These are representative sample records from related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at

Antagonism of Microsporum species by soil fungi.  


Eighteen fungi isolated from soil by hair bating method were tested against soil inhabiting Microsporum equinum, Microsporum fulvum, Microsporum gypseum and Microsporum racemosum for their antagonistic interactions. Colony inhibition during dual cultures showed inhibition of all the four Microsporum species. The maximum inhibition of M. equinum, M. fulvum, M. gypseum and M. racemosum was caused by Chrysosporium keratinophilum, Chrysosporium tropicum, Curvularia lunata and Chrysosporium lucknowense in dual cultures. On the other hand, M. fulvum showed maximum inhibition of Macrophomina phaseolina (70.1%) while M. equinum, M. gypseum and M. racemosum showed maximum inhibition of Colletotrichum gloeosporoides. Staling products of C. lucknowense accelerated growth of all Microsporum species, C. keratinophilum 3 and Chrysosporium evolceaunui and M. phaseolina accelerated growth of two species of Microsporum. Staling product of Alternaria alternata was most inhibitory. Culture filtrates of Trichophyton vanbreseughemii accelerated the growth of all the four Microsporum species and C. tropicum, C. lucknowense accelerated growth of two species, while Botryotrichum piluliferum accelerated growth of three species of Microsporum. Volatiles showed inhibition of all the Microsporum species ranging from 0.33 to 57.2% except in case of M. fulvum. Lysis of Microsporum mycelium was the most common feature. PMID:19207833

Singh, I; Dixit, A K; Kushwaha, R K S



Case report. Onychomycosis due to Microsporum canis.  


A case of distal subungual onychomycosis of the big toe due to Microsporum canis is reported in a 69-year-old male asthma patient who had been treated with systemic corticosteroids for the last 3 years. The nail infection was contracted from a cat who was a healthy carrier. The patient was treated successfully with intermittent itraconazole therapy. PMID:11413924

Romano, C; Paccagnini, E; Pelliccia, L



Antifungal activity of Lactobacillus against Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum  

PubMed Central

A total of 220 lactic acid bacteria isolates were screened for antifungal activity using Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger as the target strains. Four Lactobacillus strains exhibited strong inhibitory activity on agar surfaces. All four were also identified as having strong inhibitory activity against the human pathogenic fungi Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum. One of the four lactobacilli, namely Lb. reuteri ee1p exhibited the most inhibition against dermatophytes. Cell-free culture supernatants of Lb. reuteri ee1p and of the non-antifungal Lb. reuteri M13 were freeze-dried and used to access and compare antifungal activity in agar plate assays and microtiter plate assays. Addition of the Lb. reuteri ee1p freeze-dried cell-free supernatant powder into the agar medium at concentrations greater than 2% inhibited all fungal colony growth. Addition of the powder at 5% to liquid cultures caused complete inhibition of fungal growth on the basis of turbidity. Freeze-dried supernatant of the non-antifungal Lb. reuteri M13 at the same concentrations had a much lesser effect. As Lb. reuteri M13 is very similar to the antifungal strain ee1p in terms of growth rate and final pH in liquid culture, and as it has little antifungal activity, it is clear that other antifungal compounds must be specifically produced (or produced at higher levels) by the anti-dermatophyte strain Lb. reuteri ee1p. Reuterin was undetectable in all four antifungal strains. The cell free supernatant of Lb. reuteri ee1p was analyzed by LC-FTMS using an Accela LC coupled to an LTQ Orbitrap XL mass spectrometer. The high mass accuracy spectrum produced by compounds in the Lb. reuteri ee1p strain was compared with both a multianalyte chromatogram and individual spectra of standard anti-fungal compounds, which are known to be produced by lactic acid bacteria. Ten antifungal metabolites were detected. PMID:22539027

Guo, Jiahui; Brosnan, Brid; Furey, Ambrose; Arendt, Elke; Murphy, Padraigin; Coffey, Aidan



Treatment of Tinea Capitis Caused by Microsporum Ferrugineum with Itraconazole  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prospective, non-randomized, open clinical trial was conducted to determine the efficacy of itraconazole for treatment of Microsporum ferrugineum tinea capitis. Itraconazole capsules were given every day in continuous group and every day for 1 week on and 3-week off in pulse therapy group. Concomitant topical therapy with 2% ketoconazole shampoo was used daily. Clinical evaluation consisted of assessing the

Wanee Wisuthsarewong


The Digestion of Human Hair Keratin by Microsporum  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: Microsporum canis Bodin, the causative agent of animal ringworm in children and adults, is able to digest human hair keratin in vitro. The process of degradation has been followed by microscopic observation and an analysis of the resulting amino-acids which accumulate in the medium after growth on human hair has been made by chromatographic techniques. In this investigation attempts



Dermatophytosis caused by Microsporum canis in Eastern cottontail ( Sylvilagus floridanus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus, fam. Leporidae) has previously been shown to be a potential healthy carrier of dermatophyte fungi both geophilic (Microsporum gypseum, M. cookei, Trichophyton ajelloi, T. terrestre) and zoophilic (M. canis, T. mentagrophytes). In this communication, the first case, to the best of our knowledge, of a symptomatic dermatophyte infection in S. floridanus is described.

P. Tizzani; M. G. Gallo; A. Peano; A. Molinar Min; C. Martínez-Carrasco Pleite; P. G. Meneguz



Dermatophytosis caused by Microsporum canis and Microsporum gypseum in free-living Bradypus variegatus (Schiz, 1825) in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil.  


Three cases of dermatophytosis in free living brown-throated three-toed sloths (Bradypus variegatus) in the Zona da Mata, North of Pernambuco State, Brazil, were studied. Two animals presented areas of alopecia on the pelvic member and thorax and one animal on the pelvic member only. The three animals presented scabs. Hair and scabs samples were submitted to microscopical examination after treatment with a 30 % KOH and cultivated in Mycosel Agar. The direct examination indicated the presence of arthrospores in the hair. Colonies grown after seven days of culture were confirmed as Microsporum based on examination of the structure of the macroconidia. This is the first observation of dermatophytosis caused by Microsporum canis and Microsporum gypseum in free living sloths in the State of Pernambuco. PMID:24031255

Xavier, Gileno Antônio Araújo; da Silva, Leonildo Bento Galiza; da Silva, Davi Rubem; de Moraes Peixoto, Rodolfo; Lino, Gileno Câmara; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido



Dermatophytosis caused by Microsporum canis and Microsporum gypseum in free-living Bradypus variegatus (Schiz, 1825) in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Three cases of dermatophytosis in free living brown-throated three-toed sloths (Bradypus variegatus) in the Zona da Mata, North of Pernambuco State, Brazil, were studied. Two animals presented areas of alopecia on the pelvic member and thorax and one animal on the pelvic member only. The three animals presented scabs. Hair and scabs samples were submitted to microscopical examination after treatment with a 30 % KOH and cultivated in Mycosel Agar. The direct examination indicated the presence of arthrospores in the hair. Colonies grown after seven days of culture were confirmed as Microsporum based on examination of the structure of the macroconidia. This is the first observation of dermatophytosis caused by Microsporum canis and Microsporum gypseum in free living sloths in the State of Pernambuco. PMID:24031255

Xavier, Gileno Antônio Araújo; da Silva, Leonildo Bento Galiza; da Silva, Davi Rubem; de Moraes Peixoto, Rodolfo; Lino, Gileno Câmara; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido



Tinea corporis due to Microsporum canis from an asymptomatic dog.  


The patient was a 19-year-old female student who purchased a puppy from a pet shop four weeks earlier. At the time of her first examination, an annular edematous erythema with adherent scales and vesicles surrounding its margin was seen on the left forearm. On direct examination of the vesicles, fungal elements were detected, and Microsporum canis was isolated. The puppy was a Pomeranian and was kept in the house at all times. No clinical lesions were seen on the puppy, and the Wood's lamp test was negative. However, M. canis was isolated from the animal by the hairbrush method. Symptoms disappeared after the patient was treated topically with terbinafine cream for three weeks. Although the dog received no treatment whatsoever, there was no evidence of the disease on the pet. Results of the hairbrush method performed on the pet two and three weeks later were negative, but, at five weeks, it was again positive. Human infection with M. canis from an asymptomatic dog was demonstrated in this case. Attention should be paid to preventing infections from animals without lesions. PMID:1939864

Katoh, T; Maruyama, R; Nishioka, K; Sano, T



Secreted dipeptidyl peptidases as potential virulence factors for Microsporum canis.  


Dermatophytoses caused by Microsporum canis are frequently encountered in cats and dogs; they are highly contagious and readily transmissible to humans. In this study, two single genes, respectively coding for dipeptidyl peptidases IV and V (DppIV and DppV), were isolated and characterized. Both proteins share homology with serine proteases of the S9 family, some of which display properties compatible with implication in pathogenic processes. Both genes are expressed in vivo in experimentally infected guinea-pigs and in naturally infected cats, and when the fungus is grown on extracellular matrix proteins as the sole nitrogen and carbon source. DppIV and V were produced as active recombinant proteases in the yeast Pichia pastoris; the apparent molecular weight of rDppV is 83 kDa, whereas rDppIV appears as a doublet of 95 and 98 kDa. Like other members of its enzymatic subfamily, rDppIV has an unusual ability to cleave Pro-X bonds. This activity does not enhance the solubilization of keratin by fungal secreted endoproteases, and the protease probably acts solely on small soluble peptides. RDppV showed no ability to induce delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin reactions in guinea-pigs, despite the known immunogenic properties of homologous proteins. PMID:19049642

Vermout, Sandy; Baldo, Aline; Tabart, Jérémy; Losson, Bertrand; Mignon, Bernard



Pathogenic Fungus Microsporum canis Activates the NLRP3 Inflammasome  

PubMed Central

Microsporum canis is a pathogenic fungus with worldwide distribution that causes tinea capitis in animals and humans. M. canis also causes invasive infection in immunocompromised patients. To defy pathogenic fungal infection, the host innate immune system is the first line of defense. As an important arm of innate immunity, the inflammasomes are intracellular multiprotein complexes that control the activation of caspase-1, which cleaves proinflammatory cytokine pro-interleukin-1? (IL-1?) into its mature form. To determine whether the inflammasome is involved in the host defense against M. canis infection, we challenged human monocytic THP-1 cells and mouse dendritic cells with a clinical strain of M. canis isolated from patients with tinea capitis. We found that M. canis infection triggered rapid secretion of IL-1? from both THP-1 cells and mouse dendritic cells. Moreover, by using gene-specific shRNA and competitive inhibitors, we determined that M. canis-induced IL-1? secretion was dependent on NLRP3. The pathways proposed for NLRP3 inflammasome activation, namely, cathepsin B activity, K+ efflux, and reactive oxygen species production, were all required for the inflammasome activation triggered by M. canis. Meanwhile, Syk, Dectin-1, and Card9 were found to be involved in M. canis-induced IL-1? secretion via regulation of pro-IL-1? transcription. More importantly, our data revealed that M. canis-induced production of IL-1? was dependent on the NLRP3 inflammasome in vivo. Together, this study unveils that the NLRP3 inflammasome exerts a critical role in host innate immune responses against M. canis infection, and our data suggest that diseases that result from M. canis infection might be controlled by regulating the activation of inflammasomes. PMID:24478101

Mao, Liming; Zhang, Liping; Li, Hua; Chen, Wei; Wang, Hongbin; Wu, Shuxian; Guo, Caiqin; Lu, Ailing; Yang, Guiwen; An, Liguo



Aislamiento de keratinomyces ajelloi y microsporum gypseum del suelo de la ciudad de buenos aires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Keratinomyces ajelloi andMicrosporum gypseum have been isolated from soil samples from public gardens and from a breeding-place with rabbits and fowls in the urban zone of the Buenos Aires city, usingVanbreuseghem's technique with hair bait.

Edith Varsavsky



Kerion due to microsporum gypseum in a 1-month-old infant.  


Microsporum gypseum is a rare cause of kerion in infancy. Light microscopy, fluorescent microscopy and fungal culture of the infected hair aids in early and correct diagnosis. Griseofulvin is the drug of choice for ectothrix fungi. We report a case of neonatal kerion caused by M. gypseum occurring at the age of 1 month, successfully treated with griseofulvin. PMID:24778536

Ambooken, Betsy; Binitha, Manikoth Payyanadan; Chandran, Bini



Occurrence of Microsporum gypseum, Keratinomyces ajelloi and Trichophyton terrestre in Some British Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN recent years many attempts have been made to confirm the belief that dermatophytes have a saprophytic existence in the soil. These investigations have disclosed the widespread occurrence of the pathogenic species Microsporum gypseum (Bodin) Brumpt1-6 and the existence of the saprophytes Keratinomyces ajelloi Vanbreuseghem2,5-7 and Tricho-phyton terrestre Durie and Frey8.

Phyllis M. Stockdale



[Analysis of microsporum dermatomycoses in Szczecin, its terrain and regions in the years 1985-1988].  


The retrospective analysis of M. canis infections in Szczecin and its region, and the comparison with other dermatomycoses are presented. The study comprised two groups of patients: 450 patients diagnosed between January 1985--December 1988 to have microsporum infections, and 449 patients with the diagnosis of dermatomycosis made between January 1986--December 1988. Data collected in form of patients personal cards were subsequently analysed with the use of standard statistical methods. Most of cases of M. canis infections occurred in females younger than 14 years, while the preponderance of adult males was observed among patients with other dermatomycoses. In patients with microsporum infections, skin lesions were most commonly located on the face, limbs and chest as well as on the scalp in children. In patients with other dermatomycoses, skin lesions were placed on feet, inter-hallux spaces and toe nails. Infected animals, especially stray cats, less frequently dogs, played an important role in the spread of microsporum infections. The disease was characterized by the seasonal pattern with the peak incidence between August and December. The rising number of microsporum infection with clinical picture and animal sources of infection, distinctive from other dermatomycoses, is currently observed in Szczecin and its region. PMID:8154613

Turek-Urasi?ska, K



Microsporum mirabile and its teleomorph Arthroderma mirabile, a new dermatophyte species in the M. cookei clade.  


A novel dermatophyte species is described in the Microsporum cookei clade. It differs significantly from known taxa in the two molecular markers analyzed, i.e., ITS and partial ?-tubulin (BT2). Morphologically the species was characterized by smooth- or only slightly rough-walled conidia, but isolates rapidly became pleomorphic with sparse, smooth- and thick-walled macroconidia in addition to microconidia. A teleomorph was found after mating. PMID:21838616

Choi, Jong Soo; Gräser, Yvonne; Walther, Grit; Peano, Andrea; Symoens, Francoise; de Hoog, Sybren



White paint dot-like lesions of the scrotum: Microsporum gypseum infection.  


A 29-year-old renal transplant patient taking mycophenolate mofetil 1?g b.i.d., cyclosporine 100?mg b.i.d. and prednisone 10?mg q.d. presented with white paint, dot-like incrustations on the skin of his right scrotum. A 10% potassium hydroxide preparation of scrapings from the lesions showed septate hyphae and Microsporum gypseum was cultured. Topical bifonazole 1% cream cleared the lesions within 2 weeks. At the 2-month follow up there was no relapse. PMID:23043615

Chen, Zhuo; Bi, Xinling; Gu, Jun; Xu, Xiaoguang; Wang, Ying; Wu, Jianhua



Diagnostic PCR tests for Microsporum audouinii, M. canis and Trichophyton infections.  


Since traditional diagnosis of dermatophyte infections is slow, we present a rapid new PCR test for detection of Trichophyton spp., Microsporum canis and M. audouinii infections. The performance of the test was evaluated with: 58 dermatophyte isolates; 10 yeast, mould and human DNA control samples; 25 routine specimens from patients suspected of having dermatophytosis; 10 hair specimens from guinea pigs experimentally infected with M. canis; and two samples from un-infected control animals. DNA was prepared by a 10-min procedure from pure cultures as previously described. The 302 bp PCR product was obtained for 35/35 Trichophyton isolates (10 species included) and the 279 bp for 3/3 M. canis and 4/4 M. audouinii samples. None of the 2 E. floccosum, 11 M. gypseum, 3 M M. persicolor or 12 control samples (yeast, mould, human DNA) were positive with either of the two PCR tests. Among the patient specimens, seven were T. rubrum positive, two for T. mentagrophytes, one was positive for T. tonsurans and 15 were dermatophyte negative by routine investigation (culture and/or pan-dermatophyte + T. rubrum multiplex PCR). The PCR results with our procedures were in 100% agreement with these results. Finally, the Microsporum PCR was positive for 10/10 guinea pig specimens from infected animals but for 0/2 of the control animal samples. The evaluation of the two PCR tests indicated excellent sensitivity and specificity. PMID:19886764

Brillowska-Dabrowska, Anna; Swierkowska, Aleksandra; Lindhardt Saunte, Ditte Marie; Arendrup, Maiken Cavling



Fungus invasion of human hair tissue in tinea capitis caused by Microsporum canis : light and electron microscopic study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously, we reported a morphological change of Trichophyton violaceum in hair tissue in black dot ringworm. To investigate the morphology of Microsporum canis in human hair tissue, three cases of tinea capitis by M. canis were examined by both light and electron microscopy. The fungal elements, which were located deeply in the keratogenous zone, showed nonseptate hyphae in the outer

C. Okuda; M. Ito; Y. Sato; K. Oka



Cortisol levels in cats' hair in presence or absence of Microsporum canis infection.  


The purpose of this work was to perform a preliminary screening in the domestic cat to assess the concentration of cortisol in hairs by radioimmunoassay technique (RIA) in presence or absence of Microsporum canis infections. A total of 245 cats (7 with cutaneous lesions referable to dermatophytosis and 238 apparently healthy) coming from 14 shelters were examined. M. canis was isolated in 126 (51.4%) cats. The cortisol levels were significantly higher in cats with lesions or without lesions but with a high number of colonies in the plates (? 10 CFU) than in cats negative or with a lower number of colonies. The results obtained seem to highlight that chronic high levels of cortisol in cats could possibly promote the dermatophytes infections. Furthermore, in High-CFU asymptomatic cats, it could be present a state of infectious, and they, therefore, represents not a simple mechanical carrier. PMID:23962857

Galuppi, R; Leveque, J F C; Beghelli, V; Bonoli, C; Mattioli, M; Ostanello, F; Tampieri, M P; Accorsi, P A



Isolation of Microsporum gallinae from a fighting cock (Gallus gallus domesticus) in Japan.  


A case of tinea corporis caused by Microsporum gallinae was found in 2011 in Okinawa, located in the southern part of Japan. The patient was a 96-year-old, otherwise healthy, Japanese man, who had been working as a breeder of fighting cocks for more than 70 years. He was bitten on his right forearm by one of the cocks and a few weeks later, two erythematous macules appeared on the right forearm, accompanied by a slight itchy sensation. While the first isolate of this dermatophyte was recovered from the region by Miyasato et al. in 2011, it was not obtained from the same fighting cock owned by the patient. However, frequent exchanges of fighting cocks and special domestic breeds of chickens related to fighting, mating, and/or bird fairs are common among the fans and breeders. We investigated 238 chickens and 71 fighting cocks in Okinawa and in the suburbs of Tokyo (Chiba, Tokyo, Ibaraki, and Sizuoka). One isolate of M. gallinae from a fighting cock in Chiba Prefecture in the Tokyo metropolitan area exhibited a different genotype, with a single base difference from the patient isolate based on the internal transcribed spacer 1-5.8s-ITS2 regions (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) of the ribosomal RNA gene sequence. The isolation of M. gallinae from a fighting cock on the mainland of Japan is the first such finding in animals in our country. PMID:22809243

Murata, Michiko; Takahashi, Hideo; Takahashi, Sana; Takahashi, Yoko; Chibana, Hiroji; Murata, Yoshiteru; Sugiyama, Kazutoshi; Kaneshima, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Sayaka; Miyasato, Hitona; Murakami, Masaru; Kano, Rui; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Uezato, Hiroshi; Hosokawa, Atsushi; Sano, Ayako



Digital Gene Expression Analysis of Microsporum canis Exposed to Berberine Chloride  

PubMed Central

Berberine, a natural isoquinoline alkaloid of many medicinal herbs, has an active function against a variety of microbial infections including Microsporum canis (M. canis). However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. To study the effect of berberine chloride on M. canis infection, a Digital Gene Expression (DGE) tag profiling was constructed and a transcriptome analysis of the M. canis cellular responses upon berberine treatment was performed. Illimina/Hisseq sequencing technique was used to generate the data of gene expression profile, and the following enrichment analysis of Gene Ontology (GO) and Pathway function were conducted based on the data of transcriptome. The results of DGE showed that there were 8476945, 14256722, 7708575, 5669955, 6565513 and 9303468 tags respectively, which was obtained from M. canis incubated with berberine or control DMSO. 8,783 genes were totally mapped, and 1,890 genes have shown significant changes between the two groups. 1,030 genes were up-regulated and 860 genes were down-regulated (P<0.05) in berberine treated group compared to the control group. Besides, twenty-three GO terms were identified by Gene Ontology functional enrichment analysis, such as calcium-transporting ATPase activity, 2-oxoglutarate metabolic process, valine catabolic process, peroxisome and unfolded protein binding. Pathway significant enrichment analysis indicated 6 signaling pathways that are significant, including steroid biosynthesis, steroid hormone biosynthesis, Parkinson’s disease, 2,4-Dichlorobenzoate degradation, and tropane, piperidine and Isoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis. Among these, eleven selected genes were further verified by qRT-PCR. Our findings provide a comprehensive view on the gene expression profile of M. canis upon berberine treatment, and shed light on its complicated effects on M. canis. PMID:25874937

Xiao, Chen-Wen; Ji, Quan-An; Wei, Qiang; Liu, Yan; Pan, Li-Jun; Bao, Guo-Lian



Management of endemic Microsporum canis dermatophytosis in an open admission shelter: a field study.  


Endemic Microsporum canis dermatophytosis was identified in a large, open admission, private, no-kill shelter that admitted >1200 cats per year. Fungal culture (FC) screening revealed that 166/210 (79%) and 38/99 (38%) cats in the non-public and public area were culture positive, respectively. However, pending screening FC results, the 99 cats in the public area were treated with once-weekly lime sulfur rinses and monitored with once-weekly FC. Cats in the non-public area were not treated. When FC results were available, cats were separated into low-risk (n = 61) and high-risk (n = 38) groups based upon the presence or absence of skin lesions. Low-risk cats continued to receive once-weekly topical lime sulfur and rapidly achieved culture-negative status. High-risk cats were divided into two groups based upon the number of colony-forming units/plate (low or high). All 38 cats were treated with twice-weekly lime sulfur and oral terbinafine and within 6-7 weeks only 5/38 cats were still FC-positive. These cats were moved to a separate room. Dermatophytosis was eradicated within 5 months; eradication was prolonged owing to reintroduction of disease into the remaining room of cats under treatment from three kittens returning from foster care. Continued admissions and adoptions were possible by the institution of intake procedures that specifically included careful Wood's lamp examination to identify high-risk cats and use of a 'clean break strategy'. PMID:25074567

Newbury, Sandra; Moriello, Karen; Coyner, Kimberly; Trimmer, Ann; Kunder, Darcie



Study of diseases of the grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) in Italy. First isolation of the dermatophyte Microsporum cookei.  


The ecological risks connected with the introduction of the North American grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) in Italy are many. Of particular importance is the conservation of the native red squirrel (S. vulgaris) population, since the experience from the British Isles showed that where the grey squirrel was introduced, the autochthonous red squirrel became extinct. To determine the health status of grey squirrels trapped and euthanasized during an eradication campaign in the Piedmont region, various analyses were carried out. This paper describes a preliminary mycological investigation. Microsporum cookei, a geophilic dermatophyte, was isolated for the first time from grey squirrels. PMID:10200938

Caffara, M; Scagliarini, A



Inhibition of lysosome degradation on autophagosome formation and responses to GMI, an immunomodulatory protein from Ganoderma microsporum  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Autophagic cell death is considered a self-destructive process that results from large amounts of autophagic flux. In our previous study, GMI, a recombinant fungal immunomodulatory protein cloned from Ganoderma microsporum, induced autophagic cell death in lung cancer cells. The aim of this study was to examine the role of autophagosome accumulation in GMI-mediated cell death. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Western blot analysis, flow cytometry and confocal microscopy were used to evaluate the effects of different treatments, including silencing of ATP6V0A1 by use of short hairpin RNAi, on GMI-mediated cell death, lung cancer cell viability and autophagosome accumulation in vitro. KEY RESULTS Lysosome inhibitors bafilomycin-A1 and chloroquine increased GMI-mediated autophagic cell death. GMI and bafilomycin-A1 co-treatment induced the accumulation of large amounts of autophagosomes, but did not significantly induce apoptosis. GMI elicited autophagy through the PKB (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin signalling pathway. Silencing of ATP6V0A1, one subunit of vesicular H+-ATPases (V-ATPases) that mediates lysosome acidification, spontaneously induced autophagosome accumulation, but did not affect lysosome acidity. GMI-mediated autophagosome accumulation and cytotoxicity was increased in shATP6V0A1 lung cancer cells. Furthermore, ATP6V0A1 silencing decreased autophagosome and lysosome fusion in GMI-treated CaLu-1/GFP-LC3 lung cancer cells. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS We demonstrated that autophagosome accumulation induces autophagic cell death in a GMI treatment model, and ATP6V0A1 plays an important role in mediating autophagosome-lysosome fusion. Our findings provide new insights into the mechanisms involved in the induction of autophagic cell death. PMID:22708544

Hsin, I-Lun; Sheu, Gwo-Tarng; Jan, Ming-Shiou; Sun, Hai-Lun; Wu, Tzu-Chin; Chiu, Ling-Yen; Lue, Ko-Huang; Ko, Jiunn-Liang



The Novel Azole R126638 Is a Selective Inhibitor of Ergosterol Synthesis in Candida albicans, Trichophyton spp., and Microsporum canis  

PubMed Central

R126638 is a novel triazole with in vitro activity similar to that of itraconazole against dermatophytes, Candida spp., and Malassezia spp. In animal models of dermatophyte infections, R126638 showed superior antifungal activity. R126638 inhibits ergosterol synthesis in Candida albicans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, and Microsporum canis at nanomolar concentrations, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) similar to those of itraconazole. The decreased synthesis of ergosterol and the concomitant accumulation of 14?-methylsterols provide indirect evidence that R126638 inhibits the activity of CYP51 that catalyzes the oxidative removal of the 14?-methyl group of lanosterol or eburicol. The IC50s for cholesterol synthesis from acetate in human hepatoma cells were 1.4 ?M for itraconazole and 3.1 ?M for R126638. Compared to itraconazole (IC50 = 3.5 ?M), R126638 is a poor inhibitor of the 1?-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (IC50 > 10 ?M). Micromolar concentrations of R126638 and itraconazole inhibited the 24-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and the conversion of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 into polar metabolites. At concentrations up to 10 ?M, R126638 had almost no effect on cholesterol side chain cleavage (CYP11A1), 11?-hydroxylase (CYP11B1), 17-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase (CYP17), aromatase (CYP19), or 4-hydroxylation of all-trans retinoic acid (CYP26). At 10 ?M, R126638 did not show clear inhibition of CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2D6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C10, CYP2C19, or CYP2E1. Compared to itraconazole, R126638 had a lower interaction potential with testosterone 6? hydroxylation and cyclosporine hydroxylation, both of which are catalyzed by CYP3A4, whereas both antifungals inhibited the CYP3A4-catalyzed hydroxylation of midazolam similarly. The results suggest that R126638 has promising properties and merits further in vivo investigations for the treatment of dermatophyte and yeast infections. PMID:15328084

Vanden Bossche, Hugo; Ausma, Jannie; Bohets, Hilde; Vermuyten, Karen; Willemsens, Gustaaf; Marichal, Patrick; Meerpoel, Lieven; Odds, Frank; Borgers, Marcel



Alkylphenol Activity against Candida spp. and Microsporum canis: A Focus on the Antifungal Activity of Thymol, Eugenol and O-Methyl Derivatives.  


In recent years there has been an increasing search for new antifungal compounds due to the side effects of conventional antifungal drugs and fungal resistance. The aims of this study were to test in vitro the activity of thymol, eugenol, estragole and anethole and some O-methyl-derivatives (methylthymol and methyleugenol) against Candida spp. and Microsporum canis. The broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC) for both Candida spp. and M. canis were found by subculturing each fungal suspension on potato dextrose agar. Thymol, methylthymol, eugenol, methyl-eugenol, anethole, estragole and griseofulvin respectively, presented the following MIC values against M. canis: 4.8-9.7; 78-150; 39; 78-150; 78-150; 19-39 µg/mL and 0.006-2.5 mg/mL. The MFC values for all compounds ranged from 9.7 to 31 µg/mL. Concerning Candida spp, thymol, methylthymol, eugenol, methyleugenol, anethole, estragole and amphotericin, respectively, showed the following MIC values: 39; 620-1250; 150-620; 310-620; 620; 620-1250 and 0.25-2.0 mg/mL. The MFC values varied from 78 to 2500 µg/mL. All tested compounds thus showed in vitro antifungal activity against Candida spp. and M. canis. Therefore, further studies should be carried out to confirm the usefulness of these alkylphenols in vivo. PMID:25134762

Fontenelle, Raquel O S; Morais, Selene M; Brito, Erika H S; Brilhante, Raimunda S N; Cordeiro, Rossana A; Lima, Ynayara C; Brasil, Nilce V G P S; Monteiro, André J; Sidrim, José J C; Rocha, Marcos F G



Assessment of immunogenicity and protective efficacy of Microsporum canis secreted components coupled to monophosphoryl lipid-A adjuvant in a vaccine study using guinea pigs.  


Microsporum canis is the most common dermatophyte in pets and is of zoonotic importance but currently there is no effective vaccine available to prevent dermatophytosis. The aim of this work was to assess the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of secreted components (SC) from M. canis adjuvanted with the monophosphoryl lipid-A (MPLA), in a vaccine study using the guinea pig as an experimental model. Animals were vaccinated with either the SC adjuvanted with the MPLA, the MPLA adjuvant alone or PBS three times at two-week intervals, until 42 days prior to M. canis infection. A blind evaluation of dermatophytosis symptoms development and fungal persistence in skin was monitored weekly. The antibody response towards the SC and the levels of Interferon (IFN)? and Interleukin-4 expressed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were assessed along or at the end of the study period respectively. The animals that received MPLA had a significantly lower clinical score than those inoculated with PBS. However, no significant difference was observed between the guinea pigs vaccinated with the SC adjuvanted with the MPLA and those having received MPLA alone. The results also showed that vaccination induced a strong antibody response towards the SC and an increase in IFN? mRNA level. Our results show that the MPLA adjuvant used in this vaccine study can induce per se a partial protection against a M. canis infection. Although they induce a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction in guinea pigs, the SC do not confer a protection under the present experimental conditions. PMID:25532779

Cambier, Ludivine; B?gu?, Elena-Tatiana; Heinen, Marie-Pierre; Tabart, Jérémy; Antoine, Nadine; Mignon, Bernard



Kennel Disinfectants for Microsporum canis and Trichophyton sp.  

PubMed Central

The antifungal efficacy of commonly used kennel disinfectants for large surfaces was tested using naturally infective material from untreated animals (M. canis and Trichophyton sp.) soaked and macerated but unfiltered leaving visible fluorescing hairs and/or scales in the test inoculum to create a robust challenge. Disinfectants included sodium hypochlorite (1?:?32 and 1?:?100), enilconazole (1?:?100), accelerated hydrogen peroxide (1?:?16), potassium peroxymonosulfate (1% and 2%), and calcium hypochlorite “dry bleach.” Disinfectants were tested at a 1?:?10, 1?:?5, and 1?:?1 dilution of test inoculum to disinfectant with a 10?min contact time. Good efficacy was defined as a disinfectant resulting in no growth. Control plates grew >300 colonies of each pathogen per plate. Enilconazole, sodium hypochlorite (all dilutions), accelerated hydrogen peroxide, and 2% potassium peroxymonosulfate (but not 1%) inhibited all growth of both pathogens at 1?:?10, 1?:?5, and 1?:?1 dilutions. Calcium hypochlorite showed no antifungal efficacy (>300 colonies per plate). Enilconazole (1?:?100), sodium hypochlorite (1?:?32 or 1?:?100), accelerated hydrogen peroxide (1?:?16), and 2% potassium peroxymonosulfate are recommended for decontamination of kennels exposed to dermatophyte pathogens. PMID:25763290

Moriello, Karen A.



In vitro susceptibility testing of Microsporum gypseum isolated from healthy cattle and soil samples against itraconazole, terbinafine, fluconazole and topical veterinarian drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study evaluated in vitro susceptibility testing of dermatophytes isolates from healthy cattle and soil samples against three antifungal agents and three topical veterinarian drugs. Itraconazole and terbinafine showed a higher in vitro fungicidal activity than fluconazole. The veterinarian drugs LEPECID® and iodine 5% were more active in vitro than the UNGÜENTO® spray. All drugs showed fungicidal activity against

Alessandra Gonçalves Krakhecke; Eurípedes Afonso; Joseane C. Ferreira; Regina Celia Candido



Use of itraconazole and either lime sulphur or Malaseb Concentrate Rinse ® to treat shelter cats naturally infected with Microsporum canis: an open field trial.  


In an open non-randomized study, 90 cats with severe dermatophytosis were treated with 21 days of oral itraconazole at 10 mg/kg and one of three topical antifungal rinses applied twice weekly: lime sulphur (LSO); reformulated lime sulphur with an odour-masking agent (LSR); or a 0.2% miconazole nitrate and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate rinse (MC). Weekly examinations and fungal cultures were used to monitor the cats' response to therapy. If at day 42 of treatment cats were still strongly fungal culture positive and/or developing new lesions, they were retreated with oral itraconazole and LSO. Cats were not prevented from licking the solutions and none developed oral ulcerations. Thirty-one cats were treated with LSO, 27 with LSR and 32 with MC. The median number of days to cure was 30 (range 10-69 days) and 34 (range 23-80 days) for LSO and LSR, respectively. Thirty-two cats were treated with MC, and 13 of 32 cats required repeat treatment because of persistent culture-positive status and development of new lesions. Median number of days of treatment for the 19 cats that cured with MC was 48 (range 14-93 days). When the number of days to cure was compared between the groups, there was a significant difference between cats treated with LSO and LSR (P=0.029) and cats treated with LSO and MC (P=0.031), but no significant difference between the number of days to cure for cats treated with LSR and MC (P=0.91). PMID:20604908

Newbury, Sandra; Moriello, Karen A; Kwochka, Kenneth W; Verbrugge, Maria; Thomas, Chester



Application of PCR to Distinguish Common Species of Dermatophytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the application of PCR fingerprinting for the identification of species and varieties of common dermatophytes and related fungi utilizing as a single primer the simple repetitive oligonucleotide (GACA)4. The primer was able to amplify all the strains, producing species-specific profiles for Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton ajelloi, and Epidermophyton floccosum. Intra- specific variability was not




Phylogenetic Classification and Species Identification of Dermatophyte Strains Based on DNA Sequences of Nuclear Ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 Regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mutual phylogenetic relationships of dermatophytes of the genera Trichophyton, Microsporum, and Epidermophyton were demonstrated by using internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region ribosomal DNA sequences. Trichophyton spp. and Microsporum spp. form a cluster in the phylogenetic tree with Epidermophyton floccosum as an outgroup, and within this cluster, all Trichophyton spp. except Trichophyton terrestre form a nested cluster (100% bootstrap




Studi sulla biologia dei dermatomiceti  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autoriassunto L'A. ha studiato le attività glicoassimilative e glicolitiche di 94 ceppi di dermotomiceti di recentissimo isolamento (4Microsporum, 2 Achorion Schönleini, 10Epidermophyton inguinale e 78Tricophyton delle specieviolaceum, cerebriforme, gipseum, plicatile, fumatum, interdigitale, ecc.).

P. Pinetti



Activité antifongique de l’acide oléique et des huiles essentielles de Thymus saturejoides L. et de Mentha pulegium L., comparée aux antifongiques dans les dermatoses mycosiques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé  L’activité antifongique in vitro de deux huiles essentielles (HE) de plantes aromatiques et médicinales (PAM) (thym et menthe pouliot) et de l’acide oléique\\u000a a été évaluée contre 15 souches de différentes espèces de dermatophytes isolées de diverses dermatophyties traitées à l’Hôpital\\u000a d’enfants de Rabat dont Trichophyton rubrum (5 isolats), Trichophyton mentagrophytes (4 isolats) et Microsporum canis (4 isolats) (Microsporum gypseum

D. Ouraïni; A. Agoumi; M. Ismaïli-Alaoui; K. Alaoui; Y. Cherrah; M. A. Alaoui; M. A. Belabbas



Screening of hundred Rwandese medicinal plants for antimicrobial and antiviral properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of 100 Rwandese medicinal plants (267 plant extracts), used by traditional healers to treat infections, were screened for antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral properties. The results of the testing showed that 45% were active against Staphylococcus aureus, 2% against Escherichia coli, 16% against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 7% against Candida albicans, 80% against Microsporum canis and 60% against Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Not

A. J. Vlietinck; L. Van Hoof; J. Totté; A. Lasure; D. Vanden Berghe; P. C. Rwangabo; J. Mvukiyumwami



Antifungal activity of crude extracts and essential oil of Moringa oleifera Lam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations were carried out to evaluate the therapeutic properties of the seeds and leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam as herbal medicines. Ethanol extracts showed anti-fungal activities in vitro against dermatophytes such as Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Microsporum canis. GC–MS analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oil from leaves showed a total of 44 compounds. Isolated

Ping-Hsien Chuang; Chi-Wei Lee; Jia-Ying Chou; M. Murugan; Bor-Jinn Shieh; Hueih-Min Chen



Short Communication Antifungal activity of crude extracts and essential oil of Moringa oleifera Lam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations were carried out to evaluate the therapeutic properties of the seeds and leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam as herbal medi- cines. Ethanol extracts showed anti-fungal activities in vitro against dermatophytes such as Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagro- phytes, Epidermophyton Xoccosum, and Microsporum canis. GC-MS analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oil from leaves showed a total of 44

Ping-Hsien Chuang; Chi-Wei Lee; Jia-Ying Chou; M. Murugan; Bor-Jinn Shieh; Hueih-Min Chen


Antifungal Activity of the Bark and Leaf Oils of Cinnamomum verum J.S. Presl. Alone and in Combination against Variou s Fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leaf and bark oils of Cinnamomum verum J.S. Pre sl. were examined for their antifungal activity against 6 dermatophytes (Tricho phyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, T. tonsurans, Microsporum canis, M. gypseum and M. aud ouini), one filamentous fungi (Aspergillus fumigatus) and 5 strains of yeasts (Ca ndida albicans, Ca. glabrata, Ca. tropicalis, Ca. parapsilosis and Crytococcus neofor mans) by using



Anti dermatophytic activity of Azardirachta indica (neem) by invitro study.  


The leaf and seed extracts of the Plant Azardirachta indica were tested for antidermatophytic activity against dermatophytes such as Trichophyton ruberum, Trichophyton, Mentagrophytes, Trichophyton violaceum, Microsporum nanum and Epidermophyton floccosum by tube dilution technique. The minimum Inhibitory concentration (MIC) of neem seed extract was found to be lower tan that of neem leaf when tested against different species of Dermatophytes. PMID:12785173

Natarajan, V; Pushkala, S; Karuppiah, V P; Prasad, P V S



Antifungal activity of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa (Rutaceae) leaf extract on dermatophytes  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of Aegle marmelos leaf extracts and fractions on the clinical isolates of dermatophytic fungi like Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum. Methods The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of various extracts and fractions of the leaves of Aegle marmelos were measured using method of National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). Results Aegle marmelos leaf extracts and fractions were found to have fungicidal activity against various clinical isolates of dermatophytic fungi. The MIC and MFC was found to be high in water and ethyl alcohol extracts and methanol fractions (200µg/mL) against dermatophytic fungi studied. Conclusions Aegle marmelos leaf extracts significantly inhibites the growth of all dermatophytic fungi studied. If this activity is confirmed by in vivo studies and if the compound is isolated and identified, it could be a remedy for dermatophytosis. PMID:23569781

Balakumar, S; Rajan, S; Thirunalasundari, T; Jeeva, S



Trichophyton rubrum invasion of human hair apparatus in tinea capitis and tinea barbae: light- and electron microscopic study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We have previously reported morphological changes ofTrichophyton violaceum andMicrosporum canis in hair apparatuses in tinea capitis. To investigate the morphology ofTrichophyton rubrum in the human hair apparatus, two cases of tinea capitis and one case of tinea barbae were examined by light- and electron microscopy. The fungal elements, which were located in the lower keratogenous zone, showed non-septate hyphae

C. Okuda; M. Ito; Y. Sato



Pharmacological management of pediatric Kerion celsi.  


We report a case of severe tinea capitis, treated successfully with griseofulvin. In our opinion, the treatment of this severe dermatophytosis with griseofulvin is safe and effective. Other treatments, such as itraconazole pulsed therapy, failed, despite an initial improvement, leading to an aggressive recurrence of the lesion. We chose griseofulvin for its well-known large spectrum activity, also against uncommon species, like Microsporum Gypseum, which are responsible for the most severe cases. PMID:24355234

Pranteda, G; Muscianese, M; Grimaldi, M; Tuzi, M; Pranteda, G; Fidanza, L; Tamburi, F; Bottoni, U; Nisticò, S



Anti-fungal activity of crude extracts and essential oil of Moringa oleifera Lam.  


Investigations were carried out to evaluate the therapeutic properties of the seeds and leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam as herbal medicines. Ethanol extracts showed anti-fungal activities in vitro against dermatophytes such as Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Microsporum canis. GC-MS analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oil from leaves showed a total of 44 compounds. Isolated extracts could be of use for the future development of anti-skin disease agents. PMID:16406607

Chuang, Ping-Hsien; Lee, Chi-Wei; Chou, Jia-Ying; Murugan, M; Shieh, Bor-Jinn; Chen, Hueih-Min



Infectious Diseases of the Skin I: Dermatophytosis\\/Onychomycosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Dermatophytes are a unique group of fungi that infect keratinous tissue, including skin, hair, and nails, resulting in cutaneous\\u000a mycoses called dermatophytoses, tinea, or ringworm infections. This closely-related group of organisms can be categorized\\u000a into one of three genera: Trichophyton, Microsporum, and Epidermophyton. Species within these genera that do not invade keratinous ­tissue are, by definition, not regarded as dermatophytes.

Pranab K. Mukherjee; Nancy Isham; Mahmoud A. Ghannoum


Una alternativa terapéutica para micosis superficiales An alternative therapy to superficial mycosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN: se realizaron ensayos in-vivo e in-vitro de una solución saturada de sacarosa, eugenol (0.4%v\\/v) y polietilenglicol 400 (0.4%v\\/v) para determinar su acción fungicida sobre cepas productoras de micosis superficiales y su genotoxicidad. A suspensiones de Microsporum canis, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes y Epidermophyton flocosum, se les agregó la solución de ensayo y se hicieron cultivos en agar Sabouraud para


Review of dermatophytoses in Galicia from 1951 to 1987, and comparison with other areas of Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have reviewed all the dermatophytoses diagnosed in Galicia during four consecutive 9-year periods 1951–86 and 1987. From 4571 patients, we isolated 3351 fungal strains belonging, in decreasing order of frequency, to the following dermatophyte species: Microsporum canis (25.5%), Trichophyton rubrum (24.6%), T. mentagrophytes (21.4%), Epidermophyton floccosum (11.8%), M. gypseum (5.2%), T. tonsurans (3.9%), T. verrucosum (3.1%), T. schoenleinii (2.5%),

M. Pereiro Miguens; Mercedes Pereiro



Dermatophytes and other keratinophilic fungi from coypus ( Myocastor coypus ) and brown rats ( Rattus norvegicus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of mycotic agents was investigated by hair-brush technique on the coat of 162 naturalized coypus (Myocastor coypus) and 64 indigenous brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) originating from the same protected area in Central Italy. The isolates from positive coypus (29.6%) were identified as\\u000a Microsporum gypseum (14.8%), Trichophyton terrestre (9.8%), Alternaria sp. (3.7%), Trichophyton mentagrophytes (2.5%), Cladosporium sp. (1.8%), Scopulariopsis

Roberto Papini; Simona Nardoni; Roberto Ricchi; Francesca Mancianti



The use of albino adult hair and blond prepubertal hair yields equivalent results in an in vitro hair perforation test to differentiate between different dermatophytic fungi.  


An in vitro hair perforation test is used to differentiate isolates of Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum complexes because morphological criteria are insufficient. Here, we performed in vitro hair perforation tests using blond prepubertal hair and albino adult hair to determine whether they differentiate between fungal species. We tested 43 well-characterized dermatophyte strains, Arthroderma spp. [n = 4], Epidermophyton floccosum [n = 1], Microsporum spp. [n = 8], and Trichophyton spp. [n = 30], and examined hair perforation at 3-30 days postinoculation (p.i.). The perforation times were not significantly different between the two hair types (P > 0.05). The T. mentagrophytes complex strains perforated hair 4-5 days p.i., whereas T. rubrum complex strains perforated hair 13-30 days p.i., except for Trichophyton violaceum, which perforated hair after 6-7 days. Thus, the hair perforation test is highly sensitive (100 %) and specific (100 %) for differentiating T. mentagrophytes from T. rubrum complexes 5 days p.i. At 14 and 30 days, the sensitivity and negative predictive value of the test remained unchanged (100 %), but the specificity was reduced (64.3 and 14.3 %, respectively). Consistent with previous reports, we observed "perforating organs" of zoophilic Microsporum canis and geophilic Microsporum gypseum at 4 and 3 days, respectively. This paper offers a "low-cost" and "low-tech" alternative to differentiating dermatophyte species where standard morphological techniques fail and/or where molecular techniques are not a viable option. PMID:23591622

Gümral, Ramazan; Dö?en, Aylin; Durdu, Murat; Ilkit, Macit



Superficial fungal infections in children.  


Superficial fungal infections can involve the hair, skin, and nails. Most affected children are healthy, although immunosuppression is a risk factor for more severe presentation. Causative organisms typically are members of the Trichophyton, Microsporum, and Epidermophyton genera (dermatophytes), can be acquired from other infected humans, animals, or soil, and illicit a host inflammatory response. Nondermatophyte infections include pityriasis versicolor. In this article, the most common clinical presentations, diagnostic recommendations, and treatment algorithms for dermatophyte and nondermatophyte mycoses in children and adolescents are described. PMID:24636655

Hawkins, Danielle M; Smidt, Aimee C



[Identification of geophilic and zoophilic dermatophytes in siblings with tinea capitis. A pathogenic factor or contamination?].  


Two siblings of African origin presented with multiple scaling patches and alopecia on the scalp four weeks after returning from a vacation in Eritrea. Direct KOH examination revealed fungal elements; Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton terrestre were identified in the fungal culture. We discuss the putative pathogenic role of both microorganisms in causing disease. Although infection with Microsporum canis currently accounts for almost fifty percent of all cases of tinea capitis in Germany, other fungi have gained importance due to tourism and increasing migration. PMID:15340708

Lehmann, S; Ott, H; Barker, M; Heimann, G; Poblete-Gutiérrez, P; Frank, J



Fungitoxicity of essential oils against dermatophytes.  


Sixteen essential oils were screened in vitro for their fungitoxicity against the two dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum gypseum. Five oils (from Artemisia nelagrica, Caesulia axillaris, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Cymbopogon citratus and Mentha arvensis) showed strong activity and were assessed for their fungitoxicity against eight other dermatophytes as well as against Aspergillus fumigatus and Cladosporium trichoides. These five essential oils by formulation of ointments were able to cure experimental ringworm in guinea pigs within 7 to 12 days. Artemisia oil was found to be the most effective essential oil. PMID:8264720

Kishore, N; Mishra, A K; Chansouria, J P




PubMed Central

This report represents the first study of keratinophilic fungi present in soils of Jamaica. Out of the 40 soil samples examined from different habitats, 30 (75%) were positive for the presence of keratinophilic fungi, yielding 36 isolates of keratinophilic fungi. Microsporum gypseum complex (represented by 16 isolates of M. gypseum, and four of M. fulvum) was most frequent, being present in 50% of the samples. A very high occurrence of this dermatophyte in Jamaican soil is of public health significance. The remaining isolates of keratinophilic fungi were represented by Chrysosporium spp (mainly C. indicum and C. tropicum) and Sepedonium sp. PMID:24879002

Gugnani, Harish C.; Sharma, Soni; Wright, Kharl



Antifungal, Antileishmanial, and Cytotoxicity Activities of Various Extracts of Berberis vulgaris (Berberidaceae) and Its Active Principle Berberine.  


In this study, in vitro antidermatophytic activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis, and Microsporum gypseum was studied by disk diffusion test and assessment of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using CLSI broth macrodilution method (M38-A2). Moreover, antileishmanial and cytotoxicity activity of B. vulgaris and berberine against promastigotes of Leishmania major and Leishmania tropica were evaluated by colorimetric MTT assay. The findings indicated that the various extracts of B. vulgaris particularly berberine showed high potential antidermatophytic against pathogenic dermatophytes tested with MIC values varying from 0.125 to >4?mg/mL. The results revealed that B. vulgaris extracts as well as berberine were effective in inhibiting L. major and L. tropica promastigotes growth in a dose-dependent manner with IC50 (50% inhibitory concentration) values varying from 2.1 to 26.6? ? g/mL. Moreover, it could be observed that berberine as compared with B. vulgaris exhibited more cytotoxicity against murine macrophages with CC50 (cytotoxicity concentration for 50% of cells) values varying from 27.3 to 362.6? ? g/mL. Results of this investigation were the first step in the search for new antidermatophytic and antileishmanial drugs. However, further works are required to evaluate exact effect of these extracts in animal models as well as volunteer human subjects. PMID:24977052

Mahmoudvand, Hossein; Ayatollahi Mousavi, Seyyed Amin; Sepahvand, Asghar; Sharififar, Fariba; Ezatpour, Behrouz; Gorohi, Fatemeh; Saedi Dezaki, Ebrahim; Jahanbakhsh, Sareh



Ethnoveterinary study for antidermatophytic activity of Piper betle, Alpinia galanga and Allium ascalonicum extracts in vitro.  


Crude ethanolic extracts of Piper betle leaves (Piperaceae), Alpinia galanga rhizomes (Zingiberaceae) and Allium ascalonicum bulbs (Liliaceae) were tested against selected zoonotic dermatophytes (Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophyte) and the yeast-like Candida albicans. A broth dilution method was employed to determine the inhibitory effect of the extracts and compared to those of ketoconazole and griseofulvin. All extracts suppressed the growth of the fungi in a concentration-dependent manner. Among the extracts tested, P. betle exhibited more effective antifungal properties with average IC(50) values ranging from 110.44 to 119.00 microg/ml. Subsequently, 10% Piper betle (Pb) cream was formulated, subjected to physical and microbial limit test and evaluated for antifungal effect. The disc diffusion assay revealed comparable zones of inhibition between discs of Pb cream containing 80 microg P. betle extract and 80 microg ketoconazole against tested fungi at 96 h after incubation. Thereafter, the inhibitory effect of Pb cream markedly decreased and completely lost effectiveness by day 7. In summary, the results supported the traditional wisdom of herbal remedy use and suggested a potential value-addition to agricultural products. It was suggested that the Pb cream has potential therapeutic value for treatment of dermatophytosis. However, clinical testing as well as improving the Pb cream formulation with greater efficacy and duration of action would be of interest and awaits further investigation. PMID:17482221

Trakranrungsie, N; Chatchawanchonteera, A; Khunkitti, W



Heat stable antimicrobial activity of Allium ascalonicum against bacteria and fungi.  


To study antimicrobial activity of shallot in comparison with that of garlic and onion against 23 strains of fungi and bacteria, water extracts of garlic, shallot and onion bulbs were prepared. Each extract was studied in different forms for their antimicrobial activity viz., fresh extract, dry extract and autoclaved extract. Minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal lethal concentrations of these extracts were determined against all organisms by broth dilution susceptibility test. Fresh extract of garlic showed greater antimicrobial activity as compared to similar extracts of onion and shallot. However, dried and autoclaved extracts of shallot showed more activity than similar extracts of onion and garlic. Fungi were more sensitive to shallot extract than bacteria. Amongst bacteria, B. cereus was most sensitive (MIC=5 mg ml(-1)). The lowest minimum bactericidal concentration of shallot extract amongst bacteria tested was 5 mg ml(-1) for B. cereus. Amongst fungi, Aureobasidium pullulans and Microsporum gypseum were most sensitive (MIC= 0.15 mg ml(-1)). The lowest minimum lethal concentration was 2.5 mg ml(-1) for Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. It was therefore, expected that the antimicrobial principle of shallot was different than the antimicrobial compounds of onion and garlic. In addition, the antimicrobial component of the shallot extract was stable at 121 degrees C. PMID:16121720

Amin, M; Kapadnis, B P



In vitro susceptibility of dermatomycoses agents to six antifungal drugs and evaluation by fractional inhibitory concentration index of combined effects of amorolfine and itraconazole in dermatophytes.  


To investigate the antifungal drug susceptibility of fungi responsible for dermatomycoses, minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) tests were performed in 44 strains of dermatophytes, including Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton verrucosum, Trichophyton tonsurans, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum, with six antifungal drugs (amorolfine, terbinafine, butenafine, ketoconazole, itraconazole and bifonazole) by broth microdilution assay according to Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute protocols. Six possible dermatomycosis-causing non-dermatophytic fungi were also tested. The two major causes of tinea, T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes, showed significantly different sensitivities to ketoconazole and bifonazole. Clinically derived dermatophytes were sensitive to the six antifungal drugs tested. However, non-dermatophytes, especially Fusarium spp., tended to be resistant to these antifungal drugs. In Trichophyton spp., the MICs of non-azole drugs had narrower distributions than those of azoles. To evaluate the effects of antifungal drug combinations, the fractional inhibitory concentration index was calculated for the combination of amorolfine and itraconazole as representative external and internal drugs for dermatophytes. It was found that this combination had synergistic or additive effects on most dermatophytes, and had no antagonistic effects. The variation in susceptibility of clinically derived fungal isolates indicates that identification of causative fungi is indispensable for appropriately choosing effective antifungal drugs in the early stages of infection. The results of combination assay suggest that multiple drugs with different antifungal mechanisms against growth of dermatophytes should be used to treat refractory dermatomycoses, especially onychomycosis. PMID:24215461

Tamura, Takashi; Asahara, Miwa; Yamamoto, Mikachi; Yamaura, Mariko; Matsumura, Mitsuru; Goto, Kazuo; Rezaei-Matehkolaei, Ali; Mirhendi, Hossein; Makimura, Miho; Makimura, Koichi



Antifungal, Antileishmanial, and Cytotoxicity Activities of Various Extracts of Berberis vulgaris (Berberidaceae) and Its Active Principle Berberine  

PubMed Central

In this study, in vitro antidermatophytic activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis, and Microsporum gypseum was studied by disk diffusion test and assessment of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using CLSI broth macrodilution method (M38-A2). Moreover, antileishmanial and cytotoxicity activity of B. vulgaris and berberine against promastigotes of Leishmania major and Leishmania tropica were evaluated by colorimetric MTT assay. The findings indicated that the various extracts of B. vulgaris particularly berberine showed high potential antidermatophytic against pathogenic dermatophytes tested with MIC values varying from 0.125 to >4?mg/mL. The results revealed that B. vulgaris extracts as well as berberine were effective in inhibiting L. major and L. tropica promastigotes growth in a dose-dependent manner with IC50 (50% inhibitory concentration) values varying from 2.1 to 26.6??g/mL. Moreover, it could be observed that berberine as compared with B. vulgaris exhibited more cytotoxicity against murine macrophages with CC50 (cytotoxicity concentration for 50% of cells) values varying from 27.3 to 362.6??g/mL. Results of this investigation were the first step in the search for new antidermatophytic and antileishmanial drugs. However, further works are required to evaluate exact effect of these extracts in animal models as well as volunteer human subjects. PMID:24977052

Mahmoudvand, Hossein; Ayatollahi Mousavi, Seyyed Amin; Sepahvand, Asghar; Sharififar, Fariba; Ezatpour, Behrouz; Gorohi, Fatemeh; Saedi Dezaki, Ebrahim; Jahanbakhsh, Sareh



Difference in keratinase activity of dermatophytes at different environmental conditions is an attribute of adaptation to parasitism.  


Dermatophytes are a group of morphologically and physiologically related moulds, which cause well-defined infection called dermatophytosis. The enzymatic ability of fungi to decompose keratin has long been interpreted as a key innovation in the evolution of animal dermatology. In the present study, keratinase activity profile among Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis and Microsporum gypseum isolated on keratin substrates such as human hair, human nail and chicken feather at variable environmental conditions of temperature, pH and metal ions was elucidated. All the above-mentioned fungal strains were isolated from soil using To-KA-Va baiting technique and keratinolytic activity was measured spectrophotometrically. In the temperature range of 30-40 °C and slightly alkaline pH (7.0-8.0), Trichophyton produced the highest activity of keratinase. It can be presumed that high enzyme production of Trichophyton species at normal body temperature range and pH could be an attribute for obligate anthropization in some dermatophytes. PMID:22032519

Sharma, Anima; Chandra, Subhash; Sharma, Meenakshi



Therapeutic switching: from antidermatophytic essential oils to new leishmanicidal products  

PubMed Central

This study examined whether the antidermatophytic activity of essential oils (EOs) can be used as an indicator for the discovery of active natural products against Leishmania amazonensis. The aerial parts of seven plants were hydrodistilled. Using broth microdilution techniques, the obtained EOs were tested against three strains of dermatophytes (Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum gypseum and Microsporum canis). To compare the EOs antifungal and antiparasitic effects, the EOs activities against axenic amastigotes of L. amazonensis were concurrently evaluated. For the most promising EOs, their antileishmanial activities against parasites infecting peritoneal macrophages of BALB/c mice were measured. The most interesting antifungal candidates were the EOs from Cymbopogon citratus, Otacanthus azureus and Protium heptaphyllum, whereas O. azureus, Piper hispidum and P. heptaphyllum EOs exhibited the lowest 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values against axenic amastigotes, thus revealing a certain correspondence between both activities. The P. hispidum EO was identified as the most promising product in the results from the infected macrophages model (IC50: 4.7 µg/mL, safety index: 8). The most abundant compounds found in this EO were sesquiterpenes, notably curzerene and furanodiene. Eventually, the evaluation of the antidermatophytic activity of EOs appears to be an efficient method for identifying new potential drugs for the treatment of L. amazonensis. PMID:25742270

Houël, Emeline; Gonzalez, German; Bessière, Jean-Marie; Odonne, Guillaume; Eparvier, Véronique; Deharo, Eric; Stien, Didier



Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities and chemical characterization of essential oils of Thymusvulgaris, Rosmarinusofficinalis, and Origanummajorana from northeastern México.  


There have been no reports of antifungal activity and composition of extracts from Thymus vulgaris, Rosmarinus officinalis or Origanum majorana from northeastern México. Antifungal activity of these oils against Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum canis and Epidermophyton floccosum was measured by diffusion assay. Additionally, antibacterial and antioxidant activities were evaluated. Antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes was examined by microdilution. Antioxidant activity was assessed by 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidracil reduction test. The plant oils were characterized by both GC/MS and GC/FID. Oils of T. vulgaris and O. majorana showed growth inhibition activity against dermatophytes, especially T. vulgaris oil, which completely inhibited growth of all tested dermatophytes. The oils also showed bioactivity against bacteria, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values between 62.5 and 500 ?g/mL. The antioxidant activity of the oils was low, with effective concentration (EC50) values <250?g/mL. The major components in the oils were as follows: T. vulgaris, o-cymene, ?-terpinene, thymol and carvacrol; R. officinalis, terpinen-4-ol and 1,8-cineole; O. majorana, terpinen-4-ol and thymol. PMID:25631514

Guerra-Boone, Laura; Alvarez-Román, Rocío; Alvarez-Román, Rocío; Salazar-Aranda, Ricardo; Torres-Cirio, Anabel; Rivas-Galindo, Verónica Mayela; de-Torres, Noemí Waksman; González, Gloria; Pérez-López, Luis Alejandro



Epidemiological studies on Dermatophytosis in human patients in Himachal Pradesh, India.  


Dermatophytes are among the common fungal agents implicated in superficial skin infections worldwide. They include species of Trichophyton, Microsporum and Epidermophyton. In hot and humid climates of tropical and subtropical regions, the incidence of these pathogens is higher. We present in this article, the epidemiological data regarding the prevalence of different dermatophyte species involved in superficial mycoses in human patients in the state of Himachal Pradesh (India) and different clinical conditions, age and sex of the patients. A total of 202 samples in the form of skin and nail scrapings, hair follicles were collected from different ringworm/tinea conditions which included: Tinea corporis, T. capitis, T. cruris, T. pedis, T. unguium, T. faciei, T. manuum and T. gladiatorum. On culturing, 74 samples (36.6%) were found positive for dermatophyte spp. Trichophyton spp. was the predominant one (98.65% cases) followed by Microsporum gypseum (1.35% cases). However, we did not recover any Epidermophyton spp. Among the Trichophyton spp., T. mentegrophyte was the predominant spp. (63.5%) followed by T. rubrum (35.1%). The male to female ratio of the positive cases was recorded as 63:11. The most effected age group was 21-50 years (64.9%) followed by 1-20 years (28.4%) and above 50 years (6.8%). PMID:25674437

Bhatia, Vikesh Kumar; Sharma, Prakash Chand



Organization and evolutionary trajectory of the mating type (MAT) locus in dermatophyte and dimorphic fungal pathogens.  


Sexual reproduction in fungi is governed by a specialized genomic region, the mating type (MAT) locus, whose gene identity, organization, and complexity are diverse. We identified the MAT locus of five dermatophyte fungal pathogens (Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton equinum, Trichophyton rubrum, and Trichophyton tonsurans) and a dimorphic fungus, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, and performed phylogenetic analyses. The identified MAT locus idiomorphs of M. gypseum control cell type identity in mating assays, and recombinant progeny were produced. Virulence tests in Galleria mellonella larvae suggest the two mating types of M. gypseum may have equivalent virulence. Synteny analysis revealed common features of the MAT locus shared among these five dermatophytes: namely, a small size ( approximately 3 kb) and a novel gene arrangement. The SLA2, COX13, and APN2 genes, which flank the MAT locus in other Ascomycota are instead linked on one side of the dermatophyte MAT locus. In addition, the transcriptional orientations of the APN2 and COX13 genes are reversed compared to the dimorphic fungi Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides immitis, and Coccidioides posadasii. A putative transposable element, pogo, was found to have inserted in the MAT1-2 idiomorph of one P. brasiliensis strain but not others. In conclusion, the evolution of the MAT locus of the dermatophytes and dimorphic fungi from the last common ancestor has been punctuated by both gene acquisition and expansion, and asymmetric gene loss. These studies further support a foundation to develop molecular and genetic tools for dermatophyte and dimorphic human fungal pathogens. PMID:19880755

Li, Wenjun; Metin, Banu; White, Theodore C; Heitman, Joseph



Microsatellite-primed PCR and random primer amplification polymorphic DNA for the identification and epidemiology of dermatophytes.  


This study demonstrates the capacity of the one-step polymerase chain reaction (PCR) fingerprinting method using the microsatellite primers (GACA)4 or (GTG)5 (MSP-PCR) to identify six of the most frequent dermatophyte species causing cutaneous mycosis. PCR with (GACA)4 was a suitable method to recognise Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale among 82 Argentinian clinical isolates, producing the most simple and reproducible band profiles. In contrast, the identification of Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton tonsurans was achieved using PCR with (GTG)5. In this way, the sequential application of PCR using (GACA)4 and (GTG)5 allowed the successful typification of clinical isolates which had not been determined by mycological standard techniques. In this work, the intraspecies variability among 33 clinical isolates of M. canis was detected using random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR) with the primers OPI-07 and OPK-20. The genetic variations in the isolates of M. canis were not associated with clinical features of lesions or pet ownership, but a geographical restriction of one genotype was determined with OPK-20, suggesting a clonal diversity related to different ecological niches in certain geographical areas. The results of this work demonstrate that the detection of intraspecies polymorphisms in M. canis by RAPD-PCR may be applied in future molecular epidemiological studies to identify endemic strains, the route of infection in an outbreak or the coexistence of different strains in a single infection. PMID:23412735

Spesso, M F; Nuncira, C T; Burstein, V L; Masih, D T; Dib, M D; Chiapello, L S



Chemical composition and biological assays of essential oils of Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi subsp. nepeta (Lamiaceae).  


Aerial parts of wild Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi subsp. nepeta growing spontaneously on the Mediterranean coast (Sardinia Island, Italy) and on the Atlantic coast (Portugal) were used as a matrix for the supercritical extraction of volatile oil with CO(2). The collected extracts were analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS methods and their compositions were compared with that of the essential oil isolated by hydrodistillation, but the differences were not relevant. A strong chemical variability was observed in the essential oils depending on the origin of the samples. The results showed the presence of two chemotypes of C. nepeta. In all Italian samples, pulegone, piperitenone oxide and piperitenone were the main components (64.4-39.9%; 2.5-19.1%; 6.4-7.7%); conversely, the oil extracted from Portuguese C. nepeta is predominantly composed of isomenthone (35.8-51.3%), 1,8-cineole (21.1-21.4%) and trans-isopulegone (7.8-6.0%). The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the oils against Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida guillermondii, Candida parapsilosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Epidermophyton floccosum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. The Italian oil, rich in pulegone, exhibited significant antifungal activity against Aspergillus and dermatophyte strains, with MIC values of 0.32-1.25 µL mL(-1). PMID:20981614

Marongiu, B; Piras, A; Porcedda, S; Falconieri, D; Maxia, A; Gonçalves, M J; Cavaleiro, C; Salgueiro, L



Total Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of a Natural Cycloheptapeptide of Marine Origin  

PubMed Central

The present study deals with the first total synthesis of the proline-rich cyclopolypeptide stylisin 2 via a solution phase technique by coupling of the Boc-l-Pro-l-Ile-l-Pro-OH tripeptide unit with the l-Phe-l-Pro-l-Pro-l-Tyr-OMe tetrapeptide unit, followed by cyclization of the resulting linear heptapeptide fragment. The chemical structure of the finally synthesized peptide was elucidated by FTIR, 1H/13C-NMR and FAB MS spectral data, as well as elemental analyses. The newly synthesized peptide was subjected to antimicrobial screening against eight pathogenic microbes and found to exhibit potent antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Candida albicans, in addition to moderate antidermatophyte activity against pathogenic Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum audouinii when compared to standard drugs—gatifloxacin and griseofulvin. PMID:20948913

Dahiya, Rajiv; Gautam, Hemendra



In Vitro and In Vivo Studies of Ambruticin (W7783): New Class of Antifungal Antibiotics  

PubMed Central

Ambruticin is a cyclopropyl-pyran acid, representing a new class of antibiotics. It has a relatively broad antifungal spectrum in vitro and is highly active against dimorphic as well as filamentous organisms. Of 24 strains of dermatophytic fungi tested, the majority were susceptible to ambruticin at 0.049 ?g/ml or less. The minimal inhibitory concentration for the systemic fungi Histoplasma capsulatum and Blastomyces dermatitidis was 0.049 to 0.39 ?g/ml. Ambruticin is fungicidal for metabolizing cells of Microsporum fulvum and does not cause cell leakage of 260-nm absorbing material. The antibiotic is effective orally as well as topically in guinea pigs experimentally infected with Trichophyton mentagrophytes. In mice, a single oral dose of 75 mg/kg produced peak serum levels of 45 ?g/ml in 1 h with a serum half-life of 3.1 h. Excretion of the antibiotic is principally by the biliary route. PMID:666301

Ringel, Samuel M.



In vitro anti-microbial activity of the Cuban medicinal plants Simarouba glauca DC, Melaleuca leucadendron L and Artemisia absinthium L.  


In the present study, an extensive in vitro antimicrobial profiling was performed for three medicinal plants grown in Cuba, namely Simarouba glauca, Melaleuca leucadendron and Artemisia absinthium. Ethanol extracts were tested for their antiprotozoal potential against Trypanosoma b. brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania infantum and Plasmodium falciparum. Antifungal activities were evaluated against Microsporum canis and Candida albicans whereas Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were used as test organisms for antibacterial activity. Cytotoxicity was assessed against human MRC-5 cells. Only M. leucadendron extract showed selective activity against microorganisms tested. Although S. glauca exhibited strong activity against all protozoa, it must be considered non-specific. The value of integrated evaluation of extracts with particular reference to selectivity is discussed. PMID:18949336

Valdés, Aymé Fernández-Calienes; Martínez, Judith Mendiola; Lizama, Ramón Scull; Vermeersch, Marieke; Cos, Paul; Maes, Louis



Isolation of dermatophytes and other keratinophilic fungi from surface sediments of the Shatt Al-Arab River and its creeks at Basrah, Iraq.  


Twenty-five sediment samples were taken from randomly selected sites in the Shatt Al-Arab River and its creeks and analysed for dermatophytes and related keratinophilic fungi. The results revealed that out of 25 samples only 13 (52%) yielded dermatophytes and related keratinophilic fungi. A total of nine species in four genera were isolated. The most frequent genera isolated in this study were Chrysosporium and its teleomorph Aphanoascus. The species most frequently found were Aphanoascus fulvescens, A. durus, Chrysosporium crassitunicatum, Chr. keratinophilum and Chr. tropicum (each n = 3). Microsporum was represented by two species, namely M. fulvum and M. gypseum. Trichophyton was represented by one species, T. verrucosum. The occurrence of these fungi illustrates that sediments may act as a reservoir for potentially pathogenic fungi for human and animals. PMID:7477095

Abdullah, S K; Hassan, D A



Isolation, purification, and antibiotic activity of o-methoxycinnamaldehyde from cinnamon.  

PubMed Central

o-Methoxycinnamaldehyde has been isolated and purified from powdered cinnamon. The compound inhibits the growth and toxin production of mycotoxin-producing fungi. The substance completely inhibited the growth of Aspergillus parasiticus and A. flavus at 100 microgram/ml and A. ochraceus and A. versicolor at 200 microgram/ml. It inhibited the production of aflatoxin B1 by over 90% at 6.25 microgram/ml, ochratoxin A at 25 microgram/ml, and sterigmatocystin at 50 microgram/ml. The substance also displayed a strong inhibitory effect on the growth of five dermatophytoses species, e.g., Microsporum canis (minimum inhibitory concentration, 3.12 to 6.25 microgram/ml). However, no antibacterial effect was observed at concentrations as high as 50 microgram/ml. PMID:708030

Morozumi, S



The lipid composition and its alteration during the growth stage in pathogenic fungus, epidermophyton floccosum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Qualitative and quantitative changes of lipid components during the growth stages were studied in E. floccosum. The acyl group components of total lipids of Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum cookei were also examined. The lipids of E. floccosum amounted to approximately 4% of the dry cell weight. Neutral lipids mainly consisted of triglycerides and sterols, and major polar lipids were phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and an unknown lipid X. The fatty acids in tryglycerides and phospholipids were palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids. The unknown polar lipid X which appeared between phosphatidylethanolamine and cardiolipin on thin layer chromatography plates contained no phosphorus. There was no significant change in the fatty acid components of E. floccosum and T. rubrum during the cell growth, whereas profound changes occurred in M. cookei. The sterol components of E. floccosum showed striking changes depending on the growth stage.

Yamada, T.; Watanabe, R.; Nozawa, Y.; Ito, Y.



In vitro antifungal activity and mechanism of essential oil from fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.) on dermatophyte species.  


Fennel seed essential oil (FSEO) is a plant-derived natural therapeutic against dermatophytes. In this study, the antifungal effects of FSEO were investigated from varied aspects, such as MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration, mycelia growth, spore germination and biomass. The results indicated that FSEO had potent antifungal activities on Trichophyton rubrum ATCC 40051, Trichophyton tonsurans 10-0400, Microsporum gypseum 44693-1 and Trichophyton mentagrophytes 10-0060, which is better than the commonly used antifungal agents fluconazole and amphotericin B. Flow cytometry and transmission electron microscopy experiments suggested that the antifungal mechanism of FSEO was to damage the plasma membrane and intracellular organelles. Further study revealed that it could also inhibit the mitochondrial enzyme activities, such as succinate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase and ATPase. With better antifungal activity than the commonly used antifungal agents and less possibility of inducing drug resistance, FSEO could be used as a potential antidermatophytic agent. PMID:25351709

Zeng, Hong; Chen, Xinping; Liang, Jingnan



Foliicolous microfungi occurring on Encephalartos.  


Species of Encephalartos, commonly known as bread trees, bread palms or cycads are native to Africa; the genus encompasses more than 60 species and represents an important component of the indigenous African flora. Recently, a leaf blight disease was noted on several E. altensteinii plants growing at the foot of Table Mountain in the Kirstenbosch Botanical Gardens of South Africa. Preliminary isolations from dead and dying leaves of E. alten-steinii, E. lebomboensis and E. princeps, collected from South Africa, revealed the presence of several novel microfungi on this host. Novelties include Phaeomoniella capensis, Saccharata kirstenboschensis, Teratosphaeria altensteinii and T. encephalarti. New host records of species previously only known to occur on Proteaceae include Cladophialophora proteae and Catenulostroma microsporum, as well as a hyperparasite, Dactylaria leptosphaeriicola, occurring on ascomata of T. encephalarti. PMID:20396583

Crous, P W; Wood, A R; Okada, G; Groenewald, J Z



Keratinophilic and saprophytic fungi isolated from students' nails in Egypt.  


In order to determine the presence of dermatophytes and saprophytes in healthy toe and finger nails, 120 students (60 male and 60 female) from preparatory schools at Sohag Governorate (Upper Egypt) were studied. 54 species in addition to 3 varieties belonging to 17 genera were isolated. Six species of true dermatophytes were collected: Microsporum audouinii var. rivalieri, M. cookei, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. simii, T. terrestre and T. verrucosum. Chrysosporium, a well-known keratinophilic genus, was prevalent and represented by 7 species (C. asperatum, C. indicum, C. keratinophilum, C. luteum, C. pannorum, C. tropicum and Chrysosporium state of Thielavia sepedonium). The commonest saprophytes in order of frequency were members of the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Alternaria, Scopulariopsis, Fusarium, Paecilomyces, Chaetomium, Syncephalastrum, Mucor, Rhizopus and Acremonium. PMID:2338622

Abdel-Hafez, A I; el-Sharouny, H M



In vitro antagonistic activity of monoterpenes and their mixtures against 'toe nail fungus' pathogens.  


The antibiotic effect of the active ingredients in Meijer medicated chest rub (eucalyptus oil, camphor and menthol) as well as the inactive ingredients (thymol, oil of turpentine, oil of nutmeg and oil of cedar leaf) were studied in vitro using the fungal pathogens responsible for onychomycosis, such as the dermatophytes Tricophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis, Epidermophyton fl occosum and Epidermophyton stockdale. The zones of inhibition data revealed that camphor (1). menthol (2). thymol (3). and oil of Eucalyptus citriodora were the most efficacious components against the test organisms. The MIC(100) for mixtures of these four components in various carrier solvents revealed that formulations consisting of 5 mg/mL concentrations of each have a potential to be efffective in controlling onychomycosis. PMID:12722144

Ramsewak, Russel S; Nair, Muraleedharan G; Stommel, Manfred; Selanders, Louise



Heat resistance of dermatophyte's conidiospores from athletes kits stored in Nigerian University Sport's Center.  


The incidence and heat resistance of conidiospores produced by dermatophytes isolated from athlete's kits (canvasses, stockings and spike shoes) stored in Nigerian University Sport's Centre were investigated. Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum oudouinii, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton concentricum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum were isolated and their incidence on the athlete's kits varied with the species and type of kits. Among the isolates T. mentagrophytes, T. rubrum and E. floccosum with 25%, 23% and 20% prevalence rates respectively, were the most common isolates, and are often associated with tinea pedis (athletes foot). Canvasses with the highest incidence of dermatophytes (25 out of 34 fungal isolates) were the most contaminated kits and could serve as effective articles for the transmission of tinea pedis among athletes in Nigeria. The common etiological agents screened, produced asexual spores (conidiospores) that exhibited high resistance to heat treatment at 80 degrees C. Of the three isolates, E. floccosum, with a decimal reduction time (D-value) of D80 = 4.4 min was the most resistant followed by T. mentagrophytes with D80 = 4.0 min and then T. rubrum with D80 = 3.2 min. The spores elimination pattern indicates that increasing the heating duration would decrease the decimal reduction time and possibly denature the fungal propagules but may damage the skin during treatment with hot water compresses. The findings have shown that the use of hot water compresses is palliative but heat treatment especially vapour-heat treatment offers adequate preventive measures if applied for periodic treatment of contaminated kits. However, determining the correct condition for effective decontamination will require detailed understanding of the heat resistance of fungal spores. Otherwise treatment of kits with detergent and chaotropic agent such as urea and guanidinium salt is preferred to heat treatment. PMID:19388558

Essien, J P; Jonah, I; Umoh, A A; Eduok, S I; Akpan, E J; Umoiyoho, A



Isolation of the volatile fraction from Apium graveolens L. (Apiaceae) by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and hydrodistillation: chemical composition and antifungal activity.  


Apium graveolens L. (wild celery), belonging to the family of Apiaceae, is a scaposus hemicryptophyte. Instead, the cultivate plant is an annual or biennial herb widely used as a spice and seasoning in food. A broad range of biological activities have been attributed to A. graveolens. These include antimicrobial activity, larvicidal activity, hepatoprotective activity, nematicidal and mosquito repellent potential and antihyperlipidaemic properties.In this study, the authors compare the composition of the volatile fractions of A. graveolens collected in natural populations in Portugal and Italy and evaluate their potential as antifungal agents.The composition of the volatile oils obtained by hydrodistillation and their antifungal activity are reported. The oils were analysed by gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods and their composition were compared with that of the volatile extracts isolated by supercritical CO2. A chemical variability in the extracts depending on the origin of the plants and on the extraction method was observed. The results showed the presence of sedanenolide, neocnidilide and neophytadiene as main components. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal lethal concentration were used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the oils against Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida guilliermondii, Candida parapsilosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale, Trichophyton verrucosum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Epidermophyton floccosum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. The oil from Italy rich in neophytadiene is the more active, with MIC values of 0.04-0.64?µL?mL(-1). Our results show that A. graveolens volatile extracts may be useful in the clinical treatment of fungal diseases. PMID:22974401

Marongiu, B; Piras, A; Porcedda, S; Falconieri, D; Maxia, A; Frau, M A; Gonçalves, M J; Cavaleiro, C; Salgueiro, L



Susceptibility of clinically important dermatophytes against statins and different statin-antifungal combinations.  


The investigation of the antifungal activities of drugs whose primary activities are not related to their antimicrobial potential is in the current forefront of research. Statin compounds, which are routinely used as cholesterol-lowering drugs, may also exert direct antimicrobial effects. In this study, the in vitro antifungal activities of various statins (lovastatin, simvastatin, fluvastatin, atorvastatin, rosuvastatin and pravastatin) were examined against one isolate each of four dermatophyte species (Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis and Microsporum gypseum). Basically, statins were effective in inhibiting all dermatophyte studied, but were particularly active against M. canis and T. mentagrophytes. Fluvastatin and simvastatin were active against all of the tested fungi causing a complete inhibition of their growth at very low concentrations (6.25-12.5 ?g/ml). Lovastatin and rosuvastatin had inhibitory effects at higher concentrations (25-128 ?g/ml), while atorvastatin and pravastatin proved the less effective. The in vitro interactions between statins and different antifungals (ketoconazole, itraconazole, fluconazole, amphotericin B, nystatin, griseofulvin, terbinafine and primycin) were also investigated using a standard chequerboard broth microdilution method. Synergetic interactions were observed in several cases, most of them were noticed when statins were combined with terbinafine and the different azoles. Some combinations were particularly active (ketoconazole-simvastatin or terbinafine-simvastatin), as they were found to exert synergistic effect against all of the investigated isolates. The other antifungals showed synergistic interactions with statins in only certain cases. These results suggest that statins exert substantial antifungal effects against dermatophyte fungi and they should be promising components in a combination therapy as they can act synergistically with a number of clinically used antifungal agents. PMID:24004389

Nyilasi, Ildikó; Kocsubé, Sándor; Krizsán, Krisztina; Galgóczy, László; Papp, Tamás; Pesti, Miklós; Nagy, Katalin; Vágvölgyi, Csaba



MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry for rapid identification of clinical fungal isolates based on ribosomal protein biomarkers.  


This study aimed to evaluate the identification of clinical fungal isolates (yeast and molds) by protein profiling using Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS). A total of 125 clinical fungal culture isolates (yeast and filamentous fungi) were collected. The test set included 88 yeast isolates (Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida guilliermondii, Candida kefyr, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis, Candida rugosa, Candida tropicalis and Cryptococcus neoformans) and 37 isolates of molds (Alternaria spp., Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Cunninghamella spp., Histoplasma capsulatum, Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum nanum, Rhizomucor spp. and Trichophyton spp.). The correlation between MALDI TOF MS and conventional identification for all these 125 fungal isolates included in the study was 87.2% at the species level and 90.4% at the genus level. MALDI TOF MS results revealed that the correlation in yeast (n=88) identification was 100% both at the genus and species levels whereas, the correlation in mold (n=37) identification was more heterogeneous i.e. 10.81% isolates had correct identification up to the genus level, 56.7% isolates had correct identification both at the genus and species levels, whereas 32.42% isolates were deemed Not Reliable Identification (NRI). But, with the modification in sample preparation protocol for molds, there was a significant improvement in identification. 86.4% isolates had correct identification till the genus and species levels whereas, only 2.7% isolates had Not Reliable Identification. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that MALDI-TOF MS could be a possible alternative to conventional techniques both for the identification and differentiation of clinical fungal isolates. However, the main limitation of this technique is that MS identification could be more precise only if the reference spectrum of the fungal species is available in the database. PMID:25541362

Panda, Ashutosh; Ghosh, Anup K; Mirdha, Bijay R; Xess, Immaculata; Paul, Saikat; Samantaray, Jyotish C; Srinivasan, Alagiri; Khalil, Shehla; Rastogi, Neha; Dabas, Yubhisha



Balticidins A-D, antifungal hassallidin-like lipopeptides from the Baltic Sea cyanobacterium Anabaena cylindrica Bio33.  


Balticidins A-D (1-4), four new antifungal lipopeptides, were isolated from the laboratory-cultivated cyanobacterium Anabaena cylindrica strain Bio33 isolated from a water sample collected from the Baltic Sea, Rügen Island, Germany. Fractionation of the 50% aqueous MeOH extract was performed by bioassay-guided silica gel column chromatography followed by SPE and repeated reversed-phase HPLC. The main fraction containing the compounds exhibited a strong and specific antifungal activity with inhibition zones in an agar-diffusion assay from 21 to 32 mm against Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida maltosa, Aspergillus fumigatus, Microsporum gypseum, Mucor sp., and Microsporum canis. The structures were elucidated by multidimensional (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, HRESIMS, amino acid analysis, and sugar analysis. Spectroscopic data analysis afforded an unambiguous sequence of R.CHO(S1).CHOH.CONH-Thr(1)-Thr(2)-Thr(3)-HOTyr(4)-Dhb(5)-D-Gln(6)-Gly(7)-NMeThr(8)(S2)-L-Gln COOH(9), in which Dhb is dehydroaminobutyric acid, S1 is d(-)-arabinose-(3-1)-D-(+)-galacturonic acid, S2 is D-(+)-mannose, and R is the aliphatic residue -C13H26Cl or -C13H27. Besides NMeThr, D-allo-Thr, D-Thr, and L-Thr were identified, but the position of the enantiomers in the sequence is not clear. The four balticidins differ in their cyclic (2, 4)/linear (1, 3) core and the presence (1, 2)/absence (3, 4) of chlorine in the aliphatic unit. PMID:24937366

Bui, Thanh-Huong; Wray, Victor; Nimtz, Manfred; Fossen, Torgils; Preisitsch, Michael; Schröder, Gudrun; Wende, Kristian; Heiden, Stefan E; Mundt, Sabine



Comparative Genome Analysis of Trichophyton rubrum and Related Dermatophytes Reveals Candidate Genes Involved in Infection  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The major cause of athlete’s foot is Trichophyton rubrum, a dermatophyte or fungal pathogen of human skin. To facilitate molecular analyses of the dermatophytes, we sequenced T. rubrum and four related species, Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton equinum, Microsporum canis, and Microsporum gypseum. These species differ in host range, mating, and disease progression. The dermatophyte genomes are highly colinear yet contain gene family expansions not found in other human-associated fungi. Dermatophyte genomes are enriched for gene families containing the LysM domain, which binds chitin and potentially related carbohydrates. These LysM domains differ in sequence from those in other species in regions of the peptide that could affect substrate binding. The dermatophytes also encode novel sets of fungus-specific kinases with unknown specificity, including nonfunctional pseudokinases, which may inhibit phosphorylation by competing for kinase sites within substrates, acting as allosteric effectors, or acting as scaffolds for signaling. The dermatophytes are also enriched for a large number of enzymes that synthesize secondary metabolites, including dermatophyte-specific genes that could synthesize novel compounds. Finally, dermatophytes are enriched in several classes of proteases that are necessary for fungal growth and nutrient acquisition on keratinized tissues. Despite differences in mating ability, genes involved in mating and meiosis are conserved across species, suggesting the possibility of cryptic mating in species where it has not been previously detected. These genome analyses identify gene families that are important to our understanding of how dermatophytes cause chronic infections, how they interact with epithelial cells, and how they respond to the host immune response. PMID:22951933

Martinez, Diego A.; Oliver, Brian G.; Gräser, Yvonne; Goldberg, Jonathan M.; Li, Wenjun; Martinez-Rossi, Nilce M.; Monod, Michel; Shelest, Ekaterina; Barton, Richard C.; Birch, Elizabeth; Brakhage, Axel A.; Chen, Zehua; Gurr, Sarah J.; Heiman, David; Heitman, Joseph; Kosti, Idit; Rossi, Antonio; Saif, Sakina; Samalova, Marketa; Saunders, Charles W.; Shea, Terrance; Summerbell, Richard C.; Xu, Jun; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Birren, Bruce W.; Cuomo, Christina A.; White, Theodore C.



Screening of chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Artemisia essential oils.  


The chemical composition of essential oils isolated from aerial parts of seven wild sages from Western Canada -Artemisia absinthium L., Artemisia biennis Willd., Artemisia cana Pursh, Artemisia dracunculus L., Artemisia frigida Willd., Artemisia longifolia Nutt. and Artemisia ludoviciana Nutt., was investigated by GC-MS. A total of 110 components were identified accounting for 71.0-98.8% of the oil composition. High contents of 1,8-cineole (21.5-27.6%) and camphor (15.9-37.3%) were found in Artemisia cana, A. frigida, A. longifolia and A. ludoviciana oils. The oil of A. ludoviciana was also characterized by a high content of oxygenated sesquiterpenes with a 5-ethenyltetrahydro-5-methyl-2-furanyl moiety, of which davanone (11.5%) was the main component identified. A. absinthium oil was characterized by high amounts of myrcene (10.8%), trans-thujone (10.1%) and trans-sabinyl acetate (26.4%). A. biennis yielded an oil rich in (Z)-beta-ocimene (34.7%), (E)-beta-farnesene (40.0%) and the acetylenes (11.0%) (Z)- and (E)-en-yn-dicycloethers. A. dracunculus oil contained predominantly phenylpropanoids such as methyl chavicol (16.2%) and methyl eugenol (35.8%). Artemisia oils had inhibitory effects on the growth of bacteria (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis), yeasts (Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans), dermatophytes (Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis, and Microsporum gypseum), Fonsecaea pedrosoi and Aspergillus niger. A. biennis oil was the most active against dermatophytes, Cryptococcus neoformans, Fonsecaea pedrosoi and Aspergillus niger, and A. absinthium oil the most active against Staphylococcus strains. In addition, antioxidant (beta-carotene/linoleate model) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities were determined, and weak activities were found for these oils. PMID:18417176

Lopes-Lutz, Daíse; Alviano, Daniela S; Alviano, Celuta S; Kolodziejczyk, Paul P



The anti-dermatophyte activity of Allium hirtifolium Boiss aqueous extract.  


In an attempt at demonstrating the efficacy of Allium hirtifolium aqueous extract in control of skin fungal infections as traditional use, we evaluated the anti-dermatophyte activities of A. hirtifolium aqueous extract from bulbs and of ketoconazole against Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis, M. gypseum, Trichophyton schoenleinii and Trichophyton verrucosum var. album by food poisoning technique, disc diffusion and micro broth dilution assays. The anti-fungal activity of A. hirtifolium was excellent when it was compared with ketoconazole. The anti-fungal evaluation by food poisoning method showed that A. hirtifolium extract inhibited the growth of dermatophytes dose-dependently. The inhibition zone diameter (IZ) of A. hirtifolium extract (15?g/disc) was in the range of 28.8±0.31 to 67.7±1.5mm, while ketoconazole (15?g/disc) had the IZ lower than 13mm. The MIC and MFC values of A. hirtifolium extract were in the range of 0.2-1.7 and 0.4-0.7?g/mL; respectively. Therefore, A. hirtifolium extract showed a strong anti-fungal activity against human and animal dermatophytes. PMID:25456419

Mahboubi, M; Kazempour, N



Efficacy of local herbal therapy in the management of dermatophytosis among primary school children in Cross River State, South-south Nigeria.  


As a contribution to the on-going search for alternative, available and affordable treatment of common infections in Sub-saharan Africa, the efficacy of local herbs, Senna alata(Linn) and Borreria ocymoides (Burm), in comparison with conventional drugs, griseofulvin and clotrimazole in the treatment of dermatophytosis among primary school children, was examined in the three districts of Cross River State, South-South Nigeria. Out of 840 pupils screened, 68 (8.1%) were infected, with incidence ranging from 11 (1.3%) in the southern to 33 (3.9%) in the northern districts, indicating a widespread of the infection. Specimens taken from the infected pupils and analyzed for the causative agents, showed that Trichophyton tonsurans 29 (20.4%) followed by Microsporum soudanense 24 (16.9%) was most frequent. The greater sensitivity of the isolated dermatophytes to the local plants than the chemotherapeutic drugs (control) offers some hope of treatment and control. The antifungal activity of the plants was associated with their very high levels of chemical components, saponins, anthraquinones and flavonoids. We recommend further studies on the chemical properties and safety of the plants before total dependence on them for treatment. PMID:20175416

Eja, M E; Arikpo, G E; Enyi-Idoh, K H; Etim, S E; Etta, H E



Isolation and Characterization of Antidermatophytic Bioactive Molecules from Piper longum L. Leaves.  


Piper longum L. (Piperaceae) commonly known as "long pepper" is a well known medicinal plant in ayurveda. Different parts of this plant, such as root, seed, fruit, whole plant etc. are used traditionally in various ailments. Here we have investigated the antidermatophytic activity of sequentially extracted petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and water extracts from P. longum leaf against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, T. tonsurans, Microsporum fulvum and M. gypseum. Better activity of chloroform and methanol extracts was observed. The chloroform extract was selected for further study and the MIC value was recorded as 5.0 mg ml(-1) against the test organisms. In the chloroform extract, tannins and phenolic compounds were detected. Further activity-guided fractionation of chloroform extract by silica gel column chromatography yielded nine major fractions. Among these, fraction-1, 4, 5 and 7 showed higher antidermatophytic activity. Fraction-4 on further purification by repeated column chromatography yielded a potential antidermatophytic fraction showing MIC value of 0.625 mg ml(-1) against T. mentagrophytes and T. rubrum as determined by broth microdilution method. The major compounds were identified as 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis(2-ethylhexyl) ester (C24H38O4] (41.45 %), 2,2-dimethoxybutane (C6H14O2] (13.6 %) and ?-myrcene (C10H16) (6.75 %) based on GC-MS data. PMID:24293721

Das, Jayshree; Jha, D K; Policegoudra, R S; Mazumder, Afjal Hussain; Das, Mrinmoy; Chattopadhyay, P; Singh, L



Cutaneous Bacterial Species from Lithobates catesbeianus can Inhibit Pathogenic Dermatophytes.  


Antibiotics are being successfully used to fight many infectious diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms. However, new infectious diseases are continuously being identified, and some known pathogens are becoming resistant against known antibiotics. Furthermore, many antifungals are causing serious side effects in long-term treatments of patients, and many skin infections caused by dermatophytes are difficult to cure. The beneficial roles of resident cutaneous microbiota to inhibit pathogenic microorganisms have been shown for many vertebrate species. Microbial symbionts on the amphibian skin for example can be a source of powerful antimicrobial metabolites that can protect amphibians against diseases, such as chytridiomycosis, caused by a fungal pathogen. In this research, we investigated whether cutaneous bacterial species isolated from Lithobates catesbeianus (North American bullfrog), an invasive amphibian species that is resistant to chytridiomycosis, produce secondary metabolites that can be used to inhibit the growth of three species of dermatophytes (Microsporum gypseum, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes) which are known to cause topical or subdermal skin infections in humans. Strongly anti-dermatophyte bacterial species that belonged to the Bacillaceae, Streptomycetaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Xanthomonadaceae, Aeromonadaceae, and Enterobacteriaceae were identified. This research has provided evidence of the presence of cutaneous anti-dermatophyte bacteria from L. catesbeianus which might provide a basis for health care providers to experiment with new antifungals in the future. PMID:25431089

Lauer, Antje; Hernandez, Trang



[Dermatophyte flora at the dermatology clinic of Kimitsu Chuo Hospital from 1994 through 1999].  


Kimitsu Chuo Hospital is located in the middle of Chiba Prefecture along Tokyo Bay. An epidemiological survey of dermatophytosis was made at the dermatology clinic of the hospital from January 1994 through December 1999. Dermatophytosis patients numbered 2,580 and disease types were composed of: tinea pedis 1,656 (64.2%), tinea unguium 377 (14.6%), tinea corporis 308 (11.9%), tinea cruris 139 (5.4%), tinea manuum 92 (3.6%), tinea capitis 6 (0.2%) and tinea profunda 2 (0.1%). Species frequencies in the 1,610 strains isolated from these patients were as follows: 929 (57.7%) of Trichophyton rubrum, 651 (40.4%) of T. mentagrophytes, 9 (0.6%) of Microsporum gypseum, 8 (0.5%) of M. canis, 8 (0.5%) of Epidermophyton floccosum and 5 (0.3%) of T. violaceum. The ratio of T.R/T.M was 1.43 in all the isolates, and 0.81 in the isolates from tinea pedis. These ratios were lower than those of the epidemiological survey of dermatomycoses in Japan in 1997. T. mentagrophytes was characteristically dominant in this hospital and resulted from a drastic increase in tinea pedis caused by this species in the summer season. PMID:11865297

Takahashi, Yoko; Nishimura, Kazuko



Antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic properties of some sulfonamide-derived chromones.  


A series of antibacterial and antifungal sulfonamide (sulfanilamide, sulfaguanidine, sulfamethaxozole, 4-aminoethylbenzene-sulfonamide and 4-amino-6-trifluoromethyl-benzene-1,3-disulfonamide) derived chromones, previously reported as inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase, have been screened for in-vitro antibacterial activity against four Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi and Shigella flexener) and two Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) bacterial strains, and for in-vitro antifungal activity against Trichophyton longifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani, Candida glaberata. All compounds (1)-(5) showed significant antibacterial activity against all four Gram-negative species and both Gram-positive species. However, three of them, (1), (4) and (5), were found to be comparatively much more active compared to (2) and (3). Of these, (5) was found to be the most active one. For antifungal activity, generally compounds (1) and (2) showed significant activity against more than three strains whereas (3)-(5) also showed significant activity against varied fungal strains. In the brine shrimp bioassay for in-vitro cytotoxic properties, only two compounds, (4) and (5) displayed potent cytotoxic activity, LD50 = 2.732 x 10(-4)M) and LD50 = 2.290 x 10(-4)M) respectively, against Artemia salina. PMID:16789431

Chohan, Zahid H; Rauf, Abdul; Naseer, Muhammad M; Somra, Muhammad A; Supuran, Claudiu T



Identification of antibacterial and antifungal pharmacophore sites for potent bacteria and fungi inhibition: indolenyl sulfonamide derivatives.  


Synthesis of seven new indolenyl sulfonamides, have been prepared by the condensation reaction of indole-3-carboxaldehyde with different sulfonamides such as, sulphanilamide, sulfaguanidine, sulfathiazole, sulfamethoxazole, sulfisoxazole, sulfadiazine and sulfamethazine. These synthesized compounds have been used as potential ligands for complexation with some selective divalent transition metal ions (cobalt, copper, nickel & zinc). Structure of the synthesized ligands has been deduced from their physical, analytical (elemental analyses) and spectral (IR, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR & UV-vis) data. All the compounds have also been assayed for their in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities examining six species of pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and six of fungi (Trichophyton longifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium soloni and Candida glabrata). Antibacterial and antifungal results showed that all the compounds showed significant antibacterial activity whereas most of the compounds displayed good antifungal activity. Brine shrimp bioassay was also carried out for in vitro cytotoxic properties against Artemia salina. PMID:20005022

Chohan, Zahid H; Youssoufi, Moulay H; Jarrahpour, Aliasghar; Ben Hadda, Taibi



Faeriefungin: a new broad-spectrum antibiotic from Streptomyces griseus var. autotrophicus.  


Faeriefungin, a polyol polyene macrolide lactone antibiotic, was isolated from the mycelium of Streptomyces griseus var. autotrophicus, MSU-32058/ATCC 53668, collected from the soil sample of a fairy ring in an old lawn in Lansing, Michigan. Faeriefungin has some properties similar to the previously reported polyene macrolides, mycoticin and flavofungin, but possesses different physiochemical and biological properties. Aspergillus, Fusarium, Microsporum, Trichophyton, and Alternaria spp. were completely inhibited by faeriefungin at 3.2 micrograms/ml, Candida spp. at 5.5 micrograms/ml, and Pythium, Phialophora, Leptosphaeria spp., and some selected Gram-negative penicillin-resistant strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae at 16.0 micrograms/ml. At a concentration of 100 ppm, it caused 100% mortality of mosquito larvae (Aedes aegypti, Rockefeller strain) and free-living nematodes (Panagrellus redivivus). Unlike the related polyene macrolides, faeriefungin is crystalline and stable with broad-spectrum antimicrobial and insecticidal activity. Preliminary cytotoxicity studies with human erythrocytes and rat liver epithelial cells indicated that faeriefungin and amphotericin B have comparable toxicity. Solution nmr study has indicated that faeriefungin is a mixture of two compounds, faerifungins A [1] and B [2], and that they differ in the attachment of a H or an Me at C-33. PMID:2509636

Nair, M G; Putnam, A R; Mishra, S K; Mulks, M H; Taft, W H; Keller, J E; Miller, J R; Zhu, P P; Meinhart, J D; Lynn, D G



Preparation and Characterization of Liposomes Containing Essential Oil of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Leaf  

PubMed Central

Background The increased incidence of fungal resistance has necessitated the need to search for new antifungal agents. Objective The main objectives of the present study were to investigate the effectiveness of the essential oil of Eucalyptus camaldulensis on dermatophytes growth and to formulate and characterize a liposomal gel loaded with the essential oil. Materials and Methods The essential oil extracted from the leaves of E. camaldulensis was analyzed by GC-MS. The antifungal activity of this essential oil was determined against Microsporum canis, M. gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum and T. verrucosum, using the well diffusion method. Liposomes were prepared by the freeze-thaw method and evaluation of size distribution was performed using a particle size analyzer. The liposomal gel was prepared using ‘hydroxethyl cellulose (HEC) as the gelling agent. The rheologic characteristics were determined by a Brookfield viscometer. Results The results showed that the minimum inhibitory volume of the essential oil was 0.125 ml and 95 ± 0.57% of the essential oil was successfully entrapped in the liposomes. The main constituents of the essential oil detected by GC-MS were; phenol, 1, 8 cineole, limonene, alcohol, pinene and terpinen. Results of particle size determination showed a wide range from 40.5 to 298 nm for the different formulations. No significant thixotropy was observed in the rheogram of the formulated liposomal gel. Conclusion Liposomal gel formulation of the essential oil may lead to improved antifungal activity. PMID:24624167

Moghimipour, Eskandar; Aghel, Nasrin; Zarei Mahmoudabadi, Ali; Ramezani, Zahra; Handali, Somayeh



Dermatomycoses: challenges and human immune responses.  


The most prevalent skin infections are mainly caused by species of dermatophytes of the genera Trichophyton, Microsporum, and Epidermophyton that infect keratinized tissues and stratum corneum of skin and hair. Besides proteases with putative role of kinases and other enzymes, immune modulators are abundantly secreted during infection as well. The molecular mechanism used by the dermatophytes to infect and counteract the host immune response is not well understood. The defense against infections basically depends on the host's immune responses to metabolites of the fungi, virulence of the infecting strain or species and anatomical site of the infection. The two aspects of the immune system, the immediate hypersensitivity and delayed-type hypersensitivity against dermatophytes may be crucial to the progression and severity of skin infection. Management of the infection through species identification and molecular diagnostic techniques as well as use of novel targeted drugs in addition to conventional anti-fungal compounds is of great importance in dealing with disease onsets and outbreaks. Here we reviewed the fungal skin infections elucidating their biologic and immunologic characteristics. Reaction to fungal invasion by the infected epithelial tissue on the host side is also discussed. Moreover, determinants of protective immunity and treatment options are focused that could confer long-lasting resistance to infection. PMID:24818759

Zahur, Muzna; Afroz, Amber; Rashid, Umer; Khaliq, Saba



In vitro activity of aminosterols against dermatophytes.  


We recently reported that aminosterols are fungicidal due to their disrupting the outer membranes of yeasts and that they have a significant in vitro activity against various mould species. Yet, their activity against dermatophytes had never been tested. This study's objective was to evaluate the in vitro activity of squalamine and a synthetic aminosterol derivative (ASD) against various dermatophytes. Susceptibility testing of squalamine, ASD, terbinafine, and griseofulvin was performed, in triplicate, in accord with the Clinical Laboratory and Standards Institute's M38-A2 procedure, using an 80% growth inhibition endpoint. The studies included the following dermatophytes: Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, T. soudanense, Microsporum canis, M. audouinii, M. persicolor; M. cookie and M. gypseum. Squalamine and ASD showed significant in vitro activity against these dermatophytes. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranged from 4-16 mg/l and from 2-8 mg/l for squalamine and ASD, respectively. These findings support further clinical studies of aminosterols activity against superficial dermatophyte infections. PMID:22998181

Coulibaly, Oumar; Alhanout, Kamel; L'Ollivier, Coralie; Brunel, Jean-Michel; Thera, Mahamadou A; Djimdé, Abdoulaye A; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Piarroux, Renaud; Ranque, Stéphane



Formulation, characterization and evaluation of an optimized microemulsion formulation of griseofulvin for topical application.  


The main objective of the study was to develop a microemulsion (ME) formulation of griseofulvin for the treatment of dermatophytosis (Indian Patent Application 208/DEL/2009). The oil phase was selected on the basis of drug solubility whereas the surfactant and cosurfactant were screened on the basis of their oil solubilizing capacity as well as their efficiency to form ME from pseudo-ternary phase diagrams. The influence of surfactant and cosurfactant mass ratio (Smix) on the ME formation and its permeation through male Laca mice skin was studied. The optimized formulation (ME V) consisting of 0.2% (w/w) griseofulvin, 5% (w/w) oleic acid, 40% (w/w) Smix (1:1, Tween 80 and ethanol) possessed globule size of 12.21 nm, polydispersity index of 0.109 and zeta potential value of -0.139 mV. ME V exhibited 7, 5 and almost 3-fold higher drug permeation as compared to aqueous suspension, oily solution and conventional cream respectively. Besides this the formulation was also evaluated for drug content, pH, stability, dermatopharmacokinetics and antifungal activity against Microsporum canis using guinea pig model for dermatophytosis. Treatment of guinea pigs with ME V resulted in a complete clinical and mycological cure in 7 days. The formulation was observed to be non-sensitizing, histopathologically safe, and stable at 5±3°C, 25±2°C and 40±2°C for a period of six months. PMID:23357739

Aggarwal, Nidhi; Goindi, Shishu; Khurana, Ranjit



Inflammatory Tinea capitis: a 12-year study and a review of the literature.  


Inflammatory Tinea capitis (TC) is a rare form of TC. The aim of this study was to review epidemiological, clinical and mycological profile of inflammatory TC. We present a retrospective study (1999-2010), enrolled all the cases of inflammatory TC observed at a referral hospital in the northern Tunisia. One hundred and twenty-one patients with inflammatory TC, 83 male patients (68.6%) and 38 female patients (31.4%) were enrolled. The mean age was about 8 years. A majority of TC (71.9%) were in patients lesser than 10 years of age. Positive family history and contact with animals were noted in seven and 35 cases respectively. Direct examination was positive in 110 cases (59 ectothrix, 51 endothrix) and positive cultures were obtained in 105 patients (49 Trichophyton violaceum, 31 Microsporum canis, 13 Trichophyton interdigitale complex, 12 Trichophyton verrucosum). Systemic treatment was carried out in 115 patients with griseofulvin, in one with terbinafine. A complete recovery was noted in 88 cases; and persistent alopecia in 28 cases. The inflammatory TC is rare, but more common in rural families. The disease mostly affected male genders (68.6%) and T. violaceum remains the common pathogen of inflammatory TC in northern Tunisia. PMID:22757767

Zaraa, Inès; Hawilo, Abdelmohti; Aounallah, Amina; Trojjet, Sondes; El Euch, Dalenda; Mokni, Mourad; Ben Osman, Amel



Preparation and in vivo evaluation of solid lipid nanoparticles of griseofulvin for dermal use.  


Griseofulvin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) were prepared by hot microemulsion technique and optimized for type and concentration of lipid and surfactant. The optimized SLN composition was characterized in terms of particle shape and size, drug entrapment efficiency, pH, stability, spreadability, ex-vivo skin permeation, dermatokinetics, skin sensitivity, in vitro antifungal assay and in vivo antifungal activity against Microsporum canis using guinea pig model for dermatophytosis. The cumulative amount of drug permeated through excised mice skin from SLNs was more than 5-folds as compared to permeation from conventional cream base. Fluorescent microscopy revealed presence of nanoparticles in the skin layers suggesting the penetration of nanoparticles into the skin owing to their nano-size and thence a controlled drug release. A complete mycological and clinical cure was observed in M. canis infected guinea pigs after twice daily application of SLN gel containing griseofulvin for 8 days. Also, the formulation was observed to be non-sensitizing, histopathologically safe, and SLN gel was stable at 5 +/- 3 degrees C, 25 +/- 2 degrees C and 40 +/- 2 degrees C for a period of six months. It can be concluded from our study that SLNs provide a good skin permeation effect and may be a promising carrier for topical delivery of griseofulvin. PMID:23621015

Aggarwal, Nidhi; Goindi, Shishu



Antifungal activity, toxicity and chemical composition of the essential oil of Coriandrum sativum L. fruits.  


The aims of this study were to test the antifungal activity, toxicity and chemical composition of essential oil from C. sativum L. fruits. The essential oil, obtained by hydro-distillation, was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Linalool was the main constituent (58.22%). The oil was considered bioactive, showing an LC?? value of 23 ?g/mL in the Artemia salina lethality test. The antifungal activity was evaluated against Microsporum canis and Candida spp. by the agar-well diffusion method and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) were established by the broth microdilution method. The essential oil induced growth inhibition zones of 28 ± 5.42 and 9.25 ± 0.5 for M. canis and Candida spp. respectively. The MICs and MFCs for M. canis strains ranged from 78 to 620 and 150 to 1,250 ?g/mL, and the MICs and MFCs for Candida spp strains ranged from 310 to 620 and 620 to 1,250 ?g/mL, respectively. C. sativum essential oil is active in vitro against M. canis and Candida spp. demonstrating good antifungal activity. PMID:22785271

Soares, Bruna V; Morais, Selene M; dos Santos Fontenelle, Raquel Oliveira; Queiroz, Vanessa A; Vila-Nova, Nadja S; Pereira, Christiana M C; Brito, Edy S; Neto, Manoel A S; Brito, Erika H S; Cavalcante, Carolina S P; Castelo-Branco, Débora S C M; Rocha, Marcos F G



In vitro microbiological evaluation of 1,1'-(5,5'-(1,4-phenylene)bis(3-aryl-1H-pyrazole-5,1-(4H,5H)-diyl))diethanones, novel bisacetylated pyrazoles  

PubMed Central

Novel 1,1'-(5,5'-(1,4-phenylene)bis(3-aryl-1H-pyrazole-5,1-(4H,5H)-diyl))diethanones 7-12 were tested for their antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion and twofold serial dilution method against the tested bacterial and fungal strains. Compounds 7 against Micrococcus luteus, 8 against ?-Heamolytic streptococcus, M. luteus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Microsporum gypseum, 9 against Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella flexneri, Vibreo cholerae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus flavus, Mucor indicus, 10 against Salmonella typhii, S. flexneri, M. gypseum, 11 against K. pneumonia, M. gypseum, 12 against K. pneumonia, and M. gypseum show superior zone of inhibitions and exhibited excellent antibacterial and antifungal activities at a MIC value of 6.25 ?g/mL. Moreover, all the tested compounds 7-12 revealed promising antitubercular activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and INH-resistant M. tuberculosis. Compounds 8 against M. tuberculosis and 11 against INH-resistant M. tuberculosis exhibited the percentage of reduction in RLU at 89 and 85%, respectively. PMID:22373408



Design, spectral characterization and biological studies of transition metal(II) complexes with triazole Schiff bases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new series of three biologically active triazole derived Schiff base ligands L1-L3 have been synthesized in equimolar reaction of 3-amino-1H-1,2,4-triazole with pyrrol-2-carboxaldehyde, 4-bromo-thiophene-2-carboxaldehyde, and 5-iodo-2-hydroxy benzaldehyde. The prepared Schiff bases were used for further complex formation reaction with different metal elements like Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) as chlorides by using a molar ratio of ligand:metal as 2:1. The structure and bonding nature of all the compounds were identified by their physical, spectral and analytical data. All the metal(II) complexes possessed an octahedral geometry except the Cu(II) complexes which showed a distorted octahedral geometry. All the synthesized compounds, were studied for their in vitro antibacterial, and antifungal activities, against four Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi) and two Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) bacterial strains and against six fungal strains (Trichophyton longifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani and Candida glabrata) by using agar-well diffusion method. It has been shown that all the synthesized compounds showed moderate to significant antibacterial activity against one or more bacterial strains. In vitro Brine Shrimp bioassay was also carried out to investigate the cytotoxic properties of these compounds. The data also revealed that the metal complexes showed better activity than the ligands due to chelation/coordination.

Hanif, Muhammad; Chohan, Zahid H.



Metal based new triazoles: Their synthesis, characterization and antibacterial/antifungal activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of new triazoles and their oxovanadium(IV) complexes have been synthesized, characterized and evaluated for antibacterial/antifungal properties. The new Schiff bases ligands (L1)-(L5) were prepared by the condensation reaction of 3,5-diamino-1,2,4-triazole with 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde, pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde, pyridine-2-carboxaldehyde, 2-acetyl pyridine and 2-methoxy benzaldehyde. The structures of the ligands have been established on the basis of their physical, spectral (IR, 1H and 13C NMR and mass spectrometry) and elemental analytical data. The prepared ligands were used to synthesize their oxovanadium(IV) complexes (1)-(5) which were also characterized by their physical, spectral and analytical data and proposed to have a square pyramidal geometry. The ligands and their complexes were screened for in vitro antibacterial activity against six bacterial species such as, Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis and for in vitro antifungal activity against six fungal strains, Trichophyton longifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani, and Candida glabrata. Cytotoxic nature of the compounds was also reported using brine shrimp bioassay method against Artemia salina.

Sumrra, Sajjad H.; Chohan, Zahid H.



Antimicrobial activity of iodoquinol 1%-hydrocortisone acetate 2% gel against ciclopirox and clotrimazole.  


Commercially available topical formulations consisting of iodoquinol 1%-hydrocortisone acetate 2%, ciclopirox 0.77%, and clotrimazole 1%-betamethasone dipropionate 0.5% were assessed for their antimicrobial activity against cultures of Micrococcus luteus, Propionibacterium acnes, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Corynebacterium aquaticum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Malassezia furfur, Microsporum canis, Candida albicans, Trichophyton rubrum, or Epidermophyton floccosum. At 1 and 5 minutes following inoculation into suspensions of each product, aliquots were removed, serially diluted, and plated onto appropriate agar to determine the log reduction in colony-forming units (CFUs) for each organism. Iodoquinol 1% produced the broadest and greatest antimicrobial activity as measured by a 3-log reduction of CFU, active against all microbes tested following incubation times of 1 or 5 minutes, except M luteus. By contrast, ciclopirox 0.77% and clotrimazole 1% showed activity against P aeruginosa and T rubrum, with ciclopirox also killing M luteus, P acnes, M canis, C albicans, and E floccosum at 5 minutes. Iodoquinol 1%-hydrocortisone acetate 2% also was the only product that showed effective antibacterial reduction of MRSA at 1 minute. PMID:19055171

Burnett, Bruce P; Mitchell, Calvin M



Melanogenesis in dermatophyte species in vitro and during infection  

PubMed Central

Dermatophytes are keratinophilic fungi that are the most common cause of fungal skin infections worldwide. Melanin has been isolated from several important human fungal pathogens, and the polymeric pigment is now recognized as an important virulence determinant. This study investigated whether dermatophytes, including Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum and Microsporum gypseum, produce melanin or melanin-like compounds in vitro and during infection. Digestion of the pigmented microconidia and macroconidia of dermatophytes with proteolytic enzymes, denaturant and hot concentrated acid yielded dark particles that retained the size and shape of the original fungal cells. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy revealed that particles derived from pigmented conidia contained a stable free radical signal, consistent with the pigments being a melanin. Immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated reactivity of a melanin-binding mAb with the pigmented conidia and hyphae, as well as the isolate particles. Laccase, an enzyme involved in melanization, was detected in the dermatophytes by an agar plate assay using 2,2?-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) as the substrate. Skin scrapings from patients with dermatophytoses contained septate hyphae and arthrospores that were reactive with the melanin-binding mAb. These findings indicate that dermatophytes can produce melanin or melanin-like compounds in vitro and during infection. Based on what is known about the function of melanin as a virulence factor of other pathogenic fungi, this pigment may have a similar role in the pathogenesis of dermatophytic diseases. PMID:21565930

Pornsuwan, Soraya; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Dankai, Wiyada; Vanittanakom, Nongnuch



Treatment of tinea capitis - a critical appraisal.  


Griseofulvin has been introduced in 1958, ever since it remained the gold standard for the treatment of tinea capitis in the United States. Despite the availability of new antifungals like terbinafine, itraconazole and fluconazole -with few exceptions not licensed for their use in children - duration of tinea capitis treatment could not be shortened. The reasons therefore are the anatomic structure of the hair follicle, the dormant sebum-production before onset of puberty, and the way of action of the new antifungals. Although data concerning the pharmacokinetics of allylamines and triazoles in childhood-populations are lacking, some experience confirms a correlation of the way of action of modern antifungals and the causative pathogen. In children the treatment of Microsporum infections of the scalp is crucial. That may be explained by the unique pharmacokinetic features of the substance of terbinafine: Terbinafine neither can be excreted by sweat nor by sebum before onset of puberty. Terbinafine is incorporated in the keratin of mature terminal hair in the anagen phase. In children it will not be built in the hair shaft and therefore it will not reach the surface of the scalp where the sheets of arthro-conidia in microsporosis are located. This peculiar fact was not yet considered in clinical studies. PMID:20969728

Ginter-Hanselmayer, Gabriele; Seebacher, Claus



Distribution of dermatophytes and other related fungi in Jaipur city, with particular reference to soil pH.  


Screening of 217 soil samples of different habitats, such as PG study centre, garden, farmhouse, nursery, roadside, hostel, animal habitat, bird habitat, marriage garden, temple, vegetable market and house dust, was carried out for the presence of dermatophytes and related fungi in relation to soil pH. A total of 461 isolates belonging to 26 genera and 34 species were recorded. Soil pH values vary from 3 to 10.5. Trichophyton verrucosum, Microsporum audouinii and M. canis were isolated for the first time in Jaipur from pH range 7.0 to 9.0. Chrysosporium tropicum (46.08%) was the most predominant fungus isolated from pH range 6.5 to 9.5. Trichophyton mentagrophytes (24.88%) was the second most common fungal species isolated from pH 6.5 to 9.5. Most of the keratinophilic fungi were isolated from pH 6.5 to 8.5. Only one isolate of Fusarium moniliforme was reported from a highly acidic site at pH 3. Roadside and garden soils were found to be the most suitable sites for almost all keratinophilic fungi. PMID:19638000

Jain, Neetu; Sharma, Meenakshi



Lawsonia inermis-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles: activity against human pathogenic fungi and bacteria with special reference to formulation of an antimicrobial nanogel.  


Lawsonia inermis mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) and its efficacy against Candida albicans, Microsporum canis, Propioniabacterium acne and Trichophyton mentagrophytes is reported. A two-step mechanism has been proposed for bioreduction and formation of an intermediate complex leading to the synthesis of capped nanoparticles was developed. In addition, antimicrobial gel for M. canis and T. mentagrophytes was also formulated. Ag-NPs were synthesized by challenging the leaft extract of L. inermis with 1 mM AgNO?. The Ag-NPs were characterized by Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometer and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nanoparticle tracking and analysis sytem (NTA) and zeta potential was measured to detect the size of Ag-NPs. The antimicrobial activity of Ag-NPs was evaluated by disc diffusion method against the test organisms. Thus these Ag-NPs may prove as a better candidate drug due to their biogenic nature. Moreover, Ag-NPs may be an answer to the drug-resistant microorganisms. PMID:25082226

Gupta, Arpita; Bonde, Shital R; Gaikwad, Swapnil; Ingle, Avinash; Gade, Aniket K; Rai, Mahendra



An ancient plant Lawsonia inermis (henna): determination of in vitro antifungal activity against dermatophytes species.  


World is endowed with a rich wealth of medicinal plants. There is a widespread belief that green medicines are healthier and more harmless or safer than synthetic ones. Medicinal plants have been used to cure a number of diseases. The ancient plant Lawsonia inermis or henna is used as medicinal plant because of its attributed strong fungicidal, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antibacterial, virucidal, antiparasitic, antiamoebiasis, astringent, antihemorrhagic, hypotensive, sedative, anticancer effect and possible anti-sweating properties. In this study, we investigated antifungal activity of L. inermis against clinical dermatophytes species. This study was carried out using 70 clinical isolates of dermatophytes representing six different species; 44 Trichophyton rubrum, 8 Trichophyton mentagrophytes, 6 Microsporum canis, 6 Trichophyton tonsurans, 4 Epidermophyton floccosum, and 2 Trichophyton violaceum. The antifungal activity of L. inermis (henna) was determined by agar diffusion method and henna was used as paste form. Henna paste showed the high antifungal activity against all dermatophytes species (20 to 50mm inhibition zone). PMID:25442917

Gozubuyuk, G S; Aktas, E; Yigit, N



Antifungal activity of plant extracts against dermatophytes.  


The aqueous extracts (15 micrograms ml-1 medium) of 22 plants used in folkloric medicine in Palestine were investigated for their antifungal activity and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against nine isolates of Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton violaceum. The extract of the different plant species reduced colony growth of the three dermatophytes by 36 to 100% compared with the control treatment. Antimycotic activity of the extract against the three dermatophytes varied significantly (P < 0.05) between test plants. Extracts of Capparis spinosa and Juglans regia completely prevented growth of M. canis and T. violaceum. The most active extracts (90-100% inhibition) were those of Anagallis arvensis, C. spinosa, J. regia, Pistacia lentiscus and Ruta chalapensis against M. canis; Inula viscosa, J. regia and P. lentiscus against T. mentagrophytes; and Asphodelus luteus, A. arvensis, C. spinosa, Clematis cirrhosa, I. viscosa, J. regia, P. lentiscus, Plumbago europea, Ruscus aculeatus, Retema raetam and Salvia fruticosa against T. violaceum. The MICs of these most active plants ranged from 0.6 to 40 micrograms ml-1. The three dermatophytes differed significantly with regard to their susceptibility to plant extracts. Trichophyton violaceum was the most susceptible being completely inhibited by 50% of the extracts followed by M. canis and T. mentagrophytes which were completely inhibited by only 23 and 14% of the extracts, respectively. PMID:10680445

Ali-Shtayeh, M S; Abu Ghdeib, S I



Myrtus communis L. as source of a bioactive and safe essential oil.  


In Algeria, Myrtus communis L. is distributed throughout the Tell Atlas and the coastal regions of Algiers and Constantine. The leaves are used in respiratory disorders, diarrhea and hemorrhoids. The aims of this work were to evaluate the antifungal and anti-inflammatory potential of well characterized essential oils (EO). Since EO can be applied by inhalation, dermal application and oral administration, we used several mammalian cell lines to assess safe bioactive doses. The chemical composition of two samples was investigated by GC-FID, GC-MS and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. Monoterpene derivatives are the main compounds: ?-pinene (50.8 and 33.6%), 1,8-cineole (21.9 and 13.3%), linalool (2.7 and 14.8%), and linalyl acetate (0.5 and 9.5%). The antifungal evaluation revealed that the oils were more active against Cryptococcus neoformans (yeast) and Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton rubrum (dermatophytes). The anti-inflammatory potential was evaluated using an in vitro model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages. Assessment of cell viability was made through the MTT assay. Both oils were able to significantly inhibit NO production, without affecting cell viability, in concentrations up to 0.64?mg/mL. These promising results, disclose bioactive concentrations of Myrtle essential oils with a safety profile suggesting a potential oral and topical application or use by inhalation. PMID:25446467

Bouzabata, Amel; Cabral, Célia; Gonçalves, Maria José; Cruz, Maria Teresa; Bighelli, Ange; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Casanova, Joseph; Tomi, Félix; Salgueiro, Ligia



Antifungal activity of different neem leaf extracts and the nimonol against some important human pathogens  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of aqueous, ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts from neem leaves on growth of some human pathogens (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus, Candida albicans and Microsporum gypseum) in vitro. Different concentrations (5, 10, 15 and 20%) prepared from these extracts inhibited the growth of the test pathogens and the effect gradually increased with concentration. The 20% ethyl acetate extract gave the strongest inhibition compared with the activity obtained by the same concentration of the other extracts. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis of ethyl acetate extract showed the presence of a main component (nimonol) which was purified and chemically confirmed by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopic analysis. The 20% ethyl acetate extract lost a part of its antifungal effect after pooling out the nimonol and this loss in activity was variable on test pathogens. The purified nimonol as a separate compound did not show any antifungal activity when assayed against all the six fungal pathogens. PMID:24031718

Mahmoud, D.A.; Hassanein, N.M.; Youssef, K.A.; Abou Zeid, M.A.



Antifungal activity of different neem leaf extracts and the nimonol against some important human pathogens.  


This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of aqueous, ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts from neem leaves on growth of some human pathogens (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus, Candida albicans and Microsporum gypseum) in vitro. Different concentrations (5, 10, 15 and 20%) prepared from these extracts inhibited the growth of the test pathogens and the effect gradually increased with concentration. The 20% ethyl acetate extract gave the strongest inhibition compared with the activity obtained by the same concentration of the other extracts. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis of ethyl acetate extract showed the presence of a main component (nimonol) which was purified and chemically confirmed by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopic analysis. The 20% ethyl acetate extract lost a part of its antifungal effect after pooling out the nimonol and this loss in activity was variable on test pathogens. The purified nimonol as a separate compound did not show any antifungal activity when assayed against all the six fungal pathogens. PMID:24031718

Mahmoud, D A; Hassanein, N M; Youssef, K A; Abou Zeid, M A



Dermatophytes Activate Skin Keratinocytes via Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling and Induce Immune Responses.  


Dermatophytes cause superficial and cutaneous fungal infections in immunocompetent hosts and invasive disease in immunocompromised hosts. However, the host mechanisms that regulate innate immune responses against these fungi are largely unknown. Here, we utilized commercially available epidermal tissues and primary keratinocytes to assess (i) damage induction by anthropophilic, geophilic, and zoophilic dermatophyte strains and (ii) the keratinocyte signaling pathways, transcription factors, and proinflammatory responses induced by a representative dermatophyte, Trichophyton equinum. Initially, five dermatophyte species were tested for their ability to invade, cause tissue damage, and induce cytokines, with Microsporum gypseum inducing the greatest level of damage and cytokine release. Using T. equinum as a representative dermatophyte, we found that the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways were predominantly affected, with increased levels of phospho-p38 and phospho-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) but decreased levels of phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2). Notably, the NF-?B and PI3K pathways were largely unaffected. T. equinum also significantly increased expression of the AP-1-associated transcription factor, c-Fos, and the MAPK regulatory phosphatase, MKP1. Importantly, the ability of T. equinum to invade, cause tissue damage, activate signaling and transcription factors, and induce proinflammatory responses correlated with germination, indicating that germination may be important for dermatophyte virulence and host immune activation. PMID:25667269

Achterman, Rebecca R; Moyes, David L; Thavaraj, Selvam; Smith, Adam R; Blair, Kris M; White, Theodore C; Naglik, Julian R



Translation elongation factor 1-? gene as a potential taxonomic and identification marker in dermatophytes.  


Intra- and interspecies variations of the translation elongation factor 1-? (Tef-1?) gene were evaluated as a new identification marker in a wide range of dermatophytes, which included 167 strains of 30 species. An optimized pan-dermatophyte primer pair was designed, and the target was sequenced. Consensus sequences were used for multiple alignment and phylogenetic tree analysis and the levels of intra- and interspecific nucleotide polymorphism were assessed. Between species, the analyzed part of the Tef-1? gene varied in length from 709 to 769 nucleotides. Significant numbers of species including Trichophyton rubrum, T. tonsurans, T. schoenleinii, T. concentricum, T. violaceum, Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum ferrugineum, M. canis, M. audouinii, T. equinum, T. eriotrephon, and T. erinacei were invariant in Tef-1? and had sufficient barcoding distance with neighboring species. Although overall consistency was found between ITS phylogeny as the current molecular marker of dermatophytes and Tef-1?, a higher discriminatory power of Tef-1? appeared particularly useful in some clades of closely related species such as the A. vanbreuseghemii, T. rubrum, A. benhamiae, and A. otae complexes. Nevertheless, we stress that a single gene can not specify species borderlines among dermatophytes and multiple lines of evidence based on a multilocus inquiry may ascertain an incontrovertible evaluation of kinship. PMID:25550390

Mirhendi, Hossein; Makimura, Koichi; de Hoog, G Sybren; Rezaei-Matehkolaei, Ali; Najafzadeh, Mohammad Javad; Umeda, Yoshiko; Ahmadi, Bahram



Foot infections due to Hendersonula toruloidea and Scytalidium hyalinum in coal miners.  


A total of 250 coal miners were screened for mycotic skin infections. Sixty-six (34.8%) miners had clinical lesions on their feet which proved to be of mycotic etiology by direct microscopy and culture. Hendersonula toruloidea, the commonest etiological agent, was the sole agent recovered from 23 (34.8%) of the positive cases and was also isolated from three (4.5%) cases of mixed infection with dermatophytes (two cases with Trichophyton rubrum and one with Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes). Scytalidium hyalinum was recovered as the sole causal agent in four (6.1%) patients and from one case of mixed infection with T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes. The dermatophytes isolated as sole etiological agents included T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes (13 isolates) T. rubrum (10), Trichophyton tonsurans (5), Epidermophyton floccosum (4) and Microsporum gypseum (3). The toe web was invariably involved in all cases of H. toruloidea and S. hyalinum infection and was also the commonest site of infection by dermatophytes. Occasionally the sole, toe and finger nails were also involved. Other body sites were infrequently involved and then only in infections caused by dermatophytes. The epidemiology of H. toruloidea and S. hyalinum infections is reviewed. PMID:2778576

Gugnani, H C; Oyeka, C A



The Prevalence and Pattern of Superficial Fungal Infections among School Children in Ile-Ife, South-Western Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Fungal infections of the skin and nails are common global problems with attendant morbidity among affected individuals. Children are mostly affected due to predisposing factors such as overcrowding and low socioeconomic factors. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and the clinical patterns of superficial fungal infections among primary school children in Ile-Ife. A multistage sampling was conducted to select eight hundred pupils from ten primary schools in Ile-Ife. Data on epidemiological characteristics and clinical history was collected using a semistructured questionnaire and skin scrapings were done. The prevalence of superficial fungal infections among the 800 respondents was 35.0%. Male pupils constituted 51.0% of respondents while the females were 49.0%. The mean age for all the respondents was 9.42 ± 2.00. Tinea capitis was the commonest infection with a prevalence of 26.9% and tinea unguium, tinea corporis, and tinea faciei had a prevalence of 0.8%, 0.6%, and 0.5%, respectively. Tinea manuum had the least prevalence of 0.1%. Pityriasis versicolor had a prevalence of 4.4%. Microsporum audouinii was the leading organism isolated. The study shows that the prevalence of superficial fungal infection (SFI) among primary school children in Ile-Ife is high with tinea capitis as the commonest SFI. PMID:25574161

Oke, Olaide Olutoyin; Onayemi, Olaniyi; Olasode, Olayinka Abimbola; Omisore, Akinlolu Gabriel; Oninla, Olumayowa Abimbola



Antifungal susceptibilities of dermatophytic agents isolated from clinical specimens.  


The aim of this study was to investigate the susceptibility to four antifungal agents: ketoconazole, terbinafine, itraconazole and fluconazole, of the different species of dermatophyte strains isolated from clinical specimens. A total of 128 specimens were collected from toe nail, foot, inguinal region, trunk, hands and head. The dermatophytes tested included Trichophyton rubrum 108 (84.4%), Trichophyton mentagrophytes 11 (8.6%), Epidermophyton floccosum 5 (3.9%), Microsporum canis 2 (1.5%) and Trichophyton tonsurans 2 (1.5%). The mean minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for the five species of dermatophytes ranged between 0.09-1.12 microg/mL for ketoconazole, 0.04-0.27 microg/mL for terbinafine, 0.08-0.43 microg/mL for itraconazole and 16.18-24.0 microg/mL for fluconazole. In vitro analysis of antifungal activity of these agents would also allow for the comparison between different systemic antifungals, which in turn may clarify the reasons for the lack of clinical response or serve as an effective therapy for patients with chronic infection. PMID:16048753

Cetinkaya, Zafer; Kiraz, Nuri; Karaca, Semsettin; Kulac, Mustafa; Ciftci, Ihsan H; Aktepe, Orhan C; Altindis, Mustafa; Kiyildi, Nilay; Piyade, Meltem



Metal based new triazoles: their synthesis, characterization and antibacterial/antifungal activities.  


A series of new triazoles and their oxovanadium(IV) complexes have been synthesized, characterized and evaluated for antibacterial/antifungal properties. The new Schiff bases ligands (L(1))-(L(5)) were prepared by the condensation reaction of 3,5-diamino-1,2,4-triazole with 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde, pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde, pyridine-2-carboxaldehyde, 2-acetyl pyridine and 2-methoxy benzaldehyde. The structures of the ligands have been established on the basis of their physical, spectral (IR, (1)H and (13)C NMR and mass spectrometry) and elemental analytical data. The prepared ligands were used to synthesize their oxovanadium(IV) complexes (1)-(5) which were also characterized by their physical, spectral and analytical data and proposed to have a square pyramidal geometry. The ligands and their complexes were screened for in vitro antibacterial activity against six bacterial species such as, Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis and for in vitro antifungal activity against six fungal strains, Trichophyton longifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani, and Candida glabrata. Cytotoxic nature of the compounds was also reported using brine shrimp bioassay method against Artemia salina. PMID:22982389

Sumrra, Sajjad H; Chohan, Zahid H



Evaluation of novel broad-range real-time PCR assay for rapid detection of human pathogenic fungi in various clinical specimens.  


In the present study, a novel broad-range real-time PCR was developed for the rapid detection of human pathogenic fungi. The assay targets a part of the 28S large-subunit ribosomal RNA (rDNA) gene. We investigated its application for the most important human pathogenic fungal genera, including Aspergillus, Candida, Cryptococcus, Mucor, Penicillium, Pichia, Microsporum, Trichophyton, and Scopulariopsis. Species were identified in PCR-positive reactions by direct DNA sequencing. A noncompetitive internal control was applied to prevent false-negative results due to PCR inhibition. The minimum detection limit for the PCR was determined to be one 28S rDNA copy per PCR, and the 95% detection limit was calculated to 15 copies per PCR. To assess the clinical applicability of the PCR method, intensive-care patients with artificial respiration and patients with infective endocarditis were investigated. For this purpose, 76 tracheal secretion samples and 70 heart valve tissues were analyzed in parallel by real-time PCR and cultivation. No discrepancies in results were observed between PCR analysis and cultivation methods. Furthermore, the application of the PCR method was investigated for other clinical specimens, including cervical swabs, nail and horny skin scrapings, and serum, blood, and urine samples. The combination of a broad-range real-time PCR and direct sequencing facilitates rapid screening for fungal infection in various clinical specimens. PMID:18385440

Vollmer, Tanja; Störmer, Melanie; Kleesiek, Knut; Dreier, Jens



DNA microarray based on arrayed-primer extension technique for identification of pathogenic fungi responsible for invasive and superficial mycoses.  


An oligonucleotide microarray based on the arrayed-primer extension (APEX) technique has been developed to simultaneously identify pathogenic fungi frequently isolated from invasive and superficial infections. Species-specific oligonucleotide probes complementary to the internal transcribed spacer 1 and 2 (ITS1 and ITS2) region were designed for 24 species belonging to 10 genera, including Candida species (Candida albicans, Candida dubliniensis, Candida famata, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida kefyr, Candida krusei, Candida guilliermondii, Candida lusitaniae, Candida metapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis, Candida parapsilosis, and Candida pulcherrima), Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus species (Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus terreus), Trichophyton species (Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton tonsurans), Trichosporon cutaneum, Epidermophyton floccosum, Fusarium solani, Microsporum canis, Penicillium marneffei, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The microarray was tested for its specificity with a panel of reference and blinded clinical isolates. The APEX technique was proven to be highly discriminative, leading to unequivocal identification of each species, including the highly related ones C. parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis, and C. metapsilosis. Because of the satisfactory basic performance traits obtained, such as reproducibility, specificity, and unambiguous interpretation of the results, this new system represents a reliable method of potential use in clinical laboratories for parallel one-shot detection and identification of the most common pathogenic fungi. PMID:18160452

Campa, Daniele; Tavanti, Arianna; Gemignani, Federica; Mogavero, Crocifissa S; Bellini, Ilaria; Bottari, Fabio; Barale, Roberto; Landi, Stefano; Senesi, Sonia



Dermatophytes Activate Skin Keratinocytes via Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling and Induce Immune Responses  

PubMed Central

Dermatophytes cause superficial and cutaneous fungal infections in immunocompetent hosts and invasive disease in immunocompromised hosts. However, the host mechanisms that regulate innate immune responses against these fungi are largely unknown. Here, we utilized commercially available epidermal tissues and primary keratinocytes to assess (i) damage induction by anthropophilic, geophilic, and zoophilic dermatophyte strains and (ii) the keratinocyte signaling pathways, transcription factors, and proinflammatory responses induced by a representative dermatophyte, Trichophyton equinum. Initially, five dermatophyte species were tested for their ability to invade, cause tissue damage, and induce cytokines, with Microsporum gypseum inducing the greatest level of damage and cytokine release. Using T. equinum as a representative dermatophyte, we found that the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways were predominantly affected, with increased levels of phospho-p38 and phospho-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) but decreased levels of phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2). Notably, the NF-?B and PI3K pathways were largely unaffected. T. equinum also significantly increased expression of the AP-1-associated transcription factor, c-Fos, and the MAPK regulatory phosphatase, MKP1. Importantly, the ability of T. equinum to invade, cause tissue damage, activate signaling and transcription factors, and induce proinflammatory responses correlated with germination, indicating that germination may be important for dermatophyte virulence and host immune activation. PMID:25667269

Achterman, Rebecca R.; Moyes, David L.; Thavaraj, Selvam; Smith, Adam R.; Blair, Kris M.



Dermatophytosis in red pandas (Ailurus fulgens fulgens): a review of 14 cases.  


Fourteen cases of dermatophytosis were identified from medical records of red pandas (Ailurus fulgens fulgens) housed at the Knoxville Zoo between 1980 and 1996. The median age of affected animals on initial presentation was 8.5 wk (3 wk-11 mo). Clinical signs included crusting, purulent exudate, alopecia, thickening of affected skin, ulceration, and necrosis. Seven animals had mild lesions with signs restricted to crusting and/or alopecia, and six animals had more severe infections, with ulceration, skin necrosis, and purulent exudate. Five of the severely affected pandas had tail involvement. The severity of disease affecting one individual was not recorded. Dermatophytosis was confirmed by culture, cytology, histopathology, or culture followed by histopathology. Microsporum gypseum was the only fungal organism cultured. Six animals were treated for mild disease, and all clinical signs resolved. Partial tail amputation was required as part of the treatment regimen for two of the six severely affected animals, and two others had ulcerated tail lesions that left circumferential scarring after resolution of infection. Itraconazole (5 mg/kg p.o. q 12-24 hr) was the most frequently used systemic antifungal agent in animals with severe lesions. All fungal infections resolved, although one panda died from unrelated causes early in the treatment period. PMID:10749446

Kearns, K S; Pollock, C G; Ramsay, E C



Antifungal property of quaternized chitosan and its derivatives.  


Five water-soluble chitosan derivatives were carried out by quaternizing either iodomethane or N-(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl) trimethylammonium chloride (Quat188) as a quaternizing agent under basic condition. The degree of quaternization (DQ) ranged between 28±2% and 90±2%. The antifungal activity was evaluated by using disc diffusion method, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) methods against Trichophyton rubrum (T. rubrum), Trichophyton mentagrophyte (T. mentagrophyte), and Microsporum gypseum (M. gypseum) at pH 7.2. All quaternized chitosans and its derivatives showed more effective against T. rubrum than M. gypseum and T. mentagrophyte. The MIC and MFC values were found to range between 125-1000 ?g/mL and 500-4000 ?g/mL, respectively against all fungi. Our results indicated that the quaternized N-(4-N,N-dimethylaminocinnamyl) chitosan chloride showed highest antifungal activity against T. rubrum and M. gypseum compared to other quaternized chitosan derivatives. The antifungal activity tended to increase with an increase in molecular weight, degree of quaternization and hydrophobic moiety against T. rubrum. However, the antifungal activity was depended on type of fungal as well as chemical structure of the quaternized chitosan derivatives. PMID:22100980

Sajomsang, Warayuth; Gonil, Pattarapond; Saesoo, Somsak; Ovatlarnporn, Chitchamai



Historic topics on classification of Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex.  


D. Gruby (1842-1844) detected the fungus in tinea as a causative agent and C.P. Robin (1853) described Microsporum mentagrophytes that was transferred to Trichophyton by Blanchard (1896). Sabouraud (1910) established a group of ectothrix microïde which was divided into gypseum type (6 species: T. asteroids, T. granulosum, T. lacticolor and 3 species) and niveum type (T. radians and T. denticulatum). Thereafter, Epidermophyton simii Pinoy, 1912 and T. interdigitale Priestly, 1917 were reported. These species were classified as T. mentagrophytes by C.W. Emmons (1934 and 1940). Arthroderma simii Stockdale et al., 1965, A. benhamiae, Ajello and Cheng, 1967 and A. vanbreuseghemii Takashio, 1973 were discovered as teleomorphs of T. simii, T. mentagrophytes var. granulosum and T. mentagrophytes (mainly granulosum-asteroides form), respectively. Makimura et al., (1998) reported phylogenetic classification of T. mentagrophytes complex strains based on DNA sequences of nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) regions, indicating that A. vanbreuseghemii and T. interdigitale belong to the same clade that was later named T. interdigatale by Gräser et al.(1999). This naming has confused medical and veterinary doctors since anthropophilic isolates (T. interdigitale) and zoophilic isolates (A. vanbreuseghemii) were included as the same species. PMID:24943211

Kano, Rui; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko



Antifungal activity of fluid extract and essential oil from anise fruits (Pimpinella anisum L., Apiaceae).  


Antifungal activities of fluid extract and essential oil obtained from anise fruits Pimpinella anisum L. (Apiaceae) were tested in vitro on clinical isolates of seven species of yeasts and four species of dermatophytes. Diffusion method with cylinders and the broth dilution method were used for antifungal activity testing. Anise fluid extract showed antimycotic activity against Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. pseudotropicalis and C. krusei with MIC values between 17 and 20% (v/v). No activity was noticed against C. glabrata, and anis fruits extracts showed growth promotion activity on Geotrichum spp. Anise fruits extract inhibited the growth of dermatophyte species (Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis and M. gypseum) with MIC values between 1.5 and 9.0% (V/V). Anise essential oil showed strong antifungal activity against yeasts with MIC lower than 1.56% (V/V) and dermatophytes with MIC lower than 0.78% (V/V). Significant differences in antifungal activities were found between anise fluid extract and anise essential oil (p<0.01). Anise essential oil exhibited stronger antifungal activities against yeasts and dermatophytes with MIC values between 0.10 and 1.56% (V/V), respectively. PMID:16375827

Kosalec, Ivan; Pepeljnjak, Stjepan; Kustrak, Danica



Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry using the Vitek MS system for rapid and accurate identification of dermatophytes on solid cultures.  


The objective of this research was to extend the Vitek MS fungal knowledge base version 2.0.0 to allow the robust identification of clinically relevant dermatophytes, using a variety of strains, incubation times, and growth conditions. First, we established a quick and reliable method for sample preparation to obtain a reliable and reproducible identification independently of the growth conditions. The Vitek MS V2.0.0 fungal knowledge base was then expanded using 134 well-characterized strains belonging to 17 species in the genera Epidermophyton, Microsporum, and Trichophyton. Cluster analysis based on mass spectrum similarity indicated good species discrimination independently of the culture conditions. We achieved a good separation of the subpopulations of the Trichophyton anamorph of Arthroderma benhamiae and of anthropophilic and zoophilic strains of Trichophyton interdigitale. Overall, the 1,130 mass spectra obtained for dermatophytes gave an estimated identification performance of 98.4%. The expanded fungal knowledge base was then validated using 131 clinical isolates of dermatophytes belonging to 13 taxa. For 8 taxa all strains were correctly identified, and for 3 the rate of successful identification was >90%; 75% (6/8) of the M. gypseum strains were correctly identified, whereas only 47% (18/38) of the African T. rubrum population (also called T. soudanense) were recognized accurately, with a large quantity of strains misidentified as T. violaceum, demonstrating the close relationship of these two taxa. The method of sample preparation was fast and efficient and the expanded Vitek MS fungal knowledge base reliable and robust, allowing reproducible dermatophyte identifications in the routine laboratory. PMID:25297329

De Respinis, Sophie; Monnin, Valérie; Girard, Victoria; Welker, Martin; Arsac, Maud; Cellière, Béatrice; Durand, Géraldine; Bosshard, Philipp P; Farina, Claudio; Passera, Marco; Van Belkum, Alex; Petrini, Orlando; Tonolla, Mauro



[Dermatomycoses due to pets and farm animals : neglected infections?].  


Dermatomycoses due to contact with pets and livestock frequently affect children and young adults. Zoophilic dermatophytes are the main important causative agents. It has long been known that the often high inflammatory dermatophytoses of the skin and the scalp are caused mostly by Microsporum canis. Due to an absence of an obligation for reporting fungal infections of the skin to the Public Health Office in Germany, an unnoticed but significant change in responsible pathogens has occurred. Today an increasing number of infections due to zoophilic strains of Trichophyton interdigitale (formerly Trichophyton mentagrophytes) and Trichophyton species of Arthroderma benhamiae are found. The latter mentioned dermatophyte is the anamorph species of the teleomorph Arthroderma benhamiae, which originally was isolated in the Far East (Japan). Source of infection of these dermatophytes are small rodents, in particular guinea pigs. These animals are bought in pet shops by the parents of those children who later are affected by the fungal infection. The coincidental purchase of the relevant fungal pathogen is not obvious to the parents. As a consequence, highly contagious dermatophytoses occur, often tinea capitis sometimes with kerion formation. Further dermatophytes should be considered as cause of a zoophilic dermatomycosis. Both Trichophyton verrucosum, the cause of the ringworm in cattle, and Trichophyton erinacei following contact to hedgehogs are worthy of note. Yeasts cannot be ignored as cause of dermatomycosis, especially Malassezia pachydermatis, the only non-lipophilic species within the genus Malassezia, which can be transferred from dog to men. Cryptococcus neoformans also comes from animal sources. The mucous yeast occurs in bird's dropping, and it causes both pulmonary and central nervous system infections, but also primary and secondary cutaneous cryptococcosis in immunocompromised patients (HIV/AIDS) as possible consequence after contact to these animals. PMID:23114507

Nenoff, P; Handrick, W; Krüger, C; Vissiennon, T; Wichmann, K; Gräser, Y; Tchernev, G



The emergence of Trichophyton tonsurans in Port-au-Prince, Haiti.  


The occurrence of the anthropophilic dermatophyte Trichophyton tonsurans as a frequent causative agent of tinea capitis in several developed countries has been associated with a global rise in its isolation during recent years. While T. tonsurans was never found in Haiti before 1988, a sharp increase in the number of isolates of this species from scalp lesions began to be observed in 2005 in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. A prospective study was conducted in Port-au-Prince from May to November 2006 of 64 children presenting with tinea capitis at the dermatological outpatient clinic of the university hospital. Forty-five (70%) were male and 19 female (30%), with an average age at presentation of 6.1 years (age range 1-16 years). Direct microscopic examination of scalp hair using 10% potassium hydroxide was positive in 93.8% and culture confirmation was established in 55 cases (85.9%). Five species of dermatophytes were identified, with the anthropophilic dermatophyte T. tonsurans, accounting for the majority or 35 (63.6%) of all cases of tinea capitis. Other dermatophyte species identified included T. mentagrophytes (14.5%), Microsporum audouinii (12.7%), T. rubrum (7.3%) and in one case, the geophilic M. gypseum (1.8%). In two cases caused by T. tonsurans skin involvement on other areas of the body was recorded. The most frequent pathogen in tinea capitis is now T. tonsurans in Port-au-Prince. We speculate that the recent emergence of T. tonsurans in Haiti is linked to the dramatically increasing mobility of Haitian Diaspora. PMID:18608887

Raccurt, Christian P; Dorsainvil, Dulcie; Boncy, Madeleine; Boncy, Jacques; Auguste, Ghislaine



Derivatives of phosphate Schiff base transition metal complexes: synthesis, studies and biological activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the synthesis and structural characterization of series of tetra- and hexacoordinate metal chelate complexes of phosphate Schiff base ligands having the general composition LMX n·H 2O and L 2MX n (L=phosphate Schiff base ligand; M=Ag +, Mn 2+, Cu 2+, Zn 2+, Cd 2+, Hg 2+, or Fe 3+ and X=NO 3-, Br - or Cl -). The structure of the prepared compounds was investigated using elemental analysis, IR, 1H and 31P NMR, UV-vis, mass spectra, solid reflectance, magnetic susceptibility and conductance measurements as well as conductometric titration. In all the complexes studied, the ligands act as a chelate ligand with coordination involving the phosphate?O-atom and the azomethine?N-atom. IR, solid reflectance spectra and magnetic moment measurement are used to infer the structure and to illustrate the coordination capacity of ligand. IR spectra show the presence of coordinated nitrate and water molecule, the magnetic moments of all complexes show normal magnetic behavior and the electronic spectra of the metal complexes indicate a tetra- and octahedral structure for Mn 2+, octahedral structure of Fe 3+ and both square-planar and distorted octahedral structure for Cu 2+ complexes. Antimicrobial activity of the ligands and their complexes were tested using the disc diffusion method and the chosen strains include Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aereuguinosa, Klebsiella penumoniae, Escherichia coli, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophyte and Trichophyton rubrum. Some known antibiotics are included for the sake of comparison and the chosen antibiotic are Amikacin, Doxycllin, Augmantin, Sulperazon, Unasyn, Septrin, Cefobid, Ampicillin, Nitrofurantion, Traivid and Erythromycin.

El-Wahab, Z. H. Abd; El-Sarrag, M. R.



[Taxonomic study of clinic isolates of Trichophyton in Rosario, Argentina].  


Due to the pleomorphism and cultural variability displayed by species of the genus Trichophyton, the identification methods based solely on morphological features are usually insufficient for their classification. The goal of the present work was to test a set of phenotypic methods in order to identify fungal isolates that belong to the aforementioned genus. These methods were based on a molecular taxonomic technique used as standard. Clinical isolates (56) were used as samples along with 6 reference strains. Macro and micromorphological studies were performed as well as biochemical and physiological tests such as in vitro hair perforation, nutritional requirements in Trichophyton agar media, urease production and growth on bromocresol purple-milk. solids-glucose (BCP-MS-G) agar. Additionally, PCR fingerprinting using the (GACA)4 primer was employed. As a result of the PCR method, specific profiles were observed for Microsporum canis, Epidermophyton floccosum, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale. Identical profiles were obtained for Arthroderma benhamiae y Trichophyton erinacei. Of the total number of clinical isolates, 39 matched the T. rubrum profile while 13 corresponded to A. benhamiae and 4 to T. interdigitale. The most useful phenotypic test to differentiate between T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes complex strains was alkalinization of the BCP-MS-G medium. Phenotypic tests did not allow differentiation among the T. mentagrophytes complex species. On the other hand, the molecular technique allowed characterization of T. rubrum isolates as well as of those observed in our study and included in the T. mentagrophytes complex: T. interdigitale and Trichophyton sp., the anamorph of A. benhamiae. PMID:24401778

Tartabini, Mirta L; Bonino, Guillermo S; Racca, Liliana; Luque, Alicia G



The dermatophytes.  

PubMed Central

The etiologic agents of the dermatophytoses (ringworm) are classified in three anamorphic (asexual or imperfect) genera, Epidermophyton, Microsporum, and Trichophyton. Species capable of reproducing sexually belong in the teleomorphic genus, Arthroderma, of the Ascomycota. On the basis of primary habitat association, they may be grouped as geophilic (soil associated), zoophilic, and anthropophilic. Adaptation to growth on humans by most geophilic species resulted in diminished loss of sporulation, sexuality, and other soil-associated characteristics. The dermatophytes have the ability to invade keratinized tissue (skin, hair, and nails) but are usually restricted to the nonliving cornified layer of the epidermis because of their inability to penetrate viable tissue of an immunocompetent host. However, invasion does elicit a host response ranging from mild to severe. Acid proteinases, elastase, keratinases, and other proteinases reportedly act as virulence factors. The development of cell-mediated immunity correlated with delayed hypersensitivity and an inflammatory response is associated with clinical cure, whereas the lack of or a defective cell-mediated immunity predisposes the host to chronic or recurrent dermatophyte infection. Chronic dermatophytosis is mostly caused by Trichophyton rubrum, and there is some evidence that mannan produced by this fungus suppresses or diminishes the inflammatory response. Since dermatophytes cause a communicable disease, modes of transmission and control are discussed as well as a survey of recent trends in therapy. Collection of specimens, culture media, and tests for identification are also presented. Genetic studies have led to an understanding of incompatibility mechanisms, pleomorphism and variation, resistance to griseofulvin, and virulence. Molecular biology has contributed to our knowledge of the taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of dermatophytes. PMID:7621400

Weitzman, I; Summerbell, R C



Identification of Dermatophytes by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis of Metalloproteinase-1  

PubMed Central

Background Transgenic research on metalloproteinase-1 is an emerging field in the area of plant molecular biology. The new method reported here can similarly be applied in fungal molecular biology to identify different dermatophytes. Our method is more accurate than traditional methods such as molecular analyses. Objective To identify Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes, T. tonsurans, T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale, Microsporum canis and M. gypseum, by using the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect polymorphisms in the metalloproteinase-1 gene (MEP1). Methods From each fungal strain, we isolated genomic DNA and performed PCR to amplify the region coding for metalloproteinase-1. Primers for the metalloproteinase-1 gene were designed based on the sequence in NCBI GenBank. Subsequently, we purified the amplified PCR product and performed RFLP analysis. After restriction enzyme digestion, BsrDI (NEB, England), the samples were subjected to electrophoresis. Four different patterns of DNA fragments were observed among 6 fungal species. Results The DNA fragments for T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes, T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale and T. tonsurans showed similar patterns on electrophoresis and were not distinguishable, whereas T. rubrum, M. canis, and M. gypseum showed different patterns. Conclusion To our knowledge, it is the first study to introduce the analysis of the nucleotide sequence of metalloproteinase-1 enzyme to study differentiation in dermatophytes. Based on our results, more accurate differentiation and subtyping of T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale might be possible. This might contribute to better understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of dermatophyte. PMID:24966633

Jung, Ho Jung; Kim, Soo Young; Jung, Jae Wook; Park, Hyun Jung; Lee, Yang Won; Choe, Yong Beom



Synthesis, in vitro antifungal evaluation and in silico study of 3-azolyl-4-chromanone phenylhydrazones  

PubMed Central

Background The currently available antifungal drugs suffer from toxicity, greatest potential drug interactions with other drugs, insufficient pharmacokinetics properties, and development of resistance. Thus, development of new antifungal agents with optimum pharmacokinetics and less toxicity is urgent task. In the search for new azole antifungals, we have been previously described azolylchromanone oxime ethers as rigid analogs of oxiconazole. In continuation of our work, we incorporated phenylhydrazone moiety instead of oxime ether fragment in azolylchromanone derivatives. Methods The 3-azolyl-4-chromanone phenylhydrazones were synthesized via ring closure of 2-azolyl-2'-hydroxyacetophenones and subsequent reaction with phenylhydrazine. The biological activity of title compounds was evaluated against different pathogenic fungi including Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Aspergillus niger, and Microsporum gypseum. Docking study, in silico toxicity risks and drug-likeness predictions were used to better define of title compounds as antifungal agents. Results The in vitro antifungal activity of compounds based on MIC values revealed that all compounds showed good antifungal activity against C. albicans, S. cerevisiae and M. gypseum at concentrations less than 16 ?g/mL. Among the test compounds, 2-methyl-3-imidazolyl derivative 3b showed the highest values of drug-likeness and drug-score. Conclusion The 3-azolyl-4-chromanone phenylhydrazones considered as analogs of 3-azolyl-4-chromanone oxime ethers basically designed as antifungal agents. The antifungal activity of title compounds was comparable to that of standard drug fluconazole. The drug-likeness data of synthesized compounds make them promising leads for future development of antifungal agents. PMID:23351328



Antidermatophytic Activity of Pogostemon parviflorus Benth  

PubMed Central

In the developing countries of tropical regions, mycotic infections are common cause of skin diseases.The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of skin diseases including mycotic infections is an age-old practice in many parts of the world. The drugs used against dermatophytosis have several side effects, but limited efficacy. There is therefore a distinct need for discovery of new, safer and more effective antifungal agents. Medicinal plants used in traditional folk medicine may help us to overcome the growing problem of resistance to antifungal drugs and also their relative toxicity. In this study, in vitro antifungal activity of Pogostemon parviflorus leaf extracts were evaluated against three different genera of dermatophytes including Microsporum, Trichophyton and Epidermophyton, using the agar dilution method. Pogostemon parviflorus Benth. belongs to Labiatae family. The ethanolic extract of Pogostemon parviflorus leaf inhibited the growth of tested dermatophytes at different concentrations. The ethanolic extract of Pogostemon parviflorus leaf completely prevented the growth of tested dermatophytic species, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values between 2.5-10 mg/mL. The minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) values of this plant were also in the range of 2.5-10 mg/mL. Results of phytochemical screening tests indicated that the leaf of Pogostemon parviflorus contained saponins, reducing sugars, tannins, phenols and proteins, but it did not have any glycosides, anthraquinones, alkaloids or flavonoids. Results of High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) studies indicated that the ethyl acetate extract of Pogostemon parviflorus leaves included triterpenes, as 10 and 14 peaks of ultra violet (UV) absorption were observed in 254 nm and 366 nm, respectively. Hence, triterpenes may be responsible for antidermatophytic activity of this plant. PMID:24363738

Sadeghi-Nejad, Batool; Sadhu Deokule, Subhash



Overproduction and biological activity of prodigiosin-like pigments from recombinant fusant of endophytic marine Streptomyces species.  


Thirty-four endophytic marine Actinomycetes isolates were recovered from the Egyptian marine sponge Latrunculia corticata, out of them 5 isolates (14.7 %) showed red single colonies on yeast-CzAPEK plates. Isolates under the isolation code NRC50 and NRC51 were observed with the strongest red biomass. After application of protoplast fusion between NRC50 and NRC51 isolates, 26 fusants were selected and produced widely different amounts of prodigiosin-like pigments (PLPs) on different fermentation media. Among them fusant NRCF69 produced 79 and 160.4 % PLPs more than parental strains NRC50 and NRC51, respectively. According to the analysis of 16S rDNA sequence (amplified, sequenced, and submitted to GenBank under Accession no. JN232405 and JN232406, respectively), together with their morphological and biochemical characteristics, parental strains NRC50 (P1) and NRC51 (P2) were identified as Streptomyces sp. and designated as Streptomyces sp. NRC50 and Streptomyces sp. NRC51. This study describes a low cost, effective production media by using peanut seed broth, sunflower oil broth or dairy processing wastewater broth alone, or supplemented with 0.5 % mannitol that supports the production of PLPs by the Streptomyces fusant NRCF69 under study (42.03, 40.11, 36.7 and 47 g L(-1), respectively). PLPs compounds exhibited significant cytotoxic activities against three human cancer cell lines: colon cancer cell line (HCT-116), liver cancer cell line (HEPG-2) and breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) and antimycotic activity against clinical dermatophyte isolates of Trichophyton, Microsporum and Epidermophyton. PMID:22777253

El-Bondkly, Ahmed M A; El-Gendy, Mervat M A; Bassyouni, Rasha H



Antioxidant and anti-dermatophytic properties leaf and stem bark of Xylosma longifolium clos  

PubMed Central

Background The present study was carried out to assess the phytochemical and anti-dermatophytic effect of the leaf and bark extracts of Xylosma longifolium Clos. The leaf and stem bark are used by the indigenous people of Manipur, India for treatment of skin diseases. Methods The leaves and stem barks of Xylosma longifolium were extracted using petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol respectively. The different extracts of each plant parts were tested for antioxidant activity using DPPH assay. The phenolic content was assayed using Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method. Each extracts was further analysed by RP-HPLC to quantify some individual flavonoid components. The anti-dermatophytic activity was evaluated both by agar diffusion method and micro wells dilution method against the Microsporum boullardii MTCC 6059, M. canis (MTCC 2820 and MTCC 32700), M. gypseum MTCC 2819, Trichophyton ajelloi MTCC 4878, T. rubrum (MTCC 296 and MTCC 3272). Results The free radical scavenging activity values were ranged from 0.7 to 1.41 mg/ml and 0.6 to 1.23 mg/ml, respectively for leaf and stem bark extracts. The amount of total phenolic contents of the extracts occurred in both leaf and bark in the range of 12 to 56.6 mg GAE/100 g and 16 to 58 mg GAE/100 g respectively. RP-HPLC analysis for flavonoids revealed the presence of two major flavonoid compounds, rutin and catechin. Kaempferol was in trace or absent. Methanol leaf extract showed significant low inhibitory effect against tested fungus Trichophyton ajelloi MTCC 4878 (0.140625 mg/ml) as the most sensitive. These finding suggest that the methanol leaf extract tested contain compounds with antimicrobial properties. Conclusion The results of our study may partially justify the folkloric uses on the plant studied and further provide an evidence that the leaf extract of Xylosma longifolium might be indeed a potential sources of antimicrobial agents. PMID:23819459



Metal-Based Antibacterial and Antifungal Agents: Synthesis, Characterization, and In Vitro Biological Evaluation of Co(II), Cu(II), Ni(II), and Zn(II) Complexes With Amino Acid-Derived Compounds  

PubMed Central

A series of antibacterial and antifungal amino acid-derived compounds and their cobalt(II), copper(II), nickel(II), and zinc(II) metal complexes have been synthesized and characterized by their elemental analyses, molar conductances, magnetic moments, and IR, and electronic spectral measurements. Ligands (L1)?(L5) were derived by condensation of ?-diketones with glycine, phenylalanine, valine, and histidine and act as bidentate towards metal ions (cobalt, copper, nickel, and zinc) via the azomethine-N and deprotonated-O of the respective amino acid. The stoichiometric reaction between the metal(II) ion and synthesized ligands in molar ratio of M : L (1 : 1) resulted in the formation of the metal complexes of type [M(L)(H2O)4]Cl (where M = Co(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II)) and of M : L (1 : 2) of type [M(L)2(H2O)2] (where M = Co(II), Cu(II), Ni(II), and Zn(II)). The magnetic moment data suggested for the complexes to have an octahedral geometry around the central metal atom. The electronic spectral data also supported the same octahedral geometry of the complexes. Elemental analyses and NMR spectral data of the ligands and their metal(II) complexes agree with their proposed structures. The synthesized ligands, along with their metal(II) complexes, were screened for their in vitro antibacterial activity against four Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Shigella flexeneri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella typhi) and two Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) bacterial strains and for in vitro antifungal activity against Trichophyton longifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani, and Candida glaberata. The results of these studies show the metal(II) complexes to be more antibacterial/antifungal against one or more species as compared to the uncomplexed ligands. The brine shrimp bioassay was also carried out to study their in vitro cytotoxic properties. Five compounds, (3), (7), (10), (11), and (22), displayed potent cytotoxic activity as LD50 = 8.974 × 10?4, 7.022 × 10?4, 8.839 × 10?4, 7.133 × 10?4, and 9.725 × 10?4 M/mL, respectively, against Artemia salina. PMID:17497020

Chohan, Zahid H.; Arif, M.; Akhtar, Muhammad A.; Supuran, Claudiu T.



Hemolytic activity of dermatophytes species isolated from clinical specimens.  


Hemolytic activity was recently reported for several pathogenic fungal species, such as Aspergillus, Candida, Trichophyton, Penicillium and Fusarium. Based on a number of mechanistic and characterization studies, several fungal hemolysins have been proposed as virulence factors. Hemolysins lyse red blood cells resulting in the release of iron, an important growth factor for microbes especially during infection. The requirement of iron in fungal growth is necessary for metabolic processes and as a catalyst for various biochemical processes. Expression of a hemolytic protein with capabilities to lyse red blood cells has also been suggested to provide a survival strategy for fungi during opportunistic infections. The aims of this study were to investigate the hemolytic activities of dermatophytes species isolated from patients with dermatophytosis. Hair, skin and nail samples of patients were examined with direct microscopy using potassium hydroxide and cultivated on Mycobiotic agar and Sabouraud's dextrose agar. To determine hemolytic activities of dermatophytes species, they were subcultured on Columbia Agar with 5% sheep blood and incubated for 7-14 days at 25°C in aerobic conditions. Media which displayed hemolysis were further incubated for 1-5 days at 37°C to increase hemolytic activity. In this study, 66 dermatophytes strains were isolated from clinical specimens and were identified by six different species: 43 (65.1%) Trichophyton rubrum, 7 (10.7%) Trichophyton mentagrophytes, 5 (7.6%) Microsporum canis, 5 (7.6%) Trichophyton tonsurans, 4 (6.0%) Epidermophyton floccosum and 2 (3.0%) Trichophyton violaceum. Twenty-one T. rubrum strains showed incomplete (alpha) hemolysis and nine T. rubrum strains showed complete (beta) hemolysis, whereas hemolysis was absent in 13 T. rubrum strains. Four T. mentagrophytes strains showed complete hemolysis and three T. tonsurans strains showed incomplete hemolysis. However, M. canis, E. floccosum and T. violaceum species had no hemolytic activity. Hemolytic activity is pronounced in dermatophytes and may play an important role as a virulence factor. Hemolysins produced may play an important role in the balance between the host's cellular immunity and the ability of the fungus to diminish the immune response. PMID:25467819

Aktas, E; Y?g?t, N



Investigation of In Vitro Activity of Five Antifungal Drugs against Dermatophytes Species Isolated from Clinical Samples Using the E-Test Method  

PubMed Central

Objective: Dermatomycosis is an infection with fungi related to the skin: glabrous skin, hair and/or nails. Oral treatment of fungal infections in dermatology has become a preferred modality for the management of these very common conditions. Although there are increasing numbers of antifungals available for treatment of dermatophytes, some cases and relapses have been unresponsive to treatment. The determination of fungus in-vitro antifungal susceptibility has been reported to be important for the ability to eradicate dermatophytes. It is necessary to perform antifungal susceptibility testing of dermatophytes. E-test (AB Biodisk, Sweden) is a rapid, easy-to-perform in-vitro antifungal susceptibility test. The aim of this study was to investigate the susceptibility of the different species of dermatophyte strains isolated clinical specimens to five antifungal agents using the E-test method. Materials and Methods: A total of 66 specimens were collected from the nails, feet, inguinal region, trunk and hands. These strains tested MIC endpoints of E-test for amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, caspofungin, and ketoconazole were read after 72, and 96 hours incubation for each strain on RPMI 1640 agar. Results: The dermatophytes tested included Trichophyton rubrum 43 (65.1%), Trichophyton mentagrophytes 7 (10.7%), Microsporum canis 5 (7.6%), Trichophyton tonsurans 5 (7.6%), Epidermophyton floccosum 4 (6.0%) and Trichophyton violaceum 2 (3.0%). The most active agent against all dermatophytes species was caspofungin with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) range (?g/mL?1) (0.02–3, 0.032–4, 0.125–0.50, 0.032–2, 0.25–0.50, 0.125–0.50) and it raconazole with an MIC range (?g/mL?1) (0.038–1.5, 0.094–1.5, 1–32, 0.016–0.50, 0.25–0.50, 0.125–0.50). The least active agent was fluconazole with an MIC range (?g/mL?1) (0, 19–48, 2–256, 2–8, 256, 256, 8–24). Conclusion: E-test seems to be an alternative method to MIC-determination of antifungal drugs for dermatophytes species, since it is a less-laborious methodology and results could be obtained faster. PMID:25610290

Aktas, Ayse Esin; Yigit, Nimet; Aktas, Akin; Gozubuyuk, Sultan Gamze