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Wood's light in Microsporum canis positive patients.  


In 64 patients with culturally proven Microsporum canis infections, Wood's light examination was performed. In 30 patients (47%) the characteristic fluorescence correlated with the cultural findings, whereas in the remaining 34 patients (53%), Microsporum canis was isolated, although Wood's light examination was negative. Of the 30 positive and 34 negative cases eight patients of each group had been pre-treated. From the results presented, Wood's light examination has a poor sensitivity in cases of Microsporum canis-infections. PMID:9470413

Kefalidou, S; Odia, S; Gruseck, E; Schmidt, T; Ring, J; Abeck, D



Microsporum equinum in North America.  

PubMed Central

Microsporum equinum was isolated in Ontario, Canada, from five human and two equine cases of ringworm infection. This dermatophyte was previously recovered from North American horses on several occasions, but was considered to be M. canis. We regard M. equinum as distinct from M. canis. It can be differentiated from M. canis by the smaller size of its macroconidia, its failure to perforate hair in vitro, its poor growth and sporulation on bromocresol purple casein dextrose agar, and its incompatibility with Nannizzia otae, the telemorph of M. canis. Images PMID:7153343

Kane, J; Padhye, A A; Ajello, L



Case report. Onychomycosis due to Microsporum canis.  


A case of distal subungual onychomycosis of the big toe due to Microsporum canis is reported in a 69-year-old male asthma patient who had been treated with systemic corticosteroids for the last 3 years. The nail infection was contracted from a cat who was a healthy carrier. The patient was treated successfully with intermittent itraconazole therapy. PMID:11413924

Romano, C; Paccagnini, E; Pelliccia, L



Secreted Metalloprotease Gene Family of Microsporum canis  

PubMed Central

Keratinolytic proteases secreted by dermatophytes are likely to be virulence-related factors. Microsporum canis, the main agent of dermatophytosis in dogs and cats, causes a zoonosis that is frequently reported. Using Aspergillus fumigatus metalloprotease genomic sequence (MEP) as a probe, three genes (MEP1, MEP2, and MEP3) were isolated from an M. canis genomic library. They presented a quite-high percentage of identity with both A. fumigatus MEP and Aspergillus oryzae neutral protease I genes. At the amino acid level, they all contained an HEXXH consensus sequence, confirming that these M. canis genes (MEP genes) encode a zinc-containing metalloprotease gene family. Furthermore, MEP3 was found to be the gene encoding a previously isolated M. canis 43.5-kDa keratinolytic metalloprotease, and was successfully expressed as an active recombinant enzyme in Pichia pastoris. Reverse transcriptase nested PCR performed on total RNA extracted from the hair of M. canis-infected guinea pigs showed that at least MEP2 and MEP3 are produced during the infection process. This is the first report describing the isolation of a gene family encoding potential virulence-related factors in dermatophytes. PMID:12228297

Brouta, Frederic; Descamps, Frederic; Monod, Michel; Vermout, Sandy; Losson, Bertrand; Mignon, Bernard



Antifungal activity of Lactobacillus against Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum  

PubMed Central

A total of 220 lactic acid bacteria isolates were screened for antifungal activity using Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger as the target strains. Four Lactobacillus strains exhibited strong inhibitory activity on agar surfaces. All four were also identified as having strong inhibitory activity against the human pathogenic fungi Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum. One of the four lactobacilli, namely Lb. reuteri ee1p exhibited the most inhibition against dermatophytes. Cell-free culture supernatants of Lb. reuteri ee1p and of the non-antifungal Lb. reuteri M13 were freeze-dried and used to access and compare antifungal activity in agar plate assays and microtiter plate assays. Addition of the Lb. reuteri ee1p freeze-dried cell-free supernatant powder into the agar medium at concentrations greater than 2% inhibited all fungal colony growth. Addition of the powder at 5% to liquid cultures caused complete inhibition of fungal growth on the basis of turbidity. Freeze-dried supernatant of the non-antifungal Lb. reuteri M13 at the same concentrations had a much lesser effect. As Lb. reuteri M13 is very similar to the antifungal strain ee1p in terms of growth rate and final pH in liquid culture, and as it has little antifungal activity, it is clear that other antifungal compounds must be specifically produced (or produced at higher levels) by the anti-dermatophyte strain Lb. reuteri ee1p. Reuterin was undetectable in all four antifungal strains. The cell free supernatant of Lb. reuteri ee1p was analyzed by LC-FTMS using an Accela LC coupled to an LTQ Orbitrap XL mass spectrometer. The high mass accuracy spectrum produced by compounds in the Lb. reuteri ee1p strain was compared with both a multianalyte chromatogram and individual spectra of standard anti-fungal compounds, which are known to be produced by lactic acid bacteria. Ten antifungal metabolites were detected. PMID:22539027

Guo, Jiahui; Brosnan, Brid; Furey, Ambrose; Arendt, Elke; Murphy, Padraigin; Coffey, Aidan



Kerion caused by Microsporum audouinii in a child  

PubMed Central

Kerion celsi is rarely associated with Microsporum audouinii infection. We report the case of a 3-year-old girl with a kerion celsi caused by M. audouinii and successfully treated with oral terbinafine. Fungi identification was made by macro and microscopical colony morphology analyses and molecular (genotypic) studies. PMID:24432216

Fernandes, Sónia; Amaro, Cristina; da Luz Martins, Maria; Inácio, João; Araújo, Teresa; Vieira, Raquel; Silvestre, Maria José; Cardoso, Jorge



Antimetastasis effect of anthraquinones from marine fungus, Microsporum sp.  


This chapter discusses about obtaining natural products which have anticancer metastasis activities from selected marine-derived fungus (Microsporum sp.) and investigates their biological activities such as cytotoxicity on viability cell lines, anticancer cell migration and invasion, protease inhibition, and expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 and -9). Moreover, the correlative mechanisms behind these activities were studied. PMID:22361203

Zhang, Chen; Kim, Se-Kwon



Dermatophytosis caused by Microsporum canis in Eastern cottontail ( Sylvilagus floridanus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus, fam. Leporidae) has previously been shown to be a potential healthy carrier of dermatophyte fungi both geophilic (Microsporum gypseum, M. cookei, Trichophyton ajelloi, T. terrestre) and zoophilic (M. canis, T. mentagrophytes). In this communication, the first case, to the best of our knowledge, of a symptomatic dermatophyte infection in S. floridanus is described.

P. Tizzani; M. G. Gallo; A. Peano; A. Molinar Min; C. Martínez-Carrasco Pleite; P. G. Meneguz



Microsporum canis scalp ringworm: its primary or secondary ectothrix character.  


This study supports the view that, in cases of tinea capitis due to a Microsporum canis infection, ectothrix arthroconidium formation is extrapilary and arises from intrapilary hyphae. The hyphae of M. canis perforate and digest the hair cuticle to alter its appearance from a normally identifiable structure of imbricated cells with a distal free border, to a grossly altered and pathological layer. Conidium production mainly takes place outside the hair shaft and forms thick clusters between the cuticular tiles. Finally, a shaft of conidia is formed around the hair. The cuticular covering of such a conidium sheath belongs to the root sheath of the hair follicle, and not to the hair structure proper. PMID:8108682

Vismer, H F



Two cases of dermatophytosis caused by Microsporum gypseum and isolation of Microsporum gypseum from soil in Chigasaki city.  


We report two cases of dermatophytosis caused by Microsporum (M.) gypseum. One case was a 59-year-old healthy woman who complained of itchy annular erythema on her right forearm. We isolated M. gypseum from scales on the forearm. The other case was a 73-year-old midwife who had developed infiltrated erythema on her face for 6 months. M. gypseum was isolated from scales of the nose. Both women liked gardening and M. gypseum was isolated from the garden soil of these women by a hair-baiting technique. The first case had a cat, a mouse and an owl, and the second had a dog. Hairbrush culture of these pets, however, was negative. So we concluded both cases were infected with M. gypseum from garden soil. We isolated M. gypseum from soil collected in Chigasaki city. Of the 7 fungal cultures from 10 samples, 2 cultures were identified as M. gypseum. PMID:24943212

Watanabe, Kyoko



Comparative study of Microsporum canis isolates by DNA fingerprinting.  


Microsporum canis is a zoophilic fungus and it is an important agent of dermatophytosis. Cats act as important reservoirs. Clinically, it is too difficult to differentiate dermatophytosis caused by various species, also this fungus loses its morphological characteristics easily because of subculture; so using of rapid and accurate laboratory techniques for identifying the dermatophytes is important, therefore, RAPD-PCR was applied for the differentiation of the isolates. In this study, 10 M. canis isolates were detected in cats, dog, human, fox and rabbit at the Mycology Research Center, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran. For running the RAPD-PCR, PCR set system and three random primers OPU 15, OPU 13 and OPA 04 were used. Then phylogenetic tree and similarity coefficient table were drawn. The results showed that there were some common bands between M. canis isolates. There were some specific bands for each isolates, as well. Our study showed, despite the typical morphology of the whole isolates, they were placed in different branches in molecular typing. PMID:24635009

Shafiee, Shabnam; Khosravi, Ali Reza; Ashrafi Tamai, Iradj



Pathogenic Fungus Microsporum canis Activates the NLRP3 Inflammasome  

PubMed Central

Microsporum canis is a pathogenic fungus with worldwide distribution that causes tinea capitis in animals and humans. M. canis also causes invasive infection in immunocompromised patients. To defy pathogenic fungal infection, the host innate immune system is the first line of defense. As an important arm of innate immunity, the inflammasomes are intracellular multiprotein complexes that control the activation of caspase-1, which cleaves proinflammatory cytokine pro-interleukin-1? (IL-1?) into its mature form. To determine whether the inflammasome is involved in the host defense against M. canis infection, we challenged human monocytic THP-1 cells and mouse dendritic cells with a clinical strain of M. canis isolated from patients with tinea capitis. We found that M. canis infection triggered rapid secretion of IL-1? from both THP-1 cells and mouse dendritic cells. Moreover, by using gene-specific shRNA and competitive inhibitors, we determined that M. canis-induced IL-1? secretion was dependent on NLRP3. The pathways proposed for NLRP3 inflammasome activation, namely, cathepsin B activity, K+ efflux, and reactive oxygen species production, were all required for the inflammasome activation triggered by M. canis. Meanwhile, Syk, Dectin-1, and Card9 were found to be involved in M. canis-induced IL-1? secretion via regulation of pro-IL-1? transcription. More importantly, our data revealed that M. canis-induced production of IL-1? was dependent on the NLRP3 inflammasome in vivo. Together, this study unveils that the NLRP3 inflammasome exerts a critical role in host innate immune responses against M. canis infection, and our data suggest that diseases that result from M. canis infection might be controlled by regulating the activation of inflammasomes. PMID:24478101

Mao, Liming; Zhang, Liping; Li, Hua; Chen, Wei; Wang, Hongbin; Wu, Shuxian; Guo, Caiqin; Lu, Ailing; Yang, Guiwen; An, Liguo



Pathogenic fungus Microsporum canis activates the NLRP3 inflammasome.  


Microsporum canis is a pathogenic fungus with worldwide distribution that causes tinea capitis in animals and humans. M. canis also causes invasive infection in immunocompromised patients. To defy pathogenic fungal infection, the host innate immune system is the first line of defense. As an important arm of innate immunity, the inflammasomes are intracellular multiprotein complexes that control the activation of caspase-1, which cleaves proinflammatory cytokine pro-interleukin-1? (IL-1?) into its mature form. To determine whether the inflammasome is involved in the host defense against M. canis infection, we challenged human monocytic THP-1 cells and mouse dendritic cells with a clinical strain of M. canis isolated from patients with tinea capitis. We found that M. canis infection triggered rapid secretion of IL-1? from both THP-1 cells and mouse dendritic cells. Moreover, by using gene-specific shRNA and competitive inhibitors, we determined that M. canis-induced IL-1? secretion was dependent on NLRP3. The pathways proposed for NLRP3 inflammasome activation, namely, cathepsin B activity, K(+) efflux, and reactive oxygen species production, were all required for the inflammasome activation triggered by M. canis. Meanwhile, Syk, Dectin-1, and Card9 were found to be involved in M. canis-induced IL-1? secretion via regulation of pro-IL-1? transcription. More importantly, our data revealed that M. canis-induced production of IL-1? was dependent on the NLRP3 inflammasome in vivo. Together, this study unveils that the NLRP3 inflammasome exerts a critical role in host innate immune responses against M. canis infection, and our data suggest that diseases that result from M. canis infection might be controlled by regulating the activation of inflammasomes. PMID:24478101

Mao, Liming; Zhang, Liping; Li, Hua; Chen, Wei; Wang, Hongbin; Wu, Shuxian; Guo, Caiqin; Lu, Ailing; Yang, Guiwen; An, Liguo; Abliz, Paride; Meng, Guangxun



Treatment of tinea capitis caused by Microsporum ferrugineum with itraconazole.  


A prospective, non-randomized, open clinical trial was conducted to determine the efficacy of itraconazole for treatment of Microsporum ferrugineum tinea capitis. Itraconazole capsules were given every day in continuous group and every day for 1 week on and 3-week off in pulse therapy group. Concomitant topical therapy with 2% ketoconazole shampoo was used daily. Clinical evaluation consisted of assessing the degree of hair loss, scaling, erythema, pustule, and crust. In both groups, the treatment was stopped when the clinical signs of inflammation had resolved and the mycological examination had become negative or at week 12. There were 81 patients consisted of 49 boys and 32 girls enrolled and average dose of itraconazole was 4.5 mg/kg/day. During the 16-week study period (with 4-week follow-up visit) the overall clinical severity score decreased every visit (p < 0.001). The improvement of the scores showed no statistical difference between both groups. The cumulative cure rate using combined clinical and mycological cure at week 16 in patients treated with continuous and pulse regimen was 54.3% (19/35) and 37.0% (17/46), respectively. The cumulative percentage of all cure rates including clinical cure, mycological cure and combined clinical and mycological cure of the continuous group was significantly higher than in the pulse therapy group (p < 0.001). The superior efficacy of the continuous therapy group was observed after week 8. The cumulative cure rate increased with the longer treatment duration but decreased with the larger infected area involvement (p = 0.001). All patients who were not cured showed improvement. There was no significant adverse effect. The higher dosage or the longer treatment duration of itraconazole may be required for treatment of tinea capitis from M. ferrugineum to achieve more cure rate. PMID:16856430

Wisuthsarewong, Wanee; Chaiprasert, Angkana



[Analysis of microsporum dermatomycoses in Szczecin, its terrain and regions in the years 1985-1988].  


The retrospective analysis of M. canis infections in Szczecin and its region, and the comparison with other dermatomycoses are presented. The study comprised two groups of patients: 450 patients diagnosed between January 1985--December 1988 to have microsporum infections, and 449 patients with the diagnosis of dermatomycosis made between January 1986--December 1988. Data collected in form of patients personal cards were subsequently analysed with the use of standard statistical methods. Most of cases of M. canis infections occurred in females younger than 14 years, while the preponderance of adult males was observed among patients with other dermatomycoses. In patients with microsporum infections, skin lesions were most commonly located on the face, limbs and chest as well as on the scalp in children. In patients with other dermatomycoses, skin lesions were placed on feet, inter-hallux spaces and toe nails. Infected animals, especially stray cats, less frequently dogs, played an important role in the spread of microsporum infections. The disease was characterized by the seasonal pattern with the peak incidence between August and December. The rising number of microsporum infection with clinical picture and animal sources of infection, distinctive from other dermatomycoses, is currently observed in Szczecin and its region. PMID:8154613

Turek-Urasi?ska, K



Aislamiento de keratinomyces ajelloi y microsporum gypseum del suelo de la ciudad de buenos aires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Keratinomyces ajelloi andMicrosporum gypseum have been isolated from soil samples from public gardens and from a breeding-place with rabbits and fowls in the urban zone of the Buenos Aires city, usingVanbreuseghem's technique with hair bait.

Edith Varsavsky



Terbinafine hydrochloride treatment of Microsporum canis experimentally-induced ringworm in cats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cats represent the most important source of Microsporum canis infection to people. Terbinafine hydrochloride is commonly used in the treatment of microsporosis. Its fungicidal action permits short period of treatment. It was our objective to evaluate the effectiveness of this drug in treatment of microsporosis in cats.We treated nine experimentally M. canis infected cats with terbinafine at a dose of

Tina Kotnik; Nevenka Kožuh Eržen; Jernej Kužner; Marinka Drobni?-Košorok



Microsporum aenigmaticum sp. nov. from M. gypseum complex, isolated as a cause of tinea corporis.  


An undescribed Microsporum species was isolated from skin scales recovered from a 40-mm large, annular, scaling lesion on the wrist of a 46-year-old woman. The risk factors for dermatophyte infection in the patient were frequent work in the garden, hunting, and contact with dogs and horses. Direct microscopic examination of the scales revealed the presence of dermatophyte hyphae; when the samples were cultured, a morphologically similar fungus grew on all slants in pure culture. Both of these findings strongly suggested that the isolate was the true causal agent of infection. The possible geophilic nature of the species was based on phylogenetic analysis (internal transcribed spacer region of rDNA and ?-tubulin gene) that placed it in between species of the M. gypseum complex. However, its divergencies from all other Microsporum species exceeded 4% base pairs. Based on ?-tubulin phylogeny, the isolated species is a sister to M. gypseum. The species produces abundant chlamydospores and clumps of hyphae similar to those of ascomatal primordia but no conidia and ascospores. The species was unable to grow at 37°C and does not grow on T6 basal medium, which is unlike other Microsporum species; hair perforation and urease tests were positive. The addition of histidine to the T6 medium resulted in rapid growth of the fungus. The phylogenetic evidence, morphology, growth parameters, and physiology justified the proposal that the isolate is a new species, M. aenigmaticum, sp. nov. PMID:24625678

Hubka, Vit; Dobiašova, Stanislava; Dobiaš, Radim; Kola?ik, Miroslav



The septal ontogeny, germination and electron microscopy of Microsporum gypseum macroaleurioconidia.  


Microsporum gypseum strains obtained from human and animal cases of dermatophytosis were used to study the septal ontogeny, the germination, and the electron microscopy of the macroaleurioconidia, which are produced so abundantly by this organism. It was found that the number of septa in a macroaleurioconidium depends upon the stage of development, and that their order of formation remains relatively constant. The macroaleurioconidial cell wall proved to be impressive on electron microscopy. The use of a wetting agent (Tween 80) and negative pressure proved necessary for adequate fixation. Poor penetration of the fixing agent is attributable to the electron-dense encrustations over the entire surface of the macroaleurioconidium. PMID:3587339

Vismer, H F; Findlay, G H; Eicker, A



Extracellular proteolytic activity and molecular analysis of Microsporum canis strains isolated from symptomatic and asymptomatic cats.  


Microsporum canis is the main zoophylic dermatophyte in dogs and cats, and it is also an important zoonotic agent. The literature showed that cats are asymptomatic carriers of M. canis. This is apparently due to host resistance and/or the presence of strains with lower virulence. This study was aimed to evaluate the keratinolytic, elastinolytic and collagenolytic activities of M. canis strains and their relationship with symptomatic and asymptomatic cats. In addition, these strains were analysed by RFLP. The strains isolated from cats with clinical dermatophytosis had higher keratinase and elastase activity than those isolated from asymptomatic animals (p minus than 0.05). There were not differences in RFLP patterns based on Hind III digestion. PMID:17592886

Viani, Flávio Cesar; Cazares Viani, Paula Regina; Gutierrez Rivera, Irma Nelly; Gonçalves da Silva, Eriques; Rodrigues Paula, Claudete; Gambale, Walderez



Microsporum fulvum IBRL SD3: as novel isolate for chicken feathers degradation.  


Keratinous wastes have increasingly become a problem and accumulate in the environment mainly in the form of feathers, generated mainly from a large number of poultry industries. As keratins are very difficult to degrade by general proteases, they pose a major environmental problem. Therefore, microorganisms which would effectively degrade keratins are needed for recycling such wastes. A geophilic dermatophyte, Microsporum fulvum IBRL SD3 which was isolated from a soil sample collected from a chicken feather dumping site using a baiting technique, was capable to produce keratinase significantly. The crude keratinase was able to degrade whole chicken feathers effectively. The end product of the degradation was protein that contained essential amino acids and may have potential application in animal feed production. Thus, M. fulvum could be a novel organism to produce keratinase for chicken feathers degradation. PMID:24013862

Darah, I; Nur-Diyana, A; Nurul-Husna, S; Jain, K; Lim, Sheh-Hong



Extracellular protease expression in Microsporum gypseum complex, its regulation and keratinolytic potential.  


Two soil isolates of Microsporum gypseum were studied for the production of extracellular proteases. Both the strains secreted protease on glucose-gelatin medium. The enzyme activity peaked on day 15 at 28 °C. Asparagine repressed protease yield. Sugars caused catabolite repression of protease formation. Protease activities of both the isolates were significantly affected by incubation period, culture media and carbohydrates used. Both the strains grew on the skin bait and caused a gravimetrically measurable loss of the substrate. Despite less pronounced differences in the keratinase levels, great variations occurred in the amount of keratin degraded by two isolates. Keratinase production as well as loss in substrate mass was better in glucose-lacking flasks than those containing the sugar. Although the rate of keratin degradation was independent of enzyme production, statistically positive correlations were recorded between loss in substrate mass: yielded dry mycelial weight and substrate degradation: keratinase levels. PMID:20946260

Singh, C J



Development of an experimental model of Microsporum canis infection in cats.  


An experimental infection model was developed for reliable induction of Microsporum canis skin infections in cats, using a defined number of macroconidia harvested from the fungus in culture. The strain of M. canis used produced highly fluorescent hairs under ultraviolet illumination. Kittens 8 to 9 weeks of age (n = 6) received 10(5) macroconidia applied topically to a closely-shaved area of skin. Sites were dressed with an occlusive bandage for 3 days, then grooming was restricted for an additional 4 weeks. Lesions were first observed 2 weeks after inoculation, enlarged over the following 6 to 8 weeks, then decreased in size and appeared healed at 12 to 14 weeks after inoculation. Cats often developed satellite lesions on the face, ears, or other body regions. The experimental infections strongly resembled moderately severe cases of naturally-occurring feline dermatophytosis in clinical patients. This experimental infection model will be useful for evaluation of topical and systemic treatments for feline M. canis infection. PMID:9133054

DeBoer, D J; Moriello, K A



Reconstructed interfollicular feline epidermis as a model for Microsporum canis dermatophytosis.  


Microsporum canis is a pathogenic fungus that causes a superficial cutaneous infection called dermatophytosis. The complexity of mechanisms involved in dermatophytic infections makes relevant in vivo studies particularly difficult to perform. The aim of this study was to develop a new in vitro model of M. canis dermatophytosis using feline fetal keratinocytes in reconstructed interfollicular epidermis, and to investigate its relevance in studying the host-pathogen relationship. Histological analysis of reconstructed interfollicular feline epidermis (RFE) revealed a fully differentiated epidermis. A proliferation assay showed replicating cells only in the basal layer, indicating that RFE is a well-stratified living tissue, leading to the formation of a horny layer. Histopathological analysis of RFE infected by M. canis arthroconidia revealed that the fungus invades the stratum corneum and produces SUB3, a keratinase implicated in the infectious process. In view of these results, an M. canis dermatophytosis model on RFE seems to be a useful tool to investigate mechanisms involved in natural M. canis feline infections. PMID:17577064

Tabart, Jeremy; Baldo, Aline; Vermout, Sandy; Nusgens, Betty; Lapiere, Charles; Losson, Bertrand; Mignon, Bernard



Outbreak of Microsporum audouinii in Munich - the return of infectious fungi in Germany.  


After experiencing an unusually high number of Microsporum (M.) audouinii infections at our hospital within only a few weeks, we began to investigate and control an outbreak in Munich, Germany. Main goals of our health management were to treat infected persons, identify extent and form of transmission and to prevent new infections. We analysed data from structured interviews with patients and mycological cultures of swabs taken of patients and investigated involved public facilities. Outbreak management included antifungal treatment of patients, decontamination of affected facilities, the introduction of a temporary kindergarten ban for M. audouinii positive children and the organisation of educational meetings. Between March and August 2011, 16 children and 4 adults were identified with M. audouinii infections. The fungus was brought to Munich by the index patients from a family vacation in Africa and then spread to fellow children in kindergarten and subsequently to their families. All patients were treated successfully and the epidemic was declared ceased after 40 weeks but causing considerable financial damage. Due to travelling and migration, M. audouinii infections will rise in Germany and Europe. Sufficient and sustainable strategies are needed for the management of future outbreaks of highly contagious fungi. PMID:25175409

Zink, Alexander; Papanagiotou, Vasileios; Todorova, Antonia; Seidl, Hans-Peter; Niedermeier, Andrea; Ring, Johannes; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia



Two cases of tinea ciliaris with blepharitis due to Microsporum audouinii and Trichophyton verrucosum and review of the literature.  


Dermatophytes are rarely taken into account among the causes of blepharitis. In our report, we describe a 69-year-old man and a 40-year-old woman with chronic blepharitis for 10 years and 4 years respectively, in whom we examined the scales and pulled eyelashes on direct microscopy and isolated Microsporum audouinii and Trichophyton verrrucosum in the culture. We emphasise that dermatophytes may play a role in the etiopathogenesis of chronic blepharitis. In chronic, treatment resistance blepharitis fungal infections may be considered as possible cause. PMID:24724801

Sahin, Gulay Ozel; Dadaci, Zeynep; Ozer, Turkan Toka



Study of diseases of the grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) in Italy. First isolation of the dermatophyte Microsporum cookei.  


The ecological risks connected with the introduction of the North American grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) in Italy are many. Of particular importance is the conservation of the native red squirrel (S. vulgaris) population, since the experience from the British Isles showed that where the grey squirrel was introduced, the autochthonous red squirrel became extinct. To determine the health status of grey squirrels trapped and euthanasized during an eradication campaign in the Piedmont region, various analyses were carried out. This paper describes a preliminary mycological investigation. Microsporum cookei, a geophilic dermatophyte, was isolated for the first time from grey squirrels. PMID:10200938

Caffara, M; Scagliarini, A



An outbreak of Microsporum canis in two elementary schools in a rural area around the capital city of Slovenia, 2012.  


SUMMARY An outbreak of Microsporum canis infection affected 12 persons in two elementary schools over a period of 48 days in 2012 in Slovenia. Epidemiological, microbiological, and animal investigations were conducted. We defined cases as pupils or employees with skin lesions and confirmed or probable M. canis infection, attending one of the implicated elementary schools. Two clusters of six primary and six secondary cases were included in an unmatched case-control study. Contact with an adopted stray kitten at a birthday party was identified as the most probable source of infection. Secondary cases were more likely to have participated in gymnastic classes with a primary case than controls and were also more likely to have touched an infected child. Prompt communication and implementation of adequate control measures after the primary cases occurred would have prevented the secondary cases in another school. PMID:24512846

Subelj, M; Marinko, J Sveti?i?; U?akar, V



Physcion from marine-derived fungus Microsporum sp. induces apoptosis in human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells.  


Recently, the relationship between apoptosis and cancer has been emphasized and the induction of apoptosis is recognized as one of the key mechanisms of anti-cancer agents. Marine-derived fungi are valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive anticancer agents. In the present study, a marine-derived fungus, Microsporum sp. was cultured and an anthraquinone derivative, physcion (11.8 mg) was isolated from the culture broth extract (1710 mg). Physcion has shown cytotoxic effect on human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells and its apoptosis induction in HeLa cells was investigated by the expressions of p53, p21, Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-9, and caspase-3 proteins. The Western blot analysis has revealed that physcion could significantly induce cell apoptosis through down-regulating of Bcl-2 expression, up-regulating of Bax expression, and activating the caspase-3 pathway. Furthermore, physcion induced the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HeLa cells. Collectively, these results suggest that physcion could be a potential candidate in the field of anticancer drug discovery against human cervical cancer. PMID:24071573

Wijesekara, Isuru; Zhang, Chen; Van Ta, Quang; Vo, Thanh-Sang; Li, Yong-Xin; Kim, Se-Kwon



Inhibition of lysosome degradation on autophagosome formation and responses to GMI, an immunomodulatory protein from Ganoderma microsporum  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Autophagic cell death is considered a self-destructive process that results from large amounts of autophagic flux. In our previous study, GMI, a recombinant fungal immunomodulatory protein cloned from Ganoderma microsporum, induced autophagic cell death in lung cancer cells. The aim of this study was to examine the role of autophagosome accumulation in GMI-mediated cell death. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Western blot analysis, flow cytometry and confocal microscopy were used to evaluate the effects of different treatments, including silencing of ATP6V0A1 by use of short hairpin RNAi, on GMI-mediated cell death, lung cancer cell viability and autophagosome accumulation in vitro. KEY RESULTS Lysosome inhibitors bafilomycin-A1 and chloroquine increased GMI-mediated autophagic cell death. GMI and bafilomycin-A1 co-treatment induced the accumulation of large amounts of autophagosomes, but did not significantly induce apoptosis. GMI elicited autophagy through the PKB (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin signalling pathway. Silencing of ATP6V0A1, one subunit of vesicular H+-ATPases (V-ATPases) that mediates lysosome acidification, spontaneously induced autophagosome accumulation, but did not affect lysosome acidity. GMI-mediated autophagosome accumulation and cytotoxicity was increased in shATP6V0A1 lung cancer cells. Furthermore, ATP6V0A1 silencing decreased autophagosome and lysosome fusion in GMI-treated CaLu-1/GFP-LC3 lung cancer cells. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS We demonstrated that autophagosome accumulation induces autophagic cell death in a GMI treatment model, and ATP6V0A1 plays an important role in mediating autophagosome-lysosome fusion. Our findings provide new insights into the mechanisms involved in the induction of autophagic cell death. PMID:22708544

Hsin, I-Lun; Sheu, Gwo-Tarng; Jan, Ming-Shiou; Sun, Hai-Lun; Wu, Tzu-Chin; Chiu, Ling-Yen; Lue, Ko-Huang; Ko, Jiunn-Liang



Humoral and cellular immune response to a Microsporum canis recombinant keratinolytic metalloprotease (r-MEP3) in experimentally infected guinea pigs.  


In order to better understand the host-fungus relationship in Microsporum canis dermatophytosis and to identify major fungal antigens, the immune response to a crude exoantigen preparation and to a purified recombinant keratinolytic metalloprotease (r-MEP3) was evaluated in guinea pigs experimentally infected with M. canis. Humoral and cellular immune responses were assessed from day 0 to day 57 post-infection (PI), the former by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the latter via a lymphocyte proliferation assay. Infected guinea pigs developed humoral and cellular responses to both M. canis exoantigen and r-MEP3, while no specific immune response to these antigens was observed in control animals. This is the first report on the development of both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to a purified keratinase in M. canis dermatophytosis. PMID:14725323

Brouta, Frédéric; Descamps, Frédéric; Vermout, Sandy; Monod, Michel; Losson, Bertrand; Mignon, Bernard



Recombinant expression and antigenic properties of a 31.5-kDa keratinolytic subtilisin-like serine protease from Microsporum canis.  


A secreted 31.5-kDa keratinolytic subtilase (SUB3; AJ431180) is thought to be a Microsporum canis virulence factor and represents a candidate for vaccination trials. In this study, the recombinant keratinase (r-SUB3) was produced by the Pichia pastoris expression system and purified to homogeneity. Recombinant SUB3 displayed identical biochemical properties with the native protease. Experimentally cutaneously infected guinea pigs showed specific lymphoproliferative response towards r-SUB3, while no specific humoral immune response was induced except for one animal. The heterologous expression of SUB3 provides a valuable tool for addressing further investigations on the role of this keratinase in the specific cellular immune response and on its use in vaccination trials in the cat. PMID:12900052

Descamps, Frédéric; Brouta, Frédéric; Vermout, Sandy; Monod, Michel; Losson, Bertrand; Mignon, Bernard



Preparation and evaluation of antifungal efficacy of griseofulvin loaded deformable membrane vesicles in optimized guinea pig model of Microsporum canis--dermatophytosis.  


The present study is aimed at the encapsulation of griseofulvin in the deformable membrane vesicles (DMVs) for dermal delivery. Presently, griseofulvin is available only in conventional oral dosage forms that suffer from the issues of poor and highly variable bioavailability, numerous systemic side effects and long duration of treatment. Multi-lamellar drug-loaded DMVs of griseofulvin (Indian Patent Application 208/DEL/2009) were prepared by thin-film hydration method and were optimized for type and concentration of edge activator (EA). The optimized formulation was evaluated for vesicular shape, size, drug entrapment efficiency, drug content, pH, stability, spreadability, ex vivo skin permeation, dermatokinetics, skin sensitivity, in vitro antifungal assay and in vivo antifungal activity against Microsporum canis using guinea pig model for dermatophytosis. The optimized DMVs illustrated remarkably higher drug permeation and skin retention when compared with liposomes. A complete clinical and mycological cure was observed in animals treated with topical griseofulvin formulation in 10 days. The formulation was observed to be non-sensitizing, histopathologically safe, and stable at 5±3 °C, 25±2 °C and 40±2 °C for a period of six months. The results indicated that the topical formulation of DMVs of griseofulvin could be utilized as an alternative to reduce the encumbrance of conventional oral formulations. PMID:22939964

Aggarwal, Nidhi; Goindi, Shishu



Isolation of Microsporum gypseum in soil samples from different geographical regions of brazil, evaluation of the extracellular proteolytic enzymes activities (keratinase and elastase) and molecular sequencing of selected strains  

PubMed Central

A survey of Microsporum gypseum was conducted in soil samples in different geographical regions of Brazil. The isolation of dermatophyte from soil samples was performed by hair baiting technique and the species were identified by morphology studies. We analyzed 692 soil samples and the recuperating rate was 19.2%. The activities of keratinase and elastase were quantitatively performed in 138 samples. The sequencing of the ITS region of rDNA was performed in representatives samples. M. gypseum isolates showed significant quantitative differences in the expression of both keratinase and elastase, but no significant correlation was observed between these enzymes. The sequencing of the representative samples revealed the presence of two teleomorphic species of M. gypseum (Arthroderma gypseum and A. incurvatum). The enzymatic activities may play an important role in the pathogenicity and a probable adaptation of this fungus to the animal parasitism. Using the phenotypical and molecular analysis, the Microsporum identification and their teleomorphic states will provide a useful and reliable identification system. PMID:24031904

Giudice, Mauro Cintra; Reis-Menezes, Adriana Araujo; Rittner, Glauce Mary Gomes; Mota, Adolfo Jose; Gambale, Walderez



A recombinant 31.5 kDa keratinase and a crude exo-antigen from Microsporum canis fail to protect against a homologous experimental infection in guinea pigs.  


A Microsporum canis recombinant 31.5 kDa keratinase and a M. canis crude exo-antigen were tested as vaccines in an experimental infection model in guinea pigs. Animals were vaccinated subcutaneously three times at two-week intervals with either the keratinase, the exo-antigen or the adjuvant alone. Cutaneous challenge was performed blindly. Both humoral and cellular-specific immune responses to M. canis antigens were evaluated every 14 days, while a blind evaluation of clinical lesion development and fungal persistency in skin were monitored weekly. Vaccination induced very high and significant (P < 0.01) antibody responses towards both antigens. High cell-mediated immune responses to both immunogens were also induced by vaccination. After challenge, however, scores reflecting the severity of dermatophytic lesions did not differ significantly between vaccinated and control groups at any time after challenge. These results suggest that, in the guinea pig, the induction of specific immune responses against the M. canis-secreted antigens used in this study are not protective against challenge exposure. PMID:14678442

Descamps, Frédéric F; Brouta, Frédéric; Vermout, Sandy M; Willame, Corinne; Losson, Bertrand J; Mignon, Bernard R



Outbreak of Tinea capitis caused by Microsporum ferrugineum in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

There was an outbreak ofTinea capitis at the Pak-kred Home for Mentally and Physically Handicapped Babies, Bangkok, Thailand in 1993. One hundred and thirty-eight\\u000a cases were diagnosed as tinea capitis based on clinical signs and positive laboratory investigations. The results of Wood's\\u000a light examination, KOH preparation and fungal culture were positive in 89.9, 75.9 and 27.4% respectively. The non-inflammatory\\u000a form

Wanee Wisuthsarewong; Angkana Chaiprasert; Suchitra Viravan



Molecular Typing Study of the Microsporum Canis Strains Isolated from an Outbreak of Tinea Capitis in School  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tinea capitis is a dermatophyte infection of the scalp that occurs most often in prepubescent children. Tinea capitis may be transmitted by shared use of contaminated hairbrush, by contact with fomites or by direct physical contact with an infected person. Occasionally, outbreak of tinea capitis would happen under some special conditions. Last year, we found an outbreak of tinea capitis

Jin Yu; Zhe Wan; Wei Chen; Wenling Wang; Ruoyu Li



In vitro susceptibility testing of Microsporum gypseum isolated from healthy cattle and soil samples against itraconazole, terbinafine, fluconazole and topical veterinarian drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study evaluated in vitro susceptibility testing of dermatophytes isolates from healthy cattle and soil samples against three antifungal agents and three topical veterinarian drugs. Itraconazole and terbinafine showed a higher in vitro fungicidal activity than fluconazole. The veterinarian drugs LEPECID® and iodine 5% were more active in vitro than the UNGÜENTO® spray. All drugs showed fungicidal activity against

Alessandra Gonçalves Krakhecke; Eurípedes Afonso; Joseane C. Ferreira; Regina Celia Candido



21 CFR 524.2350 - Tolnaftate cream.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...000061 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use. (1) The drug is indicated for treatment of ringworm lesions due to Microsporum canis and Microsporum gypseum in dogs and cats. (2) A small amount of the...



21 CFR 524.2350 - Tolnaftate cream.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...000061 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use. (1) The drug is indicated for treatment of ringworm lesions due to Microsporum canis and Microsporum gypseum in dogs and cats. (2) A small amount of the...



21 CFR 524.2350 - Tolnaftate cream.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...000061 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use. (1) The drug is indicated for treatment of ringworm lesions due to Microsporum canis and Microsporum gypseum in dogs and cats. (2) A small amount of the...



21 CFR 524.2350 - Tolnaftate cream.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...000061 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use. (1) The drug is indicated for treatment of ringworm lesions due to Microsporum canis and Microsporum gypseum in dogs and cats. (2) A small amount of the...



In Vivo Efficacy and Pharmacokinetics of Voriconazole in an Animal Model of Dermatophytosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The standard treatment for tinea capitis caused by Microsporum species for many years has been oral griseofulvin, which is no longer universally marketed. Voriconazole has been demonstrated to inhibit growth of Microsporum canis in vitro. We evaluated the efficacy and tissue pharmacokinetics of oral voriconazole in a guinea pig model of dermatophytosis. Guinea pigs (n 16) were inoculated with M.

D. M. Saunte; F. Simmel; N. Frimodt-Moller; L. B. Stolle; E. L. Svejgaard; M. Haedersdal; C. Kloft; M. C. Arendrup



Application of PCR to Distinguish Common Species of Dermatophytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the application of PCR fingerprinting for the identification of species and varieties of common dermatophytes and related fungi utilizing as a single primer the simple repetitive oligonucleotide (GACA)4. The primer was able to amplify all the strains, producing species-specific profiles for Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton ajelloi, and Epidermophyton floccosum. Intra- specific variability was not




21 CFR 524.2350 - Tolnaftate cream.  

...of the cream to the affected areas once or twice a day for 2 to 4 weeks. (2) Indications for use. For the treatment of ringworm lesions due to Microsporum canis and Microsporum gypseum. (3) Limitations. Federal law restricts this drug to...



Griseofulvin in Dimethyl Sulfoxide: Penetration into Guinea-Pig Skin and Clinical Findings in Feline Ringworm.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Topical application of griseofulvin in dimethyl sulfoxide to the unbroken skin of guinea-pigs produced inhibitory concentrations of the antibiotic in subkeratinous tissue. Cats showing a ringworm syndrome caused by Microsporum canis were treated topically...

H. B. Levine, J. M. Cobb, R. H. Friedman



21 CFR 520.1100 - Griseofulvin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...i) Amount and indications for use —(A) For equine ringworm infection caused by Trichophyton equinum or Microsporum gypseum...5 grams; and foals, 1.25 grams. (B) For treating ringworm infection caused by T. equinum , administer...





... septicemic and pneumonic, cause more severe disease. More Ringworm ( Microsporum canis ) Ringworm is a condition caused by a fungus that ... hair, and nails of both people and animals. Ringworm is transmitted from animals to people through direct ...


21 CFR 520.1100 - Griseofulvin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...i) Amount and indications for use —(A) For equine ringworm infection caused by Trichophyton equinum or Microsporum gypseum...5 grams; and foals, 1.25 grams. (B) For treating ringworm infection caused by T. equinum , administer...



21 CFR 520.1100 - Griseofulvin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...i) Amount and indications for use —(A) For equine ringworm infection caused by Trichophyton equinum or Microsporum gypseum...5 grams; and foals, 1.25 grams. (B) For treating ringworm infection caused by T. equinum , administer...



21 CFR 520.1100 - Griseofulvin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...i) Amount and indications for use —(A) For equine ringworm infection caused by Trichophyton equinum or Microsporum gypseum...5 grams; and foals, 1.25 grams. (B) For treating ringworm infection caused by T. equinum , administer...



21 CFR 520.1100 - Griseofulvin.  

...i) Amount and indications for use —(A) For equine ringworm infection caused by Trichophyton equinum or Microsporum gypseum...5 grams; and foals, 1.25 grams. (B) For treating ringworm infection caused by T. equinum , administer...





... likely than others to develop severe illness. More Ringworm ( Trichophyton and Microsporum spp.) Ringworm is a condition caused by a fungus that ... hair, and nails of both humans and animals. Ringworm is spread from animals to humans through direct ...


Dermatophytosis of the scalp: Incidence, immune response, and epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tinea capitis remains a common infection among the pediatric population of North America. The ‘gray patch’ Microsporum audouinii infections of the 1950's have been supplanted by the ‘black dot’ ringworm of Trichophyton tonsurans. The clinical presentation of T. tonsurans infection is quite variable and may be related to specific host T-lymphocyte response. This dermatophytosis is most frequently incurred from contact

Dennis E. Babel; Alvin L. Rogers; Everett S. Beneke



Antifungal activity of crude extracts and essential oil of Moringa oleifera Lam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations were carried out to evaluate the therapeutic properties of the seeds and leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam as herbal medicines. Ethanol extracts showed anti-fungal activities in vitro against dermatophytes such as Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Microsporum canis. GC–MS analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oil from leaves showed a total of 44 compounds. Isolated

Ping-Hsien Chuang; Chi-Wei Lee; Jia-Ying Chou; M. Murugan; Bor-Jinn Shieh; Hueih-Min Chen



Identification of Dermatophytes by an Oligonucleotide Array  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species of dermatophytes are classified into three anamorphic (asexual) genera, Epidermophyton, Microsporum, and Trichophyton. Conventional methods used to identify dermatophytes are often lengthy and may be inconclusive because of atypical microscopic or colony morphology. Based on the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1) and ITS-2 sequences of the rRNA genes, an oligonucleotide array was developed to identify 17 dermatophyte species. The




Screening of hundred Rwandese medicinal plants for antimicrobial and antiviral properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of 100 Rwandese medicinal plants (267 plant extracts), used by traditional healers to treat infections, were screened for antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral properties. The results of the testing showed that 45% were active against Staphylococcus aureus, 2% against Escherichia coli, 16% against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 7% against Candida albicans, 80% against Microsporum canis and 60% against Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Not

A. J. Vlietinck; L. Van Hoof; J. Totté; A. Lasure; D. Vanden Berghe; P. C. Rwangabo; J. Mvukiyumwami



Isolation and Identification of a New Antifungal Sesquiterpene Lactone from Inula viscosa.  


A new sesquiterpene - tayunin - has been isolated and purified from powdered leaves of INULA VISCOSA (L.) Ait. The chemical structure was determined by 1D and 2D NMR analysis, and IR and MS. Tayunin inhibits the growth of MICROSPORUM CANIS at a concentration of 10 microg/ml and TRICHOPHYTON RUBRUM at 50 microg/ml(MIC). PMID:17260308

Maoz, M; Kashman, Y; Neeman, I



This information sheet is for the care and use of cats Potential Injury & Zoonotic Diseases: Cats are  

E-print Network Ringworm: Dermatophyte infection (most commonly Microsporum spp. and Trichophyton spp.) is commonly known as ringworm because of the characteristic circular. Disease in people is from direct contact with an infected animal. Ringworm is usually self

Wood, Marcelo A.


Synthesis, structure, and antifungal evaluation of some novel 1,2,4-triazolylmercaptoacetylthiosemicarbazide and 1,2,4-triazolylmercaptomethyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole analogs.  


Novel 1-[[4-(4-bromophenyl)-5-(2-furyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-yl]mercaptoacetyl]-4-alkyl/aryl-3-thiosemicarbazides (5-12) were synthesized by the reaction of 4-(4-bromophenyl)-5-(2-furyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylmercaptoacetylhydrazide (4) with substituted isothiocyanates. Cyclodehydration of thiosemicarbazides with concentrated sulfuric acid yielded 2-[4-(4-bromophenyl)-5-(2-furyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-yl]mercaptomethyl-5-alkyl/arylamino-1,3, 4-thiadiazoles (13-17). The new compounds were evaluated for in vitro antifungal activity using the microdilution method. The tested compounds showed varying degrees of activity against Microsporum gypseum NCPF-580, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, and Candida albicans ATCC 10231 (MIC 8-4 microg/mL). PMID:20030516

Klip, Nalan Terzio?lu; Capan, Gültaze; Gürsoy, Aysel; Uzun, Meltem; Satana, Dilek



Bioactive constituents of Homalomena aromatica essential oil and its antifungal activity against dermatophytes and yeasts.  


Homalomena aromatica rhizomes are rich source of essential oils, which have been attributed for various medicinal uses. In the present investigation, essential oil from H. aromatica rhizomes was isolated and subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrum (GC-MS) analysis. Fifty-five chemical constituents were reported from H. aromatica rhizomes of which T-muurolol (5.32%), viridiflorol (3.69%), ?-selinene (2.19%), M-cymene (2.19%) and ?-Muurolene (1.81%) were identified and reported for the first time. Other major components were identified as linalool (62.5%), terpene-4-ol (7.08%), ?-cadinene (5.57%), ?-cadinol (3.71%) and spatulenol (1.81%). H. aromatica rhizome essential oil showed high antimicrobial activity against Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum fulvum, Microsporum gypseum, Trichosporon beigelii and Candida albicans. PMID:23177818

Policegoudra, R S; Goswami, S; Aradhya, S M; Chatterjee, S; Datta, S; Sivaswamy, R; Chattopadhyay, P; Singh, L



Antifungal activity of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa (Rutaceae) leaf extract on dermatophytes  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of Aegle marmelos leaf extracts and fractions on the clinical isolates of dermatophytic fungi like Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum. Methods The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of various extracts and fractions of the leaves of Aegle marmelos were measured using method of National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). Results Aegle marmelos leaf extracts and fractions were found to have fungicidal activity against various clinical isolates of dermatophytic fungi. The MIC and MFC was found to be high in water and ethyl alcohol extracts and methanol fractions (200µg/mL) against dermatophytic fungi studied. Conclusions Aegle marmelos leaf extracts significantly inhibites the growth of all dermatophytic fungi studied. If this activity is confirmed by in vivo studies and if the compound is isolated and identified, it could be a remedy for dermatophytosis. PMID:23569781

Balakumar, S; Rajan, S; Thirunalasundari, T; Jeeva, S



Antimicrobial potentials of endophytic fungi residing in Quercus variabilis and brefeldin A obtained from Cladosporium sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among 67 endophytic fungi isolated from Quercus variabilis, 53.7% of endophytic fungal fermentation broths displayed growth inhibition on at least one test microorganism, such as pathogenic\\u000a fungi (Trichophyton rubrum, Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum canis) and bacteria (Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas fluorescens). Moreover, 19.4% of strains showed a broader antimicrobial spectrum, such as Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp.,

F. W. Wang; R. H. Jiao; A. B. Cheng; S. H. Tan; Y. C. Song



Isolation of Dermatophytes and other Keratinophilic Fungi from the Vicinity of Salt Pan Soils of Mumbai, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil samples from twenty salt pans and their vicinity around Mumbai and Thanewere screened for the occurrence of keratinophilic fungi and related dermatophytes.Ten species classified in six genera were recovered using horse hair as bait. Theisolated species were reported in the following order of dominance: Chrysosporiumindicum (12.0%), Microsporum gypseum complex (7.2%), C. tropicum (5.6%), C. state of Ctenomyces serratus (4.0%),

S. K. Deshmukh; L. B. S. Marg



Anti-fungal activity of crude extracts and essential oil of Moringa oleifera Lam.  


Investigations were carried out to evaluate the therapeutic properties of the seeds and leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam as herbal medicines. Ethanol extracts showed anti-fungal activities in vitro against dermatophytes such as Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Microsporum canis. GC-MS analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oil from leaves showed a total of 44 compounds. Isolated extracts could be of use for the future development of anti-skin disease agents. PMID:16406607

Chuang, Ping-Hsien; Lee, Chi-Wei; Chou, Jia-Ying; Murugan, M; Shieh, Bor-Jinn; Chen, Hueih-Min



Dermatophytes isolated from symptomatic dogs and cats in Tuscany, Italy during a 15-year-period  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between January, 1, 1986 and December, 31, 2000, dermatological specimens from 10.678 animals (7.650 cats and 3.028 dogs) were examined for dermatophytes. All the animals presented clinical signs of ringworm. Two thousand-four hundred fifty-six of the 10.678 (23%) examined animals scored positive for dermatophytes, 566 out of 3.028 canine (18.7%) and 1890 out of 7.650 feline specimens (24.7%). Microsporum canis

F. Mancianti; S. Nardoni; S. Cecchi; M. Corazza; F. Taccini



Dermatophytes and other keratinophilic fungi from coypus ( Myocastor coypus ) and brown rats ( Rattus norvegicus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of mycotic agents was investigated by hair-brush technique on the coat of 162 naturalized coypus (Myocastor coypus) and 64 indigenous brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) originating from the same protected area in Central Italy. The isolates from positive coypus (29.6%) were identified as\\u000a Microsporum gypseum (14.8%), Trichophyton terrestre (9.8%), Alternaria sp. (3.7%), Trichophyton mentagrophytes (2.5%), Cladosporium sp. (1.8%), Scopulariopsis

Roberto Papini; Simona Nardoni; Roberto Ricchi; Francesca Mancianti



Modiolide and pyrone derivatives from the sea fan-derived fungus Curvularia sp. PSU-F22.  


Investigation of secondary metabolites from the sea fan-derived fungus Curvularia sp. PSU-F22 resulted in isolation of three new metabolites, curvulapyrone (1), curvulalide (2) and curvulalic acid (3) together with six known compounds, modiolides A (4) and B (5), pyrenolide A (6), stagonolide E (7), mycoepoxydiene (8), and deacetylmycoepoxydiene (9). Their antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, methicillin-resistant S. aureus and Microsporum gypseum SH-MU-4 were examined. PMID:21656354

Trisuwan, Kongkiat; Rukachaisirikul, Vatcharin; Phongpaichit, Souwalak; Preedanon, Sita; Sakayaroj, Jariya



In vitro antifungal and anti-elastase activity of some aliphatic aldehydes from Olea europaea L. fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olea europaea preparations are traditionally employed in a variety of troubles, including skin infections. Olive extracts and some of their pure compounds have shown antimicrobial activity in vitro. The present study deals with the antifungal activity of some aliphatic aldehydes from olive fruit [hexanal, nonanal, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-heptenal, (E)-2-octenal, (E)-2-nonenal] against Tricophyton mentagrophytes (6 strains), Microsporum canis (1 strains) and Candida

L. Battinelli; C. Daniele; M. Cristiani; G. Bisignano; A. Saija; G. Mazzanti



Dermatophytes and other associated fungi isolated from ringworm lesions of camels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among 75 camels showing skin lesions, 48% were positive for fungal infection. The younger individuals were more susceptible\\u000a to this infection. Sixteen species belonging to nine genera of keratinophilic and cycloheximide-resistant fungi were recovered\\u000a from diseased camels.Trichophyton, Microsporum andChrysosporium were the most common genera.T. verrucosum appeared to be the main causer of ringworm in small camels whileT. mentagrophytes infected older




Epidemiology of dermatophytoses in a rural community in Eastern Nigeria and review of literature from Africa.  


A total of 4,287 primary school children, comprising 1,740 males and 2,547 females in Arochukwu local government area of Abia state Nigeria were examined for clinical signs of dermatophytoses. About 873 (20.4%), consisting of 505 males and 368 females had lesions consistent with dermatophytoses. The disease was more prevalent in males (29%) than females (14.4%) in a ratio of approximately 2:1 (P < 0.05). The infection rate increased from 16.8% in the 4-6 year age group to a peak of 28.1% in the 10-12 year age bracket and dropped sharply to 5.6% in the 16-18 year group. The highest prevalence (39%) was observed among males aged 10-12 years while females 16-18 years had the lowest prevalence (2.5%). Tinea capitis was the predominant clinical type of dermatophytoses, and occurred in 13.7% of the total population studied and 67% of lesion positive cases. Trichophyton soudanense and Trichophyton tonsurans the predominant aetiological agents of dermatophytoses with a prevalence of 26.2% and 21.6%, respectively. Others include Trichophyton mentagrophytes (18.8%), Epidermophyton floccosum (8.3%), Microsporum audouinii (6.4%), Microsporum gypseum (6.0%), Trichophyton rubrum (5.5%) and Microsporum ferrugineum (7.3%), which was isolated for the first time in Nigeria. PMID:17657581

Ngwogu, Ada C; Otokunefor, Tosanwumi Vincent



[Clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of dermatophytosis].  


Dermatophytes are a group of closely related fungi that have keratinase and can therefore cause infections in keratinised human and animal tissues (skin, hair and nails), leading to a disease known as dermatophytosis. This group is composed by the genera Epidermophyton, Trichophyton and Microsporum, forming an approximated total of 40 species. Depending on the source of the keratin used, dermatophytes can be divided in geophilic (soil), zoophilic (animals) and anthropophilic (human), with soil, some animals and humans being their primary habitats. Many dermatophytes can be present in both anamorphic (asexual state) or imperfect and teleomorphic state (with sexual reproduction) or perfect fungi. Anamorphic states (genera Epidermophyton, Microsporum and Trichophyton ) belong to the Hyphomycetes and phylum Deuteromycota class and teleomorphic states (the majority of geophilic and zoophilic species of Microsporum and Trichophyton) are classified in the teleomorphic genus Arthroderma, order Onygenales, phylum Ascomycota, and are usually found in their anamorphic state. Dermatophytes have a worldwide distribution, being responsible for most of the skin mycoses in both healthy and immunocompromised patients. The diagnosis and treatment of dermatophytosis are well known by most microbiologists and scientists in general. However, we describe recent techniques for their diagnosis and up-to-date treatments. The main purpose of this review is to provide a detailed description of the three genera of dermatophytes, with special mention of Epidermophyton floccosum, a object of the SEIMC's mycology quality control (M-2/09). PMID:21458709

Molina de Diego, Araceli



Synthesis and biological evaluation of isomeric derivatives of naturally occurring spatozoate.  


An isomer of the natural phthalate ester spatozoate (1), n-butyl 2-benzoyloxymethylbenzoate (2a) and a series of its new derivatives 2b-2s were synthesized and exposed to selected biological screening, as phthalates were reported to possess different biological activities. Compound 2g was found to be the most potent cytotoxic agent with a LD50 = 8.98 microg/ml. In a bactericidal assay the compounds showed a broad spectrum of activities. Compound 2a has a very promising fungicidal activity against Microsporum canis. PMID:16821646

Hayat, Safdar; Atta-ur-Rahman; Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal; Khan, Khalid Mohammed; Perveen, Shahnaz; Shah, Syed Tasadaque Ali; Anwar, Awais; Anwar, M Usman; Bayer, Ernst; Voelter, Wolfgang



Etiology of tinea capitis in Athens, Greece -- a 6-year (1996-2001) retrospective study.  


A total of 577 patients with tinea capitis have been diagnosed at the Mycology laboratory of 'A. Sygros' Hospital of Skin and Venereal Diseases, Athens, Greece between 1996 and 2001. From these patients, 100 were immigrants from Balkan, Near East and African countries. The vast majority of the patients (95%) were children, mainly at preschool and school age and only 5% were adults. Zoophilic dermatophytes accounted for 86.5% followed by anthropophilic (12.4%) and geophilic (1.2%) dermatophytes. The majority of anthropophilic infections (59.5%) were recorded in the sub-population of immigrants. Microsporum canis (84.5%) was the main etiologic agent. PMID:15189185

Frangoulis, E; Athanasopoulou, B; Katsambas, A



Superficial fungal infections in children.  


Superficial fungal infections can involve the hair, skin, and nails. Most affected children are healthy, although immunosuppression is a risk factor for more severe presentation. Causative organisms typically are members of the Trichophyton, Microsporum, and Epidermophyton genera (dermatophytes), can be acquired from other infected humans, animals, or soil, and illicit a host inflammatory response. Nondermatophyte infections include pityriasis versicolor. In this article, the most common clinical presentations, diagnostic recommendations, and treatment algorithms for dermatophyte and nondermatophyte mycoses in children and adolescents are described. PMID:24636655

Hawkins, Danielle M; Smidt, Aimee C




PubMed Central

This report represents the first study of keratinophilic fungi present in soils of Jamaica. Out of the 40 soil samples examined from different habitats, 30 (75%) were positive for the presence of keratinophilic fungi, yielding 36 isolates of keratinophilic fungi. Microsporum gypseum complex (represented by 16 isolates of M. gypseum, and four of M. fulvum) was most frequent, being present in 50% of the samples. A very high occurrence of this dermatophyte in Jamaican soil is of public health significance. The remaining isolates of keratinophilic fungi were represented by Chrysosporium spp (mainly C. indicum and C. tropicum) and Sepedonium sp. PMID:24879002

Gugnani, Harish C.; Sharma, Soni; Wright, Kharl



Characterization of a new sesquiterpene and antifungal activities of chemical constituents from Dryopteris fragrans (L.) Schott.  


One new sesquiterpene and six known compounds were isolated from Dryopteris fragrans (L.) Schot. They were identified as 3-O-?-D-glucopyranosylalbicanol- 11-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (1), dihydroconiferylalcohol (2), (E)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acrylic acid (3), esculetin (4), 5,7-dihydroxy-2-hydroxymethylchromone (5), eriodictyol (6) and isoorientin (7) by UV, MS, 1D-NMR and 2D-NMR spectroscopy. The antifungal activities of the seven isolated compounds were screened. Compounds 2, 3, 4 and 5 showed obvious activities against Microsporum canis and Epidermophyton floccosum. PMID:24451246

Huang, Yu-Hong; Zeng, Wei-Min; Li, Guo-Yu; Liu, Guo-Qing; Zhao, Dan-Dan; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Yan-Long



Synthesis, Characterization, and Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Some 1,2,4Triazole Derivatives Bearing an Antipyryl Moiety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?Some novel 4-[[2-[[5-(2-furanyl)-4-alkyl\\/aryl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl]thio]-acetyl\\/propionyl]-amino]-1,5-dimethyl-3-oxo-2-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrazoles were synthesized and evaluated for in vitro antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 and antifungal activity against Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Candida parapsilosis ATCC 22019, Candida krusei ATCC 6258, Candida parapsilosis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei NCPF 375, Microsporum gypseum NCPF 580, and Trichophyton

Nuray Ulusoy; Öznur Ate?; Ömer Küçükbasmac?; Muammer Kiraz; Y?ld?z Ye?eno?lu



Superficial fungal infections in the Transvaal. A contemporary analysis of dermatophytoses in this region.  


An 8-year survey of patients from hospital clinics and private practices in Pretoria seeking specialist dermatological advice for dermatophytoses revealed almost 500 cases, which were confirmed by mycological study. Correlation of the data with other localities was made to illustrate the epidemiology for several common dermatophytes in the Transvaal. Trichophyton rubrum (27%) proved to be the most prominent dermatophyte, followed by T. mentagrophytes (23%), Microsporum canis (19%), T. violaceum (18%) and Epidermophyton floccosum (12%), while M. gypseum occurred in only 1% of the cases. Mapped lists of the published dermatophyte species isolated in southern Africa over the past three decades are presented. PMID:3375906

Vismer, H F; Findlay, G H



Survey of keratinophilic fungi in Alpine marmot (Marmota marmota) burrow soil and in adjoining soils.  


Soil samples from 127 marmot (Marmota marmota) burrows were examined for keratinophilic fungi along with 48 soil samples from adjoining areas. The occurrence of keratinophilic fungi (especially Microsporum gypseum) was significantly higher in burrow soil. A review of the literature and our results support the hypothesis that the "animalization" (i.e. the enrichment of soil with hairs, crusts and other organic matters) of the environment may create conditions suitable for the growth of keratinophilic fungi. The presence of keratinophilic fungi in alpine mountain soil was noted for the first time. PMID:635727

Battelli, G; Bianchedi, M; Frigo, W; Amorati, P; Mantovani, A; Pagliani, A



[Dermatophytes transmitted by pets and cattle].  


Most inflammatory skin and hair dermatophytoses are caused by one of four zoophilic dermatophyte species: Microsporum canis (from cats and dogs), Trichophyton verrucosum (from cattle), Arthroderma benhamiae (from Guinea-pigs) and Arthrodermna vanbreuseghemii (generally from cats and dogs). In cases of highly inflammatory tinea corporis, tinea faciae and tinea capitis in humans, it is important to identify with certainty the precise etiologic agent and to examine pets as the possible source of infection. The recurrence of infections or new infections can be prevented by adequately treating incriminated domestic animals and their environments. Cooperation between the medical and veterinary professions is required in this situation. PMID:24772808

Monod, M; Fratti, M; Mignon, B; Baudraz-Rosselet, F



Antifungal activity of Eugenia umbelliflora against dermatophytes.  


Antifungal activities of Eugenia umbelliflora Berg. (Myrtaceae) were tested in vitro against a panel of standard and clinical isolates of human fungal pathogens (dermatophytes and opportunistic saprobes). Methanol extracts of leaves and fruits of E. umbelliflora were separately prepared and partitioned, to yield dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and aqueous fractions (Aq). Three compounds (1-3) were obtained from the DCM extract using chromatographic procedures. Antifungal assays were performed using agar dilution techniques. Both extracts (fruits and leaves), their DCM and EtOAc fractions, and compound 2 (betulin and betulinic acid) presented selective antifungal activity against dermatophytes (Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes), with MIC values between 200 and 1000 microg/mL, and interestingly, inhibited 4/5 species with MIC values of < or = 500 microg/mL. The aqueous fractions of fruits and leaves, and compounds 1 (alpha, beta amyrin) and 3 (taraxerol) were inactive up to the maximum concentrations tested (1000 microg/mL). PMID:19831024

Machado, Karina E; Cechinel Filho, Valdir; Cruz, Rosana C B; Meyre-Silva, Christiane; Cruz, Alexandre Bella



Distribution and species composition of causative agents of dermatophytoses in Lithuania.  


The aim of the investigation was to determine diversity of the causative agents of dermatophytoses and characterize the epidemiological situation in Lithuania in 2001-2010. During this period, dermatophytes showed a tendency to decline. The following dermatophytes were isolated: Trichophyton (T.) Malamsten, Microsporum (M.) Gruby and Epidermophyton E. Lang. The number of nondermatophytes increased. At the beginning of the investigation, nondermatophytes accounted for 3.4%, whereas at the end their number grew up to 35.9%. Among the agents of dermatomycosis, the incidence of yeasts was observed to have a growing tendency. Among dermatophytes, T. rubrum was the most common pathogen, which in 2001 amounted to 55.7% and in 2010 to only 11.0%. Among the Microsporum species, M. canis and M. gypseum were detected. A small number of Epidermophyton species were observed in 2001-2003, which accounted for 0.2%-0.8% of all isolates. Tinea unguium (75.5%) was the most common type of dermatophytosis, followed by tinea capitis (11.7%), tinea corporis (9.2%) and tinea pedis (1.2%). In 2001-2010, dermatophytes showed a decreasing tendency, whereas the incidence of Candida yeasts and other causative agents of dermatomycosis greatly increased. PMID:24001417

Paškevi?ius, Algimantas; Švedien?, Jurgita



In vitro antifungal activity of sertaconazole against 309 dermatophyte clinical isolates.  


Three hundred and nine strains belonging to 11 species of dermatophyte moulds were tested against sertaconazole following mainly the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (M38-P) for filamentous fungi. However, several important factors such as the temperature (28 degrees C vs 35 degrees C) and time of incubation (4-10 d vs 21-74 h), have been modified. Sertaconazole was active against all the clinically important dermatophyte moulds involved in human infections tested. Overall geometric mean MIC of sertaconazole was 0.21 microg/ml with a MIC range of 0.01-8 microg/ml. MIC50 and MIC90 were respectively of 0.25 and 1 microg/ml. Sertaconazole was very active against Epidermophyton floccosum, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton tonsurans and Microsporum canis (geometric means 0.08, 0.13, 0.13 and 0.19 microg/ml respectively). Microsporum audouinii had the lowest susceptibility in the study (geometric mean 0.59 microg/ml). Considering MIC50 and MIC90 these differences were significantly in favor of the activity of sertaconazole against E. floccosum (0.06 and 0.5 microg/ml respectively). PMID:14998079

Carrillo-Muñoz, A J; Fernandez-Torres, B; Guarro, J



Antifungal effects of hydrolysable tannins and related compounds on dermatophytes, mould fungi and yeasts.  


A series of hydrolysable tannins and related compounds was evaluated for antifungal activities against filamentous fungi (Epidermophyton floccosum; Microsporum canis; Microsporum gypseum; Trichophyton mentagrophytes; Trichophyton rubrum; Trichophyton tonsurans; Trichophyton terrestre; Penicillium italicum; Aspergillus fumigatus; Mucor racemosus; Rhizopus nigricans) and opportunistic yeasts (Candida albicans; Candida glabrata; Candidata krusei; Cryptococcus neoformans), using the agar dilution method. While all samples had no activity against the filamentous fungi in concentrations of 1.1-5.9 microM (1000 microg/ml), the phenolic compounds displayed significant potencies against all the opportunistic yeasts tested but C. albicans, with minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 0.02 to 0.1 microM (16-125 microg/ml). Although the presence of galloyl groups in flavonoids did not necessarily produce activity, this structural element, an HHDP moiety or its oxidatively modified entity proved to be an important structural feature of hydrolysable tannins. Comparison of dilution methods provided strong evidence of dependence of MIC values on the test method. Employing the microdilution broth method, the ellagitannin corilagin (MIC 0.8 nM) was found to be similarly potentially active as amphotericin B (MIC 0.5 nM) and sertaconazole (MIC 0.9 nM) against Candida glabrata strains. The order of effectiveness observed being 64- and 4-8-fold increased for corilagin and the reference compounds respectively, when compared with that of the agar dilution test. PMID:10928561

Latté, K P; Kolodziej, H



Chemical composition and biological assays of essential oils of Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi subsp. nepeta (Lamiaceae).  


Aerial parts of wild Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi subsp. nepeta growing spontaneously on the Mediterranean coast (Sardinia Island, Italy) and on the Atlantic coast (Portugal) were used as a matrix for the supercritical extraction of volatile oil with CO(2). The collected extracts were analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS methods and their compositions were compared with that of the essential oil isolated by hydrodistillation, but the differences were not relevant. A strong chemical variability was observed in the essential oils depending on the origin of the samples. The results showed the presence of two chemotypes of C. nepeta. In all Italian samples, pulegone, piperitenone oxide and piperitenone were the main components (64.4-39.9%; 2.5-19.1%; 6.4-7.7%); conversely, the oil extracted from Portuguese C. nepeta is predominantly composed of isomenthone (35.8-51.3%), 1,8-cineole (21.1-21.4%) and trans-isopulegone (7.8-6.0%). The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the oils against Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida guillermondii, Candida parapsilosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Epidermophyton floccosum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. The Italian oil, rich in pulegone, exhibited significant antifungal activity against Aspergillus and dermatophyte strains, with MIC values of 0.32-1.25 µL mL(-1). PMID:20981614

Marongiu, B; Piras, A; Porcedda, S; Falconieri, D; Maxia, A; Gonçalves, M J; Cavaleiro, C; Salgueiro, L



Difference in keratinase activity of dermatophytes at different environmental conditions is an attribute of adaptation to parasitism.  


Dermatophytes are a group of morphologically and physiologically related moulds, which cause well-defined infection called dermatophytosis. The enzymatic ability of fungi to decompose keratin has long been interpreted as a key innovation in the evolution of animal dermatology. In the present study, keratinase activity profile among Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis and Microsporum gypseum isolated on keratin substrates such as human hair, human nail and chicken feather at variable environmental conditions of temperature, pH and metal ions was elucidated. All the above-mentioned fungal strains were isolated from soil using To-KA-Va baiting technique and keratinolytic activity was measured spectrophotometrically. In the temperature range of 30-40 °C and slightly alkaline pH (7.0-8.0), Trichophyton produced the highest activity of keratinase. It can be presumed that high enzyme production of Trichophyton species at normal body temperature range and pH could be an attribute for obligate anthropization in some dermatophytes. PMID:22032519

Sharma, Anima; Chandra, Subhash; Sharma, Meenakshi



Initiation of Dermatophyte Pleomorphic Strain Sporulation by Increased Aeration  

PubMed Central

A normally asporogenous pleomorphic strain of Microsporum gypseum was induced to sporulate by controlled aeration and dehydration. Aeration of the pleomorphic strain under optimal cultivation conditions caused the initiation of a sporulation cycle with equivalent growth parameters and percentage intracellular water loss as the wild-type strain. Initiation of sporulation was not due to alteration of the medium's nutrient concentration or consistency, concentration of fungal growth by-products, or removal of volatile „staling factors.” Macroconidia formed by the pleomorphic colonies were of characteristic wildtype morphology, but germinated to form typical pleomorphic colonies, indicating that the induced sporulation was strictly phenotypic and reversible. Other asporogenous pleomorphic strains from different dermatophyte genera also were induced to form macroconidia by aeration, suggesting a similarity in sporulation induction in Microsporum sp., Epidermophyton floccosum, and Trichophyton violaceum. Initiation of sporulation by aeration further suggested that the pleomorphic mutation was one which affected the sensitivity of the pleomorphic aerial hyphae to natural sporulation inducers (i.e., decreased humidity) and did not represent a loss in the ability to form fertile macroconidia. Images PMID:5086905

Page, W. J.; Stock, J. J.



Bioactive alkyl phenols and embelin from Oxalis erythrorhiza.  


The benzoquinone embelin and four alkyl phenols were isolated from an Argentinean collection of Oxalis erythrorhiza. 3-Heptadecyl-5-methoxy-phenol is reported for the first time. The structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. Embelin presented inhibitory effect on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and the dermatophytic fungi Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum with MICs ranging between 50 and 100 microg/ml. Furthermore, embelin was active against Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes with 100% lysis at 100 microg/ml and cytotoxicity below the trypanocidal concentration. The new alkyl phenol 3-heptadecyl-5-methoxy-phenol was active towards Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania donovani promastigotes with 100% lysis at 100 microg/ml. The cytotoxicity (IC50) of embelin and the new alkyl phenol on human lung fibroblasts were 739 and 366 microM, respectively. The plant is used to treat heart complains, a symptomatology related to Chagas' disease which is endemic in the San Juan Province, Argentine. PMID:12963150

Feresin, Gabriela Egly; Tapia, Alejandro; Sortino, Maximiliano; Zacchino, Susana; de Arias, Antonieta Rojas; Inchausti, Alba; Yaluff, Gloria; Rodriguez, Jaime; Theoduloz, Cristina; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo



Constituents of the Argentinian medicinal plant Baccharis grisebachii and their antimicrobial activity.  


The resinous exudate of Baccharis grisebachii which is used to treat ulcers, burns, and skin sores in Argentina showed activity towards dermatophytes and bacteria. Two diterpenes, eight p-coumaric acid derivatives, and two flavones were isolated from the exudate and the structures elucidated by spectroscopic methods. 3-Prenyl-p-coumaric acid and 3,5-diprenyl-p-coumaric acid were active towards Epidermophyton floccosum and Trichophyton rubrum with MICs of 50 and 100-125 microg/ml, respectively. The diterpene labda-7,13E-dien-2beta,15-diol was active towards Epidermophyton floccosum and Trichophyton rubrum with MICs of 12.5 microg/ml while the MIC against Microsporum canis and Trichophyton mentagrophytes was 25 microg/ml. The diterpene was also active towards Microsporum gypseum with a MIC of 50 microg/ml, and showed inhibition in both Staphylococcus aureus (methicilline resistant and sensible strains) with MICs of 125 microg/ml. The results support the use of Baccharis grisebachii in Argentinian traditional medicine. PMID:14522435

Feresin, Gabriela Egly; Tapia, Alejandro; Gimenez, Antonio; Ravelo, Angel Gutierrez; Zacchino, Susana; Sortino, Maximiliano; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo



Isolation of dermatophytes and other keratinophilic fungi from surface sediments of the Shatt Al-Arab River and its creeks at Basrah, Iraq.  


Twenty-five sediment samples were taken from randomly selected sites in the Shatt Al-Arab River and its creeks and analysed for dermatophytes and related keratinophilic fungi. The results revealed that out of 25 samples only 13 (52%) yielded dermatophytes and related keratinophilic fungi. A total of nine species in four genera were isolated. The most frequent genera isolated in this study were Chrysosporium and its teleomorph Aphanoascus. The species most frequently found were Aphanoascus fulvescens, A. durus, Chrysosporium crassitunicatum, Chr. keratinophilum and Chr. tropicum (each n = 3). Microsporum was represented by two species, namely M. fulvum and M. gypseum. Trichophyton was represented by one species, T. verrucosum. The occurrence of these fungi illustrates that sediments may act as a reservoir for potentially pathogenic fungi for human and animals. PMID:7477095

Abdullah, S K; Hassan, D A



In vitro activity of sertaconazole.  


The activity of 7-chloro-3-[1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-(1H-imidazol-1-yl) ethoxy-methyl]benzo[b]thiophene (sertaconazole, FI 7045, CAS 99592-32-2), a new topical antifungal, was studied in vitro against several infecting organisms. The results obtained show that sertaconazole is a broad-spectrum antifungal against yeasts (C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. pseudotropicalis, C. krusei, Trichosporon and Cryptococcus), dermatophytes (Microsporum, Trichophyton and Epidermophyton), opportunistic filamentous fungi (Aspergillus) and Gram-positive bacteria. The MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) values for the fungistatic activity were between 0.35 and 5.04 micrograms/ml for yeasts and between 0.24 and 2 micrograms/ml for dermatophytes; even partial activities (IC25) against these organisms were obtained at concentrations 10 times lower than those mentioned. At concentrations superior to MIC (MFC between 0.5 and 16 micrograms/ml), sertaconazole exhibited fungicidal activity. PMID:1627186

Palacín, C; Sacristán, A; Ortiz, J A



In vitro anti-microbial activity of the Cuban medicinal plants Simarouba glauca DC, Melaleuca leucadendron L and Artemisia absinthium L.  


In the present study, an extensive in vitro antimicrobial profiling was performed for three medicinal plants grown in Cuba, namely Simarouba glauca, Melaleuca leucadendron and Artemisia absinthium. Ethanol extracts were tested for their antiprotozoal potential against Trypanosoma b. brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania infantum and Plasmodium falciparum. Antifungal activities were evaluated against Microsporum canis and Candida albicans whereas Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were used as test organisms for antibacterial activity. Cytotoxicity was assessed against human MRC-5 cells. Only M. leucadendron extract showed selective activity against microorganisms tested. Although S. glauca exhibited strong activity against all protozoa, it must be considered non-specific. The value of integrated evaluation of extracts with particular reference to selectivity is discussed. PMID:18949336

Valdés, Aymé Fernández-Calienes; Martínez, Judith Mendiola; Lizama, Ramón Scull; Vermeersch, Marieke; Cos, Paul; Maes, Louis



Antimicrobial activities of Gloriosa superba Linn (Colchicaceae) extracts.  


The methanol extract of the rhizomes of Gloriosa superba Linn (Colchicaceae) and its subsequent fractions in different solvent systems were screened for antibacterial and antifungal activities. Excellent antifungal sensitivity was expressed by the n-butanol fraction against Candida albicans and Candida glaberata (up to 90%) and against Trichophyton longifusus (78%) followed by the chloroform fraction against Microsporum canis (80%). In the antibacterial bioassay, the crude extract and subsequent fractions showed mild to moderate antibacterial activities. Chloroform fraction displayed highest antibacterial sensitivity against Staphylococcus aureous (88%) followed by the crude extract (59%). The total phenol content of the crude extract and fractions of the plant expressed no significant correlation with the antimicrobial activities. PMID:18615278

Khan, Haroon; Khan, Murad Ali; Mahmood, Tahira; Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal



Antifungal activities of extracts from Thai medicinal plants against opportunistic fungal pathogens associated with AIDS patients.  


Summary In this study, 36 extracts derived from 10 plant species were selected to screen for their antifungal activity against clinical isolates of Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans and Microsporum gypseum. Selection was based on their use by traditional Thai healers or their reported antimicrobial activities in an attempt to find bioactive medicines for use in the treatment of opportunistic fungal infections in AIDS patients. The disc diffusion and hyphal extension-inhibition assays were primarily used to test for inhibition of growth. Minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by dilution methods. The chloroform extracts of Alpinia galanga and Boesenbergia pandurata had pronounced antifungal activity against C. neoformans and M. gypseum, but exhibited weak activity against C. albicans. Alpinia galanga and B. pandurata are excellent candidates for the development of a remedy for opportunistic fungal infections in AIDS patients. PMID:16115104

Phongpaichit, Souwalak; Subhadhirasakul, Sanan; Wattanapiromsakul, Chatchai



Foliicolous microfungi occurring on Encephalartos.  


Species of Encephalartos, commonly known as bread trees, bread palms or cycads are native to Africa; the genus encompasses more than 60 species and represents an important component of the indigenous African flora. Recently, a leaf blight disease was noted on several E. altensteinii plants growing at the foot of Table Mountain in the Kirstenbosch Botanical Gardens of South Africa. Preliminary isolations from dead and dying leaves of E. alten-steinii, E. lebomboensis and E. princeps, collected from South Africa, revealed the presence of several novel microfungi on this host. Novelties include Phaeomoniella capensis, Saccharata kirstenboschensis, Teratosphaeria altensteinii and T. encephalarti. New host records of species previously only known to occur on Proteaceae include Cladophialophora proteae and Catenulostroma microsporum, as well as a hyperparasite, Dactylaria leptosphaeriicola, occurring on ascomata of T. encephalarti. PMID:20396583

Crous, P W; Wood, A R; Okada, G; Groenewald, J Z



Antifungal activity of extracts and prenylated coumarins isolated from Baccharis darwinii Hook & Arn. (Asteraceae).  


The petroleum ether extract of Baccharis darwinii showed activity against Cryptococcus neoformans and dermatophytes. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of Baccharis darwinii has resulted in the isolation of three coumarins: 5'-hydroxy aurapten (anisocoumarin H, 1), aurapten (7-geranyloxycoumarin, 2) and 5'-oxoaurapten (diversinin, 3). The structures of these compounds were characterized by spectroscopic methods. These compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobialactivity against a panel of each, bacteria and fungi. Compound 3 showed the best activities against Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes with MICs = 15.6 microg/mL, followed by compound 1 whose MICs against the same fungi were 62.5 microg/mL. In addition they showed fungicidal rather than fungistatic activity. Both compounds showed moderate activity (MICs = 125 microg/mL) against Cryptococcus neoformans. This is the first report of the presence of compound 1 in B. darwinii. PMID:20657398

Kurdelas, Rita R; Lima, Beatriz; Tapia, Alejandro; Feresin, Gabriela Egly; Gonzalez Sierra, Manuel; Rodríguez, María Victoria; Zacchino, Susana; Enriz, Ricardo D; Freile, Monica L



In vitro antagonistic activity of monoterpenes and their mixtures against 'toe nail fungus' pathogens.  


The antibiotic effect of the active ingredients in Meijer medicated chest rub (eucalyptus oil, camphor and menthol) as well as the inactive ingredients (thymol, oil of turpentine, oil of nutmeg and oil of cedar leaf) were studied in vitro using the fungal pathogens responsible for onychomycosis, such as the dermatophytes Tricophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis, Epidermophyton fl occosum and Epidermophyton stockdale. The zones of inhibition data revealed that camphor (1). menthol (2). thymol (3). and oil of Eucalyptus citriodora were the most efficacious components against the test organisms. The MIC(100) for mixtures of these four components in various carrier solvents revealed that formulations consisting of 5 mg/mL concentrations of each have a potential to be efffective in controlling onychomycosis. PMID:12722144

Ramsewak, Russel S; Nair, Muraleedharan G; Stommel, Manfred; Selanders, Louise



Keratinophilic and saprophytic fungi isolated from students' nails in Egypt.  


In order to determine the presence of dermatophytes and saprophytes in healthy toe and finger nails, 120 students (60 male and 60 female) from preparatory schools at Sohag Governorate (Upper Egypt) were studied. 54 species in addition to 3 varieties belonging to 17 genera were isolated. Six species of true dermatophytes were collected: Microsporum audouinii var. rivalieri, M. cookei, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. simii, T. terrestre and T. verrucosum. Chrysosporium, a well-known keratinophilic genus, was prevalent and represented by 7 species (C. asperatum, C. indicum, C. keratinophilum, C. luteum, C. pannorum, C. tropicum and Chrysosporium state of Thielavia sepedonium). The commonest saprophytes in order of frequency were members of the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Alternaria, Scopulariopsis, Fusarium, Paecilomyces, Chaetomium, Syncephalastrum, Mucor, Rhizopus and Acremonium. PMID:2338622

Abdel-Hafez, A I; el-Sharouny, H M



Synthesis and antileishmanial and antimicrobial activities of some 2,3-disubstituted 3H-quinazolin-4-ones.  


A series of 2,3-disubstituted 3H-quinazolin-4-ones was synthesized. Antimicrobial activities of the synthesized compounds were investigated against Gram (+ve) and Gram (-ve) bacteria, including B. subtilis, S. aureus, S. flexneri, P. aeruginosa, and S. typhi, and six fungi, namely Trichophyton longifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani, and Candida glabrata using the broth microdilution method. Compounds 9, 11, and 12 showed significant activities against the selected bacterial cultures, while 7-10, 12, 15, and 16 showed good to moderate antifungal activities. Compound 11 exhibited strongest leishmanicidal activity against Leishmania major (MHOM/PK/88/DESTO) promastigotes, while other compounds showed weak to moderate leishmanicidal activities. PMID:20235747

Arfan, Muhammad; Khan, Rasool; Khan, Murad Ali; Anjum, Shazia; Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal; Ahmad, Manzoor



Purification, characterization, and lytic activity against Naegleria fowleri of two amoebicins produced by Bacillus licheniformis A12.  

PubMed Central

Bacillus licheniformis A12 produces two amoebolytic substances (amoebicins A12-A and A12-B) in liquid media during sporulation. Both substances have been purified and characterized. They are heat- and protease-resistant peptides containing aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, proline, and tyrosine in a molar ratio of 5:2:2:2:2. No fatty acids or carbohydrates have been detected. Their molecular weight is 1,430. Purified amoebicins A12-A and A12-B exhibit amoebolytic action against Naegleria fowleri. They also exhibit antibiotic action against yeasts (Saccharomyces heterogenicus and Cryptococcus neoformans) and several fungal species (Aspergillus niger, Microsporum canis, Mucor plumbeus, and Trychophyton mentagrophytes). Their antibacterial spectrum appears to be restricted to Bacillus megaterium, Corynebacterium glutamicum, and Sarcina sp. Images PMID:8517742

Galvez, A; Valdivia, E; Gonzalez-Segura, A; Lebbadi, M; Martinez-Bueno, M; Maqueda, M



Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of novel 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamidrazones.  


A mild and simple method was developed to prepare a series of fifteen 5-aminoimidazole 4-carboxamidrazones, starting from the easily accessible 5-amino-4-cyanoformimidoyl imidazoles. The antimicrobial activity of these novel amidrazones was screened against Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria and Candida sp. (Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis). Only a subset of compounds displayed fair-moderate activity against S. aureus and E. coli but all exhibited activity against Candida sp. The three most potent antifungal compounds were further tested against Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus fumigatus and three dermatophytes (Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum gypseum). These three hit compounds strongly inhibited C. krusei and C. neoformans growth, although their activity on filamentous fungi was very weak when compared to the activity on yeasts. PMID:25193230

Ribeiro, Ana I; Gabriel, Carla; Cerqueira, Fátima; Maia, Marta; Pinto, Eugénia; Sousa, João Carlos; Medeiros, Rui; Proença, M Fernanda; Dias, Alice M



Total Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of a Natural Cycloheptapeptide of Marine Origin  

PubMed Central

The present study deals with the first total synthesis of the proline-rich cyclopolypeptide stylisin 2 via a solution phase technique by coupling of the Boc-l-Pro-l-Ile-l-Pro-OH tripeptide unit with the l-Phe-l-Pro-l-Pro-l-Tyr-OMe tetrapeptide unit, followed by cyclization of the resulting linear heptapeptide fragment. The chemical structure of the finally synthesized peptide was elucidated by FTIR, 1H/13C-NMR and FAB MS spectral data, as well as elemental analyses. The newly synthesized peptide was subjected to antimicrobial screening against eight pathogenic microbes and found to exhibit potent antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Candida albicans, in addition to moderate antidermatophyte activity against pathogenic Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum audouinii when compared to standard drugs—gatifloxacin and griseofulvin. PMID:20948913

Dahiya, Rajiv; Gautam, Hemendra



In vitro evaluation of inhibitory nature of extracts of 18-plant species of Chhindwara against 3-keratinophilic fungi.  


Effect of extract of 18 plant species, viz., Acorus calamus, Adhatoda vasica, Amomum subulatum, Andrographis paniculata, Boerhaavia diffusa, Cassia occidentalis, Centella asiatica, Cymbopogon citratus, Hemidesmus indicus, Hyptis suaveolens, Malvestrum sp., Passiflora edulis, Pergularia daemia, Peristrophe bicalyculata, Shuteria hirsuta, Solanum nigrum, Tecoma stans, and Verbascum chinense on the growth of Microsporum gypseum, Chrysosporium tropicum and Trichophyton terrestre was evaluated and discussed. The sensitivity of the keratinophilic fungi was evaluated by dry-weight method. The maximum inhibition of mycelial growth was shown by M. gypseum (86.62%) followed by T. terrestre (81.86%) and C. tropicum (74.06%) when treated with S. hirsuta whereas the minimum inhibition was exhibited by M. gypseum (0.29%), C. tropicum (0.16%) and T. terrestre (1.76%) when tested with the extract of P. edulis, A. vasica and B. diffusa respectively. PMID:10386016

Qureshi, S; Rai, M K; Agrawal, S C



Synthesis and evaluation of antimicrobial and anticonvulsant activities of some new 3-[2- (5-aryl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl/4-carbethoxymethylthiazol-2-yl) imino-4-thiazolidinon-5-ylidene]-5-substituted/nonsubstituted 1H-indole-2-ones and investigation of their structure-activity relationships.  


In the present study, 20 new compounds having 3-[2-(5-aryl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl) imino-4-thiazolidinon-5-ylidene]-5-substituted/nonsubstituted 1H-indole-2-one (I-XII) and 3-[2-(4-carbethoxymethylthiazol-2-yl)imino-4-thiazoldinon-5-ylidenel-5-substituted/nonsubstituted IH-indole-2-one (XIII-XX) systems were synthesized. The structures were confirmed by spectral methods (UV, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, 13C-DEPT (135), electron impact mass spectrometry) and elemental analysis. All compounds were tested for in vitro antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 4352, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 1539, Salmonella typhi, Shigella flexneri, Proteus mirabilis ATCC 14153, Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Microsporum gypseum (NCPF-580), Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum and some of them were found to be active. Especially, compound I was more active than cefuroxime sodium (CAS 56238-63-2) which was used as a standard, and the activity of compound XII was close to that of cefuroxime sodium against Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228. Primary screening for antituberculous activity was conducted at 6.25 microg/ml against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv in BACTEC 12B medium using the BACTEC 460 radiometric system. The anticonvulsant activities of selected prototoype compounds (I, IV-VI, VIII, XI, XIII, XVI-XVIII) administered at doses of 50-200 mg/kg (i.p.) were evaluated using the pentetrazol test (PTZ) in mice. PMID:16618017

Altinta?, Handan; Ate?, Oznur; Uyde-Do?an, B Sönmez; Alp, F Ilkay; Kaleli, Deniz; Ozdemir, Osman; Birteksöz, Seher; Otük, Gülten; Atana, Dilek; Uzun, Meltem



Mycetes and urban areas.  


Mycetes are ubiquitous organisms that can cause mycoses in human and animals. The role of animals in the epidemiology of human mycoses in urban areas is multiform, but here will be discuss only two features: A) animals as vectors of mycoses and B) animal substrates as growth factor of pathogenic fungi. A) Animals as vectors of mycoses: this role is important as zoofilic dermatophytes are very important agents of zoonosis; the urban dermatophytozoonoses are prevalent caused by Microsporum canis which is prevalent in cats and dogs. Cats are often asymptomatic carriers. The pattern of human dermatomycoses has changed in Italy during the past century: at the beginning of the century anthropophilic fungi were prevalent while at present the zoophilic fungi are the most important causes. B) Animal substrata as growth factor of pathogenic fungi: soil "animalization" (i.e., the addition of such debris as hair, skin scales, dropping and other organic matters) creates an optimal substratum for the growth and the multiplication of geophilic or saprophyitic fungi, such as Microsporum gypseum and Cryptococcus neoformans. The present human lifestyle, which favours a an overpopulation of birds, wild animals, domestic mammals and sinanthropic together with man in crowded areas seems to favour the formation of environments adapted to the abundant growth of some pathogenic fungi with consequent infection for man and animals. Finally, an environment heavily populated by fungi can cause allergic pulmonary reactions as well as reactions in other organs and tissues. The control of human and animal fungi, and the efficient use of a monitoring system require ample knowledge of mycological problems both in human and veterinary medicine and of efficient laboratories capable of resolving the needs of both disciplines. Close collaboration between veterinarians, doctors and mycologists is necessary in order to resolve health problems linked to mycosis. PMID:16881412

Tampieri, M P



Growth, keratinolytic proteinase activity and thermotolerance of dermatophytes associated with alopecia in Uyo, Nigeria.  


Mycological research was conducted on the mycelial growth, keratinolytic proteinase activity and thermotolerance ofdermatophytes associated with alopecia patients in Uyo, Nigeria. The results revealed that Microsporum sp. - AP1, Epidermophyton sp. - AP2, Trichophyton rubrum - AP4, Trichophyton mentagrophytes - AP5 and a yeast Candida albicans - AP3 isolated exhibited variable growth and keratinase activity at different temperatures. Microsporum sp. - AP1 and T. mentagrophytes - AP5 survived heat treatment at 90 degrees C but exhibited best mycelial growth at 30 degrees C (with 53.41 mg/50 ml biomass dry weight) and 40 degrees C (with 61.32 mg/50 ml biomass dry weight) respectively, after incubation for 2 weeks. Trichophyton rubrum - AP4 and Epidermophyton sp. - AP2 could not survive heat treatment at 90 degrees C but grew better at 40 degrees C (with 38.52 mg/50 ml biomass dry weight) and 30 degrees C (with 48.32 mg/50 ml biomass dry weight) respectively, over the same incubation period, while C. albicans - AP3 grew better at 30 degrees C with 38.7 mg/50 ml biomass dry weight after 2 weeks, but failed to survive at 70 degrees C. All the isolates except Candida albicans - AP3 survived at 80 degrees C and exhibited great potential to elaborate keratinolytic enzymes, with T. mentagrophytes demonstrating the best potential at 30 degrees C and 40 degrees C. Higher temperatures tended to reduce keratinolytic activities and there were significant (P < 0.05) relationships between biomass weight and enzyme productivities of all the isolates except T. mentagrophytes. This indicates that in some dermatophytes keratinolytic proteinase activity is not a function of cell multiplicity. This plus the high thermostability of the enzymes are important attributes in the consideration of preventive and therapeutic methods against dermatophytes in the tropics. PMID:19388557

Essien, J P; Umoh, A A; Akpan, E J; Eduok, S I; Umoiyoho, A



Essential oil of Juniperus communis subsp. alpina (Suter) ?elak needles: chemical composition, antifungal activity and cytotoxicity.  


Essential oils are known to possess antimicrobial activity against a wide spectrum of bacteria and fungi. In the present work the composition and the antifungal activity of the oils of Juniperus communis subsp. alpina (Suter) ?elak were evaluated. Moreover, the skin cytotoxicity, at concentrations showing significant antifungal activity, was also evaluated. The oils were isolated by hydrodistillation and analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the oil against dermatophytes (Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum canis, M. gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale, T. rubrum, T. verrucosum), yeasts (Candida albicans, C. guillermondii, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, Cryptococcus neoformans) and Aspergillus species (Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger). Cytotoxicity was tested in HaCaT keratinocytes through the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Essential oil of J. communis subsp. alpina needles was predominantly composed of monoterpene hydrocarbons (78.4%), with the main compounds being sabinene (26.2%), ?-pinene (12-9%) and limonene (10.4%). Results concerning the antifungal activity demonstrated the potential of needle oil against dermatophytes, particularly for Microsporum canis and Trichophyton rubrum with MIC and MLC of 0.32 ?L/mL. Furthermore, evaluation of cell viability showed no significant cytotoxicity in HaCaT keratinocytes at concentrations between 0.32 and 0.64 ?L/mL. These results show that it is possible to find appropriate doses of J. communis subsp. alpina oil with both antifungal activity and a very low detrimental effect on keratinocytes. PMID:22294341

Cabral, C; Francisco, V; Cavaleiro, C; Gonçalves, M J; Cruz, M T; Sales, F; Batista, M T; Salgueiro, L



Immunoprophylaxis of dermatophytosis in animals.  


Dermatophytosis is a relatively common disease in many countries occurring endemically both in companion and food animals. Fungi belonging to the genera Trichophyton and Microsporum are most often isolated from clinical cases. Measures to control and prevent dermatophytosis include sanitation, hygienic measures and treatment. In some countries, successful control and eradication have been achieved by mass vaccination of cattle and fur-bearing animals. Vaccines containing live attenuated cells of the fungus stimulate a cell-mediated immune response conferring long-lasting protection against subsequent challenge by the homologous fungus. A delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin test using appropriate dermatophyte antigens is suitable to assess the response. Inactivated dermatophyte vaccines are available for use in cattle, horse, dog, and cat in some countries. However, the scientific literature is scarce making it difficult to conclude on efficacy and appropriate use. Current vaccines are all first generation vaccines. Attempts have been made to prepare subunit vaccines based on new knowledge about virulence factors like the keratinases, so far with limited success. Candidate antigens must be able to stimulate a strong T helper 1 cell response and future research should focus on identification of major T-cell epitopes that specifically elicit a DTH reaction. Dermatophytosis is a zoonotic disease. In Norway and a few other countries, systematic vaccination against cattle ringworm has almost eliminated the disease, and ringworm in man caused by T. verrucosum is almost nonexistent. A similar benefit could be expected if a safe and efficacious vaccine was available for Microsporum canis infection in cats and dogs. PMID:18478355

Lund, Arve; Deboer, Douglas J



In vitro antifungal activity of extracts and neolignans from Piper regnellii against dermatophytes.  


The present study was designated to evaluate the in vitro antidermatophyte activity of extracts from leaves of Piper regnellii as well as of the bioactivity-directed isolation of neolignans. The antifungal assay was performed by microdilution techniques. The hydroalcoholic extract of Piper regnellii leaves presented a strong activity against the dermatophyte fungi Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis and Microsporum gypseum with MICs of 15.62, 15.62, 15.62 and 62.5 microg/ml, respectively. On light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy of nail fragments not exposed to hydroalcoholic extract of Piper regnelli leaves, well-formed and extensive mycelial growth was seen. On nail fragments exposed to hydroalcoholic extract at concentrations more than 1.2mg/ml and then inoculated with spore suspension, growth was not seen. The hydroalcoholic extract was fractionated on silica gel in to nine fractions. The active chloroform fraction was lyophilized and chromatographed by column chromatography on silica gel. Structures were established by comparison with literature data and identified as eupomatenoid-3 and eupomatenoid-5. The pure compounds showed strong activity on Trichophyton rubrum with MIC of 50 and 6.2 microg/ml, respectively. Comparing the activity of the active chloroform fraction obtained from hydroalcoholic crude extract with that of isolated compound eupomatenoid-5, it is clear that this showed the same results against Trichophyton rubrum. The results showed that the plant could be explored for possible antifungal agents and provides preliminary scientific validation for the traditional medicinal use of this plant. PMID:18394835

Koroishi, Andrea M; Foss, Simone R; Cortez, Diógenes A G; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Dias Filho, Benedito P



Isolation of the volatile fraction from Apium graveolens L. (Apiaceae) by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and hydrodistillation: chemical composition and antifungal activity.  


Apium graveolens L. (wild celery), belonging to the family of Apiaceae, is a scaposus hemicryptophyte. Instead, the cultivate plant is an annual or biennial herb widely used as a spice and seasoning in food. A broad range of biological activities have been attributed to A. graveolens. These include antimicrobial activity, larvicidal activity, hepatoprotective activity, nematicidal and mosquito repellent potential and antihyperlipidaemic properties.In this study, the authors compare the composition of the volatile fractions of A. graveolens collected in natural populations in Portugal and Italy and evaluate their potential as antifungal agents.The composition of the volatile oils obtained by hydrodistillation and their antifungal activity are reported. The oils were analysed by gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods and their composition were compared with that of the volatile extracts isolated by supercritical CO2. A chemical variability in the extracts depending on the origin of the plants and on the extraction method was observed. The results showed the presence of sedanenolide, neocnidilide and neophytadiene as main components. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal lethal concentration were used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the oils against Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida guilliermondii, Candida parapsilosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale, Trichophyton verrucosum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Epidermophyton floccosum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. The oil from Italy rich in neophytadiene is the more active, with MIC values of 0.04-0.64?µL?mL(-1). Our results show that A. graveolens volatile extracts may be useful in the clinical treatment of fungal diseases. PMID:22974401

Marongiu, B; Piras, A; Porcedda, S; Falconieri, D; Maxia, A; Frau, M A; Gonçalves, M J; Cavaleiro, C; Salgueiro, L



Comparative Genome Analysis of Trichophyton rubrum and Related Dermatophytes Reveals Candidate Genes Involved in Infection  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The major cause of athlete’s foot is Trichophyton rubrum, a dermatophyte or fungal pathogen of human skin. To facilitate molecular analyses of the dermatophytes, we sequenced T. rubrum and four related species, Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton equinum, Microsporum canis, and Microsporum gypseum. These species differ in host range, mating, and disease progression. The dermatophyte genomes are highly colinear yet contain gene family expansions not found in other human-associated fungi. Dermatophyte genomes are enriched for gene families containing the LysM domain, which binds chitin and potentially related carbohydrates. These LysM domains differ in sequence from those in other species in regions of the peptide that could affect substrate binding. The dermatophytes also encode novel sets of fungus-specific kinases with unknown specificity, including nonfunctional pseudokinases, which may inhibit phosphorylation by competing for kinase sites within substrates, acting as allosteric effectors, or acting as scaffolds for signaling. The dermatophytes are also enriched for a large number of enzymes that synthesize secondary metabolites, including dermatophyte-specific genes that could synthesize novel compounds. Finally, dermatophytes are enriched in several classes of proteases that are necessary for fungal growth and nutrient acquisition on keratinized tissues. Despite differences in mating ability, genes involved in mating and meiosis are conserved across species, suggesting the possibility of cryptic mating in species where it has not been previously detected. These genome analyses identify gene families that are important to our understanding of how dermatophytes cause chronic infections, how they interact with epithelial cells, and how they respond to the host immune response. PMID:22951933

Martinez, Diego A.; Oliver, Brian G.; Graser, Yvonne; Goldberg, Jonathan M.; Li, Wenjun; Martinez-Rossi, Nilce M.; Monod, Michel; Shelest, Ekaterina; Barton, Richard C.; Birch, Elizabeth; Brakhage, Axel A.; Chen, Zehua; Gurr, Sarah J.; Heiman, David; Heitman, Joseph; Kosti, Idit; Rossi, Antonio; Saif, Sakina; Samalova, Marketa; Saunders, Charles W.; Shea, Terrance; Summerbell, Richard C.; Xu, Jun; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Birren, Bruce W.; Cuomo, Christina A.; White, Theodore C.



Anti-microbial activity and anti-complement activity of extracts obtained from selected Hawaiian medicinal plants.  


Selected plants having a history of use in Polynesian traditional medicine for the treatment of infectious disease were investigated for anti-viral, anti-fungal and anti-bacterial activity in vitro. Extracts from Scaevola sericea, Psychotria hawaiiensis, Pipturus albidus and Eugenia malaccensis showed selective anti-viral activity against Herpes Simplex Virus-1 and 2 and Vesicular Stomatitis Virus. Aleurites moluccana extracts showed anti-bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, while Pipturus albidus and Eugenia malaccensis extracts showed growth inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. Psychotria hawaiiensis and Solanum niger inhibited growth of the fungi Microsporum canis, Trichophyton rubrum and Epidermophyton floccosum, while Ipomoea sp., Pipturus albidus, Scaevola sericea, Eugenia malaccensis, Piper methysticum, Barringtonia asiatica and Adansonia digitata extracts showed anti-fungal activity to a lesser extent. Eugenia malaccensis was also found to inhibit the classical pathway of complement suggesting that an immunological basis for its in vivo activity was identified. This study has confirmed some of the ethnobotanical reports of Hawaiian medicinal plants having curative properties against infections using biological assays in vitro. PMID:8786654

Locher, C P; Burch, M T; Mower, H F; Berestecky, J; Davis, H; Van Poel, B; Lasure, A; Vanden Berghe, D A; Vlietinck, A J



UV susceptibility and negative phototropism of dermatophytes.  


High doses of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) have well-known inhibitory effects upon dermatophytes. In the present study, the effect of repetitive low doses of UVR on mycelial growth of dermatophytes was tested. Pellets of Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis were placed between two thin layers of Sabouraud glucose agar. Obverse, reverse or both sides of these 'sandwich' agars were irradiated for 10 days twice daily with 0.13 or 0.17 J cm-2 UVB. To simulate microaerophilic conditions, one or both agar sides were covered by transparent airtight plastic lids. In addition, T. rubrum was also grown as usual on plates of Sabouraud glucose agar without any covering, and irradiated on its obverse side twice daily with UVA (13.5 J cm-2), UVB (0.17, 0.34 or 0.69 J cm-2) or infrared light, or once only with 3.8-15.1 J cm-2 UVB. As a result, thallus diameters of all strains were found to be reduced by repetitive UVB irradiation under both aerobic and microaerophilic growth conditions. T. rubrum was unaffected by infrared irradiation, responded with an increased pigmentation to UVA (13.5 J cm-2 twice daily) and was inhibited by a single dose of 15.1 J cm-2 UVB. Negative phototropism of dermatophytes is a new observation. It may be biologically relevant as a mechanism to evade harmful doses of UVR. PMID:8531931

Brasch, J; Menz, A



Interkingdom Gene Transfer of a Hybrid NPS/PKS from Bacteria to Filamentous Ascomycota  

PubMed Central

Nonribosomal peptides (NRPs) and polyketides (PKs) are ecologically important secondary metabolites produced by bacteria and fungi using multidomain enzymes called nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) and polyketide synthases (PKSs), respectively. Previous phylogenetic analyses of fungal NRPSs and PKSs have suggested that a few of these genes were acquired by fungi via horizontal gene transfer (HGT) from bacteria, including a hybrid NPS/PKS found in Cochliobolus heterostrophus (Dothideomycetes, Ascomycota). Here, we identify this hybrid gene in fungi representing two additional classes of Ascomycota (Aspergillus spp., Microsporum canis, Arthroderma spp., and Trichophyton spp., Eurotiomycetes; Chaetomium spp. and Metarhizium spp., Sordariomycetes) and use phylogenetic analyses of the most highly conserved domains from NRPSs (adenylation (A) domain) and PKSs (ketoacyl synthase (KS) domain) to examine the hypothesis that the hybrid NPS7/PKS24 was acquired by fungi from bacteria via HGT relatively early in the evolution of the Pezizomycotina. Our results reveal a unique ancestry of the A domain and KS domain in the hybrid gene relative to known fungal NRPSs and PKSs, provide strong evidence for HGT of the hybrid gene from a putative bacterial donor in the Burkholderiales, and suggest the HGT event occurred early in the evolution of the filamentous Ascomycota. PMID:22140558

Lawrence, Daniel P.; Kroken, Scott; Pryor, Barry M.; Arnold, A. Elizabeth



Inhibition of dermatophytes by optical brighteners.  


The aim of this study was to investigate a possible effect of optical brighteners on the growth of dermatophytes. Typical strains of Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis and Epidermophyton floccosum were grown on agar plates containing two different brighteners of stilbenedisulfonic acid type in concentrations between 5 x 10(-5) and 1 x 10(-2) mol l-1 and their thallus diameters were compared with controls. In addition, hyphae grown with brighteners were compared with controls by fluorescence microscopy and by transmission electron microscopy. Both brighteners had a significant dose-dependent growth-suppressive effect on all dermatophytes tested, that was complete at a concentration of 10(-2) and 10(-3) mol l-1, respectively. Fluorescence microscopy of hyphae showed a pronounced fluorescence of the septal areas and a less-intense staining of the outer cell walls. Electron microscopy revealed a marked thickening and blurred contours of the cell walls grown with brighteners. These new observations relate very well to an interference of optical brighteners with the formation of normal chitin fibrils as described previously. Optical brighteners of stilbenedisulfonic acid type may be rewarding objects for the development of new antifungal agents. PMID:12870200

Brasch, J; Kreiselmaier, I; Christophers, E



Isolation and Molecular Identification of Keratinophilic Fungi from Public Parks Soil in Shiraz, Iran  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Keratinophilic fungi are an important group of fungi that live in soil. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify keratinophilic fungi from the soil of different parks in Shiraz. Materials and Methods. A total of 196 soil samples from 43 parks were collected. Isolation of the fungi was performed by hair bait technique. The isolated colonies were identified by morphologic feature of macro- and microconidia and molecular method, using DNA sequence analysis. ITS region of ribosomal DNA was amplified and the PCR products were sequenced. Results. 411 isolates from 22 genera were identified. Fusarium (23.8%), Chrysosporium (13.13%), Acremonium (12.65%), Penicillium (12.39%), Microsporum gypseum (1.94%), Bionectria ochroleuca (1.21%), Bipolaris spicifera (1.21%), Scedosporium apiospermum (0.82%), Phialophora reptans (0.82%), Cephalosporium curtipes (0.49%), Scedosporium dehoogii (0.24%), Ochroconis constricta (0.24%), Nectria mauritiicola (0.49%), Chaetomium (0.49%), Scopulariopsis (0.24%), Malbranchea (0.24%), and Tritirachium (0.24%) were the most important isolates. Most of the fungi were isolated from the soils with the PH range of 7 to 8. Conclusion. Our study results showed that many keratinophilic fungi isolated from the parks soil are important for public health and children are an important group at a high risk of being exposed to these fungi. PMID:23956993

Pakshir, Keyvan; Rahimi Ghiasi, Moosa; Zomorodian, Kamiar; Gharavi, Ali Reza



Sertaconazole in the treatment of pediatric patients with cutaneous dermatophyte infections.  


Sertaconazole is a new topical anti-mycotic with demonstrated efficacy against dermatophyte infections in adults. An open-label, multicenter study was conducted to assess the efficacy and tolerability of sertaconazole in children in primary care. Twenty-nine children were initially included in the study and tolerability was assessed in all of them. The 16 children examined for efficacy (8 girls and 8 boys, aged 2 to 16 years) all had culture-confirmed cutaneous mycoses. Fourteen children had tinea corporis, 1 had tinea cruris, and 1 had tinea pedis. Microsporum canis was identified in 50% of cultures and Trichophyton rubrum in 42%. Patient lesions were treated with 2% sertaconazole cream during a 2-week period. Clinical cure was achieved in 31% of patients after 1 week, 75% after 2 weeks, and 100% after 4 weeks. No local or systemic adverse effects were observed. It is concluded that once-daily topical sertaconazole is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for pediatric patients with dermatophytosis. PMID:7614526

Van Esso, D; Fajo, G; Losada, I; Vilallonga, M; Casanovas, J M; Clanxet, J; Aliaga, A



Efficacy of local herbal therapy in the management of dermatophytosis among primary school children in Cross River State, South-south Nigeria.  


As a contribution to the on-going search for alternative, available and affordable treatment of common infections in Sub-saharan Africa, the efficacy of local herbs, Senna alata(Linn) and Borreria ocymoides (Burm), in comparison with conventional drugs, griseofulvin and clotrimazole in the treatment of dermatophytosis among primary school children, was examined in the three districts of Cross River State, South-South Nigeria. Out of 840 pupils screened, 68 (8.1%) were infected, with incidence ranging from 11 (1.3%) in the southern to 33 (3.9%) in the northern districts, indicating a widespread of the infection. Specimens taken from the infected pupils and analyzed for the causative agents, showed that Trichophyton tonsurans 29 (20.4%) followed by Microsporum soudanense 24 (16.9%) was most frequent. The greater sensitivity of the isolated dermatophytes to the local plants than the chemotherapeutic drugs (control) offers some hope of treatment and control. The antifungal activity of the plants was associated with their very high levels of chemical components, saponins, anthraquinones and flavonoids. We recommend further studies on the chemical properties and safety of the plants before total dependence on them for treatment. PMID:20175416

Eja, M E; Arikpo, G E; Enyi-Idoh, K H; Etim, S E; Etta, H E



Efficacy of some synthesized thiazoles against dermatophytes.  


Twelve thiazoles and their fused derivatives were tested for their antimicrobial activity against Trichophyton rubrum, T. terrestre, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Microsporum gypseum. Most of the synthesized compounds were inhibitory to the tested fungi. The most effective compound was 5-(4-ethoxybenzylidene-4,5-dihydro-4-oxothiazol-2-yl)-N,3-diphenylbut-2-namide (3c) followed by 2-(4-oxo-4,5-dihydrothiazol-2-yl)-3-phenyl-but-2-enoic acid-(3-cyano-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-amide (2b). These compounds were more efficacious than terbinafine, the reference drug. The tested compounds caused variable reduction in the activity of keratinase of the dermatophytes, depending on the azole derivative and the test fungus. Thiazole derivatives (2b) and (3c) exhibited the highest efficacy in decreasing ergosterol biosynthesis of the tested dermatophytes. The treatment of guinea pigs with compound (3c) induced complete curing in the case of all the test dermatophytes 30days post-treatment. The percent curing for compounds (3c) and (2b) was better than the reference drug. PMID:24129248

Ouf, S A; Taleb, A M Abu; Tharwat, N A; Geweely, N S



Dermatophytosis in red pandas (Ailurus fulgens fulgens): a review of 14 cases.  


Fourteen cases of dermatophytosis were identified from medical records of red pandas (Ailurus fulgens fulgens) housed at the Knoxville Zoo between 1980 and 1996. The median age of affected animals on initial presentation was 8.5 wk (3 wk-11 mo). Clinical signs included crusting, purulent exudate, alopecia, thickening of affected skin, ulceration, and necrosis. Seven animals had mild lesions with signs restricted to crusting and/or alopecia, and six animals had more severe infections, with ulceration, skin necrosis, and purulent exudate. Five of the severely affected pandas had tail involvement. The severity of disease affecting one individual was not recorded. Dermatophytosis was confirmed by culture, cytology, histopathology, or culture followed by histopathology. Microsporum gypseum was the only fungal organism cultured. Six animals were treated for mild disease, and all clinical signs resolved. Partial tail amputation was required as part of the treatment regimen for two of the six severely affected animals, and two others had ulcerated tail lesions that left circumferential scarring after resolution of infection. Itraconazole (5 mg/kg p.o. q 12-24 hr) was the most frequently used systemic antifungal agent in animals with severe lesions. All fungal infections resolved, although one panda died from unrelated causes early in the treatment period. PMID:10749446

Kearns, K S; Pollock, C G; Ramsay, E C



Biodiversity of Keratinophilic Fungal Flora in University Campus, Jaipur, India  

PubMed Central

Background Soil is well known to support the transient or ongoing existence of keratinophilic fungi and potential source of infection for human and animals Methods: Samples were collected from 67 sites of university campus like PG study centers, playgrounds, gardens, hostels, administrative blocks, library, bank, canteen and road side for the estimation of keratinophilic fungi using the hair baiting technique. Results: Totally, 192 isolates belonging to 14 genera and 21 species were reported. Soil pH range varies from 6.5 to 9.0 pH. Most of the fungi isolated from neutral to slightly alkaline soil. Chrysosporium tropicum (20.83%) was the most predominant fungi reported from all sites. Trichophyton mentagrophytes (15.10%) was the second most commonly reported fungi. Chrysosporium indicum (11.45%), T. simii (9.37%), C.evolceanui (8.83%) T. terrestre (4.68%) and Cephaliophora irregularies (4.68%) were frequently reported. Microsporum audouinii, Paceliomyces sp., Cladosporium sp. and Sporothrix schenckii were isolated for the first time from Jaipur. Conclusion: Road sides were found most suitable for the occurrence of all most all keratinophilic fungi. Higher incidence of keratinophilic fungi was found in hostel sides followed by road sides, PG study centers and play grounds. PMID:23304673

Jain, Neetu; Sharma, Meenakshi



Antifungal activity of plant extracts against dermatophytes.  


The aqueous extracts (15 micrograms ml-1 medium) of 22 plants used in folkloric medicine in Palestine were investigated for their antifungal activity and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against nine isolates of Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton violaceum. The extract of the different plant species reduced colony growth of the three dermatophytes by 36 to 100% compared with the control treatment. Antimycotic activity of the extract against the three dermatophytes varied significantly (P < 0.05) between test plants. Extracts of Capparis spinosa and Juglans regia completely prevented growth of M. canis and T. violaceum. The most active extracts (90-100% inhibition) were those of Anagallis arvensis, C. spinosa, J. regia, Pistacia lentiscus and Ruta chalapensis against M. canis; Inula viscosa, J. regia and P. lentiscus against T. mentagrophytes; and Asphodelus luteus, A. arvensis, C. spinosa, Clematis cirrhosa, I. viscosa, J. regia, P. lentiscus, Plumbago europea, Ruscus aculeatus, Retema raetam and Salvia fruticosa against T. violaceum. The MICs of these most active plants ranged from 0.6 to 40 micrograms ml-1. The three dermatophytes differed significantly with regard to their susceptibility to plant extracts. Trichophyton violaceum was the most susceptible being completely inhibited by 50% of the extracts followed by M. canis and T. mentagrophytes which were completely inhibited by only 23 and 14% of the extracts, respectively. PMID:10680445

Ali-Shtayeh, M S; Abu Ghdeib, S I



Inhibitory effect of linalool-rich essential oil from Lippia alba on the peptidase and keratinase activities of dermatophytes.  


Abstract Lippia alba (Miller) N.E. Brown is an aromatic plant known locally as "Erva-cidreira-do-campo" that has great importance in Brazilian folk medicine. The aim of our study was to evaluate the antidermatophytic potential of linalool-rich essential oil (EO) from L. alba and analyze the ability of this EO to inhibit peptidase and keratinase activities, which are important virulence factors in dermatophytes. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of L. alba EO were 39, 156 and 312 µg/mL against Trichophyton rubrum, Epidermophyton floccosum and Microsporum gypseum, respectively. To evaluate the influence of L. alba EO on the proteolytic and keratinolytic activities of these dermatophytes, specific inhibitory assays were performed. The results indicated that linalool-rich EO from L. alba inhibited the activity of proteases and keratinases secreted from dermatophytes, and this inhibition could be a possible mechanism of action against dermatophytes. Due to the effective antidermatophytic activity of L. alba EO, further experiments should be performed to explore the potential of this linalool-rich EO as an alternative antifungal therapy. PMID:23323991

Costa, Danielle Cristina Machado; Vermelho, Alane Beatriz; Almeida, Catia Amancio; de Souza Dias, Edilma Paraguai; Cedrola, Sabrina Martins Lage; Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Alviano, Daniela Sales



Nucleotide sequence analysis of beta tubulin gene in a wide range of dermatophytes.  


We investigated the resolving power of the beta tubulin protein-coding gene (BT2) for systematic study of dermatophyte fungi. Initially, 144 standard and clinical strains belonging to 26 species in the genera Trichophyton, Microsporum, and Epidermophyton were identified by internal transcribe spacer (ITS) sequencing. Subsequently, BT2 was partially amplified in all strains, and sequence analysis performed after construction of a BT2 database that showed length ranged from approximately 723 (T. ajelloi) to 808 nucleotides (M. persicolor) in different species. Intraspecific sequence variation was found in some species, but T. tonsurans, T. equinum, T. concentricum, T. verrucosum, T. rubrum, T. violaceum, T. eriotrephon, E. floccosum, M. canis, M. ferrugineum, and M. audouinii were invariant. The sequences were found to be relatively conserved among different strains of the same species. The species with the closest resemblance were Arthroderma benhamiae and T. concentricum and T. tonsurans and T. equinum with 100% and 99.8% identity, respectively; the most distant species were M. persicolor and M. amazonicum. The dendrogram obtained from BT2 topology was almost compatible with the species concept based on ITS sequencing, and similar clades and species were distinguished in the BT2 tree. Here, beta tubulin was characterized in a wide range of dermatophytes in order to assess intra- and interspecies variation and resolution and was found to be a taxonomically valuable gene. PMID:25079222

Rezaei-Matehkolaei, Ali; Mirhendi, Hossein; Makimura, Koichi; de Hoog, G Sybren; Satoh, Kazuo; Najafzadeh, Mohammad Javad; Shidfar, Mohammad Reza



Synthesis and biological activity of peptide derivatives of iodoquinazolinones/nitroimidazoles.  


Two substituted quinazolinyl/imidazolyl-salicylic acids 5, 6 were synthesized by the reaction of 6-iodo-2-methylbenzoxazin-4-one/5-nitroimidazole with 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA). Coupling of compounds 5 and 6 with different amino acid ester hydrochlorides, dipeptide and tripeptide methyl esters yielded novel quinazolino/imidazolopeptide derivatives 5a-f and 6a-g. The chemical structures of all newly synthesized compounds were confirmed by means of FT-IR, (1)H- and (13)C-NMR, MSand elemental analysis. Selected peptide ester derivatives were further hydrolyzed by using lithium hydroxide (LiOH) to afford the corresponding acid derivatives 5ba-da and 6e(a)-g(a). All peptide derivatives were assayed for antimicrobial and anthelmintic activities against eight pathogenic microbes and three earthworm species. Among the tested compounds, 5e,5d, 6e and their hydrolyzed analogs 5d(a) and 6e(a) exhibited higher antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Candida albicans, and 5(a),6g and 6g(a) displayed better antifungal activity against the dermatophytes Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum audouinii. Moreover, 6f and its hydrolyzed derivative6f(a) showed good anthelmintic activity against Megascoplex konkanensis, Pontoscotex corethruses and Eudrilus eugeniea at dose of 2 mg mL(-1). PMID:18463598

Dahiya, Rajiv; Kumar, Anil; Yadav, Rakesh



Argentinean propolis from Zuccagnia punctata Cav. (Caesalpinieae) exudates: phytochemical characterization and antifungal activity.  


This paper reports the in vitro antifungal activity of propolis extracts from the province of Tucuman (Argentina) as well as the identification of their main antifungal compounds and botanical origin. The antifungal activity was determined by the microdilution technique, using reference microorganisms and clinical isolates. All dermatophytes and yeasts tested were strongly inhibited by different propolis extracts (MICs between 16 and 125 microg mL(-1)). The most susceptible species were Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Trichophyton rubrum. The main bioactive compounds were 2',4'-dihydroxy-3'-methoxychalcone 2 and 2',4'-dihydroxychalcone 3. Both displayed strong activity against clinical isolates of T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes (MICs and MFCs between 1.9 and 2.9 microg mL(-1)). Additionally, galangin 5, pinocembrin 6, and 7-hydroxy-8-methoxyflavanone 9 were isolated from propolis samples and Zuccagnia punctata exudates, showing moderate antifungal activity. This is the first study matching the chemical profile of Z. punctata Cav. exudates with their corresponding propolis, giving strong evidence on the botanical origin of the studied propolis. PMID:19916546

Agüero, María Belén; Gonzalez, Mariela; Lima, Beatriz; Svetaz, Laura; Sánchez, Marianela; Zacchino, Susana; Feresin, Gabriela Egly; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Palermo, Jorge; Wunderlin, Daniel; Tapia, Alejandro



Argentinean Andean propolis associated with the medicinal plant Larrea nitida Cav. (Zygophyllaceae). HPLC-MS and GC-MS characterization and antifungal activity.  


The chemical profile and botanical origin of Andean Argentinian propolis were studied by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS and GC-MS techniques as well as the antifungal activity according to CLSI protocols. Dermatophytes and yeasts tested were strongly inhibited by propolis extracts (MICs between 31.25 and 125 ?g/mL). The main antifungal compounds were: 3'methyl-nordihydroguaiaretic acid (MNDGA) 1, nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) 2 and a NDGA derivative 3, showing strong activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum and Microsporum gypseum (MICs between 15.6 and 31.25 ?g/mL). The lignans 1 and 2 showed activities against clinical isolates of Candidas spp., Cryptococcus spp., T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes (MICs and MFCs between 31.25 and 62.5 ?g/mL). The lignan and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) profiles from propolis matched with those of exudates of Larrea nitida providing strong evidences on its botanical origin. These results support that Argentinian Andean propolis are a valuable natural product with potential to improve human health. Six compounds (1-6) were isolated from propolis for the first time, while compounds 1 and 3-6 were reported for first time as constituents of L. nitida Cav. PMID:21600954

Agüero, María Belén; Svetaz, Laura; Sánchez, Marianela; Luna, Lorena; Lima, Beatriz; López, María Liza; Zacchino, Susana; Palermo, Jorge; Wunderlin, Daniel; Feresin, Gabriela Egly; Tapia, Alejandro



Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Gentianella multicaulis collected on the Andean Slopes of San Juan Province, Argentina.  


The infusion of the aerial parts of Gentianella multicaulis (Gillies ex Griseb.) Fabris (Gentianaceae), locally known as 'nencia', is used in San Juan Province, Argentina, as stomachic and as a bitter tonic against digestive and liver problems. The bioassay-guided isolation of G. multicaulis extracts and structural elucidation of the main compounds responsible for the antifungal and free radical scavenging activities were performed. The extracts had strong free radical scavenging effects in the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay (45-93% at 10 microg/mL) and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay at 200 microg/mL. Demethylbellidifolin (4) had high antioxidant activity in the DPPH and FRAP assay. The dermatophytes Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and T. rubrum were moderately inhibited by the different extracts (MIC values of 125-250 microg/mL). Demethylbellidifolin (4), bellidifolin (5), and isobellidifolin (6) showed an antifungal effect (MIC values of 50 microg/mL), while swerchirin (3) was less active with a MIC value of 100 microg/mL. In addition, oleanolic acid (1) and ursolic acid (2) were also isolated. These findings demonstrate that Gentianella multicaulis collected in the mountains of the Province of San Juan, Argentina, is an important source of compounds with antifungal and antioxidant activities. PMID:22486039

Lima, Beatriz; Sánchez, Marianela; Luna, Lorena; Agüero, María B; Zacchino, Susana; Filippa, Eva; Palermo, Jorge A; Tapia, Alejandro; Feresin, Gabriela E



Essential oils of medicinal plants from the central andes of Argentina: chemical composition, and antifungal, antibacterial, and insect-repellent activities.  


The antifungal, antibacterial, and insect-repellent activities of the essential oils (EOs) of Acantholippia seriphioides, Artemisia mendozana, Gymnophyton polycephalum, Satureja parvifolia, Tagetes mendocina, and Lippia integrifolia, collected in the Central Andes area, province of San Juan, Argentina, were investigated. The dermatophytes Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and T. rubrum were inhibited by the EOs of G. polycephalum, L. integrifolia, and S. parvifolia, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) between 31.2 and 1000??g/ml. Moreover, all EOs presented moderate activity against the bacteria tested, and the L. integrifolia and G. polycephalum EOs showed excellent repellent properties against Triatoma infestans, the Chagas disease vector, with repellency values between 60 and 100%. The A. seriphioides, G. polycephalum, and L. integrifolia EOs, obtained by hydrodistillation, were characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. The highest number of components (40) was identified in L. integrifolia EO, which, along with that of A. seriphioides, contained important amounts of oxygenated monoterpenes (44.35 and 29.72%, resp.). Thymol (27.61%) and carvacrol (13.24%) were the main components of A. seriphioides EO, and borneol, lippifoli-1(6)-en-5-one, and terpinen-4-ol (>8.5%) were the principal compounds of L. integrifolia EO. These results support the idea that oxygenated monoterpenes are the bioactive fractions of the EOs. Finally, the study shows that these Andean species might be used to treat superficial fungal infections and to improve the local Chagas disease situation by vector-control. PMID:21560241

Lima, Beatriz; López, Sandra; Luna, Lorena; Agüero, María B; Aragón, Liliana; Tapia, Alejandro; Zacchino, Susana; López, María L; Zygadlo, Julio; Feresin, Gabriela E



A new antifungal and antiprotozoal depside from the Andean lichen Protousnea poeppigii.  


Extracts from the Andean lichens Protousnea poeppigii and Usnea florida displayed antimicrobial activity against the pathogenic fungi Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and T. rubrum with MIC values between 50 and 100 microg/mL. From the active extracts, four main metabolites were isolated and identified as the new depside, isodivaricatic acid, and the known metabolites 5-propylresorcinol, divaricatinic acid and usnic acid. Isodivaricatic acid and divaricatinic acid presented antifungal effect towards M. gypseum with a MIC of 50 microg/mL and against T. mentagrophytes and T. rubrum and with MIC values of 50 and 100 microg/mL, respectively. The new isodivaricatic acid was active towards Leishmania amazonensis, Leishmania brasiliensis and Leishmania infantum promastigotes with 100% lysis at 100 microg/mL.The activity of the new compound decreased on acetylation of the hydroxy groups as well as on methylation of the acid function. The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic means. The spectroscopic data of isodivaricatic acid are presented here for the first time. PMID:18058986

Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Tapia, Alejandro; Lima, Beatriz; Pertino, Mariano; Sortino, Maximiliano; Zacchino, Susana; Arias, Antonieta Rojas de; Feresin, Gabriela Egly



Foot infections due to Hendersonula toruloidea and Scytalidium hyalinum in coal miners.  


A total of 250 coal miners were screened for mycotic skin infections. Sixty-six (34.8%) miners had clinical lesions on their feet which proved to be of mycotic etiology by direct microscopy and culture. Hendersonula toruloidea, the commonest etiological agent, was the sole agent recovered from 23 (34.8%) of the positive cases and was also isolated from three (4.5%) cases of mixed infection with dermatophytes (two cases with Trichophyton rubrum and one with Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes). Scytalidium hyalinum was recovered as the sole causal agent in four (6.1%) patients and from one case of mixed infection with T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes. The dermatophytes isolated as sole etiological agents included T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes (13 isolates) T. rubrum (10), Trichophyton tonsurans (5), Epidermophyton floccosum (4) and Microsporum gypseum (3). The toe web was invariably involved in all cases of H. toruloidea and S. hyalinum infection and was also the commonest site of infection by dermatophytes. Occasionally the sole, toe and finger nails were also involved. Other body sites were infrequently involved and then only in infections caused by dermatophytes. The epidemiology of H. toruloidea and S. hyalinum infections is reviewed. PMID:2778576

Gugnani, H C; Oyeka, C A



Antifungal susceptibilities of dermatophytic agents isolated from clinical specimens.  


The aim of this study was to investigate the susceptibility to four antifungal agents: ketoconazole, terbinafine, itraconazole and fluconazole, of the different species of dermatophyte strains isolated from clinical specimens. A total of 128 specimens were collected from toe nail, foot, inguinal region, trunk, hands and head. The dermatophytes tested included Trichophyton rubrum 108 (84.4%), Trichophyton mentagrophytes 11 (8.6%), Epidermophyton floccosum 5 (3.9%), Microsporum canis 2 (1.5%) and Trichophyton tonsurans 2 (1.5%). The mean minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for the five species of dermatophytes ranged between 0.09-1.12 microg/mL for ketoconazole, 0.04-0.27 microg/mL for terbinafine, 0.08-0.43 microg/mL for itraconazole and 16.18-24.0 microg/mL for fluconazole. In vitro analysis of antifungal activity of these agents would also allow for the comparison between different systemic antifungals, which in turn may clarify the reasons for the lack of clinical response or serve as an effective therapy for patients with chronic infection. PMID:16048753

Cetinkaya, Zafer; Kiraz, Nuri; Karaca, Semsettin; Kulac, Mustafa; Ciftci, Ihsan H; Aktepe, Orhan C; Altindis, Mustafa; Kiyildi, Nilay; Piyade, Meltem



Inhibitors of the fungal cell wall. Synthesis of 4-aryl-4-N-arylamine-1-butenes and related compounds with inhibitory activities on beta(1-3) glucan and chitin synthases.  


As part of our project devoted to the search for antifungal agents, which act via a selective mode of action, we synthesized a series of new 4-aryl- or 4-alkyl-N-arylamine-1-butenes and transformed some of them into 2-substituted 4-methyl-tetrahydroquinolines and quinolines by using a novel three-step synthesis. Results obtained in agar dilution assays have shown that 4-aryl homoallylamines not possessing halogen in their structures, tetrahydroquinolines and quinolines, display a range of antifungal properties in particular against Epidermophyton floccosum and Microsporum canis. Regarding the mode of action, all active compounds showed in vitro inhibitory activities against beta(1-3) glucan-synthase and mainly against chitin-synthase. These enzymes catalyze the synthesis of beta(1-3) glucan and chitin, respectively, major polymers of the fungal cell wall. Since fungal but not mammalian cells are encased in a cell wall, its inhibition may represent a useful mode of action for these antifungal compounds. PMID:10819157

Urbina, J M; Cortés, J C; Palma, A; López, S N; Zacchino, S A; Enriz, R D; Ribas, J C; Kouznetzov, V V



Historical aspects of dermatomycoses.  


Physicians have been aware of superficial fungal infections for centuries, but the causal agents and treatments of fungal infections remained unknown until the mid-1800s, when numerous important findings were reported. Among the relevant researchers in the field of superficial mycoses were Remak, who found the fungal nature of favus in 1837; Berg, who reported oral candidosis in 1841; and Wilkinson, who described vaginal candidosis in 1849. Tinea versicolor was described clinically in 1846 by Eichstedt, and its etiologic agent was identified in 1853. Beigel reported white piedra in 1856, and Cerqueira, tinea nigra in 1891. The book Les Tiegnes was published by Sabouraud in 1910, and black piedra infection was described by Horta in 1911. In 1927, Nannizzi reported the description of the sexual state of Microsporum gypseum. The current classification of dermatophytes was published by Emmons in 1934, and the taxonomy of yeast fungi was described by Lodder and Kreger-van Rij in 1952. Finally, the successful treatment of tinea capitis with griseofulvin by Gentles in 1958 saved many patients with tinea capitis from permanent hair loss, a common side effect after treatment with thallium. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. PMID:20347652

Negroni, Ricardo



Antibacterial and antifungal activity of Avarone and Avarol.  


The sesquiterpenoid hydroquinone and quinone, Avarol and Avarone, were previously found to be potent antitumor agents (Müller et al., 1984). In the present study it is reported that in aqueous solution (pH 7.2), in the presence of dimethylsulfoxide, Avarol is converted to Avarone. Avarone and to a smaller extent also Avarol were active against a variety of grampositive bacterial species. The highest activity was determined for Streptococcus pneumoniae and Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (MIC 0.781 mg/l). The antibacterial activity can be augmented 2 to 4-fold by lowering the pH in the culture medium from 7.0 to 6.0. The efficiency of Avarone and Avarol was abolished in the presence of serum. No antibacterial activity was determined in gramnegative bacterial species. In addition, Avarol and to a smaller extent also Avarone displayed an antifungal activity on Trichophyton species and Microsporum canis (MIC: 15.6-62.5 mg/l), while Avarone and not Avarol was active on Aspergillus niger, no activity was found against Candida species. These data indicate that the antitumor agents Avarol/Avarone display also antibacterial- and antifungal activities against a limited range of microorganisms. PMID:3841441

Seibert, G; Raether, W; Dogovi?, N; Gasi?, M J; Zahn, R K; Müller, W E



Anti-dermatophytic activity of marine sponge, Sigmadocia carnosa (Dendy) on clinically isolated fungi  

PubMed Central

Objective To screen the anti-fungal effects and find out the active metabolites from sponge, Sigmadocia carnosa (S. carnosa) against four dermatophytic fungi. Methods The methanol, ethyl acetate and acetone extract of marine sponge, S. carnosa was examined against Trichophyton mentagrophytes (T. mentagrophytes), Trichophyton rubrum (T. rubrum), Epidermophyton floccosum (E. floccosum) and Microsporum gypseum (M. gypseum) and qualitative analysed to find out the active molecules. Results The methanol extract of sponge was expressed significant activity than ethyl acetate and acetone. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of methanol extract of sponge that resulted in complete growth inhibition of T. mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, E. floccosum and M. gypseum were found to 125, 250, 250 and 250 µg/mL respectively. But, 100 % inhibition of fungal spore germination was observed in T. mentagrophytes at 500 µg/mL concentration followed by T. rubrum, E. floccosum and M. gypseum at 1 000 µg/mL concentration. Other two extracts showed weak anti spore germination activity against the tested dermatophytic fungi. Methanol extracts showed presence of terpenoids, steroids, alkaloids, saponins and glycosides. Conclusion Based on the literature, this is the first study which has conducted to inhibit the growth and spore germination of dermatophytic fungi with S. carnosa. Further research also needs to purify and characterize the secondary metabolites from the sponge, S. carnosa for the valuable source of novel substances for future drug discovery. PMID:23569985

Dhayanithi, NB; Kumar, TT Ajith; Kalaiselvam, M; Balasubramanian, T; Sivakumar, N



Evaluation of antifungal activity in essential oil of the Syzygium aromaticum (L.) by extraction, purification and analysis of its main component eugenol  

PubMed Central

Antifungal properties of some essential oils have been well documented. Clove oil is reported to have strong antifungal activity against many fungal species. In this study we have evaluated antifungal potential of essential oil of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) against some common fungal pathogens of plants and animals namely, Fusarium moniliforme NCIM 1100, Fusarium oxysporum MTCC 284, Aspergillus sp., Mucor sp., Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum gypseum. All fungal species were found to be inhibited by the oil when tested through agar well diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for all the species. Column chromatography was performed to separate the eugenol rich fraction from clove oil. Out of seven fractions maximum activity was obtained in column fraction II. TLC and HPLC data confirmed presence of considerable Eugenol in fraction II and clove oil. Microscopic study on effect of clove oil and column fraction II on spores of Mucor sp. and M. gypseum showed distortion and shrinkage while it was absent in other column fractions. So it can be concluded that the antifungal action of clove oil is due to its high eugenol content. PMID:24031751

Rana, Inder Singh; Rana, Aarti Singh; Rajak, Ram Charan



Metal-based carboxamide-derived compounds endowed with antibacterial and antifungal activity.  


A series of three bioactive thiourea (carboxamide) derivatives, N-(dipropylcarbamothioyl)-thiophene-2-carboxamide (L(1)), N-(dipropylcarbamothioyl)-5-methylthiophene-2-carboxamide (L(2)) and 5-bromo-N-(dipropylcarbamothioyl)furan-2-carboxamide (L(3)) and their cobalt(II), copper(II), nickel(II) and zinc(II) complexes (1)-(12) have been synthesized and characterized by their IR,(1)H-NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and elemental analysis data. The Crystal structure of one of the ligand, N-(dipropylcarbamothioyl)thiophene-2-carboxamide (L(1)) and its nickel(II) and copper(II) complexes were determined from single crystal X-ray diffraction data. All the ligands and metal(II) complexes have been subjected to in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activity against six bacterial species (Escherichia coli. Shigella flexneri. Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Salmonella typhi. Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and for antifungal activity against six fungal strains (Trichophyton longifusus. Candida albicans. Aspergillus flavus. Microsporum canis. Fusarium solani and Candida glabrata). The in vitro antibacterial and antifungal bioactivity data showed the metal(II) complexes to be more potent than the parent ligands against one or more bacterial and fungal strains. PMID:23914928

Hanif, Muhammad; Chohan, Zahid H; Winum, Jean-Yves; Akhtar, Javeed



Metal based new triazoles: Their synthesis, characterization and antibacterial/antifungal activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of new triazoles and their oxovanadium(IV) complexes have been synthesized, characterized and evaluated for antibacterial/antifungal properties. The new Schiff bases ligands (L1)-(L5) were prepared by the condensation reaction of 3,5-diamino-1,2,4-triazole with 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde, pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde, pyridine-2-carboxaldehyde, 2-acetyl pyridine and 2-methoxy benzaldehyde. The structures of the ligands have been established on the basis of their physical, spectral (IR, 1H and 13C NMR and mass spectrometry) and elemental analytical data. The prepared ligands were used to synthesize their oxovanadium(IV) complexes (1)-(5) which were also characterized by their physical, spectral and analytical data and proposed to have a square pyramidal geometry. The ligands and their complexes were screened for in vitro antibacterial activity against six bacterial species such as, Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis and for in vitro antifungal activity against six fungal strains, Trichophyton longifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani, and Candida glabrata. Cytotoxic nature of the compounds was also reported using brine shrimp bioassay method against Artemia salina.

Sumrra, Sajjad H.; Chohan, Zahid H.



Epidemiology of tinea capitis among school-age children in Meiganga, Cameroon.  


Tinea capitis (TC) commonly called scalp ringworm is a worldwide concern and a public health problem in Africa. This study aimed at determining the epidemiologic profile of TC among school-aged children in the savanna zone of Cameroon. All children present at school during this study period, August 2011-July 2012, were examined for signs suggestive of TC. Children not registered at school were excluded from the study. Pathologic specimens were taken from suspected head lesions and cultured. Amongst the 4601 children, average age 10.7±0.16 years, 377 presented with suggestive TC lesions giving a prevalence of 8.1%. The proportion of boys with TC was (63.7%) higher than in girls (36.3%) (P?0.05). TC manifestations varied; small plaques of alopecia 59.26% were the most frequent. Communal living was the most incriminated risk factor. Three hundred and thirty six isolates were obtained in culture. The prevalence was significantly higher (P<0.05) in age range between 8 and 12 years, followed by that between 13 and 15. The most prevalent isolate was T. soudannense 56.8%, followed by T. rubrum 29.2%. Only 6.0% of the isolates belonged to the genus Microsporum. PMID:24746727

Kechia, F A; Kouoto, E A; Nkoa, T; Nweze, E I; Fokoua, D C M; Fosso, S; Somo, M R



Trichophyton verrucosum infection in cattle farms of Umbria (Central Italy) and transmission to humans.  


Trichophyton verrucosum is the most common ringworm agent in cattle. Epidemiology of cattle dermatophytoses in Central Italy is not clear. Its diffusion among cattle and herdsmen was investigated in 20 Umbrian farms, Central Italy. Hairs and scales were taken from 395 animals and 31 workers. Typical ringworm was present in 71.7% of cattle under 6 months and in 11% of animals over 6 months. T. verrucosum was isolated from 98.9% of symptomatic heads and was the most prevalent dermatophyte in all herds investigated (isolated in 18 of the 20 farms). T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes was found in 16 symptomatic and in eight asymptomatic young animals. Prevalence of asymptomatic carriers of both species was significantly higher in young heads (21.1% vs. 8.1%) and the age below 6 months was the only statistically significant risk factor associated with dermatophytosis. About the workers, all the 14 men with lesions were positive for T. verrucosum; copresence of T. verrucosum and Microsporum gypseum was noticed in one case. Results indicate a high diffusion of T. verrucosum among both animals and humans in Umbrian farms and confirm the dermatophyte infection as a public health problem. Periodic epidemiological surveys, treatment of sick livestock and workers, cleaning/sanitisation of herds and vaccination programmes may be useful in controlling the infection. PMID:24621382

Agnetti, Francesco; Righi, Cecilia; Scoccia, Eleonora; Felici, Andrea; Crotti, Silvia; Moretta, Iolanda; Moretti, Annabella; Maresca, Carmen; Troiani, Lucas; Papini, Manuela



Survey of Dermatophytes in Stray Cats with and without Skin Lesions in Northern Italy  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dermatophytes in stray cats with and without clinical lesions from different colonies in rural and urban areas of Milan and surroundings in northern Italy. Stray cats (273) were caught during a trap-neuter-release (TNR) program conducted in different colonies of northern Italy in both rural and urban areas. Each cat was examined in dark environment with a Wood's lamp prior to sample collection. Hair or scales exhibiting typical fluorescence were removed with a pair of sterile hemostats and cultured. The hair of all cats was then sampled by Mackenzie modified brush technique regardless of the presence or absence of skin lesions attributable to dermatophytosis. All the hair samples were subjected to fungal culture. 15 cats were positive (5.5%). Microsporum canis was the most common dermatophyte isolated (13/15). The only other isolated dermatophyte was Trichophyton mentagrophytes (2/15). Our estimated prevalence of dermatophytes in stray cats was much lower than other Italian studies on the same population. PMID:24955280

Proverbio, Daniela; Perego, Roberta; Spada, Eva; Bagnagatti de Giorgi, Giada; Della Pepa, Alessandra



Trichophyton species of Arthroderma benhamiae - a new infectious agent in dermatology.  


In Germany, infections due to the zoophilic dermatophyte Trichophyton (T.) species of Arthroderma benhamiae are being more frequently diagnosed. The source of infection of this emerging pathogen overlaps with that of the zoophilic species T. interdigitale. The most common source are guinea pigs. T. species of Arthroderma benhamiae causes inflammatory dermatophytosis in children and adolescents. In addition to tinea capitis, it may cause both tinea corporis, tinea manus and frequently tinea faciei. In Germany, T. species of Arthroderma benhamiae is a frequent zoophilic dermatophyte, which in regions is probably more frequent than Microsporum canis. The mycological identification of the isolates with their yellow stained colonies is based on their macroscopic and microscopic features. However, some exhibit colony features consistent with those of T. interdigitale. These strains only can be identified unambiguously by means of molecular techniques. Using detection methods such as PCR-ELISA or real-time PCR, the dermatophyte can be identified directly from clinical material. Sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of the ribosomal DNA has been approved as culture confirmation test for T. species of Arthroderma benhamiae. In addition, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS) is useful. Widespread dermatophytosis due to T. species of Arthroderma benhamiae, in particular of tinea capitis, requires oral antifungal agents. Terbinafine is most effective, alternatives are fluconazole and itraconazole. PMID:24981469

Nenoff, Pietro; Uhrlaß, Silke; Krüger, Constanze; Erhard, Marcel; Hipler, Uta-Christina; Seyfarth, Florian; Herrmann, Jürgen; Wetzig, Tino; Schroedl, Wieland; Gräser, Yvonne



Extraction, separation and isolation of volatiles from Vitex agnus-castus L. (Verbenaceae) wild species of Sardinia, Italy, by supercritical CO2.  


Isolation of volatile concentrates from leaves, flowers and fruits of Vitex agnus-castus L. have been obtained by supercritical extraction with carbon dioxide. The composition of the volatile concentrates has been analysed by GC/MS. In all plant organs, the extracts are composed chiefly of alpha-pinene, sabinene, 1,8-cineole, alpha-terpinyl acetate, (E)-caryophyllene, (E)-beta-farnesene, bicyclogermacrene, spathulenol and manool. The main difference observed was in the content of sclarene, which was not present in the samples from flowers or fruits. To complete the investigation, a comparison with the hydrodistilled oil has been carried out. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal lethal concentration were used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the oils against dermatophyte strains (Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis, T. rubrum, M. gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum). Antifungal activity of the leaf essential oil was the highest, with MIC values of 0.64 microL mL(-1) for most of the strains. PMID:20397107

Marongiu, Bruno; Piras, Alessandra; Porcedda, Silvia; Falconieri, Danilo; Goncalves, Maria J; Salgueiro, Ligia; Maxia, Andrea; Lai, Roberta



Antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic properties of some sulfonamide-derived chromones.  


A series of antibacterial and antifungal sulfonamide (sulfanilamide, sulfaguanidine, sulfamethaxozole, 4-aminoethylbenzene-sulfonamide and 4-amino-6-trifluoromethyl-benzene-1,3-disulfonamide) derived chromones, previously reported as inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase, have been screened for in-vitro antibacterial activity against four Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi and Shigella flexener) and two Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) bacterial strains, and for in-vitro antifungal activity against Trichophyton longifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani, Candida glaberata. All compounds (1)-(5) showed significant antibacterial activity against all four Gram-negative species and both Gram-positive species. However, three of them, (1), (4) and (5), were found to be comparatively much more active compared to (2) and (3). Of these, (5) was found to be the most active one. For antifungal activity, generally compounds (1) and (2) showed significant activity against more than three strains whereas (3)-(5) also showed significant activity against varied fungal strains. In the brine shrimp bioassay for in-vitro cytotoxic properties, only two compounds, (4) and (5) displayed potent cytotoxic activity, LD50 = 2.732 x 10(-4)M) and LD50 = 2.290 x 10(-4)M) respectively, against Artemia salina. PMID:16789431

Chohan, Zahid H; Rauf, Abdul; Naseer, Muhammad M; Somra, Muhammad A; Supuran, Claudiu T



Metal based new triazoles: their synthesis, characterization and antibacterial/antifungal activities.  


A series of new triazoles and their oxovanadium(IV) complexes have been synthesized, characterized and evaluated for antibacterial/antifungal properties. The new Schiff bases ligands (L(1))-(L(5)) were prepared by the condensation reaction of 3,5-diamino-1,2,4-triazole with 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde, pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde, pyridine-2-carboxaldehyde, 2-acetyl pyridine and 2-methoxy benzaldehyde. The structures of the ligands have been established on the basis of their physical, spectral (IR, (1)H and (13)C NMR and mass spectrometry) and elemental analytical data. The prepared ligands were used to synthesize their oxovanadium(IV) complexes (1)-(5) which were also characterized by their physical, spectral and analytical data and proposed to have a square pyramidal geometry. The ligands and their complexes were screened for in vitro antibacterial activity against six bacterial species such as, Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis and for in vitro antifungal activity against six fungal strains, Trichophyton longifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani, and Candida glabrata. Cytotoxic nature of the compounds was also reported using brine shrimp bioassay method against Artemia salina. PMID:22982389

Sumrra, Sajjad H; Chohan, Zahid H



Seasonal 4-year investigation into the role of the alpine marmot (Marmota marmota) as a carrier of zoophilic dermatophytes.  


Two hundred and six samples of alpine marmot (Mamota marmota) hair (148 from adults and 58 from young subjects), 102 soil samples from the entrances to the burrows of the above individuals and 20 control specimens (obtained from adjoining areas away from the burrow systems where the rodents are not usually present) were examined from May 1994 to September 1997. Seventy-five isolates belonging to six species of dermatophytes were found in 69 of the 206 hair samples examined (33.5%). Two species were zoophilic, Microsporum canis (7.8%) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (11.2.%), and four geophilic, Microsporum cookei (2%), M. gypseum (5.8%), Trichophyton ajelloi (3.9%) and T. terrestre (5.8%). The prevalence of each species in the hair samples did not change significantly according to year, season (chi-squared test [limit significance: P <0.05] gives no significant values [P>0.05] both in year and in season comparison) or age/sex (adult versus juvenile: P=0.1; male versus female: P=0.8) of the marmot. Twenty-three of the 102 soil samples (22.5%) were positive for dermatophytes found in the hair of marmots from the same burrow systems. Five of the 20 control soil samples (25%) were positive for dermatophytes. One isolate of M. gypseum, three of T. terrestre and one of T. mentagrophytes were obtained. Compared with other free-ranging rodent hosts studied in Europe, this mycoflora is characterized by the presence and relatively high prevalence of M. canis, frequently reported in symptomatic and asymptomatic cats, dogs and fur animals. M. canis has not been isolated in other rodents in the wild. However, it has recently been reported in asymptomatic foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from northern Italy. The close link between V vulpes and M. marmota, with the former representing the most important mammal predator of the latter in the Alps (only a fraction of the predator's attacks result in the death of the rodent) may have favoured the adaptation of M. canis to this rodent host. The stable character of the M. canis/M. marmota relationship (no seasonally or annually related difference in the prevalence of this dermatophyte has been found) suggests the inclusion of the alpine marmot in the reservoir of this zoophilic pathogenic agent. In this situation, hibernation in labyrinthine burrow systems, where temperature and moisture ranges are quite uniform the whole year round, may favour the viability of M. canis arthroconidia, whose survival in mountain habitat might otherwise be compromised. This seems to be confirmed by the fact that the fungus has never been found in the control samples collected at a distance of 300 m from the outer edge of the sampled burrow systems. PMID:16110784

Gallo, M G; Lanfranchi, P; Poglayen, G; Calderola, S; Menzano, A; Ferroglio, E; Peano, A



Infectious diseases in large-scale cat hoarding investigations.  


Animal hoarders accumulate animals in over-crowded conditions without adequate nutrition, sanitation, and veterinary care. As a result, animals rescued from hoarding frequently have a variety of medical conditions including respiratory infections, gastrointestinal disease, parasitism, malnutrition, and other evidence of neglect. The purpose of this study was to characterize the infectious diseases carried by clinically affected cats and to determine the prevalence of retroviral infections among cats in large-scale cat hoarding investigations. Records were reviewed retrospectively from four large-scale seizures of cats from failed sanctuaries from November 2009 through March 2012. The number of cats seized in each case ranged from 387 to 697. Cats were screened for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in all four cases and for dermatophytosis in one case. A subset of cats exhibiting signs of upper respiratory disease or diarrhea had been tested for infections by PCR and fecal flotation for treatment planning. Mycoplasma felis (78%), calicivirus (78%), and Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (55%) were the most common respiratory infections. Feline enteric coronavirus (88%), Giardia (56%), Clostridium perfringens (49%), and Tritrichomonas foetus (39%) were most common in cats with diarrhea. The seroprevalence of FeLV and FIV were 8% and 8%, respectively. In the one case in which cats with lesions suspicious for dermatophytosis were cultured for Microsporum canis, 69/76 lesional cats were culture-positive; of these, half were believed to be truly infected and half were believed to be fomite carriers. Cats from large-scale hoarding cases had high risk for enteric and respiratory infections, retroviruses, and dermatophytosis. Case responders should be prepared for mass treatment of infectious diseases and should implement protocols to prevent transmission of feline or zoonotic infections during the emergency response and when transferring the rescued cats to other shelters or to adopters. PMID:24934262

Polak, K C; Levy, J K; Crawford, P C; Leutenegger, C M; Moriello, K A



Essential oil of Azorella cryptantha collected in two different locations from San Juan Province, Argentina: chemical variability and anti-insect and antimicrobial activities.  


The essential oils (EOs) of two populations of Azorella cryptantha (Clos) Reiche, a native species from San Juan Province, were obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus and characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. The compounds identified amounted to 92.3 and 88.7% of the total oil composition for A. cryptantha from Bauchaceta (Ac-BAU) and Agua Negra (Ac-AN), respectively. The EO composition for the two populations was similar, although with differences in the identity and content of the main compounds and also in the identity of minor components. The main compounds of the Ac-BAU EO were ?-pinene, ?-thujene, sabinene, ?-cadinene, ?-cadinol, trans-?-guaiene, and ?-muurolol, while ?-pinene, ?-thujene, ?-pinene, ?-cadinene, ?-cadinol, ?-cadinene, ?-muurolol, and a not identified compound were the main constituents of the Ac-AN EO, which also contained 3.0% of oxygenated monoterpenes. The repellent activity on Triatoma infestans nymphs was 100 and 92% for the Ac-AN and Ac-BAU EOs, respectively. Regarding the toxic effects on Ceratitis capitata, the EOs were very active with LD(50) values lower than 11 ?g/fly. The dermatophytes Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum, and T. mentagrophytes and the bacterial strains Escherichia coli LM(1), E. coli LM(2), and Yersinia enterocolitica PI were more sensitive toward the Ac-AN EO (MIC 125 ?g/ml) than toward the Ac-BAU EO. This is the first report on the composition of A. cryptantha EO and its anti-insect and antimicrobial properties. PMID:22899606

López, Sandra; Lima, Beatriz; Aragón, Liliana; Espinar, Luis Ariza; Tapia, Alejandro; Zacchino, Susana; Zygadlo, Julio; Feresin, Gabriela Egly; López, María Liza



Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight (MALDI-TOF) Mass Spectrometry Using the Vitek MS System for Rapid and Accurate Identification of Dermatophytes on Solid Cultures.  


The objective of this research was to extend the Vitek MS fungal knowledge base version 2.0.0 to allow the robust identification of clinically relevant dermatophytes, using a variety of strains, incubation times, and growth conditions. First, we established a quick and reliable method for sample preparation to obtain a reliable and reproducible identification independently of the growth conditions. The Vitek MS V2.0.0 fungal knowledge base was then expanded using 134 well-characterized strains belonging to 17 species in the genera Epidermophyton, Microsporum, and Trichophyton. Cluster analysis based on mass spectrum similarity indicated good species discrimination independently of the culture conditions. We achieved a good separation of the subpopulations of the Trichophyton anamorph of Arthroderma benhamiae and of anthropophilic and zoophilic strains of Trichophyton interdigitale. Overall, the 1,130 mass spectra obtained for dermatophytes gave an estimated identification performance of 98.4%. The expanded fungal knowledge base was then validated using 131 clinical isolates of dermatophytes belonging to 13 taxa. For 8 taxa all strains were correctly identified, and for 3 the rate of successful identification was >90%; 75% (6/8) of the M. gypseum strains were correctly identified, whereas only 47% (18/38) of the African T. rubrum population (also called T. soudanense) were recognized accurately, with a large quantity of strains misidentified as T. violaceum, demonstrating the close relationship of these two taxa. The method of sample preparation was fast and efficient and the expanded Vitek MS fungal knowledge base reliable and robust, allowing reproducible dermatophyte identifications in the routine laboratory. PMID:25297329

De Respinis, Sophie; Monnin, Valérie; Girard, Victoria; Welker, Martin; Arsac, Maud; Cellière, Béatrice; Durand, Géraldine; Bosshard, Philipp P; Farina, Claudio; Passera, Marco; Van Belkum, Alex; Petrini, Orlando; Tonolla, Mauro



Comparison of In Vitro Antifungal Activities of Efinaconazole and Currently Available Antifungal Agents against a Variety of Pathogenic Fungi Associated with Onychomycosis  

PubMed Central

Onychomycosis is a common fungal nail infection in adults that is difficult to treat. The in vitro antifungal activity of efinaconazole, a novel triazole antifungal, was evaluated in recent clinical isolates of Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Candida albicans, common causative onychomycosis pathogens. In a comprehensive survey of 1,493 isolates, efinaconazole MICs against T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes ranged from ?0.002 to 0.06 ?g/ml, with 90% of isolates inhibited (MIC90) at 0.008 and 0.015 ?g/ml, respectively. Efinaconazole MICs against 105 C. albicans isolates ranged from ?0.0005 to >0.25 ?g/ml, with 50% of isolates inhibited (MIC50) by 0.001 and 0.004 ?g/ml at 24 and 48 h, respectively. Efinaconazole potency against these organisms was similar to or greater than those of antifungal drugs currently used in onychomycosis, including amorolfine, ciclopirox, itraconazole, and terbinafine. In 13 T. rubrum toenail isolates from onychomycosis patients who were treated daily with topical efinaconazole for 48 weeks, there were no apparent increases in susceptibility, suggesting low potential for dermatophytes to develop resistance to efinaconazole. The activity of efinaconazole was further evaluated in another 8 dermatophyte, 15 nondermatophyte, and 10 yeast species (a total of 109 isolates from research repositories). Efinaconazole was active against Trichophyton, Microsporum, Epidermophyton, Acremonium, Fusarium, Paecilomyces, Pseudallescheria, Scopulariopsis, Aspergillus, Cryptococcus, Trichosporon, and Candida and compared favorably to other antifungal drugs. In conclusion, efinaconazole is a potent antifungal with a broad spectrum of activity that may have clinical applications in onychomycosis and other mycoses. PMID:23318803

Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki; Senda, Hisato; Pillai, Radhakrishnan; Nakamura, Takashi; Sone, Daisuke; Fothergill, Annette



[2006 Epidemiological survey of dermatomycoses in Japan].  


An epidemiological survey of dermatomycoses and the causative fungus flora of dermatomycoses in Japan for 2006 was made on a total number of 63,029 outpatients who visited 16 dermatological clinics throughout Japan. The results were as follows. 1) Dermatophytosis was the most prevalent cutaneus fungal infection (7,582 cases) seen in these clinics, followed by candidiasis (842 cases) and then Malassezia infections (283 cases). 2) Among dermatophytoses, tinea pedis was the most frequent (4,779 cases : male 2,358, female 2,241), then in decreasing order, tinea unguium (2,582 cases : male 1,376, female 1,206), tinea corporis (564 cases : male 341, female 223), tinea cruris (309 cases : male 254, female 57), tinea manuum (145 cases : male 92, female 53), and tinea capitis including kerion (17 cases : male 12, female 5). 3) Tinea pedis and tinea unguium are seen to increase in the summer season, among the aged population. When compared to the last survey 2002 by clinical form, t. unguium patients increased 459 cases. 4) As the causative dermatophyte species, Trichophyton rubrum was the most frequently isolated among all dermatophyte infections except tinea capitis. Microsporum canis was slightly increased. M.gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum are small number. T.tonsurans was increased up to 37 cases. 5) Cutaneous candidiasis was seen in 842 cases (305 male, 537 female). Intertrigo (298 cases) was the most frequent clinical form, followed by erosion interdigitalis (136 cases), oral candidiasis (135 cases), onychia et paronychia (108 cases), genital and diaper candidiasis in total (88 cases). 6) Tinea versicolor was seen in 175 cases. Malassezia folliculitis were collected 108 cases, 63 cases are reported from one clinic. PMID:23149353

Sei, Yoshihiro



Fungal microbiota from ocular conjuctiva of clinically healthy horses belonging to the military police cavalry of alagoas  

PubMed Central

Normal fungal conjunctiva microbiota of horses remains stable in healthy animals, free from ocular and/or systemic diseases which may, eventually, cause ocular alterations. The knowledge of the fungal microbiota is of great importance due to the reduced number of studies reported in the literature and also to the large occurrence of ocular alterations, mainly keratomycosis, in these animals. The aim of this study was to isolate and to identify the fungi present in the ocular conjunctiva of healthy horses belonging to the Military Police Cavalry of Alagoas. Samples from both conjunctival sacks from 50 horses were taken using a sterile swab and submitted to fungal cultures. These samples were seeded by radial spreading of the swabs on the Sabouraud agar surface with chloramphenicol, at a concentration of 50mg/L, in Petri dishes. Next, dishes were incubated at room temperature (± 28°C) for 15 days. Horses conjunctival fungal microbiota was found to be composed by Aspergillus spp. (62%), Microsporum gypseum (6%), Penicillium spp. (6%), Curvularia spp. (5%), Candida spp. (3%), Fusarium spp. (3%), Acremonium spp. (2%), Bipolaris sp. (1%), Cladosporium sp. (1%), Chrysosporium sp. (1%), Rhodotorula sp. (1%), Aureobasidium sp. (1%) and Scopulariopsis sp. (1%). There is a wide variety of yeast-like and filamentous fungi colonizing the clinically healthy horses’ ocular conjunctiva, out of which Aspergillus sp. is predominant. Although this was a straightforward study and have not recorded any ocular lesions that suggest fungi infections, these fungi might eventually be involved in this type of ocular pathology for the studied species. PMID:24031735

de Sousa, Maria Evódia; Araújo, Maria Anilda dos Santos; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido; Porto, Wagnner José Nascimento; Souza, Aryanna Kelly Pinheiro; dos Santos, Josimeire Lima; da Silva, Patrícia Paes



Comparison of in vitro antifungal activities of efinaconazole and currently available antifungal agents against a variety of pathogenic fungi associated with onychomycosis.  


Onychomycosis is a common fungal nail infection in adults that is difficult to treat. The in vitro antifungal activity of efinaconazole, a novel triazole antifungal, was evaluated in recent clinical isolates of Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Candida albicans, common causative onychomycosis pathogens. In a comprehensive survey of 1,493 isolates, efinaconazole MICs against T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes ranged from ? 0.002 to 0.06 ?g/ml, with 90% of isolates inhibited (MIC90) at 0.008 and 0.015 ?g/ml, respectively. Efinaconazole MICs against 105 C. albicans isolates ranged from ? 0.0005 to >0.25 ?g/ml, with 50% of isolates inhibited (MIC50) by 0.001 and 0.004 ?g/ml at 24 and 48 h, respectively. Efinaconazole potency against these organisms was similar to or greater than those of antifungal drugs currently used in onychomycosis, including amorolfine, ciclopirox, itraconazole, and terbinafine. In 13 T. rubrum toenail isolates from onychomycosis patients who were treated daily with topical efinaconazole for 48 weeks, there were no apparent increases in susceptibility, suggesting low potential for dermatophytes to develop resistance to efinaconazole. The activity of efinaconazole was further evaluated in another 8 dermatophyte, 15 nondermatophyte, and 10 yeast species (a total of 109 isolates from research repositories). Efinaconazole was active against Trichophyton, Microsporum, Epidermophyton, Acremonium, Fusarium, Paecilomyces, Pseudallescheria, Scopulariopsis, Aspergillus, Cryptococcus, Trichosporon, and Candida and compared favorably to other antifungal drugs. In conclusion, efinaconazole is a potent antifungal with a broad spectrum of activity that may have clinical applications in onychomycosis and other mycoses. PMID:23318803

Jo Siu, William J; Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki; Senda, Hisato; Pillai, Radhakrishnan; Nakamura, Takashi; Sone, Daisuke; Fothergill, Annette



Fungal microbiota from ocular conjuctiva of clinically healthy horses belonging to the military police cavalry of alagoas.  


Normal fungal conjunctiva microbiota of horses remains stable in healthy animals, free from ocular and/or systemic diseases which may, eventually, cause ocular alterations. The knowledge of the fungal microbiota is of great importance due to the reduced number of studies reported in the literature and also to the large occurrence of ocular alterations, mainly keratomycosis, in these animals. The aim of this study was to isolate and to identify the fungi present in the ocular conjunctiva of healthy horses belonging to the Military Police Cavalry of Alagoas. Samples from both conjunctival sacks from 50 horses were taken using a sterile swab and submitted to fungal cultures. These samples were seeded by radial spreading of the swabs on the Sabouraud agar surface with chloramphenicol, at a concentration of 50mg/L, in Petri dishes. Next, dishes were incubated at room temperature (± 28°C) for 15 days. Horses conjunctival fungal microbiota was found to be composed by Aspergillus spp. (62%), Microsporum gypseum (6%), Penicillium spp. (6%), Curvularia spp. (5%), Candida spp. (3%), Fusarium spp. (3%), Acremonium spp. (2%), Bipolaris sp. (1%), Cladosporium sp. (1%), Chrysosporium sp. (1%), Rhodotorula sp. (1%), Aureobasidium sp. (1%) and Scopulariopsis sp. (1%). There is a wide variety of yeast-like and filamentous fungi colonizing the clinically healthy horses' ocular conjunctiva, out of which Aspergillus sp. is predominant. Although this was a straightforward study and have not recorded any ocular lesions that suggest fungi infections, these fungi might eventually be involved in this type of ocular pathology for the studied species. PMID:24031735

de Sousa, Maria Evódia; Araújo, Maria Anilda Dos Santos; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido; Porto, Wagnner José Nascimento; Souza, Aryanna Kelly Pinheiro; Dos Santos, Josimeire Lima; da Silva, Patrícia Paes



Antioxidant and anti-dermatophytic properties leaf and stem bark of Xylosma longifolium clos  

PubMed Central

Background The present study was carried out to assess the phytochemical and anti-dermatophytic effect of the leaf and bark extracts of Xylosma longifolium Clos. The leaf and stem bark are used by the indigenous people of Manipur, India for treatment of skin diseases. Methods The leaves and stem barks of Xylosma longifolium were extracted using petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol respectively. The different extracts of each plant parts were tested for antioxidant activity using DPPH assay. The phenolic content was assayed using Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method. Each extracts was further analysed by RP-HPLC to quantify some individual flavonoid components. The anti-dermatophytic activity was evaluated both by agar diffusion method and micro wells dilution method against the Microsporum boullardii MTCC 6059, M. canis (MTCC 2820 and MTCC 32700), M. gypseum MTCC 2819, Trichophyton ajelloi MTCC 4878, T. rubrum (MTCC 296 and MTCC 3272). Results The free radical scavenging activity values were ranged from 0.7 to 1.41 mg/ml and 0.6 to 1.23 mg/ml, respectively for leaf and stem bark extracts. The amount of total phenolic contents of the extracts occurred in both leaf and bark in the range of 12 to 56.6 mg GAE/100 g and 16 to 58 mg GAE/100 g respectively. RP-HPLC analysis for flavonoids revealed the presence of two major flavonoid compounds, rutin and catechin. Kaempferol was in trace or absent. Methanol leaf extract showed significant low inhibitory effect against tested fungus Trichophyton ajelloi MTCC 4878 (0.140625 mg/ml) as the most sensitive. These finding suggest that the methanol leaf extract tested contain compounds with antimicrobial properties. Conclusion The results of our study may partially justify the folkloric uses on the plant studied and further provide an evidence that the leaf extract of Xylosma longifolium might be indeed a potential sources of antimicrobial agents. PMID:23819459



The dermatophytes.  

PubMed Central

The etiologic agents of the dermatophytoses (ringworm) are classified in three anamorphic (asexual or imperfect) genera, Epidermophyton, Microsporum, and Trichophyton. Species capable of reproducing sexually belong in the teleomorphic genus, Arthroderma, of the Ascomycota. On the basis of primary habitat association, they may be grouped as geophilic (soil associated), zoophilic, and anthropophilic. Adaptation to growth on humans by most geophilic species resulted in diminished loss of sporulation, sexuality, and other soil-associated characteristics. The dermatophytes have the ability to invade keratinized tissue (skin, hair, and nails) but are usually restricted to the nonliving cornified layer of the epidermis because of their inability to penetrate viable tissue of an immunocompetent host. However, invasion does elicit a host response ranging from mild to severe. Acid proteinases, elastase, keratinases, and other proteinases reportedly act as virulence factors. The development of cell-mediated immunity correlated with delayed hypersensitivity and an inflammatory response is associated with clinical cure, whereas the lack of or a defective cell-mediated immunity predisposes the host to chronic or recurrent dermatophyte infection. Chronic dermatophytosis is mostly caused by Trichophyton rubrum, and there is some evidence that mannan produced by this fungus suppresses or diminishes the inflammatory response. Since dermatophytes cause a communicable disease, modes of transmission and control are discussed as well as a survey of recent trends in therapy. Collection of specimens, culture media, and tests for identification are also presented. Genetic studies have led to an understanding of incompatibility mechanisms, pleomorphism and variation, resistance to griseofulvin, and virulence. Molecular biology has contributed to our knowledge of the taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of dermatophytes. PMID:7621400

Weitzman, I; Summerbell, R C



Antidermatophytic Activity of Pogostemon parviflorus Benth  

PubMed Central

In the developing countries of tropical regions, mycotic infections are common cause of skin diseases.The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of skin diseases including mycotic infections is an age-old practice in many parts of the world. The drugs used against dermatophytosis have several side effects, but limited efficacy. There is therefore a distinct need for discovery of new, safer and more effective antifungal agents. Medicinal plants used in traditional folk medicine may help us to overcome the growing problem of resistance to antifungal drugs and also their relative toxicity. In this study, in vitro antifungal activity of Pogostemon parviflorus leaf extracts were evaluated against three different genera of dermatophytes including Microsporum, Trichophyton and Epidermophyton, using the agar dilution method. Pogostemon parviflorus Benth. belongs to Labiatae family. The ethanolic extract of Pogostemon parviflorus leaf inhibited the growth of tested dermatophytes at different concentrations. The ethanolic extract of Pogostemon parviflorus leaf completely prevented the growth of tested dermatophytic species, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values between 2.5-10 mg/mL. The minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) values of this plant were also in the range of 2.5-10 mg/mL. Results of phytochemical screening tests indicated that the leaf of Pogostemon parviflorus contained saponins, reducing sugars, tannins, phenols and proteins, but it did not have any glycosides, anthraquinones, alkaloids or flavonoids. Results of High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) studies indicated that the ethyl acetate extract of Pogostemon parviflorus leaves included triterpenes, as 10 and 14 peaks of ultra violet (UV) absorption were observed in 254 nm and 366 nm, respectively. Hence, triterpenes may be responsible for antidermatophytic activity of this plant. PMID:24363738

Sadeghi-Nejad, Batool; Sadhu Deokule, Subhash



Production and Evaluation of Antimycotic and Antihepatitis C Virus Potential of Fusant MERV6270 Derived from Mangrove Endophytic Fungi Using Novel Substrates of Agroindustrial Wastes.  


Among forty endophytic fungal isolates derived from the mangrove plant Avicennia marina, thirty-seven isolates (92.5 %) shown vary antimycotic activity against clinical Trichophyton, Microsporum, and Epidermophyton isolates. The hyperactive wild antagonistic strains Acremonium sp. MERV1 and Chaetomium sp. MERV7 were subjected to intergeneric protoplast fusion technique, and out of 20 fusants obtained, the fusant MERV6270 showed the highest antimycotic activity with the broadest spectrum against all dermatophytes under study. Solid-state fermentation (SSF) showed its superiority for antimycotic/antiviral metabolite production using cost-effective agroindustrial residues. Low-cost novel fermentation medium containing inexpensive substrate mixture of molokhia stalk, lemon peel, pomegranate peel, peanut peel (2:1:1:1) moistened with potato, and meat processing wastewaters (2:1, at moisture content of 60 %) provided a high antimycotic metabolite yield, 33.25 mg/gds, by the fusant MERV6270. The optimal parameters for antimycotic productivity under SSF were incubation period (4 days), incubation temperature (27.5-30 °C), initial pH (6), initial moisture level (60 %), substrate particle size (1.0 mm), and inoculum size (2?×?10(6) spores/gds), which elucidated antimycotic activity to 44.19 mg/gds. Interestingly, wild mangrove Acremonium sp. MERV1 and Chaetomium sp. MERV7 strains and their fusant MERV6270 showed significant inhibition of hepatitis C virus with viral knockdown percent of -82.48, -82.44, and -97.37 %, respectively, compared to the control (100 %), which open a new era in combat epidemic viral diseases. PMID:25234393

El-Gendy, Mervat M A; El-Bondkly, Ahmed M A; Yahya, Shaymaa M M



Identification of Dermatophytes by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis of Metalloproteinase-1  

PubMed Central

Background Transgenic research on metalloproteinase-1 is an emerging field in the area of plant molecular biology. The new method reported here can similarly be applied in fungal molecular biology to identify different dermatophytes. Our method is more accurate than traditional methods such as molecular analyses. Objective To identify Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes, T. tonsurans, T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale, Microsporum canis and M. gypseum, by using the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect polymorphisms in the metalloproteinase-1 gene (MEP1). Methods From each fungal strain, we isolated genomic DNA and performed PCR to amplify the region coding for metalloproteinase-1. Primers for the metalloproteinase-1 gene were designed based on the sequence in NCBI GenBank. Subsequently, we purified the amplified PCR product and performed RFLP analysis. After restriction enzyme digestion, BsrDI (NEB, England), the samples were subjected to electrophoresis. Four different patterns of DNA fragments were observed among 6 fungal species. Results The DNA fragments for T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes, T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale and T. tonsurans showed similar patterns on electrophoresis and were not distinguishable, whereas T. rubrum, M. canis, and M. gypseum showed different patterns. Conclusion To our knowledge, it is the first study to introduce the analysis of the nucleotide sequence of metalloproteinase-1 enzyme to study differentiation in dermatophytes. Based on our results, more accurate differentiation and subtyping of T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale might be possible. This might contribute to better understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of dermatophyte. PMID:24966633

Jung, Ho Jung; Kim, Soo Young; Jung, Jae Wook; Park, Hyun Jung; Lee, Yang Won; Choe, Yong Beom



Dermatology for the practicing allergist: Tinea pedis and its complications  

PubMed Central

Tinea pedis is a chronic fungal infection of the feet, very often observed in patients who are immuno-suppressed or have diabetes mellitus. The practicing allergist may be called upon to treat this disease for various reasons. Sometimes tinea infection may be mistaken for atopic dermatitis or allergic eczema. In other patients, tinea pedis may complicate allergy and asthma and may contribute to refractory atopic disease. Patients with recurrent cellulitis may be referred to the allergist/immunologist for an immune evaluation and discovered to have tinea pedis as a predisposing factor. From a molecular standpoint, superficial fungal infections may induce a type2 T helper cell response (Th2) that can aggravate atopy. Th2 cytokines may induce eosinophil recruitment and immunoglobulin E (IgE) class switching by B cells, thereby leading to exacerbation of atopic conditions. Three groups of fungal pathogens, referred to as dermatophytes, have been shown to cause tinea pedis: Trychophyton sp, Epidermophyton sp, and Microsporum sp. The disease manifests as a pruritic, erythematous, scaly eruption on the foot and depending on its location, three variants have been described: interdigital type, moccasin type, and vesiculobullous type. Tinea pedis may be associated with recurrent cellulitis, as the fungal pathogens provide a portal for bacterial invasion of subcutaneous tissues. In some cases of refractory asthma, treatment of the associated tinea pedis infection may induce remission in airway disease. Very often, protracted topical and/or oral antifungal agents are required to treat this often frustrating and morbid disease. An evaluation for underlying immuno-suppression or diabetes may be indicated in patients with refractory disease. PMID:15050029

Al Hasan, Muhannad; Fitzgerald, S Matthew; Saoudian, Mahnaz; Krishnaswamy, Guha



Metal-Based Antibacterial and Antifungal Agents: Synthesis, Characterization, and In Vitro Biological Evaluation of Co(II), Cu(II), Ni(II), and Zn(II) Complexes With Amino Acid-Derived Compounds.  


A series of antibacterial and antifungal amino acid-derived compounds and their cobalt(II), copper(II), nickel(II), and zinc(II) metal complexes have been synthesized and characterized by their elemental analyses, molar conductances, magnetic moments, and IR, and electronic spectral measurements. Ligands (L(1))-(L(5)) were derived by condensation of beta-diketones with glycine, phenylalanine, valine, and histidine and act as bidentate towards metal ions (cobalt, copper, nickel, and zinc) via the azomethine-N and deprotonated-O of the respective amino acid. The stoichiometric reaction between the metal(II) ion and synthesized ligands in molar ratio of M : L (1 : 1) resulted in the formation of the metal complexes of type [M(L)(H(2)O)(4)]Cl (where M = Co(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II)) and of M : L (1 : 2) of type [M(L)(2)(H(2)O)(2)] (where M = Co(II), Cu(II), Ni(II), and Zn(II)). The magnetic moment data suggested for the complexes to have an octahedral geometry around the central metal atom. The electronic spectral data also supported the same octahedral geometry of the complexes. Elemental analyses and NMR spectral data of the ligands and their metal(II) complexes agree with their proposed structures. The synthesized ligands, along with their metal(II) complexes, were screened for their in vitro antibacterial activity against four Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Shigella flexeneri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella typhi) and two Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) bacterial strains and for in vitro antifungal activity against Trichophyton longifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani, and Candida glaberata. The results of these studies show the metal(II) complexes to be more antibacterial/antifungal against one or more species as compared to the uncomplexed ligands. The brine shrimp bioassay was also carried out to study their in vitro cytotoxic properties. Five compounds, (3), (7), (10), (11), and (22), displayed potent cytotoxic activity as LD(50) = 8.974 x 10(-4), 7.022 x 10(-4), 8.839 x 10(-4), 7.133 x 10(-4), and 9.725 x 10(-4) M/mL, respectively, against Artemia salina. PMID:17497020

Chohan, Zahid H; Arif, M; Akhtar, Muhammad A; Supuran, Claudiu T



Microbial and xanthine dehydrogenase inhibitory activity of some flavones.  


Xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) is responsible for the pathological condition called Gout. In the present study different flavones synthesized from chalcone were evaluated in vitro for their inhibitory activity. Inhibitory activity of flavones on XDH was determined in terms of inhibition of uric acid synthesis from Xanthine. The enzymatic activity was found maximum at pH 7.5 and temperature 40 degrees C. The flavones 6-chloro-2-[3-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-1-phenyl-1-H-pyrazol-4-yl]-chromen-4-one (F(1)) and 6-chloro-7methyl-2-[3-(4-chloro-phenyl)-1-phenyl-1-H-pyrazol-4-yl]-chromen-4-one(F(2)),were noncompetitive and competitive inhibitor with Ki values 1.1 and 0.22 respectively. The flavones (F(1)), (F(2)), 6-chloro-2-[3-(4-chloro-phenyl)-1phenyl-1-H-pyrazol-4-yl]-chromen-4-one(F(3)), 8-bromo-6-chloro-2-[3-(4-chloro-phenyl)-1-phenyl-1-H-pyrazol-4-yl]-chromen-4-one (F(4)), 2-[3-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-1-phenyl-1-H-pyrazol-4-yl]-chromen-4-one (F(5)) and 6-methyl-2-[3-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-1-phenyl-1-H-pyrazol-4-yl]-chromen-4-one (F(6)) were also screened for their antimicrobial activity, measured in terms of zone of inhibition. A broad spectrum antifungal activity was obtained against Trichoderma viridae, Candida albicans, Microsporum cannis, Penicillium chrysogenum and Fusarium moniliformae. In case of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavous only spore formation was affected, while antibacterial activity was observed against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Serratia marsecens only. The flavones were further analyzed for quantitative structural activity relationship study (QSAR) by using PASS, online software to determine their Pa value. Toxicity and drug relevant properties were revealed by PALLAS software in terms of their molecular weight. Log P values were also studied. The result showed both the F(1) and F(2) flavones as antigout and therefore supports the development of novel drugs for the treatment of gout. PMID:18569337

Khobragade, C N; Bodade, Ragini G; Shinde, M S; Jaju, Deepa R; Bhosle, R B; Dawane, B S



Synthesis and in vitro antifungal activity of some N,N-disubstituted dithiocarbamic acid esters derived from 2-methylquinazolinones.  


A series of 2-[(N,N-disubstituted thiocarbamoylthio)methyl]quinazolinones 9a-g; 10a; 10d; 11a-d and 12a were synthesized and evaluated for potential antifungal activity against a variety of fungal species. The synthesis of the target compounds was achieved by reaction of the potassium salts of disubstituted dithiocarbamic acids 8a-g and the respective 2-bromomethyl-4(3H)-quinazolinone 4 or 3-aryl-2-chloromethyl-4(3H)-quinazolinones 5-7. The dithiocarbamic acid derivatives were synthesized in a one step reaction from the appropriate amine, alcoholic potassium hydroxide solution and carbon disulfide. TLC and elemental analyses ascertained the purity of the synthesized compounds and their structures were confirmed by IR and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. 2-Methyl-4(3H)-quinazolinone 2, the precursor of the 2-bromomethyl intermediate 4, was selected as representative example for detailed spectroscopic investigations, including 300 MHz 1H- and 13C-NMR in addition to HH COSY; APT and 1H13C HETCOR spectra, with the aim of establishing correct assignment of the spectral data of related compounds. The synthesized disubstituted dithiocarbamates 9a-g; 10a,d; 11a-d and 12a as well as tolnaftate and clotrimazole, as reference drugs, were tested in vitro at 2 and 5% concentrations against 23 pathogenic fungi. The study revealed that compound 9a exhibited broad spectrum inhibitory activity that is superior or comparable to that of the reference drugs against the tested fungal isolates. Selective fungistatic activity against Candida species was elicited by compound 9e and against Microsporum species as well as Trichophyton mentagrophytes was also observed for compound 9g. As a general pattern it might be postulated that some of the synthesized dithiocarbamate derivatives showed broad spectrum antifungal activity as compared with tolnaftate, the clinically used thiocarbamate compound, and also exhibited comparable activity to clotrimazole against Candida species and F. Solani. PMID:10464978

Farghaly, A O; Moharram, A M



Efficacy and Safety of Terbinafine Hydrochloride 1% Cream vs. Sertaconazole Nitrate 2% Cream in Tinea Corporis and Tinea Cruris: A Comparative Therapeutic Trial  

PubMed Central

Context: To the best of our knowledge, till date no study comparing the efficacy and safety of terbinafine hydrochloride 1% cream and sertaconazole nitrate 2% cream has been done in localized tinea corporis and tinea cruris. Aims: This clinical trial was carried out to study and compare the efficacy of topical terbinafine hydrochloride 1% cream and sertaconazole nitrate 2% cream in localized tinea corporis and tinea cruris and to know the adverse effects of these antifungal creams. Settings and Design: In this prospective, single blind, randomized control trial with two arms, patient were randomized into two groups Group A (treatment with terbinafine cream) and Group B (treatment with sertaconazole cream). A total of 38 patients were enrolled for the study, 20 patients in group A and 18 patients in group B. But five patients of group A and three patients of group B were lost for follow-ups. Therefore sample size was of 30 patients with 15 patients in group A and group B each. Materials and Methods: Patients in group A and B were treated with twice daily topical 1% terbinafine hydrochloride and 2% sertaconazole nitrate cream respectively for a total duration of three weeks. Clinical improvement in signs and symptoms of each clinical parameter, namely itching, erythema, papules, pustules, vesicles, and scaling were graded weekly and clinical cure was assessed. KOH mount and culture was done weekly up to 3 weeks to access mycological cure. Fungal culture was done on Sabouraud's dextrose agar with chloramphenicol and cycloheximide. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was done using students paired and unpaired t-tests from the data obtained. Results: Comparison between Group A and Group B for complete cure (clinical and mycological) showed that at the end of 3 weeks both terbinafine and sertaconazole groups had 100% complete cure. When the two groups were compared for complete cure, at the end of 1st and 2nd week, statistically non-significant results were observed (P = 0.461 and P = 0.679 respectively). However, at the end of 2nd week, complete cure rate for terbinafine was 80% as compared to 73.35% for sertaconazole with no statistical significance. In both Group A and Group B, clinically significant local side effects like erythema, swelling, stinging sensation, or increased itching were not noticed. A majority of our patients in both the group showed Trichophyton rubrum followed by Trichophyton mentagrophytes growth on culture. In Group A, 11 patients showed growth of T. rubrum, 2 patients showed growth of T. mentagrophytes, and 1 patient had only KOH test positive. In Group B, 10 patients revealed growth of T. rubrum, followed by growth of T. mentagrophytes in 3 and Microsporum canis in 2 patients. The therapeutic response is more or less same in infection with different species. Conclusions: The newer fungistatic drug sertaconazole nitrate 2% cream was as effective as terbinafine hydrochloride 1% cream which is one of the fungicidal drugs, though terbinafine hydrochloride 1% cream has higher rates of complete cure at the end of 2 weeks as compared to sertaconazole nitrate 2% cream. Both the drugs showed good tolerability with no adverse effects. PMID:24249898

Choudhary, SV; Bisati, S; Singh, AL; Koley, S