected in the Central Andes area, province of San Juan, Argentina, were investigated. The dermatophytes Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and T. rubrum were inhibited by the EOs of G. polycephalum, L. integrifolia, and S. parvifolia, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) between 31.2 and 1000??g/ml. Moreover, all EOs presented moderate activity against the bacteria tested, and the L. integrifolia and G. polycephalum EOs showed excellent repellent properties against Triatoma infestans, the Chagas disease vector, with repellency values between 60 and 100%. The A. seriphioides, G. polycephalum, and L. integrifolia EOs, obtained by hydrodistillation, were characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. The highest number of components (40) was identified in L. integrifolia EO, which, along with that of A. seriphioides, contained important amounts of oxygenated monoterpenes (44.35 and 29.72%, resp.). Thymol (27.61%) and carvacrol (13.24%) were the main components of A. seriphioides EO, and borneol, lippifoli-1(6)-en-5-one, and terpinen-4-ol (>8.5%) were the principal compounds of L. integrifolia EO. These results support the idea that oxygenated monoterpenes are the bioactive fractions of the EOs. Finally, the study shows that these Andean species might be used to treat superficial fungal infections and to improve the local Chagas disease situation by vector-control. PMID:21560241
Lima, Beatriz; López, Sandra; Luna, Lorena; Agüero, María B; Aragón, Liliana; Tapia, Alejandro; Zacchino, Susana; López, María L; Zygadlo, Julio; Feresin, Gabriela E
Fourteen cases of dermatophytosis were identified from medical records of red pandas (Ailurus fulgens fulgens) housed at the Knoxville Zoo between 1980 and 1996. The median age of affected animals on initial presentation was 8.5 wk (3 wk-11 mo). Clinical signs included crusting, purulent exudate, alopecia, thickening of affected skin, ulceration, and necrosis. Seven animals had mild lesions with signs restricted to crusting and/or alopecia, and six animals had more severe infections, with ulceration, skin necrosis, and purulent exudate. Five of the severely affected pandas had tail involvement. The severity of disease affecting one individual was not recorded. Dermatophytosis was confirmed by culture, cytology, histopathology, or culture followed by histopathology. Microsporum gypseum was the only fungal organism cultured. Six animals were treated for mild disease, and all clinical signs resolved. Partial tail amputation was required as part of the treatment regimen for two of the six severely affected animals, and two others had ulcerated tail lesions that left circumferential scarring after resolution of infection. Itraconazole (5 mg/kg p.o. q 12-24 hr) was the most frequently used systemic antifungal agent in animals with severe lesions. All fungal infections resolved, although one panda died from unrelated causes early in the treatment period. PMID:10749446
Kearns, K S; Pollock, C G; Ramsay, E C
We conducted a recent survey of dermatological fungal infections amongst children in both urban and rural parts of Anambra State in the south-east geographical flank of Nigeria during the period January 2003 to December 2003. Samples were collected from 1624 children with clinically suggestive lesions and also between the ages of 4 and 16. Young children aged 7-11 and 4- 6 years had significantly higher incidences (P < 0.05) than their older colleagues aged 12-16 years among samples proved to be mycologically positive by microscopy, culture or both. There was a significant difference in the incidence of dermatophytoses amongst children in urban and rural areas investigated (P < 0.05). Tinea capitis was the predominant clinical type. Trichophyton tonsurans was the most prevalent etiological agent while Microsporum audouinii was the least in occurrence. We compared our result with a recent study in the northern geographical zone and observed that although incidence of dermatophytoses is higher in northern Nigeria, tinea capitis was the predominant clinical type in both regions. In addition, the etiological agents appear to vary from time to time in their occurrence and the reasons for these observations are discussed. A regular surveillance and assessment of the etiologic agent and its prevalence by medical mycologists is strongly recommended to facilitate monitoring, reduce/prevent transmission and spread of dermatophytes in countries like Nigeria where they constitute a public health problem. PMID:16205973
Nweze, E I; Okafor, J I
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of aqueous, ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts from neem leaves on growth of some human pathogens (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus, Candida albicans and Microsporum gypseum) in vitro. Different concentrations (5, 10, 15 and 20%) prepared from these extracts inhibited the growth of the test pathogens and the effect gradually increased with concentration. The 20% ethyl acetate extract gave the strongest inhibition compared with the activity obtained by the same concentration of the other extracts. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis of ethyl acetate extract showed the presence of a main component (nimonol) which was purified and chemically confirmed by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopic analysis. The 20% ethyl acetate extract lost a part of its antifungal effect after pooling out the nimonol and this loss in activity was variable on test pathogens. The purified nimonol as a separate compound did not show any antifungal activity when assayed against all the six fungal pathogens.
Mahmoud, D.A.; Hassanein, N.M.; Youssef, K.A.; Abou Zeid, M.A.
This study aimed to assess the sanitary quality of water, and wet and dry sand from three beaches located in the South Coast region of Săo Paulo State, Brazil, selected taking into account the frequency of tourists and the water quality (good, fair and poor). Thirty-six water samples each of wet and dry sand and seawater were collected monthly over a period of one year and analyzed for fecal indicator bacteria (FIB: thermotolerant coliforms, Escherichia coli, and enterococci), presumptive Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and dermatophytes. The results revealed FIB concentrations more elevated in dry sand followed by wet sand and water. P. aeruginosa and presumptive S. aureus were detected with a similar frequency in water and sand samples, but maximum concentrations and geometric means were higher in dry sand. C. albicans was detected only in water samples whereas the dermatophyte Microsporum sp. was isolated exclusively from dry and wet sand samples. This evaluation showed also that the environment had a significant influence on P. aeruginosa but not on presumptive S. aureus concentrations. According to threshold values proposed in the literature for E. coli and enterococci dry sand densities, none of the beaches would be considered of sufficient quality for recreational activities. PMID:23032781
Pinto, K C; Hachich, E M; Sato, M I Z; Di Bari, M; Coelho, M C L S; Matté, M H; Lamparelli, C C; Razzolini, M T P
Tinea capitis (TC) is a common dermatophyte infection affecting primarily prepubertal children. The causative pathogens belong to only two genera: Trichophyton and Microsporum. Although there is a great local variation in the epidemiology of TC worldwide, T. tonsurans is currently the most common cause of TC with M. canis second. Even though there is an emerging number of anthropophilic scalp infections, M. canis remains the predominant causative organism in many countries of the Mediterranean basin, the most important dermatophyte carriers being stray cats and dogs as well as pet puppies, kittens and rabbits. TC always requires systemic treatment because topical antifungal agents do not penetrate down to the deepest part of the hair follicle. Since the late 1950s, griseofulvin has been the gold standard for systemic therapy of TC. It is active against dermatophytes and has a long-term safety profile. The main disadvantage of griseofulvin is the long duration of treatment required which may lead to reduced compliance. The newer oral antifungal agents including terbinafine, itraconazole, ketokonazole, and fluconazole appear to have efficacy rates and potential adverse effects similar to those of griseofulvin in children with TC caused by Trichophyton species, while requiring a much shorter duration of treatment. They may, however, be more expensive.
Bennassar, Antoni; Grimalt, Ramon
The production of proteases was investigated during growth of dermatophytic fungi with special emphasis on Trichophyton rubrum. Exogenous glucose suppressed elastase production in all dermatophytes examined. The production of protease active guinea pig hair in keratin-salts broth by Microsporum gypseum. Trichophyton mentagrophytes and T. rubrum was also suppressed by glucose. Various carbohydrates added to keratin-salts broth curtailed protease production by T. rubrum as did individual amino acids but ammonium phosphate did not. Enzyme activities against guinea pig hair were compared in twenty-one diverse clinical isolates of T. rubrum cultured in keratin-salts broth. Activity also occurred towards casein, bovine serum albumin, keratin, collagen and elastin after keratin-growth. Studies concerning the properties of enzyme activities in culture filtrates of T. rubrum after keratin-growth suggested that multiple proteases occurred here. Hydrolysis of guinea pig hair and elastin were optimal at pH7 while keratinase was most active at alkaline pH. Divalent cations stimulated protease(s). Ferric ion and mercuric ion stimulated keratinase but were inhibitory to guinea pig hair hydrolysis and elastase. Chelating agents inhibited elastase and the hydrolysis of guinea pig hair more severely than keratinase and all of those effects were reversed by excess calcium. A serine-protease inhibitor, phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride (PMSF), curtailed keratinase but was less inhibitory to elastase and guinea pig hair hydrolysis. Soybean trypsin inhibitor arrested each protease. PMID:94467
Meevootisom, V; Niederpruem, D J
A new series of three biologically active triazole derived Schiff base ligands L1-L3 have been synthesized in equimolar reaction of 3-amino-1H-1,2,4-triazole with pyrrol-2-carboxaldehyde, 4-bromo-thiophene-2-carboxaldehyde, and 5-iodo-2-hydroxy benzaldehyde. The prepared Schiff bases were used for further complex formation reaction with different metal elements like Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) as chlorides by using a molar ratio of ligand:metal as 2:1. The structure and bonding nature of all the compounds were identified by their physical, spectral and analytical data. All the metal(II) complexes possessed an octahedral geometry except the Cu(II) complexes which showed a distorted octahedral geometry. All the synthesized compounds, were studied for their in vitro antibacterial, and antifungal activities, against four Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi) and two Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) bacterial strains and against six fungal strains (Trichophyton longifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani and Candida glabrata) by using agar-well diffusion method. It has been shown that all the synthesized compounds showed moderate to significant antibacterial activity against one or more bacterial strains. In vitro Brine Shrimp bioassay was also carried out to investigate the cytotoxic properties of these compounds. The data also revealed that the metal complexes showed better activity than the ligands due to chelation/coordination.
Hanif, Muhammad; Chohan, Zahid H.
A series of new triazoles and their oxovanadium(IV) complexes have been synthesized, characterized and evaluated for antibacterial/antifungal properties. The new Schiff bases ligands (L1)-(L5) were prepared by the condensation reaction of 3,5-diamino-1,2,4-triazole with 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde, pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde, pyridine-2-carboxaldehyde, 2-acetyl pyridine and 2-methoxy benzaldehyde. The structures of the ligands have been established on the basis of their physical, spectral (IR, 1H and 13C NMR and mass spectrometry) and elemental analytical data. The prepared ligands were used to synthesize their oxovanadium(IV) complexes (1)-(5) which were also characterized by their physical, spectral and analytical data and proposed to have a square pyramidal geometry. The ligands and their complexes were screened for in vitro antibacterial activity against six bacterial species such as, Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis and for in vitro antifungal activity against six fungal strains, Trichophyton longifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani, and Candida glabrata. Cytotoxic nature of the compounds was also reported using brine shrimp bioassay method against Artemia salina.
Sumrra, Sajjad H.; Chohan, Zahid H.
A series of new pyrazoline derivatives (1b-4c) bearing N-acyl arms and nine to twelve carbon long alkoxy side chains was synthesized and characterized on the basis of spectroscopic data and microanalysis. The nature of self-assembly to understand the interplay of alkoxy chain crystallization and various supramolecular interactions was investigated using single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Interesting self-assembled supramolecular structures of 1b and 4c were observed in the crystal lattice owing to various CH?O, H?H, CH??, lonepair?? and ??? interactions. Further, all the synthesized compounds (1b-4c) were screened for their in vitro antifungal and anti-inflammatory activities. Compounds 2b, 3b, 2c and 3c showed significant to moderate antifungal activity against Microsporum canis whereas most of the other compounds were found inactive against all the five tested fungal strains. Good anti-inflammatory activity was observed for compounds 1b with IC50 value 331 ?M compared to 273 ?M for Indomethacine, a standard reference drug. The bio-activity data demonstrates the relationship between lipophilicity, solubility and bioavailability. PMID:24177882
Abbas, Asghar; Nazir, Habiba; Naseer, Muhammad Moazzam; Bolte, Michael; Hussain, Safdar; Hafeez, Noureen; Hasan, Aurangzeb
Microsporum canis sensitive to itraconazole and terbinafine was isolated from two cats presented with generalized dermatophytosis and dermatophyte mycetoma. Itraconazole therapy was withdrawn through lack of efficacy in one cat (a Persian) and unacceptable adverse effects in the other (a Maine Coon). Both cats achieved clinical and mycological cure after 12-14 weeks therapy with 26-31 mg kg(-1) terbinafine every 24 h per os (PO). Clinical signs in the Maine Coon resolved completely after 7 weeks treatment. Four weeks of therapy with additional weekly washes with a 2% chlorhexidine/2% miconazole shampoo following clipping produced a 98% reduction in the Persian cat's mycetoma, which was then surgically excised. Recurrent generalized dermatophytosis in the Persian cat has been managed with pulse therapy with 26 mg kg(-1) terbinafine every 24 h PO for 1 week in every month. No underlying conditions predisposing to dermatophytosis were found in either cat despite extensive investigation. Terbinafine administration was associated with mild to moderate lethargy in the Persian cat, but no other adverse effects or changes in blood parameters were seen. To the best of the authors' knowledge this is the first report of a dermatophyte mycetoma in a Maine Coon and of successful resolution of this condition in cats following terbinafine therapy. PMID:19055614
Nuttall, T J; German, A J; Holden, S L; Hopkinson, C; McEwan, N A
A 2 per cent miconazole/2 per cent chlorhexidine shampoo was used in two groups of Persian cats infected with Microsporum canis. In the first group, the cats were treated with griseofulvin alone while, in the second, griseofulvin was used with the shampoo. The clinical signs of the cats were scored on a scale of 1 to 4 for seborrhoea, ease of epilation of hair and the extent of primary lesions, to try to give an overall impression of hair coat condition. The speed of resolution of the infection was assessed in terms of time to mycological cure. Samples were taken from the environment of both groups to assess the degree of environmental contamination at the end of treatment. No statistically significant difference was found between the two groups for time to mycological cure, although the lesion scores in the second group decreased significantly more quickly than those of the first group. Additionally, no dermatophytes were cultured from the environment in the second group at the end of the study. PMID:10340245
Extracts from the Andean lichens Protousnea poeppigii and Usnea florida displayed antimicrobial activity against the pathogenic fungi Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and T. rubrum with MIC values between 50 and 100 microg/mL. From the active extracts, four main metabolites were isolated and identified as the new depside, isodivaricatic acid, and the known metabolites 5-propylresorcinol, divaricatinic acid and usnic acid. Isodivaricatic acid and divaricatinic acid presented antifungal effect towards M. gypseum with a MIC of 50 microg/mL and against T. mentagrophytes and T. rubrum and with MIC values of 50 and 100 microg/mL, respectively. The new isodivaricatic acid was active towards Leishmania amazonensis, Leishmania brasiliensis and Leishmania infantum promastigotes with 100% lysis at 100 microg/mL.The activity of the new compound decreased on acetylation of the hydroxy groups as well as on methylation of the acid function. The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic means. The spectroscopic data of isodivaricatic acid are presented here for the first time. PMID:18058986
Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Tapia, Alejandro; Lima, Beatriz; Pertino, Mariano; Sortino, Maximiliano; Zacchino, Susana; Arias, Antonieta Rojas de; Feresin, Gabriela Egly
Summary Background Onychomycosis responds to systemic antifungals and sometimes to topical lacquers, but alternative treatments are desirable. Topical application of germicidal ultraviolet (UV) C radiation may be an acceptable and effective therapy for infected nails. Objectives To test the ability of UVC to inactivate dermatophyte suspensions in vitro and to sterilize a novel ex vivo model of nail infection. Methods Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum and Microsporum canis suspensions were irradiated with UVC (254 nm) at a radiant exposure of 120 mJ cm?2 and surviving colony-forming units quantified. T. rubrum infecting porcine hoof slices and human toenail clippings was irradiated with UVC at radiant exposures of 36–864 J cm?2. Results In vitro studies showed that 3–5 logs of cell inactivation in dermatophyte suspensions were produced with 120 mJ cm?2 UVC irradiation. Depending on factors such as the thickness and infectious burden of the ex vivo cultures, the radiant exposure of UVC needed for complete sterilization was usually in the order of tens to hundreds of J cm?2. Resistance of T. rubrum to UVC irradiation did not increase after five cycles of subtotal inactivation in vitro. Conclusions UVC irradiation may be a less invasive treatment option for onychomycosis, when the appropriate consideration is given to safety.
Dai, T.; Tegos, G.P.; Rolz-Cruz, G.; Cumbie, W.E.; Hamblin, M.R.
Inflammatory Tinea capitis (TC) is a rare form of TC. The aim of this study was to review epidemiological, clinical and mycological profile of inflammatory TC. We present a retrospective study (1999-2010), enrolled all the cases of inflammatory TC observed at a referral hospital in the northern Tunisia. One hundred and twenty-one patients with inflammatory TC, 83 male patients (68.6%) and 38 female patients (31.4%) were enrolled. The mean age was about 8 years. A majority of TC (71.9%) were in patients lesser than 10 years of age. Positive family history and contact with animals were noted in seven and 35 cases respectively. Direct examination was positive in 110 cases (59 ectothrix, 51 endothrix) and positive cultures were obtained in 105 patients (49 Trichophyton violaceum, 31 Microsporum canis, 13 Trichophyton interdigitale complex, 12 Trichophyton verrucosum). Systemic treatment was carried out in 115 patients with griseofulvin, in one with terbinafine. A complete recovery was noted in 88 cases; and persistent alopecia in 28 cases. The inflammatory TC is rare, but more common in rural families. The disease mostly affected male genders (68.6%) and T. violaceum remains the common pathogen of inflammatory TC in northern Tunisia. PMID:22757767
Zaraa, Inčs; Hawilo, Abdelmohti; Aounallah, Amina; Trojjet, Sondes; El Euch, Dalenda; Mokni, Mourad; Ben Osman, Amel
Animal hoarders accumulate animals in over-crowded conditions without adequate nutrition, sanitation, and veterinary care. As a result, animals rescued from hoarding frequently have a variety of medical conditions including respiratory infections, gastrointestinal disease, parasitism, malnutrition, and other evidence of neglect. The purpose of this study was to characterize the infectious diseases carried by clinically affected cats and to determine the prevalence of retroviral infections among cats in large-scale cat hoarding investigations. Records were reviewed retrospectively from four large-scale seizures of cats from failed sanctuaries from November 2009 through March 2012. The number of cats seized in each case ranged from 387 to 697. Cats were screened for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in all four cases and for dermatophytosis in one case. A subset of cats exhibiting signs of upper respiratory disease or diarrhea had been tested for infections by PCR and fecal flotation for treatment planning. Mycoplasma felis (78%), calicivirus (78%), and Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (55%) were the most common respiratory infections. Feline enteric coronavirus (88%), Giardia (56%), Clostridium perfringens (49%), and Tritrichomonas foetus (39%) were most common in cats with diarrhea. The seroprevalence of FeLV and FIV were 8% and 8%, respectively. In the one case in which cats with lesions suspicious for dermatophytosis were cultured for Microsporum canis, 69/76 lesional cats were culture-positive; of these, half were believed to be truly infected and half were believed to be fomite carriers. Cats from large-scale hoarding cases had high risk for enteric and respiratory infections, retroviruses, and dermatophytosis. Case responders should be prepared for mass treatment of infectious diseases and should implement protocols to prevent transmission of feline or zoonotic infections during the emergency response and when transferring the rescued cats to other shelters or to adopters. PMID:24934262
Polak, K C; Levy, J K; Crawford, P C; Leutenegger, C M; Moriello, K A
Tinea pedis is a chronic fungal infection of the feet, very often observed in patients who are immuno-suppressed or have diabetes mellitus. The practicing allergist may be called upon to treat this disease for various reasons. Sometimes tinea infection may be mistaken for atopic dermatitis or allergic eczema. In other patients, tinea pedis may complicate allergy and asthma and may contribute to refractory atopic disease. Patients with recurrent cellulitis may be referred to the allergist/immunologist for an immune evaluation and discovered to have tinea pedis as a predisposing factor. From a molecular standpoint, superficial fungal infections may induce a type2 T helper cell response (Th2) that can aggravate atopy. Th2 cytokines may induce eosinophil recruitment and immunoglobulin E (IgE) class switching by B cells, thereby leading to exacerbation of atopic conditions. Three groups of fungal pathogens, referred to as dermatophytes, have been shown to cause tinea pedis: Trychophyton sp, Epidermophyton sp, and Microsporum sp. The disease manifests as a pruritic, erythematous, scaly eruption on the foot and depending on its location, three variants have been described: interdigital type, moccasin type, and vesiculobullous type. Tinea pedis may be associated with recurrent cellulitis, as the fungal pathogens provide a portal for bacterial invasion of subcutaneous tissues. In some cases of refractory asthma, treatment of the associated tinea pedis infection may induce remission in airway disease. Very often, protracted topical and/or oral antifungal agents are required to treat this often frustrating and morbid disease. An evaluation for underlying immuno-suppression or diabetes may be indicated in patients with refractory disease.
Al Hasan, Muhannad; Fitzgerald, S Matthew; Saoudian, Mahnaz; Krishnaswamy, Guha
An epidemiological investigation on dermatophytoses in Japan for the year 1997 was carried out with the following results. The number of dermatomycoses patients visiting the fourteen cooperating institutes that year was 8,284. New outpatients with this condition accounted for 13.3% of all new outpatients in these institutes. Dermatophytoses patients numbered 7,314 and were composed of: tinea pedis 4,901 (63.8%), tinea unguium 1,592 (20.7%), tinea corporis 557 (7.2%), tinea cruris 395 (5.1%), tinea manuum 215 (2.8%), tinea capitis 12, kerion celsi 3, tinea barbae 1 and granuloma trichophyticum 1. Of these, 117 were children under 15 years of age. Species and incidences of the 2,273 strains isolated from the patients with dermatophytoses were as follows: Trichophyton (T.) rubrum 1,628 (71.6%), T. mentagrophytes 617 (27.2%), Epidermophyton floccosum 9 (0.4%), Microsporum (M.) canis 2, M. gypseum 2, T. glabrum 1, and 15 undetermined strains. Candidiasis was found in 714 individuals: intertrigo 302, erosio interdigitalis 108, erythema infantum 85, oral candidiasis 51, paronychia et onychia 51, genital candidiasis 50, onychomycosis 15 and other atypical forms of candidiasis 39. Patients with tinea versicolor numbered 242 and those with malassezia folliculitis 15. There were nine cases of deep dermal mycoses. The results of superficial dermatophytoses for the year 1997 differed from those of 1991-92 in the following points: tinea corporis and tinea cruris were lower in number, while tinea unguium had increased in ratio and number continuously. M. canis infection tended to decrease. In the age distribution of tinea, in every clinical form the peak of distribution curve gradually shifted to a more elderly age group. PMID:11173330
The etiologic agents of the dermatophytoses (ringworm) are classified in three anamorphic (asexual or imperfect) genera, Epidermophyton, Microsporum, and Trichophyton. Species capable of reproducing sexually belong in the teleomorphic genus, Arthroderma, of the Ascomycota. On the basis of primary habitat association, they may be grouped as geophilic (soil associated), zoophilic, and anthropophilic. Adaptation to growth on humans by most geophilic species resulted in diminished loss of sporulation, sexuality, and other soil-associated characteristics. The dermatophytes have the ability to invade keratinized tissue (skin, hair, and nails) but are usually restricted to the nonliving cornified layer of the epidermis because of their inability to penetrate viable tissue of an immunocompetent host. However, invasion does elicit a host response ranging from mild to severe. Acid proteinases, elastase, keratinases, and other proteinases reportedly act as virulence factors. The development of cell-mediated immunity correlated with delayed hypersensitivity and an inflammatory response is associated with clinical cure, whereas the lack of or a defective cell-mediated immunity predisposes the host to chronic or recurrent dermatophyte infection. Chronic dermatophytosis is mostly caused by Trichophyton rubrum, and there is some evidence that mannan produced by this fungus suppresses or diminishes the inflammatory response. Since dermatophytes cause a communicable disease, modes of transmission and control are discussed as well as a survey of recent trends in therapy. Collection of specimens, culture media, and tests for identification are also presented. Genetic studies have led to an understanding of incompatibility mechanisms, pleomorphism and variation, resistance to griseofulvin, and virulence. Molecular biology has contributed to our knowledge of the taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of dermatophytes.
Weitzman, I; Summerbell, R C
The performance of repetitive-sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) using the DiversiLab system for identification of dermatophytes commonly isolated in a clinical laboratory was assessed by comparing results to those of conventional tests (colony morphology, microscopic examination of slide cultures, and, for suspected Trichophyton species, use of additional media). Sixty-one cultures were tested in phase 1, the feasibility portion of the study; 64 additional cultures were tested in phase 2, the validation portion conducted to assess reproducibility and confirm accuracy. Discrepancies were resolved by repeating rep-PCR and conventional tests and, in phase 2, sequencing the internal transcribed spacers. After initial testing of the cultures in phase 1 (excluding one contaminated culture), agreement between conventional tests and rep-PCR was 90% (54 of 60). Agreement was 98.3% after resolution of discrepancies, and in all but one case the initial rep-PCR result was correct. After initial testing of cultures in phase 2 (excluding one discarded and one contaminated culture), agreement between rep-PCR and conventional testing was 88.7% (55 of 62). After discrepancies were resolved, agreement was 100%. Initial rep-PCR results were correct, except for one Microsporum canis culture containing two colony variants, which could not be initially identified by rep-PCR. The performance of the DiversiLab system for identification of the dermatophytes commonly encountered in a clinical mycology laboratory—Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton tonsurans, and M. canis—was excellent. Moreover, the DiversiLab system is technically simple and provides results in <24 h once a pure culture is available for testing, which is considerably more rapid than conventional identification tests.
Pounder, June I.; Williams, Sheri; Hansen, Dewey; Healy, Mimi; Reece, Kristy; Woods, Gail L.
Due to the pleomorphism and cultural variability displayed by species of the genus Trichophyton, the identification methods based solely on morphological features are usually insufficient for their classification. The goal of the present work was to test a set of phenotypic methods in order to identify fungal isolates that belong to the aforementioned genus. These methods were based on a molecular taxonomic technique used as standard. Clinical isolates (56) were used as samples along with 6 reference strains. Macro and micromorphological studies were performed as well as biochemical and physiological tests such as in vitro hair perforation, nutritional requirements in Trichophyton agar media, urease production and growth on bromocresol purple-milk. solids-glucose (BCP-MS-G) agar. Additionally, PCR fingerprinting using the (GACA)4 primer was employed. As a result of the PCR method, specific profiles were observed for Microsporum canis, Epidermophyton floccosum, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale. Identical profiles were obtained for Arthroderma benhamiae y Trichophyton erinacei. Of the total number of clinical isolates, 39 matched the T. rubrum profile while 13 corresponded to A. benhamiae and 4 to T. interdigitale. The most useful phenotypic test to differentiate between T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes complex strains was alkalinization of the BCP-MS-G medium. Phenotypic tests did not allow differentiation among the T. mentagrophytes complex species. On the other hand, the molecular technique allowed characterization of T. rubrum isolates as well as of those observed in our study and included in the T. mentagrophytes complex: T. interdigitale and Trichophyton sp., the anamorph of A. benhamiae. PMID:24401778
Tartabini, Mirta L; Bonino, Guillermo S; Racca, Liliana; Luque, Alicia G
Background The present study was carried out to assess the phytochemical and anti-dermatophytic effect of the leaf and bark extracts of Xylosma longifolium Clos. The leaf and stem bark are used by the indigenous people of Manipur, India for treatment of skin diseases. Methods The leaves and stem barks of Xylosma longifolium were extracted using petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol respectively. The different extracts of each plant parts were tested for antioxidant activity using DPPH assay. The phenolic content was assayed using Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method. Each extracts was further analysed by RP-HPLC to quantify some individual flavonoid components. The anti-dermatophytic activity was evaluated both by agar diffusion method and micro wells dilution method against the Microsporum boullardii MTCC 6059, M. canis (MTCC 2820 and MTCC 32700), M. gypseum MTCC 2819, Trichophyton ajelloi MTCC 4878, T. rubrum (MTCC 296 and MTCC 3272). Results The free radical scavenging activity values were ranged from 0.7 to 1.41 mg/ml and 0.6 to 1.23 mg/ml, respectively for leaf and stem bark extracts. The amount of total phenolic contents of the extracts occurred in both leaf and bark in the range of 12 to 56.6 mg GAE/100 g and 16 to 58 mg GAE/100 g respectively. RP-HPLC analysis for flavonoids revealed the presence of two major flavonoid compounds, rutin and catechin. Kaempferol was in trace or absent. Methanol leaf extract showed significant low inhibitory effect against tested fungus Trichophyton ajelloi MTCC 4878 (0.140625 mg/ml) as the most sensitive. These finding suggest that the methanol leaf extract tested contain compounds with antimicrobial properties. Conclusion The results of our study may partially justify the folkloric uses on the plant studied and further provide an evidence that the leaf extract of Xylosma longifolium might be indeed a potential sources of antimicrobial agents.
Normal fungal conjunctiva microbiota of horses remains stable in healthy animals, free from ocular and/or systemic diseases which may, eventually, cause ocular alterations. The knowledge of the fungal microbiota is of great importance due to the reduced number of studies reported in the literature and also to the large occurrence of ocular alterations, mainly keratomycosis, in these animals. The aim of this study was to isolate and to identify the fungi present in the ocular conjunctiva of healthy horses belonging to the Military Police Cavalry of Alagoas. Samples from both conjunctival sacks from 50 horses were taken using a sterile swab and submitted to fungal cultures. These samples were seeded by radial spreading of the swabs on the Sabouraud agar surface with chloramphenicol, at a concentration of 50mg/L, in Petri dishes. Next, dishes were incubated at room temperature (± 28°C) for 15 days. Horses conjunctival fungal microbiota was found to be composed by Aspergillus spp. (62%), Microsporum gypseum (6%), Penicillium spp. (6%), Curvularia spp. (5%), Candida spp. (3%), Fusarium spp. (3%), Acremonium spp. (2%), Bipolaris sp. (1%), Cladosporium sp. (1%), Chrysosporium sp. (1%), Rhodotorula sp. (1%), Aureobasidium sp. (1%) and Scopulariopsis sp. (1%). There is a wide variety of yeast-like and filamentous fungi colonizing the clinically healthy horses’ ocular conjunctiva, out of which Aspergillus sp. is predominant. Although this was a straightforward study and have not recorded any ocular lesions that suggest fungi infections, these fungi might eventually be involved in this type of ocular pathology for the studied species.
de Sousa, Maria Evodia; Araujo, Maria Anilda dos Santos; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido; Porto, Wagnner Jose Nascimento; Souza, Aryanna Kelly Pinheiro; dos Santos, Josimeire Lima; da Silva, Patricia Paes
Dermatomycoses due to contact with pets and livestock frequently affect children and young adults. Zoophilic dermatophytes are the main important causative agents. It has long been known that the often high inflammatory dermatophytoses of the skin and the scalp are caused mostly by Microsporum canis. Due to an absence of an obligation for reporting fungal infections of the skin to the Public Health Office in Germany, an unnoticed but significant change in responsible pathogens has occurred. Today an increasing number of infections due to zoophilic strains of Trichophyton interdigitale (formerly Trichophyton mentagrophytes) and Trichophyton species of Arthroderma benhamiae are found. The latter mentioned dermatophyte is the anamorph species of the teleomorph Arthroderma benhamiae, which originally was isolated in the Far East (Japan). Source of infection of these dermatophytes are small rodents, in particular guinea pigs. These animals are bought in pet shops by the parents of those children who later are affected by the fungal infection. The coincidental purchase of the relevant fungal pathogen is not obvious to the parents. As a consequence, highly contagious dermatophytoses occur, often tinea capitis sometimes with kerion formation. Further dermatophytes should be considered as cause of a zoophilic dermatomycosis. Both Trichophyton verrucosum, the cause of the ringworm in cattle, and Trichophyton erinacei following contact to hedgehogs are worthy of note. Yeasts cannot be ignored as cause of dermatomycosis, especially Malassezia pachydermatis, the only non-lipophilic species within the genus Malassezia, which can be transferred from dog to men. Cryptococcus neoformans also comes from animal sources. The mucous yeast occurs in bird's dropping, and it causes both pulmonary and central nervous system infections, but also primary and secondary cutaneous cryptococcosis in immunocompromised patients (HIV/AIDS) as possible consequence after contact to these animals. PMID:23114507
Nenoff, P; Handrick, W; Krüger, C; Vissiennon, T; Wichmann, K; Gräser, Y; Tchernev, G
Two hundred and eleven dogs (including strictly house and stray dogs) and 170 cattle in and around the city of Madras, India were screened for the presence of dermatophytosis. 106 strains of dermatophytes (89 strains from dogs and 17 strains from bovines) were isolated. 57/106 strains were Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes and 42/106 strains were of the Microsporum gypseum complex. 5 strains of T. rubrum and 2 strains of T. simii were also obtained in culture. A predominance of M. gypseum complex isolates was recorded in stray dogs and cattle and T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes and T. rubrum in strictly house dogs. The family history of the owners of the most of the dogs had clear records of dermatophytosis. Further, the owners of the 11 dogs that yielded T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes had either tinea corporis or tinea pedis. The etiological agent of all the 11 human cases was T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale. Similarly the owners of 4 of the 5 dogs that yielded T. rubrum were known T. rubrum patients. All these patients responded to oral griseofulvin or ketaconozole, but the recurrence of lesions was noted with the cessation of treatment. None of the patients had onychomycosis and the family history of all the patients revealed no reports of T. rubrum infections. The pet dogs were presumed to be the source of re-infection. Reversed transmission of dermatophytes from humans to animals may be the reason for the selective predominance of these organisms in strictly house dogs. They also may act as sources of reinfection. Most of the animals had small, occult, scattered lesions. These lesions may either go unnoticed or are ignored by the owners of the animals. The taxonomic status of T. mentagrophytes and T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale was aligned to their teleomorph Arthroderma vanbreuseghemii. Our study suggests that the periodic screening and medication of all live-stock are essential for the prevention and management of the public health problem caused by dermatophytes. PMID:9691501
Ranganathan, S; Balajee, S A; Raja, S M
Both Cinnamomum verum J.S. Presl. and Cinnamomum cassia Blume are collectively called Cortex Cinnamonmi for their medicinal cinnamon bark. Cinnamomum verum is more popular elsewhere in the world, whereas C. cassia is a well known traditional Chinese medicine. An analysis of hydro-distilled Chinese cinnamon oil and pure cinnamaldehyde by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry revealed that cinnamaldehyde is the major component comprising 85% in the essential oil and the purity of cinnamaldehyde in use is high (> 98%). Both oil and pure cinnamaldehyde of C. cassia were equally effective in inhibiting the growth of various isolates of bacteria including Gram-positive (1 isolate, Staphylococcus aureus), and Gram-negative (7 isolates, E. coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Samonella typhymurium), and fungi including yeasts (four species of Candida, C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, and C. krusei), filamentous molds (4 isolates, three Aspergillus spp. and one Fusarium sp.) and dermatophytes (three isolates, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum and T. mentagraphytes). Their minimum inhibition concentrations (MIC) as determined by agar dilution method varied only slightly. The MICs of both oil and cinnamaldehyde for bacteria ranged from 75 microg/ml to 600 microg/ml, for yeasts from 100 microg/ml to 450 microg/ml, for filamentous fungi from 75 microg/ml to 150 microg/ml, and for dermatophytes from 18.8 microg/ml to 37.5 microg/ml. The antimicrobial effectiveness of C. cassia oil and its major constituent is comparable and almost equivalent, which suggests that the broad-spectrum antibiotic activities of C. cassia oil are due to cinnamaldehyde. The relationship between structure and function of the main components of cinnamon oil is also discussed. PMID:16710900
Ooi, Linda S M; Li, Yaolan; Kam, Sheung-Lau; Wang, Hua; Wong, Elaine Y L; Ooi, Vincent E C
The isolation and distribution rate of dermatophytes as causative agents of superficial mycoses of skin, hair, and nails during an 18-year period (1991-2008) at a university hospital are presented. A comparative analysis of epidemiological differences within the first (1991-1999) and the second 9-year period (2000-2008) was performed. Skin scrapings, nail, and hair specimens were examined by a direct microscopic examination and culture. Identification of dermatophyte species was based on macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of colonies. During the complete period (18 years), 5,971 patients with suspected dermatophytosis were examined. Seven hundred and sixty-nine patients (12.8%) were found positive. Among them, 495 cases (64.3%) were of skin dermatophytoses, 91(11.8%) of hair, and 183 (23.7%) of nails. The most frequent etiological agents were Microsporum canis (54%), Trichophyton rubrum (38%), and T. mentagrophytes (6%). Epidermophyton floccosum, T. tonsurans, T. violaceum, and M. gypseum were responsible only for 16 cases (2%) of dermatophytoses. The prevalence of dermatophytoses seems to decrease significantly from 16.2% (1991-1999)-9.6% during the last 9-year period. The most frequent dermatophyte, M. canis, shows decreasing trends during the last period (from 58.5 to 45.7%), whereas T. rubrum shows an increasing isolation rate (from 35 to 43.6%), respectively. The most common form of dermatophytosis among children remains tinea capitis due to M. canis. The most frequent etiological agent of tinea unguium (81%) is T. rubrum. PMID:21331751
Tsoumani, M; Jelastopulu, Epsilon; Bartzavali, C; Vamvakopoulou, S; Dimitracopoulos, G; Anastassiou, E D; Christofidou, M
An epidemiological survey of dermatomycoses and the causative fungus flora of dermatomycoses in Japan for 2006 was made on a total number of 63,029 outpatients who visited 16 dermatological clinics throughout Japan. The results were as follows. 1) Dermatophytosis was the most prevalent cutaneus fungal infection (7,582 cases) seen in these clinics, followed by candidiasis (842 cases) and then Malassezia infections (283 cases). 2) Among dermatophytoses, tinea pedis was the most frequent (4,779 cases : male 2,358, female 2,241), then in decreasing order, tinea unguium (2,582 cases : male 1,376, female 1,206), tinea corporis (564 cases : male 341, female 223), tinea cruris (309 cases : male 254, female 57), tinea manuum (145 cases : male 92, female 53), and tinea capitis including kerion (17 cases : male 12, female 5). 3) Tinea pedis and tinea unguium are seen to increase in the summer season, among the aged population. When compared to the last survey 2002 by clinical form, t. unguium patients increased 459 cases. 4) As the causative dermatophyte species, Trichophyton rubrum was the most frequently isolated among all dermatophyte infections except tinea capitis. Microsporum canis was slightly increased. M.gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum are small number. T.tonsurans was increased up to 37 cases. 5) Cutaneous candidiasis was seen in 842 cases (305 male, 537 female). Intertrigo (298 cases) was the most frequent clinical form, followed by erosion interdigitalis (136 cases), oral candidiasis (135 cases), onychia et paronychia (108 cases), genital and diaper candidiasis in total (88 cases). 6) Tinea versicolor was seen in 175 cases. Malassezia folliculitis were collected 108 cases, 63 cases are reported from one clinic. PMID:23149353
In this study, flowering aerial parts of wild Achillea millefolium growing on the Mediterranean coast (Sardinia Island, Italy) and on the Atlantic coast (Portugal- Serra de Montemuro) were used as a matrix for supercritical extraction of volatile oil with CO2 (SFE). The collected extracts were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS methods and their composition were compared with that of the essential oil isolated by hydrodistillation. A strong chemical variability in essential oils depending on the origin of the samples was observed. The results showed the presence of two type oils. The Italian volatile extracts (SFE and essential oil) are predominantly composed by alpha-asarone (25.6-33.3%, in the SFE extract and in the HD oil, respectively), beta-bisabolene (27.3-16.6%) and alpha-pinene (10.0-17.0%); whereas the main components of the Portuguese extracts are trans-thujone (31.4-29.0%), trans-crhysanthenyl acetate (19.8-15.8%) and beta-pinene (1.2-11.1%). The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the oils against Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. guillermondii, C. parapsilosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale, T. verrucosum, Microsporum canis, M. gypseum, Epidermophyton floccosum, Aspergillus niger, A. fumigatus and A. flavus. The oils showed the highest activity against dermatophyte strains, with MIC values ranging from 0.32-1.25 microL mL(-1). PMID:22164800
Falconieri, Danilo; Piras, Alessandra; Porcedda, Silvia; Marongiu, Bruno; Gonçalves, Maria J; Cabral, Célia; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Salgueiro, Ligia
We report the synthesis and structural characterization of series of tetra- and hexacoordinate metal chelate complexes of phosphate Schiff base ligands having the general composition LMX(n).H(2)O and L(2)MX(n) (L=phosphate Schiff base ligand; M=Ag(+), Mn(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+), Hg(2+), or Fe(3+) and X=NO(3)(-), Br(-) or Cl(-)). The structure of the prepared compounds was investigated using elemental analysis, IR, 1H and 31P NMR, UV-vis, mass spectra, solid reflectance, magnetic susceptibility and conductance measurements as well as conductometric titration. In all the complexes studied, the ligands act as a chelate ligand with coordination involving the phosphate-O-atom and the azomethine-N-atom. IR, solid reflectance spectra and magnetic moment measurement are used to infer the structure and to illustrate the coordination capacity of ligand. IR spectra show the presence of coordinated nitrate and water molecule, the magnetic moments of all complexes show normal magnetic behavior and the electronic spectra of the metal complexes indicate a tetra- and octahedral structure for Mn(2+), octahedral structure of Fe(3+) and both square-planar and distorted octahedral structure for Cu(2+) complexes. Antimicrobial activity of the ligands and their complexes were tested using the disc diffusion method and the chosen strains include Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophyte and Trichophyton rubrum. Some known antibiotics are included for the sake of comparison and the chosen antibiotic are Amikacin, Doxycllin, Augmantin, Sulperazon, Unasyn, Septrin, Cefobid, Ampicillin, Nitrofurantion, Traivid and Erythromycin. PMID:14670488
Abd El-Wahab, Z H; El-Sarrag, M R
The incidence of superficial dermatophytoses is high in developed countries, and there remains a need for effective topical antifungals. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro antifungal activity of naftifine hydrochloride, the active ingredient in naftifine hydrochloride cream and gel 1% and 2%, against dermatophytes. The MICs and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) of naftifine hydrochloride against 350 clinical strains, including Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, T. tonsurans, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Microsporum canis, were determined using the CLSI methodology. Subsets from this test panel were subsequently tested in a time-kill assay at 0.125×, 0.25×, 0.5×, and 1× the MFC for each isolate. CFU counts were performed over a period of 48 h of incubation. Additionally, in order to determine the potential for resistance development, six strains were subjected to 15 serial passages in concentrations higher than the MIC for each strain. MICs were determined following each passage. The MIC range against the dermatophyte isolates tested was 0.015 to 1.0 ?g/ml, with naftifine hydrochloride being fungicidal against 85% of the Trichophyton species. The time-kill assay showed dose-dependent activity, with the greatest reduction in the numbers of CFU corresponding to the highest drug concentration. There was no increase in MIC for any strains following repeated exposure to naftifine hydrochloride. Naftifine hydrochloride demonstrated potent activity against all dermatophytes tested, and none of the isolates within this test panel demonstrated the potential for the development of resistance. Thus, future clinical studies of naftifine hydrochloride against dermatophytes may be warranted for the treatment of superficial dermatophytoses. PMID:23817365
Ghannoum, M; Isham, N; Verma, A; Plaum, S; Fleischer, A; Hardas, B
A pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), aggregation and deposition of amyloid-? peptides, has been recognized as a potent activator of microglia-mediated neuroinflammation and neuronal dysfunction. Therefore, downregulation of microglial activation has a significant therapeutic demand. In this study, focus was given to evaluate the ability of neoechinulin A, an indole alkaloid isolated from marine-derived Microsporum sp., to attenuate microglial activation by oligomeric amyloid-? 1-42 (A?42). Neoechinulin A treatment significantly inhibited the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in A?42-activated BV-2 microglia cells. In addition, we found that neoechinulin A significantly suppressed the production of neurotoxic inflammatory mediator tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-1? (IL-1?), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in activated BV-2 cells. Moreover, the treatment downregulated the protein and gene expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), TNF-?, IL-1? and IL-6. Further, activated microglia-mediated apoptosis of PC-12 pheochromocytoma cells was significantly repressed by neoechinulin A. The molecular mechanism studies suggested that neoechinulin A may block the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) molecule p38, apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK-1) and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) p65 and p50 subunits. Regulation of these signalling pathways have most probably contributed to the anti-inflammatory activity of neoechinulin A. Collectively, these results suggest that with further studies neoechinulin A have a potential to be developed as a modulator of neuroinflammatory process in AD. PMID:23261590
Dewapriya, Pradeep; Li, Yong-Xin; Himaya, S W A; Pangestuti, Ratih; Kim, Se-Kwon
Onychomycosis is a common fungal nail infection in adults that is difficult to treat. The in vitro antifungal activity of efinaconazole, a novel triazole antifungal, was evaluated in recent clinical isolates of Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Candida albicans, common causative onychomycosis pathogens. In a comprehensive survey of 1,493 isolates, efinaconazole MICs against T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes ranged from ? 0.002 to 0.06 ?g/ml, with 90% of isolates inhibited (MIC90) at 0.008 and 0.015 ?g/ml, respectively. Efinaconazole MICs against 105 C. albicans isolates ranged from ? 0.0005 to >0.25 ?g/ml, with 50% of isolates inhibited (MIC50) by 0.001 and 0.004 ?g/ml at 24 and 48 h, respectively. Efinaconazole potency against these organisms was similar to or greater than those of antifungal drugs currently used in onychomycosis, including amorolfine, ciclopirox, itraconazole, and terbinafine. In 13 T. rubrum toenail isolates from onychomycosis patients who were treated daily with topical efinaconazole for 48 weeks, there were no apparent increases in susceptibility, suggesting low potential for dermatophytes to develop resistance to efinaconazole. The activity of efinaconazole was further evaluated in another 8 dermatophyte, 15 nondermatophyte, and 10 yeast species (a total of 109 isolates from research repositories). Efinaconazole was active against Trichophyton, Microsporum, Epidermophyton, Acremonium, Fusarium, Paecilomyces, Pseudallescheria, Scopulariopsis, Aspergillus, Cryptococcus, Trichosporon, and Candida and compared favorably to other antifungal drugs. In conclusion, efinaconazole is a potent antifungal with a broad spectrum of activity that may have clinical applications in onychomycosis and other mycoses. PMID:23318803
Jo Siu, William J; Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki; Senda, Hisato; Pillai, Radhakrishnan; Nakamura, Takashi; Sone, Daisuke; Fothergill, Annette
Onychomycosis is a common fungal nail infection in adults that is difficult to treat. The in vitro antifungal activity of efinaconazole, a novel triazole antifungal, was evaluated in recent clinical isolates of Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Candida albicans, common causative onychomycosis pathogens. In a comprehensive survey of 1,493 isolates, efinaconazole MICs against T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes ranged from ?0.002 to 0.06 ?g/ml, with 90% of isolates inhibited (MIC90) at 0.008 and 0.015 ?g/ml, respectively. Efinaconazole MICs against 105 C. albicans isolates ranged from ?0.0005 to >0.25 ?g/ml, with 50% of isolates inhibited (MIC50) by 0.001 and 0.004 ?g/ml at 24 and 48 h, respectively. Efinaconazole potency against these organisms was similar to or greater than those of antifungal drugs currently used in onychomycosis, including amorolfine, ciclopirox, itraconazole, and terbinafine. In 13 T. rubrum toenail isolates from onychomycosis patients who were treated daily with topical efinaconazole for 48 weeks, there were no apparent increases in susceptibility, suggesting low potential for dermatophytes to develop resistance to efinaconazole. The activity of efinaconazole was further evaluated in another 8 dermatophyte, 15 nondermatophyte, and 10 yeast species (a total of 109 isolates from research repositories). Efinaconazole was active against Trichophyton, Microsporum, Epidermophyton, Acremonium, Fusarium, Paecilomyces, Pseudallescheria, Scopulariopsis, Aspergillus, Cryptococcus, Trichosporon, and Candida and compared favorably to other antifungal drugs. In conclusion, efinaconazole is a potent antifungal with a broad spectrum of activity that may have clinical applications in onychomycosis and other mycoses.
Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki; Senda, Hisato; Pillai, Radhakrishnan; Nakamura, Takashi; Sone, Daisuke; Fothergill, Annette
The essential oils (EOs) of two populations of Azorella cryptantha (Clos) Reiche, a native species from San Juan Province, were obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus and characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. The compounds identified amounted to 92.3 and 88.7% of the total oil composition for A. cryptantha from Bauchaceta (Ac-BAU) and Agua Negra (Ac-AN), respectively. The EO composition for the two populations was similar, although with differences in the identity and content of the main compounds and also in the identity of minor components. The main compounds of the Ac-BAU EO were ?-pinene, ?-thujene, sabinene, ?-cadinene, ?-cadinol, trans-?-guaiene, and ?-muurolol, while ?-pinene, ?-thujene, ?-pinene, ?-cadinene, ?-cadinol, ?-cadinene, ?-muurolol, and a not identified compound were the main constituents of the Ac-AN EO, which also contained 3.0% of oxygenated monoterpenes. The repellent activity on Triatoma infestans nymphs was 100 and 92% for the Ac-AN and Ac-BAU EOs, respectively. Regarding the toxic effects on Ceratitis capitata, the EOs were very active with LD(50) values lower than 11 ?g/fly. The dermatophytes Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum, and T. mentagrophytes and the bacterial strains Escherichia coli LM(1), E. coli LM(2), and Yersinia enterocolitica PI were more sensitive toward the Ac-AN EO (MIC 125 ?g/ml) than toward the Ac-BAU EO. This is the first report on the composition of A. cryptantha EO and its anti-insect and antimicrobial properties. PMID:22899606
López, Sandra; Lima, Beatriz; Aragón, Liliana; Espinar, Luis Ariza; Tapia, Alejandro; Zacchino, Susana; Zygadlo, Julio; Feresin, Gabriela Egly; López, María Liza
Background Transgenic research on metalloproteinase-1 is an emerging field in the area of plant molecular biology. The new method reported here can similarly be applied in fungal molecular biology to identify different dermatophytes. Our method is more accurate than traditional methods such as molecular analyses. Objective To identify Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes, T. tonsurans, T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale, Microsporum canis and M. gypseum, by using the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect polymorphisms in the metalloproteinase-1 gene (MEP1). Methods From each fungal strain, we isolated genomic DNA and performed PCR to amplify the region coding for metalloproteinase-1. Primers for the metalloproteinase-1 gene were designed based on the sequence in NCBI GenBank. Subsequently, we purified the amplified PCR product and performed RFLP analysis. After restriction enzyme digestion, BsrDI (NEB, England), the samples were subjected to electrophoresis. Four different patterns of DNA fragments were observed among 6 fungal species. Results The DNA fragments for T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes, T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale and T. tonsurans showed similar patterns on electrophoresis and were not distinguishable, whereas T. rubrum, M. canis, and M. gypseum showed different patterns. Conclusion To our knowledge, it is the first study to introduce the analysis of the nucleotide sequence of metalloproteinase-1 enzyme to study differentiation in dermatophytes. Based on our results, more accurate differentiation and subtyping of T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale might be possible. This might contribute to better understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of dermatophyte.
Jung, Ho Jung; Kim, Soo Young; Jung, Jae Wook; Park, Hyun Jung; Lee, Yang Won; Choe, Yong Beom
Dermatomycosis are mycotic diseases of skin caused by a few mycetes: dermatophytes, and some opportunistic fungi as Malassezia, Candida (not C. albicans), Trichosporon, Rhodutorula, Cryptococcus or Aspergillus, Geotrichum, Alternaria, etc. Dermatophytes are a group of closely related filamentous fungi that invade keratinized tissue (skin, hair, nails) of humans and other animals and produce infection called dermatophytosis or ringworm or "tinea". The etiological agents of dermatophytosis are classified in three genera: Microsporum, Trichophyton and Epidermophyton (Deuteromycetes). On the basis of their primary habitat dermatophytes are divided in Anthropophilic dermatophytes (parasitic organisms that infect humans), Zoophilic dermatophytes (parasitic organisms that infect animals, but also humans: agents of zoonosis) and Geophilic dermatophytes (saprobic fungi associated with keratinous materials in soil). In the soil there are also structure associated with contagion, ("spore", "arthroconidium", or "clamydospore") of anthropophilic and zoophilic dermatophytes that may persist for years, in the environment, in hair or skin scales. Since on the skin of animals there are many saprobic organisms (Malassezia) and many fungi may infect the fur, it is important to make an accurate diagnosis. Dermatophytosis are communicable diseases acquired from infected animals or from fomites. Infections caused by dermatophytes is a ringworm. These infections may range from mild and superficial, almost subclinical, to a few areas of scaling to a highly inflammatory reaction with extensive areas of scarring and alopecia. Granuloma formations (mycetoma-like) may occur especially in cats. Dermatophytes, as filamentous fungi, undergo radial fungi: collection of skin material is best made by collecting the scales near the edges of the rings. Hairs are best sampled by plucking; a scalpel may be used to scrape scales; brushes have also been used. Sample materials are best transported in dry packet. The Wood's light may be used to identify infected fluorescent hairs. Direct microscopy, although false negative up to 50% of cases, is a highly efficient screening technique. Scraping and hairs should mixed to 10-15% KOH. Culture is a valuable adjunct to direct microscopy and is essential to identify more dermatophytes. A medium selective against most nondermatophytic moulds and bacteria is used as a primary isolation medium. Many typical isolates of common dermatophytes can be identified directly from primary isolation media. Identification characters include: colony pigmentation, texture, morphological structure (macroconidia, microconidia, spirals, pectinate branches, etc). Nutritional requiment, growth in special media, "in vitro" perforation, mating studies are procedures used to identify atypical isolates. Serological approaches have revealed difficulties. Many kinds of molecular biologic techniques have been made available for clinical diagnosis recently; almost all of these techniques involve the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PMID:15305713
Tampieri, M P
Background:Coula edulis Bail (Olacaceae), is an evergreen tree growing to a height of 25. This study aimed at evaluating the antidermatophytic and toxicological properties of the stem bark of C. edulis extract as well as fractions and compounds isolated from it.Methods: The plant extract was prepared by maceration in CH(2)Cl(2)-MeOH (1:1 v/v). The fractionation of this extract was done by silica gel column chromatography. Antidermatophytic activities were assayed using agar dilution method. The acute and sub-acute toxicities of oral administrations of the extract were studied in rodents.Results: The crude extract of C. edulis displayed antidermatophytic activity against the tested microorganisms with highest activity against Microsporum audouinii and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The fractionation enhanced the antidermatophytic activity in fraction F(3 )(MIC=0.62-1.25 mg/ml) compared to the crude extract (MIC=1.25-5 mg/ml). Further fractionation and purification of the fractions F(2) and F(3) gave respectively 3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside of sitosterol (MIC=0.20-0.40 mg/ml) and a mixture of ?-sitosterol, stigmasterol and n-hexadecanoid acid (MIC=0.80 mg/ml). The median lethal doses (LD(50)) of the crude extract were 16.8 and 19.6 g/kg body weight (BW) in male and female mice, respectively. At 200 mg/kg BW(, )there was a decrease in body weight gain, food and water consumptions. Gross anatomical analysis revealed white vesicles on the liver of the rats treated with the extract at 200 mg/kg BW. This dose also induced significant (P<0.05) changes on hematological and biochemical parameters in rats after 28 days of treatment. Conclusion: These data suggest that the CH(2)Cl(2)-MeOH (1:1 v/v) extract of C. edulis stem bark possesses antidermatophytic properties. They also show that at high doses (? 200 mg/kg BW), the extract has significant hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic activities. PMID:23357938
Tamokou, Jean De Dieu; Kuiate, Jules Roger; Gatsing, Donatien; Efouet, Alango Pépin Nken; Njouendou, Abdel Jélil
A series of antibacterial and antifungal amino acid-derived compounds and their cobalt(II), copper(II), nickel(II), and zinc(II) metal complexes have been synthesized and characterized by their elemental analyses, molar conductances, magnetic moments, and IR, and electronic spectral measurements. Ligands (L1)?(L5) were derived by condensation of ?-diketones with glycine, phenylalanine, valine, and histidine and act as bidentate towards metal ions (cobalt, copper, nickel, and zinc) via the azomethine-N and deprotonated-O of the respective amino acid. The stoichiometric reaction between the metal(II) ion and synthesized ligands in molar ratio of M : L (1 : 1) resulted in the formation of the metal complexes of type [M(L)(H2O)4]Cl (where M = Co(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II)) and of M : L (1 : 2) of type [M(L)2(H2O)2] (where M = Co(II), Cu(II), Ni(II), and Zn(II)). The magnetic moment data suggested for the complexes to have an octahedral geometry around the central metal atom. The electronic spectral data also supported the same octahedral geometry of the complexes. Elemental analyses and NMR spectral data of the ligands and their metal(II) complexes agree with their proposed structures. The synthesized ligands, along with their metal(II) complexes, were screened for their in vitro antibacterial activity against four Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Shigella flexeneri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella typhi) and two Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) bacterial strains and for in vitro antifungal activity against Trichophyton longifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani, and Candida glaberata. The results of these studies show the metal(II) complexes to be more antibacterial/antifungal against one or more species as compared to the uncomplexed ligands. The brine shrimp bioassay was also carried out to study their in vitro cytotoxic properties. Five compounds, (3), (7), (10), (11), and (22), displayed potent cytotoxic activity as LD50 = 8.974 × 10?4, 7.022 × 10?4, 8.839 × 10?4, 7.133 × 10?4, and 9.725 × 10?4 M/mL, respectively, against Artemia salina.
Chohan, Zahid H.; Arif, M.; Akhtar, Muhammad A.; Supuran, Claudiu T.
Two hundred and eleven dogs (including strictly house and stray dogs) and 170 cattle in and around the city of Madras, India were screened for the presence of dermatophytosis. 106 strains of dermatophytes (89 strains from dogs and 17 strains from bovines) were isolated. 57/106 strains were Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes and 42/106 strains were of the Microsporum gypseum complex. 5 strains of T. rubrum and 2 strains of T. simii were also obtained in culture. A predominance of M. gypseum complex isolates was recorded in stray dogs and cattle and T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes and T. rubrum in strictly house dogs. The family history of the owners of the most of the dogs had clear records of dermatophytosis. Further, the owners of the 11 dogs that yielded T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes had either tinea corporis or tinea pedis. The etiological agent of all the 11 human cases was T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale. Similarly the owners of 4 of the 5 dogs that yielded T. rubrum were known T. rubrum patients. All these patients responded to oral griseofulvin or ketaconozole, but the recurrence of lesions was noted with the cessation of treatment. None of the patients had onychomycosis and the family history of all the patients revealed no reports of T. rubrum infections. The pet dogs were presumed to be the source of re-infection. Reversed transmission of dermatophytes from humans to animals may be the reason for the selective predominance of these organisms in strictly house dogs. They also may act as sources of reinfection. Most of the animals had small, occult, scattered lesions. These lesions may either go unnoticed or are ignored by the owners of the animals. The taxonomic status of T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes and T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale was aligned to their teleomorph Arthroderma vanbreuseghemii. Our study suggests that the periodic screening and medication of all live-stock are essential for the prevention and management of the public health problem caused by dermatophytes. PMID:16284812
Ranganathan, S; Arun Mozhi Balajee, S; Mahendra Raja, S
Background: Coula edulis Bail (Olacaceae), is an evergreen tree growing to a height of 25. This study aimed at evaluating the antidermatophytic and toxicological properties of the stem bark of C. edulis extract as well as fractions and compounds isolated from it. Methods: The plant extract was prepared by maceration in CH2Cl2-MeOH (1:1 v/v). The fractionation of this extract was done by silica gel column chromatography. Antidermatophytic activities were assayed using agar dilution method. The acute and sub-acute toxicities of oral administrations of the extract were studied in rodents. Results: The crude extract of C. edulis displayed antidermatophytic activity against the tested microorganisms with highest activity against Microsporum audouinii and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The fractionation enhanced the antidermatophytic activity in fraction F3 (MIC=0.62-1.25 mg/ml) compared to the crude extract (MIC=1.25-5 mg/ml). Further fractionation and purification of the fractions F2 and F3 gave respectively 3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside of sitosterol (MIC=0.20-0.40 mg/ml) and a mixture of ?-sitosterol, stigmasterol and n-hexadecanoid acid (MIC=0.80 mg/ml). The median lethal doses (LD50) of the crude extract were 16.8 and 19.6 g/kg body weight (BW) in male and female mice, respectively. At 200 mg/kg BW, there was a decrease in body weight gain, food and water consumptions. Gross anatomical analysis revealed white vesicles on the liver of the rats treated with the extract at 200 mg/kg BW. This dose also induced significant (P<0.05) changes on hematological and biochemical parameters in rats after 28 days of treatment. Conclusion: These data suggest that the CH2Cl2-MeOH (1:1 v/v) extract of C. edulis stem bark possesses antidermatophytic properties. They also show that at high doses (? 200 mg/kg BW), the extract has significant hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic activities.
Tamokou, Jean De Dieu; Kuiate, Jules Roger; Gatsing, Donatien; Efouet, Alango Pepin Nken; Njouendou, Abdel Jelil
Background Dermatologic disorders are common in many countries but the spectrum varies greatly. Many studies have reported a significant burden of skin diseases in school children. The objective of this study was to determine the current spectrum of dermatological disorders in primary school children in Dar es Salaam city. Methods Primary school children were recruited by multistage sampling. Detailed interview, dermatological examination and appropriate laboratory investigations were performed. Data was analyzed using the 'Statistical Package for Social Sciences' (SPSS) program version 10.0 and EPI6. A p-value of < 0.5 was significant. Results A total of 420 children were recruited (51% males; mean age 11.4 ± 2.8 years; range 6-19 years). The overall point prevalence of any skin disorder was 57.3% and it was 61.9% and 52.6% in males and females respectively (p = 0.05). Infectious dermatoses accounted for 30.4% with superficial fungal infections (dermatophytoses and pityriasis versicolor) being the commonest (20%). Dermatophytoses were diagnosed in 11.4% (48/420); the prevalence in males and females being 12.6% and 10.1% respectively (p = 0.41) and higher (21.8%) in the age-group 6-10 years (p = 0.045). Fungal cultures were positive in 42/48 children (88%). All three dermatophyte genera were isolated. Tinea capitis was the commonest disease among culture-positive dermatophytoses (30/42; 71.4%) with an overall prevalence of 7.1% (30/420) followed by tinea pedis (11/42; 26.1%) whose overall prevalence was 2.6%. Microsporum canis was common in tinea capitis (14/30; 46.7%) followed by Trichophyton violaceum (6/30; 20%). Trichophyton rubrum was common in tinea pedis (5/11; 45.5%). Thirty six children (8.6%) had pityriasis versicolor which was more prevalent (6/27; 22.l2%) in the age group 16-19 years (p = 0.0004). The other common infectious dermatoses were pyodermas (4%) and pediculosis capitis (3.6%). Common non-infectious dermatoses were: acne vulgaris (36.4%), non-specific dermatoses (10.7%), non-specific ulcers (5%) and atopic eczema (2.6%). Rare conditions (prevalence < 1%) included: vitiligo, alopecia areata and intertrigo. The majority of the affected children (67.2%) did not seek any medical assistance. Conclusions Skin disorders are common in primary school children; infectious dermatoses are still rampant and many children do not seek medical assistance.
During antifungal evaluation of various plant extracts, free and bound flavonoids of Piper betle were found to be most effective as an antidermatophytic against human pathogenic dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum gypseum and Candida albicans. Dermatophytic fungi cause both superficial and internal mycoses. These mycoses, although normally not lethal, are unpleasant and difficult to cure and cause considerable financial losses. Earlier workers prove that allopathic drugs are still found effective against dermatomycoses, but these drugs could not be accepted as a routine treatment for every case, because they are expensive and require long treatment. It is almost unaffordable by middle and lower class people. In view of such prospects and constraints, our aim was to explore more new compounds of plant origin for controlling dermatophytic infections. Author explored water, methanolic and flavonoid extracts for screening as antidermatophytic agent. Plant extracts that showed good results in vitro were selected for clinical studies. The study may give cheaper treatment for medium and lower class patients suffering with tinea and may provide them much relief. Well-established paper disc method was used for the screening of different extracts of their antidermatophytic activity. Moreover, it did not exhibit any adverse side effect on mammalian skin. Flavonoids in the form of ointment Pi be I and Pi be II were subjected to topical testing on patients attending out patients department of S.M.S. Hospital, Jaipur, India. Patients were diagnosed as tinea corporis, tinea capitis, tinea manum or tinea pedis. All patients showed positive potassium hydroxide (KOH) results at the beginning of trial. Patients between the ages of 3?months to 58?years were enrolled. At the end of treatment, while 64% of patients cured completely, 24% showed significant improvement and 12% showed little improvement from the disease. Allopathic treatment took 4-8?weeks when compared with only 1-5?weeks taken by Pi be I and Pi be II ointments. The ointment, thus not only showed maximum affectivity but was also found to be a better and cost effective alternative to allopathic drug for tinea infections. The acceptability of alternative medicines, particularly herbal medicines, has now become a critical need of the times. PMID:21929713
Bhadauria, Seema; Kumar, Padma