Microsporum equinum was isolated in Ontario, Canada, from five human and two equine cases of ringworm infection. This dermatophyte was previously recovered from North American horses on several occasions, but was considered to be M. canis. We regard M. equinum as distinct from M. canis. It can be differentiated from M. canis by the smaller size of its macroconidia, its failure to perforate hair in vitro, its poor growth and sporulation on bromocresol purple casein dextrose agar, and its incompatibility with Nannizzia otae, the telemorph of M. canis. Images
Kane, J; Padhye, A A; Ajello, L
A 41-year-old woman presented with a pruritic rash on the face that was of 3 months duration. During that time, it had been successively misdiagnosed as psoriasis vulgaris, systemic lupus erythematosus, facial dermatitis at other hospitals, and had been treated with agents that included acitretin and prednisone. Finally, fungi were found in the lesions by optical microscopy, and the fungal culture was positive for Microsporum gypseum, and was diagnosed as a Microsporum gypseum infection. The lesions eventually cleared completely after 8 weeks of antifungal treatment. PMID:23554617
Yu, Chunshui; Zhou, Jingguo; Liu, Jianping
We report the case of a Spanish 60-year-old female who presented in 1997 with onychomycosis of the left thumbnail following an injury caused by a fresh fish bone. Microsporum racemosum was repeatedly cultured from nail scrapings, and its identity was confirmed by sequencing the isolate’s ITS1/ITS2 and 5.8S rRNA regions. The patient was successfully treated with itraconazole, which was administered for 12 weeks. This represents the first case of onychomycosis due to M. racemosum and the first time that this species has been isolated from a human in Europe.
Garcia-Martos, Pedro; Gene, Josepa; Sole, Maria; Mira, Jose; Ruiz-Henestrosa, Ricardo; Guarro, Josep
SUMMARY: Microsporum canis Bodin, the causative agent of animal ringworm in children and adults, is able to digest human hair keratin in vitro. The process of degradation has been followed by microscopic observation and an analysis of the resulting amino-acids which accumulate in the medium after growth on human hair has been made by chromatographic techniques. In this investigation attempts
Two cases of dermatophytosis caused by Microsporum vanbreuseghemii are reported. A 7-year-old boy and his brother were examined for tinea capitis. Hair samples and skin scrapings were collected from each patient to microscopy and culture. Direct microscopic examination of the hairs using lactophenol revealed an ectothrix invasion. Cultures inoculated with portions of clinical material yielded M. vanbreuseghemii after 2 weeks. The identification of the fungi were based on colony morphology on mycobiotic agar, microscopic characteristic on slide cultures, biochemical reactions and hair perforation tests. PMID:22240855
Naseri, Ali; Fata, Abdolmajid; Khosravi, Ali Reza
Hybridoma cells were produced by fusing mouse myeloma cells with spleen cells from mice primed with an exoantigen of Microsporum canis. Three clones produced antibodies which were examined by the Western blot technique for their potential usefulness in the identification of M. canis isolates and differentiation of strains within the species. Based on reactions with immunological determinants, all of the M. canis isolates tested presented either species- or strain-specific domains. Monoclonal antibodies proved to be useful reagents for the identification of M. canis isolates and for the differentiation of strains within the species. A purified antigen depleted of common antigenic determinants was obtained in affinity chromatography by using monoclonal antibody. Images
Polonelli, L; Castagnola, M; Morace, G
An outbreak of dermatophytosis caused by Microsporum canis occurred in tigers (Panthera tigris) at an exotic felid sanctuary in 2003. In an attempt to find an effective, practical, safe, and affordable method for controlling this epizootic, a clinical treatment trial was conducted. Nonalopecic tigers were studied to address the inapparent carrier state observed at the facility. The efficacy of three topical and environmental treatment combinations of a 2% lime sulfur solution and a peroxide-based cleaner were evaluated in nonalopecic, culture-positive tigers (n = 18) housed in four separate enclosures. Lime sulfur solution was applied topically to all of these animals. As a control, nonalopecic but culture-positive tigers (n = 6) housed in two other enclosures were not treated. Environmental treatments included lime sulfur solution (n = 1), a peroxide-based cleaner (n = 1), and no treatment (n = 2). All solutions were applied at 2-wk intervals for seven treatments. The 2% lime sulfur solution treatments were unsuccessful in resolving infections in most tigers. Lime sulfur was effective in suppressing environmental fungal growth immediately posttreatment, whereas the peroxide-based cleaner was not effective. A follow-up survey of all study tigers and their enclosures was conducted 2 yr later, at which time 22 of 24 tigers (92%) had attained resolution, defined as two sequential negative hair cultures. Review of the culture results during the clinical trial and follow-up study suggests that nonalopecic dermatophytosis in tigers that are housed outdoors may not warrant aggressive individual or environmental treatment, as the infection may clear with time. PMID:17679509
Sykes, John M; Ramsay, Edward C
Several microorganisms were examined for their abilities to convert S-nicotine into nornicotine. Five microorganisms including Microsporum gypseum (ATCC 11395) produced nornicotine and three unknown metabolites. M. gypseum efficiently reduced nicotine-1'-N-oxide to nicotine, but no nornicotine was obtained when the N-oxide was used as substrate.
Sindelar, R D; Rosazza, J P; Barfknecht, C F
Microsporum canis is the dermatophyte most frequently recovered from canine and feline ringworm cases. The household environment can be contaminated both by symptomatic animals and through asymptomatic M canis carriage, resulting in a potential human health risk. The load of M canis arthrospores was determined in households harbouring infected pets, in order to evaluate the infectivity of the animals versus
F. Mancianti; S. Nardoni; M. Corazza; P. D'Achille; C. Ponticelli
T. Kotnik, M. âerne: Clinical and Histopathological Evaluation of Terbinafine Treatment in Cats Experimentally Infected with Microsporum canis. Acta Vet. Brno 2006, 75: 541-547. The efficacy of terbinafine hydrochloride (Lamisil ® , Novartis) in the treatment of 27 M. canis- infected cats was followed. Treatment was started on the 17 th day post inoculation (p.i.), when successful experimental infection was
T. Kotnik; M. ?erne
Summary Keratinomyces ajelloi andMicrosporum gypseum have been isolated from soil samples from public gardens and from a breeding-place with rabbits and fowls in the urban zone of the Buenos Aires city, usingVanbreuseghem's technique with hair bait.
We report the case of a Mexican lupus patient who developed proximal white subungual onychomycosis on multiple toenails. Microsporum canis was the causative agent. Both nail invasion by M. canis and proximal white subungual onychomycosis are rare conditions indicative of an underlying immunodeficiency.
Alberto Tlacuilo-Parra; Elizabeth Guevara-Gutiérrez; Jorge Mayorga; Mario Salazar-Páramo
Dermatomycoses are common and persistent fungal infections in Tunisia. A collection ofPseudomonas isolates from marine environments and clinical patients was testedin vitro against the dermatophytes:Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton interdigitale andMicrosporum canis. The isolatesP. aeruginosa andP. fluorescens showed antagonistic activity againstT. rubrum with fungal growth reduction ranging from 76 to 97.5%. The antifungal compounds of the marine isolate PsMBA-3 ofP. aeruginosa, was
Amel Cherif; Dalinda El Euch; Nadia Bessaied; Amel Ben Osman Dhahri; Abdellatif Boudabous; Najla Sadfi-Zouaoui
Alpha-terthienyl (alpha-T) in the presence of UV-A irradiation reduced the growth rate of Microsporum cookei. In the dark, alpha-T accumulated in small diffuse vacuoles within the hyphae. After UV-A treatment, alpha-T caused damage to the membranes of the nucleus, mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. Plasmolytic and autolytic changes occurred resulting in plasma membrane breakage and cell wall aberrations. UV-A activated alpha-T would appear to target membrane proteins. PMID:2093120
Mares, D; Fasulo, M P; Bruni, A
A 29-year-old renal transplant patient taking mycophenolate mofetil 1?g b.i.d., cyclosporine 100?mg b.i.d. and prednisone 10?mg q.d. presented with white paint, dot-like incrustations on the skin of his right scrotum. A 10% potassium hydroxide preparation of scrapings from the lesions showed septate hyphae and Microsporum gypseum was cultured. Topical bifonazole 1% cream cleared the lesions within 2 weeks. At the 2-month follow up there was no relapse. PMID:23043615
Chen, Zhuo; Bi, Xinling; Gu, Jun; Xu, Xiaoguang; Wang, Ying; Wu, Jianhua
Aqueous extracts of 10 plants were tested for their ability to inhibit Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum canis, the aetiological agents of dermal fungal infections in humans. These extracts were also evaluated for their activity against some bacteria. Aqueous extracts from the leaves of Inula viscosa produced detectable antifungal activity against these dermatophytes. PMID:9489036
Maoz, M; Neeman, I
Summary Tinea capitis is very rare in adults. We report a new case of tinea capitis caused by Microsporum canis in a healthy postmenopausal woman. We argue the predisposing factors of the dermatophytoses in adult patients and discuss about the use of terbinafine like first line of treatment in this entity, because of the apparition of resistances.
María López-Escobar García-Prendes; Cristina Raya Aguado; Cayetana Maldonado Seral; Narciso Pérez Oliva
The ranunculaceous derivative protoanemonin (PrA) was studied as an antifungal agent on the dermatophyte Microsporum cookei. The ultrastructural changes that PrA brought about in this fungus were observed with both the transmission and scanning electron microscopes. The main anomalies noted were abnormally shaped hyphae and within the cytoplasm, multimembranous bodies which were irregular in shape and size, and tubules of
Donatella Mares; Corso Porta Mare
Aim: Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) has already proven efficient at disinfection of microorganisms including biofilms. The objective of the present study is to assess the efficacy of CAP against the dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum canis in vitro. Materials & methods:T. rubrum and M. canis were exposed to CAP for different treatment times and time intervals in vitro. Treatment with ciclopirox olamine or UVC radiation (0.120 J/cm(2)) served as controls. CAP was generated by the surface microdischarge technology. Fungal colony growth was measured upon CAP treatment. Results: Repeated daily CAP treatments of 10 min demonstrated an inhibition of growth during the treatment period of 9 days. Single CAP treatment sessions for 5, 8 and 10 min, as well as treatments for 5 or 8 min daily, resulted in less fungal growth inhibition. UVC radiation treatment failed, but not ciclopirox olamine. Conclusion: CAP shows promising potential for future application in the treatment of dermatophyte infections. PMID:24020738
Heinlin, Julia; Maisch, Tim; Zimmermann, Julia L; Shimizu, Tetsuji; Holzmann, Thomas; Simon, Michaela; Heider, Judith; Landthaler, Michael; Morfill, Gregor; Karrer, Sigrid
A case of tinea corporis caused by Microsporum gallinae was found in 2011 in Okinawa, located in the southern part of Japan. The patient was a 96-year-old, otherwise healthy, Japanese man, who had been working as a breeder of fighting cocks for more than 70 years. He was bitten on his right forearm by one of the cocks and a few weeks later, two erythematous macules appeared on the right forearm, accompanied by a slight itchy sensation. While the first isolate of this dermatophyte was recovered from the region by Miyasato et al. in 2011, it was not obtained from the same fighting cock owned by the patient. However, frequent exchanges of fighting cocks and special domestic breeds of chickens related to fighting, mating, and/or bird fairs are common among the fans and breeders. We investigated 238 chickens and 71 fighting cocks in Okinawa and in the suburbs of Tokyo (Chiba, Tokyo, Ibaraki, and Sizuoka). One isolate of M. gallinae from a fighting cock in Chiba Prefecture in the Tokyo metropolitan area exhibited a different genotype, with a single base difference from the patient isolate based on the internal transcribed spacer 1-5.8s-ITS2 regions (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) of the ribosomal RNA gene sequence. The isolation of M. gallinae from a fighting cock on the mainland of Japan is the first such finding in animals in our country. PMID:22809243
Murata, Michiko; Takahashi, Hideo; Takahashi, Sana; Takahashi, Yoko; Chibana, Hiroji; Murata, Yoshiteru; Sugiyama, Kazutoshi; Kaneshima, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Sayaka; Miyasato, Hitona; Murakami, Masaru; Kano, Rui; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Uezato, Hiroshi; Hosokawa, Atsushi; Sano, Ayako
We report a familial infection caused by Microsporum canis. The first two patients were a 30-year-old female and her son, a 5-year-old boy, who came in contact with a pet dog at a farm house. The boy then suffered from hair loss for 3 months. There were circular and patchy alopecia with diffuse scaling on his scalp. Meanwhile, his mother also developed patchy erythema and scaling on her face. Several weeks later, the boy's sister, a 4-year-old girl, was noted to have inconspicuous scaly plaques in the center of her scalp. The development of tinea capitis in the two children and tinea corporis in their mother were diagnosed based on the positive KOH examination. Morphologic characteristics and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2, amplified from primary culture isolates, confirmed that their infections were caused by the zoophilic M. canis. Repetitive sequence-based molecular typing using the DiversiLab system secreted enzymatic activity analysis, and antifungal susceptibility indicated that these isolates might share the same source. The boy and girl were cured by the treatment with oral itraconazole and topical naftifine-ketoconazole cream after washing the hair with 2 % ketoconazole shampoo, and their mother was successfully treated by terbinafine orally in combination with topical application of naftifine-ketoconazole cream. PMID:23918090
Yin, Bin; Xiao, Yuling; Ran, Yuping; Kang, Daoxian; Dai, Yaling; Lama, Jebina
Microsporum canis is the dermatophyte most frequently recovered from canine and feline ringworm cases. The household environment can be contaminated both by symptomatic animals and through asymptomatic M canis carriage, resulting in a potential human health risk. The load of M canis arthrospores was determined in households harbouring infected pets, in order to evaluate the infectivity of the animals versus the environment. The environments inhabited by 30 symptomatic animals (21 cats and 9 dogs) infected by M canis were examined by sampling both surfaces and indoor air. The surfaces were examined by means of contact plates; the air sampling was performed with a Sas super-100 AIR SAMPLER (PBI, Italy). Environmental contamination was detected in all households with cats, while only four out of nine houses harbouring dogs were found positive. The frequence of isolation in each sampling, and the results in terms of colony forming units per plate in the different houses appeared to be quite homogeneous. Heavily infected environments harboured kittens only. Infected owners were observed in eight households, in all of which at least one infected cat was present. No history of human dermatophytosis in households harbouring dogs was found. On the basis of our results, infected cats appear to cause substantial environmental contamination, and provoke a substantial presence of viable airborne fungal elements. Dogs seem to be of lower importance in the spread of M CANIS: they contaminated surfaces, but they never contaminated the air. The results of this study confirm the potential leading role of the feline species in the environmental spread of M canis. PMID:14623201
Mancianti, F; Nardoni, S; Corazza, M; D'Achille, P; Ponticelli, C
Microsporum canis is the main agent of dermatophytosis in dogs and cats and is responsible for frequent zoonosis. The pathogenesis of the disease remains largely unknown, however. Among potential fungal virulence factors are secreted keratinolytic proteases, whose molecular characterization would be an important step towards the understanding of dermatophytic infection pathogenesis. M. canis secretes a 31.5 kDa keratinolytic subtilisin-like protease as the major component in a culture medium containing cat keratin as the sole nitrogen source. Using a probe corresponding to a gene's internal fragment, which was obtained by polymerase chain reaction, the entire gene encoding this protease named SUB3 was cloned from a M. canislambdaEMBL3 genomic library. Two closely related genes, termed SUB1 and SUB2, were also cloned from the library using as a probe the gene coding for Aspergillus fumigatus 33 kDa alkaline protease (ALP). Deduced amino acid sequence analysis revealed that SUB1, SUB2, and SUB3 are secreted proteases and show large regions of identity between themselves and with subtilisin-like proteases of other filamentous fungi. Interest ingly, mRNA of SUB1, SUB2, and SUB3 were detected by reverse transcriptase nested-polymerase chain reaction from hair of experimentally infected guinea pigs. These results show that SUB1, SUB2, and SUB3 encode a family of subtilisin-like proteases and strongly suggest that these proteases are produced by M. canis during the invasion of keratinized structures. This is the first report describing the isolation of a gene family encoding potential virulence-related factors in dermatophytes. PMID:12406327
Descamps, Frédéric; Brouta, Frédéric; Monod, Michel; Zaugg, Christophe; Baar, Didier; Losson, Bertrand; Mignon, Bernard
The ecological risks connected with the introduction of the North American grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) in Italy are many. Of particular importance is the conservation of the native red squirrel (S. vulgaris) population, since the experience from the British Isles showed that where the grey squirrel was introduced, the autochthonous red squirrel became extinct. To determine the health status of grey squirrels trapped and euthanasized during an eradication campaign in the Piedmont region, various analyses were carried out. This paper describes a preliminary mycological investigation. Microsporum cookei, a geophilic dermatophyte, was isolated for the first time from grey squirrels. PMID:10200938
Caffara, M; Scagliarini, A
The triazole antifungal pramiconazole (Stiefel, a GSK company) was compared with itraconazole, miconazole, and terbinafine in vitro and in vivo. Potent in vitro activities against Candida spp. (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50], 0.04 to 1.83 ?M) and Microsporum and Trichophyton spp. (IC50, 0.15 to 1.34 ?M) were obtained but not, however, against other filamentous molds and zygomycetes. In the M. canis guinea pig model and C. albicans vulvovaginitis rat model, pramiconazole was superior to the reference compounds after oral and topical administration.
de Wit, Kelly; Paulussen, Caroline; Matheeussen, An; van Rossem, Koen; Cos, Paul; Maes, Louis
The effectiveness of a simple PCR protocol performed on paraffin-embedded tissues, obtained from histopathologically and culturally diagnosed cases of dermatophytic pseudomycetoma DPM was tested. The specimens were investigated using previously described primers (DH1L and DH1R) targeting the 18S rDNA gene and amplifying a 183-bp fragment. Microsporum canis was identified from all samples. The PCR protocol described in the present work demonstrated a 100% concordant result comparing the molecular characterisation with phenotypic characterisation of dermatophytes. Molecular biology could represent a valid identification tool in dermatophytic deep infections, when diagnosis cannot be achieved by cultural methods. PMID:17472620
Nardoni, Simona; Franceschi, Alberto; Mancianti, Francesca
Reference methods for antifungal susceptibility tests recommend the use of conidia as inoculum. However, some isolates produce few conidia, while the invasive form of filamentous fungi in general is hyphae making susceptibility tests infeaseble. These facts suggest that other than conidia broth dilution method is required for susceptibility tests. The aim of this study was to clarify if the hyphal growth inhibition rate could be used as a method of determining the antifungal susceptibility of genus Microsporum. For this reason, a method which traces hyphal tips automatically and measures their growth rate was standardized for Microsporum spp. Control growth curves and test growth curves obtained by real-time observation of the hyphae groups responses to different concentrations of terbinafine, griseofulvin, and ciclopiroxolamine were used to compare with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) obtained by conidia broth microdilution method. A visible reduction in the growth inhibition rate was observed when hyphal activity was evaluated using the third or fourth serial two-fold dilution below the MIC determined by broth microdilution for terbinafine and ciclopiroxolamine. For griseofulvin, this reduction occurred after the fifth dilution below the MIC. This study highlights the importance of the inoculum type used to determine the in vitro susceptibility of Microsporum strains. We conclude that measurement of hyphal growth inhibition, despite being time consuming, could be a suitable method for evaluating antifungal susceptibility, particularly for fungi as Microsporum spp. that produce a small (or not at all) number of conidia. PMID:21611866
Biancalana, Fernanda Simas Corrêa; Lyra, Luzia; Moretti, Maria Luiza; Kamei, Katsuhiko; Schreiber, Angélica Zaninelli
This study report two cases of dermatophytic mycetoma of the scalp due to Microsporum langeronii, diagnosed in 1997 and 2002 in the departments of pathological anatomy and parasitology–mycology of the faculty of medecine of Libreville (Gabon). The paper also includes a review of published literature. Two patients, a 21 years-old women and a 12 years-old boy, presented a vegetative tumor suggestive of
S. Nzenze-Afene; B. Mabika; S. Ogoula Gerbex; M. Ferly Therizol; D. Minko Mi-Etoua; M. Kombila
Autophagy is a self-digestive process that degrades the cytoplasmic constituents. Immunomodulatory protein, one major bioactive component of Ganoderma, has antitumor activity. In this study, recombinant fungal immunomodulatory protein, GMI, was cloned from Ganoderma microsporum and purified. We demonstrated that GMI induces lung cancer cell death by activating autophagy, but does not induce apoptotic cell death. On western blot, GMI increased LC3 conversion and decreased p53 expression in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Cytoplasmic calcium chelator BAPTA-AM was used to prove that GMI promotes autophagy via a calcium-mediated signaling pathway. 3-methyladenine (3-MA), an autophagy inhibitor, enhanced the cytotoxicity of GMI on cell viability assay. Using VZV-G pseudotyped lentivirus-shRNA system for autophagy-related genes silencing, the capabilities of GMI to reduce cell viability and colony formation were abolished in autophagy-defective cells. Furthermore, GMI did not stimulate apoptosis after blocking of autophagy by 3-MA or shRNA knockdown system. In xenograft studies, oral administration of GMI inhibited the tumor growth and induced autophagy significantly in nude mice that had received a subcutaneous injection of A549 cells. This is the first study to reveal the novel function of GMI in activating autophagy. GMI may be a potential chemopreventive agent against non-small cell lung cancer. PMID:21490426
Hsin, I-Lun; Ou, Chu-Chyn; Wu, Tzu-Chin; Jan, Ming-Shiou; Wu, Ming-Fang; Chiu, Ling-Yen; Lue, Ko-Huang; Ko, Jiunn-Liang
To assist in evaluating serological test results from dead animals, 10 silver foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and 10 blue foxes (Alopex lagopus), 6 of each species previously vaccinated against and all challenged with Microsporum canis, were blood sampled and euthanased. Fox carcasses were stored at +10 degrees C, and autopsy was performed on Days 0, 2, 4, 7, and 11 post mortem during which samples from blood and/or body fluid from the thoracic cavity were collected. Antibodies against M. canis were measured in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) as absorbance values (optical density; OD). To assess the degradation of antibodies, the ratio between post mortem and ante mortem absorbance was calculated. The mean absorbance from samples collected during autopsy was generally lower than from samples from live animals. In blood samples, this difference increased significantly with time (P = 0.04), while in body fluid samples the difference decreased (not significant; P = 0.18). We suggest that a positive serological result from testing blood or body fluid of a dead animal may be regarded as valuable, although specific prevalences obtained by screening populations based on this type of material may represent an under-estimation of the true antibody prevalence. Negative serological test results based on material from carcasses may be less conclusive, taken into account the general degradation processes in decaying carcasses, also involving immunoglobulin proteins. PMID:16987389
Tryland, Morten; Handeland, Kjell; Bratberg, Anna-Marie; Solbakk, Inge-Tom; Oksanen, Antti
The treatment of dermatophytoses due to Microsporum canis is cumbersome and relapses can occur. Volatile essential oils (EOs) obtained from plants would seem to represent suitable tools to contrast mycoses both in human and animals. The anti-M. canis activity of some EOs chemically characterized was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. Eleven feline isolates of M. canis were tested by microdilution against EOs extracted from Thymus serpillum, Origanum vulgare, Rosmarinus officinalis, Illicium verum and Citrus limon. A mixture composed by 5% O. vulgare, 5% R. officinalis and 2% T. serpillum, in sweet almond oil was administered to seven infected, symptomatic cats. T. serpillum and O. vulgare showed the lowest MICs, followed by I. verum, R. officinalis and C. limon. The assay performed on mixture showed that antimycotic activity of each component was enhanced. Four out of seven treated cats recovered both clinically and culturally. T. serpillum and O. vulgare EOs showed a strong antifungal activity. Preliminary data suggest a possible application in managing feline microsporiasis. Considering the potential zoonotic impact of this infection, the use of alternative antimycotic compounds would be of aid to limit the risk of environmental spreading of arthrospores. PMID:23518021
Mugnaini, L; Nardoni, S; Pinto, L; Pistelli, L; Leonardi, M; Pisseri, F; Mancianti, F
Background: To develop a new green approach for biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles, myconanotechnology has been represented as a novel field of study in nanotechnology. In this study, we have reported the extracellular synthesis of highly stable silver nanoparticles using three species of dermatophytes: Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis. Methods: Clinical strains of these species were grown in a liquid medium containing mineral salt and incubated at 25°C for 5-7 days. The cell-free filtrate of each culture was obtained and subjected to synthesize silver nanoparticles in the presence of 1 mM AgNO3. Results: The reduction of Ag+ ions in metal nanoparticles was investigated virtually by tracing the solution color which was switched into reddish-light brown after 72 h. For T. mentagrophytes, a UV-visible spectra demonstrating a strong, quite narrow peak located between 422 and 425 nm was obtained. For M. canis, a fairly wide peak centering at 441 nm and for T. rubrum, a weak spectrum to decipher were observed. According to transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results, fairly uniform, spherical, and small in size with almost less than 50 nm particles were forms in case of T. mentagrophytes. For the other two species, TEM images showed existence of small spherical nanosilvers but not as small as nanoparticles synthesized by T. mentagrophytes. Conclusion: We observed that species belong to a single genus of the fungi have variable ability to synthesize silver nanoparticles extracellulary with different efficiency. Furthermore, the extracellular synthesis may make the process simpler and easier for following processes.
Moazeni, Maryam; Rashidi, Niloofar; Shahverdi, Ahmad R.; Noorbakhsh, Fatemeh; Rezaie, Sassan
Dermatophytoses are frequent in children, but involvement of the facial skin has peculiar aspects that should be considered a separate entity: tinea faciei. Microsporum canis infection in tinea faciei has not been widely documented. To review cases of tinea faciei due to M. canis in children diagnosed at the Dermatology Clinic, University of Cagliari. Between 1990 and 2009, all children with dermatophyte infections of the facial skin were recruited for the study after parental consent. Diagnosis was made through direct microscopic and cultural examination. Age, sex, clinical form, illness duration, identified dermatophyte, source of infection, and treatment were recorded. Forty-six cases of tinea faciei due to M. canis in children aged 11 months to 15 years (29 male/17 female) were diagnosed. In 42 (91.3%) children, the illness was the result of contact with pets, and 4 (8.7%) cases resulted from contact with children affected by tinea capitis due to M. canis. Clinical manifestations were typical ringworm in 34 (74%) patients, whereas in 12 (26%) cases, atypical forms mimicking atopic dermatitis, impetigo, lupus erythematosus, and periorificial dermatitis were observed. In 18 (39%) cases, involvement of the vellus hair follicle was documented as ectothrix invasion. Topical or systemic antifungal therapy was effective in all patients. Tinea faciei shows a complex spectrum of differential diagnosis and age-related variations with respect to other superficial dermatophytosis. M. canis is the main organism responsible in children residing in Cagliari, capitol city of Sardinia, Italy. Close collaboration with veterinary and educational programs within infant communities are required for adequate prevention. PMID:22011084
Atzori, Laura; Aste, Natalia; Aste, Nicola; Pau, Monica
R126638 is a novel triazole with in vitro activity similar to that of itraconazole against dermatophytes, Candida spp., and Malassezia spp. In animal models of dermatophyte infections, R126638 showed superior antifungal activity. R126638 inhibits ergosterol synthesis in Candida albicans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, and Microsporum canis at nanomolar concentrations, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) similar to those of itraconazole. The decreased synthesis of ergosterol and the concomitant accumulation of 14?-methylsterols provide indirect evidence that R126638 inhibits the activity of CYP51 that catalyzes the oxidative removal of the 14?-methyl group of lanosterol or eburicol. The IC50s for cholesterol synthesis from acetate in human hepatoma cells were 1.4 ?M for itraconazole and 3.1 ?M for R126638. Compared to itraconazole (IC50 = 3.5 ?M), R126638 is a poor inhibitor of the 1?-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (IC50 > 10 ?M). Micromolar concentrations of R126638 and itraconazole inhibited the 24-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and the conversion of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 into polar metabolites. At concentrations up to 10 ?M, R126638 had almost no effect on cholesterol side chain cleavage (CYP11A1), 11?-hydroxylase (CYP11B1), 17-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase (CYP17), aromatase (CYP19), or 4-hydroxylation of all-trans retinoic acid (CYP26). At 10 ?M, R126638 did not show clear inhibition of CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2D6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C10, CYP2C19, or CYP2E1. Compared to itraconazole, R126638 had a lower interaction potential with testosterone 6? hydroxylation and cyclosporine hydroxylation, both of which are catalyzed by CYP3A4, whereas both antifungals inhibited the CYP3A4-catalyzed hydroxylation of midazolam similarly. The results suggest that R126638 has promising properties and merits further in vivo investigations for the treatment of dermatophyte and yeast infections.
Vanden Bossche, Hugo; Ausma, Jannie; Bohets, Hilde; Vermuyten, Karen; Willemsens, Gustaaf; Marichal, Patrick; Meerpoel, Lieven; Odds, Frank; Borgers, Marcel
R126638 is a novel triazole with in vitro activity similar to that of itraconazole against dermatophytes, Candida spp., and Malassezia spp. In animal models of dermatophyte infections, R126638 showed superior antifungal activity. R126638 inhibits ergosterol synthesis in Candida albicans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, and Microsporum canis at nanomolar concentrations, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)s) similar to those of itraconazole. The decreased synthesis of ergosterol and the concomitant accumulation of 14 alpha-methylsterols provide indirect evidence that R126638 inhibits the activity of CYP51 that catalyzes the oxidative removal of the 14 alpha-methyl group of lanosterol or eburicol. The IC(50)s for cholesterol synthesis from acetate in human hepatoma cells were 1.4 microM for itraconazole and 3.1 microM for R126638. Compared to itraconazole (IC(50) = 3.5 microM), R126638 is a poor inhibitor of the 1 alpha-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) (IC(50) > 10 microM). Micromolar concentrations of R126638 and itraconazole inhibited the 24-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) and the conversion of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) into polar metabolites. At concentrations up to 10 microM, R126638 had almost no effect on cholesterol side chain cleavage (CYP11A1), 11 beta-hydroxylase (CYP11B1), 17-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase (CYP17), aromatase (CYP19), or 4-hydroxylation of all-trans retinoic acid (CYP26). At 10 microM, R126638 did not show clear inhibition of CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2D6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C10, CYP2C19, or CYP2E1. Compared to itraconazole, R126638 had a lower interaction potential with testosterone 6 beta hydroxylation and cyclosporine hydroxylation, both of which are catalyzed by CYP3A4, whereas both antifungals inhibited the CYP3A4-catalyzed hydroxylation of midazolam similarly. The results suggest that R126638 has promising properties and merits further in vivo investigations for the treatment of dermatophyte and yeast infections. PMID:15328084
Vanden Bossche, Hugo; Ausma, Jannie; Bohets, Hilde; Vermuyten, Karen; Willemsens, Gustaaf; Marichal, Patrick; Meerpoel, Lieven; Odds, Frank; Borgers, Marcel
Isolation of Microsporum gypseum in soil samples from different geographical regions of brazil, evaluation of the extracellular proteolytic enzymes activities (keratinase and elastase) and molecular sequencing of selected strains
A survey of Microsporum gypseum was conducted in soil samples in different geographical regions of Brazil. The isolation of dermatophyte from soil samples was performed by hair baiting technique and the species were identified by morphology studies. We analyzed 692 soil samples and the recuperating rate was 19.2%. The activities of keratinase and elastase were quantitatively performed in 138 samples. The sequencing of the ITS region of rDNA was performed in representatives samples. M. gypseum isolates showed significant quantitative differences in the expression of both keratinase and elastase, but no significant correlation was observed between these enzymes. The sequencing of the representative samples revealed the presence of two teleomorphic species of M. gypseum (Arthroderma gypseum and A. incurvatum). The enzymatic activities may play an important role in the pathogenicity and a probable adaptation of this fungus to the animal parasitism. Using the phenotypical and molecular analysis, the Microsporum identification and their teleomorphic states will provide a useful and reliable identification system.
Giudice, Mauro Cintra; Reis-Menezes, Adriana Araujo; Rittner, Glauce Mary Gomes; Mota, Adolfo Jose; Gambale, Walderez
Microsporum canis is a pathogenic fungus that causes a superficial cutaneous infection called dermatophytosis, mainly in cats, dogs and humans. Proteolytic enzymes have been postulated to be key factors involved in the invasion of the stratum corneum and keratinized epidermal structures. Among these proteases, the secreted subtilisin protease Sub3 was found to be required for adherence of M. canis arthroconidia to feline epidermis. This protease is synthetized as a preproenzyme consisting of a signal peptide followed by the propeptide and the protease domain. In order to assess whether the enzymatic activity of Sub3 could be responsible for the role of the protease in the adherence process, we expressed and characterized the propeptide of Sub3 and demonstrated that this propeptide is a strong inhibitor of its mature enzyme. This propeptide acts as a noncompetitive inhibitor with dissociation constants, K(I) and [Formula: see text] of 170 and 130 nM respectively. When tested for its capacity to inhibit adherence of M. canis to feline epidermis using an ex vivo adherence model made of feline epidermis, the propeptide does not prevent adherence of M. canis arthroconidia because it loses its capacity to inhibit rSub3 following a direct contact with living arthroconidia, presumably through inactivation by fungal membrane-bound proteases. PMID:22633172
Baldo, A; Chevigné, A; Dumez, M-E; Mathy, A; Power, P; Tabart, J; Cambier, L; Galleni, M; Mignon, B
A 41-year-old woman presented with a pruritic rash on the face that was of 3 months duration. During that time, it had been successively misdiagnosed as psoriasis vulgaris, systemic lupus erythematosus, facial dermatitis at other hospitals, and had been treated with agents that included acitretin and prednisone. Finally, fungi were found in the lesions by optical microscopy, and the fungal
Chunshui Yu; Jingguo Zhou; Jianping Liu
Three cases of scalp involvement by M. canis in infants are briefly reported. The first was a 2-month-old female with a few erythematous spots on the scalp, the second an 8-month-old male with lesions resembling seborrhoeic dermatitis and the third an 11-month-old male having areas of folliculitis of a kerion type. The father of the second case was found to have a tinea barbae infection due to the same fungus. Stray kittens were the most probable source of infection in all these cases. PMID:6738675
Alteras, I; Feuerman, E J; Grunwald, M; Shvili, D
Dermatomycoses are among the world’s most common diseases. The incidence of dermatomycoses has increased over recent years, particularly in immunosuppressed patients. In previous studies, the saponin CAY-1, a saponin from cayenne pepper (Capsicum frutenses), has shown antifungal activities against...
A sesquiterpene lactone, tomentosin, has been isolated and identified form Inula viscosá Ait (Asteraceae) flowers. The molecule, at 1 mg/ml concentration, showed to be active in vitro against Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. PMID:11921538
Cafarchia, C; De Laurentis, N; Milillo, M A; Losacco, V; Puccini, V
The standard treatment for tinea capitis caused by Microsporum species for many years has been oral griseofulvin, which is no longer universally marketed. Voriconazole has been demonstrated to inhibit growth of Microsporum canis in vitro. We evaluated the efficacy and tissue pharmacokinetics of oral voriconazole in a guinea pig model of dermatophytosis. Guinea pigs (n 16) were inoculated with M.
D. M. Saunte; F. Simmel; N. Frimodt-Moller; L. B. Stolle; E. L. Svejgaard; M. Haedersdal; C. Kloft; M. C. Arendrup
Crude ethanolic extracts of Piper betle leaves (Piperaceae), Alpinia galanga rhizomes (Zingiberaceae) and Allium ascalonicum bulbs (Liliaceae) were tested against selected zoonotic dermatophytes (Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophyte) and the yeast-like Candida albicans. A broth dilution method was employed to determine the inhibitory effect of the extracts and compared to those of ketoconazole and griseofulvin. All extracts suppressed
N. Trakranrungsie; A. Chatchawanchonteera; W. Khunkitti
This report contains reports and reprints of journal articles produced for this contract on the following topics: Antimycotic Drugs; Molecular Basis of Action of Miconazole; Immunity in Dermatomycoses; Biochemical Studies in Microsporum canis Spore Germin...
G. R. Rao M. Sirsi
...a licensed veterinarian. (d) Conditions of use â(1) Horses â(i) Amount and indications for use â(A) For equine ringworm infection caused by Trichophyton equinum or Microsporum gypseum , administer soluble powder described in...
A histopathological and histochemical evaluation of biopsy material from 53 patients with tinea capitis due to Microsporum audouini, Trichophyton schoenleini, Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton sulfureum, and Trichophyton violaceum shows fungal elements...
J. H. Graham W. C. Johnson C. F. Burgoon E. B. Helwig
...of superficial infections in horses, dogs, and cats caused by bacteria, dermatophytes (Trichophyton spp., Microsporum spp.) and yeast (Candida albicans ) affecting skin, hair, and external mucosae. (2) The cream is...
We describe clinical cases caused by Microsporum gypseum in two subadult male California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Dermatomycosis is uncommonly reported in pinnipeds, including this species. In these cases, skin lesions were multifocal to coalescing, involved all flippers, and were most pronounced on the ventral surfaces of flippers. They were well-demarcated, depigmented, and covered with crusts. The definitive diagnosis was obtained through microscopic examination and fungal culture of skin scrapings. Oral terbinafine and topical enilconazole were used as treatments for 65 days, and complete recovery was subsequently achieved. California sea lion, dermatomycosis, Microsporum gypseum, terbinafine, enilconazole PMID:23805567
Sós, Endre; Molnár, Viktor; Lajos, Zoltán; Koroknai, Viktória; Gál, János
Antibacterial and antifungal properties of wax and hexane extracts of Citrus spp. peels were tested using bioautographic and microdilution techniques against three plant pathogenic fungi (Penicillium digitatum, Curvularia sp., and Colletotrichum sp.), two human pathogens (Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis), and two opportunistic bacteria (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus). Two polymethoxylated flavonoids and a coumarin derivative, were isolated and identified
Susana Johann; Vetúria Lopes de Oliveira; Moacir G Pizzolatti; Jan Schripsema; Raimundo Braz-Filho; Alexsandro Branco; Artur Smânia Jr
A new sesquiterpene - tayunin - has been isolated and purified from powdered leaves of INULA VISCOSA (L.) Ait. The chemical structure was determined by 1D and 2D NMR analysis, and IR and MS. Tayunin inhibits the growth of MICROSPORUM CANIS at a concentration of 10 microg/ml and TRICHOPHYTON RUBRUM at 50 microg/ml(MIC). PMID:17260308
Maoz, M; Kashman, Y; Neeman, I
Dermatophytes are a group of closely related fungi that have keratinase and can therefore cause infections in keratinised human and animal tissues (skin, hair and nails), leading to a disease known as dermatophytosis. This group is composed by the genera Epidermophyton, Trichophyton and Microsporum, forming an approximated total of 40 species. Depending on the source of the keratin used, dermatophytes
Araceli Molina de Diego
Dermatophytes are fungi that belong to three genera: Epidermophyton, Microsporum, and Trichophyton. Identification of dermatophyte species is essential for appropriate diagnosis and treatment of dermatophytosis. Routine identification depends on macroscopic and microscopic morphology, which is time-consuming and does not identify dermatophyte strains. In this study, two PCR-based methods were compared for their abilities to identify 21 dermatophyte isolates obtained from
Atef S. Shehata; Pranab K. Mukherjee; Hassan N. Aboulatta; Atef I. El Akhras; Said H. Abbadi; Mahmoud A. Ghannoum
Keratinolytic properties of two dermatophytes (Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes) and three moulds (Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, Alternaria alternata, Geotrichum candidum) isolated from diseased equine hooves were examined to improve the understanding of pathogenic mechanisms leading to equine onychomycosis. Equine hoof horn material and skin, as well as hoof keratin and dermal keratin extracted from corresponding tissues, were used as sole carbon and
Veronika Apprich; Joachim Spergser; Renate Rosengarten; Christian Stanek
Problem statement: Dermatophytes have developed resistance to the exi sting antifungal antibiotics. As a part of our continuous search we had isolated, identified and characterized actinomycetes from the halophilic environment having antagonistic activity against the dermatophytes namely Trichophyton , Microsporum and Epidermophyton . Approach: Actinomycetes were isolated from the soil sample collected from the Ennore salt pan region, Chennai, India
Deepika T. Lakshmipathy; Krishnan Kannabiran
The essential oil from the leaves of Piper betle L. Sagar Bangla cultivar has been found in vitro to be highly active against the growth of four keratinophilic fungi, Arthroderma benhamiae, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Ctenomyces serratus and five pathogenic Aspergilli. Bacterial organisms Bacillus subtilis, B. pumilus, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Vibrio cholerae were also found to be susceptible
S. C. Garg; Rajshree Jain
Investigations were carried out to evaluate the therapeutic properties of the seeds and leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam as herbal medicines. Ethanol extracts showed anti-fungal activities in vitro against dermatophytes such as Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Microsporum canis. GC–MS analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oil from leaves showed a total of 44 compounds. Isolated
Ping-Hsien Chuang; Chi-Wei Lee; Jia-Ying Chou; M. Murugan; Bor-Jinn Shieh; Hueih-Min Chen
Background Tinea capitis is caused by different species of dermatophytes particularly Microsporum and Trichophyton. Children are affected predominantly. Many systemic drugs e.g. griseofulvin, fluconazole, itraconazole, terbinafine, ketoconazoe etc are available for the treatment of tinea capitis. Objectives To compare the efficacy of griseofulvin and fluconazole in the treatment of tinea capitis. Patients and methods A total of 50 patients of
M. A. Wahab; Muhammad Hasibur Rahman; Ahmed Ali; Nasima Sultana; Sirajul Islam Khan; Mahmood Chowdhury; Riazuddin Ahmed
Between 1956 and 1991, 8349 samples from dogs and cats were received for investigation of suspected dermatophytosis, and 1368 (16 per cent) yielded positive cultures. Cats had a significantly higher proportion of positive cultures (26 per cent) than dogs (10 per cent), and of these Microsporum canis accounted for 92 per cent in cats and 65 per cent in dogs.
AH Sparkes; TJ Gruffydd-Jones; SE Shaw; AI Wright; CR Stokes
Dermatophyte infection is the fourth commonest skin disorder seen in the National Skin Centre in Singapore. A prospective study was carried out from June 1990 to March 1991 to determine the epidemiology and pattern of dermatophyte infections seen in this centre. Two hundred patients who had a clinical diagnosis of dermatophyte infection and confirmed by direct microscopy were included into the study. Cultures for dermatophyte were done on Sabouraud's dextrose agar with chloramphenicol and cycloheximide. There were 148 male and 52 female patients, of whom 146 (73%) had a positive culture from one or more sites. One hundred and thirty-nine (95.2%) patients had dermatophyte infection while the remaining seven (4.8%) patients had non-dermatophyte infection. The sites involved were the groin (92 patients), feet (52 patients), trunk (26 patients), hands (18 patients), face (9 patients), legs (9 patients), scalp (8 patients) and axilla (7 patients). The commonest dermatophyte isolated was Trichophyton rubrum (81/139). It was also the commonest organism isolated in all the sites except the scalp. The other dermatophytes grown were, in order of frequency, Trichophyton interdigitale (21/139), Epidermophyton floccosum (19/139), Trichophyton mentagrophytes (9/139), Microsporum ferrigineum (4/139), Microsporum canis (4/139) and Microsporum gypseum (1/139). Scalp infections occurred in children and were due either to Microsporum canis or Microsporum ferrigineum. The organisms isolated in our study were either ubiquitous or common in the Asia-Pacific region indicating that certain dermatophytes are more prevalent in certain geographical regions. PMID:1295417
Lim, J T; Goh, C L; Chua, H C
A streptomycete was isolated from an Easter Island soil sample and found to inhibit Candida albicans, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton granulosum. The antibiotic-producing microorganism was characterized and identified as Streptomyces hygroscopicus. The antifungal principle was extracted with organic solvent from the mycelium, isolated in crystalline form and named rapamycin. Rapamycin is mainly active against Candida albicans; minimum inhibitory concentration against ten strains ranged from 0.02 to 0.2 mug/ml. Its apparent activity against Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton granulosum is lower because of its instability in culture media on prolonged incubation required by these fungi. No activity was observed against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Acute toxicity in mice is low. PMID:1102508
Vézina, C; Kudelski, A; Sehgal, S N
In the present study, a novel broad-range real-time PCR was developed for the rapid detection of human pathogenic fungi. The assay targets a part of the 28S large-subunit ribosomal RNA (rDNA) gene. We inves- tigated its application for the most important human pathogenic fungal genera, including Aspergillus, Candida, Cryptococcus, Mucor, Penicillium, Pichia, Microsporum, Trichophyton, and Scopulariopsis. Species were identified in
Tanja Vollmer; Melanie Stormer; Knut Kleesiek; Jens Dreier
In the present study, a novel broad-range real-time PCR was developed for the rapid detection of human pathogenic fungi. The assay targets a part of the 28S large-subunit ribosomal RNA (rDNA) gene. We inves- tigated its application for the most important human pathogenic fungal genera, including Aspergillus, Candida, Cryptococcus, Mucor, Penicillium, Pichia, Microsporum, Trichophyton, and Scopulariopsis. Species were identified in
Tanja Vollmer; Melanie Stormer; Knut Kleesiek; Jens Dreier
The effect of extracts (at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 & 2.0 mg\\/ml) of six desert plant species commonly used in curing the dermatophytic disease was studied on mycelial growth and protein patterns of three dermatophyte fungi namely; Microsporom gypseum, Microsporum canis and Aspergillus niger. Dermatophyte fungi were isolated from skin and hairs of skin diseased patients. Plant species (Mentha pulegium L.,
GAMALAT A. ABD-ELAAH; ALY E. ABO-AMER; SAMYA A. SOLIMAN
Hippolachnin A (1), a polyketide possessing an unprecedented carbon skeleton with a four-membered ring, was isolated from the South China Sea sponge Hippospongia lachne. The structure was elucidated using MS and NMR spectroscopic analyses, and the absolute configuration was determined using a calculated ECD method. Hippolachnin A demonstrated potent antifungal activity against three pathogenic fungi, Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton rubrum, and Microsporum gypseum, with a MIC value of 0.41 ?M for each fungus. PMID:23829334
Piao, Shu-Juan; Song, Yun-Long; Jiao, Wei-Hua; Yang, Fan; Liu, Xiang-Fang; Chen, Wan-Sheng; Han, Bing-Nan; Lin, Hou-Wen
Dermatophytosis is a relatively common disease in many countries occurring endemically both in companion and food animals.\\u000a Fungi belonging to the genera Trichophyton and Microsporum are most often isolated from clinical cases. Measures to control and prevent dermatophytosis include sanitation, hygienic\\u000a measures and treatment. In some countries, successful control and eradication have been achieved by mass vaccination of cattle\\u000a and
Arve Lund; Douglas J. DeBoer
We have reviewed all the dermatophytoses diagnosed in Galicia during four consecutive 9-year periods 1951–86 and 1987. From 4571 patients, we isolated 3351 fungal strains belonging, in decreasing order of frequency, to the following dermatophyte species: Microsporum canis (25.5%), Trichophyton rubrum (24.6%), T. mentagrophytes (21.4%), Epidermophyton floccosum (11.8%), M. gypseum (5.2%), T. tonsurans (3.9%), T. verrucosum (3.1%), T. schoenleinii (2.5%),
M. Pereiro Miguens; Mercedes Pereiro
Antifungal activities of clove essential oil and its volatile vapour against dermatophytic fungi including Candida albicans, Epidermophyton floccosum. Microsporum audouinii, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Trichophyton rubrum were investigated. Both clove essential oil and its volatile vapour strongly inhibit spore germination and mycelial growth of the dermatophytic fungi tested. The volatile vapour of clove essential oil showed fungistatic activity whereas direct application of clove essential oil showed fungicidal activity.
Lee, Min Hee
Anti-dermatophytic activity of Chrysosporium keratinophillum against species of the genera Trichophyton, Microsporum and Epidermophyton floccosum was tested in vitro. When C. keratinophillum and different species of dermatophytes were inoculated on Sabouraud's dextrose agar plates 2 cm apart, no antagonistic effect of C. keratinophillum on the mycelial growth of dermatophytes was observed. However, conidia production was not observed on the hyphae of Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton tonsurans and E. floccosum grown near C. keratinophillum. The secretory substances released by C. keratinophillum inhibited the growth of T. rubrum, T. tonsurans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. interdigitale and E. floccosum at a concentration of 2,000 microg ml(-1) when tested by broth dilution technique. No inhibition of the growth was observed for Microsporum gypseum and Microsporum nanum. The anti-fungal activity of secretory substances released by C. keratinophillum was recorded to be heat stable. Results of the present study suggest that the anti-dermatophytic activity of the secretory substances of C. keratinophillum on T. rubrum, T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale, T. tonsurans and E. floccosum may be responsible in part, for the absence of these dermatophyte species in soil. Considering the global prevalence of C. keratinophillum in soil one may speculate that the anti-dermatophytic activity of C. keratinophillum is one of the early events for the evolutionary divergence of saprophytic archi-dermatophytes to obligate parasitic dermatophyte species. PMID:16262884
Gokulshankar, S; Ranjithsingh, A J A; Ranjith, M S; Ranganathan, S; Palaniappan, R
The standard treatment for tinea capitis caused by Microsporum species for many years has been oral griseofulvin, which is no longer universally marketed. Voriconazole has been demonstrated to inhibit growth of Microsporum canis in vitro. We evaluated the efficacy and tissue pharmacokinetics of oral voriconazole in a guinea pig model of dermatophytosis. Guinea pigs (n = 16) were inoculated with M. canis conidia on razed skin. Voriconazole was dosed orally at 20 mg/kg/day for 12 days (days 3 to 14). The guinea pigs were scored clinically (redness and lesion severity) and mycologically (microscopy and culture) until day 17. Voriconazole concentrations were measured day 14 in blood, skin biopsy specimens, and interstitial fluid obtained by microdialysis in selected animals. Clinically, the voriconazole-treated animals had significantly less redness and lower lesion scores than untreated animals from days 7 and 10, respectively (P < 0.05). Skin scrapings from seven of eight animals in the voriconazole-treated group were microscopy and culture negative in contrast to zero of eight animals from the untreated group at day 14. The colony counts per specimen were significantly higher in samples from untreated animals (mean colony count of 28) than in the voriconazole-treated animals (<1 in the voriconazole group [P < 0.0001]). The voriconazole concentration in microdialysate (unbound) ranged from 0.9 to 2.0 microg/ml and in the skin biopsy specimens total from 9.1 to 35.9 microg/g. In conclusion, orally administered voriconazole leads to skin concentrations greater than the necessary MICs for Microsporum and was shown to be highly efficacious in an animal model of dermatophytosis. Voriconazole may be a future alternative for treatment of tinea capitis in humans. PMID:17576826
Saunte, D M; Simmel, F; Frimodt-Moller, N; Stolle, L B; Svejgaard, E L; Haedersdal, M; Kloft, C; Arendrup, M C
The standard treatment for tinea capitis caused by Microsporum species for many years has been oral griseofulvin, which is no longer universally marketed. Voriconazole has been demonstrated to inhibit growth of Microsporum canis in vitro. We evaluated the efficacy and tissue pharmacokinetics of oral voriconazole in a guinea pig model of dermatophytosis. Guinea pigs (n = 16) were inoculated with M. canis conidia on razed skin. Voriconazole was dosed orally at 20 mg/kg/day for 12 days (days 3 to 14). The guinea pigs were scored clinically (redness and lesion severity) and mycologically (microscopy and culture) until day 17. Voriconazole concentrations were measured day 14 in blood, skin biopsy specimens, and interstitial fluid obtained by microdialysis in selected animals. Clinically, the voriconazole-treated animals had significantly less redness and lower lesion scores than untreated animals from days 7 and 10, respectively (P < 0.05). Skin scrapings from seven of eight animals in the voriconazole-treated group were microscopy and culture negative in contrast to zero of eight animals from the untreated group at day 14. The colony counts per specimen were significantly higher in samples from untreated animals (mean colony count of 28) than in the voriconazole-treated animals (<1 in the voriconazole group [P < 0.0001]). The voriconazole concentration in microdialysate (unbound) ranged from 0.9 to 2.0 ?g/ml and in the skin biopsy specimens total from 9.1 to 35.9 ?g/g. In conclusion, orally administered voriconazole leads to skin concentrations greater than the necessary MICs for Microsporum and was shown to be highly efficacious in an animal model of dermatophytosis. Voriconazole may be a future alternative for treatment of tinea capitis in humans.
Saunte, D. M.; Simmel, F.; Frimodt-Moller, N.; Stolle, L. B.; Svejgaard, E. L.; Haedersdal, M.; Kloft, C.; Arendrup, M. C.
The aim of our investigation was to compare the distribution of dermatomycosis species in Eastern Croatia between two different periods: first period from 1997-2001 year, and second period from 1986-88 year. The outpatients from Department of Dermatovenerology University Hospital "Osijek" with confirmed diagnosis infection. Tinea, were selected on the basis o age, gender, localization and dermatomycosis species. During the first period (1997-2001) among 75,691 outpatients Tinea infection was confirmed in 558 (0.73%), while in the second period among 47,832 outpatients there were 126 (0.26%) cases with Tinea, what showed significant increase of fungal infections among population this region. According the age and gender in both periods predominant population were under of the age 16(40.14%: 41.26%), and female population was predominant (58.60% and 57.14%) in comparison to males (41.39% and 42.85%). The most frequent localization of lesions in period I were cutis glabrae (47.31%), palms and soles (31.36%), capitis (17.38%) and unguis (9.31%) and isolated species were as followed: Trichophyton (39.06%), Microsporum (31.72%) and Candida (28.13%) species. In period II the most frequent localization were palms and soles (40.47%), cutis glabrae (36.50%), capitis (12.69%) and unguis (10.31%). The isolated species in this period were: Trichophyton (80.15%), Candida (12.69%) and Microsporum (4.76%) species. From the data collected during two different periods we can observe 1) increase of fungal infection generally in our region; 2) significant changes in causative species (increase of Microsporum and Candida species infection, but Trichophyton spp still remain the first causative agent); and 3) changes in the localization of lesions. PMID:12955886
Barisi?-Drusko, Vladimira; Rucevi?, Ivana; Biljan, Darko; Juki?, Zlatica
During screening of barks of 30 plants species against Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, only Lawsonia inermis exhibited absolute toxicity. The Lawsonia bark extract was found to possess fungistatic nature at its maximum inhibitory dilution of 1:30 (W/V) against both the test pathogens but, become fungicidal at 1:10 (W/V). The extract showed broad fungitoxic spectrum when tested against 13 ring worm fungi. Further the fungitoxicity of the extract remained unaltered at high temperature, on autoclaving and after long storage. PMID:2613539
Singh, V K; Pandey, D K
Using the soil plate technique, thirty one species appertaining to twenty three genera were recovered from 160 samples of rabbit claws which were collected from a rabbit farm at Assiut. Of the true keratinophilic fungi Chrysosporium tropicum was the most prevalent where it colonized 56.25% of the samples. Microsporum gypseum was rarely isolated in this study. Among the non-keratinophilic fungi Penicillium funiculosum. P. jenseni and Paccilomyces lilacinus were of low incidence (20%, 19.37% and 14.37% of the samples, respectively). PMID:2600778
Moharram, A M; Abdel-Gawad, K M
Griseofulvin, an antifungal agent, is a BCS class II drug slowly, erratically, and incompletely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract in humans. The clinical failure of the conventional oral therapy of griseofulvin is most likely attributed to its poor solubility and appreciable inter- and intra-subject variation in bioavailability from different commercial products. Moreover, the conventional oral therapy is associated with numerous adverse effects and interactions with other drugs. The purpose of the study was to formulate a topical application of griseofulvin which would deliver the drug locally in a therapeutically effective concentration. Griseofulvin was solubilized in ethanol, D-?-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS), and combinations of ethanol with varying amounts of TPGS; then, it was incorporated in the Carbopol (980 NF) base. The formulations were characterized and evaluated ex vivo using Laca mice skin, microbiologically against Microsporum gypseum and Microsporum canis and clinically in a small group of patients. The current study suggested that TPGS and ethanol synergistically enhanced the drug permeation and drug retention in the skin. The selected formulation F VII was found to be effective against M. gypseum and M. canis, non-sensitizing, histopathologically safe, stable at 4°C, 25°C, and 40°C with respect to percent drug content, permeation characteristics, pH, transparency, feel, viscosity, and clinically effective in a small group of subjects. The proposed topical formulation of griseofulvin may be an effective and convenient alternative to the currently available oral therapy for the treatment of superficial fungal infections. PMID:22130790
Aggarwal, Nidhi; Goindi, Shishu; Mehta, Swami Dass
Objective: To determine the pattern of infectious agents causing tinea capitis (TC) in adult patients in the center of Tunisia. Methods: From January 1990 to December 2005, we have retrospectively collected all cases of adult TC, confirmed by the mycological examination. Results: Sixty patients (18 male, 42 female) with a mean age of 34.5 years were diagnosed as having adult TC among a total number of 1137 cases of TC (5.27%). Clinical features were polymorphic and diagnosis was made on mycological examination. Culture identified Trichophyton violaceum in 36 cases (60%), Microsporum canis in 12 cases (20%), Trichophyton schoenleini in 7 cases (12%), Trichophyton verrucosum in two cases (3.5%), and Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum in one case (each 1.77%). Culture was negative in one case (1.77%). Treatment consisted of administration of Griseofulvin(20–25 mg/kg/d) during 6–8 weeks associated with antifungal topics. A complete recovery was noted in 55 cases (92%) and a relapse occurred in two patients (3.5%). A scary alopecia was observed in one patient (1.77%) and two patients were lost to follow-up. Conclusion: Trichophyton violaceum remains the most common etiological agent of adult TC in Tunisia. Microsporum canis is rising rapidly most notably due to the high frequency of asymptomatic carriage by domestic animals [corrected]. PMID:20534084
Mebazaa, Amel; Oumari, Kamel E L; Ghariani, Najet; Mili, Akila Fathallah; Belajouza, Colandane; Nouira, Rafiaa; Denguezli, Mohamed; Ben Said, Moncef
Dermatophytes are a group of morphologically and physiologically related moulds, which cause well-defined infection called dermatophytosis. The enzymatic ability of fungi to decompose keratin has long been interpreted as a key innovation in the evolution of animal dermatology. In the present study, keratinase activity profile among Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis and Microsporum gypseum isolated on keratin substrates such as human hair, human nail and chicken feather at variable environmental conditions of temperature, pH and metal ions was elucidated. All the above-mentioned fungal strains were isolated from soil using To-KA-Va baiting technique and keratinolytic activity was measured spectrophotometrically. In the temperature range of 30-40 °C and slightly alkaline pH (7.0-8.0), Trichophyton produced the highest activity of keratinase. It can be presumed that high enzyme production of Trichophyton species at normal body temperature range and pH could be an attribute for obligate anthropization in some dermatophytes. PMID:22032519
Sharma, Anima; Chandra, Subhash; Sharma, Meenakshi
A normally asporogenous pleomorphic strain of Microsporum gypseum was induced to sporulate by controlled aeration and dehydration. Aeration of the pleomorphic strain under optimal cultivation conditions caused the initiation of a sporulation cycle with equivalent growth parameters and percentage intracellular water loss as the wild-type strain. Initiation of sporulation was not due to alteration of the medium's nutrient concentration or consistency, concentration of fungal growth by-products, or removal of volatile „staling factors.” Macroconidia formed by the pleomorphic colonies were of characteristic wildtype morphology, but germinated to form typical pleomorphic colonies, indicating that the induced sporulation was strictly phenotypic and reversible. Other asporogenous pleomorphic strains from different dermatophyte genera also were induced to form macroconidia by aeration, suggesting a similarity in sporulation induction in Microsporum sp., Epidermophyton floccosum, and Trichophyton violaceum. Initiation of sporulation by aeration further suggested that the pleomorphic mutation was one which affected the sensitivity of the pleomorphic aerial hyphae to natural sporulation inducers (i.e., decreased humidity) and did not represent a loss in the ability to form fertile macroconidia. Images
Page, W. J.; Stock, J. J.
Dermatophytes are fungi that belong to three genera: Epidermophyton, Microsporum, and Trichophyton. Identification of dermatophyte species is essential for appropriate diagnosis and treatment of dermatophytosis. Routine identification depends on macroscopic and microscopic morphology, which is time-consuming and does not identify dermatophyte strains. In this study, two PCR-based methods were compared for their abilities to identify 21 dermatophyte isolates obtained from Egyptian patients to the species and strain levels. The first method employed a two-step method: PCR amplification, using ITS1 and ITS4 as primers, followed by restriction enzyme digestion using the endonuclease MvaI. The second method employed a one-step approach employing the repetitive oligonucleotide (GACA)4 as a primer. Dermatophyte strains were also identified using a conventional culture method. Our results showed that the conventional culture method identified four species: Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, and Trichophyton violaceum. Moreover, both PCR methods agreed with the diagnosis made using the conventional approach. Furthermore, ITS1/ITS4-based PCR provided no strain differentiation, while (GACA)4-based PCR identified different varieties among the T. mentagrophytes isolates. Taken together, our results suggest that (GACA)4-based PCR has utility as a simple and rapid method for identification of dermatophyte species as well as utility for differentiation of T. mentagrophytes variants.
Shehata, Atef S.; Mukherjee, Pranab K.; Aboulatta, Hassan N.; El Akhras, Atef I.; Abbadi, Said H.; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A.
There is significant clinical interest in primers which are specific for fungi and do not hybridize to DNA of other eukaryotes or prokaryotes. Such primers would allow specific amplification of fungal DNA from human tissue samples containing fungi. Fungal identification to the species level could follow by direct sequencing or restriction analysis. Several previously described primer systems cross-react with DNA of plants and animals. We have designed a primer system that amplifies a fragment of the gene coding for the small ribosomal subunit 18S rRNA. Database searches and sequence analyses were performed using the HUSAR (Heidelberg Unix Sequence Analysis Resources) computer system at the German Cancer Research Centre, Heidelberg, Germany. Primers TR1 (5'-GTTTCTAGGACCGCCGTA) and TR2 (5'-CTCAAACTTCCATCGACTTG) bind to sequences which are homologous within the fungi, but differ from corresponding DNA fragments of plants and animals. The amplified fragment is 581 base pairs in length and contains variable, and therefore species-specific, regions. The DNA of Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton verrucosum, Trichophyton terrestre, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum and of several yeast species was amplified by the primers, but not the DNA from 42 normal human skin samples. Furthermore, other DNA preparations from plants and animals, including those from radish, cabbage, wheat and mouse, did not show amplification reactions. PMID:7845424
Bock, M; Maiwald, M; Kappe, R; Nickel, P; Näher, H
Background: In South Africa where many patients are immunocompromised as a result of the AIDS pandemic, opportunistic fungal infections such as candidiasis caused mainly by Candida albicans are common. Arctotis arctotoides and Gasteria bicolor are two plants which are frequently and commonly used in traditional medicine in the treatment of HIV patients. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the antifungal activity of A. arctotoides and G. bicolor against opportunistic fungi common in HIV/AIDS patients. Materials and Methods: The agar diffusion and micro-dilution methods were used to determine the antifungal activities of the medicinal plant extracts against 10 opportunistic fungi. Results: All the hexane and acetone extracts were active against at least one of the fungi with zones of inhibition varying from 8 to 32 mm, while none of the aqueous extracts was active against any of the fungi. The inhibitory activity of the active extracts, based on the overall mean inhibition diameters, was in the order: A. arctotoides (hexane) > A. arctotoides (acetone) > G. bicolor (hexane) > G. bicolor (acetone). The most susceptible fungi, based on the overall mean diameter of growth inhibition, were Candida glabrata, C. krusei, and Microsporum canis, while Cyptococcus neoformans, Trycophyton tonsurans, and Microsporum gypseum were not susceptible to any of the extracts even at 5 mg/ml which was the highest concentration used. Conclusion: This study validates the use of these plants in traditional medicine in the treatment of secondary fungal infections in HIV/AIDS patients.
Otang, Wilfred M.; Grierson, Donald S.; Ndip, Roland N.
Dermatophytes are a group of closely related fungi that have the capacity to invade keratinized tissue (skin, hair, and nails) of humans and animals to produce an infection, dermatophytosis, commonly referred to as ringworm. Dermatophytoses are common of world wide: in the United States, Microsporum audouinii and Microsporum canis, once the major agents of tinea capitis, have been superseded by Trichophyton tonsurans. Since the 1950s, T. tonsuranshas advanced from Mexico and the Caribbean and is now the prevalent cause of tinea capitisin North America. M. canisis the prevalent agent of tinea capitis in many regions of the world, including Spain, at this moment. This could be related to close association of humans with their pets. M. canis is more prevalent in urban areas and Trichophyton mentagrophytes in rural ones. The superficial dermatophyte infections of the skin do not represent a single disease, their clinical appearance is dependent largely on the region of the body affected. There are more antifungal preparations available today than at any other time in medical history. Oral antifungals are indicated or required to treat hyperkeratotic areas such as nails, palms, soles and tinea capitis, patients with disabling or extensive disease, patients intolerant to or who have failed topical therapy, tose with chronic infection, those with granulomatous lesions and patients immunosuppressed by disease or by therapy. A successfull eradication of the fungi is now possible with relatively short treatment regimens. PMID:18473586
Rubio, M C; Rezusta, A; Gil Tomás, J; Ruesca, R B
Fungi of the genus Geotrichum are commonly found in the environment and, in some circumstances, they may cause diseases in humans and animals. Although these fungi have been isolated from skin lesions of some animal species, their pathogenic role in horses remains uncertain. With the aim to investigate the role of Geotrichum candidum as etiological agent of dermatomycoses, a retrospective study of 64 horses presenting skin lesions and suspected to have fungal infections was carried out. For each animal, anamnestic data were recorded and fungal culture were performed using hair. Out of 64 cases, 18 (28.1%) were positive for G. candidum and only two (3.1%) for dermatophytes (i.e., one for Microsporum equinum and the other for Microsporum canis). Alopecia, desquamation, and pruritus localized mainly on head and neck were frequently observed in G. candidum infected animals. Most of G. candidum infections were recorded during spring (44.4%). Out of the 18 animals presenting G. candidum infections, eight were treated using a disinfectant with antifungal properties. After one month of treatment, the clinical lesions were healed and fungal cultures resulted negative. The high prevalence of G. candidum in skin lesions of horses and the clinical recover following antifungal treatment indicated that these yeast-like fungi might play a role as etiological agents of horse cutaneous mycoses. PMID:20970928
Figueredo, Luciana A; Cafarchia, Claudia; Otranto, Domenico
Antibacterial and antifungal activity of crude extracts of medicinally important and traditionally used yam plant, Dioscorea pentaphylla, from mid-Western Ghats was evaluated against 27 bacterial and 5 fungal clinical strains collected of the patients from infectious sources. The clinical strains belonging to their respective species showed concentration-dependent susceptibility toward crude petroleum ether extract, chloroform extract and methanol extract at 100 ?g/100 ?l. The extracts exhibited predominant antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC-20852), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC-29737) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (MTCC-618), respectively, and five clinically isolated pathogenic fungi, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum gypseum, Tricophyton tonsurans, Microsporum audouini, and Candida albicans, with antibacterial drug ciprofloxacin and antifungal drug fluconozole (50 ?g/100 ?l) as standards. Out of the three extracts, ethanol extracts possessed better minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against all the bacterial strains. All the three extracts showed significant activity against all the five fungal pathogen strains. The results are promising and support the traditional use of D. pentaphylla for the treatment of bacterial and fungal infections.
Prakash, G.; Hosetti, B. B.
Tinea barbae is a rare dermatophytosis that affects the hair and hair follicles of the beard and mustache. This paper presents 9 cases of tinea barbae observed over an 18-year period of time and classified as follows: 1 was superficial and 8 were deep (6 folliculitis-like and 2 kerion-like). Most of the cases (4) were associated with topical steroid therapy, others with pet contact (3 cases) and one with diabetes. The causal agents isolated were: Trichophyton rubrum in 3; Microsporum canis in 3; Trichophyton mentagrophytes in 2; and Trichophyton tonsurans in one. The involvement of the hair was observed and classified in all cases. The trichophytin skin reaction was positive in all 9 patients. All the patients were treated with systemic antimycotics, 3 cases with griseofulvin, 1 with ketoconazole, 3 with itraconazole, and 2 with terbinafine. Clinical and mycologic cures were achieved at 6 to 8 weeks of treatment at the usual doses. PMID:14739517
Bonifaz, Alexandro; Ramírez-Tamayo, Teresa; Saúl, Amado
Human cases of dermatophytoses are occasionally transmitted from animals, and suffered from tinea corporis and sometimes Kerion celsi. The most frequent causative agent of these diseases is Microsporum canis. The other dermatophyte, Arthroderma benhamiae is now prevailing in rabbits, rodents and hedgehogs that are popular household pets in Japan. Therefore, some human cases of A. benhamiae infection were reported and the transmission of this infection from rabbits and rodents was confirmed.Cryptococcosis is regarded as dangerous zoonosis, but its transmission from animal to peoples has not been documented in Japan. Animal cases of cryptococcosis are possible to increase in number by developing immunosuppressive animals as well as by spreading of newly introduced C. gattii to Japan.Animal cases of sporotrichosis are rarely reported in Japan. However, feline sporotrichosis should be prevented and promptly treated since it easily transmitted to people from cat lesions and the exudates where copious numbers of organisms are found in tissues. PMID:22467127
Macroconidia of Microsporum gypseum release free amino acids into the medium during germination. A single alkaline protease is also found in the germination supernatant fraction. The purified protease is capable of hydrolyzing isolated spore coats in vitro. Phenyl methyl sulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) is an effective inhibitor of the protease. Incorporation of PMSF at 10?4m into the germination system inhibits spore germination and the release of free amino nitrogen. Addition of PMSF after germ tube emergence is completed has no effect on subsequent outgrowth. The addition of exogenous purified protease to quiescent spores results in more than a 2.5-fold increase in germinated spores. It is concluded that spore coat proteolysis is an essential event in the germination of dermatophyte macroconidia. A model system to explain macroconidial germination response to inhibition, temperature shift, and addition of protease is presented. Images
Leighton, T. J.; Stock, J. J.
Effect of extract of 18 plant species, viz., Acorus calamus, Adhatoda vasica, Amomum subulatum, Andrographis paniculata, Boerhaavia diffusa, Cassia occidentalis, Centella asiatica, Cymbopogon citratus, Hemidesmus indicus, Hyptis suaveolens, Malvestrum sp., Passiflora edulis, Pergularia daemia, Peristrophe bicalyculata, Shuteria hirsuta, Solanum nigrum, Tecoma stans, and Verbascum chinense on the growth of Microsporum gypseum, Chrysosporium tropicum and Trichophyton terrestre was evaluated and discussed. The sensitivity of the keratinophilic fungi was evaluated by dry-weight method. The maximum inhibition of mycelial growth was shown by M. gypseum (86.62%) followed by T. terrestre (81.86%) and C. tropicum (74.06%) when treated with S. hirsuta whereas the minimum inhibition was exhibited by M. gypseum (0.29%), C. tropicum (0.16%) and T. terrestre (1.76%) when tested with the extract of P. edulis, A. vasica and B. diffusa respectively. PMID:10386016
Qureshi, S; Rai, M K; Agrawal, S C
The nucleophilic substitution of one chlorine atom in cyanuric chloride (1) by piperidine derivatives (2a-c) leads to the 6-substituted 2,4-dichloro-1,3,5-triazines (3a-c). Reaction of 1 with piperazine derivatives (4a-c) yields the substituted 2,4-dichloro-6-(1-piperazinyl)-1,3,5-triazines (5a-c). Structures of type 3 and 5 may be characterized by the spectroscopic data. In the mass spectra, the degradation of 3c leading to the base peak comprises the cleavage into a 2,4-dichlorotriazinyl radical and a 3,4-dihydroquinolinium ion m/e 132. Strong activity is exhibited by 5a and 5b towards Trichomonas vaginalis. Moreover, 5a displays strong antimycotic activity towards Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, and Microsporum canis. Additionally, 5a and 5b are capable of exerting very strong anthelminthic activity towards Caenorhabditis elegans. PMID:3501724
Kreutzberger, A; Kochanowski, R
A new series of Schiff base ligands derived from sulfonamide and their metal(II) complexes [cobalt(II), copper(II), nickel(II) and zinc(II)] have been synthesized and characterized. The nature of bonding and structure of all the synthesized compounds has been explored by physical, analytical and spectral data of the ligands and their metal(II) complexes. The authors suggest that all the prepared complexes possess an octahedral geometry. The ligands and metal(II) complexes have been screened for their in vitro antibacterial activity against bacterial strains, Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi and for antifungal activity against fungal strains, Trichophyton longifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani and Candida glabrata. These assays enabled the identification of the metal complexes as an effective antimicrobial agent with low cytotoxicity. PMID:21534864
Chohan, Zahid H; Shad, Hazoor A; Supuran, Claudiu T
The present study deals with the first total synthesis of the proline-rich cyclopolypeptide stylisin 2 via a solution phase technique by coupling of the Boc-l-Pro-l-Ile-l-Pro-OH tripeptide unit with the l-Phe-l-Pro-l-Pro-l-Tyr-OMe tetrapeptide unit, followed by cyclization of the resulting linear heptapeptide fragment. The chemical structure of the finally synthesized peptide was elucidated by FTIR, 1H/13C-NMR and FAB MS spectral data, as well as elemental analyses. The newly synthesized peptide was subjected to antimicrobial screening against eight pathogenic microbes and found to exhibit potent antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Candida albicans, in addition to moderate antidermatophyte activity against pathogenic Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum audouinii when compared to standard drugs—gatifloxacin and griseofulvin.
Dahiya, Rajiv; Gautam, Hemendra
Dermatophytes are a group of closely related fungi that have the capacity to invade keratinized tissue (skin, hair, and nails) of humans and animals to produce infections called dermatophytosis. In order to review the etiology and epidemiology of dermatophytosis in Goiânia, GO, 1955 specimens with diagnostic suspicion of dermatophytic lesions, were collected from January to December, 1999, from the Mycology Laboratory in the Institute of Tropical Pathology and Public Health, Federal University of Goiás. A total of 445 (22.8%) samples were positive for dermatophytes and Trichophyton rubrum was the most frequently isolated species (49.4%) followed by Trichophyton mentagrophytes (30.8%) and Microsporum canis (12.6%). Concerning the location of the lesions, the inferior limbs, feet and nails together with tinea capitis were the most frequently found clinical pattern in the majority of patients. Correlation between sex, age, location of the lesions and etiologic agents is considered in the study. PMID:11873256
Costa, Milce; Passos, Xisto Sena; Hasimoto e Souza, Lúcia Kioko; Miranda, André Thiago Borges; Lemos, Janine de Aquino; Oliveira, Juldásio Galdino de; Silva, Maria do Rosário Rodrigues
Dermatophytosis is the infection of keratinized tissues such as hair, nails and the stratum corneum of the skin by dermatophyte fungi. These fungi are onygenalean anamorphs and anamorphic species belonging to the genera Trichophyton, Microsporum and Epidermophyton. An important characteristic of the dermatophytes as parasites is their restriction to the dead keratinized tissues, except in rare cases where the patient is immunosuppressed. In contrast to many fungi, including normally non-pathogenic species, which can invade systemically in severely immunocompromised (e.g. neutropenic) patients, dermatophytes appear to be unable to cause systemic infection in this population. Thus, these fungi appear to have an unique interaction with the immune system. A better understanding of this interaction will contribute significantly to our knowledge of mammalian host defences. PMID:9988505
Ogawa, H; Summerbell, R C; Clemons, K V; Koga, T; Ran, Y P; Rashid, A; Sohnle, P G; Stevens, D A; Tsuboi, R
Dermatomycosis including dermatophytosis, sporotrichosis and cryptococcosis commonly occurs in humans and animals all and are considered to be zoonotic diseases. Recently, human cases of dermatophytosis transmitted from animals are increasing in number due to changes in the environments of human and animal life. Three species of dermatophytes, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and T. verrucosum are the most important pathogens from animal to human, respectively. Therefore, it is necessary to understand their biological and ecological characteristics to correctly diagnose and treat the disease. Some human cases of sporotrichosis and cryptococcosis were reported to be transmitted from animals in Europe and America, suggesting that medical doctors should be careful in taking the history of human patients with reference to their contacts with animals. Close cooperation between medical and veterinary doctors is required in clinical studies on mycotic infection. PMID:9929576
Nakamura, Y; Watanabe, S; Hasegawa, A
Dermatophyte infection may present in the form of concentric rings caused by Trichophyton concentricum, known as Tinea Imbricata. In immunosuppressed patients, there are reports of lesions in the form of concentric rings caused by dermatophytes other than Trichophyton concentricum too, mostly by Trichophyton tonsurans, known as Tinea indesiciva or Tinea pseudoimbricata. We report a case of tinea capitis in a HIV-positive adult woman on antiretroviral therapy, who presented with concentric rings of papules and pustules with slight scaling on the scalp along with diffuse thinning of hair. Both Potassium hydroxide mount and culture showed the presence of Dermatophytes. Tinea capitis is considered rare in adults, but new cases are being reported in immunocompromised as well as in immunocompetent patients. The pertinent features of this case are: HIV-positive adult female on antiretroviral therapy, presenting with tinea capitis in the form of concentric rings; culture from the lesion grew Microsporum audouinii; responding to oral Terbinafine.
Narang, Kirti; Pahwa, Manish; Ramesh, V
The antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of extracts from Senecio samnitum Huet are reported. Extracts from S. samnitum were able to inhibit the in vitro proliferation of four human tumor cell lines. The dichloromethane extract demonstrated effective cytotoxic activity with IC50 of 22.89 microg mL(-1) on the Caco-2 cell line and the EtOAc extract had IC50 value of 11.91 microg mL(-1) against the COR-L23 cell line. The n-hexane extract displayed the best antibacterial activity against Gram positive bacteria, particularly Staphylococcus aureus. The antifungal activity of all extracts was also seen, particularly against the dermatophytes Trichophyton tonsurans and Microsporum gypseum for the methanol and n-hexane extracts. PMID:16401558
Loizzo, M R; Tundis, R; Statti, G A; Miljkovic-Brake, Ana; Menichini, F; Houghton, P J
A survey on the use of hair oils for hair dressings by the Indian population revealed that mustard oil is preferred by males and coconut oil by females. Amla oil is used equally by both. These oils contain different percentages of various saturated and unsaturated fatty acids which largely determine their toxicity against dermatophytes. For Microsporum canis, M. gypseum and Trichophyton rubrum, amla oil was most toxic, followed by cantharidine and coconut oil, while Trichophyton mentagrophytes was most susceptible to coconut oil followed by amla and cantharidine oil. Mustard oil showed least toxicity to all four test species. The rarity of tinea capitis in India has been concluded to be due to the common use of hair oils by the Indian population. PMID:1302812
Garg, A P; Müller, J
Twenty-five sediment samples were taken from randomly selected sites in the Shatt Al-Arab River and its creeks and analysed for dermatophytes and related keratinophilic fungi. The results revealed that out of 25 samples only 13 (52%) yielded dermatophytes and related keratinophilic fungi. A total of nine species in four genera were isolated. The most frequent genera isolated in this study were Chrysosporium and its teleomorph Aphanoascus. The species most frequently found were Aphanoascus fulvescens, A. durus, Chrysosporium crassitunicatum, Chr. keratinophilum and Chr. tropicum (each n = 3). Microsporum was represented by two species, namely M. fulvum and M. gypseum. Trichophyton was represented by one species, T. verrucosum. The occurrence of these fungi illustrates that sediments may act as a reservoir for potentially pathogenic fungi for human and animals. PMID:7477095
Abdullah, S K; Hassan, D A
Extracts of Mitracarpus villosus leaves and inflorescences were investigated individually for in vitro antifungal activities by agar-diffusion and tube-dilution techniques. Ethanolic extracts produced definite antifungal activities against Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum gypseum, Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and Fusarium solani. The aqueous extracts and the glycerol vehicle control did not inhibit any of the fungi tested. The zones of inhibition produced by the ethanol extracts ranged from 10 to 20.5 mm while ketoconazole control ranged from 9 to 19 mm. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the extracts ranged from 0.50 to 4.0 mg/ml while their minimum fungicidal concentration values ranged from 1 to 8 mg/ml. These results indicate that the extracts were fungistatic at lower concentrations and fungicidal at higher concentrations. PMID:8133654
Irobi, O N; Daramola, S O
Scytalidium dimidiatum is the leading cause of fungal foot diseases in Thailand, in contrast to similar studies in which dermatophytes have been identified as the predominant pathogens. By contrast, the prevalence of Candida albicans in our study was only 2.6 approximately 3.0%. Scytalidium fungal foot infection is clinically indistinguishable from that caused by dermatophytes and should be included as a possible cause of treatment failure in tinea pedis and onychomycosis. Without proper culture identification, clinically diagnosed patients would be treated with a standard antifungal regimen leading to minimal response and be interpreted as drug resistant cases resulting in switching of drugs and more aggressive management procedures. Tinea capitis is another health problem in young children. However, for Microsporum canis and some ectothrix organisms, the effectiveness of treatment may be less than endothrix infection. Griseofulvin is still the mainstay antifungal although itraconazole and terbinafine are as effective. Pulse regimen may be another option with advantages of increased compliance and convenience. Two pulses of terbinafine may be sufficient for treating most cases of Microsporum infection, although additional treatment may be needed if clinical improvement is not evident at week 8 after initiating therapy. Chromoblastomycosis is another subcutaneous infection that requires long treatment duration with costly antifungal drugs. The most common pathogen in Thailand is Fonsecaea pedrosoi. Preliminary study of pulse itraconazole 400 mg/d 1 week monthly for 9-12 consecutive months showed promising results. The prevalence of Penicillium marneffei infection is alarming in HIV infected patients living in endemic areas. Diagnosis relies on direct examination of the specimens and confirmation by culture. Treatment regimens include systemic amphotericin B or itraconazole followed by long-term prophylaxis. Treatment outcome depends on the immune status of the patient. PMID:15864252
The major cause of athlete's foot is Trichophyton rubrum, a dermatophyte or fungal pathogen of human skin. To facilitate molecular analyses of the dermatophytes, we sequenced T. rubrum and four related species, Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton equinum, Microsporum canis, and Microsporum gypseum. These species differ in host range, mating, and disease progression. The dermatophyte genomes are highly colinear yet contain gene family expansions not found in other human-associated fungi. Dermatophyte genomes are enriched for gene families containing the LysM domain, which binds chitin and potentially related carbohydrates. These LysM domains differ in sequence from those in other species in regions of the peptide that could affect substrate binding. The dermatophytes also encode novel sets of fungus-specific kinases with unknown specificity, including nonfunctional pseudokinases, which may inhibit phosphorylation by competing for kinase sites within substrates, acting as allosteric effectors, or acting as scaffolds for signaling. The dermatophytes are also enriched for a large number of enzymes that synthesize secondary metabolites, including dermatophyte-specific genes that could synthesize novel compounds. Finally, dermatophytes are enriched in several classes of proteases that are necessary for fungal growth and nutrient acquisition on keratinized tissues. Despite differences in mating ability, genes involved in mating and meiosis are conserved across species, suggesting the possibility of cryptic mating in species where it has not been previously detected. These genome analyses identify gene families that are important to our understanding of how dermatophytes cause chronic infections, how they interact with epithelial cells, and how they respond to the host immune response. PMID:22951933
Martinez, Diego A; Oliver, Brian G; Gräser, Yvonne; Goldberg, Jonathan M; Li, Wenjun; Martinez-Rossi, Nilce M; Monod, Michel; Shelest, Ekaterina; Barton, Richard C; Birch, Elizabeth; Brakhage, Axel A; Chen, Zehua; Gurr, Sarah J; Heiman, David; Heitman, Joseph; Kosti, Idit; Rossi, Antonio; Saif, Sakina; Samalova, Marketa; Saunders, Charles W; Shea, Terrance; Summerbell, Richard C; Xu, Jun; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Birren, Bruce W; Cuomo, Christina A; White, Theodore C
Mycetes are ubiquitous organisms that can cause mycoses in human and animals. The role of animals in the epidemiology of human mycoses in urban areas is multiform, but here will be discuss only two features: A) animals as vectors of mycoses and B) animal substrates as growth factor of pathogenic fungi. A) Animals as vectors of mycoses: this role is important as zoofilic dermatophytes are very important agents of zoonosis; the urban dermatophytozoonoses are prevalent caused by Microsporum canis which is prevalent in cats and dogs. Cats are often asymptomatic carriers. The pattern of human dermatomycoses has changed in Italy during the past century: at the beginning of the century anthropophilic fungi were prevalent while at present the zoophilic fungi are the most important causes. B) Animal substrata as growth factor of pathogenic fungi: soil "animalization" (i.e., the addition of such debris as hair, skin scales, dropping and other organic matters) creates an optimal substratum for the growth and the multiplication of geophilic or saprophyitic fungi, such as Microsporum gypseum and Cryptococcus neoformans. The present human lifestyle, which favours a an overpopulation of birds, wild animals, domestic mammals and sinanthropic together with man in crowded areas seems to favour the formation of environments adapted to the abundant growth of some pathogenic fungi with consequent infection for man and animals. Finally, an environment heavily populated by fungi can cause allergic pulmonary reactions as well as reactions in other organs and tissues. The control of human and animal fungi, and the efficient use of a monitoring system require ample knowledge of mycological problems both in human and veterinary medicine and of efficient laboratories capable of resolving the needs of both disciplines. Close collaboration between veterinarians, doctors and mycologists is necessary in order to resolve health problems linked to mycosis. PMID:16881412
Tampieri, M P
Mycological research was conducted on the mycelial growth, keratinolytic proteinase activity and thermotolerance ofdermatophytes associated with alopecia patients in Uyo, Nigeria. The results revealed that Microsporum sp. - AP1, Epidermophyton sp. - AP2, Trichophyton rubrum - AP4, Trichophyton mentagrophytes - AP5 and a yeast Candida albicans - AP3 isolated exhibited variable growth and keratinase activity at different temperatures. Microsporum sp. - AP1 and T. mentagrophytes - AP5 survived heat treatment at 90 degrees C but exhibited best mycelial growth at 30 degrees C (with 53.41 mg/50 ml biomass dry weight) and 40 degrees C (with 61.32 mg/50 ml biomass dry weight) respectively, after incubation for 2 weeks. Trichophyton rubrum - AP4 and Epidermophyton sp. - AP2 could not survive heat treatment at 90 degrees C but grew better at 40 degrees C (with 38.52 mg/50 ml biomass dry weight) and 30 degrees C (with 48.32 mg/50 ml biomass dry weight) respectively, over the same incubation period, while C. albicans - AP3 grew better at 30 degrees C with 38.7 mg/50 ml biomass dry weight after 2 weeks, but failed to survive at 70 degrees C. All the isolates except Candida albicans - AP3 survived at 80 degrees C and exhibited great potential to elaborate keratinolytic enzymes, with T. mentagrophytes demonstrating the best potential at 30 degrees C and 40 degrees C. Higher temperatures tended to reduce keratinolytic activities and there were significant (P < 0.05) relationships between biomass weight and enzyme productivities of all the isolates except T. mentagrophytes. This indicates that in some dermatophytes keratinolytic proteinase activity is not a function of cell multiplicity. This plus the high thermostability of the enzymes are important attributes in the consideration of preventive and therapeutic methods against dermatophytes in the tropics. PMID:19388557
Essien, J P; Umoh, A A; Akpan, E J; Eduok, S I; Umoiyoho, A
ABSTRACT The major cause of athlete’s foot is Trichophyton rubrum, a dermatophyte or fungal pathogen of human skin. To facilitate molecular analyses of the dermatophytes, we sequenced T. rubrum and four related species, Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton equinum, Microsporum canis, and Microsporum gypseum. These species differ in host range, mating, and disease progression. The dermatophyte genomes are highly colinear yet contain gene family expansions not found in other human-associated fungi. Dermatophyte genomes are enriched for gene families containing the LysM domain, which binds chitin and potentially related carbohydrates. These LysM domains differ in sequence from those in other species in regions of the peptide that could affect substrate binding. The dermatophytes also encode novel sets of fungus-specific kinases with unknown specificity, including nonfunctional pseudokinases, which may inhibit phosphorylation by competing for kinase sites within substrates, acting as allosteric effectors, or acting as scaffolds for signaling. The dermatophytes are also enriched for a large number of enzymes that synthesize secondary metabolites, including dermatophyte-specific genes that could synthesize novel compounds. Finally, dermatophytes are enriched in several classes of proteases that are necessary for fungal growth and nutrient acquisition on keratinized tissues. Despite differences in mating ability, genes involved in mating and meiosis are conserved across species, suggesting the possibility of cryptic mating in species where it has not been previously detected. These genome analyses identify gene families that are important to our understanding of how dermatophytes cause chronic infections, how they interact with epithelial cells, and how they respond to the host immune response.
Martinez, Diego A.; Oliver, Brian G.; Graser, Yvonne; Goldberg, Jonathan M.; Li, Wenjun; Martinez-Rossi, Nilce M.; Monod, Michel; Shelest, Ekaterina; Barton, Richard C.; Birch, Elizabeth; Brakhage, Axel A.; Chen, Zehua; Gurr, Sarah J.; Heiman, David; Heitman, Joseph; Kosti, Idit; Rossi, Antonio; Saif, Sakina; Samalova, Marketa; Saunders, Charles W.; Shea, Terrance; Summerbell, Richard C.; Xu, Jun; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Birren, Bruce W.; Cuomo, Christina A.; White, Theodore C.
Tinea capitis is the most common superficial mycosis in children of school age. Although it is of public health importance, it is not a reportable or notifiable disease; therefore, actual prevalence figures are unknown in many endemic areas. The aim of this work was to determine the prevalence of tinea capitis among primary school children in two states in central Nigeria, highlighting the main aetiological agents of the infection and possible predisposing factors. A total of 28 505 primary school children aged between 3 and 16 years were recruited for the study, from 12 primary schools in two local government areas of Benue and Plateau States of Nigeria. Of them, 796 had lesions, which were clinically suggestive of tinea capitis out of which 248 (31.2%) were confirmed positive by microscopy and culture. Tinea capitis was more frequent in males, 194 (78.2%) than in females, 54 (21.8%). Children aged 10-14 years, followed by 5-9 years were predominantly infected, with 106 (42.7%) and 100 (40.3%) respectively. There was a significant correlation between age group and occurrence of tinea capitis in the study population at 95% confidence level (P = 0.004). Tinea capitis was significantly more frequent in Jos State (44.6%) than in Gboko State (23.2%) (t = .659; 95% confidence level). The prevalence of tinea capitis was influenced by social and cultural habits of the areas rather than by population density. The aetiological agent of tinea capitis in the study population was Trichophyton soudanense, 76 (30.6%), followed by Microsporum ferrugineum, 19 (7.7%) and Microsporum audouinii, 19 (7.7%). Differences in aetiology were observed for Gboko and Jos, except for T. soudanense, which predominated in both areas. The high prevalence of tinea capitis in the areas studied may be attributed to frequent interaction with soil and animals and low level of health education on personal and environmental hygiene. Aetiological agents varied from one geographical area to another. PMID:18422924
Ayanbimpe, Grace M; Taghir, Henry; Diya, Abigail; Wapwera, Samuel
The main objective of the study was to develop a microemulsion (ME) formulation of griseofulvin for the treatment of dermatophytosis (Indian Patent Application 208/DEL/2009). The oil phase was selected on the basis of drug solubility whereas the surfactant and cosurfactant were screened on the basis of their oil solubilizing capacity as well as their efficiency to form ME from pseudo-ternary phase diagrams. The influence of surfactant and cosurfactant mass ratio (Smix) on the ME formation and its permeation through male Laca mice skin was studied. The optimized formulation (ME V) consisting of 0.2% (w/w) griseofulvin, 5% (w/w) oleic acid, 40% (w/w) Smix (1:1, Tween 80 and ethanol) possessed globule size of 12.21 nm, polydispersity index of 0.109 and zeta potential value of -0.139 mV. ME V exhibited 7, 5 and almost 3-fold higher drug permeation as compared to aqueous suspension, oily solution and conventional cream respectively. Besides this the formulation was also evaluated for drug content, pH, stability, dermatopharmacokinetics and antifungal activity against Microsporum canis using guinea pig model for dermatophytosis. Treatment of guinea pigs with ME V resulted in a complete clinical and mycological cure in 7 days. The formulation was observed to be non-sensitizing, histopathologically safe, and stable at 5±3°C, 25±2°C and 40±2°C for a period of six months. PMID:23357739
Aggarwal, Nidhi; Goindi, Shishu; Khurana, Ranjit
Background The currently available antifungal drugs suffer from toxicity, greatest potential drug interactions with other drugs, insufficient pharmacokinetics properties, and development of resistance. Thus, development of new antifungal agents with optimum pharmacokinetics and less toxicity is urgent task. In the search for new azole antifungals, we have been previously described azolylchromanone oxime ethers as rigid analogs of oxiconazole. In continuation of our work, we incorporated phenylhydrazone moiety instead of oxime ether fragment in azolylchromanone derivatives. Methods The 3-azolyl-4-chromanone phenylhydrazones were synthesized via ring closure of 2-azolyl-2'-hydroxyacetophenones and subsequent reaction with phenylhydrazine. The biological activity of title compounds was evaluated against different pathogenic fungi including Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Aspergillus niger, and Microsporum gypseum. Docking study, in silico toxicity risks and drug-likeness predictions were used to better define of title compounds as antifungal agents. Results The in vitro antifungal activity of compounds based on MIC values revealed that all compounds showed good antifungal activity against C. albicans, S. cerevisiae and M. gypseum at concentrations less than 16 ?g/mL. Among the test compounds, 2-methyl-3-imidazolyl derivative 3b showed the highest values of drug-likeness and drug-score. Conclusion The 3-azolyl-4-chromanone phenylhydrazones considered as analogs of 3-azolyl-4-chromanone oxime ethers basically designed as antifungal agents. The antifungal activity of title compounds was comparable to that of standard drug fluconazole. The drug-likeness data of synthesized compounds make them promising leads for future development of antifungal agents.
Abstract The conventional identification of dermatophytes requires a long turnaround time and highly skilled mycologists. We have recently developed a standardized matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) assay to routinely identify molds of potential clinical significance. This study objective was to determine if this same assay could also be employed to identify clinical dermatophytes in the routine laboratory setting. The effects of the inclusion of cycloheximide in the culture medium and incubation time were tested after building a reference spectra library that included 48 well-characterized isolates of 17 dermatophyte species. Then these same isolates were prospectively identified using this library. MALDI-TOF MS-based identification was effective regardless of the presence of cycloheximide or incubation time as 130/133 (97.8%) of the clinical isolates were appropriately identified. Two Microsporum canis isolates yielded uninformative spectra and one M. audouinii isolate was misidentified. Since one only requires a small colony for MALDI-TOF MS analysis, accurate identifications were obtained in 3-6 days and, specifically, before the appearance of their characteristic morphological features. Consequently, identification turnaround time was dramatically reduced as compared to that needed for conventional morphological identification. In conclusion, this standardized MALDI-TOF MS-based identification procedure for filamentous fungi effectively identifies clinical dermatophyte isolates and drastically reduces the response times in the routine clinical laboratory. PMID:23611419
L'ollivier, Coralie; Cassagne, Carole; Normand, Anne-Cecile; Bouchara, Jean-Philippe; Contet-Audonneau, Nelly; Hendrickx, Marijke; Fourquet, Patrick; Coulibaly, Oumar; Piarroux, Renaud; Ranque, Stephane
Fourteen cases of dermatophytosis were identified from medical records of red pandas (Ailurus fulgens fulgens) housed at the Knoxville Zoo between 1980 and 1996. The median age of affected animals on initial presentation was 8.5 wk (3 wk-11 mo). Clinical signs included crusting, purulent exudate, alopecia, thickening of affected skin, ulceration, and necrosis. Seven animals had mild lesions with signs restricted to crusting and/or alopecia, and six animals had more severe infections, with ulceration, skin necrosis, and purulent exudate. Five of the severely affected pandas had tail involvement. The severity of disease affecting one individual was not recorded. Dermatophytosis was confirmed by culture, cytology, histopathology, or culture followed by histopathology. Microsporum gypseum was the only fungal organism cultured. Six animals were treated for mild disease, and all clinical signs resolved. Partial tail amputation was required as part of the treatment regimen for two of the six severely affected animals, and two others had ulcerated tail lesions that left circumferential scarring after resolution of infection. Itraconazole (5 mg/kg p.o. q 12-24 hr) was the most frequently used systemic antifungal agent in animals with severe lesions. All fungal infections resolved, although one panda died from unrelated causes early in the treatment period. PMID:10749446
Kearns, K S; Pollock, C G; Ramsay, E C
This paper reports the in vitro antifungal activity of propolis extracts from the province of Tucuman (Argentina) as well as the identification of their main antifungal compounds and botanical origin. The antifungal activity was determined by the microdilution technique, using reference microorganisms and clinical isolates. All dermatophytes and yeasts tested were strongly inhibited by different propolis extracts (MICs between 16 and 125 microg mL(-1)). The most susceptible species were Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Trichophyton rubrum. The main bioactive compounds were 2',4'-dihydroxy-3'-methoxychalcone 2 and 2',4'-dihydroxychalcone 3. Both displayed strong activity against clinical isolates of T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes (MICs and MFCs between 1.9 and 2.9 microg mL(-1)). Additionally, galangin 5, pinocembrin 6, and 7-hydroxy-8-methoxyflavanone 9 were isolated from propolis samples and Zuccagnia punctata exudates, showing moderate antifungal activity. This is the first study matching the chemical profile of Z. punctata Cav. exudates with their corresponding propolis, giving strong evidence on the botanical origin of the studied propolis. PMID:19916546
Agüero, María Belén; Gonzalez, Mariela; Lima, Beatriz; Svetaz, Laura; Sánchez, Marianela; Zacchino, Susana; Feresin, Gabriela Egly; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Palermo, Jorge; Wunderlin, Daniel; Tapia, Alejandro
In the framework of a survey on dermatophytoses, 14,619 clinical specimens taken from outpatients with symptoms suggestive of tinea and referred to a Medical Mycology laboratory in Tehran, Iran, were analyzed by direct microscopy and culture. In total, 777 dermatophyte strains recovered in culture were randomly identified by a formerly established RFLP analysis method based on the rDNA ITS regions. For confirmation of species identification, 160 isolates representing the likely entire species spectrum were subjected to ITS-sequencing. Infection was confirmed in 5,175 collected samples (35.4%) by direct microscopy and/or culture. Tinea pedis was the most prevalent type of infection (43.4%), followed by tinea unguium (21.3%), tinea cruris (20.7%), tinea corporis (9.4%), tinea manuum (4.2%), tinea capitis (0.8%) and tinea faciei (0.2%). Trichophyton interdigitale was the most common isolate (40.5%) followed by T. rubrum (34.75%), Epidermophyton floccosum (15.6%), Microsporum canis (3.9%), T. tonsurans (3.5 %) and M. gypseum (0.5%). Other species included M. ferrugineum, T. erinacei, T. violaceum, T. schoenleinii, and a very rare species T. eriotrephon (each one 0.25%). The two strains of T. eriotrephon isolated from tinea manuum and tinea faciei are the second and third reported cases worldwide. Application of DNA-based methods is an important aid in monitoring trends in dermatophytosis in the community. PMID:22587730
Rezaei-Matehkolaei, Ali; Makimura, Koichi; de Hoog, Sybren; Shidfar, Mohammad Reza; Zaini, Farideh; Eshraghian, Mohammadreza; Naghan, Parvaneh Adimi; Mirhendi, Hossein
Antifungal properties of some essential oils have been well documented. Clove oil is reported to have strong antifungal activity against many fungal species. In this study we have evaluated antifungal potential of essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) against some common fungal pathogens of plants and animals namely, Fusarium moniliforme NCIM 1100, Fusarium oxysporum MTCC 284, Aspergillus sp., Mucor sp., Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum gypseum. All fungal species were found to be inhibited by the oil when tested through agar well diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for all the species. Column chromatography was performed to separate the eugenol rich fraction from clove oil. Out of seven fractions maximum activity was obtained in column fraction II. TLC and HPLC data confirmed presence of considerable Eugenol in fraction II and clove oil. Microscopic study on effect of clove oil and column fraction II on spores of Mucor sp. and M. gypseum showed distortion and shrinkage while it was absent in other column fractions. So it can be concluded that the antifungal action of clove oil is due to its high eugenol content.
Rana, Inder Singh; Rana, Aarti Singh; Rajak, Ram Charan
When scrutinizing zoonoses with regard to risks for human beings, the spectrum of pathogens with dogs, cats and birds leading to persistent infections and consequently to the fact that the animals become carriers and permanent excretors is relatively small. Most of the zoonoses cause clinical symptoms and will be taken care of correspondingly. With regard to dogs there is a multitude of persistent infections that are transferred from the pet to the human being and vice versa. In reality, however, the importance of the dog as permanent excretor of zoonosis pathogens endangering human health is minimal, except for some parasitoses. As far as cats are concerned, the situation is totally different. Cats are carriers and permanent excretors of pasteurella, the pathogens of the so-called cat-scratch disease, trichophyton and microsporum species, toxoplasmosis and orthopox viruses. The new zoonosis feline pox serves as an example of the necessity of a permanent observation of persistently infected pets. Healthy, but persistently infected birds form a source of infection not to be underestimated. Through the beat of their wings they constantly stir up dried infectious excrements and dust and thus favour the airborn infection of human beings. Chlamydia psittaci, the Newcastle disease virus and Mycobacterium avium are of major importance in this context. The risk of transferring zoonosis pathogens from persistently infected pets to human beings can be minimized through prophylactic diagnosis, strict measures of hygiene, observation of the schedule of vaccinations for the respective species and regular use of anthelmintica. PMID:8333899
Antifungal properties of some essential oils have been well documented. Clove oil is reported to have strong antifungal activity against many fungal species. In this study we have evaluated antifungal potential of essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) against some common fungal pathogens of plants and animals namely, Fusarium moniliforme NCIM 1100, Fusarium oxysporum MTCC 284, Aspergillus sp., Mucor sp., Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum gypseum. All fungal species were found to be inhibited by the oil when tested through agar well diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for all the species. Column chromatography was performed to separate the eugenol rich fraction from clove oil. Out of seven fractions maximum activity was obtained in column fraction II. TLC and HPLC data confirmed presence of considerable Eugenol in fraction II and clove oil. Microscopic study on effect of clove oil and column fraction II on spores of Mucor sp. and M. gypseum showed distortion and shrinkage while it was absent in other column fractions. So it can be concluded that the antifungal action of clove oil is due to its high eugenol content. PMID:24031751
Rana, Inder Singh; Rana, Aarti Singh; Rajak, Ram Charan
Novel 1,1'-(5,5'-(1,4-phenylene)bis(3-aryl-1H-pyrazole-5,1-(4H,5H)-diyl))diethanones 7-12 were tested for their antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion and twofold serial dilution method against the tested bacterial and fungal strains. Compounds 7 against Micrococcus luteus, 8 against ?-Heamolytic streptococcus, M. luteus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Microsporum gypseum, 9 against Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella flexneri, Vibreo cholerae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus flavus, Mucor indicus, 10 against Salmonella typhii, S. flexneri, M. gypseum, 11 against K. pneumonia, M. gypseum, 12 against K. pneumonia, and M. gypseum show superior zone of inhibitions and exhibited excellent antibacterial and antifungal activities at a MIC value of 6.25 ?g/mL. Moreover, all the tested compounds 7-12 revealed promising antitubercular activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and INH-resistant M. tuberculosis. Compounds 8 against M. tuberculosis and 11 against INH-resistant M. tuberculosis exhibited the percentage of reduction in RLU at 89 and 85%, respectively.
Microsporum canis sensitive to itraconazole and terbinafine was isolated from two cats presented with generalized dermatophytosis and dermatophyte mycetoma. Itraconazole therapy was withdrawn through lack of efficacy in one cat (a Persian) and unacceptable adverse effects in the other (a Maine Coon). Both cats achieved clinical and mycological cure after 12-14 weeks therapy with 26-31 mg kg(-1) terbinafine every 24 h per os (PO). Clinical signs in the Maine Coon resolved completely after 7 weeks treatment. Four weeks of therapy with additional weekly washes with a 2% chlorhexidine/2% miconazole shampoo following clipping produced a 98% reduction in the Persian cat's mycetoma, which was then surgically excised. Recurrent generalized dermatophytosis in the Persian cat has been managed with pulse therapy with 26 mg kg(-1) terbinafine every 24 h PO for 1 week in every month. No underlying conditions predisposing to dermatophytosis were found in either cat despite extensive investigation. Terbinafine administration was associated with mild to moderate lethargy in the Persian cat, but no other adverse effects or changes in blood parameters were seen. To the best of the authors' knowledge this is the first report of a dermatophyte mycetoma in a Maine Coon and of successful resolution of this condition in cats following terbinafine therapy. PMID:19055614
Nuttall, T J; German, A J; Holden, S L; Hopkinson, C; McEwan, N A
Introduction. Keratinophilic fungi are an important group of fungi that live in soil. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify keratinophilic fungi from the soil of different parks in Shiraz. Materials and Methods. A total of 196 soil samples from 43 parks were collected. Isolation of the fungi was performed by hair bait technique. The isolated colonies were identified by morphologic feature of macro- and microconidia and molecular method, using DNA sequence analysis. ITS region of ribosomal DNA was amplified and the PCR products were sequenced. Results. 411 isolates from 22 genera were identified. Fusarium (23.8%), Chrysosporium (13.13%), Acremonium (12.65%), Penicillium (12.39%), Microsporum gypseum (1.94%), Bionectria ochroleuca (1.21%), Bipolaris spicifera (1.21%), Scedosporium apiospermum (0.82%), Phialophora reptans (0.82%), Cephalosporium curtipes (0.49%), Scedosporium dehoogii (0.24%), Ochroconis constricta (0.24%), Nectria mauritiicola (0.49%), Chaetomium (0.49%), Scopulariopsis (0.24%), Malbranchea (0.24%), and Tritirachium (0.24%) were the most important isolates. Most of the fungi were isolated from the soils with the PH range of 7 to 8. Conclusion. Our study results showed that many keratinophilic fungi isolated from the parks soil are important for public health and children are an important group at a high risk of being exposed to these fungi.
Pakshir, Keyvan; Rahimi Ghiasi, Moosa; Zomorodian, Kamiar; Gharavi, Ali Reza
The dermatophyte Microsporum cookei Ajello was treated with nine new natural and synthetic 2,2':5',2"-terthiophenes to determine their possible antifungal activity. In the dark the thiophenes were inactive, while when photoactivated with UV-A they induced a remarkable reduction in the growth rate of the fungus. The only exception was (E)-N-(2-methylpropyl)-3-(2,2':5',2"-terthien-5-yl)-propenamide , which was not fungistatic even at the highest dose tested (24 microM). The more active compounds were 3'-methoxy-2,2':5',2"-terthiophene and 3'-methylthio-2,2':5',2"-terthiophene, whose activity seems to be related to the presence of a substituent in the 3' position of the central ring of thiophenes. Transmission electron microscopic observations demonstrated the photoactive nature of the synthetic molecules to be similar to that of alpha-terthienyl, a natural thiophene present in some Asteraceae. The dark treatment caused only the accumulation of the compound in vacuoles, without other evident alterations. After UV-A irradiation the activated thiophene causes severe modifications to the endomembrane system, probably via oxygen-dependent mechanism. PMID:7746300
Mares, D; Romagnoli, C; Rossi, R; Carpita, A; Ciofalo, M; Bruni, A
Pramiconazole from Barrier Therapeutics Inc is a new addition to the family of triazole antifungal agents that act by inhibiting fungal cell membrane ergosterol synthesis, thereby leading to increased cell permeability and destruction. Barrier Therapeutics was developing an oral formulation of pramiconazole for the potential treatment of seborrheic dermatitis (erythematosquamous skin disease), onychomycosis and dermatomycosis (including tinea versicolor, tinea pedis and tinea cruris/corporis). In preclinical studies, pramiconazole exhibited similar or superior antifungal activity to ketoconazole and itraconazole, and selectively inhibited ergosterol synthesis with a broad spectrum activity. Pramiconazole was absorbed rapidly and had a long half-life, allowing for once-daily dosing. In phase I and II clinical trials, pramiconazole reduced the growth of Candida albicans, Malassezia globosa, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum, and was generally well tolerated. At the time of publication, Barrier Therapeutics had suspended the development of pramiconazole as part of a series of cost-cutting initiatives; the company had also been acquired by Stiefel Laboratories Inc. No formal announcement had been made regarding the further development of pramiconazole. The results of studies performed to date suggest that pramiconazole may be useful in the treatment of dermatomycoses when oral treatment is mandated. Promising preclinical and early phase II clinical data warrant the further development of the drug in larger clinical trials. PMID:18763217
Geria, Aanand N; Scheinfeld, Noah S
The aqueous extracts (15 micrograms ml-1 medium) of 22 plants used in folkloric medicine in Palestine were investigated for their antifungal activity and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against nine isolates of Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton violaceum. The extract of the different plant species reduced colony growth of the three dermatophytes by 36 to 100% compared with the control treatment. Antimycotic activity of the extract against the three dermatophytes varied significantly (P < 0.05) between test plants. Extracts of Capparis spinosa and Juglans regia completely prevented growth of M. canis and T. violaceum. The most active extracts (90-100% inhibition) were those of Anagallis arvensis, C. spinosa, J. regia, Pistacia lentiscus and Ruta chalapensis against M. canis; Inula viscosa, J. regia and P. lentiscus against T. mentagrophytes; and Asphodelus luteus, A. arvensis, C. spinosa, Clematis cirrhosa, I. viscosa, J. regia, P. lentiscus, Plumbago europea, Ruscus aculeatus, Retema raetam and Salvia fruticosa against T. violaceum. The MICs of these most active plants ranged from 0.6 to 40 micrograms ml-1. The three dermatophytes differed significantly with regard to their susceptibility to plant extracts. Trichophyton violaceum was the most susceptible being completely inhibited by 50% of the extracts followed by M. canis and T. mentagrophytes which were completely inhibited by only 23 and 14% of the extracts, respectively. PMID:10680445
Ali-Shtayeh, M S; Abu Ghdeib, S I
The aims of this study were to test the antifungal activity, toxicity and chemical composition of essential oil from C. sativum L. fruits. The essential oil, obtained by hydro-distillation, was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Linalool was the main constituent (58.22%). The oil was considered bioactive, showing an LC?? value of 23 ?g/mL in the Artemia salina lethality test. The antifungal activity was evaluated against Microsporum canis and Candida spp. by the agar-well diffusion method and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) were established by the broth microdilution method. The essential oil induced growth inhibition zones of 28 ± 5.42 and 9.25 ± 0.5 for M. canis and Candida spp. respectively. The MICs and MFCs for M. canis strains ranged from 78 to 620 and 150 to 1,250 ?g/mL, and the MICs and MFCs for Candida spp strains ranged from 310 to 620 and 620 to 1,250 ?g/mL, respectively. C. sativum essential oil is active in vitro against M. canis and Candida spp. demonstrating good antifungal activity. PMID:22785271
Soares, Bruna V; Morais, Selene M; dos Santos Fontenelle, Raquel Oliveira; Queiroz, Vanessa A; Vila-Nova, Nadja S; Pereira, Christiana M C; Brito, Edy S; Neto, Manoel A S; Brito, Erika H S; Cavalcante, Carolina S P; Castelo-Branco, Débora S C M; Rocha, Marcos F G
An antifungal principle of the dried rhizomes of Curcuma zedoaria was extracted with hot ethanol. By successive chromatography on neutral alumina and silica gel, three antibiotic compounds A, B, and C, all active against Trichophyton rubrum, Aspergillus niger and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, were obtained in chemically pure form. By uv, ir, pmr and ms analysis, the structure of the most abundant one of these compounds (C, 69.8%; H, 6,8%; and 0.23.4%) was assigned as ethyl p-methoxycinnamate (EPMC). The proposed structure was confirmed by synthesis and comparison of the chemical and biological properties of the natural and synthetic products. EPMC inhibits the growth of Trichophyton rubrum, Aspergillus niger, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Epidermophyton floccosum at a concentration less than 10 mug/ml; A. fumigatus, Penicillium purpurogenum, Trignoposis variabilis, Microsporum gypseum, Sclerotium rolifsii, Geotricular candiade, Fusarium oxysporum and Helminthosporium oryzale at a concentration less than 25 mug/ml; and Candida krusei and T. mentagrophytes At a concentration less than 50 mug/ml. The spores of T. rubrum Lose viability or ability to germinate when wxposed to its ethanolic solution (30 mug/ml) for 2 hours. PMID:785141
Gupta, S K; Banerjee, A B; Achari, B
Keratinophilic fungi are present in the environment with variable distribution patterns that depend on different factors, one of which, of fundamental importance, is human and or animal presence. The present study was conducted in the environment and classrooms of schools in order to evaluate the relationship between the human presence and the presence of keratinophilic fungi. In order to achieve this goal, a new isolation technique was used. From 20 samples, 253 colonies of keratinophilic fungi were isolated. The results showed that species of the genus Chrysosporium were present in 100% of the samples, while Microsporum and Trichophyton species were present in 40% and 65% of the samples respectively. The percentage of three pathogenic species, M. canis (25), T. mentagrophytes (10) and M. gypseum (10) was significant. The other species isolated were: T. terrestre (55%), Trichophyton sp. (35%), M. cookei (25%) and T. ajelloi (10%). A correlation between the amount of gathered dust and the number of colonies of keratinophilic fungi isolated was not found. PMID:6193424
Mercantini, R; Marsella, R; Lambiase, L; Fulvi, F
Physicians have been aware of superficial fungal infections for centuries, but the causal agents and treatments of fungal infections remained unknown until the mid-1800s, when numerous important findings were reported. Among the relevant researchers in the field of superficial mycoses were Remak, who found the fungal nature of favus in 1837; Berg, who reported oral candidosis in 1841; and Wilkinson, who described vaginal candidosis in 1849. Tinea versicolor was described clinically in 1846 by Eichstedt, and its etiologic agent was identified in 1853. Beigel reported white piedra in 1856, and Cerqueira, tinea nigra in 1891. The book Les Tiegnes was published by Sabouraud in 1910, and black piedra infection was described by Horta in 1911. In 1927, Nannizzi reported the description of the sexual state of Microsporum gypseum. The current classification of dermatophytes was published by Emmons in 1934, and the taxonomy of yeast fungi was described by Lodder and Kreger-van Rij in 1952. Finally, the successful treatment of tinea capitis with griseofulvin by Gentles in 1958 saved many patients with tinea capitis from permanent hair loss, a common side effect after treatment with thallium. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. PMID:20347652
A descriptive epidemiologic study was conducted to quantitate the occurrence of zoonoses in pet animals (almost exclusively dogs and cats) at 30 Air Force bases in nine regions of the United States during 1980 and 1981. Reviews of reported cases of pet-associated zoonoses in humans at these bases were included. Occurrence of a zoonotic disease in dogs and cats was expressed as a ratio of reported cases per 100 rabies vaccinations (cs/Crv). Overall, the four zoonoses reported most frequently from these pets were hookworms, roundworms, tapeworms, and fleas. Annual ratios revealed geographic variations: for example, hookworms in dogs and cats in the southeast ranged from 12.3 to 9.4 cs/Crv; in the northern Great Plains, hookworms ranged from 0.9 to 0.4 cs/Crv. Dermatomycoses in the southeast ranged from 1.3 to 1.1 cs/Crv, and in Alaska from 0.3 to 0.2 cs/Crv. Quarterly zoonoses occurrence revealed seasonal variations in several regions. Reports of zoonoses in people from these bases indicated that five less frequent zoonoses in dogs and cats (Microsporum canis dermatomycosis, fleas, Sarcoptes scabiei var canis, Gram-positive bacterial infections, and rabies) presented greater acute threats to humans than did the four most frequent zoonoses reported from their pets. PMID:6496816
Warner, R D
Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous mycosis and is also a zoonosis (sapro- and anthropozoonosis). The objective of the present study was to determine the occurrence of sporotrichosis in domestic cats and in wild or exotic felines in captivity through the isolation of Sporothrix spp. from claw impressions in a culture medium. The samples included 132 felines, of which 120 (91.0 %) were domestic cats, 11 (8.3 %) were wild felines, and one (0.7 %) was an exotic felid. Twenty-one (17.5 %) were outdoor cats. Of the total, 89 (67.4 %) had contact with other animals of the same species. It was possible to isolate Sporothrix schenckii from the claws of one (0.7 %) of the felids probed; this animal exhibited generalised sporotrichosis and had infected a female veterinarian. The potential pathogenic agents Microsporum canis and Malassezia pachydermatis were isolated in 12.1 and 5.3 % of the animals, respectively. The following anemophilous fungi, which were considered to be contaminants, were also isolated: Penicillium sp. (28 or 21.2 %), Aspergillus sp. (13 or 9.8 %), Rhodotorula sp. (5 or 3.8 %), Candida sp. (5 or 3.8 %), Trichoderma sp. (1 or 0.7 %), and Acremonium sp. (1 or 0.7 %). Due to the low magnitude of occurrence (0.7 %) of Sporothrix in feline claws, the potential of the cats evaluated in this study to be sources of infection in the city of São Paulo is considerably low. PMID:23729233
Borges, Tatiana Saleme; Rossi, Claudio Nazaretian; Fedullo, José Daniel Luzes; Taborda, João Pelleschi; Larsson, Carlos Eduardo
This study examined 215 samples of soil from burrows of rats, other sites in bamboo plantations in different parts of India and Nepal by dilution plating and mouse passage technique for occurrence of Penicillium marneffei and other pathogenic fungi. None of the samples including 25 collected from the burrows of a bamboo rat (Cannomys badius) known to be a carrier of P. marneffei, was positive for the fungus. Among the pathogenic fungi recovered were four isolates of Pseudallescheria boydii (including one from Nepal), two of Trichosporon asteroides, one of Scytalidium hyalinum, 23 isolates of Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes (including two from Nepal), and two of Microsporum gypseum. Fourteen of the 23 isolates of T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes when tested with the mating types of Arthroderma vanbreuseghemii were found to be of the '+' mating type. The frequent recovery of this dermatophyte from soils of bamboo plantations in several parts of India is remarkable. The study also demonstrates for the first time the occurrence of P. boydii and T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes in Nepalese soil. Among the other fungi recovered were several isolates of species of Aspergillus, Penicillium, Paecilomyces, Fusarium, Chrysosporium, Acremonium, Rhizopus, Mucor, Geotrichum, Trichosporon and Rhodotorula. PMID:17944715
Gugnani, H C; Paliwal-Joshi, A; Rahman, H; Padhye, A A; Singh, T S K; Das, T K; Khanal, B; Bajaj, R; Rao, S; Chukhani, R
Cancer development and ageing are complex sciences. From the study on the process of rodent carcinogenesis, we identified tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) as an important mediator of cancer development. This paper presents three clinical examples of TNF-alpha up-regulation: by cord factors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, such as trehalose 6-monomycolate, as an activator of protein kinase C and by a cord factor like fraction of Microsporum canis obtained in the air inside houses in Thailand, both of which are risk factors in human lung cancer development, and by Helicobacter pylori gene product, H. pylori membrane protein 1 (HP-MP1) in relation to human stomach cancer. The second part of this paper deals with down-regulation of TNF-alpha by a wide variety of cancer preventive agents. Among the various agents, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and green tea polyphenols inhibited TNF-alpha gene expression in the cells induced by tumor promoter, mediated through inhibition of NF-kappaB activation. Studying growth inhibition of human cancer cell lines by morphine, we found that morphine and the new morphine derivatives KT-90 and KT-87 have anticancer activity mediated through induction of apoptosis, in addition to analgesic action. We conclude that environmental and endogenous factors induce NF-kappaB activation mediated through expression of inflammatory cytokine genes, such as TNF-alpha, and that the expression pattern of the genes operates similarly in the aging process. PMID:12470903
Fujiki, Hirota; Suganuma, Masami; Okabe, Sachiko; Kurusu, Miki; Imai, Kazue; Nakachi, Kei
In order to study the presence of keratinophilic fungi with special reference to dermatophytes on the coat of dogs and cats living in the cities of Mexico and Nezahualcoyotl in the Metropolitan area of Mexico City, two hundred samples were collected from dogs and one hundred from cats by using the MacKenzie's tooth brush technique, they were processed by routine mycological methods for dermatophyte fungi, results were analyzed by means of the statistical packages SAS. There were isolated 67 and 90 keratinophilic strains from cats and dogs samples, respectively. The most commonly fungi isolated in pure culture in this study were Chrysosporium spp (25%), followed by Trichophyton terrestre (22%), Microsporum gypseum (5%), M. canis (4%), as well as mixed cultures like Chrysosporium spp. & M. gypseum (2%) and T. terrestre & T. mentagrophytes (1%). Keratinophilic fungi were found in higher numbers in the cat haircoat (67%) than in the dog's (45%) and the same was true with regard to dermatophytes with 12 isolates out of a 100 samples in cats and 7 Isolates out of 200 samples from dogs. This may represent a health risk for humans in contact with a dermatophyte infected cat or dog. PMID:10948828
Guzman-Chavez, R E; Segundo-Zaragoza, C; Cervantes-Olivares, R A; Tapia-Perez, G
In this paper chemical composition of the essential oil (analysed by GC and GC-MS), the content of phenolic compounds (analysed by HPLC), quantity of total phenols and total flavonoids (analysed by UV/Vis spectrophotometer), antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of ethanolic extracts were investigated in endemic Teucrium arduini L. in population of Mt Biokovo (Croatia). The oil was characterized by a high concentration of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (70.4%) of which ?-caryophyllene (35.2%) and germacrene D (18.7%) being the major compounds. Three phenolic compounds (quercetin, ferulic acid and rosmarinic acid) were identified and quantified in ethanolic extract of T. arduini using HPLC. The results also showed that T. arduini is a source of polyphenolic and other antioxidants with radical-scavenging and chelating properties. The ethanol extracts prepared from the leaf of T. arduini showed broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity on Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Aspergillus brasiliensis, which are susceptible on concentration below or equal to 4.00 mg/mL, whilst Microsporum gypseum was resistant at investigated concentrations. PMID:23597042
Kremer, Dario; Kosir, Iztok Joze; Kosalec, Ivan; Koncic, Marijana Zovko; Potocnik, Tanja; Cerenak, Andreja; Bezic, Nada; Srecec, Sinisa; Dunkic, Valerija
The prenyltransferase (PTase) gene vrtC was proposed to be involved in viridicatumtoxin (1) biosynthesis in Penicillium aethiopicum. Targeted gene deletion and reconstitution of recombinant VrtC activity in vitro established that VrtC is a geranyl transferase that catalyzes a regiospecific Friedel-Crafts alkylation of the naphthacenedione carboxamide intermediate 2 at carbon 6 with geranyl diphosphate. VrtC can function in the absence of divalent ions and can utilize similar naphthacenedione substrates, such as the acetyl-primed TAN-1612 (4). Genome mining using the VrtC protein sequence leads to the identification of a homologous group of PTase genes in the genomes of human and animal-associated fungi. Three enzymes encoded by this new subgroup of PTase genes from Neosartorya fischeri, Microsporum canis, and Trichophyton tonsurans were shown to be able to catalyze transfer of dimethylallyl to several tetracyclic naphthacenedione substrates in vitro. In total, seven C(5)- or C(10)-prenylated naphthacenedione compounds were generated. The regioselectivity of these new polycyclic PTases (pcPTases) was confirmed by characterization of product 9 obtained from biotransformation of 4 in Escherichia coli expressing the N. fischeri pcPTase gene. The discovery of this new subgroup of PTases extends our enzymatic tools for modifying polycyclic compounds and enables genome mining of new prenylated polyketides. PMID:22590971
Chooi, Yit-Heng; Wang, Peng; Fang, Jinxu; Li, Yanran; Wu, Katherine; Wang, Pin; Tang, Yi
Dermatophytoses are of worldwide distribution. Epidemiological studies concerning dermatophyte infections have been performed in many countries and differences in the incidence and the aetiological agents have been reported in different geographical locations. This study was undertaken to investigate the prevailing species of dermatophytes in the island of Crete, Greece, and their pattern of infection during a 7-year period (1997-2003). A total of 5544 samples obtained from 3751 patients with clinically suspected dermatomycoses were examined mycologically in the laboratory of Clinical Microbiology at the University Hospital of Crete, Greece. Skin, hair and nail specimens were subjected to direct microscopy and culture. Dermatophytes were isolated from 520 patients (13.9%). Trichophyton rubrum was the most frequently isolated dermatophyte accounting for 48% of the infections, followed by Microsporum canis (17.9%), Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. interdigitale (14.2%) and Epidermophyton floccosum (6%). Tinea unguium, tinea pedis, tinea corporis, tinea capitis, tinea cruris, tinea manuum and tinea facei were the clinical types of dermatophytoses in decreasing order of frequency. Trichophyton rubrum is the predominant dermatophyte in our area. As the epidemiology of dermatophytoses is changing over time it is important to review periodically the incidence of dermatophytes and their distribution. PMID:17944710
Maraki, Sofia; Nioti, Eleni; Mantadakis, Elpis; Tselentis, Yannis
Tinea capitis is the most common dermatophyte infection in childhood, but may rarely occur in adults and the elderly. Causative agents vary within different geographical areas as well as during decades. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and causative agents of tinea capitis in Southeastern Austria. Retrospective analysis of 714 patients diagnosed with tinea capitis seen at the outpatient Department of Dermatology/Medical University of Graz during the time period 1985-2008 was carried out. A total of 517 of the 714 patients were children, 21 adults and in the case of 176 patients age was not available. Microsporum canis was found in 84.4%. Trichophyton soudanense tinea capitis is seen since 1998, Trichophyton tonsurans for the first time in 2008. Tinea capitis has become very important for the public health. Besides an increasing incidence, there is a change in age of the patients affected and with the pattern of causative agents as a result of immigration movements and lifestyle habits mainly influenced by domestic pets. Our situation reflects nearly the epidemiology of the bordering countries of Austria mainly in the Southeastern surroundings. These epidemiological changes are a challenge for general practitioners, dermatologists and veterinarians to work close together for advice on control, early diagnosing and adequate treatment. PMID:19863725
Binder, Barbara; Lackner, Helmut Karl; Poessl, Birgit Dorothea; Propst, Erika; Weger, Wolfgang; Smolle, Josef; Ginter-Hanselmayer, Gabriele
We conducted a recent survey of dermatological fungal infections amongst children in both urban and rural parts of Anambra State in the south-east geographical flank of Nigeria during the period January 2003 to December 2003. Samples were collected from 1624 children with clinically suggestive lesions and also between the ages of 4 and 16. Young children aged 7-11 and 4- 6 years had significantly higher incidences (P < 0.05) than their older colleagues aged 12-16 years among samples proved to be mycologically positive by microscopy, culture or both. There was a significant difference in the incidence of dermatophytoses amongst children in urban and rural areas investigated (P < 0.05). Tinea capitis was the predominant clinical type. Trichophyton tonsurans was the most prevalent etiological agent while Microsporum audouinii was the least in occurrence. We compared our result with a recent study in the northern geographical zone and observed that although incidence of dermatophytoses is higher in northern Nigeria, tinea capitis was the predominant clinical type in both regions. In addition, the etiological agents appear to vary from time to time in their occurrence and the reasons for these observations are discussed. A regular surveillance and assessment of the etiologic agent and its prevalence by medical mycologists is strongly recommended to facilitate monitoring, reduce/prevent transmission and spread of dermatophytes in countries like Nigeria where they constitute a public health problem. PMID:16205973
Nweze, E I; Okafor, J I
The distribution of dermatophytes varies in different countries and geographical areas depending on several factors. To determine the frequency of aetiological agents and the clinical variants of dermatophytoses, we carried out a study between 1998 and 2007. Out of 25 432 subjects suspected to have superficial mycoses, 9960 (39.2%) were affected with dermatophytoses; 14957 positive samples were obtained. The mean age was 35.7 years (range: 21 days to 97 years). Sex ratio was 0.9. Our patients were from urban regions in 81.9% of cases. The most common type of infection was onychomycosis (30.3%), followed by tinea pedis (24.8%), intertrigo (21.7%), tinea corporis (11.4%) and tinea capitis (9.6%). Fifteen patients had generalised dermatophytosis. Hadida and Schousboe disease was diagnosed in one case with lethal evolution. The most isolated dermatophyte was Trichophyton rubrum (74.5%), followed by T. violaceum (7.9%), T. mentagrophytes (7.5%), Microsporum canis (3.8%), Epidermophyton floccosum (0.7%) and T. verrucosum (0.54%). Other species were occasionally isolated: T. schoenleinii, T. tonsurans, M. audouinii and M. ferrugineum. The prevalence of dermatophytoses remains high in our country (996 cases/year). Trichophyton rubrum is the predominant causal agent. However, zoophilic agents become more prevalent. Epidemiological surveys are an essential tool for developing strategies for infection control. PMID:19207834
Neji, Sourour; Makni, Fattouma; Cheikhrouhou, Fatma; Sellami, Amira; Sellami, Hayet; Marreckchi, Slaheddine; Turki, Hamida; Ayadi, Ali
Dermatophytosis is still being considered as one of the major public health problems in many parts of the world. To identify the prevalence and etiological agents of dermatophytoses, a study was carried out between 2004 and 2006. Out of 1023 subjects suspected to have cutaneous mycoses, 348 (34%) patients were affected with dermatophytoses. The causative agents were identified macroscopically and microscopically after the clinical samples were subjected to potassium hydroxide examination and culture isolation. Epidermophyton floccosum was the most frequently isolated species representing 32.8% of isolates, followed by T. rubrum (18.1%), T. verrucosum (17.2%), T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale (15.8%), T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes (6.6%) and T. violaceum, T. schoenleinii and Microsporum canis (0.9%). The most common type of infection was tinea cruris (31.9%) affecting in particular male patients. Some other most prevalent tinea types were tinea corporis (20.7%), tinea pedis (19%), and tinea unguium (11.2%). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on dermatophytoses in Qazvin and the first study that shows tinea cruris as a major type of superficial fungal infection in Iran. The frequency of tinea was higher in males and tinea cruris showed a remarkably increasing tendency and was an important public health issue in Qazvin. PMID:18254753
Aghamirian, Mohammad Reza; Ghiasian, Seyed Amir
Itraconazole is an antifungal drug from the triazole group with distinct in vitro activity against dermatophytes, yeasts and some molds. Itraconazole has a primarily fungistatic activity. Itraconazole accumulates in the stratum corneum and in nail material due to its high affinity to keratin, as well as in sebum and vaginal mucosa. Together with terbinafine and fluconazole, itraconazole belongs to the modern highly effective systemic antifungal drugs with a favorable risk-benefit ratio and for this reason is a preferred therapy option for fungal infections of skin, nails and mucous membranes. Compared to terbinafine in the treatment of fingernail and toenail fungal infections, itraconazole offers the advantage of a broad antifungal spectrum and better effectiveness against onychomycosis caused by yeasts yet appears inferior with regard to the more common dermatophyte infections. Itraconazole constitutes an important therapy option, along with fluconazole, terbinafine, ketoconazole and griseofulvin, for the treatment of dermatophyte infections of glabrous skin (tinea pedis, tinea manuum, tinea corporis and tinea cruris) in adults following unsuccessful topical therapy. In the oral therapy of tinea capitis, itraconazole plays an especially important role, in particular for disease caused by Microsporum canis (for children, however, only off-label use is feasible currently). In the treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis, candidiasis of the skin and vulvovaginal candidiasis, itraconazole and fluconazole are the preferred treatment options in cases in which topical therapy has proven unsuccessful. PMID:18479501
Korting, Hans Christian; Schöllmann, Claudia
Dermatophytoses are superficial infections that may lead to lesions of keratinized tissues, like skin, hair and nails. A total of 6068 individuals from Goiânia, GO, with suspected dermatophytic lesions were examined over a period of five years (1993-1997) in order to determine the incidence and etiology of dermatophytosis. Material collected from different body parts was submitted to direct microscopic examination using KOH, cultured in Sabouraud agar and microscopically examined for colony morphology, with the identification of 1595 dermatophytes. Trichophyton rubrum (37.4%), T. mentagrophytes (36.4%) and Microsporum canis (16%) were the species most frequently isolated. Dermatophytes were more frequently found producing lesions in the feet (30.5%), inguinal and crural regions (17.8%) and glabrous body regions (15.5%). The distribution of the different infected body sites was determined in terms of the respective etiologic agents found. Better hygiene conditions and an early diagnosis are the most important tools to control and reduce the incidence of dermatophytosis in Goiânia, GO. PMID:10495665
Costa, T R; Costa, M R; da Silva, M V; Rodrigues, A B; Fernandes, O de F; Soares, A J; Silva, M do R
Exoenzymes produced by common dermatophytes, in addition to their ability to cause cutaneous inflammation, are thought to contribute to fungal spread. To investigate the patterns of enzymes released by common dermatophytes as well as Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, the fungi were grown in liquid media containing either hair, stratum corneum, neopeptone or lipids, or in RPMI medium. Enzymes recovered from the culture supernatants were compared using the Api-zyme test. As a result, the widest range of enzymes was seen in protein-containing media, with a maximum of 13 enzymes stimulated by growth on hair. Dermatophytes in all protein media produced high levels of alkaline phosphatase, esterases and leucine arylamidase. In these media the highest total enzymatic activity was released by Microsporum canis, whereas the lowest was released by Epidermophyton floccosum. Although RPMI broth stimulated luxuriant growth of all species, recovery was limited to a maximum of six enzymes. In lipid medium E. floccosum and M. canis failed to grow. When comparing the various nutrients, Scopulariopsis released fewer enzymes than the dermatophytes and only minor quantities of alkaline phosphatase. We conclude that alkaline phosphatase, esterases and leucine arylamidase may be important for the parasitic growth of dermatophytes. The total enzymatic activity of dermatophytes appears to be correlated with the intensity of cutaneous inflammation. Furthermore, enzyme measurements may be helpful for species identification. PMID:7935585
Brasch, J; Zaldua, M
Objective To screen the anti-fungal effects and find out the active metabolites from sponge, Sigmadocia carnosa (S. carnosa) against four dermatophytic fungi. Methods The methanol, ethyl acetate and acetone extract of marine sponge, S. carnosa was examined against Trichophyton mentagrophytes (T. mentagrophytes), Trichophyton rubrum (T. rubrum), Epidermophyton floccosum (E. floccosum) and Microsporum gypseum (M. gypseum) and qualitative analysed to find out the active molecules. Results The methanol extract of sponge was expressed significant activity than ethyl acetate and acetone. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of methanol extract of sponge that resulted in complete growth inhibition of T. mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, E. floccosum and M. gypseum were found to 125, 250, 250 and 250 µg/mL respectively. But, 100 % inhibition of fungal spore germination was observed in T. mentagrophytes at 500 µg/mL concentration followed by T. rubrum, E. floccosum and M. gypseum at 1 000 µg/mL concentration. Other two extracts showed weak anti spore germination activity against the tested dermatophytic fungi. Methanol extracts showed presence of terpenoids, steroids, alkaloids, saponins and glycosides. Conclusion Based on the literature, this is the first study which has conducted to inhibit the growth and spore germination of dermatophytic fungi with S. carnosa. Further research also needs to purify and characterize the secondary metabolites from the sponge, S. carnosa for the valuable source of novel substances for future drug discovery.
Dhayanithi, NB; Kumar, TT Ajith; Kalaiselvam, M; Balasubramanian, T; Sivakumar, N
Keratinolytic properties of two dermatophytes (Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes) and three moulds (Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, Alternaria alternata, Geotrichum candidum) isolated from diseased equine hooves were examined to improve the understanding of pathogenic mechanisms leading to equine onychomycosis. Equine hoof horn material and skin, as well as hoof keratin and dermal keratin extracted from corresponding tissues, were used as sole carbon and nitrogen sources in five test tubes for each fungus. Within 18 days, supernatants of all tubes were repeatedly examined for keratinolytic activity by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis. In addition, fungal growth rates were determined to identify the preferred tissue of the individual fungi. Among the fungi examined, M. gypseum was the most keratinolytic species, followed by T. mentagrophytes and S. brevicaulis. In the concentration applied, the moulds A. alternata and G. candidum showed minimal keratinolytic activity. With respect to growth rates, M. gypseum favoured hoof horn material, S. brevicaulis and G. candidum preferred skin as a keratin source, whereas for the other two fungi no clear preference was detectable. PMID:16377103
Apprich, Veronika; Spergser, Joachim; Rosengarten, Renate; Stanek, Christian
Infection rate, reaction to light, and hair follicle apoptosis are examined in the dogmite, Demodex canis Leydig (Prostigmata: Demodicidae), in dogs from the northern area of Taiwan. An analysis of relevant samples revealed 7.2% (73/1013) prevalence of D. canis infection. Infection during the investigation peaked each winter, with an average prevalence of 12.5% (32/255). The infection rates significantly varied in accordance with month, sex, age, and breed (p < 0.05). Most of the lesions were discovered on the backs of the infected animals, where the infection rate was 52.1% (38/73) (P < 0.05). The epidemiologic analysis of infection based on landscape area factor, found that employing a map-overlapping method showed a higher infection rate in the eastern distribution of Taiwan's northern area than other areas. Isolation tests for Microsporum canis Bodin (Onygenales: Arthrodermataceae) and Trichophyton mentagrophyte Robin (Blanchard) on the D. canis infected dogs revealed prevalence rates of 4.4% (2/45) and 2.2% (1/45), respectively. Observations demonstrated that D. canis slowly moved from a light area to a dark area. Skin samples were examined for cellular apoptosis by activated caspase3 immunohistochemical staining. Cells that surrounded the infected hair follicles were activated caspase3-positive, revealing cell apoptosis in infected follicles via the activation of caspase3. PMID:21867442
Tsai, Yu-Jen; Chung, Wen-Cheng; Wang, Lian-Chen; Ju, Yu-Ten; Hong, Chin-Lin; Tsai, Yu-Yang; Li, Yi-Hung; Wu, Ying-Ling
Olea europaea preparations are traditionally employed in a variety of troubles, including skin infections. Olive extracts and some of their pure compounds have shown antimicrobial activity in vitro. The present study deals with the antifungal activity of some aliphatic aldehydes from olive fruit [hexanal, nonanal, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-heptenal, (E)-2-octenal, (E)-2-nonenal] against Tricophyton mentagrophytes (6 strains), Microsporum canis (1 strains) and Candida spp. (7 strains). The capability of these substances to inhibit elastase, a virulence factor essential for the dermatophytes colonization, and their cytotoxicity on cultures of reconstructed human epidermis, are also described. Aldehydes tested, inhibited the growth of T. mentagrophytes and M. canis in the range of concentration between <1.9 and 125 microg/ml; the unsaturated aldehydes showed the most broad spectrum of activity in that inhibited all strains tested. None of the aldehydes exhibited activity against Candida spp. strains. (E)-2-octenal and (E)-2-nonenal inhibited the elastase activity in a concentration-dependent manner; the anti-elastase activity suggests an additional target of the antimicrobial activity of these compounds. Aldehydes were devoid of cytotoxicity on cultures of human reconstructed epidermis. The antifungal activity of the aldehydes from olive fruit here reported, substantiates the use of olive and olive oil in skin diseases and suggests that these natural compounds could be useful agents in the topical treatment of fungal cutaneous infections. PMID:16920510
Battinelli, L; Daniele, C; Cristiani, M; Bisignano, G; Saija, A; Mazzanti, G
Background Soil is well known to support the transient or ongoing existence of keratinophilic fungi and potential source of infection for human and animals Methods: Samples were collected from 67 sites of university campus like PG study centers, playgrounds, gardens, hostels, administrative blocks, library, bank, canteen and road side for the estimation of keratinophilic fungi using the hair baiting technique. Results: Totally, 192 isolates belonging to 14 genera and 21 species were reported. Soil pH range varies from 6.5 to 9.0 pH. Most of the fungi isolated from neutral to slightly alkaline soil. Chrysosporium tropicum (20.83%) was the most predominant fungi reported from all sites. Trichophyton mentagrophytes (15.10%) was the second most commonly reported fungi. Chrysosporium indicum (11.45%), T. simii (9.37%), C.evolceanui (8.83%) T. terrestre (4.68%) and Cephaliophora irregularies (4.68%) were frequently reported. Microsporum audouinii, Paceliomyces sp., Cladosporium sp. and Sporothrix schenckii were isolated for the first time from Jaipur. Conclusion: Road sides were found most suitable for the occurrence of all most all keratinophilic fungi. Higher incidence of keratinophilic fungi was found in hostel sides followed by road sides, PG study centers and play grounds.
Jain, Neetu; Sharma, Meenakshi
The antifungal, antibacterial, and insect-repellent activities of the essential oils (EOs) of Acantholippia seriphioides, Artemisia mendozana, Gymnophyton polycephalum, Satureja parvifolia, Tagetes mendocina, and Lippia integrifolia, collected in the Central Andes area, province of San Juan, Argentina, were investigated. The dermatophytes Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and T. rubrum were inhibited by the EOs of G. polycephalum, L. integrifolia, and S. parvifolia, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) between 31.2 and 1000??g/ml. Moreover, all EOs presented moderate activity against the bacteria tested, and the L. integrifolia and G. polycephalum EOs showed excellent repellent properties against Triatoma infestans, the Chagas disease vector, with repellency values between 60 and 100%. The A. seriphioides, G. polycephalum, and L. integrifolia EOs, obtained by hydrodistillation, were characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. The highest number of components (40) was identified in L. integrifolia EO, which, along with that of A. seriphioides, contained important amounts of oxygenated monoterpenes (44.35 and 29.72%, resp.). Thymol (27.61%) and carvacrol (13.24%) were the main components of A. seriphioides EO, and borneol, lippifoli-1(6)-en-5-one, and terpinen-4-ol (>8.5%) were the principal compounds of L. integrifolia EO. These results support the idea that oxygenated monoterpenes are the bioactive fractions of the EOs. Finally, the study shows that these Andean species might be used to treat superficial fungal infections and to improve the local Chagas disease situation by vector-control. PMID:21560241
Lima, Beatriz; López, Sandra; Luna, Lorena; Agüero, María B; Aragón, Liliana; Tapia, Alejandro; Zacchino, Susana; López, María L; Zygadlo, Julio; Feresin, Gabriela E
Satureja thymbra L. is well known in Italy by the popular name of "Santoreggia sarda". It grows only in Sardinia and nowadays it is restricted to the slope of the Colle San Michele in Cagliari. The composition of the aromatic extracts obtained by supercritical CO2 and by hydrodistillation and their antifungal activity is reported. The collected extracts were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS methods. No significant differences were observed in the composition of the volatile extracts depending on the extraction method. The results showed the presence of thymol, gamma-terpinene, beta-caryophyllene, p-cymene, carvacrol and borneol as main components. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the oils against Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. guillermondii, C. parapsilosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale, Trichophyton rubrum, T. verrucosum, Microsporum canis, M. gypseum, Epidermophyton floccosum, Aspergillus niger, A. fumigatus and A. flavus. The volatile extracts revealed a wide-spectrum antifungal activity. They were fungicidal and similarly potent against yeasts, dermatophyte and Aspergillus stains, with MICs ranging from 0.16 to 0.32 pL x mL(-1). PMID:22164799
Piras, Alessandra; Cocco, Viviana; Falconieri, Danilo; Porcedda, Silvia; Marongiu, Bruno; Maxia, Andrea; Frau, Maria Assunta; Gonçalves, Maria J; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Salgueiro, Ligia
In the present study, a novel broad-range real-time PCR was developed for the rapid detection of human pathogenic fungi. The assay targets a part of the 28S large-subunit ribosomal RNA (rDNA) gene. We investigated its application for the most important human pathogenic fungal genera, including Aspergillus, Candida, Cryptococcus, Mucor, Penicillium, Pichia, Microsporum, Trichophyton, and Scopulariopsis. Species were identified in PCR-positive reactions by direct DNA sequencing. A noncompetitive internal control was applied to prevent false-negative results due to PCR inhibition. The minimum detection limit for the PCR was determined to be one 28S rDNA copy per PCR, and the 95% detection limit was calculated to 15 copies per PCR. To assess the clinical applicability of the PCR method, intensive-care patients with artificial respiration and patients with infective endocarditis were investigated. For this purpose, 76 tracheal secretion samples and 70 heart valve tissues were analyzed in parallel by real-time PCR and cultivation. No discrepancies in results were observed between PCR analysis and cultivation methods. Furthermore, the application of the PCR method was investigated for other clinical specimens, including cervical swabs, nail and horny skin scrapings, and serum, blood, and urine samples. The combination of a broad-range real-time PCR and direct sequencing facilitates rapid screening for fungal infection in various clinical specimens.
Vollmer, Tanja; Stormer, Melanie; Kleesiek, Knut; Dreier, Jens
In recent years, there has been an epidemiological renaissance of zoophilic dermatophytoses caused by a variety of factors. At present, the most important causative organisms are Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. granulosum and, as in the present case, Trichophyton verrucosum. These are formerly notifiable pathogens which are highly virulent and contagious. The example of an extensive, originally unrecognized tinea corporis et faciei in mother and child presented here shows the current importance of Trichophyton verrucosum, but also the diagnostic difficulties in dealing with a formerly rare infection disease. The inflammatory symptoms of deep trichophytosis with imminent danger of scar formation was the basis of synergistic combination therapy in the two patients. The source of infection for zoophilic dermatomycosis at the beginning of the epidemiological increase were looked for almost exclusively in Mediterranean countries. However, there are now increased indications of indigenous pools. In view of the neglect of consistent immunization of livestock and the lack of a requirement to notify the disease, a further rise in the number of cases in humans is to be expected. PMID:9715387
Czaika, V; Tietz, H J; Schulze, P; Sterry, W
The phenolic compound phloridzin (phloretin 2?-O-glucoside, variously named phlorizin, phlorrhizin, phlorhizin or phlorizoside) is a prominent member of the chemical class of dihydrochalcones, which are phenylpropanoids. Phloridzin is specifically found in apple and apple juice and known for its biological properties. In particular we were attracted by potential dermo-cosmetic applications. Here we report the synthesis, stability studies and antimicrobial activity of compound F2, a new semi-synthetic derivative of phloridzin. The new derivative was also included in finished formulations to evaluate its stability with a view to a potential topical use. Stability studies were performed by HPLC; PCL assay and ORAC tests were used to determine the antioxidant activity. F2 presented an antioxidant activity very close to that of the parent phloridzin, but, unlike the latter, was more stable in formulations. To further explore potential health claims, antifungal activity of phloridzin and its derivative F2 were determined; the results, however, were rather low; the highest value was 31,6% of inhibition reached by F2 on Microsporum canis at the highest dose. PMID:23135632
Baldisserotto, Anna; Malisardi, Gemma; Scalambra, Emanuela; Andreotti, Elisa; Romagnoli, Carlo; Vicentini, Chiara Beatrice; Manfredini, Stefano; Vertuani, Silvia
Isolation of volatile concentrates from leaves, flowers and fruits of Vitex agnus-castus L. have been obtained by supercritical extraction with carbon dioxide. The composition of the volatile concentrates has been analysed by GC/MS. In all plant organs, the extracts are composed chiefly of alpha-pinene, sabinene, 1,8-cineole, alpha-terpinyl acetate, (E)-caryophyllene, (E)-beta-farnesene, bicyclogermacrene, spathulenol and manool. The main difference observed was in the content of sclarene, which was not present in the samples from flowers or fruits. To complete the investigation, a comparison with the hydrodistilled oil has been carried out. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal lethal concentration were used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the oils against dermatophyte strains (Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis, T. rubrum, M. gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum). Antifungal activity of the leaf essential oil was the highest, with MIC values of 0.64 microL mL(-1) for most of the strains. PMID:20397107
Marongiu, Bruno; Piras, Alessandra; Porcedda, Silvia; Falconieri, Danilo; Goncalves, Maria J; Salgueiro, Ligia; Maxia, Andrea; Lai, Roberta
A survey of tinea capitis conducted under the auspices of the European Confederation of Medical Mycology showed that laboratories contributing to a voluntary scheme for reporting have recently been seeing a different pattern of scalp ringworm. The survey was conducted among 92 medical mycology laboratories across 19 European countries by postal questionnaire comparing the years 1987 with 1997. The survey shows an overall increase in the numbers of cases caused by anthropophilic infections, which, in 1997, were the dominant causes of scalp infection; the greatest increase was seen in laboratories covering urban populations and in African Caribbean children living in Europe. While the commonest infection remains Microsporum canis, the largest overall increase has been in Trichophyton tonsurans, which in 1997 was the second commonest cause of infection overall and the commonest in urban populations. The pattern of change is not uniform in Europe and while some cities have reported large increases in T. tonsurans others, e.g. in France, have seen more cases of infection due to T. soudanense and M. audouinii. While these figures do not necessarily reflect changes in the underlying prevalence of infection, the trends are important to recognize as the control measures for anthropophilic tinea capitis differ from those used in zoophilic infections. In particular there is a need for an increased level of surveillance and more advice on control given to primary care physicians, dermatologists and school health authorities. PMID:11683286
Hay, R J; Robles, W; Midgley, G; Moore, M K
Dermatophytoses are considered to be one of the major public health problems in the world and are among the most commonly diagnosed skin diseases in Iran. In spite of improved personal hygiene and living environment, dermatophytosis continues to spread and persist. To determine the prevalence of dermatophytosis and their etiologic agents in Mashhad (Iran), five hundred and sixty patients suspected to have fungal infection were studied. Subjects who participated in this study were 330 males and 230 females ranged in age from 4 months to 70 years with a mean age of about 25.5 years. Clinical materials including skin scraping, hair and scalp sample, nail clipping and subungual debris were collected. All of the specimens were assessed by direct examination and culture. Of 560 patients, 166 (29.6 %) had dermatophytosis. The types of tinea according to anatomical areas were as follows: tinea corporis (33.1 %), tinea capitis (32.5 %), tinea manuum (17.5 %), tinea cruris (10.2 %), tinea pedis (5.4 %), tinea unguium (0.6 %) and tinea barbae (0.6 %). Trichophyton verrucosum was the most prevalent species followed by Trichophyton violaceum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The prevalence of dermatophytosis in males was higher than in females. Based on a review of published studies from different parts of Iran, there are regional differences in the incidence of dermatophytosis. Epidermophyton floccosum has been the most prevalent species, and Microsporum canis has been isolated less than from the other countries. PMID:23943426
Naseri, Ali; Fata, Abdolmajid; Najafzadeh, Mohammad Javad; Shokri, Hojjatollah
The phytoalexin resveratrol is commonly found in food and drinks, including red wine, grapes, and peanuts. Many studies have shown that this compound has anti-inflammatory properties, and it has been ascribed as having health benefits that help to prevent cancer and coronary heart disease. A treatment that combines antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory actions may be desirable for alleviating many skin conditions that range in severity. Therefore, we evaluated the antimicrobial activity of resveratrol against bacteria and dermatophytes that are major etiologic agents of human skin infections. Using the broth microdilution protocol of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) M7-A5, growth of the bacterial species Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was inhibited at 171-342 microg/mL of resveratrol in the solvent dimethyl sulfoxide. Using the NCCLS protocol M38-P, activity against the fungal species Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton rubrum, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Microsporum gypseum was also tested. The growth of dermatophytes was inhibited at 25-50 microg/mL of resveratrol. Thus, this study indicates a novel application for resveratrol, a molecule of plant defense, to combat human fungal pathogens. Resveratrol and its analogs may have wide application to skin conditions that afflict a significant portion of our population, and may also have promising clinical potentials in diabetic wounds. PMID:11841782
Chan, Marion Man-Ying
A new series of three biologically active triazole derived Schiff base ligands L1-L3 have been synthesized in equimolar reaction of 3-amino-1H-1,2,4-triazole with pyrrol-2-carboxaldehyde, 4-bromo-thiophene-2-carboxaldehyde, and 5-iodo-2-hydroxy benzaldehyde. The prepared Schiff bases were used for further complex formation reaction with different metal elements like Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) as chlorides by using a molar ratio of ligand:metal as 2:1. The structure and bonding nature of all the compounds were identified by their physical, spectral and analytical data. All the metal(II) complexes possessed an octahedral geometry except the Cu(II) complexes which showed a distorted octahedral geometry. All the synthesized compounds, were studied for their in vitro antibacterial, and antifungal activities, against four Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi) and two Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) bacterial strains and against six fungal strains (Trichophyton longifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani and Candida glabrata) by using agar-well diffusion method. It has been shown that all the synthesized compounds showed moderate to significant antibacterial activity against one or more bacterial strains. In vitro Brine Shrimp bioassay was also carried out to investigate the cytotoxic properties of these compounds. The data also revealed that the metal complexes showed better activity than the ligands due to chelation/coordination.
Hanif, Muhammad; Chohan, Zahid H.
A series of new triazoles and their oxovanadium(IV) complexes have been synthesized, characterized and evaluated for antibacterial/antifungal properties. The new Schiff bases ligands (L1)-(L5) were prepared by the condensation reaction of 3,5-diamino-1,2,4-triazole with 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde, pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde, pyridine-2-carboxaldehyde, 2-acetyl pyridine and 2-methoxy benzaldehyde. The structures of the ligands have been established on the basis of their physical, spectral (IR, 1H and 13C NMR and mass spectrometry) and elemental analytical data. The prepared ligands were used to synthesize their oxovanadium(IV) complexes (1)-(5) which were also characterized by their physical, spectral and analytical data and proposed to have a square pyramidal geometry. The ligands and their complexes were screened for in vitro antibacterial activity against six bacterial species such as, Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis and for in vitro antifungal activity against six fungal strains, Trichophyton longifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani, and Candida glabrata. Cytotoxic nature of the compounds was also reported using brine shrimp bioassay method against Artemia salina.
Sumrra, Sajjad H.; Chohan, Zahid H.
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of aqueous, ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts from neem leaves on growth of some human pathogens (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus, Candida albicans and Microsporum gypseum) in vitro. Different concentrations (5, 10, 15 and 20%) prepared from these extracts inhibited the growth of the test pathogens and the effect gradually increased with concentration. The 20% ethyl acetate extract gave the strongest inhibition compared with the activity obtained by the same concentration of the other extracts. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis of ethyl acetate extract showed the presence of a main component (nimonol) which was purified and chemically confirmed by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopic analysis. The 20% ethyl acetate extract lost a part of its antifungal effect after pooling out the nimonol and this loss in activity was variable on test pathogens. The purified nimonol as a separate compound did not show any antifungal activity when assayed against all the six fungal pathogens.
Mahmoud, D.A.; Hassanein, N.M.; Youssef, K.A.; Abou Zeid, M.A.
In an attempt to prepare topical formulations of griseofulvin that can deliver the drug locally in effective concentration, various hydrogel formulations were prepared using carbomer (940 NF) as base; essential oils, propylene glycol (PG), N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) as penetration enhancers. The in vitro skin permeation studies through Laca mouse skin were performed using vertical type cells. PG in the hydrogel formulation was found to influence drug release rate by increasing its solubility and partitioning. Further combinations of PG with varying amounts of NMP in the hydrogel formulations exhibited a significantly greater increase in the flux on comparison with the control and formulation containing PG alone. The diffusion samples obtained by in vitro permeation studies through mouse skin when subjected to microbioassay using Microsporum gypseum as tester microorganism exhibited antifungal activity. This indicates that the drug permeated through the mouse skin possess sufficient antifungal activity in vitro against the tested microorganism. The prepared hydrogels did not show any skin sensitization and histological studies were carried out to check the safety of permeation enhancers used. Further these formulations were found to be stable at three different temperatures 4, 25 and 40 degrees C with respect to percent drug content, release characteristics, pH, transparency, feel and viscosity. PMID:16920284
Shishu; Aggarwal, N
Methanolic, hexanoïc, chloroformic and ethyl acetate extracts of Ficus carica latex were investigated for their in vitro antimicrobial proprieties against five bacteria species and seven strains of fungi. The green fruit latex was collected from Chott Mariam Souse, Middle East coast of Tunisia. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts was evaluated and based respectively on the inhibition zone using the disc-diffusion assay, minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) for bacterial testing and the method by calculating inhibition percentage (I%) for fungi-inhibiting activities. The methanolic extract had no effect against bacteria except for Proteus mirabilis while the ethyl acetate extract had inhibition effect on the multiplication of five bacteria species (Enterococcus fecalis, Citobacter freundei, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Echerchia coli and Proteus mirabilis). For the opportunist pathogenic yeasts, ethyl acetate and chlorophormic fractions showed a very strong inhibition (100%); methanolic fraction had a total inhibition against Candida albicans (100%) at a concentration of 500 microg/ml and a negative effect against Cryptococcus neoformans. Microsporum canis was strongly inhibited with methanolic extract (75%) and totally with ethyl acetate extract at a concentration of 750 microg/ml. Hexanoïc extract showed medium results. PMID:20067867
Aref, Houda Lazreg; Salah, Karima Bel Hadj; Chaumont, Jean Pierre; Fekih, Abdelwaheb; Aouni, Mahjoub; Said, Khaled
Compounds having alpha-[dihydro-5-substituted 6-thioxo-2H- 1,3,5-thiadiazine-3(4H)-yl]benzylpenicillin structure were synthesized by the reaction of ampicillin trihydrate, formaldehyde and dithiocarbamic acid salts. The structures were evident from chemical and spectral analysis. The antimicrobial activities of the compounds were investigated against some gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus faecalis) and gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria and some yeast-like fungi (Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. stellatoidea and C. pseudotropicalis) and molds such as Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis, M. gypseum, Penicillium and Aspergillus by the tube dilution method. In addition to MIC (minimal inhibitory concentration), MBC (minimal bactericidal concentration) and MFC (minimal fungicidal concentration) values were determined using ampicillin trihydrate as standard. The compounds synthesized were usually found as effective as ampicillin trihydrate against S. aureus and S. faecalis and less effective than ampicillin trihydrate against E. coli. Both the compounds synthesized and ampicillin trihydrate are ineffective in the concentrations studied against P. aeruginosa. Compound 10 and 11 are more effective against all the yeast-like fungi than the other compounds and ampicillin trihydrate. PMID:2288482
Ertan, M; Tayhan, A B; Yulug, N
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of aqueous, ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts from neem leaves on growth of some human pathogens (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus, Candida albicans and Microsporum gypseum) in vitro. Different concentrations (5, 10, 15 and 20%) prepared from these extracts inhibited the growth of the test pathogens and the effect gradually increased with concentration. The 20% ethyl acetate extract gave the strongest inhibition compared with the activity obtained by the same concentration of the other extracts. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis of ethyl acetate extract showed the presence of a main component (nimonol) which was purified and chemically confirmed by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopic analysis. The 20% ethyl acetate extract lost a part of its antifungal effect after pooling out the nimonol and this loss in activity was variable on test pathogens. The purified nimonol as a separate compound did not show any antifungal activity when assayed against all the six fungal pathogens. PMID:24031718
Mahmoud, D A; Hassanein, N M; Youssef, K A; Abou Zeid, M A
The hexane, acetone, dichloromethane and methanol extracts of Combretum vendae A.E. van Wyk (Combretaceae), Commiphora harveyi (Engl.) Engl. (Burseraceae), Khaya anthotheca (Welm.) C.DC (Meliaceae), Kirkia wilmsii Engl. (Kirkiaceae), Loxostylis alata A. Spreng. ex Rchb. (Anacardiaceae), Ochna natalitia (Meisn.) Walp. (Ochnaceae) and Protorhus longifolia (Bernh. Ex C. Krauss) Engl. (Anacardiaceae) were screened for their antimicrobial activity. The test organisms included bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus), and fungi (Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Microsporum canis and Sporothrix schenckii). A simple bioautographic procedure, involving spraying suspensions of the bacteria or fungi on thin layer chromatography (TLC) plates developed in solvents of varying polarities was used to detect the number of antibacterial and antifungal compounds present in the extracts. All the extracts had antimicrobial activity against at least one of the test microorganisms. This activity was denoted by white spots against a red-purple background on the TLC plates after spraying with tetrazolium violet. Twenty seven TLC plates; 9 for each solvent system and 3 different solvent systems per organism were tested in the bioautographic procedure. Of the bacteria tested, S. aureus was inhibited by the most compounds separated on the TLC plates from all the tested plants. Similarly, growth of the fungus C. neoformans was also inhibited by many compounds present in the extracts. Loxostylis alata appeared to be the plant extract with the highest number of inhibition bands when compared with other plants tested against both bacteria and fungi. This species was selected for in depth further study. PMID:21304615
Suleimana, M M; McGaw, L J; Naidoo, V; Eloff, J N
The newly described brittle tail syndrome causes weakening and breakage of the tail hair of horses. Extensive mycological and molecular studies showed that a novel fungus Equicapillimyces hongkongensis gen. nov., sp. nov. is the most likely cause of this syndrome. It is a septate branching hyaline mould which grows optimally at 30°C, requires nicotinic acid but is inhibited by cycloheximide, and specifically infects horse hair. Hyphae fill the core of infected hair shafts with short-necked structures resembling ascomata containing banana-shaped septate ascospore-like structures perforating the hair cortex from within. Compared to asymptomatic horses (n=31), horses with clinical signs of the syndrome (n=22) are significantly more likely to have positive E. hongkongensis gen. nov., sp. nov. smear (6.5% vs. 100%), culture (6.5% vs. 72.7%), and PCR (32.3% vs. 100%, P<0.001 for all). No other potential pathogens were found on bacteriological and mycological culture or PCR (for Trichophyton, Microsporum and Epidermophyton). Genotyping of pure E. hongkongensis gen. nov., sp. nov. isolates and their corresponding direct specimens by PCR and sequencing of the 18S rRNA, ITS1-5.8S-ITS2, 28S rRNA, beta-actin, beta-tubulin, and elongation factor 1 alpha showed that they are all identical but unique, and related distantly to fungi mostly in the class Sordariomycetes and the family Ophiostomataceae. Its geographical distribution, environmental or animal reservoirs are still unknown. Besides the ugly appearance of infected horse tails, this fungus may emerge as another equine pathogen if it affects the skin and hoof of horses. PMID:22014601
Wong, Samson S Y; Ngan, Antonio H Y; Riggs, Christopher M; Teng, Jade L L; Choi, Garnet K Y; Poon, Rosana W S; Hui, Janet J Y; Low, Frank J; Luk, Alez; Yuen, Kwok-Yung
An epidemiological investigation on dermatophytoses in Japan for the year 1997 was carried out with the following results. The number of dermatomycoses patients visiting the fourteen cooperating institutes that year was 8,284. New outpatients with this condition accounted for 13.3% of all new outpatients in these institutes. Dermatophytoses patients numbered 7,314 and were composed of: tinea pedis 4,901 (63.8%), tinea unguium 1,592 (20.7%), tinea corporis 557 (7.2%), tinea cruris 395 (5.1%), tinea manuum 215 (2.8%), tinea capitis 12, kerion celsi 3, tinea barbae 1 and granuloma trichophyticum 1. Of these, 117 were children under 15 years of age. Species and incidences of the 2,273 strains isolated from the patients with dermatophytoses were as follows: Trichophyton (T.) rubrum 1,628 (71.6%), T. mentagrophytes 617 (27.2%), Epidermophyton floccosum 9 (0.4%), Microsporum (M.) canis 2, M. gypseum 2, T. glabrum 1, and 15 undetermined strains. Candidiasis was found in 714 individuals: intertrigo 302, erosio interdigitalis 108, erythema infantum 85, oral candidiasis 51, paronychia et onychia 51, genital candidiasis 50, onychomycosis 15 and other atypical forms of candidiasis 39. Patients with tinea versicolor numbered 242 and those with malassezia folliculitis 15. There were nine cases of deep dermal mycoses. The results of superficial dermatophytoses for the year 1997 differed from those of 1991-92 in the following points: tinea corporis and tinea cruris were lower in number, while tinea unguium had increased in ratio and number continuously. M. canis infection tended to decrease. In the age distribution of tinea, in every clinical form the peak of distribution curve gradually shifted to a more elderly age group. PMID:11173330
An epidemiological investigation on dermatophytoses in Japan for the year 1996 was carried out with the following results. The number of dermatomycoses patients visiting the fifteen cooperating institutes that year was 8,402. New outpatients with this condition accounted for 13.1% of all new outpatients in these institutes. Dermatophytoses patients numbered 7,395 and were composed of: tinea pedis 4,764 (64.4%), tinea unguium 1,487 (20.1%), tinea corporis 558 (7.5%), tinea cruris 369 (5.0%), tinea manuum 195 (2.6%), tinea capitis 11, kerion Celsi 7, tinea barbae 1 and other forms 3. Of these, 113 were children under 15 years of age. Species and incidences of the 2,615 strains isolated from the patients with dermatophytoses were as follows: Trichophyton (T.) rubrum 1,828 (69. 9%), T. mentagrophytes 743 (28.4%) Epidermophyton floccosum 20 (0. 8%), Microsporum (M.) canis 13 (0.5%), M. gypseum 5, T. violaceum 2, and 4 undetermined strains. Candidiasis was found in 722 individuals: intertrigo 299, erosio interdigitalis 95, erythema infantum 89, oral candidiasis 63, paronychia et onychia 56, genital candidiasis 56, onychomycosis 24, chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis 1 and other atypical forms of candidiasis 39. Patients with tinea versicolor numbered 265 and those with Malassezia folliculitis 15. There were five cases of deep dermal mycoses: three of sporotrichosis, one of chromomycosis and one of aspergillosis. The results of superficial dermatophytoses for the year 1996 differed from those of 1991-92 in the following points: Tinea corporis and tinea cruris were lower in number, while tinea unguium had increased in ratio and number. M. canis infection tended to decrease gradually. In the age-distribution of tinea, in every clinical form the peak of distribution curve shifted to a more elderly age group. PMID:10938521
Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) has been implicated in airway injury in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung inflammation, and lung cancer and plays a major role in tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?)-stimulated tumor invasion and lung inflammation. MMP-9 activity is promoted by the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-?. GMI, cloned from Ganoderma microsporum and purified, is one of the recombinant fungal immunomodulatory proteins. To understand the molecular mechanisms involved in the suppression of TNF-?-mediated tumor invasion and inflammation, GMI modulation of this pathway was investigated in human alveolar epithelial A549 cells in this study. GMI exhibited an inhibitory effect on TNF-?-induced invasion, with GMI treatment and TNF-? exposure presenting the most anti-invasive properties on Boyden chamber assay. GMI reduced TNF-?-induced MMP-9 activities on gelatin zymography assay through inhibition of MMP-9 transcriptional activity. RT-PCR and MMP-9 promoter luciferase analysis revealed that GMI inhibits the transcription of MMP-9 mRNA. Moreover, in vitro and in vivo binding experiments, an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay (ChIP) demonstrated that GMI suppresses DNA binding of nuclear factor (NF)-?B transcription factors to MMP-9 promoter. Western blot analysis indicated that GMI blocks the phosphorylation and degradation of I?B?, which in turn leads to suppression of the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of p65. Thus, overall, our results indicated that GMI mediates antitumor invasion and anti-inflammatory effects through modulation of NF-?B/MMP-9 pathways. PMID:21028821
Lin, Ching-Hsiung; Hsiao, Yi-Min; Ou, Chu-Chyn; Lin, Yu-Wen; Chiu, Yi-Lin; Lue, Ko-Huang; Chang, Jan-Gowth; Ko, Jiunn-Liang
In this study, flowering aerial parts of wild Achillea millefolium growing on the Mediterranean coast (Sardinia Island, Italy) and on the Atlantic coast (Portugal- Serra de Montemuro) were used as a matrix for supercritical extraction of volatile oil with CO2 (SFE). The collected extracts were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS methods and their composition were compared with that of the essential oil isolated by hydrodistillation. A strong chemical variability in essential oils depending on the origin of the samples was observed. The results showed the presence of two type oils. The Italian volatile extracts (SFE and essential oil) are predominantly composed by alpha-asarone (25.6-33.3%, in the SFE extract and in the HD oil, respectively), beta-bisabolene (27.3-16.6%) and alpha-pinene (10.0-17.0%); whereas the main components of the Portuguese extracts are trans-thujone (31.4-29.0%), trans-crhysanthenyl acetate (19.8-15.8%) and beta-pinene (1.2-11.1%). The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the oils against Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. guillermondii, C. parapsilosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale, T. verrucosum, Microsporum canis, M. gypseum, Epidermophyton floccosum, Aspergillus niger, A. fumigatus and A. flavus. The oils showed the highest activity against dermatophyte strains, with MIC values ranging from 0.32-1.25 microL mL(-1). PMID:22164800
Falconieri, Danilo; Piras, Alessandra; Porcedda, Silvia; Marongiu, Bruno; Gonçalves, Maria J; Cabral, Célia; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Salgueiro, Ligia
Thirty-four endophytic marine Actinomycetes isolates were recovered from the Egyptian marine sponge Latrunculia corticata, out of them 5 isolates (14.7 %) showed red single colonies on yeast-CzAPEK plates. Isolates under the isolation code NRC50 and NRC51 were observed with the strongest red biomass. After application of protoplast fusion between NRC50 and NRC51 isolates, 26 fusants were selected and produced widely different amounts of prodigiosin-like pigments (PLPs) on different fermentation media. Among them fusant NRCF69 produced 79 and 160.4 % PLPs more than parental strains NRC50 and NRC51, respectively. According to the analysis of 16S rDNA sequence (amplified, sequenced, and submitted to GenBank under Accession no. JN232405 and JN232406, respectively), together with their morphological and biochemical characteristics, parental strains NRC50 (P1) and NRC51 (P2) were identified as Streptomyces sp. and designated as Streptomyces sp. NRC50 and Streptomyces sp. NRC51. This study describes a low cost, effective production media by using peanut seed broth, sunflower oil broth or dairy processing wastewater broth alone, or supplemented with 0.5 % mannitol that supports the production of PLPs by the Streptomyces fusant NRCF69 under study (42.03, 40.11, 36.7 and 47 g L(-1), respectively). PLPs compounds exhibited significant cytotoxic activities against three human cancer cell lines: colon cancer cell line (HCT-116), liver cancer cell line (HEPG-2) and breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) and antimycotic activity against clinical dermatophyte isolates of Trichophyton, Microsporum and Epidermophyton. PMID:22777253
El-Bondkly, Ahmed M A; El-Gendy, Mervat M A; Bassyouni, Rasha H
Tinea pedis is a chronic fungal infection of the feet, very often observed in patients who are immuno-suppressed or have diabetes mellitus. The practicing allergist may be called upon to treat this disease for various reasons. Sometimes tinea infection may be mistaken for atopic dermatitis or allergic eczema. In other patients, tinea pedis may complicate allergy and asthma and may contribute to refractory atopic disease. Patients with recurrent cellulitis may be referred to the allergist/immunologist for an immune evaluation and discovered to have tinea pedis as a predisposing factor. From a molecular standpoint, superficial fungal infections may induce a type2 T helper cell response (Th2) that can aggravate atopy. Th2 cytokines may induce eosinophil recruitment and immunoglobulin E (IgE) class switching by B cells, thereby leading to exacerbation of atopic conditions. Three groups of fungal pathogens, referred to as dermatophytes, have been shown to cause tinea pedis: Trychophyton sp, Epidermophyton sp, and Microsporum sp. The disease manifests as a pruritic, erythematous, scaly eruption on the foot and depending on its location, three variants have been described: interdigital type, moccasin type, and vesiculobullous type. Tinea pedis may be associated with recurrent cellulitis, as the fungal pathogens provide a portal for bacterial invasion of subcutaneous tissues. In some cases of refractory asthma, treatment of the associated tinea pedis infection may induce remission in airway disease. Very often, protracted topical and/or oral antifungal agents are required to treat this often frustrating and morbid disease. An evaluation for underlying immuno-suppression or diabetes may be indicated in patients with refractory disease.
Al Hasan, Muhannad; Fitzgerald, S Matthew; Saoudian, Mahnaz; Krishnaswamy, Guha
An epidemiological survey of dermatomycoses and the causative fungus flora of dermatomycoses in Japan for 2006 was made on a total number of 63,029 outpatients who visited 16 dermatological clinics throughout Japan. The results were as follows. 1) Dermatophytosis was the most prevalent cutaneus fungal infection (7,582 cases) seen in these clinics, followed by candidiasis (842 cases) and then Malassezia infections (283 cases). 2) Among dermatophytoses, tinea pedis was the most frequent (4,779 cases : male 2,358, female 2,241), then in decreasing order, tinea unguium (2,582 cases : male 1,376, female 1,206), tinea corporis (564 cases : male 341, female 223), tinea cruris (309 cases : male 254, female 57), tinea manuum (145 cases : male 92, female 53), and tinea capitis including kerion (17 cases : male 12, female 5). 3) Tinea pedis and tinea unguium are seen to increase in the summer season, among the aged population. When compared to the last survey 2002 by clinical form, t. unguium patients increased 459 cases. 4) As the causative dermatophyte species, Trichophyton rubrum was the most frequently isolated among all dermatophyte infections except tinea capitis. Microsporum canis was slightly increased. M.gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum are small number. T.tonsurans was increased up to 37 cases. 5) Cutaneous candidiasis was seen in 842 cases (305 male, 537 female). Intertrigo (298 cases) was the most frequent clinical form, followed by erosion interdigitalis (136 cases), oral candidiasis (135 cases), onychia et paronychia (108 cases), genital and diaper candidiasis in total (88 cases). 6) Tinea versicolor was seen in 175 cases. Malassezia folliculitis were collected 108 cases, 63 cases are reported from one clinic. PMID:23149353
Terbinafine is an allylamine antifungal prescribed for the treatment of mycoses in humans. It is increasingly being used in veterinary patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic properties of terbinafine in dogs after a single oral dose. Ten healthy adult dogs were included in the study. A single dose of terbinafine (30-35 mg/kg) was administered orally, and blood samples were periodically collected over a 24 h period during which dogs were monitored for adverse effects. Two of 10 dogs developed transient ocular changes. A high-performance liquid chromatography assay was developed and used to determine plasma terbinafine concentrations. Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using PK Solutions(®) computer software. Area under the curve (AUC) from time 0 to 24 h was 15.4 ?g·h/mL (range 5-27), maximal plasma concentration (C(max) ) was 3.5 ?g/mL (range 3-4.9 ?g/mL) and time to C(max) (T(max) ) was 3.6 h (range 2-6 h). The time above minimal inhibitory concentration (T > MIC) as well as AUC/MIC was calculated for important invasive fungal pathogens and dermatophytes. The T > MIC was 17-18 h for Blastomyces dermatitidis, Histoplasma capsulatum and dermatophytes (Microsporum spp. and Trichophyton mentagrophytes), while the MIC for Sporothrix schenckii and Coccidioides immitis was exceeded for 9.5-11 h. The AUC/MIC values ranged from 9 to 13 ?g h/mL for these fungi. Our results provide evidence supporting the use of terbinafine as an oral therapeutic agent for treating systemic and subcutaneous mycoses in dogs. PMID:21599768
Sakai, Mary R; May, Elizabeth R; Imerman, Paula M; Felz, Charles; Day, Timothy A; Carlson, Steve A; Noxon, James O
We report the synthesis and structural characterization of series of tetra- and hexacoordinate metal chelate complexes of phosphate Schiff base ligands having the general composition LMX n·H 2O and L 2MX n (L=phosphate Schiff base ligand; M=Ag +, Mn 2+, Cu 2+, Zn 2+, Cd 2+, Hg 2+, or Fe 3+ and X=NO 3-, Br - or Cl -). The structure of the prepared compounds was investigated using elemental analysis, IR, 1H and 31P NMR, UV-vis, mass spectra, solid reflectance, magnetic susceptibility and conductance measurements as well as conductometric titration. In all the complexes studied, the ligands act as a chelate ligand with coordination involving the phosphate?O-atom and the azomethine?N-atom. IR, solid reflectance spectra and magnetic moment measurement are used to infer the structure and to illustrate the coordination capacity of ligand. IR spectra show the presence of coordinated nitrate and water molecule, the magnetic moments of all complexes show normal magnetic behavior and the electronic spectra of the metal complexes indicate a tetra- and octahedral structure for Mn 2+, octahedral structure of Fe 3+ and both square-planar and distorted octahedral structure for Cu 2+ complexes. Antimicrobial activity of the ligands and their complexes were tested using the disc diffusion method and the chosen strains include Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aereuguinosa, Klebsiella penumoniae, Escherichia coli, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophyte and Trichophyton rubrum. Some known antibiotics are included for the sake of comparison and the chosen antibiotic are Amikacin, Doxycllin, Augmantin, Sulperazon, Unasyn, Septrin, Cefobid, Ampicillin, Nitrofurantion, Traivid and Erythromycin.
El-Wahab, Z. H. Abd; El-Sarrag, M. R.
NB-002 is an oil-in-water emulsion designed for use for the treatment of skin, hair, and nail infections. The activity of NB-002 was compared to the activities of the available antifungal drugs against the major dermatophytes responsible for cutaneous infections, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Microsporum spp., as well as 12 other genera of filamentous fungi. NB-002 consistently displayed fungicidal activity against all dermatophytes. The comparator compounds were either fungistatic or fungicidal, and for some strain-drug combinations, tolerance was observed. Assessment of the development of spontaneous resistance to NB-002 in different dermatophyte species yielded few stably resistant mutants. For filamentous nondermatophyte fungi, the MIC range varied from 0.06 to 0.5 ?g/ml for Alternaria spp. to 2 to 8 ?g/ml for Paecilomyes spp. NB-002 had activity against both azole-susceptible and -resistant Candida albicans yeast isolates, with MIC90s of 2 ?g/ml, respectively, and minimum fungicidal concentrations at which 90% of isolates are inhibited of 4 and 8 ?g/ml, respectively. The kinetics of the fungicidal activity of NB-002 against T. rubrum isolates were compared to those of the other antifungal drugs. NB-002 killed both mycelia and microconidia even when the fungal forms were dormant or not actively growing. Electron micrographs of mycelia and spores treated with NB-002 showed the significant disruption of the fungal structure. The in vitro broad coverage of NB-002 against filamentous fungi, dermatophytes, and C. albicans, as well as its rapid fungicidal activity, warrants further investigations to ascertain if NB-002 would be useful for the treatment of cutaneous mycoses.
Pannu, J.; McCarthy, A.; Martin, A.; Hamouda, T.; Ciotti, S.; Fothergill, A.; Sutcliffe, J.
The etiologic agents of the dermatophytoses (ringworm) are classified in three anamorphic (asexual or imperfect) genera, Epidermophyton, Microsporum, and Trichophyton. Species capable of reproducing sexually belong in the teleomorphic genus, Arthroderma, of the Ascomycota. On the basis of primary habitat association, they may be grouped as geophilic (soil associated), zoophilic, and anthropophilic. Adaptation to growth on humans by most geophilic species resulted in diminished loss of sporulation, sexuality, and other soil-associated characteristics. The dermatophytes have the ability to invade keratinized tissue (skin, hair, and nails) but are usually restricted to the nonliving cornified layer of the epidermis because of their inability to penetrate viable tissue of an immunocompetent host. However, invasion does elicit a host response ranging from mild to severe. Acid proteinases, elastase, keratinases, and other proteinases reportedly act as virulence factors. The development of cell-mediated immunity correlated with delayed hypersensitivity and an inflammatory response is associated with clinical cure, whereas the lack of or a defective cell-mediated immunity predisposes the host to chronic or recurrent dermatophyte infection. Chronic dermatophytosis is mostly caused by Trichophyton rubrum, and there is some evidence that mannan produced by this fungus suppresses or diminishes the inflammatory response. Since dermatophytes cause a communicable disease, modes of transmission and control are discussed as well as a survey of recent trends in therapy. Collection of specimens, culture media, and tests for identification are also presented. Genetic studies have led to an understanding of incompatibility mechanisms, pleomorphism and variation, resistance to griseofulvin, and virulence. Molecular biology has contributed to our knowledge of the taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of dermatophytes. PMID:7621400
Weitzman, I; Summerbell, R C
Onychomycosis is a common fungal nail infection in adults that is difficult to treat. The in vitro antifungal activity of efinaconazole, a novel triazole antifungal, was evaluated in recent clinical isolates of Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Candida albicans, common causative onychomycosis pathogens. In a comprehensive survey of 1,493 isolates, efinaconazole MICs against T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes ranged from ?0.002 to 0.06 ?g/ml, with 90% of isolates inhibited (MIC90) at 0.008 and 0.015 ?g/ml, respectively. Efinaconazole MICs against 105 C. albicans isolates ranged from ?0.0005 to >0.25 ?g/ml, with 50% of isolates inhibited (MIC50) by 0.001 and 0.004 ?g/ml at 24 and 48 h, respectively. Efinaconazole potency against these organisms was similar to or greater than those of antifungal drugs currently used in onychomycosis, including amorolfine, ciclopirox, itraconazole, and terbinafine. In 13 T. rubrum toenail isolates from onychomycosis patients who were treated daily with topical efinaconazole for 48 weeks, there were no apparent increases in susceptibility, suggesting low potential for dermatophytes to develop resistance to efinaconazole. The activity of efinaconazole was further evaluated in another 8 dermatophyte, 15 nondermatophyte, and 10 yeast species (a total of 109 isolates from research repositories). Efinaconazole was active against Trichophyton, Microsporum, Epidermophyton, Acremonium, Fusarium, Paecilomyces, Pseudallescheria, Scopulariopsis, Aspergillus, Cryptococcus, Trichosporon, and Candida and compared favorably to other antifungal drugs. In conclusion, efinaconazole is a potent antifungal with a broad spectrum of activity that may have clinical applications in onychomycosis and other mycoses.
Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki; Senda, Hisato; Pillai, Radhakrishnan; Nakamura, Takashi; Sone, Daisuke; Fothergill, Annette
Butenafine is a new antifungal agent with primary fungicidal activity against dermatophytes such as Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis and Trichophyton rubrum which cause tinea infections. 14C-labelled butenafine (approximately 30 micrograms/g tissue) was found within guinea-pig dorsal skin 24 hours after topical application. Most of the drug was distributed into the epidermis including the horny layer. Small amounts were found in the dermis, probably transported via sebaceous glands and hair follicles. In vitro, the minimum concentration that completely inhibited growth of dermatophytes (MIC) and the minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC) for butenafine against T. mentagrophytes and M. canis were similar (0.012 to 0.05 mg/L) and were 4 to 130 times lower than those for naftifine, tolnaftate, clotrimazole and bifonazole. It also has greater activity against T. rubrum, M. gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum when compared with naftifine, tolnaftate and clotrimazole; comparisons with bifonazole against these strains were not available. Assessment after 1 week's treatment in patients with tinea pedis revealed that mycological cure rates were greater in those who received twice-daily butenafine for 1 week or once-daily butenafine for 4 weeks than in placebo recipients. Mycological and overall cure rates were either further increased or maintained up to 5 weeks after treatment cessation compared with end-of-treatment values. In patients with tinea cruris or tinea corporis who received once-daily butenafine 1% for 2 weeks, the mycological and overall cure rates continued to increase for up to 4 weeks after treatment cessation. PMID:9530545
McNeely, W; Spencer, C M
BACKGROUND Superficial fungal infections are caused by dermatophytes, yeasts or filamentous fungi. They are correlated to the etiologic agent, the level of integrity of the host immune response, the site of the lesion and also the injured tissue. OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study is to isolate and to identify onychomycosis agents in institutionalized elderly (60 years old +). METHODS The identification of the fungi relied upon the combined results of mycological examination, culture isolation and micro cultures observation under light microscopy from nail and interdigital scales, which were collected from 35 elderly with a clinical suspicion of onychomycosis and a control group (9 elderly with healthy interdigital space and nails). Both groups were institutionalized in two nursing homes in Sao Bernardo do Campo, SP, Brazil. RESULTS The nail scrapings showed 51.40% positivity. Of these, dermatophytes were found in 44.40% isolates, 27.78% identified as Trichophyton rubrum and 5.56% each as Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum gypseum. The second more conspicuous group showed 38.89% yeasts: 16.67% Candida guilliermondii, 11.11% Candida parapsilosis, 5.56% Candida glabrata, and 5.56% Trichosporon asahii. A third group displayed 16.70% filamentous fungi, like Fusarium sp, Aspergillus sp and Neoscytalidium sp (5.56% each). The interdigital scrapings presented a positivity rate of 14.29%. The agents were coincident with the fungi that caused the onychomycosis. In the control group, Candida guilliermondii was found at interdigital space in one person. CONCLUSION Employing a combination of those identification methods, we found no difference between the etiology of the institutionalized elderly onychomycosis from that reported in the literature for the general population.
Vasconcellos, Cidia; Pereira, Carolina Queiroz Moreira; Souza, Marta Cristina; Pelegrini, Andrea; Freitas, Roseli Santos; Takahashi, Juliana Possato
A statistical 30-year study of dermatomycosis in Sendai National Hospital (1968-1997) revealed many changes in the prevalent diseases: Tinea pedis and tinea unguium constantly increased during this period, and the ratio of the former associated with nail infection finally reached 30% of all tinea pedis patients. On the contrary, tinea corporis and cruris showed a remarkable decreasing tendency. Patient age distribution of each disease also showed distinctive changes, generally increasing in the older generation and decreasing in the younger. The number of patients with tinea pedis and unguium gradually increased among the middle and older generations, with the peak of the age-distribution curve shifting upward year after year. On the other hand, cases of tinea cruris among the younger generation were few in the latest years, and middle-age patients remained at a low number. In the first stage of this study the kinds of atiologic dermatophytes consisted of multiple species, but after middle period the isolation of Epidermaphyton floccosum decreased. Microsporum canis appeared first in 1976 but in the recent several years has completely disappeared. In the last few years of the period studied Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes were the only isolates found from among all types of dermatophytoses. Infantile candidiasis remarkably increased in 1970-1975 but thereafter decreased rapidlly. Candidial intertrigo also increased in the same period but did not decrease as much thereafter and continued at the same intermediate level. The number of other types of candidiases were not greatly changed throughout the 30-year period. Malassezia infection also showed no remarkable changes, and only 20 cases of sporothrichosis were found. One case of the deep seated form of cutaneous aspergillosis was found, and this was also true of chromomycosis caused by Fonceaea pedrosoi. PMID:16465134
A total of 233 specimens obtained from suspected cases of dermatomycosis from 189 patients were examined for causative fungi from December 2009 to May 2010 in a tertiary care hospital in the city of Belo Horizonte, state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. Yeast and fungal isolates obtained from specimens were regarded as conclusive diagnosis of mycoses in 82 cases (35.19 %), with the exception of two patients with pityriasis versicolor (2.4 %), in which the diagnosis was made only by direct examination plus clinical diagnostics of individuals. Forty-four subjects (23.28 %) were infected in more than one anatomical site. There was a higher occurrence on female patients (146, 77.2 %) than male (43, 22.8 %). Most of the infected patients were aged between 41 and 70 years (68.29 %). There were no statistically significant differences between occurrence of fungal infection and gender, presence of secondary disease and contact with animals. The largest number of examined material occurred in samples from toenails, which resulted in 50 % of positive cultures. Candida species were the most frequent group causing dermatomycosis in many anatomical sites, mainly in toenails and fingernails. Candida parapsilosis was the most representative (40.24 %) among all agents causing dermatomycosis of toenails and fingernails, followed by Candida tropicalis (20.73 %) and Trichophyton rubrum (10.98 %). Among the dermatophytes, Trichophyton genus represented over 80 % of the isolates, with T. rubrum representing 64.29 %, T. interdigitale (T. mentagrophytes) (21.43 %) and Microsporum gypseum (14.29 %). PMID:22936103
Costa-Orlandi, Caroline Barcelos; Magalhães, Geraldo Magela; Oliveira, Milena Batista; Taylor, Erika Linzi Silva; Marques, Cynthia Roberta Souza; de Resende-Stoianoff, Maria Aparecida
A statistical study on dermatomycoses for the 30 years from 1968 to 1997 in the dermatologic section of Sendai National Hospital was carried out with the following results. The total number of dermatomycosis patients was 14,259 and accounted for 9.59% of all new outpatients during this period. These cases of dermatomycoses were composed of the following: dermatophytoses 10,656, candidiasis 3,287, malassezia infection 566, sporothrichosis 20, aspergillosis 7, and chromomycosis 1. Annual changes in number of dermatophytoses varied in each clinical type: tinea corporis and tinea cruris had increased by the end of the 1970s, and there after decreased gradually until recent years. Tinea pedis and tinea unguium, on the contrary, increased after the 1980s. Age distribution of all clinical forms of dermatophytoses changed gradually, and its peak of the distribution curve shifted to an older site each year, while the number of younger generation patients decreased. Mycologically Trichophyton (T.) rubrum was mainly isolated from all types of dermatophytoses, and T. mentagrophytes followed. The ratio of these two species (R/M) in tinea pedis was 1.25, and the ratio of T. mentagrophytes was relatively high. Epidermophyton floccosum was continuously isolated, but its frequency in recent years has decreased. Microsporum canis infection increased from the middle period of this research, but after 1990 decreased gradually. The other dermatophytes were found sporadically. In recent years the species isolated have become more simplified. Among candidiasis, infantile candidiasis increased dramatically in the 1970s but soon decreased. Intertrigo type also increased in the same period and then decreased to an intermediate level. Paronychia, onychia and erosio interdigitale were constantly found in small numbers, while malassezia infection remained at a constant level and was found more in male patients. PMID:15284829
The etiologic agents of the dermatophytoses (ringworm) are classified in three anamorphic (asexual or imperfect) genera, Epidermophyton, Microsporum, and Trichophyton. Species capable of reproducing sexually belong in the teleomorphic genus, Arthroderma, of the Ascomycota. On the basis of primary habitat association, they may be grouped as geophilic (soil associated), zoophilic, and anthropophilic. Adaptation to growth on humans by most geophilic species resulted in diminished loss of sporulation, sexuality, and other soil-associated characteristics. The dermatophytes have the ability to invade keratinized tissue (skin, hair, and nails) but are usually restricted to the nonliving cornified layer of the epidermis because of their inability to penetrate viable tissue of an immunocompetent host. However, invasion does elicit a host response ranging from mild to severe. Acid proteinases, elastase, keratinases, and other proteinases reportedly act as virulence factors. The development of cell-mediated immunity correlated with delayed hypersensitivity and an inflammatory response is associated with clinical cure, whereas the lack of or a defective cell-mediated immunity predisposes the host to chronic or recurrent dermatophyte infection. Chronic dermatophytosis is mostly caused by Trichophyton rubrum, and there is some evidence that mannan produced by this fungus suppresses or diminishes the inflammatory response. Since dermatophytes cause a communicable disease, modes of transmission and control are discussed as well as a survey of recent trends in therapy. Collection of specimens, culture media, and tests for identification are also presented. Genetic studies have led to an understanding of incompatibility mechanisms, pleomorphism and variation, resistance to griseofulvin, and virulence. Molecular biology has contributed to our knowledge of the taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of dermatophytes.
Weitzman, I; Summerbell, R C
Hair and scalp mycobiota of 1389 clinically normal children aged 6-12 years attending 12 schools in the Nablus District, Palestinian Authority, was assessed on three occasions over 8-month period (October 1998-May 1999) using the hair brush technique. One hundred and one fungal species belonging to 33 genera were recovered: 6 dermatophytes, 16 dermatophyte-like keratinophilic fungi, and 79 other keratinophilic fungal species. Species varied considerably in their frequency of occurrence and abundance based on their relative importance values (RIVs). The most frequent and abundant species were: Cladosporium cladosporioides, Cl. herbarum, Penicillium chrysogenum and Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis, Aphanoascus fulvescence and Chrysosporum sulfureum were the most frequent and abundant species of all dermatophytes and dermatophyte-like keratinophilic fungi recovered. The most frequent and abundant dermatophytes in different communities were M. canis in rural (RIV 0.87) and urban children (0.45), and Trichophyton violaceum (1.41) in refugee camp children. Chrysosporium species were the most frequent and abundant dermatophyte-like keratinophilic fungus in children from all localities followed by Aphanoascus fulvescence. Comparable results on the frequency and abundance of human hair and scalp mycobiota component fungi were obtained based on age group and sex of children. Higher number of species was recovered in spring months (73 species) than in autumn (57) and winter (44) months. Similar occurrence pattern was also noted for dermatophyte-like keratinophilic species and dermatophytes. Higher percentages of children with moderate (11-50) and heavy (< or = 50) spore loads (7.54 and 0.73, respectively) were found in urban school children community than in rural and refugee camp school children (4.7 and 0.1, respectively). Also significantly higher light (1-10) spore load percentages were found in rural (63.67) and refugee camp (62.9) than in urban children (52.6). Of all localities, school children with light spore load comprised the highest percentage of the children examined (37.4), followed by moderate (6.13), and heavy (0.41) spore load categories. However, children with undetected spore load comprised 36.05% of all children. Spore load distribution did not show clear seasonal variations in the study period. Higher percentages of moderate and heavy spore loads were found in male children (8.72 and 0.69, respectively) than in female children (3.4 and 0.1, respectively). However, higher percentages of undetected (38.3) or light spore loads (58.4) were found in females than in males (34.04 and 56.53, respectively). PMID:11469760
Ali-Shtayeh, M S; Salameh, A A; Abu-Ghdeib, S I; Jamous, R M
Background Dermatologic disorders are common in many countries but the spectrum varies greatly. Many studies have reported a significant burden of skin diseases in school children. The objective of this study was to determine the current spectrum of dermatological disorders in primary school children in Dar es Salaam city. Methods Primary school children were recruited by multistage sampling. Detailed interview, dermatological examination and appropriate laboratory investigations were performed. Data was analyzed using the 'Statistical Package for Social Sciences' (SPSS) program version 10.0 and EPI6. A p-value of < 0.5 was significant. Results A total of 420 children were recruited (51% males; mean age 11.4 ± 2.8 years; range 6-19 years). The overall point prevalence of any skin disorder was 57.3% and it was 61.9% and 52.6% in males and females respectively (p = 0.05). Infectious dermatoses accounted for 30.4% with superficial fungal infections (dermatophytoses and pityriasis versicolor) being the commonest (20%). Dermatophytoses were diagnosed in 11.4% (48/420); the prevalence in males and females being 12.6% and 10.1% respectively (p = 0.41) and higher (21.8%) in the age-group 6-10 years (p = 0.045). Fungal cultures were positive in 42/48 children (88%). All three dermatophyte genera were isolated. Tinea capitis was the commonest disease among culture-positive dermatophytoses (30/42; 71.4%) with an overall prevalence of 7.1% (30/420) followed by tinea pedis (11/42; 26.1%) whose overall prevalence was 2.6%. Microsporum canis was common in tinea capitis (14/30; 46.7%) followed by Trichophyton violaceum (6/30; 20%). Trichophyton rubrum was common in tinea pedis (5/11; 45.5%). Thirty six children (8.6%) had pityriasis versicolor which was more prevalent (6/27; 22.l2%) in the age group 16-19 years (p = 0.0004). The other common infectious dermatoses were pyodermas (4%) and pediculosis capitis (3.6%). Common non-infectious dermatoses were: acne vulgaris (36.4%), non-specific dermatoses (10.7%), non-specific ulcers (5%) and atopic eczema (2.6%). Rare conditions (prevalence < 1%) included: vitiligo, alopecia areata and intertrigo. The majority of the affected children (67.2%) did not seek any medical assistance. Conclusions Skin disorders are common in primary school children; infectious dermatoses are still rampant and many children do not seek medical assistance.
Mortality due to fungal infections has increased substantially, becoming a worldwide problem in public health. As a contribution to the discovery of new antifungal agents, the properties of the heartwood essential oils of two trees growing in New Caledonia, Callitris neocaledonica and C. sulcata (Cupressaceae) were investigated. The essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation were characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. From C. neocaledonica oil, 31 constituents were identified, representing 97.0% of the total oil composition, which was mainly constituted by oxygenated sesquiterpenes (88%). Among them, guaiol (1; 30.2%), bulnesol (2; 12.5%), ?-eudesmol (3; 10.5%), ?-eudesmol (4; 10.5%), ?-eudesmol (10.2%), and elemol (4.9%) predominated. The chemical composition of C. sulcata oil, from which 39 constituents were identified (96.8% of the total oil composition), showed some similarities with that of C. neocaledonica oil. The major constituents were also oxygenated sesquiterpenes, accounting for 78.5% of the oil, amongst them, mainly compounds 1 (16.1%), 3 and 4 (9.7% each), as well as 2 (7.4%). The antifungal activity of the oils against clinical isolates of four dermatophytic fungi (Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, Microsporum canis, and M. gypseum) and six yeasts (Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata, C. krusei, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Cryptococcus gattii) was tested by determining minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) using the microdilution method. The best antifungal activities of the C. neocaledonica and C. sulcata oils were obtained against C. krusei (MICs of 3.9 and 0.975??g/ml, resp.). These MIC values were similar to those of the reference drugs itraconazole and fluconazole (1.0 and 0.5?mg/ml, resp.). The oils were also subjected to a screening for their possible DPPH(.) (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical-scavenging activity. C. neocaledonica essential oil was more active than C. sulcata oil (93.3 vs. 32.2% DPPH(.) scavenged at 250??g/ml). PMID:22422531
Waikedre, Jean; Vitturo, Carmen I; Molina, Ana; Theodoro, Phellipe Norato Estrela Terra; do Rosário Rodrigues Silva, Maria; Espindola, Laila Salmen; Maciuk, Alexandre; Fournet, Alain
Dermatophytes cause fungal infections of keratinised tissues, e.g. skin, hair and nails. The organisms belong to 3 genera, Trichophyton, Epidermophyton and Microsporum. Dermatophytes may be grouped into 3 categories based on host preference and natural habitat. Anthropophilic species predominantly infect humans, geophilic species are soil based and may infect both humans and animals, zoophilic species generally infect non-human mammals. It is important to confirm mycologically the clinical diagnosis of onychomycosis and other tinea infections prior to commencing therapy. The identity of the fungal organism may provide guidance about the appropriateness of a given topical antifungal agent. Special techniques may be required to obtain the best yield of fungal organisms from a given site, especially the scalp and nails. It is also important to realise the limitations of certain diagnostic aids e.g., Wood's light examination is positive in tinea capitis due to M. canis and M. audouinii (ectothrix organisms); however, Wood's light examination is negative in T. tonsurans (endothrix organism). Similarly, it is important to be aware that cicloheximide in culture medium will inhibit growth of non-dermatophytes. Appropriate media are therefore required to evaluate the growth of some significant non-dermatophyte moulds. For tinea infections other than tinea capitis and tinea unguium, topical antifungals may be considered. For effective therapy of tinea capitis an oral antifungal is generally necessary. Similarly, oral antifungals are the therapy of choice, especially if onychomycosis is moderate to severe. Furthermore, where the tinea infection involves a large area, in an immunocompromised host or if infection is recurrent with poor response to topical agents, then oral antifungal therapy may be necessary. Topical antifungal agents may be broadly divided into specific and nonspecific agents. The former group includes the polyenes, azoles, allylamines, amorolfine, ciclopirox and butenafine. Generally the topical agent is available as a cream, sometimes for use intravaginally. Less commonly, the formulation may be in the form of a powder, lacquer, spray, gel or solution. Many of these agents have a broad spectrum of activity, being effective against dermatophytes, yeasts and Malassezia furfur. For the treatment of tinea corporis, tinea cruris tinea versicolor and cutaneous candidosis, once or twice daily application may be required, the most common duration of therapy being 2 to 4 weeks. For tinea pedis the most common treatment duration is 4 to 6 weeks. PMID:9585862
Gupta, A K; Einarson, T R; Summerbell, R C; Shear, N H
Xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) is responsible for the pathological condition called Gout. In the present study different flavones synthesized from chalcone were evaluated in vitro for their inhibitory activity. Inhibitory activity of flavones on XDH was determined in terms of inhibition of uric acid synthesis from Xanthine. The enzymatic activity was found maximum at pH 7.5 and temperature 40 degrees C. The flavones 6-chloro-2-[3-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-1-phenyl-1-H-pyrazol-4-yl]-chromen-4-one (F(1)) and 6-chloro-7methyl-2-[3-(4-chloro-phenyl)-1-phenyl-1-H-pyrazol-4-yl]-chromen-4-one(F(2)),were noncompetitive and competitive inhibitor with Ki values 1.1 and 0.22 respectively. The flavones (F(1)), (F(2)), 6-chloro-2-[3-(4-chloro-phenyl)-1phenyl-1-H-pyrazol-4-yl]-chromen-4-one(F(3)), 8-bromo-6-chloro-2-[3-(4-chloro-phenyl)-1-phenyl-1-H-pyrazol-4-yl]-chromen-4-one (F(4)), 2-[3-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-1-phenyl-1-H-pyrazol-4-yl]-chromen-4-one (F(5)) and 6-methyl-2-[3-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-1-phenyl-1-H-pyrazol-4-yl]-chromen-4-one (F(6)) were also screened for their antimicrobial activity, measured in terms of zone of inhibition. A broad spectrum antifungal activity was obtained against Trichoderma viridae, Candida albicans, Microsporum cannis, Penicillium chrysogenum and Fusarium moniliformae. In case of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavous only spore formation was affected, while antibacterial activity was observed against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Serratia marsecens only. The flavones were further analyzed for quantitative structural activity relationship study (QSAR) by using PASS, online software to determine their Pa value. Toxicity and drug relevant properties were revealed by PALLAS software in terms of their molecular weight. Log P values were also studied. The result showed both the F(1) and F(2) flavones as antigout and therefore supports the development of novel drugs for the treatment of gout. PMID:18569337
Khobragade, C N; Bodade, Ragini G; Shinde, M S; Jaju, Deepa R; Bhosle, R B; Dawane, B S
Dermatomycosis are mycotic diseases of skin caused by a few mycetes: dermatophytes, and some opportunistic fungi as Malassezia, Candida (not C. albicans), Trichosporon, Rhodutorula, Cryptococcus or Aspergillus, Geotrichum, Alternaria, etc. Dermatophytes are a group of closely related filamentous fungi that invade keratinized tissue (skin, hair, nails) of humans and other animals and produce infection called dermatophytosis or ringworm or "tinea". The etiological agents of dermatophytosis are classified in three genera: Microsporum, Trichophyton and Epidermophyton (Deuteromycetes). On the basis of their primary habitat dermatophytes are divided in Anthropophilic dermatophytes (parasitic organisms that infect humans), Zoophilic dermatophytes (parasitic organisms that infect animals, but also humans: agents of zoonosis) and Geophilic dermatophytes (saprobic fungi associated with keratinous materials in soil). In the soil there are also structure associated with contagion, ("spore", "arthroconidium", or "clamydospore") of anthropophilic and zoophilic dermatophytes that may persist for years, in the environment, in hair or skin scales. Since on the skin of animals there are many saprobic organisms (Malassezia) and many fungi may infect the fur, it is important to make an accurate diagnosis. Dermatophytosis are communicable diseases acquired from infected animals or from fomites. Infections caused by dermatophytes is a ringworm. These infections may range from mild and superficial, almost subclinical, to a few areas of scaling to a highly inflammatory reaction with extensive areas of scarring and alopecia. Granuloma formations (mycetoma-like) may occur especially in cats. Dermatophytes, as filamentous fungi, undergo radial fungi: collection of skin material is best made by collecting the scales near the edges of the rings. Hairs are best sampled by plucking; a scalpel may be used to scrape scales; brushes have also been used. Sample materials are best transported in dry packet. The Wood's light may be used to identify infected fluorescent hairs. Direct microscopy, although false negative up to 50% of cases, is a highly efficient screening technique. Scraping and hairs should mixed to 10-15% KOH. Culture is a valuable adjunct to direct microscopy and is essential to identify more dermatophytes. A medium selective against most nondermatophytic moulds and bacteria is used as a primary isolation medium. Many typical isolates of common dermatophytes can be identified directly from primary isolation media. Identification characters include: colony pigmentation, texture, morphological structure (macroconidia, microconidia, spirals, pectinate branches, etc). Nutritional requiment, growth in special media, "in vitro" perforation, mating studies are procedures used to identify atypical isolates. Serological approaches have revealed difficulties. Many kinds of molecular biologic techniques have been made available for clinical diagnosis recently; almost all of these techniques involve the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PMID:15305713
Tampieri, M P