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Sample records for microstructural evolution based

  1. Microstructural Evolution Based on Fundamental Interfacial Properties

    SciTech Connect

    A. D. Rollett; D. J. Srolovitz; A. Karma

    2003-07-11

    This first CMSN project has been operating since the summer of 1999. The main achievement of the project was to bring together a community of materials scientists, physicists and mathematicians who share a common interest in the properties of interfaces and the impact of those properties on microstructural evolution. Six full workshops were held at Carnegie Mellon (CMU), Northwestern (NWU), Santa Fe, Northeastern University (NEU), National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST), Ames Laboratory, and at the University of California in San Diego (UCSD) respectively. Substantial scientific results were obtained through the sustained contact between the members of the project. A recent issue of Interface Science (volume 10, issue 2/3, July 2002) was dedicated to the output of the project. The results include: the development of methods for extracting anisotropic boundary energy and mobility from molecular dynamics simulations of solid/liquid interfaces in nickel; the extraction of anisotropic energies and mobilities in aluminum from similar MD simulations; the application of parallel computation to the calculation of interfacial properties; the development of a method to extract interfacial properties from the fluctuations in interface position through consideration of interfacial stiffness; the use of anisotropic interface properties in studies of abnormal grain growth; the discovery of abnormal grain growth from random distributions of orientation in subgrain networks; the direct comparison at the scale of individual grains between experimentally observed grain growth and simulations, which confirmed the importance of including anisotropic interfacial properties in the simulations; the classification of a rich variety of dendritic morphologies based on slight variations in the anisotropy of the solid-liquid interface; development of phase field methods that permit both solidification and grain growth to be simulated within the same framework.

  2. Microstructure Evolution of Gas Atomized Iron Based ODS Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Rieken, J.R.; Anderson, I.E.; Kramer, M.J.

    2011-08-09

    In a simplified process to produce precursor powders for oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloys, gas-atomization reaction synthesis (GARS) was used to induce a surface oxide layer on molten droplets of three differing erritic stainless steel alloys during break-up and rapid solidification. The chemistry of the surface oxide was identified using auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The precursor iron-base powders were consolidated at 850 C and 1,300 C using hot isostatic pressing (HIPing). Consolidation at the lower temperature resulted in a fully dense microstructure, while preventing substantial prior particle-boundary-oxide dissociation. Microstructural analysis of the alloys consolidated at the higher temperature confirmed a significant reduction in prior-particle-boundary-oxide volume fraction, in comparison with the lower-temperature-consolidated sample. This provided evidence that a high-temperature internal oxygen-exchange reaction occurred between the metastable prior particle-boundary-oxide phase (chromium oxide) and the yttrium contained within each prior particle. This internal oxygen-exchange reaction is shown to result in the formation of yttrium-enriched oxide dispersoids throughout the alloy microstructure. The evolving microstructure was characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-energy X-ray diffraction (HE-XRD).

  3. Microstructure Evolution of Gas Atomized Iron Based ODS Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Rieken, J.R.; Anderson, I.E.; Kramer, M.J.; Anderegg, J.W.; Shechtman, D.

    2009-12-01

    In a simplified process to produce precursor powders for oxide dispersion-strength- ened (ODS) alloys, gas-atomization reaction synthesis (GARS) was used to induce a surface oxide layer on molten droplets of three differing erritic stainless steel alloys during break-up and rapid solidification. The chemistry of the surface oxide was identified using auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The precursor iron-base powders were consolidated at 850 C and 1,300 C using hot isostatic pressing (HIPing). Consolidation at the lower temperature resulted in a fully dense microstructure, while preventing substantial prior particle-boundary-oxide dissociation. Microstructural analysis of the alloys consolidated at the higher temperature confirmed a significant reduction in prior-particle-boundary-oxide volume fraction, in comparison with the lower-temperature-consolidated sample. This provided evidence that a high-temperature internal oxygen-exchange reaction occurred between the metastable prior particle-boundary-oxide phase (chromium oxide) and the yttrium contained within each prior particle. This internal oxygen-exchange reaction is shown to result in the formation of yttrium-enriched oxide dispersoids throughout the alloy microstructure. The evolving microstructure was characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-energy X-ray diffraction (HE-XRD).

  4. Evolution of Microstructure in a Nickel-based Superalloy as a Function of Ageing Time

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wei-Ren; Smith, Gregory Scott; Porcar, L.; Liaw, Peter K; Kai, Ji-Jung; Ren, Yang

    2011-01-01

    An experimental investigation, combining synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction, small-angle neutron-scattering, and transmission electron microscopy, has been undertaken to study the microstructure of nanoprecipitates in a nickel-based superalloy. Upon increasing the ageing time during a heat-treatment process, the average size of the precipitates first decreases before changing to a monotonical growth stage. Possible reasons for this observed structural evolution, which is predicted thermodynamically, are suggested.

  5. Modelling microstructure evolution during recrystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brahme, Abhijit P.

    The main aim of this work was to model microstructural evolution during recrystallization. This was achieved by characterizing it in terms of recrystallization kinetics and texture development and by identifying factors that exert the greatest effect on the recrystallization process. To achieve the above, geometric and crystallographic observations from two orthogonal sections through a polycrystal were used. Using these as input to the computer simulations, a statistically representative three dimensional model was created. Assignment of orientations to the grains was done such that nearest neighbor relationships match the observed distributions. The microstructures thus obtained were allowed to evolve using a Monte-Carlo simulation. A parametric study was done to study the effects of various factors on recrystallization kinetics and texture development during microstructural evolution. A set of software tools (Microstructure builder) were developed to generate the microstructures. The process involved the use of a ellipsoidal packing method combined with a voxel-based tessellation technique to create a 3 dimensional digital microstructure having the desired set of grain aspect ratios. Orientation assignment to the grains in the microstructure was done using a simulated annealing method that minimized the error between the orientation distribution function (ODF) and misorientation distribution function (MDF) of the measured and simulated materials. The effect of grain geometry and placement of nuclei on recrystallization kinetics was studied. A close match in the recrystallization kinetics as measured in the experiments and the simulations was found to be most sensitive to the accuracy with which the geometry of the simulated microstructure matched that observed in experiments. Also the effects of anisotropy, both in energy and in mobility, stored energy and oriented nucleation on overall texture development were studied in the light of various established

  6. Microstructure evolution and mechanical property of pulsed laser welded Ni-based superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Guangyi; Wu, Dongjiang; Niu, Fangyong; Zou, Helin

    2015-09-01

    For evaluating the microstructure evolution and mechanical property of Ni-based Hastelloy C-276 weld joint by the pulsed laser welding, the influence of pulsed laser welding on the microstructure and mechanical property of the weld joint is investigated by the analysis of the microstructure morphology, microhardness, phase structure and tensile property. The results indicate that, in the fusion zone three sections are divided on the basis of the patterns of grain structures. In the weld joint, the element segregation is found, but the trend of brittle phase's formation is weakened. The weld microhardness presents just a little higher than that of base metal, and there is no obvious the softened heat affected zone. Meanwhile in the weld joint, the phase structure is still the face-center cubic with the tiny shift of peak positions and widened Full Width at Half-Maximum. The yield strength of weld joint is the same as that of base metal, and the tensile strength is nearly 90% of that of base metal. The decreased tensile strength is mainly attributed to the dislocation piling-up.

  7. Microstructural Evolution and Mechanical Properties of Fusion Welds in an Iron-Copper-Based Multicomponent Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farren, Jeffrey D.; Hunter, Allen H.; Dupont, John N.; Seidman, David N.; Robino, Charles V.; Kozeschnik, Ernst

    2012-11-01

    NUCu-140 is a copper-precipitation-strengthened steel that exhibits excellent mechanical properties with a relatively simple chemical composition and processing schedule. As a result, NUCu-140 is a candidate material for use in many naval and structural applications. Before NUCu-140 can be implemented as a replacement for currently used materials, the weldability of this material must be determined under a wide range of welding conditions. This research represents an initial step toward understanding the microstructural and mechanical property evolution that occurs during fusion welding of NUCu-140. Microhardness traverses and tensile testing using digital image correlation show local softening in the heat-affected zone (HAZ). Microstructural characterization using light optical microscopy (LOM) revealed very few differences in the softened regions compared with the base metal. Local-electrode atom-probe (LEAP) tomography demonstrates that local softening occurs as a result of dissolution of the Cu-rich precipitates. MatCalc kinetic simulations (Vienna, Austria) were combined with welding heat-flow calculations to model the precipitate evolution within the HAZ. Reasonably good agreement was obtained between the measured and calculated precipitate radii, number density, and volume fraction of the Cu-rich precipitates in the weld. These results were used with a precipitate-strengthening model to understand strength variations within the HAZ.

  8. Evidence of microstructure evolution in solid elastic media based on a power law analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalerandi, M.; Idjimarene, S.; Bentahar, M.; El Guerjouma, R.

    2015-05-01

    Complex and consolidated granular media or microcracked composites and metals usually exhibit a high level of nonlinearity in their elastic response already at low amplitudes of excitation. To quantify it, a proper nonlinear indicator y is introduced and its dependence on the excitation amplitude x is studied. The dependence of y on x is found in experiments to be a power law. Here we show that the different power law exponents measured for different materials could be predicted by proper classes of discrete models. An application is presented to link the exponent evolution and the changes of the microstructure due to the progression of damage mechanically induced.

  9. Solute segregation and microstructural evolution in ion-irradiated vanadium-base alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, B.A.; Kestel, B.J.; Gerber, S.B.

    1986-02-01

    The microstructural evolution in V+14.7 a/o Cr, V+2.5 a/o Mo, V+2.5 a/o W, V+8.0 a/o Ni, V+5.3 a/o Ti, V+14.7 a/o Cr + 5.2 a/o Ti, V+9.6 a/o Cr + 3.1 a/o Fe+0.7 a/o Zr, and V+3.2 a/o Ti + 1.8 a/o Si alloys, and unalloyed V was determined from observations of specimens by TEM following 4.0-MeV /sup 51/V/sup + +/ ion irradiation at 900 to 970/sup 0/K to 50 dpa. The RIS of solutes in the ion-irradiated alloys was investigated by AES, EDXS, and EELS analyses. The RIS of solutes and microstructural evolution in the irradiated alloys were correlated with the solute diffusivity and the relative chemical affinity of the substitutional solutes for oxygen.

  10. Laser Clad Nickel Based Superalloys: Microstructure Evolution And High Temperature Oxidation Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sircar, S.; Ribaudo, C.; Mazumder, J.

    1988-10-01

    Application of alloy coatings with superior oxidation resistance at elevated temperatures (1200°C) on superalloy components is of interest at present. There is a general consensus that the addition of rare earths such as hafnium (Hf) to these alloys has a pronounced effect on their performance. An in situ laser cladding technique was used to produce Ni-Al-Cr-Hf alloys on a nickel alloy substrate. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope (STEM) attached with Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyzers were employed for microstructural evolution studies of alloys produced during the laser cladding process. The microstructure of these alloys mainly consists of dendrites of Y' of the Ni3Al type with about 11-14 wt% Hf and an interdendritic eutectic phase. Electron microscopy in the dendritic zones reveals ordered domains whose morphology depends on laser cladding process parameters. Variation in these parameters produced only subtle changes in the composition and cell spacing of the dendritic phase. The eutectic constituent consists of a Hf-rich phase and a Hf-lean phase in an alternating lamellar structure. Convergent beam diffraction and x-ray spectroscopy techniques were used to characterize the constituents. A possible phase transformation sequence has been suggested. Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) work indicates that the Y' dissolution temperature for the claddings is at least as high as the substrate material (Rene 80). Single cycle oxidation tests of eight hours at 1200°C in slowly flowing air reveal that the claddings have a lower weight gain rate than the substrate itself. Microchemistry and microstructure of the oxidized samples are examined using SEM attached with EDX and Auger Electron Spectroscopic (AES) techniques. The improvement in the oxidation resistance is believed to be at least partially due to the mechanical pegging between alumina coated hafnia protrusions and the

  11. Microstructure evolution process of Ferro-Aluminum based sandwich composite for electromagnetic shielding.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhichao; Zhang, Qiang; Ma, Xiangyu; Wu, Gaohui

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, sandwich composite (SWC) with Fe-Al soft magnetic alloy sandwiched between pure iron substrates was proposed and fabricated by hot pressing and diffusion treatment. The microstructure evolution process of the composite was investigated. Fe/Fe2Al5/Fe diffusion couple was obtained at 700 °C and subsequently kept at 900 °C for further isothermal diffusion. During the diffusion reactive process, we confirmed that major FeAl2 and minor Fe4Al13 were produced when Fe2Al5 dissolved. After 10h of diffusion treatment, FeAl and α-Fe(Al) were the only two intermetallic phases left. Except FeAl2, the thickness of each intermetallic layer held good parabolic relationship with the diffusion annealing time. PMID:24981211

  12. Creep property and microstructure evolution of a nickel-base single crystal superalloy in [011] orientation

    SciTech Connect

    Han, G.M. Yu, J.J.; Hu, Z.Q.; Sun, X.F.

    2013-12-15

    The creep property and microstructure evolution of a single crystal superalloy with [011] orientation were investigated at the temperatures of 700 °C, 900 °C and 1040 °C. It is shown that there exist stages of primary, steady-state, and tertiary creep under the lower temperature 700 °C. As the temperature increases to high temperatures of 900 °C and 1040 °C, steady-state creep stage is reduced or disappears and the shape of creep curves is dominated by an extensive tertiary stage. The minimum creep strain rate exhibits power law dependence on the applied stress; the stress exponents at 700 °C, 900 °C and 1040 °C are 28, 13 and 6.5, respectively. Microstructure observation shows that the morphologies of γ′ phase almost keep original shape at the lower temperature 700 °C and high applied stress. With the increasing creep temperature, γ′ precipitates tend to link together and form lamellar structure at an angle of 45° inclined to the applied stress. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations reveal that multiple < 110 > (111) slip systems gliding in the matrix channels and shearing γ′ precipitates by stacking faults or bending dislocation pairs are the main deformation mechanism at the lower temperature of 700 °C. At the high temperatures of 900 °C and 1040 °C, dislocation networks are formed at γ/γ′ interfaces and the γ′ rafts are sheared by dislocation pairs. - Highlights: • Creep properties of < 011 >-oriented single crystal superalloys were investigated. • γ′ phases become rafting at an angle of 45° inclined to the applied stress. • Creep deformation mechanisms depend on temperature and stress.

  13. Microstructural evolution and castability prediction in newly designed modern third-generation nickel-based superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naffakh-Moosavy, Homam

    2016-05-01

    The present research aims to establish a quantitative relation between microstructure and chemical composition (i.e., Ti, Al, and Nb) of newly designed nickel-based superalloys. This research attempts to identify an optimum microstructure at which the minimum quantities of γ/γ' and γ/γ″ compounds are achieved and the best castability is predicted. The results demonstrate that the highest quantity of intermetallic eutectics (i.e., 41.5wt%) is formed at 9.8wt% (Ti + Al). A significant quantity of intermetallics formed in superalloy 1 (with a composition of γ - 9.8wt% (Ti + Al)), which can deteriorate its castability. The type and morphology of the eutectics changed and the amount considerably decreased with decreasing Ti + Al content in superalloy 2 (with a composition of γ - 7.6wt% (Ti + Al), 1.5wt% Nb). Thus, it is predicted that the castability would improve for superalloy 2. The same trend was observed for superalloy 4 (with a composition of γ - 3.7wt% (Ti + Al), 4.4wt% Nb). This means that the amount of Laves increases with increasing Nb (to 4.4wt%) and decreasing Ti + Al (to 3.7wt%) in superalloy 4. The best castability was predicted for superalloy 3 (with a composition of γ - 5.7wt% (Ti + Al), 2.8wt% Nb).

  14. Oxidation and microstructure evolution of Al-Si coated Ni3Al based single crystal superalloy with high Mo content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Xiaolu; Peng, Hui; Zheng, Lei; Qi, Wenyan; He, Jian; Guo, Hongbo; Gong, Shengkai

    2015-01-01

    A Si modified aluminide (Al-Si) coating was prepared on a Ni3Al based single crystal superalloy with high Mo content by high-activity pack cementation. Cyclic oxidation test at 1150 °C was carried out and the microstructure evolution of the coating was investigated. The results show that the oxidation resistance of the substrate was greatly increased by applying an Al-Si coating. During oxidation, outward diffusion of Mo was effectively blocked due to its high affinity with Si. Besides, a layered structure was formed as a result of the elements inter-diffusion. An obvious degradation of the Al-Si coating was observed after 100 h oxidation. Possible mechanisms related to the oxidation and elements inter-diffusion behaviours were also discussed.

  15. Effects of sintering temperature on the microstructural evolution and wear behavior of WCp reinforced Ni-based coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chuan-hui; Bai, Yang; Ye, Xu-chu

    2014-12-01

    This article focuses on the microstructural evolution and wear behavior of 50wt%WC reinforced Ni-based composites prepared onto 304 stainless steel substrates by vacuum sintering at different sintering temperatures. The microstructure and chemical composition of the coatings were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis (DTA), scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The wear resistance of the coatings was tested by thrust washer testing. The mechanisms of the decomposition, dissolution, and precipitation of primary carbides, and their influences on the wear resistance have been discussed. The results indicate that the coating sintered at 1175°C is composed of fine WC particles, coarse M6C (M=Ni, Fe, Co, etc.) carbides, and discrete borides dispersed in solid solution. Upon increasing the sintering temperature to 1225°C, the microstructure reveals few incompletely dissolved WC particles trapped in larger M6C, Cr-rich lamellar M23C6, and M3C2 in the austenite matrix. M23C6 and M3C2 precipitates are formed in both the γ/M6C grain boundary and the matrix. These large-sized and lamellar brittle phases tend to weaken the wear resistance of the composite coatings. The wear behavior is controlled simultaneously by both abrasive wear and adhesive wear. Among them, abrasive wear plays a major role in the wear process of the coating sintered at 1175°C, while the effect of adhesive wear is predominant in the coating sintered at 1225°C.

  16. Microstructural and continuum evolution modeling of sintering.

    SciTech Connect

    Braginsky, Michael V.; Olevsky, Eugene A.; Johnson, D. Lynn; Tikare, Veena; Garino, Terry J.; Arguello, Jose Guadalupe, Jr.

    2003-12-01

    deformation during. The continuum portion is based on a finite element formulation that allows 3D components to be modeled using SNL's nonlinear large-deformation finite element code, JAS3D. This tool provides a capability to model sintering of complex three-dimensional components. The model was verified by comparing to simulations results published in the literature. The model was validated using experimental results from various laboratory experiments performed by Garino. In addition, the mesoscale simulations were used to study anisotropic shrinkage in aligned, elongated powder compacts. Anisotropic shrinkage occurred in all compacts with aligned, elongated particles. However, the direction of higher shrinkage was in some cases along the direction of elongation and in other cases in the perpendicular direction depending on the details of the powder compact. In compacts of simple-packed, mono-sized, elongated particles, shrinkage was higher in the direction of elongation. In compacts of close-packed, mono-sized, elongated particles and of elongated particles with a size and shape distribution, the shrinkage was lower in the direction of elongation. We also explored the concept of a sintering stress tensor rather than the traditional sintering stress scalar concept for the case of anisotropic shrinkage. A thermodynamic treatment of this is presented. A method to calculate the sintering stress tensor is also presented. A user-friendly code that can simulate microstructural evolution during sintering in 2D and in 3D was developed. This code can run on most UNIX platforms and has a motif-based GUI. The microstructural evolution is shown as the code is running and many of the microstructural features, such as grain size, pore size, the average grain boundary length (in 2D) and area (in 3D), etc. are measured and recorded as a function of time. The overall density as the function of time is also recorded.

  17. Microstructural evolution of Udimet 720 superalloy

    SciTech Connect

    Calliari, I.; Magrini, M.; Dabala, M.

    1999-02-01

    The microstructural evolution of the nickel-base superalloy Udimet 720 (Special Metals Corp., New Hartford, NY) aged at 850 C for 1000 to 2000 h is presented. After aging, the {gamma}{prime} precipitates change from cubic to globular morphology. Secondary {gamma}{prime} particles and topologically close-packed phases were not found. The {gamma}{prime} mean diameter increases with aging times, following the Lifshitz-Wagner model. The experimented aging times have no strong effects on mechanical properties of Udimet 720.

  18. Microstructural evolution and mechanical behavior of nickel-based superalloy 625 made by selective laser melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witkin, David B.; Adams, Paul; Albright, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    The mechanical properties and microstructures of Selective Laser Melted (SLM) alloy 625 procured from different suppliers were compared. The post-SLM process of hot isostatic pressing (HIP) led to a relatively coarse recrystallized gamma matrix phase that was similar in all the suppliers' materials, resulting in nearly identical tensile properties. These similarities obscure significant differences between them with respect to the population of second phase particles, which consisted of carbides or Laves phase. During solidification, the final liquid phase is concentrated in Nb, Mo, Si and C, and leads to L --> γ + carbide/Laves eutectic reactions. Secondary particles are very small prior to HIP and their composition has not been analyzed yet, but are limited to the fine-grained eutectic regions of the material prior to HIP. During HIP the gamma phase recrystallizes to remove the original as-solidified SLM microstructure, but secondary particles nucleate and grow where their elemental constituents first solidified, leading to a non-homogeneous distribution. Quasi-static tensile properties do not appear to be sensitive to these differences, but it is likely that other mechanical properties will be affected, especially fatigue and fracture behavior. Surface roughness, large grain size, and pores and voids left unhealed by the HIP cycle will also influence fatigue and fracture. Surface roughness and porosity in particular are features that could be improved by implementing novel approaches to laser processing in SLM.

  19. Understanding the solidification and microstructure evolution during CSC-MIG welding of Fe–Cr–B-based alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Sorour, A.A. Chromik, R.R. Gauvin, R. Jung, I.-H. Brochu, M.

    2013-12-15

    The present is a study of the solidification and microstructure of Fe–28.2%Cr–3.8%B–1.5%Si–1.5%Mn (wt.%) alloy deposited onto a 1020 plain carbon steel substrate using the controlled short-circuit metal inert gas welding process. The as-solidified alloy was a metal matrix composite with a hypereutectic microstructure. Thermodynamic calculation based on the Scheil–Gulliver model showed that a primary (Cr,Fe){sub 2}B phase formed first during solidification, followed by an eutectic formation of the (Cr,Fe){sub 2}B phase and a body-centered cubic Fe-based solid solution matrix, which contained Cr, Mn and Si. Microstructure analysis confirmed the formation of these phases and showed that the shape of the (Cr,Fe){sub 2}B phase was irregular plate. As the welding heat input increased, the weld dilution increased and thus the volume fraction of the (Cr,Fe){sub 2}B plates decreased while other microstructural characteristics were similar. - Highlights: • We deposit Fe–Cr–B-based alloy onto plain carbon steel using the CSC-MIG process. • We model the solidification behavior using thermodynamic calculation. • As deposited alloy consists of (Cr,Fe){sub 2}B plates embedded in Fe-based matrix. • We study the effect of the welding heat input on the microstructure.

  20. Microstructure evolution in irradiated materials

    SciTech Connect

    Caturla, M

    1999-11-30

    Study the interaction of defects produced during irradiation or deformation of a metal with the microstructure of that particular material, such as dislocations and grain boundaries. In particular we will study the interaction of dislocation with interstitial loops and stacking fault tetrahedral, and the production of displacement cascades close to dislocations and grain boundaries. The data obtained from these simulations will be used as input to diffusion models and dislocation dynamics models.

  1. Microstructural evolution of tungsten oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hembram, K. P. S. S.; Thomas, Rajesh; Rao, G. Mohan

    2009-10-01

    Tungsten oxide thin films are of great interest due to their promising applications in various optoelectronic thin film devices. We have investigated the microstructural evolution of tungsten oxide thin films grown by DC magnetron sputtering on silicon substrate. The structural characterization and surface morphology were carried out using X-ray diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The as deposited films were amorphous, where as, the films annealed above 400 °C were crystalline. In order to explain the microstructural changes due to annealing, we have proposed a "instability wheel" model for the evolution of the microstructure. This model explains the transformation of mater into various geometries within them selves, followed by external perturbation.

  2. Computational and mathematical models of microstructural evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Bullard, J.W.; Chen, L.Q.; Kalia, R.K.; Stoneham, A.M.

    1998-12-31

    This symposium was designed to bring together the foremost materials theorists and applied mathematicians from around the world to share and discuss some of the newest and most promising mathematical and computational tools for simulating, understanding, and predicting the various complex processes that occur during the evolution of microstructures. Separate abstracts were prepared for 25 papers.

  3. Microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of an Fe-18Ni-16Cr-4Al base alloy during aging at 950°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Man; Sun, Yong-duo; Feng, Jing-kai; Zhang, Rui-qian; Tang, Rui; Zhou, Zhang-jian

    2016-03-01

    The development of Gen-IV nuclear systems and ultra-supercritical power plants proposes greater demands on structural materials used for key components. An Fe-18Ni-16Cr-4Al (316-base) alumina-forming austenitic steel was developed in our laboratory. Its microstructural evolution and mechanical properties during aging at 950°C were investigated subsequently. Micro-structural changes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. Needle-shaped NiAl particles begin to precipitate in austenite after ageing for 10 h, whereas round NiAl particles in ferrite are coarsened during aging. Precipitates of NiAl with different shapes in different matrices result from differences in lattice misfits. The tensile plasticity increases by 32.4% after aging because of the improvement in the percentage of coincidence site lattice grain boundaries, whereas the tensile strength remains relatively high at approximately 790 MPa.

  4. 3D finite element simulation of microstructure evolution in blade forging of Ti-6Al-4V alloy based on the internal state variable models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jiao; Wu, Bin; Li, Miao-Quan

    2012-02-01

    The physically-based internal state variable (ISV) models were used to describe the changes of dislocation density, grain size, and flow stress in the high temperature deformation of titanium alloys in this study. The constants of the present models could be identified based on experimental results, which were conducted at deformation temperatures ranging from 1093 K to 1303 K, height reductions ranging from 20% to 60%, and the strain rates of 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 s-1. The physically-based internal state variable models were implemented into the commercial finite element (FE) code. Then, a three-dimensional (3D) FE simulation system coupling of deformation, heat transfer, and microstructure evolution was developed for the blade forging of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. FE analysis was carried out to simulate the microstructure evolution in the blade forging of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Finally, the blade forging tests of Ti-6Al-4V alloy were performed to validate the results of FE simulation. According to the tensile tests, it is seen that the mechanical properties, such as tensile strength and elongation, satisfy the application requirements well. The maximum and minimum differences between the calculated and experimental grain size of primary α phase are 11.71% and 4.23%, respectively. Thus, the industrial trials show a good agreement with FE simulation of blade forging.

  5. Internal microstructure evolution of aluminum foams under compression

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Min; Hu Xiaofang . E-mail: huxf@ustc.edu.cn; Wu Xiaoping

    2006-10-12

    In this paper, the internal microstructure deformation of open-cell and closed-cell aluminum foams under compression was investigated by using synchrotron radiation X-ray computed tomography (SR-CT) technique and digital image analysis method. The reconstructed images were obtained by using filtered back projection algorithm based on the original images taken from SR-CT experiments. Several important parameters including cross-section porosity, total porosity and cross-section deformation were computed from the reconstructed images. The variation of these parameters provided useful evolution information of internal microstructure of aluminum foams under compression.

  6. Microstructural Evolution and Bonding Behavior during Transient Liquid-Phase Bonding of a Duplex Stainless Steel using two Different Ni-B-Based Filler Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xinjian; Kim, Myung Bok; Kang, Chung Yun

    2011-05-01

    Microstructural evolution and bonding behavior of transient liquid-phase (TLP) bonded joint for a duplex stainless steel using MBF-30 (Ni -4.5Si -3.2B [wt pct]) and MBF-50 (Ni -7.5Si -1.4B -18.5Cr [wt pct]) were investigated. Using MBF-30, the microstructure of the athermally solidified zone was dependent on B diffusion at 1333.15 K (1060 °C). Ni3B and a supersaturated γ-Ni phase were observed in this zone. BN appeared in the bonding-affected zone. However, using MBF-50, the influences of base metal alloying elements, particularly N and Cr as well as Si in the filler material, on the bond microstructure development were more pronounced at 1448.15 K (1175 °C). BN and (Cr, Ni)3Si phase were present in the bond centerline. The formation of BN precipitates in the bonding-affected zone was suppressed. A significant deviation in the isothermal solidification rate from the conventional TLP bonding diffusion models was observed in the joints prepared at 1448.15 K (1175 °C) using MBF-50.

  7. Stress Rupture Fracture Model and Microstructure Evolution for Waspaloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Zhihao; Zhang, Maicang; Dong, Jianxin

    2013-07-01

    Stress rupture behavior and microstructure evolution of nickel-based superalloy Waspaloy specimens from tenon teeth of an as-received 60,000-hour service-exposed gas turbine disk were studied between 923 K and 1088 K (650 °C and 815 °C) under initial applied stresses varying from 150 to 840 MPa. Good microstructure stability and performance were verified for this turbine disk prior to stress rupture testing. Microstructure instability, such as the coarsening and dissolution of γ' precipitates at the varying test conditions, was observed to be increased with temperature and reduced stress. Little microstructure variation was observed at 923 K (650 °C). Only secondary γ' instability occurred at 973 K (700 °C). Four fracture mechanisms were obtained. Transgranular creep fracture was exhibited up to 923 K (650 °C) and at high stress. A mixed mode of transgranular and intergranular creep fracture occurred with reduced stress as a transition to intergranular creep fracture (ICF) at low stress. ICF was dominated by grain boundary sliding at low temperature and by the nucleation and growth of grain boundary cavities due to microstructure instability at high temperature. The fracture mechanism map and microstructure-related fracture model were constructed. Residual lifetime was also evaluated by the Larson-Miller parameter method.

  8. Microstructural evolutions and cyclic softening of 9%Cr martensitic steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjamin, Fournier; Maxime, Sauzay; Alexandra, Renault; Françoise, Barcelo; André, Pineau

    2009-04-01

    Detailed TEM and EBSD measurements were carried out to quantify the microstructural evolutions and to identify the physical mechanisms taking place during fatigue and creep-fatigue at 823 K on a P91 martensitic steel. The coarsening of former martensitic laths is shown to be heterogeneous for low applied strains, whereas for higher applied strains and longer holding periods the whole microstructure coarsens. Based on these observations and on a careful study of the stress partition (backstress, isotropic and viscous stress), the softening effect in creep-fatigue is found to be mainly related to the cumulated viscoplastic strain at a given fatigue strain range. The microstructural coarsening taking place during cyclic loadings is shown to increase significantly the minimum creep rate of this steel.

  9. Microstructure Evolution of a Multifunctional Titanium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yu Xing; Hao, Yu Lin

    2016-03-01

    To optimize both mechanical and functional properties of multifunctional titanium alloys via grain refinement, an example of such alloys termed as Ti2448 is adopted to investigate its microstructure evolution and strain rate sensitivity by compression in the single β-phase field. The results show that flow stress and strain rate follow a bilinear relation, which is in sharp contrast with other metallic materials exhibiting a monotonic linearity. Below the critical strain of 1 s-1, the alloy has a normal strain rate sensitivity factor of 0.265. Above the critical value, its hardening rate is ultra-low with a factor of 0.03. Inspite of ultra-low hardening, the alloy is plastic stable under the tested conditions. With the aid of electron back-scattering diffraction and transmission electron microscopy analyses, microstructure evolution via several mechanisms such as dynamic recovery and recrystallization is evaluated by quantitative measurements of grain misorientation and its distribution, sub-grain formation, and localized grain refinement. These results are helpful to obtain the homogenous ultrafine-grained alloy by multi-step thermo-mechanical processing.

  10. Microstructure Evolution of a Multifunctional Titanium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yu Xing; Hao, Yu Lin

    2016-06-01

    To optimize both mechanical and functional properties of multifunctional titanium alloys via grain refinement, an example of such alloys termed as Ti2448 is adopted to investigate its microstructure evolution and strain rate sensitivity by compression in the single β-phase field. The results show that flow stress and strain rate follow a bilinear relation, which is in sharp contrast with other metallic materials exhibiting a monotonic linearity. Below the critical strain of 1 s-1, the alloy has a normal strain rate sensitivity factor of 0.265. Above the critical value, its hardening rate is ultra-low with a factor of 0.03. Inspite of ultra-low hardening, the alloy is plastic stable under the tested conditions. With the aid of electron back-scattering diffraction and transmission electron microscopy analyses, microstructure evolution via several mechanisms such as dynamic recovery and recrystallization is evaluated by quantitative measurements of grain misorientation and its distribution, sub-grain formation, and localized grain refinement. These results are helpful to obtain the homogenous ultrafine-grained alloy by multi-step thermo-mechanical processing.

  11. Microstructure Evolution and Analysis of A [011] Orientation, Single-Crystal, Nickel-Based Superalloy During Tensile Creep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Sugui; Zhang, Shu; Li, Chenxi; Yu, Huichen; Su, Yong; Yu, Xingfu; Yu, Lili

    2012-10-01

    By means of the elastic-plastic finite-element method (FEM) for calculating the distribution features of the von Mises stress and strain energy density, the influences of the applied stress on the von Mises stress of the γ'/ γ phases and the rafting of the γ' phase for the [011] orientation, single-crystal, nickel-based superalloy are investigated. The results show that, after being fully heat treated, the microstructure of the [011] orientation, single-crystal, nickel-based superalloy consists of the cuboidal γ' phase embedded coherently in the γ matrix, and the cuboidal γ' phase on (100) plane is regularly arranged along a 45 deg angle relative to the [011] orientation. Compared with the matrix channel of [010] orientation, the bigger von Mises stress is produced within the [001] matrix channel when the tensile stress is applied along the [011] orientation. Under the action of the larger principal stress component, the bigger expanding lattice strain occurs on the (001) plane of the cuboidal γ' phase along the [010] direction, which may trap the Al, Ti atoms with a bigger atomic radius for promoting the directional growth of the γ' phase into the stripe-like rafted structure along the [001] orientation. The changes of the interatomic potential energy, misfit stress, and interfacial energy during the tensile creep are thought to be the driving forces of promoting the elements' diffusion and directional growth of the γ' phase.

  12. Microstructure evolution and FEM analysis of a [111] oriented single crystal nickel-based superalloy during tensile creep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Sugui; Li, Qiuyang; Su, Yong; Yu, Huichen; Xie, Jun; Zhang, Shu

    2015-03-01

    By means of the elastic-plastic stress-strain finite element method (FEM), the distribution of the von Mises stress and strain energy density in the regions near the interfaces of the cuboidal γ/ γ' phases is calculated to investigate the rafted behaviors of γ' phase in a [111] oriented single crystal (SC) nickel-based superalloy. Results show that, after fully heat treated, the microstructure of the superalloy consists of the cuboidal γ' phase embedded coherently in the γ matrix and arranged regularly along the <100> orientation. And the parameters and misfits of γ'/ γ phases in the alloy increase with the temperature. After crept for 50 h, the γ' phase in alloy has transformed into the mesh-like rafted structure on (010) plane along [001] and [100] orientations. When the tensile stress is applied along [111] direction, the change of the strain energy on the planes of the cuboidal γ' phase results in the directional diffusion of the elements. Thereinto, compared with (010) plane, the bigger expanding strain occurs on (100) and (001) planes along the [010], [001] and [010], [100] directions, which may trap the Al and Ti atoms with bigger radius to promote the directional growth of γ' phase on (010) plane along [100] and [001] directions. This is thought to be the main reason for the γ' phase directionally growing into the mesh-like rafted structure on (010) plane.

  13. Diffuse Interface Model for Microstructure Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nestler, Britta

    A phase-field model for a general class of multi-phase metallic alloys is proposed which describes both, multi-phase solidification phenomena as well as polycrystalline grain structures. The model serves as a computational method to simulate the motion and kinetics of multiple phase boundaries and enables the visualization of the diffusion processes and of the phase transitions in multi-phase systems. Numerical simulations are presented which illustrate the capability of the phase-field model to recover a variety of complex experimental growth structures. In particular, the phase-field model can be used to simulate microstructure evolutions in eutectic, peritectic and monotectic alloys. In addition, polycrystalline grain structures with effects such as wetting, grain growth, symmetry properties of adjacent triple junctions in thin film samples and stability criteria at multiple junctions are described by phase-field simulations.

  14. Simulating microstructural evolution during the hot working of alloy 718

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mataya, Martin C.

    1999-01-01

    The simulation of microstructural evolution during the primary breakdown of production-sized alloy 718 ingots and billets by radial forging was accomplished in the laboratory via multiple-stroke axial compression testing of cylindrical specimens. The dwell or hold time between strokes was varied to simulate the deformation-time history for three different locations along the radial-forging work piece: lead-end, mid-length, and tail-end positions. The microstructural evolution varied with simulated work piece position. Static, rather than dynamic, recrystallization was responsible for the observed grain-size refinement, and its repetitive occurrence during consecutive dwell periods resulted in the maintenance of a fine-grain microstructure during multiple-stroke deformation sequences. For comparison, the total plastic strain was also applied in a single-stroke test. The single- and multiple-stroke techniques gave differing microstructural results, indicating that multiple-stroke testing is necessary in modeling microstructural evolution during primary breakdown.

  15. Microstructure evolution of lime putty upon aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascolo, Giuseppe; Mascolo, Maria Cristina; Vitale, Alessandro; Marino, Ottavio

    2010-08-01

    The microstructure evolution of lime putty upon aging was investigated by slaking quicklime (CaO) with an excess of water for 3, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 66 months. The as-obtained lime putties were characterized in the water retention and in the particle size distribution using the static laser scattering (SLS). The same lime putties, dehydrated by lyophilization, were also investigated in the pore size distribution by mercury intrusion porosimetry, in the surface area by the BET method and, finally, in particle morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effect of the extended exposure of quicklime to water confirms a shape change from prismatic crystals of portlandite, Ca(OH) 2, into platelike ones. Simultaneously a growth of larger hexagonal crystals at the expense of the smallest ones (Ostwald ripening) favours a secondary precipitation of submicrometer platelike crystals of portlandite. The shape change and the broader particles size distribution of portlandite crystals upon aging seem to contribute to a better plasticity of lime putty.

  16. Microstructural evolution of eutectic Au-Sn solder joints

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Ho Geon

    2002-05-31

    Current trends toward miniaturization and the use of lead(Pb)-free solder in electronic packaging present new problems in the reliability of solder joints. This study was performed in order to understand the microstructure and microstructural evolution of small volumes of nominally eutectic Au-Sn solder joints (80Au-20Sn by weight), which gives insight into properties and reliability.

  17. Compositional and Microstructural Evolution of Olivine During Pulsed Laser Irradiation: Insights Based on a FIB/Field-Emission TEM Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christoffersen, R.; Loeffler, M. J.; Dukes, C. A.; Baragiola, R. A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The use of pulsed laser irradiation to simulate the short duration, high-energy conditions characteristic of micrometeorite impacts is now an established approach in experimental space weathering studies. The laser generates both melt and vapor deposits that contain nanophase metallic Fe (npFe(sup 0)) grains with size distributions and optical properties similar to those in natural impact-generated melt and vapor deposits. There remains uncertainty, however, about how well lasers simulate the mechanical work and internal (thermal) energy partitioning that occurs in actual impacts. We are currently engaged in making a direct comparison between the products of laser irradiation and experimental/natural hypervelocity impacts. An initial step reported here is to use analytical TEM is to attain a better understanding of how the microstructure and composition of laser deposits evolve over multiple cycles of pulsed laser irradiation. Experimental Methods: We irradiated pressed-powder pellets of San Carlos olivine (Fo(sub 90)) with up to 99 rastered pulses of a GAM ArF excimer laser. The irradiated surface of the sample were characterized by SEM imaging and areas were selected for FIB cross sectioning for TEM study using an FEI Quanta dual-beam electron/focused ion beam instrument. FIB sections were characterized using a JEOL2500SE analytical field-emission scanning transmission electron microscope (FE-STEM) optimized for quantitative element mapping at less than 10 nm spatial resolutions. Results: In the SEM the 99 pulse pressed pellet sample shows a complex, inhomogeneous, distribution of laser-generated material, largely concentrated in narrow gaps and larger depressions between grains. Local concentrations of npFe0 spherules 0.1 to 1 micrometers in size are visible within these deposits in SEM back-scatter images. Fig. 1 shows bright-field STEM images of a FIB cross-section of a one of these deposits that continuously covers the top and sloping side of an

  18. Fusion boundary microstructure evolution in aluminum alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostrivas, Anastasios Dimitrios

    2000-10-01

    A melting technique was developed to simulate the fusion boundary of aluminum alloys using the GleebleRTM thermal simulator. Using a steel sleeve to contain the aluminum, samples were heated to incremental temperatures above the solidus temperature of a number of alloys. In alloy 2195, a 4wt%Cu-1wt%Li alloy, an equiaxed non-dendritic zone (EQZ) could be formed by heating in the temperature range from approximately 630 to 640°C. At temperatures above 640°C, solidification occurred by the normal epitaxial nucleation and growth mechanism. Fusion boundary behavior was also studied in alloys 5454-H34, 6061-T6, and 2219-T8. Additionally, experimental alloy compositions were produced by making bead on plate welds using an alloy 5454-H32 base metal and 5025 or 5087 filler metals. These filler metals contain zirconium and scandium additions, respectively, and were expected to influence nucleation and growth behavior. Both as-welded and welded/heat treated (540°C and 300°C) substrates were tested by melting simulation, resulting in dendritic and EQZ structures depending on composition and substrate condition. Orientation imaging microscopy (OIM(TM)) was employed to study the crystallographic character of the microstructures produced and to verify the mechanism responsible for EQZ formation. OIM(TM) proved that grains within the EQZ have random orientation. In all other cases, where the simulated microstructures were dendritic in nature, it was shown that epitaxy was the dominant mode of nucleation. The lack of any preferred crystallographic orientation relationship in the EQZ supports a theory proposed by Lippold et al that the EQZ is the result of heterogeneous nucleation within the weld unmixed zone. EDS analysis of the 2195 on STEM revealed particles with ternary composition consisted of Zr, Cu and Al and a tetragonal type crystallographic lattice. Microdiffraction line scans on EQZ grains in the alloy 2195 showed very good agreement between the measured Cu

  19. Microstructure and texture evolution of Cu–Nb composite wires

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Liping; Yang, Xiaofang; Han, Ke; Lu, Yafeng; Liang, Ming; Liu, Qing

    2013-07-15

    The evolution of microstructure and texture in Cu–Nb composite wires fabricated by an accumulative drawing and bundling process was investigated by backscattered electron (BSE), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results indicate the onset of severe curling and shape changing occurred at the size of Nb ∼ 400 nm with a surface increase of about 6.91 μm{sup 2}/μm{sup 3} (the area per unit volume). Two kinds of grain boundaries in Nb are suggested: one is 20°–50° boundary with a rotate/tilt axis around <110> parallel to drawing direction (DD), and another is > 50° boundary with the axis perpendicular to DD. The curling phenomenon occurred at the Cu–Nb interface and is related not only to the deformation mechanism of Nb but also to the presence of interface. This result is distinct from reported works showing that curling takes place when BCC metals are heavily drawn (Area reduction > 73%). The variation in microstructure and texture evolution between Cu and Nb filaments was discussed based on the differences in deformation mechanisms of these two metals. - Highlights: • Microstructure and texture evolution were studied systematically by EBSD. • In Nb, grain boundaries of 20°–50° have a rotate/tile axis around <110>//DD. • The rotation axes of above 50° boundaries are concentrated around <111> ⊥ DD in Nb. • Curling is related to not only deformation mode of BCC but also Cu–Nb interface.

  20. Monitoring microstructural evolution in irradiated steel with second harmonic generation

    SciTech Connect

    Matlack, Kathryn H.; Kim, Jin-Yeon; Jacobs, Laurence J.; Wall, James J.; Qu, Jianmin

    2015-03-31

    Material damage in structural components is driven by microstructural evolution that occurs at low length scales and begins early in component life. In metals, these microstructural features are known to cause measurable changes in the acoustic nonlinearity parameter. Physically, the interaction of a monochromatic ultrasonic wave with microstructural features such as dislocations, precipitates, and vacancies, generates a second harmonic wave that is proportional to the acoustic nonlinearity parameter. These nonlinear ultrasonic techniques thus have the capability to evaluate initial material damage, particularly before crack initiation and propagation occur. This paper discusses how the nonlinear ultrasonic technique of second harmonic generation can be used as a nondestructive evaluation tool to monitor microstructural changes in steel, focusing on characterizing neutron radiation embrittlement in nuclear reactor pressure vessel steels. Current experimental evidence and analytical models linking microstructural evolution with changes in the acoustic nonlinearity parameter are summarized.

  1. Microstructural Evolution and interfacial motion in systems with diffusion barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Perry H. Leo

    2009-03-05

    This research program was designed to model and simulate phase transformations in systems containing diffusion barriers. The modeling work included mass flow, phase formation, and microstructural evolution in interdiffusing systems. Simulation work was done by developing Cahn-Hilliard and phase field equations governing both the temporal and spatial evolution of the composition and deformation fields and other important phase variables.

  2. MICROSTRUCTURE EVOLUTION MODELING FOR SOLUTION TREATMENT OF ALUMINUM ALLOYS

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Hebi; Sabau, Adrian S; Skszek, Timothy; Niu, X

    2013-01-01

    The microstructure evolution during solution treatment plays an important role in mechanical properties of heat-treated aluminum alloys. In this paper, models were reviewed that can predict the microstructure evolution during the solutionizing process of the aging heat treatment of aluminum alloys. The dissolution of Mg2Si particles has been modeled as a diffusion process of Mg in the -Al matrix. The evolution of volumetric fraction of fragmented silicon as a function of time and temperature was also considered. The growth and coarsening of silicon particles during the heat treatment was considered. It was found that constitutive equations and required property data for most of the phenomena that need to be considered are available. Several model parameters that need to be obtained from material characterization were identified. Pending the availability of these model parameters, this comprehensive model can be used to describe the microstructure evolution of aluminum alloys in order to optimize the solutionizing heat treatment for energy savings.

  3. Mechanical Properties and Microstructural Evolution of Welded Eglin Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leister, Brett M.

    Eglin steel is a new ultra-high strength steel that has been developed at Eglin Air Force Base in the early 2000s. This steel could be subjected to a variety of processing steps during fabrication, each with its own thermal history. This article presents a continuous cooling transformation diagram developed for Eglin steel to be used as a guideline during processing. Dilatometry techniques performed on a Gleeble thermo-mechanical simulator were combined with microhardness results and microstructural characterization to develop the diagram. The results show that four distinct microstructures form within Eglin steel depending on the cooling rate. At cooling rates above about 1 °C/s, a predominately martensitic microstructure is formed with hardness of ˜520 HV. Intermediate cooling rates of 1 °C/s to 0.2 °C/s produce a mixed martensitic/bainitic microstructure with a hardness that ranges from 520 - 420 HV. Slower cooling rates of 0.1 °C/s to 0.03 °C/s lead to the formation of a bainitic microstructure with a hardness of ˜420 HV. The slowest cooling rate of 0.01 °C/s formed a bainitic microstructure with pearlite at the prior austenite grain boundaries. A comprehensive study was performed to correlate the mechanical properties and the microstructural evolution in the heat affected zone of thermally simulated Eglin steel. A Gleeble 3500 thermo-mechanical simulator was used to resistively heat samples of wrought Eglin steel according to calculated thermal cycles with different peak temperatures at a heat input of 1500 J/mm. These samples underwent mechanical testing to determine strength and toughness, in both the `as-simulated' condition and also following post-weld heat treatments. Mechanical testing has shown that the inter-critical heat affected zone (HAZ) has the lowest strength following thermal simulation, and the fine-grain and coarse-grain heat affected zone having an increased strength when compared to the inter-critical HAZ. The toughness of the heat

  4. General introduction to microstructural evolution under cascade damage conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Wiedersich, H.

    1993-06-01

    A short overview of the processes that affect the evolution of the microstructure during irradiation is given. The processes include defect production with an emphasis on the effects of the dynamic cascade events, defect clustering, irradiation-enhanced diffusion, radiation-induced segregation, phase decompositions and phase transformations. A simple model for the description of the development of the defect microstructure in a pure metal during cascade producing irradiation is also outlined which can provide, in principle, defect fluxes required for the description of the microstructural processes such as phase decomposition and irradiation-induced precipitation.

  5. Microstructural Evolution in the 2219 Aluminum Alloy During Severe Plastic Deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Kaibyshev, R.O.; Safarov, I.M.; Lesuen, D.R.

    2000-03-29

    Numerous investigations have demonstrated that intense plastic deformation is an attractive procedure for producing an ultrafine grain size in metallic materials. Torsional deformation under high pressure and equal-channel angular extrusion are two techniques that can produce microstructures with grain sizes in the submicrometer and nanometer range. Materials with these microstructures have many attractive properties. The microstructures formed by these two processing techniques are essentially the same and thus the processes occurring during deformation should be the same. Most previous studies have examined the final microstructures produced as a result of severe plastic deformation and the resulting properties. Only a limited number of studies have examined the evolution of microstructure. As a result, some important aspects of ultra-fine grain formation during severe plastic deformation remain unknown. There is also limited data on the influence of the initial state of the material on the microstructural evolution and mechanisms of ultra-fine grain formation. This limited knowledge base makes optimization of processing routes difficult and retards commercial application of these techniques. The objective of the present work is to examine the microstructure evolution during severe plastic deformation of a 2219 aluminum alloy. Specific attention is given to the mechanism of ultrafine grain formation as a result of severe plastic deformation.

  6. Microstructural and geochemical evolution of sliding surfaces in landslides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaebitz, M.; Janssen, C.; Wirth, R.; Dresen, G. H.

    2014-12-01

    The formation of basal sliding surfaces in mass movements is known to be associated with chemical and physical alteration of rock and regolith. To evaluate its microstructural and geochemical evolution we collected samples from the host rock to the sliding surface and adjacent deposits within landslides in Kirgizstan and central China. The sample locations represent different morphological and geological conditions to evaluate if the weakness of the sliding surface derives from general factors such as (micro)structural or mineralogical changes within the landslide body. Based on qualitative and quantitative geochemical analysis we could not find neither indication for notable weathering of the parent bedrock nor accumulation of clay minerals along the sliding surface to explain its reduced shear strength in the investigated near-surface landslides. The cataclasites are mainly composed of quartz, illite, calcite, kaolinite and feldspar with grain sizes between 5 μm down to < 50 nm. XRD and XRF data show no increase in Al2O3, Fe2O3 or decrease in SiO2, CaO or MgO contents towards the sliding surface, pointing to alteration processes. Transmission electron microscopy and focused ion beam technique for TEM sample preparation were used to compare the microstructures. It clearly revealed a severe reduction of grain size, and increase of pore space due to grain comminution by creeping and moving processes, indicating that elevated pore pressures are the main reason for the weakness of the sliding surfaces in shallow landslides. The comminution process within sliding surface formation seems to be comparable to fault gauge formation.

  7. Simulated evolution process of core-shell microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Tao; Wang, Haipeng; Wei, Bingbo

    2007-08-01

    The evolution process of core-shell microstructures formed in monotectic alloys under the space environment condition was investigated by the numerical simulation method. In order to account for the effect of surface segregation on phase separation, Model H was modified by introducing a surface free energy term into the total free energy of alloy droplet. Three Fe-Cu alloys were taken as simulated examples, which usually exhibit metastable phase separation in undercooled and microgravity states. It was revealed by the dynamic simulation process that the formation of core-shell microstructures depends mainly on surface segregation and Marangoni convection. The phase separation of Fe65Cu35 alloy starts from a dispersed structure and gradually evolves into a triple-layer core-shell micro-structure. Similarly, Fe50Cu50 alloy experiences a structural evolution process of “bicontinuous phase → quadruple-layer core-shell → triple-layer core-shell”, while the microstructures of Fe35Cu65 alloy transfer from the dispersed structure into the final double-layer core-shell morphology. The Cu-rich phase always forms the outer layer because of surface segregation, whereas the internal microstructural evolution is controlled mainly by the Marangoni convection resulting from the temperature gradient.

  8. Microstructural Evolution of Alloy Powder for Electronic Materials with Liquid Miscibility Gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnuma, I.; Saegusa, T.; Takaku, Y.; Wang, C. P.; Liu, X. J.; Kainuma, R.; Ishida, K.

    2009-01-01

    The microstructure of powders that are applicable for electronic materials were studied for some systems in which there is a liquid miscibility gap. The characteristic morphologies of an egg-like core type and a uniform second-phase dispersion are shown in relation to the phase diagram, where thermodynamic calculations are a powerful tool for alloy design and the prediction of microstructure. Typical examples of microstructural evolution and properties of Pb-free solders and Ag-based micropowders with high electrical conductivity produced by a gas-atomizing method are presented.

  9. Modeling of microstructure evolution in austenitic stainless steels irradiated under light water reactor condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, J.; Was, G. S.; Stoller, R. E.

    2001-10-01

    A model for microstructure development in austenitic alloys under light water reactor irradiation conditions is described. The model is derived from the model developed by Stoller and Odette to describe microstructural evolution under fast neutron or fusion reactor irradiation conditions. The model is benchmarked against microstructure measurements in 304 and 316 SS irradiated in a boiling water reactor core using one material-dependent and three irradiation-based parameters. The model is also adapted for proton irradiation at higher dose rate and higher temperature and is calibrated against microstructure measurements for proton irradiation. The model calculations show that for both neutron and proton irradiations, in-cascade interstitial clustering is the driving mechanism for loop nucleation. The loss of interstitial clusters to sinks by interstitial cluster diffusion was found to be an important factor in determining the loop density. The model also explains how proton irradiation can produce an irradiated dislocation microstructure similar to that in neutron irradiation.

  10. Numerical Study of Microstructural Evolution During Homogenization of Al-Si-Mg-Fe-Mn Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priya, Pikee; Johnson, David R.; Krane, Matthew J. M.

    2016-09-01

    Microstructural evolution during homogenization of Al-Si-Mg-Fe-Mn alloys occurs in two stages at different length scales: while holding at the homogenization temperature (diffusion on the scale of the secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) in micrometers) and during quenching to room temperature (dispersoid precipitation at the nanometer to submicron scale). Here a numerical study estimates microstructural changes during both stages. A diffusion-based model developed to simulate evolution at the SDAS length scale predicts homogenization times and microstructures matching experiments. That model is coupled with a Kampmann Wagner Neumann-based precipitate nucleation and growth model to study the effect of temperature, composition, as-cast microstructure, and cooling rates during posthomogenization quenching on microstructural evolution. A homogenization schedule of 853 K (580 °C) for 8 hours, followed by cooling at 250 K/h, is suggested to optimize microstructures for easier extrusion, consisting of minimal α-Al(FeMn)Si, no β-AlFeSi, and Mg2Si dispersoids <1 μm size.

  11. Numerical Study of Microstructural Evolution During Homogenization of Al-Si-Mg-Fe-Mn Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priya, Pikee; Johnson, David R.; Krane, Matthew J. M.

    2016-06-01

    Microstructural evolution during homogenization of Al-Si-Mg-Fe-Mn alloys occurs in two stages at different length scales: while holding at the homogenization temperature (diffusion on the scale of the secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) in micrometers) and during quenching to room temperature (dispersoid precipitation at the nanometer to submicron scale). Here a numerical study estimates microstructural changes during both stages. A diffusion-based model developed to simulate evolution at the SDAS length scale predicts homogenization times and microstructures matching experiments. That model is coupled with a Kampmann Wagner Neumann-based precipitate nucleation and growth model to study the effect of temperature, composition, as-cast microstructure, and cooling rates during posthomogenization quenching on microstructural evolution. A homogenization schedule of 853 K (580 °C) for 8 hours, followed by cooling at 250 K/h, is suggested to optimize microstructures for easier extrusion, consisting of minimal α-Al(FeMn)Si, no β-AlFeSi, and Mg2Si dispersoids <1 μm size.

  12. Microstructural Evolution and Mechanical Properties of Fusion Welds and Simulated Heat-Affected Zones in an Iron-Copper Based Multi-Component Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farren, Jeffrey David

    NUCu-140 is a copper-precipitation strengthened steel that exhibits excellent mechanical properties with a relatively simple chemical composition and processing schedule. As a result, NUCu-140 is a candidate material for use in many naval and structural applications. Before NUCu-140 can be implemented as a replacement for currently utilized materials, a comprehensive welding strategy must be developed under a wide range of welding conditions. This research represents an initial step toward understanding the microstructural and mechanical property evolution that occurs during fusion welding of NUCu-140. The following dissertation is presented as a series of four chapters. Chapter one is a review of the relevant literature on the iron-copper system including the precipitation of copper in steel, the development of the NUCu family of alloys, and the formation of acicular ferrite in steel weldments. Chapter two is a detailed study of the precipitate, microstructural, and mechanical property evolution of NUCu-140 fusion welds. Microhardness testing, tensile testing, local-electrode atom probe (LEAP) tomography, MatCalc kinetic simulations, and Russell-Brown strengthening results for gas-tungsten and gas-metal arc welds are presented. Chapter three is a thorough study of the microstructural and mechanical property evolution that occurs in the four critical regions of the HAZ. Simulated HAZ specimens were produced and evaluated using microhardness, tensile testing, and charpy impact testing. MatCalc simulations and R-B strengthening calculations were also performed in an effort to model the experimentally observed mechanical property trends. Chapter 4 is a brief investigation into the capabilities of MatCalc and the R-B model to determine if the two techniques could be used as predictive tools for a series of binary iron-copper alloys without the aid of experimentally measured precipitate data. The mechanical property results show that local softening occurs in the heat

  13. Microstructural evolution of pure copper during friction-stir welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, S.; Inagaki, K.; Sato, Y. S.; Kokawa, H.

    2015-02-01

    The microstructural evolution of pure copper during friction-stir welding was found to be principally influenced by welding temperature. At temperatures below ~0.5 Tm (where Tm is melting point), the microstructure was shown to be essentially determined by continuous recrystallization, leading to significant grain refinement and related material strengthening in the stir zone. In contrast, grain structure development at temperatures above ~0.5 Tm was dominated by discontinuous recrystallization producing a relatively coarse grain structure in the stir zone and giving rise to material softening.

  14. In Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy Heating Studies of Particle Coalescence and Microstructure Evolution in Nanosized Ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    2006-06-02

    Final report on in-situ transmission microscopy heating studies of particle coalescence and microstructure evolution in nanosized ceramics. Report includes summary of work on particle shape changes and stress effects, and novel infiltration techniques in the processing of alumina based ceramics.

  15. Coupled finite element-Monte Carlo simulation of microstructure and texture evolution during thermomechanical processing

    SciTech Connect

    Radhakrishnan, B.; Sarma, G.; Zacharia, T.

    1998-11-01

    A novel simulation technique for predicting the microstructure and texture evolution during thermomechanical processing is presented. The technique involves coupling a finite element microstructural deformation model based on crystal plasticity with a Monte Carlo simulation of recovery and recrystallization. The finite element model captures the stored energy and the crystallographic orientation distributions in the deformed microstructure. The Monte Carlo simulation captures the microstructural evolution associated with recovery and recrystallization. A unique feature of the Monte Carlo simulation is that it treats recrystallization as a heterogeneous subgrain growth process, thus providing the natural link between nucleation and growth phenomena, and quantifying the role of recovery in these phenomena. Different nucleation mechanisms based on heterogeneous subgrain growth as well as strain induced boundary migration are automatically included in the recrystallization simulation. The simulations are shown to account for the extent of prior deformation on the microstructure and kinetics of recrystallization during subsequent annealing. The simulations also capture the influence of the presence of cube orientations in the initial microstructure, and the operation of non-octahedral slip during deformation of fcc polycrystals, on the recrystallization texture.

  16. Microstructure Evolution of a Medium Manganese Steel During Thermomechanical Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Binhan; Aydin, Huseyin; Fazeli, Fateh; Yue, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    An as-cast Fe-0.2C-10Mn-3Si-3Al medium manganese steel with a ferrite plus austenite duplex microstructure was subjected to hot compression tests at deformation temperatures within two-phase ( α + γ) range and various strain rates. The microstructure evolution of the experimental steel during hot deformation was investigated. The flow curves were characterized by a discontinuous yielding at the beginning of plastic deformation, followed by a weak work hardening to a peak and a subsequent mild softening stage. Two restoration processes took place during hot deformation, namely dynamic recrystallization (DRX) of austenite and continuous dynamic recrystallization of ferrite. The DRX of austenite was believed to dominate the softening stage of the flow curves. The discontinuous yielding stemmed from the existing Kurdjumov-Sachs (K-S) orientation relationship between ferrite and austenite in the initial undeformed microstructure, which gradually weakened during subsequent deformation.

  17. Microstructural evolution in fast-neutron-irradiated austenitic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Stoller, R.E.

    1987-12-01

    The present work has focused on the specific problem of fast-neutron-induced radiation damage to austenitic stainless steels. These steels are used as structural materials in current fast fission reactors and are proposed for use in future fusion reactors. Two primary components of the radiation damage are atomic displacements (in units of displacements per atom, or dpa) and the generation of helium by nuclear transmutation reactions. The radiation environment can be characterized by the ratio of helium to displacement production, the so-called He/dpa ratio. Radiation damage is evidenced microscopically by a complex microstructural evolution and macroscopically by density changes and altered mechanical properties. The purpose of this work was to provide additional understanding about mechanisms that determine microstructural evolution in current fast reactor environments and to identify the sensitivity of this evolution to changes in the He/dpa ratio. This latter sensitivity is of interest because the He/dpa ratio in a fusion reactor first wall will be about 30 times that in fast reactor fuel cladding. The approach followed in the present work was to use a combination of theoretical and experimental analysis. The experimental component of the work primarily involved the examination by transmission electron microscopy of specimens of a model austenitic alloy that had been irradiated in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor. A major aspect of the theoretical work was the development of a comprehensive model of microstructural evolution. This included explicit models for the evolution of the major extended defects observed in neutron irradiated steels: cavities, Frank faulted loops and the dislocation network. 340 refs., 95 figs., 18 tabs.

  18. Tectonic Evolution of the Cretaceous Sava-Klepa Massif, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, based on field observations and microstructural analysis - Towards a new geodynamic Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altmeyer, Tobias; Peternell, Mark; Prelević, Dejan; Köpping, Jonas

    2016-04-01

    The Balkan Peninsula was formed during the Mesozoic collision of Gondwana and Eurasia, associated with the closure of the Neo-Tethyan Ocean. As a result, two ophiolitic belts were formed: Dinaride-Hellenide ophiolitic belt in the southwest and the Vardar ophiolitic belt in the northeast. The bulk of Balkan ophiolites originated in the Jurassic (Robertson & Karamata, 1994), and only recently the Late Cretaceous Sava-zone ophiolites are discovered. Ophiolit-like outcrops of Mount Klepa in the Central Macedonia represents a part of Late Cretaceous oceanic lithosphere within the Sava Zone, comprising of pillow lavas, sheet flows, columns, hyaloclastites, dikes as well as cumulates. In this study we investigate the geodynamic setting and evolution of the Late Cretaceous Klepa Massif. Our working hypotheses we want to test is that Klepa Massif represents a new ocean opened through rifting after the closure of Tethyan ocean(s) and collision of Europe and Gondwana already in the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous. This hypothesis contradicts the accepted model suggesting that Sava ophiolites represent a relic of the Neo-Tethyan Ocean that closed in the Late Cretaceous. During detailed structural geology field studies, the ophiolitic rock sequence of Klepa Mountain area was mapped in several profiles and about 60 rock samples were taken. These field data in addition to the north-south trending outcrops of the Klepa ophiolite and the north-south trending shear zones which bound the Klepa basalt, lead to the assumption of the existence of a pull apart basin. With the help of microstructural analyses we will determine the deformation history and temperatures which also will be confirmed by the analyses of calcite twins (Ferril et al., 2004). Quartz grain size analysis of quartz bearing rocks, were used for stress piezometry. Furthermore, quartz crystal geometry and crystallographic orientations, which were measured with the Fabric Analyser G60 (Peternell et al., 2010), reveal

  19. Mesoscale evolution of voids and microstructural changes in HMX-based explosives during heating through the β-δ phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willey, Trevor M.; Lauderbach, Lisa; Gagliardi, Franco; van Buuren, Tony; Glascoe, Elizabeth A.; Tringe, Joseph W.; Lee, Jonathan R. I.; Springer, H. Keo; Ilavsky, Jan

    2015-08-01

    HMX-based explosives LX-10 and PBX-9501 were heated through the β-δ phase transition. Ultra-small angle x-ray scattering (USAXS) and molecular diffraction were simultaneously recorded as the HMX was heated. Mesoscale voids and structure dramatically change promptly with the β-δ phase transition, rather than with other thermal effects. Also, x-ray induced damage, observed in the USAXS, occurs more readily at elevated temperatures; as such, the dose was reduced to mitigate this effect. Optical microscopy performed during a similar heating cycle gives an indication of changes on longer length scales, while x-ray microtomography, performed before and after heating, shows the character of extensive microstructural damage resulting from the temperature cycle and solid-state phase transition.

  20. Mesoscale evolution of voids and microstructural changes in HMX-based explosives during heating through the β-δ phase transition

    SciTech Connect

    Willey, Trevor M. Lauderbach, Lisa; Gagliardi, Franco; Buuren, Tony van; Glascoe, Elizabeth A.; Tringe, Joseph W.; Lee, Jonathan R. I.; Springer, H. Keo; Ilavsky, Jan

    2015-08-07

    HMX-based explosives LX-10 and PBX-9501 were heated through the β-δ phase transition. Ultra-small angle x-ray scattering (USAXS) and molecular diffraction were simultaneously recorded as the HMX was heated. Mesoscale voids and structure dramatically change promptly with the β-δ phase transition, rather than with other thermal effects. Also, x-ray induced damage, observed in the USAXS, occurs more readily at elevated temperatures; as such, the dose was reduced to mitigate this effect. Optical microscopy performed during a similar heating cycle gives an indication of changes on longer length scales, while x-ray microtomography, performed before and after heating, shows the character of extensive microstructural damage resulting from the temperature cycle and solid-state phase transition.

  1. Microstructural evolution of diamond growth during HFCVD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J.

    1994-01-01

    High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) was used to study the nucleation and growth mechanism of diamond by hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) process. A novel technique has shown a direct evidence for the formation of the diamond-like carbon layer 8-14 nm thick in which small diamond micro-crystallites were embedded. These diamond micro-crystallites were formed as a result of transformation of diamond-like carbon into diamond. The diamond micro-crystallites present in the amorphous diamond-like carbon layer provided nucleation sites for diamond growth. Large diamond crystallites were observed to grow from these micro-crystallites. The mechanism of diamond growth will be presented based on experimental findings.

  2. Modeling of Microstructural Evolution in an MCrAlY Overlay Coating on Different Superalloy Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karunaratne, M. S. A.; di Martino, I.; Ogden, S. L.; Oates, D. L.; Thomson, R. C.

    2012-02-01

    A multicomponent, one-dimensional diffusion model that was developed for simulating microstructure evolution in coated gas turbine blade systems has been used to compare the phase structures of three MCrAlY coated superalloy systems. The model is based on finite differences and incorporates oxidation and equilibrium thermodynamic computations. The superalloy substrates considered were the nickel-based superalloy CMSX-4, a high-Cr single-crystal superalloy, and a cobalt-based MAR-M509, and these were all coated with an MCrAlY bond coat of similar composition. The results predicted by the model have been compared with similar experimental systems. The model can predict many features observed experimentally and therefore can be expected to be a useful tool in lifetime prediction and microstructural assessment of turbine blade systems based on superalloys. The work also highlighted the fact that for a given coating, the phase evolution within system is dependent on the substrate material.

  3. Nonlinear acoustics experimental characterization of microstructure evolution in Inconel 617

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Xiaochu; Liu, Yang; Lissenden, Cliff J.

    2014-02-18

    Inconel 617 is a candidate material for the intermediate heat exchanger in a very high temperature reactor for the next generation nuclear power plant. This application will require the material to withstand fatigue-ratcheting interaction at temperatures up to 950°C. Therefore nondestructive evaluation and structural health monitoring are important capabilities. Acoustic nonlinearity (which is quantified in terms of a material parameter, the acoustic nonlinearity parameter, β) has been proven to be sensitive to microstructural changes in material. This research develops a robust experimental procedure to track the evolution of damage precursors in laboratory tested Inconel 617 specimens using ultrasonic bulk waves. The results from the acoustic non-linear tests are compared with stereoscope surface damage results. Therefore, the relationship between acoustic nonlinearity and microstructural evaluation can be clearly demonstrated for the specimens tested.

  4. Microstructural evolution during stress relaxation of gold thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syarbaini, Luthfia Amra

    Microstructure evolution in metal thin films for use in microelectronic devices was studied due to the formation of defects such as whiskers and hillocks that may cause problems in electrical circuits. Thin film stress relaxation can occur through a variety of processes. Understanding such mechanisms and the conditions under which certain mechanism dominate can potentially lead to the improved control of thin film stability. Studies of the 3D microstructural changes in Au thin films on silicon and other substrates with different thermal expansion coefficients aid us in understanding thin film relaxation phenomena such as hillock/whisker formation. Techniques such as in-situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM) heating and cooling experiments, electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD), focus ion beam (FIB) cross sections and atomic force microscopy (AFM) enabled us to quantify the kinetic relationships between relaxation mechanisms and local morphological changes.

  5. Microstructural evolution during dynamic deformation of cubic metals: copper

    SciTech Connect

    Cerreta, Ellen K; Koller, Darcie D; Bronkhorst, Curt A; Excobedo, Juan P; Hansen, Benjamin L; Patterson, Brian M; Lebensohn, Ricardo A; Livescu, Veronica; Tonks, Davis; Mourad, Hashem M; Germann, Timothy C; Perez - Bergquist, Alex; Gray Ill, George T

    2010-12-22

    Shockwave shape can influence dynamic damage evolution. Features such as rise time, pulse duration, peak shock pressure, pull back, and release rate are influenced as wave shape changes. However, their individual influence on dynamic damage evolution is not well understood. Specifically, changing from a square to triangular or Taylor wave loading profile can alter the release kinetics from peak shock pressure and the volume of material sampled during release. This creates a spatial influence. In high purity metals, because damage is often linked to boundaries within the microstructure (grain or twin), changing the volume of material sampled during release, can have a drastic influence on dynamic damage evolution as the number of boundaries or defects sampled is altered. In this study, model-driven dynamic experiments have been conducted on eu with four different grain sizes to examine, for a given shockwave shape, how the spatial effect of boundary distribution influences dynamic damage evolution. Both two and three dimensional damage characterization techniques have been utilized. This study shows the critical influence of spatial effects, in this case boundary density, on dynamic damage evolution. As the boundary density decreases, the damage evolution transitions from nucleation controlled to growth controlled. It also shows that specific boundaries, those with high Schmid factor orientations on either side, maybe a necessary condition for void formation.

  6. Epitaxy and Microstructure Evolution in Metal Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basak, Amrita; Das, Suman

    2016-07-01

    Metal additive manufacturing (AM) works on the principle of incremental layer-by-layer material consolidation, facilitating the fabrication of objects of arbitrary complexity through the controlled melting and resolidification of feedstock materials by using high-power energy sources. The focus of metal AM is to produce complex-shaped components made of metals and alloys to meet demands from various industrial sectors such as defense, aerospace, automotive, and biomedicine. Metal AM involves a complex interplay between multiple modes of energy and mass transfer, fluid flow, phase change, and microstructural evolution. Understanding the fundamental physics of these phenomena is a key requirement for metal AM process development and optimization. The effects of material characteristics and processing conditions on the resulting epitaxy and microstructure are of critical interest in metal AM. This article reviews various metal AM processes in the context of fabricating metal and alloy parts through epitaxial solidification, with material systems ranging from pure-metal and prealloyed to multicomponent materials. The aim is to cover the relationships between various AM processes and the resulting microstructures in these material systems.

  7. 4D analysis of the microstructural evolution of Si-based electrodes during lithiation: Time-lapse X-ray imaging and digital volume correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paz-Garcia, J. M.; Taiwo, O. O.; Tudisco, E.; Finegan, D. P.; Shearing, P. R.; Brett, D. J. L.; Hall, S. A.

    2016-07-01

    Silicon is a promising candidate to substitute or complement graphite as anode material in Li-ion batteries due, mainly, to its high energy density. However, the lithiation/delithiation processes of silicon particles are inherently related to drastic volume changes which, within a battery's physically constrained case, can induce significant deformation of the fundamental components of the battery that can eventually cause it to fail. In this work, we use non-destructive time-lapse X-ray imaging techniques to study the coupled electrochemo-mechanical phenomena in Li-ion batteries. We present X-ray computed tomography data acquired at different times during the first lithiation of custom-built silicon-lithium battery cells. Microstructural volume changes have been quantified using full 3D strain field measurements from digital volume correlation analysis. Furthermore, the extent of lithiation of silicon particles has been quantified in 3D from the grey-scale of the tomography images. Correlation of the volume expansion and grey-scale changes over the silicon-based electrode volume indicates that the process of lithiation is kinetically affected by the reaction at the Si/LixSi interface.

  8. Microstructural evolution and nanoscale crystallography in scleractinian coral spherulites.

    PubMed

    van de Locht, Renée; Verch, Andreas; Saunders, Martin; Dissard, Delphine; Rixen, Tim; Moya, Aurélie; Kröger, Roland

    2013-07-01

    One of the most important aspects in the research on reef-building corals is the process by which corals accrete biogenic calcium carbonate. This process leads to the formation of a mineral/organic composite and it is believed that the development of the nano- and microstructure of the mineral phase is highly sensitive to the growth conditions. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of large-scale (10×30μm) focused ion beam (FIB) prepared lamellae was performed on adult and juvenile scleractinian coral skeleton specimens. This allowed for the investigation of the nano and microstructure and the crystallographic orientation of the aragonite mineral. We found the following microstructural evolution in the adult Porites lobata specimens: randomly oriented nanocrystals with high porosity, partly aligned nanocrystals with high porosity and areas of dense acicular crystals of several micrometers extension, the latter two areas are aligned close to the [001] direction (Pmcn space group). To the best of our knowledge, for the first time the observed microstructure could be directly correlated with the dark/bright bands characteristic of the diurnal growth cycle. We hypothesize that this mineral structure sequence and alignment in the adult specimen is linked to the photosynthetic diurnal cycle of the zooxanthellea regulating the oxygen levels and organic molecule transport to the calcifying medium. These observations reveal a strong control of crystal morphology by the organism and the correlation of the accretion process. No indication for a self-assembly of nanocrystalline units, i.e., a mesocrystal structure, on the micrometer scale could be found. PMID:23685125

  9. Microstructural evolution in an austenitic stainless steel fusion reactor first wall

    SciTech Connect

    Stoller, R.E.; Odette, G.R.

    1986-01-01

    A detailed rate-theory-based model of microstructural evolution under fast neutron irradiation has been developed. The prominent new aspect of this model is a treatment of dislocation evolution in which Frank faulted loops nucleate, grow and unfault to provide a source for network dislocations while the dislocation network can be simultaneously annihilated by a climb/glide process. The predictions of this model compare very favorably with the observed dose and temperature dependence of these key microstructural features over a broad range. This new description of dislocation evolution has been coupled with a previously developed model of cavity evolution and good agreement has been obtained between the predictions of the composite model and fast reactor swelling data as well. The results from the composite model also reveal that the various components of the irradiation-induced microstructure evolve in a highly coupled manner. The predictions of the composite model are more sensitive to parametric variations than more simple models. Hence, its value as a tool in data analysis and extrapolation is enhanced.

  10. Microstructural evolution and electrical properties of base-metal electroded BaTi4O9 materials with B-Si-Ba-Zn-O glass system.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chen-Chia; Su, Yu-Hsuan; Liu, Ze-Ming; Utami, Brianti Satrianti; Chen, Cheng-Sao; Chu, Li-Wen

    2012-09-01

    Barium titanate-based microwave dielectrics usually require relatively high temperatures to sinter, which prevents the use of base metals such as copper for electrodes. In this work, BaTi(4)O(9) microwave dielectric ceramics co-fired with copper electrodes are made possible by adding B-Si-Ba- Zn-O glass to induce liquid-phase sintering at sufficiently low temperature and in reduced atmosphere. The microstructures and electric properties of the BaTi(4)O(9) ceramics thus obtained are carefully examined and studied. Proper glass composition may significantly facilitate mass transportation in the low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) material, resulting in better densification without serious degradation of electric properties. Although the B2O3/SiO2 ratio enhances the glass mobility during sintering, the BaO/ZnO ratio contributes to the chemical affinity of glass to BaTi(4)O(9) ceramics. In addition, various Ba-Ti-O phases with different Ba/Ti ratios may be found in the specimen through the X-ray diffraction patterns when the BaO/ZnO ratio is varied. If the BaO/ZnO ratio is high and the glass flows easily in the material, the Ba(4)Ti(13)O(30) phase is formed. If the BaO/ZnO ratio is low and the glass flows easily in the material, the BaTi(6)O(13) phase appears. We find that glass-induced Ba(4)Ti(13)O(30) transformation may significantly decrease Qxf values in the BT4-BSBZ materials. Therefore, the appropriate glass composition must be selected to ensure the phase stability of dielectrics to achieve the best performance possible. PMID:23007760

  11. Microstructure evolution of 7050 Al alloy during age-forming

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Junfeng; Zou, Linchi; Li, Qiang; Chen, Yulong

    2015-04-15

    The microstructure evolution of the 7050 Al alloy treated by age-forming was studied using a designed device which can simulate the age-forming process. The grain shape, grain boundary misorientation and grain orientation evolution of 7050 Al alloy during age-forming have been quantitatively characterized by electron backscattering diffraction technique. The results show that age-forming produced abundant low-angle boundaries and elongated grains, which attributed to stress induced dislocation movement and grain boundary migration during the age-forming process. On the other side, the stress along rolling direction caused some unstable orientation grains to rotate towards the Brass and S orientations during the age-forming process. Hence, the intensity of the rolling texture orientation in age-formed samples is enhanced. But this effect decays gradually with increasing aging time, since stress decreases and precipitation hardening occurs during the age-forming process. - Highlights: • Quantitative analysis of grain evolution of 7050 Al alloys during age-forming • Stress induces some grain rotation of 7050 Al alloys during age-forming. • Creep leads to elongate grain of 7050 Al alloys during age-forming. • Obtains a trend on texture evolution during age-forming applied stress.

  12. Microstructural evolution in the HAZ of Inconel 718 and correlation with the hot ductility test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, R. G.; Genculu, S.

    1983-01-01

    The nickel-base alloy 718 was evaluated to study the role of preweld heat treatment in reducing or eliminating heat-affected zone hot cracking. Three heat treatments were studied using the Gleeble hot ductility test. A modified hot ductility test was also used to follow the evolution of microstructure during simulated welding thermal cycles. The microstructural evolution was correlated with the hot ductility data in order to evaluate the mechanism of hot cracking in alloy 718. The correlation of hot ductility with microstructure showed that recrystallization, grain growth, and dissolution of precipitates did not in themselves cause any loss of ductility during cooling. Ductility loss during cooling was not initiated until the constitutional liquation of NbC particles was observed in the microstructure. Laves-type phases were found precipitated in the solidified grain boundaries but were not found to correlate with any ductility loss parameter. Mechanisms are reviewed which help to explain how heat treatment controls the hot crack susceptibility of alloy 718 as measured in the hot ductility test.

  13. Laser assisted high entropy alloy coating on aluminum: Microstructural evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Katakam, Shravana; Joshi, Sameehan S.; Mridha, Sanghita; Mukherjee, Sundeep; Dahotre, Narendra B.

    2014-09-14

    High entropy alloy (Al-Fe-Co-Cr-Ni) coatings were synthesized using laser surface engineering on aluminum substrate. Electron diffraction analysis confirmed the formation of solid solution of body centered cubic high entropy alloy phase along with phases with long range periodic structures within the coating. Evolution of such type of microstructure was a result of kinetics associated with laser process, which generates higher temperatures and rapid cooling resulting in retention of high entropy alloy phase followed by reheating and/or annealing in subsequent passes of the laser track giving rise to partial decomposition. The partial decomposition resulted in formation of precipitates having layered morphology with a mixture of high entropy alloy rich phases, compounds, and long range ordered phases.

  14. Microstructure evolution of compressible granular systems under large deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Marcial; Cuitiño, Alberto M.

    2016-08-01

    We report three-dimensional particle mechanics static calculations that predict the microstructure evolution during die-compaction of elastic spherical particles up to relative densities close to one. We employ a nonlocal contact formulation that remains predictive at high levels of confinement by removing the classical assumption that contacts between particles are formulated locally as independent pair-interactions. The approach demonstrates that the coordination number depends on the level of compressibility, i.e., on Poisson's ratio, of the particles. Results also reveal that distributions of contact forces between particles and between particles and walls, although similar at jamming onset, are very different at full compaction. Particle-wall forces are in remarkable agreement with experimental measurements reported in the literature, providing a unifying framework for bridging experimental boundary observations with bulk behavior.

  15. Evolution of Local Microstructures: Spatial Instabilities of Coarsening Clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazier, Donald O.

    1999-01-01

    dynamics at various volume fractions. Preliminary results of numerical and experimental investigations, focused on the growth of finite particle clusters, provide important insight into the nature of the transition between the two scaling regimes. The companion microgravity experiment centers on the growth within finite particle clusters, and follows the temporal dynamics driving microstructural evolution, using holography.

  16. Microstructure Evolution in a New Refractory High-Entropy Alloy W-Mo-Cr-Ti-Al

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorr, Bronislava; Azim, Maria; Christ, Hans-Juergen; Chen, Hans; Szabo, Dorothee Vinga; Kauffmann, Alexander; Heilmaier, Martin

    2016-02-01

    The microstructure of a body-centered cubic 20W-20Mo-20Cr-20Ti-20Al alloy in the as-cast condition as well as its microstructural evolution during heat treatment was investigated. Different characterization techniques, such as focused ion beam-scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscope, were applied. Experimental observations were supported by thermodynamic calculations. The alloy exhibits a pronounced dendritic microstructure in the as-cast condition with the respective dendritic and interdendritic regions showing significant fluctuations of the element concentrations. Using thermodynamic calculations, it was possible to rationalize the measured element distribution in the dendritic and the interdendritic regions. Observations of the microstructure evolution reveal that during heat treatment, substantial homogenization takes place leading to the formation of a single-phase microstructure. Driving forces for the microstructural evolution were discussed from a thermodynamic point of view.

  17. Conventional and Multiscale Modeling of Microstructure Evolution During Laminar Cooling of DP Steel Strips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrzyk, Maciej; Kusiak, Jan; Kuziak, Roman; Madej, Łukasz; Szeliga, Danuta; Gołąb, Rafał

    2014-12-01

    Physical and numerical simulations of the hot rolling and laminar cooling of DP steel strips are presented in the paper. The objectives of the paper were twofold. Physical simulations of hot plastic deformation were used to identify and validate numerical models. Validated models were applied to simulate the manufacturing of DP steel strips. Conventional flow stress model and microstructure evolution model were used in the hot deformation part. The approach to the complex systems analysis based on global thermodynamic characterization and detailed microstructure characterization was applied to determine equilibrium state at various temperatures. Finally, two numerical models were used to simulate kinetics of austenite decomposition at varying temperatures: the first, conventional model based on the Avrami equation, and the second, the discrete Cellular Automata approach. Plastometric tests and stress relaxation tests were used for identification of the hot rolling model for the DP steel. Dilatometric tests were performed to identify the phase transformation models. Verification confirmed good accuracy of all models. Validated models were applied to simulate the manufacturing of DP steel strips. Influence of technological parameters ( e.g., strip thickness and velocity, active sections in the laminar cooling, and water flux in the sections) on the DP microstructure was analyzed. The cooling schedules, which give required microstructures were proposed. The numerical tool, which simulates manufacturing chain for DP steel strips is the main output of the paper.

  18. Microstructural evolution and ductile phase toughening in brazed joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philips, Noah Robinson

    In typical brazed joints, melting point depressants degrade the structural robustness by concentrating as brittle phases into continuous seams along the centerline. The objective of this dissertation is to sufficiently understand the mechanisms governing the microstructure of a typical braze that approaches for modifying the fabrication to eliminate brittleness can be identified and demonstrated. A characterization of a quaternary braze (Nicrobraze 31) used for stainless steel bonds, containing P and Si melting point depressants, reveals that the thermochemical interactions governing the microstructure include dissolution/reprecipitation, solid-state diffusion, and solidification. It is shown that the Si can be incorporated into a solid solution gamma-Ni(Fe, Si) phase that forms by reprecipitation. A fracture toughness test for intermediate toughness materials is developed to quantify the performance of brazed joints. The test configuration is a wedge driven DCB (Double Cantilever Beam), with design guided by analytical solutions for the energy release rate and compliance. The fracture resistance of a typical braze joint is found to be significantly greater than that for the intermetallic constituents. Approximately half of the toughening is attributed to plastic stretch of the ductile phase within the eutectic. The remainder is attributed to dissipation within a plastic zone that forms in the primary gamma-Ni(Fe, Si) regions. Heat treatments are presented that use ductile phase toughening to mitigate the effect of brittle intermetallics in a Ni-based braze alloy. The development of this beneficial microstructure is based on an understanding of the transient dissolution and isothermal solidification phenomena. By rapid cooling after a short brazing time, gamma-Ni(Fe, Si) is redistributed to the midline where it disrupts the intermetallics and forms a network of ductile ligaments upon fracture. Reinforcement by the modified ductile phase nearly doubles the toughness

  19. Tomography and Simulation of Microstructure Evolution of a Closed-Cell Polymer Foam in Compression

    SciTech Connect

    Daphalapurkar, N.P.; Hanan, J.C.; Phelps, N.B.; Bale, H.; Lu, H.

    2010-10-25

    Closed-cell foams in compression exhibit complex deformation characteristics that remain incompletely understood. In this paper the microstructural evolution of closed-cell polymethacrylimide foam was simulated in compression undergoing elastic, compaction, and densification stages. The three-dimensional microstructure of the foam is determined using Micro-Computed Tomography ({micro}-CT), and is converted to material points for simulations using the material point method (MPM). The properties of the cell-walls are determined from nanoindentation on the wall of the foam. MPM simulations captured the three stages of deformations in foam compression. Features of the microstructures from simulations are compared qualitatively with the in-situ observations of the foam under compression using {micro}-CT. The stress-strain curve simulated from MPM compares reasonably with the experimental results. Based on the results from {micro}-CT and MPM simulations, it was found that elastic buckling of cell-walls occurs even in the elastic regime of compression. Within the elastic region, less than 35% of the cell-wall material carries the majority of the compressive load. In the experiment, a shear band was observed as a result of collapse of cells in a weak zone. From this collapsed weak zone a compaction (collapse) wave was seen traveling which eventually lead to the collapse of the entire foam cell-structure. Overall, this methodology will allow prediction of material properties for microstructures driving the optimization of processing and performance in foam materials.

  20. Microstructure evolution of electron beam welded Ti{sub 3}Al-Nb joint

    SciTech Connect

    Feng Jicai; Wu Huiqiang . E-mail: huiqiang_wu@hit.edu.cn; He Jingshan; Zhang Bingang

    2005-02-15

    The microstructure evolution characterization in high containing Nb, low Al titanium aluminide alloy of electron beam welded joints was investigated by means of OM, SEM, XRD, TEM and microhardness analysis. The results indicated that the microstructure of the weld metal made with electron beam under the welding conditions employed in this work was predominantly metastable, retaining ordered {beta} phase (namely B2 phase), and was independent of the welding parameters but independent of the size and the orientation of the weld solidification structures. As the heat input is decreased, the cellular structure zone is significantly reduced, and then the crystallizing morphology of fusion zone presented dendritically columnar structure. There existed grain growth coarsening in heat affected zone (HAZ) for insufficient polygonization. Both fusion zone (FZ) and the HAZ had higher microhardness than the base metal.

  1. Numerical simulation of temperature field, microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of HSS during hot stamping

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Dongyong; Liu, Wenquan; Ying, Liang Hu, Ping Shen, Guozhe

    2013-12-16

    The hot stamping of boron steels is widely used to produce ultra high strength automobile components without any spring back. The ultra high strength of final products is attributed to the fully martensitic microstructure that is obtained through the simultaneous forming and quenching of the hot blanks after austenization. In the present study, a mathematical model incorporating both heat transfer and the transformation of austenite is presented. A FORTRAN program based on finite element technique has been developed which permits the temperature distribution and microstructure evolution of high strength steel during hot stamping process. Two empirical diffusion-dependent transformation models under isothermal conditions were employed respectively, and the prediction capability on mechanical properties of the models were compared with the hot stamping experiment of an automobile B-pillar part.

  2. Microstructural Evolution During Multi-Pass Friction Stir Processing of a Magnesium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, A.; Tewari, A.; Kanjarla, A. K.; Srinivasan, N.; Reddy, G. M.; Zhu, S. M.; Nie, J. F.; Doherty, R. D.; Samajdar, I.

    2016-05-01

    A commercial magnesium alloy was processed through multi-pass and multi-directional (unidirectional, reverse, and transverse tool movements) friction stir processing (FSP). Based on the FSP location, the dominant prior-deformation basal texture was shifted along the arc of a hypothetical ellipse. The patterns of deformation texture developments were captured by viscoplastic self-consistent modeling with appropriate velocity gradients. The simulated textures, however, had two clear deficiencies. The simulations involved shear strains of 0.8 to 1.0, significantly lower than those expected in the FSP. Even at such low shear, the simulated textures were significantly stronger. Microstructural observations also revealed the presence of ultra-fine grains with relatively weak crystallographic texture. Combinations of ultra-fine grain superplasticity followed by grain coarsening were proposed as the possible mechanism for the microstructural evolution during FSP.

  3. Mathematical modeling of microstructure evolution in the heat affected zone of electroslag cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Li, M.V.; Atteridge, D.G.; Meekisho, L.

    1996-12-31

    An algorithm is presented for computing microstructure evolution in weld heat affected zone of low alloy steels. It contains computational models for multicomponent Fe-C-M system equilibria, austenite grain growth kinetics, and austenite decomposition kinetics. A new kinetics model for austenite decomposition has been developed based on first principles of phase transformations expressed with Zener-Hillert type formulas. Coefficients in this model were calibrated with CCT diagrams of low alloy steels. This algorithm has the capability of computing TTT diagrams, CCT diagrams Jominy hardness curves, and phase transformations in the weld heat affected zone of low alloy steels. Excellent agreement was observed between the experimentally observed and the predicted microstructure and hardness.

  4. Microstructural Evolution of a C-Mn Steel During Hot Compression Above the Ae3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranas, Clodualdo M.; Shen, Yu-Jack; Rodrigues, Samuel F.; Jonas, John J.

    2016-09-01

    In order to study the microstructural evolution during deformation, hot compression tests were carried out on a 0.06 wt pct C-0.30 wt pct Mn-0.01 wt pct Si steel at temperatures above the Ae3. The volume fraction of ferrite produced dynamically increased with the applied strain and decreased with increasing temperature. The present data are used to generate an isothermal strain-temperature-transformation diagram based on the applied strain. Results of this type can be employed to predict the effect of dynamic transformation during thermomechanical processing.

  5. Final Report: A Transport Phenomena Based Approach to Probe Evolution of Weld Macro and Microstructures and A Smart Bi-directional Model of Fusion Welding

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Tarasankar DebRoy

    2009-12-11

    In recent years, applications of numerical heat transfer and fluid flow models of fusion welding have resulted in improved understanding of both the welding processes and welded materials. They have been used to accurately calculate thermal cycles and fusion zone geometry in many cases. Here we report the following three major advancements from this project. First, we show how microstructures, grain size distribution and topology of welds of several important engineering alloys can be computed starting from better understanding of the fusion welding process through numerical heat transfer and fluid flow calculations. Second, we provide a conclusive proof that the reliability of numerical heat transfer and fluid flow calculations can be significantly improved by optimizing several uncertain model parameters. Third, we demonstrate how the numerical heat transfer and fluid flow models can be combined with a suitable global optimization program such as a genetic algorithm for the tailoring of weld attributes such as attaining a specified weld geometry or a weld thermal cycle. The results of the project have been published in many papers and a listing of these are included together with a list of the graduate thesis that resulted from this project. The work supported by the DOE award has resulted in several important national and international awards. A listing of these awards and the status of the graduate students are also presented in this report.

  6. Microstructural Evolution of Chloride-Cleaned Silicon Carbide Aluminum Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeosun, S. O.; Akpan, E. I.; Gbenebor, O. P.; Balogun, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    This study examines the synergy between reinforcement surface modifications on the evolution of microstructures of AA6011-silicon carbide particle (SiCp) composites in multidirectional solidification. Silicon carbide particles (SiCp) were cleaned with ammonium chloride, tin(II) chloride, sodium chloride, and palladium(II) chloride and used as reinforcement to cast AA6011-SiCp composites by applying the stir casting method. A scanning electron microscope and x-ray diffractometer were used to investigate the morphology and phases present, respectively, in the composite material. Results show that wetting agents were effective as they inhibited the formation of Al4C3 in all modified composites. The modified SiCp was found to have varying effects on the morphology, dendrite arm size and direction, size and configuration of AlFeSi, and the amount of eutectic silicon depending on the concentration of the reagent and cleaning time. The highest effect was shown by the use of 40 g/L of tin(II) chloride. The composites had short dendritic arms, good interfacial interaction, and only a few crystals of AlFeSi.

  7. Study on the microstructural evolution of AZ31 magnesium alloy in a vertical twin-roll casting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming; Hu, Xiao-Dong; Han, Bing; Deng, Xiao-Hu; Ju, Dong-Ying

    2016-02-01

    Finite element method was employed to calculate the macroflow velocity and temperature distribution of the pool domain's biting zone in twin-roll casting. Macroanalysis results were inducted as boundary conditions into microanalysis. Phase field method (PFM) was adopted to investigate the microstructure evolution. Based on the Kim-Kim-Suzuki model, the effect of metal flow velocity was coupled on the solute gradient item, and the real physical parameters of AZ31 were inducted into the numerical calculation. We used the marker and cell method in the discrete element solution of microstructural pattern prediction of AZ31 magnesium alloys. The different flow velocity values that predicted the columnar dendrite evolution were discussed in detail. Numerical simulation results were also compared with the experiment analysis. The microstructure obtained by PFM agrees with the actual pattern observed via optical microscopy.

  8. A hierarchical framework for the multiscale modeling of microstructure evolution in heterogeneous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luscher, Darby J.

    treated using a mixed-field finite element approach. The coarse scale constitutive equations are implemented in a finite deformation hyperelastic inelastic integration scheme developed for second gradient constitutive models. An example problem based on an idealized porous microstructure is presented to illustrate the approach and highlight its predictive utility. This example and a few variations are explored to address the boundary-value-problem dependant nature of length scale parameters employed in nonlocal continuum theories. Finally, strategies for developing meaningful kinematic ISVs, free energy functions, and the associated evolution kinetics are presented. These strategies are centered on the goal of accurately representing the energy stored and dissipated during irreversible processes.

  9. Microstructural Evolution of Ti-6Al-4V during High Strain Rate Conditions of Metal Cutting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dong, Lei; Schneider, Judy

    2009-01-01

    The microstructural evolution following metal cutting was investigated within the metal chips of Ti-6Al-4V. Metal cutting was used to impose a high strain rate on the order of approx.10(exp 5)/s within the primary shear zone as the metal was removed from the workpiece. The initial microstructure of the parent material (PM) was composed of a bi-modal microstructure with coarse prior grains and equiaxed primary located at the boundaries. After metal cutting, the microstructure of the metal chips showed coarsening of the equiaxed primary grains and lamellar. These metallographic findings suggest that the metal chips experienced high temperatures which remained below the transus temperature.

  10. Microstructural Evolution and Compressive Properties of Two-Phase Nb-Fe Alloys Containing the C14 Laves Phase NbFe2 Intermetallic Compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, K. W.; Wang, X. B.; Wang, W. X.; Li, S. M.; Gong, D. Q.; Fu, H. Z.

    2016-02-01

    Microstructural evolution and compressive properties of two-phase Nb-Fe binary alloys based on the C14 Laves phase NbFe2 were characterized at both the hypo- and hypereutectic compositions. The experimental results indicated that the microstructures of the two alloys consisted of fully eutectics containing Fe and NbFe2 phases at the bottom of the ingots corresponding to the largest solidification rates. With the decrease of solidification rate, the microstructures developed into primary Fe (NbFe2) dendrites plus eutectics in the middle and top parts of the ingots. The microstructural evolutions along the axis of the ingots were analyzed by considering the competitive growth between the primary phase and eutectic as well as using microstructure selection models based on the maximum interface temperature criterion. Furthermore, the compressive properties of the two alloys were measured and the enhancements were explained in terms of the second Fe phase and halo toughening mechanisms.

  11. A Monte Carlo Potts Investigation of Microstructural Evolution: Particle Assisted Abnormal Grain Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guebels, Corentin Alain Pierre Nicolas

    The microstructural changes that occur in metals and alloys due to deformation and heat treatment are often characterized according to the macroscale deformation process (i.e. cold or hot working). The general problem of this type of characterization is that it only distinguishes the general microstructural trends. For many decades, these microstructural phenomena have been described empirically or with limited experimental verification. This shortcoming is apparent for recrystallization and abnormal grain growth processes. Understanding and characterizing the thermal and mechanical processes that compete to control grain boundary kinetics and the subsequent microstructural evolution is critical. These include but are not limited to: the input and recovery of deformation energy, the influence of deformation energy on grain boundary migration, the mechanisms controlling the nucleation of new grains, and the effect of second-phase particles. The present work introduces a new temporal scaling method and investigates the conditions in which some grain boundaries may become unpinned in an otherwise stable, pinned microstructure and extends work done by E. Holm. The temporal scaling method contributes to resolving some of the limitations of Monte Carlo Potts (MCP) simulations in the investigation of the conditions and mechanisms that distinguish recrystallization from dynamic abnormal grain growth (DAGG). Grain boundary unpinning is then investigated for the case of an idealized spherical grain and for a polycrystalline microstructure. The mechanisms of grain boundary pinning and grain growth inhibition by second-phase particles are well known. The influence of simulation temperature on grain boundary unpinning is investigated numerically using a 3D Monte Carlo Potts approach. MCP based models are commonly implemented to simulate microstructural evolution. However, the numerical implementations of recrystallization and other deformation-induced phenomena often elude

  12. Microstructural Evolution During Friction Surfacing of Austenitic Stainless Steel AISI 304 on Low Carbon Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalid Rafi, H.; Kishore Babu, N.; Phanikumar, G.; Prasad Rao, K.

    2013-01-01

    Austenitic stainless steel AISI 304 coating was deposited over low carbon steel substrate by means of friction surfacing and the microstructural evolution was studied. The microstructural characterization of the coating was carried out by optical microscopy (OM), electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The coating exhibited refined grains (average size of 5 μm) as compared to the coarse grains (average size of 40 μm) in as-received consumable rod. The results from the microstructural characterization studies show that discontinuous dynamic recrystallization (DDRX) is the responsible mechanism for grain evolution as a consequence of severe plastic deformation.

  13. Cow-eye microstructure evolution of laser pulse processed for ductile iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ba, Fahai; Gan, Cuihua; Yu, Gang

    2003-04-01

    Pulsed laser beam with lattice distribution was used to modify surface processing for ductile iron. The microstructures around the graphite were observed using OM, and Nanoindentation and micro-hardness of that measured from surface to inner of sample. The result shows that the graphite ball has an important effect on cow-eye microstructure evolution either in light molten area or in phase change hardened are. It is not true that assuming the material is uniform during laser rapid heating and fast cooling for the graphite ball as a dependant composition phase. The microstructures of cow-eye is made up of fine remnant austenite in light molten area, and consisted of martensite and bainite in laser modified are. The cow-eye microstructure has a transformation from martensite and bainite to pearlite with the distance increasing from surfce. At last, the microstructure evolution of cow-eye has been discussed.

  14. Sequence of Stages in the Microstructure Evolution in Copper under Mild Reciprocating Tribological Loading.

    PubMed

    Greiner, Christian; Liu, Zhilong; Strassberger, Luis; Gumbsch, Peter

    2016-06-22

    Tailoring the surface properties of a material for low friction and little wear has long been a goal of tribological research. Since the microstructure of the material under the contact strongly influences tribological performance, the ability to control this microstructure is thereby of key importance. However, there is a significant lack of knowledge about the elementary mechanisms of microstructure evolution under tribological load. To cover different stages of this microstructure evolution, high-purity copper was investigated after increasing numbers of sliding cycles of a sapphire sphere in reciprocating motion. Scanning electron and focused ion beam (FIB) microscopy were applied to monitor the microstructure changes. A thin tribologically deformed layer which grew from tens of nanometers to several micrometers with increasing number of cycles was observed in cross-sections. By analyzing dislocation structures and local orientation changes in the cross-sectional areas, dislocation activity, the occurrence of a distinct dislocation trace line, and the emergence of new subgrain boundaries could be observed at different depths. These results strongly suggest that dislocation self-organization is a key elementary mechanism for the microstructure evolution under a tribological load. The distinct elementary processes at different stages of sliding identified here will be essential for the future modeling of the microstructure evolution in tribological contacts. PMID:27246396

  15. Evolution of the microstructure during the process of consolidation and bonding in soft granular solids.

    PubMed

    Yohannes, B; Gonzalez, M; Abebe, A; Sprockel, O; Nikfar, F; Kiang, S; Cuitiño, A M

    2016-04-30

    The evolution of microstructure during powder compaction process was investigated using a discrete particle modeling, which accounts for particle size distribution and material properties, such as plasticity, elasticity, and inter-particle bonding. The material properties were calibrated based on powder compaction experiments and validated based on tensile strength test experiments for lactose monohydrate and microcrystalline cellulose, which are commonly used excipient in pharmaceutical industry. The probability distribution function and the orientation of contact forces were used to study the evolution of the microstructure during the application of compaction pressure, unloading, and ejection of the compact from the die. The probability distribution function reveals that the compression contact forces increase as the compaction force increases (or the relative density increases), while the maximum value of the tensile contact forces remains the same. During unloading of the compaction pressure, the distribution approaches a normal distribution with a mean value of zero. As the contact forces evolve, the anisotropy of the powder bed also changes. Particularly, during loading, the compression contact forces are aligned along the direction of the compaction pressure, whereas the tensile contact forces are oriented perpendicular to direction of the compaction pressure. After ejection, the contact forces become isotropic. PMID:26902721

  16. A Multiscale Model Based On Intragranular Microstructure — Prediction Of Dislocation Patterns At The Microscopic Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franz, Gérald; Abed-Meraim, Farid; Zineb, Tarak Ben; Lemoine, Xavier; Berveiller, Marcel

    2007-04-01

    A large strain elastic-plastic single crystal constitutive law, based on dislocation annihilation and storage, is implemented in a new self-consistent scheme, leading to a multiscale model which achieves, for each grain, the calculation of plastic slip activity, with help of regularized formulation drawn from visco-plasticity, and dislocation microstructure evolution. This paper focuses on the relationship between the deformation history of a BCC grain and induced microstructure during monotonic and two-stage strain paths.

  17. Microstructural Evolution of Lead-Free Solder Joints in Ultrasonic-Assisted Soldering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Hongjun; Wang, Qiang; Li, Mingyu

    2016-01-01

    Solder joint reliability greatly depends on the microstructure of the solder matrix and the morphology of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) in the joints. Addition of strengthening phases such as carbon nanotubes and ceramic particles to solder joints to improve their properties has been widely studied. In this work, ultrasonic vibration (USV) of casting ingots was applied to considerably improve their microstructure and properties, and the resulting influence on fluxless soldering of Cu/Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu/Cu joints and their microstructural evolution was investigated. It was demonstrated that USV application during reflow of Sn-based solder had favorable effects on β-Sn grain size refinement as well as the growth and distribution of various IMC phases within the joints. The β-Sn grain size was significantly refined as the ultrasound power was increased, with a reduction of almost 90% from more than 100 μm to below 10 μm. Long and large Cu6Sn5 tubes in the solder matrix of the joints were broken into tiny ones. Needle-shaped Ag3Sn was transformed into flake-shaped. These IMCs were mainly precipitated along β-Sn phase boundaries. High-temperature storage tests indicated that the growth rate of interfacial IMCs in joints formed with USV was slower than in conventional reflow joints. The mechanisms of grain refinement and IMC fragmentation are discussed and related to the ultrasonic effects.

  18. Evolution of microstructure of Haynes 230 and Inconel 617 under mechanical testing at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrutkay, Kyle

    Haynes 230 and Inconel 617 are austenitic nickel based superalloys, which are candidate structural materials for next generation high temperature nuclear reactors. High temperature deformation behavior of Haynes 230 and Inconel 617 have been investigated at the microstructural level in order to gain a better understanding of mechanical properties. Tensile tests were performed at strain rates ranging from 10-3-10-5 s -1 at room temperature, 600 °C, 800 °C and 950 °C. Subsequent microstructural analysis, including Scanning Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy, Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy, and X-Ray Diffraction were used to relate the microstructural evolution at high temperatures to that of room temperature samples. Grain sizes and precipitate morphologies were used to determine high temperature behavior and fracture mechanics. Serrated flow was observed at intermediate and high temperatures as a result of discontinuous slip and dynamic recrystallization. The amplitude of serration increased with a decrease in the strain rate and increase in the temperature. Dynamic strain ageing was responsible for serrations at intermediate temperatures by means of a locking and unlocking phenomenon between dislocations and solute atoms. Dynamic recrystallization nucleated by grain and twin bulging resulting in a refinement of grain size. Existing models found in the literature were discussed to explain both of these phenomena.

  19. Microstructural evolution of a model, shear-banding micellar solution during shear startup and cessation.

    PubMed

    López-Barrón, Carlos R; Gurnon, A Kate; Eberle, Aaron P R; Porcar, Lionel; Wagner, Norman J

    2014-04-01

    We present direct measurements of the evolution of the segmental-level microstructure of a stable shear-banding polymerlike micelle solution during flow startup and cessation in the plane of flow. These measurements provide a definitive, quantitative microstructural understanding of the stages observed during flow startup: an initial elastic response with limited alignment that yields with a large stress overshoot to a homogeneous flow with associated micellar alignment that persists for approximately three relaxation times. This transient is followed by a shear (kink) band formation with a flow-aligned low-viscosity band that exhibits shear-induced concentration fluctuations and coexists with a nearly isotropic band of homogenous, highly viscoelastic micellar solution. Stable, steady banding flow is achieved only after approximately two reptation times. Flow cessation from this shear-banded state is also found to be nontrivial, exhibiting an initial fast relaxation with only minor structural relaxation, followed by a slower relaxation of the aligned micellar fluid with the equilibrium fluid's characteristic relaxation time. These measurements resolve a controversy in the literature surrounding the mechanism of shear banding in entangled wormlike micelles and, by means of comparison to existing literature, provide further insights into the mechanisms driving shear-banding instabilities in related systems. The methods and instrumentation described should find broad use in exploring complex fluid rheology and testing microstructure-based constitutive equations. PMID:24827245

  20. Dynamic Recrystallization Kinetics and Microstructural Evolution for LZ50 Steel During Hot Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Shiwen; Chen, Shuangmei; Song, Jianjun

    2016-06-01

    The dynamic recrystallization (DRX) behavior of LZ50 steel was investigated using hot compression tests at a deformation temperature of 870-1170 °C and a strain rate of 0.05-3 s-1. The effects of deformation temperature, strain, strain rate, and initial austenite grain size on the microstructural evolution during DRX were studied in detail. The austenite grain size of DRX was refined with increasing strain rate and decreasing temperature, whereas the initial grain size had no influence on DRX grain size. A model based on the Avrami equation was proposed to estimate the kinetics of the DRX under different deformation conditions. A DRX map, which was derived from the DRX kinetics, the recrystallized microstructure, and the flow stress analysis, can be used to identify optimal deformation conditions. The initiation of DRX was lower than Z c (critical Zener-Hollomon parameter) and higher than ɛc (critical strain). The relationship between the DRX microstructure and the Z parameter was analyzed. Fine DRX grain sizes can be achieved with a moderate Z value, which can be used to identify suitable deformation parameters.

  1. Effect of Strain on Microstructure Evolution of 1Cr18Ni9Ti Stainless Steel During Adiabatic Shearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Jiang, L. H.; Luo, S. H.; Hu, H. B.; Tang, T. G.; Zhang, Q. M.

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic shear test was conducted on the hat-shaped specimen of the thermo-mechanical-processed 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel by using the split Hopkinson pressure bar at ambient temperature. The effect of the shear strain on the microstructure evolution was investigated during adiabatic shearing. The results revealed that the development of adiabatic shear localization went through three stages, including the incubation period, the development stage, and the maturity period. TEM observations showed that the grains in the shear region were elongated, and the elongated grains were gradually evolved into equiaxed nano-grains of 100 nm as shear strain increased. The rotational dynamic recrystallization kinetics calculation showed that subgrains had sufficient time to generate an equiaxed microcrystalline structure by rotation within the deformation time. Based on the observation of the evolution of dislocations and sub-grains in the adiabatic shear region, a model of the microstructure evolution was established during the adiabatic shearing.

  2. Evolution of the microstructure of a VT6 alloy during friction stir welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, S. Yu.

    2015-04-01

    The evolution of the microstructure of a VT6 alloy during friction stir welding (FSW) is studied. The β-α phase transformation that takes place after FSW is found to obey the Burgers orientation relationship. The granular structure and the crystallographic texture of the high-temperature β phase are reconstructed. The mechanisms of structural evolution during FSW are discussed.

  3. Spatially dependent cluster dynamics modeling of microstructure evolution in low energy helium irradiated tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faney, T.; Wirth, B. D.

    2014-09-01

    In fusion reactors, plasma facing components (PFC) and in particular the divertor will be irradiated with high fluxes of low energy (˜100 eV) helium and hydrogen ions. Tungsten is one of the leading candidate divertor materials for ITER and DEMO fusion reactors. However, the behavior of tungsten under high dose, coupled helium/hydrogen exposure remains to be fully understood. The PFC response and performance changes are intimately related to microstructural changes, such as the formation of point defect clusters, helium and hydrogen bubbles or dislocation loops. Computational materials modeling has been used to investigate the mechanisms controlling microstructural evolution in tungsten following high dose, high temperature helium exposure. The aim of this study is to understand and predict helium implantation, primary defect production and defect diffusion, helium-defect clustering and interactions below a tungsten surface exposed to low energy helium irradiation. The important defects include interstitial clusters, vacancy clusters, helium interstitials and helium-vacancy clusters. We report results from a one-dimensional, spatially dependent cluster dynamics model based on the continuum reaction-diffusion rate theory to describe the evolution in space and time of all these defects. The key parameter inputs to the model (diffusion coefficients, migration and binding energies, initial defect production) are determined from a combination of atomistic materials modeling and available experimental data.

  4. Microstructure evolution with varied layer thickness in magnetron-sputtered Ni/C multilayer films

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jichang; Li, Wenbin; Huang, Qiushi; Wang, Zhanshan

    2016-01-01

    The microstructure evolution of magnetron-sputtered Ni/C multilayers was investigated by varying the Ni and C layer thickness in the region of a few nanometers. For the samples having 2.6-nm-thick C layers, the interface width increases from 0.37 to 0.81 nm as the Ni layer thickness decreases from 4.3 to 1.3 nm. Especially for the samples with Ni layers less than 2.0 nm, the interface width changes significantly due to the discontinuously distributed Ni crystallites. For the samples having 2.8-nm-thick Ni layers, the interface width increases from 0.37 to 0.59 nm when the C layer thickness decreases from 4.3 to 0.7 nm. The evolution of interface microstructures with varied Ni and C layers is explained based on a proposed simple growth model of Ni and C layers. PMID:27515586

  5. Compliant electrostatic chuck based on hairy microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Shigeki; Soda, Fumiaki; Dhelika, Radon; Takahashi, Kunio; Takarada, Wataru; Kikutani, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    An electrostatic chuck (ESC) is a device used to clamp and transport flat-surfaced objects such as thin semiconductor wafers. Working by the principle of electrostatic force, its functionality is limited in handling objects with rough surfaces, as the attractive forces at work are significantly reduced. To improve this weak point, by employing 70 μm diameter polymer-based electrostatic inductive fibers with a conductive core, we develop a device prototype with an adhesional mechanism having a hairy microstructure with appropriate mechanical compliance. We theoretically and experimentally investigate how the prototype works, and how the fibers’ mechanical compliance affects the performance of ESC.

  6. Atomic kinetic Monte Carlo model based on ab initio data: Simulation of microstructural evolution under irradiation of dilute Fe CuNiMnSi alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, E.; Becquart, C. S.; Domain, C.

    2007-02-01

    The embrittlement of pressure vessel steels under radiation has been long ago correlated with the presence of Cu solutes. Other solutes such as Ni, Mn and Si are now suspected to contribute also to the embrittlement. The interactions of these solutes with radiation induced point defects thus need to be characterized properly in order to understand the elementary mechanisms behind the formation of the clusters formed upon radiation. Ab initio calculations based on the density functional theory have been performed to determine the interactions of point defects with solute atoms in dilute FeX alloys (X = Cu, Mn, Ni or Si) in order to build a database used to parameterise an atomic kinetic Monte Carlo model. Some results of irradiation damage in dilute Fe-CuNiMnSi alloys obtained with this model are presented.

  7. Microstructural evolution of type 304 and 316 stainless steels under neutron irradiation at LWR relevant conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Lizhen; Stoller, Roger E.; Field, Kevin G.; Yang, Ying; Morgan, Dane; Wirth, Brian D.; Gussev, Maxim N.; Busby, Jeremy T.; Nam, H.

    2015-12-11

    Extension of light water reactors' useful life will expose austenitic internal core components to irradiation damage levels beyond 100 displacements per atom (dpa), which will lead to profound microstructural evolution and consequent degradation of macroscopic properties. Microstructural evolution, including Frank loops, cavities, precipitates, and segregation at boundaries and the resultant radiation hardening in type 304 and 316 stainless steel (SS) variants, were studied in this work via experimental characterization and multiple simulation methods. Experimental data for up to 40 heats of type 304SS and 316SS variants irradiated in different reactors to 0.6–120 dpa at 275–375°C were either generated from this work or collected from literature reports. These experimental data were then combined with models of Frank loop and cavity evolution, computational thermodynamics and precipitation, and ab initio and rate theory integrated radiation-induced segregation models to provide insights into microstructural evolution and degradation at higher radiation doses.

  8. Microstructural Evolution of Type 304 and 316 Stainless Steels Under Neutron Irradiation at LWR Relevant Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, L.; Stoller, R. E.; Field, K. G.; Yang, Y.; Nam, H.; Morgan, D.; Wirth, B. D.; Gussev, M. N.; Busby, J. T.

    2016-02-01

    Life extension of light water reactors will expose austenitic internal core components to irradiation damage levels beyond 100 displacements per atom (dpa), leading to profound microstructural evolution and consequent degradation of macroscopic properties. Microstructural evolution, including Frank loops, cavities, precipitates, and segregation at boundaries and the resultant radiation hardening in type 304 and 316 stainless steel (SS) variants were studied in this work via experimental characterization and multiple simulation methods. Experimental data for up to 40 heats of type 304SS and 316SS variants irradiated in different reactors to 0.6-120 dpa at 275-375°C were generated from this work or collected from literature reports. These experimental data were then combined with models of Frank loop and cavity evolution, computational thermodynamics and precipitation, and ab initio and rate theory integrated radiation-induced segregation models to provide insights into microstructural evolution and degradation at higher doses.

  9. Microstructural evolution of the Yugu peridotites in the Gyeonggi Massif, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, M.; Jung, H.

    2015-12-01

    The Yugu peridotite is the largest and freshest ultramafic body in the Gyeonggi Massif, Korean Peninsula, which potentially has a tectonic affinity to the eastward extension of the Qinling-Dabie-Sulu collision belt in China. In spite of its tectonic and rheological importance, only few mineralogical and petrological studies have been reported from Yugu peridotite. In order to understand the microstructural evolution of the Yugu peridotites, we conducted a detailed analysis of the microstructures and petro-fabrics. The majority of Yugu peridotite body is significantly serpentinized, and it consists predominantly of spinel harzburgite together with minor lherzolite, dunite, and clinopyroxenite. We collected peridotites from mainly two areas (northwestern and southwestern parts) of the Yugu ultramafic body, and all samples are spinel harzburgites consisting of olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, spinel, and amphibole. These samples have similar mineralogy except for the varied amount of clinopyroxene and amphibole. These mineral contents are generally increasing from proto-mylonite peridotites to mylonite peridotites. Based on microstructural characteristics of highly deformed peridotites (especially grain-size of olivine), we classified the samples into four textural types, which are proto-mylonite, proto-mylonite to mylonite transition, mylonite, and ultra-mylonite. Depending on the texture of specimen, it is found that the lattice-preferred orientation (LPO) of olivine varies from A-type (proto-mylonite) via D-type like (mylonite) to E-type (ultra-mylonite). The fabric strength of olivine (M-index and J-index) systematically decreases with decreasing grain-size of olivine from proto-mylonite via mylonite to ultra-mylonite. The cause of fabric evolution in the Yugu peridotites will be discussed.

  10. Evolution of Local Microstructures: Spatial Instabilities in Coarsening Clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Diffusion-limited capillarity-driven coarsening of precipitates is an important and intensively studied phenomenon. The classic coarsening theory developed by Lifshitz and Syozov and Wagner (LSW theory) is limited to infinitesimally small volume fractions, V(sub nu), therefore neglects all direct interparticle interactions. This work uses modeling and holographic imaging to compare coarsening rates in "high" volume fraction versus low volume fraction microstructures by observing mixed-dimensional droplets (spherical caps on a surface coarsening by two-dimensional diffusion) during ground-based investigations. The method involves filling a cell with selected homogeneous parent phase, and cooling below the consolute temperature to the isopycnic temperature in the two-phase region of a monotectic system. A microgravity holographic experiment is required for three-dimensional observations to minimize sedimentation during long-term coarsening. Determination of sizes and positions of the many droplets in the holographic images requires automation. We have developed software for automated data analysis, and demonstrated good agreement between regenerated maps and scaled photographs of the original holograms for mixed dimensional coarsening. The results of these experiments were presented in a formal microgravity Science Concept Review (SCR) on December 18, 2000.

  11. Microstructural Characterization of Co-Based ODS Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lin; Qu, Xuanhui; He, Xinbo; Din, Rafi-ud; Liu, Hengsan; Qin, Mingli; Zhu, Hongmin

    2012-11-01

    Co-based ODS alloys, strengthened by nanosized oxide dispersion and γ' precipitates, are potential high-temperature structural materials. The characteristics of the mechanically alloyed powder and the microstructural evolution of the Co-based ODS alloys were investigated. The results revealed that mechanical alloying had induced the formation of supersaturated solid solution in immiscible Co-Al-W-based alloys, originating mainly from extensive grain boundary region, high dislocation density, and ample point defect. Chemical compositions of mechanically alloyed Co-Al-W-based ODS alloys easily deviate from the γ/γ' two-phase region, leading to the existence of Al x Co, Co3W, Co7W6, and W phases in addition to the γ and γ' phases. Nonuniform distribution of alloying elements brings about the differences in morphologies and sizes of γ' precipitates. Microstructural formation process is impelled by spinodal decomposition mode, and spinodal decomposition behavior has been accelerated in the fine-grained alloy because of the presence of short-circuited diffusion paths for atomic movement.

  12. Microstructural evolution of fusion zone in laser beam welds of pure titanium

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H.; Nakata, K.; Zhang, J.X.; Yamamoto, N.; Liao, J.

    2012-03-15

    Microstructural evolution of fusion zone in laser beam welds of pure titanium was studied by means of electron backscattering diffraction. The microstructural evolution is strongly affected by the {beta} {yields} {alpha} transformation mechanism dependent on the cooling rate during phase transformation. The long-range diffusional transformation mainly occurs in the fusion zone at the low cooling rate, and the massive transformation dominantly takes place at the high cooling rate. For this reason, the grain morphologies probably change from the granular-like to columnar-like grains with the cooling rate increasing. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microstructures of fusion zone in laser beam welds of pure titanium are studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increasing cooling rate changes grain morphology from granular to columnar one. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Final microstructures depend on the {beta}{yields}{alpha} transformation mechanisms.

  13. Modeling the evolution of microstructure during the processing of maraging steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sha, W.; Guo, Z.; Wilson, E. A.

    2004-03-01

    The main theme of the research described in this article was to develop computer-based models to predict micro-structural evolution and precipitation-hardening kinetics during the processing of maraging steels. The prediction made by the computer-based models, when compared with experimental observations and characterization, proved to be within useful accuracy. The research outputs cover the topics of characterization of precipitates, quantification of precipitate fraction, calculation of thermodynamics and kinetics of phase transformations, and modeling of precipitation hardening. A heat-treatment procedure was also developed to improve the toughness of a commercial precipitation-hardening grade, and the design of the chemistry and processing route of low-cost maraging grades was attempted.

  14. Persistence and variation in microstructural design during the evolution of spider silk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madurga, R.; Blackledge, T. A.; Perea, B.; Plaza, G. R.; Riekel, C.; Burghammer, M.; Elices, M.; Guinea, G.; Pérez-Rigueiro, J.

    2015-10-01

    The extraordinary mechanical performance of spider dragline silk is explained by its highly ordered microstructure and results from the sequences of its constituent proteins. This optimized microstructural organization simultaneously achieves high tensile strength and strain at breaking by taking advantage of weak molecular interactions. However, elucidating how the original design evolved over the 400 million year history of spider silk, and identifying the basic relationships between microstructural details and performance have proven difficult tasks. Here we show that the analysis of maximum supercontracted single spider silk fibers using X ray diffraction shows a complex picture of silk evolution where some key microstructural features are conserved phylogenetically while others show substantial variation even among closely related species. This new understanding helps elucidate which microstructural features need to be copied in order to produce the next generation of biomimetic silk fibers.

  15. Persistence and variation in microstructural design during the evolution of spider silk

    PubMed Central

    Madurga, R.; Blackledge, T. A.; Perea, B.; Plaza, G. R.; Riekel, C.; Burghammer, M.; Elices, M.; Guinea, G.; Pérez-Rigueiro, J.

    2015-01-01

    The extraordinary mechanical performance of spider dragline silk is explained by its highly ordered microstructure and results from the sequences of its constituent proteins. This optimized microstructural organization simultaneously achieves high tensile strength and strain at breaking by taking advantage of weak molecular interactions. However, elucidating how the original design evolved over the 400 million year history of spider silk, and identifying the basic relationships between microstructural details and performance have proven difficult tasks. Here we show that the analysis of maximum supercontracted single spider silk fibers using X ray diffraction shows a complex picture of silk evolution where some key microstructural features are conserved phylogenetically while others show substantial variation even among closely related species. This new understanding helps elucidate which microstructural features need to be copied in order to produce the next generation of biomimetic silk fibers. PMID:26438975

  16. Persistence and variation in microstructural design during the evolution of spider silk.

    PubMed

    Madurga, R; Blackledge, T A; Perea, B; Plaza, G R; Riekel, C; Burghammer, M; Elices, M; Guinea, G; Pérez-Rigueiro, J

    2015-01-01

    The extraordinary mechanical performance of spider dragline silk is explained by its highly ordered microstructure and results from the sequences of its constituent proteins. This optimized microstructural organization simultaneously achieves high tensile strength and strain at breaking by taking advantage of weak molecular interactions. However, elucidating how the original design evolved over the 400 million year history of spider silk, and identifying the basic relationships between microstructural details and performance have proven difficult tasks. Here we show that the analysis of maximum supercontracted single spider silk fibers using X ray diffraction shows a complex picture of silk evolution where some key microstructural features are conserved phylogenetically while others show substantial variation even among closely related species. This new understanding helps elucidate which microstructural features need to be copied in order to produce the next generation of biomimetic silk fibers. PMID:26438975

  17. Predicting mesoscale microstructural evolution in electron beam welding

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rodgers, Theron M.; Madison, Jonathan D.; Tikare, Veena; Maguire, Michael C.

    2016-03-16

    Using the kinetic Monte Carlo simulator, Stochastic Parallel PARticle Kinetic Simulator, from Sandia National Laboratories, a user routine has been developed to simulate mesoscale predictions of a grain structure near a moving heat source. Here, we demonstrate the use of this user routine to produce voxelized, synthetic, three-dimensional microstructures for electron-beam welding by comparing them with experimentally produced microstructures. When simulation input parameters are matched to experimental process parameters, qualitative and quantitative agreement for both grain size and grain morphology are achieved. The method is capable of simulating both single- and multipass welds. As a result, the simulations provide anmore » opportunity for not only accelerated design but also the integration of simulation and experiments in design such that simulations can receive parameter bounds from experiments and, in turn, provide predictions of a resultant microstructure.« less

  18. Predicting Mesoscale Microstructural Evolution in Electron Beam Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, T. M.; Madison, J. D.; Tikare, V.; Maguire, M. C.

    2016-05-01

    Using the kinetic Monte Carlo simulator, Stochastic Parallel PARticle Kinetic Simulator, from Sandia National Laboratories, a user routine has been developed to simulate mesoscale predictions of a grain structure near a moving heat source. Here, we demonstrate the use of this user routine to produce voxelized, synthetic, three-dimensional microstructures for electron-beam welding by comparing them with experimentally produced microstructures. When simulation input parameters are matched to experimental process parameters, qualitative and quantitative agreement for both grain size and grain morphology are achieved. The method is capable of simulating both single- and multipass welds. The simulations provide an opportunity for not only accelerated design but also the integration of simulation and experiments in design such that simulations can receive parameter bounds from experiments and, in turn, provide predictions of a resultant microstructure.

  19. Microstructural Evolution and Wear Resistance of Friction Stir-Processed AISI 52100 Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seraj, R. A.; Abdollah-zadeh, A.; Hajian, M.; Kargar, F.; Soltanalizadeh, R.

    2016-04-01

    Friction stir processing (FSP) was successfully applied on AISI 52100 steel. The influence of process parameters on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the material was evaluated. It was observed that the initial ferritic-pearlitic microstructure of the base metal is transformed to the martensitic microstructure with retained austenite in the stir zone. The results also showed that microhardness and wear resistance of the FSP samples are, respectively, at least 2 and 15 times higher than those of the base metal. The improvement of the mechanical properties of FSP samples was attributed to their microstructural characteristics. The mechanisms controlling the wear behavior of the base metal and FSP samples were also discussed.

  20. Microstructural Evolution and Wear Resistance of Friction Stir-Processed AISI 52100 Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seraj, R. A.; Abdollah-zadeh, A.; Hajian, M.; Kargar, F.; Soltanalizadeh, R.

    2016-07-01

    Friction stir processing (FSP) was successfully applied on AISI 52100 steel. The influence of process parameters on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the material was evaluated. It was observed that the initial ferritic-pearlitic microstructure of the base metal is transformed to the martensitic microstructure with retained austenite in the stir zone. The results also showed that microhardness and wear resistance of the FSP samples are, respectively, at least 2 and 15 times higher than those of the base metal. The improvement of the mechanical properties of FSP samples was attributed to their microstructural characteristics. The mechanisms controlling the wear behavior of the base metal and FSP samples were also discussed.

  1. Microstructure evolution and tensile properties of Zr-2.5 wt.% Nb pressure tubes processed from billets with different microstructures

    SciTech Connect

    Kapoor, K.; Saratchandran, N.; Muralidharan, K.

    1999-02-01

    Pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWR) use zirconium-base alloys for their low neutron-absorption cross section, good mechanical strength, low irradiation creep, and high corrosion resistance in reactor atmospheres. Starting with identical ingots, billets having different microstructures were obtained by three different processing methods for fabrication of Zr-2.5 wt%Nb pressure tubes., The billets were further processed by hot extrusion and cold Pilger tube reducing to the finished product. Microstructural characterization was done at each stage of processing. The effects of the initial billet microstructure on the intermediate and final microstructure and mechanical property results were determined. It was found that the structure at each stage and the final mechanical properties depend strongly on the initial billet microstructure. The structure at the final stage consists of elongated alpha zirconium grains with a network of metastable beta zirconium phase. Some of this metastable phase transforms into stable beta niobium during thermomechanical processing. Billets with quenched structure resulted in less beta niobium at the final stage. The air cooled billets resulted in a large amount of beta niobium. The tensile properties, especially the percentage elongation, were found to vary for the different methods. Higher percentage elongation was observed for billets having quenched structure. Extrusion and forging did not produce any characteristic differences in the properties. The results were used to select a process flow sheet which yields the desired mechanical properties with suitable microstructure in the final product.

  2. Microstructural Evolution and Creep-Rupture Behavior of A-USC Alloy Fusion Welds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechetti, Daniel H.; DuPont, John N.; Siefert, John A.; Shingledecker, John P.

    2016-06-01

    Characterization of the microstructural evolution of fusion welds in alloys slated for use in advanced ultrasupercritical (A-USC) boilers during creep has been performed. Creep-rupture specimens involving INCONEL® 740, NIMONIC® 263 (INCONEL and NIMONIC are registered trademarks of Special Metals Corporation), and Haynes® 282® (Haynes and 282 are registered trademarks of Haynes International) have been analyzed via light optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and thermodynamic and kinetic modeling. Focus has been given to the microstructures that develop along the grain boundaries in these alloys during creep at temperatures relevant to the A-USC process cycle, and particular attention has been paid to any evidence of the formation of local γ'-denuded or γ'-free zones. This work has been performed in an effort to understand the microstructural changes that lead to a weld strength reduction factor (WSRF) in these alloys as compared to solution annealed and aged alloy 740 base metal. γ' precipitate-free zones have been identified in alloy 740 base metal, solution annealed alloy 740 weld metal, and alloy 263 weld metal after creep. Their development during long-term thermal exposure is correlated with the stabilization of phases that are rich in γ'-forming elements (e.g., η and G) and is suppressed by precipitation of phases that do not contain the γ' formers (e.g., M23C6 and μ). The location of failure and creep performance in terms of rupture life and WSRF for each welded joint is presented and discussed.

  3. Microstructural Evolution and Creep-Rupture Behavior of A-USC Alloy Fusion Welds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechetti, Daniel H.; DuPont, John N.; Siefert, John A.; Shingledecker, John P.

    2016-09-01

    Characterization of the microstructural evolution of fusion welds in alloys slated for use in advanced ultrasupercritical (A-USC) boilers during creep has been performed. Creep-rupture specimens involving INCONEL® 740, NIMONIC® 263 (INCONEL and NIMONIC are registered trademarks of Special Metals Corporation), and Haynes® 282® (Haynes and 282 are registered trademarks of Haynes International) have been analyzed via light optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and thermodynamic and kinetic modeling. Focus has been given to the microstructures that develop along the grain boundaries in these alloys during creep at temperatures relevant to the A-USC process cycle, and particular attention has been paid to any evidence of the formation of local γ'-denuded or γ'-free zones. This work has been performed in an effort to understand the microstructural changes that lead to a weld strength reduction factor (WSRF) in these alloys as compared to solution annealed and aged alloy 740 base metal. γ' precipitate-free zones have been identified in alloy 740 base metal, solution annealed alloy 740 weld metal, and alloy 263 weld metal after creep. Their development during long-term thermal exposure is correlated with the stabilization of phases that are rich in γ'-forming elements ( e.g., η and G) and is suppressed by precipitation of phases that do not contain the γ' formers ( e.g., M23C6 and μ). The location of failure and creep performance in terms of rupture life and WSRF for each welded joint is presented and discussed.

  4. Microstructure Evolution of a Platinum-Modified Nickel-Aluminide Coating During Thermal and Thermo-mechanical Fatigue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallot, Pierre; Maurel, Vincent; Rémy, Luc; N'Guyen, Franck; Longuet, Arnaud

    2015-10-01

    The microstructure evolution of a platinum-modified nickel-aluminide coating on single-crystal nickel-based superalloy was investigated for various thermal cycling and thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF) conditions in air for a long-term exposure. An increase in roughness and in β→γ' transformation rate depends similarly on maximum temperature, holding time at maximum temperature and applied stress. Moreover, the evolution of the interdiffusion zone (IDZ) is analyzed by making the distinction between two layers, according to the major phases observed within these layers, namely β-(Ni,Pt)Al and γ'-Ni3Al. This distinction highlighted that the respective thickness evolution of these two layers are sensitive to each parameter of TMF tests with similar increase in evolution rate when increasing time, temperature, as well as applied stress. The distinctive features of phase transformation are finally discussed together with localization of phase transformation and measured evolution of phase transformation within the external coating and β- and γ'-IDZ layer thicknesses under thermal and thermo-mechanical fatigue. This analysis leads to a conclusion that grain boundaries within the external coating as well as interfaces, between thermally grown oxide, external coating, and IDZ, respectively, play a major role in diffusion, phase transformation, and microstructure evolution of typical platinum-modified nickel-aluminide coating.

  5. Microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of friction stir welded ODS alloy MA754

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiye; Yuan, Wei; Mishra, Rajiv S.; Charit, Indrajit

    2013-11-01

    Microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of MA754, an yttrium oxide dispersion-strengthened nickel-based superalloy, were investigated after friction stir welding (FSW). A tool rotation rate of 1000 revolution per minute and a traverse speed of 50.8 mm per minute were employed using a cermet (WC-Co) tool. After FSW, fine equiaxed grain structure with a high dislocation density and a random texture was achieved. Agglomeration of yttrium oxide dispersoids was observed in FSW MA754. Room-temperature tensile properties of FSW MA754 were compared to those of as-received MA754 alloy, and the results indicated that particle strengthening contribution decreased as a result of dispersoid agglomeration.

  6. Microstructure evolution of a multiphase superalloy processed by severe plastic deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauvage, Xavier; Mukhtarov, Shamil

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents an overview and some original results about the microstructure evolution of an Ultra Fine Grained (UFG) nickel-iron based alloy INCONEL 718 processed by Severe Plastic Deformation (SPD). The ultrafine grain structure of this alloy that contains a high density of γ" and γ' precipitates was characterized by Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM). We propose a comparison between two SPD processes, High Pressure Torsion (HPT) and Multiple Forging (MF). The grain refinement is much more pronounced by HPT but intermetallic particles are partly dissolved during SPD. The UFG structure after MF is obviously very different and exhibits a much better thermal stability especially because second phase particles do not reprecipitate during post-deformation annealing.

  7. Composite model of microstructural evolution in austenitic stainless steel under fast neutron irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Stoller, R.E.; Odette, G.R.

    1986-01-01

    A rate-theory-based model has been developed which includes the simultaneous evolution of the dislocation and cavity components of the microstructure of irradiated austenitic stainless steels. Previous work has generally focused on developing models for void swelling while neglecting the time dependence of the dislocation structure. These models have broadened our understanding of the physical processes that give rise to swelling, e.g., the role of helium and void formation from critically-sized bubbles. That work has also demonstrated some predictive capability by successful calibration to fit the results of fast reactor swelling data. However, considerable uncertainty about the values of key parameters in these models limits their usefulness as predictive tools. Hence the use of such models to extrapolate fission reactor swelling data to fusion reactor conditions is compromised.

  8. The relationship between microstructure and damage evolution in hot-rolled complex-phase steel sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Grant A. S.

    Complex-phase (CP) steels are employed in applications that require high-strength and good edge formability. These steels derive their strength from a fine-grained bainite-ferrite microstructure, and alloying to provide solid-solution and precipitation strengthening. CP steels are produced industrially through a process of controlled rolling and cooling to produce desirable microstructures. Hole-expansion tests are typically used as a measure of edge formability for applications such as stretch-flanges. It has been shown that CP microstructures are susceptible to large fluctuations in hole-expansion performance with little change in processing or resulting tensile properties. The steel's characteristics of damage evolution are critical to the hole-expansion performance. This study investigates the role of microstructure in the development of damage in CP microstructural variants. Two variant pairs of different thicknesses were produced from the leading and trailing edge of industrially produced hot-rolled sheet. Each pair consisted of a variant with poor hole-expansion performance, and a variant with good hole-expansion performance. Each variant was tested via interrupted double-notched uniaxial tension testing to induce damage. Damage evolution in each variant was quantified by X-ray micro-computed tomography (XmicroCT), and supplementary optical micrography. The damage results were correlated with microstructural characteristics. It was shown that poor hole-expansion variants failed by intergranular fracture. In these variants, void damage induced by hard martensite and retained austenite was not critical in producing failure. Purely void-damaged microstructures failed by ductile fracture, whereas cracked microstructures failed in a mixed brittle-ductile failure initiated by planar cracks. Microstructural banding of large elongated ferrite grains correlated with the existence of intergranular planar fractures.

  9. Modeling of microstructure evolution of magnesium alloy during the high pressure die casting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Mengwu; Xiong, Shoumei

    2012-07-01

    Two important microstructure characteristics of high pressure die cast magnesium alloy are the externally solidified crystals (ESCs) and the fully divorced eutectic which form at the filling stage of the shot sleeve and at the last stage of solidification in the die cavity, respectively. Both of them have a significant influence on the mechanical properties and performance of magnesium alloy die castings. In the present paper, a numerical model based on the cellular automaton (CA) method was developed to simulate the microstructure evolution of magnesium alloy during cold-chamber high pressure die casting (HPDC) process. Modeling of dendritic growth of magnesium alloy with six-fold symmetry was achieved by defining a special neighbourhood configuration and calculating of the growth kinetics from complete solution of the transport equations. Special attention was paid to establish a nucleation model considering both of the nucleation of externally solidified crystals in the shot sleeve and the massive nucleation in the die cavity. Meanwhile, simulation of the formation of fully divorced eutectic was also taken into account in the present CA model. Validation was performed and the capability of the present model was addressed by comparing the simulated results with those obtained by experiments.

  10. Modeling Of Microstructure Evolution Of BCC Metals Subjected To Severe Plastic Deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Svyetlichnyy, Dmytro; Majta, Janusz; Muszka, Krzysztof; Lach, Lukasz

    2011-01-17

    Prediction of microstructure evolution and properties of ultrafine-grained materials is one of the most significant, current problems in materials science. Several advanced methods of analysis can be applied for this issue: vertex models, phase field models, Monte Carlo Potts, finite element method (FEM) discrete element method (DEM) and finally cellular automata (CA). The main asset of the CA is ability for a close correlation of the microstructure with the mechanical properties in micro- and meso-scale simulation. Joining CA with the DEM undoubtedly improves accuracy of modeling of coupled phenomena during the innovative forming processes in both micro- and macro-scale. Deformation in micro-scale shows anisotropy, which connected with that the polycrystalline material contains grains with different crystallographic orientation, and grain deformation is depended from configuration of directions of main stresses and axis of grain. Then, CA and DEM must be joint solutions of crystal plasticity theory. In the present model, deformation in macro-scale is transferred to meso-sale, where a block contains several, score or hundreds grains, and then is applied in micro-scale to each grain. Creation of low-angle boundaries and their development into high-angle boundaries are simulated by the cellular automata on the base of calculations using finite element method and crystal plasticity theory. The idea proposed in this study and particular solutions are discussed for the case of ultrafine-grained low-carbon steel.

  11. The evolution of microstructural changes in pressed HMX explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Skidmore, C.B.; Phillips, D.S.; Howe, P.M.; Mang, J.T.; Romero, J.A.

    1998-12-31

    Recently developed techniques for investigating the microstructure of plastic-bonded explosives have been applied to HMX explosives pressed to various levels of porosity. Microstructural changes in PBX 9501 area followed from the early stages of prill consolidation through typical density to very low porosity (0.6%). As porosity is reduced, the following sequence is observed. Large inter- and intra-prill voids are eliminated with first damage to HMX crystals occurring at prill boundaries. This is followed by increased incidence of crystal twinning and cracking. At the lowest porosities, spall pullout artifacts are observed, cracks associated with particle contact points are more obvious, and the results of intercrystalline indentation or intergrowth migration processes are apparent. A comparison is made, at lowest porosities achieved, with PX 9404 and X-0242 (a formulation like PBX 9501 with higher binder volume). Possible implications on porosity trends in shock sensitivity data are discussed.

  12. Evolution of Local Microstructures: Spatial Instabilities of Coarsening Clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glicksman, Martin E.; Frazier, Donald O.; Rogers, Jan R.; Witherow, William K.; Downey, J. Patton

    2001-01-01

    This work examines the diffusional growth of discrete phase particles dispersed within a matrix. Engineering materials are often microstructurally heterogeneous, and the details of the microstructure determine how well that material performs in a given application. Critical to the development of designing multiphase microstructures with long-term stability is the process of Ostwald ripening. Ripening, or phase coarsening, is diffusion-limited and arises in polydisperse multiphase materials. Growth and dissolution occur because fluxes of solute, driven by chemical potential gradients at the interfaces of the dispersed phase material, depend on particle size. Competitive kinetics of these processes dictates that larger particles grow at the expense of smaller ones, overall leading to an increase of the average particle size. The classical treatment of phase coarsening was done by Todes, Lifshitz, and Slyozov, (TLS) in the limit of zero volume fraction, V(sub V)=0 of the dispersed phase. Since the publication of TLS theory, there have been numerous investigations, many of which sought to describe the kinetic scaling behavior over a range of volume fractions. Some studies in the literature report that the relative increase in coarsening rate at low (but not zero) volume fractions compared to that predicted by TLS is proportional to V(exp 1/2)(sub v) whereas others suggest V(exp 1/3)(sub v).This issue has been addressed recently by simulation studies at low volume fractions in three dimensions by members of the Rensselaer/MSFC team.

  13. Evolution of Local Microstructures (ELMS): Spatial Instabilities of Coarsening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glicksman, Martin E.; Frazier, Donald O.; Rogers, Jan R.; Witherow, William K.; Downey, J. Patton; Facemire, Barbara R.

    1999-01-01

    This work examines the diffusional growth of discrete phase particles dispersed within a matrix. Engineering materials are microstructurally heterogeneous, and the details of the microstructure determine how well that material performs in a given application. Critical to the development of designing multiphase microstructures with long-term stability is the process of Ostwald ripening. Ripening, or phase coarsening, is a diffusion-limited process which arises in polydisperse multiphase materials. Growth and dissolution occur because fluxes of solute, driven by chemical potential gradients at the interfaces of the dispersed phase material, depend on particle size. The kinetics of these processes are "competitive," dictating that larger particles grow at the expense of smaller ones, overall leading to an increase of the average particle size. The classical treatment of phase coarsening was done by Todes, Lifshitz, and Slyozov, (TLS) in the limit of zero volume fraction, V(sub v), of the dispersed phase. Since the publication of TLS theory there have been numerous investigations, many of which sought to describe the kinetic scaling behavior over a range of volume fractions. Some studies in the literature report that the relative increase in coarsening rate at low (but not zero) volume fractions compared to that / 2 1/ 3 predicted by TLS is proportional to V(sub v)(exp 1/2), whereas others suggest V(sub v)(exp 1/3). This issue has been resolved recently by simulation studies at low volume fractions in three dimensions by members of the Rensselaer/MSFC team.

  14. Calculation of the evolution of the fuel microstructure in UMo alloys and implications for fuel swelling.

    SciTech Connect

    Rest, J.; Hofman, G. L.; Konovalov, I.; Maslov, A.

    1999-10-01

    The evolution of a cellular dislocation structure and subsequent recrystallization have been identified as important aspects of the irradiated UMo alloy microstructure that can have a strong impact on dispersion fuel swelling. Dislocation kinetics depends on the preferential bias of dislocations for interstitial compared to vacancies. This paper presents theoretical calculations for the evolution of a cellular dislocation structure, and recrystallization in U-10Mo. Implications for fuel swelling are discussed.

  15. Microstructure Evolution in Cut Metal Chips of Ti-6Al-4V

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dong, L.; Schneider, J. A.

    2008-01-01

    The microstructural evolution following metal cutting was investigated within metal chips of Ti-6Al-4V. Metal cutting was used to impose a high strain rate on the order of approx.10(exp 5)/s within the primary shear zone as the metal was removed from the workpiece. The initial microstructure of the parent material (PM) was composed of a bi-modal microstructure with coarse prior beta grains and equiaxed primary alpha located at the boundaries. After metal cutting, the microstructure of the metal chips showed coarsening of the equiaxed primary alpha grains and beta lamellar. These metallographic findings suggest that the metal chips experienced high temperatures which remained below the beta transus temperature.

  16. Interpreting solidification phenomena and microstructural evolution in metals through the use of transparent model alloy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Grugel, R.N. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering); Trivedi, R. )

    1991-01-01

    It is well established that the material properties of alloys are directly related to the scale and distribution of their microstructural constituents. The advances and applications of metallogrpahic techniques for the examination of solidified microstructures have proven invaluable in ascertaining these structure-property relationships. Unfortunately, many aspects of microstructural evolution can only be inferred from a post-solidification examination. The use of transparent compounds which freeze in a manner analogous to metals circumvents this problem by allowing direct and continual observation of solidification events during both transient and steady-state growth. This paper discusses the role of these compounds in promoting our understanding of solidification phenomena. Examples of dendritic, eutectic, and monotectic microstructural development, pertinent to theory and practice, are presented and compared with their metal counterparts. 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Supersoft lithography: candy-based fabrication of soft silicone microstructures.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Christopher; Labuz, Joseph M; Shao, Yue; Fu, Jianping; Takayama, Shuichi

    2015-01-01

    We designed a fabrication technique able to replicate microstructures in soft silicone materials (E < 1 kPa). Sugar-based 'hard candy' recipes from the confectionery industry were modified to be compatible with silicone processing conditions, and used as templates for replica molding. Microstructures fabricated in soft silicones can then be easily released by dissolving the template in water. We anticipate that this technique will be of particular importance in replicating physiologically soft, microstructured environments for cell culture, and demonstrate a first application in which intrinsically soft microstructures are used to measure forces generated by fibroblast-laden contractile tissues. PMID:26245893

  18. Microstructure, Mechanical Properties, and Texture Evolution of Aluminum Alloy 7005 by Accumulative Roll Bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Hu; Wang, M. P.; Chen, Wei; Jia, Yanlin

    2016-03-01

    In the present work, the accumulative roll bonding process was carried out on a 7005 aluminum alloy sheet to six passes. The microstructure and texture evolution was investigated by transmission electron microscope, electron backscatter diffraction analysis, and x-ray texture goniometer. With the increase of ARB passes, the microstructure was refined and the fraction of high angle boundaries increased. The hardness of different ARB process specimens was measured and showed that as the ARB passes increased, the hardness rose obviously. The tensile strength of 6 passes reaches 423.4 MPa and the elongation is 4.6%. The material is strongly textured where individual layers possess typical FCC rolling texture components and the variation of each texture is different. This is attributed to the microstructure evolution during the ARB process.

  19. Effects of Forging Process Parameters on Microstructure Evolution of Aluminum Alloy 7050

    SciTech Connect

    Yi Youping; Shi Yan; Yang Jihui; Lin Yongcheng

    2007-04-07

    The objective of this work is to investigate the behavior of microstructure evolution of aluminum alloy 7050 under the condition of different forging process parameters by means of combining materials physical model with finite element code. For the purpose of establishing constitutive equation and physical model of microstructure evolution, the isothermal compression test were performed by machine Gleeble 1500 on the condition of temperatures ranging from 250 deg. C to 450 deg. C and constant strain rates of 0.01s-1, 0.1s-1, 1s-1 and 10s-1. The behaviors of microstructure evolutions of aluminum alloy 7050 under difference process parameters were studied by metallographic observations. The experiment results showed that recrystallization during forming process occurred at the critical strain and the volume fraction of recrystallization changed with the temperature and strain rate. According to the results of isothermal compression test, a constitutive equation and an empirical model of DRX were obtained. A finite element code DEFORM 3D was used to analyze the influence of different forging process parameters on the behavior of microstructure evolution in details. The present model and simulation method can be served as a useful tool to predict and control the properties and shape of aluminum alloy 7050 components during forging.

  20. Direct handling of sharp interfacial energy for microstructural evolution

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hernández–Rivera, Efraín; Tikare, Veena; Noirot, Laurence; Wang, Lumin

    2014-08-24

    In this study, we introduce a simplification to the previously demonstrated hybrid Potts–phase field (hPPF), which relates interfacial energies to microstructural sharp interfaces. The model defines interfacial energy by a Potts-like discrete interface approach of counting unlike neighbors, which we use to compute local curvature. The model is compared to the hPPF by studying interfacial characteristics and grain growth behavior. The models give virtually identical results, while the new model allows the simulator more direct control of interfacial energy.

  1. Electrospun nickel oxide nanofibers: Microstructure and surface evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, Abdullah; Hashaikeh, Raed

    2015-12-01

    Nickel oxide (NiO) nanofibers with controlled microstructure were synthesized through the electrospinning technique using a solution composed of nickel acetate and polyvinyl alcohol. The microstructure of NiO nanofibers was found to be highly dependent on nickel acetate concentration in the solution and the post-heat treatment. As the nickel acetate concentration increases, the crystallinity index of NiO nanofibers increases from nearly 50 percent to 90 percent and the average crystallite size in the nanofibers increases from about 20 nm to 30 nm. Further, it was found that annealing the nanofibers at 1000 °C for 2 h leads to nearly full crystallization of nanofibers with significant increase in the crystallite size to about 50 nm while maintaining the fibrous shape. For low nickel acetate concentration, and because of the small nanofibers size, the surface of the calcined nanofibers showed oxygen deficiency which promises a superior activity of these NiO nanofibers for catalytic and sensing applications.

  2. Evolution of the viscosity of Earth's upper mantle: Grain-boundary sliding and the role of microstructure in olivine deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Lars N.

    Many features of plate tectonics cannot be explained with standard rheological models of the upper mantle. In particular, the localization of deformation at plate boundaries requires the viscosity of the constituent rocks to evolve spatially and temporally. Such rheological complexity may arise from changing microstructural state variables (e.g., grain size and crystallographic-fabric strength), but the degree to which microstructure contributes to the evolution of viscosity is unclear given our current understanding of deformation mechanisms in mantle minerals. Dislocation-accommodated grain-boundary sliding (GBS) is a potentially critical mechanism for localizing deformation in olivine because it imparts a sensitivity of the viscosity to the state of the microstructure while simultaneously providing mechanisms for changing the microstructure. However, many details of GBS in olivine are currently unknown including 1) the magnitude of the sensitivity of strain rate to crystallographic fabric and grain size, 2) the strength of the crystallographic fabrics produced, and 3) the anisotropy in viscosity of polycrystalline aggregates. Detailed knowledge of these unknowns is necessary to assess the importance of microstructural evolution in the operation of plate tectonics. This dissertation investigates the details of GBS in olivine through four sets of laboratory-based experiments. In Chapter 2, triaxial compressive creep experiments on aggregates of San Carlos olivine are used to develop a flow law for olivine deforming by GBS. Extrapolations of strain rate to geological conditions using the derived flow law indicate that GBS is the dominant deformation mechanism throughout the uppermost mantle. Crystallographic fabrics observed in deformed samples are consistent with upper-mantle seismic anisotropy. In Chapter 3, torsion experiments on iron-rich olivine are used to determine the rheological behavior of olivine deforming by GBS at large strains. The sensitivity of the

  3. Modeling the microstructural changes during hot tandem rolling of AA5 XXX aluminum alloys: Part I. Microstructural evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, M. A.; Samarasekera, I. V.; Brimacombe, J. K.; Hawbolt, E. B.; Lloyd, D. J.

    1998-06-01

    A comprehensive mathematical model of the hot tandem rolling process for aluminum alloys has been developed. Reflecting the complex thermomechanical and microstructural changes effected in the alloys during rolling, the model incorporated heat flow, plastic deformation, kinetics of static recrystallization, final recrystallized grain size, and texture evolution. The results of this microstructural engineering study, combining computer modeling, laboratory tests, and industrial measurements, are presented in three parts. In this Part I, laboratory measurements of static recrystallization kinetics and final recrystallized grain size are described for AA5182 and AA5052 aluminum alloys and expressed quantitatively by semiempirical equations. In Part II, laboratory measurements of the texture evolution during static recrystallization are described for each of the alloys and expressed mathematically using a modified form of the Avrami equation. Finally, Part III of this article describes the development of an overall mathematical model for an industrial aluminum hot tandem rolling process which incorporates the microstructure and texture equations developed and the model validation using industrial data. The laboratory measurements for the microstructural evolution were carried out using industrially rolled material and a state-of-the-art plane strain compression tester at Alcan International. Each sample was given a single deformation and heat treated in a salt bath at 400 °C for various lengths of time to effect different levels of recrystallization in the samples. The range of hot-working conditions used for the laboratory study was chosen to represent conditions typically seen in industrial aluminum hot tandem rolling processes, i.e., deformation temperatures of 350 °C to 500 °C, strain rates of 0.5 to 100 seconds and total strains of 0.5 to 2.0. The semiempirical equations developed indicated that both the recrystallization kinetics and the final recrystallized

  4. Microstructure and Texture Evolution in Double-Cone Samples of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy with Colony Preform Microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kun Vanna; Lim, Chao Voon Samuel; Zhang, Kai; Sun, Jifeng; Yang, Xiaoguang; Huang, Aijun; Wu, Xinhua; Davies, Christopher H.

    2015-12-01

    Heat-treated Ti-6Al-4V forged bar with colony microstructure was machined into double-cone-shaped samples for a series of isothermal uniaxial compression test at 1223 K (950 °C) with varying constant crosshead speeds of 12.5, 1.25, and 0.125 mms-1 to a height reduction of 70 pct. Another set of samples deformed under the same conditions were heat treated at 1173 K (900 °C) for an hour followed by water quench. Finite element modeling was used to provide the strains, strain rates, and temperature profiles of the hot compression samples, and the microstructure and texture evolution was examined at four positions on each sample, representative of different strain ranges. Lamellae fragmentation and kinking are the dominant microstructural features at lower strain range up to a maximum of 2.0, whereas globularization dominates at strains above 2.0 for the as-deformed samples. The globularization fraction generally increases with strain, or by post-deformation heat treatment, but fluctuates at lower strain. The grain size of the globular α is almost constant with strain and maximizes for samples with the lowest crosshead speed due to the longer deformation time. The globular α grain also coarsens because of post-deformation heat treatment, with its size increasing with strain level. With respect to texture evolution, a basal transverse ring and another component 30 deg from ND is determined for samples deformed at 12.5 mms-1, which is consistent with the temperature increase to close to β-transus from simulation results. The texture type remains unchanged with its intensity increased and spreads with increasing strain.

  5. Microstructurally based model of fatigue initiation and growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brockenbrough, J. R.; Hinkle, A. J.; Magnusen, P. E.; Bucci, R. J.

    1994-01-01

    A model to calculate fatigue life is developed based on the assumption that fatigue life is entirely composed of crack growth from an initial microstructural inhomogeneity. Specifically, growth is considered to start from either an ellipsoidal void, a cracked particle, or a debonded particle. The capability of predicting fatigue life from material microstructure is based on linear elastic fracture mechanics principles, the sizes of the crack-initiating microstructural inhomogeneities, and an initiation parameter that is proportional to the cyclic plastic zone size. A key aspect of this modeling approach is that it is linked with a general purpose probability program to analyze the effect of the distribution of controlling microstructural features within the material. This enables prediction of fatigue stress versus life curves for various specimen geometries using distributional statistics obtained from characterizations of the microstructure. Results are compared to experimental fatigue data from an aluminum alloy.

  6. Microstructural evolution during DPRM process of semisolid ledeburitic D2 tool steel.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, M N; Omar, M Z; Syarif, J; Sajuri, Z; Salleh, M S; Alhawari, K S

    2013-01-01

    Semisolid metal processing is a relatively new technology that offers several advantages over liquid processing and solid processing because of the unique behaviour and characteristic microstructure of metals in this state. With the aim of finding a minimum process chain for the manufacture of high-quality production at minimal cost for forming, the microstructural evolution of the ledeburitic AISI D2 tool steel in the semisolid state was studied experimentally. The potential of the direct partial remelting (DPRM) process for the production of AISI D2 with a uniform globular microstructure was revealed. The liquid fraction was determined using differential scanning calorimetry. The microstructures of the samples were investigated using an optical microscope and a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive spectroscopy analyser, while X-ray phase analysis was performed to identify the phase evolution and the type of carbides. Mechanical characterisation was completed by hardness measurements. The typical microstructure after DPRM consists of metastable austenite which was located particularly in the globular grains (average grain size about 50 μ m), while the remaining interspaces were filled by precipitated eutectic carbides on the grain boundaries and lamellar network. PMID:24223510

  7. Microstructural and phase evolution in metakaolin geopolymers with different activators and added aluminosilicate fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Madhuchhanda; Dana, Kausik; Das, Sukhen

    2015-10-01

    This work aims to investigate the microstructural and phase evolution of alkali activated metakaolin products with different activators and added aluminosilicate filler phases. The added filler phases have different reactivity to the alkali activated metakaolin system. Microstructural evolution in the alkali activated products has been investigated by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM). Variation in strength development in alkali activated metakaolin products was followed by compressive strength measurement test. Microstructural study shows that in case of metakaolin with NaOH activator crystalline sodalite formed in all the product samples irrespective of the added filler phases. The microstructure of these NaOH activated products investigated by FESEM showed crystalline and inhomogeneous morphology. Mixed activator containing both NaOH and sodium silicate in a fixed mass ratio formed predominantly amorphous phase. Microstructure of these samples showed more homogeneity than that of NaOH activated metakaolin products. The study further shows that addition of α-Al2O3 powder, non reactive phase to the alkali activated metakaolin system when used in larger amount increased crystalline phase in the matrix. α-Al2O3 powder addition increased the compressive strength of the product samples for both the activator compositions. Added phase of colloidal silica, reactive to the alkali activated metakaolin system when used in larger amount was found to increase amorphous nature of the matrix. Addition of colloidal silica influenced the compressive strength property differently with different activator compositions.

  8. Microstructural Evolution during DPRM Process of Semisolid Ledeburitic D2 Tool Steel

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, M. N.; Omar, M. Z.; Syarif, J.; Sajuri, Z.; Salleh, M. S.; Alhawari, K. S.

    2013-01-01

    Semisolid metal processing is a relatively new technology that offers several advantages over liquid processing and solid processing because of the unique behaviour and characteristic microstructure of metals in this state. With the aim of finding a minimum process chain for the manufacture of high-quality production at minimal cost for forming, the microstructural evolution of the ledeburitic AISI D2 tool steel in the semisolid state was studied experimentally. The potential of the direct partial remelting (DPRM) process for the production of AISI D2 with a uniform globular microstructure was revealed. The liquid fraction was determined using differential scanning calorimetry. The microstructures of the samples were investigated using an optical microscope and a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive spectroscopy analyser, while X-ray phase analysis was performed to identify the phase evolution and the type of carbides. Mechanical characterisation was completed by hardness measurements. The typical microstructure after DPRM consists of metastable austenite which was located particularly in the globular grains (average grain size about 50 μm), while the remaining interspaces were filled by precipitated eutectic carbides on the grain boundaries and lamellar network. PMID:24223510

  9. Synthetic Microstructure-Based Lifing of Nickel-Based Superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, Joseph C.

    This work focuses on the root cause of life limiting behavior in Ni-based superalloys for high pressure and temperature turbine disks applications in low cycle fatigue (LCF) by generating statistical volume elements (SVEs) of directly measured 3D microstructures for finite element method (FEM) simulations with crystal plasticity. Synthetic microstructures with experimentally determined microstructurally small fatigue crack (MSFC) weakest link features of as large as (ALA) grains and long annealing twins comprise the test cases. Upper limit truncated log-normal distributions account for the log-normal upper tail departure in grain size distributions of Ni-based superalloys more accurately representing ALA grains. Probability plots quantify the log-normality of grain sizes more effectively than traditional histograms. Twins are inserted into synthetic microstructures according to the coherent Sigma3 orientation relationship. A 3D measured dataset of the Inconel 100 (IN100) validates the Saltykov method stereology technique for estimating 3D grain size distributions from 2D; the 3D grain size distribution mean field and upper tail of IN100 is accurately predicted. The Saltykov method gave 3D grain sizes from a Rene 88 Damage Tolerant (R88DT) 2D dataset resulting in fatigue SVEs of approximately 1.5 million elements and 200 grains from FEM sensitivity studies. Changing mesh resolution minimally impacted global damage response, but converging locally requires significantly higher refinement. Fatigue interrogating FEM studies evolved hot spots in the local MSFC environment in one SVE, but not in another SVE with different crystallographic orientations, suggesting strong 3D full-field neighbor effects. The study revealed a need for slip line length considerations in crystal plasticity to better capture life limiting behavior. The findings point towards strictly limiting the ALA grain size in Ni-based superalloys to extend service life.

  10. Hybrid models for the simulation of microstructural evolution influenced by coupled, multiple physical processes.

    SciTech Connect

    Tikare, Veena; Hernandez-Rivera, Efrain; Madison, Jonathan D.; Holm, Elizabeth Ann; Patterson, Burton R.; Homer, Eric R.

    2013-09-01

    Most materials microstructural evolution processes progress with multiple processes occurring simultaneously. In this work, we have concentrated on the processes that are active in nuclear materials, in particular, nuclear fuels. These processes are coarsening, nucleation, differential diffusion, phase transformation, radiation-induced defect formation and swelling, often with temperature gradients present. All these couple and contribute to evolution that is unique to nuclear fuels and materials. Hybrid model that combines elements from the Potts Monte Carlo, phase-field models and others have been developed to address these multiple physical processes. These models are described and applied to several processes in this report. An important feature of the models developed are that they are coded as applications within SPPARKS, a Sandiadeveloped framework for simulation at the mesoscale of microstructural evolution processes by kinetic Monte Carlo methods. This makes these codes readily accessible and adaptable for future applications.

  11. Microstructure Evolution During Rapid Debinding of MIM Compact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omar, M. A.; Subuki, I.

    2010-03-01

    This paper discusses the microstructure changes during solvent solvent extraction and polymer burnout process of injection moulded component using a new developed palm stearin binder system. The samples were prepared by injection moulding mixture of stainless steel with palm stearin and polyethylene. Debinding was carried out in two steps; first, the moulded parts were immersed in heptane at a temperature of 40° C, 60° C and 80° C to remove the palm stearin (solvent extraction process) then followed by thermal debinding to remove the insoluble binder of polyethylene. The results show that large pore were formed from the surface to the interior of the debound part during solvent extraction, allowed easy escape of pyrolysis gases during thermal debinding. The rate of extraction of palm stearin from the green body increased with increasing solvent extraction temperature.

  12. Microstructural evolution and trace element mobility in Witwatersrand pyrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Steven M.; Hough, Robert M.

    2013-11-01

    Microstructural analysis of pyrite from a single sample of Witwatersrand conglomerate indicates a complex deformation history involving components of both plastic and brittle deformation. Internal deformation associated with dislocation creep is heterogeneously developed within grains, shows no systematic relationship to bulk rock strain or the location of grain boundaries and is interpreted to represent an episode of pyrite deformation that predates the incorporation of detrital pyrite grains into the Central Rand conglomerates. In contrast, brittle deformation, manifest by grain fragmentation that transects dislocation-related microstructures, is spatially related to grain contacts and is interpreted to represent post-depositional deformation of the Central Rand conglomerates. Analysis of the low-angle boundaries associated with the early dislocation creep phase of deformation indicates the operation of <010>{100} slip systems. However, some orientation boundaries have geometrical characteristics that are not consistent with simple <010>{100} deformation. These boundaries may represent the combination of multiple slip systems or the operation of the previously unrecognized <001>{120} slip system. These boundaries are associated with order of magnitude enrichments in As, Ni and Co that indicate a deformation control on the remobilization of trace elements within pyrite and a potential slip system control on the effectiveness of fast-diffusion pathways. The results confirm the importance of grain-scale elemental remobilization within pyrite prior to their incorporation into the Witwatersrand gold-bearing conglomerates. Since the relationship between gold and pyrite is intimately related to the trace element geochemistry of pyrite, the results have implications for the application of minor element geochemistry to ore deposit formation, suggest a reason for heterogeneous conductivity and localized gold precipitation in natural pyrite and provide a framework for

  13. Microstructure evolution and mechanical behavior of a high strength dual-phase steel under monotonic loading

    SciTech Connect

    Nesterova, E.V.; Bouvier, S.; Bacroix, B.

    2015-02-15

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) microstructures of a high-strength dual-phase steel DP800 have been examined after moderate plastic deformations in simple shear and uniaxial tension. Special attention has been paid to the effect of the intergranular hard phase (martensite) on the microstructure evolution in the near-grain boundary regions. Quantitative parameters of dislocation patterning have been determined and compared with the similar characteristics of previously examined single-phase steels. The dislocation patterning in the interiors of the ferrite grains in DP800 steel is found to be similar to that already observed in the single-phase IF (Interstitial Free) steel whereas the martensite-affected zones present a delay in patterning and display very high gradients of continuous (gradual) disorientations associated with local internal stresses. The above stresses are shown to control the work-hardening of dual-phase materials at moderate strains for monotonic loading and are assumed to influence their microstructure evolution and mechanical behavior under strain-path changes. - Highlights: • The microstructure evolution has been studied by TEM in a DP800 steel. • It is influenced by both martensite and dislocations in the initial state. • The DP800 steel presents a high work-hardening rate due to internal stresses.

  14. Microstructure Evolution and Rheological Behavior of Cooling Slope Processed Al-Si-Cu-Fe Alloy Slurry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Prosenjit; Samanta, Sudip K.; Bera, Supriya; Dutta, Pradip

    2016-05-01

    In the present work, microstructure evolution during semi-solid slurry generation of Al-Si-Cu-Fe alloy, using a cooling slope, was studied and the effect of microstructural morphology of the slurry on its rheological behavior was investigated. Microstructure evolution during melt flow along the slope was studied by extracting samples from various locations of the slope and performing rapid oil quenching experiments. Quantitative investigation was performed to evaluate primary phase shape and size for different process conditions of the semi-solid slurry, and subsequently rheological investigations were performed to correlate slurry morphology with its flow behavior. Three different types of rheological experiments were performed: isothermal test, shear jump test, and shear time test, in order to investigate rheological behavior of the semi-solid slurry. In addition, effect of melt treatment, by adding modifier (0.1 wt pct of Al-10Sr) and grain refiner (0.15 wt pct of Al-5Ti-1B), on the microstructure evolution during slurry generation, flow behavior of the slurry, and intermetallics formation was studied.

  15. Understanding the Evolution of Microstructure: What is the Role of Molecular Dynamics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foiles, Stephen

    2013-03-01

    The microstructure of a material, as characterized for example by grain size, determines a wide range of materials properties such as strength, toughness, and corrosion resistance. Understanding how the microstructure influences properties and how to obtain a desired microstructure are some of the enduring central problems of materials science. This challenge is inherently multi-scale since the fundamental mechanisms by which microstructures change occur at the atomic scale while the network of interfaces is on a scale of microns and up. In this talk, the role of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in understanding the evolution of microstructure will be examined. The successes and outstanding challenges of using MD simulations to determine the properties of grain boundaries, in particular free energy and mobility, will be described. Further, microstructures with nanoscale grains evolve in times accessible to MD simulation. The insights into grain growth and deformation that can be obtained from such simulations will be described. Sandia National Laboratories isa multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Dept. of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  16. Microstructure-based modelling of multiphase materials and complex structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Ewald; Wesenjak, Robert; Fillafer, Alexander; Meier, Felix; Krempaszky, Christian

    2015-10-01

    Micromechanical approaches are frequently employed to monitor local and global field quantities and their evolution under varying mechanical and/or thermal loading scenarios. In this contribution, an overview on important methods is given that are currently used to gain insight into the deformational and failure behaviour of multiphase materials and complex structures. First, techniques to represent material microstructures are reviewed. It is common to either digitise images of real microstructures or generate virtual 2D or 3D microstructures using automated procedures (e.g. Voronoï tessellation) for grain generation and colouring algorithms for phase assignment. While the former method allows to capture exactly all features of the microstructure at hand with respect to its morphological and topological features, the latter method opens up the possibility for parametric studies with respect to the influence of individual microstructure features on the local and global stress and strain response. Several applications of these approaches are presented, comprising low and high strain behaviour of multiphase steels, failure and fracture behaviour of multiphase materials and the evolution of surface roughening of the aluminium top metallisation of semiconductor devices.

  17. Electron microscopy observations on the role of twinning in the evolution of microstructures.

    PubMed

    Dahmen, U; Hetherington, C J D; Radmilovic, V; Johnson, E; Xiao, S Q; Luo, C P

    2002-08-01

    Twinning plays an important role in phase transformations and can have significant effects on microstructural evolution. Different roles of twinning in the development of microstructures during precipitation and phase transformations are reviewed and illustrated with examples from investigations by high-resolution electron microscopy, including the effect of multiple twinning on the development of Ge precipitates in Al-Ge and Ag-Ge alloys, the twin dissociation of grain boundaries in Au, the formation of hexagonal Si at twin intersections and the effect of twin boundaries on the equilibrium shape of Pb inclusions in Al. PMID:12533222

  18. A hierarchical framework for the multiscale modeling of microstructure evolution in heterogeneous materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Luscher, Darby J.

    2010-04-01

    All materials are heterogeneous at various scales of observation. The influence of material heterogeneity on nonuniform response and microstructure evolution can have profound impact on continuum thermomechanical response at macroscopic “engineering” scales. In many cases, it is necessary to treat this behavior as a multiscale process thus integrating the physical understanding of material behavior at various physical (length and time) scales in order to more accurately predict the thermomechanical response of materials as their microstructure evolves. The intent of the dissertation is to provide a formal framework for multiscale hierarchical homogenization to be used in developing constitutive models.

  19. Microstructural evolution during strain localization in dolomite aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holyoke, Caleb W.; Kronenberg, Andreas K.; Newman, Julie

    2014-12-01

    Dolomite aggregates deformed by dislocation creep over a wide range of conditions (T = 700-1000 °C, effective pressure of 900 MPa, strain rates of 10-7 - 10-4/s) strain weaken by up to 75% of the peak differential stress. Microstructural study of samples shortened to different finite strains beyond the peak differential stress shows that strain becomes highly localized within shear zones by high-temperature creep processes, with no contribution of brittle cracking. At low strains (8%), dolomite deforms homogeneously by recrystallization-accommodated dislocation creep. At progressively higher sample strains, deformation is localized into narrow shear zones made up of very fine (˜3 μm) recrystallized grains and relict porphyroclasts (20-100 μm). Finely-recrystallized dolomite grains in the shear zones are largely dislocation free and localized shear is facilitated by diffusion creep. In contrast, original dolomite grains and porphyroclasts in shear zones have high dislocation densities and do not deform after shear zone formation. Calculated strain rates in the shear zones are two to three orders of magnitude faster than the imposed bulk strain rate of the samples and these strain rates are consistent with predictions of the diffusion creep flow law for fine-grained dolomite.

  20. Microstructural evolution of char under oxidation induced by uneven heating

    SciTech Connect

    Kantorovich, I.I.; Bar-Ziv, E. |

    1996-04-01

    Single spherical char particles were intentionally irradiated nonuniformly in an electrodynamic chamber, in the temperature range 600--1,000 K. The char particles were irradiated from one side (bottom) and consequently heated unevenly. Nonuniform shrinkage of an initially spherical char particle has been observed during oxidation. The features of nonuniform shrinkage are rather peculiar: (1) up to 40%--60% conversion, the particle shrank uniformly. Then spatial preferential consumption initiated, indicating the threshold nature of the phenomenon; (2) preferential consumption, in most experiments, was observed to start from the top of the particle; (3) above the threshold conversion, a disk structure became clear; (4) at very high conversion the particle became like a center-hole doughnut. A model was developed to explain these features by nonuniform transformation of the micropore structure due to oxidation of the unevenly heated particle. The threshold nature of the phenomenon was also explained in terms of the dynamic stability of a particle. The threshold of nonuniform shrinkage corresponds to the transition of the particle to a stable position. After initiation of nonuniform shrinkage, the macroporosity distribution inside the particle becomes nonuniform. Macroporosity was shown to increase near the particle`s center; this eventually creates a hole at high conversion. The good agreement of modeling results with experimental observation confirms the notion that nonuniform shrinkage in regime 1 (kinetically controlled) is an indication of the fundamental microstructural transformations in the course of oxidation.

  1. Microstructural evolution of 6063 aluminum during friction-stir welding

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Y.S.; Kokawa, Hiroyuki; Enomoto, Masatoshi; Jogan, Shigetoshi

    1999-09-01

    The microstructural distribution associated with a hardness profile in a friction-stir-welded, age-hardenable 6063 aluminum alloy has been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and orientation imaging microscopy (OIM). The friction-stir process produces a softened region in the 6063 Al weld. Frictional heating and plastic flow during friction-stir welding create fine recrystallized grains in the weld zone and recovered grains in the thermomechanically affected zone. The hardness profile depends greatly on the precipitate distribution and only slightly on the grain size. The softened region is characterized by dissolution and growth of the precipitates during the welding. Simulated weld thermal cycles with different peak temperatures have shown that the precipitates are dissolved at temperatures higher than 675 K and that the density of the strengthening precipitate was reduced by thermal cycles lower than 675 K. A comparison between the thermal cycles and isothermal aging has suggested precipitation sequences in the softened region during friction-stir welding.

  2. Microstructural evolution in nickel alloy C-276 after Ar-ion irradiation at elevated temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Shuoxue; He, Xinfu; Li, Tiecheng; Ma, Shuli; Tang, Rui; Guo, Liping

    2012-10-15

    In present work, the irradiation damage in nickel-base alloy C-276 irradiated with Ar-ions was studied. Specimens of C-276 alloy were subjected to an irradiation of Ar-ions (with 120 keV) to dose levels of 6 and 10 dpa at 300 and 550 Degree-Sign C, respectively. The size distributions and densities of dislocation loops caused by irradiation were investigated with transmission electron microscopy. Irradiation hardening due to the formation of the loops was calculated using the dispersed barrier-hardening model, showing that irradiation hardening was greatest at 300 Degree-Sign C/6 dpa. The microstructure evolution induced by Ar-ion irradiation (0-10 dpa) in nickel-base alloy C-276 has been studied using a multi-scale modeling code Radieff constructed based on rate theory, and the size of dislocation loops simulated by Radieff was in good agreement with the experiment. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High density of dislocation loops appeared after Ar ions irradiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Irradiation hardening due to the formation of loops was calculated by the DBH model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Size of loops simulated by Radieff was in good agreement with the experiment.

  3. Microstructural evolution of type 304 and 316 stainless steels under neutron irradiation at LWR relevant conditions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Tan, Lizhen; Stoller, Roger E.; Field, Kevin G.; Yang, Ying; Morgan, Dane; Wirth, Brian D.; Gussev, Maxim N.; Busby, Jeremy T.; Nam, H.

    2015-12-11

    Extension of light water reactors' useful life will expose austenitic internal core components to irradiation damage levels beyond 100 displacements per atom (dpa), which will lead to profound microstructural evolution and consequent degradation of macroscopic properties. Microstructural evolution, including Frank loops, cavities, precipitates, and segregation at boundaries and the resultant radiation hardening in type 304 and 316 stainless steel (SS) variants, were studied in this work via experimental characterization and multiple simulation methods. Experimental data for up to 40 heats of type 304SS and 316SS variants irradiated in different reactors to 0.6–120 dpa at 275–375°C were either generated from thismore » work or collected from literature reports. These experimental data were then combined with models of Frank loop and cavity evolution, computational thermodynamics and precipitation, and ab initio and rate theory integrated radiation-induced segregation models to provide insights into microstructural evolution and degradation at higher radiation doses.« less

  4. Microstructure evolution during annealing of TiAl/NiCoCrAl multilayer composite prepared by EB-PVD

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Rubing; Zhang, Deming; Chen, Guiqing; Wang, Yuesheng

    2014-07-01

    TiAl/NiCoCrAl laminate composite sheet with a thickness of 0.4–0.6 mm as well as a dimension of 150 mm × 100 mm was fabricated successfully by using electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) method. The annealing treatment was processed at 1123 and 1323 K for 3 h in a high vacuum atmosphere, respectively. The phase composition and microstructure of TiAl/NiCoCrAl microlaminated sheet have been analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Based on the sheet characterization and results of the microstructure evolution during annealing treatment process, the diffusion mechanism of interfacial reaction in TiAl/NiCoCrAl microlaminate was investigated and discussed.

  5. Microstructural evolution of nanocrystalline Fe–Zr alloys upon annealing treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, X.H.; Chen, Y.Z.; Ma, X.Y.; Wang, H.T.; Liu, F.

    2015-05-15

    Nanocrystalline Fe–Zr alloys exhibit an extraordinary thermal stability at elevated temperatures, which enables their potential applications in various fields. However, there remain concerns regarding the controlling stabilization mechanisms responsible for their thermal stability. In this work, two nanocrystalline Fe–Zr alloys containing 1 at.% Zr and 5 at.% Zr were annealed at various temperatures (T{sub ann}) up to 900 °C. Microstructural evolution of the alloys upon annealing was investigated by means of an X-ray diffractometer equipped with a 2-dimensional detector and transmission electron microscopy. Below 600 °C, microstructures of the two alloys consist of single nanocrystalline ferrite whose grain size is rather stable upon annealing treatments. Above 600 °C, accompanying the precipitation of Fe{sub 3}Zr phase, an apparent grain coarsening of ferrite is observed, whereas the thermal stability of the alloys is still considerably higher than that of nanocrystalline pure Fe. Based on the experimental results, it was claimed that stabilization of the nanocrystalline Fe–Zr alloys should not be totally ascribed to the thermodynamic stabilization mechanism due to the reduction in grain boundary energy as suggested in earlier investigations [K.A. Darling et al., Scr. Mater. 59 (2008) 530 and K.A. Darling et al., Mater. Sci. Eng. A527 (2010) 3572]; when T{sub ann} is higher than 600 °C, along with the precipitation of Fe{sub 3}Zr, the effect of thermodynamic stabilization is weakened, the kinetic effect arising from Zener pinning of Fe{sub 3}Zr precipitates turns to be an important mechanism contributing to the stabilization of the nanoscale grain size. - Highlights: • We show clear evidence of precipitation of Fe{sub 3}Zr phase above 600 °C. • Stabilization of nanostructure is not solely controlled by thermodynamic mechanism. • Above 600 °C, Zener pinning plays an important role in stabilizing nanostructure.

  6. Microstructure Evolution of Biphasic TiNi1+x Sn Thermoelectric Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Nisha; Douglas, Jason E.; Krämer, Stephan; Pollock, Tresa M.; Seshadri, Ram; Levi, Carlos G.

    2016-05-01

    The effects of thermal treatment on the microstructure of biphasic materials comprising half-Heusler (hH) and full-Heusler (fH) phases, as well as on their associated thermal conductivity, are discussed. The focus of this study was on a biphasic hH/fH alloy of nominal stoichiometry TiNi1.2Sn, synthesized by containerless (magnetic levitation) induction melting. The alloy samples were exposed to various heat treatments to generate microstructures containing second-phase precipitates ranging in size from ~10 nm to a few micrometers. The materials were characterized with regard to morphology, size, shape, and orientation relationship of the fH and hH phases, both of which were present as precipitates within larger regions of the counterpart phase. The solidification path of the alloy and its implications for the subsequent microstructure evolution during heat treatment were elucidated, and relationships with the ensuing thermal conductivity were characterized.

  7. Microstructure Evolution of Biphasic TiNi1+ x Sn Thermoelectric Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Nisha; Douglas, Jason E.; Krämer, Stephan; Pollock, Tresa M.; Seshadri, Ram; Levi, Carlos G.

    2016-08-01

    The effects of thermal treatment on the microstructure of biphasic materials comprising half-Heusler (hH) and full-Heusler (fH) phases, as well as on their associated thermal conductivity, are discussed. The focus of this study was on a biphasic hH/fH alloy of nominal stoichiometry TiNi1.2Sn, synthesized by containerless (magnetic levitation) induction melting. The alloy samples were exposed to various heat treatments to generate microstructures containing second-phase precipitates ranging in size from ~10 nm to a few micrometers. The materials were characterized with regard to morphology, size, shape, and orientation relationship of the fH and hH phases, both of which were present as precipitates within larger regions of the counterpart phase. The solidification path of the alloy and its implications for the subsequent microstructure evolution during heat treatment were elucidated, and relationships with the ensuing thermal conductivity were characterized.

  8. Evolution of microstructure, strain and physical properties in oxide nanocomposite films

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Aiping; Weigand, Marcus; Bi, Zhenxing; Zhang, Wenrui; Lü, Xuejie; Dowden, Paul; MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L.; Wang, Haiyan; Jia, Quanxi

    2014-01-01

    We, using LSMO:ZnO nanocomposite films as a model system, have studied the effect of film thickness on the physical properties of nanocomposites. It shows that strain, microstructure, as well as magnetoresistance strongly rely on film thickness. The magnetotransport properties have been fitted by a modified parallel connection channel model, which is in agreement with the microstructure evolution as a function of film thickness in nanocomposite films on sapphire substrates. The strain analysis indicates that the variation of physical properties in nanocomposite films on LAO is dominated by strain effect. These results confirm the critical role of film thickness on microstructures, strain states, and functionalities. It further shows that one can use film thickness as a key parameter to design nanocomposites with optimum functionalities. PMID:24958206

  9. Deformation behavior and microstructure evolution of wrought magnesium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shouren; Song, Linghui; Kang, Sukbong; Cho, Jaehyung; Wang, Yingzi

    2013-05-01

    There are many researches on the deformation behavior of wrought magnesium alloys, such as AZ31, AZ80, AZ91, and ZK60 magnesium alloys at different temperatures and strain rates, but few of them focuses on the deformation behavior of AZ41M and ZK60M alloys, especially under the twin-roll casting (TRC) state. Meanwhile, the existing researches only focus on the grain refinement law of the magnesium alloys under deformation conditions, the deformation mechanism has not been revealed yet. The hot compression behavior of AZ41M and ZK60M magnesium alloys under the temperature and strain rate ranges of 250-400 °C and 0.001-1 s-1 are studied by thermal simulation methods using Gleeble 1500 machine and virtual simulation using finite element analysis software. Simulation results show that sine hyperbolic law is the most suitable flow stress model for wider deformation conditions. The most reasonable selected deformation conditions of ZK60M alloy is 350 °C/0.1 s-1 for TRC and 350 °C/1 s-1 for conventional casting (CC), while AZ41M alloy is 300 °C/0.01 s-1 for TRC and 350 °C/0.1 s-1 for CC. Deformation behavior and dynamic recrystallization (DRX) mechanism of them are analyzed at the same deformation conditions. The microstructures of AZ41M and ZK60M alloys are observed at different deformed conditions by optical microscopy (OM) and electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD) and it reveals the flow behavior and deformation mechanism of them. Working harden and work soften contribute to the activation of basal, non-basal slip systems which promote DRX. The proposed research reveals the deformation behavior and mechanism of the AZ41M and ZK 60M magnesium alloys and concludes their optimized deformation parameters and processes and provides a theory basis for their manufacturing and application.

  10. Microstructure Modeling of a Ni-Fe-Based Superalloy During the Rotary Forging Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loyda, A.; Hernández-Muñoz, G. M.; Reyes, L. A.; Zambrano-Robledo, P.

    2016-06-01

    The microstructure evolution of Ni-Fe superalloys has a great influence on the mechanical behavior during service conditions. The rotary forging process offers an alternative to conventional bulk forming processes where the parts can be rotary forged with a fraction of the force commonly needed by conventional forging techniques. In this investigation, a numerical modeling of microstructure evolution for design and optimization of the hot forging operations has been used to manufacture a heat-resistant nickel-based superalloy. An Avrami model was implemented into finite element commercial platform DEFORM 3D to evaluate the average grain size and recrystallization during the rotary forging process. The simulations were carried out considering three initial temperatures, 980, 1000, and 1050 °C, to obtain the microstructure behavior after rotary forging. The final average grain size of one case was validated by comparing with results of previous experimental work of disk forging operation. This investigation was aimed to explore the influence of the rotary forging process on microstructure evolution in order to obtain a homogenous and refined grain size in the final component.

  11. Manupulation of microstructure, phase evolution and mechanical properties by devitrification of andesite for use as proppant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koseski, Ryan P.

    Small, roughly spherical ceramic particles, approximately 1mm in size are used for a number of applications including casting sands, catalysts, and cement fillers. The oil and natural gas industry utilizes such materials in tonnage quantities yearly as extraction aids. Particles intended for this application are referred to as proppants. Proppants are composed of materials that differ by density, strength and cost, and are selected on a site by site basis. Recently, competing usage and depletion of reserves of one of the most popular category of proppant materials, sintered aluminosilicates (e.g. kaolinite, bauxite) have driven the need for alternative raw materials for proppant manufacturing. Andesite, a by-product of mining operations in the south-west United States was identified as an abundant, readily available, and low cost alternative proppant material that can be fused and net-shaped into a glass which when crystallized results in microstructures which may offer substantial toughening and fracture characteristics which may serve to their advantage for use as proppants that do not decrease the permeability ("blind") the particle bed. This study addressed the devitrification behavior and its role on the mechanical properties of andesite-based glass-ceramic spheres for use as proppants. Timetemperature- transformation studies were performed to evaluate the devitrification behavior of andesite glass. Crystalline phase evolution and microstructural development were evaluated using quantitative x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, differential thermal analysis, and spectrophotometry. The andesite glass devitrification commenced with the precipitation of iron oxides (magnetite) which served as seeds for the epitaxial growth of dendritic pyroxenes. Mechanical properties, such as diametral compressive strength, fracture toughness, hardness, and fracture morphology were correlated with crystalline phase evolution. Selected heat treatments resulting in the

  12. Mechanical and Microstructural Evolution of Ductile Shear Zones: Implications for the Deep Structure of Lithospheric Faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platt, J. P.; Behr, W. M.

    2010-12-01

    We offer three new concepts that help place constraints on the mechanics and width of plate-boundary shear zones below the brittle-ductile transition. 1. Lithospheric shear zones operate at approximately constant stress at any given depth (temperature). This is because shear zones form by microstructural changes that cause weakening and hence strain localization. These changes occur when the ambient stress reaches the yield strength σy of intact rock. As a result, the cumulative width w of shear zones reaches a value such that they can accommodate plate motion at a flow stress equal to σy. 2. Exhuming shear zones preserve a record of the stress-temperature profile through the deforming crust. Increasing strain localization as the rocks cool, and quenching of the microstructure outside the narrowing shear zone, allow preservation of the microstructure and mineral chemistry at various stages in their evolution. If the flow stress in the shear zone at any depth is a measure of the yield strength of the surrounding rock, we can use this information to construct strength-depth profiles through the lithosphere. 3. Dislocation creep causes dynamic recrystallization and grainsize reduction. This may result in a switch to grainsize-sensitive creep, which is the main cause of weakening and strain localization in shear zones. At constant strain-rate, this results in a stress drop, which may be followed by grain growth, preventing a permanent switch in mechanism. If shear zones operate at constant stress, however, dislocation density in the deforming grains remains the same after the switch, so that dynamic recrystallization and grain-boundary migration driven by dislocation strain energy continue at the same rate as before. This inhibits grain growth driven by surface energy, so that the deformation mechanism switch is permanent. We calculate shear zone widths at depth in the lithosphere based on these concepts. We use a stress-temperature profile obtained from the Whipple

  13. Effect of heavy ion irradiation on microstructural evolution in CF8 cast austenitic stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei-Ying; Li, Meimei; Kirk, Marquis A.; Baldo, Peter M.; Lian, Tiangan

    2016-04-01

    The microstructural evolution in ferrite and austenitic in cast austenitic stainless steel (CASS) CF8, as received or thermally aged at 400 °C for 10,000 h, was followed under TEM with in situ irradiation of 1 MeV Kr ions at 300 and 350 °C to a fluence of 1.9 × 1015 ions/cm2 (∼3 dpa) at the IVEM-Tandem Facility. For the unaged CF8, the irradiation-induced dislocation loops appeared at a much lower dose in the austenite than in the ferrite. At the end dose, the austenite formed a well-developed dislocation network microstructure, while the ferrite exhibited an extended dislocation structure as line segments. Compared to the unaged CF8, the aged specimen appeared to have lower rate of damage accumulation. The rate of microstructural evolution under irradiation in the ferrite was significantly lower in the aged specimen than in the unaged. This difference is attributed to the different initial microstructures in the unaged and aged specimens, which implies that thermal aging and irradiation are not independent but interconnected damage processes.

  14. Microstructural evolution in bitaxial crack-seal veins: A phase-field study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ankit, Kumar; Urai, Janos L.; Nestler, Britta

    2015-05-01

    Bitaxial crack sealing by epitaxial crystal growth is the most common vein-forming process in Earth's crust, but the details of the microstructural processes in these are not well understood. Here we model the evolution of bitaxial crack-seal quartz veins in two and three dimensions, using the phase-field method. Our numerical simulations show the influence of different parameters, such as the obliquity of crack opening and crack location, grain size, and orientations on the evolving vein microstructure. We examine the underlying growth competition observed during epitaxial growth of quartz. Results show many similarities with natural microstructures such as stretched crystals and compare well with the previous numerical findings. As the ratio of crack aperture and matrix grain size for the present studies is chosen to be sufficiently large for growth competition to occur before complete sealing, it leads to the formation of crystal fragments along the crack-opening trajectory. We explain how such fragment trails act as potential indicators of the opening of crack-seal veins, if they are confirmed to be common in natural microstructures. Finally, we highlight the importance of accounting for the third dimension in the numerical simulations by analyzing the evolution of fluid connectivity in 2-D and 3-D during the sealing process.

  15. Phase-Field Simulation of Microstructure Evolution in Industrial A2214 Alloy During Solidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Ming; Tang, Ying; Zhang, Lijun; Sun, Weihua; Du, Yong

    2015-07-01

    By linking to the thermodynamic and atomic mobility databases in Al alloys well established in our research group, the microstructure evolution in industrial A2214 alloy (Al-4.5Cu-0.5Mg-1.0Si, in wt pct) during solidification process was studied by means of two-dimensional phase-field simulation via MICRostructure Evolution Simulation Software in the framework of the multi-phase-field formalism. The thermophysical parameters including interfacial energies and interfacial mobilities were carefully chosen for reproducing the experimental features. The solidification sequence due to the present phase-field simulation conforms to both equilibrium calculation and Scheil simulation. The predicted microstructure reproduces the experimental data very well. These facts indicate that a quantitative phase-field simulation was achieved in the present work. Moreover, the mechanisms of characteristic patterns and microstructure formation were revealed with the aid of the phase-field simulation. In addition, the effect of cooling rate on the secondary dendrite arm spacing and microsegregation was also investigated through comprehensive comparison with the experimental data.

  16. Microstructural Evolution and Mechanical Properties of Au-20wt.%Sn|Ni Interconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, H. Q.; Vuorinen, V.; Liu, X. W.; Laurila, T.; Li, J.; Paulasto-Kröckel, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the microstructural evolution and properties of Au-20wt.%Sn|Ni reaction couples were investigated from two perspectives: (1) by analyzing the microstructure of the as-soldered and aged samples, as well as (2) by measuring the mechanical properties of the intermetallic compounds formed within the reaction zone. The evolution of interfacial reaction products for both the as-soldered and aged interconnections was rationalized by using the experimental results in combination with assessed thermodynamic data from the Au-Ni-Sn system. Moreover, nanoindentation tests were implemented to measure the indentation modulus and hardness of the compounds formed at the interface. It was found that aging had a negligible influence on the elastic modulus and hardness of AuSn and Au5Sn, while the solubility of the third element significantly changed the indentation modulus and hardness of the intermetallic compounds.

  17. Mechanism behind the surface evolution and microstructure changes of laser fabricated nanostructured carbon composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foong, Y. M.; Koh, A. T. T.; Ng, H. Y.; Chua, D. H. C.

    2011-09-01

    Many studies have shown that amorphous carbon films with reduced internal stress, improved adhesion strength, and diversified material properties are obtainable through doping process, but the presence of dopants was reported to promote surface evolution and alter the microstructures of carbon matrix. By combining analyses from experimental results and theoretical estimations, this work examines the mechanism behind the surface evolution and microstructural changes in laser fabricated nanostructured copper-carbon composite. We showed that the presence of metal ions during laser deposition increased the heat dissipation on carbon matrix, which enhanced the formation of nanoislands but graphitized the carbon matrix. In addition, theoretical estimations and XPS hinted that the presence of energetic species may force the carbon ions to react with the substrate interface and form silicon carbide bonds, which contributed to the improved adhesion strength observed in copper doped carbon films, along with a reduction in internal stress owing to the presence of nanoclusters.

  18. Systematic Study of Microwave Absorption, Heating, and Microstructure Evolution of Porous Copper Powder Metal Compacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Darin; Diehl, John; Johnson, Earnie; Martin, Kelly; Miskovsky, Nicholas; Smith, Charles; Weisel, Gary; Weiss, Brock; Ma, Junkun

    2008-03-01

    We present a systematic study of the absorption, heating behavior, and microstructure evolution of porous copper powder metal powder compacts subjected to 2.45 GHz microwave radiation and explain our observations using known physical mechanisms. Using a single mode microwave system, we place the compacts in pure electric (E) or magnetic (H) fields and compare the heating trends. The observed trends in the E- and H-field heating reflect the dramatic changes in the conductivity, permittivity, and permeability of the samples caused by the microstructure evolution during heating in the two types of fields. The observed dependence of the initial microwave heating of the samples suggests that the microwave absorption in the sample is dominated by the properties of the individual metal particles composing the sample.

  19. Application of Phase-field Method in Predicting Gas Bubble Microstructure Evolution in Nuclear Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Shenyang Y.; Li, Yulan; Sun, Xin; Gao, Fei; Devanathan, Ramaswami; Henager, Charles H.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2010-04-30

    Fission product accumulation and gas bubble microstructure evolution in nuclear fuels strongly affect thermo-mechanical properties such as thermal conductivity, gas release, volumetric swelling and cracking, and hence the fuel performance. In this paper, a general phase-field model is developed to predict gas bubble formation and evolution. Important materials processes and thermodynamic properties including the generation of gas atoms and vacancies, sinks for vacancies and gas atoms, the elastic interaction among defects, gas re-solution, and inhomogeneity of elasticity and diffusivity are accounted for in the model. The simulations demonstrate the potential application of the phase-field method in investigating 1) heterogeneous nucleation of gas bubbles at defects; 2) effect of elastic interaction, inhomogeneity of material properties, and gas re-solution on gas bubble microstructures; and 3) effective properties from the output of phase-field simulations such as distribution of defects, gas bubbles, and stress fields.

  20. Evolution of microstructures in materials induced by electropulsing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W; Sui, M L; Zhou, Y Z; Li, D X

    2003-01-01

    Nanostructures were formed in several conventional materials under single electropulsing, that is nanophases of alpha-Cu(Zn) and beta'-(CuZn) in a cold-worked alpha-Cu(Zn) alloy, nanosized gamma-Fe in a low-carbon steel, nanosized alpha-Al in a superduralumin, and orientated nanosized TiC in a TiC/NiCr cermet. The mechanisms responsible for the above nanostructured transitions can be attributed to the competition of many factors induced by electropulsing, including high-rate heating, thermal stress, reduced thermodynamic energy barrier and high-rate electron impacting. Also, many low-energy dislocation configurations, twins and stacking faults were formed in the copper alloy and cermet under the electropulsing. Such evolution of defects was associated with the electrical, thermal and stress energies induced by the electropulsing. PMID:12895490

  1. Effect of deformation path on microstructure, microhardness and texture evolution of interstitial free steel fabricated by differential speed rolling

    SciTech Connect

    Hamad, Kotiba; Chung, Bong Kwon; Ko, Young Gun

    2014-08-15

    This paper reports the effect of the deformation path on the microstructure, microhardness, and texture evolution of interstitial free (IF) steel processed by differential speed rolling (DSR) method. For this purpose, total height reductions of 50% and 75% were imposed on the samples by a series of differential speed rolling operations with various height reductions per pass (deformation levels) ranging from 10 to 50% under a fixed roll speed ratio of 1:4 for the upper and lower rolls, respectively. Microstructural observations using transmission electron microscopy and electron backscattered diffraction measurements showed that the samples rolled at deformation level of 50% had the finest mean grain size (∼ 0.5 μm) compared to the other counterparts; also the samples rolled at deformation level of 50% showed a more uniform microstructure. Based on the microhardness measurements along the thickness direction of the deformed samples, gradual evolution of the microhardness value and its homogeneity was observed with the increase of the deformation level per pass. Texture analysis showed that, as the deformation level per pass increased, the fraction of alpha fiber and gamma fiber in the deformed samples increased. The textures obtained by the differential speed rolling process under the lubricated condition would be equivalent to those obtained by the conventional rolling. - Highlights: • Effect of DSR deformation path on microstructure of IF steel is significant. • IF steel rolled at deformation level of 50% has the ultrafine grains of ∼ 0.5 μm. • Rolling texture components are pronounced with increasing deformation level.

  2. Microstructure evolution in age-hardenable aluminium alloy during processing by hydrostatic extrusion.

    PubMed

    Lewandowska, M

    2006-10-01

    In the present work, scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used to investigate the microstructural evolution occurring during the hydrostatic extrusion of an age-hardenable aluminium alloy. It was shown that processing by hydrostatic extrusion leads to grain refinement to 95 nm in equivalent diameter. Hydrostatic extrusion also influences the geometrical parameters of two different types of particle: intermetallic inclusions and precipitates. The intermetallic inclusions slightly decrease in mean equivalent diameter, but their size remains at the micrometre level. The precipitates are fragmented to nanoscale spherical particles, and their evolution delays the process of grain refinement. PMID:17100901

  3. Theory and modeling of microstructural evolution in polycrystalline materials: Solute segregation, grain growth and phase transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ning

    2005-11-01

    To accurately predict microstructure evolution and, hence, to synthesis metal and ceramic alloys with desirable properties involves many fundamental as well as practical issues. In the present study, novel theoretical and phase field approaches have been developed to address some of these issues including solute drag and segregation transition at grain boundaries and dislocations, grain growth in systems of anisotropic boundary properties, and precipitate microstructure development in polycrystalline materials. The segregation model has allowed for the prediction of a first-order segregation transition, which could be related to the sharp transition of solute concentration of grain boundary as a function of temperature. The incorporating of interfacial energy and mobility as functions of misorientation and inclination in the phase field model has allowed for the study of concurrent grain growth and texture evolution. The simulation results were analyzed using the concept of local grain boundary energy density, which simplified significantly the development of governing equations for texture controlled grain growth in Ti-6Al-4V. Quantitative phase field modeling techniques have been developed by incorporating thermodynamic and diffusivity databases. The models have been validated against DICTRA simulations in simple 1D problems and applied to simulate realistic microstructural evolutions in Ti-6Al-4V, including grain boundary a and globular a growth and sideplate development under both isothermal aging and continuous cooling conditions. The simulation predictions agree well with experimental observations.

  4. A process model for the heat-affected zone microstructure evolution in duplex stainless steel weldments: Part I. the model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmer, H.; Grong, Ø.

    1999-11-01

    The present investigation is concerned with modeling of the microstructure evolution in duplex stainless steels under thermal conditions applicable to welding. The important reactions that have been modeled are the dissolution of austenite during heating, subsequent grain growth in the delta ferrite regime, and finally, the decomposition of the delta ferrite to austenite during cooling. As a starting point, a differential formulation of the underlying diffusion problem is presented, based on the internal-state variable approach. These solutions are later manipulated and expressed in terms of the Scheil integral in the cases where the evolution equation is separable or can be made separable by a simple change of variables. The models have then been applied to describe the heat-affected zone microstructure evolution during both thick-plate and thin-plate welding of three commercial duplex stainless steel grades: 2205, 2304, and 2507. The results may conveniently be presented in the form of novel process diagrams, which display contours of constant delta ferrite grain size along with information about dissolution and reprecipitation of austenite for different combinations of weld input energy and peak temperature. These diagrams are well suited for quantitative readings and illustrate, in a condensed manner, the competition between the different variables that lead to structural changes during welding of duplex stainless steels.

  5. A process model for the heat-affected zone microstructure evolution in duplex stainless steel weldments: Part I. The model

    SciTech Connect

    Hemmer, H.; Grong, O.

    1999-11-01

    The present investigation is concerned with modeling of the microstructure evolution in duplex stainless steels under thermal conditions applicable to welding. The important reactions that have been modeled are the dissolution of austenite during heating, subsequent grain growth in the delta ferrite regime, and finally, the decomposition of the delta ferrite to austenite during cooling. As a starting point, a differential formulation of the underlying diffusion problem is presented, based on the internal-state variable approach. These solutions are later manipulated and expressed in terms of the Scheil integral in the cases where the evolution equation is separable or can be made separable by a simple change of variables. The models have then been applied to describe the heat-affected zone microstructure evolution during both thick-plate and thin-plate welding of three commercial duplex stainless steel grades: 2205, 2304, and 2507. The results may conveniently be presented in the form of novel process diagrams, which display contours of constant delta ferrite grain size along with information about dissolution and reprecipitation of austenite for different combinations of weld input energy and peak temperature. These diagrams are well suited for quantitative readings and illustrate, in a condensed manner, the competition between the different variables that lead to structural changes during welding of duplex stainless steels.

  6. Microstructural evolution of garnet in a greenschist facies transpression zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massey, M. A.; Prior, D. J.; Moecher, D. P.

    2007-12-01

    Natural observations, laboratory experiments, and theoretical modeling support the interpretation of Grt plasticity in the lower crust and upper mantle; however, these processes are thought to be of little importance in shallow to middle crustal levels. Multiple textural varieties of Grt from the western boundary (Mt. Dumplin high strain zone) of an upper greenschist facies dextral transpression zone in southern New England, USA, display mesoscopic and microscopic evidence of syn-tectonic deformation and recrystallization. These microstructures were examined further by optical microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, orientation contrast imaging (OCI), and automated electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) in order to understand possible low-grade deformation mechanisms and their significance. The N-S-striking shear zone dips steeply W, the mylonitic foliation is defined by aligned Ms- Chl-Rt, layers of Qtz and fine-grained Grt; Qtz-Chl-Ms and fine-grained Grt aggregates define lineations that plunge moderately SW. S-C-C¡¦ fabrics, asymmetric folds and porphyroclasts (delta- and sigma-type) are well developed on foliation-normal/lineation-parallel planes, and display sinistral kinematics; surfaces normal to foliation and normal to lineation exhibit strong asymmetries that indicate normal motion. Pre-tectonic mineral parageneses consist of St pseudomorphed by Chl-Ms-Ctd, Als pseudomorphed by Ms, and coarse-grained Grt and Ab porphyroclasts with associated asymmetric tails. Grt is manifest as three types: 1) equant Grt porphyroclasts; 2) elongate Grt aggregates consisting of 50-100 Ým equant Grt porphyroblasts; 3) type 1-type 2 transitional Grt morphology. Elemental x-ray mapping of Ca and Mn reveals at least two periods of growth in Grt types 1 and 3, and one period of growth in type 2 that correlates with type 1 and 3 rims; Mg is completely homogenized. Detailed mapping of type 3 Grt cores reveals ¡¥fractured¡¦ Ca-enriched cores ¡¥healed¡¦ with Ca

  7. Effects of twin boundary mobility on domain microstructure evolution in magnetic shape memory alloys: Phase field simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Yongmei M.

    2009-02-09

    Effects of twin boundary mobility on domain microstructure evolution during magnetic field-induced deformation in magnetic shape memory alloys are studied by phase field micromagnetic microelastic modeling. The simulations show that different twin boundary mobilities lead to drastically different domain microstructures and evolution pathways, yielding very different magnetization and strain responses, even with opposite signs. The study also reveals complex domain phenomena in magnetic shape memory alloys.

  8. Microstructure and Property Evolution in Advanced Cladding and Duct Materials Under Long-Term and Elevated Temperature Irradiation: Modeling and Experimental Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Wirth, Brian; Morgan, Dane; Kaoumi, Djamel; Motta, Arthur

    2013-12-01

    irradiation. This project will focus on modeling microstructural and microchemical evolution of irradiated alloys by performing detailed modeling of such microstructure evolution processes coupled with well-designed in situ experiments that can provide validation and benchmarking to the computer codes. The broad scientific and technical objectives of this proposal are to evaluate the microstructure and microchemical evolution in advanced ferritic/martensitic and oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys for cladding and duct reactor materials under long-term and elevated temperature irradiation, leading to improved ability to model structural materials performance and lifetime. Specifically, we propose four research thrusts, namely Thrust 1: Identify the formation mechanism and evolution for dislocation loops with Burgers vector of a<100> and determine whether the defect microstructure (predominately dislocation loop/dislocation density) saturates at high dose. Thrust 2: Identify whether a threshold irradiation temperature or dose exists for the nucleation of growing voids that mark the beginning of irradiation-induced swelling, and begin to probe the limits of thermal stability of the tempered Martensitic structure under irradiation. Thrust 3: Evaluate the stability of nanometer sized Y- Ti-O based oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) particles at high fluence/temperature. Thrust 4: Evaluate the extent to which precipitates form and/or dissolve as a function of irradiation temperature and dose, and how these changes are driven by radiation induced segregation and microchemical evolutions and determined by the initial microstructure.

  9. Homogeneous nucleation and microstructure evolution in million-atom molecular dynamics simulation

    PubMed Central

    Shibuta, Yasushi; Oguchi, Kanae; Takaki, Tomohiro; Ohno, Munekazu

    2015-01-01

    Homogeneous nucleation from an undercooled iron melt is investigated by the statistical sampling of million-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations performed on a graphics processing unit (GPU). Fifty independent instances of isothermal MD calculations with one million atoms in a quasi-two-dimensional cell over a nanosecond reveal that the nucleation rate and the incubation time of nucleation as functions of temperature have characteristic shapes with a nose at the critical temperature. This indicates that thermally activated homogeneous nucleation occurs spontaneously in MD simulations without any inducing factor, whereas most previous studies have employed factors such as pressure, surface effect, and continuous cooling to induce nucleation. Moreover, further calculations over ten nanoseconds capture the microstructure evolution on the order of tens of nanometers from the atomistic viewpoint and the grain growth exponent is directly estimated. Our novel approach based on the concept of “melting pots in a supercomputer” is opening a new phase in computational metallurgy with the aid of rapid advances in computational environments. PMID:26311304

  10. Mechanical Properties and Microstructural Evolution of Simulated Heat-Affected Zones in Wrought Eglin Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leister, Brett M.; DuPont, John N.; Watanabe, Masashi; Abrahams, Rachel A.

    2015-12-01

    A comprehensive study was performed to correlate the mechanical properties and microstructural evolution in the heat-affected zone of Eglin steel. A Gleeble 3500 thermo-mechanical simulator was used to simulate weld thermal cycles with different peak temperatures at a heat input of 1500 J/mm. These samples underwent mechanical testing to determine strength and toughness in the as-welded and post-weld heat-treated conditions. The inter-critical heat-affected zone (HAZ) had the lowest strength following thermal simulation, while the fine-grain and coarse-grain heat-affected zone exhibited increased strength when compared to the inter-critical HAZ. The toughness of the heat-affected zone in the as-simulated condition is lower than that of the base metal in all regions of the HAZ. Post-weld heat treatments (PWHTs) increased the toughness of the HAZ, but at the expense of strength. In addition, certain combinations of PWHTs within specific HAZ regions exhibited low toughness caused by tempered martensite embrittlement or intergranular failure. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction data have shown that Eglin steel has retained austenite in the fine-grain HAZ in the as-simulated condition. In addition, alloy carbides (M23C6, M2C, M7C3) have been observed in the diffraction spectra for the fine-grain and coarse-grain HAZ following a PWHT of 973 K (700 °C)/4 hours.

  11. Microstructural analysis of faulting in quartzite, Assynt, NW Scotland: Implications for fault zone evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knipe, Robert J.; Lloyd, Geoffrey E.

    1994-03-01

    Macroscopic fracture arrays, microstructures and interpreted deformation mechanisms are used to assess the development of a minor reverse fault (backthrust) in quartzite from the Moine Thrust Zone, Assynt, NW Scotland. Fracturing dominates the faulting via the progression: intragranular extension microcracks; transgranular, cataclasite absent extension fractures; through-going, cataclasite filled shear microfaults, within which fracturing and particulate flow operate. However, both diffusive mass transfer (DMT) and intracrystalline plasticity (low temperature plasticity, LTP) processes also contribute to the fault zone deformation and lead to distinct associations of deformation mechanisms (e.g., DMT-fracture and LTP-fracture or low-temperature ductile fracture, LTDF). Over a large range of scales the fault zone consists of blocks of relatively intact rock separated by narrow zones of intense deformation where fracture processes dominate. The populations of fragments/blocks of different sizes in the fault zone have a power-law relationship which is related to the dimension of the fault zone. These observations are used to develop a general model for fault zone evolution based on the distribution of deformation features as a function of either time or space. A systematic variation in the deformation rate: time histories is recognised, associated with different positions within the fault zone. Thus, the fault zone preserves elements of the “birth, life and death” sequences associated with the displacement history and strain accommodation.

  12. Homogeneous nucleation and microstructure evolution in million-atom molecular dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibuta, Yasushi; Oguchi, Kanae; Takaki, Tomohiro; Ohno, Munekazu

    2015-08-01

    Homogeneous nucleation from an undercooled iron melt is investigated by the statistical sampling of million-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations performed on a graphics processing unit (GPU). Fifty independent instances of isothermal MD calculations with one million atoms in a quasi-two-dimensional cell over a nanosecond reveal that the nucleation rate and the incubation time of nucleation as functions of temperature have characteristic shapes with a nose at the critical temperature. This indicates that thermally activated homogeneous nucleation occurs spontaneously in MD simulations without any inducing factor, whereas most previous studies have employed factors such as pressure, surface effect, and continuous cooling to induce nucleation. Moreover, further calculations over ten nanoseconds capture the microstructure evolution on the order of tens of nanometers from the atomistic viewpoint and the grain growth exponent is directly estimated. Our novel approach based on the concept of “melting pots in a supercomputer” is opening a new phase in computational metallurgy with the aid of rapid advances in computational environments.

  13. Effect of Intercritical Annealing on Microstructural Evolution and Properties of Quenched & Partitioned (Q&P) Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Riming; Jin, Xuejun; Wang, Chenglin; Wang, Li

    2016-04-01

    Transformation of metastable austenite into martensite in novel quenched & partitioned (Q&P) steels improves sheet formability, allowing this class of high-strength steels to be used for automotive structural components. The current work studies the microstructural evolution by varying intercritical annealing time ( t a), as well as its influence on the martensite-austenite constituent and mechanical properties of Q&P steels. As the t a was prolonged, the morphology of retained austenite progressively transformed from block to a mixture of block and film, and finally changed to totally film. Based on electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD) measurements and uniaxial tensile response, the holding time of 600 s at 760 °C was determined to produce the best results in terms of highest volume fraction of retained austenite ( f γ = 15.8%) and largest strain (26.8%) at the ultimate tensile strength (892 MPa). This difference in work-hardening behavior corresponds directly to the transformation rate of retained austenite with different morphology. The slower rate of transformation of filmy austenite allowed for work hardening to persist at high strains where the transformation effect had already been exhausted in the blocky one. There is great potential for properties improvement through adjustment of metastability of retained austenite.

  14. A Multiscale Model Based On Intragranular Microstructure: Influence Of Grain-Scale Substructure On Macroscopic Behaviour Of An IF-Steel During Complex Load Paths

    SciTech Connect

    Franz, Gerald; Abed-Meraim, Farid; Berveiller, Marcel; Zineb, Tarak Ben; Lemoine, Xavier

    2007-05-17

    A microstructural model, based on Peeters' works, is implemented into a large strain self-consistent scheme, leading to the multiscale model which achieves, for each grain, the calculation of slip activity, with help of regularized formulation drawn from the visco-plasticity framework, and the dislocation microstructure evolution. This paper focuses on the relationship between macroscopic hardening/softening effects and induced microstructure during monotonic and two-stage strain paths.

  15. A Multiscale Model Based On Intragranular Microstructure: Influence Of Grain-Scale Substructure On Macroscopic Behaviour Of An IF-Steel During Complex Load Paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franz, Gérald; Abed-Meraim, Farid; Zineb, Tarak Ben; Lemoine, Xavier; Berveiller, Marcel

    2007-05-01

    A microstructural model, based on Peeters' works, is implemented into a large strain self-consistent scheme, leading to the multiscale model which achieves, for each grain, the calculation of slip activity, with help of regularized formulation drawn from the visco-plasticity framework, and the dislocation microstructure evolution. This paper focuses on the relationship between macroscopic hardening/softening effects and induced microstructure during monotonic and two-stage strain paths.

  16. Evolution of titanium arc weldment macro and microstructures -- Modeling and real time mapping of phases

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Z.; Elmer, J.W.; Wong, J.; Debroy, T.

    2000-04-01

    Macro and microstructural features in gas tungsten arc (GTA) welded titanium were modeled for the first time based on a combination of transport phenomena and phase transformation theory. A transient, three-dimensional, turbulent heat transfer and fluid flow model was developed to calculate the temperature and velocity fields, thermal cycles, and the shape and size of the fusion zone. The kinetics of the {alpha}{r_arrow}{beta} allotropic transformation during continuous heating and the corresponding ({alpha}+{beta})/{beta} phase boundary were calculated using a modified Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (JMA) equation and the calculated thermal cycles. The modeling results were compared with the real-time phase mapping data obtained using a unique spatially resolved X-ray diffraction technique with synchrotron radiation. The real-time evolution of grain structure within the entire weld heat-affected zone (HAZ) was modeled in three dimensions using a Monte Carlo technique. The following are the major findings. First, the rates of heat transfer and fluid flow in the titanium weld pool during gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) are significantly enhanced by turbulence, and previous calculations of laminar fluid flow and heat transfer in arc-melted pools need to be re-examined. The fusion zone geometry, and the {alpha}/({alpha}+{beta})/{beta} phase boundaries in the HAZ could be satisfactorily predicted. Second, comparison of real-time {alpha}{r_arrow}{beta} transformation kinetics with the rates computed assuming various alternative reaction mechanisms indicates the transition was most likely controlled by the transport of Ti atoms across the {alpha}/{beta} interface. Third, comparison of the experimental data with the simulated results indicates the real-time evolution of the grain structure around the weld pool could be simulated by the Monte Carlo technique. Finally, the insight developed in this research could not have been achieved without concomitant modeling and experiments.

  17. Incorporating physically-based microstructures in materials modeling: Bridging phase field and crystal plasticity frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Hojun; Abdeljawad, Fadi; Owen, Steven J.; Hanks, Byron W.; Foulk, James W.; Battaile, Corbett C.

    2016-05-01

    The mechanical properties of materials systems are highly influenced by various features at the microstructural level. The ability to capture these heterogeneities and incorporate them into continuum-scale frameworks of the deformation behavior is considered a key step in the development of complex non-local models of failure. In this study, we present a modeling framework that incorporates physically-based realizations of polycrystalline aggregates from a phase field (PF) model into a crystal plasticity finite element (CP-FE) framework. Simulated annealing via the PF model yields ensembles of materials microstructures with various grain sizes and shapes. With the aid of a novel FE meshing technique, FE discretizations of these microstructures are generated, where several key features, such as conformity to interfaces, and triple junction angles, are preserved. The discretizations are then used in the CP-FE framework to simulate the mechanical response of polycrystalline α-iron. It is shown that the conformal discretization across interfaces reduces artificial stress localization commonly observed in non-conformal FE discretizations. The work presented herein is a first step towards incorporating physically-based microstructures in lieu of the overly simplified representations that are commonly used. In broader terms, the proposed framework provides future avenues to explore bridging models of materials processes, e.g. additive manufacturing and microstructure evolution of multi-phase multi-component systems, into continuum-scale frameworks of the mechanical properties.

  18. Incorporating physically-based microstructures in materials modeling: Bridging phase field and crystal plasticity frameworks

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lim, Hojun; Abdeljawad, Fadi; Owen, Steven J.; Hanks, Byron W.; Foulk, James W.; Battaile, Corbett C.

    2016-04-25

    Here, the mechanical properties of materials systems are highly influenced by various features at the microstructural level. The ability to capture these heterogeneities and incorporate them into continuum-scale frameworks of the deformation behavior is considered a key step in the development of complex non-local models of failure. In this study, we present a modeling framework that incorporates physically-based realizations of polycrystalline aggregates from a phase field (PF) model into a crystal plasticity finite element (CP-FE) framework. Simulated annealing via the PF model yields ensembles of materials microstructures with various grain sizes and shapes. With the aid of a novel FEmore » meshing technique, FE discretizations of these microstructures are generated, where several key features, such as conformity to interfaces, and triple junction angles, are preserved. The discretizations are then used in the CP-FE framework to simulate the mechanical response of polycrystalline α-iron. It is shown that the conformal discretization across interfaces reduces artificial stress localization commonly observed in non-conformal FE discretizations. The work presented herein is a first step towards incorporating physically-based microstructures in lieu of the overly simplified representations that are commonly used. In broader terms, the proposed framework provides future avenues to explore bridging models of materials processes, e.g. additive manufacturing and microstructure evolution of multi-phase multi-component systems, into continuum-scale frameworks of the mechanical properties.« less

  19. Microstructural evolution of a uranium-10 wt.% molybdenum alloy for nuclear reactor fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, A. J.; Clarke, K. D.; McCabe, R. J.; Necker, C. T.; Papin, P. A.; Field, R. D.; Kelly, A. M.; Tucker, T. J.; Forsyth, R. T.; Dickerson, P. O.; Foley, J. C.; Swenson, H.; Aikin, R. M.; Dombrowski, D. E.

    2015-10-01

    Low-enriched uranium-10 wt.% molybdenum (LEU-10wt.%Mo) is of interest for the fabrication of monolithic fuels to replace highly-enriched uranium (HEU) dispersion fuels in high performance research and test reactors around the world. In this work, depleted uranium-10 wt.%Mo (DU-10wt.%Mo) is used to simulate the solidification and microstructural evolution of LEU-10wt.%Mo. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and complementary electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) reveal significant microsegregation present in the metastable γ-phase after solidification. Homogenization is performed at 800 and 1000 °C for times ranging from 1 to 32 h to explore the time-temperature combinations that will reduce the extent of microsegregation, as regions of higher and lower Mo content may influence local mechanical properties and provide preferred regions for γ-phase decomposition. We show for the first time that EBSD can be used to qualitatively assess microstructural evolution in DU-10wt.%Mo after homogenization treatments. Complementary EPMA is used to quantitatively confirm this finding. Homogenization at 1000 °C for 2-4 h may the regions that contain 8 wt.% Mo or lower, whereas homogenization at 1000 °C for longer than 8 h effectively saturates Mo chemical homogeneity, but results in substantial grain growth. The appropriate homogenization time will depend upon additional microstructural considerations, such as grain growth and intended subsequent processing. Higher carbon LEU-10wt.%Mo generally contains more inclusions within the grains and at grain boundaries after solidification. The effect of these inclusions on microstructural evolution (e.g. grain growth) during homogenization and as potential γ-phase decomposition nucleation sites is unclear, but likely requires additional study.

  20. Microstructural evolution of ferritic-martensitic steels under heavy ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topbasi, Cem

    Ferritic-martensitic steels are primary candidate materials for fuel cladding and internal applications in the Sodium Fast Reactor, as well as first-wall and blanket materials in future fusion concepts because of their favorable mechanical properties and resistance to radiation damage. Since microstructure evolution under irradiation is amongst the key issues for these materials in these applications, developing a fundamental understanding of the irradiation-induced microstructure in these alloys is crucial in modeling and designing new alloys with improved properties. The goal of this project was to investigate the evolution of microstructure of two commercial ferritic-martensitic steels, NF616 and HCM12A, under heavy ion irradiation at a broad temperature range. An in situ heavy ion irradiation technique was used to create irradiation damage in the alloy; while it was being examined in a transmission electron microscope. Electron-transparent samples of NF616 and HCM12A were irradiated in situ at the Intermediate Voltage Electron Microscope (IVEM) at Argonne National Laboratory with 1 MeV Kr ions to ˜10 dpa at temperatures ranging from 20 to 773 K. The microstructure evolution of NF616 and HCM12A was followed in situ by systematically recording micrographs and diffraction patterns as well as capturing videos during irradiation. In these irradiations, there was a period during which no changes are visible in the microstructure. After a threshold dose (˜0.1 dpa between 20 and 573 K, and ˜2.5 dpa at 673 K) black dots started to become visible under the ion beam. These black dots appeared suddenly (from one frame to the next) and are thought to be small defect clusters (2-5 nm in diameter), possibly small dislocation loops with Burgers vectors of either ½ or . The overall density of these defect clusters increased with dose and saturated around 6 dpa. At saturation, a steady-state is reached in which defects are eliminated and created at the same rates so that the

  1. Microstructural evolution of ferritic-martensitic steels under heavy ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topbasi, Cem

    Ferritic-martensitic steels are primary candidate materials for fuel cladding and internal applications in the Sodium Fast Reactor, as well as first-wall and blanket materials in future fusion concepts because of their favorable mechanical properties and resistance to radiation damage. Since microstructure evolution under irradiation is amongst the key issues for these materials in these applications, developing a fundamental understanding of the irradiation-induced microstructure in these alloys is crucial in modeling and designing new alloys with improved properties. The goal of this project was to investigate the evolution of microstructure of two commercial ferritic-martensitic steels, NF616 and HCM12A, under heavy ion irradiation at a broad temperature range. An in situ heavy ion irradiation technique was used to create irradiation damage in the alloy; while it was being examined in a transmission electron microscope. Electron-transparent samples of NF616 and HCM12A were irradiated in situ at the Intermediate Voltage Electron Microscope (IVEM) at Argonne National Laboratory with 1 MeV Kr ions to ˜10 dpa at temperatures ranging from 20 to 773 K. The microstructure evolution of NF616 and HCM12A was followed in situ by systematically recording micrographs and diffraction patterns as well as capturing videos during irradiation. In these irradiations, there was a period during which no changes are visible in the microstructure. After a threshold dose (˜0.1 dpa between 20 and 573 K, and ˜2.5 dpa at 673 K) black dots started to become visible under the ion beam. These black dots appeared suddenly (from one frame to the next) and are thought to be small defect clusters (2-5 nm in diameter), possibly small dislocation loops with Burgers vectors of either ½ or . The overall density of these defect clusters increased with dose and saturated around 6 dpa. At saturation, a steady-state is reached in which defects are eliminated and created at the same rates so that the

  2. Dielectric Characteristics of Microstructural Changes and Property Evolution in Engineered Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clifford, Jallisa Janet

    Heterogeneous materials are increasingly used in a wide range of applications such as aerospace, civil infrastructure, fuel cells and many others. The ability to take properties from two or more materials to create a material with properties engineered to needs is always very attractive. Hence heterogeneous materials are evolving into more complex formulations in multiple disciplines. Design of microstructure at multiple scales control the global functional properties of these materials and their structures. However, local microstructural changes do not directly cause a proportional change to the global properties (such as strength and stiffness). Instead, local changes follow an evolution process including significant interactions. Therefore, in order to understand property evolution of engineered materials, microstructural changes need to be effectively captured. Characterizing these changes and representing them by material variables will enable us to further improve our material level understanding. In this work, we will demonstrate how microstructural features of heterogeneous materials can be described quantitatively using broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BbDS). The frequency dependent dielectric properties can capture the change in material microstructure and represent these changes in terms of material variables, such as complex permittivity. These changes in terms of material properties can then be linked to a number of different conditions, such as increasing damage due to impact or fatigue. Two different broadband dielectric spectroscopy scanning modes are presented: bulk measurements and continuous scanning to measure dielectric property change as a function of position across the specimen. In this study, we will focus on ceramic materials and fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites as test bed material systems. In the first part of the thesis, we will present how different micro-structural design of porous ceramic materials can be captured

  3. Microstructure evolution of WC/steel composite by laser surface re-melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xianqing, You; Chengjun, Zhang; Xuefeng, Song; Manping, Huang; Jianguo, Ma

    2007-02-01

    WC/steel composites fabricated by electro-slag melting and casting were re-melted by transverse flow CO 2 laser. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy were used to analyze the microstructure evolution in laser melted layer. It was found that the laser-affected zone has three distinguished zones, the melted, transient and heat affected zone. The phases of the melted zone were composed of WC, Fe 3W 3C, (Cr,Fe) 7C 3, martensite and retained austenite. The microstructure evolution in the melted zone was represented by the transformation of three parts including the steel matrix, WC particles cluster and dispersed carbides. A significant reactant was herringbone eutectic carbide of Fe 3W 3C. The effect of laser scanning rate was mainly behaved in affecting the melt depth, microstructure of transient zone and dissolution of medium carbides. In comparison with the substrate, the melted zone has much higher microhardness.

  4. Recrystallization Process in Fe-Cr-Al Oxide Dispersion-Strengthened Alloy: Microstructural Evolution and Recrystallization Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimentel, G.; Chao, J.; Capdevila, C.

    2014-05-01

    Mechanically alloyed iron-base oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloys are the class of advanced materials for application in heat exchangers tubing in which creep and oxidation resistance are paramount. The yttria dispersion in such alloys improves the high-temperature creep and stress rupture life. The strength is further enhanced by the development of a coarse-grained microstructure during recrystallization. Factors controlling the evolution of this desirable microstructure are explored in this work, focusing specifically on PM 2000. The results presented in terms of orientation imaging, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy indicate that the recrystallization process consists of two different stages. Before the coarse grain takes place, the alloy undergoes an extended recovery process followed by abnormal grain growth. The initial microstructure consisted of subgrains (submicrometer sizes) with a strong <110>∥RD fiber texture ( α fiber), which are transformed into coarse grains (mm sizes) with orientations <112>∥RD. The aim of this study is to describe the mechanisms involved in the intermediate stages of recrystallization process from the submicrometer grain size to the abnormal grain size.

  5. Microstructural evolution during ultra-rapid annealing of severely deformed low-carbon steel: strain, temperature, and heating rate effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostafaei, M. A.; Kazeminezhad, M.

    2016-07-01

    An interaction between ferrite recrystallization and austenite transformation in low-carbon steel occurs when recrystallization is delayed until the intercritical temperature range by employing high heating rate. The kinetics of recrystallization and transformation is affected by high heating rate and such an interaction. In this study, different levels of strain are applied to low-carbon steel using a severe plastic deformation method. Then, ultra-rapid annealing is performed at different heating rates of 200-1100°C/s and peak temperatures of near critical temperature. Five regimes are proposed to investigate the effects of heating rate, strain, and temperature on the interaction between recrystallization and transformation. The microstructural evolution of severely deformed low-carbon steel after ultra-rapid annealing is investigated based on the proposed regimes. Regarding the intensity and start temperature of the interaction, different microstructures consisting of ferrite and pearlite/martensite are formed. It is found that when the interaction is strong, the microstructure is refined because of the high kinetics of transformation and recrystallization. Moreover, strain shifts an interaction zone to a relatively higher heating rate. Therefore, severely deformed steel should be heated at relatively higher heating rates for it to undergo a strong interaction.

  6. Linking stress-driven microstructural evolution in nanocrystalline aluminium with grain boundary doping of oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Mo-Rigen; Samudrala, Saritha K.; Kim, Gyuseok; Felfer, Peter J.; Breen, Andrew J.; Cairney, Julie M.; Gianola, Daniel S.

    2016-04-01

    The large fraction of material residing at grain boundaries in nanocrystalline metals and alloys is responsible for their ultrahigh strength, but also undesirable microstructural instability under thermal and mechanical loads. However, the underlying mechanism of stress-driven microstructural evolution is still poorly understood and precludes rational alloy design. Here we combine quantitative in situ electron microscopy with three-dimensional atom-probe tomography to directly link the mechanics and kinetics of grain boundary migration in nanocrystalline Al films with the excess of O atoms at the boundaries. Site-specific nanoindentation leads to grain growth that is retarded by impurities, and enables quantification of the critical stress for the onset of grain boundary migration. Our results show that a critical excess of impurities is required to stabilize interfaces in nanocrystalline materials against mechanical driving forces, providing new insights to guide control of deformation mechanisms and tailoring of mechanical properties apart from grain size alone.

  7. Linking stress-driven microstructural evolution in nanocrystalline aluminium with grain boundary doping of oxygen.

    PubMed

    He, Mo-Rigen; Samudrala, Saritha K; Kim, Gyuseok; Felfer, Peter J; Breen, Andrew J; Cairney, Julie M; Gianola, Daniel S

    2016-01-01

    The large fraction of material residing at grain boundaries in nanocrystalline metals and alloys is responsible for their ultrahigh strength, but also undesirable microstructural instability under thermal and mechanical loads. However, the underlying mechanism of stress-driven microstructural evolution is still poorly understood and precludes rational alloy design. Here we combine quantitative in situ electron microscopy with three-dimensional atom-probe tomography to directly link the mechanics and kinetics of grain boundary migration in nanocrystalline Al films with the excess of O atoms at the boundaries. Site-specific nanoindentation leads to grain growth that is retarded by impurities, and enables quantification of the critical stress for the onset of grain boundary migration. Our results show that a critical excess of impurities is required to stabilize interfaces in nanocrystalline materials against mechanical driving forces, providing new insights to guide control of deformation mechanisms and tailoring of mechanical properties apart from grain size alone. PMID:27071458

  8. TRXRD observations of microstructural evolution in self-shielded flux cored arc weld deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Babu, S S; Elmer, J W; David, S A; Quintana, M

    2000-06-28

    Inclusion formation and microstructure development in self-shielded flux cored arc welds has been investigated before [1,2]. Results showed that the liquid metal reactions could promote either Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} or AlN formation depending upon the aluminum concentration in the weld metal. The residual aluminum that remained in solution was found to modify the solidification behavior of liquid to {delta}-ferrite and subsequent transformation of {delta}-ferrite to austenite during weld cooling. In this work, the microstructure evolution in the heat-affected-zone (HAZ) of self-shielded flux cored arc weld (FCAW-S) overlays were investigated using in-situ Time-Resolved X-ray Diffraction (TRXRD) with a high flux Synchrotron radiation beam [3, 4].

  9. Microstructural evolution of Al-Cu thin-film conducting lines during post-pattern annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, S. H.; Morris, J. W., Jr.

    1997-07-01

    This work reports a statistical analysis of the evolution of polygranular segment lengths during high-temperature annealing of Al(Cu) thin-film interconnects with quasi-bamboo microstructures. To create samples of Al(Cu) lines that could be imaged by transmission electron microscopy without breaking or thinning, the lines were deposited on electron-transparent silicon nitride films (the "silicon nitride window" technique). The microstructures of the lines were studied as a function of annealing time and temperature. In particular, the distribution of polygranular segment lengths was measured. The results show that the longer polyglranular segments are preferentially eliminated during post-pattern annealing. As a consequence, the segment-length distribution narrows monotonically during annealing, and changes in shape. The preferential loss of the longest polygranular segments leads to a dramatic increase in resistance to electromigration failure.

  10. Linking stress-driven microstructural evolution in nanocrystalline aluminium with grain boundary doping of oxygen

    PubMed Central

    He, Mo-Rigen; Samudrala, Saritha K.; Kim, Gyuseok; Felfer, Peter J.; Breen, Andrew J.; Cairney, Julie M.; Gianola, Daniel S.

    2016-01-01

    The large fraction of material residing at grain boundaries in nanocrystalline metals and alloys is responsible for their ultrahigh strength, but also undesirable microstructural instability under thermal and mechanical loads. However, the underlying mechanism of stress-driven microstructural evolution is still poorly understood and precludes rational alloy design. Here we combine quantitative in situ electron microscopy with three-dimensional atom-probe tomography to directly link the mechanics and kinetics of grain boundary migration in nanocrystalline Al films with the excess of O atoms at the boundaries. Site-specific nanoindentation leads to grain growth that is retarded by impurities, and enables quantification of the critical stress for the onset of grain boundary migration. Our results show that a critical excess of impurities is required to stabilize interfaces in nanocrystalline materials against mechanical driving forces, providing new insights to guide control of deformation mechanisms and tailoring of mechanical properties apart from grain size alone. PMID:27071458

  11. Microstructure evolution in solution treated Ti15Mo alloy processed by high pressure torsion

    SciTech Connect

    Janeček, Miloš; Čížek, Jakub; Stráský, Josef; Václavová, Kristína; Hruška, Petr; Polyakova, Veronika; Gatina, Svetlana; Semenova, Irina

    2014-12-15

    Microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of ultra-fine grained Ti15Mo alloy processed by high pressure torsion were investigated. High pressure torsion straining resulted in strong grain refinement as-observed by transmission electron microscopy. Microhardness and light microscopy showed two distinct regions — (i) a central region with radial material flow and low microhardness (340 HV) and (ii) a peripheral region with rotational material flow and high microhardness (430 HV). Positron annihilation spectroscopy showed that the only detectable defects in the material are dislocations, whose density increases with the radial distance and the number of high pressure torsion revolutions. The local chemical environment around defects does not differ significantly from the average composition. - Highlights: • Beta-Ti alloy Ti15Mo was processed by high pressure torsion (HPT). • Lateral inhomogeneity of the microstructure and microhardness was found. • Dislocations are the only lattice defects detectable by positron annihilation. • Molybdenum is not preferentially segregated along dislocation cores.

  12. Microstructure evolution and grain refinement of Ti-6Al-4V alloy by laser shock processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, X. D.; Zhou, W. F.; Liu, F. F.; Ren, Y. P.; Yuan, S. Q.; Ren, N. F.; Xu, S. D.; Yang, T.

    2016-02-01

    Microstructure evolution and grain refinement of Ti-6Al-4V alloy after laser shock processing (LSP) are systematically investigated in this paper. Laser shock waves were induced by a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser system operated with a wave-length of 1064 nm and 10 ns pulse width. The microstructures of LSP samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Present results indicate that the surface hardness of samples subjected to LSP impacts has significantly improved. Multidirectional twin intersections and dislocation movements lead to grain subdivision in α phase with ultra-high plastic deformation. High-density dislocations are found in β phase. Multidirectional twin intersections and division of sub-grain boundaries play an important role in the grain refinement of Ti-6Al-4V alloy under LSP loading conditions.

  13. Effect of alloying on microstructure and precipitate evolution in ferritic weld metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Badri Kannan

    The effect of alloying on the microstructure of ferritic weld metal produced with an self-shielded flux cored arc welding process (FCAW-S) has been studied. The welding electrode has a flux core that is intentionally alloyed with strong deoxidizers and denitriding elements such as aluminum, titanium and zirconium in addition to austenite formers such as manganese and nickel. This results in formation of microstructure consisting of carbide free bainite, retained austenite and twinned martensite. The work focuses on characterization of the microstructures and the precipitates formed during solidification and the allotropic phase transformation of the weld metal. Aluminum, manganese and nickel have significant solubility in iron while aluminum, titanium and zirconium have very strong affinity for nitrogen and oxygen. The effect of these alloying elements on the phase transformation and precipitation of oxides and nitrides have been studied with various characterization techniques. In-situ X-ray synchrotron diffraction has been used to characterize the solidification path and the effect of heating and cooling rates on microstructure evolution. Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) in conjunction with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) was used to study the effect of micro-alloying additions on inclusion evolution. The formation of core-shell structure of oxide/nitride is identified as being key to improvement in toughness of the weld metal. Electron Back Scattered Diffraction (EBSD) in combination with Orientation Imaging Microscopy (OIM) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been employed to study the effect of alloying on austenite to ferrite transformation modes. The prevention of twinned martensite has been identified to be key to improving ductility for achieving high strength weld metal.

  14. The origin of GEMS in IDPs as deduced from microstructural evolution of amorphous silicates with annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davoisne, C.; Djouadi, Z.; Leroux, H.; D'Hendecourt, L.; Jones, A.; Deboffle, D.

    2006-03-01

    Aims.We present laboratory studies of the micro-structural evolution of an amorphous ferro-magnesian silicate, of olivine composition, following thermal annealing under vacuum.Methods.The amorphous silicate was prepared as a thin film on a diamond substrate. Annealing under vacuum was performed at temperatures ranging from 870 to 1020 K. After annealing the thin films were extracted from the substrate and analysed by transmission electron microscopy to infer their microstructural and compositional evolution.Results.Spheroidal metallic nano-particles (2-50 nm) are found within the silicate films, which are still amorphous after annealing at 870 K and partially crystallized into forsterite for annealing up to 1020 K. We interpret this microstructure in terms of a reduction of the initial amorphous silicate FeO component, because of the carbon-rich partial pressure in the furnace due to pumping mechanism. Annealing in a controlled oxygen-rich atmosphere confirms this interpretation. Conclusions.The observed microstructures closely resemble those of the GEMS (Glass with Embedded Metal and Sulphides) found in chondritic IDPs (Interplanetary Dust Particles). Since IDPs contain abundant carbonaceous matter, a solid-state reduction reaction may have occurred during heating in the hot inner regions of the proto-solar disc. Related to this, the presence of forsterite grains grown from the amorphous precursor material clearly demonstrates that condensation from gaseous species is not required to explain the occurrence of forsterite around young protostars and in comets. Forsterite grains in these environments can be formed directly in the solid phase by thermal annealing of amorphous ferro-magnesian silicates precursor under reducing conditions. Finally, locking iron as metallic particles within the silicates explains why astronomical silicates always appear observationally Mg-rich.

  15. Modeling the Microstructure Evolution During Additive Manufacturing of Ti6Al4V: A Comparison Between Electron Beam Melting and Selective Laser Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vastola, G.; Zhang, G.; Pei, Q. X.; Zhang, Y.-W.

    2016-05-01

    Beam-based additive manufacturing (AM) is an innovative technique in which parts are built layerwise, starting from the material in powder form. As a developing manufacturing technique, achievement of excellent mechanical properties in the final part is of paramount importance for the mainstream adoption of this technique in industrial manufacturing lines. At the same time, AM offers an unprecedented opportunity to precisely control the manufacturing conditions locally within the part during build, enabling local influence on the formation of the texture and microstructure. In order to achieve the control of microstructure by tailoring the AM machine parameters, a full understanding and modeling of the heat transfer and microstructure evolution processes is needed. Here, we show the implementation of the non-equilibrium equations for phase formation and dissolution in an AM modeling framework. The model is developed for the Ti6Al4V alloy and allows us to show microstructure evolution as given by the AM process. The developed capability is applied to the cases of electron beam melting and selective laser melting AM techniques to explain the significantly different microstructures observed in the two processes.

  16. Microstructural evolution from stable sliding to fast stick slip: insights from rock deformation experiments on quartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collettini, Cristiano; Scuderi, Marco M.; Viti, Cecilia; Marone, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Inferring microstructural evolution and associated fault slip behaviour along natural and/or experimental faults is a long-standing problem in fault mechanics. For example, does grain-size reduction and shear localization facilitate earthquake slip or vice versa? We have sheared granular layers of quartz gouge in a double direct shear configuration using a biaxial apparatus. We varied loading stiffness and applied normal stresses to produce a spectrum of slip modes from stable sliding at 10 μm/s, slow stick-slip (average slip velocity 100 μm/s) and fast stick slip (average slip velocity 4 mm/s). At the end of the experiments we collected the experimental fault rocks for microstructural investigations. Additional samples were collected from control experiments to investigate shear fabric development and microstructural features before the onset of stick-slip instabilities. We investigated the role of normal stress and stick-slip properties, including slip velocity, in determining fault zone microstructural features. Ranging from stable sliding to fast stick-slip we observe a progressive localization of deformation along fault parallel boundary shear planes. Only during fast stick-slip is the deformation localized along continuous, thin (1-2 microns wide), boundary parallel shear planes. The shear zones are composed of nanograins dispersed within a patchy matrix. We conducted TEM analyses to characterize these materials. In experiments at the same normal stress, fast stick-slip results in localized shear zones and fabric with nanograins whereas for stable sliding the microstructure does not show a significant grain size reduction and localization. Our results indicate that the fault rheological properties and fault slip behaviour, ranging from stable to unstable slip, plays a significant role in shear localization and fault zone fabric development.

  17. Deformation behavior and microstructural evolution of nanocrystalline aluminum alloys and composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Byungmin

    Nanocrystalline or ultrafine-grained Al alloys are often produced by severe plastic deformation methods and exhibit remarkably enhanced strength and hardness compared to conventional coarse-grained materials, resulting in great potential for structural applications. To achieve nanocrystalline structure, grains were refined by cryomilling (mechanical milling at cryogenic temperature) pre-alloyed powders. Cryomilling provides capability for rapid grain refinement and synthesis of commercial quantities (30-40 kg). The cryomilled powder was primarily consolidated by hot or cold isostatic pressing in general. Secondary consolidation was achieved by extrusion or forging. Alternatively, quasi-isostatic forging was applied either as an initial consolidation or as a further deformation step. To improve insufficient ductility and toughness of nanocrystalline materials, an intelligent design with microstructural modification was introduced by generation of multiple size scales. A bimodal grain structure consisting of nanocrystalline grains and inclusions of coarse-grained material was produced by consolidation of blended powders. The resulting materials exhibited enhanced ductility compared to 100% nanocrystalline materials, with only moderate decreases in strength. A similar process was used to produce hybrid trimodal microstructures comprised of regions of nanocrystalline and coarse grains, as well as hard ceramic particles, providing super-high compressive strength. For cryomilled nanocrystalline Al alloys, effects of degassing temperature were investigated in terms of microstructural evolution. Higher degassing temperatures resulted in higher density and lower hydrogen content, which can reduce loss of toughness in consolidated materials. Different consolidation methods were compared with regard to the relation between the microstructures and mechanical properties. Quasi-isostatic forging led to greater and more isotropic fracture toughness, compared with other processing

  18. Phase field modeling of microstructure evolution of electrocatalyst-infiltrated solid oxide fuel cell cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Linyun; Li, Qun; Hu, Jiamian; Lee, Shiwoo; Gerdes, Kirk; Chen, Long-Qing

    2015-02-01

    A phase field model is developed to examine microstructural evolution of an infiltrated solid oxide fuel cell cathode. It is employed to generate the three-phase backbone microstructures and morphology of infiltrate nano-particles [La1-xSrxMnO3 (LSM)]. Two-phase Y2O3 + ZrO2 and LSM backbones composed of 0.5-1 μm particles are first generated and then seeded with infiltrate, and evolution is compared for starting infiltrate particle diameters of 5 nm and 10 nm. The computed lifetime triple phase boundary (3PB) density of the infiltrated cathode is then compared to the cathode backbone. Results indicate that initial coarsening of infiltrate nano-particles is the primary evolution process, and infiltrate coarsening is the majority contributor to 3PB reduction. However, at all times, the infiltrated cathode possesses significantly greater 3PB length than even the uncoarsened backbone. Infiltrate particle size effects indicate that the smaller particle size produces greater 3PB length for the same infiltration amount, consistent with intuition. A maximum 3PB enhancement is reached when increasing infiltrate particle loading, and the maximum enhancement depends on infiltrate particle size. It is found that architectural degradation modes will insignificantly affect the lifetime performance of infiltrated cathodes. This work suggests that lifetime optimized particle size/loading combinations are identifiable, and can be precise if additional fundamental data become available.

  19. First direct 3D visualisation of microstructural evolutions during sintering through X-ray computed microtomography

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, Dominique . E-mail: bernard@icmcb.u-bordeaux.fr; Gendron, Damien; Heintz, Jean-Marc; Bordere, Sylvie; Etourneau, Jean

    2005-01-03

    X-ray computed microtomography (XCMT) has been applied to ceramic samples of different materials to visualise, for the first time at this scale, real 3D microstructural evolutions during sintering. Using this technique, it has been possible to follow the whole sintering process of the same grains set. Two materials have been studied; a glass powder heat treated at 700 deg. C and a crystallised lithium borate (Li{sub 6}Gd(BO{sub 3}){sub 3}) powder heat treated at 720 deg. C. XCMT measurements have been done after different sintering times. For each material, a sub-volume was individualised and localised on the successive recordings and its 3D images numerically reconstructed. Description of the three-dimensional microstructures evolution is proposed. From the 3D experimental data, quantitative evolutions of parameters such as porosity and neck size are presented for the glass sample. Possibilities offered by this technique to study complex sintering processes, as for lithium borate, are illustrated.

  20. Microstructural Evolution in 2101 Lean Duplex Stainless Steel During Low- and Intermediate-Temperature Aging.

    PubMed

    Maetz, Jean-Yves; Cazottes, Sophie; Verdu, Catherine; Danoix, Frédéric; Kléber, Xavier

    2016-04-01

    The microstructural evolution of a 2101 lean duplex stainless steel (DSS) during isothermal aging from room temperature to 470 °C was investigated using thermoelectric power (TEP) measurements to follow the kinetics, atom probe tomography, and transmission electron microscopy. Despite the low Ni, Cr, and Mo contents, the lean DSS was sensitive to α-α' phase separation and Ni-Mn-Si-Al-Cu clustering at intermediate temperatures. The time-temperature pairs characteristic of the early stages of ferrite decomposition were determined from the TEP kinetics. Considering their composition and locations, the clusters are most likely G phase precursors. PMID:26940550

  1. Microstructure evolution of hot-deformed Nd-Fe-B anisotropic magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J. Hono, K.; Sepehri-Amin, H.; Ohkubo, T.; Hioki, K.; Hattori, A.

    2014-05-07

    The microstructural evolution of hot-deformed Nd-Fe-B magnets in each stage of hot-deformation process was studied using transmission electron microscopy and three dimensional atom probe (3DAP). The anisotropic growth of initially isotropic grains in rapidly solidified alloy occurs by annealing without pressing. 3DAP analyses showed a higher concentration of rare-earth elements in the intergranular phase parallel to the flat surface of platelet shaped Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grains compared to that in the intergranular phase at the side of platelets.

  2. The Effect of Cool Deformation on the Microstructural Evolution and Flow Strength of Microalloyed Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousavi Anijdan, Seyyed Hashem

    Cool deformation is a process in which a small amount of plastic deformation is applied at temperatures well below the end of the austenite transformation temperature. In this thesis, a systematic study was conducted to evaluate the microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of microalloyed steels processed by thermomechanical schedules incorporating cool deformation. Thermodynamic analysis was conducted to predict equilibrium phases formed by the presence of microalloying elements such as Ti, Nb, Mo and their appearance were then elaborated by means of TEM microscopy. As well, continuous cooling torsion (CCT) was employed to study the transformation behavior of steels for austenite conditioned and unconditioned. Cool deformation was incorporated into a full scale simulation of hotrolling, and the effect of prior austenite conditioning on the cool deformability of microalloyed steels was investigated. Out of these studies, a new definition of no-recystallization temperature (Tnr) was proposed based on dynamic precipitation, which was then recognized in the Nb bearing steels by using TEM analysis as well as flow curves analysis. Results show that cool deformation greatly improves the strength of microalloyed steels. Of the several mechanisms identified, such as work hardening, precipitation, grain refinement, and strain induced transformation (SIT) of retained austenite, SIT was proposed, for the first time in microalloyed steels, to be the significant mechanism of strengthening due to the deformation in ferrite. Results also show that the effect of ferrite precipitation is greatly overshadowed by SIT at room temperature. Finally, considering the interplay of SIT and precipitation for the Nb bearing steels, a rolling schedule was designed incorporating austenite conditioning, cooling rate and cool deformation that maximized the strength.

  3. Microstructural evolution of CANDU spacer material Inconel X-750 under in situ ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, He Ken; Yao, Zhongwen; Judge, Colin; Griffiths, Malcolm

    2013-11-01

    Work on Inconel®Inconel® is a registered trademark of Special Metals Corporation that refers to a family of austenitic nickel-chromium-based superalloys.1 X-750 spacers removed from CANDU®CANDU® is a registered trademark of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited standing for ''CANada Deuterium Uranium''.2 reactors has shown that they become embrittled and there is development of many small cavities within the metal matrix and along grain boundaries. In order to emulate the neutron irradiation induced microstructural changes, heavy ion irradiations (1 MeV Kr2+ ions) were performed while observing the damage evolution using an intermediate voltage electron microscope (IVEM) operating at 200 kV. The irradiations were carried out at various temperatures 60-400 °C. The principal strengthening phase, γ‧, was disordered at low doses (˜0.06 dpa) during the irradiation. M23C6 carbides were found to be stable up to 5.4 dpa. Lattice defects consisted mostly of stacking fault tetrahedras (SFTs), 1/2<1 1 0> perfect loops and small 1/3<1 1 1> faulted Frank loops. The ratio of SFT number density to loop number density for each irradiation condition was found to be neither temperature nor dose dependent. Under the operation of the ion beam the SFT production was very rapid, with no evidence for further growth once formed, indicating that they probably formed as a result of cascade collapse in a single cascade. The number density of the defects was found to saturate at low dose (˜0.68 dpa). No cavities were observed regardless of the irradiation temperature between 60 °C and 400 °C for doses up to 5.4 dpa. In contrast, cavities have been observed after neutron irradiation in the same material at similar doses and temperatures indicating that helium, produce during neutron irradiation, may be essential for the nucleation and growth of cavities.

  4. Effects of initial microstructure and texture on microstructure, texture evolution and magnetic properties of non-oriented electrical steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hai-Tao; Li, Hua-Long; Wang, Hui; Liu, Yi; Gao, Fei; An, Ling-Zi; Zhao, Shi-Qi; Liu, Zhen-Yu; Wang, Guo-Dong

    2016-05-01

    An equiaxed grained as-cast strip and a columnar grained as-cast strip was produced by using twin-roll strip casting, respectively. Both as-cast strips mainly containing 0.71 wt%Si and 0.44 wt%Al were cold rolled and annealed with or without the hot rolling prior to cold rolling. Microstructure, texture evolution along the whole processing routes and the magnetic properties were investigated in detail. It was found that the equiaxed grained strip was characterized by almost random texture while the columnar grained strip was dominated by strong λ-fiber (<001>‖ND) texture. After cold rolling and annealing, all the final sheets of both the as-cast strips showed extremely weak γ-fiber (<111>‖ND) recrystallization texture. In addition, the finally annealed sheets of the equiaxed grained strip were dominated by relatively weak λ-fiber and strong Goss ({110}<001>) recrystallization texture while those of the columnar grained strip were dominated by much stronger λ-fiber and much weaker Goss recrystallization texture regardless of whether the hot rolling was adopted before cold rolling, thus the former showed much lower magnetic induction than the latter. On the other hand, even though the finally annealed sheets of the equiaxed grained strip showed a little more homogeneous recrystallization microstructure with a little bigger grain size than those of the columnar grained strip in the case of no hot rolling, a much higher iron loss was displayed. By contrast, in the case of hot rolling, the former exhibited a little lower iron loss than the latter as a result of the more significant increase in grain size and λ-fiber recrystallization texture. The introduction of the hot rolling could increase the grain size, strengthen λ-fiber texture and weaken Goss texture of the finally annealed sheets of both the as-cast strips, leading to a much improvement in both the magnetic induction and iron loss.

  5. Microstructural evolution and rheology of quartz in a mid-crustal shear zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahl, Jeffrey M.; Skemer, Philip

    2016-06-01

    We present microstructural and crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) data on quartz deformed in the middle crust to explore the interaction and feedback between dynamic recrystallization, deformation processes, and CPO evolution. The sample investigated here is a moderately deformed quartz-rich mylonite from the Blue Ridge in Virginia. We have created high-resolution crystallographic orientation maps using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) of 51 isolated quartz porphyroclasts with recrystallized grain fractions ranging from 10 to 100%. Recrystallized grains are internally undeformed and display crystallographic orientations dispersed around the orientation of the associated parent porphyroclast. We document a systematic decrease in fabric intensity with recrystallization, suggesting that progressive deformation of the recrystallized domains involves processes that can weaken a pre-existing CPO. Relationships between recrystallization fraction and shear strain suggest that complete microstructural re-equilibration requires strains in excess of γ = 5. Variation in the degree of recrystallization implies that strain was accumulated heterogeneously, and that a steady-state microstructure and rheology were not achieved.

  6. Microstructural Evolution and Phase Stability in Shock-Loaded Tantalum Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jikou; Saw, Cheng; Chau, Ricky; Hsiung, Luke

    2007-06-01

    Deformation of tantalum and tantalum alloys has been studied repeatedly in order to understand their constitutive behavior and microstructural stability under dynamic pressure conditions. Shock-induced microstructures including dislocation patterning, deformation twinning, and phase change have been reported in shock-deformed poly-crystalline tantalum, and the strain hardening of post-shocked polycrystalline tantalum was mainly attributed to deformation twinning. However, the underlying mechanisms for shock-induced deformation twinning remain unclear. In this presentation, we report the results of a systematic study, which investigate the microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of shocked tantalum single crystals. Shock impact experiments were carried out in a two-stage gas gun under three different pressures: 25 GPa, 50 GPa and 70 GPa. The effects of crystal orientation and pressure on deformation substructures and mechanical properties are investigated by analyzing shock-recovered samples using x-ray diffraction, nanoindentation, and transmission electron microscopy techniques. This work was performed under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  7. Synthesis and Microstructural Evolution of Amorphous/Nanocrystalline Steel Coatings by Different Thermal-Spray Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadaraajan, V.; Guduru, Ramesh K.; Mohanty, P. S.

    2013-04-01

    Amorphous/nanocrystalline coatings are useful in high strength and wear-resistant applications. In the present study, the microstructural evolution of a nanocrystalline high performance steel coatings developed by different spray processes along with a novel "hybrid thermal spray" technique was studied. The hybrid-spray process combines arc and high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) techniques, in which the molten metal at the arcing tip is atomized and rapidly propelled toward the substrate by HVOF jet. This so-called hybrid concept offers the benefits of productivity of electric arc spray combined with improved coating densities of HVOF. The microstructural characterization of the hybrid-spray coatings was performed by x-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry, and then compared with coatings of the similar material developed by plasma-, HVOF-, and arc-spray processes individually. The HVOF- and plasma-spray coatings showed amorphous structures with very fine nanocrystals embedded, whereas hybrid- and arc-spray techniques yielded completely crystalline coatings with grain size in the range of several nanometers. The final microstructures in different spray processes could be attributed to the precursor materials employed, process temperatures, and cooling rates during the deposition process.

  8. Microstructural evolution of PET under stretching and during stretch blow moulding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picard, Martine; Billon, Noëlle

    2007-04-01

    Strain induced crystallisation of PET designed for stretch blow molding is studied combining well-controlled tensile tests and free blowing on a stretch blow prototype. Microstructure evolution is followed by WAXS and SAXS. Observations on blown parts clearly show that the microstructure can differ along the bottle and from processing conditions to another. Difference can be observed on crystalline orientation, periodic arrangement at the level of lamellae and long period. Range of long period, 8.5 to 13 nm is in agreement with literature. In certain case lamellar organisation disappears. Despite of high level of strain and evidence for strain hardening to occur during blowing no perfect crystalline pattern is observed, except in very thick zones. Interrupted tensile tests followed by quenching demonstrates that strain hardening is not correlated to prefect crystallisation. Microstructure clearly depends on the three parameters: temperature, strain rate and strain. It is concluded that strain hardening is mainly controlled by first stages of crystallisation and that actual crystallisation occurs during a following relaxation step. This later is then highly dependent upon cooling step.

  9. Microstructural evolution in ultra-fine grained copper processed by severe plastic deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Anuj

    Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) is a severe plastic deformation technique that was used to produce ultra-fine grained copper. The microstructure was optimized using different deformation sequences. A steady state grain size of 200--500 nm was routinely obtained after eight passes (with an effective strain of ˜1 per pass). This resulted in a random texture evidenced by EBSD results. The mechanical response was obtained under quasi-static and dynamic conditions. The evolution of microstructure upon repeated ECAP passes was characterized by TEM and EBSD techniques. The features of grain refinement process were captured using analytical models. The minimum grain size obtained, 200--500 nm, was quantitatively explained by means of grain boundary rotation and grain boundary mobility calculations at the temperature reached in deformation process (˜360 K). The ultra-fine grained structure produced in Cu by ECAP was found to be thermally unstable. The microstructure recrystallized upon being dynamically deformed due to the adiabatic temperature rise imparted by plastic deformation. This was observed in three modes of high-strain rate plastic deformation experiments: cylindrical and hat-shaped specimens in Hopkinson bar experiments and cylindrical specimens in reverse Taylor impact experiments.

  10. Nonequilibrium synthesis of NbAl3 and Nb-Al-V alloys by laser cladding. I - Microstructure evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sircar, S.; Chattopadhyay, K.; Mazumder, J.

    1992-01-01

    The evolution of the microstructure in NbAl3 synthesized by a laser cladding technique (a rapid solidification process, with cooling rates up to 10 exp 6 C/sec) is investigated, and the phases are identified using convergent beam electron diffraction. Two new metastable phases were identified and characterized in detail. The effect of adding V on the final microstructure was also investigated, and the various phase chemistries and the partitioning of different elements into different phases were studied.

  11. Alloying effect of Ni and Cr on irradiated microstructural evolution of type 304 stainless steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, L.; Busby, J. T.

    2013-11-01

    Life extension of the existing nuclear power plants imposes significant challenges to core structural materials that suffer increased fluences. This paper presents the microstructural evolution of a type 304 stainless steel and its variants alloyed with extra Ni and Cr under neutron irradiation at ˜320 °C for up to 10.2 dpa. Similar to the reported data of type 304 variants, a large amount of Frank loops, ultrafine G-phase/M23C6 particles, and limited amount of cavities were observed in the irradiated samples. The irradiation promoted the growth of pre-existing M23C6 at grain boundaries and resulted in some phase transformation to CrC in the alloy with both extra Ni and Cr. A new type of ultrafine precipitates, possibly (Ti,Cr)N, was observed in all the samples, and its amount was increased by the irradiation. Additionally, α-ferrite was observed in the type 304 steel but not in the Ni or Ni + Cr alloyed variants. The effect of Ni and Cr alloying on the microstructural evolution is discussed.

  12. Microstructural Evolution of Cu/Solder/Cu Pillar-Type Structures with Different Diffusion Barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hsi-Kuei; Lin, Yu-Jie; Chen, Chih-Ming; Liu, Kuo-Chio; Wang, Ying-Lang; Liu, Tzeng-Feng

    2016-08-01

    Microstructural evolution of the Cu/solder/Cu pillar-type bonding structures with a reduced solder volume subjected to thermal aging at 423 K to 473 K(150 °C to 200 °C) was investigated. In a bonding structure employing a Ni single layer as the diffusion barrier, solder was consumed with formation of the Ni3Sn4 phase at the bonding interfaces due to an usual Sn/Ni interfacial reaction. However, an unusual Sn/Cu reaction occurred with formation of the Cu6Sn5 (and Cu3Sn) phase on the periphery of the Cu pillar due to out-diffusion of Sn toward the pillar periphery. Consumption of solder was accelerated by the above two reactions which led to the formation of a continuous gap in the bonding structure. Employment of a thicker Ni layer plus a Cu cap layer as the diffusion barrier in the bonding structure effectively blocked out-diffusion of Sn toward the periphery of the Cu pillar and therefore retarded the gap formation. The retardation effect was attributed to an increment of diffusion distance on the pillar periphery due to an effective diffusion barrier composed by Ni and thicker Cu-Sn (Cu6Sn5 + Cu3Sn) phase layers. Detailed phase identification and microstructural evolution in the bonding structures were also investigated using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy.

  13. Microstructural impact of anodic coatings on the electrochemical chlorine evolution reaction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ruiyong; Trieu, Vinh; Zeradjanin, Aleksandar R; Natter, Harald; Teschner, Detre; Kintrup, Jürgen; Bulan, Andreas; Schuhmann, Wolfgang; Hempelmann, Rolf

    2012-05-28

    Sol-gel Ru(0.3)Sn(0.7)O(2) electrode coatings with crack-free and mud-crack surface morphology deposited onto a Ti-substrate are prepared for a comparative investigation of the microstructural effect on the electrochemical activity for Cl(2) production and the Cl(2) bubble evolution behaviour. For comparison, a state-of-the-art mud-crack commercial Ru(0.3)Ti(0.7)O(2) coating is used. The compact coating is potentially durable over a long term compared to the mud-crack coating due to the reduced penetration of the electrolyte. Ti L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy confirms that a TiO(x) interlayer is formed between the mud-crack Ru(0.3)Sn(0.7)O(2) coating and the underlying Ti-substrate due to the attack of the electrolyte. Meanwhile, the compact coating shows enhanced activity in comparison to the commercial coating, benefiting from the nanoparticle-nanoporosity architecture. The dependence of the overall electrode polarization behaviour on the local activity and the bubble evolution behaviour for the Ru(0.3)Sn(0.7)O(2) coatings with different surface microstructure are evaluated by means of scanning electrochemical microscopy and microscopic bubble imaging. PMID:22531826

  14. A process model for the microstructure evolution in ductile cast iron. Part 1: The model

    SciTech Connect

    Onsoeien, M.I.; Gundersen, O.; Grong, O.; Skaland, T.

    1999-04-01

    In the present investigation, the multiple phase changes occurring during solidification and subsequent cooling of near-eutectic ductile cast iron have been modeled using the internal state variable approach. According to this formalism, the microstructure evolution is captured mathematically in terms of differential variation of the primary state variables with time for each of the relevant mechanisms. Separate response equations have then been developed to convert the current values of the state variables into equivalent volume fractions of constituent phases utilizing the constraints provided by the phase diagram. The results may conveniently be represented in the form of C curves and process diagrams to illuminate how changes in alloy composition, graphite nucleation potential, and thermal program affect the microstructure evolution at various stages of the process. The model can readily be implemented in a dedicated numerical code for the thermal field in real castings and used as a guiding tool in design of new treatment alloys for ductile cast irons. An illustration of this is given in an accompanying article (Part 2).

  15. The role of bedding in the evolution of meso- and microstructural fabrics in fault zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Eiichi

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the role of bedding in the evolution of meso- and microstructural fabrics in fault zones, detailed microscopic, mineralogical, and geochemical analyses were conducted on bedding-oblique and bedding-parallel faults that cut a folded Neogene siliceous mudstone that contains opal-CT, smectite, and illite. An analysis of asymmetric structures in the fault gouges indicates that the secondary fractures associated with each fault exhibit contrasting characteristics: those of the bedding-oblique fault are R1 shears, whereas those of the bedding-parallel fault are reactivated S foliation. The bedding-oblique fault shows the pervasive development of S foliation, lacks opal-CT, and has low SiO2/TiO2 ratios only in gouge, whereas the bedding-parallel fault exhibits these characteristics in both gouge and wall rocks. The development of S foliation and the lack of silica can result from local ductile deformation involving the sliding of phyllosilicates, coupled with pressure solution of opal-CT. Although such deformation can occur in gouge, the above results indicate that it may occur preferentially along bedding planes, preceding the formation of a gouge/slip surface. Thus, in sedimentary rocks that contain phyllosilicates and soluble minerals, bedding can influence the rheological evolution of meso- and microstructural fabrics in fault zones.

  16. Microstructural Evolution of Cu/Solder/Cu Pillar-Type Structures with Different Diffusion Barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hsi-Kuei; Lin, Yu-Jie; Chen, Chih-Ming; Liu, Kuo-Chio; Wang, Ying-Lang; Liu, Tzeng-Feng

    2016-06-01

    Microstructural evolution of the Cu/solder/Cu pillar-type bonding structures with a reduced solder volume subjected to thermal aging at 423 K to 473 K(150 °C to 200 °C) was investigated. In a bonding structure employing a Ni single layer as the diffusion barrier, solder was consumed with formation of the Ni3Sn4 phase at the bonding interfaces due to an usual Sn/Ni interfacial reaction. However, an unusual Sn/Cu reaction occurred with formation of the Cu6Sn5 (and Cu3Sn) phase on the periphery of the Cu pillar due to out-diffusion of Sn toward the pillar periphery. Consumption of solder was accelerated by the above two reactions which led to the formation of a continuous gap in the bonding structure. Employment of a thicker Ni layer plus a Cu cap layer as the diffusion barrier in the bonding structure effectively blocked out-diffusion of Sn toward the periphery of the Cu pillar and therefore retarded the gap formation. The retardation effect was attributed to an increment of diffusion distance on the pillar periphery due to an effective diffusion barrier composed by Ni and thicker Cu-Sn (Cu6Sn5 + Cu3Sn) phase layers. Detailed phase identification and microstructural evolution in the bonding structures were also investigated using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy.

  17. Microstructural modeling during multi-pass rolling of a nickel-base superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, Kannan

    2009-08-01

    Microstructure present at the end of rolling and cooling operations controls the product properties. Therefore, control of grain size is an important characteristic in any hot-working. The narrow temperature range for hot working of Alloy 718 makes the grain size control more difficult. In the current work, a systematic numerical approach to predict the microstructure of Alloy 718 during multi-pass rolling is developed. This approach takes into account the severe deformation that takes place during each pass and also the possible reheating between passes. In order to predict the grain size at the end of rolling process, microstructural processes such as dynamic recrystallization (DRX), metadynamic recrystallization (MDRX), and static grain growth need to be captured at every deformation step for superalloys. Empirical relationships between the average grain size from various microstructural processes and the macroscopic variables such as temperature (T), effective strain 3¯ and strain rate 3¯˙ form the basis for the current work. The empirical relationships considered in this work are based on Avrami equations and utilize data taken from various forging analyses. The macroscopic variables are calculated using the Finite Element Method (FEM) by modeling the rolling process as a creeping flow problem. FEM incorporates a mesh re-zoning algorithm that enables the analysis to continue for several passes. A two-dimensional transient thermal analysis is carried out between passes that can capture the MDRX and/or static grain growth during the microstructural evolution. The microstructure prediction algorithm continuously updates two families of grains, namely, the recrystallized family and strained family at the start of deformation in any given pass. In addition, the algorithm calculates various subgroups within these two families at every deformation step within a pass. As the material undergoes deformation between the rolls, recrystallization equations are invoked

  18. Mechanics, microstructure and AMS evolution of a synthetic porphyritic calcite aggregate deformed in torsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, F. O.; Machek, M.; Roxerová, Z.; Burg, J.-P.; Almqvist, B. S. G.

    2015-08-01

    In order to investigate the mechanical, microstructural and AMS evolution of porphyritic mylonites, we made a synthetic aggregate composed of 70% fine calcite (< 50 μm) and 30% coarse calcite (200-700 μm), and deformed cylindrical specimens in torsion at 300 MPa, 727 °C, a constant strain rate of 3.0E- 4 s- 1, to shear strains γ ≈ 1 and 5. After peak stress, dynamic recrystallization of porphyroclasts resulted in grain size reduction and weakening till a mechanical steady state was reached. Microstructural, AMS and EBSD analyses show the consistent evolution of pre-torsion (cold-pressed) planar fabric from perpendicular to sample cylinder axis at γ ≈ 0, to oblique at γ ≈ 1, and finally to low angle to the shear plane at γ ≈ 5, as expected for approximate simple shear. At γ ≈ 1, stretched calcite grains > 3 mm in length defined a conspicuous foliation, and showed aligned twins. At γ ≈ 5, calcite porphyroclasts were highly stretched (aspect ratio around 20), and had rotated towards the shear plane. Between γ = 1 and 5, a composite fabric formed, one at low and the other at high angle to the shear plane, from which shear sense can be deduced. The AMS patterns were sensitive to increasing shearing, and tracked strain reasonably well, despite the reduced size and low susceptibility of specimens. From the CPO and the microstructure, we infer that a balance compatible with an optimal dissipation of the applied stress was achieved between grain growth and grain reduction processes.

  19. Quantification of the microstructural evolution of polycrystalline fabrics using FAME: Application to in situ deformation of ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peternell, Mark; Dierckx, Marie; Wilson, Christopher J. L.; Piazolo, Sandra

    2014-04-01

    In geology, glaciology and material science new technological advances result in an ever increasing amount of data and datasets, in particular when in situ experiments are conducted. Rapid, rigorous and reliable statistical treatment is needed to allow researchers to access these large datasets for further analysis. Here, we present FAME (Fabric Analyser based Microstructure Evaluation), a suite of Matlab® scripts that utilize the Matlab® open-source toolboxes MTEX and PolyLX (optional) for rapid quantification of thin section data. The data has been collected using an automated Fabric Analyser at a spatial resolution of 5 μm/pixel. From the dataset, grain maps are reconstructed and, grain and grain boundary statistics are determined. The same scripts calculate orientation density distribution diagrams and eigenvalues of the orientation tensor. In the case of 2D in situ plane-strain deformation experiments on polycrystalline heavy water (D2O), a Matlab® script-based batch analysis for each deformation step was performed. FAME offers the possibility to generate movie files that combine optical data with c-axes orientation data and grain statistics. Application of the presented scripts, to analyse in situ deformation experiments of polycrystalline ice, shows the value of rigorous quantification of the microstructural evolution data for process oriented research.

  20. Atomic scale modeling of defect production and microstructure evolution in irradiated metals

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz de la Rubia, T.; Soneda, N.; Shimomura, Y.

    1997-04-01

    Irradiation effects in materials depend in a complex way on the form of the as-produced primary damage state and its spatial and temporal evolution. Thus, while collision cascades produce defects on a time scale of tens of picosecond, diffusion occurs over much longer time scales, of the order of seconds, and microstructure evolution over even longer time scales. In this report the authors present work aimed at describing damage production and evolution in metals across all the relevant time and length scales. They discuss results of molecular dynamics simulations of displacement cascades in Fe and V. They show that interstitial clusters are produced in cascades above 5 keV, but not vacancy clusters. Next, they discuss the development of a kinetic Monte Carlo model that enables calculations of damage evolution over much longer time scales (1000`s of s) than the picosecond lifetime of the cascade. They demonstrate the applicability of the method by presenting predictions on the fraction of freely migrating defects in {alpha}Fe during irradiation at 600 K.

  1. Micro-structural Evolution in Metals Subjected to Simple Shear by a Particular Severe Plastic Deformation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jinghui; Li, Fuguo; Li, Pan; Ma, Zhanchao; Wang, Chengpeng; Wang, Lei

    2015-08-01

    Simple shear (SS) has been considered an optimal deformation method of severe plastic deformation (SPD). To achieve SS, a particular SPD method known as mutative channel torsion extrusion (MCTE) was designed based on the geometric equivalence of SS, and the cavity parameters of a die were calculated according to strain equivalence. To investigate the characteristics of micro-structural evolution subjected to MCTE, simulated and experimental investigations were conducted. The simulated results indicate that equivalent strain distribution on the cross section is relatively uniform, and the metallographic observations confirm the simulated phenomenon. Transmission electron microscopy investigations show that the process of grain refinement undergoes the formation of shear bands, dislocation cells, dislocation forests, large-angle grain boundaries, and recrystallization nuclei. Two types of mechanisms are proposed in view of the different effects of SS on grain refinement. Eventually, MCTE is ensured as an effective method for grain refinement.

  2. Effect of micro-gravity on the microstructural evolution during liquid phase sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tewari, Asim

    The effect of gravity on the evolution of microstructure during liquid phase sintering was studied using Ni-Fe tungsten heavy alloy, for varying sintering times, compositions, and gravity conditions (microgravity and normal gravity). A serial sectioning of the samples was carried out and the three dimensional microstructure was reconstructed. The microstructure was quantified using volume-probe techniques developed in the course of this research. Computer codes were written to extract descriptors of spatial arrangement of grains from the image data. It was seen that the microstructure in gravity evolves as just a scale factor change with sintering time whereas it is not so in microgravity. The scale factor change in gravity was seen in the evolution of grain size distribution function, radial distribution function and 1st, 2nd and 3rd nearest neighbor distribution functions. In specimens processed in both gravity and microgravity environment there are practically no isolated grains suspended in the matrix. This was expected in gravity where the grains have to contact each other to provide normal force to balance gravity, but it was surprising to see this in microgravity. At a given sintering time, the coordination number in microgravity was significantly lower than that in gravity. In microgravity, the coordination number remains constant whereas in gravity, it increases with time. This increase is attributed to grain shape accommodation. A strong correlation was found between the coordination number and the mean surface area of grains forming that coordination which was expressed by a linear equation. Inspite of significant differences between the volume fractions of gravity and microgravity samples, the 1st and 2nd 3D nearest neighbor distances are only a scale change, with the scale factor being the mean grain size. In the initial stages of sintering, the kinetics of grain growth is slower in microgravity than in gravity environment resulting in a significant

  3. Microstructure and Property Evolution in Advanced Cladding and Duct Materials Under Long-Term Irradiation at Elevated Temperature: Critical Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Was, Gary; Jiao, Zhijie; Allen, Todd; Yang, Yong

    2013-12-20

    The in-service degradation of reactor core materials is related to underlying changes in the irradiated microstructure. During reactor operation, structural components and cladding experience displacement of atoms by collisions with neutrons at temperatures at which the radiation-induced defects are mobile, leading to microstructure evolution under irradiation that can degrade material properties. At the doses and temperatures relevant to fast reactor operation, the microstructure evolves by microchemistry changes due to radiation-induced segregation, dislocation loop formation and growth, radiation induced precipitation, destabilization of the existing precipitate structure, as well as the possibility for void formation and growth. These processes do not occur independently; rather, their evolution is highly interlinked. Radiation-induced segregation of Cr and existing chromium carbide coverage in irradiated alloy T91 track each other closely. The radiation-induced precipitation of Ni-Si precipitates and RIS of Ni and Si in alloys T91 and HCM12A are likely related. Neither the evolution of these processes nor their coupling is understood under the conditions required for materials performance in fast reactors (temperature range 300-600°C and doses to 200 dpa and beyond). Further, predictive modeling is not yet possible, as models for microstructure evolution must be developed along with experiments to characterize these key processes and provide tools for extrapolation. To extend the range of operation of nuclear fuel cladding and structural materials in advanced nuclear energy and transmutation systems to that required for the fast reactor, the irradiation-induced evolution of the microstructure, microchemistry, and the associated mechanical properties at relevant temperatures and doses must be understood. This project builds upon joint work at the proposing institutions, under a NERI-C program that is scheduled to end in September, to understand the effects of

  4. Microstructural Evolution and Creep-Rupture Behavior of Fusion Welds Involving Alloys for Advanced Ultrasupercritical Power Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechetti, Daniel H., Jr.

    Projections for large increases in the global demand for electric power produced by the burning of fossil fuels, in combination with growing environmental concerns surrounding these fuel sources, have sparked initiatives in the United States, Europe, and Asia aimed at developing a new generation of coal fired power plant, termed Advanced Ultrasupercritical (A-USC). These plants are slated to operate at higher steam temperatures and pressures than current generation plants, and in so doing will offer increased process cycle efficiency and reduced greenhouse gas emissions. Several gamma' precipitation strengthened Ni-based superalloys have been identified as candidates for the hottest sections of these plants, but the microstructural instability and poor creep behavior (compared to wrought products) of fusion welds involving these alloys present significant hurdles to their implementation and a gap in knowledge that must be addressed. In this work, creep testing and in-depth microstructural characterization have been used to provide insight into the long-term performance of these alloys. First, an investigation of the weld metal microstructural evolution as it relates to creep strength reductions in A-USC alloys INCONELRTM 740, NIMONICRTM 263 (INCONEL and NIMONIC are registered trademarks of Special Metals Corporation), and HaynesRTM 282RTM (Haynes and 282 are registered trademarks of Haynes International) was performed. gamma'-precipitate free zones were identified in two of these three alloys, and their development was linked to the evolution of phases that precipitate at the expense of gamma'. Alloy 282 was shown to avoid precipitate free zone formation because the precipitates that form during long term aging in this alloy are poor in the gamma'-forming elements. Next, the microstructural evolution of INCONELRTM 740H (a compositional variant of alloy 740) during creep was investigated. Gleeble-based interrupted creep and creep-rupture testing was used to

  5. Evolution of phase, texture, microstructure and magnetic properties of Fe-Cr-Co-Mo-Ti permanent magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Zubair; ul Haq, A.; Yan, Mi; Iqbal, Zafar

    2012-08-01

    Magnetic phase evolution, crystallographic texture, microstructure and magnetic properties of Fe-28Cr-15Co-3.5Mo-1.8Ti alloy have been investigated by X-ray diffractometry, scanning transmission electron microscopy and magnetometry techniques as a function of processing conditions. Heat treatment conditions for obtaining optimum textural, microstructural and magnetic properties have been established by the experimentations. The Goss {110}<001> and cube type {001}<010> textures have been developed in an optimal treated Fe-28Cr-15Co-3.5Mo-1.8Ti magnets. The coercive force in Fe-28Cr-15Co-3.5Mo-1.8Ti magnets depends critically on the shape anisotropy of rod-like Fe Co Ti-rich α1 particles and remanence on the alignment and elongation of α1 particles parallel to applied magnetic field <100> directions. The optimum magnetic properties obtained in Fe-28Cr-15Co-3.5Mo-1.8Ti alloy are intrinsic coercive force, iHc, of 78.8 kA/m (990 Oe), remanence, Br of 1.12 T (11.2 kG) and energy product, (BH)max of 52.5 kJ/m3 (6.5 MGOe). The development of Fe-28Cr-15Co-3.5Mo-1.8Ti magnets as well as characterization of texture, microstructural and magnetic properties in the current study would be helpful in designing the new Fe-Cr-Co-Mo based magnets suitable for scientific and technological applications.

  6. Evolution of microstructure during formation of Nb3Sn superconducting phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, A. K.; Kumar, Shivendra; Pasi, Satya Prakash; Laik, A.; Hussain, M. M.; Abdulla, K. K.; Dey, G. K.

    2013-02-01

    Nb3Sn based multi-filamentary superconducting wires with critical temperature (Tc) of 17.5 K was indigenously developed. A critical temperature (Tc) of 17.5 K was obtained. Characterization of the microstructure of the wires revealed almost complete conversion of the Nb filaments to Nb3Sn phase. The phase formed was nano-crystalline in nature and was slight hypo-stoichiometric with respect to Sn.

  7. Thermal and temporal evolution of microstructure in polycrystalline ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondal, Neha; Tiwari, Sanjiv Kumar

    2016-05-01

    Tug between electronics and spintronics has opened up new area of research named as dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS), ZnO is one of the most reliable candidates for spintronic devices and DMS. Since, pure and transition metal doped polycrystalline ZnO shows room temperature ferromagnetism, therefore it is very important to gain insight into its microstructure (MS) evolution. We report thermal evolution of MS of pure ZnO on sintering it at 200 °C, 400 °C, 600 °C, and 800 °C in ambient atmosphere for two hours. Temporal evolution at fixed temperature was analyzed using mean field model of internal energy and entropy. Grain size of ZnO MS were analyzed using integral breadth method of X-ray diffraction (XRD) lines using Voigt profile fit,. XRD line corresponding to [101] plane shifts from 36.17° to 36.28° whereas grain size increases from 67.5 nm to 93.7 nm with increase of temperature from 23°C to 800°C respectively. Grain growth with increase of temperature show Arrhenius type behavior with activation energy of 30.77 kJ-mol-1 and temporal growth shows diffusive behavior with exponent 0.5.

  8. FEM Analysis of Defects and Microstructure Evolution during Hot Working of Specialty Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Mendoza, Victor

    2010-06-15

    The main goals of process simulation in manufacturing are to reduce manufacturing/part development time and cost as well as increasing quality and productivity. In this study, porosity evolution is modeled by introducing a porosity evolution parameter, which is function of strain rate and stress triaxiality factor. Applicability is shown by simulating the first two stages of an ingot conversion process; variables are die geometry and bite size. Moreover, application is extended to hot shape rolling, where the geometry of the oval passes is the variable. Validation is carried out through evaluation of samples from final products. Also, surface defects in hot shape rolling are tracked by studying the instability during the rolling of the material. Plastic work approach was used to judge the occurrence of instability during the process. The effect of number of passes and roll gap was examined to predict the occurrence of surface cracking. On the other hand, unrecrystallized grains and coarse grain problem are other significant problems in the metalworking industry. A recrystallization model is implemented in a finite element framework, to study the effect of forging parameters on the microstructure evolution during ingot conversion process of a superalloy.

  9. The evolution of the Elastic, Transport, and Microstructural Properties of Carbonates Upon Laboratory-Induced Diagenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanorio, T.; Ebert, Y.; Grombacher, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    Compaction, rock-fluid chemical interaction, and deformation upon burial diagenesis all contribute to the long-term evolution of the pore space and its geophysical attributes. Although this is applicable to all porous rocks, carbonates are especially susceptible to alteration by chemical processes, contributing to their heterogeneous texture and fabric. This greatly increases the chance for the microstructural and rock physics variability, complicating how transport and elastic properties relate to the diagenetic trends of these rocks. The pivotal idea of this study is to unfold the processes that control the heterogeneity in the attributes of the pore space in carbonates and, in turn, in the transport and elastic properties. We use starting rocks of variable fabric -i.e., a depositional-dependent microstructure, induce a specific process -e.g., chemical dissolution under stress, then observe the development of the microstructure by SEM and microtomography imaging, permeability, porosity, and velocity due to chemo-mechanical processes occurring under stress. We find that the changes in the rock can lead to two different evolutionary trends of permeability and velocity, depending on the effectiveness of dissolution against compaction. which, in turn, depend on (a) the fraction of the carbonate phase characterized by high surface area and (b) the pore stiffness of the rock. Packstones compact significantly upon dissolution and show a reduction in contact stiffness leading to a decrease in velocity and an increase in permeability. The latter is curbed by the ongoing compaction. Tight mudstones experience instead minimal or negligible compaction showing a slight change in porosity and velocity; however large permeability changes are observed that are related to an enhancement in connectivity or decrease in the tortuosity of the pathways.

  10. Competing effects of electronic and nuclear energy loss on microstructural evolution in ionic-covalent materials

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yanwen; Varga, Tamas; Ishimaru, Dr. Manabu; Edmondson, Dr. Philip; Xue, Haizhou; Liu, Peng; Moll, Sandra; Namavar, Fereydoon; Hardiman, Chris; Shannon, Prof. Steven; Weber, William J

    2014-01-01

    Ever increasing energy needs have raised the demands for advanced fuels and cladding materials that withstand the extreme radiation environments with improved accident tolerance over a long period of time. Ceria (CeO2) is a well known ionic conductor that is isostructural with urania and plutonia-based nuclear fuels. In the context of nuclear fuels, immobilization and transmutation of actinides, CeO2 is a model system for radiation effect studies. Covalent silicon carbide (SiC) is a candidate for use as structural material in fusion, cladding material for fission reactors, and an inert matrix for the transmutation of plutonium and other radioactive actinides. Understanding microstructural change of these ionic-covalent materials to irradiation is important for advanced nuclear energy systems. While displacements from nuclear energy loss may be the primary contribution to damage accumulation in a crystalline matrix and a driving force for the grain boundary evolution in nanostructured materials, local non-equilibrium disorder and excitation through electronic energy loss may, however, produce additional damage or anneal pre-existing defect. At intermediate transit energies where electronic and nuclear energy losses are both significant, synergistic, additive or competitive processes may evolve that affect the dynamic response of materials to irradiation. The response of crystalline and nanostructured CeO2 and SiC to ion irradiation are studied under different nuclear and electronic stopping powers to describe some general material response in this transit energy regime. Although fast radiation-induced grain growth in CeO2 is evident with no phase transformation, different fluence and dose dependence on the growth rate is observed under Si and Au irradiations. While grain shrinkage and amorphization are observed in the nano-engineered 3C SiC with a high-density of stacking faults embedded in nanosize columnar grains, significantly enhanced radiation resistance is