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Sample records for microsporum

  1. Case of Onychomycosis Caused by Microsporum racemosum

    PubMed Central

    García-Martos, Pedro; Gené, Josepa; Solé, María; Mira, José; Ruíz-Henestrosa, Ricardo; Guarro, Josep

    1999-01-01

    We report the case of a Spanish 60-year-old female who presented in 1997 with onychomycosis of the left thumbnail following an injury caused by a fresh fish bone. Microsporum racemosum was repeatedly cultured from nail scrapings, and its identity was confirmed by sequencing the isolate’s ITS1/ITS2 and 5.8S rRNA regions. The patient was successfully treated with itraconazole, which was administered for 12 weeks. This represents the first case of onychomycosis due to M. racemosum and the first time that this species has been isolated from a human in Europe. PMID:9854108

  2. Tinea capitis due to Microsporum audouinii in Malta.

    PubMed

    Vella Zahra, L; Vella Briffa, D

    2003-01-01

    We describe a case of tinea capitis in a 4-year-old boy caused by Microsporum audouinii var. langeronii. This is the first recorded case of tinea capitis due to this dermatophyte in the Maltese Islands. PMID:14622396

  3. Secreted Metalloprotease Gene Family of Microsporum canis

    PubMed Central

    Brouta, Frédéric; Descamps, Frédéric; Monod, Michel; Vermout, Sandy; Losson, Bertrand; Mignon, Bernard

    2002-01-01

    Keratinolytic proteases secreted by dermatophytes are likely to be virulence-related factors. Microsporum canis, the main agent of dermatophytosis in dogs and cats, causes a zoonosis that is frequently reported. Using Aspergillus fumigatus metalloprotease genomic sequence (MEP) as a probe, three genes (MEP1, MEP2, and MEP3) were isolated from an M. canis genomic library. They presented a quite-high percentage of identity with both A. fumigatus MEP and Aspergillus oryzae neutral protease I genes. At the amino acid level, they all contained an HEXXH consensus sequence, confirming that these M. canis genes (MEP genes) encode a zinc-containing metalloprotease gene family. Furthermore, MEP3 was found to be the gene encoding a previously isolated M. canis 43.5-kDa keratinolytic metalloprotease, and was successfully expressed as an active recombinant enzyme in Pichia pastoris. Reverse transcriptase nested PCR performed on total RNA extracted from the hair of M. canis-infected guinea pigs showed that at least MEP2 and MEP3 are produced during the infection process. This is the first report describing the isolation of a gene family encoding potential virulence-related factors in dermatophytes. PMID:12228297

  4. Antifungal activity of Lactobacillus against Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jiahui; Brosnan, Brid; Furey, Ambrose; Arendt, Elke; Murphy, Padraigin; Coffey, Aidan

    2012-01-01

    A total of 220 lactic acid bacteria isolates were screened for antifungal activity using Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger as the target strains. Four Lactobacillus strains exhibited strong inhibitory activity on agar surfaces. All four were also identified as having strong inhibitory activity against the human pathogenic fungi Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum. One of the four lactobacilli, namely Lb. reuteri ee1p exhibited the most inhibition against dermatophytes. Cell-free culture supernatants of Lb. reuteri ee1p and of the non-antifungal Lb. reuteri M13 were freeze-dried and used to access and compare antifungal activity in agar plate assays and microtiter plate assays. Addition of the Lb. reuteri ee1p freeze-dried cell-free supernatant powder into the agar medium at concentrations greater than 2% inhibited all fungal colony growth. Addition of the powder at 5% to liquid cultures caused complete inhibition of fungal growth on the basis of turbidity. Freeze-dried supernatant of the non-antifungal Lb. reuteri M13 at the same concentrations had a much lesser effect. As Lb. reuteri M13 is very similar to the antifungal strain ee1p in terms of growth rate and final pH in liquid culture, and as it has little antifungal activity, it is clear that other antifungal compounds must be specifically produced (or produced at higher levels) by the anti-dermatophyte strain Lb. reuteri ee1p. Reuterin was undetectable in all four antifungal strains. The cell free supernatant of Lb. reuteri ee1p was analyzed by LC-FTMS using an Accela LC coupled to an LTQ Orbitrap XL mass spectrometer. The high mass accuracy spectrum produced by compounds in the Lb. reuteri ee1p strain was compared with both a multianalyte chromatogram and individual spectra of standard anti-fungal compounds, which are known to be produced by lactic acid bacteria. Ten antifungal metabolites were detected. PMID:22539027

  5. [Atypical infections with microsporum canis after stay in Tunisia (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Weiss, J; Kuhlwein, A

    1981-05-01

    A case of infection with Microsporum canis in a German couple which came into contact with cats during holidays in Tunisia is recorded. Atypical clinical features rare localization and the importance of tourism concerning the spread of infections due to Microsporum canis are discussed. PMID:7245825

  6. Primary invasive cutaneous Microsporum canis infections in immunocompromised patients.

    PubMed Central

    King, D; Cheever, L W; Hood, A; Horn, T D; Rinaldi, M G; Merz, W G

    1996-01-01

    Two cases of primary invasive cutaneous infections caused by the zoophilic dermatophytic species Microsporum canis are presented. The first case occurred in a liver transplant recipient who was receiving immunosuppressive therapy. Multiple erythematous papules were seen on both legs, and a biopsy revealed invasive fungal hyphae. The second case was diagnosed in a human immunodeficiency virus-positive individual with a CD4 lymphocyte count of 81 mm3. Raised red nodules were seen on her scalp and face. Histopathology was consistent with bacillary angiomatosis, and in addition, invasive septate hyphae were observed. The two strains recovered from the biopsy specimens from both individuals had colony morphologies consistent with that of M. canis, but it was difficult to induce production of macroconidia. These cases serve to increase the awareness of this unusual infection, reinforce the need for cultures, and raise some interesting questions about the potential virulence of this dermatophyte species. PMID:8789040

  7. Dermatophytosis caused by Microsporum canis and Microsporum gypseum in free-living Bradypus variegatus (Schiz, 1825) in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Xavier, Gileno Antônio Araújo; da Silva, Leonildo Bento Galiza; da Silva, Davi Rubem; de Moraes Peixoto, Rodolfo; Lino, Gileno Câmara; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido

    2008-07-01

    Three cases of dermatophytosis in free living brown-throated three-toed sloths (Bradypus variegatus) in the Zona da Mata, North of Pernambuco State, Brazil, were studied. Two animals presented areas of alopecia on the pelvic member and thorax and one animal on the pelvic member only. The three animals presented scabs. Hair and scabs samples were submitted to microscopical examination after treatment with a 30 % KOH and cultivated in Mycosel Agar. The direct examination indicated the presence of arthrospores in the hair. Colonies grown after seven days of culture were confirmed as Microsporum based on examination of the structure of the macroconidia. This is the first observation of dermatophytosis caused by Microsporum canis and Microsporum gypseum in free living sloths in the State of Pernambuco. PMID:24031255

  8. Dermatophytosis caused by Microsporum canis and Microsporum gypseum in free-living Bradypus variegatus (Schiz, 1825) in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Xavier, Gileno Antônio Araújo; da Silva, Leonildo Bento Galiza; da Silva, Davi Rubem; de Moraes Peixoto, Rodolfo; Lino, Gileno Câmara; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido

    2008-01-01

    Three cases of dermatophytosis in free living brown-throated three-toed sloths (Bradypus variegatus) in the Zona da Mata, North of Pernambuco State, Brazil, were studied. Two animals presented areas of alopecia on the pelvic member and thorax and one animal on the pelvic member only. The three animals presented scabs. Hair and scabs samples were submitted to microscopical examination after treatment with a 30 % KOH and cultivated in Mycosel Agar. The direct examination indicated the presence of arthrospores in the hair. Colonies grown after seven days of culture were confirmed as Microsporum based on examination of the structure of the macroconidia. This is the first observation of dermatophytosis caused by Microsporum canis and Microsporum gypseum in free living sloths in the State of Pernambuco. PMID:24031255

  9. The Use of Ozonized Oil in the Treatment of Dermatophitosis Caused by Microsporum Canis in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Daud, Fernanda Vasquez; Ueda, Suely Mitoi Ykko; Navarini, Alessandra; Mímica, Lycia Mara Jenné

    2011-01-01

    The ozone is effective against most microorganisms due to its high oxidant power. Low concentrations and short-term contact are sufficient to inactivate bacteria, mold, yeast, parasites, seaweeds, protozoa and fungi. Microsporum canis is an important agent of dermatophitosis in human and animal. The aim of the current study was to assess the efficacy of ozonized oil over Microsporum canis in rabbits. Eighteen male New Zealand white rabbits, weight ranging from 2 to 3.2 kg were depilated in the cranial dorso-lateral and right caudal, and cranial and left caudal regions. The regions were inoculated with Microsporum canis, excepting the right caudal region, and were denominated TM, O, OM and M, respectively. After seven days, the treatment of lesions in TM began with 0.12g of terbinaphine 1% cream; in OM and O with 0.12g of ozonized oil; all animals were treated once a day for 28 days. Region M was not treated. Material was collected from those regions for cultivation in Sabouraud agar at day 28 of treatment. In the evolution of the treatment with terbinaphine, of 14 contaminated regions with Microsporum canis ten evolved to cure. With the ozonized oil, of 15 contaminations, four were cured. Clinically, that is, the macroscopic evaluation of lesions showed improvement in the TM and OM treated regions. We can conclude that there was statistical evidence of the protection action of the oil against the dermatophyte. PMID:24031632

  10. Case report: disseminated dermatophytosis by microsporum gypseum in a systemic lupus erythematosus patient

    PubMed Central

    Macêdo, Danielle Patrícia Cerqueira; Neves, Rejane Pereira; Lopes, Flávia Cadengue

    2008-01-01

    Mycosis is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and frequent exposition to an infectious source could enhance the development of dermatophytic infections. A case of disseminated dermatophytosis by Microsporum gypseum is reported in a systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patient. PMID:24031171

  11. Tinea Corporis, Caused by Microsporum Canis - a Case Report From Kosovo

    PubMed Central

    Kokollari, Fatime; Daka, Aferdita; Blyta, Ymrane; Ismajli, Fellanza; Haxhijaha-Lulaj, Kujtesa

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Tinea corporis (B35.6) caused by Microsporum canis which is fungal species that causes numerous forms of disease. It is part of a group of fungi known as Dermatophytes. Though mostly well known for ringworm in pets, it is also known to infect humans. This fact makes this pathogen both anthrophilic and zoophilic in nature. Microsporum canis is a communicable pathogen. Case report: We will report about a case, 22-year-old female, residing in a village, with typical changes of a mycotic infection caused by M. Canis. Dermatological description can be summarized with polymorphic erythematous, papulosquamous changes, erosions mainly on genital organ and spread to the thighs and lower abdomen which are accompanied with itching and burning. Diagnosis B35.6 was determined on the basis of clinical appearance complemented with anamnesis, microscopic examination and culture. The patient was treated successfully with general and local antimycotics and antibiotics. PMID:26622092

  12. Microsporum aenigmaticum sp. nov. from M. gypseum complex, isolated as a cause of tinea corporis.

    PubMed

    Hubka, Vit; Dobiašova, Stanislava; Dobiaš, Radim; Kolařik, Miroslav

    2014-05-01

    An undescribed Microsporum species was isolated from skin scales recovered from a 40-mm large, annular, scaling lesion on the wrist of a 46-year-old woman. The risk factors for dermatophyte infection in the patient were frequent work in the garden, hunting, and contact with dogs and horses. Direct microscopic examination of the scales revealed the presence of dermatophyte hyphae; when the samples were cultured, a morphologically similar fungus grew on all slants in pure culture. Both of these findings strongly suggested that the isolate was the true causal agent of infection. The possible geophilic nature of the species was based on phylogenetic analysis (internal transcribed spacer region of rDNA and β-tubulin gene) that placed it in between species of the M. gypseum complex. However, its divergencies from all other Microsporum species exceeded 4% base pairs. Based on β-tubulin phylogeny, the isolated species is a sister to M. gypseum. The species produces abundant chlamydospores and clumps of hyphae similar to those of ascomatal primordia but no conidia and ascospores. The species was unable to grow at 37°C and does not grow on T6 basal medium, which is unlike other Microsporum species; hair perforation and urease tests were positive. The addition of histidine to the T6 medium resulted in rapid growth of the fungus. The phylogenetic evidence, morphology, growth parameters, and physiology justified the proposal that the isolate is a new species, M. aenigmaticum, sp. nov. PMID:24625678

  13. Dermatophytosis due to Microsporum persicolor: a retrospective study of 16 cases.

    PubMed

    Muller, Arnaud; Guaguère, Eric; Degorce-Rubiales, Frédérique; Bourdoiseau, Gilles

    2011-04-01

    A retrospective study of 16 cases of dermatophytosis due to Microsporum persicolor in dogs is reported. Hunting dogs were overrepresented (12/16). Skin lesions were observed on the face in all cases, but also on other locations (limbs, neck). The lesions included alopecia (15/16), erythema (13/16), scales (14/16), and crusts (13/16). Histopathology was performed in 10 cases and showed folliculitis and a lichenoid interface dermatitis. Fungal culture was positive in all cases and clinical resolution was achieved with standard antifungal agents (enilconazole, ketoconazole, griseofulvin). Two recurrences were observed (new contacts with rodents). PMID:21731090

  14. Population structure and evolutionary origins of Microsporum canis, M. ferrugineum and M. audouinii.

    PubMed

    Kaszubiak, A; Klein, S; de Hoog, G S; Gräser, Y

    2004-09-01

    The recurrent evolutionary emergence of asexual lineages within sexual zoo- and anthropophilic dermatophyte species living in animal-frequented soil is likely to be triggered by changes in ecological niche, i.e., shifts of host animal. Subsequent adaptation to the new host species is noted. Sometimes geographic isolation or intrinsic host factors like human race may also play a role in speciation. In the present study, we elaborate concepts of speciation in dermatophytes using the Microsporum canis complex as an example. The group consists of a cluster of phylogenetically closely related anamorphs: the anthropophilic taxa Microsporum audouinii and M. ferrugineum, and the zoophilic taxon M. canis. The sexually reproducing species underlying this complex is Arthroderma otae. The study is done by an analysis of the population structure of about 200 isolates and using intergenic spacers, non-translated regions of genes as well as hypervariable microsatellite markers that are known to evolve at high mutation rates. The results suggest that sympatric speciation took place already during the period where mating ability was maintained and thus that strictly clonal fungal species emerged in Africa and led to genetically isolated clonal species elsewhere. PMID:15450196

  15. Dermatophytosis due to Microsporum incurvatum: Notification and Identification of a Neglected Pathogenic Species.

    PubMed

    Rezaei-Matehkolaei, Ali; Makimura, Koichi; Graser, Yvonne; Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba; Abastabar, Mahdi; Rafiei, Abdollah; Zhan, Ping; Ronagh, Ali; Jafarpour, Sima

    2016-02-01

    A 4-year-old Iranian boy developed erythematous, itchy and annular lesion on his face. Microscopic examination of the scraped samples with 10 % potassium hydroxide (KOH) revealed fungal septate hyphae and arthroconidia. The etiological agent was found to be Microsporum gypseum in mycological examinations. Amplification and restriction digestion of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of rDNA was not helpful for identification, but in ITS sequencing the isolate showed 98 % homology to Microsporum incurvatum strain CBS 172.64. Empirical treatment of the patient with griseofulvin for 4 weeks was successful. Other than our isolate, the ITS1 sequences of 38 strains from related species were retrieved from GenBank and phylogenetic tree using maximum likelihood method was constructed. The case isolate clustered apart from other strains of M. incurvatum. Pairwise comparison of ITS1 showed intraspecies variations of 0-13 nucleotides among M. incurvatum strains and an extensive interspecies variation of 33-80 bp and remarkable interspecies size polymorphism between the three sister species in the M. gypseum complex. The high level of ITS1 intraspecific variation is suitable for species identification rather than phylogeographic analysis of M. gypseum complex. PMID:26386581

  16. Disseminated dermatophytosis caused by Microsporum gypseum in an AIDS patient: response to terbinafine and amorolfine.

    PubMed

    Galhardo, M C G; Wanke, B; Reis, R S; Oliveira, L A; Valle, A C F

    2004-06-01

    A 51-year-old white male, native of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with advanced AIDS and in chronic use of imidazoles for oral candidosis, presented erythematous, desquamative, pruriginous plaques of 1 month evolution on the trunk, inguinal/crural region, and lower limbs. The diagnosis of dermatophytosis was based on the isolation of Microsporum gypseum from scales scraped from the skin lesions. The lesions regressed after 30 days treatment with itraconazole, 100 mg day(-1). After interruption of this antifungal, the mycosis recurred 2 months later, along with a toe onychomycosis also caused by M. gypseum. Attempted reintroduction of itraconazole at higher dose was unsuccessful. Patient responded well to treatment with terbinafine 250 mg day(-1) for 45 days. However, the medication had to be interrupted as a result of the emergence of a disseminated erythematous/papulous rash. Topical treatment with amorolfine cream was then performed, with a good clinical and mycological response. PMID:15189192

  17. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle (CITRONELLA) AGAINST Microsporum canis FROM ANIMALS AND HOME ENVIRONMENT.

    PubMed

    Capoci, Isis Regina Grenier; Cunha, Michele Milano da; Bonfim-Mendonça, Patricia de Souza; Ghiraldi-Lopes, Luciana Dias; Baeza, Lilian Cristiane; Kioshima, Erika Seki; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivalet

    2015-12-01

    Dermatophytosis is a common zoonosis in urban centers. Dogs and cats have played an important role as its disseminators. Environmental decontamination is essential for the prevention of its propagation to humans and animals. However, sanitizers or disinfectants with antifungal activity, currently available, have high toxicity. The present study evaluated the in vitro effects of an extract of citronella (Cymbopogon nardus) on 31 Microsporum canis isolates from animals and home environments. Susceptibility tests were performed based on document M38-A2 (2008) of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute with modifications for natural products. Although susceptibility variation was observed between the fungus tested, the concentrations that inhibited the growth of 50 and 90% of the microorganisms were low (19.5 and 78 µg/mL, respectively). Thus, this citronella extract showed potent fungistatic and fungicide activities against M. canis isolated from animals and home environments. Therefore, it could be an alternative for dermatophytosis prophylaxis in the home environment. PMID:27049705

  18. Extracellular protease expression in Microsporum gypseum complex, its regulation and keratinolytic potential.

    PubMed

    Singh, C J

    2011-07-01

    Two soil isolates of Microsporum gypseum were studied for the production of extracellular proteases. Both the strains secreted protease on glucose-gelatin medium. The enzyme activity peaked on day 15 at 28 °C. Asparagine repressed protease yield. Sugars caused catabolite repression of protease formation. Protease activities of both the isolates were significantly affected by incubation period, culture media and carbohydrates used. Both the strains grew on the skin bait and caused a gravimetrically measurable loss of the substrate. Despite less pronounced differences in the keratinase levels, great variations occurred in the amount of keratin degraded by two isolates. Keratinase production as well as loss in substrate mass was better in glucose-lacking flasks than those containing the sugar. Although the rate of keratin degradation was independent of enzyme production, statistically positive correlations were recorded between loss in substrate mass: yielded dry mycelial weight and substrate degradation: keratinase levels. PMID:20946260

  19. Microsporum fulvum IBRL SD3: as novel isolate for chicken feathers degradation.

    PubMed

    Darah, I; Nur-Diyana, A; Nurul-Husna, S; Jain, K; Lim, Sheh-Hong

    2013-12-01

    Keratinous wastes have increasingly become a problem and accumulate in the environment mainly in the form of feathers, generated mainly from a large number of poultry industries. As keratins are very difficult to degrade by general proteases, they pose a major environmental problem. Therefore, microorganisms which would effectively degrade keratins are needed for recycling such wastes. A geophilic dermatophyte, Microsporum fulvum IBRL SD3 which was isolated from a soil sample collected from a chicken feather dumping site using a baiting technique, was capable to produce keratinase significantly. The crude keratinase was able to degrade whole chicken feathers effectively. The end product of the degradation was protein that contained essential amino acids and may have potential application in animal feed production. Thus, M. fulvum could be a novel organism to produce keratinase for chicken feathers degradation. PMID:24013862

  20. A one-year survey of Microsporum audouinii infections in Belgium: epidemiological and genotypic characterization.

    PubMed

    Sacheli, R; Adjetey, C; Darfouf, R; Harag, S; Huynen, P; Meex, C; Descy, J; Melin, P; Arrese, J; Hayette, M-P

    2016-03-01

    During recent years the proportion of tinea capitis infections due to Microsporum audouinii has increased in both Belgium and other European countries. To better understand the emergence of this species, the Belgian National Reference Centre for dermatophytes launched an epidemiological survey on the main anthropophilic dermatophytes causing tinea capitis in Belgium and included the genomic characterization of M. audouinii isolates. In total, 116 strains of M. audouinii were confirmed and characterized by the DiversiLab(®) system (bioMérieux). Six genotypic variants were identified, among which one major group included 90 isolates and the reference strain. Another variant group (11 strains) was exclusively confined to a geographical region in south Belgium. Analysis of epidemiological characteristics of the infected population showed that the main age category was 5- to 9-year-old children with a sex ratio (male/female) of 1.97. Data concerning the geographic origin of the family revealed a majority of Belgian nationality (44.7%), suggesting that the infection originated in Belgium. Other nationalities were primarily African. At this time, no clear correlation has been established between one particular strain and a specific country of origin. PMID:26686810

  1. Genetic variability in Microsporum canis isolated from cats, dogs and humans in Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Fernanda V A; Farias, Marconi R; Bier, Daniele; de Andrade, Caroline P; de Castro, Luiza A; da Silva, Sérgio C; Ferreiro, Laerte

    2013-09-01

    Dermatophytosis caused by Microsporum canis is a heterogeneous disease with variable clinical manifestations. M. canis is a zoophilic dermatophyte and the most frequent fungi isolated from dogs, cats and children in Brazil. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic variability of M. canis isolates from different animal species using two microsatellite markers, namely, McGT(13) and McGT(17), and to correlate the results with the clinical and epidemiological patient data in Brazil. The study included a global set of 102 M. canis strains, including 37 symptomatic cats, 35 asymptomatic cats, 19 human patients with tinea, 9 asymptomatic dogs and 2 symptomatic dogs. A total of 14 genotypes were identified, and 6 large populations were distinguished. There was no correlation between these multilocus genotypes and the clinical and epidemiological data, including the source, symptomatology, clinical picture, breed, age, sex, living conditions and geographic location. These results demonstrate that the use of microsatellite polymorphisms is a reliable method for the differentiation of M. canis strains. However, we were unable to demonstrate a shared clinical and epidemiological pattern among the same genotype samples. PMID:23551796

  2. Cat favus caused by Microsporum incurvatum comb. nov.: the clinical and histopathological features and molecular phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Sun, Pei-Lun; Mu, Chao-An; Fan, Chi-Chen; Fan, Yun-Chen; Hu, Jer-Ming; Ju, Yu-Ming

    2014-04-01

    Favus is a distinctive form of infection that is caused by exclusively dermatophytes. Its clinical presentation is characterized by scutula, which are concave, thick fungal crusts. The best-known examples of human scalp favus are caused by Trichophyton schoenleinii and those of mouse favus are caused by T. quinckeanum. However, other dermatophytes, such as T. violaceum, T. verrucosum, Microsporum audouinii, M. gallinae, M. gypseum, and M. canis, have been reported sporadically to cause favic lesions. Favus on cats has rarely been mentioned in the literature, and the pathogens with which it has been associated are, for the most part, unknown. Here, we examine four cat favus cases, focusing on clinical presentations and histopathological features. In all cases the etiologic agent was identified as M. incurvatum based on its morphological characteristics and sequences of internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Phylogenetic analysis using the neighbor-joining method, which is based on ITS, showed that these four isolates belonged to two strains of M. incurvatum; one strain was a new combination from the basionym Nannizzia incurvata. PMID:24625676

  3. Low voltage scanning electron microscopy study of naftifine activity on Microsporum canis.

    PubMed

    Butty, P; Gorenflot, A; Mallié, M; Bastide, J M

    1992-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is at present considered a good way to observe the morphological alterations induced by an antifungal on pathogenic fungi. Owing to its high precision, low voltage scanning electron microscopy (LVSEM) improves the quality of observations. The Microsporum canis morphology alterations induced by naftifine at a concentration of 0.9 microgram ml-1 (10 times the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for 7 days were studied in LVSEM. The young lateral ramifications and the aborted buds take on a granulous aspect. These granulations can be localized as brassard shapes around hyphae. The mycelial filaments often appear irregularly swollen with bulbous tips. Macroconidia are selectively covered with a microfibrillar network. In addition, LVSEM on control samples reveals pavimentous angular structures on the macroconidial surface and fine granulations on the filament surface of M. canis unknown until now. A cytological study with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of filaments altered by naftifine permitted us to observe the disorganization of cell wall fibrillar structure, an excessive plasma membrane undulation and an intracytoplasmic accumulation of large vesicles with probably lipidic contents. PMID:1302809

  4. Outbreak of Microsporum audouinii in Munich--the return of infectious fungi in Germany.

    PubMed

    Zink, Alexander; Papanagiotou, Vasileios; Todorova, Antonia; Seidl, Hans-Peter; Niedermeier, Andrea; Ring, Johannes; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia

    2014-12-01

    After experiencing an unusually high number of Microsporum (M.) audouinii infections at our hospital within only a few weeks, we began to investigate and control an outbreak in Munich, Germany. Main goals of our health management were to treat infected persons, identify extent and form of transmission and to prevent new infections. We analysed data from structured interviews with patients and mycological cultures of swabs taken of patients and investigated involved public facilities. Outbreak management included antifungal treatment of patients, decontamination of affected facilities, the introduction of a temporary kindergarten ban for M. audouinii positive children and the organisation of educational meetings. Between March and August 2011, 16 children and 4 adults were identified with M. audouinii infections. The fungus was brought to Munich by the index patients from a family vacation in Africa and then spread to fellow children in kindergarten and subsequently to their families. All patients were treated successfully and the epidemic was declared ceased after 40 weeks but causing considerable financial damage. Due to travelling and migration, M. audouinii infections will rise in Germany and Europe. Sufficient and sustainable strategies are needed for the management of future outbreaks of highly contagious fungi. PMID:25175409

  5. Respiratory Chain of a Pathogenic Fungus, Microsporum gypseum: Effect of the Antifungal Agent Pyrrolnitrin

    PubMed Central

    Wong, David T.; Horng, Jong-Sin; Gordee, Robert S.

    1971-01-01

    Pyrrolnitrin has been reported to inhibit Bacillus megaterium primarily by forming complexes with phospholipids and to block electron transfer of Saccharomyces cerevisiae between succinate or reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and coenzyme Q. We found that pyrrolnitrin inhibited respiration of conidia of Microsporum gypseum. In mitochondrial preparations, pyrrolnitrin strongly inhibited respiration and the rotenone-sensitive NADH-cytochrome c reductase. The rotenone-insensitive NADH-cytochrome c reductase, the succinate-cytochrome c reductase, and the reduction of dichlorophenolindophenol by either NADH or succinate were inhibited to a lesser extent. However, the activity of cytochrome oxidase was not affected by pyrrolnitrin. The extent of reduction of flavoproteins by NADH and succinate, measured at 465 - 510 nm, was unaltered; however, the reduction of cytochrome b, measured at 560 - 575 nm, was partially inhibited by pyrrolnitrin. The level of totally reduced cytochrome b was restored with antimycin A. We, therefore, concluded that the primary site of action of this antifungal antibiotic is to block electron transfer between the flavoprotein of the NADH-dehydrogenase and cytochrome b segment of the respiratory chain of M. gypseum. PMID:4323963

  6. Management of endemic Microsporum canis dermatophytosis in an open admission shelter: a field study.

    PubMed

    Newbury, Sandra; Moriello, Karen; Coyner, Kimberly; Trimmer, Ann; Kunder, Darcie

    2015-04-01

    Endemic Microsporum canis dermatophytosis was identified in a large, open admission, private, no-kill shelter that admitted >1200 cats per year. Fungal culture (FC) screening revealed that 166/210 (79%) and 38/99 (38%) cats in the non-public and public area were culture positive, respectively. However, pending screening FC results, the 99 cats in the public area were treated with once-weekly lime sulfur rinses and monitored with once-weekly FC. Cats in the non-public area were not treated. When FC results were available, cats were separated into low-risk (n = 61) and high-risk (n = 38) groups based upon the presence or absence of skin lesions. Low-risk cats continued to receive once-weekly topical lime sulfur and rapidly achieved culture-negative status. High-risk cats were divided into two groups based upon the number of colony-forming units/plate (low or high). All 38 cats were treated with twice-weekly lime sulfur and oral terbinafine and within 6-7 weeks only 5/38 cats were still FC-positive. These cats were moved to a separate room. Dermatophytosis was eradicated within 5 months; eradication was prolonged owing to reintroduction of disease into the remaining room of cats under treatment from three kittens returning from foster care. Continued admissions and adoptions were possible by the institution of intake procedures that specifically included careful Wood's lamp examination to identify high-risk cats and use of a 'clean break strategy'. PMID:25074567

  7. Efficacy of eight commercial formulations of lime sulphur on in vitro growth inhibition of Microsporum canis.

    PubMed

    Diesel, Alison; Verbrugge, Maria; Moriello, Karen A

    2011-04-01

    Lime sulphur is a common topical treatment for dermatophytosis in animals. Until recently, a single veterinary lime sulphur formulation was available. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of eight lime sulphur products for in vitro growth inhibition of Microsporum canis using the isolated infected spore model. Infective M. canis spores were isolated from hairs collected from untreated cats. Hairs were macerated in Triton-X solution and isolated according to a previously published protocol. Equal volumes of spore suspension and lime sulphur solutions were incubated for 5 min and plated onto modified BBL™ Mycosel™ agar (Becton, Dickinson and Company; Sparks, MD, USA) plates. Five plates were inoculated for each sample solution. Distilled water and bleach were used as controls. Colony forming units were counted daily for 21 days; positive control plates contained >300 colony forming units/plate. Seven of the products were supplied as concentrates and they were tested at the manufacturer's recommended dilution, twice label concentration and half label concentration. A prediluted product SulfaDip(®) (Trask Research, Inc.; Daluca, GA, USA) was tested at the label and half label concentration. All veterinary products formed recommended treatment dilutions of 3% sulphurated lime solution except one (LymDyp(®), IVX Animal Health Inc.; St Joseph, MO, USA), which formed a 2.4% sulphurated lime solution. Results of the study showed complete growth inhibition of M. canis spores by all products at all dilutions tested. These results indicate that all tested lime sulphur-containing products were equivalent. Field studies are needed to test product equivalency in vivo. PMID:20868396

  8. Digital Gene Expression Analysis of Microsporum canis Exposed to Berberine Chloride

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Chen-Wen; Ji, Quan-An; Wei, Qiang; Liu, Yan; Pan, Li-Jun; Bao, Guo-Lian

    2015-01-01

    Berberine, a natural isoquinoline alkaloid of many medicinal herbs, has an active function against a variety of microbial infections including Microsporum canis (M. canis). However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. To study the effect of berberine chloride on M. canis infection, a Digital Gene Expression (DGE) tag profiling was constructed and a transcriptome analysis of the M. canis cellular responses upon berberine treatment was performed. Illimina/Hisseq sequencing technique was used to generate the data of gene expression profile, and the following enrichment analysis of Gene Ontology (GO) and Pathway function were conducted based on the data of transcriptome. The results of DGE showed that there were 8476945, 14256722, 7708575, 5669955, 6565513 and 9303468 tags respectively, which was obtained from M. canis incubated with berberine or control DMSO. 8,783 genes were totally mapped, and 1,890 genes have shown significant changes between the two groups. 1,030 genes were up-regulated and 860 genes were down-regulated (P<0.05) in berberine treated group compared to the control group. Besides, twenty-three GO terms were identified by Gene Ontology functional enrichment analysis, such as calcium-transporting ATPase activity, 2-oxoglutarate metabolic process, valine catabolic process, peroxisome and unfolded protein binding. Pathway significant enrichment analysis indicated 6 signaling pathways that are significant, including steroid biosynthesis, steroid hormone biosynthesis, Parkinson’s disease, 2,4-Dichlorobenzoate degradation, and tropane, piperidine and Isoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis. Among these, eleven selected genes were further verified by qRT-PCR. Our findings provide a comprehensive view on the gene expression profile of M. canis upon berberine treatment, and shed light on its complicated effects on M. canis. PMID:25874937

  9. A virulent genotype of Microsporum canis is responsible for the majority of human infections.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rahul; de Hoog, S; Presber, Wolfgang; Gräser, Yvonne

    2007-10-01

    The zoophilic dermatophyte species Microsporum canis belongs to the Arthroderma otae complex and is known to mate with tester strains of that teleomorph species, at least in the laboratory. Human infections are likely to be acquired from the fur of cats, dogs and horses. Epidemiological studies to reveal sources and routes of infection have been hampered by a lack of polymorphic molecular markers. Human cases mainly concern moderately inflammatory tinea corporis and tinea capitis, but, as cases of highly inflammatory ringworm are also observed, the question arises as to whether all lineages of M. canis are equally virulent to humans. In this study, two microsatellite markers were developed and used to analyse a global set of 101 M. canis strains to reveal patterns of genetic variation and dispersal. Using a Bayesian and a distance approach for structuring the M. canis samples, three populations could be distinguished, with evidence of recombination in one of them (III). This population contained 44 % of the animal isolates and only 9 % of the human strains. Population I, with strictly clonal reproduction (comprising a single multilocus genotype), contained 74 % of the global collection of strains from humans, but only 23 % of the animal strains. From these findings, it was concluded that population differentiation in M. canis is not allopatric, but rather is due to the emergence of a (virulent) genotype that has a high potential to infect the human host. Adaptation of genotypes resulting in a particular clinical manifestation was not evident. Furthermore, isolates from horses did not show a monophyletic clustering. PMID:17893177

  10. The Microsporum canis genome is organized into five chromosomes based on evidence from electrophoretic karyotyping and chromosome end mapping.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Luciene M; Cursino-Santos, Jeny R; Persinoti, Gabriela F; Rossi, Antonio; Martinez-Rossi, Nilce M

    2013-02-01

    The karyotype of Microsporum canis was analyzed by contoured-clamped homogeneous electric field (CHEF) gel electrophoresis. Four chromosomal bands that correspond to five chromosomes ranging from 3.0-6.2 Mb were identified, adding the total genome size to approximately 24.9 Mb. To confirm the number of chromosomes in M. canis, the number of telomeres was assessed by using a telomeric probe (TTAGGG)(4) in Southern blot analyses of digested genomic DNA. Treatment of M. canis DNA with Bal31 exonuclease revealed progressive shortening of the DNA fragments positive for the (TTAGGG)(4) sequence, supporting location of repeats at the chromosome ends. These results can aid in improving the understanding of the genetic characterization of M. canis and the molecular epidemiology of dermatophytoses caused by this fungus. PMID:22852750

  11. [Synergy between ajoene and ketoconazole in isolates of Microsporum canis. A preliminary study using fractional inhibitory concentration technique (FIC)].

    PubMed

    Ledezma, Eliades; Maniscalchi, Maria Teresa; Espinoza, Druvic Lemus

    2008-09-30

    Fungal infections are probably the most frequent infectious diseases affecting human being. Resistance to different anti-fungal drugs, and their bioavailability in the infection site, represent a problem for treatment. Looking for effective solutions, combination of two or more antifungal drugs to obtain an additive effect or synergic effect that potent antifungal activity has been investigated. In this study, the effect (additive, antagonist or synergistic) of ajoene and ketoconazole combination was evaluated in the growth and proliferation of filamentous fungi. Interactions in vitro were investigated in three isolates of Microsporum canis through a preliminary study using micro dilution, according to recommendations of NCCLS M-38A, with several modifications. Results obtained for CIF of each isolates studied (CIF = 0.18 0.36 microM), demonstrate that exists a very potent synergistic effect, when they are combined, and it represents a hope for future clinic trials to treat resilient fungal infections caused by M. canis. PMID:18785785

  12. A Multi-Target Approach toward the Development of Novel Candidates for Antidermatophytic Activity: Ultrastructural Evidence on α-Bisabolol-Treated Microsporum gypseum.

    PubMed

    Romagnoli, Carlo; Baldisserotto, Anna; Malisardi, Gemma; Vicentini, Chiara B; Mares, Donatella; Andreotti, Elisa; Vertuani, Silvia; Manfredini, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Multi-target strategies are directed toward targets that are unrelated (or distantly related) and can create opportunities to address different pathologies. The antidermatophytic activities of nine natural skin lighteners: α-bisabolol, kojic acid, β-arbutin, azelaic acid, hydroquinone, nicotinamide, glycine, glutathione and ascorbyl tetraisopalmitate, were evaluated, in comparison with the known antifungal drug fluconazole, on nine dermatophytes responsible for the most common dermatomycoses: Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton violaceum, Nannizzia cajetani, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum, Arthroderma gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton tonsurans. α-Bisabolol showed the best antifungal activity against all fungi and in particular; against M. gypseum. Further investigations were conducted on this fungus to evaluate the inhibition of spore germination and morphological changes induced by α-bisabolol by TEM. PMID:26132903

  13. In vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of some essential oils against feline isolates of Microsporum canis.

    PubMed

    Mugnaini, L; Nardoni, S; Pinto, L; Pistelli, L; Leonardi, M; Pisseri, F; Mancianti, F

    2012-06-01

    The treatment of dermatophytoses due to Microsporum canis is cumbersome and relapses can occur. Volatile essential oils (EOs) obtained from plants would seem to represent suitable tools to contrast mycoses both in human and animals. The anti-M. canis activity of some EOs chemically characterized was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. Eleven feline isolates of M. canis were tested by microdilution against EOs extracted from Thymus serpillum, Origanum vulgare, Rosmarinus officinalis, Illicium verum and Citrus limon. A mixture composed by 5% O. vulgare, 5% R. officinalis and 2% T. serpillum, in sweet almond oil was administered to seven infected, symptomatic cats. T. serpillum and O. vulgare showed the lowest MICs, followed by I. verum, R. officinalis and C. limon. The assay performed on mixture showed that antimycotic activity of each component was enhanced. Four out of seven treated cats recovered both clinically and culturally. T. serpillum and O. vulgare EOs showed a strong antifungal activity. Preliminary data suggest a possible application in managing feline microsporiasis. Considering the potential zoonotic impact of this infection, the use of alternative antimycotic compounds would be of aid to limit the risk of environmental spreading of arthrospores. PMID:23518021

  14. GMI, an Immunomodulatory Protein from Ganoderma microsporum, Potentiates Cisplatin-Induced Apoptosis via Autophagy in Lung Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Hsin, I-Lun; Ou, Chu-Chyn; Wu, Ming-Fang; Jan, Ming-Shiou; Hsiao, Yi-Min; Lin, Ching-Hsiung; Ko, Jiunn-Liang

    2015-05-01

    Cisplatin-based therapy is common in the treatment of several types of cancers, including lung cancers. In our previous study, GMI, an immunomodulatory protein cloned from Ganoderma microsporum, induced a cytotoxic effect in lung cancer cells via autophagy. The aim of this study is to examine the role of GMI in enhancing cisplatin-mediated cell death. On the basis of MTT assay and Combination Index, GMI and cisplatin cotreatment induced a synergistic cytotoxic effect. GMI and cisplatin-induced apoptosis was determined by sub-G1, nuclear condensation, and annexin-V/propidium iodide analyses. On Western blot, expressions of γH2AX and cleaved forms of PARP, caspase-3, and caspase-7 were induced by combined treatment. Akt/mTOR pathway activity, LC3-II expression, and acidic vesicular organelle development demonstrated that cisplatin does not abolish GMI-mediated autophagy. Cyto-ID Green/hoechst 33342 double staining and time-dependent experiment indicated that GMI and cisplatin-treated A549 cells simultaneously express autophagosomes and apoptotic nuclei. To elucidate the role of autophagy in inducing apoptosis by GMI and cisplatin, chemical inhibitors and LC3 shRNA were used to inhibit autophagy. The results showed that 3-methyladenine decreases, while chloroquine increases GMI and cisplatin cotreatment-induced cleavage of caspase-7 and PARP. LC3 silencing abolished activation of apoptosis in A549 cells. Caspase inhibitors and caspase-7 silencing mitigated GMI and cisplatin-elicited cell viability inhibition and apoptosis. This is the first study to reveal the novel function of GMI in potentiating cisplatin-mediated apoptosis. GMI and cisplatin induce apoptosis via autophagy/caspase-7-dependent and survivin- and ERCC1-independent pathway. GMI may be a potential cisplatin adjuvant against lung cancer. PMID:25811903

  15. Susceptibility of Microsporum canis arthrospores to a mixture of chemically defined essential oils: a perspective for environmental decontamination.

    PubMed

    Nardoni, Simona; Tortorano, Annamaria; Mugnaini, Linda; Profili, Greta; Pistelli, Luisa; Giovanelli, Silvia; Pisseri, Francesca; Papini, Roberto; Mancianti, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    The zoophilic dermatophyte Microsporum canis has cats as natural reservoir, but it is able to infect a wide range of hosts, including humans, where different clinical features of the so-called ringworm dermatophytosis have been described. Human infections are increasingly been reported in Mediterranean countries. A reliable control program against M. canis infection in cats should include an antifungal treatment of both the infected animals and their living environment. In this article, a herbal mixture composed of chemically defined essential oils (EOs) of Litsea cubeba (1%), Illicium verum, Foeniculum vulgare, and Pelargonium graveolens (0.5% each) was formulated and its antifungal activity assessed against M. canis arthrospores which represent the infective environmental stage of M. canis. Single compounds present in higher amounts in the mixture were also separately tested in vitro. Litsea cubeba and P. graveolens EOs were most effective (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 0.5%), followed by EOs of I. verum (MIC 2%) and F. vulgare (MIC 2.5%). Minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC) values were 0.75% (L. cubeba), 1.5% (P. graveolens), 2.5% (I. verum) and 3% (F. vulgare). MIC and MFC values of the mixture were 0.25% and 0.5%, respectively. The daily spray of the mixture (200 μL) directly onto infected hairs inhibited fungal growth from the fourth day onwards. The compounds present in higher amounts exhibited variable antimycotic activity, with MIC values ranging from >10% (limonene) to 0.1% (geranial and neral). Thus, the mixture showed a good antifungal activity against arthrospores present in infected hairs. These results are promising for a further application of the mixture as an alternative tool or as an adjuvant in the environmental control of feline microsporosis. PMID:25854840

  16. Inhibition of lysosome degradation on autophagosome formation and responses to GMI, an immunomodulatory protein from Ganoderma microsporum

    PubMed Central

    Hsin, I-Lun; Sheu, Gwo-Tarng; Jan, Ming-Shiou; Sun, Hai-Lun; Wu, Tzu-Chin; Chiu, Ling-Yen; Lue, Ko-Huang; Ko, Jiunn-Liang

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Autophagic cell death is considered a self-destructive process that results from large amounts of autophagic flux. In our previous study, GMI, a recombinant fungal immunomodulatory protein cloned from Ganoderma microsporum, induced autophagic cell death in lung cancer cells. The aim of this study was to examine the role of autophagosome accumulation in GMI-mediated cell death. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Western blot analysis, flow cytometry and confocal microscopy were used to evaluate the effects of different treatments, including silencing of ATP6V0A1 by use of short hairpin RNAi, on GMI-mediated cell death, lung cancer cell viability and autophagosome accumulation in vitro. KEY RESULTS Lysosome inhibitors bafilomycin-A1 and chloroquine increased GMI-mediated autophagic cell death. GMI and bafilomycin-A1 co-treatment induced the accumulation of large amounts of autophagosomes, but did not significantly induce apoptosis. GMI elicited autophagy through the PKB (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin signalling pathway. Silencing of ATP6V0A1, one subunit of vesicular H+-ATPases (V-ATPases) that mediates lysosome acidification, spontaneously induced autophagosome accumulation, but did not affect lysosome acidity. GMI-mediated autophagosome accumulation and cytotoxicity was increased in shATP6V0A1 lung cancer cells. Furthermore, ATP6V0A1 silencing decreased autophagosome and lysosome fusion in GMI-treated CaLu-1/GFP-LC3 lung cancer cells. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS We demonstrated that autophagosome accumulation induces autophagic cell death in a GMI treatment model, and ATP6V0A1 plays an important role in mediating autophagosome-lysosome fusion. Our findings provide new insights into the mechanisms involved in the induction of autophagic cell death. PMID:22708544

  17. Dermatophyte-hormone relationships: characterization of progesterone-binding specificity and growth inhibition in the genera Trichophyton and Microsporum.

    PubMed Central

    Clemons, K V; Schär, G; Stover, E P; Feldman, D; Stevens, D A

    1988-01-01

    We reported previously that Trichophyton mentagrophytes contains a cytoplasmic macromolecule which specifically binds progesterone. Progesterone is also an effective inhibitor of growth of the fungus. We report here studies which characterize more fully the specific binding properties and the functional responses of T. mentagrophytes and taxonomically related fungi to a series of mammalian steroid hormones. Scatchard analysis of [3H]progesterone binding in both the + and - mating types of Arthroderma benhamiae and in Microsporum canis revealed a single class of binding sites with approximately the same affinity as that in T. mentagrophytes (Kd, 1 X 10(-7) to 2 X 10(-7) M). Trichophyton rubrum had a protein with a higher binding affinity (Kd, 1.6 X 10(-8) M). Characterization of the [3H]progesterone-binding sites in T. mentagrophytes showed the binder to be a protein which was destroyed by trypsin and heating to 56 degrees C. Previous examination of the steroid-binding specificity in T. mentagrophytes had demonstrated that deoxycorticosterone (DOC) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) were effective competitors for [3H]progesterone binding. Expansion of this study to include other competitors revealed that R5020 (a synthetic progestin), androstenedione, and dehydroepiandosterone possessed relative binding affinities which were 20, 11, and 9% of that of progesterone, respectively. Other ligands tested were less effective. Competition studies for the binder in M. canis resulted in similar findings: DOC and DHT were effective competitors for [3H]progesterone binding. The growth of A. benhamiae + and -, M. canis, and T. rubrum were all inhibited by progesterone in a dose-responsive manner, with 50% inhibition achieved at concentrations of 9.8 x 10(-6), 1.2 x 10(-5), 1.5 x 10(-5), and 2.7 x 10(-6) M. respectively,. PMID:3182998

  18. Alkylphenol Activity against Candida spp. and Microsporum canis: A Focus on the Antifungal Activity of Thymol, Eugenol and O-Methyl Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Fontenelle, Raquel O S; Morais, Selene M; Brito, Erika H S; Brilhante, Raimunda S N; Cordeiro, Rossana A; Lima, Ynayara C; Brasil, Nilce V G P S; Monteiro, André J; Sidrim, José J C; Rocha, Marcos F G

    2011-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing search for new antifungal compounds due to the side effects of conventional antifungal drugs and fungal resistance. The aims of this study were to test in vitro the activity of thymol, eugenol, estragole and anethole and some O-methyl-derivatives (methylthymol and methyleugenol) against Candida spp. and Microsporum canis. The broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC) for both Candida spp. and M. canis were found by subculturing each fungal suspension on potato dextrose agar. Thymol, methylthymol, eugenol, methyl-eugenol, anethole, estragole and griseofulvin respectively, presented the following MIC values against M. canis: 4.8-9.7; 78-150; 39; 78-150; 78-150; 19-39 µg/mL and 0.006-2.5 mg/mL. The MFC values for all compounds ranged from 9.7 to 31 µg/mL. Concerning Candida spp, thymol, methylthymol, eugenol, methyleugenol, anethole, estragole and amphotericin, respectively, showed the following MIC values: 39; 620-1250; 150-620; 310-620; 620; 620-1250 and 0.25-2.0 mg/mL. The MFC values varied from 78 to 2500 µg/mL. All tested compounds thus showed in vitro antifungal activity against Candida spp. and M. canis. Therefore, further studies should be carried out to confirm the usefulness of these alkylphenols in vivo. PMID:25134762

  19. Assessment of immunogenicity and protective efficacy of Microsporum canis secreted components coupled to monophosphoryl lipid-A adjuvant in a vaccine study using guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Cambier, Ludivine; Băguţ, Elena-Tatiana; Heinen, Marie-Pierre; Tabart, Jérémy; Antoine, Nadine; Mignon, Bernard

    2015-02-25

    Microsporum canis is the most common dermatophyte in pets and is of zoonotic importance but currently there is no effective vaccine available to prevent dermatophytosis. The aim of this work was to assess the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of secreted components (SC) from M. canis adjuvanted with the monophosphoryl lipid-A (MPLA), in a vaccine study using the guinea pig as an experimental model. Animals were vaccinated with either the SC adjuvanted with the MPLA, the MPLA adjuvant alone or PBS three times at two-week intervals, until 42 days prior to M. canis infection. A blind evaluation of dermatophytosis symptoms development and fungal persistence in skin was monitored weekly. The antibody response towards the SC and the levels of Interferon (IFN)γ and Interleukin-4 expressed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were assessed along or at the end of the study period respectively. The animals that received MPLA had a significantly lower clinical score than those inoculated with PBS. However, no significant difference was observed between the guinea pigs vaccinated with the SC adjuvanted with the MPLA and those having received MPLA alone. The results also showed that vaccination induced a strong antibody response towards the SC and an increase in IFNγ mRNA level. Our results show that the MPLA adjuvant used in this vaccine study can induce per se a partial protection against a M. canis infection. Although they induce a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction in guinea pigs, the SC do not confer a protection under the present experimental conditions. PMID:25532779

  20. Isolation of Microsporum gypseum in soil samples from different geographical regions of brazil, evaluation of the extracellular proteolytic enzymes activities (keratinase and elastase) and molecular sequencing of selected strains

    PubMed Central

    Giudice, Mauro Cintra; Reis-Menezes, Adriana Araújo; Rittner, Glauce Mary Gomes; Mota, Adolfo José; Gambale, Walderez

    2012-01-01

    A survey of Microsporum gypseum was conducted in soil samples in different geographical regions of Brazil. The isolation of dermatophyte from soil samples was performed by hair baiting technique and the species were identified by morphology studies. We analyzed 692 soil samples and the recuperating rate was 19.2%. The activities of keratinase and elastase were quantitatively performed in 138 samples. The sequencing of the ITS region of rDNA was performed in representatives samples. M. gypseum isolates showed significant quantitative differences in the expression of both keratinase and elastase, but no significant correlation was observed between these enzymes. The sequencing of the representative samples revealed the presence of two teleomorphic species of M. gypseum (Arthroderma gypseum and A. incurvatum). The enzymatic activities may play an important role in the pathogenicity and a probable adaptation of this fungus to the animal parasitism. Using the phenotypical and molecular analysis, the Microsporum identification and their teleomorphic states will provide a useful and reliable identification system. PMID:24031904

  1. Isolation of Microsporum gypseum in soil samples from different geographical regions of brazil, evaluation of the extracellular proteolytic enzymes activities (keratinase and elastase) and molecular sequencing of selected strains.

    PubMed

    Giudice, Mauro Cintra; Reis-Menezes, Adriana Araújo; Rittner, Glauce Mary Gomes; Mota, Adolfo José; Gambale, Walderez

    2012-07-01

    A survey of Microsporum gypseum was conducted in soil samples in different geographical regions of Brazil. The isolation of dermatophyte from soil samples was performed by hair baiting technique and the species were identified by morphology studies. We analyzed 692 soil samples and the recuperating rate was 19.2%. The activities of keratinase and elastase were quantitatively performed in 138 samples. The sequencing of the ITS region of rDNA was performed in representatives samples. M. gypseum isolates showed significant quantitative differences in the expression of both keratinase and elastase, but no significant correlation was observed between these enzymes. The sequencing of the representative samples revealed the presence of two teleomorphic species of M. gypseum (Arthroderma gypseum and A. incurvatum). The enzymatic activities may play an important role in the pathogenicity and a probable adaptation of this fungus to the animal parasitism. Using the phenotypical and molecular analysis, the Microsporum identification and their teleomorphic states will provide a useful and reliable identification system. PMID:24031904

  2. Kennel Disinfectants for Microsporum canis and Trichophyton sp.

    PubMed

    Moriello, Karen A

    2015-01-01

    The antifungal efficacy of commonly used kennel disinfectants for large surfaces was tested using naturally infective material from untreated animals (M. canis and Trichophyton sp.) soaked and macerated but unfiltered leaving visible fluorescing hairs and/or scales in the test inoculum to create a robust challenge. Disinfectants included sodium hypochlorite (1 : 32 and 1 : 100), enilconazole (1 : 100), accelerated hydrogen peroxide (1 : 16), potassium peroxymonosulfate (1% and 2%), and calcium hypochlorite "dry bleach." Disinfectants were tested at a 1 : 10, 1 : 5, and 1 : 1 dilution of test inoculum to disinfectant with a 10 min contact time. Good efficacy was defined as a disinfectant resulting in no growth. Control plates grew >300 colonies of each pathogen per plate. Enilconazole, sodium hypochlorite (all dilutions), accelerated hydrogen peroxide, and 2% potassium peroxymonosulfate (but not 1%) inhibited all growth of both pathogens at 1 : 10, 1 : 5, and 1 : 1 dilutions. Calcium hypochlorite showed no antifungal efficacy (>300 colonies per plate). Enilconazole (1 : 100), sodium hypochlorite (1 : 32 or 1 : 100), accelerated hydrogen peroxide (1 : 16), and 2% potassium peroxymonosulfate are recommended for decontamination of kennels exposed to dermatophyte pathogens. PMID:25763290

  3. Tinea incognito Caused by Microsporum gypseum in a Patient with Advanced HIV Infection: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Polilli, Ennio; Fazii, Paolo; Ursini, Tamara; Fantini, Fabrizio; Di Masi, Francesco; Tontodonati, Monica; Sozio, Federica; Parruti, Giustino

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence and the clinical relevance of dermatophytoses in HIV-infected patients are poorly documented, particularly for those caused by tinea incognito. Here, we report a case of widespread facial tinea incognito occurring in an Italian patient with advanced HIV infection, showing both skin and brain lesions. Second-line treatment with liposomal amphotericin B and cotrimoxazole, administered after a microbiological characterization of the skin scrapings, led to complete clearance of all lesions. PMID:21487462

  4. In vitro activity of CAY-1, a saponin from Capsicum frutescens, against microsporum and trichophyton species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dermatomycoses are among the world’s most common diseases. The incidence of dermatomycoses has increased over recent years, particularly in immunosuppressed patients. In previous studies, the saponin CAY-1, a saponin from cayenne pepper (Capsicum frutenses), has shown antifungal activities against...

  5. Use of itraconazole and either lime sulphur or Malaseb Concentrate Rinse ® to treat shelter cats naturally infected with Microsporum canis: an open field trial.

    PubMed

    Newbury, Sandra; Moriello, Karen A; Kwochka, Kenneth W; Verbrugge, Maria; Thomas, Chester

    2011-02-01

    In an open non-randomized study, 90 cats with severe dermatophytosis were treated with 21 days of oral itraconazole at 10 mg/kg and one of three topical antifungal rinses applied twice weekly: lime sulphur (LSO); reformulated lime sulphur with an odour-masking agent (LSR); or a 0.2% miconazole nitrate and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate rinse (MC). Weekly examinations and fungal cultures were used to monitor the cats' response to therapy. If at day 42 of treatment cats were still strongly fungal culture positive and/or developing new lesions, they were retreated with oral itraconazole and LSO. Cats were not prevented from licking the solutions and none developed oral ulcerations. Thirty-one cats were treated with LSO, 27 with LSR and 32 with MC. The median number of days to cure was 30 (range 10-69 days) and 34 (range 23-80 days) for LSO and LSR, respectively. Thirty-two cats were treated with MC, and 13 of 32 cats required repeat treatment because of persistent culture-positive status and development of new lesions. Median number of days of treatment for the 19 cats that cured with MC was 48 (range 14-93 days). When the number of days to cure was compared between the groups, there was a significant difference between cats treated with LSO and LSR (P=0.029) and cats treated with LSO and MC (P=0.031), but no significant difference between the number of days to cure for cats treated with LSR and MC (P=0.91). PMID:20604908

  6. Administration of Oral Itraconazole Capsule with Whole Milk Shows Enhanced Efficacy As Supported by Scanning Electron Microscopy in a Child with Tinea Capitis Due to Microsporum canis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuang; Ran, Yuping; Dai, Yalin; Lama, Jebina; Hu, Wenying; Zhang, Chaoliang

    2015-01-01

    Although diagnosis and treatment of tinea capitis in children are not difficult, treatment failures are still somewhat common. We report a case of pediatric tinea capitis cured using oral itraconazole administered with whole milk, after prior treatment failure when oral itraconazole was administered with water. This apparent enhanced efficacy in one individual was demonstrated using scanning electron microscopy. PMID:26447934

  7. Tinea faciei caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes in a 20-day-old neonate.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Sita; Malhotra, Suresh Kumar; Aggarwal, Yukti

    2015-12-01

    Although candidiasis in newborns is not uncommon, superficial dermatophyte infections of infants is quite rare. The causative agents of neonatal tinea reported in various case studies have been Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, and Trichophyton violaceum. To the best of our knowledge, no case report of neonatal tinea faciei caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes has been reported earlier. PMID:26904450

  8. Tinea faciei caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes in a 20-day-old neonate

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Sita; Malhotra, Suresh Kumar; Aggarwal, Yukti

    2015-01-01

    Although candidiasis in newborns is not uncommon, superficial dermatophyte infections of infants is quite rare. The causative agents of neonatal tinea reported in various case studies have been Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, and Trichophyton violaceum. To the best of our knowledge, no case report of neonatal tinea faciei caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes has been reported earlier. PMID:26904450

  9. Mycoses and Mycotoxicoses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mold-related disease in avian species can be divided into two broad categories, namely mycoses and mycotoxicoses. Mycoses are typically defined as infection of tissue by a particular mold species. In general terms, Aspergillus, Dactylaria, and Microsporum are those molds most apt to be responsible f...

  10. [Scanning electron microscope sudy of the morphology of fungi isolated from patients at the Aristide La Dantec Hospital in Dakar, Senegal].

    PubMed

    Ndiaye, M; Ndir, O; Diarra, K; Gaye, O; Toguebaye, B S; Diallo, S

    1996-01-01

    In order to improve the identification of fungi usually isolated among some patients at Dantec Hospital, a study by scanning electron microscopy has been carried out. It deals with four species of yeasts (Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Rhodotorula rubra Sacharomyces cerevisiae) six species of dermatophytes (Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton soudanense, Trichophyton interdigitale, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton violaceum, Microsporum audouinii); two species of mildew, (Aspergullus flavus, Aspergillus niger) and one species of dimorphic fungi (Histoplasma duboisii). The yeasts get a smooth surface with, often, a mark of but on it. Microsporum canis presents some echinulate macroconidia. Trichophyton violaceum is characterized by the appearance of echinulate chlamydoconidium with a twofold bulge and Microsporum audouinii by a echinulate chlamydoconidium with a bulge only. Trichophyton rubrum presents macroconidia with smooth surface and in "sausage" form, as for Trichophyton soudanense it presents some arthroconidia that are cells which get more or less rectangular form and with smooth surface. Aspergillus flavus is characterized by the presence of a conidiophore with a verrucosis surface and an aspergillary head of about 36 microns having some spores with almost smooth inner surface. On the other hand, Aspergillus niger gets a conidiophore with smooth surface. As for Histoplasma duboisii, the surface of the chlamydoconidium presents some verrucosis that are real conidia in formation. The scanning electron microscopy enables use to discover the existence of characters that are likely to be used for the identification of fungi. PMID:9827085

  11. Studies of proteinograms in dermatophytes by disc electrophoresis. 1. Protein bands in relation to growth phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danev, P.; Friedrich, E.; Balabanov, V.

    1983-01-01

    Homogenates were prepared from various growth phases of Microsporum gypseum grown on different amino acids as the nitrogen source. When analyzed on 7.5% polyacrylamide disc gels, the water-soluble proteins in these homogenates gave essentially identical banding patterns.

  12. Identification of Dermatophytes by an Oligonucleotide Array▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hsin Chieh; Bouchara, Jean-Philippe; Hsu, Mark Ming-Long; Barton, Richard; Chang, Tsung Chain

    2007-01-01

    Species of dermatophytes are classified into three anamorphic (asexual) genera, Epidermophyton, Microsporum, and Trichophyton. Conventional methods used to identify dermatophytes are often lengthy and may be inconclusive because of atypical microscopic or colony morphology. Based on the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1) and ITS-2 sequences of the rRNA genes, an oligonucleotide array was developed to identify 17 dermatophyte species. The method consisted of PCR amplification of the ITS regions using universal primers, followed by hybridization of the digoxigenin-labeled PCR products to an array of oligonucleotides (17- to 30-mers) immobilized on a nylon membrane. Of 198 dermatophyte strains and 90 nontarget strains tested, the sensitivity and specificity of the array were 99.5% and 97.8%, respectively. The only strain not identified (Microsporum audouinii LMA 597) was found to have a nucleotide insertion at the ITS-2 region where the probe was designed. Two nontarget strains, Microsporum equinum LMA 40396666 and Trichophyton gourvilii var. intermedium CBS 170.65, were misidentified as Microsporum canis and Trichophyton soudanense, respectively. Sequence analysis of the ITS regions revealed that the two misidentified strains displayed high sequence homology with the probes designed for M. canis and T. soudanense, respectively. The present method can be used as a reliable alternative to conventional identification methods and can be completed with isolated colonies within 24 h. PMID:17687010

  13. 21 CFR 524.450 - Clotrimazole cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... square inch of lesion once daily for 2 to 4 weeks. (2) Indications of use. For the treatment of fungal infections of dogs and cats caused by Microsporum canis and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. (3) Limitations. Wash hands thoroughly after use to avoid spread of infection. Federal law restricts this drug to use...

  14. 21 CFR 524.450 - Clotrimazole cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... square inch of lesion once daily for 2 to 4 weeks. (2) Indications of use. For the treatment of fungal infections of dogs and cats caused by Microsporum canis and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. (3) Limitations. Wash hands thoroughly after use to avoid spread of infection. Federal law restricts this drug to use...

  15. 21 CFR 524.450 - Clotrimazole cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... square inch of lesion once daily for 2 to 4 weeks. (2) Indications of use. For the treatment of fungal infections of dogs and cats caused by Microsporum canis and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. (3) Limitations. Wash hands thoroughly after use to avoid spread of infection. Federal law restricts this drug to use...

  16. 21 CFR 524.450 - Clotrimazole cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... square inch of lesion once daily for 2 to 4 weeks. (2) Indications of use. For the treatment of fungal infections of dogs and cats caused by Microsporum canis and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. (3) Limitations. Wash hands thoroughly after use to avoid spread of infection. Federal law restricts this drug to use...

  17. Antifungal activity of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa (Rutaceae) leaf extract on dermatophytes

    PubMed Central

    Balakumar, S; Rajan, S; Thirunalasundari, T; Jeeva, S

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of Aegle marmelos leaf extracts and fractions on the clinical isolates of dermatophytic fungi like Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum. Methods The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of various extracts and fractions of the leaves of Aegle marmelos were measured using method of National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). Results Aegle marmelos leaf extracts and fractions were found to have fungicidal activity against various clinical isolates of dermatophytic fungi. The MIC and MFC was found to be high in water and ethyl alcohol extracts and methanol fractions (200µg/mL) against dermatophytic fungi studied. Conclusions Aegle marmelos leaf extracts significantly inhibites the growth of all dermatophytic fungi studied. If this activity is confirmed by in vivo studies and if the compound is isolated and identified, it could be a remedy for dermatophytosis. PMID:23569781

  18. Report: Antibacterial and antifungal activities of leaf extract of Achyranthes aspera (Amaranthaceae) from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khuda, Fazli; Iqbal, Zafar; Khan, Ayub; Zakiullah; Shah, Waheed Ali; Shah, Yasar; Ahmad, Lateef; Hassan, Muhammad; Khan, Abuzar; Khan, Abad

    2015-09-01

    Alcoholic extract and various fractions of Achyranthes aspera leaves, traditionally used in Pakistan for treatment of infectious diseases was screened for in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activity. The chloroform and butanol fractions were found to be the most active among the fractions, showing considerable antibacterial activity against Shigella flexneri and Escherichia coli. The highest activity was found in the ethylacetate fraction (17 mm zone of inhibition) against gram-negative (Salmonella typhi) bacteria, with MIC value as 0.29 mg/mL. In antifungal screening, moderate activity was shown by the chloroform fraction (50 % inhibition) against Microsporum canis, with MIC value as 0.25mg/mL. Considerable level of antifungal activity was depicted by crude extract, hexane and butanol fractions against Aspergillus flavus and Microsporum canis. The ability of various extracts of Achyranthes aspera to inhibit different strains of fungi and bacteria indicates its potential use for the treatment of microbial infections. PMID:26408900

  19. Occurrence of keratinolytic fungi and related dermatophytes in soils in Cairo, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Y A; el-Din, A A; Hassanein, S M

    1992-01-01

    120 soil samples collected from various sites of Cairo were processed for the isolation of keratinophilic fungi by "ToKaVa" hair baiting technique. 22 species belonging to 6 genera were isolated viz.: Chrysosporium tropicum, C. indicum, C. keratinophilum, C. queenslandicum, C. merdarium, C. anamorph of Arthroderma curreyi, C. pannicola, C. lobatum, C. anamorph of Renispora flavissima, C. pseudomerdarium, Microascus mangini, Malbranchea gypsea, Ml. State of Uncicarpus reesii, Ml. State of Coccidioides immitis, Microsporum gypseum, Mr. distortum Mr. audouinii, Mr. fulvum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. terrestre, T. verrucosum and Epidermophyton floccosum. The frequency of occurrence of the isolated fungi was determined. Microsporum gypseum, Chrysosporium tropicum and Chrysosporium indicum were the most frequent species recovered from soil. Most species of keratinophilic fungi were isolated from university, public garden and zoo garden. The distribution of the isolates are discussed. PMID:1380752

  20. Modiolide and pyrone derivatives from the sea fan-derived fungus Curvularia sp. PSU-F22.

    PubMed

    Trisuwan, Kongkiat; Rukachaisirikul, Vatcharin; Phongpaichit, Souwalak; Preedanon, Sita; Sakayaroj, Jariya

    2011-05-01

    Investigation of secondary metabolites from the sea fan-derived fungus Curvularia sp. PSU-F22 resulted in isolation of three new metabolites, curvulapyrone (1), curvulalide (2) and curvulalic acid (3) together with six known compounds, modiolides A (4) and B (5), pyrenolide A (6), stagonolide E (7), mycoepoxydiene (8), and deacetylmycoepoxydiene (9). Their antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, methicillin-resistant S. aureus and Microsporum gypseum SH-MU-4 were examined. PMID:21656354

  1. Anti-fungal activity of crude extracts and essential oil of Moringa oleifera Lam.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Ping-Hsien; Lee, Chi-Wei; Chou, Jia-Ying; Murugan, M; Shieh, Bor-Jinn; Chen, Hueih-Min

    2007-01-01

    Investigations were carried out to evaluate the therapeutic properties of the seeds and leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam as herbal medicines. Ethanol extracts showed anti-fungal activities in vitro against dermatophytes such as Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Microsporum canis. GC-MS analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oil from leaves showed a total of 44 compounds. Isolated extracts could be of use for the future development of anti-skin disease agents. PMID:16406607

  2. Role of Chrysosporium keratinophillum in the parasitic evolution of dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Gokulshankar, S; Ranjithsingh, A J A; Ranjith, M S; Ranganathan, S; Palaniappan, R

    2005-11-01

    Anti-dermatophytic activity of Chrysosporium keratinophillum against species of the genera Trichophyton, Microsporum and Epidermophyton floccosum was tested in vitro. When C. keratinophillum and different species of dermatophytes were inoculated on Sabouraud's dextrose agar plates 2 cm apart, no antagonistic effect of C. keratinophillum on the mycelial growth of dermatophytes was observed. However, conidia production was not observed on the hyphae of Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton tonsurans and E. floccosum grown near C. keratinophillum. The secretory substances released by C. keratinophillum inhibited the growth of T. rubrum, T. tonsurans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. interdigitale and E. floccosum at a concentration of 2,000 microg ml(-1) when tested by broth dilution technique. No inhibition of the growth was observed for Microsporum gypseum and Microsporum nanum. The anti-fungal activity of secretory substances released by C. keratinophillum was recorded to be heat stable. Results of the present study suggest that the anti-dermatophytic activity of the secretory substances of C. keratinophillum on T. rubrum, T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale, T. tonsurans and E. floccosum may be responsible in part, for the absence of these dermatophyte species in soil. Considering the global prevalence of C. keratinophillum in soil one may speculate that the anti-dermatophytic activity of C. keratinophillum is one of the early events for the evolutionary divergence of saprophytic archi-dermatophytes to obligate parasitic dermatophyte species. PMID:16262884

  3. [Clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of dermatophytosis].

    PubMed

    Molina de Diego, Araceli

    2011-03-01

    Dermatophytes are a group of closely related fungi that have keratinase and can therefore cause infections in keratinised human and animal tissues (skin, hair and nails), leading to a disease known as dermatophytosis. This group is composed by the genera Epidermophyton, Trichophyton and Microsporum, forming an approximated total of 40 species. Depending on the source of the keratin used, dermatophytes can be divided in geophilic (soil), zoophilic (animals) and anthropophilic (human), with soil, some animals and humans being their primary habitats. Many dermatophytes can be present in both anamorphic (asexual state) or imperfect and teleomorphic state (with sexual reproduction) or perfect fungi. Anamorphic states (genera Epidermophyton, Microsporum and Trichophyton ) belong to the Hyphomycetes and phylum Deuteromycota class and teleomorphic states (the majority of geophilic and zoophilic species of Microsporum and Trichophyton) are classified in the teleomorphic genus Arthroderma, order Onygenales, phylum Ascomycota, and are usually found in their anamorphic state. Dermatophytes have a worldwide distribution, being responsible for most of the skin mycoses in both healthy and immunocompromised patients. The diagnosis and treatment of dermatophytosis are well known by most microbiologists and scientists in general. However, we describe recent techniques for their diagnosis and up-to-date treatments. The main purpose of this review is to provide a detailed description of the three genera of dermatophytes, with special mention of Epidermophyton floccosum, a object of the SEIMC's mycology quality control (M-2/09). PMID:21458709

  4. Keratinopathogenic mould fungi and dermatophytes in healthy and diseased hooves of horses.

    PubMed

    Keller, M; Krehon, S; Stanek, C; Rosengarten, R

    2000-11-25

    Specimens of hoof horn from 187 horses were examined for a possible relationship between clinically affected hooves and the occurrence of pathogenic fungi. Specimens were taken from the coronary band and from the stratum externum and medium of the coronary horn and transferred on to Sabouraud dextrose agar, with and without cycloheximide, and incubated at 28 degrees C. Dermatophytes and mould fungi were identified by their macroscopic and microscopic characteristics. The 732 isolates could be assigned to 26 species of moulds, two different species of the dermatophyte Microsporum and three different species of the dermatophyte Trichophyton. Depending on their pathogenic potential they were assigned to three groups: (i) fungi known to be keratinopathogenic (Acremonium blochii, Alternaria alternata, Alternaria chlamydospora, Geotrichum candidum, Microsporum ferrugineum, Microsporum gypseum, Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, Trichophyton species, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton schönleinii, 57 isolates), (ii) a group of uncertain pathogenicity (223 isolates), and (iii) a group of non-pathogenic species (452 isolates). Eighty per cent of the samples from horses with hoof horn lesions and 66.7 per cent of the samples from horses with slightly affected hoof horn contained fungi of the keratinopathogenic group, whereas only 8.9 per cent of the samples from horses with healthy hoof horn contained fungi of this group. There were no significant correlations between the clinical data and the age, sex or breed of the horses or their bedding and hygiene. Twelve species of fungi were isolated from the air in the horses' stables, but none of them belonged to the keratinopathogenic group. PMID:11128074

  5. Zoonoses of procyonids and nondomestic felids.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, Edward C

    2011-09-01

    There are several important zoonotic diseases which can be acquired from procyonids, and nondomestic felids. Baylisascaris procyonis, the raccoon roundworm, is a common parasite of raccoons and can cause visceral, ocular, or neural larval migrans in people. Neural larval migrans can cause severe signs in individuals. Dermatophytosis and enteric pathogens are the most important zoonotic agents found in nondomestic felids. Microsporum canis infections can be spread from nondomestic felids to owners and veterinarians. Toxoplasma gondii can be potentially shed by infected felids, and human infections occurring during pregnancy can cause blindness in the fetus. PMID:21872788

  6. [Identification of geophilic and zoophilic dermatophytes in siblings with tinea capitis. A pathogenic factor or contamination?].

    PubMed

    Lehmann, S; Ott, H; Barker, M; Heimann, G; Poblete-Gutiérrez, P; Frank, J

    2004-10-01

    Two siblings of African origin presented with multiple scaling patches and alopecia on the scalp four weeks after returning from a vacation in Eritrea. Direct KOH examination revealed fungal elements; Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton terrestre were identified in the fungal culture. We discuss the putative pathogenic role of both microorganisms in causing disease. Although infection with Microsporum canis currently accounts for almost fifty percent of all cases of tinea capitis in Germany, other fungi have gained importance due to tourism and increasing migration. PMID:15340708

  7. Keratinophilic fungi on feathers of pigeon in Maharashtra, India.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, S K

    2004-06-01

    Results of a preliminary survey of keratinophilic fungi associated with feathers of pigeon on high rise buildings in Thane district of Maharashtra (India) are reported. A total of 100 samples were examined, of which 67 samples were positive for keratinophilic fungi. Altogether 67 fungal strains belonging to 10 species of seven genera were isolated viz. Chrysosporium indicum (24%), Chrysosporium sp. (2%), Chr. tropicum (8%), Chrysosporium state of Arthroderma tuberculatum (3%), Chrysosporium state of Ctenomyces serratus (15%), Malbranchea pulchella (3%), Malbranchea sp. (1%), Microsporum gypseum (5%), Myriodontium keratinophilum (2%) and Trichophyton terrestre (4%). PMID:15189186

  8. Dermatoscopic findings as a complementary tool in the differential diagnosis of the etiological agent of tinea capitis.

    PubMed

    Schechtman, Regina Casz; Silva, Nanashara Diane Valgas; Quaresma, Maria Victória; Bernardes Filho, Fred; Buçard, Alice Mota; Sodré, Celso Tavares

    2015-01-01

    Tinea capitis is a scalp infection caused by fungi. In Brazil, the main causative agents are Microsporum canis and the Trichophyton tonsurans. Etiological diagnosis is based on suggestive clinical findings and confirmation depends on the fungus growth in culture. However, it is not always possible to perform this test due to lack of availability. We reveal the dermoscopic findings that enable distinction between the main causative agents of Tinea capitis, M. canis and T. tonsurans. The association of clinical and dermatoscopic findings in suspected Tinea capitis cases may help with the differential diagnosis of the etiological agent, making feasible the precocious, specific treatment. PMID:26312662

  9. Dermatoscopic fi ndings as a complementary tool in the differential diagnosis of the etiological agent of tinea capitis*

    PubMed Central

    Schechtman, Regina Casz; Silva, Nanashara Diane Valgas; Quaresma, Maria Victória; Bernardes Filho, Fred; Buçard, Alice Mota; Sodré, Celso Tavares

    2015-01-01

    Tinea capitis is a scalp infection caused by fungi. In Brazil, the main causative agents are Microsporum canis and the Trichophyton tonsurans. Etiological diagnosis is based on suggestive clinical findings and confirmation depends on the fungus growth in culture. However, it is not always possible to perform this test due to lack of availability. We reveal the dermoscopic findings that enable distinction between the main causative agents of Tinea capitis, M. canis and T. tonsurans. The association of clinical and dermatoscopic findings in suspected Tinea capitis cases may help with the differential diagnosis of the etiological agent, making feasible the precocious, specific treatment. PMID:26312662

  10. The hair follicle mites (Demodex spp.). Could they be vectors of pathogenic microorganisms?

    PubMed

    Wolf, R; Ophir, J; Avigad, J; Lengy, J; Krakowski, A

    1988-01-01

    The hair follicle mites Demodex folliculorum and D. brevis are the most common permanent ectoparasites of Man. Ordinarily they are harmless to their human host and appear to be of no medical significance. We present, however, an unusual finding regarding this mite, namely, that in a potassium hydroxide mount of a skin scraping from a mycotic plaque we found numerous Demodex mites containing inside them spores of Microsporum canis. This could mean that the putatively inoffensive Demodex has the potential to ingest various microorganisms that are found in its niche and transport them to other areas of the skin or possibly to other individuals. PMID:2467494

  11. Superficial fungal infections in children.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Danielle M; Smidt, Aimee C

    2014-04-01

    Superficial fungal infections can involve the hair, skin, and nails. Most affected children are healthy, although immunosuppression is a risk factor for more severe presentation. Causative organisms typically are members of the Trichophyton, Microsporum, and Epidermophyton genera (dermatophytes), can be acquired from other infected humans, animals, or soil, and illicit a host inflammatory response. Nondermatophyte infections include pityriasis versicolor. In this article, the most common clinical presentations, diagnostic recommendations, and treatment algorithms for dermatophyte and nondermatophyte mycoses in children and adolescents are described. PMID:24636655

  12. [Kerion caused by the zoophilic dermatophyte Trichophyton species of Arthroderma benhamiae in a child. A new emerging pathogen of dermatomycoses in Germany].

    PubMed

    Nenoff, P; Schulze, I; Uhrlaß, S; Krüger, C

    2013-11-01

    Trichophyton (T.) species of Arthroderma (A.) benhamiae is a new emerging pathogen of dermatomycoses in children and adolescents. This zoophilic fungus seems to be more common than other zoophilic dermatophytes, e. g. Microsporum canis transmitted from cats to humans, zoophilic strains of T. interdigitale, and T. verrucosum as cause of ringworm of cattle. Trichophyton species of A. benhamiae is transmitted from guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus form. domestica) to human beings and causes highly inflammatory dermatomycoses both of the face and the scalp. When this dermatophyte produces purulent abscess-forming deep cutaneous infections of the scalp known as kerions, they are both a diagnostic and in particular a therapeutic challenge. PMID:24008933

  13. A PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE OCCURRENCE OF KERATINOPHILIC FUNGI IN SOILS OF JAMAICA

    PubMed Central

    Gugnani, Harish C.; Sharma, Soni; Wright, Kharl

    2014-01-01

    This report represents the first study of keratinophilic fungi present in soils of Jamaica. Out of the 40 soil samples examined from different habitats, 30 (75%) were positive for the presence of keratinophilic fungi, yielding 36 isolates of keratinophilic fungi. Microsporum gypseum complex (represented by 16 isolates of M. gypseum, and four of M. fulvum) was most frequent, being present in 50% of the samples. A very high occurrence of this dermatophyte in Jamaican soil is of public health significance. The remaining isolates of keratinophilic fungi were represented by Chrysosporium spp (mainly C. indicum and C. tropicum) and Sepedonium sp. PMID:24879002

  14. Characterization of a new sesquiterpene and antifungal activities of chemical constituents from Dryopteris fragrans (L.) Schott.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Hong; Zeng, Wei-Min; Li, Guo-Yu; Liu, Guo-Qing; Zhao, Dan-Dan; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Yan-Long

    2013-01-01

    One new sesquiterpene and six known compounds were isolated from Dryopteris fragrans (L.) Schot. They were identified as 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosylalbicanol- 11-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), dihydroconiferylalcohol (2), (E)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acrylic acid (3), esculetin (4), 5,7-dihydroxy-2-hydroxymethylchromone (5), eriodictyol (6) and isoorientin (7) by UV, MS, 1D-NMR and 2D-NMR spectroscopy. The antifungal activities of the seven isolated compounds were screened. Compounds 2, 3, 4 and 5 showed obvious activities against Microsporum canis and Epidermophyton floccosum. PMID:24451246

  15. Tinea capitis in adults during 1981-95 in northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Devliotou-Panagliotidou, D; Koussidou-Eremondi, T; Chaidemenos, G C; Theodoridou, M; Minas, A

    2001-11-01

    The mycological laboratory of our Hospital examined 31,073 patients between 1981 and 1995. Sex, age, the residence of patients, the clinical type of tinea and contacts with other persons and animals were investigated. All the patients were also examined under Wood's light. Tinea capitis was diagnosed in 35 adults. Trichophyton violaceum was the commonest aetiological agent (54.5%), especially in elderly women. The other anthropophilic fungi were T. rubrum (8.5%), T. schoenleinii (5.7%) and T. tonsurans (2.8%). The zoophilic fungi Microsporum canis (14.3%), T. terrucosum (8.5%) and T. mentagrophytes (5.7%) were also isolated. PMID:11766106

  16. Ethnoveterinary study for antidermatophytic activity of Piper betle, Alpinia galanga and Allium ascalonicum extracts in vitro.

    PubMed

    Trakranrungsie, N; Chatchawanchonteera, A; Khunkitti, W

    2008-02-01

    Crude ethanolic extracts of Piper betle leaves (Piperaceae), Alpinia galanga rhizomes (Zingiberaceae) and Allium ascalonicum bulbs (Liliaceae) were tested against selected zoonotic dermatophytes (Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophyte) and the yeast-like Candida albicans. A broth dilution method was employed to determine the inhibitory effect of the extracts and compared to those of ketoconazole and griseofulvin. All extracts suppressed the growth of the fungi in a concentration-dependent manner. Among the extracts tested, P. betle exhibited more effective antifungal properties with average IC(50) values ranging from 110.44 to 119.00 microg/ml. Subsequently, 10% Piper betle (Pb) cream was formulated, subjected to physical and microbial limit test and evaluated for antifungal effect. The disc diffusion assay revealed comparable zones of inhibition between discs of Pb cream containing 80 microg P. betle extract and 80 microg ketoconazole against tested fungi at 96 h after incubation. Thereafter, the inhibitory effect of Pb cream markedly decreased and completely lost effectiveness by day 7. In summary, the results supported the traditional wisdom of herbal remedy use and suggested a potential value-addition to agricultural products. It was suggested that the Pb cream has potential therapeutic value for treatment of dermatophytosis. However, clinical testing as well as improving the Pb cream formulation with greater efficacy and duration of action would be of interest and awaits further investigation. PMID:17482221

  17. Heat stable antimicrobial activity of Allium ascalonicum against bacteria and fungi.

    PubMed

    Amin, M; Kapadnis, B P

    2005-08-01

    To study antimicrobial activity of shallot in comparison with that of garlic and onion against 23 strains of fungi and bacteria, water extracts of garlic, shallot and onion bulbs were prepared. Each extract was studied in different forms for their antimicrobial activity viz., fresh extract, dry extract and autoclaved extract. Minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal lethal concentrations of these extracts were determined against all organisms by broth dilution susceptibility test. Fresh extract of garlic showed greater antimicrobial activity as compared to similar extracts of onion and shallot. However, dried and autoclaved extracts of shallot showed more activity than similar extracts of onion and garlic. Fungi were more sensitive to shallot extract than bacteria. Amongst bacteria, B. cereus was most sensitive (MIC=5 mg ml(-1)). The lowest minimum bactericidal concentration of shallot extract amongst bacteria tested was 5 mg ml(-1) for B. cereus. Amongst fungi, Aureobasidium pullulans and Microsporum gypseum were most sensitive (MIC= 0.15 mg ml(-1)). The lowest minimum lethal concentration was 2.5 mg ml(-1) for Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. It was therefore, expected that the antimicrobial principle of shallot was different than the antimicrobial compounds of onion and garlic. In addition, the antimicrobial component of the shallot extract was stable at 121 degrees C. PMID:16121720

  18. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities and chemical characterization of essential oils of Thymusvulgaris, Rosmarinus officinalis, and Origanum majorana from northeastern México.

    PubMed

    Guerra-Boone, Laura; Alvarez-Román, Rocío; Alvarez-Román, Rocío; Salazar-Aranda, Ricardo; Torres-Cirio, Anabel; Rivas-Galindo, Verónica Mayela; de-Torres, Noemí Waksman; González, Gloria; Pérez-López, Luis Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    There have been no reports of antifungal activity and composition of extracts from Thymus vulgaris, Rosmarinus officinalis or Origanum majorana from northeastern México. Antifungal activity of these oils against Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum canis and Epidermophyton floccosum was measured by diffusion assay. Additionally, antibacterial and antioxidant activities were evaluated. Antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes was examined by microdilution. Antioxidant activity was assessed by 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidracil reduction test. The plant oils were characterized by both GC/MS and GC/FID. Oils of T. vulgaris and O. majorana showed growth inhibition activity against dermatophytes, especially T. vulgaris oil, which completely inhibited growth of all tested dermatophytes. The oils also showed bioactivity against bacteria, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values between 62.5 and 500 μg/mL. The antioxidant activity of the oils was low, with effective concentration (EC50) values <250μg/mL. The major components in the oils were as follows: T. vulgaris, o-cymene, μ-terpinene, thymol and carvacrol; R. officinalis, terpinen-4-ol and 1,8-cineole; O. majorana, terpinen-4-ol and thymol. PMID:25631514

  19. Antimicrobial activity of pentacyclic triterpenes isolated from Acacia mellifera.

    PubMed

    Mutai, C; Bii, C; Rukunga, G; Ondicho, J; Mwitari, P; Abatis, D; Vagias, C; Roussis, V; Kirui, J

    2008-01-01

    Acacia mellifera has been used widely in traditional African medicines against various diseases. Among the Kipsigis community of Kenya, water extracts from the plant is used for the treatment of skin diseases, coughs and gastrointestinal ailments. The aim of the study was to provide scientific rationale for the use of the plant in traditional medicine through bioassay-guided fractionation of A. mellifera stem bark. Bioactivity testing was done against selected microbes using disc diffusion technique as outlined in Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI). Structure elucidation of the isolated compounds was based primarily on 1D and 2D NMR analyses, including HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY correlations. Fractionation yielded three triterpenoids; (20S)-oxolupane-30-al, (20R)-oxolupane-30-al, and betulinic acid. The three compounds were active against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and only (20S)-oxolupane-30-al against clinical isolate of Microsporum gypseum. The three compounds had no activity against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Enterococcus feacalis, Candida albicans ATCC 90028, Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton mentagrophyte, Candida krusei, Microsporum gypseum, and Sacharomyces cerevisiae. These results explain and support the use of A. mellifera stem barks for the treatment of infectious diseases in traditional Kenya medicine. It also shows that the antimicrobial activity is concentrated in the triterpenoid fractions. PMID:20162040

  20. Efficacy and phytochemical analysis of latex of Calotropis procera against selected dermatophytes

    PubMed Central

    Aliyu, Rabiu Muhammad; Abubakar, Mikaeel Bala; Kasarawa, Adamu Bello; Dabai, Yakubu Umar; Lawal, Nafiu; Bello, Muhammad Bashir; Fardami, Aminu Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    Background: Since ancient time, increased interest has been witnessed in the use of an alternative herbal medicine for managing, and the treatment of fungal diseases worldwide. This may be connected to the cost and relative toxicities of the available antifungal drugs. It has been a known tradition practiced in the northern part of Nigeria that parents and teachers use the white latex of Calotropis procera to treat Tinea capitis in children attending the local religious school in the area. This study was conducted in 2009 to ascertain the above claim. Materials and Methods: Fresh latex of C. procera was screened for their antifungal activity against species of dermatophytes: Trichophyton spp., Microsporum spp. and Epidermophyton spp. using the agar incorporation method. Results: The result shows that the latex inhibits the in vitro growth of these pathogenic fungi to varying extents with Trichophyton spp. being the most susceptible (P < 0.05) and thus highly inhibited by the latex followed by the Microsporum spp. and Epidermopyton spp. was least inhibited. These inhibitions followed a dose-dependent trend as undiluted latex (100%) gave the highest inhibitory impacts (P < 0.05) when compared to serially diluted latex. The phytochemical analysis of the fresh latex indicated the presence of alkaloids, saponin, tannins, steroids, flavonoids, anthraquinone, and triterpenoids. Conclusion: The findings of this study confirmed the perceived usefulness of the latex in the treatment of T. capitis (ringworm) practiced in our society and therefore, its use topically in the treatment of dermatomycotic infection is encouraged. PMID:26649237

  1. Antifungal effects of hydrolysable tannins and related compounds on dermatophytes, mould fungi and yeasts.

    PubMed

    Latté, K P; Kolodziej, H

    2000-01-01

    A series of hydrolysable tannins and related compounds was evaluated for antifungal activities against filamentous fungi (Epidermophyton floccosum; Microsporum canis; Microsporum gypseum; Trichophyton mentagrophytes; Trichophyton rubrum; Trichophyton tonsurans; Trichophyton terrestre; Penicillium italicum; Aspergillus fumigatus; Mucor racemosus; Rhizopus nigricans) and opportunistic yeasts (Candida albicans; Candida glabrata; Candidata krusei; Cryptococcus neoformans), using the agar dilution method. While all samples had no activity against the filamentous fungi in concentrations of 1.1-5.9 microM (1000 microg/ml), the phenolic compounds displayed significant potencies against all the opportunistic yeasts tested but C. albicans, with minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 0.02 to 0.1 microM (16-125 microg/ml). Although the presence of galloyl groups in flavonoids did not necessarily produce activity, this structural element, an HHDP moiety or its oxidatively modified entity proved to be an important structural feature of hydrolysable tannins. Comparison of dilution methods provided strong evidence of dependence of MIC values on the test method. Employing the microdilution broth method, the ellagitannin corilagin (MIC 0.8 nM) was found to be similarly potentially active as amphotericin B (MIC 0.5 nM) and sertaconazole (MIC 0.9 nM) against Candida glabrata strains. The order of effectiveness observed being 64- and 4-8-fold increased for corilagin and the reference compounds respectively, when compared with that of the agar dilution test. PMID:10928561

  2. Dermatophytosis among Schoolchildren in Three Eco-climatic Zones of Mali

    PubMed Central

    Coulibaly, Oumar; Kone, Abdoulaye K.; Niaré-Doumbo, Safiatou; Goïta, Siaka; Gaudart, Jean; Djimdé, Abdoulaye A.; Piarroux, Renaud; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; Thera, Mahamadou A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Dermatophytosis, and particularly the subtype tinea capitis, is common among African children; however, the risk factors associated with this condition are poorly understood. To describe the epidemiology of dermatophytosis in distinct eco-climatic zones, three cross-sectional surveys were conducted in public primary schools located in the Sahelian, Sudanian and Sudano-Guinean eco-climatic zones in Mali. Principal Findings Among 590 children (average age 9.7 years) the overall clinical prevalence of tinea capitis was 39.3%. Tinea capitis prevalence was 59.5% in the Sudano-Guinean zone, 41.6% in the Sudanian zone and 17% in the Sahelian eco-climatic zone. Microsporum audouinii was isolated primarily from large and/or microsporic lesions. Trichophyton soudanense was primarily isolated from trichophytic lesions. Based on the multivariate analysis, tinea capitis was independently associated with male gender (OR = 2.51, 95%CI [1.74–3.61], P<10−4) and residing in the Sudano-Guinean eco-climatic zone (OR = 7.45, 95%CI [4.63–11.99], P<10−4). Two anthropophilic dermatophytes species, Trichophyton soudanense and Microsporum audouinii, were the most frequent species associated with tinea capitis among primary schoolchildren in Mali. Conclusions Tinea capitis risk increased with increasing climate humidity in this relatively homogenous schoolchild population in Mali, which suggests a significant role of climatic factors in the epidemiology of dermatophytosis. PMID:27124571

  3. Therapeutic switching: from antidermatophytic essential oils to new leishmanicidal products

    PubMed Central

    Houël, Emeline; Gonzalez, German; Bessière, Jean-Marie; Odonne, Guillaume; Eparvier, Véronique; Deharo, Eric; Stien, Didier

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether the antidermatophytic activity of essential oils (EOs) can be used as an indicator for the discovery of active natural products against Leishmania amazonensis. The aerial parts of seven plants were hydrodistilled. Using broth microdilution techniques, the obtained EOs were tested against three strains of dermatophytes (Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum gypseum and Microsporum canis). To compare the EOs antifungal and antiparasitic effects, the EOs activities against axenic amastigotes of L. amazonensis were concurrently evaluated. For the most promising EOs, their antileishmanial activities against parasites infecting peritoneal macrophages of BALB/c mice were measured. The most interesting antifungal candidates were the EOs from Cymbopogon citratus, Otacanthus azureus and Protium heptaphyllum, whereas O. azureus, Piper hispidum and P. heptaphyllum EOs exhibited the lowest 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values against axenic amastigotes, thus revealing a certain correspondence between both activities. The P. hispidum EO was identified as the most promising product in the results from the infected macrophages model (IC50: 4.7 µg/mL, safety index: 8). The most abundant compounds found in this EO were sesquiterpenes, notably curzerene and furanodiene. Eventually, the evaluation of the antidermatophytic activity of EOs appears to be an efficient method for identifying new potential drugs for the treatment of L. amazonensis. PMID:25742270

  4. Therapeutic switching: from antidermatophytic essential oils to new leishmanicidal products.

    PubMed

    Houël, Emeline; Gonzalez, German; Bessière, Jean-Marie; Odonne, Guillaume; Eparvier, Véronique; Deharo, Eric; Stien, Didier

    2015-02-01

    This study examined whether the antidermatophytic activity of essential oils (EOs) can be used as an indicator for the discovery of active natural products against Leishmania amazonensis. The aerial parts of seven plants were hydrodistilled. Using broth microdilution techniques, the obtained EOs were tested against three strains of dermatophytes (Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum gypseum and Microsporum canis). To compare the EOs antifungal and antiparasitic effects, the EOs activities against axenic amastigotes of L. amazonensis were concurrently evaluated. For the most promising EOs, their antileishmanial activities against parasites infecting peritoneal macrophages of BALB/c mice were measured. The most interesting antifungal candidates were the EOs from Cymbopogon citratus, Otacanthus azureus and Protium heptaphyllum, whereas O. azureus, Piper hispidum and P. heptaphyllum EOs exhibited the lowest 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values against axenic amastigotes, thus revealing a certain correspondence between both activities. The P. hispidum EO was identified as the most promising product in the results from the infected macrophages model (IC50: 4.7 µg/mL, safety index: 8). The most abundant compounds found in this EO were sesquiterpenes, notably curzerene and furanodiene. Eventually, the evaluation of the antidermatophytic activity of EOs appears to be an efficient method for identifying new potential drugs for the treatment of L. amazonensis. PMID:25742270

  5. Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatophytic infections. 1. Screening for antimycotic activity of 44 plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Caceres, A; Lopez, B R; Giron, M A; Logemann, H

    1991-03-01

    Skin infections are common diseases in developing countries, of which dermatophytoses are of particular concern in the tropics, especially in infants. Through ethnobotanical surveys and literature review 100 plants were detected as being used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatophytoses. Of these, 44 plants were screened for in vitro activity against the most common dermatophytes (Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum). Results showed that aqueous extracts from 22 of the plants tested inhibit one or more of the dermatophytes. The most commonly inhibited dermatophytes were E. floccosum (43.2%), T. rubrum (36.0%), and T. mentagrophytes (31.8%); the less inhibited were M. canis (22.7%) and M. gypseum (24.0%). Plants of American origin which exhibited anti-dermatophyte activity were: Byrsonima crassifolia, Cassia grandis, Cassia occidentalis, Diphysa carthagenensis, Gliricidia sepium, Piscidia piscipula, Sambucus mexicana, Smilax regelii, Solanum americanum and Solanum nigrescens. Fungicidal and fungistatic activities as well as the minimal inhibitory concentration were demonstrated. These results provide a scientific basis for the use of these plants for the treatment of dermatophyte infections in man. PMID:2056755

  6. Organization and Evolutionary Trajectory of the Mating Type (MAT) Locus in Dermatophyte and Dimorphic Fungal Pathogens▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenjun; Metin, Banu; White, Theodore C.; Heitman, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Sexual reproduction in fungi is governed by a specialized genomic region, the mating type (MAT) locus, whose gene identity, organization, and complexity are diverse. We identified the MAT locus of five dermatophyte fungal pathogens (Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton equinum, Trichophyton rubrum, and Trichophyton tonsurans) and a dimorphic fungus, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, and performed phylogenetic analyses. The identified MAT locus idiomorphs of M. gypseum control cell type identity in mating assays, and recombinant progeny were produced. Virulence tests in Galleria mellonella larvae suggest the two mating types of M. gypseum may have equivalent virulence. Synteny analysis revealed common features of the MAT locus shared among these five dermatophytes: namely, a small size (∼3 kb) and a novel gene arrangement. The SLA2, COX13, and APN2 genes, which flank the MAT locus in other Ascomycota are instead linked on one side of the dermatophyte MAT locus. In addition, the transcriptional orientations of the APN2 and COX13 genes are reversed compared to the dimorphic fungi Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides immitis, and Coccidioides posadasii. A putative transposable element, pogo, was found to have inserted in the MAT1-2 idiomorph of one P. brasiliensis strain but not others. In conclusion, the evolution of the MAT locus of the dermatophytes and dimorphic fungi from the last common ancestor has been punctuated by both gene acquisition and expansion, and asymmetric gene loss. These studies further support a foundation to develop molecular and genetic tools for dermatophyte and dimorphic human fungal pathogens. PMID:19880755

  7. In Vitro Activity of Twenty Commercially Available, Plant-Derived Essential Oils against Selected Dermatophyte Species.

    PubMed

    Nardoni, Simona; Giovanelli, Silvia; Pistelli, Luisa; Mugnaini, Linda; Profili, Greta; Pisseri, Francesca; Mancianti, Francesca

    2015-08-01

    The in vitro activity of twenty chemically defined essential oils (EOs) obtained from Boswellia sacra, Citrus bergamia, C. limon, C. medica, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Eucalyptus globulus, Foeniculum vulgare, Helichrysum italicum, Illicium verum, Litsea cubeba, Mentha spicata, Myrtus communis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum majorana, O. vulgare, Pelargonium graveolens, Rosmarinus officinalis, Santalum album, Satureja montana, and Thymus serpyllum was assayed against clinical animal isolates of Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. erinacei, T. terrestre and Microsporum gypseum, main causative agents of zoonotic and/or environmental dermatophytoses in humans. Single main components present in high amounts in such EOs were also tested. Different dermatophyte species showed remarkable differences in sensitivity. In general, more effective EOs were T. serpyllum (MIC range 0.025%-0.25%), O. vulgare (MIC range 0.025%-0.5%) and L. cubeba (MIC range 0.025%-1.5%). F. vulgare showed a moderate efficacy against geophilic species such as M gypseum and T terrestre. Among single main components tested, neral was the most active (MIC and MFC values 5 0.25%). The results of the present study seem to be promising for an in vivo use of some assayed EOs. PMID:26434145

  8. Antifungal activity and chemical composition of essential oils from Smyrnium olusatrum L. (Apiaceae) from Italy and Portugal.

    PubMed

    Marongiu, B; Piras, A; Porcedda, S; Falconieri, D; Frau, M A; Maxia, A; Gonçalves, M J; Cavaleiro, C; Salgueiro, L

    2012-01-01

    The essential oils and supercritical CO₂ extracts of wild Smyrnium olusatrum L. growing in Sardinia (Italy) and in Portugal were investigated. For the study, oils were isolated from total plant aerial part (umbels containing seeds). The content of β-phellandrene (67.3% vs. 42.7%) and α-pinene (31.9% vs. 1.2%), respectively, the main components of Portuguese and Italian essential oils, declined during the maturation stage of the umbels. Contrarily, some other important components, particularly curzerene, germacrene B, germacrone, alexandrofuran, 1-β-acetoxyfurano-4(15)-eudesmene and 1-β-acetoxyfurano-3-eudesmene, increased in fruiting umbels. The chemical composition of the Sardinian oil is rather different from those of other origin. The composition of the supercritical extracts and the essential oils is markedly different, particularly due to the high amount of furanosesquiterpenoids in the supercritical fluid extraction. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal lethal concentration were used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the oils against Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida guillermondii, Candida parapsilosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Epidermophyton floccosum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. The oils were particularly active against dermatophyte strains and C. neoformans, with MIC values in the range of 0.32-0.64 µL mL⁻¹. PMID:21902563

  9. Chemical composition and biological assays of essential oils of Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi subsp. nepeta (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Marongiu, B; Piras, A; Porcedda, S; Falconieri, D; Maxia, A; Gonçalves, M J; Cavaleiro, C; Salgueiro, L

    2010-11-01

    Aerial parts of wild Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi subsp. nepeta growing spontaneously on the Mediterranean coast (Sardinia Island, Italy) and on the Atlantic coast (Portugal) were used as a matrix for the supercritical extraction of volatile oil with CO(2). The collected extracts were analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS methods and their compositions were compared with that of the essential oil isolated by hydrodistillation, but the differences were not relevant. A strong chemical variability was observed in the essential oils depending on the origin of the samples. The results showed the presence of two chemotypes of C. nepeta. In all Italian samples, pulegone, piperitenone oxide and piperitenone were the main components (64.4-39.9%; 2.5-19.1%; 6.4-7.7%); conversely, the oil extracted from Portuguese C. nepeta is predominantly composed of isomenthone (35.8-51.3%), 1,8-cineole (21.1-21.4%) and trans-isopulegone (7.8-6.0%). The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the oils against Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida guillermondii, Candida parapsilosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Epidermophyton floccosum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. The Italian oil, rich in pulegone, exhibited significant antifungal activity against Aspergillus and dermatophyte strains, with MIC values of 0.32-1.25 µL mL(-1). PMID:20981614

  10. Difference in keratinase activity of dermatophytes at different environmental conditions is an attribute of adaptation to parasitism.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anima; Chandra, Subhash; Sharma, Meenakshi

    2012-09-01

    Dermatophytes are a group of morphologically and physiologically related moulds, which cause well-defined infection called dermatophytosis. The enzymatic ability of fungi to decompose keratin has long been interpreted as a key innovation in the evolution of animal dermatology. In the present study, keratinase activity profile among Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis and Microsporum gypseum isolated on keratin substrates such as human hair, human nail and chicken feather at variable environmental conditions of temperature, pH and metal ions was elucidated. All the above-mentioned fungal strains were isolated from soil using To-KA-Va baiting technique and keratinolytic activity was measured spectrophotometrically. In the temperature range of 30-40 °C and slightly alkaline pH (7.0-8.0), Trichophyton produced the highest activity of keratinase. It can be presumed that high enzyme production of Trichophyton species at normal body temperature range and pH could be an attribute for obligate anthropization in some dermatophytes. PMID:22032519

  11. Bio-efficacy of Dioscorea pentaphylla from Midmid-Western Ghats, India

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, G.; Hosetti, B. B.

    2012-01-01

    Antibacterial and antifungal activity of crude extracts of medicinally important and traditionally used yam plant, Dioscorea pentaphylla, from mid-Western Ghats was evaluated against 27 bacterial and 5 fungal clinical strains collected of the patients from infectious sources. The clinical strains belonging to their respective species showed concentration-dependent susceptibility toward crude petroleum ether extract, chloroform extract and methanol extract at 100 μg/100 μl. The extracts exhibited predominant antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC-20852), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC-29737) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (MTCC-618), respectively, and five clinically isolated pathogenic fungi, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum gypseum, Tricophyton tonsurans, Microsporum audouini, and Candida albicans, with antibacterial drug ciprofloxacin and antifungal drug fluconozole (50 μg/100 μl) as standards. Out of the three extracts, ethanol extracts possessed better minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against all the bacterial strains. All the three extracts showed significant activity against all the five fungal pathogen strains. The results are promising and support the traditional use of D. pentaphylla for the treatment of bacterial and fungal infections. PMID:22778504

  12. Nicotine-degrading microorganisms and their potential applications.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianli; Ma, Guanghui; Chen, Tao; Hou, Ying; Yang, Shihua; Zhang, Ke-Qin; Yang, Jinkui

    2015-05-01

    Nicotine-degrading microorganisms (NDMs) are a special microbial group which can use nicotine as the sole carbon and nitrogen source for growth. Since the 1950s, the bioconversion of nicotine by microbes has received increasing attention, and several NDMs have been identified, such as Arthrobacter nicotinovorans, Microsporum gypseum, Pellicularia filamentosa JTS-208, and Pseudomonas sp. 41. In recent years, increasing numbers of NDMs have been isolated and identified from tobacco plantation soil, leaf, and tobacco waste. Meanwhile, the metabolic pathway and degradation mechanism of nicotine have been elucidated in several NDMs, such as A. nicotinovorans, Agrobacterium tumefaciens S33, Aspergillus oryzae, and Pseudomonas putida S16. Moreover, several NDMs have been used in improving the quality of cigarettes, treating tobacco waste, and producing valuable intermediates of nicotine. Here, we summarize the diversity, phylogenetic analysis, and potential applications of NDMs. PMID:25805341

  13. Mycologic disorders of the skin.

    PubMed

    Outerbridge, Catherine A

    2006-08-01

    Cutaneous tissue can become infected when fungal organisms contaminate or colonize the epidermal surface or hair follicles. The skin can be a portal of entry for fungal infection when the epithelial barrier is breached or it can be a site for disseminated, systemic fungal disease. The two most common cutaneous fungal infections in small animals are dermatophytosis and Malassezia dermatitis. Dermatophytosis is a superficial cutaneous infection with one or more of the fungal species in the keratinophilic genera Microsporum, Trichophyton, or Epidermophyton. Malassezia pachydermatis is a nonlipid dependent fungal species that is a normal commensal inhabitant of the skin and external ear canal in dogs and cats. Malassezia pachydermatis is the most common cause of Malassezia dermatitis. The diagnosis and treatment of these cutaneous fungal infections will be discussed. PMID:16933479

  14. In vitro susceptibility testing of dermatophytes isolated in Goiania, Brazil, against five antifungal agents by broth microdilution method.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Crystiane Rodrigues; Miranda, Karla Carvalho; Fernandes, Orionalda de Fatima Lisboa; Soares, Ailton José; Silva, Maria do Rosário Rodrigues

    2009-01-01

    The antifungal activities of fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, terbinafine and griseofulvin were tested by broth microdilution technique, against 60 dermatophytes isolated from nail or skin specimens from Goiania city patients, Brazil. In this study, the microtiter plates were incubated at 28 masculineC allowing a reading of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) after four days of incubation for Trichophyton mentagrophytes and five days for T. rubrum and Microsporum canis. Most of the dermatophytes had uniform patterns of susceptibility to the antifungal agents tested. Low MIC values as 0.03 microg/mL were found for 33.3%, 31.6% and 15% of isolates for itraconazole, ketoconazole and terbinafine, respectively. PMID:19229384

  15. Effects of butenafine hydrochloride, a new benzylamine derivative, on experimental dermatophytosis in guinea pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Arika, T; Yokoo, M; Hase, T; Maeda, T; Amemiya, K; Yamaguchi, H

    1990-01-01

    Butenafine hydrochloride, N-4-tert-butylbenzyl-N-methyl-1-naphthalenemethylamine hydrochloride (butenafine), is a novel antifungal agent of the class of benzylamine derivatives. Butenafine was investigated for its activity against guinea pig dermatophytosis caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes or Microsporum canis in comparison with those of naftifine, tolnaftate, clotrimazole, and bifonazole. Topical butenafine showed excellent efficacy against dermatophytosis when it was applied once daily, and the effect was superior to those of all four reference drugs. When applied once at 24 or 48 h before infection, the drug exhibited excellent prophylactic efficacy against experimental T. mentagrophytes infection. The concentrations of butenafine in animal skin at 24 and 48 h after application of 0.2 ml of a 1% solution were several hundred times higher than those required to kill T. mentagrophytes and M. canis. The good efficacy of butenafine against dermatophytosis may be attributable to its fungicidal activity and long retention in the skin after topical application. PMID:2073116

  16. The lipid composition and its alteration during the growth stage in pathogenic fungus, epidermophyton floccosum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamada, T.; Watanabe, R.; Nozawa, Y.; Ito, Y.

    1984-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative changes of lipid components during the growth stages were studied in E. floccosum. The acyl group components of total lipids of Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum cookei were also examined. The lipids of E. floccosum amounted to approximately 4% of the dry cell weight. Neutral lipids mainly consisted of triglycerides and sterols, and major polar lipids were phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and an unknown lipid X. The fatty acids in tryglycerides and phospholipids were palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids. The unknown polar lipid X which appeared between phosphatidylethanolamine and cardiolipin on thin layer chromatography plates contained no phosphorus. There was no significant change in the fatty acid components of E. floccosum and T. rubrum during the cell growth, whereas profound changes occurred in M. cookei. The sterol components of E. floccosum showed striking changes depending on the growth stage.

  17. Further evaluation of Rwandan medicinal plant extracts for their antimicrobial and antiviral activities.

    PubMed

    Cos, P; Hermans, N; De Bruyne, T; Apers, S; Sindambiwe, J B; Vanden Berghe, D; Pieters, L; Vlietinck, A J

    2002-02-01

    A total of 45 Rwandan plant extracts, belonging to 37 different plant species out of 21 families, were investigated for their antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral properties. The plants were selected on the base of their ethnomedicinal use against infections and autoimmune diseases. From all the plant extracts tested, only Clematis hirsuta (leaves) showed a pronounced antifungal activity against Candida albicans and the dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Microsporum canis. Seven plant extracts showed a high antiviral activity against the DNA-virus Herpes simplex type 1, while five and three plant extracts were highly active against the RNA-viruses Coxsackie and Polio, respectively. Only Macaranga kilimandscharica (leaves) showed an interesting anti-measles activity, whereas Eriosema montanum (leaves) and Entada abyssinica (leaves) were highly active against Semliki forest virus. Some plant extracts showed an antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria and Mycobacterium fortuitum, but none of them were active against the Gram-negative bacteria tested. PMID:11801376

  18. Purification, characterization, and lytic activity against Naegleria fowleri of two amoebicins produced by Bacillus licheniformis A12.

    PubMed Central

    Gálvez, A; Valdivia, E; González-Segura, A; Lebbadi, M; Martínez-Bueno, M; Maqueda, M

    1993-01-01

    Bacillus licheniformis A12 produces two amoebolytic substances (amoebicins A12-A and A12-B) in liquid media during sporulation. Both substances have been purified and characterized. They are heat- and protease-resistant peptides containing aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, proline, and tyrosine in a molar ratio of 5:2:2:2:2. No fatty acids or carbohydrates have been detected. Their molecular weight is 1,430. Purified amoebicins A12-A and A12-B exhibit amoebolytic action against Naegleria fowleri. They also exhibit antibiotic action against yeasts (Saccharomyces heterogenicus and Cryptococcus neoformans) and several fungal species (Aspergillus niger, Microsporum canis, Mucor plumbeus, and Trychophyton mentagrophytes). Their antibacterial spectrum appears to be restricted to Bacillus megaterium, Corynebacterium glutamicum, and Sarcina sp. Images PMID:8517742

  19. [Gum-like exudate from Laguncularia racemosa (white mangrove) as culture media for fungi].

    PubMed

    Mesa, L M; León-Pinto, G

    1993-01-01

    Morphological studies of eight species of fungus: Aspergillus flavus Microsporum canis, Epidermophyton floccosum, Curvularia lunata, Cladosporium carrionii, Natrassia mangífera (Edo. Scytalidium), Sporotrix schenckii y Rhizophus oligosporus, which belong to families Mucedinaceae, Dematiaceae and Mucoraceae have been carried out in support medium based in gum exudate from Laguncularia racemosa (mangle blanco). This native polimer contains galactose, arabinose, rhamnose, uronic acid and proteins. Nitrogen calcium and magnesium are microconstituents of the gum. An economical substrate which contained gum exudate (4%) and agar (1.5%) was used in these studies. The results obtained showed that gum exudate-agar medium (EGA) permits an adequate identification of the studied species, therefore, it is a possible substitute for Sabouraud. It is important to know that the gum exudate is a natural product, economical and easy to obtain. PMID:8123711

  20. Foliicolous microfungi occurring on Encephalartos.

    PubMed

    Crous, P W; Wood, A R; Okada, G; Groenewald, J Z

    2008-12-01

    Species of Encephalartos, commonly known as bread trees, bread palms or cycads are native to Africa; the genus encompasses more than 60 species and represents an important component of the indigenous African flora. Recently, a leaf blight disease was noted on several E. altensteinii plants growing at the foot of Table Mountain in the Kirstenbosch Botanical Gardens of South Africa. Preliminary isolations from dead and dying leaves of E. alten-steinii, E. lebomboensis and E. princeps, collected from South Africa, revealed the presence of several novel microfungi on this host. Novelties include Phaeomoniella capensis, Saccharata kirstenboschensis, Teratosphaeria altensteinii and T. encephalarti. New host records of species previously only known to occur on Proteaceae include Cladophialophora proteae and Catenulostroma microsporum, as well as a hyperparasite, Dactylaria leptosphaeriicola, occurring on ascomata of T. encephalarti. PMID:20396583

  1. Antimicrobial Activity of Indigofera suffruticosa

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Sônia Pereira; Vieira, Jeymesson Raphael Cardoso; de Medeiros, Paloma Lys; Leite, Roberta Maria Pereira; de Menezes Lima, Vera Lúcia; Xavier, Haroudo Satiro; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes

    2006-01-01

    Various organic and aqueous extracts of leaves of Indigofera suffruticosa Mill (Fabaceae) obtained by infusion and maceration were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activities. The extracts were tested against 5 different species of human pathogenic bacteria and 17 fungal strains by the agar-solid diffusion method. Most of the extracts were devoid of antifungal and antibacterial activities, except the aqueous extract of leaves of I. suffruticosa obtained by infusion, which showed strong inhibitory activity against the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 5000 µg ml−1. The MIC values to dermatophyte strains were 2500 µg ml−1 against Trichophyton rubrum (LM-09, LM-13) and Microsporum canis. This study suggests that aqueous extracts of leaves of I. suffruticosa obtained by infusion can be used in the treatment of skin diseases caused by dermatophytes. PMID:16786057

  2. Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatophytic infections. 2. Evaluation of antifungal activity of seven American plants.

    PubMed

    Cceres, A; Lpez, B; Jurez, X; del Aguila, J; Garca, S

    1993-12-01

    From 52 plants screened for antifungal activity, 26 (50%) were active against dermatophytes. This paper reports further evaluation of seven American plants against four pathogenic fungi (Aspergillus flavus, Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton rubrum), the part showing most activity, the best solvent and, in three cases, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) against the fungus in pure culture. Antifungal activity was confirmed in all of the plants, but not all parts; the most active parts were the bark and leaves. The most active species were Byrsonima crassifolia, Cassia grandis, Gliricidia sepium and Malpighia glabra. Diphysa robinioides, Rhizophora mangle and Cassia occidentalis were less active. The most susceptible fungi were E. floccosum and T. rubrum; A. flavus was not susceptible. Ethanol was usually the best solvent and the MIC of C. grandis, C. occidentalis and D. robinioides was 50 micrograms/ml. PMID:8145577

  3. Isolation of keratomycetes from the soil of wild animal cages and enclosures in the zoo of the Parco Nazionale d'Abruzzo, Italy.

    PubMed

    Mercantini, R; Marsella, R; Caprilli, F

    1978-12-01

    The keratinophilic fungi present in the soil of wild animal cages and enclosures in the zoo of the "Parco Nazionale d'Abruzzo", at Pescasseroli, Italy were studied. The goal of the investigation was to determine what species of such fungi existed in wild animal habitats in that area and what variation there may be in their frequency in connection with the seasons. The most prevalent fungus was Trichophyton ajelloi, followed in decreasing order by the Chrysosporium species (C. keratinophilum, C. tropicum, C. state of Ctenomyces serratus). The Microsporums were relatively rare. The perfect forms Arthroderma uncinatum, A. quadrifidum, Nannizzia cajetani and Ctenomyces serratus were isolated from plates containing their corresponding imperfect forms. The recurrence of the species present in the soil of each cage and enclosure in April and in July was remarkable. PMID:572094

  4. Characterization of Chitosan Nanofiber Sheets for Antifungal Application

    PubMed Central

    Egusa, Mayumi; Iwamoto, Ryo; Izawa, Hironori; Morimoto, Minoru; Saimoto, Hiroyuki; Kaminaka, Hironori; Ifuku, Shinsuke

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan produced by the deacetylation of chitin is a cationic polymer with antimicrobial properties. In this study, we demonstrate the improvement of chitosan properties by nanofibrillation. Nanofiber sheets were prepared from nanofibrillated chitosan under neutral conditions. The Young’s modulus and tensile strength of the chitosan NF sheets were higher than those of the chitosan sheets prepared from dissolving chitosan in acetic acid. The chitosan NF sheets showed strong mycelial growth inhibition against dermatophytes Microsporum and Trichophyton. Moreover, the chitosan NF sheets exhibited resistance to degradation by the fungi, suggesting potentials long-lasting usage. In addition, surface-deacetylated chitin nanofiber (SDCNF) sheets were prepared. The SDCNF sheet had a high Young’s modulus and tensile strength and showed antifungal activity to dermatophytes. These data indicate that nanofibrillation improved the properties of chitosan. Thus, chitosan NF and SDCNF sheets are useful candidates for antimicrobial materials. PMID:26540046

  5. In vitro antifungal activity and mechanism of essential oil from fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.) on dermatophyte species.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Hong; Chen, Xinping; Liang, Jingnan

    2015-01-01

    Fennel seed essential oil (FSEO) is a plant-derived natural therapeutic against dermatophytes. In this study, the antifungal effects of FSEO were investigated from varied aspects, such as MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration, mycelia growth, spore germination and biomass. The results indicated that FSEO had potent antifungal activities on Trichophyton rubrum ATCC 40051, Trichophyton tonsurans 10-0400, Microsporum gypseum 44693-1 and Trichophyton mentagrophytes 10-0060, which is better than the commonly used antifungal agents fluconazole and amphotericin B. Flow cytometry and transmission electron microscopy experiments suggested that the antifungal mechanism of FSEO was to damage the plasma membrane and intracellular organelles. Further study revealed that it could also inhibit the mitochondrial enzyme activities, such as succinate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase and ATPase. With better antifungal activity than the commonly used antifungal agents and less possibility of inducing drug resistance, FSEO could be used as a potential antidermatophytic agent. PMID:25351709

  6. Dermatophytes and other associated fungi in patients attending to some hospitals in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Abd Elmegeed, Al Shimaa M.; Ouf, S.A.; Moussa, Tarek A.A.; Eltahlawi, S.M.R.

    2015-01-01

    Dermatophytes are keratinophilic fungi that infect keratinized tissues causing diseases known as dermatophytoses. Dermatophytes are classified in three genera, Epidermophyton, Microsporum, and Trichophyton. This investigation was performed to study the prevalence of dermatomycosis among 640 patients being evaluated at the dermatology clinics at Kasr elainy, El-Husein and Said Galal hospitals in Cairo and Giza between January 2005 and December 2006. The patients were checked for various diseases. Tinea capitis was the most common clinical disease followed by tinea pedis and tinea corporis. Tinea cruris and tinea unguium were the least in occurrence. Tinea versicolor also was detected. The most susceptible persons were children below 10 years followed by those aged 31–40 years. Unicellular yeast was the most common etiological agent and T. tonsuranswas the second most frequent causative agent followed by M. canis. PMID:26413063

  7. [Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory actions of tea-leaf saponin].

    PubMed

    Sagesaka, Y M; Uemura, T; Suzuki, Y; Sugiura, T; Yoshida, M; Yamaguchi, K; Kyuki, K

    1996-03-01

    Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory actions of tea-leaf saponin, which was a mixture of saponin separated from leaves of Camellia sinensis var. sinensis, were investigated. Tea-leaf saponin showed relatively high antimicrobial activity against pathogenic dermal fungi and its MIC value for Microsporum audouinii was 10 microgam/ml. On the other hand, tea-leaf saponin inhibited rat paw edema induced by carrageenin in a dose dependent manner. Activation of hyaluronidase, one of the enzymes involved in inflammatory reactions, was inhibited by tea-leaf saponin. It was also found that tea-leaf saponin antagonized the action of leukotrien D4, one of the chemical mediators of inflammatory reactions. Any symptom of toxic reaction was not observed when tea-leaf saponin was administered orally to mice at a dose of 2000 mg/kg. PMID:8721352

  8. Mycological Pattern of Dermatophytosis in and Around Shimla Hills

    PubMed Central

    Bhagra, Suruchi; Ganju, Sunite A; Kanga, Anil; Sharma, Nand Lal; Guleria, Ramesh C

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Dermatophytosis is defined as the fungal infection of the skin, hair and nails by a group of keratinophillic fungi known as dermatophytes. Aims and Objectives: This study is an attempt to find out various species of dermatophytes in clinically suspected cases of dermatophytosis. Materials and Methods: One hundred samples were subjected to direct microscopy by potassium hydroxide wet mount (KOH) and isolation on culture with Sabourauds dextrose agar. Results: Out of these 80 (80%) samples were KOH positive while 20 (20%) were KOH negative. Overall culture positivity rate was 68%. Dermatophytosis was more common in males, the M:F ratio was 4:1. Conclusion: Total seven species were isolated on culture. Trichophyton rubrum (66.17%) was the commonest isolate followed by Trichophyton mentagrophytes (19.11%), Trichophyton violaceum (7.35%), Trichophyton tonsurans (2.94%) and one isolate each of Epidermophyton floccosum and Microsporum gypseum (1.47%). PMID:24891658

  9. Epidemiology of Superficial Fungal Infections in Guangdong, Southern China: A Retrospective Study from 2004 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wenying; Lu, Changming; Li, Xiqing; Zhang, Junmin; Zhan, Ping; Xi, Liyan; Sun, Jiufeng; Yu, Xinbing

    2016-06-01

    Superficial fungal infections are common worldwide; however, the distribution of pathogenic species varies among geographical areas and changes over time. This study aimed to determine the epidemiologic profile of superficial fungal infections during 2004-2014 in Guangzhou, Southern China. Data regarding the superficial mycoses from outpatients and inpatients in our hospital were recorded and analyzed. From the 3367 patients that were enrolled in the study, 3385 samples were collected from skin, hair and nail lesions. Of the 697 positive cultures, dermatophytes were the most prevalent isolates (84.36 %), followed by yeasts (14.92 %) and non-dermatophyte molds (0.72 %). Trichophyton rubrum (56.24 %) was the most common dermatophyte isolated from cases of tinea unguium (83.92 %), tinea pedis (71.19 %), tinea cruris (91.66 %), tinea corporis (91.81 %) and tinea manuum (65.00 %). Trichophyton mentagrophytes (13.35 %) and Microsporum canis (10.19 %) were the predominant species associated with cases of tinea faciei (54.55 %) and tinea capitis (54.13 %), respectively. Yeasts and molds were identified primarily from other cases of superficial fungal infections. In conclusion, when compared to previous studies in the same area, the epidemiology of superficial mycoses in Guangdong did not significantly change from 2004 to 2014. The prevalence of causative agents and the spectrum of superficial fungal infections, particularly tinea caused by dermatophyte infection, are similar to reports from several specific regions in China and Europe, whereas increasing incidences of Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis occurred in Guangdong, China. PMID:26883512

  10. Essential oil of Juniperus communis subsp. alpina (Suter) Čelak needles: chemical composition, antifungal activity and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Cabral, C; Francisco, V; Cavaleiro, C; Gonçalves, M J; Cruz, M T; Sales, F; Batista, M T; Salgueiro, L

    2012-09-01

    Essential oils are known to possess antimicrobial activity against a wide spectrum of bacteria and fungi. In the present work the composition and the antifungal activity of the oils of Juniperus communis subsp. alpina (Suter) Čelak were evaluated. Moreover, the skin cytotoxicity, at concentrations showing significant antifungal activity, was also evaluated. The oils were isolated by hydrodistillation and analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the oil against dermatophytes (Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum canis, M. gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale, T. rubrum, T. verrucosum), yeasts (Candida albicans, C. guillermondii, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, Cryptococcus neoformans) and Aspergillus species (Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger). Cytotoxicity was tested in HaCaT keratinocytes through the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Essential oil of J. communis subsp. alpina needles was predominantly composed of monoterpene hydrocarbons (78.4%), with the main compounds being sabinene (26.2%), α-pinene (12-9%) and limonene (10.4%). Results concerning the antifungal activity demonstrated the potential of needle oil against dermatophytes, particularly for Microsporum canis and Trichophyton rubrum with MIC and MLC of 0.32 μL/mL. Furthermore, evaluation of cell viability showed no significant cytotoxicity in HaCaT keratinocytes at concentrations between 0.32 and 0.64 μL/mL. These results show that it is possible to find appropriate doses of J. communis subsp. alpina oil with both antifungal activity and a very low detrimental effect on keratinocytes. PMID:22294341

  11. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry for rapid identification of clinical fungal isolates based on ribosomal protein biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Panda, Ashutosh; Ghosh, Anup K; Mirdha, Bijay R; Xess, Immaculata; Paul, Saikat; Samantaray, Jyotish C; Srinivasan, Alagiri; Khalil, Shehla; Rastogi, Neha; Dabas, Yubhisha

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the identification of clinical fungal isolates (yeast and molds) by protein profiling using Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS). A total of 125 clinical fungal culture isolates (yeast and filamentous fungi) were collected. The test set included 88 yeast isolates (Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida guilliermondii, Candida kefyr, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis, Candida rugosa, Candida tropicalis and Cryptococcus neoformans) and 37 isolates of molds (Alternaria spp., Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Cunninghamella spp., Histoplasma capsulatum, Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum nanum, Rhizomucor spp. and Trichophyton spp.). The correlation between MALDI TOF MS and conventional identification for all these 125 fungal isolates included in the study was 87.2% at the species level and 90.4% at the genus level. MALDI TOF MS results revealed that the correlation in yeast (n=88) identification was 100% both at the genus and species levels whereas, the correlation in mold (n=37) identification was more heterogeneous i.e. 10.81% isolates had correct identification up to the genus level, 56.7% isolates had correct identification both at the genus and species levels, whereas 32.42% isolates were deemed Not Reliable Identification (NRI). But, with the modification in sample preparation protocol for molds, there was a significant improvement in identification. 86.4% isolates had correct identification till the genus and species levels whereas, only 2.7% isolates had Not Reliable Identification. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that MALDI-TOF MS could be a possible alternative to conventional techniques both for the identification and differentiation of clinical fungal isolates. However, the main limitation of this technique is that MS identification could be more precise only if the reference spectrum of the fungal species is available in the database. PMID:25541362

  12. Antiproliferative effect and characterization of a novel antifungal peptide derived from human Chromogranin A

    PubMed Central

    LI, RUI-FANG; LU, YA-LI; LU, YAN-BO; ZHANG, HUI-RU; HUANG, LIANG; YIN, YANLI; ZHANG, LIN; LIU, SHUAI; LU, ZHIFANG; SUN, YANAN

    2015-01-01

    CGA-N46 is a novel antifungal peptide derived from the N-terminus of human Chromogranin A, corresponding to the 31st to 76th amino acids. Further research on its activities and characteristics may be helpful for the application of CGA-N46 in medical or other situations. In the present study, the antifungal spectrum and physicochemical characteristics of CGA-N46 were investigated using an antifungal assay, its antiproliferative effects on cancer and normal cells were assessed using MTT assay and its combinatorial effect with other antibiotics was analyzed using checkerboard analysis. The results showed that CGA-N46 exhibited antifungal activity against the tested Candidas (C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, C. krusei, C. tropicalis and C. albicans) at a concentration of <0.8 mM, but had no effect on the growth of filamentous fungi or other types of fungi (Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium moniliforme, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes), even at a concentration of 3.2 mM. CGA-N46 had an inhibitory effect on the proliferation of lung cancer A549 cells and a reversible effect on the growth of normal primary chicken embryo fibroblast cells, but no hemolytic activity on human erythrocytes at the minimum inhibitory concentration of CGA-N46 against yeasts. The antifungal activity of CGA-N46 was stable at a temperature <40°C or within a broad pH range (pH 5.0–7.0). Its antifungal activity was enhanced when the peptide was used in combination with fluconazole and terbinafine. The present results indicate that CGA-N46 is a safe, physicochemically stable, antifungal peptide with anticancer cell activity that exhibits an additive effect with conventional antibiotics. PMID:26668630

  13. In vitro and in vivo antidermatophytic activities of some Iranian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Ayatollahi Mousavi, Seyyed Amin; Kazemi, Abdolhasan

    2015-11-01

    In the last decades, the number of people suffering from dermatophytoses has seriously increased, which may be due to the development of resistant strains to a range of antifungal drugs. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antidermatophytic properties of eight extracts from the selected spices and herbs, which were ethno-medicinally used in Iran against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton interdigitale, Microsporum canis, and Microsporum gypseum (10 strain of each). The in vitro antifungal activities of the extracts from four spices and four plants were evaluated by the broth macro dilution method against four dermatophyte strains. In addition, the in vivo therapeutic effects of Myrtus communis L. and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume extracts (the most active extracts) on dermatophytosis induced by M. canis and T. mentagrophytes in guinea pigs were evaluated. Results of in vitro antifungal assay revealed that all the tested extracts demonstrated both fungistatic and fungicidal activities with the geometric mean (GM) MIC ranging from 0.058 to 3.73 mg/ml and GM (MFC) ranging from 0.058 to 7.46 mg/ml, respectively. Two extracts (M. communis and C. zeylanicum) significantly inhibited the growth of all the tested dermatophytes, while other extracts demonstrated weak (MICs of >0.625 mg/ml) to moderate (MICs ranging from 100 to 0.625 mg/ml) activities. In vivo antidermatophytic assay demonstrated that clotrimazole cured T. mentagrophytes and M. canis infection on days 21 and 17, respectively, whereas M. communis and C. zeylanicum extracts significantly (p < 0.05) cured T. mentagrophytes and M. canis infection on days 9 and 13 as well as 9, 11, respectively. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, phenols, and alkaloids in M. communis and alkaloids, flavonoids, and tannins in C. zeylanicum. Findings of the present study also provided the scientific evidence that natural plants could be used in traditional medicine for the prevention and treatment of dermatophytic infections. PMID:26092105

  14. Comparative Genome Analysis of Trichophyton rubrum and Related Dermatophytes Reveals Candidate Genes Involved in Infection

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Diego A.; Oliver, Brian G.; Gräser, Yvonne; Goldberg, Jonathan M.; Li, Wenjun; Martinez-Rossi, Nilce M.; Monod, Michel; Shelest, Ekaterina; Barton, Richard C.; Birch, Elizabeth; Brakhage, Axel A.; Chen, Zehua; Gurr, Sarah J.; Heiman, David; Heitman, Joseph; Kosti, Idit; Rossi, Antonio; Saif, Sakina; Samalova, Marketa; Saunders, Charles W.; Shea, Terrance; Summerbell, Richard C.; Xu, Jun; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Birren, Bruce W.; Cuomo, Christina A.; White, Theodore C.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT The major cause of athlete’s foot is Trichophyton rubrum, a dermatophyte or fungal pathogen of human skin. To facilitate molecular analyses of the dermatophytes, we sequenced T. rubrum and four related species, Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton equinum, Microsporum canis, and Microsporum gypseum. These species differ in host range, mating, and disease progression. The dermatophyte genomes are highly colinear yet contain gene family expansions not found in other human-associated fungi. Dermatophyte genomes are enriched for gene families containing the LysM domain, which binds chitin and potentially related carbohydrates. These LysM domains differ in sequence from those in other species in regions of the peptide that could affect substrate binding. The dermatophytes also encode novel sets of fungus-specific kinases with unknown specificity, including nonfunctional pseudokinases, which may inhibit phosphorylation by competing for kinase sites within substrates, acting as allosteric effectors, or acting as scaffolds for signaling. The dermatophytes are also enriched for a large number of enzymes that synthesize secondary metabolites, including dermatophyte-specific genes that could synthesize novel compounds. Finally, dermatophytes are enriched in several classes of proteases that are necessary for fungal growth and nutrient acquisition on keratinized tissues. Despite differences in mating ability, genes involved in mating and meiosis are conserved across species, suggesting the possibility of cryptic mating in species where it has not been previously detected. These genome analyses identify gene families that are important to our understanding of how dermatophytes cause chronic infections, how they interact with epithelial cells, and how they respond to the host immune response. PMID:22951933

  15. Dermatophytosis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection: clinical aspects and etiologic agents.

    PubMed

    Costa, J E F; Neves, R P; Delgado, M M; Lima-Neto, R G; Morais, V M S; Coêlho, M R C D

    2015-10-01

    Dermatophytosis in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus infection seems to manifest with atypical, multiple, or extensive lesions more frequently. In addition, there are reports of presentations with little inflammation, called anergics. Less common etiologic agents have been isolated in these individuals, such as Microsporum species. To describe clinical aspects and etiologic agents of dermatophytosis in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Patients with clinical diagnosis of dermatophytosis underwent scarification for mycological diagnosis through direct microscopic examination and fungal isolation in culture on Sabouraud dextrose agar. Sixty individuals had a clinical hypothesis of dermatophytosis. In 20 (33.3%) of the 60 patients, dermatophytosis was confirmed through a mycological study. Tinea corporis, diagnosed in 14 patients, was the most frequent clinical form, followed by tinea unguium in 7, tinea cruris in 5, and tinea pedis in 1 patient. Most of the lesions of tinea corporis were anergic. Five patients with tinea unguium had involvement of multiple nails, with onychodystrophy as the predominant subtype. Multiple cutaneous lesions occurred in 3 patients and extensive cutaneous lesions in 4. Regarding the agent, Trichophyton rubrum was the most commonly isolated. The high occurrence of anergic skin lesions and involvement of multiple nails, especially as onychodystrophy, corroborates the hypothesis that atypical, disseminated, and more severe presentations are common in individuals with HIV infection. However, no Microsporum species was isolated even in atypical, extensive, or disseminated cases, in disagreement with previous reports. Therefore, the approach of squamous lesions in HIV-positive patients must include a mycological study, in view of the possibility of anergic dermatophytosis, to promote the introduction of a suitable therapeutic agent. PMID:26200786

  16. Isolation of the volatile fraction from Apium graveolens L. (Apiaceae) by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and hydrodistillation: chemical composition and antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Marongiu, B; Piras, A; Porcedda, S; Falconieri, D; Maxia, A; Frau, M A; Gonçalves, M J; Cavaleiro, C; Salgueiro, L

    2013-01-01

    Apium graveolens L. (wild celery), belonging to the family of Apiaceae, is a scaposus hemicryptophyte. Instead, the cultivate plant is an annual or biennial herb widely used as a spice and seasoning in food. A broad range of biological activities have been attributed to A. graveolens. These include antimicrobial activity, larvicidal activity, hepatoprotective activity, nematicidal and mosquito repellent potential and antihyperlipidaemic properties.In this study, the authors compare the composition of the volatile fractions of A. graveolens collected in natural populations in Portugal and Italy and evaluate their potential as antifungal agents.The composition of the volatile oils obtained by hydrodistillation and their antifungal activity are reported. The oils were analysed by gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods and their composition were compared with that of the volatile extracts isolated by supercritical CO2. A chemical variability in the extracts depending on the origin of the plants and on the extraction method was observed. The results showed the presence of sedanenolide, neocnidilide and neophytadiene as main components. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal lethal concentration were used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the oils against Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida guilliermondii, Candida parapsilosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale, Trichophyton verrucosum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Epidermophyton floccosum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. The oil from Italy rich in neophytadiene is the more active, with MIC values of 0.04-0.64 µL mL(-1). Our results show that A. graveolens volatile extracts may be useful in the clinical treatment of fungal diseases. PMID:22974401

  17. Detection and characterization of zoonotic dermatophytes from dogs and cats in and around Kolkata

    PubMed Central

    Murmu, S.; Debnath, C.; Pramanik, A. K.; Mitra, T.; Jana, S.; Dey, S.; Banerjee, S.; Batabyal, K.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The ringworms of pet dogs, cats, and stray animals (dogs, cats, and other animals) could be a potential source of zoonotic infections causing a serious public health problem in the busy city Kolkata. The pet owners are more susceptible to get this infection from their pets, because of the close contact with them as dermatophytosis is very much prevalent in those pets. So, this study was aimed to check the prevalence of dermatophytosis in dogs, cats, and in pet owners. Materials and Methods: A total of 362 clinically suspected cases of dermatophytosis from dogs (123 in number), cats (202 in number), and human beings (37 in number) were collected and studied from in and around Kolkata to detect the presence of significant dermatophytes. Direct microscopy and cultural examination of the isolates were performed following standard methodology. Identification and characterization of the isolates were done by different biochemical tests. Results: Samples (n=285) having significant dermatophytic fungal infections were found to be of highest number in cats (158, 55.5%) than in dogs (108, 37.8%) and humans (19, 6.7%), respectively. The incidence of Microsporum canis (60.0%) was the highest from affecting dogs, cats, and human beings in comparison to Microsporum gypseum (22.5%), Trichophyton mentagrophytes (15.8%) and Trichophyton rubrum (1.7%). Detection of T. rubrum was only from human cases in this study, whereas the presence of rest three were slightly higher in cats than that of the dogs and humans in this present study. The incidences were higher in young animals and in humans of the age group of 21-30 years, during the rainy season (from April to August) and also in in-contact human beings. Conclusion: M. canis was the most commonly pathogen among all causing dermatophytosis in animals and also in the pet owners. M. gypseum and T. mentagrophytes were other pathogens associated with these infections. These infections were more prevalent in the rainy seasons and in in-contact human patients or pet owners. PMID:27047202

  18. Lung cancer epidemiology and risk factors in Asia and Africa.

    PubMed

    Lam, W K; White, N W; Chan-Yeung, M M

    2004-09-01

    In industrialised countries, lung cancer is the most common form of cancer among males and it is growing among females. For both sexes, rates reflect smoking behaviours. The pattern appears to be different in Asia, particularly in China, where lung cancer rates in men reflect high smoking rates but high rates among non-smoking women appear to be related to other factors. The incidence of lung cancer is low in most African countries, but it is increasing. In addition to tobacco smoking, a number of etiological factors have been identified for lung cancer: indoor exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, cooking oil vapour, coal burning, or radon, outdoor air pollution and occupational exposure to asbestos and other carcinogens. Recent studies have shown that dietary factors may be important, with high consumption of vegetables and fruits being protective while preserved food and fatty food are harmful, and certain infections such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, human papilloma virus and Microsporum canis are associated with a high risk of lung cancer. Among non-smokers, the probable role of genetic predisposition in lung cancer by increasing the individual's susceptibility to environmental carcinogens is currently being studied actively. As the single most important cause for lung cancer is tobacco smoke and, with increased sales, a major epidemic is predicted for both Asia and Africa, all health care professionals, government health authorities and national and international health organisations must join in a concerted effort against tobacco. PMID:15455588

  19. Isolation of keratinophilic fungi from floors in Roman primary schools.

    PubMed

    Mercantini, R; Marsella, R; Lambiase, L; Fulvi, F

    1983-05-22

    Keratinophilic fungi are present in the environment with variable distribution patterns that depend on different factors, one of which, of fundamental importance, is human and or animal presence. The present study was conducted in the environment and classrooms of schools in order to evaluate the relationship between the human presence and the presence of keratinophilic fungi. In order to achieve this goal, a new isolation technique was used. From 20 samples, 253 colonies of keratinophilic fungi were isolated. The results showed that species of the genus Chrysosporium were present in 100% of the samples, while Microsporum and Trichophyton species were present in 40% and 65% of the samples respectively. The percentage of three pathogenic species, M. canis (25), T. mentagrophytes (10) and M. gypseum (10) was significant. The other species isolated were: T. terrestre (55%), Trichophyton sp. (35%), M. cookei (25%) and T. ajelloi (10%). A correlation between the amount of gathered dust and the number of colonies of keratinophilic fungi isolated was not found. PMID:6193424

  20. The Dog Mite, Demodex canis: Prevalence, Fungal Co-Infection, Reactions to Light, and Hair Follicle Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Yu-Jen; Chung, Wen-Cheng; Wang, Lian-Chen; Ju, Yu-Ten; Hong, Chin-Lin; Tsai, Yu-Yang; Li, Yi-Hung; Wu, Ying-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Infection rate, reaction to light, and hair follicle apoptosis are examined in the dogmite, Demodex canis Leydig (Prostigmata: Demodicidae), in dogs from the northern area of Taiwan. An analysis of relevant samples revealed 7.2% (73/1013) prevalence of D. canis infection. Infection during the investigation peaked each winter, with an average prevalence of 12.5% (32/255). The infection rates significantly varied in accordance with month, sex, age, and breed (p < 0.05). Most of the lesions were discovered on the backs of the infected animals, where the infection rate was 52.1% (38/73) (P < 0.05). The epidemiologic analysis of infection based on landscape area factor, found that employing a map-overlapping method showed a higher infection rate in the eastern distribution of Taiwan's northern area than other areas. Isolation tests for Microsporum canis Bodin (Onygenales: Arthrodermataceae) and Trichophyton mentagrophyte Robin (Blanchard) on the D. canis infected dogs revealed prevalence rates of 4.4% (2/45) and 2.2% (1/45), respectively. Observations demonstrated that D. canis slowly moved from a light area to a dark area. Skin samples were examined for cellular apoptosis by activated caspase3 immunohistochemical staining. Cells that surrounded the infected hair follicles were activated caspase3-positive, revealing cell apoptosis in infected follicles via the activation of caspase3. PMID:21867442

  1. Design, spectral characterization and biological studies of transition metal(II) complexes with triazole Schiff bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanif, Muhammad; Chohan, Zahid H.

    2013-03-01

    A new series of three biologically active triazole derived Schiff base ligands L1-L3 have been synthesized in equimolar reaction of 3-amino-1H-1,2,4-triazole with pyrrol-2-carboxaldehyde, 4-bromo-thiophene-2-carboxaldehyde, and 5-iodo-2-hydroxy benzaldehyde. The prepared Schiff bases were used for further complex formation reaction with different metal elements like Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) as chlorides by using a molar ratio of ligand:metal as 2:1. The structure and bonding nature of all the compounds were identified by their physical, spectral and analytical data. All the metal(II) complexes possessed an octahedral geometry except the Cu(II) complexes which showed a distorted octahedral geometry. All the synthesized compounds, were studied for their in vitro antibacterial, and antifungal activities, against four Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi) and two Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) bacterial strains and against six fungal strains (Trichophyton longifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani and Candida glabrata) by using agar-well diffusion method. It has been shown that all the synthesized compounds showed moderate to significant antibacterial activity against one or more bacterial strains. In vitro Brine Shrimp bioassay was also carried out to investigate the cytotoxic properties of these compounds. The data also revealed that the metal complexes showed better activity than the ligands due to chelation/coordination.

  2. Synthesis, Biological Evaluation and Molecular Docking of Certain Sulfones as Potential Nonazole Antifungal Agents.

    PubMed

    Fares, Mohamed; Said, Mohamed A; Alsherbiny, Muhammad A; Eladwy, Radwa A; Almahli, Hadia; Abdel-Aziz, Marwa M; Ghabbour, Hazem A; Eldehna, Wagdy M; Abdel-Aziz, Hatem A

    2016-01-01

    We reported herein the synthesis, antifungal activity, docking and in silico ADME prediction studies of four novel series of sulfones 6a-f, 8a-c, 10a-f and 12a-c. All the newly synthesized sulfones were tested against four strains of Candida (including fluconazole-resistant Candida), two strains of Aspergillus, two dermatophytic fungi (Trichophytons mentagrophyte and Microsporum canis) and Syncephalastrum sp. with fluconazole as a reference drug. In general, compounds 8a and 10b showed selective and potent anticandidal activity (MIC: 0.19-0.81 µM) relative to fluconazole (MIC = 1.00 µM). Furthermore, 10e and 12a elicited a remarkable and selective antifungal activity against Aspergillus sp. and the dermatophytic fungi (MIC: 0.16-0.79 µM) relative to fluconazole (MIC: 2-2.6 µM). Moreover, the docking results of the sulfones 6a, 8a, 10a and 10b at the active site of CYT P450 14α-sterol demethylase showed a comparable binding interaction (interaction Energy = -34.87 to -42.43 kcal/mol) with that of fluconazole (IE = -40.37 kcal/mol). PMID:26805791

  3. An ancient plant Lawsonia inermis (henna): determination of in vitro antifungal activity against dermatophytes species.

    PubMed

    Gozubuyuk, G S; Aktas, E; Yigit, N

    2014-12-01

    World is endowed with a rich wealth of medicinal plants. There is a widespread belief that green medicines are healthier and more harmless or safer than synthetic ones. Medicinal plants have been used to cure a number of diseases. The ancient plant Lawsonia inermis or henna is used as medicinal plant because of its attributed strong fungicidal, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antibacterial, virucidal, antiparasitic, antiamoebiasis, astringent, antihemorrhagic, hypotensive, sedative, anticancer effect and possible anti-sweating properties. In this study, we investigated antifungal activity of L. inermis against clinical dermatophytes species. This study was carried out using 70 clinical isolates of dermatophytes representing six different species; 44 Trichophyton rubrum, 8 Trichophyton mentagrophytes, 6 Microsporum canis, 6 Trichophyton tonsurans, 4 Epidermophyton floccosum, and 2 Trichophyton violaceum. The antifungal activity of L. inermis (henna) was determined by agar diffusion method and henna was used as paste form. Henna paste showed the high antifungal activity against all dermatophytes species (20 to 50mm inhibition zone). PMID:25442917

  4. Antifungal and cytotoxic activities of Nannorrhops ritchiana roots extract.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Rehana; Mukhtar, Farah; Khan, Abida

    2014-01-01

    This atudy was designed to evaluate the antifungal and cytotoxic activities of the Nannorrhops ritchiana (Mazari Palm) 80% methanol extract (NR-M) and its four crude extracts i.e., petroleum ether (NR-A), dichloromethane (NR-B), ethyl acetate (NR-C) and butanol (NR-D). The antifungal activity was determined by agar tube dilution method against nine fungal strains; Aspergillus flavus, Trichophyton longifusis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Aspergillus flavus and Microsporum canis were susceptible to the extracts with percentage inhibition of (70-80%). Extracts exhibited significant and good antifungal activity against various fungal strains. The results were deduced by comparing with those for miconazole, amphotericin B and ketoconazole as standard drugs. The fractions of methanolic extract were assayed for their brine shrimp cytotoxic activity. They exhibited low toxicity with LC50 values ranging from 285.7 to 4350.75 μg/mL at the concentration of obtained results warrant follow up through bioassay guided isolation of the active principles, future antiinfectious research. PMID:25362807

  5. Screening of selected medicinal plants for in vitro antidermatophytic activity.

    PubMed

    Kalaivanan, C; Chandrasekaran, M; Venkatesalu, V

    2013-12-01

    Different solvent extracts of leaves of Achyranthes aspera, Aegle marmelos, Cleistanthus collinus, Curcuma aromatica and Strychnos nux-vomica were screened against dermatophytes viz., Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, Microsporum gypseum, M. canis and Epidermophyton floccossum var. nigricans. The mean zones of inhibition were between 7.1 and 26.5mm. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC) were from 7.81 to 500 and from 15.62 to 1000μg/mL respectively. The highest mean zone of inhibition (26.5mm), the lowest MIC value (7.81μg/ml) and the lowest MFC (15.62μg/ml) were observed in ethyl acetate extract of A. aspera against T. rubrum. The standard antifungal drug ketoconazole (10μg/disc) was used as the positive control and mean zones of inhibition were from 23 to 29mm. Further separation of active principle from ethyl acetate extract of A. aspera is under progress. PMID:24135649

  6. Design, spectral characterization and biological studies of transition metal(II) complexes with triazole Schiff bases.

    PubMed

    Hanif, Muhammad; Chohan, Zahid H

    2013-03-01

    A new series of three biologically active triazole derived Schiff base ligands L(1)-L(3) have been synthesized in equimolar reaction of 3-amino-1H-1,2,4-triazole with pyrrol-2-carboxaldehyde, 4-bromo-thiophene-2-carboxaldehyde, and 5-iodo-2-hydroxy benzaldehyde. The prepared Schiff bases were used for further complex formation reaction with different metal elements like Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) as chlorides by using a molar ratio of ligand:metal as 2:1. The structure and bonding nature of all the compounds were identified by their physical, spectral and analytical data. All the metal(II) complexes possessed an octahedral geometry except the Cu(II) complexes which showed a distorted octahedral geometry. All the synthesized compounds, were studied for their in vitro antibacterial, and antifungal activities, against four Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi) and two Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) bacterial strains and against six fungal strains (Trichophyton longifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani and Candida glabrata) by using agar-well diffusion method. It has been shown that all the synthesized compounds showed moderate to significant antibacterial activity against one or more bacterial strains. In vitro Brine Shrimp bioassay was also carried out to investigate the cytotoxic properties of these compounds. The data also revealed that the metal complexes showed better activity than the ligands due to chelation/coordination. PMID:23277183

  7. Metal-based carboxamide-derived compounds endowed with antibacterial and antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Hanif, Muhammad; Chohan, Zahid H; Winum, Jean-Yves; Akhtar, Javeed

    2014-08-01

    A series of three bioactive thiourea (carboxamide) derivatives, N-(dipropylcarbamothioyl)-thiophene-2-carboxamide (L(1)), N-(dipropylcarbamothioyl)-5-methylthiophene-2-carboxamide (L(2)) and 5-bromo-N-(dipropylcarbamothioyl)furan-2-carboxamide (L(3)) and their cobalt(II), copper(II), nickel(II) and zinc(II) complexes (1)-(12) have been synthesized and characterized by their IR,(1)H-NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and elemental analysis data. The Crystal structure of one of the ligand, N-(dipropylcarbamothioyl)thiophene-2-carboxamide (L(1)) and its nickel(II) and copper(II) complexes were determined from single crystal X-ray diffraction data. All the ligands and metal(II) complexes have been subjected to in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activity against six bacterial species (Escherichia coli. Shigella flexneri. Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Salmonella typhi. Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and for antifungal activity against six fungal strains (Trichophyton longifusus. Candida albicans. Aspergillus flavus. Microsporum canis. Fusarium solani and Candida glabrata). The in vitro antibacterial and antifungal bioactivity data showed the metal(II) complexes to be more potent than the parent ligands against one or more bacterial and fungal strains. PMID:23914928

  8. Biological activities of selected basidiomycetes from Yemen.

    PubMed

    Al-Fatimi, M; Schröder, G; Kreisel, H; Lindequist, U

    2013-03-01

    In a previous paper we demonstrated the results of biological screening of Yemeni basidiomycetes. The present study was aimed to investigate the antimicrobial and the antioxidant activity of further basidiomycetes collected in Yemen. Dichloromethane, methanol and aqueous extracts of the fruiting bodies of 25 species were screened in vitro for their antibacterial activities against three Gram-positive bacteria (Staphyloccocus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus flavus) and two Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa), against six human fungal pathogens (Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Aspergillus fumigatus, Mucor sp., Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes) and against one non human pathogenic fungus (Candida maltosa). The results indicated that 75 extracts exhibited activity against one or more of the bacteria. The methanol extracts of Agaricus cf. bernardii, Agrocybe pediades, Chlorophyllum molybdites, Coriolopsis polyzona, Ganoderma xylonoides, Pycnoporus sanguineus, Trametes lactinea and Trametes cingulata showed activity against all tested bacteria. The highest antibacterial activity was exhibited by methanol extracts from Chlorophyllum molybdites, Ganoderma xylonoides and Trametes cingulata and Agaricus cf. bernardii, Agrocybe pediades, Coriolopsis polyzona, Pycnoporus sanguineus and Trametes lactinea. The methanol extracts of Chlorophyllum molybdites, Ganoderma xylonoides and Pycnoporus sanguineus showed considerable antifungal activities against the tested fungal strains. Strong antioxidative effects employing the DPPH assay were exhibited by methanol extracts from Chlorophyllum molybdites, Ganoderma xylonoides, Hexagonia velutina, Pycnoporus sanguineus, Trametes lactinea and Trametes cingulata. Our previous and presented studies about 48 basidiomycetes collected in Yemen provide evidence that basidiomycetes from the Arabic region so far should attract more attention as potential source for new biologically active agents. PMID:23556343

  9. [Infections which humans in the household transmit to dogs and cats].

    PubMed

    Mayr, A

    1989-04-01

    An overview of the most important infections which can be transmitted from humans to pet dogs and cats is presented. Two quite different sources of infection stand diametrically opposite each other: 1. The transmission of active human infections to dogs and cats and 2. the transmission of infectious agents by feeding raw meat, offal, unsterilized milk products, kitchen scraps and contaminated feedstuffs. Humans can be the source of the following infections: 1. Zoonoses with reciprocal modes of transmission, e.g. Campylobacter and E. coli infections, trichophyton and microsporum infections, reo-, parainfluenza-, adeno, rota- and corona infections. 2. Zoonoses in which the main direction of infection is human----animal, e.g. tuberculosis and influenza A. 3. Infections originally pathogenic to humans which meet an impasse in dogs and cats (blind alley hosts), e.g. herpes simplex, varicella-zoster, measles and Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Listeria, salmonella, campylobacteria, toxoplasma, fungi, yeasts and viruses are transmitted via feed. The most dangerous virus infection to be transmitted to cats and dogs via raw pork leftovers is Aujeszky's disease. The dog or cat, which is the last link in the infection chain, suffers an agonizing death. The other infections originating from feed must be assessed quite differently. They are links in infection chains, which spread pathogens and endanger the health of man and animal in turn. A typical example is toxoplasmosis. Man becomes infected via sporulated oocysts from feces. Pet cats mainly become infected via raw pork containing cysts. PMID:2500809

  10. High dermatophyte contamination levels in hairdressing salons of a West African suburban community.

    PubMed

    Coulibaly, O; Thera, M A; Piarroux, R; Doumbo, O K; Ranque, S

    2015-02-01

    Tinea capitis is a dermatophyte infection of scalp is commonly spread by currently infected patients, asymptomatic carriers or by fomites, such as hairdressing tools. However, studies on the risk factors of Tinea capitis remain scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dermatophytes contamination level of the hairdressing tools to which hairdressing salon customers are exposed in Sirakoro-Méguétana, a suburb of Bamako, the capital city of Mali. A total of 41 hairdressing tools were sampled in five hairdressing salons. Two anthropophilic dermatophytes species, Microsporum audouinii (53.3%) and Trichophyton soudanense (46.7%), were cultured from 30 (73.2%) samples. This first study, addressing hairdressing salons dermatophyte contamination, revealed a strikingly high contamination of hairdressing tools with dermatophyte propagules, which exposes hairdressing salons customers to an important dermatophytosis risk. The sterilisation of hairdressing tools is central to preventing dermatophytoses spreading. Appropriate community information and hairdressers training should be implemented in this view. PMID:25385435

  11. In vitro activity of aminosterols against dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Coulibaly, Oumar; Alhanout, Kamel; L'Ollivier, Coralie; Brunel, Jean-Michel; Thera, Mahamadou A; Djimdé, Abdoulaye A; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Piarroux, Renaud; Ranque, Stéphane

    2013-04-01

    We recently reported that aminosterols are fungicidal due to their disrupting the outer membranes of yeasts and that they have a significant in vitro activity against various mould species. Yet, their activity against dermatophytes had never been tested. This study's objective was to evaluate the in vitro activity of squalamine and a synthetic aminosterol derivative (ASD) against various dermatophytes. Susceptibility testing of squalamine, ASD, terbinafine, and griseofulvin was performed, in triplicate, in accord with the Clinical Laboratory and Standards Institute's M38-A2 procedure, using an 80% growth inhibition endpoint. The studies included the following dermatophytes: Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, T. soudanense, Microsporum canis, M. audouinii, M. persicolor; M. cookie and M. gypseum. Squalamine and ASD showed significant in vitro activity against these dermatophytes. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranged from 4-16 mg/l and from 2-8 mg/l for squalamine and ASD, respectively. These findings support further clinical studies of aminosterols activity against superficial dermatophyte infections. PMID:22998181

  12. Dermatophytes and keratinophilic fungi in cats and dogs.

    PubMed

    Caretta, G; Mancianti, F; Ajello, L

    1989-12-01

    During an 11 month period from January to November 1987, dermatophytes and keratinophilic fungi were isolated from 70 (75%) of 93 cats and 62 (36.9%) of 168 dogs. The most common isolate was Microsporum canis from 54 (58%) cats and 33 (19.6%) dogs, followed by Trichophyton mentagrophytes from 5 (5.4%) cats and 9 (5.3%) dogs, Aphanoascus fulvescens (4 cats and 9 dogs), M. gypseum (5 dogs), Tr. terrestre (3 dogs) Myceliophthora vellerea (2 dogs) and Chrysosporium indicum, Chr. merdarium and Chr. tropicum from cats. Alternaria, Scopulariopsis, Penicillium, Cladosporium, Aspergillus and Acremoniumspp., in descending frequency, were the most commonly found fungi in cats and dogs. The frequent infestation by the mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae on M. canis cultures suggest that mites may play a part in the carriage of fungi among animals. This mycophagous mite could disperse the fungi in animal hair by way of their fecal pellets during a transitory infestation. In this instance, the female mite can lay eggs and these could hatch on the animal's hair or in Petri dishes in which hair samples are cultured. In this event the future prospects of animal prophylaxis against dermatophytes could be made more effective by the regular use of acaricide agents on animal hair. PMID:2622475

  13. Metal based new triazoles: Their synthesis, characterization and antibacterial/antifungal activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumrra, Sajjad H.; Chohan, Zahid H.

    2012-12-01

    A series of new triazoles and their oxovanadium(IV) complexes have been synthesized, characterized and evaluated for antibacterial/antifungal properties. The new Schiff bases ligands (L1)-(L5) were prepared by the condensation reaction of 3,5-diamino-1,2,4-triazole with 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde, pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde, pyridine-2-carboxaldehyde, 2-acetyl pyridine and 2-methoxy benzaldehyde. The structures of the ligands have been established on the basis of their physical, spectral (IR, 1H and 13C NMR and mass spectrometry) and elemental analytical data. The prepared ligands were used to synthesize their oxovanadium(IV) complexes (1)-(5) which were also characterized by their physical, spectral and analytical data and proposed to have a square pyramidal geometry. The ligands and their complexes were screened for in vitro antibacterial activity against six bacterial species such as, Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis and for in vitro antifungal activity against six fungal strains, Trichophyton longifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani, and Candida glabrata. Cytotoxic nature of the compounds was also reported using brine shrimp bioassay method against Artemia salina.

  14. Antidermatophytic activity of hydroalcoholic extracts from Rosmarinus officinalis and Tetradenia riparia.

    PubMed

    Endo, E H; Costa, G M; Nakamura, T U; Nakamura, C V; Dias Filho, B P

    2015-12-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis and Tetradenia riparia are used in folk medicine for the treatment of disease, including infectious diseases and skin disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antifungal activity of hydroalcoholic extracts from R. officinalis and T. riparia against strains of Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes and Microsporum gypseum. Hydroalcoholic extracts prepared with dried leaves from R. officinalis, Psidium guajava and T. riparia were assayed against dermatophyte species by the microdilution technique and by microscopy. R. officinalis and T. riparia were the most active against dermatophytes, as determined from the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC), and were investigated further. Fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to investigate inhibition of hyphal growth by the two extracts, and showed a strong inhibition and an irregular growth pattern. Both extracts showed good action against dermatophytes, inhibiting fungal growth and causing alterations in their hyphae. Therefore, R. officinalis and T. riparia are potential sources of new compounds for the development of antifungal drugs. PMID:26603099

  15. Isolation of Sporothrix schenckii from the claws of domestic cats (indoor and outdoor) and in captivity in São Paulo (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Borges, Tatiana Saleme; Rossi, Claudio Nazaretian; Fedullo, José Daniel Luzes; Taborda, Carlos Pelleschi; Taborda, João Pelleschi; Larsson, Carlos Eduardo

    2013-08-01

    Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous mycosis and is also a zoonosis (sapro- and anthropozoonosis). The objective of the present study was to determine the occurrence of sporotrichosis in domestic cats and in wild or exotic felines in captivity through the isolation of Sporothrix spp. from claw impressions in a culture medium. The samples included 132 felines, of which 120 (91.0 %) were domestic cats, 11 (8.3 %) were wild felines, and one (0.7 %) was an exotic felid. Twenty-one (17.5 %) were outdoor cats. Of the total, 89 (67.4 %) had contact with other animals of the same species. It was possible to isolate Sporothrix schenckii from the claws of one (0.7 %) of the felids probed; this animal exhibited generalised sporotrichosis and had infected a female veterinarian. The potential pathogenic agents Microsporum canis and Malassezia pachydermatis were isolated in 12.1 and 5.3 % of the animals, respectively. The following anemophilous fungi, which were considered to be contaminants, were also isolated: Penicillium sp. (28 or 21.2 %), Aspergillus sp. (13 or 9.8 %), Rhodotorula sp. (5 or 3.8 %), Candida sp. (5 or 3.8 %), Trichoderma sp. (1 or 0.7 %), and Acremonium sp. (1 or 0.7 %). Due to the low magnitude of occurrence (0.7 %) of Sporothrix in feline claws, the potential of the cats evaluated in this study to be sources of infection in the city of São Paulo is considerably low. PMID:23729233

  16. Synthesis, characterization, and antimicrobial evaluation of some new hydrazinecarbothioamide, 1,2,4-triazole and 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives.

    PubMed

    Güzeldemirci, Nuray Ulusoy; Satana, Dilek; Küçükbasmacı, Omer

    2013-10-01

    In this work, we reported the synthesis and evaluation of antibacterial and antifungal activities of three new compound series obtained from 6-(phenyl/4-chlorophenyl)imidazo[2,1-b]thiazole-3-acetic acid hydrazide: 2-{[6-(phenyl/4-chlorophenyl)imidazo[2,1-b]thiazol-3-yl]acetyl}-N-alkyl/arylhydrazinecarbothioamides (2a-d), 4-alkyl/aryl-2,4-dihydro-5-{[6-(phenyl/4-chlorophenyl)imidazo[2,1-b]thiazol-3-yl]methyl}-3H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiones (3a-n), and 2-alkyl/arylamino-5-{[6-(phenyl/4-chlorophenyl)imidazo[2,1-b]thiazol-3-yl]methyl}-1,3,4-thiadiazoles (4a-g). The newly synthesized compounds were characterized by IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR (APT), mass and elemental analysis. Their antibacterial and antifungal activities were evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Candida albicans ATCC 10231, C. parapsilosis ATCC 22019, C. krusei ATCC 6258, Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei NCPF 375, Microsporum gypseum NCPF 580, and T. tonsurans NCPF 245. 3c, 3f, 3m, 3n, and 4e showed the highest antibacterial activity. Particularly 3c, 3f, 3g, 3k, 3n, 4a, 4e, and 4g showed the highest antifungal activity against tested fungi. PMID:22845330

  17. Distribution of dermatophytes and other related fungi in Jaipur city, with particular reference to soil pH.

    PubMed

    Jain, Neetu; Sharma, Meenakshi

    2011-01-01

    Screening of 217 soil samples of different habitats, such as PG study centre, garden, farmhouse, nursery, roadside, hostel, animal habitat, bird habitat, marriage garden, temple, vegetable market and house dust, was carried out for the presence of dermatophytes and related fungi in relation to soil pH. A total of 461 isolates belonging to 26 genera and 34 species were recorded. Soil pH values vary from 3 to 10.5. Trichophyton verrucosum, Microsporum audouinii and M. canis were isolated for the first time in Jaipur from pH range 7.0 to 9.0. Chrysosporium tropicum (46.08%) was the most predominant fungus isolated from pH range 6.5 to 9.5. Trichophyton mentagrophytes (24.88%) was the second most common fungal species isolated from pH 6.5 to 9.5. Most of the keratinophilic fungi were isolated from pH 6.5 to 8.5. Only one isolate of Fusarium moniliforme was reported from a highly acidic site at pH 3. Roadside and garden soils were found to be the most suitable sites for almost all keratinophilic fungi. PMID:19638000

  18. Polyhydroxyalkanoate-based 3-hydroxyoctanoic acid and its derivatives as a platform of bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Radivojevic, Jelena; Skaro, Sanja; Senerovic, Lidija; Vasiljevic, Branka; Guzik, Maciej; Kenny, Shane T; Maslak, Veselin; Nikodinovic-Runic, Jasmina; O'Connor, Kevin E

    2016-01-01

    A library of 18 different compounds was synthesized starting from (R)-3-hydroxyoctanoic acid which is derived from the bacterial polymer polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA). Ten derivatives, including halo and unsaturated methyl and benzyl esters, were synthesized and characterized for the first time. Given that (R)-3-hydroxyalkanoic acids are known to have biological activity, the new compounds were evaluated for antimicrobial activity and in vitro antiproliferative effect with mammalian cell lines. The presence of the carboxylic group was essential for the antimicrobial activity, with minimal inhibitory concentrations against a panel of bacteria (Gram-positive and Gram-negative) and fungi (Candida albicans and Microsporum gypseum) in the range 2.8-7.0 mM and 0.1-6.3 mM, respectively. 3-Halogenated octanoic acids exhibited the ability to inhibit C. albicans hyphae formation. In addition, (R)-3-hydroxyoctanoic and (E)-oct-2-enoic acids inhibited quorum sensing-regulated pyocyanin production in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Generally, derivatives did not inhibit mammalian cell proliferation even at 3-mM concentrations, while only (E)-oct-2-enoic and 3-oxooctanoic acid had IC50 values of 1.7 and 1.6 mM with the human lung fibroblast cell line. PMID:26399414

  19. Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of protozoal infections. I. Screening of activity to bacteria, fungi and American trypanosomes of 13 native plants.

    PubMed

    Cáceres, A; López, B; González, S; Berger, I; Tada, I; Maki, J

    1998-10-01

    Extracts were prepared from 13 native plants used for the treatment of protozoal infections. Activity against bacteria and fungi was demonstrated by dilution procedures; Trypanosoma cruzi was evaluated in vitro against epimastigote and trypomastigotes and in vivo against trypomastigotes. In active extracts, toxicity was evaluated by Artemia salina nauplii, oral acute toxicity (1-5 g/kg) and oral and intraperitoneal subacute toxicity in mice (500 mg/kg). From the plants screened, six showed activity (< or = 2 mg/ml) against bacteria, three against yeasts, five against Microsporum gypseum and five against T. cruzi in vitro and/or in vivo. In vitro and in vivo activity was demonstrated by Neurolaena lobata and Solanum americanum; in vitro or in vivo activity was shown by Acalypha guatemalensis, Petiveria alliacea and Tridax procumbens. Toxicity studies showed that extracts from S. americanum are toxic to A. salina (aqueous, 160 ppm). None showed acute or oral toxicity to mice; S. americanum showed intraperitoneal subacute toxicity. PMID:9849628

  20. Antifungal activity of different neem leaf extracts and the nimonol against some important human pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, D.A.; Hassanein, N.M.; Youssef, K.A.; Abou Zeid, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of aqueous, ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts from neem leaves on growth of some human pathogens (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus, Candida albicans and Microsporum gypseum) in vitro. Different concentrations (5, 10, 15 and 20%) prepared from these extracts inhibited the growth of the test pathogens and the effect gradually increased with concentration. The 20% ethyl acetate extract gave the strongest inhibition compared with the activity obtained by the same concentration of the other extracts. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis of ethyl acetate extract showed the presence of a main component (nimonol) which was purified and chemically confirmed by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopic analysis. The 20% ethyl acetate extract lost a part of its antifungal effect after pooling out the nimonol and this loss in activity was variable on test pathogens. The purified nimonol as a separate compound did not show any antifungal activity when assayed against all the six fungal pathogens. PMID:24031718

  1. Chalcone derivatives as potential antifungal agents: Synthesis, and antifungal activity

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Deepa; Jain, D. K.

    2015-01-01

    Much research has been carried out with the aim to discover the therapeutic values of chalcone derivatives. Chalcones possess wide range of pharmacological activity such as antibacterial, antimalarial, antiprotozoal, antitubercular, anticancer, and antifungal agents etc. The presence of reactive α,β-unsaturated keto group in chalcones is found to be responsible for their biological activity. The rapid developments of resistance to antifungal agents, led to design, and synthesize the new antifungal agents. The derivatives of chalcones were prepared using Claisen–Schmidt condensation scheme with appropriate tetralone and aldehyde derivatives. Ten derivatives were synthesized and were biologically screened for antifungal activity. The newly synthesized derivatives of chalcone showed antifungal activity against fungal species, Microsporum gypseum. The results so obtained were superior or comparable to ketoconazole. It was observed that none of the compounds tested showed positive results for fungi Candida albicans nor against fungi Aspergillus niger. Chalcone derivatives showed inhibitory effect against M. gypseum species of fungus. It was found that among the chalcone derivatives so synthesized, two of them, that is, 4-chloro derivative, and unsubstituted derivative of chalcone showed antifungal activity superior to ketoconazole. Thus, these can be the potential new molecule as antifungal agent. PMID:26317075

  2. The Prevalence and Pattern of Superficial Fungal Infections among School Children in Ile-Ife, South-Western Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oke, Olaide Olutoyin; Onayemi, Olaniyi; Olasode, Olayinka Abimbola; Omisore, Akinlolu Gabriel; Oninla, Olumayowa Abimbola

    2014-01-01

    Fungal infections of the skin and nails are common global problems with attendant morbidity among affected individuals. Children are mostly affected due to predisposing factors such as overcrowding and low socioeconomic factors. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and the clinical patterns of superficial fungal infections among primary school children in Ile-Ife. A multistage sampling was conducted to select eight hundred pupils from ten primary schools in Ile-Ife. Data on epidemiological characteristics and clinical history was collected using a semistructured questionnaire and skin scrapings were done. The prevalence of superficial fungal infections among the 800 respondents was 35.0%. Male pupils constituted 51.0% of respondents while the females were 49.0%. The mean age for all the respondents was 9.42 ± 2.00. Tinea capitis was the commonest infection with a prevalence of 26.9% and tinea unguium, tinea corporis, and tinea faciei had a prevalence of 0.8%, 0.6%, and 0.5%, respectively. Tinea manuum had the least prevalence of 0.1%. Pityriasis versicolor had a prevalence of 4.4%. Microsporum audouinii was the leading organism isolated. The study shows that the prevalence of superficial fungal infection (SFI) among primary school children in Ile-Ife is high with tinea capitis as the commonest SFI. PMID:25574161

  3. [Pets as permanent excretors of zoonoses pathogens].

    PubMed

    Mayr, B

    1993-02-01

    When scrutinizing zoonoses with regard to risks for human beings, the spectrum of pathogens with dogs, cats and birds leading to persistent infections and consequently to the fact that the animals become carriers and permanent excretors is relatively small. Most of the zoonoses cause clinical symptoms and will be taken care of correspondingly. With regard to dogs there is a multitude of persistent infections that are transferred from the pet to the human being and vice versa. In reality, however, the importance of the dog as permanent excretor of zoonosis pathogens endangering human health is minimal, except for some parasitoses. As far as cats are concerned, the situation is totally different. Cats are carriers and permanent excretors of pasteurella, the pathogens of the so-called cat-scratch disease, trichophyton and microsporum species, toxoplasmosis and orthopox viruses. The new zoonosis feline pox serves as an example of the necessity of a permanent observation of persistently infected pets. Healthy, but persistently infected birds form a source of infection not to be underestimated. Through the beat of their wings they constantly stir up dried infectious excrements and dust and thus favour the airborn infection of human beings. Chlamydia psittaci, the Newcastle disease virus and Mycobacterium avium are of major importance in this context. The risk of transferring zoonosis pathogens from persistently infected pets to human beings can be minimized through prophylactic diagnosis, strict measures of hygiene, observation of the schedule of vaccinations for the respective species and regular use of anthelmintica. PMID:8333899

  4. Antimicrobial activity in cultures of endophytic fungi isolated from Garcinia species.

    PubMed

    Phongpaichit, Souwalak; Rungjindamai, Nattawut; Rukachaisirikul, Vatcharin; Sakayaroj, Jariya

    2006-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to screen for antimicrobial activity in endophytic fungi isolated from surface sterilized leaves and branches of five Garcinia plants, G. atroviridis, G. dulcis, G. mangostana, G. nigrolineata and G. scortechinii, found in southern Thailand. Fermentation broths from 377 isolated fungi were tested for antimicrobial activity by the agar diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were obtained for crude ethyl acetate extracts. Seventy isolates (18.6%) displayed antimicrobial activity against at least one pathogenic microorganism, such as Staphylococcus aureus, a clinical isolate of methicillin-resistant S. aureus, Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. The results revealed that 6-10%, 1-2% and 18% of the crude ethyl acetate extracts inhibited both strains of S. aureus (MIC 32-512 microg mL(-1)), Ca. albicans and Cr. neoformans (MIC 64-200 microg mL(-1)), and Microsporum gypseum (MIC 2-64 microg mL(-1)), respectively. Isolates D15 and M76 displayed the strongest antibacterial activity against both strains of S. aureus. Isolates M76 and N24 displayed strong antifungal activity against M. gypseum. Fungal molecular identification based on internal transcribed spacer rRNA gene sequence analysis demonstrated that isolates D15 (DQ480353), M76 (DQ480360) and N24 (DQ480361) represented Phomopsis sp., Botryosphaeria sp. and an unidentified fungal endophyte, respectively. These results indicate that some endophytic fungi from Garcinia plants are a potential source of antimicrobial agents. PMID:17052267

  5. Anti-microbial activity and anti-complement activity of extracts obtained from selected Hawaiian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Locher, C P; Burch, M T; Mower, H F; Berestecky, J; Davis, H; Van Poel, B; Lasure, A; Vanden Berghe, D A; Vlietinck, A J

    1995-11-17

    Selected plants having a history of use in Polynesian traditional medicine for the treatment of infectious disease were investigated for anti-viral, anti-fungal and anti-bacterial activity in vitro. Extracts from Scaevola sericea, Psychotria hawaiiensis, Pipturus albidus and Eugenia malaccensis showed selective anti-viral activity against Herpes Simplex Virus-1 and 2 and Vesicular Stomatitis Virus. Aleurites moluccana extracts showed anti-bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, while Pipturus albidus and Eugenia malaccensis extracts showed growth inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. Psychotria hawaiiensis and Solanum niger inhibited growth of the fungi Microsporum canis, Trichophyton rubrum and Epidermophyton floccosum, while Ipomoea sp., Pipturus albidus, Scaevola sericea, Eugenia malaccensis, Piper methysticum, Barringtonia asiatica and Adansonia digitata extracts showed anti-fungal activity to a lesser extent. Eugenia malaccensis was also found to inhibit the classical pathway of complement suggesting that an immunological basis for its in vivo activity was identified. This study has confirmed some of the ethnobotanical reports of Hawaiian medicinal plants having curative properties against infections using biological assays in vitro. PMID:8786654

  6. Interkingdom gene transfer of a hybrid NPS/PKS from bacteria to filamentous Ascomycota.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Daniel P; Kroken, Scott; Pryor, Barry M; Arnold, A Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Nonribosomal peptides (NRPs) and polyketides (PKs) are ecologically important secondary metabolites produced by bacteria and fungi using multidomain enzymes called nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) and polyketide synthases (PKSs), respectively. Previous phylogenetic analyses of fungal NRPSs and PKSs have suggested that a few of these genes were acquired by fungi via horizontal gene transfer (HGT) from bacteria, including a hybrid NPS/PKS found in Cochliobolus heterostrophus (Dothideomycetes, Ascomycota). Here, we identify this hybrid gene in fungi representing two additional classes of Ascomycota (Aspergillus spp., Microsporum canis, Arthroderma spp., and Trichophyton spp., Eurotiomycetes; Chaetomium spp. and Metarhizium spp., Sordariomycetes) and use phylogenetic analyses of the most highly conserved domains from NRPSs (adenylation (A) domain) and PKSs (ketoacyl synthase (KS) domain) to examine the hypothesis that the hybrid NPS7/PKS24 was acquired by fungi from bacteria via HGT relatively early in the evolution of the Pezizomycotina. Our results reveal a unique ancestry of the A domain and KS domain in the hybrid gene relative to known fungal NRPSs and PKSs, provide strong evidence for HGT of the hybrid gene from a putative bacterial donor in the Burkholderiales, and suggest the HGT event occurred early in the evolution of the filamentous Ascomycota. PMID:22140558

  7. Endomelanconiopsis, a new anamorph genus in the Botryosphaeriaceae.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Enith I; Herre, Edward Allen; Meja, Luis C; Arnold, A Elizabeth; Chaverri, Priscila; Samuels, Gary J

    2008-01-01

    A new lineage is discovered within the Botryosphaeriaceae (Ascomycetes, Dothideomycetes, incertae sedis). Consistent with current practice of providing generic names for independent lineages, this lineage is described as Endomelanconiopsis gen. nov., with the anamorphic species E. endophytica sp. nov. and E. microspora comb. nov. (= Endomelanconium microsporum). Endomelanconiopsis is characterized by eustromatic conidiomata and holoblastically produced, brown, nonapiculate, unicellular conidia, each with a longitudinal germ slit. Phylogenetic analysis of partial sequences of LSU, ITS and translation elongation factor 1 alpha (tef1) indicate that E. endophytica is sister of E. microspora and that they are nested within the Botryosphaeriaceae. However because there is no support for the "backbone" of the Botryosphaeriacae we are not able to see the interrelationships among the many genera in the family. Neither species is known to have a teleomorph. Endomelanconiopsis differs from Endomelanconium because conidia of the type species of Endomelanconium, E. pini, are papillate at the base, conidiogenous cells proliferate sympodially and the pycnidial wall is thinner; we postulate that the teleomorph of E. pini as yet unknown is an inoperculate discomycete. Endomelanconiopsis endophytica was isolated as an endophyte from healthy leaves of Theobroma cacao (cacao, Malvaceae) and Heisteria concinna (Erythroplaceae) in Panama. Endomelanconiopsis microspora was isolated from soil in Europe. PMID:18959162

  8. Sequenced dermatophyte strains: growth rate, conidiation, drug susceptibilities, and virulence in an invertebrate model.

    PubMed

    Achterman, Rebecca R; Smith, Adam R; Oliver, Brian G; White, Theodore C

    2011-03-01

    Although dermatophytes are the most common cause of fungal infections in the world, their basic biology is not well understood. The recent sequencing and annotation of the genomes of five representative dermatophyte species allows for the creation of hypotheses as to how they cause disease and have adapted to their distinct environments. An understanding of the microbiology of these strains will be essential for testing these hypotheses. This study is the first to generally characterize these five sequenced strains of dermatophytes for their microbiological aspects. We measured the growth rate on solid medium and found differences between species, with Microsporum gypseum CBS118893 having the fastest growth and Trichophyton rubrum CBS118892 the slowest. We also compared different media for conidia production and found that the highest numbers of conidia were produced when dermatophytes were grown on MAT agar. We determined the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of nine antifungal agents and confirmed susceptibility to antifungals commonly used as selectable markers. Finally, we tested virulence in the Galleria mellonella (wax moth) larvae model but found the results variable. These results increase our understanding of the microbiology and molecular biology of these dermatophyte strains and will be of use in advancing hypothesis-driven research about dermatophytes. PMID:21145410

  9. Myrtus communis L. as source of a bioactive and safe essential oil.

    PubMed

    Bouzabata, Amel; Cabral, Célia; Gonçalves, Maria José; Cruz, Maria Teresa; Bighelli, Ange; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Casanova, Joseph; Tomi, Félix; Salgueiro, Ligia

    2015-01-01

    In Algeria, Myrtus communis L. is distributed throughout the Tell Atlas and the coastal regions of Algiers and Constantine. The leaves are used in respiratory disorders, diarrhea and hemorrhoids. The aims of this work were to evaluate the antifungal and anti-inflammatory potential of well characterized essential oils (EO). Since EO can be applied by inhalation, dermal application and oral administration, we used several mammalian cell lines to assess safe bioactive doses. The chemical composition of two samples was investigated by GC-FID, GC-MS and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. Monoterpene derivatives are the main compounds: α-pinene (50.8 and 33.6%), 1,8-cineole (21.9 and 13.3%), linalool (2.7 and 14.8%), and linalyl acetate (0.5 and 9.5%). The antifungal evaluation revealed that the oils were more active against Cryptococcus neoformans (yeast) and Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton rubrum (dermatophytes). The anti-inflammatory potential was evaluated using an in vitro model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages. Assessment of cell viability was made through the MTT assay. Both oils were able to significantly inhibit NO production, without affecting cell viability, in concentrations up to 0.64 mg/mL. These promising results, disclose bioactive concentrations of Myrtle essential oils with a safety profile suggesting a potential oral and topical application or use by inhalation. PMID:25446467

  10. Occurrence and impact of zoonoses in pet dogs and cats at US Air Force bases.

    PubMed

    Warner, R D

    1984-11-01

    A descriptive epidemiologic study was conducted to quantitate the occurrence of zoonoses in pet animals (almost exclusively dogs and cats) at 30 Air Force bases in nine regions of the United States during 1980 and 1981. Reviews of reported cases of pet-associated zoonoses in humans at these bases were included. Occurrence of a zoonotic disease in dogs and cats was expressed as a ratio of reported cases per 100 rabies vaccinations (cs/Crv). Overall, the four zoonoses reported most frequently from these pets were hookworms, roundworms, tapeworms, and fleas. Annual ratios revealed geographic variations: for example, hookworms in dogs and cats in the southeast ranged from 12.3 to 9.4 cs/Crv; in the northern Great Plains, hookworms ranged from 0.9 to 0.4 cs/Crv. Dermatomycoses in the southeast ranged from 1.3 to 1.1 cs/Crv, and in Alaska from 0.3 to 0.2 cs/Crv. Quarterly zoonoses occurrence revealed seasonal variations in several regions. Reports of zoonoses in people from these bases indicated that five less frequent zoonoses in dogs and cats (Microsporum canis dermatomycosis, fleas, Sarcoptes scabiei var canis, Gram-positive bacterial infections, and rabies) presented greater acute threats to humans than did the four most frequent zoonoses reported from their pets. PMID:6496816

  11. Occurrence and impact of zoonoses in pet dogs and cats at US Air Force bases.

    PubMed Central

    Warner, R D

    1984-01-01

    A descriptive epidemiologic study was conducted to quantitate the occurrence of zoonoses in pet animals (almost exclusively dogs and cats) at 30 Air Force bases in nine regions of the United States during 1980 and 1981. Reviews of reported cases of pet-associated zoonoses in humans at these bases were included. Occurrence of a zoonotic disease in dogs and cats was expressed as a ratio of reported cases per 100 rabies vaccinations (cs/Crv). Overall, the four zoonoses reported most frequently from these pets were hookworms, roundworms, tapeworms, and fleas. Annual ratios revealed geographic variations: for example, hookworms in dogs and cats in the southeast ranged from 12.3 to 9.4 cs/Crv; in the northern Great Plains, hookworms ranged from 0.9 to 0.4 cs/Crv. Dermatomycoses in the southeast ranged from 1.3 to 1.1 cs/Crv, and in Alaska from 0.3 to 0.2 cs/Crv. Quarterly zoonoses occurrence revealed seasonal variations in several regions. Reports of zoonoses in people from these bases indicated that five less frequent zoonoses in dogs and cats (Microsporum canis dermatomycosis, fleas, Sarcoptes scabiei var canis, Gram-positive bacterial infections, and rabies) presented greater acute threats to humans than did the four most frequent zoonoses reported from their pets. PMID:6496816

  12. Melanogenesis in dermatophyte species in vitro and during infection

    PubMed Central

    Pornsuwan, Soraya; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Dankai, Wiyada; Vanittanakom, Nongnuch

    2011-01-01

    Dermatophytes are keratinophilic fungi that are the most common cause of fungal skin infections worldwide. Melanin has been isolated from several important human fungal pathogens, and the polymeric pigment is now recognized as an important virulence determinant. This study investigated whether dermatophytes, including Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum and Microsporum gypseum, produce melanin or melanin-like compounds in vitro and during infection. Digestion of the pigmented microconidia and macroconidia of dermatophytes with proteolytic enzymes, denaturant and hot concentrated acid yielded dark particles that retained the size and shape of the original fungal cells. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy revealed that particles derived from pigmented conidia contained a stable free radical signal, consistent with the pigments being a melanin. Immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated reactivity of a melanin-binding mAb with the pigmented conidia and hyphae, as well as the isolate particles. Laccase, an enzyme involved in melanization, was detected in the dermatophytes by an agar plate assay using 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) as the substrate. Skin scrapings from patients with dermatophytoses contained septate hyphae and arthrospores that were reactive with the melanin-binding mAb. These findings indicate that dermatophytes can produce melanin or melanin-like compounds in vitro and during infection. Based on what is known about the function of melanin as a virulence factor of other pathogenic fungi, this pigment may have a similar role in the pathogenesis of dermatophytic diseases. PMID:21565930

  13. Argentinean Andean propolis associated with the medicinal plant Larrea nitida Cav. (Zygophyllaceae). HPLC-MS and GC-MS characterization and antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Agüero, María Belén; Svetaz, Laura; Sánchez, Marianela; Luna, Lorena; Lima, Beatriz; López, María Liza; Zacchino, Susana; Palermo, Jorge; Wunderlin, Daniel; Feresin, Gabriela Egly; Tapia, Alejandro

    2011-09-01

    The chemical profile and botanical origin of Andean Argentinian propolis were studied by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS and GC-MS techniques as well as the antifungal activity according to CLSI protocols. Dermatophytes and yeasts tested were strongly inhibited by propolis extracts (MICs between 31.25 and 125 μg/mL). The main antifungal compounds were: 3'methyl-nordihydroguaiaretic acid (MNDGA) 1, nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) 2 and a NDGA derivative 3, showing strong activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum and Microsporum gypseum (MICs between 15.6 and 31.25 μg/mL). The lignans 1 and 2 showed activities against clinical isolates of Candidas spp., Cryptococcus spp., T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes (MICs and MFCs between 31.25 and 62.5 μg/mL). The lignan and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) profiles from propolis matched with those of exudates of Larrea nitida providing strong evidences on its botanical origin. These results support that Argentinian Andean propolis are a valuable natural product with potential to improve human health. Six compounds (1-6) were isolated from propolis for the first time, while compounds 1 and 3-6 were reported for first time as constituents of L. nitida Cav. PMID:21600954

  14. Synthesis, antifungal and antibacterial activity of novel 1,2,4-triazole derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Deepa; Jain, D. K.

    2015-01-01

    A large number of 1,2,4-triazole-containing ring system have been incorporated into a wide variety of therapeutically interesting drug candidates including anti-inflammatory, central nervous system stimulants, antianxiety, and antimicrobial agents. To overcome the rapid development of drug resistance, new agents should preferably have chemical characteristics that clearly differ from those of existing agents. Thus led to the design and synthesize the new antimicrobial agents. A novel series of Schiff bases based on of 4-(benzylideneamino)-5-phenyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol scaffold was prepared by heating thiocarbohydrazide and substituted benzoic acid and subsequently, treating with substituted benzaldehydes. Seventeen derivatives were synthesized and were biologically screened for antifungal and antibacterial activity. The newly synthesized derivatives of triazole showed antifungal activity against fungal species, Microsporum gypseum; and antibacterial activity against bacterial species, Staphylococcus aureus. It was observed that none of the compounds tested showed positive results for fungi Candida albicans fungi Aspergillus niger, nor against bacterial strain Escherichia coli. Strong antifungal effects were obtained for the synthesized compounds against M. gypseum and were superior or comparable to standard drug ketoconazole. Similarly, all of the synthesized compounds exhibit strong antibacterial activity against S. aureus and were superior or comparable to standard drug streptomycin. It was found that among the triazole derivatives so synthesized, six of them, showed antifungal activity superior to ketoconazole while one of them, showed antibacterial activity superior to streptomycin. Thus, these can be the potential new molecule as an antimicrobial agent. PMID:26317080

  15. Evaluation of a PCR melting profile method for intraspecies differentiation of Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale.

    PubMed

    Leibner-Ciszak, Justyna; Dobrowolska, Anita; Krawczyk, Beata; Kaszuba, Aleksandra; Staczek, Paweł

    2010-02-01

    In order to identify the source of infections caused by dermatophytes, as well as the pathogen transmission pathway, there is a need to determine methods that allow detailed genetic differentiation of the strains within the dermatophyte genera. In this work, a PCR melting profile (PCR-MP) technique based on the ligation of adaptors and the difference in melting temperatures of DNA restriction fragments was used for the first time for intraspecies genotyping of dermatophytes. Clinical isolates and reference strains of dermatophytes isolated from skin, scalp, toenails and fingernails were used for this study. PCR-MP and random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) were used to type 11 isolates of Trichophyton rubrum, 40 isolates of Trichophyton interdigitale and 14 isolates of Microsporum canis. The results distinguished five types (containing one subtype) characteristic for T. rubrum and seven types characteristic for T. interdigitale using the PCR-MP technique. Analysis conducted using RAPD revealed five types for T. rubrum and four types for T. interdigitale isolates. No differentiation was observed for the M. canis isolates with either method. These results demonstrate that PCR-MP is a reliable method for the differentiation of T. rubrum and T. interdigitale strains and yields a discriminatory power that is at least equal to that of RAPD. PMID:19892858

  16. Evaluation of antifungal activity in essential oil of the Syzygium aromaticum (L.) by extraction, purification and analysis of its main component eugenol

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Inder Singh; Rana, Aarti Singh; Rajak, Ram Charan

    2011-01-01

    Antifungal properties of some essential oils have been well documented. Clove oil is reported to have strong antifungal activity against many fungal species. In this study we have evaluated antifungal potential of essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) against some common fungal pathogens of plants and animals namely, Fusarium moniliforme NCIM 1100, Fusarium oxysporum MTCC 284, Aspergillus sp., Mucor sp., Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum gypseum. All fungal species were found to be inhibited by the oil when tested through agar well diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for all the species. Column chromatography was performed to separate the eugenol rich fraction from clove oil. Out of seven fractions maximum activity was obtained in column fraction II. TLC and HPLC data confirmed presence of considerable Eugenol in fraction II and clove oil. Microscopic study on effect of clove oil and column fraction II on spores of Mucor sp. and M. gypseum showed distortion and shrinkage while it was absent in other column fractions. So it can be concluded that the antifungal action of clove oil is due to its high eugenol content. PMID:24031751

  17. Lawsonia inermis-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles: activity against human pathogenic fungi and bacteria with special reference to formulation of an antimicrobial nanogel.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Arpita; Bonde, Shital R; Gaikwad, Swapnil; Ingle, Avinash; Gade, Aniket K; Rai, Mahendra

    2014-09-01

    Lawsonia inermis mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) and its efficacy against Candida albicans, Microsporum canis, Propioniabacterium acne and Trichophyton mentagrophytes is reported. A two-step mechanism has been proposed for bioreduction and formation of an intermediate complex leading to the synthesis of capped nanoparticles was developed. In addition, antimicrobial gel for M. canis and T. mentagrophytes was also formulated. Ag-NPs were synthesized by challenging the leaft extract of L. inermis with 1 mM AgNO?. The Ag-NPs were characterized by Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometer and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nanoparticle tracking and analysis sytem (NTA) and zeta potential was measured to detect the size of Ag-NPs. The antimicrobial activity of Ag-NPs was evaluated by disc diffusion method against the test organisms. Thus these Ag-NPs may prove as a better candidate drug due to their biogenic nature. Moreover, Ag-NPs may be an answer to the drug-resistant microorganisms. PMID:25082226

  18. Molecular identification of fungal pathogens in nodular skin lesions of cats.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Anne; von Bomhard, Wolf; Antweiler, Elisabeth; Tintelnot, Kathrin

    2015-02-01

    In a retrospective study, we investigated 52 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples from cats with histologically confirmed cutaneous and subcutaneous mycoses to determine if the pathogens could be identified by molecular methods. Aim of the study was to obtain a deep understanding of the spectrum of infectious agents, which, as we hypothesized, was not available by histopathology alone. Detection of feline and fungal DNA was achieved in 92.3% and 94.2% of the samples, respectively. Most of the subcutaneous infections in cats were caused by Alternaria spp. (63.5%), followed by Cryptococcus neoformans (7.7%), Histoplasma capsulatum (5.8%), Sporothrix spp. (3.8%), Aspergillus vitricola, Aureobasidium pullulans, Exophiala attenuata, Fusarium oxysporum, Lecythophora cateniformis, Microsporum canis, and Phialophora sp. (1.9% each). The results from molecular identification indicate that correct identifications of the fungal pathogens by histology alone were rarely possible. The spectrum of fungal pathogens identified after DNA extraction from FFPE samples was much broader than that expected by classical histopathology. This was especially noted in alternariosis in that the micromorphological pattern in tissue was misleading and could be confused with that of cryptococcosis. Due to different susceptibilities to antifungal agents, it is important to arrive at a definitive diagnosis, which might be possible by examination of the fungus recovered in culture and/or molecular methods, in addition to the histopathologic techniques. PMID:25550386

  19. Cutaneous xanthomas with concurrent demodicosis and dermatophytosis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Vogelnest, L J

    2001-07-01

    Multiple cutaneous xanthomas, associated with fasting hyperlipidaemia, are described in a 9-month-old domestic long-haired cat. A severely pruritic, papular, and crusting dermatitis affecting the head and neck, initially diagnosed as lesions of the eosinophilic granuloma complex, progressively developed on the head and pinnae. Pruritus was controlled with administration of prednisolone and chlorambucil. Repeat histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of cutaneous xanthoma and concurrent mild demodicosis. Marked fasting hypercholesterolaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia and transient hyperglycaemia were subsequently confirmed. Treatment for hyperlipidaemia and xanthomas with a low-fat diet (Hill's Feline r/d) and the previously unreported treatment for feline demodicosis of daily oral milbemycin were commenced. Multiple pink, alopecic plaques and papules gradually regressed, however pruritus recurred if immunosuppressive treatment was reduced, and well-demarcated areas of alopecia developed on the head, limbs and trunk, despite negative skin scrapings for demodex mites. Fungal culture of hair samples yielded Microsporum canis. All cutaneous lesions resolved with the addition of griseofulvin to the treatment regimen. Concurrent corneal ulceration and keratoconjunctivitis sicca ultimately resolved with treatment, including topical cyclosporin. Diabetes mellitus developed 6 months after resolution of skin lesions. No cutaneous or ocular abnormalities were present 6 months later with continued low-fat diet and insulin administration, although transient recurrence of papules and pruritus occurred after inadvertent access to a fatty meal. An underlying primary hyperlipidaemia was suspected, causing pruritic xanthomas. This may represent the first report of concurrent cutaneous xanthomas, demodicosis and dermatophytosis in a cat. PMID:11549045

  20. The dog mite, Demodex canis: prevalence, fungal co-infection, reactions to light, and hair follicle apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yu-Jen; Chung, Wen-Cheng; Wang, Lian-Chen; Ju, Yu-Ten; Hong, Chin-Lin; Tsai, Yu-Yang; Li, Yi-Hung; Wu, Ying-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Infection rate, reaction to light, and hair follicle apoptosis are examined in the dogmite, Demodex canis Leydig (Prostigmata: Demodicidae), in dogs from the northern area of Taiwan. An analysis of relevant samples revealed 7.2% (73/1013) prevalence of D. canis infection. Infection during the investigation peaked each winter, with an average prevalence of 12.5% (32/255). The infection rates significantly varied in accordance with month, sex, age, and breed (p < 0.05). Most of the lesions were discovered on the backs of the infected animals, where the infection rate was 52.1% (38/73) (P < 0.05). The epidemiologic analysis of infection based on landscape area factor, found that employing a map-overlapping method showed a higher infection rate in the eastern distribution of Taiwan's northern area than other areas. Isolation tests for Microsporum canis Bodin (Onygenales: Arthrodermataceae) and Trichophyton mentagrophyte Robin (Blanchard) on the D. canis infected dogs revealed prevalence rates of 4.4% (2/45) and 2.2% (1/45), respectively. Observations demonstrated that D. canis slowly moved from a light area to a dark area. Skin samples were examined for cellular apoptosis by activated caspase3 immunohistochemical staining. Cells that surrounded the infected hair follicles were activated caspase3-positive, revealing cell apoptosis in infected follicles via the activation of caspase3. PMID:21867442

  1. Occurrence of Dermatophytes in Fresh Bat Guano1

    PubMed Central

    Kajihiro, Edwin S.

    1965-01-01

    Evidence is presented in support of the hypothesis that fresh bat guano serves as a means of pathogenic fungi dissemination in caves. A total of 371 guano samples were collected from caves in southeastern New Mexico. Each sample was agitated in sterile saline and sand. The supernatant fluid was treated with an antibiotic and streaked on differential media. Cultures were incubated at 25 and 37 C and examined at intervals over a 4-week period. For animal inoculation, highly concentrated inoculum was injected intraperitoneally into white Swiss mice. Animals were sacrificed 4 weeks later, and portions of their lung, liver, and spleen were cultured on selective media, incubated at 25 C, and examined at intervals over a 4-week period. Microsporum gypseum was isolated at all 10 collecting stations with an incidence of 22.4%, Trichophyton mentagrophytes at 7 stations with an incidence of 5%, T. rubrum at 3 stations with an incidence of 3%, and T. terrestre at 1 station with an incidence of 0.5%. From a total of 60 pools of liver-spleen-lung suspensions, 6 pools yielded positive cultures of Histoplasma capsulatum and 1 pool yielded T. mentagrophytes. No significant difference was found among the different selective media with respect to recovery of dermatophytes. Among the human pathogenic fungi isolated were Candida sp., Cladosporium sp., Coccidioides immitis, Cryptococcus neoformans, H. capsulatum, M. gypseum, T. mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, T. terrestre, and Sporotrichum sp. Images Fig. 1 PMID:5867652

  2. Forty four years of dermatophytes in a Chicago clinic (1944-1988).

    PubMed

    Rippon, J W

    1992-07-01

    Data are presented on 39,270 cultures taken over a 44 year span (1944-1988) at the University of Chicago's Dermatology Clinic. In the mid 1940's Microsporum audouinii accounted for 60-80% of isolates. It gradually decreased over the next two decades and disappeared altogether in the 1970's. Trichophyton rubrum, rare in the 1940's accounted for over 60% of isolates in the mid-1960's only to be overtaken by T. tonsurans. This species, not isolated till the mid 1950's, became and remains the dominant dermatophyte at the present time. Both T. mentagrophytes and Epidermophyton floccosum increased in the 1970's and decreased later. Unusual circumstances resulted in clusters of T. verrucosum, T. terrestre, and T. schoenleinii isolates. Infections were associated with rural dairy workers, zoo handlers and immigrant families respectively. M. canis and M. gypseum were steady at a low rate throughout the entire period. Rare isolates included M. cookei, M. persicolor, M. racemosum, T. simii, T. soudanense, T. violaceum, and the soil keratinophile, Aphanoascus fulvescens. PMID:1406904

  3. Dermatophytes Activate Skin Keratinocytes via Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling and Induce Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Achterman, Rebecca R.; Moyes, David L.; Thavaraj, Selvam; Smith, Adam R.; Blair, Kris M.

    2015-01-01

    Dermatophytes cause superficial and cutaneous fungal infections in immunocompetent hosts and invasive disease in immunocompromised hosts. However, the host mechanisms that regulate innate immune responses against these fungi are largely unknown. Here, we utilized commercially available epidermal tissues and primary keratinocytes to assess (i) damage induction by anthropophilic, geophilic, and zoophilic dermatophyte strains and (ii) the keratinocyte signaling pathways, transcription factors, and proinflammatory responses induced by a representative dermatophyte, Trichophyton equinum. Initially, five dermatophyte species were tested for their ability to invade, cause tissue damage, and induce cytokines, with Microsporum gypseum inducing the greatest level of damage and cytokine release. Using T. equinum as a representative dermatophyte, we found that the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways were predominantly affected, with increased levels of phospho-p38 and phospho-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) but decreased levels of phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2). Notably, the NF-κB and PI3K pathways were largely unaffected. T. equinum also significantly increased expression of the AP-1-associated transcription factor, c-Fos, and the MAPK regulatory phosphatase, MKP1. Importantly, the ability of T. equinum to invade, cause tissue damage, activate signaling and transcription factors, and induce proinflammatory responses correlated with germination, indicating that germination may be important for dermatophyte virulence and host immune activation. PMID:25667269

  4. Antimicrobial activity of Brazilian copaiba oils obtained from different species of the Copaifera genus.

    PubMed

    Santos, Adriana Oliveira Dos; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia; Dias Filho, Benedito Prado; Veiga Junior, Valdir F; Pinto, Angelo C; Nakamura, Celso Vataru

    2008-05-01

    The antimicrobial activity of copaiba oils was tested against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeast, and dermatophytes. Oils obtained from Copaifera martii, Copaifera officinalis, and Copaifera reticulata (collected in the state of Acre) were active against Gram-positive species (Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus subtilis, and Enterococcus faecalis) with minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 31.3-62.5 microg/ml. The oils showed bactericidal activity, decreasing the viability of these Gram-positive bacteria within 3 h. Moderate activity was observed against dermatophyte fungi (Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum canis). The oils showed no activity against Gram-negative bacteria and yeast. Scannning electron microscopy of S. aureus treated with resin oil from C. martii revealed lysis of the bacteria, causing cellular agglomerates. Transmission electron microscopy revealed disruption and damage to the cell wall, resulting in the release of cytoplasmic compounds, alterations in morphology, and a decrease in cell volume, indicating that copaiba oil may affect the cell wall. PMID:18545856

  5. Dermatophytes activate skin keratinocytes via mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling and induce immune responses.

    PubMed

    Achterman, Rebecca R; Moyes, David L; Thavaraj, Selvam; Smith, Adam R; Blair, Kris M; White, Theodore C; Naglik, Julian R

    2015-04-01

    Dermatophytes cause superficial and cutaneous fungal infections in immunocompetent hosts and invasive disease in immunocompromised hosts. However, the host mechanisms that regulate innate immune responses against these fungi are largely unknown. Here, we utilized commercially available epidermal tissues and primary keratinocytes to assess (i) damage induction by anthropophilic, geophilic, and zoophilic dermatophyte strains and (ii) the keratinocyte signaling pathways, transcription factors, and proinflammatory responses induced by a representative dermatophyte, Trichophyton equinum. Initially, five dermatophyte species were tested for their ability to invade, cause tissue damage, and induce cytokines, with Microsporum gypseum inducing the greatest level of damage and cytokine release. Using T. equinum as a representative dermatophyte, we found that the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways were predominantly affected, with increased levels of phospho-p38 and phospho-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) but decreased levels of phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2). Notably, the NF-?B and PI3K pathways were largely unaffected. T. equinum also significantly increased expression of the AP-1-associated transcription factor, c-Fos, and the MAPK regulatory phosphatase, MKP1. Importantly, the ability of T. equinum to invade, cause tissue damage, activate signaling and transcription factors, and induce proinflammatory responses correlated with germination, indicating that germination may be important for dermatophyte virulence and host immune activation. PMID:25667269

  6. Phytochemical analysis, antibacterial, and antifungal assessment of aerial parts of Polygonatum verticillatum.

    PubMed

    Khan, Haroon; Saeed, Muhammad; Muhammad, Naveed; Perviz, Samreen

    2016-05-01

    The current study was designed to assess the phytochemical profile, antibacterial, and antifungal activities of the crude methanol extract of the aerial parts of Polygonatum verticillatum (PA) and its various subsequent solvent fractions using agar well diffusion, agar tube dilution, and microdilution methods. Phytochemical analysis showed positive for different chemical groups and also contained marked quantity of saponin and flavonoid contents. Significant antibacterial activity was observed against various tested pathogenic bacteria. The only susceptible Gram-positive bacterium was Bacillus subtilis and their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) measured ranged from 11-50 µg/ml. The sensitive Gram-negative bacteria were Salmonella typhi and Shigella flexeneri The estimated MICs were in the range of 2-7 µg/ml and 8-50 µg/ml for S. typhi and S. flexeneri, respectively. However, the antifungal activity of the plant was limited to Microsporum canis and their MICs ranged from 60 to 250 µg/ml. Our study confirmed significant antibacterial potential of the plant and substantiated its folk use in dysentery and pyrexia of multiple origins. PMID:24311628

  7. Isolation of the volatile oil from Satureja thymbra by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction: chemical composition and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Piras, Alessandra; Cocco, Viviana; Falconieri, Danilo; Porcedda, Silvia; Marongiu, Bruno; Maxia, Andrea; Frau, Maria Assunta; Gonçalves, Maria J; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Salgueiro, Ligia

    2011-10-01

    Satureja thymbra L. is well known in Italy by the popular name of "Santoreggia sarda". It grows only in Sardinia and nowadays it is restricted to the slope of the Colle San Michele in Cagliari. The composition of the aromatic extracts obtained by supercritical CO2 and by hydrodistillation and their antifungal activity is reported. The collected extracts were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS methods. No significant differences were observed in the composition of the volatile extracts depending on the extraction method. The results showed the presence of thymol, gamma-terpinene, beta-caryophyllene, p-cymene, carvacrol and borneol as main components. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the oils against Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. guillermondii, C. parapsilosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale, Trichophyton rubrum, T. verrucosum, Microsporum canis, M. gypseum, Epidermophyton floccosum, Aspergillus niger, A. fumigatus and A. flavus. The volatile extracts revealed a wide-spectrum antifungal activity. They were fungicidal and similarly potent against yeasts, dermatophyte and Aspergillus stains, with MICs ranging from 0.16 to 0.32 pL x mL(-1). PMID:22164799

  8. Extraction, separation and isolation of volatiles from Vitex agnus-castus L. (Verbenaceae) wild species of Sardinia, Italy, by supercritical CO2.

    PubMed

    Marongiu, Bruno; Piras, Alessandra; Porcedda, Silvia; Falconieri, Danilo; Goncalves, Maria J; Salgueiro, Ligia; Maxia, Andrea; Lai, Roberta

    2010-04-01

    Isolation of volatile concentrates from leaves, flowers and fruits of Vitex agnus-castus L. have been obtained by supercritical extraction with carbon dioxide. The composition of the volatile concentrates has been analysed by GC/MS. In all plant organs, the extracts are composed chiefly of alpha-pinene, sabinene, 1,8-cineole, alpha-terpinyl acetate, (E)-caryophyllene, (E)-beta-farnesene, bicyclogermacrene, spathulenol and manool. The main difference observed was in the content of sclarene, which was not present in the samples from flowers or fruits. To complete the investigation, a comparison with the hydrodistilled oil has been carried out. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal lethal concentration were used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the oils against dermatophyte strains (Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis, T. rubrum, M. gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum). Antifungal activity of the leaf essential oil was the highest, with MIC values of 0.64 microL mL(-1) for most of the strains. PMID:20397107

  9. Phytochemical Characterization, Antimicrobial Activity, and Antioxidant Potential of Equisetum hyemale L. (Equisetaceae) Extracts.

    PubMed

    de Queiroz, Geisiany M; Politi, Flávio A S; Rodrigues, Edvânio R; Souza-Moreira, Tatiana M; Moreira, Raquel R D; Cardoso, Cássia R P; Santos, Lourdes C; Pietro, Rosemeire C L R

    2015-07-01

    Equisetum hyemale species is considered a medicinal plant used in the form of infusions to combat infectious or inflammation diseases and also diuretic effects, presenting several compounds related to these actions. In previous studies different species of Equisetum showed several phenolic compounds. The objective of this study was, for the first time, based on phytochemistry analysis to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. The 70% ethanolic and methanolic extracts of E. hyemale were characterized by spectrophotometric and high-performance liquid chromatography with pulsed amperometric detector analyses, as well as its antioxidant potential based on the scavenger activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). In addition was verified the antimicrobial activity by broth microdilution technique against bacteria and fungi. The extracts showed phytochemical similarity, which demonstrated the presence of phenolic compounds, the scavenging activity for free radicals was about 30% and was observed better antifungal activity against dermatophyte fungi, with minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration of 0.62 mg/mL to Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum canis. The extracts exhibits great potential to therapeutic applications or product development, since both possess antifungal activity and antioxidant action associated with little difference in their phytochemical composition. PMID:25587637

  10. Chalcone derivatives as potential antifungal agents: Synthesis, and antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Deepa; Jain, D K

    2015-01-01

    Much research has been carried out with the aim to discover the therapeutic values of chalcone derivatives. Chalcones possess wide range of pharmacological activity such as antibacterial, antimalarial, antiprotozoal, antitubercular, anticancer, and antifungal agents etc. The presence of reactive α,β-unsaturated keto group in chalcones is found to be responsible for their biological activity. The rapid developments of resistance to antifungal agents, led to design, and synthesize the new antifungal agents. The derivatives of chalcones were prepared using Claisen-Schmidt condensation scheme with appropriate tetralone and aldehyde derivatives. Ten derivatives were synthesized and were biologically screened for antifungal activity. The newly synthesized derivatives of chalcone showed antifungal activity against fungal species, Microsporum gypseum. The results so obtained were superior or comparable to ketoconazole. It was observed that none of the compounds tested showed positive results for fungi Candida albicans nor against fungi Aspergillus niger. Chalcone derivatives showed inhibitory effect against M. gypseum species of fungus. It was found that among the chalcone derivatives so synthesized, two of them, that is, 4-chloro derivative, and unsubstituted derivative of chalcone showed antifungal activity superior to ketoconazole. Thus, these can be the potential new molecule as antifungal agent. PMID:26317075

  11. Design, Synthesis, and Antifungal Activity of New α-Aminophosphonates

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei, Zahra; Khabnadideh, Soghra; Zomorodian, Kamiar; Pakshir, Keyvan; Nadali, Setareh; Mohtashami, Nadia; Faghih Mirzaei, Ehsan

    2011-01-01

    α-Aminophosphonates are bioisosteres of amino acids and have several pharmacological activities. These compounds have been synthesized by various routes from reaction between amine, aldehyde, and phosphite compounds. In order to synthesize α-aminophosphonates, catalytic effect of CuCl2 was compared with FeCl3. Also all designed structures as well as griseofulvin were docked into the active site of microtubule (1JFF), using Autodock program. The results showed that the reactions were carried out in the presence of CuCl2 in lower yields, and also the time of reaction was longer in comparison with FeCl3. The chemical structures of the new compounds were confirmed by spectral analyses. The compounds were investigated for antifungal activity against several fungi in comparison with griseofulvin. An indole-derived bis(α-aminophosphonates) with the best negative ΔG in docking study showed maximum antifungal activity against Microsporum canis, and other investigated compounds did not have a good antifungal activity. PMID:25954522

  12. Semisynthesis and antimicrobial activity of novel guttiferone-A derivatives.

    PubMed

    Dias, Kris S T; Januário, Jaqueline P; D' Dego, Jéssica Lopes; Dias, Amanda L T; dos Santos, Marcelo H; Camps, Ihosvany; Coelho, Luiz Felipe L; Viegas, Claudio

    2012-04-15

    Six derivatives of guttiferone-A (LFQM-79, 80, 81, 82, 113 and 114) were synthesized and evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against the opportunistic or pathogenic fungi Candida albicans (ATCC 09548), Candida glabrata (ATCC 90030), Candida krusei (ATCC 6258), Candida parapsilosis (ATCC 69548), Candida tropicalis (ATCC 750), Cryptococcus neoformans (ATCC 90012), Trichophyton tonsurans, Microsporum gypseum and also against the opportunistic and pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 12228), Bacillus cereus (ATCC 11778) and Gram-negative Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 9027), Salmonella typhimurium (ATCC 14028), Proteus mirabilis (ATCC 25933). The antimicrobial activities of derivatives were compared with guttiferone-A and they presented to be more potent than the original molecule and sometimes greater than standard drugs established in therapeutics. The current study showed that derivatives of guttiferone-A possess potent antimicrobial activity and are relatively non-cytotoxic, which reveal these new molecules as promising new drug prototype candidates, with innovative structural pattern. PMID:22401914

  13. Antifungal potential of essential oil and various organic extracts of Nandina domestica Thunb. against skin infectious fungal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Vivek K; Yoon, Jung In; Kang, Sun Chul

    2009-07-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the in vitro antifungal potential of the essential oil and n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of Nandina domestica Thunb. against dermatophytes, the casual agents of superficial infections in animals and human beings. The oil (1,000 microg/disc) and extracts (1,500 microg/disc) revealed 31.1-68.6% and 19.2-55.1% antidermatophytic effect against Trichophyton rubrum KCTC 6345, T. rubrum KCTC 6375, T. rubrum KCTC 6352, Trichophyton mentagrophytes KCTC 6085, T. mentagrophytes KCTC 6077, T. mentagrophytes KCTC 6316, Microsporum canis KCTC 6591, M. canis KCTC 6348, and M. canis KCTC 6349, respectively, along with their respective minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 62.5 to 500 and 125 to 2,000 microg/ml. Also, the oil had strong detrimental effect on spore germination of all the tested dermatophytic fungi as well as concentration and time-dependent kinetic inhibition of T. rubrum KCTC 6375. The present results demonstrated that N. domestica mediated oil and extracts could be potential sources of natural fungicides to control certain important dermatophytic fungi. PMID:19415265

  14. The advantages of topical combination therapy in the treatment of inflammatory dermatomycoses.

    PubMed

    Havlickova, Blanka; Friedrich, Markus

    2008-09-01

    Dermatomycoses are contagious superficial fungal infections, which are highly prevalent in developed and developing countries. Caused by a range of Epidermophyton, Microsporum and Trichophyton species, dermatomycoses manifest on glabrous skin as 'ringworm', an annular scaly lesion with a variable inflammatory component. Itch is the chief subjective symptom, particularly in tinea cruris. Unless lesions are extensive or resistant to local therapy, dermatomycoses of glabrous skin are treated with topical antifungal agents, such as imidazoles and allylamines. Studies show, however, that the addition of a topical corticosteroid to imidazole therapy increases the bioavailability and prolongs the activity of the antimycotic, while rapidly reducing inflammatory symptoms. Travocort is a combination of 1% isoconazole nitrate (ISN), a broad-spectrum imidazole with established antimicrobial activity and antimycotic efficacy, and 0.1% diflucortolone valerate (DFV), a potent topical corticosteroid with low systemic absorption and therefore a low risk of systemic glucocorticoid side-effects. In randomised, double-blind controlled clinical trials, Travocort therapy showed a more rapid onset of action, faster relief of itch and other inflammatory symptoms, improved overall therapeutic benefits and better mycological cure rate during the first 2 weeks of treatment compared with ISN monotherapy. Travocort is well tolerated and, because of prolonged ISN retention in the skin, provides antifungal protection against reinfection for some weeks after therapy. PMID:18783560

  15. Identification of Dermatophilus congolensis from lower leg dermatitis of cattle in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Tresamol, P V; Saseendranath, M R; Subramanian, H; Pillai, U N; Mini, M; Ajithkumar, S

    2015-12-01

    This study was conducted to identify the aetiological agents associated with a particular type of lower leg dermatitis, locally called pododermatitis, among dairy cattle in Kerala. Skin scabs and scrapings were collected aseptically from 82 naturally occurring cases of lower leg dermatitis in cattle and were subjected to direct microscopical examination and bacterial and fungal culture. Microscopical examination of the skin scrapings with 10% potassium hydroxide revealed fungal spores in hair shafts from only two samples and did not reveal the presence of mites or other parasites. Fungal culture yielded dermatophytes from only five samples; these were identified as Trichophyton mentagrophytes in two cases, T verrucosum in one case, Epidermophyton floccosum in one case and Microsporum nanum in one case. Microscopical examination of Giemsa- and Gram-stained smears of the scab material from the lesions from 72 cases revealed characteristic Gram-positive septate branching filaments with multiple rows of spherical to ovoid cocci, with a typical 'tram-track' appearance suggestive of Dermatophilus congolensis. Culture of the scab materials on sheep blood agar in the presence of 10% carbon dioxide yielded typical beta haemolytic colonies of D. congolensis from 75 samples. The isolates were further confirmed by the macroscopic and microscopic morphology of the colonies, and biochemical test results. This study confirmed the presence of dermatophilosis caused by D. congolensis in cattle in Kerala. PMID:27044156

  16. Distribution of Keratinophilic Fungi in Soil Across Tunisia: A Descriptive Study and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Anane, Sonia; Al-Yasiri, Mohammed Hashim Yasir; Normand, Anne-Cécile; Ranque, Stéphane

    2015-08-01

    Data on the frequency and distribution of keratinophilic fungi in soil of Tunisia are scanty. The present survey aimed to describe the distribution of keratinophilic fungi in soils collected in Tunisia. Keratinophilic fungi were isolated using Vanbreuseghem's hair-baiting technique from 354 soil samples collected in 15 governorates of Tunisia and identified according to their morphology with further DNA and MALDI-TOF analysis when necessary. Keratinophilic fungi were isolated from 46.3 % of the samples from 14 governorates. Chrysosporium keratinophilum was the predominant species (30.5 %) followed by Microsporum gypseum (27.4 %). Other isolated species included C. tropicum (14.0 %), C. indicum (11.0 %), Chaetomium sp. (4.9 %), Arthroderma curreyi, Arthroderma cuniculi (3.7 % each), C. merdarium (3.1 %), Anixiopsis stercoraria, C. parvum, Paecilomyces lilacinus, Auxarthron zuffianum (2.4 % each), Fusarium oxysporum, Aphanoascus verrucosus, Gymnascella dankaliensis (1.2 % each) and 12 other species (0.6 % each). Two to five distinct fungal species were associated with 11.5 % of the positive samples. Keratinophilic fungi were more frequently isolated in rural (54.8 %) than in urban (41.1 %) areas (p = 0.012). The highest (100 %) positive culture rate was noted in soil collected in stables. Keratinophilic fungi are frequent throughout Tunisian territory, particularly in soils with a high organic matter content that should be regarded as humans and animals mycoses reservoir. PMID:25690159

  17. Isolation and Molecular Identification of Keratinophilic Fungi from Public Parks Soil in Shiraz, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Pakshir, Keyvan; Rahimi Ghiasi, Moosa; Zomorodian, Kamiar; Gharavi, Ali Reza

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Keratinophilic fungi are an important group of fungi that live in soil. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify keratinophilic fungi from the soil of different parks in Shiraz. Materials and Methods. A total of 196 soil samples from 43 parks were collected. Isolation of the fungi was performed by hair bait technique. The isolated colonies were identified by morphologic feature of macro- and microconidia and molecular method, using DNA sequence analysis. ITS region of ribosomal DNA was amplified and the PCR products were sequenced. Results. 411 isolates from 22 genera were identified. Fusarium (23.8%), Chrysosporium (13.13%), Acremonium (12.65%), Penicillium (12.39%), Microsporum gypseum (1.94%), Bionectria ochroleuca (1.21%), Bipolaris spicifera (1.21%), Scedosporium apiospermum (0.82%), Phialophora reptans (0.82%), Cephalosporium curtipes (0.49%), Scedosporium dehoogii (0.24%), Ochroconis constricta (0.24%), Nectria mauritiicola (0.49%), Chaetomium (0.49%), Scopulariopsis (0.24%), Malbranchea (0.24%), and Tritirachium (0.24%) were the most important isolates. Most of the fungi were isolated from the soils with the PH range of 7 to 8. Conclusion. Our study results showed that many keratinophilic fungi isolated from the parks soil are important for public health and children are an important group at a high risk of being exposed to these fungi. PMID:23956993

  18. Efficacy of some synthesized thiazoles against dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Ouf, S A; Taleb, A M Abu; Tharwat, N A; Geweely, N S

    2013-12-01

    Twelve thiazoles and their fused derivatives were tested for their antimicrobial activity against Trichophyton rubrum, T. terrestre, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Microsporum gypseum. Most of the synthesized compounds were inhibitory to the tested fungi. The most effective compound was 5-(4-ethoxybenzylidene-4,5-dihydro-4-oxothiazol-2-yl)-N,3-diphenylbut-2-namide (3c) followed by 2-(4-oxo-4,5-dihydrothiazol-2-yl)-3-phenyl-but-2-enoic acid-(3-cyano-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-amide (2b). These compounds were more efficacious than terbinafine, the reference drug. The tested compounds caused variable reduction in the activity of keratinase of the dermatophytes, depending on the azole derivative and the test fungus. Thiazole derivatives (2b) and (3c) exhibited the highest efficacy in decreasing ergosterol biosynthesis of the tested dermatophytes. The treatment of guinea pigs with compound (3c) induced complete curing in the case of all the test dermatophytes 30days post-treatment. The percent curing for compounds (3c) and (2b) was better than the reference drug. PMID:24129248

  19. Inhibitory effect of linalool-rich essential oil from Lippia alba on the peptidase and keratinase activities of dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Costa, Danielle Cristina Machado; Vermelho, Alane Beatriz; Almeida, Catia Amancio; de Souza Dias, Edilma Paraguai; Cedrola, Sabrina Martins Lage; Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Alviano, Daniela Sales

    2014-02-01

    Abstract Lippia alba (Miller) N.E. Brown is an aromatic plant known locally as "Erva-cidreira-do-campo" that has great importance in Brazilian folk medicine. The aim of our study was to evaluate the antidermatophytic potential of linalool-rich essential oil (EO) from L. alba and analyze the ability of this EO to inhibit peptidase and keratinase activities, which are important virulence factors in dermatophytes. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of L. alba EO were 39, 156 and 312 µg/mL against Trichophyton rubrum, Epidermophyton floccosum and Microsporum gypseum, respectively. To evaluate the influence of L. alba EO on the proteolytic and keratinolytic activities of these dermatophytes, specific inhibitory assays were performed. The results indicated that linalool-rich EO from L. alba inhibited the activity of proteases and keratinases secreted from dermatophytes, and this inhibition could be a possible mechanism of action against dermatophytes. Due to the effective antidermatophytic activity of L. alba EO, further experiments should be performed to explore the potential of this linalool-rich EO as an alternative antifungal therapy. PMID:23323991

  20. Cutaneous bacterial species from Lithobates catesbeianus can inhibit pathogenic dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Lauer, Antje; Hernandez, Trang

    2015-04-01

    Antibiotics are being successfully used to fight many infectious diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms. However, new infectious diseases are continuously being identified, and some known pathogens are becoming resistant against known antibiotics. Furthermore, many antifungals are causing serious side effects in long-term treatments of patients, and many skin infections caused by dermatophytes are difficult to cure. The beneficial roles of resident cutaneous microbiota to inhibit pathogenic microorganisms have been shown for many vertebrate species. Microbial symbionts on the amphibian skin for example can be a source of powerful antimicrobial metabolites that can protect amphibians against diseases, such as chytridiomycosis, caused by a fungal pathogen. In this research, we investigated whether cutaneous bacterial species isolated from Lithobates catesbeianus (North American bullfrog), an invasive amphibian species that is resistant to chytridiomycosis, produce secondary metabolites that can be used to inhibit the growth of three species of dermatophytes (Microsporum gypseum, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes) which are known to cause topical or subdermal skin infections in humans. Strongly anti-dermatophyte bacterial species that belonged to the Bacillaceae, Streptomycetaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Xanthomonadaceae, Aeromonadaceae, and Enterobacteriaceae were identified. This research has provided evidence of the presence of cutaneous anti-dermatophyte bacteria from L. catesbeianus which might provide a basis for health care providers to experiment with new antifungals in the future. PMID:25431089

  1. Historic topics on classification of Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex.

    PubMed

    Kano, Rui; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko

    2014-01-01

    D. Gruby (1842-1844) detected the fungus in tinea as a causative agent and C.P. Robin (1853) described Microsporum mentagrophytes that was transferred to Trichophyton by Blanchard (1896). Sabouraud (1910) established a group of ectothrix microïde which was divided into gypseum type (6 species: T. asteroids, T. granulosum, T. lacticolor and 3 species) and niveum type (T. radians and T. denticulatum). Thereafter, Epidermophyton simii Pinoy, 1912 and T. interdigitale Priestly, 1917 were reported. These species were classified as T. mentagrophytes by C.W. Emmons (1934 and 1940). Arthroderma simii Stockdale et al., 1965, A. benhamiae, Ajello and Cheng, 1967 and A. vanbreuseghemii Takashio, 1973 were discovered as teleomorphs of T. simii, T. mentagrophytes var. granulosum and T. mentagrophytes (mainly granulosum-asteroides form), respectively. Makimura et al., (1998) reported phylogenetic classification of T. mentagrophytes complex strains based on DNA sequences of nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) regions, indicating that A. vanbreuseghemii and T. interdigitale belong to the same clade that was later named T. interdigatale by Gräser et al.(1999). This naming has confused medical and veterinary doctors since anthropophilic isolates (T. interdigitale) and zoophilic isolates (A. vanbreuseghemii) were included as the same species. PMID:24943211

  2. Studies on the biological effects of deuteriated organic compounds. III. Antifungal activity of perdeuteriated fatty acids on dermatophytes in vivo experimental microsporie in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Dinh-Nguyên, N; Hellgren, L; Vincent, J

    1976-07-16

    Investigations on the antimycotic properties of perdeuteriated fatty acids were carried out on Microsporum cains infections in vivo. The study was performed on experimental microsporie in guinea pigs using four different methods, all based on the ability of M. canis to cause alopecia. Perdeuteriated n-hendecanoic acid showed in vivo a statistically significant enhanced antimycotic effect compared to its unlabelled analogue. This is in accordance with our previous observations in vitro conditions. The remaining perdeuteriated fatty acids (C12--C18) showed no statistically significant growth retarding effect on M. canis infections in guinea pigs when compared with their unlabelled analogues. The present study attempts to ascertain if some perdeuteriated fatty acids have any antifungal activity in vivo conditions. Our previous papers (3,4) concerning the evaluation of the antifungal activity of some perdeuteriated fatty acids on dermatophytes in vitro, demonstrated that the perdeuteriation of n-hendecanoic acid, lead to a pronounced antimycotic effect on common dermatophytes as e.g. E. floccosum, T. rubrum, M. canis and T. mentagrophytes. As our previous results indicate a decreasing of fungistasis with an increasing carbon-chain length of the perdeuteriated fatty acids, we have attempted to verify this observation in vivo conditions. A special interest was, of course, focused on the most promising compound, the perdeuteriated n-hendecanoic acid. PMID:967225

  3. Mycological assessment of sediments in Ligurian beaches in the Northwestern Mediterranean: pathogens and opportunistic pathogens.

    PubMed

    Salvo, Vanessa-Sarah; Fabiano, Mauro

    2007-05-01

    Sediments of five Ligurian beaches in compliance with European Union bathing water regulations were studied based on the characteristics of the fungal assemblage during the tourism season. Among the 179 taxa of filamentous fungi isolated, 120 were opportunistic pathogens, such as Acremonium sp., and the genus Penicillium was also present as the pathogenic species P. citrinum. Furthermore, 5% of the total filamentous fungi belonged to the dermatophyte genus Microsporum, whose species can cause mycoses. Beach sediments showed elevated densities of opportunistic pathogens, of pathogenic filamentous fungi, and of yeasts during the tourism season. Although monitoring of beach sediments for microbiological contamination is not mandatory, and disease transmission from sediments has not yet been demonstrated, our study suggests that beach sediments may act as a reservoir of potential pathogens, including fungi. In addition, the mycoflora displayed high sensitivity to critical environmental situations in the beaches studied. Therefore, the fungal community can be a useful tool for assessing the quality of sandy beaches in terms of sanitary and environmental quality. PMID:16854516

  4. Biologically active and thermally stable polymeric Schiff base and its metal polychelates: Their synthesis and spectral aspects.

    PubMed

    Rasool, Raza; Hasnain, Sumaiya

    2015-09-01

    New metal polychelates of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) obtained by the interaction of metal acetates with polymeric Schiff base containing formaldehyde and piperazine, have been investigated. Structural and spectroscopic properties have been evaluated by elemental analysis, FT-IR and (1)H-NMR. Geometry of the chelated polymers was confirmed by magnetic susceptibility measurements, UV-Visible spectroscopy and Electron Spin Resonance. The molecular weight of the polymer was determined by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that metal polychelates were more thermally stable than their corresponding ligand. All compounds were screened for their antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, (bacteria) and Candida albicans, Microsporum canis, Cryptococcus neoformans (fungi) by agar well diffusion method. Interestingly, the polymeric Schiff base was found to be antimicrobial in nature but less effective as compared to the metal polychelates. On the basis of thermal and antimicrobial behavior, these polymers hold potential applications as thermally resistant antimicrobial and antifouling coating materials as well as antimicrobial packaging materials. PMID:25955762

  5. The anti-dermatophyte activity of Allium hirtifolium Boiss aqueous extract.

    PubMed

    Mahboubi, M; Kazempour, N

    2015-03-01

    In an attempt at demonstrating the efficacy of Allium hirtifolium aqueous extract in control of skin fungal infections as traditional use, we evaluated the anti-dermatophyte activities of A. hirtifolium aqueous extract from bulbs and of ketoconazole against Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis, M. gypseum, Trichophyton schoenleinii and Trichophyton verrucosum var. album by food poisoning technique, disc diffusion and micro broth dilution assays. The anti-fungal activity of A. hirtifolium was excellent when it was compared with ketoconazole. The anti-fungal evaluation by food poisoning method showed that A. hirtifolium extract inhibited the growth of dermatophytes dose-dependently. The inhibition zone diameter (IZ) of A. hirtifolium extract (15 μg/disc) was in the range of 28.8 ± 0.31 to 67.7 ± 1.5mm, while ketoconazole (15 μg/disc) had the IZ lower than 13mm. The MIC and MFC values of A. hirtifolium extract were in the range of 0.2-1.7 and 0.4-0.7 μg/mL; respectively. Therefore, A. hirtifolium extract showed a strong anti-fungal activity against human and animal dermatophytes. PMID:25456419

  6. Biologically active and thermally stable polymeric Schiff base and its metal polychelates: Their synthesis and spectral aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasool, Raza; Hasnain, Sumaiya

    2015-09-01

    New metal polychelates of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) obtained by the interaction of metal acetates with polymeric Schiff base containing formaldehyde and piperazine, have been investigated. Structural and spectroscopic properties have been evaluated by elemental analysis, FT-IR and 1H-NMR. Geometry of the chelated polymers was confirmed by magnetic susceptibility measurements, UV-Visible spectroscopy and Electron Spin Resonance. The molecular weight of the polymer was determined by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that metal polychelates were more thermally stable than their corresponding ligand. All compounds were screened for their antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, (bacteria) and Candida albicans, Microsporum canis, Cryptococcus neoformans (fungi) by agar well diffusion method. Interestingly, the polymeric Schiff base was found to be antimicrobial in nature but less effective as compared to the metal polychelates. On the basis of thermal and antimicrobial behavior, these polymers hold potential applications as thermally resistant antimicrobial and antifouling coating materials as well as antimicrobial packaging materials.

  7. Fungal microbiota from ocular conjuctiva of clinically healthy horses belonging to the military police cavalry of alagoas

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, Maria Evódia; Araújo, Maria Anilda dos Santos; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido; Porto, Wagnner José Nascimento; Souza, Aryanna Kelly Pinheiro; dos Santos, Josimeire Lima; da Silva, Patrícia Paes

    2011-01-01

    Normal fungal conjunctiva microbiota of horses remains stable in healthy animals, free from ocular and/or systemic diseases which may, eventually, cause ocular alterations. The knowledge of the fungal microbiota is of great importance due to the reduced number of studies reported in the literature and also to the large occurrence of ocular alterations, mainly keratomycosis, in these animals. The aim of this study was to isolate and to identify the fungi present in the ocular conjunctiva of healthy horses belonging to the Military Police Cavalry of Alagoas. Samples from both conjunctival sacks from 50 horses were taken using a sterile swab and submitted to fungal cultures. These samples were seeded by radial spreading of the swabs on the Sabouraud agar surface with chloramphenicol, at a concentration of 50mg/L, in Petri dishes. Next, dishes were incubated at room temperature (± 28°C) for 15 days. Horses conjunctival fungal microbiota was found to be composed by Aspergillus spp. (62%), Microsporum gypseum (6%), Penicillium spp. (6%), Curvularia spp. (5%), Candida spp. (3%), Fusarium spp. (3%), Acremonium spp. (2%), Bipolaris sp. (1%), Cladosporium sp. (1%), Chrysosporium sp. (1%), Rhodotorula sp. (1%), Aureobasidium sp. (1%) and Scopulariopsis sp. (1%). There is a wide variety of yeast-like and filamentous fungi colonizing the clinically healthy horses’ ocular conjunctiva, out of which Aspergillus sp. is predominant. Although this was a straightforward study and have not recorded any ocular lesions that suggest fungi infections, these fungi might eventually be involved in this type of ocular pathology for the studied species. PMID:24031735

  8. Molecular Characterization and In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility of 316 Clinical Isolates of Dermatophytes in Iran.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Saham; Hedayati, Mohammad T; Zomorodian, Kamiar; Pakshir, Keyvan; Badali, Hamid; Rafiei, Abdollah; Ravandeh, Mostafa; Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba

    2016-02-01

    Dermatophytosis is a common mycotic infection of the skin, nail, and hair, associated with major public health concern worldwide. Various species of dermatophytes show significant differences in susceptibility to antifungals. Here, we present the antifungal susceptibility of a large collection of molecularly identified dermatophyte isolates obtained from tropical region of south of Iran. A total of 9485 patients clinically suspected to have cutaneous fungal infections were examined. Dermatophytosis was confirmed in 1502 cases by direct microscopy and culture. Three hundred and sixteen isolates recovered in culture were identified to species level using PCR sequencing of ITS region and RFLP. Tinea corporis was the most prevalent type of clinical manifestation (35.2 %), followed by tinea cruris (17 %), tinea capitis (12.8 %), tinea pedis (11.3 %), tinea manuum (11 %), tinea unguium (6.9 %), and tinea barbae (5.8 %). Trichophyton interdigitale was the most common isolate (49.36 %), followed by Trichophyton rubrum (18.98 %), Epidermophyton floccosum (13.29 %), Microsporum canis (9.17 %), Arthroderma benhamiae (T. anamorph of A. benhamiae; 5.38 %), and Trichophyton tonsurans (3.79 %). Overall, irrespective of the geographical region, terbinafine was the most potent antifungal against all isolates, with an MIC range of 0.002-0.25 μg/mL, followed by itraconazole (0.004-0.5 μg/mL), griseofulvin (0.125-8 μg/mL), and fluconazole (4-128 μg/mL). Analysis of our data revealed a significant increase in the frequency of A.benhamiae, which definitely warrants further investigation to explore source of this infection in south of Iran. Moreover, terbinafine was the most effective antifungal against all isolates, in vitro. PMID:26369643

  9. Frequency of yeasts and dermatophytes from healthy and diseased dogs.

    PubMed

    Prado, Marilena R; Brilhante, Raimunda S N; Cordeiro, Rossana A; Monteiro, André J; Sidrim, José J C; Rocha, Marcos F G

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of dermatophytes and yeasts in healthy and diseased dogs. A total of 633 samples were collected from 26 healthy animals (104 samples), 131 with dermatitis (343 samples), 74 with otitis (148 samples), and 19 with ocular diseases (38 samples). Cultures from healthy animals were positive for Malassezia pachydermatis in 13.5% (7/52) of samples from skin, 42.3% (11/26) from ear, and 3.8% (1/26) from eye. Fungal growth was observed in 20.4% (70/343) samples from animals with dermatitis. Microsporum canis was the most isolated fungus (n = 39), followed by M. pachydermatis (n = 30) and Malassezia sp. (n = 3). Of the 148 samples from dogs with otitis, 90 (60.8%) were positive for M. pachydermatis, and of the clinical specimens from the conjunctiva of animals with ophthalmic disease, 2.6% (1/38) presented positive cultures for M. pachydermatis. Only 14.3% (2/14) of the positive cultures for M. pachydermatis and 40.9% (9/22) of those for M. canis were positive in the direct exam. Direct exams were positive in 84.3% (70/83) of the culture positive samples from affected ears of dogs with otitis. Malassezia pachydermatis may act as an aggravating factor in the occurrence of cutaneous diseases, or the isolation of M. canis may be associated with the onset of dermatophytosis. Fungal culture, rather than microscopic examination, should be used as the definitive diagnostic test for dermatomycoses and otitis. PMID:18319432

  10. Infectious diseases in large-scale cat hoarding investigations.

    PubMed

    Polak, K C; Levy, J K; Crawford, P C; Leutenegger, C M; Moriello, K A

    2014-08-01

    Animal hoarders accumulate animals in over-crowded conditions without adequate nutrition, sanitation, and veterinary care. As a result, animals rescued from hoarding frequently have a variety of medical conditions including respiratory infections, gastrointestinal disease, parasitism, malnutrition, and other evidence of neglect. The purpose of this study was to characterize the infectious diseases carried by clinically affected cats and to determine the prevalence of retroviral infections among cats in large-scale cat hoarding investigations. Records were reviewed retrospectively from four large-scale seizures of cats from failed sanctuaries from November 2009 through March 2012. The number of cats seized in each case ranged from 387 to 697. Cats were screened for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in all four cases and for dermatophytosis in one case. A subset of cats exhibiting signs of upper respiratory disease or diarrhea had been tested for infections by PCR and fecal flotation for treatment planning. Mycoplasma felis (78%), calicivirus (78%), and Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (55%) were the most common respiratory infections. Feline enteric coronavirus (88%), Giardia (56%), Clostridium perfringens (49%), and Tritrichomonas foetus (39%) were most common in cats with diarrhea. The seroprevalence of FeLV and FIV were 8% and 8%, respectively. In the one case in which cats with lesions suspicious for dermatophytosis were cultured for Microsporum canis, 69/76 lesional cats were culture-positive; of these, half were believed to be truly infected and half were believed to be fomite carriers. Cats from large-scale hoarding cases had high risk for enteric and respiratory infections, retroviruses, and dermatophytosis. Case responders should be prepared for mass treatment of infectious diseases and should implement protocols to prevent transmission of feline or zoonotic infections during the emergency response and when transferring the rescued cats to other shelters or to adopters. PMID:24934262

  11. Derivatives of phosphate Schiff base transition metal complexes: synthesis, studies and biological activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Wahab, Z. H. Abd; El-Sarrag, M. R.

    2004-01-01

    We report the synthesis and structural characterization of series of tetra- and hexacoordinate metal chelate complexes of phosphate Schiff base ligands having the general composition LMX n·H 2O and L 2MX n (L=phosphate Schiff base ligand; M=Ag +, Mn 2+, Cu 2+, Zn 2+, Cd 2+, Hg 2+, or Fe 3+ and X=NO 3-, Br - or Cl -). The structure of the prepared compounds was investigated using elemental analysis, IR, 1H and 31P NMR, UV-vis, mass spectra, solid reflectance, magnetic susceptibility and conductance measurements as well as conductometric titration. In all the complexes studied, the ligands act as a chelate ligand with coordination involving the phosphateO-atom and the azomethineN-atom. IR, solid reflectance spectra and magnetic moment measurement are used to infer the structure and to illustrate the coordination capacity of ligand. IR spectra show the presence of coordinated nitrate and water molecule, the magnetic moments of all complexes show normal magnetic behavior and the electronic spectra of the metal complexes indicate a tetra- and octahedral structure for Mn 2+, octahedral structure of Fe 3+ and both square-planar and distorted octahedral structure for Cu 2+ complexes. Antimicrobial activity of the ligands and their complexes were tested using the disc diffusion method and the chosen strains include Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aereuguinosa, Klebsiella penumoniae, Escherichia coli, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophyte and Trichophyton rubrum. Some known antibiotics are included for the sake of comparison and the chosen antibiotic are Amikacin, Doxycllin, Augmantin, Sulperazon, Unasyn, Septrin, Cefobid, Ampicillin, Nitrofurantion, Traivid and Erythromycin.

  12. Lung cancer in Asian women-the environment and genes.

    PubMed

    Lam, Wah Kit

    2005-09-01

    The mortality rate of lung cancer in Asian women has increased significantly in the past few decades. Environmental factors include tobacco smoke (active and environmental), other indoor pollutions (cooking oil vapours, coal burning, fungus spores), diet, and infections. Active tobacco smoking is not the major factor. The relative risk of lung cancer among non-smoking women ever exposed to environmental smoke from their husbands was 1.20 from a meta-analysis. Cooking oil vapours associated with high temperature wok cooking and indoor coal burning for heating and cooking in unvented homes, particularly in rural areas, are risk factors for Chinese women. Chronic benign respiratory diseases due to the fungus Microsporum canis probably accounts for the high incidence of lung cancer in northern Thai women at Sarapee. Diets rich in fruits, leafy green vegetables, and vitamin A are protective, while cured meat (Chinese sausage, pressed duck and cured pork), deep-fried cooking, and chili increased the risk. Tuberculosis is associated with lung cancer. Also, a Taiwanese study showed that the odds ratio of papillomavirus (HPV) 16/18 infection in non-smoking female lung cancer patients was 10.1, strongly suggesting a causative role. Genetic factors have also been studied in Chinese women, including human leucocyte antigens, K-ras oncogene activation, p53 mutation, polymorphisms of phase I activating enzymes (cytochrome P450, N-acetyltransferase slow acetylator status), and phase II detoxifying enzymes (glutathione-S-transferases, N-acetyltransferase rapid acetylator status). New molecular screening technology would facilitate identification of molecular targets for future studies. The interaction between environmental and genetic factors should also be further elucidated. PMID:16135162

  13. Antifungal, antiradical and cytotoxic activities of extractives obtained from Tagetes patula L. (Asteraceae), a potential acaricide plant species.

    PubMed

    Politi, Flávio A S; Queiroz-Fernandes, Geisiany M; Rodrigues, Edvânio R; Freitas, Jolindo A; Pietro, Rosemeire C L R

    2016-06-01

    Tagetes patula L. shows a complex chemical composition, ranging from glycosylated flavonoids and thiophenes in extracts until terpenoids in the essential oil. In the present study, due to this rich flavonoidic constitution, its antioxidant potential was determined, having shown values of antiradical percentage superior to reference compounds, mainly the extracts prepared with flowers. Previous studies performed emphasized the acaricide potential of T. patula and thus, the present study aimed to verify the action of extractives obtained from aerial parts on growth of entomopathogenic fungi related to biological control of brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus and the action against pathogenic fungi closely associated with pets. None of the samples inhibited the growth of strains of Beauveria bassiana or Metarhizium anisopliae, enabling feasible future studies of synergism on acaricide activity of formulations containing fungi and extracts. The antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract of flowers (FlEtOH70%) against Microsporum canis and Trichophyton rubrum was significant (193.3 μg/mL and 253.9 μg/mL, respectively), as well as ethanolic extract from aerial parts (APEtOH70%) against T. rubrum (312.5 μg/mL). In order to ensure the safety of a topical formulation containing the extractives of T. patula, the cytotoxic potential of these samples were tested in murine macrophages cells. At higher concentrations all extracts were quite lethal, with IC50 ranging from 210.96 μg/mL to 468.75 μg/mL for APEtOH70% and FlEtOH70%, respectively. These results suggest that the application of a product containing T. patula extractives in the control of ticks could be used, at principle, only on the environment. PMID:26945559

  14. [Epidemiology of tinea capitis in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire].

    PubMed

    Adou-Bryn, K D; Assoumou, A; Haddad, R N; Aka, B R; Ouhon, J

    2004-01-01

    Tinea capitis is a dermatosis of the scalp due to dermatophytes that can cause hair loss. It remains a significant endemic problem mainly in school children in tropical regions. The purpose of this case-control study carried out in the Dermatology Center of Treichville Hospital was to identify risk factors for tinea capitis in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire. A total of 80 cases were recruited on the basis of clinical findings showing one or several plaques showing desquamation or parakeratosis suggestive of tinea capitis. Diagnosis was confirmed by mycology using samples seeded on Sabouraud-chloramphenicol glucose agar and incubated at 27 degrees C for a mean period of 15 days. Species identification was based on growth rate, macroscopic aspect of isolates, production and potential diffusion of pigment, and microscopic examination. Controls were the next patient of the same age and sex with no evidence of mycosis. All subjects were questioned about previous history of mycosis, duration of tinea capitis lesions, functional signs, grooming habits, and pet-keeping. Size of selection was calculated by epi info 6.04 fr according to following estimations: percentage of exposed subjects in control group: 30%; percentage of exposed subjects in case group: 50%; probability threshold of 5% to find a difference between case and control groups even though there was no difference; and probability threshold of 20% to find no difference between cases and controls even though there was a difference. Study findings demonstrated a 3 times higher incidence of tinea capitis in boys than in girls and a peak during childhood especially between the of 5 to 9. The most frequent etiologic agents were Trichophyton soudanense and Microsporum langeroniise. Subjects at highest risk lived in dwellings having less than 4 rooms, used soap to wash the hair, cut their hair with a blade, and had low income. PMID:15460148

  15. Safety and efficacy of terbinafine in a pediatric Iranian cohort of patients with Tinea capitis

    PubMed Central

    Sabzghabaee, Ali M.; Mansouri, Parwin; Mohammadi, Mahboobeh

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives Tinea capitis is a common infection of the scalp and hair shaft caused by dermatophyte fungi that mainly affects prepubescent children. Systemic therapy is required for treatment and to prevent spread. The aim of present study was to assess the effect of terbinafine for Tinea capitis treatment in children. Methods Thirty Iranian pediatric patients with a clinical diagnosis of Tinea capitis were enrolled in the study. The Study was conducted in a general and referral teaching hospital (Imam Medical Centre – Tehran, Iran) from 2006 to 2007. Eligible patients with less than 20 kg of body weight were given 62.5 mg terbinafine, and for patients between 20 and 40 kg the dose was 125 mg, on the first visit. All patients had the second clinical visit and second samples for microscopic study were taken. For each patient, direct mycology test (KOH test) and mycological culture were carried out before the study was started and after second, fourth, fifth, sixth and eighth weeks. Probable drug’s adverse effects were also recorded. Results Based on the results of mycological culture of patients’ lesions, Microsporum canis and Trichophyton sheonlini were considered as major causes of Tinea capitis in these children. Out of 30 study patients, KOH test of 93% in the 5th week and 100% in the 6th week was negative. All patients healed completely from signs of infection, after six weeks. Also, no severe side effects were seen in any patients. Conclusion According to the results of this study, the use of terbinafine is an effective therapy in Iranian cases of Tinea capitis in children without severe side effects. PMID:23964167

  16. Butenafine.

    PubMed

    McNeely, W; Spencer, C M

    1998-03-01

    Butenafine is a new antifungal agent with primary fungicidal activity against dermatophytes such as Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis and Trichophyton rubrum which cause tinea infections. 14C-labelled butenafine (approximately 30 micrograms/g tissue) was found within guinea-pig dorsal skin 24 hours after topical application. Most of the drug was distributed into the epidermis including the horny layer. Small amounts were found in the dermis, probably transported via sebaceous glands and hair follicles. In vitro, the minimum concentration that completely inhibited growth of dermatophytes (MIC) and the minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC) for butenafine against T. mentagrophytes and M. canis were similar (0.012 to 0.05 mg/L) and were 4 to 130 times lower than those for naftifine, tolnaftate, clotrimazole and bifonazole. It also has greater activity against T. rubrum, M. gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum when compared with naftifine, tolnaftate and clotrimazole; comparisons with bifonazole against these strains were not available. Assessment after 1 week's treatment in patients with tinea pedis revealed that mycological cure rates were greater in those who received twice-daily butenafine for 1 week or once-daily butenafine for 4 weeks than in placebo recipients. Mycological and overall cure rates were either further increased or maintained up to 5 weeks after treatment cessation compared with end-of-treatment values. In patients with tinea cruris or tinea corporis who received once-daily butenafine 1% for 2 weeks, the mycological and overall cure rates continued to increase for up to 4 weeks after treatment cessation. PMID:9530545

  17. Dermatophyte infections in free-ranging Florida panthers (Felis concolor coryi).

    PubMed

    Rotstein, D S; Thomas, R; Helmick, K; Citino, S B; Taylor, S K; Dunbar, M R

    1999-06-01

    Three free-ranging Florida panthers (Felis concolor coryi) were diagnosed with clinical dermatophytosis; two were infected with Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and one was infected with Microsporum gypseum. Two of these panthers were juvenile males that were diagnosed with focal to focally coalescing dermatophytosis; one caused by M. gypseum and the other by T. mentagrophytes. These animals were not treated, and clinical signs resolved spontaneously over 6 mo. The third panther, an adult male from southern Florida, presented with a diffuse dermatophytosis due to T. mentagrophytes infection. Initially, the panther had alopecia, excoriations, ulcerations, and multifocal pyoderma of the head, ears, neck, rear limbs, and abdominal region that progressed to lichenification of the skin and loss of nails from two digits. When topical therapy applied in the field at 45-day intervals was ineffective in clearing the infection, the animal was placed in captivity for intensive oral therapy to prevent further development of dermal mycosis, loss of additional nails, and spread of infection to other panthers. The panther was treated orally with itraconazole (9.5 mg/ kg) in the food s.i.d. for 6 wk. After treatment, nail regrowth occurred but the multifocal areas of alopecia remained. The panther was released back into the wild after two skin biopsy cultures were negative for fungal growth. Temporary removal of a free-ranging animal of an endangered species from its habitat for systemic treatment of dermatophytosis requires consideration of factors such as age, reproductive potential, holding facilities, treatment regimen, and the potential for successful reintroduction of the animal. PMID:10484147

  18. Antioxidant and anti-dermatophytic properties leaf and stem bark of Xylosma longifolium clos

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The present study was carried out to assess the phytochemical and anti-dermatophytic effect of the leaf and bark extracts of Xylosma longifolium Clos. The leaf and stem bark are used by the indigenous people of Manipur, India for treatment of skin diseases. Methods The leaves and stem barks of Xylosma longifolium were extracted using petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol respectively. The different extracts of each plant parts were tested for antioxidant activity using DPPH assay. The phenolic content was assayed using Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method. Each extracts was further analysed by RP-HPLC to quantify some individual flavonoid components. The anti-dermatophytic activity was evaluated both by agar diffusion method and micro wells dilution method against the Microsporum boullardii MTCC 6059, M. canis (MTCC 2820 and MTCC 32700), M. gypseum MTCC 2819, Trichophyton ajelloi MTCC 4878, T. rubrum (MTCC 296 and MTCC 3272). Results The free radical scavenging activity values were ranged from 0.7 to 1.41 mg/ml and 0.6 to 1.23 mg/ml, respectively for leaf and stem bark extracts. The amount of total phenolic contents of the extracts occurred in both leaf and bark in the range of 12 to 56.6 mg GAE/100 g and 16 to 58 mg GAE/100 g respectively. RP-HPLC analysis for flavonoids revealed the presence of two major flavonoid compounds, rutin and catechin. Kaempferol was in trace or absent. Methanol leaf extract showed significant low inhibitory effect against tested fungus Trichophyton ajelloi MTCC 4878 (0.140625 mg/ml) as the most sensitive. These finding suggest that the methanol leaf extract tested contain compounds with antimicrobial properties. Conclusion The results of our study may partially justify the folkloric uses on the plant studied and further provide an evidence that the leaf extract of Xylosma longifolium might be indeed a potential sources of antimicrobial agents. PMID:23819459

  19. Comparative Phylogenomics of Pathogenic and Nonpathogenic Species

    PubMed Central

    Whiston, Emily; Taylor, John W.

    2015-01-01

    The Ascomycete Onygenales order embraces a diverse group of mammalian pathogens, including the yeast-forming dimorphic fungal pathogens Histoplasma capsulatum, Paracoccidioides spp. and Blastomyces dermatitidis, the dermatophytes Microsporum spp. and Trichopyton spp., the spherule-forming dimorphic fungal pathogens in the genus Coccidioides, and many nonpathogens. Although genomes for all of the aforementioned pathogenic species are available, only one nonpathogen had been sequenced. Here, we enhance comparative phylogenomics in Onygenales by adding genomes for Amauroascus mutatus, Amauroascus niger, Byssoonygena ceratinophila, and Chrysosporium queenslandicum—four nonpathogenic Onygenales species, all of which are more closely related to Coccidioides spp. than any other known Onygenales species. Phylogenomic detection of gene family expansion and contraction can provide clues to fungal function but is sensitive to taxon sampling. By adding additional nonpathogens, we show that LysM domain-containing proteins, previously thought to be expanding in some Onygenales, are contracting in the Coccidioides-Uncinocarpus clade, as are the self-nonself recognition Het loci. The denser genome sampling presented here highlights nearly 800 genes unique to Coccidiodes, which have significantly fewer known protein domains and show increased expression in the endosporulating spherule, the parasitic phase unique to Coccidioides spp. These genomes provide insight to gene family expansion/contraction and patterns of individual gene gain/loss in this diverse order—both major drivers of evolutionary change. Our results suggest that gene family expansion/contraction can lead to adaptive radiations that create taxonomic orders, while individual gene gain/loss likely plays a more significant role in branch-specific phenotypic changes that lead to adaptation for species or genera. PMID:26613950

  20. Production and evaluation of antimycotic and antihepatitis C virus potential of fusant MERV6270 derived from mangrove endophytic fungi using novel substrates of agroindustrial wastes.

    PubMed

    El-Gendy, Mervat M A; El-Bondkly, Ahmed M A; Yahya, Shaymaa M M

    2014-12-01

    Among forty endophytic fungal isolates derived from the mangrove plant Avicennia marina, thirty-seven isolates (92.5 %) shown vary antimycotic activity against clinical Trichophyton, Microsporum, and Epidermophyton isolates. The hyperactive wild antagonistic strains Acremonium sp. MERV1 and Chaetomium sp. MERV7 were subjected to intergeneric protoplast fusion technique, and out of 20 fusants obtained, the fusant MERV6270 showed the highest antimycotic activity with the broadest spectrum against all dermatophytes under study. Solid-state fermentation (SSF) showed its superiority for antimycotic/antiviral metabolite production using cost-effective agroindustrial residues. Low-cost novel fermentation medium containing inexpensive substrate mixture of molokhia stalk, lemon peel, pomegranate peel, peanut peel (2:1:1:1) moistened with potato, and meat processing wastewaters (2:1, at moisture content of 60 %) provided a high antimycotic metabolite yield, 33.25 mg/gds, by the fusant MERV6270. The optimal parameters for antimycotic productivity under SSF were incubation period (4 days), incubation temperature (27.5-30 °C), initial pH (6), initial moisture level (60 %), substrate particle size (1.0 mm), and inoculum size (2 × 10(6) spores/gds), which elucidated antimycotic activity to 44.19 mg/gds. Interestingly, wild mangrove Acremonium sp. MERV1 and Chaetomium sp. MERV7 strains and their fusant MERV6270 showed significant inhibition of hepatitis C virus with viral knockdown percent of -82.48, -82.44, and -97.37 %, respectively, compared to the control (100 %), which open a new era in combat epidemic viral diseases. PMID:25234393

  1. Advances in Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and Public Health: Fungal Occurrence in the Hair and Skin of Symptomatic Pets in Turin, Italy.

    PubMed

    Allizond, Valeria; Tullio, Vivian; Cuffini, Anna Maria; Roana, Janira; Scalas, Daniela; Marra, Elisa Simona; Piersigilli, Giorgia; Merlino, Chiara; Mandras, Narcisa; Banche, Giuliana

    2016-01-01

    Companion animals, often asymptomatic reservoir of fungi, can be important sources of infection in humans, due to the close contact with their owners. The present study was aimed to assess the occurrence of dermatophytes and other fungi isolated from pet dermatological lesions in Turin, Italy. Dermatological specimens were examined for fungal elements by direct microscopy and cultured to detect dermatophytes, other filamentous fungi and yeasts: 247 pets (118 cats, 111 dogs and 18 dwarf rabbits) were positive for fungal detection in culture. Microsporum canis was the most frequent dermatophyte in cats and dogs, whereas Trichophyton mentagrophytes was the most common in rabbits. Among the other fungi, for all examined pets, dematiaceous fungi were the most isolated, followed by Mucorales, penicilli, yeasts and yeast-like fungi, and aspergilli. No gender predisposition was detected for dermatophyte growth; on the contrary, for the other fungi male cats were more susceptible than female. The highest fungal occurrence was recorded in <1-year-old cats for dermatophytes, and in <5-year-old cats and dogs for the other fungi. Autumn was the period associated with a relevant incidence of fungal infection. Finally, fungi were more frequent in non pure-breed cats and in pure-breed dogs. These data underline the importance to timely inform pet owners about the potential health risk of infection caused not only by dermatophytes but also by non-dermatophyte fungi, routinely considered to be contaminants or harmless colonizers, since their role as source of zoonotic infections is not to be excluded. PMID:26563306

  2. In Vitro Evaluation of Enzymatic and Antifungal Activities of Soil-Actinomycetes Isolates and Their Molecular Identification by PCR

    PubMed Central

    Keikha, Nasser; Ayatollahi Mousavi, Seyyed Amin; Nakhaei, Ali Reza; Yadegari, Mohammad Hossein; Shahidi Bonjar, Gholam Hossein; Amiri, Somayyeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Human cutaneous infection caused by a homogeneous group of keratinophilic fungi called dermatophytes. These fungi are the most common infectious agents in humans that are free of any population and geographic area. Microsporum canis is a cause of dermatophytosis (Tinea) in recent years in Iran and atypical strain has been isolated in Iran. Its cases occur sporadically due to M. canis transmission from puppies and cats to humans. Since this pathogenic dermatophyte is eukaryotes, chemical treatment with antifungal drugs may also affect host tissue cells. Objectives: The aim of the current study was to find a new antifungal agent of soil-Actinomycetes from Kerman province against M. canis and Actinomycete isolates were identified by PCR. Materials and Methods: A number of hundred Actinomycete isolated strains were evaluated from soil of Kerman province, for their antagonistic activity against the M. canis. M. canis of the Persian Type Culture Collection (PTCC) was obtained from the Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology (IROST). Electron microscope studies of these isolates were performed based on the physiological properties of these antagonists including lipase, amylase, protease and chitinase activities according to the relevant protocols and were identified using gene 16SrDNA. Results: In this study the most antagonist of Actinomycete isolates with antifungal activity against M. canis isolates of L1, D5, Ks1m, Km2, Kn1, Ks8 and Ks1 were shown in vitro. Electron microscopic studies showed that some fungal strains form spores, mycelia and spore chain. Nucleotide analysis showed that Ks8 had maximum homology (98%) to Streptomyces zaomyceticus strain xsd08149 and L1 displayed 100% homology to Streptomyces sp. HVG6 using 16SrDNA studies. Conclusions: Our findings showed that Streptomyces has antifungal effects against M. canis. PMID:26060560

  3. Antioxidant and antifungal potential of Pleurotus ostreatus and Agrocybe cylindracea basidiocarps and mycelia.

    PubMed

    Ćilerdžić, Jasmina; Stajić, Mirjana; Vukojević, Jelena; Milovanović, Ivan; Muzgonja, Nikolina

    2015-01-01

    Basidiocarps of Pleurotus ostreatus and Agrocybe cylindracea are characterized by high nutritional value and numerous medicinal activities, though bioactivities of their mycelia have not been sufficiently studied. The aim of the study was to evaluate antioxidant and antifungal potentials of P. ostreatus and A. cylindracea basidiocarp extracts, as well as those obtained from mycelia cultivated in common synthetic medium and media enriched with various agro-industrial residues. The free radical scavenging activity of the extracts was determined spectrophotometrically, based on DPPH• reduction while antifungal potential was studied by a microdilution method. The highest level of DPPH• scavenging ability was obtained by an extract of P. ostreatus mycelium cultivated in wheat bran-enriched medium, while control medium favoured the antioxidant potential of A. cylindracea mycelium. Phenol compounds were the main carriers of antioxidant activity that was demonstrated by high coefficients for correlations between total phenol contents in extracts and level of DPPH• scavenging (0.94 for P. ostreatus extracts and 0.91 for A. cylindracea extracts). Only the extracts of A. cylindracea basidiocarp and control mycelium, at a concentration of 1.33 mg/mL, inhibited the growth of Microsporum gypseum and Aspergillus flavus, while basidiocarp extract at 1.67 mg/mL also had fungicidal effect against M. gypseum. These results revealed a considerable antioxidant potential of submergedly-cultivated mycelium which showed higher antioxidant activity than basidiocarp extracts. This is very important because significant amounts of mycelium biomass could be obtained more easily, cheaper and in a more controllable way than basidiocarps cultivation. PMID:25483715

  4. Antifungal susceptibility and virulence factors of clinically isolated dermatophytes in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Afshari, Mohammad Ali; Shams-Ghahfarokhi, Masoomeh; Razzaghi-Abyaneh, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Dermatophytes possess a wide array of virulence factors and various antifungal susceptibility patterns which influence their pathogenesis in humans and animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate antifungal susceptibility and keratinase and proteinase activity of 49 dermatophyte strains from the genera Microsporum, Trichophyton and Epidermophyton which were isolated from human cases of dermatophytosis. Materials and Methods: Forty-nine dermatophyte strains isolated from clinical samples were cultured on general and specific culture media. Keratinase and proteinase activity was screened on solid mineral media and confirmed in liquid cultures. Drug susceptibility toward azoles (fluconazole, ketoconazole and itraconazole), griseofulvin and terbinafine was evaluated using disk diffusion method on Mueller-Hinton agar and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined using microbroth dilution assay according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Results: Our results indicated that clinically isolated dermatophytes from 7 major species produced keratinase and proteinase at different extents. The mean keratinase and proteinase activity was reported as 6.69 ± 0.31 (U/ml) and 2.10 ± 0.22 (U/ml) respectively. Disk diffusion and microbroth dilution (MIC) results of antifungal susceptibility testing showed that ketoconazole was the most effective drug against Epidermophyton floccosum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, itraconazole against T. rubrum and E. floccosum, and griseofulvin and terbinafine against Trichophyton verrucosum. Our results showed that all dermatophyte isolates were resistant to fluconazole. Overall, ketoconazole and itraconazole were the most effective drugs for all dermatophyte species tested. Conclusion: Our results showed that antifungal susceptibility testing is an urgent need to select drugs of choice for treatment of different types of dermatophytosis and further indicated the importance of keratinase and proteinase in pathogenesis of dermatophyte species. PMID:27092223

  5. [Taxonomic study of clinic isolates of Trichophyton in Rosario, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Tartabini, Mirta L; Bonino, Guillermo S; Racca, Liliana; Luque, Alicia G

    2013-01-01

    Due to the pleomorphism and cultural variability displayed by species of the genus Trichophyton, the identification methods based solely on morphological features are usually insufficient for their classification. The goal of the present work was to test a set of phenotypic methods in order to identify fungal isolates that belong to the aforementioned genus. These methods were based on a molecular taxonomic technique used as standard. Clinical isolates (56) were used as samples along with 6 reference strains. Macro and micromorphological studies were performed as well as biochemical and physiological tests such as in vitro hair perforation, nutritional requirements in Trichophyton agar media, urease production and growth on bromocresol purple-milk. solids-glucose (BCP-MS-G) agar. Additionally, PCR fingerprinting using the (GACA)4 primer was employed. As a result of the PCR method, specific profiles were observed for Microsporum canis, Epidermophyton floccosum, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale. Identical profiles were obtained for Arthroderma benhamiae y Trichophyton erinacei. Of the total number of clinical isolates, 39 matched the T. rubrum profile while 13 corresponded to A. benhamiae and 4 to T. interdigitale. The most useful phenotypic test to differentiate between T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes complex strains was alkalinization of the BCP-MS-G medium. Phenotypic tests did not allow differentiation among the T. mentagrophytes complex species. On the other hand, the molecular technique allowed characterization of T. rubrum isolates as well as of those observed in our study and included in the T. mentagrophytes complex: T. interdigitale and Trichophyton sp., the anamorph of A. benhamiae. PMID:24401778

  6. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption IonizationTime of Flight (MALDI-TOF) Mass Spectrometry Using the Vitek MS System for Rapid and Accurate Identification of Dermatophytes on Solid Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Monnin, Valrie; Girard, Victoria; Welker, Martin; Arsac, Maud; Cellire, Batrice; Durand, Graldine; Bosshard, Philipp P.; Farina, Claudio; Passera, Marco; Van Belkum, Alex; Petrini, Orlando; Tonolla, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research was to extend the Vitek MS fungal knowledge base version 2.0.0 to allow the robust identification of clinically relevant dermatophytes, using a variety of strains, incubation times, and growth conditions. First, we established a quick and reliable method for sample preparation to obtain a reliable and reproducible identification independently of the growth conditions. The Vitek MS V2.0.0 fungal knowledge base was then expanded using 134 well-characterized strains belonging to 17 species in the genera Epidermophyton, Microsporum, and Trichophyton. Cluster analysis based on mass spectrum similarity indicated good species discrimination independently of the culture conditions. We achieved a good separation of the subpopulations of the Trichophyton anamorph of Arthroderma benhamiae and of anthropophilic and zoophilic strains of Trichophyton interdigitale. Overall, the 1,130 mass spectra obtained for dermatophytes gave an estimated identification performance of 98.4%. The expanded fungal knowledge base was then validated using 131 clinical isolates of dermatophytes belonging to 13 taxa. For 8 taxa all strains were correctly identified, and for 3 the rate of successful identification was >90%; 75% (6/8) of the M. gypseum strains were correctly identified, whereas only 47% (18/38) of the African T. rubrum population (also called T. soudanense) were recognized accurately, with a large quantity of strains misidentified as T. violaceum, demonstrating the close relationship of these two taxa. The method of sample preparation was fast and efficient and the expanded Vitek MS fungal knowledge base reliable and robust, allowing reproducible dermatophyte identifications in the routine laboratory. PMID:25297329

  7. Isolation of keratinophilic fungi from selected soils of Sanjay Gandhi National Park, Mumbai (India).

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, S K; Verekar, S A

    2014-12-01

    One hundred and twenty-five samples were collected from eight different sites in the vicinity of Sanjay Gandhi National Park (SGNP) and screened for the presence of keratinophilic fungi using hair baiting technique for isolation. Seventy-three isolates were recovered and identified. The cultures were identified using macro- and micro-morphological features. Their identification was also confirmed by the BLAST search of sequences of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA region against the NCBI/Genbank data and compared with deposited sequences for identification purpose. Thirteen species of nine genera were isolated viz. Aphanoascus durus (2.4%), Arthroderma corniculatum (1.6%), Auxarthron umbrinum (0.8%), Chrysosporium evolceanui (1.6%), Chrysosporium indicum (16.0%), Chrysosporium tropicum (2.4%), Chrysosporium zonatum (4.0%), Chrysosporium states of Arthroderma tuberculatum (0.8%), Chrysosporium state of Ctenomyces serratus (11.2%), Gymnascella dankaliensis (3.2%), Microsporum gypseum (12.0%), Myriodontium keratinophilum (0.8%) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (1.6%). Representative of all thirteen species can release the protein in the range of 152.2-322.4 μg/mL in liquid media when grown on human hair in shake flask culture and also decompose 18.4-40.2% of human hair after four weeks of incubation. This study indicates that the soils of SGNP, Mumbai may be significant reservoirs of certain keratinophilic fungi. The keratinolytic activity of these fungi may be playing significant role in superficial infections to man and animals and recycling of keratinic material of this environment. PMID:25442920

  8. Dermatology for the practicing allergist: Tinea pedis and its complications

    PubMed Central

    Al Hasan, Muhannad; Fitzgerald, S Matthew; Saoudian, Mahnaz; Krishnaswamy, Guha

    2004-01-01

    Tinea pedis is a chronic fungal infection of the feet, very often observed in patients who are immuno-suppressed or have diabetes mellitus. The practicing allergist may be called upon to treat this disease for various reasons. Sometimes tinea infection may be mistaken for atopic dermatitis or allergic eczema. In other patients, tinea pedis may complicate allergy and asthma and may contribute to refractory atopic disease. Patients with recurrent cellulitis may be referred to the allergist/immunologist for an immune evaluation and discovered to have tinea pedis as a predisposing factor. From a molecular standpoint, superficial fungal infections may induce a type2 T helper cell response (Th2) that can aggravate atopy. Th2 cytokines may induce eosinophil recruitment and immunoglobulin E (IgE) class switching by B cells, thereby leading to exacerbation of atopic conditions. Three groups of fungal pathogens, referred to as dermatophytes, have been shown to cause tinea pedis: Trychophyton sp, Epidermophyton sp, and Microsporum sp. The disease manifests as a pruritic, erythematous, scaly eruption on the foot and depending on its location, three variants have been described: interdigital type, moccasin type, and vesiculobullous type. Tinea pedis may be associated with recurrent cellulitis, as the fungal pathogens provide a portal for bacterial invasion of subcutaneous tissues. In some cases of refractory asthma, treatment of the associated tinea pedis infection may induce remission in airway disease. Very often, protracted topical and/or oral antifungal agents are required to treat this often frustrating and morbid disease. An evaluation for underlying immuno-suppression or diabetes may be indicated in patients with refractory disease. PMID:15050029

  9. Chemical composition and biological activity of the volatile extracts of Achillea millefolium.

    PubMed

    Falconieri, Danilo; Piras, Alessandra; Porcedda, Silvia; Marongiu, Bruno; Gonçalves, Maria J; Cabral, Célia; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Salgueiro, Ligia

    2011-10-01

    In this study, flowering aerial parts of wild Achillea millefolium growing on the Mediterranean coast (Sardinia Island, Italy) and on the Atlantic coast (Portugal- Serra de Montemuro) were used as a matrix for supercritical extraction of volatile oil with CO2 (SFE). The collected extracts were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS methods and their composition were compared with that of the essential oil isolated by hydrodistillation. A strong chemical variability in essential oils depending on the origin of the samples was observed. The results showed the presence of two type oils. The Italian volatile extracts (SFE and essential oil) are predominantly composed by alpha-asarone (25.6-33.3%, in the SFE extract and in the HD oil, respectively), beta-bisabolene (27.3-16.6%) and alpha-pinene (10.0-17.0%); whereas the main components of the Portuguese extracts are trans-thujone (31.4-29.0%), trans-crhysanthenyl acetate (19.8-15.8%) and beta-pinene (1.2-11.1%). The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the oils against Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. guillermondii, C. parapsilosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale, T. verrucosum, Microsporum canis, M. gypseum, Epidermophyton floccosum, Aspergillus niger, A. fumigatus and A. flavus. The oils showed the highest activity against dermatophyte strains, with MIC values ranging from 0.32-1.25 microL mL(-1). PMID:22164800

  10. Detection of seasonal asymptomatic dermatophytes in Van cats.

    PubMed

    Ilhan, Ziya; Karaca, Mehmet; Ekin, Ismail Hakki; Solmaz, Hasan; Akkan, Hasan Altan; Tutuncu, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The Van cat is a domestic landrace found in the Van province of eastern Turkey. In this study, we aimed to determine the seasonal carriage of dermatophytes in Van cats without clinical lesions. A total of 264 hair specimens were collected from clinically healthy cats in and around the Van Province. Of these samples, 30.3% were obtained in spring, 30.6% in summer, 16.6% in autumn, and 22.3% in winter; 45.1% of samples were from male cats and the rest from female ones. Of the studied cats, 118 were younger than 1 year, 78 were 1-3 years old, and 68 were older than 3 years. The specimens were subjected to direct microscopic examination with 15% potassium hydroxide and cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar and dermatophyte test medium supplemented with cycloheximide and chloramphenicol. Dermatophyte identification was carried out based on macroscopic and microscopic colony morphology, urease activities, in vitro hair perforation test, growth at 37°C, and pigmentation on corn meal agar. Dermatophytes were isolated from 19 (7.1%) of the 264 specimens examined. The most frequently isolated fungi were Trichophyton terrestre (4.1%), followed by Microsporum gypseum (1.1%), M. nanum (1.1%), and T. mentagrophytes (0.7%), and these fungi may represent a health risk for humans in contact with clinically healthy Van cats. M. canis was not isolated from any of the specimens. Our results show no significant (p>0.05) association between carriage of dermatophytes and the gender of cats. The carriage rate of dermatophytes was high in spring and winter, and the only possible risk factor for infection was age of the animal. PMID:26887249

  11. Detection of seasonal asymptomatic dermatophytes in Van cats

    PubMed Central

    Ilhan, Ziya; Karaca, Mehmet; Ekin, Ismail Hakki; Solmaz, Hasan; Akkan, Hasan Altan; Tutuncu, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The Van cat is a domestic landrace found in the Van province of eastern Turkey. In this study, we aimed to determine the seasonal carriage of dermatophytes in Van cats without clinical lesions. A total of 264 hair specimens were collected from clinically healthy cats in and around the Van Province. Of these samples, 30.3% were obtained in spring, 30.6% in summer, 16.6% in autumn, and 22.3% in winter; 45.1% of samples were from male cats and the rest from female ones. Of the studied cats, 118 were younger than 1 year, 78 were 1–3 years old, and 68 were older than 3 years. The specimens were subjected to direct microscopic examination with 15% potassium hydroxide and cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar and dermatophyte test medium supplemented with cycloheximide and chloramphenicol. Dermatophyte identification was carried out based on macroscopic and microscopic colony morphology, urease activities, in vitro hair perforation test, growth at 37 °C, and pigmentation on corn meal agar. Dermatophytes were isolated from 19 (7.1%) of the 264 specimens examined. The most frequently isolated fungi were Trichophyton terrestre (4.1%), followed by Microsporum gypseum (1.1%), M. nanum (1.1%), and T. mentagrophytes (0.7%), and these fungi may represent a health risk for humans in contact with clinically healthy Van cats. M. canis was not isolated from any of the specimens. Our results show no significant (p > 0.05) association between carriage of dermatophytes and the gender of cats. The carriage rate of dermatophytes was high in spring and winter, and the only possible risk factor for infection was age of the animal. PMID:26887249

  12. Essential oil of Azorella cryptantha collected in two different locations from San Juan Province, Argentina: chemical variability and anti-insect and antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    López, Sandra; Lima, Beatriz; Aragón, Liliana; Espinar, Luis Ariza; Tapia, Alejandro; Zacchino, Susana; Zygadlo, Julio; Feresin, Gabriela Egly; López, María Liza

    2012-08-01

    The essential oils (EOs) of two populations of Azorella cryptantha (Clos) Reiche, a native species from San Juan Province, were obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus and characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. The compounds identified amounted to 92.3 and 88.7% of the total oil composition for A. cryptantha from Bauchaceta (Ac-BAU) and Agua Negra (Ac-AN), respectively. The EO composition for the two populations was similar, although with differences in the identity and content of the main compounds and also in the identity of minor components. The main compounds of the Ac-BAU EO were α-pinene, α-thujene, sabinene, δ-cadinene, δ-cadinol, trans-β-guaiene, and τ-muurolol, while α-pinene, α-thujene, β-pinene, γ-cadinene, τ-cadinol, δ-cadinene, τ-muurolol, and a not identified compound were the main constituents of the Ac-AN EO, which also contained 3.0% of oxygenated monoterpenes. The repellent activity on Triatoma infestans nymphs was 100 and 92% for the Ac-AN and Ac-BAU EOs, respectively. Regarding the toxic effects on Ceratitis capitata, the EOs were very active with LD(50) values lower than 11 μg/fly. The dermatophytes Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum, and T. mentagrophytes and the bacterial strains Escherichia coli LM(1), E. coli LM(2), and Yersinia enterocolitica PI were more sensitive toward the Ac-AN EO (MIC 125 μg/ml) than toward the Ac-BAU EO. This is the first report on the composition of A. cryptantha EO and its anti-insect and antimicrobial properties. PMID:22899606

  13. The dermatophytes.

    PubMed Central

    Weitzman, I; Summerbell, R C

    1995-01-01

    The etiologic agents of the dermatophytoses (ringworm) are classified in three anamorphic (asexual or imperfect) genera, Epidermophyton, Microsporum, and Trichophyton. Species capable of reproducing sexually belong in the teleomorphic genus, Arthroderma, of the Ascomycota. On the basis of primary habitat association, they may be grouped as geophilic (soil associated), zoophilic, and anthropophilic. Adaptation to growth on humans by most geophilic species resulted in diminished loss of sporulation, sexuality, and other soil-associated characteristics. The dermatophytes have the ability to invade keratinized tissue (skin, hair, and nails) but are usually restricted to the nonliving cornified layer of the epidermis because of their inability to penetrate viable tissue of an immunocompetent host. However, invasion does elicit a host response ranging from mild to severe. Acid proteinases, elastase, keratinases, and other proteinases reportedly act as virulence factors. The development of cell-mediated immunity correlated with delayed hypersensitivity and an inflammatory response is associated with clinical cure, whereas the lack of or a defective cell-mediated immunity predisposes the host to chronic or recurrent dermatophyte infection. Chronic dermatophytosis is mostly caused by Trichophyton rubrum, and there is some evidence that mannan produced by this fungus suppresses or diminishes the inflammatory response. Since dermatophytes cause a communicable disease, modes of transmission and control are discussed as well as a survey of recent trends in therapy. Collection of specimens, culture media, and tests for identification are also presented. Genetic studies have led to an understanding of incompatibility mechanisms, pleomorphism and variation, resistance to griseofulvin, and virulence. Molecular biology has contributed to our knowledge of the taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of dermatophytes. PMID:7621400

  14. Inhibitory effect of silver nanoparticles mediated by atmospheric pressure air cold plasma jet against dermatophyte fungi.

    PubMed

    Ouf, Salama A; El-Adly, Amira A; Mohamed, Abdel-Aleam H

    2015-10-01

    In an in vitro study with five clinical isolates of dermatophytes, the MIC(50) and MIC(100) values of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) ranged from 5 to 16 and from 15 to 32 μg ml(- 1), respectively. The combined treatment of AgNPs with atmospheric pressure-air cold plasma (APACP) induced a drop in the MIC(50) and MIC100 values of AgNPs reaching 3-11 and 12-23 μg ml(- 1), respectively, according to the examined species. Epidermophyton floccosum was the most sensitive fungus to AgNPs, while Trichophyton rubrum was the most tolerant. AgNPs induced significant reduction in keratinase activity and an increase in the mycelium permeability that was greater when applied combined with plasma treatment. Scanning electron microscopy showed electroporation of the cell walls and the accumulation of AgNPs on the cell wall and inside the cells, particularly when AgNPs were combined with APACP treatment. An in vivo experiment with dermatophyte-inoculated guinea pigs indicated that the application of AgNPs combined with APACP was more efficacious in healing and suppressing disease symptoms of skin as compared with the application of AgNPs alone. The recovery from the infection reached 91.7 % in the case of Microsporum canis-inoculated guinea pigs treated with 13 μg ml(- 1) AgNPs combined with APACP treatment delivered for 2  min. The emission spectra indicated that the efficacy of APACP was mainly due to generation of NO radicals and excited nitrogen molecules. These reactive species interact and block the activity of the fungal spores in vitro and in the skin lesions of the guinea pigs. The results achieved are promising compared with fluconazole as reference antifungal drug. PMID:26296782

  15. GMI, a Ganoderma immunomodulatory protein, down-regulates tumor necrosis factor α-induced expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 via NF-κB pathway in human alveolar epithelial A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-Hsiung; Hsiao, Yi-Min; Ou, Chu-Chyn; Lin, Yu-Wen; Chiu, Yi-Lin; Lue, Ko-Huang; Chang, Jan-Gowth; Ko, Jiunn-Liang

    2010-11-24

    Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) has been implicated in airway injury in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung inflammation, and lung cancer and plays a major role in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-stimulated tumor invasion and lung inflammation. MMP-9 activity is promoted by the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α. GMI, cloned from Ganoderma microsporum and purified, is one of the recombinant fungal immunomodulatory proteins. To understand the molecular mechanisms involved in the suppression of TNF-α-mediated tumor invasion and inflammation, GMI modulation of this pathway was investigated in human alveolar epithelial A549 cells in this study. GMI exhibited an inhibitory effect on TNF-α-induced invasion, with GMI treatment and TNF-α exposure presenting the most anti-invasive properties on Boyden chamber assay. GMI reduced TNF-α-induced MMP-9 activities on gelatin zymography assay through inhibition of MMP-9 transcriptional activity. RT-PCR and MMP-9 promoter luciferase analysis revealed that GMI inhibits the transcription of MMP-9 mRNA. Moreover, in vitro and in vivo binding experiments, an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay (ChIP) demonstrated that GMI suppresses DNA binding of nuclear factor (NF)-κB transcription factors to MMP-9 promoter. Western blot analysis indicated that GMI blocks the phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα, which in turn leads to suppression of the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of p65. Thus, overall, our results indicated that GMI mediates antitumor invasion and anti-inflammatory effects through modulation of NF-κB/MMP-9 pathways. PMID:21028821

  16. Investigation of In Vitro Activity of Five Antifungal Drugs against Dermatophytes Species Isolated from Clinical Samples Using the E-Test Method

    PubMed Central

    Aktas, Ayse Esin; Yigit, Nimet; Aktas, Akin; Gozubuyuk, Sultan Gamze

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Dermatomycosis is an infection with fungi related to the skin: glabrous skin, hair and/or nails. Oral treatment of fungal infections in dermatology has become a preferred modality for the management of these very common conditions. Although there are increasing numbers of antifungals available for treatment of dermatophytes, some cases and relapses have been unresponsive to treatment. The determination of fungus in-vitro antifungal susceptibility has been reported to be important for the ability to eradicate dermatophytes. It is necessary to perform antifungal susceptibility testing of dermatophytes. E-test (AB Biodisk, Sweden) is a rapid, easy-to-perform in-vitro antifungal susceptibility test. The aim of this study was to investigate the susceptibility of the different species of dermatophyte strains isolated clinical specimens to five antifungal agents using the E-test method. Materials and Methods: A total of 66 specimens were collected from the nails, feet, inguinal region, trunk and hands. These strains tested MIC endpoints of E-test for amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, caspofungin, and ketoconazole were read after 72, and 96 hours incubation for each strain on RPMI 1640 agar. Results: The dermatophytes tested included Trichophyton rubrum 43 (65.1%), Trichophyton mentagrophytes 7 (10.7%), Microsporum canis 5 (7.6%), Trichophyton tonsurans 5 (7.6%), Epidermophyton floccosum 4 (6.0%) and Trichophyton violaceum 2 (3.0%). The most active agent against all dermatophytes species was caspofungin with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) range (μg/mL−1) (0.02–3, 0.032–4, 0.125–0.50, 0.032–2, 0.25–0.50, 0.125–0.50) and it raconazole with an MIC range (μg/mL−1) (0.038–1.5, 0.094–1.5, 1–32, 0.016–0.50, 0.25–0.50, 0.125–0.50). The least active agent was fluconazole with an MIC range (μg/mL−1) (0, 19–48, 2–256, 2–8, 256, 256, 8–24). Conclusion: E-test seems to be an alternative method to MIC-determination of antifungal drugs for dermatophytes species, since it is a less-laborious methodology and results could be obtained faster. PMID:25610290

  17. Synthesis and evaluation of thiophene-based guanylhydrazones (iminoguanidines) efficient against panel of voriconazole-resistant fungal isolates.

    PubMed

    Ajdačić, Vladimir; Senerovic, Lidija; Vranić, Marija; Pekmezovic, Marina; Arsic-Arsnijevic, Valentina; Veselinovic, Aleksandar; Veselinovic, Jovana; Šolaja, Bogdan A; Nikodinovic-Runic, Jasmina; Opsenica, Igor M

    2016-03-15

    A series of new thiophene-based guanylhydrazones (iminoguanidines) were synthesized in high yields using a straightforward two-step procedure. The antifungal activity of compounds was evaluated against a wide range of medicaly important fungal strains including yeasts, molds, and dermatophytes in comparison to clinically used drug voriconazole. Cytotoxic properties of compounds were also determined using human lung fibroblast cell line and hemolysis assay. All guanylhydrazones showed significant activity against broad spectrum of clinically important species of Candida spp., Aspergillus fumigatus, Fusarium oxysporum, Microsporum canis and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, which was in some cases comparable or better than activity of voriconazole. More importantly, compounds 10, 11, 13, 14, 18 and 21 exhibited excellent activity against voriconazole-resistant Candida albicans CA5 with very low minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values <2μgmL(-1). Derivative 14, bearing bromine on the phenyl ring, was the most effective compound with MICs ranging from 0.25 to 6.25μgmL(-1). However, bis-guanylhydrazone 18 showed better selectivity in terms of therapeutic index values. In vivo embryotoxicity on zebrafish (Danio rerio) showed improved toxicity profile of 11, 14 and 18 in comparison to that of voriconazole. Most guanylhydrazones also inhibited C. albicans yeast to hyphal transition, essential for its biofilm formation, while 11 and 18 were able to disperse preformed Candida biofilms. All guanylhydrazones showed the equal potential to interact with genomic DNA of C. albicans in vitro, thus indicating a possible mechanism of their action, as well as possible mechanism of observed cytotoxic effects. Tested compounds did not have significant hemolytic effect and caused low liposome leakage, which excluded the cell membrane as a primary target. On the basis of computational docking experiments using both human and cytochrome P450 from Candida it was concluded that the most active guanylhydrazones had minimal structural prerequisites to interact with the cytochrome P450 14α-demethylase (CYP51). Promising guanylhydrazone derivatives also showed satisfactory pharmacokinetic profile based on molecular calculations. PMID:26867487

  18. Antidermatophytic and Toxicological Evaluations of Dichloromethane-Methanol Extract, Fractions and Compounds Isolated from Coula edulis

    PubMed Central

    Tamokou, Jean De Dieu; Kuiate, Jules Roger; Gatsing, Donatien; Efouet, Alango Pépin Nken; Njouendou, Abdel Jélil

    2011-01-01

    Background: Coula edulis Bail (Olacaceae), is an evergreen tree growing to a height of 25. This study aimed at evaluating the antidermatophytic and toxicological properties of the stem bark of C. edulis extract as well as fractions and compounds isolated from it. Methods: The plant extract was prepared by maceration in CH2Cl2-MeOH (1:1 v/v). The fractionation of this extract was done by silica gel column chromatography. Antidermatophytic activities were assayed using agar dilution method. The acute and sub-acute toxicities of oral administrations of the extract were studied in rodents. Results: The crude extract of C. edulis displayed antidermatophytic activity against the tested microorganisms with highest activity against Microsporum audouinii and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The fractionation enhanced the antidermatophytic activity in fraction F3 (MIC=0.62-1.25 mg/ml) compared to the crude extract (MIC=1.25-5 mg/ml). Further fractionation and purification of the fractions F2 and F3 gave respectively 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside of sitosterol (MIC=0.20-0.40 mg/ml) and a mixture of β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and n-hexadecanoid acid (MIC=0.80 mg/ml). The median lethal doses (LD50) of the crude extract were 16.8 and 19.6 g/kg body weight (BW) in male and female mice, respectively. At 200 mg/kg BW, there was a decrease in body weight gain, food and water consumptions. Gross anatomical analysis revealed white vesicles on the liver of the rats treated with the extract at 200 mg/kg BW. This dose also induced significant (P<0.05) changes on hematological and biochemical parameters in rats after 28 days of treatment. Conclusion: These data suggest that the CH2Cl2-MeOH (1:1 v/v) extract of C. edulis stem bark possesses antidermatophytic properties. They also show that at high doses (≥ 200 mg/kg BW), the extract has significant hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic activities. PMID:23357938

  19. Solid lipid nanoparticles containing copaiba oil and allantoin: development and role of nanoencapsulation on the antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Svetlichny, G; Külkamp-Guerreiro, I C; Cunha, S L; Silva, F E K; Bueno, K; Pohlmann, A R; Fuentefria, A M; Guterres, S S

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this work was to develop solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) containing copaiba oil with and without allantoin (NCOA, NCO, respectively) and to evaluate their antifungal activity. Nanoparticle suspensions were prepared using a high homogenisation technique and characterised by dynamic light scattering, laser diffraction, nanoparticle tracking analysis, multiple light scattering analysis, high-pressure liquid chromatography, pH and rheology. The antifungal activities of the formulations were tested in vitro against the emergent yeasts Candida krusei and Candida parapsilosis, and the fungal pathogens of human skin Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum canis. The dynamic light scattering analysis showed z-average diameters (intensity) between 118.63 ± 8.89 nm for the nanoparticles with both copaiba oil and allantoin and 126.06 ± 9.84nm for the nanoparticles with just copaiba oil. The D[4,3] determined by laser diffraction showed similar results of 123 ± 1.73 nm for the nanoparticles with copaiba oil and allantoin and 130 ± 3.6 nm for the nanoparticles with copaiba oil alone. Nanoparticle tracking analysis demonstrated that both suspensions had monomodal profiles and consequently, the nanoparticle populations were homogeneous. This analysis also corroborated the results of dynamic light scattering and laser diffraction, exhibiting a smaller mean diameter for the nanoparticles with copaiba oil and allantoin (143 nm) than for the nanoparticles with copaiba oil (204 nm). The physicochemical properties indicated that the dispersions were stable overtime. Rheology evidenced Newtonian behaviour for both suspensions. Antifungal susceptibility showed a MIC90 of 125 μg/mL (nanoparticles with copaiba oil) and 7.8 μg/mL (nanoparticles with copaiba oil and allantoin) against C. parapsilosis. The nanoparticles with copaiba oil and the nanoparticles with copaiba oil and allantoin presented a MIC90 of 500 μg/mL and 250 μg/mL, respectively, against C. krusei. The MIC90 values were 500 μg/mL (nanoparticles with copaiba oil) and 1.95 μg/mL (nanoparticles with copaiba oil and allantoin) against T. rubrum. Against M. canis, the nanoparticles with copaiba oil and allantoin had a MIC9 of 1.95 μg/mL. In conclusion, nanoencapsulation improved the antifungal activity of copaiba oil, which was enhanced by the presence of allantoin. The MICs obtained are comparable to those of commercial products and can represent promising therapeutics for cutaneous infections caused by yeasts and dermatophytes. PMID:25980176

  20. Microbial and xanthine dehydrogenase inhibitory activity of some flavones.

    PubMed

    Khobragade, C N; Bodade, Ragini G; Shinde, M S; Jaju, Deepa R; Bhosle, R B; Dawane, B S

    2008-06-01

    Xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) is responsible for the pathological condition called Gout. In the present study different flavones synthesized from chalcone were evaluated in vitro for their inhibitory activity. Inhibitory activity of flavones on XDH was determined in terms of inhibition of uric acid synthesis from Xanthine. The enzymatic activity was found maximum at pH 7.5 and temperature 40 degrees C. The flavones 6-chloro-2-[3-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-1-phenyl-1-H-pyrazol-4-yl]-chromen-4-one (F(1)) and 6-chloro-7methyl-2-[3-(4-chloro-phenyl)-1-phenyl-1-H-pyrazol-4-yl]-chromen-4-one(F(2)),were noncompetitive and competitive inhibitor with Ki values 1.1 and 0.22 respectively. The flavones (F(1)), (F(2)), 6-chloro-2-[3-(4-chloro-phenyl)-1phenyl-1-H-pyrazol-4-yl]-chromen-4-one(F(3)), 8-bromo-6-chloro-2-[3-(4-chloro-phenyl)-1-phenyl-1-H-pyrazol-4-yl]-chromen-4-one (F(4)), 2-[3-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-1-phenyl-1-H-pyrazol-4-yl]-chromen-4-one (F(5)) and 6-methyl-2-[3-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-1-phenyl-1-H-pyrazol-4-yl]-chromen-4-one (F(6)) were also screened for their antimicrobial activity, measured in terms of zone of inhibition. A broad spectrum antifungal activity was obtained against Trichoderma viridae, Candida albicans, Microsporum cannis, Penicillium chrysogenum and Fusarium moniliformae. In case of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavous only spore formation was affected, while antibacterial activity was observed against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Serratia marsecens only. The flavones were further analyzed for quantitative structural activity relationship study (QSAR) by using PASS, online software to determine their Pa value. Toxicity and drug relevant properties were revealed by PALLAS software in terms of their molecular weight. Log P values were also studied. The result showed both the F(1) and F(2) flavones as antigout and therefore supports the development of novel drugs for the treatment of gout. PMID:18569337

  1. Clinical features of 80 cases of tinea faciei treated at a rural clinic in Japan.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Hiromitsu; Jinnin, Masatoshi; Miyata, Keishi; Hiruma, Masataro; Ihn, Hironobu

    2014-12-01

    From March 2008 through February 2014, 80 patients aged 1-95 years (43 men and 37 women) were diagnosed with tinea faciei by a rural Japanese clinic. The affected sites were the cheek in 42 patients (52.5%), the auricles and area surrounding the auricles in 16 (20.0%), and the mandible in 12 (15.0%); 33 patients (41.2%) had concurrent ringworm in areas other than the face. Twenty-one patients (26.3%) had applied topical steroids to treat a rash. The pathogen responsible for tinea faciei was Trichophyton rubrum in 35 patients (43.7%), T. tonsurans in 19 (23.8%), T. mentagrophytes in 3 (3.8%), T. verrucosum in 2 (2.5%), T. violaceum in 2 (2.5%), Microsporum canis in 17 (21.3%), and M. gypseum in 2 (2.5%). Clinical symptoms were divided into three groups based on the severity of inflammation and the extent of lesions and scored in points. Anthropophilic dermatophytes resulted in a score of 1.82 points for the severity of inflammation and a score of 1.84 points for the extent of lesions while zoophilic dermatophytes resulted in a score of 2.14 points for the severity of inflammation and a score of 1.50 points for the extent of lesions. This indicates that anthropophilic fungi resulted in less inflammation and broader lesions, whereas zoophilic fungi resulted in more intense inflammation and smaller lesions. Patients who had applied topical steroids had a mean score of 1.90 points for the severity of inflammation and a mean score of 2.10 points for the extent of lesions. Patients who had not applied topical steroids had a mean score of 1.95 points for the severity of inflammation and a mean score of 1.59 points for the extent of lesions. The severity of inflammation did not differ significantly. However, lesions were significantly broader in patients who had applied topical steroids than in those who had not applied topical steroids (p < 0.04). The severity of tinea faciei is a useful index for the clinical diagnosis of tinea faciei. PMID:25639303