Science.gov

Sample records for microsporum

  1. Case report. Onychomycosis due to Microsporum canis.

    PubMed

    Romano, C; Paccagnini, E; Pelliccia, L

    2001-05-01

    A case of distal subungual onychomycosis of the big toe due to Microsporum canis is reported in a 69-year-old male asthma patient who had been treated with systemic corticosteroids for the last 3 years. The nail infection was contracted from a cat who was a healthy carrier. The patient was treated successfully with intermittent itraconazole therapy. PMID:11413924

  2. Rare zoonotic infection with Microsporum persicolor with literature review.

    PubMed

    Krzy?ciak, Pawe; Al-Hatmi, Abdullah M S; Ahmed, Sarah Abdalla; Macura, Anna B

    2015-09-01

    We report a case of dermatophytosis caused by Microsporum persicolor in a 38-year-old male from Poland. Direct microscopic examination revealed high amounts of fungal hyphae from the right elbow material. The mould recovered in multiple cultures was identified as Microsporum persicolor by molecular identification based on partial of ?-tubulin gene (BT2), internal transcribed spacer, partial small ribosomal subunit (SSU) and large ribosomal subunit, partial translation elongation factor (TEF1) and RNA polymerase second largest subunit (RPB1) loci sequence data. The patient was treated with terbinafine. Clinical and mycological cure was achieved with this regimen and the patient was subsequently followed for 1 year without relapse. Microsporum persicolor is a very rare causative agent of dermatophytosis worldwide. The source of infection for the patient remained unclear and zoonotic transmission could not be confirmed. PMID:26103049

  3. Antifungal activity of Lactobacillus against Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jiahui; Brosnan, Brid; Furey, Ambrose; Arendt, Elke; Murphy, Padraigin; Coffey, Aidan

    2012-01-01

    A total of 220 lactic acid bacteria isolates were screened for antifungal activity using Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger as the target strains. Four Lactobacillus strains exhibited strong inhibitory activity on agar surfaces. All four were also identified as having strong inhibitory activity against the human pathogenic fungi Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum. One of the four lactobacilli, namely Lb. reuteri ee1p exhibited the most inhibition against dermatophytes. Cell-free culture supernatants of Lb. reuteri ee1p and of the non-antifungal Lb. reuteri M13 were freeze-dried and used to access and compare antifungal activity in agar plate assays and microtiter plate assays. Addition of the Lb. reuteri ee1p freeze-dried cell-free supernatant powder into the agar medium at concentrations greater than 2% inhibited all fungal colony growth. Addition of the powder at 5% to liquid cultures caused complete inhibition of fungal growth on the basis of turbidity. Freeze-dried supernatant of the non-antifungal Lb. reuteri M13 at the same concentrations had a much lesser effect. As Lb. reuteri M13 is very similar to the antifungal strain ee1p in terms of growth rate and final pH in liquid culture, and as it has little antifungal activity, it is clear that other antifungal compounds must be specifically produced (or produced at higher levels) by the anti-dermatophyte strain Lb. reuteri ee1p. Reuterin was undetectable in all four antifungal strains. The cell free supernatant of Lb. reuteri ee1p was analyzed by LC-FTMS using an Accela LC coupled to an LTQ Orbitrap XL mass spectrometer. The high mass accuracy spectrum produced by compounds in the Lb. reuteri ee1p strain was compared with both a multianalyte chromatogram and individual spectra of standard anti-fungal compounds, which are known to be produced by lactic acid bacteria. Ten antifungal metabolites were detected. PMID:22539027

  4. Microsporum canis: report of a primary school outbreak.

    PubMed

    Grills, Claire E; Bryan, Paul L; O'Moore, Eammon; Venning, Vanessa A

    2007-05-01

    Microsporum canis is the causative organism in less than 10% of all tinea capitis infections in the UK. Transmission is generally via contact with an infected family pet and there are only rare reports of case clustering. This article describes an outbreak of M. canis in a primary school classroom demonstrating human-to-human spread from an index case who was presumed to have acquired the infection prior to arriving in the UK. There was no suggestion of clinical improvement following 4 weeks of oral terbinafine 125 mg daily and treatment was changed to griseofulvin. The Health Protection team screened class members and confirmed cases (either clinically or mycologically) were also treated with griseofulvin 10-20 mg/kg/day for 10 weeks. Classmates and siblings of classmates were recommended to use selenium sulphide or ketoconazole-containing shampoo twice weekly. PMID:17535194

  5. Dermatophytosis caused by Microsporum canis and Microsporum gypseum in free-living Bradypus variegatus (Schiz, 1825) in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Xavier, Gileno Antônio Araújo; da Silva, Leonildo Bento Galiza; da Silva, Davi Rubem; de Moraes Peixoto, Rodolfo; Lino, Gileno Câmara; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido

    2008-07-01

    Three cases of dermatophytosis in free living brown-throated three-toed sloths (Bradypus variegatus) in the Zona da Mata, North of Pernambuco State, Brazil, were studied. Two animals presented areas of alopecia on the pelvic member and thorax and one animal on the pelvic member only. The three animals presented scabs. Hair and scabs samples were submitted to microscopical examination after treatment with a 30 % KOH and cultivated in Mycosel Agar. The direct examination indicated the presence of arthrospores in the hair. Colonies grown after seven days of culture were confirmed as Microsporum based on examination of the structure of the macroconidia. This is the first observation of dermatophytosis caused by Microsporum canis and Microsporum gypseum in free living sloths in the State of Pernambuco. PMID:24031255

  6. Unusual strains of Microsporum audouinii causing tinea in Europe.

    PubMed

    Brasch, J; Müller, S; Gräser, Y

    2015-10-01

    We comment on an unusual strain of Microsporum (M.) audouinii. It was isolated from tinea corporis of a boy who lived in Germany and most likely had acquired his infection during a stay on a farm with animal husbandry in Poland. The strain showed features of M. canis (plenty of markedly rough-walled macroconidia, growth on rice, positive hair perforation) as well as of M. audouinii (white thallus, long macroconidia with central constriction) and in vitro it degraded hair of various mammals. Because its ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region showed 99.9% homology to a M. audouinii reference strain it was finally identified as M. audouinii. We relate these findings with recent observations of M. audouinii causing tinea in Europe. This appraisal suggests that irrespective of an identical ribosomal ITS region distinct M. audouinii strains can display a spectrum of morphological and physiological features that is broader than currently outlined in mycological textbooks. Certain unusual characteristics like an enhanced capacity to utilise keratins may even be associated with unexpected transmission routes. Above all sporadic M. audouinii infections in Europe that bear no relation to an endemic area should be analysed from this perspective. PMID:26252563

  7. Comparative study of Microsporum canis isolates by DNA fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Shafiee, Shabnam; Khosravi, Ali Reza; Ashrafi Tamai, Iradj

    2014-08-01

    Microsporum canis is a zoophilic fungus and it is an important agent of dermatophytosis. Cats act as important reservoirs. Clinically, it is too difficult to differentiate dermatophytosis caused by various species, also this fungus loses its morphological characteristics easily because of subculture; so using of rapid and accurate laboratory techniques for identifying the dermatophytes is important, therefore, RAPD-PCR was applied for the differentiation of the isolates. In this study, 10 M. canis isolates were detected in cats, dog, human, fox and rabbit at the Mycology Research Center, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran. For running the RAPD-PCR, PCR set system and three random primers OPU 15, OPU 13 and OPA 04 were used. Then phylogenetic tree and similarity coefficient table were drawn. The results showed that there were some common bands between M. canis isolates. There were some specific bands for each isolates, as well. Our study showed, despite the typical morphology of the whole isolates, they were placed in different branches in molecular typing. PMID:24635009

  8. Treatment of tinea capitis caused by Microsporum ferrugineum with itraconazole.

    PubMed

    Wisuthsarewong, Wanee; Chaiprasert, Angkana

    2005-11-01

    A prospective, non-randomized, open clinical trial was conducted to determine the efficacy of itraconazole for treatment of Microsporum ferrugineum tinea capitis. Itraconazole capsules were given every day in continuous group and every day for 1 week on and 3-week off in pulse therapy group. Concomitant topical therapy with 2% ketoconazole shampoo was used daily. Clinical evaluation consisted of assessing the degree of hair loss, scaling, erythema, pustule, and crust. In both groups, the treatment was stopped when the clinical signs of inflammation had resolved and the mycological examination had become negative or at week 12. There were 81 patients consisted of 49 boys and 32 girls enrolled and average dose of itraconazole was 4.5 mg/kg/day. During the 16-week study period (with 4-week follow-up visit) the overall clinical severity score decreased every visit (p < 0.001). The improvement of the scores showed no statistical difference between both groups. The cumulative cure rate using combined clinical and mycological cure at week 16 in patients treated with continuous and pulse regimen was 54.3% (19/35) and 37.0% (17/46), respectively. The cumulative percentage of all cure rates including clinical cure, mycological cure and combined clinical and mycological cure of the continuous group was significantly higher than in the pulse therapy group (p < 0.001). The superior efficacy of the continuous therapy group was observed after week 8. The cumulative cure rate increased with the longer treatment duration but decreased with the larger infected area involvement (p = 0.001). All patients who were not cured showed improvement. There was no significant adverse effect. The higher dosage or the longer treatment duration of itraconazole may be required for treatment of tinea capitis from M. ferrugineum to achieve more cure rate. PMID:16856430

  9. Pathogenic fungus Microsporum canis activates the NLRP3 inflammasome.

    PubMed

    Mao, Liming; Zhang, Liping; Li, Hua; Chen, Wei; Wang, Hongbin; Wu, Shuxian; Guo, Caiqin; Lu, Ailing; Yang, Guiwen; An, Liguo; Abliz, Paride; Meng, Guangxun

    2014-02-01

    Microsporum canis is a pathogenic fungus with worldwide distribution that causes tinea capitis in animals and humans. M. canis also causes invasive infection in immunocompromised patients. To defy pathogenic fungal infection, the host innate immune system is the first line of defense. As an important arm of innate immunity, the inflammasomes are intracellular multiprotein complexes that control the activation of caspase-1, which cleaves proinflammatory cytokine pro-interleukin-1? (IL-1?) into its mature form. To determine whether the inflammasome is involved in the host defense against M. canis infection, we challenged human monocytic THP-1 cells and mouse dendritic cells with a clinical strain of M. canis isolated from patients with tinea capitis. We found that M. canis infection triggered rapid secretion of IL-1? from both THP-1 cells and mouse dendritic cells. Moreover, by using gene-specific shRNA and competitive inhibitors, we determined that M. canis-induced IL-1? secretion was dependent on NLRP3. The pathways proposed for NLRP3 inflammasome activation, namely, cathepsin B activity, K(+) efflux, and reactive oxygen species production, were all required for the inflammasome activation triggered by M. canis. Meanwhile, Syk, Dectin-1, and Card9 were found to be involved in M. canis-induced IL-1? secretion via regulation of pro-IL-1? transcription. More importantly, our data revealed that M. canis-induced production of IL-1? was dependent on the NLRP3 inflammasome in vivo. Together, this study unveils that the NLRP3 inflammasome exerts a critical role in host innate immune responses against M. canis infection, and our data suggest that diseases that result from M. canis infection might be controlled by regulating the activation of inflammasomes. PMID:24478101

  10. Pathogenic Fungus Microsporum canis Activates the NLRP3 Inflammasome

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Liming; Zhang, Liping; Li, Hua; Chen, Wei; Wang, Hongbin; Wu, Shuxian; Guo, Caiqin; Lu, Ailing; Yang, Guiwen; An, Liguo

    2014-01-01

    Microsporum canis is a pathogenic fungus with worldwide distribution that causes tinea capitis in animals and humans. M. canis also causes invasive infection in immunocompromised patients. To defy pathogenic fungal infection, the host innate immune system is the first line of defense. As an important arm of innate immunity, the inflammasomes are intracellular multiprotein complexes that control the activation of caspase-1, which cleaves proinflammatory cytokine pro-interleukin-1? (IL-1?) into its mature form. To determine whether the inflammasome is involved in the host defense against M. canis infection, we challenged human monocytic THP-1 cells and mouse dendritic cells with a clinical strain of M. canis isolated from patients with tinea capitis. We found that M. canis infection triggered rapid secretion of IL-1? from both THP-1 cells and mouse dendritic cells. Moreover, by using gene-specific shRNA and competitive inhibitors, we determined that M. canis-induced IL-1? secretion was dependent on NLRP3. The pathways proposed for NLRP3 inflammasome activation, namely, cathepsin B activity, K+ efflux, and reactive oxygen species production, were all required for the inflammasome activation triggered by M. canis. Meanwhile, Syk, Dectin-1, and Card9 were found to be involved in M. canis-induced IL-1? secretion via regulation of pro-IL-1? transcription. More importantly, our data revealed that M. canis-induced production of IL-1? was dependent on the NLRP3 inflammasome in vivo. Together, this study unveils that the NLRP3 inflammasome exerts a critical role in host innate immune responses against M. canis infection, and our data suggest that diseases that result from M. canis infection might be controlled by regulating the activation of inflammasomes. PMID:24478101

  11. [Analysis of microsporum dermatomycoses in Szczecin, its terrain and regions in the years 1985-1988].

    PubMed

    Turek-Urasi?ska, K

    1993-01-01

    The retrospective analysis of M. canis infections in Szczecin and its region, and the comparison with other dermatomycoses are presented. The study comprised two groups of patients: 450 patients diagnosed between January 1985--December 1988 to have microsporum infections, and 449 patients with the diagnosis of dermatomycosis made between January 1986--December 1988. Data collected in form of patients personal cards were subsequently analysed with the use of standard statistical methods. Most of cases of M. canis infections occurred in females younger than 14 years, while the preponderance of adult males was observed among patients with other dermatomycoses. In patients with microsporum infections, skin lesions were most commonly located on the face, limbs and chest as well as on the scalp in children. In patients with other dermatomycoses, skin lesions were placed on feet, inter-hallux spaces and toe nails. Infected animals, especially stray cats, less frequently dogs, played an important role in the spread of microsporum infections. The disease was characterized by the seasonal pattern with the peak incidence between August and December. The rising number of microsporum infection with clinical picture and animal sources of infection, distinctive from other dermatomycoses, is currently observed in Szczecin and its region. PMID:8154613

  12. Pseudomembranous-like Tinea of the Scrotum Infected by Microsporum Gypseum in a Young Man

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Huan; Lan, Xue-Mei; Zhou, Cun-Jian; Yang, Xi-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Microsporum gypseum is a geographically widespread geophilic fungus that infects animals and humans. M. gypseum infection on the scrotum is very rare and can be easily misdiagnosed because of a lack of inflammatory reaction. Here we describe a patient with pseudomembranous-like tinea of the scrotum resulting from M. gypseum. PMID:26288444

  13. Outbreak of tinea capitis by Trichophyton tonsurans and Microsporum canis in Niterói, RJ, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Towersey, L; Hay, R J; Monteiro, M H; Lago, M B; Martins, E de C; Estrella, R R

    1992-01-01

    18 girls from an orphanage (Orfanato Santo Antônio) in Niterói presented tinea capitis due to Trichophyton tonsurans (15 cases-83.3%) and Microsporum canis (3 cases-26.7%). Comments are made about clinical, mycological and therapeutic aspects of this microepidemic. PMID:1342076

  14. Pseudomembranous-like Tinea of the Scrotum Infected by Microsporum Gypseum in a Young Man.

    PubMed

    Tan, Huan; Lan, Xue-Mei; Zhou, Cun-Jian; Yang, Xi-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Microsporum gypseum is a geographically widespread geophilic fungus that infects animals and humans. M. gypseum infection on the scrotum is very rare and can be easily misdiagnosed because of a lack of inflammatory reaction. Here we describe a patient with pseudomembranous-like tinea of the scrotum resulting from M. gypseum. PMID:26288444

  15. Tinea Corporis, Caused by Microsporum Canis - a Case Report From Kosovo

    PubMed Central

    Kokollari, Fatime; Daka, Aferdita; Blyta, Ymrane; Ismajli, Fellanza; Haxhijaha-Lulaj, Kujtesa

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Tinea corporis (B35.6) caused by Microsporum canis which is fungal species that causes numerous forms of disease. It is part of a group of fungi known as Dermatophytes. Though mostly well known for ringworm in pets, it is also known to infect humans. This fact makes this pathogen both anthrophilic and zoophilic in nature. Microsporum canis is a communicable pathogen. Case report: We will report about a case, 22-year-old female, residing in a village, with typical changes of a mycotic infection caused by M. Canis. Dermatological description can be summarized with polymorphic erythematous, papulosquamous changes, erosions mainly on genital organ and spread to the thighs and lower abdomen which are accompanied with itching and burning. Diagnosis B35.6 was determined on the basis of clinical appearance complemented with anamnesis, microscopic examination and culture. The patient was treated successfully with general and local antimycotics and antibiotics. PMID:26622092

  16. Microsporum aenigmaticum sp. nov. from M. gypseum complex, isolated as a cause of tinea corporis.

    PubMed

    Hubka, Vit; Dobiašova, Stanislava; Dobiaš, Radim; Kola?ik, Miroslav

    2014-05-01

    An undescribed Microsporum species was isolated from skin scales recovered from a 40-mm large, annular, scaling lesion on the wrist of a 46-year-old woman. The risk factors for dermatophyte infection in the patient were frequent work in the garden, hunting, and contact with dogs and horses. Direct microscopic examination of the scales revealed the presence of dermatophyte hyphae; when the samples were cultured, a morphologically similar fungus grew on all slants in pure culture. Both of these findings strongly suggested that the isolate was the true causal agent of infection. The possible geophilic nature of the species was based on phylogenetic analysis (internal transcribed spacer region of rDNA and ?-tubulin gene) that placed it in between species of the M. gypseum complex. However, its divergencies from all other Microsporum species exceeded 4% base pairs. Based on ?-tubulin phylogeny, the isolated species is a sister to M. gypseum. The species produces abundant chlamydospores and clumps of hyphae similar to those of ascomatal primordia but no conidia and ascospores. The species was unable to grow at 37°C and does not grow on T6 basal medium, which is unlike other Microsporum species; hair perforation and urease tests were positive. The addition of histidine to the T6 medium resulted in rapid growth of the fungus. The phylogenetic evidence, morphology, growth parameters, and physiology justified the proposal that the isolate is a new species, M. aenigmaticum, sp. nov. PMID:24625678

  17. The ringworm riddle: an outbreak of Microsporum canis in the nursery.

    PubMed

    Snider, R; Landers, S; Levy, M L

    1993-02-01

    Tinea capitis, the most common fungal infection in children, is rare in neonates. We report six patients in a Level II intermediate care nursery who developed nosocomial dermatophyte infections caused by Microsporum canis. The investigation, which led to the identification of a nurse as the common source, is described. The nurse had an indolent infection with M. canis. Human to human transmission is exceedingly rare for M. canis. The literature regarding neonatal dermatophyte infections is discussed in relation to the reported outbreak. PMID:8426773

  18. Dermatophytosis due to Microsporum incurvatum: Notification and Identification of a Neglected Pathogenic Species.

    PubMed

    Rezaei-Matehkolaei, Ali; Makimura, Koichi; Graser, Yvonne; Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba; Abastabar, Mahdi; Rafiei, Abdollah; Zhan, Ping; Ronagh, Ali; Jafarpour, Sima

    2016-02-01

    A 4-year-old Iranian boy developed erythematous, itchy and annular lesion on his face. Microscopic examination of the scraped samples with 10 % potassium hydroxide (KOH) revealed fungal septate hyphae and arthroconidia. The etiological agent was found to be Microsporum gypseum in mycological examinations. Amplification and restriction digestion of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of rDNA was not helpful for identification, but in ITS sequencing the isolate showed 98 % homology to Microsporum incurvatum strain CBS 172.64. Empirical treatment of the patient with griseofulvin for 4 weeks was successful. Other than our isolate, the ITS1 sequences of 38 strains from related species were retrieved from GenBank and phylogenetic tree using maximum likelihood method was constructed. The case isolate clustered apart from other strains of M. incurvatum. Pairwise comparison of ITS1 showed intraspecies variations of 0-13 nucleotides among M. incurvatum strains and an extensive interspecies variation of 33-80 bp and remarkable interspecies size polymorphism between the three sister species in the M. gypseum complex. The high level of ITS1 intraspecific variation is suitable for species identification rather than phylogeographic analysis of M. gypseum complex. PMID:26386581

  19. Microsporum fulvum IBRL SD3: as novel isolate for chicken feathers degradation.

    PubMed

    Darah, I; Nur-Diyana, A; Nurul-Husna, S; Jain, K; Lim, Sheh-Hong

    2013-12-01

    Keratinous wastes have increasingly become a problem and accumulate in the environment mainly in the form of feathers, generated mainly from a large number of poultry industries. As keratins are very difficult to degrade by general proteases, they pose a major environmental problem. Therefore, microorganisms which would effectively degrade keratins are needed for recycling such wastes. A geophilic dermatophyte, Microsporum fulvum IBRL SD3 which was isolated from a soil sample collected from a chicken feather dumping site using a baiting technique, was capable to produce keratinase significantly. The crude keratinase was able to degrade whole chicken feathers effectively. The end product of the degradation was protein that contained essential amino acids and may have potential application in animal feed production. Thus, M. fulvum could be a novel organism to produce keratinase for chicken feathers degradation. PMID:24013862

  20. Phosphate-Mediated Alteration of the Microsporum gypseum Germination Protease Specificity for Substrate: Enhanced Keratinase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Page, W. J.; Stock, J. J.

    1974-01-01

    Inorganic phosphate was found to decrease the caseinolytic and ethyl-esterase activities of the Microsporum gypseum germination protease. The germination protease possessed exokeratinase (beta-keratinase) activity immediately after release from the fungal spore. After phosphate treatment of the enzyme, the germination protease also possessed endo-keratinase (alpha-keratinase) activity. Phosphate altered the protease's pH optimum from 9.0 to 7.0 and decreased the molecular weight from 33,000 to 16,000. These values were identical to those found for the keratinase. Alpha- and beta-keratinase activities were stimulated in excess of 200-fold by disulfide reducing agents. Natural and suspected keratin degradation products also enhanced keratinase activity. Cell fractionation and in vitro conversion of the alkaline germination protease into a functional keratinase suggested that the subunits comprising the germination protease and the keratinase were of a common origin. PMID:4855780

  1. Outbreak of Microsporum audouinii in Munich--the return of infectious fungi in Germany.

    PubMed

    Zink, Alexander; Papanagiotou, Vasileios; Todorova, Antonia; Seidl, Hans-Peter; Niedermeier, Andrea; Ring, Johannes; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia

    2014-12-01

    After experiencing an unusually high number of Microsporum (M.) audouinii infections at our hospital within only a few weeks, we began to investigate and control an outbreak in Munich, Germany. Main goals of our health management were to treat infected persons, identify extent and form of transmission and to prevent new infections. We analysed data from structured interviews with patients and mycological cultures of swabs taken of patients and investigated involved public facilities. Outbreak management included antifungal treatment of patients, decontamination of affected facilities, the introduction of a temporary kindergarten ban for M. audouinii positive children and the organisation of educational meetings. Between March and August 2011, 16 children and 4 adults were identified with M. audouinii infections. The fungus was brought to Munich by the index patients from a family vacation in Africa and then spread to fellow children in kindergarten and subsequently to their families. All patients were treated successfully and the epidemic was declared ceased after 40 weeks but causing considerable financial damage. Due to travelling and migration, M. audouinii infections will rise in Germany and Europe. Sufficient and sustainable strategies are needed for the management of future outbreaks of highly contagious fungi. PMID:25175409

  2. Microsporum canis infection in three familial cases with tinea capitis and tinea corporis.

    PubMed

    Yin, Bin; Xiao, Yuling; Ran, Yuping; Kang, Daoxian; Dai, Yaling; Lama, Jebina

    2013-10-01

    We report a familial infection caused by Microsporum canis. The first two patients were a 30-year-old female and her son, a 5-year-old boy, who came in contact with a pet dog at a farm house. The boy then suffered from hair loss for 3 months. There were circular and patchy alopecia with diffuse scaling on his scalp. Meanwhile, his mother also developed patchy erythema and scaling on her face. Several weeks later, the boy's sister, a 4-year-old girl, was noted to have inconspicuous scaly plaques in the center of her scalp. The development of tinea capitis in the two children and tinea corporis in their mother were diagnosed based on the positive KOH examination. Morphologic characteristics and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2, amplified from primary culture isolates, confirmed that their infections were caused by the zoophilic M. canis. Repetitive sequence-based molecular typing using the DiversiLab system secreted enzymatic activity analysis, and antifungal susceptibility indicated that these isolates might share the same source. The boy and girl were cured by the treatment with oral itraconazole and topical naftifine-ketoconazole cream after washing the hair with 2 % ketoconazole shampoo, and their mother was successfully treated by terbinafine orally in combination with topical application of naftifine-ketoconazole cream. PMID:23918090

  3. Cat favus caused by Microsporum incurvatum comb. nov.: the clinical and histopathological features and molecular phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Sun, Pei-Lun; Mu, Chao-An; Fan, Chi-Chen; Fan, Yun-Chen; Hu, Jer-Ming; Ju, Yu-Ming

    2014-04-01

    Favus is a distinctive form of infection that is caused by exclusively dermatophytes. Its clinical presentation is characterized by scutula, which are concave, thick fungal crusts. The best-known examples of human scalp favus are caused by Trichophyton schoenleinii and those of mouse favus are caused by T. quinckeanum. However, other dermatophytes, such as T. violaceum, T. verrucosum, Microsporum audouinii, M. gallinae, M. gypseum, and M. canis, have been reported sporadically to cause favic lesions. Favus on cats has rarely been mentioned in the literature, and the pathogens with which it has been associated are, for the most part, unknown. Here, we examine four cat favus cases, focusing on clinical presentations and histopathological features. In all cases the etiologic agent was identified as M. incurvatum based on its morphological characteristics and sequences of internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Phylogenetic analysis using the neighbor-joining method, which is based on ITS, showed that these four isolates belonged to two strains of M. incurvatum; one strain was a new combination from the basionym Nannizzia incurvata. PMID:24625676

  4. Multiorgan fungal infection caused by Microsporum canis in a green iguana (Iguana iguana).

    PubMed

    Chung, Tae-Ho; Kim, Eun-Ju; Choi, Ul Soo

    2014-06-01

    Multiple organ invasion by keratinophilic fungi in the green iguana (Iguana iguana) has not been previously reported. In this case, a 1-yr-old female green iguana presented with a nodular, darkly discolored skin lesion surrounded by necrosis in the right ventral abdominal region. A cytologic examination of the fine needle aspiration of the lesion revealed an exuberant proliferation of fibroblasts, macrophages, and multinucleated cells along with frequent filamentous structures consistent with hyphal elements. The necropsy revealed diffuse infiltration of the liver, lung, and cardiac apex with white nodules. A histopathologic examination of the lesions also confirmed a fungal infection associated with granulomatous inflammation. Rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of the chitin synthase 1 gene was conducted for rapid direct detection, and inter-simple sequence repeat fingerprinting was conducted to classify the infectious origin. The PCR analysis definitively demonstrated representative Microsporum canis fungus. The present report is the first case of disseminated M. canis infection with multiorgan involvement in a green iguana. PMID:25000705

  5. Genetic variability in Microsporum canis isolated from cats, dogs and humans in Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Fernanda V A; Farias, Marconi R; Bier, Daniele; de Andrade, Caroline P; de Castro, Luiza A; da Silva, Sérgio C; Ferreiro, Laerte

    2013-09-01

    Dermatophytosis caused by Microsporum canis is a heterogeneous disease with variable clinical manifestations. M. canis is a zoophilic dermatophyte and the most frequent fungi isolated from dogs, cats and children in Brazil. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic variability of M. canis isolates from different animal species using two microsatellite markers, namely, McGT(13) and McGT(17), and to correlate the results with the clinical and epidemiological patient data in Brazil. The study included a global set of 102 M. canis strains, including 37 symptomatic cats, 35 asymptomatic cats, 19 human patients with tinea, 9 asymptomatic dogs and 2 symptomatic dogs. A total of 14 genotypes were identified, and 6 large populations were distinguished. There was no correlation between these multilocus genotypes and the clinical and epidemiological data, including the source, symptomatology, clinical picture, breed, age, sex, living conditions and geographic location. These results demonstrate that the use of microsatellite polymorphisms is a reliable method for the differentiation of M. canis strains. However, we were unable to demonstrate a shared clinical and epidemiological pattern among the same genotype samples. PMID:23551796

  6. Digital gene expression analysis of Microsporum canis exposed to berberine chloride.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Chen-Wen; Ji, Quan-An; Wei, Qiang; Liu, Yan; Pan, Li-Jun; Bao, Guo-Lian

    2015-01-01

    Berberine, a natural isoquinoline alkaloid of many medicinal herbs, has an active function against a variety of microbial infections including Microsporum canis (M. canis). However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. To study the effect of berberine chloride on M. canis infection, a Digital Gene Expression (DGE) tag profiling was constructed and a transcriptome analysis of the M. canis cellular responses upon berberine treatment was performed. Illumina/Hisseq sequencing technique was used to generate the data of gene expression profile, and the following enrichment analysis of Gene Ontology (GO) and Pathway function were conducted based on the data of transcriptome. The results of DGE showed that there were 8476945, 14256722, 7708575, 5669955, 6565513 and 9303468 tags respectively, which was obtained from M. canis incubated with berberine or control DMSO. 8,783 genes were totally mapped, and 1,890 genes have shown significant changes between the two groups. 1,030 genes were up-regulated and 860 genes were down-regulated (P<0.05) in berberine treated group compared to the control group. Besides, twenty-three GO terms were identified by Gene Ontology functional enrichment analysis, such as calcium-transporting ATPase activity, 2-oxoglutarate metabolic process, valine catabolic process, peroxisome and unfolded protein binding. Pathway significant enrichment analysis indicated 6 signaling pathways that are significant, including steroid biosynthesis, steroid hormone biosynthesis, Parkinson's disease, 2,4-Dichlorobenzoate degradation, and tropane, piperidine and Isoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis. Among these, eleven selected genes were further verified by qRT-PCR. Our findings provide a comprehensive view on the gene expression profile of M. canis upon berberine treatment, and shed light on its complicated effects on M. canis. PMID:25874937

  7. Management of endemic Microsporum canis dermatophytosis in an open admission shelter: a field study.

    PubMed

    Newbury, Sandra; Moriello, Karen; Coyner, Kimberly; Trimmer, Ann; Kunder, Darcie

    2015-04-01

    Endemic Microsporum canis dermatophytosis was identified in a large, open admission, private, no-kill shelter that admitted >1200 cats per year. Fungal culture (FC) screening revealed that 166/210 (79%) and 38/99 (38%) cats in the non-public and public area were culture positive, respectively. However, pending screening FC results, the 99 cats in the public area were treated with once-weekly lime sulfur rinses and monitored with once-weekly FC. Cats in the non-public area were not treated. When FC results were available, cats were separated into low-risk (n = 61) and high-risk (n = 38) groups based upon the presence or absence of skin lesions. Low-risk cats continued to receive once-weekly topical lime sulfur and rapidly achieved culture-negative status. High-risk cats were divided into two groups based upon the number of colony-forming units/plate (low or high). All 38 cats were treated with twice-weekly lime sulfur and oral terbinafine and within 6-7 weeks only 5/38 cats were still FC-positive. These cats were moved to a separate room. Dermatophytosis was eradicated within 5 months; eradication was prolonged owing to reintroduction of disease into the remaining room of cats under treatment from three kittens returning from foster care. Continued admissions and adoptions were possible by the institution of intake procedures that specifically included careful Wood's lamp examination to identify high-risk cats and use of a 'clean break strategy'. PMID:25074567

  8. Digital Gene Expression Analysis of Microsporum canis Exposed to Berberine Chloride

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Chen-Wen; Ji, Quan-An; Wei, Qiang; Liu, Yan; Pan, Li-Jun; Bao, Guo-Lian

    2015-01-01

    Berberine, a natural isoquinoline alkaloid of many medicinal herbs, has an active function against a variety of microbial infections including Microsporum canis (M. canis). However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. To study the effect of berberine chloride on M. canis infection, a Digital Gene Expression (DGE) tag profiling was constructed and a transcriptome analysis of the M. canis cellular responses upon berberine treatment was performed. Illimina/Hisseq sequencing technique was used to generate the data of gene expression profile, and the following enrichment analysis of Gene Ontology (GO) and Pathway function were conducted based on the data of transcriptome. The results of DGE showed that there were 8476945, 14256722, 7708575, 5669955, 6565513 and 9303468 tags respectively, which was obtained from M. canis incubated with berberine or control DMSO. 8,783 genes were totally mapped, and 1,890 genes have shown significant changes between the two groups. 1,030 genes were up-regulated and 860 genes were down-regulated (P<0.05) in berberine treated group compared to the control group. Besides, twenty-three GO terms were identified by Gene Ontology functional enrichment analysis, such as calcium-transporting ATPase activity, 2-oxoglutarate metabolic process, valine catabolic process, peroxisome and unfolded protein binding. Pathway significant enrichment analysis indicated 6 signaling pathways that are significant, including steroid biosynthesis, steroid hormone biosynthesis, Parkinson’s disease, 2,4-Dichlorobenzoate degradation, and tropane, piperidine and Isoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis. Among these, eleven selected genes were further verified by qRT-PCR. Our findings provide a comprehensive view on the gene expression profile of M. canis upon berberine treatment, and shed light on its complicated effects on M. canis. PMID:25874937

  9. Two cases of tinea ciliaris with blepharitis due to Microsporum audouinii and Trichophyton verrucosum and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Gulay Ozel; Dadaci, Zeynep; Ozer, Turkan Toka

    2014-09-01

    Dermatophytes are rarely taken into account among the causes of blepharitis. In our report, we describe a 69-year-old man and a 40-year-old woman with chronic blepharitis for 10 years and 4 years respectively, in whom we examined the scales and pulled eyelashes on direct microscopy and isolated Microsporum audouinii and Trichophyton verrrucosum in the culture. We emphasise that dermatophytes may play a role in the etiopathogenesis of chronic blepharitis. In chronic, treatment resistance blepharitis fungal infections may be considered as possible cause. PMID:24724801

  10. In Vitro Profiling of Pramiconazole and In Vivo Evaluation in Microsporum canis Dermatitis and Candida albicans Vaginitis Laboratory Models?

    PubMed Central

    de Wit, Kelly; Paulussen, Caroline; Matheeussen, An; van Rossem, Koen; Cos, Paul; Maes, Louis

    2010-01-01

    The triazole antifungal pramiconazole (Stiefel, a GSK company) was compared with itraconazole, miconazole, and terbinafine in vitro and in vivo. Potent in vitro activities against Candida spp. (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50], 0.04 to 1.83 ?M) and Microsporum and Trichophyton spp. (IC50, 0.15 to 1.34 ?M) were obtained but not, however, against other filamentous molds and zygomycetes. In the M. canis guinea pig model and C. albicans vulvovaginitis rat model, pramiconazole was superior to the reference compounds after oral and topical administration. PMID:20805398

  11. An outbreak of Microsporum canis in two elementary schools in a rural area around the capital city of Slovenia, 2012.

    PubMed

    Subelj, M; Marinko, J Sveti?i?; U?akar, V

    2014-12-01

    An outbreak of Microsporum canis infection affected 12 persons in two elementary schools over a period of 48 days in 2012 in Slovenia. Epidemiological, microbiological, and animal investigations were conducted. We defined cases as pupils or employees with skin lesions and confirmed or probable M. canis infection, attending one of the implicated elementary schools. Two clusters of six primary and six secondary cases were included in an unmatched case-control study. Contact with an adopted stray kitten at a birthday party was identified as the most probable source of infection. Secondary cases were more likely to have participated in gymnastic classes with a primary case than controls and were also more likely to have touched an infected child. Prompt communication and implementation of adequate control measures after the primary cases occurred would have prevented the secondary cases in another school. PMID:24512846

  12. A Multi-Target Approach toward the Development of Novel Candidates for Antidermatophytic Activity: Ultrastructural Evidence on ?-Bisabolol-Treated Microsporum gypseum.

    PubMed

    Romagnoli, Carlo; Baldisserotto, Anna; Malisardi, Gemma; Vicentini, Chiara B; Mares, Donatella; Andreotti, Elisa; Vertuani, Silvia; Manfredini, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Multi-target strategies are directed toward targets that are unrelated (or distantly related) and can create opportunities to address different pathologies. The antidermatophytic activities of nine natural skin lighteners: ?-bisabolol, kojic acid, ?-arbutin, azelaic acid, hydroquinone, nicotinamide, glycine, glutathione and ascorbyl tetraisopalmitate, were evaluated, in comparison with the known antifungal drug fluconazole, on nine dermatophytes responsible for the most common dermatomycoses: Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton violaceum, Nannizzia cajetani, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum, Arthroderma gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton tonsurans. ?-Bisabolol showed the best antifungal activity against all fungi and in particular; against M. gypseum. Further investigations were conducted on this fungus to evaluate the inhibition of spore germination and morphological changes induced by ?-bisabolol by TEM. PMID:26132903

  13. A case of kerion celsi caused by Microsporum gypseum in a boy following dermatoplasty for a scalp wound from a road accident.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruifeng; Ran, Yuping; Dai, Yaling; Zhang, Hao; Lu, Yao

    2011-01-01

    We report a rare case of kerion celsi of the scalp caused by Microsporum gypseum in a boy 1 month after he received dermatoplasty for a scalp injury from a road accident. Species identification was performed by observation of morphologic and biochemical characteristics and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) 1 and 2. Treatment with oral terbinafine and topical naftifine-ketoconazole cream after washing the hair with ketoconazole shampoo was effective. PMID:20662636

  14. Development of an in vitro, isolated, infected spore testing model for disinfectant testing of Microsporum canis isolates.

    PubMed

    Moriello, Karen A; Deboer, Douglas J; Volk, Lynn M; Sparkes, Andrew; Robinson, Ann

    2004-06-01

    The isolated infected hair model is a commonly used technique to test the fungicidal efficacy of topical therapies against Microsporum canis. The most commonly used model uses mats of infective hairs, and results from various laboratories have differed. The objectives of this study were to develop a method to produce spores for testing when only mycelial forms were available and to develop a semiquantitative testing method that used only infective spores from hairs, and not pooled hair samples for testing. Ten isolates of M. canis were used in this study. Juvenile guinea pigs were easily infected using mycelial forms of M. canis and large numbers of spores were easily harvested for testing. Eight dilutions of disinfectants were tested. Fungal culture data were evaluated using an endpoint dilution at which there was 100% fungicidal activity, i.e. no growth on the plates. The 10 samples showed identical results. Chlorhexidine and Virkon(R) S were ineffective even when used at x4 the manufacturer's recommended dilution. Lime sulphur (1 : 33), enilconazole (20 microL mL(-1)), and bleach (1 : 10) were consistently effective when used at the recommended dilution. In addition, lime sulphur and enilconazole were 100% fungicidal even when the recommended concentration was diluted 1 : 4 or x4 as dilute as recommended. PMID:15214954

  15. Dermatophyte-hormone relationships: characterization of progesterone-binding specificity and growth inhibition in the genera Trichophyton and Microsporum.

    PubMed Central

    Clemons, K V; Schär, G; Stover, E P; Feldman, D; Stevens, D A

    1988-01-01

    We reported previously that Trichophyton mentagrophytes contains a cytoplasmic macromolecule which specifically binds progesterone. Progesterone is also an effective inhibitor of growth of the fungus. We report here studies which characterize more fully the specific binding properties and the functional responses of T. mentagrophytes and taxonomically related fungi to a series of mammalian steroid hormones. Scatchard analysis of [3H]progesterone binding in both the + and - mating types of Arthroderma benhamiae and in Microsporum canis revealed a single class of binding sites with approximately the same affinity as that in T. mentagrophytes (Kd, 1 X 10(-7) to 2 X 10(-7) M). Trichophyton rubrum had a protein with a higher binding affinity (Kd, 1.6 X 10(-8) M). Characterization of the [3H]progesterone-binding sites in T. mentagrophytes showed the binder to be a protein which was destroyed by trypsin and heating to 56 degrees C. Previous examination of the steroid-binding specificity in T. mentagrophytes had demonstrated that deoxycorticosterone (DOC) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) were effective competitors for [3H]progesterone binding. Expansion of this study to include other competitors revealed that R5020 (a synthetic progestin), androstenedione, and dehydroepiandosterone possessed relative binding affinities which were 20, 11, and 9% of that of progesterone, respectively. Other ligands tested were less effective. Competition studies for the binder in M. canis resulted in similar findings: DOC and DHT were effective competitors for [3H]progesterone binding. The growth of A. benhamiae + and -, M. canis, and T. rubrum were all inhibited by progesterone in a dose-responsive manner, with 50% inhibition achieved at concentrations of 9.8 x 10(-6), 1.2 x 10(-5), 1.5 x 10(-5), and 2.7 x 10(-6) M. respectively,. PMID:3182998

  16. Susceptibility of Microsporum canis arthrospores to a mixture of chemically defined essential oils: a perspective for environmental decontamination.

    PubMed

    Nardoni, Simona; Tortorano, Annamaria; Mugnaini, Linda; Profili, Greta; Pistelli, Luisa; Giovanelli, Silvia; Pisseri, Francesca; Papini, Roberto; Mancianti, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    The zoophilic dermatophyte Microsporum canis has cats as natural reservoir, but it is able to infect a wide range of hosts, including humans, where different clinical features of the so-called ringworm dermatophytosis have been described. Human infections are increasingly been reported in Mediterranean countries. A reliable control program against M. canis infection in cats should include an antifungal treatment of both the infected animals and their living environment. In this article, a herbal mixture composed of chemically defined essential oils (EOs) of Litsea cubeba (1%), Illicium verum, Foeniculum vulgare, and Pelargonium graveolens (0.5% each) was formulated and its antifungal activity assessed against M. canis arthrospores which represent the infective environmental stage of M. canis. Single compounds present in higher amounts in the mixture were also separately tested in vitro. Litsea cubeba and P. graveolens EOs were most effective (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 0.5%), followed by EOs of I. verum (MIC 2%) and F. vulgare (MIC 2.5%). Minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC) values were 0.75% (L. cubeba), 1.5% (P. graveolens), 2.5% (I. verum) and 3% (F. vulgare). MIC and MFC values of the mixture were 0.25% and 0.5%, respectively. The daily spray of the mixture (200 ?L) directly onto infected hairs inhibited fungal growth from the fourth day onwards. The compounds present in higher amounts exhibited variable antimycotic activity, with MIC values ranging from >10% (limonene) to 0.1% (geranial and neral). Thus, the mixture showed a good antifungal activity against arthrospores present in infected hairs. These results are promising for a further application of the mixture as an alternative tool or as an adjuvant in the environmental control of feline microsporosis. PMID:25854840

  17. Evaluation of fungicidal efficacy of benzalkonium chloride (Steramina G u.v.) and Virkon-S against Microsporum canis for environmental disinfection.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, V; Mancianti, F; Cardini, G; Luchetti, E

    2006-04-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the antifungal efficacy of Steramina G u.v. (10% solution of alkyldimetylbenzylammonium chloride; Formenti Grünenthal) and Virkon-S (multipurpose system; Antec International) against Microsporum canis-infected hairs and spores. Samples were collected from a random sample of household cats and from subjects from catteries. Seventy M. canis-positive hairbrushes containing furs, keratin scales and other organic material were treated with each of the two disinfectants, using concentrations recommended by the manufacturer's instructions (2% and 1% for Steramina G u.v. and Virkon-S, respectively). Each brush remained in contact with the antifungal solution for 10 min. After this period, the brushes were air-dried, then seeded into mycobiotic agar, and incubated for up to 21 days at 28 degrees C. The disinfectants were considered effective if dermatophytes failed to grow. Steramina G u.v. was effective in 97.14% of samples and Virkon-S in 87.14%. The antifungal activity of Steramina G u.v. against M. canis was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that of Virkon-S. PMID:16437301

  18. Assessment of immunogenicity and protective efficacy of Microsporum canis secreted components coupled to monophosphoryl lipid-A adjuvant in a vaccine study using guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Cambier, Ludivine; B?gu?, Elena-Tatiana; Heinen, Marie-Pierre; Tabart, Jérémy; Antoine, Nadine; Mignon, Bernard

    2015-02-25

    Microsporum canis is the most common dermatophyte in pets and is of zoonotic importance but currently there is no effective vaccine available to prevent dermatophytosis. The aim of this work was to assess the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of secreted components (SC) from M. canis adjuvanted with the monophosphoryl lipid-A (MPLA), in a vaccine study using the guinea pig as an experimental model. Animals were vaccinated with either the SC adjuvanted with the MPLA, the MPLA adjuvant alone or PBS three times at two-week intervals, until 42 days prior to M. canis infection. A blind evaluation of dermatophytosis symptoms development and fungal persistence in skin was monitored weekly. The antibody response towards the SC and the levels of Interferon (IFN)? and Interleukin-4 expressed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were assessed along or at the end of the study period respectively. The animals that received MPLA had a significantly lower clinical score than those inoculated with PBS. However, no significant difference was observed between the guinea pigs vaccinated with the SC adjuvanted with the MPLA and those having received MPLA alone. The results also showed that vaccination induced a strong antibody response towards the SC and an increase in IFN? mRNA level. Our results show that the MPLA adjuvant used in this vaccine study can induce per se a partial protection against a M. canis infection. Although they induce a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction in guinea pigs, the SC do not confer a protection under the present experimental conditions. PMID:25532779

  19. Kennel Disinfectants for Microsporum canis and Trichophyton sp.

    PubMed Central

    Moriello, Karen A.

    2015-01-01

    The antifungal efficacy of commonly used kennel disinfectants for large surfaces was tested using naturally infective material from untreated animals (M. canis and Trichophyton sp.) soaked and macerated but unfiltered leaving visible fluorescing hairs and/or scales in the test inoculum to create a robust challenge. Disinfectants included sodium hypochlorite (1?:?32 and 1?:?100), enilconazole (1?:?100), accelerated hydrogen peroxide (1?:?16), potassium peroxymonosulfate (1% and 2%), and calcium hypochlorite “dry bleach.” Disinfectants were tested at a 1?:?10, 1?:?5, and 1?:?1 dilution of test inoculum to disinfectant with a 10?min contact time. Good efficacy was defined as a disinfectant resulting in no growth. Control plates grew >300 colonies of each pathogen per plate. Enilconazole, sodium hypochlorite (all dilutions), accelerated hydrogen peroxide, and 2% potassium peroxymonosulfate (but not 1%) inhibited all growth of both pathogens at 1?:?10, 1?:?5, and 1?:?1 dilutions. Calcium hypochlorite showed no antifungal efficacy (>300 colonies per plate). Enilconazole (1?:?100), sodium hypochlorite (1?:?32 or 1?:?100), accelerated hydrogen peroxide (1?:?16), and 2% potassium peroxymonosulfate are recommended for decontamination of kennels exposed to dermatophyte pathogens. PMID:25763290

  20. Kennel Disinfectants for Microsporum canis and Trichophyton sp.

    PubMed

    Moriello, Karen A

    2015-01-01

    The antifungal efficacy of commonly used kennel disinfectants for large surfaces was tested using naturally infective material from untreated animals (M. canis and Trichophyton sp.) soaked and macerated but unfiltered leaving visible fluorescing hairs and/or scales in the test inoculum to create a robust challenge. Disinfectants included sodium hypochlorite (1?:?32 and 1?:?100), enilconazole (1?:?100), accelerated hydrogen peroxide (1?:?16), potassium peroxymonosulfate (1% and 2%), and calcium hypochlorite "dry bleach." Disinfectants were tested at a 1?:?10, 1?:?5, and 1?:?1 dilution of test inoculum to disinfectant with a 10?min contact time. Good efficacy was defined as a disinfectant resulting in no growth. Control plates grew >300 colonies of each pathogen per plate. Enilconazole, sodium hypochlorite (all dilutions), accelerated hydrogen peroxide, and 2% potassium peroxymonosulfate (but not 1%) inhibited all growth of both pathogens at 1?:?10, 1?:?5, and 1?:?1 dilutions. Calcium hypochlorite showed no antifungal efficacy (>300 colonies per plate). Enilconazole (1?:?100), sodium hypochlorite (1?:?32 or 1?:?100), accelerated hydrogen peroxide (1?:?16), and 2% potassium peroxymonosulfate are recommended for decontamination of kennels exposed to dermatophyte pathogens. PMID:25763290

  1. In vitro activity of CAY-1, a saponin from Capsicum frutescens, against microsporum and trichophyton species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dermatomycoses are among the world’s most common diseases. The incidence of dermatomycoses has increased over recent years, particularly in immunosuppressed patients. In previous studies, the saponin CAY-1, a saponin from cayenne pepper (Capsicum frutenses), has shown antifungal activities against...

  2. 21 CFR 524.1443 - Miconazole.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...appropriate laboratory examination. (2) Indications for use . For topical treatment of infections caused by Microsporum canis , Microsporum gypseum , and Trichophyton mentagrophytes . (3) Limitations . Federal law restricts this...

  3. Administration of Oral Itraconazole Capsule with Whole Milk Shows Enhanced Efficacy As Supported by Scanning Electron Microscopy in a Child with Tinea Capitis Due to Microsporum canis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuang; Ran, Yuping; Dai, Yalin; Lama, Jebina; Hu, Wenying; Zhang, Chaoliang

    2015-11-01

    Although diagnosis and treatment of tinea capitis in children are not difficult, treatment failures are still somewhat common. We report a case of pediatric tinea capitis cured using oral itraconazole administered with whole milk, after prior treatment failure when oral itraconazole was administered with water. This apparent enhanced efficacy in one individual was demonstrated using scanning electron microscopy. PMID:26447934

  4. 21 CFR 524.2350 - Tolnaftate cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...000061 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use. (1) The drug is indicated for treatment of ringworm lesions due to Microsporum canis and Microsporum gypseum in dogs and cats. (2) A small amount of the...

  5. 21 CFR 524.2350 - Tolnaftate cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...000061 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use. (1) The drug is indicated for treatment of ringworm lesions due to Microsporum canis and Microsporum gypseum in dogs and cats. (2) A small amount of the...

  6. 21 CFR 524.2350 - Tolnaftate cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...000061 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use. (1) The drug is indicated for treatment of ringworm lesions due to Microsporum canis and Microsporum gypseum in dogs and cats. (2) A small amount of the...

  7. 21 CFR 524.2350 - Tolnaftate cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...000061 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use. (1) The drug is indicated for treatment of ringworm lesions due to Microsporum canis and Microsporum gypseum in dogs and cats. (2) A small amount of the...

  8. 21 CFR 524.2350 - Tolnaftate cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...of the cream to the affected areas once or twice a day for 2 to 4 weeks. (2) Indications for use. For the treatment of ringworm lesions due to Microsporum canis and Microsporum gypseum. (3) Limitations. Federal law restricts this drug to...

  9. 21 CFR 520.1100 - Griseofulvin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...for use —(A) For equine ringworm infection caused by Trichophyton equinum or Microsporum...grams. (B) For treating ringworm infection caused by T. equinum , administer...additional dose after the animal is free of infection. (ii) Indications for use....

  10. 21 CFR 520.1100 - Griseofulvin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...for use —(A) For equine ringworm infection caused by Trichophyton equinum or Microsporum...grams. (B) For treating ringworm infection caused by T. equinum , administer...additional dose after the animal is free of infection. (ii) Indications for use....

  11. 21 CFR 524.450 - Clotrimazole cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...for 2 to 4 weeks. (2) Indications of use. For the treatment of fungal infections of dogs and cats caused by Microsporum canis and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. (3) Limitations. Wash hands thoroughly after use to avoid spread...

  12. 21 CFR 520.1100 - Griseofulvin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...i) Amount and indications for use —(A) For equine ringworm infection caused by Trichophyton equinum or Microsporum gypseum...5 grams; and foals, 1.25 grams. (B) For treating ringworm infection caused by T. equinum , administer...

  13. 21 CFR 520.1100 - Griseofulvin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...i) Amount and indications for use —(A) For equine ringworm infection caused by Trichophyton equinum or Microsporum gypseum...5 grams; and foals, 1.25 grams. (B) For treating ringworm infection caused by T. equinum , administer...

  14. 21 CFR 520.1100 - Griseofulvin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...i) Amount and indications for use —(A) For equine ringworm infection caused by Trichophyton equinum or Microsporum gypseum...5 grams; and foals, 1.25 grams. (B) For treating ringworm infection caused by T. equinum , administer...

  15. Studies of proteinograms in dermatophytes by disc electrophoresis. 1. Protein bands in relation to growth phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danev, P.; Friedrich, E.; Balabanov, V.

    1983-01-01

    Homogenates were prepared from various growth phases of Microsporum gypseum grown on different amino acids as the nitrogen source. When analyzed on 7.5% polyacrylamide disc gels, the water-soluble proteins in these homogenates gave essentially identical banding patterns.

  16. Identification of dermatophyte species using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH).

    PubMed

    Worek, Mariusz; Kwiatkowska, Aleksandra; Ciesielska, Anita; Jaworski, Adam; Kaplan, Jakub; Miedziak, Beata; Deregowska, Anna; Lewinska, Anna; Wnuk, Maciej

    2014-05-01

    A genomic in situ hybridization (GISH)-based method for dermatophyte identification has been developed. Using specific GISH probes, discrimination between Trichophyton interdigitale, Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum canis has been conducted. Moreover, GISH has been found particularly helpful when proper dermatophyte identification was difficult due to ambiguous PCR-RFLP patterns. PMID:24589627

  17. Mycoses and Mycotoxicoses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mold-related disease in avian species can be divided into two broad categories, namely mycoses and mycotoxicoses. Mycoses are typically defined as infection of tissue by a particular mold species. In general terms, Aspergillus, Dactylaria, and Microsporum are those molds most apt to be responsible f...

  18. Report: Antibacterial and antifungal activities of leaf extract of Achyranthes aspera (Amaranthaceae) from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khuda, Fazli; Iqbal, Zafar; Khan, Ayub; Zakiullah; Shah, Waheed Ali; Shah, Yasar; Ahmad, Lateef; Hassan, Muhammad; Khan, Abuzar; Khan, Abad

    2015-09-01

    Alcoholic extract and various fractions of Achyranthes aspera leaves, traditionally used in Pakistan for treatment of infectious diseases was screened for in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activity. The chloroform and butanol fractions were found to be the most active among the fractions, showing considerable antibacterial activity against Shigella flexneri and Escherichia coli. The highest activity was found in the ethylacetate fraction (17 mm zone of inhibition) against gram-negative (Salmonella typhi) bacteria, with MIC value as 0.29 mg/mL. In antifungal screening, moderate activity was shown by the chloroform fraction (50 % inhibition) against Microsporum canis, with MIC value as 0.25mg/mL. Considerable level of antifungal activity was depicted by crude extract, hexane and butanol fractions against Aspergillus flavus and Microsporum canis. The ability of various extracts of Achyranthes aspera to inhibit different strains of fungi and bacteria indicates its potential use for the treatment of microbial infections. PMID:26408900

  19. Antifungal activity of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa (Rutaceae) leaf extract on dermatophytes

    PubMed Central

    Balakumar, S; Rajan, S; Thirunalasundari, T; Jeeva, S

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of Aegle marmelos leaf extracts and fractions on the clinical isolates of dermatophytic fungi like Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum. Methods The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of various extracts and fractions of the leaves of Aegle marmelos were measured using method of National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). Results Aegle marmelos leaf extracts and fractions were found to have fungicidal activity against various clinical isolates of dermatophytic fungi. The MIC and MFC was found to be high in water and ethyl alcohol extracts and methanol fractions (200µg/mL) against dermatophytic fungi studied. Conclusions Aegle marmelos leaf extracts significantly inhibites the growth of all dermatophytic fungi studied. If this activity is confirmed by in vivo studies and if the compound is isolated and identified, it could be a remedy for dermatophytosis. PMID:23569781

  20. Rapid detection for rabbit-derived dermatophytes using microsatellite-primed polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Miao, Zengmin; Li, Song; Li, Daijun; Cai, Chunmei; Cai, Yumei

    2014-01-01

    A method exhibiting high sensitivity, specificity and rapidity to detect pathogenic dermatophytes was developed using microsatellite-primed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in combination with a clustering method. The DNA fragments of Trichophyton mentagrophyton, Microsporum gypseum and Microsporum canis were amplified by using the primer (GACA)4 to detect the DNA polymorphism fingerprints. Twenty-one clinical strains identified as T. mentagrophyton, M. gypseum or M. canis by morphological methods were distinguished according to the differences of standard stains' bands combined with NTSYS-pc2.10 software. The results showed that there were obvious and direct differences in the bands of the three pathogenic dermatophytes, and the similarity of isolated strains and standard strains were above 90%, in line with the results of morphological identification. The method is more accurate, rapid and simple, which is meaningful for the clinical diagnosis and epidemic research of the dermatophytes. PMID:24296862

  1. Neonatal dermatophytosis: report of a case and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Atanasovski, Marijana; El Tal, Abdel Kader; Hamzavi, Fasahat; Mehregan, David A

    2011-01-01

    Tinea capitis is a common fungal infection in children but rare among neonates. We present a case of a 3-week-old infant with multiple scalp lesions for 1 week. A diagnosis of tinea capitis due to Microsporum canis was made based on clinical morphology, Wood's lamp, and biopsy with a positive PAS stain. She was effectively treated with oral griseofulvin and ketoconazole shampoo. PMID:21504448

  2. Topical treatment of tinea capitis in a neonate.

    PubMed

    Mosseri, Ronen; Finkelstein, Yaron; Garty, Ben Zion

    2002-02-01

    Tinea capitis is the most common fungal skin infection in children. Given that this infection invades the hair shaft and the pilosebaceous unit, systemic antifungal therapy is the gold standard of treatment. Despite the neonate's increased susceptibility to infections, tinea capitis is rare in this population. We present the case of a 16-day-old infant with tinea capitis caused by Microsporum canis and effectively treated with topical bifonazole 1%. PMID:11868981

  3. Dermatophyte and non dermatophyte fungi in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Khaled, Jamal M.; Golah, Hammed A; Khalel, Abdulla S.; Alharbi, Naiyf S.; Mothana, Ramzi A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dermatophytes are a scientific label for a group of three genera (Microsporum, Epidermophyton and Trichophyton) of fungus that causes skin disease in animals and humans. Conventional methods for identification of these fungi are rapid and simple but are not accurate comparing to molecular methods. Objective This study aimed to isolate human pathogenic dermatophytes which cause dermatophytosis in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia and to identify these fungi by using conventional and molecular methods. Methods The study was conducted in Medical Complex, Riyadh and King Saud University. Samples of infected skin, hairs and nails were collected from 112 patients. Diagnosis of skin infections, direct microscopic test, isolation and identification of dermatophytes by conventional and molecular methods were carried out. Results The results indicated that the tinea capitis infection had the highest prevalence among the patients (22.3%) while Tinea barbae had the lowest. In this study the identified dermatophyte isolates belong to nine species as Trichophyton violaceum, Trichophyton verrucosum, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton schoenleinii, Trichophyton concentricum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum audouinii and Epidermophyton floccosum which cause skin infections were isolated during this study. Non dermatophyte isolates included 5 isolates from Aspergillus spp. 4 isolates from Acremonium potronii and 15 isolates from Candida spp. M. canis were the most common species (25% of isolated dermatophytes). Out of the 52 dermatophyte isolates identified by conventional methods, there were 45 isolates identified by the molecular method. Conclusions The results concluded that approximately M. canis caused a quarter of dermatophyte cases, tinea capitis infection was prevalent and the molecular method was more accurate than conventional methods. PMID:26288566

  4. Tinea capitis mimicking folliculitis decalvans.

    PubMed

    Tangjaturonrusamee, C; Piraccini, B M; Vincenzi, C; Starace, M; Tosti, A

    2011-01-01

    We report on an adult patient with tinea capitis caused by Microsporum canis, who presented with diffuse alopecia and follicular pustules, mimicking folliculitis decalvans. Examination of the scalp showed severe alopecia with prominent involvement of the frontal and vertex scalp: the skin was markedly erythematous with pustules and brownish crusts. Videodermoscopy revealed visible follicular ostia, numerous pustular lesions and several comma hairs. Fluconazole 150 mg a week for 8 weeks associated with ketoconazole shampoo cleared the inflammatory lesions and produced complete hair regrowth. PMID:19638002

  5. Characterization of a new sesquiterpene and antifungal activities of chemical constituents from Dryopteris fragrans (L.) Schott.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Hong; Zeng, Wei-Min; Li, Guo-Yu; Liu, Guo-Qing; Zhao, Dan-Dan; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Yan-Long

    2013-01-01

    One new sesquiterpene and six known compounds were isolated from Dryopteris fragrans (L.) Schot. They were identified as 3-O-?-D-glucopyranosylalbicanol- 11-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (1), dihydroconiferylalcohol (2), (E)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acrylic acid (3), esculetin (4), 5,7-dihydroxy-2-hydroxymethylchromone (5), eriodictyol (6) and isoorientin (7) by UV, MS, 1D-NMR and 2D-NMR spectroscopy. The antifungal activities of the seven isolated compounds were screened. Compounds 2, 3, 4 and 5 showed obvious activities against Microsporum canis and Epidermophyton floccosum. PMID:24451246

  6. Dermatoscopic fi ndings as a complementary tool in the differential diagnosis of the etiological agent of tinea capitis.

    PubMed

    Schechtman, Regina Casz; Silva, Nanashara Diane Valgas; Quaresma, Maria Victória; Bernardes Filho, Fred; Buçard, Alice Mota; Sodré, Celso Tavares

    2015-06-01

    Tinea capitis is a scalp infection caused by fungi. In Brazil, the main causative agents are Microsporum canis and the Trichophyton tonsurans. Etiological diagnosis is based on suggestive clinical findings and confirmation depends on the fungus growth in culture. However, it is not always possible to perform this test due to lack of availability. We reveal the dermoscopic findings that enable distinction between the main causative agents of Tinea capitis, M. canis and T. tonsurans. The association of clinical and dermatoscopic findings in suspected Tinea capitis cases may help with the differential diagnosis of the etiological agent, making feasible the precocious, specific treatment. PMID:26312662

  7. Dermatoscopic fi ndings as a complementary tool in the differential diagnosis of the etiological agent of tinea capitis*

    PubMed Central

    Schechtman, Regina Casz; Silva, Nanashara Diane Valgas; Quaresma, Maria Victória; Bernardes Filho, Fred; Buçard, Alice Mota; Sodré, Celso Tavares

    2015-01-01

    Tinea capitis is a scalp infection caused by fungi. In Brazil, the main causative agents are Microsporum canis and the Trichophyton tonsurans. Etiological diagnosis is based on suggestive clinical findings and confirmation depends on the fungus growth in culture. However, it is not always possible to perform this test due to lack of availability. We reveal the dermoscopic findings that enable distinction between the main causative agents of Tinea capitis, M. canis and T. tonsurans. The association of clinical and dermatoscopic findings in suspected Tinea capitis cases may help with the differential diagnosis of the etiological agent, making feasible the precocious, specific treatment. PMID:26312662

  8. Tinea capitis in adults during 1981-95 in northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Devliotou-Panagliotidou, D; Koussidou-Eremondi, T; Chaidemenos, G C; Theodoridou, M; Minas, A

    2001-11-01

    The mycological laboratory of our Hospital examined 31,073 patients between 1981 and 1995. Sex, age, the residence of patients, the clinical type of tinea and contacts with other persons and animals were investigated. All the patients were also examined under Wood's light. Tinea capitis was diagnosed in 35 adults. Trichophyton violaceum was the commonest aetiological agent (54.5%), especially in elderly women. The other anthropophilic fungi were T. rubrum (8.5%), T. schoenleinii (5.7%) and T. tonsurans (2.8%). The zoophilic fungi Microsporum canis (14.3%), T. terrucosum (8.5%) and T. mentagrophytes (5.7%) were also isolated. PMID:11766106

  9. [Dermatophytes transmitted by pets and cattle].

    PubMed

    Monod, M; Fratti, M; Mignon, B; Baudraz-Rosselet, F

    2014-04-01

    Most inflammatory skin and hair dermatophytoses are caused by one of four zoophilic dermatophyte species: Microsporum canis (from cats and dogs), Trichophyton verrucosum (from cattle), Arthroderma benhamiae (from Guinea-pigs) and Arthrodermna vanbreuseghemii (generally from cats and dogs). In cases of highly inflammatory tinea corporis, tinea faciae and tinea capitis in humans, it is important to identify with certainty the precise etiologic agent and to examine pets as the possible source of infection. The recurrence of infections or new infections can be prevented by adequately treating incriminated domestic animals and their environments. Cooperation between the medical and veterinary professions is required in this situation. PMID:24772808

  10. Therapeutic switching: from antidermatophytic essential oils to new leishmanicidal products

    PubMed Central

    Houël, Emeline; Gonzalez, German; Bessičre, Jean-Marie; Odonne, Guillaume; Eparvier, Véronique; Deharo, Eric; Stien, Didier

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether the antidermatophytic activity of essential oils (EOs) can be used as an indicator for the discovery of active natural products against Leishmania amazonensis. The aerial parts of seven plants were hydrodistilled. Using broth microdilution techniques, the obtained EOs were tested against three strains of dermatophytes (Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum gypseum and Microsporum canis). To compare the EOs antifungal and antiparasitic effects, the EOs activities against axenic amastigotes of L. amazonensis were concurrently evaluated. For the most promising EOs, their antileishmanial activities against parasites infecting peritoneal macrophages of BALB/c mice were measured. The most interesting antifungal candidates were the EOs from Cymbopogon citratus, Otacanthus azureus and Protium heptaphyllum, whereas O. azureus, Piper hispidum and P. heptaphyllum EOs exhibited the lowest 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values against axenic amastigotes, thus revealing a certain correspondence between both activities. The P. hispidum EO was identified as the most promising product in the results from the infected macrophages model (IC50: 4.7 µg/mL, safety index: 8). The most abundant compounds found in this EO were sesquiterpenes, notably curzerene and furanodiene. Eventually, the evaluation of the antidermatophytic activity of EOs appears to be an efficient method for identifying new potential drugs for the treatment of L. amazonensis. PMID:25742270

  11. In vitro antifungal evaluation and studies on mode of action of eight selected species from the Argentine flora.

    PubMed

    Zacchino, S; Santecchia, C; López, S; Gattuso, S; Muńoz, J de D; Cruańes, A; Vivot, E; Cruańes, M del C; Salinas, A; de Ruiz, R E; Ruiz, S

    1998-10-01

    Twenty nine extracts belonging to eight species of the Argentine flora reported as antifungal in folk medicine, were assayed for antifungal properties by using the agar dilution method, against a panel of yeasts, filamentous fungi as well as dermatophytes. Nine extracts belonging to six species, exhibited a broad spectrum of activity against Microsporum cants, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum and Epidermophyton floccosum, with MICs ranging from 25 to 900 ?g/ml. A dichloromethanis extract of Polygonum ferrugineum was the most active extract with MICs from 25-50 ?g/ml. To gain an insight into the mode of action of the active extracts they were evaluated for their inhibitory activities toward the fungal cell wall, using the whole cell Neurospora crassa hyphal growth inhibition agar diffusion assay. A hazy zone around the paper disk strongly suggested that the dichloromethane extracts from aerial parts of Polygonum punctatum, Polygonum ferrugineum and the bark of Luehea divaricata acted by inhibiting polymer synthesis or assembly of the cell wall. The clear zone of inhibition produced by the dichloromethane and methanol antifungal extracts of Xanthium spinosum could be ascribed to the fact that these extracts have another effect on fungal cells in addition to inhibition of cell walls. PMID:23195989

  12. Antifungal, Antileishmanial, and Cytotoxicity Activities of Various Extracts of Berberis vulgaris (Berberidaceae) and Its Active Principle Berberine.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudvand, Hossein; Ayatollahi Mousavi, Seyyed Amin; Sepahvand, Asghar; Sharififar, Fariba; Ezatpour, Behrouz; Gorohi, Fatemeh; Saedi Dezaki, Ebrahim; Jahanbakhsh, Sareh

    2014-01-01

    In this study, in vitro antidermatophytic activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis, and Microsporum gypseum was studied by disk diffusion test and assessment of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using CLSI broth macrodilution method (M38-A2). Moreover, antileishmanial and cytotoxicity activity of B. vulgaris and berberine against promastigotes of Leishmania major and Leishmania tropica were evaluated by colorimetric MTT assay. The findings indicated that the various extracts of B. vulgaris particularly berberine showed high potential antidermatophytic against pathogenic dermatophytes tested with MIC values varying from 0.125 to >4?mg/mL. The results revealed that B. vulgaris extracts as well as berberine were effective in inhibiting L. major and L. tropica promastigotes growth in a dose-dependent manner with IC50 (50% inhibitory concentration) values varying from 2.1 to 26.6? ? g/mL. Moreover, it could be observed that berberine as compared with B. vulgaris exhibited more cytotoxicity against murine macrophages with CC50 (cytotoxicity concentration for 50% of cells) values varying from 27.3 to 362.6? ? g/mL. Results of this investigation were the first step in the search for new antidermatophytic and antileishmanial drugs. However, further works are required to evaluate exact effect of these extracts in animal models as well as volunteer human subjects. PMID:24977052

  13. Antifungal, Antileishmanial, and Cytotoxicity Activities of Various Extracts of Berberis vulgaris (Berberidaceae) and Its Active Principle Berberine

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoudvand, Hossein; Ayatollahi Mousavi, Seyyed Amin; Sepahvand, Asghar; Sharififar, Fariba; Ezatpour, Behrouz; Gorohi, Fatemeh; Saedi Dezaki, Ebrahim; Jahanbakhsh, Sareh

    2014-01-01

    In this study, in vitro antidermatophytic activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis, and Microsporum gypseum was studied by disk diffusion test and assessment of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using CLSI broth macrodilution method (M38-A2). Moreover, antileishmanial and cytotoxicity activity of B. vulgaris and berberine against promastigotes of Leishmania major and Leishmania tropica were evaluated by colorimetric MTT assay. The findings indicated that the various extracts of B. vulgaris particularly berberine showed high potential antidermatophytic against pathogenic dermatophytes tested with MIC values varying from 0.125 to >4?mg/mL. The results revealed that B. vulgaris extracts as well as berberine were effective in inhibiting L. major and L. tropica promastigotes growth in a dose-dependent manner with IC50 (50% inhibitory concentration) values varying from 2.1 to 26.6??g/mL. Moreover, it could be observed that berberine as compared with B. vulgaris exhibited more cytotoxicity against murine macrophages with CC50 (cytotoxicity concentration for 50% of cells) values varying from 27.3 to 362.6??g/mL. Results of this investigation were the first step in the search for new antidermatophytic and antileishmanial drugs. However, further works are required to evaluate exact effect of these extracts in animal models as well as volunteer human subjects. PMID:24977052

  14. Efficacy and phytochemical analysis of latex of Calotropis procera against selected dermatophytes

    PubMed Central

    Aliyu, Rabiu Muhammad; Abubakar, Mikaeel Bala; Kasarawa, Adamu Bello; Dabai, Yakubu Umar; Lawal, Nafiu; Bello, Muhammad Bashir; Fardami, Aminu Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    Background: Since ancient time, increased interest has been witnessed in the use of an alternative herbal medicine for managing, and the treatment of fungal diseases worldwide. This may be connected to the cost and relative toxicities of the available antifungal drugs. It has been a known tradition practiced in the northern part of Nigeria that parents and teachers use the white latex of Calotropis procera to treat Tinea capitis in children attending the local religious school in the area. This study was conducted in 2009 to ascertain the above claim. Materials and Methods: Fresh latex of C. procera was screened for their antifungal activity against species of dermatophytes: Trichophyton spp., Microsporum spp. and Epidermophyton spp. using the agar incorporation method. Results: The result shows that the latex inhibits the in vitro growth of these pathogenic fungi to varying extents with Trichophyton spp. being the most susceptible (P < 0.05) and thus highly inhibited by the latex followed by the Microsporum spp. and Epidermopyton spp. was least inhibited. These inhibitions followed a dose-dependent trend as undiluted latex (100%) gave the highest inhibitory impacts (P < 0.05) when compared to serially diluted latex. The phytochemical analysis of the fresh latex indicated the presence of alkaloids, saponin, tannins, steroids, flavonoids, anthraquinone, and triterpenoids. Conclusion: The findings of this study confirmed the perceived usefulness of the latex in the treatment of T. capitis (ringworm) practiced in our society and therefore, its use topically in the treatment of dermatomycotic infection is encouraged. PMID:26649237

  15. Bio-efficacy of Dioscorea pentaphylla from Midmid-Western Ghats, India

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, G.; Hosetti, B. B.

    2012-01-01

    Antibacterial and antifungal activity of crude extracts of medicinally important and traditionally used yam plant, Dioscorea pentaphylla, from mid-Western Ghats was evaluated against 27 bacterial and 5 fungal clinical strains collected of the patients from infectious sources. The clinical strains belonging to their respective species showed concentration-dependent susceptibility toward crude petroleum ether extract, chloroform extract and methanol extract at 100 ?g/100 ?l. The extracts exhibited predominant antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC-20852), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC-29737) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (MTCC-618), respectively, and five clinically isolated pathogenic fungi, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum gypseum, Tricophyton tonsurans, Microsporum audouini, and Candida albicans, with antibacterial drug ciprofloxacin and antifungal drug fluconozole (50 ?g/100 ?l) as standards. Out of the three extracts, ethanol extracts possessed better minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against all the bacterial strains. All the three extracts showed significant activity against all the five fungal pathogen strains. The results are promising and support the traditional use of D. pentaphylla for the treatment of bacterial and fungal infections. PMID:22778504

  16. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities and chemical characterization of essential oils of Thymusvulgaris, Rosmarinus officinalis, and Origanum majorana from northeastern México.

    PubMed

    Guerra-Boone, Laura; Alvarez-Román, Rocío; Alvarez-Román, Rocío; Salazar-Aranda, Ricardo; Torres-Cirio, Anabel; Rivas-Galindo, Verónica Mayela; de-Torres, Noemí Waksman; González, Gloria; Pérez-López, Luis Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    There have been no reports of antifungal activity and composition of extracts from Thymus vulgaris, Rosmarinus officinalis or Origanum majorana from northeastern México. Antifungal activity of these oils against Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum canis and Epidermophyton floccosum was measured by diffusion assay. Additionally, antibacterial and antioxidant activities were evaluated. Antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes was examined by microdilution. Antioxidant activity was assessed by 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidracil reduction test. The plant oils were characterized by both GC/MS and GC/FID. Oils of T. vulgaris and O. majorana showed growth inhibition activity against dermatophytes, especially T. vulgaris oil, which completely inhibited growth of all tested dermatophytes. The oils also showed bioactivity against bacteria, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values between 62.5 and 500 ?g/mL. The antioxidant activity of the oils was low, with effective concentration (EC50) values <250?g/mL. The major components in the oils were as follows: T. vulgaris, o-cymene, ?-terpinene, thymol and carvacrol; R. officinalis, terpinen-4-ol and 1,8-cineole; O. majorana, terpinen-4-ol and thymol. PMID:25631514

  17. Therapeutic switching: from antidermatophytic essential oils to new leishmanicidal products.

    PubMed

    Houël, Emeline; Gonzalez, German; Bessičre, Jean-Marie; Odonne, Guillaume; Eparvier, Véronique; Deharo, Eric; Stien, Didier

    2015-02-01

    This study examined whether the antidermatophytic activity of essential oils (EOs) can be used as an indicator for the discovery of active natural products against Leishmania amazonensis. The aerial parts of seven plants were hydrodistilled. Using broth microdilution techniques, the obtained EOs were tested against three strains of dermatophytes (Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum gypseum and Microsporum canis). To compare the EOs antifungal and antiparasitic effects, the EOs activities against axenic amastigotes of L. amazonensis were concurrently evaluated. For the most promising EOs, their antileishmanial activities against parasites infecting peritoneal macrophages of BALB/c mice were measured. The most interesting antifungal candidates were the EOs from Cymbopogon citratus, Otacanthus azureus and Protium heptaphyllum, whereas O. azureus, Piper hispidum and P. heptaphyllum EOs exhibited the lowest 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values against axenic amastigotes, thus revealing a certain correspondence between both activities. The P. hispidum EO was identified as the most promising product in the results from the infected macrophages model (IC50: 4.7 µg/mL, safety index: 8). The most abundant compounds found in this EO were sesquiterpenes, notably curzerene and furanodiene. Eventually, the evaluation of the antidermatophytic activity of EOs appears to be an efficient method for identifying new potential drugs for the treatment of L. amazonensis. PMID:25742270

  18. Heat stable antimicrobial activity of Allium ascalonicum against bacteria and fungi.

    PubMed

    Amin, M; Kapadnis, B P

    2005-08-01

    To study antimicrobial activity of shallot in comparison with that of garlic and onion against 23 strains of fungi and bacteria, water extracts of garlic, shallot and onion bulbs were prepared. Each extract was studied in different forms for their antimicrobial activity viz., fresh extract, dry extract and autoclaved extract. Minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal lethal concentrations of these extracts were determined against all organisms by broth dilution susceptibility test. Fresh extract of garlic showed greater antimicrobial activity as compared to similar extracts of onion and shallot. However, dried and autoclaved extracts of shallot showed more activity than similar extracts of onion and garlic. Fungi were more sensitive to shallot extract than bacteria. Amongst bacteria, B. cereus was most sensitive (MIC=5 mg ml(-1)). The lowest minimum bactericidal concentration of shallot extract amongst bacteria tested was 5 mg ml(-1) for B. cereus. Amongst fungi, Aureobasidium pullulans and Microsporum gypseum were most sensitive (MIC= 0.15 mg ml(-1)). The lowest minimum lethal concentration was 2.5 mg ml(-1) for Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. It was therefore, expected that the antimicrobial principle of shallot was different than the antimicrobial compounds of onion and garlic. In addition, the antimicrobial component of the shallot extract was stable at 121 degrees C. PMID:16121720

  19. Ethnoveterinary study for antidermatophytic activity of Piper betle, Alpinia galanga and Allium ascalonicum extracts in vitro.

    PubMed

    Trakranrungsie, N; Chatchawanchonteera, A; Khunkitti, W

    2008-02-01

    Crude ethanolic extracts of Piper betle leaves (Piperaceae), Alpinia galanga rhizomes (Zingiberaceae) and Allium ascalonicum bulbs (Liliaceae) were tested against selected zoonotic dermatophytes (Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophyte) and the yeast-like Candida albicans. A broth dilution method was employed to determine the inhibitory effect of the extracts and compared to those of ketoconazole and griseofulvin. All extracts suppressed the growth of the fungi in a concentration-dependent manner. Among the extracts tested, P. betle exhibited more effective antifungal properties with average IC(50) values ranging from 110.44 to 119.00 microg/ml. Subsequently, 10% Piper betle (Pb) cream was formulated, subjected to physical and microbial limit test and evaluated for antifungal effect. The disc diffusion assay revealed comparable zones of inhibition between discs of Pb cream containing 80 microg P. betle extract and 80 microg ketoconazole against tested fungi at 96 h after incubation. Thereafter, the inhibitory effect of Pb cream markedly decreased and completely lost effectiveness by day 7. In summary, the results supported the traditional wisdom of herbal remedy use and suggested a potential value-addition to agricultural products. It was suggested that the Pb cream has potential therapeutic value for treatment of dermatophytosis. However, clinical testing as well as improving the Pb cream formulation with greater efficacy and duration of action would be of interest and awaits further investigation. PMID:17482221

  20. In Vitro Activity of Twenty Commercially Available, Plant-Derived Essential Oils against Selected Dermatophyte Species.

    PubMed

    Nardoni, Simona; Giovanelli, Silvia; Pistelli, Luisa; Mugnaini, Linda; Profili, Greta; Pisseri, Francesca; Mancianti, Francesca

    2015-08-01

    The in vitro activity of twenty chemically defined essential oils (EOs) obtained from Boswellia sacra, Citrus bergamia, C. limon, C. medica, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Eucalyptus globulus, Foeniculum vulgare, Helichrysum italicum, Illicium verum, Litsea cubeba, Mentha spicata, Myrtus communis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum majorana, O. vulgare, Pelargonium graveolens, Rosmarinus officinalis, Santalum album, Satureja montana, and Thymus serpyllum was assayed against clinical animal isolates of Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. erinacei, T. terrestre and Microsporum gypseum, main causative agents of zoonotic and/or environmental dermatophytoses in humans. Single main components present in high amounts in such EOs were also tested. Different dermatophyte species showed remarkable differences in sensitivity. In general, more effective EOs were T. serpyllum (MIC range 0.025%-0.25%), O. vulgare (MIC range 0.025%-0.5%) and L. cubeba (MIC range 0.025%-1.5%). F. vulgare showed a moderate efficacy against geophilic species such as M gypseum and T terrestre. Among single main components tested, neral was the most active (MIC and MFC values 5 0.25%). The results of the present study seem to be promising for an in vivo use of some assayed EOs. PMID:26434145

  1. Keratinophilic and saprophytic fungi isolated from students' nails in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hafez, A I; el-Sharouny, H M

    1990-01-01

    In order to determine the presence of dermatophytes and saprophytes in healthy toe and finger nails, 120 students (60 male and 60 female) from preparatory schools at Sohag Governorate (Upper Egypt) were studied. 54 species in addition to 3 varieties belonging to 17 genera were isolated. Six species of true dermatophytes were collected: Microsporum audouinii var. rivalieri, M. cookei, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. simii, T. terrestre and T. verrucosum. Chrysosporium, a well-known keratinophilic genus, was prevalent and represented by 7 species (C. asperatum, C. indicum, C. keratinophilum, C. luteum, C. pannorum, C. tropicum and Chrysosporium state of Thielavia sepedonium). The commonest saprophytes in order of frequency were members of the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Alternaria, Scopulariopsis, Fusarium, Paecilomyces, Chaetomium, Syncephalastrum, Mucor, Rhizopus and Acremonium. PMID:2338622

  2. In vitro antagonistic activity of monoterpenes and their mixtures against 'toe nail fungus' pathogens.

    PubMed

    Ramsewak, Russel S; Nair, Muraleedharan G; Stommel, Manfred; Selanders, Louise

    2003-04-01

    The antibiotic effect of the active ingredients in Meijer medicated chest rub (eucalyptus oil, camphor and menthol) as well as the inactive ingredients (thymol, oil of turpentine, oil of nutmeg and oil of cedar leaf) were studied in vitro using the fungal pathogens responsible for onychomycosis, such as the dermatophytes Tricophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis, Epidermophyton fl occosum and Epidermophyton stockdale. The zones of inhibition data revealed that camphor (1). menthol (2). thymol (3). and oil of Eucalyptus citriodora were the most efficacious components against the test organisms. The MIC(100) for mixtures of these four components in various carrier solvents revealed that formulations consisting of 5 mg/mL concentrations of each have a potential to be efffective in controlling onychomycosis. PMID:12722144

  3. Dermatophytes and other associated fungi in patients attending to some hospitals in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Abd Elmegeed, Al Shimaa M.; Ouf, S.A.; Moussa, Tarek A.A.; Eltahlawi, S.M.R.

    2015-01-01

    Dermatophytes are keratinophilic fungi that infect keratinized tissues causing diseases known as dermatophytoses. Dermatophytes are classified in three genera, Epidermophyton, Microsporum, and Trichophyton. This investigation was performed to study the prevalence of dermatomycosis among 640 patients being evaluated at the dermatology clinics at Kasr elainy, El-Husein and Said Galal hospitals in Cairo and Giza between January 2005 and December 2006. The patients were checked for various diseases. Tinea capitis was the most common clinical disease followed by tinea pedis and tinea corporis. Tinea cruris and tinea unguium were the least in occurrence. Tinea versicolor also was detected. The most susceptible persons were children below 10 years followed by those aged 31–40 years. Unicellular yeast was the most common etiological agent and T. tonsuranswas the second most frequent causative agent followed by M. canis. PMID:26413063

  4. Antifungal activity of some actinomycetes isolated from various habitats.

    PubMed

    Jain, P K; Jain, P C

    A total of 287 actinomycetes were isolated from 79 samples collected from five different habitats i.e., cultivated field soil (CFS), garden soil (GS), compost (CM), decaying organic matter (DOM) and stored agricultural products (SAP) of different localities of Sagar, Madhya Pradesh (23 degrees 50 degrees N latitude and 78 degrees 40 degrees E longitude). These were screened for antagonistic activity against Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, Microsporum gypseun and Trichophyton sp. using 'Cross streak method'. Out of these, a total of 166 isolates were found antagonistic to Candida albicans, while 164, 134 and 132 actinomycetes showed antagonistic properties against A. niger, M. gypseum and Trichophyton sp., repectively. A total of 17 isolates showed very strong anticandidal activity causing total inhibition in the growth of C. albicans and hence, distribution of isolated test actinomycetes in different habitats and the cultural and antagonistic properties of selected 17 promising strains are reported here. PMID:16281822

  5. Evaluation of topical therapies for the treatment of dermatophyte-infected hairs from dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    White-Weithers, N; Medleau, L

    1995-01-01

    Seven commonly used, topical antifungal products (i.e., lime sulfur, chlorhexidine, captan, povidone-iodine, sodium hypochlorite, and enilconazole solutions, and ketoconazole shampoo) were evaluated for their antifungal activity on Microsporum canis-infected hairs from dogs and cats in an in vitro study. Hairs were soaked or shampooed in each product for five minutes twice a week for four weeks. Of the seven products used in this study, lime sulfur and enilconazole solutions were superior in inhibiting fungal growth; no growth occurred on fungal cultures after two treatments with either product. Chlorhexidine and povidone iodine solutions were effective after four treatments, and sodium hypochlorite solution and ketoconazole shampoo inhibited fungal growth after eight treatments. Captan did not inhibit fungal growth during the test period. PMID:7634061

  6. Antifungal potential of essential oil and ethanol extracts of Lonicera japonica Thunb. against dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Atiqur; Al-Reza, Sharif M; Siddiqui, Shah Alam; Chang, Taehyun; Kang, Sun Chul

    2014-01-01

    The antifungal potential of essential oil and ethanolic leaf extracts of Lonicera japonica Thunb. was evaluated for controlling the growth of dermatophytes. The oil (1,000 ppm) and extracts (1,500 ppm) of L. japonica revealed 55.1-70.3 % and 40.1-65.5 % antidermatophytic effect against Microsporum canis KCTC 6348, 6349, 6591, Trichophyton rubrum KCTC 6345, 6352, 6375, Trichophyton mentagrophytes KCTC 6077 and 6085, respectively, along with their respective minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 62.5-500 and 125-1,000 µg/ml. Also, the oil had strong detrimental effect on spore germination of all the tested dermatophytes as well as concentration and time-dependent kinetic inhibition of M. canis KCTC 6348. The results demonstrated that L. japonica oil and extracts could be potential sources of natural fungicides to protect human and animals from fungal infections. PMID:26417269

  7. In vitro antibacterial, antifungal & cytotoxic activity of some isonicotinoylhydrazide Schiff's bases and their cobalt (II), copper (II), nickel (II) and zinc (II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Chohan, Zahid H; Arif, M; Shafiq, Zahid; Yaqub, Muhammad; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2006-02-01

    Isonicotinoylhydrazide Schiff's bases formed by the reaction of substituted and unsubstituted furyl-2-carboxaldehyde and thiophene-2-carboxaldehyde with isoniazid and, their Co (II), Cu (II), Ni (II) and Zn (II) complexes have been synthesized, characterized and screened for their in vitro antibacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Shigella dysenteriae, Bacillus cereus, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes bacterial strains and for in vitro antifungal activity against Trichophyton longifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani and Candida glabrata. The results of these studies show the metal complexes to be more antibacterial and antifungal against one or more bacterial/fungal strains as compared to the uncomplexed compounds. The brine shrimp bioassay indicated Schiff's bases, L3 and L6 and, their Cu (II) and Ni (II) metal complexes to be cytotoxic against Artemia salina, while all other compounds were inactive (LD50 > 1000). PMID:16570512

  8. In vitro antifungal activity and mechanism of essential oil from fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.) on dermatophyte species.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Hong; Chen, Xinping; Liang, Jingnan

    2015-01-01

    Fennel seed essential oil (FSEO) is a plant-derived natural therapeutic against dermatophytes. In this study, the antifungal effects of FSEO were investigated from varied aspects, such as MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration, mycelia growth, spore germination and biomass. The results indicated that FSEO had potent antifungal activities on Trichophyton rubrum ATCC 40051, Trichophyton tonsurans 10-0400, Microsporum gypseum 44693-1 and Trichophyton mentagrophytes 10-0060, which is better than the commonly used antifungal agents fluconazole and amphotericin B. Flow cytometry and transmission electron microscopy experiments suggested that the antifungal mechanism of FSEO was to damage the plasma membrane and intracellular organelles. Further study revealed that it could also inhibit the mitochondrial enzyme activities, such as succinate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase and ATPase. With better antifungal activity than the commonly used antifungal agents and less possibility of inducing drug resistance, FSEO could be used as a potential antidermatophytic agent. PMID:25351709

  9. In vitro evaluation of inhibitory nature of extracts of 18-plant species of Chhindwara against 3-keratinophilic fungi.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, S; Rai, M K; Agrawal, S C

    1997-01-01

    Effect of extract of 18 plant species, viz., Acorus calamus, Adhatoda vasica, Amomum subulatum, Andrographis paniculata, Boerhaavia diffusa, Cassia occidentalis, Centella asiatica, Cymbopogon citratus, Hemidesmus indicus, Hyptis suaveolens, Malvestrum sp., Passiflora edulis, Pergularia daemia, Peristrophe bicalyculata, Shuteria hirsuta, Solanum nigrum, Tecoma stans, and Verbascum chinense on the growth of Microsporum gypseum, Chrysosporium tropicum and Trichophyton terrestre was evaluated and discussed. The sensitivity of the keratinophilic fungi was evaluated by dry-weight method. The maximum inhibition of mycelial growth was shown by M. gypseum (86.62%) followed by T. terrestre (81.86%) and C. tropicum (74.06%) when treated with S. hirsuta whereas the minimum inhibition was exhibited by M. gypseum (0.29%), C. tropicum (0.16%) and T. terrestre (1.76%) when tested with the extract of P. edulis, A. vasica and B. diffusa respectively. PMID:10386016

  10. Mycologic disorders of the skin.

    PubMed

    Outerbridge, Catherine A

    2006-08-01

    Cutaneous tissue can become infected when fungal organisms contaminate or colonize the epidermal surface or hair follicles. The skin can be a portal of entry for fungal infection when the epithelial barrier is breached or it can be a site for disseminated, systemic fungal disease. The two most common cutaneous fungal infections in small animals are dermatophytosis and Malassezia dermatitis. Dermatophytosis is a superficial cutaneous infection with one or more of the fungal species in the keratinophilic genera Microsporum, Trichophyton, or Epidermophyton. Malassezia pachydermatis is a nonlipid dependent fungal species that is a normal commensal inhabitant of the skin and external ear canal in dogs and cats. Malassezia pachydermatis is the most common cause of Malassezia dermatitis. The diagnosis and treatment of these cutaneous fungal infections will be discussed. PMID:16933479

  11. Characterization of Chitosan Nanofiber Sheets for Antifungal Application

    PubMed Central

    Egusa, Mayumi; Iwamoto, Ryo; Izawa, Hironori; Morimoto, Minoru; Saimoto, Hiroyuki; Kaminaka, Hironori; Ifuku, Shinsuke

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan produced by the deacetylation of chitin is a cationic polymer with antimicrobial properties. In this study, we demonstrate the improvement of chitosan properties by nanofibrillation. Nanofiber sheets were prepared from nanofibrillated chitosan under neutral conditions. The Young’s modulus and tensile strength of the chitosan NF sheets were higher than those of the chitosan sheets prepared from dissolving chitosan in acetic acid. The chitosan NF sheets showed strong mycelial growth inhibition against dermatophytes Microsporum and Trichophyton. Moreover, the chitosan NF sheets exhibited resistance to degradation by the fungi, suggesting potentials long-lasting usage. In addition, surface-deacetylated chitin nanofiber (SDCNF) sheets were prepared. The SDCNF sheet had a high Young’s modulus and tensile strength and showed antifungal activity to dermatophytes. These data indicate that nanofibrillation improved the properties of chitosan. Thus, chitosan NF and SDCNF sheets are useful candidates for antimicrobial materials. PMID:26540046

  12. Antifungal potential of essential oil and ethanol extracts of Lonicera japonica Thunb. against dermatophytes

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Atiqur; Al-Reza, Sharif M.; Siddiqui, Shah Alam; Chang, Taehyun; Kang, Sun Chul

    2014-01-01

    The antifungal potential of essential oil and ethanolic leaf extracts of Lonicera japonica Thunb. was evaluated for controlling the growth of dermatophytes. The oil (1,000 ppm) and extracts (1,500 ppm) of L. japonica revealed 55.1–70.3 % and 40.1–65.5 % antidermatophytic effect against Microsporum canis KCTC 6348, 6349, 6591, Trichophyton rubrum KCTC 6345, 6352, 6375, Trichophyton mentagrophytes KCTC 6077 and 6085, respectively, along with their respective minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 62.5-500 and 125-1,000 µg/ml. Also, the oil had strong detrimental effect on spore germination of all the tested dermatophytes as well as concentration and time-dependent kinetic inhibition of M. canis KCTC 6348. The results demonstrated that L. japonica oil and extracts could be potential sources of natural fungicides to protect human and animals from fungal infections. PMID:26417269

  13. Characterization of Chitosan Nanofiber Sheets for Antifungal Application.

    PubMed

    Egusa, Mayumi; Iwamoto, Ryo; Izawa, Hironori; Morimoto, Minoru; Saimoto, Hiroyuki; Kaminaka, Hironori; Ifuku, Shinsuke

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan produced by the deacetylation of chitin is a cationic polymer with antimicrobial properties. In this study, we demonstrate the improvement of chitosan properties by nanofibrillation. Nanofiber sheets were prepared from nanofibrillated chitosan under neutral conditions. The Young's modulus and tensile strength of the chitosan NF sheets were higher than those of the chitosan sheets prepared from dissolving chitosan in acetic acid. The chitosan NF sheets showed strong mycelial growth inhibition against dermatophytes Microsporum and Trichophyton. Moreover, the chitosan NF sheets exhibited resistance to degradation by the fungi, suggesting potentials long-lasting usage. In addition, surface-deacetylated chitin nanofiber (SDCNF) sheets were prepared. The SDCNF sheet had a high Young's modulus and tensile strength and showed antifungal activity to dermatophytes. These data indicate that nanofibrillation improved the properties of chitosan. Thus, chitosan NF and SDCNF sheets are useful candidates for antimicrobial materials. PMID:26540046

  14. Dermatophytes and other associated fungi in patients attending to some hospitals in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abd Elmegeed, Al Shimaa M; Ouf, S A; Moussa, Tarek A A; Eltahlawi, S M R

    2015-01-01

    Dermatophytes are keratinophilic fungi that infect keratinized tissues causing diseases known as dermatophytoses. Dermatophytes are classified in three genera, Epidermophyton, Microsporum, and Trichophyton. This investigation was performed to study the prevalence of dermatomycosis among 640 patients being evaluated at the dermatology clinics at Kasr elainy, El-Husein and Said Galal hospitals in Cairo and Giza between January 2005 and December 2006. The patients were checked for various diseases. Tinea capitis was the most common clinical disease followed by tinea pedis and tinea corporis. Tinea cruris and tinea unguium were the least in occurrence. Tinea versicolor also was detected. The most susceptible persons were children below 10 years followed by those aged 31-40 years. Unicellular yeast was the most common etiological agent and T. tonsuranswas the second most frequent causative agent followed by M. canis. PMID:26413063

  15. Foliicolous microfungi occurring on Encephalartos.

    PubMed

    Crous, P W; Wood, A R; Okada, G; Groenewald, J Z

    2008-12-01

    Species of Encephalartos, commonly known as bread trees, bread palms or cycads are native to Africa; the genus encompasses more than 60 species and represents an important component of the indigenous African flora. Recently, a leaf blight disease was noted on several E. altensteinii plants growing at the foot of Table Mountain in the Kirstenbosch Botanical Gardens of South Africa. Preliminary isolations from dead and dying leaves of E. alten-steinii, E. lebomboensis and E. princeps, collected from South Africa, revealed the presence of several novel microfungi on this host. Novelties include Phaeomoniella capensis, Saccharata kirstenboschensis, Teratosphaeria altensteinii and T. encephalarti. New host records of species previously only known to occur on Proteaceae include Cladophialophora proteae and Catenulostroma microsporum, as well as a hyperparasite, Dactylaria leptosphaeriicola, occurring on ascomata of T. encephalarti. PMID:20396583

  16. The lipid composition and its alteration during the growth stage in pathogenic fungus, epidermophyton floccosum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamada, T.; Watanabe, R.; Nozawa, Y.; Ito, Y.

    1984-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative changes of lipid components during the growth stages were studied in E. floccosum. The acyl group components of total lipids of Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum cookei were also examined. The lipids of E. floccosum amounted to approximately 4% of the dry cell weight. Neutral lipids mainly consisted of triglycerides and sterols, and major polar lipids were phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and an unknown lipid X. The fatty acids in tryglycerides and phospholipids were palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids. The unknown polar lipid X which appeared between phosphatidylethanolamine and cardiolipin on thin layer chromatography plates contained no phosphorus. There was no significant change in the fatty acid components of E. floccosum and T. rubrum during the cell growth, whereas profound changes occurred in M. cookei. The sterol components of E. floccosum showed striking changes depending on the growth stage.

  17. [Tropical and travel-related dermatomycoses: Part 1: Dermatophytoses].

    PubMed

    Nenoff, P; Reinel, D; Krüger, C; Grob, H; Mugisha, P; Süß, A; Mayser, P

    2015-06-01

    Today, tropical and travel-related dermatomycoses must be increasingly anticipated to present in dermatological offices and clinics. Skin infections due to dermatophytes or other fungi may occur after a journey in countries with a high prevalence for the respective causative fungal pathogen, e.g., tinea corporis due to Trichophyton soudanense. Otherwise, more frequently, single infections and even localized outbreaks due to "exotic" or "imported" pathogens of dermatophytoses occur. These epidemics are observed in childcare facilities in Germany and in other European countries. Source of infection are immigrants from Africa and sometimes from Asian countries. Furthermore, African children, and sometimes also adults, are often only asymptomatic carriers of such anthropophilic dermatophytes. Outbreaks of dermatophyte infections with one and more affected children and also adult staff and teachers due to Trichophyton violaceum or Microsporum audouinii in kindergartens and schools are not a rarity these days. Further tropical and travel-associated dermatophytes are Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton schoenleinii, and Trichophyton concentricum. Tinea capitis should be treated in a species-specific manner. Griseofulvin is the treatment of choice for infections due to Microsporum species. In contrast, tinea capitis due to Trichophyton species has to be treated by terbinafine, however, because the agent is not approved for children in Germany, only after receiving written consent of parents. Alternatives are fluconazole and itraconazole. Onset and aggravation of tinea pedis during travel has its origin in a preexisting neglected fungal infection of the feet. In the tropics, exacerbations and secondary bacterial complications of tinea pedis develop under distinctly promoting conditions. PMID:25868571

  18. Dermatophytosis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection: clinical aspects and etiologic agents.

    PubMed

    Costa, J E F; Neves, R P; Delgado, M M; Lima-Neto, R G; Morais, V M S; Coęlho, M R C D

    2015-10-01

    Dermatophytosis in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus infection seems to manifest with atypical, multiple, or extensive lesions more frequently. In addition, there are reports of presentations with little inflammation, called anergics. Less common etiologic agents have been isolated in these individuals, such as Microsporum species. To describe clinical aspects and etiologic agents of dermatophytosis in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Patients with clinical diagnosis of dermatophytosis underwent scarification for mycological diagnosis through direct microscopic examination and fungal isolation in culture on Sabouraud dextrose agar. Sixty individuals had a clinical hypothesis of dermatophytosis. In 20 (33.3%) of the 60 patients, dermatophytosis was confirmed through a mycological study. Tinea corporis, diagnosed in 14 patients, was the most frequent clinical form, followed by tinea unguium in 7, tinea cruris in 5, and tinea pedis in 1 patient. Most of the lesions of tinea corporis were anergic. Five patients with tinea unguium had involvement of multiple nails, with onychodystrophy as the predominant subtype. Multiple cutaneous lesions occurred in 3 patients and extensive cutaneous lesions in 4. Regarding the agent, Trichophyton rubrum was the most commonly isolated. The high occurrence of anergic skin lesions and involvement of multiple nails, especially as onychodystrophy, corroborates the hypothesis that atypical, disseminated, and more severe presentations are common in individuals with HIV infection. However, no Microsporum species was isolated even in atypical, extensive, or disseminated cases, in disagreement with previous reports. Therefore, the approach of squamous lesions in HIV-positive patients must include a mycological study, in view of the possibility of anergic dermatophytosis, to promote the introduction of a suitable therapeutic agent. PMID:26200786

  19. Balticidins A-D, antifungal hassallidin-like lipopeptides from the Baltic Sea cyanobacterium Anabaena cylindrica Bio33.

    PubMed

    Bui, Thanh-Huong; Wray, Victor; Nimtz, Manfred; Fossen, Torgils; Preisitsch, Michael; Schröder, Gudrun; Wende, Kristian; Heiden, Stefan E; Mundt, Sabine

    2014-06-27

    Balticidins A-D (1-4), four new antifungal lipopeptides, were isolated from the laboratory-cultivated cyanobacterium Anabaena cylindrica strain Bio33 isolated from a water sample collected from the Baltic Sea, Rügen Island, Germany. Fractionation of the 50% aqueous MeOH extract was performed by bioassay-guided silica gel column chromatography followed by SPE and repeated reversed-phase HPLC. The main fraction containing the compounds exhibited a strong and specific antifungal activity with inhibition zones in an agar-diffusion assay from 21 to 32 mm against Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida maltosa, Aspergillus fumigatus, Microsporum gypseum, Mucor sp., and Microsporum canis. The structures were elucidated by multidimensional (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, HRESIMS, amino acid analysis, and sugar analysis. Spectroscopic data analysis afforded an unambiguous sequence of R.CHO(S1).CHOH.CONH-Thr(1)-Thr(2)-Thr(3)-HOTyr(4)-Dhb(5)-D-Gln(6)-Gly(7)-NMeThr(8)(S2)-L-Gln COOH(9), in which Dhb is dehydroaminobutyric acid, S1 is d(-)-arabinose-(3-1)-D-(+)-galacturonic acid, S2 is D-(+)-mannose, and R is the aliphatic residue -C13H26Cl or -C13H27. Besides NMeThr, D-allo-Thr, D-Thr, and L-Thr were identified, but the position of the enantiomers in the sequence is not clear. The four balticidins differ in their cyclic (2, 4)/linear (1, 3) core and the presence (1, 2)/absence (3, 4) of chlorine in the aliphatic unit. PMID:24937366

  20. Poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(?-caprolactone) nanomicelles for the solubilization and enhancement of antifungal activity of sertaconazole.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Ghareb M; Attia, Mohamed A; Mohamed, Ramadan A

    2014-01-01

    Sertaconazole nitrate is a broad spectrum imidazole antifungal agent with antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties. However, its lipophilic nature and very poor aqueous solubility limit its use in the clinic. The aim of this study was to develop and characterize poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(?-caprolactone) (PEG-b-PCL) polymeric nanomicelles for the solubilization and enhancement of sertaconazole antifungal activity. Sertaconazole was incorporated into PEG-b- PCL polymeric nanomicelles by a co-solvent evaporation method and micelle size, drug loading capacity and drug release properties were determined. The antifungal properties of nanomicelle-loaded drug were evaluated in Fusarium miscanthi, Microsporum canis, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes isolated, respectively from fungal keratitis, ringworm, and tinea corporis. PEG-b-PCL formed nanomicelles in aqueous solution with a diameter ranging from 40-80 nm, depending on the polymer composition and level of drug loading. Drug loading properties of the nanomicelles were dependent on the PCL block molecular weight and drug/polymer weight feed ratio. Drug encapsulation efficiency of up to 85% was achieved and this resulted in more than 80-fold enhancement in sertaconazole aqueous solubility at polymer concentration of 0.2%. Drug release studies showed an initial burst release followed by sustained drug release for 72 hours. In vitro antimycotic studies showed that nanomicelle-incorporated sertaconazole inhibited fungal growth in a concentration dependent manner. Further, it was more effective than the free drug in inhibiting the growth of Fusarium miscanthi and Microsporum canis. These results confirm the utility of PEG-b-PCL nanomicelles in enhancing the aqueous solubility and antifungal activity of sertaconazole or other similar antifungal drugs. PMID:24909149

  1. Isolation of the volatile fraction from Apium graveolens L. (Apiaceae) by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and hydrodistillation: chemical composition and antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Marongiu, B; Piras, A; Porcedda, S; Falconieri, D; Maxia, A; Frau, M A; Gonçalves, M J; Cavaleiro, C; Salgueiro, L

    2013-01-01

    Apium graveolens L. (wild celery), belonging to the family of Apiaceae, is a scaposus hemicryptophyte. Instead, the cultivate plant is an annual or biennial herb widely used as a spice and seasoning in food. A broad range of biological activities have been attributed to A. graveolens. These include antimicrobial activity, larvicidal activity, hepatoprotective activity, nematicidal and mosquito repellent potential and antihyperlipidaemic properties.In this study, the authors compare the composition of the volatile fractions of A. graveolens collected in natural populations in Portugal and Italy and evaluate their potential as antifungal agents.The composition of the volatile oils obtained by hydrodistillation and their antifungal activity are reported. The oils were analysed by gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods and their composition were compared with that of the volatile extracts isolated by supercritical CO2. A chemical variability in the extracts depending on the origin of the plants and on the extraction method was observed. The results showed the presence of sedanenolide, neocnidilide and neophytadiene as main components. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal lethal concentration were used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the oils against Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida guilliermondii, Candida parapsilosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale, Trichophyton verrucosum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Epidermophyton floccosum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. The oil from Italy rich in neophytadiene is the more active, with MIC values of 0.04-0.64?µL?mL(-1). Our results show that A. graveolens volatile extracts may be useful in the clinical treatment of fungal diseases. PMID:22974401

  2. Antidermatophytic Activity of Mikania micrantha Kunth: An Invasive Weed

    PubMed Central

    Jyothilakshmi, Madhavankutty; Jyothis, Mathew; Latha, Mukalel Sankunni

    2015-01-01

    Context: The incidence of dermatophytosis has risen dramatically in recent years. Limited availability of side-effect free drugs has led to a search for new antidermatophytic agents. Objective: The objective was to investigate antidermatophytic activity and in vitro anti-inflammatory activity (protease inhibition assay) of whole plant (aerial parts only) of Mikania micrantha. Materials and Methods: The dried and powdered aerial parts of M. micrantha were extracted separately with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol. Antidermatophytic activity was determined by agar tube dilution method against Epidermophyton floccosum var. nigricans, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton rubrum. The activities of various parts of the plant – flowers, leaves and stem were separately analyzed using their ethyl acetate extract. Fungicidal efficacy and trypsin inhibiting activity of the whole plant, flowers and leaves were also analyzed using the ethyl acetate extracts. Statistical Analysis Used: For trypsin inhibition assay results are expressed as mean ± standard division. For antidermatophytic assay, the significance of the difference between control and test was analyzed statistically using Fisher's exact test. Results: Ethyl acetate extract of M. micrantha exhibited excellent antidermatophytic activity, followed by petroleum ether and methanolic extracts. Ethyl acetate extracts of whole plant, flowers, leaves and stem completely inhibited the growth of dermatophytes at the tested concentration of 2 mg/mL. Furthermore, ethyl acetate extracts of whole plant, leaves and flowers were fungicidal, and the percentages of trypsin inhibition exhibited were 33.73 ± 0.306, 39.0 ± 0.505 and 35.53 ± 0.503, respectively. Conclusions: Since M. micrantha possesses antidermatophytic as well as anti-inflammatory activities, the plant is an excellent candidate for the development of new medicaments against dermatophytoses in traditional as well as modern medicine. PMID:26109783

  3. Susceptibility of clinically important dermatophytes against statins and different statin-antifungal combinations.

    PubMed

    Nyilasi, Ildikó; Kocsubé, Sándor; Krizsán, Krisztina; Galgóczy, László; Papp, Tamás; Pesti, Miklós; Nagy, Katalin; Vágvölgyi, Csaba

    2014-02-01

    The investigation of the antifungal activities of drugs whose primary activities are not related to their antimicrobial potential is in the current forefront of research. Statin compounds, which are routinely used as cholesterol-lowering drugs, may also exert direct antimicrobial effects. In this study, the in vitro antifungal activities of various statins (lovastatin, simvastatin, fluvastatin, atorvastatin, rosuvastatin and pravastatin) were examined against one isolate each of four dermatophyte species (Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis and Microsporum gypseum). Basically, statins were effective in inhibiting all dermatophyte studied, but were particularly active against M. canis and T. mentagrophytes. Fluvastatin and simvastatin were active against all of the tested fungi causing a complete inhibition of their growth at very low concentrations (6.25-12.5 ?g/ml). Lovastatin and rosuvastatin had inhibitory effects at higher concentrations (25-128 ?g/ml), while atorvastatin and pravastatin proved the less effective. The in vitro interactions between statins and different antifungals (ketoconazole, itraconazole, fluconazole, amphotericin B, nystatin, griseofulvin, terbinafine and primycin) were also investigated using a standard chequerboard broth microdilution method. Synergetic interactions were observed in several cases, most of them were noticed when statins were combined with terbinafine and the different azoles. Some combinations were particularly active (ketoconazole-simvastatin or terbinafine-simvastatin), as they were found to exert synergistic effect against all of the investigated isolates. The other antifungals showed synergistic interactions with statins in only certain cases. These results suggest that statins exert substantial antifungal effects against dermatophyte fungi and they should be promising components in a combination therapy as they can act synergistically with a number of clinically used antifungal agents. PMID:24004389

  4. In vitro and in vivo antidermatophytic activities of some Iranian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Ayatollahi Mousavi, Seyyed Amin; Kazemi, Abdolhasan

    2015-11-01

    In the last decades, the number of people suffering from dermatophytoses has seriously increased, which may be due to the development of resistant strains to a range of antifungal drugs. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antidermatophytic properties of eight extracts from the selected spices and herbs, which were ethno-medicinally used in Iran against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton interdigitale, Microsporum canis, and Microsporum gypseum (10 strain of each). The in vitro antifungal activities of the extracts from four spices and four plants were evaluated by the broth macro dilution method against four dermatophyte strains. In addition, the in vivo therapeutic effects of Myrtus communis L. and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume extracts (the most active extracts) on dermatophytosis induced by M. canis and T. mentagrophytes in guinea pigs were evaluated. Results of in vitro antifungal assay revealed that all the tested extracts demonstrated both fungistatic and fungicidal activities with the geometric mean (GM) MIC ranging from 0.058 to 3.73?mg/ml and GM (MFC) ranging from 0.058 to 7.46?mg/ml, respectively. Two extracts (M. communis and C. zeylanicum) significantly inhibited the growth of all the tested dermatophytes, while other extracts demonstrated weak (MICs of >0.625?mg/ml) to moderate (MICs ranging from 100 to 0.625?mg/ml) activities. In vivo antidermatophytic assay demonstrated that clotrimazole cured T. mentagrophytes and M. canis infection on days 21 and 17, respectively, whereas M. communis and C. zeylanicum extracts significantly (p < 0.05) cured T. mentagrophytes and M. canis infection on days 9 and 13 as well as 9, 11, respectively. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, phenols, and alkaloids in M. communis and alkaloids, flavonoids, and tannins in C. zeylanicum. Findings of the present study also provided the scientific evidence that natural plants could be used in traditional medicine for the prevention and treatment of dermatophytic infections. PMID:26092105

  5. Antiproliferative effect and characterization of a novel antifungal peptide derived from human Chromogranin A

    PubMed Central

    LI, RUI-FANG; LU, YA-LI; LU, YAN-BO; ZHANG, HUI-RU; HUANG, LIANG; YIN, YANLI; ZHANG, LIN; LIU, SHUAI; LU, ZHIFANG; SUN, YANAN

    2015-01-01

    CGA-N46 is a novel antifungal peptide derived from the N-terminus of human Chromogranin A, corresponding to the 31st to 76th amino acids. Further research on its activities and characteristics may be helpful for the application of CGA-N46 in medical or other situations. In the present study, the antifungal spectrum and physicochemical characteristics of CGA-N46 were investigated using an antifungal assay, its antiproliferative effects on cancer and normal cells were assessed using MTT assay and its combinatorial effect with other antibiotics was analyzed using checkerboard analysis. The results showed that CGA-N46 exhibited antifungal activity against the tested Candidas (C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, C. krusei, C. tropicalis and C. albicans) at a concentration of <0.8 mM, but had no effect on the growth of filamentous fungi or other types of fungi (Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium moniliforme, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes), even at a concentration of 3.2 mM. CGA-N46 had an inhibitory effect on the proliferation of lung cancer A549 cells and a reversible effect on the growth of normal primary chicken embryo fibroblast cells, but no hemolytic activity on human erythrocytes at the minimum inhibitory concentration of CGA-N46 against yeasts. The antifungal activity of CGA-N46 was stable at a temperature <40°C or within a broad pH range (pH 5.0–7.0). Its antifungal activity was enhanced when the peptide was used in combination with fluconazole and terbinafine. The present results indicate that CGA-N46 is a safe, physicochemically stable, antifungal peptide with anticancer cell activity that exhibits an additive effect with conventional antibiotics. PMID:26668630

  6. Heat resistance of dermatophyte's conidiospores from athletes kits stored in Nigerian University Sport's Center.

    PubMed

    Essien, J P; Jonah, I; Umoh, A A; Eduok, S I; Akpan, E J; Umoiyoho, A

    2009-03-01

    The incidence and heat resistance of conidiospores produced by dermatophytes isolated from athlete's kits (canvasses, stockings and spike shoes) stored in Nigerian University Sport's Centre were investigated. Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum oudouinii, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton concentricum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum were isolated and their incidence on the athlete's kits varied with the species and type of kits. Among the isolates T. mentagrophytes, T. rubrum and E. floccosum with 25%, 23% and 20% prevalence rates respectively, were the most common isolates, and are often associated with tinea pedis (athletes foot). Canvasses with the highest incidence of dermatophytes (25 out of 34 fungal isolates) were the most contaminated kits and could serve as effective articles for the transmission of tinea pedis among athletes in Nigeria. The common etiological agents screened, produced asexual spores (conidiospores) that exhibited high resistance to heat treatment at 80 degrees C. Of the three isolates, E. floccosum, with a decimal reduction time (D-value) of D80 = 4.4 min was the most resistant followed by T. mentagrophytes with D80 = 4.0 min and then T. rubrum with D80 = 3.2 min. The spores elimination pattern indicates that increasing the heating duration would decrease the decimal reduction time and possibly denature the fungal propagules but may damage the skin during treatment with hot water compresses. The findings have shown that the use of hot water compresses is palliative but heat treatment especially vapour-heat treatment offers adequate preventive measures if applied for periodic treatment of contaminated kits. However, determining the correct condition for effective decontamination will require detailed understanding of the heat resistance of fungal spores. Otherwise treatment of kits with detergent and chaotropic agent such as urea and guanidinium salt is preferred to heat treatment. PMID:19388558

  7. Historic topics on classification of Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex.

    PubMed

    Kano, Rui; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko

    2014-01-01

    D. Gruby (1842-1844) detected the fungus in tinea as a causative agent and C.P. Robin (1853) described Microsporum mentagrophytes that was transferred to Trichophyton by Blanchard (1896). Sabouraud (1910) established a group of ectothrix microďde which was divided into gypseum type (6 species: T. asteroids, T. granulosum, T. lacticolor and 3 species) and niveum type (T. radians and T. denticulatum). Thereafter, Epidermophyton simii Pinoy, 1912 and T. interdigitale Priestly, 1917 were reported. These species were classified as T. mentagrophytes by C.W. Emmons (1934 and 1940). Arthroderma simii Stockdale et al., 1965, A. benhamiae, Ajello and Cheng, 1967 and A. vanbreuseghemii Takashio, 1973 were discovered as teleomorphs of T. simii, T. mentagrophytes var. granulosum and T. mentagrophytes (mainly granulosum-asteroides form), respectively. Makimura et al., (1998) reported phylogenetic classification of T. mentagrophytes complex strains based on DNA sequences of nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) regions, indicating that A. vanbreuseghemii and T. interdigitale belong to the same clade that was later named T. interdigatale by Gräser et al.(1999). This naming has confused medical and veterinary doctors since anthropophilic isolates (T. interdigitale) and zoophilic isolates (A. vanbreuseghemii) were included as the same species. PMID:24943211

  8. Distribution of Keratinophilic Fungi in Soil Across Tunisia: A Descriptive Study and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Anane, Sonia; Al-Yasiri, Mohammed Hashim Yasir; Normand, Anne-Cécile; Ranque, Stéphane

    2015-08-01

    Data on the frequency and distribution of keratinophilic fungi in soil of Tunisia are scanty. The present survey aimed to describe the distribution of keratinophilic fungi in soils collected in Tunisia. Keratinophilic fungi were isolated using Vanbreuseghem's hair-baiting technique from 354 soil samples collected in 15 governorates of Tunisia and identified according to their morphology with further DNA and MALDI-TOF analysis when necessary. Keratinophilic fungi were isolated from 46.3 % of the samples from 14 governorates. Chrysosporium keratinophilum was the predominant species (30.5 %) followed by Microsporum gypseum (27.4 %). Other isolated species included C. tropicum (14.0 %), C. indicum (11.0 %), Chaetomium sp. (4.9 %), Arthroderma curreyi, Arthroderma cuniculi (3.7 % each), C. merdarium (3.1 %), Anixiopsis stercoraria, C. parvum, Paecilomyces lilacinus, Auxarthron zuffianum (2.4 % each), Fusarium oxysporum, Aphanoascus verrucosus, Gymnascella dankaliensis (1.2 % each) and 12 other species (0.6 % each). Two to five distinct fungal species were associated with 11.5 % of the positive samples. Keratinophilic fungi were more frequently isolated in rural (54.8 %) than in urban (41.1 %) areas (p = 0.012). The highest (100 %) positive culture rate was noted in soil collected in stables. Keratinophilic fungi are frequent throughout Tunisian territory, particularly in soils with a high organic matter content that should be regarded as humans and animals mycoses reservoir. PMID:25690159

  9. Further in vitro studies with oxiconazole nitrate.

    PubMed

    Shadomy, S; Wang, H; Shadomy, H J

    1988-04-01

    Oxiconazole nitrate was compared in vitro with ketoconazole and econazole nitrate in tests with 96 dermatophytes, 18 isolates of Malassezia furfur, and seven isolates of Exophiala werneckii. An agar dilution procedure was used employing either Kimmig's agar or Sabouraud's dextrose agar supplemented with Olive oil and Tween 80. Econazole was the more active compound in tests with Microsporum species (41 isolates) and most isolates of Trichophyton species (45 isolates). Oxiconazole was the more active compound in tests with T. tonsurans and T. rubrum. However, differences between results for oxiconazole and econazole and the dermatophytes were only marginal. Ketoconazole was the most active compound in tests with M. furfur; some cross resistance on the part of several isolates of M. furfur between oxiconazole and econazole was noted. All three compounds were active against E. werneckii with MIC90 values of either 0.25 or 0.5 microgram/ml. Epidermophyton floccosum was the most susceptible of all organisms tested with all MIC values for all three drugs being less than or equal to 0.063 microgram/ml, the lowest concentration tested. PMID:3180708

  10. Foot infections due to Hendersonula toruloidea and Scytalidium hyalinum in coal miners.

    PubMed

    Gugnani, H C; Oyeka, C A

    1989-01-01

    A total of 250 coal miners were screened for mycotic skin infections. Sixty-six (34.8%) miners had clinical lesions on their feet which proved to be of mycotic etiology by direct microscopy and culture. Hendersonula toruloidea, the commonest etiological agent, was the sole agent recovered from 23 (34.8%) of the positive cases and was also isolated from three (4.5%) cases of mixed infection with dermatophytes (two cases with Trichophyton rubrum and one with Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes). Scytalidium hyalinum was recovered as the sole causal agent in four (6.1%) patients and from one case of mixed infection with T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes. The dermatophytes isolated as sole etiological agents included T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes (13 isolates) T. rubrum (10), Trichophyton tonsurans (5), Epidermophyton floccosum (4) and Microsporum gypseum (3). The toe web was invariably involved in all cases of H. toruloidea and S. hyalinum infection and was also the commonest site of infection by dermatophytes. Occasionally the sole, toe and finger nails were also involved. Other body sites were infrequently involved and then only in infections caused by dermatophytes. The epidemiology of H. toruloidea and S. hyalinum infections is reviewed. PMID:2778576

  11. Antifungal susceptibilities of dermatophytic agents isolated from clinical specimens.

    PubMed

    Cetinkaya, Zafer; Kiraz, Nuri; Karaca, Semsettin; Kulac, Mustafa; Ciftci, Ihsan H; Aktepe, Orhan C; Altindis, Mustafa; Kiyildi, Nilay; Piyade, Meltem

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the susceptibility to four antifungal agents: ketoconazole, terbinafine, itraconazole and fluconazole, of the different species of dermatophyte strains isolated from clinical specimens. A total of 128 specimens were collected from toe nail, foot, inguinal region, trunk, hands and head. The dermatophytes tested included Trichophyton rubrum 108 (84.4%), Trichophyton mentagrophytes 11 (8.6%), Epidermophyton floccosum 5 (3.9%), Microsporum canis 2 (1.5%) and Trichophyton tonsurans 2 (1.5%). The mean minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for the five species of dermatophytes ranged between 0.09-1.12 microg/mL for ketoconazole, 0.04-0.27 microg/mL for terbinafine, 0.08-0.43 microg/mL for itraconazole and 16.18-24.0 microg/mL for fluconazole. In vitro analysis of antifungal activity of these agents would also allow for the comparison between different systemic antifungals, which in turn may clarify the reasons for the lack of clinical response or serve as an effective therapy for patients with chronic infection. PMID:16048753

  12. The Prevalence and Pattern of Superficial Fungal Infections among School Children in Ile-Ife, South-Western Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oke, Olaide Olutoyin; Onayemi, Olaniyi; Olasode, Olayinka Abimbola; Omisore, Akinlolu Gabriel; Oninla, Olumayowa Abimbola

    2014-01-01

    Fungal infections of the skin and nails are common global problems with attendant morbidity among affected individuals. Children are mostly affected due to predisposing factors such as overcrowding and low socioeconomic factors. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and the clinical patterns of superficial fungal infections among primary school children in Ile-Ife. A multistage sampling was conducted to select eight hundred pupils from ten primary schools in Ile-Ife. Data on epidemiological characteristics and clinical history was collected using a semistructured questionnaire and skin scrapings were done. The prevalence of superficial fungal infections among the 800 respondents was 35.0%. Male pupils constituted 51.0% of respondents while the females were 49.0%. The mean age for all the respondents was 9.42 ± 2.00. Tinea capitis was the commonest infection with a prevalence of 26.9% and tinea unguium, tinea corporis, and tinea faciei had a prevalence of 0.8%, 0.6%, and 0.5%, respectively. Tinea manuum had the least prevalence of 0.1%. Pityriasis versicolor had a prevalence of 4.4%. Microsporum audouinii was the leading organism isolated. The study shows that the prevalence of superficial fungal infection (SFI) among primary school children in Ile-Ife is high with tinea capitis as the commonest SFI. PMID:25574161

  13. [Incidence, immunity and treatment of feline dermatophytosis].

    PubMed

    Favrot, C; Zaugg, N

    2005-05-01

    Feline dermatophytosis is a superficial skin infection characterized by the invasion of cornified tissues such as hair and nails. This infection is nearly always caused by Microsporum canis. Infected animals release infective spores in the environment which will then contaminate other animals or humans. Infected animals usually develop immunity so the infection will spontaneously disappear after a few weeks to months. Long haired and immunocom-promised cats do not have the same ability to acquire resistance and spontaneous recovery does usually not occur. The treatment of such an infection will require topical and systemic treatment of all contaminated and in-contact cats. The use of desinfectants such as bleach or enilconazole has been proven effective to destroy the spores in the environment. In addition, the efficacy of topical and systemic treatments with azole derivates or allylamines has also been demonstrated in several studies. On the contrary, dermatophyte vaccination has never been proven effective in well controlled studies. Regular follow-up and fungal cultures are mandatory to ensure succesfull treatment. PMID:15929601

  14. Mycology - an update Part 3: Dermatomycoses: topical and systemic therapy.

    PubMed

    Nenoff, Pietro; Krüger, Constanze; Paasch, Uwe; Ginter-Hanselmayer, Gabriele

    2015-05-01

    Treatment of dermatophyte infections is based on the clinical picture and mycological detection of the causative pathogen. Based on the appropriate indication, onychomycosis can be treated topically using an antimycotic nail lacquer. Atraumatic nail abrasion with 40 % urea ointment has a beneficial effect on healing. Continuous treatment of onychomycosis with terbinafine represents the most effective systemic therapy. Terbinafine or itraconazole are the safest and most effective antimycotic agents for the treatment of onychomycosis in children. For laser therapy of onychomycosis, only a few studies on clinical efficacy are available. Regarding tinea capitis, targeted species-specific therapy of dermatophytosis of the scalp is currently recommended. Terbinafine, yet also itraconazole and fluconazole, are effective in tinea capitis caused by Trichophyton species. Microsporum infections of the scalp are preferably treated with griseofulvin, alternatively with itraconazole or fluconazole. Terbinafine is less effective. Candidal intertrigo are topically treated with nystatin, but azoles or ciclopirox olamine are also suitable candidates. Systemically, fluconazole or itraconazole are used. Topical and systemic antimycotics are equivalent forms of therapy in acute vulvovaginal mycosis. Fluconazole is the drug of choice in chronic recurrent vulvovaginal mycosis caused by Candida albicans. Ketoconazole shows very good efficacy in tinea versicolor. With respect to systemic treatment of severe and widespread tinea versicolor, itraconazole is the drug of choice. PMID:25918080

  15. Development of topical hydrogels of terbinafine hydrochloride and evaluation of their antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Çelebi, Nevin; Ermi?, Seda; Özkan, Semiha

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to prepare hydrogels and microemulsion (ME)-based gel formulations containing 1% terbinafine hydrochloride (TER-HCL) and to evaluate the use of these formulations for the antifungal treatment of fungal infections. Three different hydrogel formulations were prepared using chitosan, Carbopol® 974 and Natrosol® 250 polymers. A pseudo-ternary phase diagram was constructed, and starting from ME formulation, a ME gel form containing 1% Carbopol 974 was prepared. We also examined the characteristic properties of the prepared hyrogels. The physical stability of hydrogels and the ME -based gels were evaluated after storage at different temperatures for a period of 3 months. The release of TER-HCL from the gels and the commercial product (Lamisil®) was carried out by using a standard dialysis membrane in phosphate buffer (pH 5.2) at 32?°C. The results of the in vitro release study showed that the Natrosol gel released the highest amount of drug, followed by Carbopol gel, chitosan gel, commercial product, and the microoemulsion-based gel in that order. In vitro examination of antifungal activity revealed that all the prepared and commercial products were effective against Candida parapsilosis, Penicillium, Aspergillus niger and Microsporum. These results indicate that the Natrosol®-based hydrogel is a good candidate for the topical delivery of TER-HCL. PMID:24576265

  16. Antifungal activities of different extracts of marine macroalgae against dermatophytes and Candida species.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Elica Amara Cecilia; Araújo, Maria Anilda dos Santos; Souza, Aryanna Kelly Pinheiro; de Souza, Larissa Isabela Oliveira; de Barros, Lurdiana Dayse; Maranhăo, Fernanda Cristina de Albuquerque; Sant'Ana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart

    2012-09-01

    Algae are bioactive natural resources, and due to the medical importance of superficial mycoses, we focused the action of macroalgae extracts against dermatophytes and Candida species. Seaweed obtained from the Riacho Doce beach, Alagoas (Brazil), were screened for the antifungal activity, through crude extracts using dichloromethane, chloroform, methanol, ethanol, water and chloroform and hexane fractions of green, brown and red algae in assays with standard strains of the dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum, T. tonsurans, T. mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis, M. gypseum and yeasts Candida albicans, C. krusei, C. guilliermondi and C. parapsilosis. The M44-A and M27-A2/M38A manuals by CLSI were followed, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranged from 0.03 to 16.00 ?g ml(-1), and an inhibition halo of 10.00-25.00 mm was observed for dermatophytes, while for yeast, it was from 8.00 to 16.00 ?g ml(-1) and 10.00-15.00 mm. M. canis showed MIC of 0.03 ?g ml(-1) and the largest inhibition halo in T. rubrum (25.00 mm) through the use of the methanol extract. For C. albicans, dichloromethane, methanol and ethanol extracts formed the largest inhibition halo. The ethanol extract was shown to be the best inhibiting fungi growth, and chloroform and hexane fractions of H. musciformis inhibited the growth of all dermatophytes and C. albicans, yielding the conclusion that apolar extracts obtained from algae presented the best activity against important pathogenic fungi. PMID:22528741

  17. Synthesis, antifungal and antibacterial activity of novel 1,2,4-triazole derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Deepa; Jain, D. K.

    2015-01-01

    A large number of 1,2,4-triazole-containing ring system have been incorporated into a wide variety of therapeutically interesting drug candidates including anti-inflammatory, central nervous system stimulants, antianxiety, and antimicrobial agents. To overcome the rapid development of drug resistance, new agents should preferably have chemical characteristics that clearly differ from those of existing agents. Thus led to the design and synthesize the new antimicrobial agents. A novel series of Schiff bases based on of 4-(benzylideneamino)-5-phenyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol scaffold was prepared by heating thiocarbohydrazide and substituted benzoic acid and subsequently, treating with substituted benzaldehydes. Seventeen derivatives were synthesized and were biologically screened for antifungal and antibacterial activity. The newly synthesized derivatives of triazole showed antifungal activity against fungal species, Microsporum gypseum; and antibacterial activity against bacterial species, Staphylococcus aureus. It was observed that none of the compounds tested showed positive results for fungi Candida albicans fungi Aspergillus niger, nor against bacterial strain Escherichia coli. Strong antifungal effects were obtained for the synthesized compounds against M. gypseum and were superior or comparable to standard drug ketoconazole. Similarly, all of the synthesized compounds exhibit strong antibacterial activity against S. aureus and were superior or comparable to standard drug streptomycin. It was found that among the triazole derivatives so synthesized, six of them, showed antifungal activity superior to ketoconazole while one of them, showed antibacterial activity superior to streptomycin. Thus, these can be the potential new molecule as an antimicrobial agent. PMID:26317080

  18. Dermatophytes activate skin keratinocytes via mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling and induce immune responses.

    PubMed

    Achterman, Rebecca R; Moyes, David L; Thavaraj, Selvam; Smith, Adam R; Blair, Kris M; White, Theodore C; Naglik, Julian R

    2015-04-01

    Dermatophytes cause superficial and cutaneous fungal infections in immunocompetent hosts and invasive disease in immunocompromised hosts. However, the host mechanisms that regulate innate immune responses against these fungi are largely unknown. Here, we utilized commercially available epidermal tissues and primary keratinocytes to assess (i) damage induction by anthropophilic, geophilic, and zoophilic dermatophyte strains and (ii) the keratinocyte signaling pathways, transcription factors, and proinflammatory responses induced by a representative dermatophyte, Trichophyton equinum. Initially, five dermatophyte species were tested for their ability to invade, cause tissue damage, and induce cytokines, with Microsporum gypseum inducing the greatest level of damage and cytokine release. Using T. equinum as a representative dermatophyte, we found that the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways were predominantly affected, with increased levels of phospho-p38 and phospho-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) but decreased levels of phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2). Notably, the NF-?B and PI3K pathways were largely unaffected. T. equinum also significantly increased expression of the AP-1-associated transcription factor, c-Fos, and the MAPK regulatory phosphatase, MKP1. Importantly, the ability of T. equinum to invade, cause tissue damage, activate signaling and transcription factors, and induce proinflammatory responses correlated with germination, indicating that germination may be important for dermatophyte virulence and host immune activation. PMID:25667269

  19. Chalcone derivatives as potential antifungal agents: Synthesis, and antifungal activity

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Deepa; Jain, D. K.

    2015-01-01

    Much research has been carried out with the aim to discover the therapeutic values of chalcone derivatives. Chalcones possess wide range of pharmacological activity such as antibacterial, antimalarial, antiprotozoal, antitubercular, anticancer, and antifungal agents etc. The presence of reactive ?,?-unsaturated keto group in chalcones is found to be responsible for their biological activity. The rapid developments of resistance to antifungal agents, led to design, and synthesize the new antifungal agents. The derivatives of chalcones were prepared using Claisen–Schmidt condensation scheme with appropriate tetralone and aldehyde derivatives. Ten derivatives were synthesized and were biologically screened for antifungal activity. The newly synthesized derivatives of chalcone showed antifungal activity against fungal species, Microsporum gypseum. The results so obtained were superior or comparable to ketoconazole. It was observed that none of the compounds tested showed positive results for fungi Candida albicans nor against fungi Aspergillus niger. Chalcone derivatives showed inhibitory effect against M. gypseum species of fungus. It was found that among the chalcone derivatives so synthesized, two of them, that is, 4-chloro derivative, and unsubstituted derivative of chalcone showed antifungal activity superior to ketoconazole. Thus, these can be the potential new molecule as antifungal agent. PMID:26317075

  20. Lawsonia inermis-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles: activity against human pathogenic fungi and bacteria with special reference to formulation of an antimicrobial nanogel.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Arpita; Bonde, Shital R; Gaikwad, Swapnil; Ingle, Avinash; Gade, Aniket K; Rai, Mahendra

    2014-09-01

    Lawsonia inermis mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) and its efficacy against Candida albicans, Microsporum canis, Propioniabacterium acne and Trichophyton mentagrophytes is reported. A two-step mechanism has been proposed for bioreduction and formation of an intermediate complex leading to the synthesis of capped nanoparticles was developed. In addition, antimicrobial gel for M. canis and T. mentagrophytes was also formulated. Ag-NPs were synthesized by challenging the leaft extract of L. inermis with 1 mM AgNO?. The Ag-NPs were characterized by Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometer and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nanoparticle tracking and analysis sytem (NTA) and zeta potential was measured to detect the size of Ag-NPs. The antimicrobial activity of Ag-NPs was evaluated by disc diffusion method against the test organisms. Thus these Ag-NPs may prove as a better candidate drug due to their biogenic nature. Moreover, Ag-NPs may be an answer to the drug-resistant microorganisms. PMID:25082226

  1. Polyhydroxyalkanoate-based 3-hydroxyoctanoic acid and its derivatives as a platform of bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Radivojevic, Jelena; Skaro, Sanja; Senerovic, Lidija; Vasiljevic, Branka; Guzik, Maciej; Kenny, Shane T; Maslak, Veselin; Nikodinovic-Runic, Jasmina; O'Connor, Kevin E

    2016-01-01

    A library of 18 different compounds was synthesized starting from (R)-3-hydroxyoctanoic acid which is derived from the bacterial polymer polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA). Ten derivatives, including halo and unsaturated methyl and benzyl esters, were synthesized and characterized for the first time. Given that (R)-3-hydroxyalkanoic acids are known to have biological activity, the new compounds were evaluated for antimicrobial activity and in vitro antiproliferative effect with mammalian cell lines. The presence of the carboxylic group was essential for the antimicrobial activity, with minimal inhibitory concentrations against a panel of bacteria (Gram-positive and Gram-negative) and fungi (Candida albicans and Microsporum gypseum) in the range 2.8-7.0 mM and 0.1-6.3 mM, respectively. 3-Halogenated octanoic acids exhibited the ability to inhibit C. albicans hyphae formation. In addition, (R)-3-hydroxyoctanoic and (E)-oct-2-enoic acids inhibited quorum sensing-regulated pyocyanin production in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Generally, derivatives did not inhibit mammalian cell proliferation even at 3-mM concentrations, while only (E)-oct-2-enoic and 3-oxooctanoic acid had IC50 values of 1.7 and 1.6 mM with the human lung fibroblast cell line. PMID:26399414

  2. Characterization and biological studies of bis- and tera-acetyl derivatives of hydrocarbon-bridged diamines-I.

    PubMed

    Haque, Naheed; Hussain, Izhar

    2013-01-01

    A systematic study of the pharmaceutically important, double ended, chelating agents of the types CH(3)CONH(CH(2))nNHCOCH(3) and (CH(3)CO)(2)N(CH(2))n N(COCH(3))(2), where n= 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, prepared by the bis- and tetra-acetylation of the corresponding diamino-polymethylenes, have been carried out. Bis- and tertra-acetyl derivatives have been characterized by their elemental analysis and the FTIR spectra, Mass spectra and H-NMR spectra of these compounds have been reported to establish their structures. In the present work, FTIR spectra have been found an excellent means for distinguishing the bis-acetyl derivatives from their tetra-acetyl counterparts. The structures of these bis- and tetra-acetyl compounds have further been established by their H-NMR and Mass Spectra. The selective pharmacological screening of the derivatives was carried out according to the standard procedures. The compounds were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activities and it was found that majority of these compounds did not possess any remarkable activity. Only the compound BA1,2-DAE, showed significant antifungal activity against Microsporum canis (80%). PMID:23261735

  3. Myrtus communis L. as source of a bioactive and safe essential oil.

    PubMed

    Bouzabata, Amel; Cabral, Célia; Gonçalves, Maria José; Cruz, Maria Teresa; Bighelli, Ange; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Casanova, Joseph; Tomi, Félix; Salgueiro, Ligia

    2015-01-01

    In Algeria, Myrtus communis L. is distributed throughout the Tell Atlas and the coastal regions of Algiers and Constantine. The leaves are used in respiratory disorders, diarrhea and hemorrhoids. The aims of this work were to evaluate the antifungal and anti-inflammatory potential of well characterized essential oils (EO). Since EO can be applied by inhalation, dermal application and oral administration, we used several mammalian cell lines to assess safe bioactive doses. The chemical composition of two samples was investigated by GC-FID, GC-MS and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. Monoterpene derivatives are the main compounds: ?-pinene (50.8 and 33.6%), 1,8-cineole (21.9 and 13.3%), linalool (2.7 and 14.8%), and linalyl acetate (0.5 and 9.5%). The antifungal evaluation revealed that the oils were more active against Cryptococcus neoformans (yeast) and Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton rubrum (dermatophytes). The anti-inflammatory potential was evaluated using an in vitro model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages. Assessment of cell viability was made through the MTT assay. Both oils were able to significantly inhibit NO production, without affecting cell viability, in concentrations up to 0.64?mg/mL. These promising results, disclose bioactive concentrations of Myrtle essential oils with a safety profile suggesting a potential oral and topical application or use by inhalation. PMID:25446467

  4. Design, synthesis and in vitro bactericidal/fungicidal screening of some vanadyl(IV)complexes with mono- and di-substituted ONS donor triazoles.

    PubMed

    Sumrra, Sajjad H; Hanif, Muhammad; Chohan, Zahid H

    2015-01-01

    A new series of anti-bacterial and anti-fungal mono- and di-substituted triazoles (L(1))-(L(6)) have been synthesized and characterized on the basis of their physical, spectral and analytical data. The ligands (L(1))-(L(6)) on reaction with vanadyl(IV) sulphate led to the formation of vanadyl(IV) metal complexes (1)-(4). The structure of the complexes has been established on the basis of their physical, spectral and elemental analyses data. The synthesized ligands and their vanadyl(IV) complexes have been screened in vitro for anti-bacterial activity against six bacterial species such as, Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Shigella flexneri (ATCC 12022), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), Salmonella typhi (ATCC 14028), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) and Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6051) and for in vitro anti-fungal activity against six fungal strains, Trichophyton longifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani and Candida glabrata. The screening results showed the vanadyl complexes to be more bactericidal/fungicidal against one or more bacterial/fungal species. The synthesized compounds were also subjected to brine shrimp bioassay for scrutinizing their cytotoxicity. PMID:25716124

  5. Dermatophytes Activate Skin Keratinocytes via Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling and Induce Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Achterman, Rebecca R.; Moyes, David L.; Thavaraj, Selvam; Smith, Adam R.; Blair, Kris M.

    2015-01-01

    Dermatophytes cause superficial and cutaneous fungal infections in immunocompetent hosts and invasive disease in immunocompromised hosts. However, the host mechanisms that regulate innate immune responses against these fungi are largely unknown. Here, we utilized commercially available epidermal tissues and primary keratinocytes to assess (i) damage induction by anthropophilic, geophilic, and zoophilic dermatophyte strains and (ii) the keratinocyte signaling pathways, transcription factors, and proinflammatory responses induced by a representative dermatophyte, Trichophyton equinum. Initially, five dermatophyte species were tested for their ability to invade, cause tissue damage, and induce cytokines, with Microsporum gypseum inducing the greatest level of damage and cytokine release. Using T. equinum as a representative dermatophyte, we found that the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways were predominantly affected, with increased levels of phospho-p38 and phospho-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) but decreased levels of phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2). Notably, the NF-?B and PI3K pathways were largely unaffected. T. equinum also significantly increased expression of the AP-1-associated transcription factor, c-Fos, and the MAPK regulatory phosphatase, MKP1. Importantly, the ability of T. equinum to invade, cause tissue damage, activate signaling and transcription factors, and induce proinflammatory responses correlated with germination, indicating that germination may be important for dermatophyte virulence and host immune activation. PMID:25667269

  6. [In vitro antifungal activity of ravuconazole against isolates of dermatophytes and Candida species from patients with dermatomycoses].

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Hideyo; Ikeda, Fumiaki; Iyoda, Takako; Suzuki, Makoto; Mikawa, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    The in vitro activity of ravuconazole (RVCZ) was compared with those of itraconazole (ITCZ) and terbinafine (TBF) against 73 dermatophyte isolates and 18 Candida spp. isolates recovered from patients with dermatomycosis at 4 dermatological clinics in Japan in 2011. The dermatophyte isolates consisted of Trichophyton rubrum (n=51), Trichophyton mentagrophytes (n=20 : these strains were not identified by molecular phylogenetic analysis.), Trichophyton tonsurans (n=1), and Microsporum canis (n=1). The Candida spp. isolates comprised C. albicans (n=11), C. parapsilosis (n=5), C. guilliermondii (n=1), and C. pseudohaemulonii (n=1). RVCZ was highly active against all dermatophytes and all Candida spp. : the geometric mean (GM) MICs for T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes were 0.035 ?g/mL and MICs for T. tonsurans and M. canis were ? 0.03 ?g/mL, and GM MICs for C. albicans and C. parapsilosis were ? 0.03 ?g/mL and MICs for C. guilliermondii and C. pseudohaemulonii were 0.25 and ? 0.03 ?g/mL, respectively. Compared to RVCZ, ITCZ showed similar anti-dermatophytic and anti-Candida activities, while TBF had a slightly higher anti-dermatophytic but a markedly lower anti-Candida activity. These results suggest that RVCZ is a potential candidate systemic antifungal therapy against onychomycosis and other dermatomycoses that are refractory to topical antifungal therapy. PMID:25742996

  7. Molecular identification of fungal pathogens in nodular skin lesions of cats.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Anne; von Bomhard, Wolf; Antweiler, Elisabeth; Tintelnot, Kathrin

    2015-02-01

    In a retrospective study, we investigated 52 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples from cats with histologically confirmed cutaneous and subcutaneous mycoses to determine if the pathogens could be identified by molecular methods. Aim of the study was to obtain a deep understanding of the spectrum of infectious agents, which, as we hypothesized, was not available by histopathology alone. Detection of feline and fungal DNA was achieved in 92.3% and 94.2% of the samples, respectively. Most of the subcutaneous infections in cats were caused by Alternaria spp. (63.5%), followed by Cryptococcus neoformans (7.7%), Histoplasma capsulatum (5.8%), Sporothrix spp. (3.8%), Aspergillus vitricola, Aureobasidium pullulans, Exophiala attenuata, Fusarium oxysporum, Lecythophora cateniformis, Microsporum canis, and Phialophora sp. (1.9% each). The results from molecular identification indicate that correct identifications of the fungal pathogens by histology alone were rarely possible. The spectrum of fungal pathogens identified after DNA extraction from FFPE samples was much broader than that expected by classical histopathology. This was especially noted in alternariosis in that the micromorphological pattern in tissue was misleading and could be confused with that of cryptococcosis. Due to different susceptibilities to antifungal agents, it is important to arrive at a definitive diagnosis, which might be possible by examination of the fungus recovered in culture and/or molecular methods, in addition to the histopathologic techniques. PMID:25550386

  8. Metal-based carboxamide-derived compounds endowed with antibacterial and antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Hanif, Muhammad; Chohan, Zahid H; Winum, Jean-Yves; Akhtar, Javeed

    2014-08-01

    A series of three bioactive thiourea (carboxamide) derivatives, N-(dipropylcarbamothioyl)-thiophene-2-carboxamide (L(1)), N-(dipropylcarbamothioyl)-5-methylthiophene-2-carboxamide (L(2)) and 5-bromo-N-(dipropylcarbamothioyl)furan-2-carboxamide (L(3)) and their cobalt(II), copper(II), nickel(II) and zinc(II) complexes (1)-(12) have been synthesized and characterized by their IR,(1)H-NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and elemental analysis data. The Crystal structure of one of the ligand, N-(dipropylcarbamothioyl)thiophene-2-carboxamide (L(1)) and its nickel(II) and copper(II) complexes were determined from single crystal X-ray diffraction data. All the ligands and metal(II) complexes have been subjected to in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activity against six bacterial species (Escherichia coli. Shigella flexneri. Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Salmonella typhi. Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and for antifungal activity against six fungal strains (Trichophyton longifusus. Candida albicans. Aspergillus flavus. Microsporum canis. Fusarium solani and Candida glabrata). The in vitro antibacterial and antifungal bioactivity data showed the metal(II) complexes to be more potent than the parent ligands against one or more bacterial and fungal strains. PMID:23914928

  9. Survey of Dermatophytes in Stray Cats with and without Skin Lesions in Northern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Proverbio, Daniela; Perego, Roberta; Spada, Eva; Bagnagatti de Giorgi, Giada; Della Pepa, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dermatophytes in stray cats with and without clinical lesions from different colonies in rural and urban areas of Milan and surroundings in northern Italy. Stray cats (273) were caught during a trap-neuter-release (TNR) program conducted in different colonies of northern Italy in both rural and urban areas. Each cat was examined in dark environment with a Wood's lamp prior to sample collection. Hair or scales exhibiting typical fluorescence were removed with a pair of sterile hemostats and cultured. The hair of all cats was then sampled by Mackenzie modified brush technique regardless of the presence or absence of skin lesions attributable to dermatophytosis. All the hair samples were subjected to fungal culture. 15 cats were positive (5.5%). Microsporum canis was the most common dermatophyte isolated (13/15). The only other isolated dermatophyte was Trichophyton mentagrophytes (2/15). Our estimated prevalence of dermatophytes in stray cats was much lower than other Italian studies on the same population. PMID:24955280

  10. Biologically active and thermally stable polymeric Schiff base and its metal polychelates: Their synthesis and spectral aspects.

    PubMed

    Rasool, Raza; Hasnain, Sumaiya

    2015-09-01

    New metal polychelates of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) obtained by the interaction of metal acetates with polymeric Schiff base containing formaldehyde and piperazine, have been investigated. Structural and spectroscopic properties have been evaluated by elemental analysis, FT-IR and (1)H-NMR. Geometry of the chelated polymers was confirmed by magnetic susceptibility measurements, UV-Visible spectroscopy and Electron Spin Resonance. The molecular weight of the polymer was determined by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that metal polychelates were more thermally stable than their corresponding ligand. All compounds were screened for their antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, (bacteria) and Candida albicans, Microsporum canis, Cryptococcus neoformans (fungi) by agar well diffusion method. Interestingly, the polymeric Schiff base was found to be antimicrobial in nature but less effective as compared to the metal polychelates. On the basis of thermal and antimicrobial behavior, these polymers hold potential applications as thermally resistant antimicrobial and antifouling coating materials as well as antimicrobial packaging materials. PMID:25955762

  11. Nucleotide sequence analysis of beta tubulin gene in a wide range of dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Rezaei-Matehkolaei, Ali; Mirhendi, Hossein; Makimura, Koichi; de Hoog, G Sybren; Satoh, Kazuo; Najafzadeh, Mohammad Javad; Shidfar, Mohammad Reza

    2014-10-01

    We investigated the resolving power of the beta tubulin protein-coding gene (BT2) for systematic study of dermatophyte fungi. Initially, 144 standard and clinical strains belonging to 26 species in the genera Trichophyton, Microsporum, and Epidermophyton were identified by internal transcribe spacer (ITS) sequencing. Subsequently, BT2 was partially amplified in all strains, and sequence analysis performed after construction of a BT2 database that showed length ranged from approximately 723 (T. ajelloi) to 808 nucleotides (M. persicolor) in different species. Intraspecific sequence variation was found in some species, but T. tonsurans, T. equinum, T. concentricum, T. verrucosum, T. rubrum, T. violaceum, T. eriotrephon, E. floccosum, M. canis, M. ferrugineum, and M. audouinii were invariant. The sequences were found to be relatively conserved among different strains of the same species. The species with the closest resemblance were Arthroderma benhamiae and T. concentricum and T. tonsurans and T. equinum with 100% and 99.8% identity, respectively; the most distant species were M. persicolor and M. amazonicum. The dendrogram obtained from BT2 topology was almost compatible with the species concept based on ITS sequencing, and similar clades and species were distinguished in the BT2 tree. Here, beta tubulin was characterized in a wide range of dermatophytes in order to assess intra- and interspecies variation and resolution and was found to be a taxonomically valuable gene. PMID:25079222

  12. The anti-dermatophyte activity of Allium hirtifolium Boiss aqueous extract.

    PubMed

    Mahboubi, M; Kazempour, N

    2015-03-01

    In an attempt at demonstrating the efficacy of Allium hirtifolium aqueous extract in control of skin fungal infections as traditional use, we evaluated the anti-dermatophyte activities of A. hirtifolium aqueous extract from bulbs and of ketoconazole against Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis, M. gypseum, Trichophyton schoenleinii and Trichophyton verrucosum var. album by food poisoning technique, disc diffusion and micro broth dilution assays. The anti-fungal activity of A. hirtifolium was excellent when it was compared with ketoconazole. The anti-fungal evaluation by food poisoning method showed that A. hirtifolium extract inhibited the growth of dermatophytes dose-dependently. The inhibition zone diameter (IZ) of A. hirtifolium extract (15 ?g/disc) was in the range of 28.8 ± 0.31 to 67.7 ± 1.5mm, while ketoconazole (15 ?g/disc) had the IZ lower than 13mm. The MIC and MFC values of A. hirtifolium extract were in the range of 0.2-1.7 and 0.4-0.7 ?g/mL; respectively. Therefore, A. hirtifolium extract showed a strong anti-fungal activity against human and animal dermatophytes. PMID:25456419

  13. In vitro activity of the protegrin IB-367 alone and in combination compared with conventional antifungal agents against dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Simonetti, Oriana; Silvestri, Carmela; Arzeni, Daniela; Cirioni, Oscar; Kamysz, Wojciech; Conte, Irene; Staffolani, Silvia; Orsetti, Elena; Morciano, Angela; Castelli, Pamela; Scalise, Alessandro; Kamysz, Elzbieta; Offidani, Anna Maria; Giacometti, Andrea; Barchiesi, Francesco

    2014-04-01

    The occurrence of resistance or side effects in patients receiving antifungal agents leads to failure in the treatment of mycosis. The aim of this experimental study was to investigate the in vitro effects of IB-367 alone and in combination with three standard antifungal drugs, fluconazole (FLU), itraconazole (ITRA) and terbinafine (TERB), against 20 clinical isolates of dermatophytes belonging to three species. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFCs), synergy test, time-kill curves, fungal biomass (FB) and hyphal damage using 2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfenylamino carbonil)-2H-tetrazolium hydroxide assay (XTT) were performed to study the efficacy of IB-367. In this study, we observed that TERB and ITRA had MICs lower values for all the strains compared to IB-367 and FLU. Synergy was found in 35%, 30% and 25% of IB-367/FLU, IB-367/ITRA and IB-367/TERB interactions respectively. IB-367 exerted a fungicidal activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum and Microsporum canis at concentrations starting from 1x MIC. At a concentration of 5x MIC, IB-367 showed the highest rates of hyphae damage for M. canis 53% and T. mentagrophytes 50%; against the same isolates it caused a reduction of 1 log of the total viable count cell hyphae damage. We propose IB-367 as a promising candidate for the future design of antifungal drugs. PMID:26058322

  14. Translation elongation factor 1-? gene as a potential taxonomic and identification marker in dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Mirhendi, Hossein; Makimura, Koichi; de Hoog, G Sybren; Rezaei-Matehkolaei, Ali; Najafzadeh, Mohammad Javad; Umeda, Yoshiko; Ahmadi, Bahram

    2015-04-01

    Intra- and interspecies variations of the translation elongation factor 1-? (Tef-1?) gene were evaluated as a new identification marker in a wide range of dermatophytes, which included 167 strains of 30 species. An optimized pan-dermatophyte primer pair was designed, and the target was sequenced. Consensus sequences were used for multiple alignment and phylogenetic tree analysis and the levels of intra- and interspecific nucleotide polymorphism were assessed. Between species, the analyzed part of the Tef-1? gene varied in length from 709 to 769 nucleotides. Significant numbers of species including Trichophyton rubrum, T. tonsurans, T. schoenleinii, T. concentricum, T. violaceum, Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum ferrugineum, M. canis, M. audouinii, T. equinum, T. eriotrephon, and T. erinacei were invariant in Tef-1? and had sufficient barcoding distance with neighboring species. Although overall consistency was found between ITS phylogeny as the current molecular marker of dermatophytes and Tef-1?, a higher discriminatory power of Tef-1? appeared particularly useful in some clades of closely related species such as the A. vanbreuseghemii, T. rubrum, A. benhamiae, and A. otae complexes. Nevertheless, we stress that a single gene can not specify species borderlines among dermatophytes and multiple lines of evidence based on a multilocus inquiry may ascertain an incontrovertible evaluation of kinship. PMID:25550390

  15. The effect of microwave irradiation on the vitality of various dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Budihardja, Debby; Mayser, Peter

    2014-04-01

    Dermatomycosis is one of the most common dermatological infectious diseases. In recent years, the incidence of tinea pedum, a fungal infection of the feet, was increasing due to changing lifestyles. The risk of tinea pedum infections is associated with the use of sport shoes as well as contact with public sports facilities. Transmission of dermatomycosis occurs almost exclusively through indirect contacts, meaning that contagious material initially contaminates the patients' environment and subsequently facilitates the spread of infection to others. A suitable disinfection procedure for 'fungal reservoirs' is very important in order to reduce the risk of reinfection of tinea pedum. This study investigates the effect of microwave radiation on various dermatophytes- (Trichophyton rubrum, T. rubrum var. nigricans, T. interdigitale and Microsporum canis infected cork and polyethylene sponge shoe insoles. The contaminated insoles were irradiated with various intensities and durations of microwaves. In each case, 10 colonies on cork and polyethylene sponge insoles were irradiated with the same intensity and duration, and subsequently compared with those of corresponding non-irradiated control groups. Results of three independent experiments were statistically verified using Chi-squared test for significance. We found significant differences between the various dermatophytes on polyethylene sponge insoles and also partly on cork insoles for the same irradiation intensity and duration. We were also able to show that a complete growth inhibition of all four dermatophytes occurs on both types of insoles after a 30 s exposure at 560 W, including a maximum temperature of 60 °C. PMID:24612041

  16. An ancient plant Lawsonia inermis (henna): determination of in vitro antifungal activity against dermatophytes species.

    PubMed

    Gozubuyuk, G S; Aktas, E; Yigit, N

    2014-12-01

    World is endowed with a rich wealth of medicinal plants. There is a widespread belief that green medicines are healthier and more harmless or safer than synthetic ones. Medicinal plants have been used to cure a number of diseases. The ancient plant Lawsonia inermis or henna is used as medicinal plant because of its attributed strong fungicidal, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antibacterial, virucidal, antiparasitic, antiamoebiasis, astringent, antihemorrhagic, hypotensive, sedative, anticancer effect and possible anti-sweating properties. In this study, we investigated antifungal activity of L. inermis against clinical dermatophytes species. This study was carried out using 70 clinical isolates of dermatophytes representing six different species; 44 Trichophyton rubrum, 8 Trichophyton mentagrophytes, 6 Microsporum canis, 6 Trichophyton tonsurans, 4 Epidermophyton floccosum, and 2 Trichophyton violaceum. The antifungal activity of L. inermis (henna) was determined by agar diffusion method and henna was used as paste form. Henna paste showed the high antifungal activity against all dermatophytes species (20 to 50mm inhibition zone). PMID:25442917

  17. Evaluation of trace elements, oxidant/antioxidant status, vitamin C and ?-carotene in dogs with dermatophytosis.

    PubMed

    Beigh, S A; Soodan, J S; Singh, R; Khan, A M; Dar, M A

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine zinc, copper and iron levels, erythrocyte oxidant/antioxidant status, vitamin C and ?-carotene in dogs with dermatophytosis. A total of 23 dogs with clinically established diagnosis of dermatophytosis by trichogram and positive fungal culture and six dogs as control were included in this study. On cultural examination 52.17% fungal isolates were found to be Microsporum canis, 30.43% were Trichophyton mentagrophytes and 17.39% were M. gypseum. In comparison to healthy control, the dogs with dermatophytosis had significantly lower levels of zinc (P < 0.01), copper (P < 0.05), ?-carotene and vitamin C levels (P < 0.05) and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) (P < 0.05) and catalase (P < 0.01), whereas the iron (P < 0.05) and malondialdehyde (MDA) (P < 0.01) levels were significantly increased. On correlation analysis, SOD activity was observed to be positively correlated (P < 0.05) with zinc and copper in both healthy and dermatophytosis affected dogs. In dermatophytosis affected dogs the MDA levels were negatively correlated (P < 0.05) with iron, ?-carotene levels and the activities of antioxidant enzymes; SOD and catalase. Our results demonstrated that dermatophytosis in dogs is associated with significant alteration in oxidant/antioxidant balance and trace elements. It might be secondary consequence of dermatophytosis infection or contributing factor in its pathogenesis. PMID:24329950

  18. Antidermatophytic activity of hydroalcoholic extracts from Rosmarinus officinalis and Tetradenia riparia.

    PubMed

    Endo, E H; Costa, G M; Nakamura, T U; Nakamura, C V; Dias Filho, B P

    2015-12-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis and Tetradenia riparia are used in folk medicine for the treatment of disease, including infectious diseases and skin disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antifungal activity of hydroalcoholic extracts from R. officinalis and T. riparia against strains of Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes and Microsporum gypseum. Hydroalcoholic extracts prepared with dried leaves from R. officinalis, Psidium guajava and T. riparia were assayed against dermatophyte species by the microdilution technique and by microscopy. R. officinalis and T. riparia were the most active against dermatophytes, as determined from the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC), and were investigated further. Fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to investigate inhibition of hyphal growth by the two extracts, and showed a strong inhibition and an irregular growth pattern. Both extracts showed good action against dermatophytes, inhibiting fungal growth and causing alterations in their hyphae. Therefore, R. officinalis and T. riparia are potential sources of new compounds for the development of antifungal drugs. PMID:26603099

  19. Identification and characterisation of human pathogenic filamentous fungi and susceptibility to Thymus schimperi essential oil.

    PubMed

    Pagiotti, Rita; Angelini, Paola; Rubini, Andrea; Tirillini, Bruno; Granetti, Bruno; Venanzoni, Roberto

    2011-09-01

    Twenty-eight clinical fungal isolates were characterised by morphological (macro- and micro-features and growth response at 25, 30 and 37°C) and molecular (nuclear rDNA-internal transcriber spacer, calmodulin, cytochrome c oxidase 1 and the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II) analyses. The clinical fungal isolates were ascribed to the following taxa: Penicillium chrysogenum, Verticillium sp., Aspergillus tubingensis, Aspergillus minutus, Beauveria bassiana and Microsporum gypseum. In addition, in vitro susceptibility testing of the isolates to conventional antifungal agents and to two chemically well-defined chemotypes of Thymus schimperi essential oil was performed. Most of the isolates were resistant to amphotericin B (except A. minutus), and itraconazole, while terbinafine was quite active on these fungi. T. schimperi essential oil showed antifungal activity against all of the tested fungal isolates with minimal inhibitory concentration values similar or lower than those of terbinafine. Transmission electron microscopy analyses revealed that fungal growth inhibition by essential oil was accompanied by marked morphological and cytological changes. PMID:20633233

  20. Biologically active and thermally stable polymeric Schiff base and its metal polychelates: Their synthesis and spectral aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasool, Raza; Hasnain, Sumaiya

    2015-09-01

    New metal polychelates of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) obtained by the interaction of metal acetates with polymeric Schiff base containing formaldehyde and piperazine, have been investigated. Structural and spectroscopic properties have been evaluated by elemental analysis, FT-IR and 1H-NMR. Geometry of the chelated polymers was confirmed by magnetic susceptibility measurements, UV-Visible spectroscopy and Electron Spin Resonance. The molecular weight of the polymer was determined by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that metal polychelates were more thermally stable than their corresponding ligand. All compounds were screened for their antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, (bacteria) and Candida albicans, Microsporum canis, Cryptococcus neoformans (fungi) by agar well diffusion method. Interestingly, the polymeric Schiff base was found to be antimicrobial in nature but less effective as compared to the metal polychelates. On the basis of thermal and antimicrobial behavior, these polymers hold potential applications as thermally resistant antimicrobial and antifouling coating materials as well as antimicrobial packaging materials.

  1. Inactivation of human pathogenic dermatophytes by non-thermal plasma.

    PubMed

    Scholtz, Vladimír; Soušková, Hana; Hubka, Vit; Švarcová, Michaela; Julák, Jaroslav

    2015-12-01

    Non-thermal plasma (NTP) was tested as an in vitro deactivation method on four human pathogenic dermatophytes belonging to all ecological groups including anthropophilic Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale, zoophilic Arthroderma benhamiae, and geophilic Microsporum gypseum. The identification of all strains was confirmed by sequencing of ITS rDNA region (internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA). Dermatophyte spores were suspended in water or inoculated on agar plates and exposed to NTP generated by a positive or negative corona discharge, or cometary discharge. After 15min of exposure to NTP a significant decrease in the number of surviving spores in water suspensions was observed in all species. Complete spore inactivation and thus decontamination was observed in anthropophilic species after 25min of exposure. Similarly, a significant decrease in the number of surviving spores was observed after 10-15min of exposure to NTP on the surface of agar plates with full inhibition after 25min in all tested species except of M. gypseum. Although the sensitivity of dermatophytes to the action of NTP appears to be lower than that of bacteria and yeast, our results suggest that NTP has the potential to be used as an alternative treatment strategy for dermatophytosis and could be useful for surface decontamination in clinical practice. PMID:26427826

  2. Dermatomycoses: challenges and human immune responses.

    PubMed

    Zahur, Muzna; Afroz, Amber; Rashid, Umer; Khaliq, Saba

    2014-01-01

    The most prevalent skin infections are mainly caused by species of dermatophytes of the genera Trichophyton, Microsporum, and Epidermophyton that infect keratinized tissues and stratum corneum of skin and hair. Besides proteases with putative role of kinases and other enzymes, immune modulators are abundantly secreted during infection as well. The molecular mechanism used by the dermatophytes to infect and counteract the host immune response is not well understood. The defense against infections basically depends on the host's immune responses to metabolites of the fungi, virulence of the infecting strain or species and anatomical site of the infection. The two aspects of the immune system, the immediate hypersensitivity and delayed-type hypersensitivity against dermatophytes may be crucial to the progression and severity of skin infection. Management of the infection through species identification and molecular diagnostic techniques as well as use of novel targeted drugs in addition to conventional anti-fungal compounds is of great importance in dealing with disease onsets and outbreaks. Here we reviewed the fungal skin infections elucidating their biologic and immunologic characteristics. Reaction to fungal invasion by the infected epithelial tissue on the host side is also discussed. Moreover, determinants of protective immunity and treatment options are focused that could confer long-lasting resistance to infection. PMID:24818759

  3. Synthesis, antifungal and antibacterial activity of novel 1,2,4-triazole derivatives.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Deepa; Jain, D K

    2015-01-01

    A large number of 1,2,4-triazole-containing ring system have been incorporated into a wide variety of therapeutically interesting drug candidates including anti-inflammatory, central nervous system stimulants, antianxiety, and antimicrobial agents. To overcome the rapid development of drug resistance, new agents should preferably have chemical characteristics that clearly differ from those of existing agents. Thus led to the design and synthesize the new antimicrobial agents. A novel series of Schiff bases based on of 4-(benzylideneamino)-5-phenyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol scaffold was prepared by heating thiocarbohydrazide and substituted benzoic acid and subsequently, treating with substituted benzaldehydes. Seventeen derivatives were synthesized and were biologically screened for antifungal and antibacterial activity. The newly synthesized derivatives of triazole showed antifungal activity against fungal species, Microsporum gypseum; and antibacterial activity against bacterial species, Staphylococcus aureus. It was observed that none of the compounds tested showed positive results for fungi Candida albicans fungi Aspergillus niger, nor against bacterial strain Escherichia coli. Strong antifungal effects were obtained for the synthesized compounds against M. gypseum and were superior or comparable to standard drug ketoconazole. Similarly, all of the synthesized compounds exhibit strong antibacterial activity against S. aureus and were superior or comparable to standard drug streptomycin. It was found that among the triazole derivatives so synthesized, six of them, showed antifungal activity superior to ketoconazole while one of them, showed antibacterial activity superior to streptomycin. Thus, these can be the potential new molecule as an antimicrobial agent. PMID:26317080

  4. Evaluation of the In Vitro Antifungal Activity of Allicin

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Yasuo; Azuma, Keiz?

    1977-01-01

    Allicin was effective in vitro against Candida, Cryptococcus, Trichophyton, Epidermophyton, and Microsporum. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of allicin against these organisms were 3.13 to 6.25 ?g/ml by the agar dilution method and 1.57 to 6.25 ?g/ml by the broth dilution method, using Sabouraud glucose (SG) medium. However decreased activity was demonstrated against Aspergillus. The MIC of allicin against various pathogenic fungi was affected considerably by differences in the experimental conditions, e.g., incubation time, inoculum size, type of medium, and medium pH. The MIC of allicin against Candida, Cryptococcus, and Aspergillus remained constant after more than 3 days of incubation, and that against Dermatophytes remained constant after more than 10 days of incubation. Decreasing the inoculum size increased the susceptibility to allicin. The antifungal activity of allicin was stronger on SG agar medium with a pH of 5.6 than on the same medium with a pH of 6.0 or higher. By microscopical observation, allicin induced morphological abnormalities in hyphae of Trichophyton mentagrophytes Morita. Percent germination of spores of the Morita strain at 24 h in SG agar medium was greatly decreased with an allicin concentration of 3.13 ?g/ml, and the lethal dose for the spores was about four times higher than the fungistatic concentration. These results suggest that allicin inhibits both germination of spores and growth of hyphae. Images PMID:856026

  5. Antifungal and cytotoxic activities of Nannorrhops ritchiana roots extract.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Rehana; Mukhtar, Farah; Khan, Abida

    2014-01-01

    This atudy was designed to evaluate the antifungal and cytotoxic activities of the Nannorrhops ritchiana (Mazari Palm) 80% methanol extract (NR-M) and its four crude extracts i.e., petroleum ether (NR-A), dichloromethane (NR-B), ethyl acetate (NR-C) and butanol (NR-D). The antifungal activity was determined by agar tube dilution method against nine fungal strains; Aspergillus flavus, Trichophyton longifusis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Aspergillus flavus and Microsporum canis were susceptible to the extracts with percentage inhibition of (70-80%). Extracts exhibited significant and good antifungal activity against various fungal strains. The results were deduced by comparing with those for miconazole, amphotericin B and ketoconazole as standard drugs. The fractions of methanolic extract were assayed for their brine shrimp cytotoxic activity. They exhibited low toxicity with LC50 values ranging from 285.7 to 4350.75 ?g/mL at the concentration of obtained results warrant follow up through bioassay guided isolation of the active principles, future antiinfectious research. PMID:25362807

  6. Trichophyton species of Arthroderma benhamiae - a new infectious agent in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Nenoff, Pietro; Uhrlaß, Silke; Krüger, Constanze; Erhard, Marcel; Hipler, Uta-Christina; Seyfarth, Florian; Herrmann, Jürgen; Wetzig, Tino; Schroedl, Wieland; Gräser, Yvonne

    2014-07-01

    In Germany, infections due to the zoophilic dermatophyte Trichophyton (T.) species of Arthroderma benhamiae are being more frequently diagnosed. The source of infection of this emerging pathogen overlaps with that of the zoophilic species T. interdigitale. The most common source are guinea pigs. T. species of Arthroderma benhamiae causes inflammatory dermatophytosis in children and adolescents. In addition to tinea capitis, it may cause both tinea corporis, tinea manus and frequently tinea faciei. In Germany, T. species of Arthroderma benhamiae is a frequent zoophilic dermatophyte, which in regions is probably more frequent than Microsporum canis. The mycological identification of the isolates with their yellow stained colonies is based on their macroscopic and microscopic features. However, some exhibit colony features consistent with those of T. interdigitale. These strains only can be identified unambiguously by means of molecular techniques. Using detection methods such as PCR-ELISA or real-time PCR, the dermatophyte can be identified directly from clinical material. Sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of the ribosomal DNA has been approved as culture confirmation test for T. species of Arthroderma benhamiae. In addition, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS) is useful. Widespread dermatophytosis due to T. species of Arthroderma benhamiae, in particular of tinea capitis, requires oral antifungal agents. Terbinafine is most effective, alternatives are fluconazole and itraconazole. PMID:24981469

  7. Management of tinea capitis in childhood

    PubMed Central

    Bennassar, Antoni; Grimalt, Ramon

    2010-01-01

    Tinea capitis (TC) is a common dermatophyte infection affecting primarily prepubertal children. The causative pathogens belong to only two genera: Trichophyton and Microsporum. Although there is a great local variation in the epidemiology of TC worldwide, T. tonsurans is currently the most common cause of TC with M. canis second. Even though there is an emerging number of anthropophilic scalp infections, M. canis remains the predominant causative organism in many countries of the Mediterranean basin, the most important dermatophyte carriers being stray cats and dogs as well as pet puppies, kittens and rabbits. TC always requires systemic treatment because topical antifungal agents do not penetrate down to the deepest part of the hair follicle. Since the late 1950s, griseofulvin has been the gold standard for systemic therapy of TC. It is active against dermatophytes and has a long-term safety profile. The main disadvantage of griseofulvin is the long duration of treatment required which may lead to reduced compliance. The newer oral antifungal agents including terbinafine, itraconazole, ketokonazole, and fluconazole appear to have efficacy rates and potential adverse effects similar to those of griseofulvin in children with TC caused by Trichophyton species, while requiring a much shorter duration of treatment. They may, however, be more expensive. PMID:21437064

  8. Screening of selected medicinal plants for in vitro antidermatophytic activity.

    PubMed

    Kalaivanan, C; Chandrasekaran, M; Venkatesalu, V

    2013-12-01

    Different solvent extracts of leaves of Achyranthes aspera, Aegle marmelos, Cleistanthus collinus, Curcuma aromatica and Strychnos nux-vomica were screened against dermatophytes viz., Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, Microsporum gypseum, M. canis and Epidermophyton floccossum var. nigricans. The mean zones of inhibition were between 7.1 and 26.5mm. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC) were from 7.81 to 500 and from 15.62 to 1000?g/mL respectively. The highest mean zone of inhibition (26.5mm), the lowest MIC value (7.81?g/ml) and the lowest MFC (15.62?g/ml) were observed in ethyl acetate extract of A. aspera against T. rubrum. The standard antifungal drug ketoconazole (10?g/disc) was used as the positive control and mean zones of inhibition were from 23 to 29mm. Further separation of active principle from ethyl acetate extract of A. aspera is under progress. PMID:24135649

  9. Phytochemical Characterization, Antimicrobial Activity, and Antioxidant Potential of Equisetum hyemale L. (Equisetaceae) Extracts.

    PubMed

    de Queiroz, Geisiany M; Politi, Flávio A S; Rodrigues, Edvânio R; Souza-Moreira, Tatiana M; Moreira, Raquel R D; Cardoso, Cássia R P; Santos, Lourdes C; Pietro, Rosemeire C L R

    2015-07-01

    Equisetum hyemale species is considered a medicinal plant used in the form of infusions to combat infectious or inflammation diseases and also diuretic effects, presenting several compounds related to these actions. In previous studies different species of Equisetum showed several phenolic compounds. The objective of this study was, for the first time, based on phytochemistry analysis to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. The 70% ethanolic and methanolic extracts of E. hyemale were characterized by spectrophotometric and high-performance liquid chromatography with pulsed amperometric detector analyses, as well as its antioxidant potential based on the scavenger activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). In addition was verified the antimicrobial activity by broth microdilution technique against bacteria and fungi. The extracts showed phytochemical similarity, which demonstrated the presence of phenolic compounds, the scavenging activity for free radicals was about 30% and was observed better antifungal activity against dermatophyte fungi, with minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration of 0.62?mg/mL to Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum canis. The extracts exhibits great potential to therapeutic applications or product development, since both possess antifungal activity and antioxidant action associated with little difference in their phytochemical composition. PMID:25587637

  10. Metal based new triazoles: Their synthesis, characterization and antibacterial/antifungal activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumrra, Sajjad H.; Chohan, Zahid H.

    2012-12-01

    A series of new triazoles and their oxovanadium(IV) complexes have been synthesized, characterized and evaluated for antibacterial/antifungal properties. The new Schiff bases ligands (L1)-(L5) were prepared by the condensation reaction of 3,5-diamino-1,2,4-triazole with 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde, pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde, pyridine-2-carboxaldehyde, 2-acetyl pyridine and 2-methoxy benzaldehyde. The structures of the ligands have been established on the basis of their physical, spectral (IR, 1H and 13C NMR and mass spectrometry) and elemental analytical data. The prepared ligands were used to synthesize their oxovanadium(IV) complexes (1)-(5) which were also characterized by their physical, spectral and analytical data and proposed to have a square pyramidal geometry. The ligands and their complexes were screened for in vitro antibacterial activity against six bacterial species such as, Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis and for in vitro antifungal activity against six fungal strains, Trichophyton longifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani, and Candida glabrata. Cytotoxic nature of the compounds was also reported using brine shrimp bioassay method against Artemia salina.

  11. Design, spectral characterization and biological studies of transition metal(II) complexes with triazole Schiff bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanif, Muhammad; Chohan, Zahid H.

    2013-03-01

    A new series of three biologically active triazole derived Schiff base ligands L1-L3 have been synthesized in equimolar reaction of 3-amino-1H-1,2,4-triazole with pyrrol-2-carboxaldehyde, 4-bromo-thiophene-2-carboxaldehyde, and 5-iodo-2-hydroxy benzaldehyde. The prepared Schiff bases were used for further complex formation reaction with different metal elements like Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) as chlorides by using a molar ratio of ligand:metal as 2:1. The structure and bonding nature of all the compounds were identified by their physical, spectral and analytical data. All the metal(II) complexes possessed an octahedral geometry except the Cu(II) complexes which showed a distorted octahedral geometry. All the synthesized compounds, were studied for their in vitro antibacterial, and antifungal activities, against four Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi) and two Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) bacterial strains and against six fungal strains (Trichophyton longifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani and Candida glabrata) by using agar-well diffusion method. It has been shown that all the synthesized compounds showed moderate to significant antibacterial activity against one or more bacterial strains. In vitro Brine Shrimp bioassay was also carried out to investigate the cytotoxic properties of these compounds. The data also revealed that the metal complexes showed better activity than the ligands due to chelation/coordination.

  12. Inhibitory effect of linalool-rich essential oil from Lippia alba on the peptidase and keratinase activities of dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Costa, Danielle Cristina Machado; Vermelho, Alane Beatriz; Almeida, Catia Amancio; de Souza Dias, Edilma Paraguai; Cedrola, Sabrina Martins Lage; Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Alviano, Daniela Sales

    2014-02-01

    Abstract Lippia alba (Miller) N.E. Brown is an aromatic plant known locally as "Erva-cidreira-do-campo" that has great importance in Brazilian folk medicine. The aim of our study was to evaluate the antidermatophytic potential of linalool-rich essential oil (EO) from L. alba and analyze the ability of this EO to inhibit peptidase and keratinase activities, which are important virulence factors in dermatophytes. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of L. alba EO were 39, 156 and 312 µg/mL against Trichophyton rubrum, Epidermophyton floccosum and Microsporum gypseum, respectively. To evaluate the influence of L. alba EO on the proteolytic and keratinolytic activities of these dermatophytes, specific inhibitory assays were performed. The results indicated that linalool-rich EO from L. alba inhibited the activity of proteases and keratinases secreted from dermatophytes, and this inhibition could be a possible mechanism of action against dermatophytes. Due to the effective antidermatophytic activity of L. alba EO, further experiments should be performed to explore the potential of this linalool-rich EO as an alternative antifungal therapy. PMID:23323991

  13. Chemical and biological diversity in fourteen selections of four Ocimum species.

    PubMed

    Rao, Bhaskaruni R Rajeswara; Kotharia, Sushil K; Rajput, Dharmendra K; Patel, Rajendra P; Darokar, Mahendra P

    2011-11-01

    Biomass, essential oil yield, essential oil composition diversity, and antibacterial and antifungal activities of 14 selections of 4 Ocimum species [Ocimum basilicum L. (selections: T1-T10), O. gratissimum L. (selections: T11-T12), O. tenuiflorum L.f., syn. O. sanctum L. (selection: T13) and O. kilimandscharicum Baker ex. Guerke (selection: T14)] were investigated. O. basilicum selections T9 (methyl chavicol: 87.0%) and T10 {(Z)- and (E)-methyl cinnamate: 69.1%} produced higher biomass (67.8 and 56.7 t/ha) and oil (203.4 and 141.7 kg/ha) yields relative to 8 (T1-T8) linalool (up to 58.9%), or methyl chavicol (up to 61.8%) rich selections. O. gratissimum selection T12 (eugenol: 84.1%, 254.6 kg/ha oil yield) was significantly superior to T11 (62.1% eugenol and 18.4% camphor). O. tenuiflorum (T13, methyl eugenol: 72.5%) and O. kilimandscharicum (T14, camphor: 51.7%) produced 171.7 and 96.2 kg/ha essential oil, respectively. The essential oils exhibited broad spectrum antibacterial (against 5 Gram-positive and 7 Gram-negative bacteria) and antifungal (against 10 fungi) activities. The bacterial species Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, and Enterococcus faecalis, and the fungal species Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum gypseum, and Sporothrix schenckii were more sensitive to the essential oils. PMID:22224293

  14. Production and evaluation of antimycotic and antihepatitis C virus potential of fusant MERV6270 derived from mangrove endophytic fungi using novel substrates of agroindustrial wastes.

    PubMed

    El-Gendy, Mervat M A; El-Bondkly, Ahmed M A; Yahya, Shaymaa M M

    2014-12-01

    Among forty endophytic fungal isolates derived from the mangrove plant Avicennia marina, thirty-seven isolates (92.5 %) shown vary antimycotic activity against clinical Trichophyton, Microsporum, and Epidermophyton isolates. The hyperactive wild antagonistic strains Acremonium sp. MERV1 and Chaetomium sp. MERV7 were subjected to intergeneric protoplast fusion technique, and out of 20 fusants obtained, the fusant MERV6270 showed the highest antimycotic activity with the broadest spectrum against all dermatophytes under study. Solid-state fermentation (SSF) showed its superiority for antimycotic/antiviral metabolite production using cost-effective agroindustrial residues. Low-cost novel fermentation medium containing inexpensive substrate mixture of molokhia stalk, lemon peel, pomegranate peel, peanut peel (2:1:1:1) moistened with potato, and meat processing wastewaters (2:1, at moisture content of 60 %) provided a high antimycotic metabolite yield, 33.25 mg/gds, by the fusant MERV6270. The optimal parameters for antimycotic productivity under SSF were incubation period (4 days), incubation temperature (27.5-30 °C), initial pH (6), initial moisture level (60 %), substrate particle size (1.0 mm), and inoculum size (2?×?10(6) spores/gds), which elucidated antimycotic activity to 44.19 mg/gds. Interestingly, wild mangrove Acremonium sp. MERV1 and Chaetomium sp. MERV7 strains and their fusant MERV6270 showed significant inhibition of hepatitis C virus with viral knockdown percent of -82.48, -82.44, and -97.37 %, respectively, compared to the control (100 %), which open a new era in combat epidemic viral diseases. PMID:25234393

  15. NB-002, a Novel Nanoemulsion with Broad Antifungal Activity against Dermatophytes, Other Filamentous Fungi, and Candida albicans?

    PubMed Central

    Pannu, J.; McCarthy, A.; Martin, A.; Hamouda, T.; Ciotti, S.; Fothergill, A.; Sutcliffe, J.

    2009-01-01

    NB-002 is an oil-in-water emulsion designed for use for the treatment of skin, hair, and nail infections. The activity of NB-002 was compared to the activities of the available antifungal drugs against the major dermatophytes responsible for cutaneous infections, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Microsporum spp., as well as 12 other genera of filamentous fungi. NB-002 consistently displayed fungicidal activity against all dermatophytes. The comparator compounds were either fungistatic or fungicidal, and for some strain-drug combinations, tolerance was observed. Assessment of the development of spontaneous resistance to NB-002 in different dermatophyte species yielded few stably resistant mutants. For filamentous nondermatophyte fungi, the MIC range varied from 0.06 to 0.5 ?g/ml for Alternaria spp. to 2 to 8 ?g/ml for Paecilomyes spp. NB-002 had activity against both azole-susceptible and -resistant Candida albicans yeast isolates, with MIC90s of 2 ?g/ml, respectively, and minimum fungicidal concentrations at which 90% of isolates are inhibited of 4 and 8 ?g/ml, respectively. The kinetics of the fungicidal activity of NB-002 against T. rubrum isolates were compared to those of the other antifungal drugs. NB-002 killed both mycelia and microconidia even when the fungal forms were dormant or not actively growing. Electron micrographs of mycelia and spores treated with NB-002 showed the significant disruption of the fungal structure. The in vitro broad coverage of NB-002 against filamentous fungi, dermatophytes, and C. albicans, as well as its rapid fungicidal activity, warrants further investigations to ascertain if NB-002 would be useful for the treatment of cutaneous mycoses. PMID:19433562

  16. Antioxidant and anti-dermatophytic properties leaf and stem bark of Xylosma longifolium clos

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The present study was carried out to assess the phytochemical and anti-dermatophytic effect of the leaf and bark extracts of Xylosma longifolium Clos. The leaf and stem bark are used by the indigenous people of Manipur, India for treatment of skin diseases. Methods The leaves and stem barks of Xylosma longifolium were extracted using petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol respectively. The different extracts of each plant parts were tested for antioxidant activity using DPPH assay. The phenolic content was assayed using Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method. Each extracts was further analysed by RP-HPLC to quantify some individual flavonoid components. The anti-dermatophytic activity was evaluated both by agar diffusion method and micro wells dilution method against the Microsporum boullardii MTCC 6059, M. canis (MTCC 2820 and MTCC 32700), M. gypseum MTCC 2819, Trichophyton ajelloi MTCC 4878, T. rubrum (MTCC 296 and MTCC 3272). Results The free radical scavenging activity values were ranged from 0.7 to 1.41 mg/ml and 0.6 to 1.23 mg/ml, respectively for leaf and stem bark extracts. The amount of total phenolic contents of the extracts occurred in both leaf and bark in the range of 12 to 56.6 mg GAE/100 g and 16 to 58 mg GAE/100 g respectively. RP-HPLC analysis for flavonoids revealed the presence of two major flavonoid compounds, rutin and catechin. Kaempferol was in trace or absent. Methanol leaf extract showed significant low inhibitory effect against tested fungus Trichophyton ajelloi MTCC 4878 (0.140625 mg/ml) as the most sensitive. These finding suggest that the methanol leaf extract tested contain compounds with antimicrobial properties. Conclusion The results of our study may partially justify the folkloric uses on the plant studied and further provide an evidence that the leaf extract of Xylosma longifolium might be indeed a potential sources of antimicrobial agents. PMID:23819459

  17. Molecular Characterization and In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility of 316 Clinical Isolates of Dermatophytes in Iran.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Saham; Hedayati, Mohammad T; Zomorodian, Kamiar; Pakshir, Keyvan; Badali, Hamid; Rafiei, Abdollah; Ravandeh, Mostafa; Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba

    2016-02-01

    Dermatophytosis is a common mycotic infection of the skin, nail, and hair, associated with major public health concern worldwide. Various species of dermatophytes show significant differences in susceptibility to antifungals. Here, we present the antifungal susceptibility of a large collection of molecularly identified dermatophyte isolates obtained from tropical region of south of Iran. A total of 9485 patients clinically suspected to have cutaneous fungal infections were examined. Dermatophytosis was confirmed in 1502 cases by direct microscopy and culture. Three hundred and sixteen isolates recovered in culture were identified to species level using PCR sequencing of ITS region and RFLP. Tinea corporis was the most prevalent type of clinical manifestation (35.2 %), followed by tinea cruris (17 %), tinea capitis (12.8 %), tinea pedis (11.3 %), tinea manuum (11 %), tinea unguium (6.9 %), and tinea barbae (5.8 %). Trichophyton interdigitale was the most common isolate (49.36 %), followed by Trichophyton rubrum (18.98 %), Epidermophyton floccosum (13.29 %), Microsporum canis (9.17 %), Arthroderma benhamiae (T. anamorph of A. benhamiae; 5.38 %), and Trichophyton tonsurans (3.79 %). Overall, irrespective of the geographical region, terbinafine was the most potent antifungal against all isolates, with an MIC range of 0.002-0.25 ?g/mL, followed by itraconazole (0.004-0.5 ?g/mL), griseofulvin (0.125-8 ?g/mL), and fluconazole (4-128 ?g/mL). Analysis of our data revealed a significant increase in the frequency of A.benhamiae, which definitely warrants further investigation to explore source of this infection in south of Iran. Moreover, terbinafine was the most effective antifungal against all isolates, in vitro. PMID:26369643

  18. Antidermatophytic Activity of Pogostemon parviflorus Benth

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi-Nejad, Batool; Sadhu Deokule, Subhash

    2010-01-01

    In the developing countries of tropical regions, mycotic infections are common cause of skin diseases.The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of skin diseases including mycotic infections is an age-old practice in many parts of the world. The drugs used against dermatophytosis have several side effects, but limited efficacy. There is therefore a distinct need for discovery of new, safer and more effective antifungal agents. Medicinal plants used in traditional folk medicine may help us to overcome the growing problem of resistance to antifungal drugs and also their relative toxicity. In this study, in vitro antifungal activity of Pogostemon parviflorus leaf extracts were evaluated against three different genera of dermatophytes including Microsporum, Trichophyton and Epidermophyton, using the agar dilution method. Pogostemon parviflorus Benth. belongs to Labiatae family. The ethanolic extract of Pogostemon parviflorus leaf inhibited the growth of tested dermatophytes at different concentrations. The ethanolic extract of Pogostemon parviflorus leaf completely prevented the growth of tested dermatophytic species, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values between 2.5-10 mg/mL. The minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) values of this plant were also in the range of 2.5-10 mg/mL. Results of phytochemical screening tests indicated that the leaf of Pogostemon parviflorus contained saponins, reducing sugars, tannins, phenols and proteins, but it did not have any glycosides, anthraquinones, alkaloids or flavonoids. Results of High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) studies indicated that the ethyl acetate extract of Pogostemon parviflorus leaves included triterpenes, as 10 and 14 peaks of ultra violet (UV) absorption were observed in 254 nm and 366 nm, respectively. Hence, triterpenes may be responsible for antidermatophytic activity of this plant. PMID:24363738

  19. In Vitro Evaluation of Enzymatic and Antifungal Activities of Soil-Actinomycetes Isolates and Their Molecular Identification by PCR

    PubMed Central

    Keikha, Nasser; Ayatollahi Mousavi, Seyyed Amin; Nakhaei, Ali Reza; Yadegari, Mohammad Hossein; Shahidi Bonjar, Gholam Hossein; Amiri, Somayyeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Human cutaneous infection caused by a homogeneous group of keratinophilic fungi called dermatophytes. These fungi are the most common infectious agents in humans that are free of any population and geographic area. Microsporum canis is a cause of dermatophytosis (Tinea) in recent years in Iran and atypical strain has been isolated in Iran. Its cases occur sporadically due to M. canis transmission from puppies and cats to humans. Since this pathogenic dermatophyte is eukaryotes, chemical treatment with antifungal drugs may also affect host tissue cells. Objectives: The aim of the current study was to find a new antifungal agent of soil-Actinomycetes from Kerman province against M. canis and Actinomycete isolates were identified by PCR. Materials and Methods: A number of hundred Actinomycete isolated strains were evaluated from soil of Kerman province, for their antagonistic activity against the M. canis. M. canis of the Persian Type Culture Collection (PTCC) was obtained from the Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology (IROST). Electron microscope studies of these isolates were performed based on the physiological properties of these antagonists including lipase, amylase, protease and chitinase activities according to the relevant protocols and were identified using gene 16SrDNA. Results: In this study the most antagonist of Actinomycete isolates with antifungal activity against M. canis isolates of L1, D5, Ks1m, Km2, Kn1, Ks8 and Ks1 were shown in vitro. Electron microscopic studies showed that some fungal strains form spores, mycelia and spore chain. Nucleotide analysis showed that Ks8 had maximum homology (98%) to Streptomyces zaomyceticus strain xsd08149 and L1 displayed 100% homology to Streptomyces sp. HVG6 using 16SrDNA studies. Conclusions: Our findings showed that Streptomyces has antifungal effects against M. canis. PMID:26060560

  20. Inhibitory effect of silver nanoparticles mediated by atmospheric pressure air cold plasma jet against dermatophyte fungi.

    PubMed

    Ouf, Salama A; El-Adly, Amira A; Mohamed, Abdel-Aleam H

    2015-10-01

    In an in vitro study with five clinical isolates of dermatophytes, the MIC50 and MIC100 values of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) ranged from 5 to16 and from 15 to 32??g?ml-?1, respectively. The combined treatment of AgNPs with atmospheric pressure-air cold plasma (APACP) induced a drop in the MIC50 and MIC100 values of AgNPs reaching 3-11 and 12-23??g?ml-?1, respectively, according to the examined species. Epidermophyton floccosum was the most sensitive fungus to AgNPs, while Trichophyton rubrum was the most tolerant. AgNPs induced significant reduction in keratinase activity and an increase in the mycelium permeability that was greater when applied combined with plasma treatment. Scanning electron microscopy showed electroporation of the cell walls and the accumulation of AgNPs on the cell wall and inside the cells, particularly when AgNPs were combined with APACP treatment. An in vivo experiment with dermatophyte-inoculated guinea pigs indicated that the application of AgNPs combined with APACP was more efficacious in healing and suppressing disease symptoms of skin as compared with the application of AgNPs alone. The recovery from the infection reached 91.7?% in the case of Microsporum canis-inoculated guinea pigs treated with 13??g?ml-?1 AgNPs combined with APACP treatment delivered for 2?min. The emission spectra indicated that the efficacy of APACP was mainly due to generation of NO radicals and excited nitrogen molecules. These reactive species interact and block the activity of the fungal spores in vitro and in the skin lesions of the guinea pigs. The results achieved are promising compared with fluconazole as reference antifungal drug. PMID:26296782

  1. 2011 Epidemiological Survey of Dermatomycoses in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sei, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    An epidemiological survey of dermatomycoses and their causative fungus flora in Japan for 2011 was conducted in accordance with methods and criteria of the past four surveys. The survey covered a total number of 36,052 outpatients who visited 12 dermatological clinics throughout Japan. The results were as follows. 1?Dermatophytosis was the most prevalent cutaneous fungal infection (2,980 cases) seen in these clinics, followed by candidiasis (378 cases) and then Malassezia infections (152 cases). 2?Among dermatophytoses, tinea pedis was the most frequent (1,930 cases : male, 980 ; female, 950), then in decreasing order, tinea unguium (780 cases : male, 409 ; female, 371), tinea corporis (203 cases : male, 132 ; female, 71), tinea cruris (112 cases : male, 86 ; female, 26), tinea manuum (43 cases : male, 25 ; female, 18), and tinea capitis including kerion (16 cases : male, 13 ; female, 3). 3?Tinea pedis and tinea unguium were seen to increase in the summer season and occur mostly among the aged population. Compared to the last survey, by clinical form, there was a marked decrease in dermatophytosis patients. 4?As the causative dermatophyte species, Trichophyton rubrum was the most frequently isolated at about 80 % among all dermatophyte infections excluding tinea capitis. T. mentagrophytes was about 10 %. Microsporum canis was isolated in five cases. M. gypseum was isolated in three cases, and Epidermophyton floccosum was isolated in only one case. T. tonsurans was isolated in 13 cases. 5?Cutaneous candidiasis was seen in 378 cases (305, male ; 537, female). Intertrigo (298 cases) was the most frequent clinical form, followed by diaporcandidiasis (79 cases), erosion interdigitalis (62 cases), genital candidiasis (46 cases). 6?Tinea versicolor was seen in 97 cases. Malassezia folliculitis was isolated in 55 cases. PMID:26617109

  2. Mycology - an update. Part 1: Dermatomycoses: causative agents, epidemiology and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Nenoff, Pietro; Krüger, Constanze; Ginter-Hanselmayer, Gabriele; Tietz, Hans-Jürgen

    2014-03-01

    Dermatomycoses are caused most commonly by dermatophytes. The anthropophilic dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum is still the most frequent causative agent worldwide. Keratinolytic enzymes, e.g. hydrolases and keratinases, are important virulence factors of T. rubrum. Recently, the cysteine dioxygenase was found as new virulence factor. Predisposing host factors play a similarly important role for the development of dermatophytosis of the skin and nails. Chronic venous insufficiency, diabetes mellitus, disorders of cellular immunity, and genetic predisposition should be considered as risk factors for onychomycosis. A new alarming trend is the increasing number of cases of onychomycosis - mostly due to T. rubrum - in infancy. In Germany, tinea capitis is mostly caused by zoophilic dermatophytes, in particular Microsporum canis. New zoophilic fungi, primarily Trichophyton species of Arthroderma benhamiae, should be taken into differential diagnostic considerations of tinea capitis, tinea faciei, and tinea corporis. Source of infection are small household pets, particularly rodents, like guinea pigs. Anthropophilic dermatophytes may be introduced by families which immigrate from Africa or Asia to Europe. The anthropophilic dermatophytes T. violaceum, T. tonsurans (infections occurring in fighting sports clubs as "tinea gladiatorum capitis et corporis") and M. audouinii are causing outbreaks of small epidemics of tinea corporis and tinea capitis in kindergartens and schools. Superficial infections of the skin and mucous membranes due to yeasts are caused by Candida species. Also common are infections due to the lipophilic yeast fungus Malassezia. Today, within the genus Malassezia more than 10 different species are known. Malassezia globosa seems to play the crucial role in pityriasis versicolor. Molds (also designated non-dermatophyte molds, NDM) are increasingly found as causative agents in onychomycosis. Besides Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, several species of Fusarium and Aspergillus are found. PMID:24533779

  3. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight (MALDI-TOF) Mass Spectrometry Using the Vitek MS System for Rapid and Accurate Identification of Dermatophytes on Solid Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Monnin, Valérie; Girard, Victoria; Welker, Martin; Arsac, Maud; Celličre, Béatrice; Durand, Géraldine; Bosshard, Philipp P.; Farina, Claudio; Passera, Marco; Van Belkum, Alex; Petrini, Orlando; Tonolla, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research was to extend the Vitek MS fungal knowledge base version 2.0.0 to allow the robust identification of clinically relevant dermatophytes, using a variety of strains, incubation times, and growth conditions. First, we established a quick and reliable method for sample preparation to obtain a reliable and reproducible identification independently of the growth conditions. The Vitek MS V2.0.0 fungal knowledge base was then expanded using 134 well-characterized strains belonging to 17 species in the genera Epidermophyton, Microsporum, and Trichophyton. Cluster analysis based on mass spectrum similarity indicated good species discrimination independently of the culture conditions. We achieved a good separation of the subpopulations of the Trichophyton anamorph of Arthroderma benhamiae and of anthropophilic and zoophilic strains of Trichophyton interdigitale. Overall, the 1,130 mass spectra obtained for dermatophytes gave an estimated identification performance of 98.4%. The expanded fungal knowledge base was then validated using 131 clinical isolates of dermatophytes belonging to 13 taxa. For 8 taxa all strains were correctly identified, and for 3 the rate of successful identification was >90%; 75% (6/8) of the M. gypseum strains were correctly identified, whereas only 47% (18/38) of the African T. rubrum population (also called T. soudanense) were recognized accurately, with a large quantity of strains misidentified as T. violaceum, demonstrating the close relationship of these two taxa. The method of sample preparation was fast and efficient and the expanded Vitek MS fungal knowledge base reliable and robust, allowing reproducible dermatophyte identifications in the routine laboratory. PMID:25297329

  4. Identification of Dermatophytes by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis of Metalloproteinase-1

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ho Jung; Kim, Soo Young; Jung, Jae Wook; Park, Hyun Jung; Lee, Yang Won; Choe, Yong Beom

    2014-01-01

    Background Transgenic research on metalloproteinase-1 is an emerging field in the area of plant molecular biology. The new method reported here can similarly be applied in fungal molecular biology to identify different dermatophytes. Our method is more accurate than traditional methods such as molecular analyses. Objective To identify Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes, T. tonsurans, T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale, Microsporum canis and M. gypseum, by using the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect polymorphisms in the metalloproteinase-1 gene (MEP1). Methods From each fungal strain, we isolated genomic DNA and performed PCR to amplify the region coding for metalloproteinase-1. Primers for the metalloproteinase-1 gene were designed based on the sequence in NCBI GenBank. Subsequently, we purified the amplified PCR product and performed RFLP analysis. After restriction enzyme digestion, BsrDI (NEB, England), the samples were subjected to electrophoresis. Four different patterns of DNA fragments were observed among 6 fungal species. Results The DNA fragments for T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes, T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale and T. tonsurans showed similar patterns on electrophoresis and were not distinguishable, whereas T. rubrum, M. canis, and M. gypseum showed different patterns. Conclusion To our knowledge, it is the first study to introduce the analysis of the nucleotide sequence of metalloproteinase-1 enzyme to study differentiation in dermatophytes. Based on our results, more accurate differentiation and subtyping of T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale might be possible. This might contribute to better understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of dermatophyte. PMID:24966633

  5. Acyclic sesquiterpenes released by Candida albicans inhibit growth of dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Brasch, Jochen; Horter, Felix; Fritsch, Daniel; Beck-Jendroschek, Vera; Tröger, Armin; Francke, Wittko

    2014-01-01

    It is unresolved as to whether fungi that share a common skin habitat might in principal interact. In in vitro screening tests with Candida albicans, Trichophytum rubrum and other common dermatophytes, we found C. albicans releases volatile compounds that inhibit growth of the dermatophytes. By applying (enantioselective) gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry we identified 8 compounds among which stereochemically pure (3R,6E)-2,3-dihydrofarnesol (R-DHF) and (2E,6E)-farnesol (F-ol) were the main components. Synthetic R-DHF and its enantiomer, (3S,6E)-2,3-dihydrofarnesol (S-DHF), as well as F-ol were tested for their capacity to inhibit growth of dermatophytes in microtiter-plate assays over 62 h. All three compounds showed significant and concentration-dependent, to a certain extent even species-specific, inhibitory effects on T. rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis and Epidermophyton floccosum. In general, S-DHF and F-ol had a pronounced effect on the dermatophytes, similar to or even stronger than that of fluconazole. E. floccosum was completely suppressed by 12.5??g/ml dihydrofarnesol, as was the inhibition caused by 50??g/ml fluconazole. Similarly, S-DHF- was more active against T. rubrum than fluconazole. To the best of our knowledge, 2,3-dihydrofarnesol has not yet been described as a volatile generated by microorganisms, and its inhibitory effect on dermatophytes is new to science. However, the relevance of this compound in interfungal interference in situ is unknown. In contrast, farnesol is a well-known semiochemical of C. albicans with intraspecific effects and a clear impact on other microorganisms. Mutual intermicrobial communication based on fungal volatiles therefore appears to be an exciting field for future investigations. PMID:23902158

  6. Fungal microbiota from ocular conjuctiva of clinically healthy horses belonging to the military police cavalry of alagoas

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, Maria Evódia; Araújo, Maria Anilda dos Santos; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido; Porto, Wagnner José Nascimento; Souza, Aryanna Kelly Pinheiro; dos Santos, Josimeire Lima; da Silva, Patrícia Paes

    2011-01-01

    Normal fungal conjunctiva microbiota of horses remains stable in healthy animals, free from ocular and/or systemic diseases which may, eventually, cause ocular alterations. The knowledge of the fungal microbiota is of great importance due to the reduced number of studies reported in the literature and also to the large occurrence of ocular alterations, mainly keratomycosis, in these animals. The aim of this study was to isolate and to identify the fungi present in the ocular conjunctiva of healthy horses belonging to the Military Police Cavalry of Alagoas. Samples from both conjunctival sacks from 50 horses were taken using a sterile swab and submitted to fungal cultures. These samples were seeded by radial spreading of the swabs on the Sabouraud agar surface with chloramphenicol, at a concentration of 50mg/L, in Petri dishes. Next, dishes were incubated at room temperature (± 28°C) for 15 days. Horses conjunctival fungal microbiota was found to be composed by Aspergillus spp. (62%), Microsporum gypseum (6%), Penicillium spp. (6%), Curvularia spp. (5%), Candida spp. (3%), Fusarium spp. (3%), Acremonium spp. (2%), Bipolaris sp. (1%), Cladosporium sp. (1%), Chrysosporium sp. (1%), Rhodotorula sp. (1%), Aureobasidium sp. (1%) and Scopulariopsis sp. (1%). There is a wide variety of yeast-like and filamentous fungi colonizing the clinically healthy horses’ ocular conjunctiva, out of which Aspergillus sp. is predominant. Although this was a straightforward study and have not recorded any ocular lesions that suggest fungi infections, these fungi might eventually be involved in this type of ocular pathology for the studied species. PMID:24031735

  7. Infectious diseases in large-scale cat hoarding investigations.

    PubMed

    Polak, K C; Levy, J K; Crawford, P C; Leutenegger, C M; Moriello, K A

    2014-08-01

    Animal hoarders accumulate animals in over-crowded conditions without adequate nutrition, sanitation, and veterinary care. As a result, animals rescued from hoarding frequently have a variety of medical conditions including respiratory infections, gastrointestinal disease, parasitism, malnutrition, and other evidence of neglect. The purpose of this study was to characterize the infectious diseases carried by clinically affected cats and to determine the prevalence of retroviral infections among cats in large-scale cat hoarding investigations. Records were reviewed retrospectively from four large-scale seizures of cats from failed sanctuaries from November 2009 through March 2012. The number of cats seized in each case ranged from 387 to 697. Cats were screened for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in all four cases and for dermatophytosis in one case. A subset of cats exhibiting signs of upper respiratory disease or diarrhea had been tested for infections by PCR and fecal flotation for treatment planning. Mycoplasma felis (78%), calicivirus (78%), and Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (55%) were the most common respiratory infections. Feline enteric coronavirus (88%), Giardia (56%), Clostridium perfringens (49%), and Tritrichomonas foetus (39%) were most common in cats with diarrhea. The seroprevalence of FeLV and FIV were 8% and 8%, respectively. In the one case in which cats with lesions suspicious for dermatophytosis were cultured for Microsporum canis, 69/76 lesional cats were culture-positive; of these, half were believed to be truly infected and half were believed to be fomite carriers. Cats from large-scale hoarding cases had high risk for enteric and respiratory infections, retroviruses, and dermatophytosis. Case responders should be prepared for mass treatment of infectious diseases and should implement protocols to prevent transmission of feline or zoonotic infections during the emergency response and when transferring the rescued cats to other shelters or to adopters. PMID:24934262

  8. Frequency of yeasts and dermatophytes from healthy and diseased dogs.

    PubMed

    Prado, Marilena R; Brilhante, Raimunda S N; Cordeiro, Rossana A; Monteiro, André J; Sidrim, José J C; Rocha, Marcos F G

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of dermatophytes and yeasts in healthy and diseased dogs. A total of 633 samples were collected from 26 healthy animals (104 samples), 131 with dermatitis (343 samples), 74 with otitis (148 samples), and 19 with ocular diseases (38 samples). Cultures from healthy animals were positive for Malassezia pachydermatis in 13.5% (7/52) of samples from skin, 42.3% (11/26) from ear, and 3.8% (1/26) from eye. Fungal growth was observed in 20.4% (70/343) samples from animals with dermatitis. Microsporum canis was the most isolated fungus (n = 39), followed by M. pachydermatis (n = 30) and Malassezia sp. (n = 3). Of the 148 samples from dogs with otitis, 90 (60.8%) were positive for M. pachydermatis, and of the clinical specimens from the conjunctiva of animals with ophthalmic disease, 2.6% (1/38) presented positive cultures for M. pachydermatis. Only 14.3% (2/14) of the positive cultures for M. pachydermatis and 40.9% (9/22) of those for M. canis were positive in the direct exam. Direct exams were positive in 84.3% (70/83) of the culture positive samples from affected ears of dogs with otitis. Malassezia pachydermatis may act as an aggravating factor in the occurrence of cutaneous diseases, or the isolation of M. canis may be associated with the onset of dermatophytosis. Fungal culture, rather than microscopic examination, should be used as the definitive diagnostic test for dermatomycoses and otitis. PMID:18319432

  9. The dermatophytes.

    PubMed Central

    Weitzman, I; Summerbell, R C

    1995-01-01

    The etiologic agents of the dermatophytoses (ringworm) are classified in three anamorphic (asexual or imperfect) genera, Epidermophyton, Microsporum, and Trichophyton. Species capable of reproducing sexually belong in the teleomorphic genus, Arthroderma, of the Ascomycota. On the basis of primary habitat association, they may be grouped as geophilic (soil associated), zoophilic, and anthropophilic. Adaptation to growth on humans by most geophilic species resulted in diminished loss of sporulation, sexuality, and other soil-associated characteristics. The dermatophytes have the ability to invade keratinized tissue (skin, hair, and nails) but are usually restricted to the nonliving cornified layer of the epidermis because of their inability to penetrate viable tissue of an immunocompetent host. However, invasion does elicit a host response ranging from mild to severe. Acid proteinases, elastase, keratinases, and other proteinases reportedly act as virulence factors. The development of cell-mediated immunity correlated with delayed hypersensitivity and an inflammatory response is associated with clinical cure, whereas the lack of or a defective cell-mediated immunity predisposes the host to chronic or recurrent dermatophyte infection. Chronic dermatophytosis is mostly caused by Trichophyton rubrum, and there is some evidence that mannan produced by this fungus suppresses or diminishes the inflammatory response. Since dermatophytes cause a communicable disease, modes of transmission and control are discussed as well as a survey of recent trends in therapy. Collection of specimens, culture media, and tests for identification are also presented. Genetic studies have led to an understanding of incompatibility mechanisms, pleomorphism and variation, resistance to griseofulvin, and virulence. Molecular biology has contributed to our knowledge of the taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of dermatophytes. PMID:7621400

  10. Comparison of In Vitro Antifungal Activities of Efinaconazole and Currently Available Antifungal Agents against a Variety of Pathogenic Fungi Associated with Onychomycosis

    PubMed Central

    Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki; Senda, Hisato; Pillai, Radhakrishnan; Nakamura, Takashi; Sone, Daisuke; Fothergill, Annette

    2013-01-01

    Onychomycosis is a common fungal nail infection in adults that is difficult to treat. The in vitro antifungal activity of efinaconazole, a novel triazole antifungal, was evaluated in recent clinical isolates of Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Candida albicans, common causative onychomycosis pathogens. In a comprehensive survey of 1,493 isolates, efinaconazole MICs against T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes ranged from ?0.002 to 0.06 ?g/ml, with 90% of isolates inhibited (MIC90) at 0.008 and 0.015 ?g/ml, respectively. Efinaconazole MICs against 105 C. albicans isolates ranged from ?0.0005 to >0.25 ?g/ml, with 50% of isolates inhibited (MIC50) by 0.001 and 0.004 ?g/ml at 24 and 48 h, respectively. Efinaconazole potency against these organisms was similar to or greater than those of antifungal drugs currently used in onychomycosis, including amorolfine, ciclopirox, itraconazole, and terbinafine. In 13 T. rubrum toenail isolates from onychomycosis patients who were treated daily with topical efinaconazole for 48 weeks, there were no apparent increases in susceptibility, suggesting low potential for dermatophytes to develop resistance to efinaconazole. The activity of efinaconazole was further evaluated in another 8 dermatophyte, 15 nondermatophyte, and 10 yeast species (a total of 109 isolates from research repositories). Efinaconazole was active against Trichophyton, Microsporum, Epidermophyton, Acremonium, Fusarium, Paecilomyces, Pseudallescheria, Scopulariopsis, Aspergillus, Cryptococcus, Trichosporon, and Candida and compared favorably to other antifungal drugs. In conclusion, efinaconazole is a potent antifungal with a broad spectrum of activity that may have clinical applications in onychomycosis and other mycoses. PMID:23318803

  11. Derivatives of phosphate Schiff base transition metal complexes: synthesis, studies and biological activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Wahab, Z. H. Abd; El-Sarrag, M. R.

    2004-01-01

    We report the synthesis and structural characterization of series of tetra- and hexacoordinate metal chelate complexes of phosphate Schiff base ligands having the general composition LMX n·H 2O and L 2MX n (L=phosphate Schiff base ligand; M=Ag +, Mn 2+, Cu 2+, Zn 2+, Cd 2+, Hg 2+, or Fe 3+ and X=NO 3-, Br - or Cl -). The structure of the prepared compounds was investigated using elemental analysis, IR, 1H and 31P NMR, UV-vis, mass spectra, solid reflectance, magnetic susceptibility and conductance measurements as well as conductometric titration. In all the complexes studied, the ligands act as a chelate ligand with coordination involving the phosphate?O-atom and the azomethine?N-atom. IR, solid reflectance spectra and magnetic moment measurement are used to infer the structure and to illustrate the coordination capacity of ligand. IR spectra show the presence of coordinated nitrate and water molecule, the magnetic moments of all complexes show normal magnetic behavior and the electronic spectra of the metal complexes indicate a tetra- and octahedral structure for Mn 2+, octahedral structure of Fe 3+ and both square-planar and distorted octahedral structure for Cu 2+ complexes. Antimicrobial activity of the ligands and their complexes were tested using the disc diffusion method and the chosen strains include Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aereuguinosa, Klebsiella penumoniae, Escherichia coli, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophyte and Trichophyton rubrum. Some known antibiotics are included for the sake of comparison and the chosen antibiotic are Amikacin, Doxycllin, Augmantin, Sulperazon, Unasyn, Septrin, Cefobid, Ampicillin, Nitrofurantion, Traivid and Erythromycin.

  12. Dermatology for the practicing allergist: Tinea pedis and its complications

    PubMed Central

    Al Hasan, Muhannad; Fitzgerald, S Matthew; Saoudian, Mahnaz; Krishnaswamy, Guha

    2004-01-01

    Tinea pedis is a chronic fungal infection of the feet, very often observed in patients who are immuno-suppressed or have diabetes mellitus. The practicing allergist may be called upon to treat this disease for various reasons. Sometimes tinea infection may be mistaken for atopic dermatitis or allergic eczema. In other patients, tinea pedis may complicate allergy and asthma and may contribute to refractory atopic disease. Patients with recurrent cellulitis may be referred to the allergist/immunologist for an immune evaluation and discovered to have tinea pedis as a predisposing factor. From a molecular standpoint, superficial fungal infections may induce a type2 T helper cell response (Th2) that can aggravate atopy. Th2 cytokines may induce eosinophil recruitment and immunoglobulin E (IgE) class switching by B cells, thereby leading to exacerbation of atopic conditions. Three groups of fungal pathogens, referred to as dermatophytes, have been shown to cause tinea pedis: Trychophyton sp, Epidermophyton sp, and Microsporum sp. The disease manifests as a pruritic, erythematous, scaly eruption on the foot and depending on its location, three variants have been described: interdigital type, moccasin type, and vesiculobullous type. Tinea pedis may be associated with recurrent cellulitis, as the fungal pathogens provide a portal for bacterial invasion of subcutaneous tissues. In some cases of refractory asthma, treatment of the associated tinea pedis infection may induce remission in airway disease. Very often, protracted topical and/or oral antifungal agents are required to treat this often frustrating and morbid disease. An evaluation for underlying immuno-suppression or diabetes may be indicated in patients with refractory disease. PMID:15050029

  13. Antidermatophytic and Toxicological Evaluations of Dichloromethane-Methanol Extract, Fractions and Compounds Isolated from Coula edulis

    PubMed Central

    Tamokou, Jean De Dieu; Kuiate, Jules Roger; Gatsing, Donatien; Efouet, Alango Pépin Nken; Njouendou, Abdel Jélil

    2011-01-01

    Background: Coula edulis Bail (Olacaceae), is an evergreen tree growing to a height of 25. This study aimed at evaluating the antidermatophytic and toxicological properties of the stem bark of C. edulis extract as well as fractions and compounds isolated from it. Methods: The plant extract was prepared by maceration in CH2Cl2-MeOH (1:1 v/v). The fractionation of this extract was done by silica gel column chromatography. Antidermatophytic activities were assayed using agar dilution method. The acute and sub-acute toxicities of oral administrations of the extract were studied in rodents. Results: The crude extract of C. edulis displayed antidermatophytic activity against the tested microorganisms with highest activity against Microsporum audouinii and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The fractionation enhanced the antidermatophytic activity in fraction F3 (MIC=0.62-1.25 mg/ml) compared to the crude extract (MIC=1.25-5 mg/ml). Further fractionation and purification of the fractions F2 and F3 gave respectively 3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside of sitosterol (MIC=0.20-0.40 mg/ml) and a mixture of ?-sitosterol, stigmasterol and n-hexadecanoid acid (MIC=0.80 mg/ml). The median lethal doses (LD50) of the crude extract were 16.8 and 19.6 g/kg body weight (BW) in male and female mice, respectively. At 200 mg/kg BW, there was a decrease in body weight gain, food and water consumptions. Gross anatomical analysis revealed white vesicles on the liver of the rats treated with the extract at 200 mg/kg BW. This dose also induced significant (P<0.05) changes on hematological and biochemical parameters in rats after 28 days of treatment. Conclusion: These data suggest that the CH2Cl2-MeOH (1:1 v/v) extract of C. edulis stem bark possesses antidermatophytic properties. They also show that at high doses (? 200 mg/kg BW), the extract has significant hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic activities. PMID:23357938

  14. Investigation of In Vitro Activity of Five Antifungal Drugs against Dermatophytes Species Isolated from Clinical Samples Using the E-Test Method

    PubMed Central

    Aktas, Ayse Esin; Yigit, Nimet; Aktas, Akin; Gozubuyuk, Sultan Gamze

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Dermatomycosis is an infection with fungi related to the skin: glabrous skin, hair and/or nails. Oral treatment of fungal infections in dermatology has become a preferred modality for the management of these very common conditions. Although there are increasing numbers of antifungals available for treatment of dermatophytes, some cases and relapses have been unresponsive to treatment. The determination of fungus in-vitro antifungal susceptibility has been reported to be important for the ability to eradicate dermatophytes. It is necessary to perform antifungal susceptibility testing of dermatophytes. E-test (AB Biodisk, Sweden) is a rapid, easy-to-perform in-vitro antifungal susceptibility test. The aim of this study was to investigate the susceptibility of the different species of dermatophyte strains isolated clinical specimens to five antifungal agents using the E-test method. Materials and Methods: A total of 66 specimens were collected from the nails, feet, inguinal region, trunk and hands. These strains tested MIC endpoints of E-test for amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, caspofungin, and ketoconazole were read after 72, and 96 hours incubation for each strain on RPMI 1640 agar. Results: The dermatophytes tested included Trichophyton rubrum 43 (65.1%), Trichophyton mentagrophytes 7 (10.7%), Microsporum canis 5 (7.6%), Trichophyton tonsurans 5 (7.6%), Epidermophyton floccosum 4 (6.0%) and Trichophyton violaceum 2 (3.0%). The most active agent against all dermatophytes species was caspofungin with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) range (?g/mL?1) (0.02–3, 0.032–4, 0.125–0.50, 0.032–2, 0.25–0.50, 0.125–0.50) and it raconazole with an MIC range (?g/mL?1) (0.038–1.5, 0.094–1.5, 1–32, 0.016–0.50, 0.25–0.50, 0.125–0.50). The least active agent was fluconazole with an MIC range (?g/mL?1) (0, 19–48, 2–256, 2–8, 256, 256, 8–24). Conclusion: E-test seems to be an alternative method to MIC-determination of antifungal drugs for dermatophytes species, since it is a less-laborious methodology and results could be obtained faster. PMID:25610290

  15. Hemolytic activity of dermatophytes species isolated from clinical specimens.

    PubMed

    Aktas, E; Y?g?t, N

    2015-03-01

    Hemolytic activity was recently reported for several pathogenic fungal species, such as Aspergillus, Candida, Trichophyton, Penicillium and Fusarium. Based on a number of mechanistic and characterization studies, several fungal hemolysins have been proposed as virulence factors. Hemolysins lyse red blood cells resulting in the release of iron, an important growth factor for microbes especially during infection. The requirement of iron in fungal growth is necessary for metabolic processes and as a catalyst for various biochemical processes. Expression of a hemolytic protein with capabilities to lyse red blood cells has also been suggested to provide a survival strategy for fungi during opportunistic infections. The aims of this study were to investigate the hemolytic activities of dermatophytes species isolated from patients with dermatophytosis. Hair, skin and nail samples of patients were examined with direct microscopy using potassium hydroxide and cultivated on Mycobiotic agar and Sabouraud's dextrose agar. To determine hemolytic activities of dermatophytes species, they were subcultured on Columbia Agar with 5% sheep blood and incubated for 7-14 days at 25°C in aerobic conditions. Media which displayed hemolysis were further incubated for 1-5 days at 37°C to increase hemolytic activity. In this study, 66 dermatophytes strains were isolated from clinical specimens and were identified by six different species: 43 (65.1%) Trichophyton rubrum, 7 (10.7%) Trichophyton mentagrophytes, 5 (7.6%) Microsporum canis, 5 (7.6%) Trichophyton tonsurans, 4 (6.0%) Epidermophyton floccosum and 2 (3.0%) Trichophyton violaceum. Twenty-one T. rubrum strains showed incomplete (alpha) hemolysis and nine T. rubrum strains showed complete (beta) hemolysis, whereas hemolysis was absent in 13 T. rubrum strains. Four T. mentagrophytes strains showed complete hemolysis and three T. tonsurans strains showed incomplete hemolysis. However, M. canis, E. floccosum and T. violaceum species had no hemolytic activity. Hemolytic activity is pronounced in dermatophytes and may play an important role as a virulence factor. Hemolysins produced may play an important role in the balance between the host's cellular immunity and the ability of the fungus to diminish the immune response. PMID:25467819

  16. Clinical features of 80 cases of tinea faciei treated at a rural clinic in Japan.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Hiromitsu; Jinnin, Masatoshi; Miyata, Keishi; Hiruma, Masataro; Ihn, Hironobu

    2014-12-01

    From March 2008 through February 2014, 80 patients aged 1-95 years (43 men and 37 women) were diagnosed with tinea faciei by a rural Japanese clinic. The affected sites were the cheek in 42 patients (52.5%), the auricles and area surrounding the auricles in 16 (20.0%), and the mandible in 12 (15.0%); 33 patients (41.2%) had concurrent ringworm in areas other than the face. Twenty-one patients (26.3%) had applied topical steroids to treat a rash. The pathogen responsible for tinea faciei was Trichophyton rubrum in 35 patients (43.7%), T. tonsurans in 19 (23.8%), T. mentagrophytes in 3 (3.8%), T. verrucosum in 2 (2.5%), T. violaceum in 2 (2.5%), Microsporum canis in 17 (21.3%), and M. gypseum in 2 (2.5%). Clinical symptoms were divided into three groups based on the severity of inflammation and the extent of lesions and scored in points. Anthropophilic dermatophytes resulted in a score of 1.82 points for the severity of inflammation and a score of 1.84 points for the extent of lesions while zoophilic dermatophytes resulted in a score of 2.14 points for the severity of inflammation and a score of 1.50 points for the extent of lesions. This indicates that anthropophilic fungi resulted in less inflammation and broader lesions, whereas zoophilic fungi resulted in more intense inflammation and smaller lesions. Patients who had applied topical steroids had a mean score of 1.90 points for the severity of inflammation and a mean score of 2.10 points for the extent of lesions. Patients who had not applied topical steroids had a mean score of 1.95 points for the severity of inflammation and a mean score of 1.59 points for the extent of lesions. The severity of inflammation did not differ significantly. However, lesions were significantly broader in patients who had applied topical steroids than in those who had not applied topical steroids (p < 0.04). The severity of tinea faciei is a useful index for the clinical diagnosis of tinea faciei. PMID:25639303

  17. Use of Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism to Rapidly Identify Dermatophyte Species Related to Dermatophytosis

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Rasoul; Abastabar, Mahdi; Mirhendi, Hossein; Badali, Hamid; Shadzi, Shahla; Chadeganipour, Mustafa; Pourfathi, Parinaz; Jalalizand, Niloufar; Haghani, Iman

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dermatophytes are a group of keratinophilic fungi worldwide, which can infect the skin, hair and nails of humans and animals. This genus includes several species that present different features of dermatophytosis. Although, laboratory diagnosis of dermatophytes is based on direct microscopy, biochemical tests and culture, these manners are expensive, time consuming and need skilled staff. Therefore, molecular methods like PCR-RFLP are the beneficial tools for identification, which are rapid and sensitive. Thus, dermatophyte species are able to generate characteristic band patterns on agarose gel electrophoresis using PCR-RFLP technique, which leads to successful identification at the species level within a 5-hour period. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to study inter- and intraspecific genomic variations for identification of clinically important dermatophyte species obtained from clinical specimens in Isfahan, Iran using PCR-RFLP. Materials and Methods: From March 2011 to August 2012, 135 clinical isolates were collected from infected patients at Isfahan, Iran. ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of rDNA was amplified using universal fungal primers. Subsequently, amplified products were digested by the MvaI restriction enzyme. Using discriminating band profiles on agarose gel, dermatophyte species were identified. However, DNA sequencing was used for unidentifiable strains. Results: The specimens were obtained from skin scrapings (70.3%), nail (24.4%) and hair (5.1%) clippings. Most patients were between 21 - 30 years and the ratio of male to female was 93/42. Trichophyton interdigitale was the commonest isolate (52.5%) in our findings, followed by Epidermophyton floccosum (24.4%), T. rubrum (16.2%), Microsporum canis (2.2%), T. erinacei (1.4%), T. violaceum (1.4%), T. tonsurans (0.7%) and M. gypseum (0.7%) based on PCR-RFLP. Conclusions: Combination of traditional methods and molecular techniques considerably improves identification of dermatophytes in the species level in clinical laboratories, which can lead to properly antifungal therapy and successful management of infections. However, restriction and specificity and sensitivity should be lowered and increased, respectively, to be useful for a wide variety of clinical applications. PMID:26301058

  18. Solid lipid nanoparticles containing copaiba oil and allantoin: development and role of nanoencapsulation on the antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Svetlichny, G; Külkamp-Guerreiro, I C; Cunha, S L; Silva, F E K; Bueno, K; Pohlmann, A R; Fuentefria, A M; Guterres, S S

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this work was to develop solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) containing copaiba oil with and without allantoin (NCOA, NCO, respectively) and to evaluate their antifungal activity. Nanoparticle suspensions were prepared using a high homogenisation technique and characterised by dynamic light scattering, laser diffraction, nanoparticle tracking analysis, multiple light scattering analysis, high-pressure liquid chromatography, pH and rheology. The antifungal activities of the formulations were tested in vitro against the emergent yeasts Candida krusei and Candida parapsilosis, and the fungal pathogens of human skin Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum canis. The dynamic light scattering analysis showed z-average diameters (intensity) between 118.63 ± 8.89 nm for the nanoparticles with both copaiba oil and allantoin and 126.06 ± 9.84nm for the nanoparticles with just copaiba oil. The D[4,3] determined by laser diffraction showed similar results of 123 ± 1.73 nm for the nanoparticles with copaiba oil and allantoin and 130 ± 3.6 nm for the nanoparticles with copaiba oil alone. Nanoparticle tracking analysis demonstrated that both suspensions had monomodal profiles and consequently, the nanoparticle populations were homogeneous. This analysis also corroborated the results of dynamic light scattering and laser diffraction, exhibiting a smaller mean diameter for the nanoparticles with copaiba oil and allantoin (143 nm) than for the nanoparticles with copaiba oil (204 nm). The physicochemical properties indicated that the dispersions were stable overtime. Rheology evidenced Newtonian behaviour for both suspensions. Antifungal susceptibility showed a MIC90 of 125 ?g/mL (nanoparticles with copaiba oil) and 7.8 ?g/mL (nanoparticles with copaiba oil and allantoin) against C. parapsilosis. The nanoparticles with copaiba oil and the nanoparticles with copaiba oil and allantoin presented a MIC90 of 500 ?g/mL and 250 ?g/mL, respectively, against C. krusei. The MIC90 values were 500 ?g/mL (nanoparticles with copaiba oil) and 1.95 ?g/mL (nanoparticles with copaiba oil and allantoin) against T. rubrum. Against M. canis, the nanoparticles with copaiba oil and allantoin had a MIC9 of 1.95 ?g/mL. In conclusion, nanoencapsulation improved the antifungal activity of copaiba oil, which was enhanced by the presence of allantoin. The MICs obtained are comparable to those of commercial products and can represent promising therapeutics for cutaneous infections caused by yeasts and dermatophytes. PMID:25980176