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1

Kerion caused by Microsporum audouinii in a child  

PubMed Central

Kerion celsi is rarely associated with Microsporum audouinii infection. We report the case of a 3-year-old girl with a kerion celsi caused by M. audouinii and successfully treated with oral terbinafine. Fungi identification was made by macro and microscopical colony morphology analyses and molecular (genotypic) studies. PMID:24432216

Fernandes, Sónia; Amaro, Cristina; da Luz Martins, Maria; Inácio, João; Araújo, Teresa; Vieira, Raquel; Silvestre, Maria José; Cardoso, Jorge

2013-01-01

2

Dermatophytosis caused by Microsporum canis in Eastern cottontail ( Sylvilagus floridanus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus, fam. Leporidae) has previously been shown to be a potential healthy carrier of dermatophyte fungi both geophilic (Microsporum gypseum, M. cookei, Trichophyton ajelloi, T. terrestre) and zoophilic (M. canis, T. mentagrophytes). In this communication, the first case, to the best of our knowledge, of a symptomatic dermatophyte infection in S. floridanus is described.

P. Tizzani; M. G. Gallo; A. Peano; A. Molinar Min; C. Martínez-Carrasco Pleite; P. G. Meneguz

2007-01-01

3

Dermatophytosis caused by Microsporum canis and Microsporum gypseum in free-living Bradypus variegatus (Schiz, 1825) in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil.  

PubMed

Three cases of dermatophytosis in free living brown-throated three-toed sloths (Bradypus variegatus) in the Zona da Mata, North of Pernambuco State, Brazil, were studied. Two animals presented areas of alopecia on the pelvic member and thorax and one animal on the pelvic member only. The three animals presented scabs. Hair and scabs samples were submitted to microscopical examination after treatment with a 30 % KOH and cultivated in Mycosel Agar. The direct examination indicated the presence of arthrospores in the hair. Colonies grown after seven days of culture were confirmed as Microsporum based on examination of the structure of the macroconidia. This is the first observation of dermatophytosis caused by Microsporum canis and Microsporum gypseum in free living sloths in the State of Pernambuco. PMID:24031255

Xavier, Gileno Antônio Araújo; da Silva, Leonildo Bento Galiza; da Silva, Davi Rubem; de Moraes Peixoto, Rodolfo; Lino, Gileno Câmara; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido

2008-07-01

4

Dermatophytosis caused by Microsporum canis and Microsporum gypseum in free-living Bradypus variegatus (Schiz, 1825) in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Three cases of dermatophytosis in free living brown-throated three-toed sloths (Bradypus variegatus) in the Zona da Mata, North of Pernambuco State, Brazil, were studied. Two animals presented areas of alopecia on the pelvic member and thorax and one animal on the pelvic member only. The three animals presented scabs. Hair and scabs samples were submitted to microscopical examination after treatment with a 30 % KOH and cultivated in Mycosel Agar. The direct examination indicated the presence of arthrospores in the hair. Colonies grown after seven days of culture were confirmed as Microsporum based on examination of the structure of the macroconidia. This is the first observation of dermatophytosis caused by Microsporum canis and Microsporum gypseum in free living sloths in the State of Pernambuco. PMID:24031255

Xavier, Gileno Antônio Araújo; da Silva, Leonildo Bento Galiza; da Silva, Davi Rubem; de Moraes Peixoto, Rodolfo; Lino, Gileno Câmara; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido

2008-01-01

5

Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) of rDNA of appendaged and non-appendaged strains of Microsporum gypseum reveals Microsporum appendiculatum as its synonym.  

PubMed

Recently a new taxon of geophilic dermatophytes was established as Microsporum appendiculatum Bhat and Mariam, based on the presence of appendaged macroconidia. However, such appendages are already known in the related species Microsporum gypseum. We conducted a survey of soil in central India as a part of a microbial biodiversity project and obtained two strains of M. gypseum with appendaged macroconidia. Using phenotypical characterization in combination with sequencing and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region of rDNA, we found that all strains of appendaged species are identical. Therefore M. appendiculatum is regarded as a synonym of M. gypseum. PMID:16521044

Sharma, Rahul; Rajak, Ram C; Pandey, Akhilesh K; Gräser, Yvonne

2006-01-01

6

The Use of Ozonized Oil in the Treatment of Dermatophitosis Caused by Microsporum Canis in Rabbits  

PubMed Central

The ozone is effective against most microorganisms due to its high oxidant power. Low concentrations and short-term contact are sufficient to inactivate bacteria, mold, yeast, parasites, seaweeds, protozoa and fungi. Microsporum canis is an important agent of dermatophitosis in human and animal. The aim of the current study was to assess the efficacy of ozonized oil over Microsporum canis in rabbits. Eighteen male New Zealand white rabbits, weight ranging from 2 to 3.2 kg were depilated in the cranial dorso-lateral and right caudal, and cranial and left caudal regions. The regions were inoculated with Microsporum canis, excepting the right caudal region, and were denominated TM, O, OM and M, respectively. After seven days, the treatment of lesions in TM began with 0.12g of terbinaphine 1% cream; in OM and O with 0.12g of ozonized oil; all animals were treated once a day for 28 days. Region M was not treated. Material was collected from those regions for cultivation in Sabouraud agar at day 28 of treatment. In the evolution of the treatment with terbinaphine, of 14 contaminated regions with Microsporum canis ten evolved to cure. With the ozonized oil, of 15 contaminations, four were cured. Clinically, that is, the macroscopic evaluation of lesions showed improvement in the TM and OM treated regions. We can conclude that there was statistical evidence of the protection action of the oil against the dermatophyte. PMID:24031632

Daud, Fernanda Vasquez; Ueda, Suely Mitoi Ykko; Navarini, Alessandra; Mímica, Lycia Mara Jenné

2011-01-01

7

Microsporum canis infection in three familial cases with tinea capitis and tinea corporis.  

PubMed

We report a familial infection caused by Microsporum canis. The first two patients were a 30-year-old female and her son, a 5-year-old boy, who came in contact with a pet dog at a farm house. The boy then suffered from hair loss for 3 months. There were circular and patchy alopecia with diffuse scaling on his scalp. Meanwhile, his mother also developed patchy erythema and scaling on her face. Several weeks later, the boy's sister, a 4-year-old girl, was noted to have inconspicuous scaly plaques in the center of her scalp. The development of tinea capitis in the two children and tinea corporis in their mother were diagnosed based on the positive KOH examination. Morphologic characteristics and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2, amplified from primary culture isolates, confirmed that their infections were caused by the zoophilic M. canis. Repetitive sequence-based molecular typing using the DiversiLab system secreted enzymatic activity analysis, and antifungal susceptibility indicated that these isolates might share the same source. The boy and girl were cured by the treatment with oral itraconazole and topical naftifine-ketoconazole cream after washing the hair with 2 % ketoconazole shampoo, and their mother was successfully treated by terbinafine orally in combination with topical application of naftifine-ketoconazole cream. PMID:23918090

Yin, Bin; Xiao, Yuling; Ran, Yuping; Kang, Daoxian; Dai, Yaling; Lama, Jebina

2013-10-01

8

Enzymatic activity of Microsporum canis and Trichophyton mentagrophytes from breeding rabbits with and without skin lesions.  

PubMed

Microsporum canis and Trichophyton mentagrophytes are zoophilic dermatophytes which can cause skin infections in animals and humans. The clinical expression of this infection strongly varies depending on host, fungal species as well as enzyme production. No comparative studies are available on the enzymatic activities of M. canis and T. mentagrophytes isolated from breeding rabbits. Thus, the aim of this work was to assess the capability of M. canis and T. mentagrophytes isolated from rabbits both with and without lesions in producing different enzymes. The relationship of dermatophyte enzymatic activities and presence/absence of skin lesions has also been investigated. A total of 260 isolates of T. mentagrophytes and 25 isolates of M. canis sampled both from healthy and lesioned skin of rabbits, as well as from air samples of positive farms were examined. The results showed that T. mentagrophytes and M. canis from rabbits produce different enzymes. However, only elastase and gelatinase were linked to the appearance of lesions in T. mentagrophytes infections, whereas lipase in those by M. canis. PMID:22175244

Cafarchia, Claudia; Figueredo, Luciana A; Coccioli, Carmela; Camarda, Antonio; Otranto, Domenico

2012-01-01

9

Ultrastructure of the invasion of human hair in vitro by the keratinophilic fungus Microsporum gypseum.  

PubMed Central

The pattern of invasion of human hair in vitro by the dermatophyte Microsporum gypseum was studied by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Mycelia that invaded the hair cortex through the edge of cuticles showed a flattened "frond" growth in contrast to the filamentous form seen on ordinary laboratory media. The frond cells were characterized by the presence of vesicles formed by invaginations of plasmalemma, and lomasomes were prominent in the region adjacent to the hard keratinized tissue of the hair cortex being degraded as well. The initial perforating organ, which originated from the frond mycelium, appeared as an enlarged spherical cell which integrated with the laterally branched hyphae, as revealed by analysis of a three-dimensional model reconstructed from a series of sections. The fully developed perforating organ consisted of a column of wide and short cells which penetrated perpendicularly through the hair cortex. Through the medulla the filamentous hyphae had grown profusely in a longitudinal direction. Our studies confirm earlier light microscope observations and provide new ultrastructural details on the development of the eroding frond and the perforating organ. Images PMID:7141710

Kanbe, T; Tanaka, K

1982-01-01

10

Outbreak of Microsporum audouinii in Munich--the return of infectious fungi in Germany.  

PubMed

After experiencing an unusually high number of Microsporum (M.) audouinii infections at our hospital within only a few weeks, we began to investigate and control an outbreak in Munich, Germany. Main goals of our health management were to treat infected persons, identify extent and form of transmission and to prevent new infections. We analysed data from structured interviews with patients and mycological cultures of swabs taken of patients and investigated involved public facilities. Outbreak management included antifungal treatment of patients, decontamination of affected facilities, the introduction of a temporary kindergarten ban for M. audouinii positive children and the organisation of educational meetings. Between March and August 2011, 16 children and 4 adults were identified with M. audouinii infections. The fungus was brought to Munich by the index patients from a family vacation in Africa and then spread to fellow children in kindergarten and subsequently to their families. All patients were treated successfully and the epidemic was declared ceased after 40 weeks but causing considerable financial damage. Due to travelling and migration, M. audouinii infections will rise in Germany and Europe. Sufficient and sustainable strategies are needed for the management of future outbreaks of highly contagious fungi. PMID:25175409

Zink, Alexander; Papanagiotou, Vasileios; Todorova, Antonia; Seidl, Hans-Peter; Niedermeier, Andrea; Ring, Johannes; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia

2014-12-01

11

Study of diseases of the grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) in Italy. First isolation of the dermatophyte Microsporum cookei.  

PubMed

The ecological risks connected with the introduction of the North American grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) in Italy are many. Of particular importance is the conservation of the native red squirrel (S. vulgaris) population, since the experience from the British Isles showed that where the grey squirrel was introduced, the autochthonous red squirrel became extinct. To determine the health status of grey squirrels trapped and euthanasized during an eradication campaign in the Piedmont region, various analyses were carried out. This paper describes a preliminary mycological investigation. Microsporum cookei, a geophilic dermatophyte, was isolated for the first time from grey squirrels. PMID:10200938

Caffara, M; Scagliarini, A

1999-02-01

12

Standardization of hyphal growth inhibition rate as a means of evaluating Microsporum spp. in vitro susceptibility to terbinafine, griseofulvin, and ciclopiroxolamine.  

PubMed

Reference methods for antifungal susceptibility tests recommend the use of conidia as inoculum. However, some isolates produce few conidia, while the invasive form of filamentous fungi in general is hyphae making susceptibility tests infeaseble. These facts suggest that other than conidia broth dilution method is required for susceptibility tests. The aim of this study was to clarify if the hyphal growth inhibition rate could be used as a method of determining the antifungal susceptibility of genus Microsporum. For this reason, a method which traces hyphal tips automatically and measures their growth rate was standardized for Microsporum spp. Control growth curves and test growth curves obtained by real-time observation of the hyphae groups responses to different concentrations of terbinafine, griseofulvin, and ciclopiroxolamine were used to compare with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) obtained by conidia broth microdilution method. A visible reduction in the growth inhibition rate was observed when hyphal activity was evaluated using the third or fourth serial two-fold dilution below the MIC determined by broth microdilution for terbinafine and ciclopiroxolamine. For griseofulvin, this reduction occurred after the fifth dilution below the MIC. This study highlights the importance of the inoculum type used to determine the in vitro susceptibility of Microsporum strains. We conclude that measurement of hyphal growth inhibition, despite being time consuming, could be a suitable method for evaluating antifungal susceptibility, particularly for fungi as Microsporum spp. that produce a small (or not at all) number of conidia. PMID:21611866

Biancalana, Fernanda Simas Corrêa; Lyra, Luzia; Moretti, Maria Luiza; Kamei, Katsuhiko; Schreiber, Angélica Zaninelli

2011-10-01

13

[Synergy between ajoene and ketoconazole in isolates of Microsporum canis. A preliminary study using fractional inhibitory concentration technique (FIC)].  

PubMed

Fungal infections are probably the most frequent infectious diseases affecting human being. Resistance to different anti-fungal drugs, and their bioavailability in the infection site, represent a problem for treatment. Looking for effective solutions, combination of two or more antifungal drugs to obtain an additive effect or synergic effect that potent antifungal activity has been investigated. In this study, the effect (additive, antagonist or synergistic) of ajoene and ketoconazole combination was evaluated in the growth and proliferation of filamentous fungi. Interactions in vitro were investigated in three isolates of Microsporum canis through a preliminary study using micro dilution, according to recommendations of NCCLS M-38A, with several modifications. Results obtained for CIF of each isolates studied (CIF = 0.18 0.36 microM), demonstrate that exists a very potent synergistic effect, when they are combined, and it represents a hope for future clinic trials to treat resilient fungal infections caused by M. canis. PMID:18785785

Ledezma, Eliades; Maniscalchi, Maria Teresa; Espinoza, Druvic Lemus

2008-09-30

14

An outbreak of Microsporum canis in two elementary schools in a rural area around the capital city of Slovenia, 2012.  

PubMed

An outbreak of Microsporum canis infection affected 12 persons in two elementary schools over a period of 48 days in 2012 in Slovenia. Epidemiological, microbiological, and animal investigations were conducted. We defined cases as pupils or employees with skin lesions and confirmed or probable M. canis infection, attending one of the implicated elementary schools. Two clusters of six primary and six secondary cases were included in an unmatched case-control study. Contact with an adopted stray kitten at a birthday party was identified as the most probable source of infection. Secondary cases were more likely to have participated in gymnastic classes with a primary case than controls and were also more likely to have touched an infected child. Prompt communication and implementation of adequate control measures after the primary cases occurred would have prevented the secondary cases in another school. PMID:24512846

Subelj, M; Marinko, J Sveti?i?; U?akar, V

2014-12-01

15

Persistence of antibodies in blood and body fluids in decaying fox carcasses, as exemplified by antibodies against Microsporum canis  

PubMed Central

To assist in evaluating serological test results from dead animals, 10 silver foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and 10 blue foxes (Alopex lagopus), 6 of each species previously vaccinated against and all challenged with Microsporum canis, were blood sampled and euthanased. Fox carcasses were stored at +10°C, and autopsy was performed on Days 0, 2, 4, 7, and 11 post mortem during which samples from blood and/or body fluid from the thoracic cavity were collected. Antibodies against M. canis were measured in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) as absorbance values (optical density; OD). To assess the degradation of antibodies, the ratio between post mortem and ante mortem absorbance was calculated. The mean absorbance from samples collected during autopsy was generally lower than from samples from live animals. In blood samples, this difference increased significantly with time (P = 0.04), while in body fluid samples the difference decreased (not significant; P = 0.18). We suggest that a positive serological result from testing blood or body fluid of a dead animal may be regarded as valuable, although specific prevalences obtained by screening populations based on this type of material may represent an under-estimation of the true antibody prevalence. Negative serological test results based on material from carcasses may be less conclusive, taken into account the general degradation processes in decaying carcasses, also involving immunoglobulin proteins. PMID:16987389

Tryland, Morten; Handeland, Kjell; Bratberg, Anna-Marie; Solbakk, Inge-Tom; Oksanen, Antti

2006-01-01

16

Extracellular Production of Silver Nanoparticles by Using Three Common Species of Dermatophytes: Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis  

PubMed Central

Background: To develop a new green approach for biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles, myconanotechnology has been represented as a novel field of study in nanotechnology. In this study, we have reported the extracellular synthesis of highly stable silver nanoparticles using three species of dermatophytes: Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis. Methods: Clinical strains of these species were grown in a liquid medium containing mineral salt and incubated at 25°C for 5-7 days. The cell-free filtrate of each culture was obtained and subjected to synthesize silver nanoparticles in the presence of 1 mM AgNO3. Results: The reduction of Ag+ ions in metal nanoparticles was investigated virtually by tracing the solution color which was switched into reddish-light brown after 72 h. For T. mentagrophytes, a UV-visible spectra demonstrating a strong, quite narrow peak located between 422 and 425 nm was obtained. For M. canis, a fairly wide peak centering at 441 nm and for T. rubrum, a weak spectrum to decipher were observed. According to transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results, fairly uniform, spherical, and small in size with almost less than 50 nm particles were forms in case of T. mentagrophytes. For the other two species, TEM images showed existence of small spherical nanosilvers but not as small as nanoparticles synthesized by T. mentagrophytes. Conclusion: We observed that species belong to a single genus of the fungi have variable ability to synthesize silver nanoparticles extracellulary with different efficiency. Furthermore, the extracellular synthesis may make the process simpler and easier for following processes. PMID:22562033

Moazeni, Maryam; Rashidi, Niloofar; Shahverdi, Ahmad R.; Noorbakhsh, Fatemeh; Rezaie, Sassan

2012-01-01

17

Inhibition of lysosome degradation on autophagosome formation and responses to GMI, an immunomodulatory protein from Ganoderma microsporum  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Autophagic cell death is considered a self-destructive process that results from large amounts of autophagic flux. In our previous study, GMI, a recombinant fungal immunomodulatory protein cloned from Ganoderma microsporum, induced autophagic cell death in lung cancer cells. The aim of this study was to examine the role of autophagosome accumulation in GMI-mediated cell death. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Western blot analysis, flow cytometry and confocal microscopy were used to evaluate the effects of different treatments, including silencing of ATP6V0A1 by use of short hairpin RNAi, on GMI-mediated cell death, lung cancer cell viability and autophagosome accumulation in vitro. KEY RESULTS Lysosome inhibitors bafilomycin-A1 and chloroquine increased GMI-mediated autophagic cell death. GMI and bafilomycin-A1 co-treatment induced the accumulation of large amounts of autophagosomes, but did not significantly induce apoptosis. GMI elicited autophagy through the PKB (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin signalling pathway. Silencing of ATP6V0A1, one subunit of vesicular H+-ATPases (V-ATPases) that mediates lysosome acidification, spontaneously induced autophagosome accumulation, but did not affect lysosome acidity. GMI-mediated autophagosome accumulation and cytotoxicity was increased in shATP6V0A1 lung cancer cells. Furthermore, ATP6V0A1 silencing decreased autophagosome and lysosome fusion in GMI-treated CaLu-1/GFP-LC3 lung cancer cells. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS We demonstrated that autophagosome accumulation induces autophagic cell death in a GMI treatment model, and ATP6V0A1 plays an important role in mediating autophagosome-lysosome fusion. Our findings provide new insights into the mechanisms involved in the induction of autophagic cell death. PMID:22708544

Hsin, I-Lun; Sheu, Gwo-Tarng; Jan, Ming-Shiou; Sun, Hai-Lun; Wu, Tzu-Chin; Chiu, Ling-Yen; Lue, Ko-Huang; Ko, Jiunn-Liang

2012-01-01

18

Tinea faciei due to microsporum canis in children: a survey of 46 cases in the District of Cagliari (Italy).  

PubMed

Dermatophytoses are frequent in children, but involvement of the facial skin has peculiar aspects that should be considered a separate entity: tinea faciei. Microsporum canis infection in tinea faciei has not been widely documented. To review cases of tinea faciei due to M. canis in children diagnosed at the Dermatology Clinic, University of Cagliari. Between 1990 and 2009, all children with dermatophyte infections of the facial skin were recruited for the study after parental consent. Diagnosis was made through direct microscopic and cultural examination. Age, sex, clinical form, illness duration, identified dermatophyte, source of infection, and treatment were recorded. Forty-six cases of tinea faciei due to M. canis in children aged 11 months to 15 years (29 male/17 female) were diagnosed. In 42 (91.3%) children, the illness was the result of contact with pets, and 4 (8.7%) cases resulted from contact with children affected by tinea capitis due to M. canis. Clinical manifestations were typical ringworm in 34 (74%) patients, whereas in 12 (26%) cases, atypical forms mimicking atopic dermatitis, impetigo, lupus erythematosus, and periorificial dermatitis were observed. In 18 (39%) cases, involvement of the vellus hair follicle was documented as ectothrix invasion. Topical or systemic antifungal therapy was effective in all patients. Tinea faciei shows a complex spectrum of differential diagnosis and age-related variations with respect to other superficial dermatophytosis. M. canis is the main organism responsible in children residing in Cagliari, capitol city of Sardinia, Italy. Close collaboration with veterinary and educational programs within infant communities are required for adequate prevention. PMID:22011084

Atzori, Laura; Aste, Natalia; Aste, Nicola; Pau, Monica

2012-01-01

19

Evaluation of fungicidal efficacy of benzalkonium chloride (Steramina G u.v.) and Virkon-S against Microsporum canis for environmental disinfection.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to evaluate the antifungal efficacy of Steramina G u.v. (10% solution of alkyldimetylbenzylammonium chloride; Formenti Grünenthal) and Virkon-S (multipurpose system; Antec International) against Microsporum canis-infected hairs and spores. Samples were collected from a random sample of household cats and from subjects from catteries. Seventy M. canis-positive hairbrushes containing furs, keratin scales and other organic material were treated with each of the two disinfectants, using concentrations recommended by the manufacturer's instructions (2% and 1% for Steramina G u.v. and Virkon-S, respectively). Each brush remained in contact with the antifungal solution for 10 min. After this period, the brushes were air-dried, then seeded into mycobiotic agar, and incubated for up to 21 days at 28 degrees C. The disinfectants were considered effective if dermatophytes failed to grow. Steramina G u.v. was effective in 97.14% of samples and Virkon-S in 87.14%. The antifungal activity of Steramina G u.v. against M. canis was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that of Virkon-S. PMID:16437301

Marchetti, V; Mancianti, F; Cardini, G; Luchetti, E

2006-04-01

20

Preparation and evaluation of antifungal efficacy of griseofulvin loaded deformable membrane vesicles in optimized guinea pig model of Microsporum canis--dermatophytosis.  

PubMed

The present study is aimed at the encapsulation of griseofulvin in the deformable membrane vesicles (DMVs) for dermal delivery. Presently, griseofulvin is available only in conventional oral dosage forms that suffer from the issues of poor and highly variable bioavailability, numerous systemic side effects and long duration of treatment. Multi-lamellar drug-loaded DMVs of griseofulvin (Indian Patent Application 208/DEL/2009) were prepared by thin-film hydration method and were optimized for type and concentration of edge activator (EA). The optimized formulation was evaluated for vesicular shape, size, drug entrapment efficiency, drug content, pH, stability, spreadability, ex vivo skin permeation, dermatokinetics, skin sensitivity, in vitro antifungal assay and in vivo antifungal activity against Microsporum canis using guinea pig model for dermatophytosis. The optimized DMVs illustrated remarkably higher drug permeation and skin retention when compared with liposomes. A complete clinical and mycological cure was observed in animals treated with topical griseofulvin formulation in 10 days. The formulation was observed to be non-sensitizing, histopathologically safe, and stable at 5±3 °C, 25±2 °C and 40±2 °C for a period of six months. The results indicated that the topical formulation of DMVs of griseofulvin could be utilized as an alternative to reduce the encumbrance of conventional oral formulations. PMID:22939964

Aggarwal, Nidhi; Goindi, Shishu

2012-11-01

21

Assessment of immunogenicity and protective efficacy of Microsporum canis secreted components coupled to monophosphoryl lipid-A adjuvant in a vaccine study using guinea pigs.  

PubMed

Microsporum canis is the most common dermatophyte in pets and is of zoonotic importance but currently there is no effective vaccine available to prevent dermatophytosis. The aim of this work was to assess the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of secreted components (SC) from M. canis adjuvanted with the monophosphoryl lipid-A (MPLA), in a vaccine study using the guinea pig as an experimental model. Animals were vaccinated with either the SC adjuvanted with the MPLA, the MPLA adjuvant alone or PBS three times at two-week intervals, until 42 days prior to M. canis infection. A blind evaluation of dermatophytosis symptoms development and fungal persistence in skin was monitored weekly. The antibody response towards the SC and the levels of Interferon (IFN)? and Interleukin-4 expressed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were assessed along or at the end of the study period respectively. The animals that received MPLA had a significantly lower clinical score than those inoculated with PBS. However, no significant difference was observed between the guinea pigs vaccinated with the SC adjuvanted with the MPLA and those having received MPLA alone. The results also showed that vaccination induced a strong antibody response towards the SC and an increase in IFN? mRNA level. Our results show that the MPLA adjuvant used in this vaccine study can induce per se a partial protection against a M. canis infection. Although they induce a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction in guinea pigs, the SC do not confer a protection under the present experimental conditions. PMID:25532779

Cambier, Ludivine; B?gu?, Elena-Tatiana; Heinen, Marie-Pierre; Tabart, Jérémy; Antoine, Nadine; Mignon, Bernard

2015-02-25

22

21 CFR 524.520 - Cuprimyxin cream.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...infections in horses, dogs, and cats caused by bacteria, dermatophytes (Trichophyton spp., Microsporum spp.) and yeast (Candida albicans ) affecting skin, hair, and external mucosae. (2) The cream is applied twice daily to affected areas...

2010-04-01

23

21 CFR 524.1443 - Miconazole.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1443 Miconazole...laboratory examination. (2) Indications for use . For topical treatment of infections caused by Microsporum canis ,...

2012-04-01

24

21 CFR 524.1443 - Miconazole.  

...ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1443 Miconazole...laboratory examination. (2) Indications for use. For topical treatment of infections caused by Microsporum canis ,...

2014-04-01

25

21 CFR 524.1443 - Miconazole.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1443 Miconazole...laboratory examination. (2) Indications for use . For topical treatment of infections caused by Microsporum canis ,...

2013-04-01

26

21 CFR 524.1443 - Miconazole.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1443 Miconazole...laboratory examination. (2) Indications for use . For topical treatment of infections caused by Microsporum canis ,...

2011-04-01

27

Case report Two cases of dermatophytic pseudomycetoma in the dog: an immunohistochemical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two cases of canine dermatophytic pseudomycetoma resulting in subcutaneous nodules resembling those previously reported in Persian cats are described. Culture performed from one nodule yielded dark yellow colonies consistent with Microsporum canis . Immunohistochemistry, using rabbit anti- M. canis , demonstrated specific binding to fungal elements in paraffin sections. The specificity of the antiserum was further tested by an agar

FRANCESCA ABRAMO; ANTONELLA VERCELLI; FRANCESCA MANCIANTI

28

Studies of proteinograms in dermatophytes by disc electrophoresis. 1. Protein bands in relation to growth phase  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Homogenates were prepared from various growth phases of Microsporum gypseum grown on different amino acids as the nitrogen source. When analyzed on 7.5% polyacrylamide disc gels, the water-soluble proteins in these homogenates gave essentially identical banding patterns.

Danev, P.; Friedrich, E.; Balabanov, V.

1983-01-01

29

Anti dermatophytic activity of Azardirachta indica (neem) by invitro study.  

PubMed

The leaf and seed extracts of the Plant Azardirachta indica were tested for antidermatophytic activity against dermatophytes such as Trichophyton ruberum, Trichophyton, Mentagrophytes, Trichophyton violaceum, Microsporum nanum and Epidermophyton floccosum by tube dilution technique. The minimum Inhibitory concentration (MIC) of neem seed extract was found to be lower tan that of neem leaf when tested against different species of Dermatophytes. PMID:12785173

Natarajan, V; Pushkala, S; Karuppiah, V P; Prasad, P V S

2002-07-01

30

Antifungal activity of crude extracts and essential oil of Moringa oleifera Lam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations were carried out to evaluate the therapeutic properties of the seeds and leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam as herbal medicines. Ethanol extracts showed anti-fungal activities in vitro against dermatophytes such as Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Microsporum canis. GC–MS analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oil from leaves showed a total of 44 compounds. Isolated

Ping-Hsien Chuang; Chi-Wei Lee; Jia-Ying Chou; M. Murugan; Bor-Jinn Shieh; Hueih-Min Chen

2007-01-01

31

Short Communication Antifungal activity of crude extracts and essential oil of Moringa oleifera Lam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations were carried out to evaluate the therapeutic properties of the seeds and leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam as herbal medi- cines. Ethanol extracts showed anti-fungal activities in vitro against dermatophytes such as Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagro- phytes, Epidermophyton Xoccosum, and Microsporum canis. GC-MS analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oil from leaves showed a total of 44

Ping-Hsien Chuang; Chi-Wei Lee; Jia-Ying Chou; M. Murugan; Bor-Jinn Shieh; Hueih-Min Chen

32

Antifungal activity of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa (Rutaceae) leaf extract on dermatophytes  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of Aegle marmelos leaf extracts and fractions on the clinical isolates of dermatophytic fungi like Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum. Methods The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of various extracts and fractions of the leaves of Aegle marmelos were measured using method of National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). Results Aegle marmelos leaf extracts and fractions were found to have fungicidal activity against various clinical isolates of dermatophytic fungi. The MIC and MFC was found to be high in water and ethyl alcohol extracts and methanol fractions (200µg/mL) against dermatophytic fungi studied. Conclusions Aegle marmelos leaf extracts significantly inhibites the growth of all dermatophytic fungi studied. If this activity is confirmed by in vivo studies and if the compound is isolated and identified, it could be a remedy for dermatophytosis. PMID:23569781

Balakumar, S; Rajan, S; Thirunalasundari, T; Jeeva, S

2011-01-01

33

Antifungal aryltetralin lignans from leaves of Podophyllum hexandrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two aryltetralin lignans, 4?-O-demethyldehydropodophyllotoxin and picropodophyllone, which were earlier reported as semi-synthetic products, were isolated from the leaves of Podophyllum hexandrum of Pakistani origin. Two known aryltetralin lignans, isopicropodophyllone and dehydropodophyllotoxin, were also isolated. Structures were identified by spectroscopic methods. The two new lignans showed strong antifungal activity against Epidermophyton floccosum, Curvularia lunata, Nigrospora oryzae, Microsporum canis, Allescheria boydii and

Atta-ur-Rahman; M. Ashraf; M. Iqbal Choudhary; M. H. Kazmi

1995-01-01

34

Review of dermatophytoses in Galicia from 1951 to 1987, and comparison with other areas of Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have reviewed all the dermatophytoses diagnosed in Galicia during four consecutive 9-year periods 1951–86 and 1987. From 4571 patients, we isolated 3351 fungal strains belonging, in decreasing order of frequency, to the following dermatophyte species: Microsporum canis (25.5%), Trichophyton rubrum (24.6%), T. mentagrophytes (21.4%), Epidermophyton floccosum (11.8%), M. gypseum (5.2%), T. tonsurans (3.9%), T. verrucosum (3.1%), T. schoenleinii (2.5%),

M. Pereiro Miguens; Mercedes Pereiro

1991-01-01

35

Modiolide and pyrone derivatives from the sea fan-derived fungus Curvularia sp. PSU-F22.  

PubMed

Investigation of secondary metabolites from the sea fan-derived fungus Curvularia sp. PSU-F22 resulted in isolation of three new metabolites, curvulapyrone (1), curvulalide (2) and curvulalic acid (3) together with six known compounds, modiolides A (4) and B (5), pyrenolide A (6), stagonolide E (7), mycoepoxydiene (8), and deacetylmycoepoxydiene (9). Their antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, methicillin-resistant S. aureus and Microsporum gypseum SH-MU-4 were examined. PMID:21656354

Trisuwan, Kongkiat; Rukachaisirikul, Vatcharin; Phongpaichit, Souwalak; Preedanon, Sita; Sakayaroj, Jariya

2011-05-01

36

Anti-fungal activity of crude extracts and essential oil of Moringa oleifera Lam.  

PubMed

Investigations were carried out to evaluate the therapeutic properties of the seeds and leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam as herbal medicines. Ethanol extracts showed anti-fungal activities in vitro against dermatophytes such as Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Microsporum canis. GC-MS analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oil from leaves showed a total of 44 compounds. Isolated extracts could be of use for the future development of anti-skin disease agents. PMID:16406607

Chuang, Ping-Hsien; Lee, Chi-Wei; Chou, Jia-Ying; Murugan, M; Shieh, Bor-Jinn; Chen, Hueih-Min

2007-01-01

37

Protein Patterns and Mycelial Growth of Dermatophytic Fungi Affected by Desert Plant Extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of extracts (at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 & 2.0 mg\\/ml) of six desert plant species commonly used in curing the dermatophytic disease was studied on mycelial growth and protein patterns of three dermatophyte fungi namely; Microsporom gypseum, Microsporum canis and Aspergillus niger. Dermatophyte fungi were isolated from skin and hairs of skin diseased patients. Plant species (Mentha pulegium L.,

GAMALAT A. ABD-ELAAH; ALY E. ABO-AMER; SAMYA A. SOLIMAN

38

Dermatophytes and other keratinophilic fungi from coypus ( Myocastor coypus ) and brown rats ( Rattus norvegicus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of mycotic agents was investigated by hair-brush technique on the coat of 162 naturalized coypus (Myocastor coypus) and 64 indigenous brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) originating from the same protected area in Central Italy. The isolates from positive coypus (29.6%) were identified as\\u000a Microsporum gypseum (14.8%), Trichophyton terrestre (9.8%), Alternaria sp. (3.7%), Trichophyton mentagrophytes (2.5%), Cladosporium sp. (1.8%), Scopulariopsis

Roberto Papini; Simona Nardoni; Roberto Ricchi; Francesca Mancianti

2008-01-01

39

Morphological and molecular identification of two strains of dermatophytes.  

PubMed

In this study, we used traditional morphological and molecular identification methods to preliminarily identify two strains of dermatophytes. The two strains were observed under the microscope. And then the dermatophytes were cultured on Sabouraud's dextrose agar (SDA). The 18S rRNA regions of the two dermatophyte strains were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the PCR products were sequenced and compared with GenBank data. BLAST tools and DNAMAN software were used to analyze the sequences. To further determine highly homologous sequences, a phylogenetic tree was constructed using the Neighbor-Joining method. The two strains of dermatophytes were identified by traditional morphological identification as Epidermophyton floccosum and Microsporum ferrugineum. The 18S rRNA sequence analyses showed high similarities to Cladosporium cladosporioides isolate C115LM-UFPR and Ascomycete sp. LB68A1A2. Epidermophyton and Cladosporium belong to dermatophyte, while Microsporum ferrugineum and Ascomycete belong to microsporum. The two novel strains of dermatophytes were therefore identified as Cladosporium cladosporioides isolate C115LM-UFPR (JN650537, Cladosporium) and Ascomycete sp. LB68A1A2 (AY770409, Ascomycete sp). PMID:24337859

Chen, Li; Shi, Guo-you; Wang, Mei-mei; Zhao, Lin-lin; Huang, Yuan-yong; Chen, Xiao-lei; Yuan, Li-jie; Xiong, Ya-nan; Si, Dao-wen; Zhu, Li-hua

2013-12-01

40

Two cases of dermatophytic pseudomycetoma in the dog: an immunohistochemical study.  

PubMed

Two cases of canine dermatophytic pseudomycetoma resulting in subcutaneous nodules resembling those previously reported in Persian cats are described. Culture performed from one nodule yielded dark yellow colonies consistent with Microsporum canis. Immunohistochemistry, using rabbit anti-M. canis, demonstrated specific binding to fungal elements in paraffin sections. The specificity of the antiserum was further tested by an agar gel immunodiffusion assay using a soluble extract from a feline isolate of M. canis as antigen. The antiserum did not cross-react with an Aspergillus fumigatus antigen. These are the first two reported cases of canine dermatophytic pseudomycetoma and immunohistochemical staining supported the diagnosis. PMID:11493404

Abramo, F; Vercelli, A; Mancianti, F

2001-08-01

41

Survey of keratinophilic fungi in sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants of Mazandaran, Islamic Republic of Iran.  

PubMed

To isolate keratinophilic fungi in sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants in Sari city, Mazandaran province, Islamic Republic of Iran, samples were taken from 7 plants with different sewage treatment technologies. From 35 sludge samples cultured on Sabouraud's agar with cycloheximide and chloramphenicol, 326 fungal colonies belonging to 7 species were isolated. Geotrichum (59.5%), Cladosporium (13.8%), Alternaria (11.3%) and Penicillium (10.7%) species were the most prevalent. No growth of keratinophilic fungi was observed on this medium. However, using the hair-baiting technique, Microsporum gypseum, Chrysosporium spp. and Geotrichum spp. were isolated. PMID:19554993

Hedayati, M T; Mirzakhani, M

2009-01-01

42

Zoonoses of procyonids and nondomestic felids.  

PubMed

There are several important zoonotic diseases which can be acquired from procyonids, and nondomestic felids. Baylisascaris procyonis, the raccoon roundworm, is a common parasite of raccoons and can cause visceral, ocular, or neural larval migrans in people. Neural larval migrans can cause severe signs in individuals. Dermatophytosis and enteric pathogens are the most important zoonotic agents found in nondomestic felids. Microsporum canis infections can be spread from nondomestic felids to owners and veterinarians. Toxoplasma gondii can be potentially shed by infected felids, and human infections occurring during pregnancy can cause blindness in the fetus. PMID:21872788

Ramsay, Edward C

2011-09-01

43

Fungitoxicity of essential oils against dermatophytes.  

PubMed

Sixteen essential oils were screened in vitro for their fungitoxicity against the two dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum gypseum. Five oils (from Artemisia nelagrica, Caesulia axillaris, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Cymbopogon citratus and Mentha arvensis) showed strong activity and were assessed for their fungitoxicity against eight other dermatophytes as well as against Aspergillus fumigatus and Cladosporium trichoides. These five essential oils by formulation of ointments were able to cure experimental ringworm in guinea pigs within 7 to 12 days. Artemisia oil was found to be the most effective essential oil. PMID:8264720

Kishore, N; Mishra, A K; Chansouria, J P

1993-01-01

44

Keratinophilic fungi on feathers of pigeon in Maharashtra, India.  

PubMed

Results of a preliminary survey of keratinophilic fungi associated with feathers of pigeon on high rise buildings in Thane district of Maharashtra (India) are reported. A total of 100 samples were examined, of which 67 samples were positive for keratinophilic fungi. Altogether 67 fungal strains belonging to 10 species of seven genera were isolated viz. Chrysosporium indicum (24%), Chrysosporium sp. (2%), Chr. tropicum (8%), Chrysosporium state of Arthroderma tuberculatum (3%), Chrysosporium state of Ctenomyces serratus (15%), Malbranchea pulchella (3%), Malbranchea sp. (1%), Microsporum gypseum (5%), Myriodontium keratinophilum (2%) and Trichophyton terrestre (4%). PMID:15189186

Deshmukh, S K

2004-06-01

45

Superficial fungal infections in children.  

PubMed

Superficial fungal infections can involve the hair, skin, and nails. Most affected children are healthy, although immunosuppression is a risk factor for more severe presentation. Causative organisms typically are members of the Trichophyton, Microsporum, and Epidermophyton genera (dermatophytes), can be acquired from other infected humans, animals, or soil, and illicit a host inflammatory response. Nondermatophyte infections include pityriasis versicolor. In this article, the most common clinical presentations, diagnostic recommendations, and treatment algorithms for dermatophyte and nondermatophyte mycoses in children and adolescents are described. PMID:24636655

Hawkins, Danielle M; Smidt, Aimee C

2014-04-01

46

Etiology of tinea capitis in Athens, Greece -- a 6-year (1996-2001) retrospective study.  

PubMed

A total of 577 patients with tinea capitis have been diagnosed at the Mycology laboratory of 'A. Sygros' Hospital of Skin and Venereal Diseases, Athens, Greece between 1996 and 2001. From these patients, 100 were immigrants from Balkan, Near East and African countries. The vast majority of the patients (95%) were children, mainly at preschool and school age and only 5% were adults. Zoophilic dermatophytes accounted for 86.5% followed by anthropophilic (12.4%) and geophilic (1.2%) dermatophytes. The majority of anthropophilic infections (59.5%) were recorded in the sub-population of immigrants. Microsporum canis (84.5%) was the main etiologic agent. PMID:15189185

Frangoulis, E; Athanasopoulou, B; Katsambas, A

2004-06-01

47

Antifungal, Antileishmanial, and Cytotoxicity Activities of Various Extracts of Berberis vulgaris (Berberidaceae) and Its Active Principle Berberine.  

PubMed

In this study, in vitro antidermatophytic activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis, and Microsporum gypseum was studied by disk diffusion test and assessment of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using CLSI broth macrodilution method (M38-A2). Moreover, antileishmanial and cytotoxicity activity of B. vulgaris and berberine against promastigotes of Leishmania major and Leishmania tropica were evaluated by colorimetric MTT assay. The findings indicated that the various extracts of B. vulgaris particularly berberine showed high potential antidermatophytic against pathogenic dermatophytes tested with MIC values varying from 0.125 to >4?mg/mL. The results revealed that B. vulgaris extracts as well as berberine were effective in inhibiting L. major and L. tropica promastigotes growth in a dose-dependent manner with IC50 (50% inhibitory concentration) values varying from 2.1 to 26.6? ? g/mL. Moreover, it could be observed that berberine as compared with B. vulgaris exhibited more cytotoxicity against murine macrophages with CC50 (cytotoxicity concentration for 50% of cells) values varying from 27.3 to 362.6? ? g/mL. Results of this investigation were the first step in the search for new antidermatophytic and antileishmanial drugs. However, further works are required to evaluate exact effect of these extracts in animal models as well as volunteer human subjects. PMID:24977052

Mahmoudvand, Hossein; Ayatollahi Mousavi, Seyyed Amin; Sepahvand, Asghar; Sharififar, Fariba; Ezatpour, Behrouz; Gorohi, Fatemeh; Saedi Dezaki, Ebrahim; Jahanbakhsh, Sareh

2014-01-01

48

Antifungal, Antileishmanial, and Cytotoxicity Activities of Various Extracts of Berberis vulgaris (Berberidaceae) and Its Active Principle Berberine  

PubMed Central

In this study, in vitro antidermatophytic activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis, and Microsporum gypseum was studied by disk diffusion test and assessment of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using CLSI broth macrodilution method (M38-A2). Moreover, antileishmanial and cytotoxicity activity of B. vulgaris and berberine against promastigotes of Leishmania major and Leishmania tropica were evaluated by colorimetric MTT assay. The findings indicated that the various extracts of B. vulgaris particularly berberine showed high potential antidermatophytic against pathogenic dermatophytes tested with MIC values varying from 0.125 to >4?mg/mL. The results revealed that B. vulgaris extracts as well as berberine were effective in inhibiting L. major and L. tropica promastigotes growth in a dose-dependent manner with IC50 (50% inhibitory concentration) values varying from 2.1 to 26.6??g/mL. Moreover, it could be observed that berberine as compared with B. vulgaris exhibited more cytotoxicity against murine macrophages with CC50 (cytotoxicity concentration for 50% of cells) values varying from 27.3 to 362.6??g/mL. Results of this investigation were the first step in the search for new antidermatophytic and antileishmanial drugs. However, further works are required to evaluate exact effect of these extracts in animal models as well as volunteer human subjects. PMID:24977052

Mahmoudvand, Hossein; Ayatollahi Mousavi, Seyyed Amin; Sepahvand, Asghar; Sharififar, Fariba; Ezatpour, Behrouz; Gorohi, Fatemeh; Saedi Dezaki, Ebrahim; Jahanbakhsh, Sareh

2014-01-01

49

Heat stable antimicrobial activity of Allium ascalonicum against bacteria and fungi.  

PubMed

To study antimicrobial activity of shallot in comparison with that of garlic and onion against 23 strains of fungi and bacteria, water extracts of garlic, shallot and onion bulbs were prepared. Each extract was studied in different forms for their antimicrobial activity viz., fresh extract, dry extract and autoclaved extract. Minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal lethal concentrations of these extracts were determined against all organisms by broth dilution susceptibility test. Fresh extract of garlic showed greater antimicrobial activity as compared to similar extracts of onion and shallot. However, dried and autoclaved extracts of shallot showed more activity than similar extracts of onion and garlic. Fungi were more sensitive to shallot extract than bacteria. Amongst bacteria, B. cereus was most sensitive (MIC=5 mg ml(-1)). The lowest minimum bactericidal concentration of shallot extract amongst bacteria tested was 5 mg ml(-1) for B. cereus. Amongst fungi, Aureobasidium pullulans and Microsporum gypseum were most sensitive (MIC= 0.15 mg ml(-1)). The lowest minimum lethal concentration was 2.5 mg ml(-1) for Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. It was therefore, expected that the antimicrobial principle of shallot was different than the antimicrobial compounds of onion and garlic. In addition, the antimicrobial component of the shallot extract was stable at 121 degrees C. PMID:16121720

Amin, M; Kapadnis, B P

2005-08-01

50

Ethnoveterinary study for antidermatophytic activity of Piper betle, Alpinia galanga and Allium ascalonicum extracts in vitro.  

PubMed

Crude ethanolic extracts of Piper betle leaves (Piperaceae), Alpinia galanga rhizomes (Zingiberaceae) and Allium ascalonicum bulbs (Liliaceae) were tested against selected zoonotic dermatophytes (Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophyte) and the yeast-like Candida albicans. A broth dilution method was employed to determine the inhibitory effect of the extracts and compared to those of ketoconazole and griseofulvin. All extracts suppressed the growth of the fungi in a concentration-dependent manner. Among the extracts tested, P. betle exhibited more effective antifungal properties with average IC(50) values ranging from 110.44 to 119.00 microg/ml. Subsequently, 10% Piper betle (Pb) cream was formulated, subjected to physical and microbial limit test and evaluated for antifungal effect. The disc diffusion assay revealed comparable zones of inhibition between discs of Pb cream containing 80 microg P. betle extract and 80 microg ketoconazole against tested fungi at 96 h after incubation. Thereafter, the inhibitory effect of Pb cream markedly decreased and completely lost effectiveness by day 7. In summary, the results supported the traditional wisdom of herbal remedy use and suggested a potential value-addition to agricultural products. It was suggested that the Pb cream has potential therapeutic value for treatment of dermatophytosis. However, clinical testing as well as improving the Pb cream formulation with greater efficacy and duration of action would be of interest and awaits further investigation. PMID:17482221

Trakranrungsie, N; Chatchawanchonteera, A; Khunkitti, W

2008-02-01

51

Antifungal activity and chemical composition of essential oils from Smyrnium olusatrum L. (Apiaceae) from Italy and Portugal.  

PubMed

The essential oils and supercritical CO? extracts of wild Smyrnium olusatrum L. growing in Sardinia (Italy) and in Portugal were investigated. For the study, oils were isolated from total plant aerial part (umbels containing seeds). The content of ?-phellandrene (67.3% vs. 42.7%) and ?-pinene (31.9% vs. 1.2%), respectively, the main components of Portuguese and Italian essential oils, declined during the maturation stage of the umbels. Contrarily, some other important components, particularly curzerene, germacrene B, germacrone, alexandrofuran, 1-?-acetoxyfurano-4(15)-eudesmene and 1-?-acetoxyfurano-3-eudesmene, increased in fruiting umbels. The chemical composition of the Sardinian oil is rather different from those of other origin. The composition of the supercritical extracts and the essential oils is markedly different, particularly due to the high amount of furanosesquiterpenoids in the supercritical fluid extraction. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal lethal concentration were used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the oils against Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida guillermondii, Candida parapsilosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Epidermophyton floccosum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. The oils were particularly active against dermatophyte strains and C. neoformans, with MIC values in the range of 0.32-0.64?µL?mL?¹. PMID:21902563

Marongiu, B; Piras, A; Porcedda, S; Falconieri, D; Frau, M A; Maxia, A; Gonçalves, M J; Cavaleiro, C; Salgueiro, L

2012-01-01

52

Chemical composition and biological assays of essential oils of Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi subsp. nepeta (Lamiaceae).  

PubMed

Aerial parts of wild Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi subsp. nepeta growing spontaneously on the Mediterranean coast (Sardinia Island, Italy) and on the Atlantic coast (Portugal) were used as a matrix for the supercritical extraction of volatile oil with CO(2). The collected extracts were analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS methods and their compositions were compared with that of the essential oil isolated by hydrodistillation, but the differences were not relevant. A strong chemical variability was observed in the essential oils depending on the origin of the samples. The results showed the presence of two chemotypes of C. nepeta. In all Italian samples, pulegone, piperitenone oxide and piperitenone were the main components (64.4-39.9%; 2.5-19.1%; 6.4-7.7%); conversely, the oil extracted from Portuguese C. nepeta is predominantly composed of isomenthone (35.8-51.3%), 1,8-cineole (21.1-21.4%) and trans-isopulegone (7.8-6.0%). The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the oils against Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida guillermondii, Candida parapsilosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Epidermophyton floccosum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. The Italian oil, rich in pulegone, exhibited significant antifungal activity against Aspergillus and dermatophyte strains, with MIC values of 0.32-1.25 µL mL(-1). PMID:20981614

Marongiu, B; Piras, A; Porcedda, S; Falconieri, D; Maxia, A; Gonçalves, M J; Cavaleiro, C; Salgueiro, L

2010-11-01

53

Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatophytic infections. 1. Screening for antimycotic activity of 44 plant extracts.  

PubMed

Skin infections are common diseases in developing countries, of which dermatophytoses are of particular concern in the tropics, especially in infants. Through ethnobotanical surveys and literature review 100 plants were detected as being used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatophytoses. Of these, 44 plants were screened for in vitro activity against the most common dermatophytes (Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum). Results showed that aqueous extracts from 22 of the plants tested inhibit one or more of the dermatophytes. The most commonly inhibited dermatophytes were E. floccosum (43.2%), T. rubrum (36.0%), and T. mentagrophytes (31.8%); the less inhibited were M. canis (22.7%) and M. gypseum (24.0%). Plants of American origin which exhibited anti-dermatophyte activity were: Byrsonima crassifolia, Cassia grandis, Cassia occidentalis, Diphysa carthagenensis, Gliricidia sepium, Piscidia piscipula, Sambucus mexicana, Smilax regelii, Solanum americanum and Solanum nigrescens. Fungicidal and fungistatic activities as well as the minimal inhibitory concentration were demonstrated. These results provide a scientific basis for the use of these plants for the treatment of dermatophyte infections in man. PMID:2056755

Caceres, A; Lopez, B R; Giron, M A; Logemann, H

1991-03-01

54

Chemical constituents from the leaves of Boehmeria rugulosa with antidiabetic and antimicrobial activities.  

PubMed

Three new flavonoid glycosides, named chalcone-6'-hydroxy-2',3,4-trimethoxy-4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1), isoflavone-3',4',5,6-tetrahydroxy-7-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside] (2), and isoflavone-3',4',5,6-tetrahydroxy-7-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside] (3), were isolated from the leaves of Boehmeria rugulosa, together with five known compounds, beta-sitosterol, quercetin, 3,4-dimethoxy-omega-(2'-piperidyl)-acetophenone (4), boehmeriasin A (5), and quercetin-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by means of chemical and spectral data including 2D NMR experiments. The ethanolic extract of leaves showed significant hypoglycemic activity on alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Glibenclamide, an oral hypoglycemic agent (5 mg/kg, p.o.), was used as a positive control. The ethanolic extract of the plant as well as the isolated compounds 1-3 (25 microg/ml) showed potent antimicrobial activity against two bacterial species (Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans) and three fungus pathogens (Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum canis, and Trichophyton rubrum). The activities of the isolated compounds 1-3 have been compared with positive controls, novobiocin, and erythromycin (15 microg/ml). PMID:20183275

Semwal, Deepak Kumar; Rawat, Usha; Semwal, Ravindra; Singh, Randhir; Krishan, Pawan; Singh, Manjeet; Singh, Gur Jas Preet

2009-12-01

55

Czech ethanol-free propolis extract displays inhibitory activity against a broad spectrum of bacterial and fungal pathogens.  

PubMed

Propolis acts primarily as a biocide against invasive bacteria and fungi in the hive, suggesting its potential for industrial applications. In food application, propolis is considered as a chemical preservative in meat products, extending shelf life of frozen meat and other food. The mechanism of action is still unclear due to the synergy of multiple compounds contained in propolis and due to parallel targeting of multiple pathways within each affected organism. Here, we examined the antimicrobial properties of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) Czech propolis extract. Until recently, DMSO was only rarely used in the propolis studies, although the other solvents tested (mostly ethanol) may significantly affect the observed inhibitory effects, notwithstanding the antimicrobial effects of ethanol itself. Here, we provide results of zone inhibition tests against Aspergillus fumigatus, Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum canis, Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Enterococcus faecalis. Although we determined inhibitory effects against all the microorganisms tested, the dose-dependent response curves were not similar to each other. While inhibitory effects against C. albicans or S. aureus were strictly dose-dependent, responses of M. gypseum and E. faecalis displayed plateau across the broad range of concentrations tested. Interestingly, response of E. coli revealed the double-peak dose-dependent curve, and responses of M. canis and L. monocytogenes decreased at the highest concentrations tested. Suggested is evaluation of DMSO propolis extracts in experimental treatment of human and veterinary infections, preferably in multitherapy with antibiotics. PMID:23915150

Netíková, Ladislava; Bogusch, Petr; Heneberg, Petr

2013-09-01

56

Incidence and etiological agents of genital dermatophytosis in males.  

PubMed

Aim To determine the incidence and etiological agents of dermatophytosis of male genitalia in Sarajevo area, Bosnia and Herzegovina, during a 5-year period (2009-2013). Methods A total of 313 male patients with confirmed dermatophyte infection elsewhere in the body was analyzed. All samples (skin scrapings and hairs) were treated with lactophenol to detect a possible presence of fungal elements and then cultured on Sabouraud glucose agar. Dermatophytes species were identified based on macroscopic and microscopic morphology. Results Dermatopyte infection of penis and/or scrotum was confirmed by positive cultures in 17 (5.4%) patients, of which four had lesions on the penis alone, five had lesions on scrotum and eight patients had lesions on both penis and scrotum. Majority of patients, 12 (70.0%) belonged to the age group 21-40. Fifteen patients (88.2%) had associated foci of dermatophyte infection, but the inguinal area was most frequently affected, in 10 (66.6%) patients. Microsporum canis was the most frequent dermatophyte found on culture, in 10 (58.8%) patients. Conclusion Dermatophytosis of male genitalia is a rare entity, occurring more often in young males and the main causative species is Microsporum canis. Key words: tinea, male genitalia, incidence, etiology. PMID:25669337

Prohi?, Asja; Krupalija-Fazli?, Mersiha; Jovovi? Sadikovi?, Tamara

2015-02-01

57

Antifungal Activity of Chromolaena odorata (L.) King & Robinson(Asteraceae) of Cameroon.  

PubMed

An aqueous ethanol extract of leaves of Chromolaena odorata and some of its fractions were examined for their antifungal properties by dilution methods on solid and liquid media, using yeasts and filamentous fungi. Extract and fractions inhibit the in vitro growth of Cryptococcus neoformans, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum with a minimal inhibitory concentration range from 62.5 to 500 microg/ml for the extract and from 25 to 100 microg/ml for fractions. A qualitative chemical analysis of the extract and fractions showed the presence of biologically active constituents such as some coumarins, flavonoids, phenols, tannins and sterols. No toxic effect was observed in mice treated per os with the extract. This study provides a scientific confirmation of the use of Chromolaena odorata in traditional medicine. PMID:16567942

Ngono Ngane, A; Ebelle Etame, R; Ndifor, F; Biyiti, L; Amvam Zollo, P H; Bouchet, P

2006-01-01

58

High dermatophyte contamination levels in hairdressing salons of a West African suburban community.  

PubMed

Tinea capitis is a dermatophyte infection of scalp is commonly spread by currently infected patients, asymptomatic carriers or by fomites, such as hairdressing tools. However, studies on the risk factors of Tinea capitis remain scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dermatophytes contamination level of the hairdressing tools to which hairdressing salon customers are exposed in Sirakoro-Méguétana, a suburb of Bamako, the capital city of Mali. A total of 41 hairdressing tools were sampled in five hairdressing salons. Two anthropophilic dermatophytes species, Microsporum audouinii (53.3%) and Trichophyton soudanense (46.7%), were cultured from 30 (73.2%) samples. This first study, addressing hairdressing salons dermatophyte contamination, revealed a strikingly high contamination of hairdressing tools with dermatophyte propagules, which exposes hairdressing salons customers to an important dermatophytosis risk. The sterilisation of hairdressing tools is central to preventing dermatophytoses spreading. Appropriate community information and hairdressers training should be implemented in this view. PMID:25385435

Coulibaly, O; Thera, M A; Piarroux, R; Doumbo, O K; Ranque, S

2014-11-11

59

The lipid composition and its alteration during the growth stage in pathogenic fungus, epidermophyton floccosum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Qualitative and quantitative changes of lipid components during the growth stages were studied in E. floccosum. The acyl group components of total lipids of Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum cookei were also examined. The lipids of E. floccosum amounted to approximately 4% of the dry cell weight. Neutral lipids mainly consisted of triglycerides and sterols, and major polar lipids were phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and an unknown lipid X. The fatty acids in tryglycerides and phospholipids were palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids. The unknown polar lipid X which appeared between phosphatidylethanolamine and cardiolipin on thin layer chromatography plates contained no phosphorus. There was no significant change in the fatty acid components of E. floccosum and T. rubrum during the cell growth, whereas profound changes occurred in M. cookei. The sterol components of E. floccosum showed striking changes depending on the growth stage.

Yamada, T.; Watanabe, R.; Nozawa, Y.; Ito, Y.

1984-01-01

60

Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatophytic infections. 2. Evaluation of antifungal activity of seven American plants.  

PubMed

From 52 plants screened for antifungal activity, 26 (50%) were active against dermatophytes. This paper reports further evaluation of seven American plants against four pathogenic fungi (Aspergillus flavus, Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton rubrum), the part showing most activity, the best solvent and, in three cases, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) against the fungus in pure culture. Antifungal activity was confirmed in all of the plants, but not all parts; the most active parts were the bark and leaves. The most active species were Byrsonima crassifolia, Cassia grandis, Gliricidia sepium and Malpighia glabra. Diphysa robinioides, Rhizophora mangle and Cassia occidentalis were less active. The most susceptible fungi were E. floccosum and T. rubrum; A. flavus was not susceptible. Ethanol was usually the best solvent and the MIC of C. grandis, C. occidentalis and D. robinioides was 50 micrograms/ml. PMID:8145577

Cáceres, A; López, B; Juárez, X; del Aguila, J; García, S

1993-12-01

61

Total Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of a Natural Cycloheptapeptide of Marine Origin  

PubMed Central

The present study deals with the first total synthesis of the proline-rich cyclopolypeptide stylisin 2 via a solution phase technique by coupling of the Boc-l-Pro-l-Ile-l-Pro-OH tripeptide unit with the l-Phe-l-Pro-l-Pro-l-Tyr-OMe tetrapeptide unit, followed by cyclization of the resulting linear heptapeptide fragment. The chemical structure of the finally synthesized peptide was elucidated by FTIR, 1H/13C-NMR and FAB MS spectral data, as well as elemental analyses. The newly synthesized peptide was subjected to antimicrobial screening against eight pathogenic microbes and found to exhibit potent antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Candida albicans, in addition to moderate antidermatophyte activity against pathogenic Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum audouinii when compared to standard drugs—gatifloxacin and griseofulvin. PMID:20948913

Dahiya, Rajiv; Gautam, Hemendra

2010-01-01

62

In vitro antifungal activity and mechanism of essential oil from fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.) on dermatophyte species.  

PubMed

Fennel seed essential oil (FSEO) is a plant-derived natural therapeutic against dermatophytes. In this study, the antifungal effects of FSEO were investigated from varied aspects, such as MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration, mycelia growth, spore germination and biomass. The results indicated that FSEO had potent antifungal activities on Trichophyton rubrum ATCC 40051, Trichophyton tonsurans 10-0400, Microsporum gypseum 44693-1 and Trichophyton mentagrophytes 10-0060, which is better than the commonly used antifungal agents fluconazole and amphotericin B. Flow cytometry and transmission electron microscopy experiments suggested that the antifungal mechanism of FSEO was to damage the plasma membrane and intracellular organelles. Further study revealed that it could also inhibit the mitochondrial enzyme activities, such as succinate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase and ATPase. With better antifungal activity than the commonly used antifungal agents and less possibility of inducing drug resistance, FSEO could be used as a potential antidermatophytic agent. PMID:25351709

Zeng, Hong; Chen, Xinping; Liang, Jingnan

2015-01-01

63

Isolation of dermatophytes and other keratinophilic fungi from surface sediments of the Shatt Al-Arab River and its creeks at Basrah, Iraq.  

PubMed

Twenty-five sediment samples were taken from randomly selected sites in the Shatt Al-Arab River and its creeks and analysed for dermatophytes and related keratinophilic fungi. The results revealed that out of 25 samples only 13 (52%) yielded dermatophytes and related keratinophilic fungi. A total of nine species in four genera were isolated. The most frequent genera isolated in this study were Chrysosporium and its teleomorph Aphanoascus. The species most frequently found were Aphanoascus fulvescens, A. durus, Chrysosporium crassitunicatum, Chr. keratinophilum and Chr. tropicum (each n = 3). Microsporum was represented by two species, namely M. fulvum and M. gypseum. Trichophyton was represented by one species, T. verrucosum. The occurrence of these fungi illustrates that sediments may act as a reservoir for potentially pathogenic fungi for human and animals. PMID:7477095

Abdullah, S K; Hassan, D A

1995-01-01

64

Antifungal activity of Dodonaea viscosa Jacq extract on pathogenic fungi isolated from superficial skin infection.  

PubMed

Antimicrobial activity of solvent extracts of leaves and shoot of Dodonaea viscosa Jacq have been determined against fungi, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Paecilomyces varioti, Microsporum gypseum, and Trichophyton rubrum causing skin diseases. All crude extracts were found to be effective against tested fungi. However chloroform has strong inhibition activity against fungi as compared to ethanol, methanol, ethylacetate and aqueous extracts. More over in present study some basic elements have been analyzed, Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, P, S and Zn from the medicinal plant Dodonaea viscosa Jacq. by using atomic absorption spectrophotometry and UV spectrophotometry. The medicinal plant Dodonaea viscosa Jacq contains considerable amount of elements which have therapeutic effects in skin diseases. PMID:20566450

Pirzada, A J; Shaikh, W; Usmanghani, K; Mohiuddin, Ejaz

2010-07-01

65

Foliicolous microfungi occurring on Encephalartos.  

PubMed

Species of Encephalartos, commonly known as bread trees, bread palms or cycads are native to Africa; the genus encompasses more than 60 species and represents an important component of the indigenous African flora. Recently, a leaf blight disease was noted on several E. altensteinii plants growing at the foot of Table Mountain in the Kirstenbosch Botanical Gardens of South Africa. Preliminary isolations from dead and dying leaves of E. alten-steinii, E. lebomboensis and E. princeps, collected from South Africa, revealed the presence of several novel microfungi on this host. Novelties include Phaeomoniella capensis, Saccharata kirstenboschensis, Teratosphaeria altensteinii and T. encephalarti. New host records of species previously only known to occur on Proteaceae include Cladophialophora proteae and Catenulostroma microsporum, as well as a hyperparasite, Dactylaria leptosphaeriicola, occurring on ascomata of T. encephalarti. PMID:20396583

Crous, P W; Wood, A R; Okada, G; Groenewald, J Z

2008-12-01

66

In vitro anti-microbial activity of the Cuban medicinal plants Simarouba glauca DC, Melaleuca leucadendron L and Artemisia absinthium L.  

PubMed

In the present study, an extensive in vitro antimicrobial profiling was performed for three medicinal plants grown in Cuba, namely Simarouba glauca, Melaleuca leucadendron and Artemisia absinthium. Ethanol extracts were tested for their antiprotozoal potential against Trypanosoma b. brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania infantum and Plasmodium falciparum. Antifungal activities were evaluated against Microsporum canis and Candida albicans whereas Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were used as test organisms for antibacterial activity. Cytotoxicity was assessed against human MRC-5 cells. Only M. leucadendron extract showed selective activity against microorganisms tested. Although S. glauca exhibited strong activity against all protozoa, it must be considered non-specific. The value of integrated evaluation of extracts with particular reference to selectivity is discussed. PMID:18949336

Valdés, Aymé Fernández-Calienes; Martínez, Judith Mendiola; Lizama, Ramón Scull; Vermeersch, Marieke; Cos, Paul; Maes, Louis

2008-09-01

67

[Cutaneous mycoses in Japan originating from animals].  

PubMed

Human cases of dermatophytoses are occasionally transmitted from animals, and suffered from tinea corporis and sometimes Kerion celsi. The most frequent causative agent of these diseases is Microsporum canis. The other dermatophyte, Arthroderma benhamiae is now prevailing in rabbits, rodents and hedgehogs that are popular household pets in Japan. Therefore, some human cases of A. benhamiae infection were reported and the transmission of this infection from rabbits and rodents was confirmed.Cryptococcosis is regarded as dangerous zoonosis, but its transmission from animal to peoples has not been documented in Japan. Animal cases of cryptococcosis are possible to increase in number by developing immunosuppressive animals as well as by spreading of newly introduced C. gattii to Japan.Animal cases of sporotrichosis are rarely reported in Japan. However, feline sporotrichosis should be prevented and promptly treated since it easily transmitted to people from cat lesions and the exudates where copious numbers of organisms are found in tissues. PMID:22467127

Kano, Rui

2012-01-01

68

Screening of chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Artemisia essential oils.  

PubMed

The chemical composition of essential oils isolated from aerial parts of seven wild sages from Western Canada -Artemisia absinthium L., Artemisia biennis Willd., Artemisia cana Pursh, Artemisia dracunculus L., Artemisia frigida Willd., Artemisia longifolia Nutt. and Artemisia ludoviciana Nutt., was investigated by GC-MS. A total of 110 components were identified accounting for 71.0-98.8% of the oil composition. High contents of 1,8-cineole (21.5-27.6%) and camphor (15.9-37.3%) were found in Artemisia cana, A. frigida, A. longifolia and A. ludoviciana oils. The oil of A. ludoviciana was also characterized by a high content of oxygenated sesquiterpenes with a 5-ethenyltetrahydro-5-methyl-2-furanyl moiety, of which davanone (11.5%) was the main component identified. A. absinthium oil was characterized by high amounts of myrcene (10.8%), trans-thujone (10.1%) and trans-sabinyl acetate (26.4%). A. biennis yielded an oil rich in (Z)-beta-ocimene (34.7%), (E)-beta-farnesene (40.0%) and the acetylenes (11.0%) (Z)- and (E)-en-yn-dicycloethers. A. dracunculus oil contained predominantly phenylpropanoids such as methyl chavicol (16.2%) and methyl eugenol (35.8%). Artemisia oils had inhibitory effects on the growth of bacteria (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis), yeasts (Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans), dermatophytes (Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis, and Microsporum gypseum), Fonsecaea pedrosoi and Aspergillus niger. A. biennis oil was the most active against dermatophytes, Cryptococcus neoformans, Fonsecaea pedrosoi and Aspergillus niger, and A. absinthium oil the most active against Staphylococcus strains. In addition, antioxidant (beta-carotene/linoleate model) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities were determined, and weak activities were found for these oils. PMID:18417176

Lopes-Lutz, Daíse; Alviano, Daniela S; Alviano, Celuta S; Kolodziejczyk, Paul P

2008-05-01

69

Isolation of the volatile fraction from Apium graveolens L. (Apiaceae) by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and hydrodistillation: chemical composition and antifungal activity.  

PubMed

Apium graveolens L. (wild celery), belonging to the family of Apiaceae, is a scaposus hemicryptophyte. Instead, the cultivate plant is an annual or biennial herb widely used as a spice and seasoning in food. A broad range of biological activities have been attributed to A. graveolens. These include antimicrobial activity, larvicidal activity, hepatoprotective activity, nematicidal and mosquito repellent potential and antihyperlipidaemic properties.In this study, the authors compare the composition of the volatile fractions of A. graveolens collected in natural populations in Portugal and Italy and evaluate their potential as antifungal agents.The composition of the volatile oils obtained by hydrodistillation and their antifungal activity are reported. The oils were analysed by gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods and their composition were compared with that of the volatile extracts isolated by supercritical CO2. A chemical variability in the extracts depending on the origin of the plants and on the extraction method was observed. The results showed the presence of sedanenolide, neocnidilide and neophytadiene as main components. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal lethal concentration were used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the oils against Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida guilliermondii, Candida parapsilosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale, Trichophyton verrucosum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Epidermophyton floccosum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. The oil from Italy rich in neophytadiene is the more active, with MIC values of 0.04-0.64?µL?mL(-1). Our results show that A. graveolens volatile extracts may be useful in the clinical treatment of fungal diseases. PMID:22974401

Marongiu, B; Piras, A; Porcedda, S; Falconieri, D; Maxia, A; Frau, M A; Gonçalves, M J; Cavaleiro, C; Salgueiro, L

2013-01-01

70

MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry for rapid identification of clinical fungal isolates based on ribosomal protein biomarkers.  

PubMed

This study aimed to evaluate the identification of clinical fungal isolates (yeast and molds) by protein profiling using Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS). A total of 125 clinical fungal culture isolates (yeast and filamentous fungi) were collected. The test set included 88 yeast isolates (Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida guilliermondii, Candida kefyr, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis, Candida rugosa, Candida tropicalis and Cryptococcus neoformans) and 37 isolates of molds (Alternaria spp., Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Cunninghamella spp., Histoplasma capsulatum, Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum nanum, Rhizomucor spp. and Trichophyton spp.). The correlation between MALDI TOF MS and conventional identification for all these 125 fungal isolates included in the study was 87.2% at the species level and 90.4% at the genus level. MALDI TOF MS results revealed that the correlation in yeast (n=88) identification was 100% both at the genus and species levels whereas, the correlation in mold (n=37) identification was more heterogeneous i.e. 10.81% isolates had correct identification up to the genus level, 56.7% isolates had correct identification both at the genus and species levels, whereas 32.42% isolates were deemed Not Reliable Identification (NRI). But, with the modification in sample preparation protocol for molds, there was a significant improvement in identification. 86.4% isolates had correct identification till the genus and species levels whereas, only 2.7% isolates had Not Reliable Identification. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that MALDI-TOF MS could be a possible alternative to conventional techniques both for the identification and differentiation of clinical fungal isolates. However, the main limitation of this technique is that MS identification could be more precise only if the reference spectrum of the fungal species is available in the database. PMID:25541362

Panda, Ashutosh; Ghosh, Anup K; Mirdha, Bijay R; Xess, Immaculata; Paul, Saikat; Samantaray, Jyotish C; Srinivasan, Alagiri; Khalil, Shehla; Rastogi, Neha; Dabas, Yubhisha

2015-02-01

71

Antifungal and cytotoxic activities of Nannorrhops ritchiana roots extract.  

PubMed

This atudy was designed to evaluate the antifungal and cytotoxic activities of the Nannorrhops ritchiana (Mazari Palm) 80% methanol extract (NR-M) and its four crude extracts i.e., petroleum ether (NR-A), dichloromethane (NR-B), ethyl acetate (NR-C) and butanol (NR-D). The antifungal activity was determined by agar tube dilution method against nine fungal strains; Aspergillus flavus, Trichophyton longifusis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Aspergillus flavus and Microsporum canis were susceptible to the extracts with percentage inhibition of (70-80%). Extracts exhibited significant and good antifungal activity against various fungal strains. The results were deduced by comparing with those for miconazole, amphotericin B and ketoconazole as standard drugs. The fractions of methanolic extract were assayed for their brine shrimp cytotoxic activity. They exhibited low toxicity with LC50 values ranging from 285.7 to 4350.75 ?g/mL at the concentration of obtained results warrant follow up through bioassay guided isolation of the active principles, future antiinfectious research. PMID:25362807

Rashid, Rehana; Mukhtar, Farah; Khan, Abida

2014-01-01

72

Discovery and Characterization of a Group of Fungal Polycyclic Polyketide Prenyltransferases  

PubMed Central

The prenyltransferase (PTase) gene vrtC was proposed to be involved in viridicatumtoxin (1) biosynthesis in Penicillium aethiopicum. Targeted gene deletion and reconstitution of recombinant VrtC activity in vitro established that VrtC is a geranyl transferase that catalyzes a regiospecific Friedel-Crafts alkylation of the naphthacenedione carboxamide intermediate 2 at carbon 6 with geranyl diphosphate (GPP). VrtC can function in the absence of divalent ions and can utilize similar naphthacenedione substrates, such as the acetyl-primed TAN-1612 (4). Genome mining using the VrtC protein sequence leads to the identification of a homologous group of PTase genes in the genomes of human and animal-associated fungi. Three enzymes encoded by this new subgroup of PTase genes from Neosartorya fischeri, Microsporum canis and Trichophyton tonsurans were shown to be able to catalyze transfer of dimethylallyl to several tetracyclic naphthacenedione substrates in vitro. In total, seven C5- or C10-prenylated naphthacenedione compounds were generated. The regioselectivity of these new polycyclic PTases (pcPTases) was confirmed by characterization of product 9 obtained from biotransformation of 4 in Escherichia coli expressing the N. fischeri pcPTase gene. The discovery of this new subgroup of PTases extends our enzymatic tools for modifying polycyclic compounds and enables genome mining of new prenylated polyketides. PMID:22590971

Chooi, Yit-Heng; Wang, Peng; Fang, Jinxu; Li, Yanran; Wu, Katherine; Wang, Pin; Tang, Yi

2014-01-01

73

Discovery and characterization of a group of fungal polycyclic polyketide prenyltransferases.  

PubMed

The prenyltransferase (PTase) gene vrtC was proposed to be involved in viridicatumtoxin (1) biosynthesis in Penicillium aethiopicum. Targeted gene deletion and reconstitution of recombinant VrtC activity in vitro established that VrtC is a geranyl transferase that catalyzes a regiospecific Friedel-Crafts alkylation of the naphthacenedione carboxamide intermediate 2 at carbon 6 with geranyl diphosphate. VrtC can function in the absence of divalent ions and can utilize similar naphthacenedione substrates, such as the acetyl-primed TAN-1612 (4). Genome mining using the VrtC protein sequence leads to the identification of a homologous group of PTase genes in the genomes of human and animal-associated fungi. Three enzymes encoded by this new subgroup of PTase genes from Neosartorya fischeri, Microsporum canis, and Trichophyton tonsurans were shown to be able to catalyze transfer of dimethylallyl to several tetracyclic naphthacenedione substrates in vitro. In total, seven C(5)- or C(10)-prenylated naphthacenedione compounds were generated. The regioselectivity of these new polycyclic PTases (pcPTases) was confirmed by characterization of product 9 obtained from biotransformation of 4 in Escherichia coli expressing the N. fischeri pcPTase gene. The discovery of this new subgroup of PTases extends our enzymatic tools for modifying polycyclic compounds and enables genome mining of new prenylated polyketides. PMID:22590971

Chooi, Yit-Heng; Wang, Peng; Fang, Jinxu; Li, Yanran; Wu, Katherine; Wang, Pin; Tang, Yi

2012-06-01

74

In vitro antifungal activity of Rhazya stricta.  

PubMed

Rhazya stricta is a small glabrous shrub, widely distributed throughout Western Asia from Yemen to Arabia, to the North West Province of India and abundantly found in various regions of Pakistan. Larvicidal and antifungal studies of polar and non polar aerial parts extracts of Rhazya stricta were performed using brine shrimps larvae for larvicidal study and for antifungal study microorganisms, Trichophyton longifusis, Aspergillus flavus, Candida albicans, Microsporum canis and Fusarium solani were used respectively. The methanol fraction showed significant cytotoxicity with LC50 17.809 microg/ml, having mortality rate 73.33% at highest dose. While pet-ether, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride possessed moderate to low cytotoxicity with their LC50 values 49.077 microg/ml, 95.859 microg/ml and 80.489 microg/ml respectively, ethyl acetate fraction showed no cytotoxicity. Results of antifungal studies showed that fractionated samples of methanol and chloroform possessed significant antifungal activities against, Trichophyton longifusis, Aspergillus flavus, Candida albicans and Fusarium solani respectively. Due to these promising results, further in vivo studies over R. stricta must be conducted. PMID:17604249

Khan, Saifullah; Khan, Gul Majid

2007-10-01

75

Occurrence and impact of zoonoses in pet dogs and cats at US Air Force bases.  

PubMed

A descriptive epidemiologic study was conducted to quantitate the occurrence of zoonoses in pet animals (almost exclusively dogs and cats) at 30 Air Force bases in nine regions of the United States during 1980 and 1981. Reviews of reported cases of pet-associated zoonoses in humans at these bases were included. Occurrence of a zoonotic disease in dogs and cats was expressed as a ratio of reported cases per 100 rabies vaccinations (cs/Crv). Overall, the four zoonoses reported most frequently from these pets were hookworms, roundworms, tapeworms, and fleas. Annual ratios revealed geographic variations: for example, hookworms in dogs and cats in the southeast ranged from 12.3 to 9.4 cs/Crv; in the northern Great Plains, hookworms ranged from 0.9 to 0.4 cs/Crv. Dermatomycoses in the southeast ranged from 1.3 to 1.1 cs/Crv, and in Alaska from 0.3 to 0.2 cs/Crv. Quarterly zoonoses occurrence revealed seasonal variations in several regions. Reports of zoonoses in people from these bases indicated that five less frequent zoonoses in dogs and cats (Microsporum canis dermatomycosis, fleas, Sarcoptes scabiei var canis, Gram-positive bacterial infections, and rabies) presented greater acute threats to humans than did the four most frequent zoonoses reported from their pets. PMID:6496816

Warner, R D

1984-11-01

76

Occurrence and impact of zoonoses in pet dogs and cats at US Air Force bases.  

PubMed Central

A descriptive epidemiologic study was conducted to quantitate the occurrence of zoonoses in pet animals (almost exclusively dogs and cats) at 30 Air Force bases in nine regions of the United States during 1980 and 1981. Reviews of reported cases of pet-associated zoonoses in humans at these bases were included. Occurrence of a zoonotic disease in dogs and cats was expressed as a ratio of reported cases per 100 rabies vaccinations (cs/Crv). Overall, the four zoonoses reported most frequently from these pets were hookworms, roundworms, tapeworms, and fleas. Annual ratios revealed geographic variations: for example, hookworms in dogs and cats in the southeast ranged from 12.3 to 9.4 cs/Crv; in the northern Great Plains, hookworms ranged from 0.9 to 0.4 cs/Crv. Dermatomycoses in the southeast ranged from 1.3 to 1.1 cs/Crv, and in Alaska from 0.3 to 0.2 cs/Crv. Quarterly zoonoses occurrence revealed seasonal variations in several regions. Reports of zoonoses in people from these bases indicated that five less frequent zoonoses in dogs and cats (Microsporum canis dermatomycosis, fleas, Sarcoptes scabiei var canis, Gram-positive bacterial infections, and rabies) presented greater acute threats to humans than did the four most frequent zoonoses reported from their pets. PMID:6496816

Warner, R D

1984-01-01

77

Antifungal activity of different neem leaf extracts and the nimonol against some important human pathogens.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of aqueous, ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts from neem leaves on growth of some human pathogens (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus, Candida albicans and Microsporum gypseum) in vitro. Different concentrations (5, 10, 15 and 20%) prepared from these extracts inhibited the growth of the test pathogens and the effect gradually increased with concentration. The 20% ethyl acetate extract gave the strongest inhibition compared with the activity obtained by the same concentration of the other extracts. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis of ethyl acetate extract showed the presence of a main component (nimonol) which was purified and chemically confirmed by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopic analysis. The 20% ethyl acetate extract lost a part of its antifungal effect after pooling out the nimonol and this loss in activity was variable on test pathogens. The purified nimonol as a separate compound did not show any antifungal activity when assayed against all the six fungal pathogens. PMID:24031718

Mahmoud, D A; Hassanein, N M; Youssef, K A; Abou Zeid, M A

2011-07-01

78

Metal based isatin-derived sulfonamides: their synthesis, characterization, coordination behavior and biological activity.  

PubMed

Some isatin derived sulfonamides and their transition metal [Co(II), Cu(II), Ni(II), Zn(II)] complexes have been synthesized and characterized. The structure of synthesized compounds and their nature of bonding have been inferred on the basis of their physical (magnetic susceptibility and conductivity measurements), analytical (elemental analyses) and spectral (IR, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR) properties. An octahedral geometry has been suggested for Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) and square-planar for Cu(II) complexes. In order to assess the antibacterial and antifungal behavior, the ligands and their metal(II) complexes were screened for their in vitro antibacterial activity against four Gram-negative species, Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi and two Gram-positive species, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis and, for in vitro antifungal activity against Trichophyton longifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani and Candida glaberata. In vitro cytotoxic properties of all the compounds were also studied against Artemia salina by brine shrimp bioassay. The results of average antibacterial/antifungal activity showed that zinc(II) complexes were found to be the most active against one or more bacterial/fungal strains as compared to the other metal complexes. PMID:18825557

Chohan, Zahid H; Supuran, Claudiu T; Ben Hadda, Taibi; Nasim, Faiz-Ul-Hassan; Khan, Khalid M

2009-06-01

79

The dog mite, Demodex canis: prevalence, fungal co-infection, reactions to light, and hair follicle apoptosis.  

PubMed

Infection rate, reaction to light, and hair follicle apoptosis are examined in the dogmite, Demodex canis Leydig (Prostigmata: Demodicidae), in dogs from the northern area of Taiwan. An analysis of relevant samples revealed 7.2% (73/1013) prevalence of D. canis infection. Infection during the investigation peaked each winter, with an average prevalence of 12.5% (32/255). The infection rates significantly varied in accordance with month, sex, age, and breed (p < 0.05). Most of the lesions were discovered on the backs of the infected animals, where the infection rate was 52.1% (38/73) (P < 0.05). The epidemiologic analysis of infection based on landscape area factor, found that employing a map-overlapping method showed a higher infection rate in the eastern distribution of Taiwan's northern area than other areas. Isolation tests for Microsporum canis Bodin (Onygenales: Arthrodermataceae) and Trichophyton mentagrophyte Robin (Blanchard) on the D. canis infected dogs revealed prevalence rates of 4.4% (2/45) and 2.2% (1/45), respectively. Observations demonstrated that D. canis slowly moved from a light area to a dark area. Skin samples were examined for cellular apoptosis by activated caspase3 immunohistochemical staining. Cells that surrounded the infected hair follicles were activated caspase3-positive, revealing cell apoptosis in infected follicles via the activation of caspase3. PMID:21867442

Tsai, Yu-Jen; Chung, Wen-Cheng; Wang, Lian-Chen; Ju, Yu-Ten; Hong, Chin-Lin; Tsai, Yu-Yang; Li, Yi-Hung; Wu, Ying-Ling

2011-01-01

80

The Dog Mite, Demodex canis: Prevalence, Fungal Co-Infection, Reactions to Light, and Hair Follicle Apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Infection rate, reaction to light, and hair follicle apoptosis are examined in the dogmite, Demodex canis Leydig (Prostigmata: Demodicidae), in dogs from the northern area of Taiwan. An analysis of relevant samples revealed 7.2% (73/1013) prevalence of D. canis infection. Infection during the investigation peaked each winter, with an average prevalence of 12.5% (32/255). The infection rates significantly varied in accordance with month, sex, age, and breed (p < 0.05). Most of the lesions were discovered on the backs of the infected animals, where the infection rate was 52.1% (38/73) (P < 0.05). The epidemiologic analysis of infection based on landscape area factor, found that employing a map-overlapping method showed a higher infection rate in the eastern distribution of Taiwan's northern area than other areas. Isolation tests for Microsporum canis Bodin (Onygenales: Arthrodermataceae) and Trichophyton mentagrophyte Robin (Blanchard) on the D. canis infected dogs revealed prevalence rates of 4.4% (2/45) and 2.2% (1/45), respectively. Observations demonstrated that D. canis slowly moved from a light area to a dark area. Skin samples were examined for cellular apoptosis by activated caspase3 immunohistochemical staining. Cells that surrounded the infected hair follicles were activated caspase3-positive, revealing cell apoptosis in infected follicles via the activation of caspase3. PMID:21867442

Tsai, Yu-Jen; Chung, Wen-Cheng; Wang, Lian-Chen; Ju, Yu-Ten; Hong, Chin-Lin; Tsai, Yu-Yang; Li, Yi-Hung; Wu, Ying-Ling

2011-01-01

81

Antidermatophytic activity of pyrazolo[3,4-c]isothiazoles: a preliminary approach on 4-chlorophenyl derivative for evaluation of mutagenic and clastogenic effects on bacteria and human chromosomes in vitro.  

PubMed

The antifungal activity of eight pyrazolo[3,4-c]isothiazole derivatives was evaluated on five dermatophytes: three were of an anthropophilic species (i.e., Epidermophyton floccosum, Trichophyton rubrum, and Trichophyton tonsurans) and two were of a geophilic species (i.e., Microsporum gypseum and Nannizzia cajetani). The new compounds proved to be unlikely effective in inhibiting the growth of the different strains. In general, the fungi parasitic on man were more sensitive than the geophilic species. This fact can be positive for a possible practical-therapeutic utilization of this class of compounds. To verify their possible use against fungi of medical interest, the most interesting substance at low doses, 6-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-methyl-6H-pyrazolo[3,4-c]isothiazol-3-amine, was chosen to perform in vitro genotoxicity tests using the following: Salmonella/microsome test (SAL), sister chromatid excange test (SCE), cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus test (CBMN), and its improvement (Ara-C/CBMN). The compound showed no mutagenic activity at low doses, whereas at the highest dose (100 µg/mL), it caused a generalized cytotoxic effect. The high growth inhibition exerted on fungi at the lowest dose and the concomitant lack of genotoxicity, at least until the dose of 50 µg/mL, might suggest the compound as a safe candidate as an antidermatophytic substance. PMID:21649488

Rossi, Damiano; Mares, Donatella; Romagnoli, Carlo; Andreotti, Elisa; Manfredini, Stefano; Vicentini, Chiara Beatrice

2011-07-01

82

Antimicrobial effect of resveratrol on dermatophytes and bacterial pathogens of the skin.  

PubMed

The phytoalexin resveratrol is commonly found in food and drinks, including red wine, grapes, and peanuts. Many studies have shown that this compound has anti-inflammatory properties, and it has been ascribed as having health benefits that help to prevent cancer and coronary heart disease. A treatment that combines antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory actions may be desirable for alleviating many skin conditions that range in severity. Therefore, we evaluated the antimicrobial activity of resveratrol against bacteria and dermatophytes that are major etiologic agents of human skin infections. Using the broth microdilution protocol of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) M7-A5, growth of the bacterial species Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was inhibited at 171-342 microg/mL of resveratrol in the solvent dimethyl sulfoxide. Using the NCCLS protocol M38-P, activity against the fungal species Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton rubrum, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Microsporum gypseum was also tested. The growth of dermatophytes was inhibited at 25-50 microg/mL of resveratrol. Thus, this study indicates a novel application for resveratrol, a molecule of plant defense, to combat human fungal pathogens. Resveratrol and its analogs may have wide application to skin conditions that afflict a significant portion of our population, and may also have promising clinical potentials in diabetic wounds. PMID:11841782

Chan, Marion Man-Ying

2002-01-15

83

Clotrimazole: a review of its antifungal activity and therapeutic efficacy.  

PubMed

Clotrimazole 2, a synthetic imidazole derivative, is primarily used locally in the treatment of vaginal and skin infections due to yeasts and dermatophytes. In vitro, it is most active against Candida spp., Trichophyton spp., Microsporum spp. and Malazzesia fuffur (Pityrosporon orbiculare). In addition, it has some in vitro activity against certain Gram-positive bacteria, and at very high concentrations has activity against Trichomonas spp. In the treatment of vaginal candidiasis, clotrimazole vaginal tablets have produced cure rates comparable with those of conventional nystatin vaginal tablets. There have been no published comparisons with nystatin vaginal cream or foaming vaginal tablets - nystatin dosage forms preferred by some clinicians. Cootrimazole has also been successful in patients who had failed to respond to other antifungal agents such as nystatin and amphotericin B. Results in trichomonal vaginitis are not impressive. Skin infections caused by Candida or dermatophytes have been effectively treated with topical application of clotrimazole. In comparative trials, clotrimazole cream has been as effective as Whitfield's ointment and tolnaftate in the treatment of dermatophytoses, and as effective as nystatin in cutaneous candidiasis. Clotrimazole topical preparations are generally well tolerated, but local irritation has necessitated withdrawal of therapy in a few cases. Candidal septicemia and urinary and pulmonary candidiasis have been cured with oral clotrimazole therapy. Results in other types of serious fungal infections, including pulmonary aspergillosis, have been disappointing. A limiting factor in oral clotrimazole therapy is the high incidence of gastro-intestinal disturbances and neurological reactions. PMID:1097234

Sawyer, P R; Brogden, R N; Pinder, R M; Speight, T M; Avery

1975-01-01

84

Preparation and Characterization of Liposomes Containing Essential Oil of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Leaf  

PubMed Central

Background The increased incidence of fungal resistance has necessitated the need to search for new antifungal agents. Objective The main objectives of the present study were to investigate the effectiveness of the essential oil of Eucalyptus camaldulensis on dermatophytes growth and to formulate and characterize a liposomal gel loaded with the essential oil. Materials and Methods The essential oil extracted from the leaves of E. camaldulensis was analyzed by GC-MS. The antifungal activity of this essential oil was determined against Microsporum canis, M. gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum and T. verrucosum, using the well diffusion method. Liposomes were prepared by the freeze-thaw method and evaluation of size distribution was performed using a particle size analyzer. The liposomal gel was prepared using ‘hydroxethyl cellulose (HEC) as the gelling agent. The rheologic characteristics were determined by a Brookfield viscometer. Results The results showed that the minimum inhibitory volume of the essential oil was 0.125 ml and 95 ± 0.57% of the essential oil was successfully entrapped in the liposomes. The main constituents of the essential oil detected by GC-MS were; phenol, 1, 8 cineole, limonene, alcohol, pinene and terpinen. Results of particle size determination showed a wide range from 40.5 to 298 nm for the different formulations. No significant thixotropy was observed in the rheogram of the formulated liposomal gel. Conclusion Liposomal gel formulation of the essential oil may lead to improved antifungal activity. PMID:24624167

Moghimipour, Eskandar; Aghel, Nasrin; Zarei Mahmoudabadi, Ali; Ramezani, Zahra; Handali, Somayeh

2012-01-01

85

In vitro activity of tea tree oil against Candida albicans mycelial conversion and other pathogenic fungi.  

PubMed

The antifungal activity of Melaleuca alternifolia Maiden (Myrtaceae) essential oil against yeasts (Candida spp., Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Debaryomyces hansenii) and dermatophytes (Microsporum spp. and Tricophyton spp.) is reported. We focused on the ability of tea tree oil to inhibit Candida albicans conversion from the yeast to the pathogenic mycelial form. Moreover we carried out broth microdilution test and contact tests to evaluate the killing time. M. alternifolia essential oil inhibited the conversion of C. albicans from yeast to the mycelial form at a concentration of 0.16% (v/v). The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranged from 0.12% to 0.50% (v/v) for yeasts and 0.12% to 1% (v/v) for dermatophytes; the cytocidal activity was generally expressed at the same concentration. These results, if considered along with the lipophilic nature of the oil which enables it to penetrate the skin, suggest it may be suitable for topical therapeutic use in the treatment of fungal mucosal and cutaneous infections. PMID:11589479

D'Auria, F D; Laino, L; Strippoli, V; Tecca, M; Salvatore, G; Battinelli, L; Mazzanti, G

2001-08-01

86

The fungicidal activity of novel nanoemulsion (X8W60PC) against clinically important yeast and filamentous fungi.  

PubMed

Surfactant nanoemulsions are water in oil preparations that proved to have a broad spectrum biocidal activity against a variety of microorganisms including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, spores and enveloped viruses. These preparations are non-toxic to the skin, mucous membrane and gastrointestinal tissues at biocidal concentrations. In this study, 0.1% of the nanoemulsion designated X8W60PC has shown fungicidal activity against yeast including Candida albicans and C. tropicalis in 15 minutes. C. tropicalis was more sensitive than C. albicans, which required a longer time or a higher concentration of the nanoemulsion to achieve killing. Neutral to slightly alkaline pH was more effective in killing the yeast cells than acidic pH. Using the minimum inhibitory concentration assay, 0.08% of the nanoemulsion was inhibitory to C. albicans, and parapsilosis and filamentous fungi including Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Aspergillus fumigatus and Fusarium oxysporum. None of the individual ingredients was as effective a fungicidal as the nanoemulsion at equivalent concentration. This shows that the nanoemulsion structure is an important factor in the anti-fungal activity. The X8W60PC has great potential as a topical anti-fungal agent and further investigation into the mechanism of fungicidal action is warranted. PMID:12650595

Myc, Andrzej; Vanhecke, Thomas; Landers, Jeffrey J; Hamouda, Tarek; Baker, James R

2002-01-01

87

Isolation and Molecular Identification of Keratinophilic Fungi from Public Parks Soil in Shiraz, Iran  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Keratinophilic fungi are an important group of fungi that live in soil. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify keratinophilic fungi from the soil of different parks in Shiraz. Materials and Methods. A total of 196 soil samples from 43 parks were collected. Isolation of the fungi was performed by hair bait technique. The isolated colonies were identified by morphologic feature of macro- and microconidia and molecular method, using DNA sequence analysis. ITS region of ribosomal DNA was amplified and the PCR products were sequenced. Results. 411 isolates from 22 genera were identified. Fusarium (23.8%), Chrysosporium (13.13%), Acremonium (12.65%), Penicillium (12.39%), Microsporum gypseum (1.94%), Bionectria ochroleuca (1.21%), Bipolaris spicifera (1.21%), Scedosporium apiospermum (0.82%), Phialophora reptans (0.82%), Cephalosporium curtipes (0.49%), Scedosporium dehoogii (0.24%), Ochroconis constricta (0.24%), Nectria mauritiicola (0.49%), Chaetomium (0.49%), Scopulariopsis (0.24%), Malbranchea (0.24%), and Tritirachium (0.24%) were the most important isolates. Most of the fungi were isolated from the soils with the PH range of 7 to 8. Conclusion. Our study results showed that many keratinophilic fungi isolated from the parks soil are important for public health and children are an important group at a high risk of being exposed to these fungi. PMID:23956993

Pakshir, Keyvan; Rahimi Ghiasi, Moosa; Zomorodian, Kamiar; Gharavi, Ali Reza

2013-01-01

88

Inhibitory effect of linalool-rich essential oil from Lippia alba on the peptidase and keratinase activities of dermatophytes.  

PubMed

Abstract Lippia alba (Miller) N.E. Brown is an aromatic plant known locally as "Erva-cidreira-do-campo" that has great importance in Brazilian folk medicine. The aim of our study was to evaluate the antidermatophytic potential of linalool-rich essential oil (EO) from L. alba and analyze the ability of this EO to inhibit peptidase and keratinase activities, which are important virulence factors in dermatophytes. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of L. alba EO were 39, 156 and 312 µg/mL against Trichophyton rubrum, Epidermophyton floccosum and Microsporum gypseum, respectively. To evaluate the influence of L. alba EO on the proteolytic and keratinolytic activities of these dermatophytes, specific inhibitory assays were performed. The results indicated that linalool-rich EO from L. alba inhibited the activity of proteases and keratinases secreted from dermatophytes, and this inhibition could be a possible mechanism of action against dermatophytes. Due to the effective antidermatophytic activity of L. alba EO, further experiments should be performed to explore the potential of this linalool-rich EO as an alternative antifungal therapy. PMID:23323991

Costa, Danielle Cristina Machado; Vermelho, Alane Beatriz; Almeida, Catia Amancio; de Souza Dias, Edilma Paraguai; Cedrola, Sabrina Martins Lage; Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Alviano, Daniela Sales

2014-02-01

89

Antifungal activity, toxicity and chemical composition of the essential oil of Coriandrum sativum L. fruits.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to test the antifungal activity, toxicity and chemical composition of essential oil from C. sativum L. fruits. The essential oil, obtained by hydro-distillation, was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Linalool was the main constituent (58.22%). The oil was considered bioactive, showing an LC?? value of 23 ?g/mL in the Artemia salina lethality test. The antifungal activity was evaluated against Microsporum canis and Candida spp. by the agar-well diffusion method and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) were established by the broth microdilution method. The essential oil induced growth inhibition zones of 28 ± 5.42 and 9.25 ± 0.5 for M. canis and Candida spp. respectively. The MICs and MFCs for M. canis strains ranged from 78 to 620 and 150 to 1,250 ?g/mL, and the MICs and MFCs for Candida spp strains ranged from 310 to 620 and 620 to 1,250 ?g/mL, respectively. C. sativum essential oil is active in vitro against M. canis and Candida spp. demonstrating good antifungal activity. PMID:22785271

Soares, Bruna V; Morais, Selene M; dos Santos Fontenelle, Raquel Oliveira; Queiroz, Vanessa A; Vila-Nova, Nadja S; Pereira, Christiana M C; Brito, Edy S; Neto, Manoel A S; Brito, Erika H S; Cavalcante, Carolina S P; Castelo-Branco, Débora S C M; Rocha, Marcos F G

2012-01-01

90

Myrtus communis L. as source of a bioactive and safe essential oil.  

PubMed

In Algeria, Myrtus communis L. is distributed throughout the Tell Atlas and the coastal regions of Algiers and Constantine. The leaves are used in respiratory disorders, diarrhea and hemorrhoids. The aims of this work were to evaluate the antifungal and anti-inflammatory potential of well characterized essential oils (EO). Since EO can be applied by inhalation, dermal application and oral administration, we used several mammalian cell lines to assess safe bioactive doses. The chemical composition of two samples was investigated by GC-FID, GC-MS and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. Monoterpene derivatives are the main compounds: ?-pinene (50.8 and 33.6%), 1,8-cineole (21.9 and 13.3%), linalool (2.7 and 14.8%), and linalyl acetate (0.5 and 9.5%). The antifungal evaluation revealed that the oils were more active against Cryptococcus neoformans (yeast) and Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton rubrum (dermatophytes). The anti-inflammatory potential was evaluated using an in vitro model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages. Assessment of cell viability was made through the MTT assay. Both oils were able to significantly inhibit NO production, without affecting cell viability, in concentrations up to 0.64?mg/mL. These promising results, disclose bioactive concentrations of Myrtle essential oils with a safety profile suggesting a potential oral and topical application or use by inhalation. PMID:25446467

Bouzabata, Amel; Cabral, Célia; Gonçalves, Maria José; Cruz, Maria Teresa; Bighelli, Ange; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Casanova, Joseph; Tomi, Félix; Salgueiro, Ligia

2015-01-01

91

Investigation of chemical compounds, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of teucrium arduini L. (lamiaceae).  

PubMed

In this paper chemical composition of the essential oil (analysed by GC and GC-MS), the content of phenolic compounds (analysed by HPLC), quantity of total phenols and total flavonoids (analysed by UV/Vis spectrophotometer), antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of ethanolic extracts were investigated in endemic Teucrium arduini L. in population of Mt Biokovo (Croatia). The oil was characterized by a high concentration of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (70.4%) of which ?-caryophyllene (35.2%) and germacrene D (18.7%) being the major compounds. Three phenolic compounds (quercetin, ferulic acid and rosmarinic acid) were identified and quantified in ethanolic extract of T. arduini using HPLC. The results also showed that T. arduini is a source of polyphenolic and other antioxidants with radical-scavenging and chelating properties. The ethanol extracts prepared from the leaf of T. arduini showed broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity on Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Aspergillus brasiliensis, which are susceptible on concentration below or equal to 4.00 mg/mL, whilst Microsporum gypseum was resistant at investigated concentrations. PMID:23597042

Kremer, Dario; Kosir, Iztok Joze; Kosalec, Ivan; Koncic, Marijana Zovko; Potocnik, Tanja; Cerenak, Andreja; Bezic, Nada; Srecec, Sinisa; Dunkic, Valerija

2013-08-01

92

The Prevalence and Pattern of Superficial Fungal Infections among School Children in Ile-Ife, South-Western Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Fungal infections of the skin and nails are common global problems with attendant morbidity among affected individuals. Children are mostly affected due to predisposing factors such as overcrowding and low socioeconomic factors. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and the clinical patterns of superficial fungal infections among primary school children in Ile-Ife. A multistage sampling was conducted to select eight hundred pupils from ten primary schools in Ile-Ife. Data on epidemiological characteristics and clinical history was collected using a semistructured questionnaire and skin scrapings were done. The prevalence of superficial fungal infections among the 800 respondents was 35.0%. Male pupils constituted 51.0% of respondents while the females were 49.0%. The mean age for all the respondents was 9.42 ± 2.00. Tinea capitis was the commonest infection with a prevalence of 26.9% and tinea unguium, tinea corporis, and tinea faciei had a prevalence of 0.8%, 0.6%, and 0.5%, respectively. Tinea manuum had the least prevalence of 0.1%. Pityriasis versicolor had a prevalence of 4.4%. Microsporum audouinii was the leading organism isolated. The study shows that the prevalence of superficial fungal infection (SFI) among primary school children in Ile-Ife is high with tinea capitis as the commonest SFI. PMID:25574161

Oke, Olaide Olutoyin; Onayemi, Olaniyi; Olasode, Olayinka Abimbola; Omisore, Akinlolu Gabriel; Oninla, Olumayowa Abimbola

2014-01-01

93

Inhibitors of the fungal cell wall. Synthesis of 4-aryl-4-N-arylamine-1-butenes and related compounds with inhibitory activities on beta(1-3) glucan and chitin synthases.  

PubMed

As part of our project devoted to the search for antifungal agents, which act via a selective mode of action, we synthesized a series of new 4-aryl- or 4-alkyl-N-arylamine-1-butenes and transformed some of them into 2-substituted 4-methyl-tetrahydroquinolines and quinolines by using a novel three-step synthesis. Results obtained in agar dilution assays have shown that 4-aryl homoallylamines not possessing halogen in their structures, tetrahydroquinolines and quinolines, display a range of antifungal properties in particular against Epidermophyton floccosum and Microsporum canis. Regarding the mode of action, all active compounds showed in vitro inhibitory activities against beta(1-3) glucan-synthase and mainly against chitin-synthase. These enzymes catalyze the synthesis of beta(1-3) glucan and chitin, respectively, major polymers of the fungal cell wall. Since fungal but not mammalian cells are encased in a cell wall, its inhibition may represent a useful mode of action for these antifungal compounds. PMID:10819157

Urbina, J M; Cortés, J C; Palma, A; López, S N; Zacchino, S A; Enriz, R D; Ribas, J C; Kouznetzov, V V

2000-04-01

94

Anti-microbial activity and anti-complement activity of extracts obtained from selected Hawaiian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Selected plants having a history of use in Polynesian traditional medicine for the treatment of infectious disease were investigated for anti-viral, anti-fungal and anti-bacterial activity in vitro. Extracts from Scaevola sericea, Psychotria hawaiiensis, Pipturus albidus and Eugenia malaccensis showed selective anti-viral activity against Herpes Simplex Virus-1 and 2 and Vesicular Stomatitis Virus. Aleurites moluccana extracts showed anti-bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, while Pipturus albidus and Eugenia malaccensis extracts showed growth inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. Psychotria hawaiiensis and Solanum niger inhibited growth of the fungi Microsporum canis, Trichophyton rubrum and Epidermophyton floccosum, while Ipomoea sp., Pipturus albidus, Scaevola sericea, Eugenia malaccensis, Piper methysticum, Barringtonia asiatica and Adansonia digitata extracts showed anti-fungal activity to a lesser extent. Eugenia malaccensis was also found to inhibit the classical pathway of complement suggesting that an immunological basis for its in vivo activity was identified. This study has confirmed some of the ethnobotanical reports of Hawaiian medicinal plants having curative properties against infections using biological assays in vitro. PMID:8786654

Locher, C P; Burch, M T; Mower, H F; Berestecky, J; Davis, H; Van Poel, B; Lasure, A; Vanden Berghe, D A; Vlietinck, A J

1995-11-17

95

Familial keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans associated with woolly hair.  

PubMed

Keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans (KFSD) is a rare inherited disorder of keratinization clinically characterized by diffuse follicular hyperkeratosis, progressive scarring alopecia of scalp, eyebrows and eyelashes, corneal dystrophy and photophobia. Woolly hair is a hereditary condition, transmitted as an autosomal dominant or recessive trait, usually seen in Caucasians at birth or shortly after, in which there are curly, thick, often heavily pigmented hairs. We report two cases, a son and his mother, in whom KFSD occurred in association with woolly hair. In addition, various dental anomalies, including agenesis, inclusions and teeth malformations, were present in the child. Interestingly, both patients simultaneously developed an inflammatory tinea capitis caused by Microsporum canis. To our knowledge, the association of KFSD with woolly hair has not been described. The dental anomalies found in the child are intriguing, as they have never been reported previously in patients with KFSD. Finally, the concomitant onset of inflammatory tinea capitis in both patients may be explained by the enhanced susceptibility to fungal infection in keratinizing disorders. PMID:17651168

Lacarrubba, Francesco; Dall'Oglio, Federica; Rossi, Alfredo; Schwartz, Robert A; Micali, Giuseppe

2007-08-01

96

The Prevalence and Pattern of Superficial Fungal Infections among School Children in Ile-Ife, South-Western Nigeria.  

PubMed

Fungal infections of the skin and nails are common global problems with attendant morbidity among affected individuals. Children are mostly affected due to predisposing factors such as overcrowding and low socioeconomic factors. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and the clinical patterns of superficial fungal infections among primary school children in Ile-Ife. A multistage sampling was conducted to select eight hundred pupils from ten primary schools in Ile-Ife. Data on epidemiological characteristics and clinical history was collected using a semistructured questionnaire and skin scrapings were done. The prevalence of superficial fungal infections among the 800 respondents was 35.0%. Male pupils constituted 51.0% of respondents while the females were 49.0%. The mean age for all the respondents was 9.42 ± 2.00. Tinea capitis was the commonest infection with a prevalence of 26.9% and tinea unguium, tinea corporis, and tinea faciei had a prevalence of 0.8%, 0.6%, and 0.5%, respectively. Tinea manuum had the least prevalence of 0.1%. Pityriasis versicolor had a prevalence of 4.4%. Microsporum audouinii was the leading organism isolated. The study shows that the prevalence of superficial fungal infection (SFI) among primary school children in Ile-Ife is high with tinea capitis as the commonest SFI. PMID:25574161

Oke, Olaide Olutoyin; Onayemi, Olaniyi; Olasode, Olayinka Abimbola; Omisore, Akinlolu Gabriel; Oninla, Olumayowa Abimbola

2014-01-01

97

Screening of selected medicinal plants for in vitro antidermatophytic activity.  

PubMed

Different solvent extracts of leaves of Achyranthes aspera, Aegle marmelos, Cleistanthus collinus, Curcuma aromatica and Strychnos nux-vomica were screened against dermatophytes viz., Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, Microsporum gypseum, M. canis and Epidermophyton floccossum var. nigricans. The mean zones of inhibition were between 7.1 and 26.5mm. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC) were from 7.81 to 500 and from 15.62 to 1000?g/mL respectively. The highest mean zone of inhibition (26.5mm), the lowest MIC value (7.81?g/ml) and the lowest MFC (15.62?g/ml) were observed in ethyl acetate extract of A. aspera against T. rubrum. The standard antifungal drug ketoconazole (10?g/disc) was used as the positive control and mean zones of inhibition were from 23 to 29mm. Further separation of active principle from ethyl acetate extract of A. aspera is under progress. PMID:24135649

Kalaivanan, C; Chandrasekaran, M; Venkatesalu, V

2013-12-01

98

In vitro microbiological evaluation of 1,1'-(5,5'-(1,4-phenylene)bis(3-aryl-1H-pyrazole-5,1-(4H,5H)-diyl))diethanones, novel bisacetylated pyrazoles  

PubMed Central

Novel 1,1'-(5,5'-(1,4-phenylene)bis(3-aryl-1H-pyrazole-5,1-(4H,5H)-diyl))diethanones 7-12 were tested for their antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion and twofold serial dilution method against the tested bacterial and fungal strains. Compounds 7 against Micrococcus luteus, 8 against ?-Heamolytic streptococcus, M. luteus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Microsporum gypseum, 9 against Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella flexneri, Vibreo cholerae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus flavus, Mucor indicus, 10 against Salmonella typhii, S. flexneri, M. gypseum, 11 against K. pneumonia, M. gypseum, 12 against K. pneumonia, and M. gypseum show superior zone of inhibitions and exhibited excellent antibacterial and antifungal activities at a MIC value of 6.25 ?g/mL. Moreover, all the tested compounds 7-12 revealed promising antitubercular activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and INH-resistant M. tuberculosis. Compounds 8 against M. tuberculosis and 11 against INH-resistant M. tuberculosis exhibited the percentage of reduction in RLU at 89 and 85%, respectively. PMID:22373408

2011-01-01

99

Nucleotide sequence analysis of beta tubulin gene in a wide range of dermatophytes.  

PubMed

We investigated the resolving power of the beta tubulin protein-coding gene (BT2) for systematic study of dermatophyte fungi. Initially, 144 standard and clinical strains belonging to 26 species in the genera Trichophyton, Microsporum, and Epidermophyton were identified by internal transcribe spacer (ITS) sequencing. Subsequently, BT2 was partially amplified in all strains, and sequence analysis performed after construction of a BT2 database that showed length ranged from approximately 723 (T. ajelloi) to 808 nucleotides (M. persicolor) in different species. Intraspecific sequence variation was found in some species, but T. tonsurans, T. equinum, T. concentricum, T. verrucosum, T. rubrum, T. violaceum, T. eriotrephon, E. floccosum, M. canis, M. ferrugineum, and M. audouinii were invariant. The sequences were found to be relatively conserved among different strains of the same species. The species with the closest resemblance were Arthroderma benhamiae and T. concentricum and T. tonsurans and T. equinum with 100% and 99.8% identity, respectively; the most distant species were M. persicolor and M. amazonicum. The dendrogram obtained from BT2 topology was almost compatible with the species concept based on ITS sequencing, and similar clades and species were distinguished in the BT2 tree. Here, beta tubulin was characterized in a wide range of dermatophytes in order to assess intra- and interspecies variation and resolution and was found to be a taxonomically valuable gene. PMID:25079222

Rezaei-Matehkolaei, Ali; Mirhendi, Hossein; Makimura, Koichi; de Hoog, G Sybren; Satoh, Kazuo; Najafzadeh, Mohammad Javad; Shidfar, Mohammad Reza

2014-10-01

100

An ancient plant Lawsonia inermis (henna): Determination of in vitro antifungal activity against dermatophytes species.  

PubMed

World is endowed with a rich wealth of medicinal plants. There is a widespread belief that green medicines are healthier and more harmless or safer than synthetic ones. Medicinal plants have been used to cure a number of diseases. The ancient plant Lawsonia inermis or henna is used as medicinal plant because of its attributed strong fungicidal, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antibacterial, virucidal, antiparasitic, antiamoebiasis, astringent, antihemorrhagic, hypotensive, sedative, anticancer effect and possible anti-sweating properties. In this study, we investigated antifungal activity of L. inermis against clinical dermatophytes species. This study was carried out using 70 clinical isolates of dermatophytes representing six different species; 44 Trichophyton rubrum, 8 Trichophyton mentagrophytes, 6 Microsporum canis, 6 Trichophyton tonsurans, 4 Epidermophyton floccosum, and 2 Trichophyton violaceum. The antifungal activity of L. inermis (henna) was determined by agar diffusion method and henna was used as paste form. Henna paste showed the high antifungal activity against all dermatophytes species (20 to 50mm inhibition zone). PMID:25442917

Gozubuyuk, G S; Aktas, E; Yigit, N

2014-12-01

101

Metal-based carboxamide-derived compounds endowed with antibacterial and antifungal activity.  

PubMed

A series of three bioactive thiourea (carboxamide) derivatives, N-(dipropylcarbamothioyl)-thiophene-2-carboxamide (L(1)), N-(dipropylcarbamothioyl)-5-methylthiophene-2-carboxamide (L(2)) and 5-bromo-N-(dipropylcarbamothioyl)furan-2-carboxamide (L(3)) and their cobalt(II), copper(II), nickel(II) and zinc(II) complexes (1)-(12) have been synthesized and characterized by their IR,(1)H-NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and elemental analysis data. The Crystal structure of one of the ligand, N-(dipropylcarbamothioyl)thiophene-2-carboxamide (L(1)) and its nickel(II) and copper(II) complexes were determined from single crystal X-ray diffraction data. All the ligands and metal(II) complexes have been subjected to in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activity against six bacterial species (Escherichia coli. Shigella flexneri. Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Salmonella typhi. Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and for antifungal activity against six fungal strains (Trichophyton longifusus. Candida albicans. Aspergillus flavus. Microsporum canis. Fusarium solani and Candida glabrata). The in vitro antibacterial and antifungal bioactivity data showed the metal(II) complexes to be more potent than the parent ligands against one or more bacterial and fungal strains. PMID:23914928

Hanif, Muhammad; Chohan, Zahid H; Winum, Jean-Yves; Akhtar, Javeed

2014-08-01

102

Design, spectral characterization and biological studies of transition metal(II) complexes with triazole Schiff bases.  

PubMed

A new series of three biologically active triazole derived Schiff base ligands L(1)-L(3) have been synthesized in equimolar reaction of 3-amino-1H-1,2,4-triazole with pyrrol-2-carboxaldehyde, 4-bromo-thiophene-2-carboxaldehyde, and 5-iodo-2-hydroxy benzaldehyde. The prepared Schiff bases were used for further complex formation reaction with different metal elements like Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) as chlorides by using a molar ratio of ligand:metal as 2:1. The structure and bonding nature of all the compounds were identified by their physical, spectral and analytical data. All the metal(II) complexes possessed an octahedral geometry except the Cu(II) complexes which showed a distorted octahedral geometry. All the synthesized compounds, were studied for their in vitro antibacterial, and antifungal activities, against four Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi) and two Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) bacterial strains and against six fungal strains (Trichophyton longifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani and Candida glabrata) by using agar-well diffusion method. It has been shown that all the synthesized compounds showed moderate to significant antibacterial activity against one or more bacterial strains. In vitro Brine Shrimp bioassay was also carried out to investigate the cytotoxic properties of these compounds. The data also revealed that the metal complexes showed better activity than the ligands due to chelation/coordination. PMID:23277183

Hanif, Muhammad; Chohan, Zahid H

2013-03-01

103

Cutaneous Bacterial Species from Lithobates catesbeianus can Inhibit Pathogenic Dermatophytes.  

PubMed

Antibiotics are being successfully used to fight many infectious diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms. However, new infectious diseases are continuously being identified, and some known pathogens are becoming resistant against known antibiotics. Furthermore, many antifungals are causing serious side effects in long-term treatments of patients, and many skin infections caused by dermatophytes are difficult to cure. The beneficial roles of resident cutaneous microbiota to inhibit pathogenic microorganisms have been shown for many vertebrate species. Microbial symbionts on the amphibian skin for example can be a source of powerful antimicrobial metabolites that can protect amphibians against diseases, such as chytridiomycosis, caused by a fungal pathogen. In this research, we investigated whether cutaneous bacterial species isolated from Lithobates catesbeianus (North American bullfrog), an invasive amphibian species that is resistant to chytridiomycosis, produce secondary metabolites that can be used to inhibit the growth of three species of dermatophytes (Microsporum gypseum, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes) which are known to cause topical or subdermal skin infections in humans. Strongly anti-dermatophyte bacterial species that belonged to the Bacillaceae, Streptomycetaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Xanthomonadaceae, Aeromonadaceae, and Enterobacteriaceae were identified. This research has provided evidence of the presence of cutaneous anti-dermatophyte bacteria from L. catesbeianus which might provide a basis for health care providers to experiment with new antifungals in the future. PMID:25431089

Lauer, Antje; Hernandez, Trang

2014-11-28

104

Chemical and biological diversity in fourteen selections of four Ocimum species.  

PubMed

Biomass, essential oil yield, essential oil composition diversity, and antibacterial and antifungal activities of 14 selections of 4 Ocimum species [Ocimum basilicum L. (selections: T1-T10), O. gratissimum L. (selections: T11-T12), O. tenuiflorum L.f., syn. O. sanctum L. (selection: T13) and O. kilimandscharicum Baker ex. Guerke (selection: T14)] were investigated. O. basilicum selections T9 (methyl chavicol: 87.0%) and T10 {(Z)- and (E)-methyl cinnamate: 69.1%} produced higher biomass (67.8 and 56.7 t/ha) and oil (203.4 and 141.7 kg/ha) yields relative to 8 (T1-T8) linalool (up to 58.9%), or methyl chavicol (up to 61.8%) rich selections. O. gratissimum selection T12 (eugenol: 84.1%, 254.6 kg/ha oil yield) was significantly superior to T11 (62.1% eugenol and 18.4% camphor). O. tenuiflorum (T13, methyl eugenol: 72.5%) and O. kilimandscharicum (T14, camphor: 51.7%) produced 171.7 and 96.2 kg/ha essential oil, respectively. The essential oils exhibited broad spectrum antibacterial (against 5 Gram-positive and 7 Gram-negative bacteria) and antifungal (against 10 fungi) activities. The bacterial species Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, and Enterococcus faecalis, and the fungal species Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum gypseum, and Sporothrix schenckii were more sensitive to the essential oils. PMID:22224293

Rao, Bhaskaruni R Rajeswara; Kotharia, Sushil K; Rajput, Dharmendra K; Patel, Rajendra P; Darokar, Mahendra P

2011-11-01

105

Management of tinea capitis in childhood  

PubMed Central

Tinea capitis (TC) is a common dermatophyte infection affecting primarily prepubertal children. The causative pathogens belong to only two genera: Trichophyton and Microsporum. Although there is a great local variation in the epidemiology of TC worldwide, T. tonsurans is currently the most common cause of TC with M. canis second. Even though there is an emerging number of anthropophilic scalp infections, M. canis remains the predominant causative organism in many countries of the Mediterranean basin, the most important dermatophyte carriers being stray cats and dogs as well as pet puppies, kittens and rabbits. TC always requires systemic treatment because topical antifungal agents do not penetrate down to the deepest part of the hair follicle. Since the late 1950s, griseofulvin has been the gold standard for systemic therapy of TC. It is active against dermatophytes and has a long-term safety profile. The main disadvantage of griseofulvin is the long duration of treatment required which may lead to reduced compliance. The newer oral antifungal agents including terbinafine, itraconazole, ketokonazole, and fluconazole appear to have efficacy rates and potential adverse effects similar to those of griseofulvin in children with TC caused by Trichophyton species, while requiring a much shorter duration of treatment. They may, however, be more expensive. PMID:21437064

Bennassar, Antoni; Grimalt, Ramon

2010-01-01

106

The anti-dermatophyte activity of Allium hirtifolium Boiss aqueous extract.  

PubMed

In an attempt at demonstrating the efficacy of Allium hirtifolium aqueous extract in control of skin fungal infections as traditional use, we evaluated the anti-dermatophyte activities of A. hirtifolium aqueous extract from bulbs and of ketoconazole against Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis, M. gypseum, Trichophyton schoenleinii and Trichophyton verrucosum var. album by food poisoning technique, disc diffusion and micro broth dilution assays. The anti-fungal activity of A. hirtifolium was excellent when it was compared with ketoconazole. The anti-fungal evaluation by food poisoning method showed that A. hirtifolium extract inhibited the growth of dermatophytes dose-dependently. The inhibition zone diameter (IZ) of A. hirtifolium extract (15?g/disc) was in the range of 28.8±0.31 to 67.7±1.5mm, while ketoconazole (15?g/disc) had the IZ lower than 13mm. The MIC and MFC values of A. hirtifolium extract were in the range of 0.2-1.7 and 0.4-0.7?g/mL; respectively. Therefore, A. hirtifolium extract showed a strong anti-fungal activity against human and animal dermatophytes. PMID:25456419

Mahboubi, M; Kazempour, N

2014-11-20

107

Molecular identification of fungal pathogens in nodular skin lesions of cats.  

PubMed

In a retrospective study, we investigated 52 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples from cats with histologically confirmed cutaneous and subcutaneous mycoses to determine if the pathogens could be identified by molecular methods. Aim of the study was to obtain a deep understanding of the spectrum of infectious agents, which, as we hypothesized, was not available by histopathology alone. Detection of feline and fungal DNA was achieved in 92.3% and 94.2% of the samples, respectively. Most of the subcutaneous infections in cats were caused by Alternaria spp. (63.5%), followed by Cryptococcus neoformans (7.7%), Histoplasma capsulatum (5.8%), Sporothrix spp. (3.8%), Aspergillus vitricola, Aureobasidium pullulans, Exophiala attenuata, Fusarium oxysporum, Lecythophora cateniformis, Microsporum canis, and Phialophora sp. (1.9% each). The results from molecular identification indicate that correct identifications of the fungal pathogens by histology alone were rarely possible. The spectrum of fungal pathogens identified after DNA extraction from FFPE samples was much broader than that expected by classical histopathology. This was especially noted in alternariosis in that the micromorphological pattern in tissue was misleading and could be confused with that of cryptococcosis. Due to different susceptibilities to antifungal agents, it is important to arrive at a definitive diagnosis, which might be possible by examination of the fungus recovered in culture and/or molecular methods, in addition to the histopathologic techniques. PMID:25550386

Bernhardt, Anne; von Bomhard, Wolf; Antweiler, Elisabeth; Tintelnot, Kathrin

2015-02-01

108

Characterization and biological studies of bis- and tera-acetyl derivatives of hydrocarbon-bridged diamines-I.  

PubMed

A systematic study of the pharmaceutically important, double ended, chelating agents of the types CH(3)CONH(CH(2))nNHCOCH(3) and (CH(3)CO)(2)N(CH(2))n N(COCH(3))(2), where n= 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, prepared by the bis- and tetra-acetylation of the corresponding diamino-polymethylenes, have been carried out. Bis- and tertra-acetyl derivatives have been characterized by their elemental analysis and the FTIR spectra, Mass spectra and H-NMR spectra of these compounds have been reported to establish their structures. In the present work, FTIR spectra have been found an excellent means for distinguishing the bis-acetyl derivatives from their tetra-acetyl counterparts. The structures of these bis- and tetra-acetyl compounds have further been established by their H-NMR and Mass Spectra. The selective pharmacological screening of the derivatives was carried out according to the standard procedures. The compounds were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activities and it was found that majority of these compounds did not possess any remarkable activity. Only the compound BA1,2-DAE, showed significant antifungal activity against Microsporum canis (80%). PMID:23261735

Haque, Naheed; Hussain, Izhar

2013-01-01

109

Seasonal 4-year investigation into the role of the alpine marmot (Marmota marmota) as a carrier of zoophilic dermatophytes.  

PubMed

Two hundred and six samples of alpine marmot (Mamota marmota) hair (148 from adults and 58 from young subjects), 102 soil samples from the entrances to the burrows of the above individuals and 20 control specimens (obtained from adjoining areas away from the burrow systems where the rodents are not usually present) were examined from May 1994 to September 1997. Seventy-five isolates belonging to six species of dermatophytes were found in 69 of the 206 hair samples examined (33.5%). Two species were zoophilic, Microsporum canis (7.8%) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (11.2.%), and four geophilic, Microsporum cookei (2%), M. gypseum (5.8%), Trichophyton ajelloi (3.9%) and T. terrestre (5.8%). The prevalence of each species in the hair samples did not change significantly according to year, season (chi-squared test [limit significance: P <0.05] gives no significant values [P>0.05] both in year and in season comparison) or age/sex (adult versus juvenile: P=0.1; male versus female: P=0.8) of the marmot. Twenty-three of the 102 soil samples (22.5%) were positive for dermatophytes found in the hair of marmots from the same burrow systems. Five of the 20 control soil samples (25%) were positive for dermatophytes. One isolate of M. gypseum, three of T. terrestre and one of T. mentagrophytes were obtained. Compared with other free-ranging rodent hosts studied in Europe, this mycoflora is characterized by the presence and relatively high prevalence of M. canis, frequently reported in symptomatic and asymptomatic cats, dogs and fur animals. M. canis has not been isolated in other rodents in the wild. However, it has recently been reported in asymptomatic foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from northern Italy. The close link between V vulpes and M. marmota, with the former representing the most important mammal predator of the latter in the Alps (only a fraction of the predator's attacks result in the death of the rodent) may have favoured the adaptation of M. canis to this rodent host. The stable character of the M. canis/M. marmota relationship (no seasonally or annually related difference in the prevalence of this dermatophyte has been found) suggests the inclusion of the alpine marmot in the reservoir of this zoophilic pathogenic agent. In this situation, hibernation in labyrinthine burrow systems, where temperature and moisture ranges are quite uniform the whole year round, may favour the viability of M. canis arthroconidia, whose survival in mountain habitat might otherwise be compromised. This seems to be confirmed by the fact that the fungus has never been found in the control samples collected at a distance of 300 m from the outer edge of the sampled burrow systems. PMID:16110784

Gallo, M G; Lanfranchi, P; Poglayen, G; Calderola, S; Menzano, A; Ferroglio, E; Peano, A

2005-06-01

110

Antioxidant and Antifungal Potential of Pleurotus ostreatus and Agrocybe cylindracea Basidiocarps and Mycelia.  

PubMed

Basidiocarps of Pleurotus ostreatus and Agrocybe cylindracea are characterized by high nutritional value and numerous medicinal activities, though bioactivities of their mycelia have not been sufficiently studied. The aim of the study was to evaluate antioxidant and antifungal potentials of P. ostreatus and A. cylindracea basidiocarp extracts, as well as those obtained from mycelia cultivated in common synthetic medium and media enriched with various agro-industrial residues. The free radical scavenging activity of the extracts was determined spectrophotometrically, based on DPPH• reduction while antifungal potential was studied by a microdilution method. The highest level of DPPH• scavenging ability was obtained by an extract of P. ostreatus mycelium cultivated in wheat bran-enriched medium, while control medium favoured the antioxidant potential of A. cylindracea mycelium. Phenol compounds were the main carriers of antioxidant activity that was demonstrated by high coefficients for correlations between total phenol contents in extracts and level of DPPH• scavenging (0.94 for P. ostreatus extracts and 0.91 for A. cylindracea extracts). Only the extracts of A. cylindracea basidiocarp and control mycelium, at a concentration of 1.33 mg/mL, inhibited the growth of Microsporum gypseum and Aspergillus flavus, while basidiocarp extract at 1.67 mg/mL also had fungicidal effect against M. gypseum. These results revealed a considerable antioxidant potential of submergedly-cultivated mycelium which showed higher antioxidant activity than basidiocarp extracts. This is very important because significant amounts of mycelium biomass could be obtained more easily, cheaper and in a more controllable way than basidiocarps cultivation. PMID:25483715

Cilerdzic, Jasmina; Stajic, Mirjana; Vukojevic, Jelena; Milovanovic, Ivan; Muzgonja, Nikolina

2015-01-01

111

Antioxidant and anti-dermatophytic properties leaf and stem bark of Xylosma longifolium clos  

PubMed Central

Background The present study was carried out to assess the phytochemical and anti-dermatophytic effect of the leaf and bark extracts of Xylosma longifolium Clos. The leaf and stem bark are used by the indigenous people of Manipur, India for treatment of skin diseases. Methods The leaves and stem barks of Xylosma longifolium were extracted using petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol respectively. The different extracts of each plant parts were tested for antioxidant activity using DPPH assay. The phenolic content was assayed using Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method. Each extracts was further analysed by RP-HPLC to quantify some individual flavonoid components. The anti-dermatophytic activity was evaluated both by agar diffusion method and micro wells dilution method against the Microsporum boullardii MTCC 6059, M. canis (MTCC 2820 and MTCC 32700), M. gypseum MTCC 2819, Trichophyton ajelloi MTCC 4878, T. rubrum (MTCC 296 and MTCC 3272). Results The free radical scavenging activity values were ranged from 0.7 to 1.41 mg/ml and 0.6 to 1.23 mg/ml, respectively for leaf and stem bark extracts. The amount of total phenolic contents of the extracts occurred in both leaf and bark in the range of 12 to 56.6 mg GAE/100 g and 16 to 58 mg GAE/100 g respectively. RP-HPLC analysis for flavonoids revealed the presence of two major flavonoid compounds, rutin and catechin. Kaempferol was in trace or absent. Methanol leaf extract showed significant low inhibitory effect against tested fungus Trichophyton ajelloi MTCC 4878 (0.140625 mg/ml) as the most sensitive. These finding suggest that the methanol leaf extract tested contain compounds with antimicrobial properties. Conclusion The results of our study may partially justify the folkloric uses on the plant studied and further provide an evidence that the leaf extract of Xylosma longifolium might be indeed a potential sources of antimicrobial agents. PMID:23819459

2013-01-01

112

Overproduction and biological activity of prodigiosin-like pigments from recombinant fusant of endophytic marine Streptomyces species.  

PubMed

Thirty-four endophytic marine Actinomycetes isolates were recovered from the Egyptian marine sponge Latrunculia corticata, out of them 5 isolates (14.7 %) showed red single colonies on yeast-CzAPEK plates. Isolates under the isolation code NRC50 and NRC51 were observed with the strongest red biomass. After application of protoplast fusion between NRC50 and NRC51 isolates, 26 fusants were selected and produced widely different amounts of prodigiosin-like pigments (PLPs) on different fermentation media. Among them fusant NRCF69 produced 79 and 160.4 % PLPs more than parental strains NRC50 and NRC51, respectively. According to the analysis of 16S rDNA sequence (amplified, sequenced, and submitted to GenBank under Accession no. JN232405 and JN232406, respectively), together with their morphological and biochemical characteristics, parental strains NRC50 (P1) and NRC51 (P2) were identified as Streptomyces sp. and designated as Streptomyces sp. NRC50 and Streptomyces sp. NRC51. This study describes a low cost, effective production media by using peanut seed broth, sunflower oil broth or dairy processing wastewater broth alone, or supplemented with 0.5 % mannitol that supports the production of PLPs by the Streptomyces fusant NRCF69 under study (42.03, 40.11, 36.7 and 47 g L(-1), respectively). PLPs compounds exhibited significant cytotoxic activities against three human cancer cell lines: colon cancer cell line (HCT-116), liver cancer cell line (HEPG-2) and breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) and antimycotic activity against clinical dermatophyte isolates of Trichophyton, Microsporum and Epidermophyton. PMID:22777253

El-Bondkly, Ahmed M A; El-Gendy, Mervat M A; Bassyouni, Rasha H

2012-11-01

113

Production and Evaluation of Antimycotic and Antihepatitis C Virus Potential of Fusant MERV6270 Derived from Mangrove Endophytic Fungi Using Novel Substrates of Agroindustrial Wastes.  

PubMed

Among forty endophytic fungal isolates derived from the mangrove plant Avicennia marina, thirty-seven isolates (92.5 %) shown vary antimycotic activity against clinical Trichophyton, Microsporum, and Epidermophyton isolates. The hyperactive wild antagonistic strains Acremonium sp. MERV1 and Chaetomium sp. MERV7 were subjected to intergeneric protoplast fusion technique, and out of 20 fusants obtained, the fusant MERV6270 showed the highest antimycotic activity with the broadest spectrum against all dermatophytes under study. Solid-state fermentation (SSF) showed its superiority for antimycotic/antiviral metabolite production using cost-effective agroindustrial residues. Low-cost novel fermentation medium containing inexpensive substrate mixture of molokhia stalk, lemon peel, pomegranate peel, peanut peel (2:1:1:1) moistened with potato, and meat processing wastewaters (2:1, at moisture content of 60 %) provided a high antimycotic metabolite yield, 33.25 mg/gds, by the fusant MERV6270. The optimal parameters for antimycotic productivity under SSF were incubation period (4 days), incubation temperature (27.5-30 °C), initial pH (6), initial moisture level (60 %), substrate particle size (1.0 mm), and inoculum size (2?×?10(6) spores/gds), which elucidated antimycotic activity to 44.19 mg/gds. Interestingly, wild mangrove Acremonium sp. MERV1 and Chaetomium sp. MERV7 strains and their fusant MERV6270 showed significant inhibition of hepatitis C virus with viral knockdown percent of -82.48, -82.44, and -97.37 %, respectively, compared to the control (100 %), which open a new era in combat epidemic viral diseases. PMID:25234393

El-Gendy, Mervat M A; El-Bondkly, Ahmed M A; Yahya, Shaymaa M M

2014-12-01

114

Essential oil of Azorella cryptantha collected in two different locations from San Juan Province, Argentina: chemical variability and anti-insect and antimicrobial activities.  

PubMed

The essential oils (EOs) of two populations of Azorella cryptantha (Clos) Reiche, a native species from San Juan Province, were obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus and characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. The compounds identified amounted to 92.3 and 88.7% of the total oil composition for A. cryptantha from Bauchaceta (Ac-BAU) and Agua Negra (Ac-AN), respectively. The EO composition for the two populations was similar, although with differences in the identity and content of the main compounds and also in the identity of minor components. The main compounds of the Ac-BAU EO were ?-pinene, ?-thujene, sabinene, ?-cadinene, ?-cadinol, trans-?-guaiene, and ?-muurolol, while ?-pinene, ?-thujene, ?-pinene, ?-cadinene, ?-cadinol, ?-cadinene, ?-muurolol, and a not identified compound were the main constituents of the Ac-AN EO, which also contained 3.0% of oxygenated monoterpenes. The repellent activity on Triatoma infestans nymphs was 100 and 92% for the Ac-AN and Ac-BAU EOs, respectively. Regarding the toxic effects on Ceratitis capitata, the EOs were very active with LD(50) values lower than 11 ?g/fly. The dermatophytes Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum, and T. mentagrophytes and the bacterial strains Escherichia coli LM(1), E. coli LM(2), and Yersinia enterocolitica PI were more sensitive toward the Ac-AN EO (MIC 125 ?g/ml) than toward the Ac-BAU EO. This is the first report on the composition of A. cryptantha EO and its anti-insect and antimicrobial properties. PMID:22899606

López, Sandra; Lima, Beatriz; Aragón, Liliana; Espinar, Luis Ariza; Tapia, Alejandro; Zacchino, Susana; Zygadlo, Julio; Feresin, Gabriela Egly; López, María Liza

2012-08-01

115

Isolation of keratinophilic fungi from selected soils of Sanjay Gandhi National Park, Mumbai (India).  

PubMed

One hundred and twenty-five samples were collected from eight different sites in the vicinity of Sanjay Gandhi National Park (SGNP) and screened for the presence of keratinophilic fungi using hair baiting technique for isolation. Seventy-three isolates were recovered and identified. The cultures were identified using macro- and micro-morphological features. Their identification was also confirmed by the BLAST search of sequences of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA region against the NCBI/Genbank data and compared with deposited sequences for identification purpose. Thirteen species of nine genera were isolated viz. Aphanoascus durus (2.4%), Arthroderma corniculatum (1.6%), Auxarthron umbrinum (0.8%), Chrysosporium evolceanui (1.6%), Chrysosporium indicum (16.0%), Chrysosporium tropicum (2.4%), Chrysosporium zonatum (4.0%), Chrysosporium states of Arthroderma tuberculatum (0.8%), Chrysosporium state of Ctenomyces serratus (11.2%), Gymnascella dankaliensis (3.2%), Microsporum gypseum (12.0%), Myriodontium keratinophilum (0.8%) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (1.6%). Representative of all thirteen species can release the protein in the range of 152.2-322.4 ?g/mL in liquid media when grown on human hair in shake flask culture and also decompose 18.4-40.2% of human hair after four weeks of incubation. This study indicates that the soils of SGNP, Mumbai may be significant reservoirs of certain keratinophilic fungi. The keratinolytic activity of these fungi may be playing significant role in superficial infections to man and animals and recycling of keratinic material of this environment. PMID:25442920

Deshmukh, S K; Verekar, S A

2014-12-01

116

Tinea atypica: report of nine cases.  

PubMed

Fungal infections of the skin are a common condition, usually easy to diagnose and treat. When the infection is clinically mimicking another cutaneous disorder or when the clinical presentation is modified by the use of inappropriate treatment, it is referred to as tinea atypica or tinea incognito.We report a series of nine cases of patients with tinea atypica, imitating and diagnosed initially as different skin diseases. Two patients were defined as pyoderma in the facial and pubic regions (caused respectively by Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis) and one as herpes zoster ophthalmicus (caused by Trichophyton rubrum). Six additional patients were initially misdiagnosed: (1) Plaque-like formation of the skin misdiagnosed as an impetiginized eczema (with isolated agent Trichophyton verrucosum). (2) A rare form of skin infection of the hand caused by T. rubrum, imitating clinically cutaneous infection with tuberculum mulgentium. (3) Rosacea-like dermatitis with an isolated agent Fusarium. (4) A patient with the typical clinical symptoms of seborrheic dermatitis of the face (and with isolated T. rubrum as a causative agent). (5) Another patient presented with a widespread folliculitis by Trichophyton mentagrophytes. (6) In a patient with bullous pemphigoid and immunosuppression pemphigoid-like eruptions were caused by Malassezia pachydermatis and T. rubrum. The diagnosis in the presented cases was based on direct microscopic examination with KOH and a culture on Sabouraud agar.After the diagnosis of tinea, treatment with topical and systemic antifungal agents was administrated, followed by complete clinical remissions in all cases.The clinical manifestations of tinea atypica can mimic a large number of other dermatoses, which often leads to misdiagnosing, and as a consequence--to serious difficulties in the management of clinical symptoms and in offering appropriate therapy. PMID:23949566

Zisova, Liliya Georgieva; Dobrev, Hristo Petrov; Tchernev, Georgi; Semkova, Kristina; Aliman, Anastasia Atanasova; Chorleva, Kristina Ivanova; Chapanova, Antonina Teneva; Vutova, Nina Ivanova; Wollina, Uwe

2013-12-01

117

Mycology - an update. Part 1: Dermatomycoses: causative agents, epidemiology and pathogenesis.  

PubMed

Dermatomycoses are caused most commonly by dermatophytes. The anthropophilic dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum is still the most frequent causative agent worldwide. Keratinolytic enzymes, e.g. hydrolases and keratinases, are important virulence factors of T. rubrum. Recently, the cysteine dioxygenase was found as new virulence factor. Predisposing host factors play a similarly important role for the development of dermatophytosis of the skin and nails. Chronic venous insufficiency, diabetes mellitus, disorders of cellular immunity, and genetic predisposition should be considered as risk factors for onychomycosis. A new alarming trend is the increasing number of cases of onychomycosis - mostly due to T. rubrum - in infancy. In Germany, tinea capitis is mostly caused by zoophilic dermatophytes, in particular Microsporum canis. New zoophilic fungi, primarily Trichophyton species of Arthroderma benhamiae, should be taken into differential diagnostic considerations of tinea capitis, tinea faciei, and tinea corporis. Source of infection are small household pets, particularly rodents, like guinea pigs. Anthropophilic dermatophytes may be introduced by families which immigrate from Africa or Asia to Europe. The anthropophilic dermatophytes T. violaceum, T. tonsurans (infections occurring in fighting sports clubs as "tinea gladiatorum capitis et corporis") and M. audouinii are causing outbreaks of small epidemics of tinea corporis and tinea capitis in kindergartens and schools. Superficial infections of the skin and mucous membranes due to yeasts are caused by Candida species. Also common are infections due to the lipophilic yeast fungus Malassezia. Today, within the genus Malassezia more than 10 different species are known. Malassezia globosa seems to play the crucial role in pityriasis versicolor. Molds (also designated non-dermatophyte molds, NDM) are increasingly found as causative agents in onychomycosis. Besides Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, several species of Fusarium and Aspergillus are found. PMID:24533779

Nenoff, Pietro; Krüger, Constanze; Ginter-Hanselmayer, Gabriele; Tietz, Hans-Jürgen

2014-03-01

118

Synthesis, in vitro antifungal evaluation and in silico study of 3-azolyl-4-chromanone phenylhydrazones  

PubMed Central

Background The currently available antifungal drugs suffer from toxicity, greatest potential drug interactions with other drugs, insufficient pharmacokinetics properties, and development of resistance. Thus, development of new antifungal agents with optimum pharmacokinetics and less toxicity is urgent task. In the search for new azole antifungals, we have been previously described azolylchromanone oxime ethers as rigid analogs of oxiconazole. In continuation of our work, we incorporated phenylhydrazone moiety instead of oxime ether fragment in azolylchromanone derivatives. Methods The 3-azolyl-4-chromanone phenylhydrazones were synthesized via ring closure of 2-azolyl-2'-hydroxyacetophenones and subsequent reaction with phenylhydrazine. The biological activity of title compounds was evaluated against different pathogenic fungi including Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Aspergillus niger, and Microsporum gypseum. Docking study, in silico toxicity risks and drug-likeness predictions were used to better define of title compounds as antifungal agents. Results The in vitro antifungal activity of compounds based on MIC values revealed that all compounds showed good antifungal activity against C. albicans, S. cerevisiae and M. gypseum at concentrations less than 16 ?g/mL. Among the test compounds, 2-methyl-3-imidazolyl derivative 3b showed the highest values of drug-likeness and drug-score. Conclusion The 3-azolyl-4-chromanone phenylhydrazones considered as analogs of 3-azolyl-4-chromanone oxime ethers basically designed as antifungal agents. The antifungal activity of title compounds was comparable to that of standard drug fluconazole. The drug-likeness data of synthesized compounds make them promising leads for future development of antifungal agents. PMID:23351328

2012-01-01

119

[2006 Epidemiological survey of dermatomycoses in Japan].  

PubMed

An epidemiological survey of dermatomycoses and the causative fungus flora of dermatomycoses in Japan for 2006 was made on a total number of 63,029 outpatients who visited 16 dermatological clinics throughout Japan. The results were as follows. 1) Dermatophytosis was the most prevalent cutaneus fungal infection (7,582 cases) seen in these clinics, followed by candidiasis (842 cases) and then Malassezia infections (283 cases). 2) Among dermatophytoses, tinea pedis was the most frequent (4,779 cases : male 2,358, female 2,241), then in decreasing order, tinea unguium (2,582 cases : male 1,376, female 1,206), tinea corporis (564 cases : male 341, female 223), tinea cruris (309 cases : male 254, female 57), tinea manuum (145 cases : male 92, female 53), and tinea capitis including kerion (17 cases : male 12, female 5). 3) Tinea pedis and tinea unguium are seen to increase in the summer season, among the aged population. When compared to the last survey 2002 by clinical form, t. unguium patients increased 459 cases. 4) As the causative dermatophyte species, Trichophyton rubrum was the most frequently isolated among all dermatophyte infections except tinea capitis. Microsporum canis was slightly increased. M.gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum are small number. T.tonsurans was increased up to 37 cases. 5) Cutaneous candidiasis was seen in 842 cases (305 male, 537 female). Intertrigo (298 cases) was the most frequent clinical form, followed by erosion interdigitalis (136 cases), oral candidiasis (135 cases), onychia et paronychia (108 cases), genital and diaper candidiasis in total (88 cases). 6) Tinea versicolor was seen in 175 cases. Malassezia folliculitis were collected 108 cases, 63 cases are reported from one clinic. PMID:23149353

Sei, Yoshihiro

2012-01-01

120

Comparison of in vitro antifungal activities of efinaconazole and currently available antifungal agents against a variety of pathogenic fungi associated with onychomycosis.  

PubMed

Onychomycosis is a common fungal nail infection in adults that is difficult to treat. The in vitro antifungal activity of efinaconazole, a novel triazole antifungal, was evaluated in recent clinical isolates of Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Candida albicans, common causative onychomycosis pathogens. In a comprehensive survey of 1,493 isolates, efinaconazole MICs against T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes ranged from ? 0.002 to 0.06 ?g/ml, with 90% of isolates inhibited (MIC90) at 0.008 and 0.015 ?g/ml, respectively. Efinaconazole MICs against 105 C. albicans isolates ranged from ? 0.0005 to >0.25 ?g/ml, with 50% of isolates inhibited (MIC50) by 0.001 and 0.004 ?g/ml at 24 and 48 h, respectively. Efinaconazole potency against these organisms was similar to or greater than those of antifungal drugs currently used in onychomycosis, including amorolfine, ciclopirox, itraconazole, and terbinafine. In 13 T. rubrum toenail isolates from onychomycosis patients who were treated daily with topical efinaconazole for 48 weeks, there were no apparent increases in susceptibility, suggesting low potential for dermatophytes to develop resistance to efinaconazole. The activity of efinaconazole was further evaluated in another 8 dermatophyte, 15 nondermatophyte, and 10 yeast species (a total of 109 isolates from research repositories). Efinaconazole was active against Trichophyton, Microsporum, Epidermophyton, Acremonium, Fusarium, Paecilomyces, Pseudallescheria, Scopulariopsis, Aspergillus, Cryptococcus, Trichosporon, and Candida and compared favorably to other antifungal drugs. In conclusion, efinaconazole is a potent antifungal with a broad spectrum of activity that may have clinical applications in onychomycosis and other mycoses. PMID:23318803

Jo Siu, William J; Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki; Senda, Hisato; Pillai, Radhakrishnan; Nakamura, Takashi; Sone, Daisuke; Fothergill, Annette

2013-04-01

121

Comparison of In Vitro Antifungal Activities of Efinaconazole and Currently Available Antifungal Agents against a Variety of Pathogenic Fungi Associated with Onychomycosis  

PubMed Central

Onychomycosis is a common fungal nail infection in adults that is difficult to treat. The in vitro antifungal activity of efinaconazole, a novel triazole antifungal, was evaluated in recent clinical isolates of Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Candida albicans, common causative onychomycosis pathogens. In a comprehensive survey of 1,493 isolates, efinaconazole MICs against T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes ranged from ?0.002 to 0.06 ?g/ml, with 90% of isolates inhibited (MIC90) at 0.008 and 0.015 ?g/ml, respectively. Efinaconazole MICs against 105 C. albicans isolates ranged from ?0.0005 to >0.25 ?g/ml, with 50% of isolates inhibited (MIC50) by 0.001 and 0.004 ?g/ml at 24 and 48 h, respectively. Efinaconazole potency against these organisms was similar to or greater than those of antifungal drugs currently used in onychomycosis, including amorolfine, ciclopirox, itraconazole, and terbinafine. In 13 T. rubrum toenail isolates from onychomycosis patients who were treated daily with topical efinaconazole for 48 weeks, there were no apparent increases in susceptibility, suggesting low potential for dermatophytes to develop resistance to efinaconazole. The activity of efinaconazole was further evaluated in another 8 dermatophyte, 15 nondermatophyte, and 10 yeast species (a total of 109 isolates from research repositories). Efinaconazole was active against Trichophyton, Microsporum, Epidermophyton, Acremonium, Fusarium, Paecilomyces, Pseudallescheria, Scopulariopsis, Aspergillus, Cryptococcus, Trichosporon, and Candida and compared favorably to other antifungal drugs. In conclusion, efinaconazole is a potent antifungal with a broad spectrum of activity that may have clinical applications in onychomycosis and other mycoses. PMID:23318803

Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki; Senda, Hisato; Pillai, Radhakrishnan; Nakamura, Takashi; Sone, Daisuke; Fothergill, Annette

2013-01-01

122

Fungal microbiota from ocular conjuctiva of clinically healthy horses belonging to the military police cavalry of alagoas  

PubMed Central

Normal fungal conjunctiva microbiota of horses remains stable in healthy animals, free from ocular and/or systemic diseases which may, eventually, cause ocular alterations. The knowledge of the fungal microbiota is of great importance due to the reduced number of studies reported in the literature and also to the large occurrence of ocular alterations, mainly keratomycosis, in these animals. The aim of this study was to isolate and to identify the fungi present in the ocular conjunctiva of healthy horses belonging to the Military Police Cavalry of Alagoas. Samples from both conjunctival sacks from 50 horses were taken using a sterile swab and submitted to fungal cultures. These samples were seeded by radial spreading of the swabs on the Sabouraud agar surface with chloramphenicol, at a concentration of 50mg/L, in Petri dishes. Next, dishes were incubated at room temperature (± 28°C) for 15 days. Horses conjunctival fungal microbiota was found to be composed by Aspergillus spp. (62%), Microsporum gypseum (6%), Penicillium spp. (6%), Curvularia spp. (5%), Candida spp. (3%), Fusarium spp. (3%), Acremonium spp. (2%), Bipolaris sp. (1%), Cladosporium sp. (1%), Chrysosporium sp. (1%), Rhodotorula sp. (1%), Aureobasidium sp. (1%) and Scopulariopsis sp. (1%). There is a wide variety of yeast-like and filamentous fungi colonizing the clinically healthy horses’ ocular conjunctiva, out of which Aspergillus sp. is predominant. Although this was a straightforward study and have not recorded any ocular lesions that suggest fungi infections, these fungi might eventually be involved in this type of ocular pathology for the studied species. PMID:24031735

de Sousa, Maria Evódia; Araújo, Maria Anilda dos Santos; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido; Porto, Wagnner José Nascimento; Souza, Aryanna Kelly Pinheiro; dos Santos, Josimeire Lima; da Silva, Patrícia Paes

2011-01-01

123

NB-002, a Novel Nanoemulsion with Broad Antifungal Activity against Dermatophytes, Other Filamentous Fungi, and Candida albicans?  

PubMed Central

NB-002 is an oil-in-water emulsion designed for use for the treatment of skin, hair, and nail infections. The activity of NB-002 was compared to the activities of the available antifungal drugs against the major dermatophytes responsible for cutaneous infections, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Microsporum spp., as well as 12 other genera of filamentous fungi. NB-002 consistently displayed fungicidal activity against all dermatophytes. The comparator compounds were either fungistatic or fungicidal, and for some strain-drug combinations, tolerance was observed. Assessment of the development of spontaneous resistance to NB-002 in different dermatophyte species yielded few stably resistant mutants. For filamentous nondermatophyte fungi, the MIC range varied from 0.06 to 0.5 ?g/ml for Alternaria spp. to 2 to 8 ?g/ml for Paecilomyes spp. NB-002 had activity against both azole-susceptible and -resistant Candida albicans yeast isolates, with MIC90s of 2 ?g/ml, respectively, and minimum fungicidal concentrations at which 90% of isolates are inhibited of 4 and 8 ?g/ml, respectively. The kinetics of the fungicidal activity of NB-002 against T. rubrum isolates were compared to those of the other antifungal drugs. NB-002 killed both mycelia and microconidia even when the fungal forms were dormant or not actively growing. Electron micrographs of mycelia and spores treated with NB-002 showed the significant disruption of the fungal structure. The in vitro broad coverage of NB-002 against filamentous fungi, dermatophytes, and C. albicans, as well as its rapid fungicidal activity, warrants further investigations to ascertain if NB-002 would be useful for the treatment of cutaneous mycoses. PMID:19433562

Pannu, J.; McCarthy, A.; Martin, A.; Hamouda, T.; Ciotti, S.; Fothergill, A.; Sutcliffe, J.

2009-01-01

124

[Dermatomycoses due to pets and farm animals : neglected infections?].  

PubMed

Dermatomycoses due to contact with pets and livestock frequently affect children and young adults. Zoophilic dermatophytes are the main important causative agents. It has long been known that the often high inflammatory dermatophytoses of the skin and the scalp are caused mostly by Microsporum canis. Due to an absence of an obligation for reporting fungal infections of the skin to the Public Health Office in Germany, an unnoticed but significant change in responsible pathogens has occurred. Today an increasing number of infections due to zoophilic strains of Trichophyton interdigitale (formerly Trichophyton mentagrophytes) and Trichophyton species of Arthroderma benhamiae are found. The latter mentioned dermatophyte is the anamorph species of the teleomorph Arthroderma benhamiae, which originally was isolated in the Far East (Japan). Source of infection of these dermatophytes are small rodents, in particular guinea pigs. These animals are bought in pet shops by the parents of those children who later are affected by the fungal infection. The coincidental purchase of the relevant fungal pathogen is not obvious to the parents. As a consequence, highly contagious dermatophytoses occur, often tinea capitis sometimes with kerion formation. Further dermatophytes should be considered as cause of a zoophilic dermatomycosis. Both Trichophyton verrucosum, the cause of the ringworm in cattle, and Trichophyton erinacei following contact to hedgehogs are worthy of note. Yeasts cannot be ignored as cause of dermatomycosis, especially Malassezia pachydermatis, the only non-lipophilic species within the genus Malassezia, which can be transferred from dog to men. Cryptococcus neoformans also comes from animal sources. The mucous yeast occurs in bird's dropping, and it causes both pulmonary and central nervous system infections, but also primary and secondary cutaneous cryptococcosis in immunocompromised patients (HIV/AIDS) as possible consequence after contact to these animals. PMID:23114507

Nenoff, P; Handrick, W; Krüger, C; Vissiennon, T; Wichmann, K; Gräser, Y; Tchernev, G

2012-11-01

125

[Chemotherapeutic effects of nitro compounds. 1. Nitroanilines].  

PubMed

More than 200 nitro compounds, most of them nitroaniline derivatives substituted with one or more radicals having a basic reaction, were prepared and investigated as to their therapeutic activity against bacteria, fungi, protozoa, helminths, viruses and tumors. Several mono-nitrobenzenes with a radical having a basic reaction showed weak in-vitro activity against gram-positive bacteria and against Crocker's sarcoma 180; they also showed systemic activity against nematodes (Aspiculuris tetraptera) and viruses. The majority of therapeutically active compounds with pronounced in-vivo activity against Trichomonas fetus, Entamoeba histolytica, Schistosoma mansoni, cestodes, nematodes (Ancylostoma caninum), viruses (influenza, MHV, SAV and EMC) and various types of carcinoma (Ehrlich's carcinoma, leukemia 1210, Crocker's sarcoma 180) were dinitrobenzene derivatives with one radical having a basic reaction and electropositive groups or unreactive or reactive chlorine atom, and di-nitrobenzene with two equal or two different radicals having a basic reaction. Compound No. 70 revealed a marked in-vitro activity against fungi (Trichophyton; Microsporum, Candida albicans). Other nitro compounds such as bis-mono- and bis-dinitrobenzene derivatives likewise showed a systemic action against E. histolytica, viruses and, in particular, carcinoma (Crocker's sarcoma 180, Ridgway's osteosarcoma). Oxygen and sulfur analogue compounds as well as compounds produced by reduction also possessed a distinct activity against E. histolytica and viruses. On the basis of the present results particularly the dinitrobenzenes substituted with two radicals having a basic reaction include a number which have in common that a structure/activity relationship is recognizable in respect of E. histolytica, Schistosoma mansoni and different types of viruses. The activity against viruses in this class of compounds is probably due to an increased interferon production in the host animal. Whether the mechanism of action is the same against E. histolytica or Schistosoma mansoni has not been determined so far. A tumorigenic effect was observed mainly in those di-nitrobenzenes which are classed as alkylating compounds. Because of the small chemotherapeutic index the trials were not continued with the most effective compounds mentioned. PMID:1242309

Winkelmann, V E; Raether, W; Dittmar, W; Düwel, D; Gericke, D; Hohorst, W; Rolly, H; Schrinner, W; Wagner, W H

1975-05-01

126

Ecology of cycloheximide-resistant fungi in field soils receiving raw city wastewater or normal irrigation water.  

PubMed

The effect of raw city wastewater irrigation on biodiversity and population densities of a cycloheximide-resistant (CH) fungal community was studied in 13 field soils receiving either raw city wastewater or normal irrigation, and in raw city wastewater in the Nablus area, using the hair baiting technique (HBT) and a surface soil dilution plating (SSDP) technique. Three of these fields [one had been receiving raw city wastewater for more than ten years and was designated a heavily polluted field, and the other 2 were cultivated for the first time and were either irrigated with raw city wastewater (newly polluted field) or normal irrigation water (nonpolluted)], were sampled 4-7 times over a 9-month period. The other ten fields, which had been under raw city wastewater irrigation for more than 10 years, were sampled only once. Fifty-seven CH-resistant species belonging to 18 genera were recovered, of which 49 species were recovered from soil habitats and 28 species from raw city wastewater. The HBT had shown to be more efficient in the isolation of pathogenic and potentially pathogenic fungi including dermatophytes. A higher percentage of this group of fungi was recovered from the three main field soils studied using HBT (70% of all isolates), than the SSDP (35.5%); no dermatophytes were recovered by the SSDP method. Two dermatophytes (Microsporum gypseum, and Trichophyton ajelloi), and five more fungi (Arthroderma cuniculi, A. curreyi, Chrysosporium keratinophilum, C. tropicum, C. pannorum), were recovered from these habitats. Wastewater irrigation seemed to have affected the fungal population densities, with the highest population densities being found in the heavily polluted field soil, while lower population densities were found in the nonpolluted field soil. Increases in organic matter were also observed as a result of sewage effluent irrigation. However, basic similarities in the biodiversity of CH-resistant fungal communities existed in nonpolluted and polluted field soils, and raw city wastewater. Comparable numbers of fungal species were recovered from the three main field soils. The species most commonly found in those habitats included: Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus candidus, Geotrichum candidum, and Paecilomyces lilacinus. Field soils receiving either raw city wastewater or normal irrigation water, were found to be rich in pathogenic and potentially pathogenic CH-resistant fungi, including dermatophytes, with raw city wastewater yielding the highest percentage (81%), followed by the newly wastewater irrigated field (77.7%), the nonpolluted field (67%), and the heavily polluted field (63.4%) Hygienic measures should therefore be taken to control the spread of these fungi in the environment of human communities, and to avoid mycotic infections among farmers. PMID:10422272

Ali-Shtayeh, M S; Jamous, R M; Abu-Ghdeib, S I

127

Investigation of In Vitro Activity of Five Antifungal Drugs against Dermatophytes Species Isolated from Clinical Samples Using the E-Test Method  

PubMed Central

Objective: Dermatomycosis is an infection with fungi related to the skin: glabrous skin, hair and/or nails. Oral treatment of fungal infections in dermatology has become a preferred modality for the management of these very common conditions. Although there are increasing numbers of antifungals available for treatment of dermatophytes, some cases and relapses have been unresponsive to treatment. The determination of fungus in-vitro antifungal susceptibility has been reported to be important for the ability to eradicate dermatophytes. It is necessary to perform antifungal susceptibility testing of dermatophytes. E-test (AB Biodisk, Sweden) is a rapid, easy-to-perform in-vitro antifungal susceptibility test. The aim of this study was to investigate the susceptibility of the different species of dermatophyte strains isolated clinical specimens to five antifungal agents using the E-test method. Materials and Methods: A total of 66 specimens were collected from the nails, feet, inguinal region, trunk and hands. These strains tested MIC endpoints of E-test for amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, caspofungin, and ketoconazole were read after 72, and 96 hours incubation for each strain on RPMI 1640 agar. Results: The dermatophytes tested included Trichophyton rubrum 43 (65.1%), Trichophyton mentagrophytes 7 (10.7%), Microsporum canis 5 (7.6%), Trichophyton tonsurans 5 (7.6%), Epidermophyton floccosum 4 (6.0%) and Trichophyton violaceum 2 (3.0%). The most active agent against all dermatophytes species was caspofungin with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) range (?g/mL?1) (0.02–3, 0.032–4, 0.125–0.50, 0.032–2, 0.25–0.50, 0.125–0.50) and it raconazole with an MIC range (?g/mL?1) (0.038–1.5, 0.094–1.5, 1–32, 0.016–0.50, 0.25–0.50, 0.125–0.50). The least active agent was fluconazole with an MIC range (?g/mL?1) (0, 19–48, 2–256, 2–8, 256, 256, 8–24). Conclusion: E-test seems to be an alternative method to MIC-determination of antifungal drugs for dermatophytes species, since it is a less-laborious methodology and results could be obtained faster. PMID:25610290

Aktas, Ayse Esin; Yigit, Nimet; Aktas, Akin; Gozubuyuk, Sultan Gamze

2014-01-01