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Sample records for microwave anomalous emission

  1. Anomalous Microwave Emission in HII regions: is it really anomalous ? The case of RCW 49

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paladini, Roberta; Ingallinera, Adriano; Agliozzo, Claudia; Tibbs, Christopher; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Umana, Grazia; Dickinson, Clive; Trigiglio, Corrado

    2016-01-01

    The detection of an excess of emission at microwave frequencies with respect to the predicted free-free emission has been reportedfor several Galactic HII regions. Here, we investigate the case of RCW 49, for which the Cosmic Background Imager tentatively (~ 3 sigma) detected Anomalous Microwave Emission at 31 GHz on angular scales of 7'. Using the Australia Telescope Compact Array, we carried out a multi-frequency (5 GHz, 19 GHz and 34 GHz) continuum study of the region, complemented by observations of the H109 alpha radio recombination line. The analysis shows that: 1) the spatial correlation between the microwave and IR emission persists on angular scales from 3.4' to 0.4'', although the degree of the correlation slightly decreases at higher frequencies and on smaller angular scales; 2) the spectral indices between 1.4 and 5 GHz are globally in agreement with optically thin free-free emission, however, ~ 30 % of these are positive and much greater than -0.1, consistently with a stellar wind scenario; 3) no major evidence for inverted free-free radiation is found, indicating that this is likely not the cause of the Anomalous Emission in RCW 49. Although our results cannot rule out the spinning dust hypothesis to explain the tentative detection of Anomalous Microwave emission in RCW 49, they emphasize the complexity of astronomical sources very well known and studied such as HII regions, and suggest that, at least in these objects, the reported excess of emissionmight be ascribed to alternative mechanisms such as stellar winds and shocks.

  2. Characterizing extragalactic anomalous microwave emission in NGC 6946 with CARMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hensley, Brandon; Murphy, Eric; Staguhn, Johannes

    2015-05-01

    Using 1 cm and 3 mm observations from the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy and 2 mm observations from the Goddard IRAM Superconducting 2 Millimeter Observer observations, we follow up the first extragalactic detection of anomalous microwave emission (AME) reported by Murphy et al. in an extranuclear region (Enuc. 4) of the nearby face-on spiral galaxy NGC 6946. We find the spectral shape and peak frequency of AME in this region to be consistent with models of spinning dust emission. However, the strength of the emission far exceeds the Galactic AME emissivity given the abundance of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in that region. Using our galaxy-wide 1 cm map (21 arcsec resolution), we identify a total of eight 21 arcsec × 21 arcsec regions in NGC 6946 that harbour AME at >95 per cent significance at levels comparable to that observed in Enuc. 4. The remainder of the galaxy has 1 cm emission consistent with or below the observed Galactic AME emissivity per PAH surface density. We probe relationships between the detected AME and dust surface density, PAH emission, and radiation field, though no environmental property emerges to delineate regions with strong versus weak or non-existent AME. On the basis of these data and other AME observations in the literature, we determine that the AME emissivity per unit dust mass is highly variable. We argue that the spinning dust hypothesis, which predicts the AME power to be approximately proportional to the PAH mass, is therefore incomplete.

  3. Anomalous Microwave Emission in HII Regions: Is it Really Anomalous? The Case of RCW 49

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paladini, Roberta; Ingallinera, Adriano; Agliozzo, Claudia; Tibbs, Christopher T.; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Umana, Grazia; Dickinson, Clive; Trigilio, Corrado

    2015-11-01

    The detection of an excess of emission at microwave frequencies with respect to the predicted free-free emission has been reported for several Galactic H ii regions. Here, we investigate the case of RCW 49, for which the Cosmic Background Imager tentatively (˜3σ) detected Anomalous Microwave Emission (AME) at 31 GHz on angular scales of 7‧. Using the Australia Telescope Compact Array, we carried out a multi-frequency (5, 19, and 34 GHz) continuum study of the region, complemented by observations of the H109α radio recombination line. The analysis shows that: (1) the spatial correlation between the microwave and IR emission persists on angular scales from 3.‧4 to 0.″4, although the degree of the correlation slightly decreases at higher frequencies and on smaller angular scales; (2) the spectral indices between 1.4 and 5 GHz are globally in agreement with optically thin free-free emission, however, ˜30% of these are positive and much greater than -0.1, consistent with a stellar wind scenario; and (3) no major evidence for inverted free-free radiation is found, indicating that this is likely not the cause of the Anomalous Emission in RCW 49. Although our results cannot rule out the spinning dust hypothesis to explain the tentative detection of AME in RCW 49, they emphasize the complexity of astronomical sources that are very well known and studied, such as H ii regions, and suggest that, at least in these objects, the reported excess of emission might be ascribed to alternative mechanisms such as stellar winds and shocks.

  4. AMI OBSERVATIONS OF THE ANOMALOUS MICROWAVE EMISSION IN THE PERSEUS MOLECULAR CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Tibbs, C. T.; Scaife, A. M. M.; Dickinson, C.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; Watson, R. A.; Paladini, R.; Grainge, K. J. B.

    2013-05-10

    We present observations of the known anomalous microwave emission region, G159.6-18.5, in the Perseus molecular cloud at 16 GHz performed with the Arcminute Microkelvin Imager Small Array. These are the highest angular resolution observations of G159.6-18.5 at microwave wavelengths. By combining these microwave data with infrared observations between 5.8 and 160 {mu}m from the Spitzer Space Telescope, we investigate the existence of a microwave-infrared correlation on angular scales of {approx}2'. We find that the overall correlation appears to increase toward shorter infrared wavelengths, which is consistent with the microwave emission being produced by electric dipole radiation from small, spinning dust grains. We also find that the microwave-infrared correlation peaks at 24 {mu}m (6.7{sigma}), suggesting that the microwave emission is originating from a population of stochastically heated small interstellar dust grains rather than polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  5. CONSTRAINTS ON FREE-FREE EMISSION FROM ANOMALOUS MICROWAVE EMISSION SOURCES IN THE PERSEUS MOLECULAR CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Tibbs, C. T.; Paladini, R.; Dickinson, C.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; Watson, R. A.; Mason, B. S.; Casassus, S.; Cleary, K.

    2013-06-20

    We present observations performed with the Green Bank Telescope at 1.4 and 5 GHz of three strips coincident with the anomalous microwave emission features previously identified in the Perseus molecular cloud at 33 GHz with the Very Small Array. With these observations we determine the level of the low frequency ({approx}1-5 GHz) emission. We do not detect any significant extended emission in these regions and we compute conservative 3{sigma} upper limits on the fraction of free-free emission at 33 GHz of 27%, 12%, and 18% for the three strips, indicating that the level of the emission at 1.4 and 5 GHz cannot account for the emission observed at 33 GHz. Additionally, we find that the low frequency emission is not spatially correlated with the emission observed at 33 GHz. These results indicate that the emission observed in the Perseus molecular cloud at 33 GHz, is indeed in excess over the low frequency emission, hence confirming its anomalous nature.

  6. QED induced redshift and anomalous microwave emission from dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prevenslik, Thomas V.

    2015-08-01

    The Planck satellite imaging of CMB polarizations at 353 GHz extrapolated to 160 GHz suggested the AME was caused by dust and not as a relic of gravity waves from Universe expansion. AME stands for anomalous microwave emisssion. Similarly, dust has also been implicated in questioning Universe expansion by exaggerating Hubble redshift measurements. In this regard, QED induced EM radiation in dust NPs may be the commonality by which an expanding Universe may be assessed. QED stands for quantum electrodynamics, EM for electromagnetic, and NPs for nanoparticles. QED radiation is a consequence of QM that denies the atoms in NPs under TIR confinement the heat capacity to allow increases in NP temperature upon absorbing galaxy light. QM stands for quantum mechanics and TIR for total internal reflection.In this paper, the only galaxy light considered are single Lyα photons absorbed in spherical dust NPs. Since NPs have high surface to volume ratios, an absorbed Lyα photon is induced by QED to be totally confined by TIR to the NP surface. Hence, the TIR wavelength λ of the QED photon moving at velocity c/n in the NP surface is λ = 2πa, where c is the speed of light, and n and a are the refractive index and radius of the NP. The boundary between QED induced spinning and redshift depends on the NP material. For amorphous silicate, small NPs with a < 0.040 microns conserve the Lyα photon energy by NP spinning; whereas, the larger NPs having a > 0.040 microns redshift the Lyα photon to produce VIS and near IR galaxy light.Since the TIR mode is tangential to the surface of the NP, the Lyα photon produces circularly polarized light during absorption thereby exerting a momentary torque on the NP. Conserving the Lyα photon energy hc/λ* with the rotational energy ½ Jω2 of the NP gives the spin ω = √ (2 hc/Jλ*). Here, h is Planck’s constant, λ* the Lyα wavelength, J the NP rotational moment of inertia, J = 2 ma2/5, m the NP mass, m = 4πρa3/3, and ρ the NP density. Hence, the spin rate ω for amorphous silicate NPs having radii 0.001 < a < 0.04 microns suggests AME from 0.1 to 860 GHz as well as redshift produced in dust may be used to assess Universe expansion.

  7. Planck early results. XX. New light on anomalous microwave emission from spinning dust grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Balbi, A.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bhatia, R.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Cabella, P.; Cappellini, B.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Casassus, S.; Catalano, A.; Cayón, L.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Chiang, C.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Gasperis, G.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Dickinson, C.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Dörl, U.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Génova-Santos, R. T.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hovest, W.; Hoyland, R. J.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knox, L.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leach, S.; Leonardi, R.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; MacTavish, C. J.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mann, R.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, A.; Naselsky, P.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Osborne, S.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T. J.; Peel, M.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Plaszczynski, S.; Platania, P.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Poutanen, T.; Prézeau, G.; Procopio, P.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reich, W.; Reinecke, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, P.; Smoot, G. F.; Starck, J.-L.; Stivoli, F.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Torre, J.-P.; Tristram, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Varis, J.; Verstraete, L.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Watson, R.; Wilkinson, A.; Ysard, N.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2011-12-01

    Anomalous microwave emission (AME) has been observed by numerous experiments in the frequency range ~10-60 GHz. Using Planck maps and multi-frequency ancillary data, we have constructed spectra for two known AME regions: the Perseus and ρ Ophiuchi molecular clouds. The spectra are well fitted by a combination of free-free radiation, cosmic microwave background, thermal dust, and electric dipole radiation from small spinning dust grains. The spinning dust spectra are the most precisely measured to date, and show the high frequency side clearly for the first time. The spectra have a peak in the range 20-40 GHz and are detected at high significances of 17.1σ for Perseus and 8.4σ for ρ Ophiuchi. In Perseus, spinning dust in the dense molecular gas can account for most of the AME; the low density atomic gas appears to play a minor role. In ρ Ophiuchi, the ~30 GHz peak is dominated by dense molecular gas, but there is an indication of an extended tail at frequencies 50-100 GHz, which can be accounted for by irradiated low density atomic gas. The dust parameters are consistent with those derived from other measurements. We have also searched the Planck map at 28.5 GHz for candidate AME regions, by subtracting a simple model of the synchrotron, free-free, and thermal dust. We present spectra for two of the candidates; S140 and S235 are bright Hii regions that show evidence for AME, and are well fitted by spinning dust models. Corresponding author: C. Dickinson, Clive.Dickinson@manchester.ac.uk

  8. The Diffuse Interstellar Bands and Anomalous Microwave Emission May Originate from the Same Carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernstein, L. S.; Clark, F. O.; Cline, J. A.; Lynch, D. K.

    2015-11-01

    We argue that the observed spectroscopic and statistical properties of the diffuse interstellar band (DIB) carriers are those that are needed to produce the anomalous microwave emission (AME). We explore this idea using a carrier-impartial model for AME based on the observed DIB statistical properties. We show that an observed distribution of profile widths for narrow DIBs can be mapped into an AME spectrum. The mapping model is applied to width distributions observed for HD 204827 and HD 183143, selected because their spectroscopic and statistical properties bracket those for most other sight lines. The predicted AME spectra for these sight lines agree well with the range of spectral shapes, and peak frequencies, ˜23-31 GHz, typically observed for AME. We use the AME spectral profiles to derive a strong constraint between the average carrier size and its rotational temperature. The constraint is applied to a variety of postulated molecular carrier classes, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, fulleranes, hydrocarbon chains, and amorphous hydrocarbon clusters. The constraint favors small, cold carriers with average sizes of ˜8-15 carbon atoms, and average rotational temperatures of ˜3-10 K, depending on carrier type. We suggest new observations, analyses, and modeling efforts to help resolve the ambiguities with regard to carrier size and class, and to further clarify the DIB-AME relationship.

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Anomalous microwave emission in Galactic clouds (Planck+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Alves, M. I. R.; Arnaud, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Burigana, C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Casassus, S.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chen, X.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Crill, B. P.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; De Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Desert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Dupac, X.; Ensslin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Genova-Santos, R. T.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K. M.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Harrison, D. L.; Helou, G.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Hornstrup, A.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Keihaenen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Laehteenmaeki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Macias-Perez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Miville-Deschenes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T. J.; Peel, M.; Perdereau, O.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G. W.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Rebolo, R.; Reich, W.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rubino-Martin, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Spencer, L. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Tibbs, C. T.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Verstraete, L.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wandelt, B. D.; Watson, R.; Wilkinson, A.; Ysard, N.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-07-01

    Anomalous microwave emission (AME) is believed to be due to electric dipole radiation from small spinning dust grains. The aim of this paper is a statistical study of the basic properties of AME regions and the environment in which they emit. We used WMAP and Planck maps, combined with ancillary radio and IR data, to construct a sample of 98 candidate AME sources, assembling SEDs for each source using aperture photometry on 1°-smoothed maps from 0.408GHz up to 3000GHz. Each spectrum is fitted with a simple model of free-free, synchrotron (where necessary), cosmic microwave background (CMB), thermal dust, and spinning dust components. We find that 42 of the 98 sources have significant (>5σ) excess emission at frequencies between 20 and 60GHz. An analysis of the potential contribution of optically thick free-free emission from ultra-compact HII regions, using IR colour criteria, reduces the significant AME sample to 27 regions. The spectrum of the AME is consistent with model spectra of spinning dust. Peak frequencies are in the range 20-35GHz except for the California nebula (NGC1499), which appears to have a high spinning dust peak frequency of (50+/-17)GHz. The AME regions tend to be more spatially extended than regions with little or no AME. The AME intensity is strongly correlated with the sub-millimetre/IR flux densities and comparable to previous AME detections in the literature. AME emissivity, defined as the ratio of AME to dust optical depth, varies by an order of magnitude for the AME regions. The AME regions tend to be associated with cooler dust in the range 14-20K and an average emissivity index, βd, of +1.8, while the non-AME regions are typically warmer, at 20-27K. In agreement with previous studies, the AME emissivity appears to decrease with increasing column density. This supports the idea of AME originating from small grains that are known to be depleted in dense regions, probably due to coagulation onto larger grains. We also find a correlation between the AME emissivity (and to a lesser degree the spinning dust peak frequency) and the intensity of the interstellar radiation field, G0. Modelling of this trend suggests that both radiative and collisional excitation are important for the spinning dust emission. The most significant AME regions tend to have relatively less ionized gas (free-free emission), although this could be a selection effect. The infrared excess, a measure of the heating of dust associated with HII regions, is typically >4 for AME sources, indicating that the dust is not primarily heated by hot OB stars. The AME regions are associated with known dark nebulae and have higher 12μm/25μm ratios. The emerging picture is that the bulk of the AME is coming from the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and small dust grains from the colder neutral interstellar medium phase. (1 data file).

  10. Planck intermediate results. XV. A study of anomalous microwave emission in Galactic clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Alves, M. I. R.; Arnaud, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Burigana, C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Casassus, S.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chen, X.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Crill, B. P.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson; , C.; Diego, J. M.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Dupac, X.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Génova-Santos, R. T.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Harrison, D. L.; Helou, G.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Hornstrup, A.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T. J.; Peel, M.; Perdereau, O.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G. W.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Rebolo, R.; Reich, W.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Spencer, L. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Tibbs, C. T.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Verstraete, L.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wandelt, B. D.; Watson, R.; Wilkinson, A.; Ysard, N.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-05-01

    Anomalous microwave emission (AME) is believed to be due to electric dipole radiation from small spinning dust grains. The aim of this paper is a statistical study of the basic properties of AME regions and the environment in which they emit. We used WMAP and Planck maps, combined with ancillary radio and IR data, to construct a sample of 98 candidate AME sources, assembling SEDs for each source using aperture photometry on 1°-smoothed maps from 0.408 GHz up to 3000 GHz. Each spectrum is fitted with a simple model of free-free, synchrotron (where necessary), cosmic microwave background (CMB), thermal dust, and spinning dust components. We find that 42 of the 98 sources have significant (>5σ) excess emission at frequencies between 20 and 60 GHz. An analysis of the potential contribution of optically thick free-free emission from ultra-compact H ii regions, using IR colour criteria, reduces the significant AME sample to 27 regions. The spectrum of the AME is consistent with model spectra of spinning dust. Peak frequencies are in the range 20-35 GHz except for the California nebula (NGC 1499), which appears to have a high spinning dust peak frequency of (50 ± 17) GHz. The AME regions tend to be more spatially extended than regions with little or no AME. The AME intensity is strongly correlated with the sub-millimetre/IR flux densities and comparable to previous AME detections in the literature. AME emissivity, defined as the ratio of AME to dust optical depth, varies by an order of magnitude for the AME regions. The AME regions tend to be associated with cooler dust in the range 14-20 K and an average emissivity index, βd, of +1.8, while the non-AME regions are typically warmer, at 20-27 K. In agreement with previous studies, the AME emissivity appears to decrease with increasing column density. This supports the idea of AME originating from small grains that are known to be depleted in dense regions, probably due to coagulation onto larger grains. We also find a correlation between the AME emissivity (and to a lesser degree the spinning dust peak frequency) and the intensity of the interstellar radiation field, G0. Modelling of this trend suggests that both radiative and collisional excitation are important for the spinning dust emission. The most significant AME regions tend to have relatively less ionized gas (free-free emission), although this could be a selection effect. The infrared excess, a measure of the heating of dust associated with H ii regions, is typically >4 for AME sources, indicating that the dust is not primarily heated by hot OB stars. The AME regions are associated with known dark nebulae and have higher 12 μm/25 μm ratios. The emerging picture is that the bulk of the AME is coming from the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and small dust grains from the colder neutral interstellar medium phase.

  11. Constraints on the polarization of the anomalous microwave emission inthe Perseus molecular complex from 7-year WMAP data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Caraballo, C. H.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rebolo, R.; Génova-Santos, R.

    2011-11-01

    We have used the seven year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data in order to update the measurements of the intensity signal in the G159.6-18.5 region within the Perseus Molecular Complex, and to set constraints on the polarization level of the anomalous microwave emission in the frequency range where this emission is dominant. At 23, 33 and 41 GHz, we obtain upper limits on the fractional linear polarization of 1.0, 1.8 and 2.7% respectively (with a 95 per cent confidence level). These measurements rule out a significant number of models based on magnetic dipole emission of grains that consist of a simple domain (Draine & Lazariam, 1998, ApJ, 508, 157) as responsible of the anomalous emission. When combining our results with the measurement obtained with the COSMOSOMAS experiment at 11 GHz (Battistelli et al. 2006, ApJ, 645, L141), we find consistency with the predictions of the electric dipole and resonance relaxation theory (Lazarian & Draine, 2000, ApJ, 536, L15) at this frequency range.

  12. Searching for the Culprit of Anomalous Microwave Emission: An AKARI PAHrange Analysis of Probable Electric Dipole Emitting Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, A. C.; Onaka, T.; Sakon, I.; Ishihara, D.; Kaneda, H.; Lee, H. G.; Itoh, M.; Ohsawa, R.; Hammonds, M.

    In the march forward of interstellar medium inquiry, many new species of interstellar dust have been modelled and discovered. The modes by which these species interact and evolve are beginning to be understood, but in recent years a peculiar new feature has appeared in microwave surveys. Anomalous microwave emission (AME), appearing between 10 and 90Ghz, has been correlated with thermal dust emission, leading to the popular suggestion that this anomaly is electric dipole emission from spinning dust [2]. The observed frequencies suggest that spinning grains should be on the order of 10nm in size, hinting at poly-cyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules. We present data from AKARI/Infrared Camera [1], due to the effective PAH/Unidentified Infrared Band (UIR) coverage of its 9um survey to investigate their role within a few regions showing strong AME in the Planck low frequency data. We include the well studied Perseus and ρOphiuchi clouds . We use the IRAS/IRIS 100µm data to account for the overall dust temperature. We present our results as abundance maps for dust emitting around 9µm, and 100µm. Part of the AME in these regions may actually be attributed to thermal dust emission, or the star forming nature of these targets is masking the vibrational modes of PAHs which should be present there, suggesting further investigation for various galactic environments.

  13. Observations of free-free and anomalous microwave emission from LDN 1622 with the 100 m Green Bank Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, S. E.; Dickinson, C.; Cleary, K.

    2015-11-01

    LDN 1622 has previously been identified as a possible strong source of dust-correlated anomalous microwave emission (AME). Previous observations were limited by resolution meaning that the radio emission could not be compared with current generation high-resolution infrared data from Herschel, Spitzer or Wide-field Infrared Sky Explorer. This paper presents arcminute resolution mapping observations of LDN 1622 at 4.85 and 13.7 GHz using the 100 m Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope. The 4.85 GHz map reveals a corona of free-free emission enclosing LDN 1622 that traces the photodissociation region of the cloud. The brightest peaks of the 4.85 GHz map are found to be within ≈10 per cent agreement with the expected free-free predicted by Southern H-Alpha Sky Survey Atlas H α data of LDN 1622. At 13.7 GHz, the AME flux density was found to be 7.0 ± 1.4 mJy and evidence is presented for a rising spectrum between 13.7 and 31 GHz. The spinning dust model of AME is found to naturally account for the flux seen at 13.7 GHz. Correlations between the diffuse 13.7 GHz emission and the diffuse mid-infrared emission are used to further demonstrate that the emission originating from LDN 1622 at 13.7 GHz is described by the spinning dust model.

  14. QUIJOTE scientific results - I. Measurements of the intensity and polarisation of the anomalous microwave emission in the Perseus molecular complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnova-Santos, R.; Rubio-Martn, J. A.; Rebolo, R.; Pelez-Santos, A.; Lpez-Caraballo, C. H.; Harper, S.; Watson, R. A.; Ashdown, M.; Barreiro, R. B.; Casaponsa, B.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Fernndez-Cobos, R.; Grainge, K. J. B.; Gutirrez, C. M.; Herranz, D.; Hoyland, R.; Lasenby, A.; Lpez-Caniego, M.; Martnez-Gonzlez, E.; McCulloch, M.; Melhuish, S.; Piccirillo, L.; Perrott, Y. C.; Poidevin, F.; Razavi-Ghods, N.; Scott, P. F.; Titterington, D.; Tramonte, D.; Vielva, P.; Vignaga, R.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we present Q-U-I JOint Tenerife Experiment (QUIJOTE) 10-20 GHz observations (194 h in total over ?250 deg2) in intensity and polarisation of G159.6-18.5, one of the most widely studied regions harbouring anomalous microwave emission (AME). By combining with other publicly available intensity data, we achieve the most precise spectrum of the AME measured to date in an individual region, with 13 independent data points between 10 and 50 GHz being dominated by this emission. The four QUIJOTE data points provide the first independent confirmation of the downturn of the AME spectrum at low frequencies, initially unveiled by the COSMOlogical Structures On Medium Angular Scales experiment in this region. Our polarisation maps, which have an angular resolution of ?1 and a sensitivity of ? 25 ?K beam-1, are consistent with zero polarisation. We obtain upper limits on the polarisation fraction of ? < 6.3 and <2.8 per cent (95 per cent C.L.), respectively, at 12 and 18 GHz (?AME < 10.1 and <3.4 per cent with respect to the residual AME intensity), a frequency range where no AME polarisation observations have been reported to date. The combination of these constraints with those from other experiments confirm that all the magnetic dust models based on single-domain grains, and most of those considering randomly oriented magnetic inclusions, predict higher polarisation levels than is observed towards regions with AME. Also, neither of the two considered models of electric dipole emission seems to be compatible with all the observations together. More stringent constraints of the AME polarisation at 10-40 GHz are necessary to disentangle between different models, to which future QUIJOTE data will contribute.

  15. Spectrum and Polarization of Anomalous Galactic Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarian, Alexandre

    Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) studies provide insight into the birth of our universe. The polarization of the CMB, especially the extraction of B-modes from the measured signal, is at the frontier of the research. One of the major challenges of these studies is the removal of Galactic foreground radiation. Microwave emission arising from spinning dust has been recently identified as one of the principal components of the foreground in the range 10 - 100GHz. It arises from swiftly rotating tiny particles with electric dipole moments, possibly augmented by emission from larger dust particles with enhanced magnetic susceptibilities. Several simplifications in the present theory of spinning dust emission substantially limit our ability to separate the dust emission from the CMB signal. The only mechanism of spinning dust alignment quantified so far predicts that polarization of the spinning dust emission is negligible at frequencies larger than 30GHz, but other mechanisms of alignment may be more efficient. Thermal magneto-dipole emission can be highly polarized with strong frequency dependence. However, the signatures of this polarization that can be used for identifying this foreground are insufficiently studied. The research seeks to advance theoretical understanding of the spectrum and polarization of the anomalous microwave emission. The goal is to be achieved via providing a better description of the dynamics, alignment, and emission of dust. The proposed studies are based on the PI's previous work on grain physics, using the tools and experience his group has acquired to launch a new inquiry into essential aspects of microwave emission and polarization. These properties are missing in the present-day models of spinning and magnetic dust. The research will utilize the analytical expertise and computational tools which the PI's group has developed in the past, and which have led to significant progress and closure between observations and theory, e.g. in the area of grain alignment. The planned investigations address a variety of issues including the expected enhancement of microwave spinning dust emission and changes of emission spectrum arising from a) the complex wobbling of irregular grains, b) inhomogeneous, turbulent distribution of emitting media along the line of sight, and c), the excitation of grain wobbling due to transient heating of grains by UV photons. They will also quantify the polarization of anomalous emission arising from a new mechanism of spinning dust alignment and will study the alignment and emission of magnetic dust. The tasks will include incorporating new physics in our numerical Langevin-Monte-Carlo code describing dust dynamics, developing diagnostics to intercompare theoretical predictions and observations, and developing a module describing anomalous emission to be included in the publicly available CLOUDY code. Examples of questions this project aims to answer include: 1. What is the actual spectrum of spinning dust emission? 2. At what level does polarized radiation from spinning dust and magnetic dust interfere seriously with attempts to measure polarized CMB signal, especially to measure cosmological B-modes? Exploiting the true potential of the superior capabilities of NASA-sponsored CMB experiments calls for a sophisticated modeling of the spectrum and polarization of the anomalous foreground emission. This work is timely due to the ongoing operation of the Planck mission and it should enhance the scientific return from a number of directions of scientific endeavor. For instance, as the result of this research, the CMB community will have better ways to account for galactic foreground, and interstellar researchers will be able to start using anomalous emission to probe various interstellar environments.

  16. The cut-sky cosmic microwave background is not anomalous

    SciTech Connect

    Pontzen, Andrew; Peiris, Hiranya V.

    2010-05-15

    The observed angular correlation function of the cosmic microwave background has previously been reported to be anomalous, particularly when measured in regions of the sky uncontaminated by Galactic emission. Recent work by Efstathiou et al. presents a Bayesian comparison of isotropic theories, casting doubt on the significance of the purported anomaly. We extend this analysis to all anisotropic Gaussian theories with vanishing mean (<{delta}T>=0), using the much wider class of models to confirm that the anomaly is not likely to point to new physics. On the other hand if there is any new physics to be gleaned, it results from low-l alignments which will be better quantified by a full-sky statistic. We also consider quadratic maximum likelihood power spectrum estimators that are constructed assuming isotropy. The underlying assumptions are therefore false if the ensemble is anisotropic. Nonetheless we demonstrate that, for theories compatible with the observed sky, these estimators (while no longer optimal) remain statistically superior to pseudo-C{sub l} power spectrum estimators.

  17. Microwave emissions from snow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, A. T. C.

    1984-01-01

    The radiation emitted from dry and wet snowpack in the microwave region (1 to 100 GHz) is discussed and related to ground observations. Results from theoretical model calculations match the brightness temperatures obtained by truck mounted, airborne and spaceborne microwave sensor systems. Snow wetness and internal layer structure complicate the snow parameter retrieval algorithm. Further understanding of electromagnetic interaction with snowpack may eventually provide a technique to probe the internal snow properties

  18. Anomalous cosmic-microwave-background polarization and gravitational chirality.

    PubMed

    Contaldi, Carlo R; Magueijo, João; Smolin, Lee

    2008-10-01

    We consider the possibility that gravity breaks parity, with left and right-handed gravitons coupling to matter with a different Newton's constant and show that this would affect their zero-point vacuum fluctuations during inflation. Should there be a cosmic background of gravity waves, the effect would translate into anomalous cosmic microwave background polarization. Nonvanishing temperature-magnetic (TB) mode [and electric-magnetic mode] components emerge, revealing interesting experimental targets. Indeed, if reasonable chirality is present a TB measurement would provide the easiest way to detect a gravitational wave background. We speculate on the theoretical implications of such an observation. PMID:18851516

  19. Anomalously delayed stimulated emission in random lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, G.; Tumkur, T.; Noginov, M. A.

    2010-06-15

    In a random laser based on a mixture of Nd{sup 3+}:Ba{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} and Cr{sup 4+}:Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} powders, we have observed trains of anomalously delayed stimulated emission pulses, which lasted for several tens of nanoseconds after the end of the pumping pulse. The phenomenon is explained by the color-center formation and reversed-saturable absorption in Cr{sup 4+}:YAG powder.

  20. Microwave emission and crop residues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Thomas J.; O'Neill, Peggy E.

    1991-01-01

    A series of controlled experiments were conducted to determine the significance of crop residues or stubble in estimating the emission of the underlying soil. Observations using truck-mounted L and C band passive microwave radiometers showed that for dry wheat and soybeans the dry residue caused negligible attenuation of the background emission. Green residues, with water contents typical of standing crops, did have a significant effect on the background emission. Results for these green residues also indicated that extremes in plant structure, as created using parallel and perpendicular stalk orientations, can cause very large differences in the degree of attenuation.

  1. Anomalous microwave spectra of snow cover observed from Special Sensor Microwave/Imager measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenfeld, Simon; Grody, Norman

    2000-06-01

    Brightness temperature spectra measured by the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) flown onboard F8 and F14 satellites of the U.S. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) during the 1987-1988 and 1997-1998 winter periods are analyzed concurrently with the data from snow monitoring stations over the former Soviet Union. Extensive analysis reveals the existence of two anomalies in the microwave thermal radiation spectra of snow cover. It is shown that in the beginning of winter the SSM/I measurements at 19, 37, and 85 GHz generally follow a classical pattern; that is, the brightness temperatures decrease for both increasing snow depth and increasing frequency. Dramatic departures from this behavior is observed around the middle of winter: The brightness temperatures reach a minimum and then begin to increase despite the fact that the snow depth remains constant or even continues to grow. Statistical analysis of the snow pack characteristics and SSM/I measurements is presented around the time when the brightness temperatures reach a minimum. The anomalous spectral characteristics are analyzed using a two-stream radiative transfer model and dense media theory. It is shown how metamorphic changes in the snow crystalline structure are responsible for the brightness temperature minimum. The second departure from the normal snow signature is the inversion of brightness temperature spectra; that is, the higher-frequency brightness temperature is greater than the low-frequency measurements. It is shown that this phenomenon, observed previously over Greenland and Antarctica, is much more extensive. Radiative transfer simulations were used to show that a dense layer of surface crust on top of old coarse-grained snow can produce the invented brightness temperature spectrum.

  2. Detailed study of the microwave emission of the supernova remnant 3C 396

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruciani, A.; Battistelli, E. S.; Carretti, E.; de Bernardis, P.; Genova-Santos, R.; Masi, S.; Mason, B.; Perera, D.; Piacentini, F.; Reach, B.; Rubino-Martin, J. A.

    2016-04-01

    We have observed the supernova remnant 3C 396 in the microwave region using the Parkes 64-m telescope. Observations have been made at 8.4 GHz, 13.5 GHz, and 18.6 GHz and in polarisation at 21.5 GHz. We have used data from several other observatories, including previously unpublished observations performed by the Green Bank Telescope at 31.2 GHz, to investigate the nature of the microwave emission of 3C 396. Results show a spectral energy distribution dominated by a single component power law emission with α = ( - 0.364 ± 0.017). Data do not favour the presence of anomalous microwave emission coming from the source. Polarised emission at 21.5 GHz is consistent with synchrotron-dominated emission. We present microwave maps and correlate them with infrared (IR) maps in order to characterise the interplay between thermal dust and microwave emission. IR vs. microwave TT plots reveal poor correlation between mid-infrared and microwave emission from the core of the source. On the other hand, a correlation is detected in the tail emission of the outer shell of 3C 396, which could be ascribed to Galactic contamination.

  3. Detection of Microwave Emission Associated with Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, T.; Takano, T.

    2006-05-01

    It was experimentally shown that rock crash by static pressure caused radio wave emissions at 300MHz, 2GHz and 22GHz. This result suggests that this microwave is emitted in the result of earthquakes. Encouraged by this circumstance, we aim to establish the computer system to detect microwave emissions associated with crustal alterations, which trigger earthquakes, by a microwave radiometer loaded on a satellite. At present, the microwave radiometer 'AMSR-E' loaded on the remote sensing satellite 'Aqua' is the most suitable for our purpose. AMSR-E is a multi-frequency (6.9 / 10.65 / 18.7 / 23.8 / 36.5 / 89 GHz), dual- polarized microwave radiometer that detects faint microwave emissions from the Earth's surface and atmosphere as brightness temperature. Considering the generation of the microwaves by rock crash associated with earthquakes, it is difficult for the microwaves to propagate to the Earth's surface directly due to strong attenuation in case a hypocenter is under the sea bottom or under the ground containing water. However, if there are some cracks from the underground to the ground surface, the cracks are considered to act as waveguides to guide the microwaves with small attenuation. Based on this model of microwave emission from underground, on the earthquake caused by an active fault, brightness temperature is investigated both at the epicenter and at fault planes appearing on the ground. After investigation, it is indicated that brightness temperature fluctuates very much due to various factors, e.g. seasons, climates and reflection of sunlight at the Earth's surface. The elimination of effects of these factors is essential to the anomaly detection of brightness temperature associated with earthquakes. Since Aqua is on a sun-synchronous orbit, the data are always measured at night in the descending track. Every place on the Earth's surface is observed almost once a day in the descending track. By analyzing only this data, the effect of reflection of sunlight at the Earth's surface on brightness temperature can be ignored. Moreover, on each observation, we regard the brightness temperature at the place near the special one (e.g. an epicenter) as a standard, and calculate the difference of brightness temperature at each place. Therefore, by this method, the effect of seasons and climates on brightness temperature can be reduced. As a result, right before and after some earthquakes, it has been detected that the microwave was emitted more strongly at fault planes appearing on the ground than at their vicinity.

  4. ANOMALOUS PARITY ASYMMETRY OF THE WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE POWER SPECTRUM DATA AT LOW MULTIPOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jaiseung; Naselsky, Pavel

    2010-05-10

    We have investigated non-Gaussianity of our early universe by comparing the parity asymmetry of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) power spectrum with simulations. We find that odd-parity preference of the WMAP data (2 {<=} l {<=} 18) is anomalous at 4-in-1000 level. We find it likely that low quadrupole power is part of this parity asymmetry rather than an isolated anomaly. Further investigation is required to find out whether the origin of this anomaly is a cosmological or a systematic effect. The data from Planck Surveyor, which has systematics distinct from WMAP, will help us to resolve the origin of the anomalous odd-parity preference.

  5. Surveys of Microwave Emission from Air Showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuramoto, Kazuyuki; Ogio, Shoichi; Iijima, Takashi; Yamamoto, Tokonatsu

    2011-09-01

    A possibility of detection of microwave molecular bremsstrahlung radiation from Extensive Air Showers was reported by AMBER group [1] [2]. This method has a potential to provide a high duty cycle and a new technique for measuring longitudinal profile of EAS. To survey this microwave emission from EAS, we built prototype detectors using parabolic antenna dishes for broadcasting satellites, and we are operating detectors with a small EAS array at Osaka City Univercity. Here, we report our detector configurations and the current experimental status.

  6. Anomalous photoelectric emission from Ag on zinc-phthalocyanine film

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Senku; Otani, Tomohiro; Fukuzawa, Ken; Hiromitsu, Ichiro; Ogawa, Koji; Azuma, Junpei; Yamamoto, Isamu; Takahashi, Kazutoshi; Kamada, Masao

    2014-05-12

    Photoelectric emission from organic and metal thin films is generally observed with irradiation of photon energy larger than 4 eV. In this paper, however, we report photoelectric emission from Ag on a zinc-phthalocyanine (ZnPc) layer at a photon energy of 3.4 eV. The threshold energy for this photoelectric emission is much smaller than the work function of Ag estimated by conventional photoelectron spectroscopy. The photoelectric emission by low-energy photons is significant for Ag thicknesses of less than 1 nm. Photoelectron spectroscopy and morphological study of the Ag/ZnPc suggest that the anomalous photoelectric emission from the Ag surface is caused by a vacuum level shift at the Ag/ZnPc interface and by surface plasmons of the Ag nanoparticles.

  7. Microwave emissions from police radar.

    PubMed

    Fink, J M; Wagner, J P; Congleton, J J; Rock, J C

    1999-01-01

    This study evaluated police officers' exposures to microwaves emitted by traffic radar units. Exposure measurements were taken at approximated ocular and testicular levels of officers seated in patrol vehicles. Comparisons were made of the radar manufacturers' published maximum power density specifications and actual measured power densities taken at the antenna faces of those units. Four speed-enforcement agencies and one transportation research institute provided 54 radar units for evaluation; 17 different models, encompassing 4 frequency bands and 3 antenna configurations, were included. Four of the 986 measurements taken exceeded the 5 mW/cm2 limit accepted by the International Radiation Protection Association and the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurement, though none exceeded the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, American National Standards Institute, Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, or Occupational Safety and Health Administration standard of 10 mW/cm2. The four high measurements were maximum power density readings taken directly in front of the radar. Of the 812 measurements taken at the officers' seated ocular and testicular positions, none exceeded 0.04 mW/cm2; the highest of these (0.034 mW/cm2) was less than 1% of the most conservative current safety standards. High exposures in the limited region directly in front of the radar aperture are easily avoided with proper training. Results of this study indicate that police officer exposure to microwave radiation is apparently minimal. However, because of uncertainty in the medical and scientific communities concerning nonionizing radiation, it is recommended that law enforcement agencies implement a policy of prudent avoidance, including purchasing units with the lowest published maximum power densities, purchasing dash/rear deck-mounted units with antennae mounted outside the patrol vehicle, and training police officers to use the "stand-by" mode when not actually using radar. PMID:10671181

  8. Vacuum field energy and spontaneous emission in anomalously dispersive cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Bradshaw, Douglas H.; Di Rosa, Michael D.

    2011-05-15

    Anomalously dispersive cavities, particularly white-light cavities, may have larger bandwidth to finesse ratios than their normally dispersive counterparts. Partly for this reason, they have been proposed for use in laser interferometer gravitational-wave observatory (LIGO)-like gravity-wave detectors and in ring-laser gyroscopes. In this paper we analyze the quantum noise associated with anomalously dispersive cavity modes. The vacuum field energy associated with a particular cavity mode is proportional to the cavity-averaged group velocity of that mode. For anomalously dispersive cavities with group index values between 1 and 0, this means that the total vacuum field energy associated with a particular cavity mode must exceed ({h_bar}/2{pi}){omega}/2. For white-light cavities in particular, the group index approaches zero and the vacuum field energy of a particular spatial mode may be significantly enhanced. We predict enhanced spontaneous emission rates into anomalously dispersive cavity modes and broadened laser linewidths when the linewidth of intracavity emitters is broader than the cavity linewidth.

  9. Anomalous radon emission as precursor of medium to strong earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoran, Maria

    2016-03-01

    Anomalous radon (Rn222) emissions enhanced by forthcoming earthquakes is considered to be a precursory phenomenon related to an increased geotectonic activity in seismic areas. Rock microfracturing in the Earth's crust preceding a seismic rupture may cause local surface deformation fields, rock dislocations, charged particle generation and motion, electrical conductivity changes, radon and other gases emission, fluid diffusion, electrokinetic, piezomagnetic and piezoelectric effects as well as climate fluctuations. Space-time anomalies of radon gas emitted in underground water, soil and near the ground air weeks to days in the epicentral areas can be associated with the strain stress changes that occurred before the occurrence of medium and strong earthquakes. This paper aims to investigate temporal variations of radon concentration levels in air near or in the ground by the use of solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) CR-39 and LR-115 in relation with some important seismic events recorded in Vrancea region, Romania.

  10. AMI observations of Lynds dark nebulae: further evidence for anomalous cm-wave emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AMI Consortium; Scaife, Anna M. M.; Hurley-Walker, Natasha; Green, David A.; Davies, Matthew L.; Franzen, Thomas M. O.; Grainge, Keith J. B.; Hobson, Michael P.; Lasenby, Anthony N.; Pooley, Guy G.; Rodríguez-Gonzálvez, Carmen; Saunders, Richard D. E.; Scott, Paul F.; Shimwell, Timothy W.; Titterington, David J.; Waldram, Elizabeth M.; Zwart, Jonathan T. L.

    2009-12-01

    Observations at 14.2 to 17.9GHz made with the Arcminute Microkelvin Imager (AMI) Small Array towards 14 Lynds dark nebulae with a resolution of ~2arcmin are reported. These sources are selected from the Submillimetre Common-User Bolometre Array (SCUBA) observations of Visser, Richer & Chandler as small angular diameter clouds well matched to the synthesized beam of the AMI Small Array. Comparison of the AMI observations with radio observations at lower frequencies with matched uv-plane coverage is made, in order to search for any anomalous excess emission which can be attributed to spinning dust. Possible emission from spinning dust is identified as a source within a 2-arcmin radius of the SCUBA position of the Lynds dark nebula, exhibiting an excess with respect to lower frequency radio emission. We find five sources which show a possible spinning dust component in their spectra. These sources have rising spectral indices in the frequency range 14.2-17.9GHz with α17.914.2 = -0.7 +/- 0.7 to -2.9 +/- 0.4, where S ~ ν-α. Of these five one has already been reported, L1111, we report one new definite detection, L675 (16σ), and three new probable detections (L944, L1103 and L1246). The relative certainty of these detections is assessed on the basis of three criteria: the extent of the emission, the coincidence of the emission with the SCUBA position and the likelihood of alternative explanations for the excess. Extended microwave emission makes the likelihood of the anomalous emission arising as a consequence of a radio counterpart to a protostar or a protoplanetary disc unlikely. We use a 2-arcmin radius in order to be consistent with the IRAS identifications of dark nebulae, and our third criterion is used in the case of L1103 where a high flux density at 850μm relative to the far-infrared data suggests a more complicated emission spectrum. We kindly request that any reference to this paper cites `AMI Consortium: Scaife et al. 2009'. Issuing author - e-mail: as595@mrao.cam.ac.uk

  11. Galactic Emission in the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Charles

    2003-01-01

    The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) has mapped the full sky in five microwave frequency bands from 23 to 94 GHz with sub-degree angular resolution. While the primary goal of the mission is to measure the cosmic microwave background anisotropy, the data also provide a wealth of information about microwave emission from the Milky Way. We present full sky maps of the synchrotron, free-free, and dust emission obtained from the first-year data and comment on how these maps inform our understanding of the interstellar medium.

  12. Objective Characterization of Snow Microstructure for Microwave Emission Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durand, Michael; Kim, Edward J.; Molotch, Noah P.; Margulis, Steven A.; Courville, Zoe; Malzler, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Passive microwave (PM) measurements are sensitive to the presence and quantity of snow, a fact that has long been used to monitor snowcover from space. In order to estimate total snow water equivalent (SWE) within PM footprints (on the order of approx 100 sq km), it is prerequisite to understand snow microwave emission at the point scale and how microwave radiation integrates spatially; the former is the topic of this paper. Snow microstructure is one of the fundamental controls on the propagation of microwave radiation through snow. Our goal in this study is to evaluate the prospects for driving the Microwave Emission Model of Layered Snowpacks with objective measurements of snow specific surface area to reproduce measured brightness temperatures when forced with objective measurements of snow specific surface area (S). This eliminates the need to treat the grain size as a free-fit parameter.

  13. Extracting Microwave Emissivity Characteristics over City using AMSR-E

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, T.; Zhang, L.; Jiang, L.; Li, Y.

    2010-12-01

    The spectrums of different land types are very important in the application of remote sensing. Different spectrums of different land types can be used in surface classification, change detection, and so on. The microwave emissivity over land is the foundation of land parameters retrieval using passive microwave remote sensing. It depends on land type due to different objects’ structure, moisture and roughness on the earth. It has shown that the land surface microwave emissivity contributed to atmosphere temperature and moisture retrieval. Meanwhile, it depends on land type, vegetation cover, and moisture et al.. There are many researches on microwave emissivity of various land types, such as bare soil, vegetation, snow, but city was less mentioned [1]. However, with the development of society, the process of urbanization accelerated quickly. The area of city expanded fast and the fraction of city area increased in one microwave pixel, especially in The North China Plain (about 30%). The passive microwave pixel containing city has impact on satellite observation and surface parameters retrieval then. So it is essential to study the emissivity of city in order to improve the accuracy of land surface parameters retrieval from passive microwave remote sensing. To study the microwave emissivity of city, some ‘pure’ city pixels were selected according to IGBP classification data, which was defined the fraction cover of city is larger than 85%. The city emissivity was calculated using AMSR-E L2A brightness temperature and GLDAS land surface temperature data at different frequencies and polarizations over 2008 in China. Then the seasonal variation was analyzed along the year. Finally, the characteristic of city emissivity were compared with some meteorological data, seeking the relationship between city emissivity and climatic factors. The results have shown that the emissivity of city was different for different frequencies. It increased with the frequency becoming higher. The emissivity fluctuated along with seasons changing. According to comparison with meteorological data, the city emissivity is influenced by precipitation and snow. The precipitation and snow are important factors that impacted the city’s emissivity in summer and winter respectively. [1] Yongpan Zhang, Lingmei Jiang, Baoyu Qiu, Shengli Wu, Jiancheng Shi, Lixin Zhang. Study of microwave emissivity characteristics over different land cover types. Spectroscopy and Spectral Analysis. 2010,6:1446-145.

  14. Study of the microwave emissivity characteristics over Gobi Desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yubao, Qiu; Lijuan, Shi; Wenbo, Wu

    2014-03-01

    The microwave emissivity represents the capacity of the thermal radiation of the surface, and it is the significant parameter for understanding the geophysical processes such as surface energy budget and surface radiation. Different land covers have different emissivity properties, and the Gobi Desert in Central Asia seriously impact the sandstorms occur and develop in China, because of its special geographical environment and surface soil characteristics. In this study half-month averaged microwave emissivity from March 2003 to February 2004 over the Gobi Desert has been estimated. Emissivities in this area at different frequencies, polarization and their seasonal variations are discussed respectively. The results showed that emissivity polarization difference decrease as the frequency increases, and the polarization difference is large (0.03-0.127). The H polarization emissivity increases with increasing frequency, but the V-polarized microwave emissivity is reduced with increasing frequency because of the body scattering. In winter, emissivity decreases sharply in snow covered area, especially for higher frequencies (such as 89GHz). In addition, we compared emissivity with MODIS NDVI data at the same time in the Gobi Desert, and the results indicate that NDVI derived the good negative correlation with microwave emissivity polarization difference at 37GHz.

  15. Aircraft measurements of microwave emission from Arctic Sea Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilheit, T. T.; Blinn, J.; Campbell, W. J.; Edgerton, A. T.; Nordberg, W.

    1971-01-01

    Measurements of the microwave emission from Arctic Sea ice were made with aircraft at 8 wavelengths ranging from 0.510 cm to 2.81 cm. The expected contrast in emissivities between ice and water was observed at all wavelengths. Distributions of sea ice and open water were mapped from altitudes up to 11 km in the presence of dense cloud cover. Different forms of ice also exhibited strong contrasts in emissivity. Emissivity differences of up to 0.2 were observed between two types of ice at 0.811 cm wavelength. The higher emissivity ice type is tentatively identified as having been formed more recently than the lower emissivity ice.

  16. Land Surface Microwave Emissivity Dynamics: Observations, Analysis and Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tian, Yudong; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Harrison, Kenneth W.; Kumar, Sujay; Ringerud, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Land surface microwave emissivity affects remote sensing of both the atmosphere and the land surface. The dynamical behavior of microwave emissivity over a very diverse sample of land surface types is studied. With seven years of satellite measurements from AMSR-E, we identified various dynamical regimes of the land surface emission. In addition, we used two radiative transfer models (RTMs), the Community Radiative Transfer Model (CRTM) and the Community Microwave Emission Modeling Platform (CMEM), to simulate land surface emissivity dynamics. With both CRTM and CMEM coupled to NASA's Land Information System, global-scale land surface microwave emissivities were simulated for five years, and evaluated against AMSR-E observations. It is found that both models have successes and failures over various types of land surfaces. Among them, the desert shows the most consistent underestimates (by approx. 70-80%), due to limitations of the physical models used, and requires a revision in both systems. Other snow-free surface types exhibit various degrees of success and it is expected that parameter tuning can improve their performances.

  17. Gamma ray and microwave emission from 1991 June events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enome, Shinzo; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Hudson, Hugh S.; Schwartz, Richard

    1992-01-01

    The Sun showed unprecedented microwave activities in Jun. 1991, which produced four major and numerous weaker bursts and gamma ray emission measured by the Gamma Ray Observatory. The 4 Jun. 1991 event shows a sharp maximum around 03:41 UT and weak emission a few minutes before the maximum in the gamma ray record of the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE), with a preliminary estimated energy of 5 MeV. Although the 80-GHz and possible 35-GHz records show more prominent emission in the pre-maximum stage. This strongly suggests the first observational evidence for gamma ray and mm-wave emission from relativistic electrons. Comparisons of the other three major events on 6 Jun. at 01:00 UT, 9 Jun. at 01:34 UT, and 11 Jun. at 01:51 UT between gamma ray and microwave emission are also in progress.

  18. Source dynamics of the microwave emission during a solar flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begum Shaik, Shaheda; Gary, Dale E.; Nita, Gelu M.

    2016-05-01

    Determining the microwave burst source characteristics is important to understand the parameters of the flare process which produce the microwave emission. Previous studies show that the microwave solar bursts do typically exhibit a single source of emission but also often show inhomogeneous sources as a function of frequency at some periods during the burst. This study focuses on the spectral and spatial dynamics of the microwave gyrosynchrotron source through the microwave spectral and imaging analysis. We report the source characteristics of few impulsive flare events observed by the newly upgraded Expanded Owens Valley Solar Array (EOVSA) in the frequency range of 2.5 to 18 GHz and from the complimentary data of (Nobeyama Radioheliograph / Nobeyama Radio Polarimeters) NoRH / NoRP. The low frequency optically thick part of the microwave spectrum is an indicator of spatial inhomogeneity and complexity of the sources. We concentrate in the dynamics of the low frequency spectrum (intensity and spectral index) measured by EOVSA, and compare it to the corresponding spatial propoerties of the NoRH sources observed at 17 GHz and to the loop structures seen in the EUV (Extreme Ultraviolet) images with SDO (Solar Dynamics Observatory).

  19. Fine and ultrafine particle emissions from microwave popcorn.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Q; Avalos, J; Zhu, Y

    2014-04-01

    This study characterized fine (PM2.5 ) and ultrafine particle (UFP, diameter < 100 nm) emissions from microwave popcorn and analyzed influential factors. Each pre-packed popcorn bag was cooked in a microwave oven enclosed in a stainless steel chamber for 3 min. The number concentration and size distribution of UFPs and PM2.5 mass concentration were measured inside the chamber repeatedly for five different flavors under four increasing power settings using either the foil-lined original package or a brown paper bag. UFPs and PM2.5 generated by microwaving popcorn were 150-560 and 350-800 times higher than the emissions from microwaving water, respectively. About 90% of the total particles emitted were in the ultrafine size range. The emitted PM concentrations varied significantly with flavor. Replacing the foil-lined original package with a brown paper bag significantly reduced the peak concentration by 24-87% for total particle number and 36-70% for PM2.5 . A positive relationship was observed between both UFP number and PM2.5 mass and power setting. The emission rates of microwave popcorn ranged from 1.9 × 10(10) to 8.0 × 10(10) No./min for total particle number and from 134 to 249 μg/min for PM2.5 . PMID:24106981

  20. SPINNING DUST EMISSION: EFFECTS OF IRREGULAR GRAIN SHAPE, TRANSIENT HEATING, AND COMPARISON WITH WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Hoang, Thiem; Lazarian, A.; Draine, B. T.

    2011-11-10

    Planck is expected to answer crucial questions on the early universe, but it also provides further understanding on anomalous microwave emission. Electric dipole emission from spinning dust grains continues to be the favored interpretation of anomalous microwave emission. In this paper, we present a method to calculate the rotational emission from small grains of irregular shape with moments of inertia I{sub 1} {>=} I{sub 2} {>=} I{sub 3}. We show that a torque-free rotating irregular grain with a given angular momentum radiates at multiple frequency modes. The resulting spinning dust spectrum has peak frequency and emissivity increasing with the degree of grain shape irregularity, which is defined by I{sub 1}:I{sub 2}:I{sub 3}. We discuss how the orientation of the dipole moment {mu} in body coordinates affects the spinning dust spectrum for different regimes of internal thermal fluctuations. We show that the spinning dust emissivity for the case of strong thermal fluctuations is less sensitive to the orientation of {mu} than in the case of weak thermal fluctuations. We calculate spinning dust spectra for a range of gas density and dipole moment. The effect of compressible turbulence on spinning dust emission is investigated. We show that the emission in a turbulent medium increases by a factor from 1.2 to 1.4 relative to that in a uniform medium, as the sonic Mach number M{sub s} increases from 2 to 7. Finally, spinning dust parameters are constrained by fitting our improved model to five-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe cross-correlation foreground spectra, for both the H{alpha}-correlated and 100-{mu}m-correlated emission spectra.

  1. Anomalous Neutron Burst Emissions in Deuterium-Loaded Metals: Nuclear Reaction at Normal Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Song-Sheng; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Zhu, Li-Qun; Gu, Shao-Gang; Ruan, Xi-Chao; He, Ming; Qi, Bu-Jia

    2012-11-01

    Conventional nuclear fusion occurs in plasma at temperatures greater than 107°C or when energy higher than 10 keV is applied. We report a new result of anomalous neutron emission, also called cascade neutron burst emission, from deuterium-loaded titanium and uranium deuteride samples at room temperature. The number of neutrons in the large bursts is measured as up to 2800 in less than a 64-μs interval. We suggest that the anomalous cascade neutron bursts are correlated with deuterium-loaded metals and probably the result of nuclear reactions occurring in the samples.

  2. Salinity effects on the microwave emission of soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Thomas J.; Oneill, Peggy E.

    1987-01-01

    Controlled plot experiments were conducted to collect L and C band passive microwave data concurrent with ground observations of salinity and soil moisture. Two dielectric mixing models were used with an emission model to predict the emissivity from a bare smooth uniform profile. The models produce nearly identical results when near zero salinity is involved and reproduce the observed data at L band extremely well. Discrepancies at C band are attributed to sampling depth problems. Comparisons of predicted emissivities at various salinities with observed values indicate that the dynamic range of the emissivities can be explained using either of the dielectric mixing models. Evaluation of the entire data set, which included four salinity levels, indicates that for general application the effects of soil salinity can be ignored in interpreting microwave data for estimating soil moisture under most agricultural conditions.

  3. Effects of salinity on the microwave emission of soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, T. J.; Oneill, P. E.

    1986-01-01

    Controlled plot experiments were conducted to collect L and C band passive microwave data concurrent with ground observations of salinity and soil moisture. Two dielectric mixing models were used with an emission model to predict the emissivity from a bare smooth uniform profile. The models produce nearly identical results when near zero salinity is involved and reproduce the observed data at L band extremely well. Discrepancies at C band are attributed to sampling depth problems. Comparisons of predicted emissivities at various salinities with observed values indicate that the dynamic range of the emissivities can be explained using either of the dielectric mixing models. Evaluation of the entire data set, which included four salinity levels, indicates that for general application the effects of soil salinity can be ignored in interpreting microwave data for estimating soil moisture under most agricultural conditions.

  4. Long-term snowpack properties retrieval using satellite microwave emissivities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahroudi, Narges

    The main objective of this research is to improve the retrieval of snowpack properties using passive microwave. First part of this study shows how to better isolate the snow signature from microwave signal. The second part explains an inversion method to retrieve snowpack properties using the snow signature. The third part produces a 12-year-long time-series of seasonal snow parameters (snow depth, density, grain size, SWE) for the northern hemisphere. The microwave emissivities used in this study are derived from SSM/I passive microwave observations by removing the contributions of the cloud and atmosphere and then separating out the surface temperature. The sensitivity of the effective emissivity to the presence/absence of snow is evaluated for the Northern Hemisphere. The time-anomaly of differences between effective emissivity at 19V and 85V enabled the constant effects of land surface vegetation properties to be removed to isolate the snow signature. The snow detection in comparison with MODIS (Vis/IR) snow cover product agrees for 92% of matched locations and times. The retrieval is performed by inverting a snow emission model (Microwave Emission Model of Layerd Snowpack, MEMLS) based on neural network techniques. The model inputs (Snow properties) and the model outputs (simulated emissivities) were used to train and test the neural network. Then the surface microwave emissivities (pixels that were identified as snow), the skin temperature, and the ground emissivity (emissivities of the snow-free pixel) were used as the inputs of the neural network and to retrieve snow depth, snow density, snow grain size, and liquid water content of the snowpack. An evaluation of the methodology has been developed to assess the performance of the retrieval product on different spatial and temporal scales. The method was able to retrieve dry snow successfully. The method was able to identify wet snowpack. With the retrieved snow depth and density it was possible to estimate SWE. A comparison of snow depth and SWE with Chang algorithm showed a 0.9 correlation. In comparison with CMC the retrieved depth and SWE were higher. It was concluded that the algorithm is well able to measure dry snow depth and SWE spatially and temporally.

  5. Anomalous Biophoton Emission during Germination Process of Red Bean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kai, Shoichi; Mitani, Tomohiko; Fujikawa, Masahiro

    1993-03-01

    Spontaneous biophoton emission was investigated for the germination and the growth process of a red bean seed. The growth process of the root of a red bean after germination was statistically investigated for a total of 2000 seeds whose average root growth dynamics was well described by a simple logistic equation. Strong biophoton emission was observed at two inflection points of the logistic curve. Namely, when maximum acceleration of the root growth occurred, maximum biophoton emission was observed.

  6. Estimations of deciduous forest biomass by analyzing vegetation microwave emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhongjun; Zhang, Lixin; Zhao, Shaojie; Wang, Huan

    2011-09-01

    Forest is important in global carbon cycle and has potential impact on global climatic change. Whether the soil moisture under forest area can be detected by microwave emission signature is unknown due to the dense forest cover. Also, the relationship between forest biomass and its microwave emissivity and transmissivity is of interest to be studied. The microwave emission contribution received by the radiometer above the forest canopy comes from both the soil surface and vegetation layer. In this study, a high-order emission model, Matrix-Doubling, was employed to simulate the emissivity of a young deciduous forest. A field experiment before and after watering the deciduous tree stand was carried in June 5, 2011 in Baoding, China to verify the model, and to measure the tree transmissivity. A tree was selected to be cut to measure the tree parameters and weighed its biomass. Assuming the forest as a non-scattering medium, the effective single-scattering albedo is obtained for 0th-order model by fitting the same emissivity from Matrix-Doubling model. For lower albedo which could be ignored, transmissivity of trees can be deduced by measured Brightness Temperatures before and after watering the underlying soil. The relationship between forest biomass and its transmissivity is presented in this paper.

  7. A search for microwave emission from cosmic ray air showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Christopher Lee

    At the highest energies, the sources of cosmic rays should be among the most powerful extragalactic accelerators. Large observatories have revealed a flux suppression above a few 1019 eV, similar to the expected effect of the interaction of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays (UHECR) with the cosmic microwave background. The Pierre Auger Observatory has measured the largest sample of cosmic ray induced extensive air showers (EAS) at the highest energies leading to a precise measurement of the energy spectrum, hints of spatial anisotropy, and a surprising change in the chemical composition at the highest energies. To answer the question of the origin of UHECRs a larger sample of high quality data will be required to reach a statistically significant result. One of the possible techniques suggested to achieve this much larger data sample, in a cost effective way, is ultra-wide field of view microwave telescopes which would operate in an analogous way to the already successful fluorescence detection (FD) technique. Detecting EAS in microwaves could be done with 100% duty cycle and essentially no atmospheric effects. This presents many advantages over the FD which has a 10% duty cycle and requires extensive atmospheric monitoring for calibration. We have pursued both prototype detector designs and improved laboratory measurements, the results of which are reported herein, and published in (Alvarez-Muniz et al., 2013; Alvarez-Muniz et al., 2012a; Williams et al., 2013; Alvarez-Muniz et al., 2013). The Microwave Detection of Air Showers (MIDAS) experiment is the first ultra-wide field of view imaging telescope deployed to detect isotropic microwave emission from EAS. With 61 days of livetime data operating on the University of Chicago campus we were able to set new limits on isotropic microwave emission from extensive air showers. The new limits rule out current laboratory air plasma measurements (Gorham et al., 2008) by more than five sigma. The MIDAS experiment continues to take data installed in Argentina, operating in coincidence with the Pierre Auger Observatory. Using the first 70 days of livetime data combined with a sample of EAS events from the Auger surface detector we are able to set a preliminary limit which is even more stringent than that set with the Chicago data set. Test beam efforts performed at Argonne National Lab, The Microwave Air Yield Beam Experiment (MAYBE), have successfully measured a microwave signal which exhibits linear scaling with energy deposit in a frequency range of 1 GHz to 15 GHz. This measurement has produced strong upper limits on the isotropic emission of microwaves from air plasmas.

  8. Imaging spectroscopy of solar microwave radiation. 1: Flaring emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Jeremy; Gary, Dale E.; Hurford, Gordon J.; Lemen, James R.

    1994-01-01

    We present observations of an impulsive microwave burst on the Sun with both high spatial and spectral resolution, made with the Solar Array at the Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO). We used the measured brightness temperature spectrum to infer the emission process responsible for each microwave source, and to derive physical conditions in the source region. We confimed our predictions using soft X-ray measurements from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES), soft X-ray images from Yohkoh, and H-alpha flare images together with sunspots and magnetogram images from the Big Bear Solar Observatory.

  9. Quantifying Uncertainties in Land-Surface Microwave Emissivity Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tian, Yudong; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Harrison, Kenneth W.; Prigent, Catherine; Norouzi, Hamidreza; Aires, Filipe; Boukabara, Sid-Ahmed; Furuzawa, Fumie A.; Masunaga, Hirohiko

    2013-01-01

    Uncertainties in the retrievals of microwaveland-surface emissivities are quantified over two types of land surfaces: desert and tropical rainforest. Retrievals from satellite-based microwave imagers, including the Special Sensor Microwave Imager, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Microwave Imager, and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System, are studied. Our results show that there are considerable differences between the retrievals from different sensors and from different groups over these two land-surface types. In addition, the mean emissivity values show different spectral behavior across the frequencies. With the true emissivity assumed largely constant over both of the two sites throughout the study period, the differences are largely attributed to the systematic and random errors inthe retrievals. Generally, these retrievals tend to agree better at lower frequencies than at higher ones, with systematic differences ranging 1%-4% (3-12 K) over desert and 1%-7% (3-20 K) over rainforest. The random errors within each retrieval dataset are in the range of 0.5%-2% (2-6 K). In particular, at 85.5/89.0 GHz, there are very large differences between the different retrieval datasets, and within each retrieval dataset itself. Further investigation reveals that these differences are most likely caused by rain/cloud contamination, which can lead to random errors up to 10-17 K under the most severe conditions.

  10. Flutter effect and emission in the region of anomalous and normal doppler effects

    SciTech Connect

    Nemtsov, B.E.

    1986-06-01

    This paper investigates the excitation (flutter) of a membrane in the flow of a liquid of finite depth due to the emission of long gravity waves. It is shown that loss of stability occurs due to predominance of emission of gravity waves of negative energy (anomalous Doppler effect) over waves of positive energy. Estimates of typical increments are presented; the instability develops during a period that approximately equals 1/7 sec.

  11. Aircraft measurements of microwave emission from Arctic Sea ice

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilheit, T.; Nordberg, W.; Blinn, J.; Campbell, W.; Edgerton, A.

    1971-01-01

    Measurements of the microwave emission from Arctic Sea ice were made with aircraft at 8 wavelengths ranging from 0.510 to 2.81 cm. The expected contrast in emissivities between ice and water was observed at all wavelengths. Distributions of sea ice and open water were mapped from altitudes up to 11 km in the presence of dense cloud cover. Different forms of ice also exhibited strong contrasts in emissivity. Emissivity differences of up to 0.2 were observed between two types of ice at the 0.811-cm wavelength. The higher emissivity ice type is tentatively identified as having been formed more recently than the lower emissivity ice. ?? 1971.

  12. Observations of microwave continuum emission from air shower plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Gorham, P. W.; Lehtinen, N. G.; Varner, G. S.; Hebert, C. L.; Miki, C.; Kowalski, J.; Ruckman, L.; Stokes, B. T.; Beatty, J. J.; Connolly, A.; Saltzberg, D.; Chen, P.; Hast, C.; Ng, J.; Reil, K.; Walz, D.; Conde, M. E.; Gai, W.; Konecny, R.; Power, J. G.

    2008-08-01

    We investigate a possible new technique for microwave detection of cosmic-ray extensive air showers which relies on detection of expected continuum radiation in the microwave range, caused by free-electron collisions with neutrals in the tenuous plasma left after the passage of the shower. We performed an initial experiment at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator laboratory in 2003 and measured broadband microwave emission from air ionized via high-energy electrons and photons. A follow-up experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center in the summer of 2004 confirmed the major features of the previous Argonne Wakefield Accelerator observations with better precision. Prompted by these results we built a prototype detector using satellite television technology and have made measurements suggestive of the detection of cosmic-ray extensive air showers. The method, if confirmed by experiments now in progress, could provide a high-duty cycle complement to current nitrogen fluorescence observations.

  13. Microwave thermal emission from periodic surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, J. A.; Lin, S. L.; Chuang, S. L.

    1984-01-01

    The emissivity of a periodic surface is calculated from one minus the reflectivity by using the reciprocity principle. The reflectivity consists of the sum of all scattered power as determined from the modal theory which obeys both the principle of reciprocity and the principle of energy conservation. The theoretical results are matched to experimental data obtained from brightness temperature measurements as functions of viewing angle for soil moisture in plowed fields. The threshold phenomenon with regard to the appearing and disappearing of modes in their contributions to the scattered field amplitudes is discussed in connection with the theoretical results. It is shown that this approach for calculating the emissivity greatly reduces computational efforts by requiring substantially smaller matrix sizes.

  14. Observations Of Microwave Frequency Electromagnetic Emissions From Lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, D.; Beasley, W. H.

    2011-12-01

    Lightning is well known to generate electromagnetic emissions ranging in frequency from near DC to visible light and beyond. Numerous studies have been conducted of the radio-frequency emissions ranging from DC through UHF and microwave frequencies using single antenna, interferometric and multi-station time-of-arrival techniques. These studies have produced detailed accounts of large-scale currents, virgin negative leader breakdown, breakdown of previously established lightning leader channels of both polarities, and thundercloud charge structure. However, there remain important gaps in these accounts such as virgin positive leader breakdown and lightning initiation. In an attempt to address these and other gaps in understanding, we are undertaking a new observational study of microwave emissions from lightning. Traditional studies have focused on frequencies up to UHF, but have mostly ignored microwave frequencies. We are investigating the possibility that rf emissions at microwave frequencies may contain valuable information regarding electrical discharge processes in thunderstorm clouds. The study is ongoing, with completed observations at 1.6 GHz showing the expected impulsive structure of negative stepped leaders but also showing highly impulsive radiation during both descending dart leaders and ascending return strokes. The return strokes are particularly interesting as they generate a rapid and crowded burst of relatively strong impulses with pulse widths on the order of 100 nanoseconds or less and burst lengths on the order of 100 microseconds. The return- stroke bursts are observed to occur for both first and subsequent return strokes and possibly strong intracloud discharges. Because of their distinct structure and relatively strong intensity, these bursts may provide a relatively simple metric for quantifying lightning channel extent and return- stroke intensity.

  15. Snow property measurements correlative to microwave emission at 35 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Robert E.; Dozier, Jeff; Chang, Alfred T. C.

    1987-01-01

    Snow microstructure, measured by plane section analysis, and snow wetness, measured by the dilution method, are used to calculate input parameters for a microwave emission model that uses the radiative transfer method. The scattering and absorbing properties are calculated by Mie theory. The effects of different equivalent sphere conversions, adjustments for near-field interference, and different snow wetness characterizations are compared for various snow conditions. The concentric shell geometry of liquid water in snow yields higher emissivities and better model results than the separate-sphere configuration for liquid water contents greater than 0.05, while at lower liquid water contents the separate-sphere treatment gives better results.

  16. Snow property measurements correlative to microwave emission at 35 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, R. E.; Dozier, J.; Chang, A. T. C.

    1986-01-01

    Snow microstructure, measured by plane section analysis, and snow wetness, measured by the dilution method, are used to calculate input parameters for a microwave emission model that uses the radiative transfer method. The scattering and absorbing properties are calculated by Mie theory. The effects of different equivalent sphere conversions, adjustments for near-field interference, and different snow wetness characterizations are compared for various snow conditions. The concentric shell geometry of liquid water in snow yields higher emissivities and better model results than the separate-sphere configuration for liquid water contents greater than 0.05, while at lower liquid water contents the separate-sphere treatment gives better results.

  17. HARD X-RAY AND MICROWAVE EMISSIONS FROM SOLAR FLARES WITH HARD SPECTRAL INDICES

    SciTech Connect

    Kawate, T.; Nishizuka, N.; Oi, A.; Ohyama, M.; Nakajima, H.

    2012-03-10

    We analyze 10 flare events that radiate intense hard X-ray (HXR) emission with significant photons over 300 keV to verify that the electrons that have a common origin of acceleration mechanism and energy power-law distribution with solar flares emit HXRs and microwaves. Most of these events have the following characteristics. HXRs emanate from the footpoints of flare loops, while microwaves emanate from the tops of flare loops. The time profiles of the microwave emission show delays of peak with respect to those of the corresponding HXR emission. The spectral indices of microwave emissions show gradual hardening in all events, while the spectral indices of the corresponding HXR emissions are roughly constant in most of the events, though rather rapid hardening is simultaneously observed in some for both indices during the onset time and the peak time. These characteristics suggest that the microwave emission emanates from the trapped electrons. Then, taking into account the role of the trapping of electrons for the microwave emission, we compare the observed microwave spectra with the model spectra calculated by a gyrosynchrotron code. As a result, we successfully reproduce the eight microwave spectra. From this result, we conclude that the electrons that have a common acceleration and a common energy distribution with solar flares emit both HXR and microwave emissions in the eight events, though microwave emission is contributed to by electrons with much higher energy than HXR emission.

  18. Springtime microwave emissivity changes in the southern Kara Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, Robert G.; Anderson, Mark R.

    1994-01-01

    Springtime microwave brightness temperatures over first-year ice are examined for the southern Kara Sea. Snow emissivity changes are revealed by episodic drops in the 37- to 18-GHz brightness temperature gradient ratio measured by the Nimbus 7 scanning multichannel microwave radiometer. We suggest that the negative gradient ratios in spring 1982 result from increased scatter at 37 GHz due to the formation of a near-surface hoar layer. This interpretation is supported by the results of a surface radiation balance model that shows the melt signature occurring at below freezing temperatures but under clear-sky conditions with increased solar input to the surface. Published observations from the Greenland ice cap show a surface hoar layer forming under similar atmospheric conditions owing to the increased penetration and absorption of solar radiation just below the surface layer. In spring/early summer 1984 similar gradient ratio signatures occur. They appear to be due to several days of freeze-thaw cycling following the movement of a low-pressure system through the region. These changes in surface emissivity represent the transition from winter to summer conditions (as defined by the microwave response) and are shown to be regional in extent and to vary with the synoptic circulations.

  19. Anomalous coherence peak in the microwave conductivity of c-axis oriented MgB2 thin films.

    PubMed

    Jin, B B; Dahm, T; Gubin, A I; Choi, Eun-Mi; Kim, Hyun Jung; Lee, Sung-Ik; Kang, W N; Klein, N

    2003-09-19

    The temperature dependence of the real part of the microwave complex conductivity at 17.9 GHz obtained from surface impedance measurements of two c-axis oriented MgB2 thin films reveals a pronounced maximum at a temperature around 0.6 times the critical temperature. Calculations in the frame of a two-band model based on Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory suggest that this maximum corresponds to an anomalous coherence peak resembling the two-gap nature of MgB2. Our model assumes there is no interband impurity scattering and a weak interband pairing interaction, as suggested by band structure calculations. In addition, the observation of a coherence peak indicates that the pi band is in the dirty limit and dominates the total conductivity of our films. PMID:14525394

  20. Quantifying Uncertainties in Land Surface Microwave Emissivity Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tian, Yudong; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Harrison, Kenneth W.; Prigent, Catherine; Norouzi, Hamidreza; Aires, Filipe; Boukabara, Sid-Ahmed; Furuzawa, Fumie A.; Masunaga, Hirohiko

    2012-01-01

    Uncertainties in the retrievals of microwave land surface emissivities were quantified over two types of land surfaces: desert and tropical rainforest. Retrievals from satellite-based microwave imagers, including SSM/I, TMI and AMSR-E, were studied. Our results show that there are considerable differences between the retrievals from different sensors and from different groups over these two land surface types. In addition, the mean emissivity values show different spectral behavior across the frequencies. With the true emissivity assumed largely constant over both of the two sites throughout the study period, the differences are largely attributed to the systematic and random errors in the retrievals. Generally these retrievals tend to agree better at lower frequencies than at higher ones, with systematic differences ranging 14% (312 K) over desert and 17% (320 K) over rainforest. The random errors within each retrieval dataset are in the range of 0.52% (26 K). In particular, at 85.0/89.0 GHz, there are very large differences between the different retrieval datasets, and within each retrieval dataset itself. Further investigation reveals that these differences are mostly likely caused by rain/cloud contamination, which can lead to random errors up to 1017 K under the most severe conditions.

  1. Thermal microwave emission from half-space random media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsang, L.; Kong, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Brightness temperatures resulting from microwave thermal emission from a half-space random medium are calculated. The random medium has a nonuniform temperature profile and is characterized by correlation functions that possess both vertical and lateral variations. Radiative transfer equations are derived. They are solved with an iterative integral equation approach for small scattering albedo and with a numerical approach for general cases. New results are illustrated, discussed, and compared with various special cases. Phenomena caused by resonant scattering, which is absent under Rayleigh approximations, are revealed. Scattering in the lateral direction contributes to the decrease of the equivalent reflectivity and the increase of the brightness temperature.

  2. Subsurface Emission Effects in AMSR-E Measurements: Implications for Land Surface Microwave Emissivity Retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galantowicz, John F.; Moncet, Jean-Luc; Liang, Pan; Lipton, Alan E.; Uymin, Gennady; Prigent, Catherine; Grassotti, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    An analysis of land surface microwave emission time series shows that the characteristic diurnal signature associated with subsurface emission in sandy deserts carry over to arid and semi-arid region worldwide. Prior work found that diurnal variation of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) brightness temperatures in deserts was small relative to International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project land surface temperature (LST) variation and that the difference varied with surface type and was largest in sand sea regions. Here we find more widespread subsurface emission effects in Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS (AMSR-E) measurements. The AMSR-E orbit has equator crossing times near 01:30 and 13 :30 local time, resulting in sampling when near-surface temperature gradients are likely to be large and amplifying the influence of emission depth on effective emitting temperature relative to other factors. AMSR-E measurements are also temporally coincident with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LST measurements, eliminating time lag as a source of LST uncertainty and reducing LST errors due to undetected clouds. This paper presents monthly global emissivity and emission depth index retrievals for 2003 at 11, 19, 37, and 89 GHz from AMSR-E, MODIS, and SSM/I time series data. Retrieval model fit error, stability, self-consistency, and land surface modeling results provide evidence for the validity of the subsurface emission hypothesis and the retrieval approach. An analysis of emission depth index, emissivity, precipitation, and vegetation index seasonal trends in northern and southern Africa suggests that changes in the emission depth index may be tied to changes in land surface moisture and vegetation conditions

  3. Microwave snow emission modeling uncertainties in boreal and subarctic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Alexandre; Royer, Alain; St-Jean-Rondeau, Olivier; Montpetit, Benoit; Picard, Ghislain; Mavrovic, Alex; Marchand, Nicolas; Langlois, Alexandre

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to better understand and quantify the uncertainties in microwave snow emission models using the Dense Media Radiative Theory Multi-Layer model (DMRT-ML) with in situ measurements of snow properties. We use surface-based radiometric measurements at 10.67, 19 and 37 GHz in boreal forest and subarctic environments and a new in situ data set of measurements of snow properties (profiles of density, snow grain size and temperature, soil characterization and ice lens detection) acquired in the James Bay and Umiujaq regions of Northern Québec, Canada. A snow excavation experiment - where snow was removed from the ground to measure the microwave emission of bare frozen ground - shows that small-scale spatial variability (less than 1 km) in the emission of frozen soil is small. Hence, in our case of boreal organic soil, variability in the emission of frozen soil has a small effect on snow-covered brightness temperature (TB). Grain size and density measurement errors can explain the errors at 37 GHz, while the sensitivity of TB at 19 GHz to snow increases during the winter because of the snow grain growth that leads to scattering. Furthermore, the inclusion of observed ice lenses in DMRT-ML leads to significant improvements in the simulations at horizontal polarization (H-pol) for the three frequencies (up to 20 K of root mean square error). However, representation of the spatial variability of TB remains poor at 10.67 and 19 GHz at H-pol given the spatial variability of ice lens characteristics and the difficulty in simulating snowpack stratigraphy related to the snow crust. The results also show that, in our study with the given forest characteristics, forest emission reflected by the snow-covered surface can increase the TB up to 40 K. The forest contribution varies with vegetation characteristics and a relationship between the downwelling contribution of vegetation and the proportion of pixels occupied by vegetation (trees) in fisheye pictures was found. We perform a comprehensive analysis of the components that contribute to the snow-covered microwave signal, which will help to develop DMRT-ML and to improve the required field measurements. The analysis shows that a better consideration of ice lenses and snow crusts is essential to improve TB simulations in boreal forest and subarctic environments.

  4. Microwave snow emission modeling uncertainties in boreal and subarctic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, A.; Royer, A.; St-Jean-Rondeau, O.; Montpetit, B.; Picard, G.; Mavrovic, A.; Marchand, N.; Langlois, A.

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to better understand and quantify the uncertainties in microwave snow emission models using the Dense Media Radiative Theory-Multilayer model (DMRT-ML) with in situ measurements of snow properties. We use surface-based radiometric measurements at 10.67, 19 and 37 GHz in boreal forest and subarctic environments and a new in situ dataset of measurements of snow properties (profiles of density, snow grain size and temperature, soil characterization and ice lens detection) acquired in the James Bay and Umijuaq regions of Northern Québec, Canada. A snow excavation experiment - where snow was removed from the ground to measure the microwave emission of bare frozen ground - shows that small-scale spatial variability in the emission of frozen soil is small. Hence, variability in the emission of frozen soil has a small effect on snow-covered brightness temperature (TB). Grain size and density measurement errors can explain the errors at 37 GHz, while the sensitivity of TB at 19 GHz to snow increases during the winter because of the snow grain growth that leads to scattering. Furthermore, the inclusion of observed ice lenses in DMRT-ML leads to significant improvements in the simulations at horizontal polarization (H-pol) for the three frequencies (up to 20 K of root mean square error). However, the representation of the spatial variability of TB remains poor at 10.67 and 19 GHz at H-pol given the spatial variability of ice lens characteristics and the difficulty in simulating snowpack stratigraphy related to the snow crust. The results also show that for ground-based radiometric measurements, forest emission reflected by the surface leads to TB underestimation of up to 40 K if neglected. We perform a comprehensive analysis of the components that contribute to the snow-covered microwave signal, which will help to develop DMRT-ML and to improve the required field measurements. The analysis shows that a better consideration of ice lenses and snow crusts is essential to improve TB simulations in boreal forest and subarctic environments.

  5. Anomalous Emissions of Sulfur Dioxide and Seismicity of San Miguel Volcano, EL Salvador in October, 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olmos, R.; Barahona, F.; Hernández, A.; Cartagena, R.; Henríquez, B.; López, D.; Cárdenas, C.; Galle, B.

    2007-12-01

    San Miguel (also known as Chaparrastique) volcano in eastern El Salvador is located 15 km southwest of the city of San Miguel. This volcano has erupted more than 30 times since 1699, with the last gas and ash emission on January 16, 2002. During 2006, San Miguel presented anomalous gas emissions and seismicity. In this work, the seismic parameters reported by SNET (Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales de El Salvador) and the crater gas emissions measured by researchers of the University of El Salvador are compared. For the gas efflux, two types of measurements were done using the Mini-DOAS system (Galle et al., 2002): transects around the crater perimeter (~100 m) and transects following roads located between 5 and 10 km from the crater. Several measurements between October 2005 and May 2006 indicate that the sulfur dioxide efflux during quiet periods is around 20 ton/day. From May to June 2006, a progressive increase in fumarolic activity and noise from gas emissions were observed. From May to August 2006, the sulfur dioxide emissions increased to 60 ton/day. A seismic crisis started on October 9, 2006, increasing the RSAM from 10-20 to 208 on October 10, 2006. During this time, the sulfur dioxide efflux reached a maximum of 492 ton/day. This increase in sulfur dioxide efflux represents 25 times the basic emissions during the previous quiet period and 8 times the values observed from May to August 2006. The correlation coefficient between sulfur dioxide efflux and RSAM values during this period of time was 0.81, which is statistically significant at a level higher than 99.9% . These anomalous changes in seismicity and sulfur dioxide emissions at San Miguel volcano suggest a magmatic reactivation with an increase in the exsolution of magma volatiles, long period seismic events, and volcanic tremor.

  6. Effect of texture on microwave emission from soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmugge, T. J.

    1980-01-01

    The intensity brightness temperature, T(B), of the microwave emission from the soil is determined primarily by its dielectric properties. The large difference between the dielectric constant of water and that of dry soil produces a strong dependence of the soil's dielectric constant on its moisture content. This dependence is effected by the texture of the soil because the water molecules close to the particle surface are tightly bound and do not contribute significantly to the dielectric properties. Since this surface area is a function of the particle size distribution (soil texture), being larger for clay soils with small particles, and smaller for sandy soils with larger particles, the dielectric properties will depend on soil texture. This dependence has been demonstrated by laboratory measurements of the dielectric constant for soils which are briefly summarized. The dependence of the microwave emission on texture is demonstrated by measurements of T(B) from an aircraft platform for a wide range of soil textures. It is concluded that the effect of soil texture differences on the observed T(B) values can be normalized by expressing the soil moisture values as a percentage of field capacity for the soil.

  7. SLOW MAGNETOACOUSTIC OSCILLATIONS IN THE MICROWAVE EMISSION OF SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.; Shibasaki, K.

    2012-09-10

    Analysis of the microwave data, obtained in the 17 GHz channel of the Nobeyama Radioheliograph during the M1.6 flare on 2010 November 4, revealed the presence of 12.6 minute oscillations of the emitting plasma density. The oscillations decayed with the characteristic time of about 15 minutes. Similar oscillations with the period of about 13.8 minutes and the decay time of 25 minutes are also detected in the variation of EUV emission intensity measured in the 335 A channel of the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly. The observed properties of the oscillations are consistent with the oscillations of hot loops observed by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Solar Ultraviolet Measurement of Emitted Radiation (SUMER) in the EUV spectra in the form of periodic Doppler shift. Our analysis presents the first direct observations of the slow magnetoacoustic oscillations in the microwave emission of a solar flare, complementing accepted interpretations of SUMER hot loop oscillations as standing slow magnetoacoustic waves.

  8. Effect of soil texture on the microwave emission from soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmugge, T. J.

    1980-01-01

    The intensity brightness temperature of the microwave emission from the soil is determined primarily by its dielectric properties. The large difference between the dielectric constant of water and that of dry soil produces a strong dependence of the soil's dielectric constant on its moisture content. This dependence is effected by the texture of the soil because the water molecules close to the particle surface are tightly bound and do not contribute significantly to the dielectric properties. Since this surface area is a function of the particle size distribution (soil texture), being larger for clay soils with small particles, and smaller for sandy soils with larger particles; the dielectric properties will depend on soil texture. Laboratory measurements of the dielectric constant for soils are summarized. The dependence of the microwave emission on texture is demonstrated by measurements of brightness temperature from an aircraft platform for a wide range of soil textures. It is concluded that the effect of soil texture differences on the observed values can be normalized by expressing the soil moisture values as a percent field capacity for the soil.

  9. First Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Foreground Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, C. L.; Hill, R. S.; Hinshaw, G.; Nolta, M. R.; Odegard, N.; Page, L.; Spergel, D. N.; Weiland, J. L.; Wright, E. L.; Halpern, M.

    2003-01-01

    The WMAP mission has mapped the full sky to determine the geometry, content, and evolution of the universe. Full sky maps are made in five microwave frequency bands to separate the temperature anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) from foreground emission, including diffuse Galactic emission and Galactic and extragalactic point sources. We define masks that excise regions of high foreground emission, so CMB analyses can became out with minimal foreground contamination. We also present maps and spectra of the individual emission components, leading to an improved understanding of Galactic astrophysical processes. The effectiveness of template fits to remove foreground emission from the WMAP data is also examined. These efforts result in a CMB map with minimal contamination and a demonstration that the WMAP CMB power spectrum is insensitive to residual foreground emission. We use a Maximum Entropy Method to construct a model of the Galactic emission components. The observed total Galactic emission matches the model to less than 1% and the individual model components are accurate to a few percent. We find that the Milky Way resembles other normal spiral galaxies between 408 MHz and 23 GHz, with a synchrotron spectral index that is flattest (beta(sub s) approx. -2.5) near star-forming regions, especially in the plane, and steepest (beta(sub s) approx. -3) in the halo. This is consistent with a picture of relativistic cosmic ray electron generation in star-forming regions and diffusion and convection within the plane. The significant synchrotron index steepening out of the plane suggests a diffusion process in which the halo electrons are trapped in the Galactic potential long enough to suffer synchrotron and inverse Compton energy losses and hence a spectral steepening. The synchrotron index is steeper in the WMAP bands than in lower frequency radio surveys, with a spectral break near 20 GHz to beta(sub s) less than -3. The modeled thermal dust spectral index is also steep in the WMAP bands, with beta(sub d) approx. = 2.2. Our model is driven to these conclusions by the low level of total foreground contamination at approx. 60 GHz. Microwave and Ha measurements of the ionized gas agree well with one another at about the expected levels. Spinning dust emission is limited to less than 5% of the Ka-band foreground emission. A catalog of 208 point sources is presented. The reliability of the catalog is 98%, i.e., we expect five of the 208 sources to be statistically spurious. The mean spectral index of the point sources is alpha approx. 0(beta approx. -2). Derived source counts suggest a contribution to the anisotropy power from unresolved sources of (15.0 +/- 1.4) x 10(exp -3)micro sq K sr at Q-band and negligible levels at V-band and W-band. The Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect is shown to be a negligible "contamination" to the maps.

  10. On the Extended Emission of the Anomalous X-ray Pulsar IE 1547.0-5408

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olausen, S. A.; Kaspi, V. M.; Ng, C. -Y.; Zhu, W. W.; Gavriil, F. P.; Woods, P. M.

    2012-01-01

    We present an analysis of the extended emission around the anomalous X-ray pulsar IE 1547.0-5408 using four XMM-Newton observations taken with the source in varying states of outburst as well as in quiescence. We find that the extended emission flux is highly variable and strongly correlated with the flux of the magnetar. Based on this result, as well as on spectral and energetic considerations, we conclude that the extended emission is dominated by a dust-scattering halo and not a pulsar wind nebula (P-VVN), as has been previously argued. We obtain an upper limit on the 2-10 keV flux of a possible PWN of 4.7 x 10(exp -14) erg/s/sq cm, three times less than the previously claimed value, implying an efficiency for conversion of spin-down energy into nebular luminosity of <9 x 10(exp -4) .

  11. The Effect of Intercepted Precipitation on the Microwave Emission of Maize at 1.4 GHz

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Terrestrial microwave emission is sensitive to soil moisture. Soil moisture is an important yet unobserved reservoir of the hydrologic cycle linked to precipitation variability. Remote sensing satellites that observe terrestrial microwave emission have the potential to map the spatial and temporal...

  12. Frequency agile microwave photonic notch filter with anomalously high stopband rejection.

    PubMed

    Marpaung, David; Morrison, Blair; Pant, Ravi; Eggleton, Benjamin J

    2013-11-01

    We report a novel class microwave photonic (MWP) notch filter with a very narrow isolation bandwidth (10 MHz), an ultrahigh stopband rejection (>60 dB), a wide frequency tuning (1-30 GHz), and flexible bandwidth reconfigurability (10-65 MHz). This performance is enabled by a new concept of sideband amplitude and phase controls using an electro-optic modulator and an optical filter. This concept enables energy efficient operation in active MWP notch filters, and opens up a pathway toward enabling low-power nanophotonic devices as high-performance RF filters. PMID:24177078

  13. Optics of an individual organic molecular mesowire waveguide: directional light emission and anomalous refractive index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Ravi P. N.; Dasgupta, Arindam; Chikkaraddy, Rohit; Pratim Patra, Partha; Vasista, Adarsh B.; Pavan Kumar, G. V.

    2016-06-01

    We report on experimental investigations performed on an isolated organic mesowire waveguide resting on a glass substrate. The waveguide was made of diaminoanthraquinone (DAAQ) molecular aggregates. First, we show directional emission of light from distal ends of the DAAQ waveguide. For a given mesowire geometry, operating in passive or photoluminescence regimes, we quantified the emission angles by combining multi-wavelength Fourier-plane optical microscopy and photoluminescence micro-spectroscopy. We found light emission in the photoluminescence regime to be more directional in nature compared to the passive waveguiding regime, which was supported by three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations. Second, we measured the anomalous behaviour of refractive index as a function of emission wavelength using the spectra of directionally emitted light. Third, by using spatial-filtered collection optics, we observed and quantified single-excitation dual-channel directional, active emission from DAAQ mesowire. The results discussed herein has implication not only in understanding some fundamental aspects of exciton-polariton mediated directional light emission, but also in applications such as organic optical antennas and photonic couplers.

  14. Effects of soil tillage on the microwave emission of soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, T. J.; Koopman, G. J.; Oneill, P. E.; Wang, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    In order to understand the interactions of soil properties and microwave emission better, a series of field experiments were conducted in 1984. Small plots were measured with a truck-mounted passive microwave radiometer operating at 1.4 GHz. These data were collected concurrent with ground observations of soil moisture and bulk density. Treatment effects studied included different soil moisture contents and bulk densities. Evaluations of the data have shown that commonly used models of the dielectric properties of wet soils do not explain the observations obtained in these experiments. This conclusion was based on the fact that the roughness parameters determined through optimization were significantly larger than those observed in similar investigations. These discrepancies are most likely due to the soil structure. Commonly used models assume a homogeneous three phase mixture of soil solids, air and water. Under tilled conditions the soil is actually a two phase mixture of aggregates and voids. Appropriate dielectric models for this tilled condition were evaluated and found to explain the observations. These results indicate that previous conclusions concerning the effects of surface roughness in tilled fields may be incorrect, and they may explain some of the inconsistencies encountered in roughness modeling.

  15. Spectral variation in the microwave emissivity of the roughened seas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloersen, P.; Webster, W. J., Jr.; Wilheit, T. T.; Chang, T. C.; Ross, D. B.

    1974-01-01

    Recently acquired microwave data obtained from the NASA CV 990 research aircraft have yielded variation of sea surface emissivity as a function of various parameters. Data acquired at a wavelength of 1.5 cm, horizontal polarization, agree with data obtained earlier by Nordberg et al. and Hollinger at nadir and 50 deg viewing angles respectively; the ratio of brightness temperature change to wind speed change was found to be approximately 1 K per meter per second over a wind speed range of 5 to 26 meters per second. Combining these recent measurements with the earlier measurements, it is evident that microwave radiometry can be used as a remote-sensing anemometer over all wind speed ranges of interest. Data analysis revealed that for nadir-viewing instruments, the ratio of brightness temperature change to wind speed change was approximately constant for the 0.8-2.8 cm wavelength range, about three-quarters of that value at 6 cm, and nearly zero at 21 cm. A model is proposed that is consistent with observations.

  16. Real-time calibrated microwave plasma mulitmetals emissions monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woskov, Paul P.; Hadidi, Kamal; Thomas, Paul; Green, Karyn; Flores, Guadalupe

    1999-02-01

    Real-time calibrated atomic emission spectroscopy in stack exhaust using a continuously sustained microwave plasma is under development for trace metals monitoring. The plasma, in a shorted waveguide attached to the stack by a short sample line, is powered at 1.5 kW, 2.45 GHz. An undiluted stack slipstream is isokinetically directed into the plasma at a nominal flow of 14 liters per minute. A pneumatic nebulizer attached to the sample line can momentarily, on command, inject a known concentration of metals solution providing a real-time calibration. Recent testing has been performed on the exhaust stack of an incinerator at the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Risk Management Laboratory in Research Triangle Park. Three hazardous metals were monitored, lead, chromium, and beryllium. These measurements were referenced to EPA Method-29. A total of twenty spiked stack exhaust tests were carried out. Ten one-hour tests at high concentration (40 - 60 (mu) g/actual m3) and ten one and half-hour tests at low concentration (10 - 15 (mu) g/actual m3). The microwave plasma monitor achieved measurement accuracies of approximately 20% for lead and beryllium and 40% for chromium with a threshold detection capability of less than 3 (mu) g/actual m3 for a time response of approximately 1-minute. Laboratory work is continuing to add mercury, arsenic, and cadmium to the monitored metals.

  17. Experimental study on the emission spectra of microwave plasma at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Boya; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Guixin; Liao, Shanshan

    2014-01-28

    An experimental study on microwave plasma at atmospheric pressure was conducted by employing optical emission spectroscopy. Based on a microwave plasma generation device developed for nanoparticle synthesis, we studied the influence of input microwave power and gas flow rate on the optical emission behaviors and electron temperature of plasma using Ar, He, and N{sub 2} as working gas, respectively. The physics behind these behaviors was discussed. The results are useful in characterizing microwave plasma at atmospheric pressure and can be used for improving nanoparticle synthesis system for commercial use in the future.

  18. First Experimental Characterization of Microwave Emission from Cosmic Ray Air Showers.

    PubMed

    Smída, R; Werner, F; Engel, R; Arteaga-Velázquez, J C; Bekk, K; Bertaina, M; Blümer, J; Bozdog, H; Brancus, I M; Chiavassa, A; Cossavella, F; Di Pierro, F; Doll, P; Fuchs, B; Fuhrmann, D; Grupen, C; Haungs, A; Heck, D; Hörandel, J R; Huber, D; Huege, T; Kampert, K-H; Kang, D; Klages, H; Kleifges, M; Krömer, O; Link, K; Luczak, P; Ludwig, M; Mathes, H J; Mathys, S; Mayer, H J; Melissas, M; Morello, C; Neunteufel, P; Oehlschläger, J; Palmieri, N; Pekala, J; Pierog, T; Rautenberg, J; Rebel, H; Riegel, M; Roth, M; Salamida, F; Schieler, H; Schoo, S; Schröder, F G; Sima, O; Stasielak, J; Toma, G; Trinchero, G C; Unger, M; Weber, M; Weindl, A; Wilczyński, H; Will, M; Wochele, J; Zabierowski, J

    2014-11-28

    We report the first direct measurement of the overall characteristics of microwave radio emission from extensive air showers. Using a trigger provided by the KASCADE-Grande air shower array, the signals of the microwave antennas of the Cosmic-Ray Observation via Microwave Emission experiment have been read out and searched for signatures of radio emission by high-energy air showers in the GHz frequency range. Microwave signals have been detected for more than 30 showers with energies above 3×10^{16}  eV. The observations presented in this Letter are consistent with a mainly forward-directed and polarized emission process in the GHz frequency range. The measurements show that microwave radiation offers a new means of studying air showers at E≥10^{17}  eV. PMID:25494064

  19. Anomalous Doppler Shift in the Storm-time Midlatitude Red-line Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, B. J.; Makela, J. J.; Bust, G.; Meriwether, J. W.; Mesquita, R.; Sanders, S.; Ridley, A. J.; Castelaz, M.; Ciocca, M.; Earle, G. D.; Frissell, N. A.

    2014-12-01

    Recent observations from a midlatitude network of ground-based Fabry-Perot interferometers (FPIs) have revealed an anomalous blueshift in the spectrum of the red-line 630.0-nm airglow emission looking to the zenith during the geomagnetic storm of 02 Oct 2013 [Makela et al., 2014]. Although the red-line emission is historically interpreted as an indicator of the thermospheric neutral wind at an altitude of 250 km, Makela et al. [2014] argue that the apparent sustained downward winds of 150 m/s are not physical and suggest that during a storm, the emission is contaminated by fast oxygen atoms created by charge exchange with precipitating oxygen ions. We extend this analysis to include every storm with adequate data quality in our FPI database and find that this anomalous blueshift is a persistent effect at midlatitudes. This complicates the interpretation of red-line data collected by FPIs during storm periods. We compare with the ionospheric response to these storms as estimated by an assmiliative model, IDA4D, in order to investigate the possible sources of contamination. References:J. J. Makela, B. J. Harding, J. W. Meriwether, R. Mesquita, S. Sanders, A. J. Ridley, M. W. Castellez, M. Ciocca, G. D. Earle, N. A. Frissell, D. L. Hampton, A. J. Gerrard, J. Noto, and C. R. Martinis, "Storm time response of the mid-latitude thermosphere: Observations from a network of Fabry-Perot interferometers," J. Geophys. Res. Sp. Phys., Jul. 2014. doi: 10.1002/2014JA019832

  20. MICROWAVE POPCORN EMISSIONS RELEASED DURING COOKING AND BAG OPENING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data are not currently available on the contaminants released when microwave popcorn, flavorings and bags are heated to microwave temperatures. Thus, the primary goal of this work is to identify and quantify contaminants emitted while popping and opening a bag of microwave popcor...

  1. Optical properties of metals: Infrared emissivity in the anomalous skin effect spectral region

    SciTech Connect

    Echániz, T.

    2014-09-07

    When the penetration depth of an electromagnetic wave in a metal is similar to the mean free path of the conduction electrons, the Drude classical theory is no longer satisfied and the skin effect becomes anomalous. Physical parameters of this theory for twelve metals were calculated and analyzed. The theory predicts an emissivity peak ε{sub peak} at room temperature in the mid-infrared for smooth surface metals that moves towards larger wavelengths as temperature decreases. Furthermore, the theory states that ε{sub peak} increases with the emission angle but its position, λ{sub peak}, is constant. Copper directional emissivity measurements as well as emissivity obtained using optical constants data confirm the predictions of the theory. Considering the relationship between the specularity parameter p and the sample roughness, it is concluded that p is not the simple parameter it is usually assumed to be. Quantitative comparison between experimental data and theoretical predictions shows that the specularity parameter can be equal to one for roughness values larger than those predicted. An exhaustive analysis of the experimental optical parameters shows signs of a reflectance broad peak in Cu, Al, Au, and Mo around the wavelength predicted by the theory for p = 1.

  2. Optical properties of metals: Infrared emissivity in the anomalous skin effect spectral region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echániz, T.; Pérez-Sáez, R. B.; Tello, M. J.

    2014-09-01

    When the penetration depth of an electromagnetic wave in a metal is similar to the mean free path of the conduction electrons, the Drude classical theory is no longer satisfied and the skin effect becomes anomalous. Physical parameters of this theory for twelve metals were calculated and analyzed. The theory predicts an emissivity peak ɛpeak at room temperature in the mid-infrared for smooth surface metals that moves towards larger wavelengths as temperature decreases. Furthermore, the theory states that ɛpeak increases with the emission angle but its position, λpeak, is constant. Copper directional emissivity measurements as well as emissivity obtained using optical constants data confirm the predictions of the theory. Considering the relationship between the specularity parameter p and the sample roughness, it is concluded that p is not the simple parameter it is usually assumed to be. Quantitative comparison between experimental data and theoretical predictions shows that the specularity parameter can be equal to one for roughness values larger than those predicted. An exhaustive analysis of the experimental optical parameters shows signs of a reflectance broad peak in Cu, Al, Au, and Mo around the wavelength predicted by the theory for p = 1.

  3. The electron injection spectrum determined by anomalous excesses in cosmic ray, gamma ray, and microwave data

    SciTech Connect

    Lin Tongyan; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.; Dobler, Gregory

    2010-07-15

    Recent cosmic ray, gamma ray, and microwave signals observed by Fermi, PAMELA, and WMAP indicate an unexpected primary source of e{sup +}e{sup -} at 10-1000 GeV. We fit these data to 'standard backgrounds' plus a new source, assumed to be a separable function of position and energy. For the spatial part, we consider three cases: annihilating dark matter, decaying dark matter, and pulsars. In each case, we use GALPROP to inject energy in log-spaced energy bins and compute the expected cosmic ray and photon signals for each bin. We then fit a linear combination of energy bins, plus backgrounds, to the data. We use a nonparametric fit, with no prior constraints on the spectrum except smoothness and non-negativity. In addition, we consider arbitrary modifications to the energy spectrum of the ordinary primary source function, fixing its spatial part, finding this alone to be inadequate to explain the PAMELA or WMAP signals. We explore variations in the fits due to choice of magnetic field, primary electron injection index, spatial profiles, propagation parameters, and fit regularization method. Dark matter annihilation fits well, where our fit finds a mass of {approx}1 TeV and a boost factor times energy fraction of {approx}70. While it is possible for dark matter decay and pulsars to fit the data, unconventionally high magnetic fields and radiation densities are required near the Galactic center to counter the relative shallowness of the assumed spatial profiles. We also fit to linear combinations of these three scenarios, though the fit is much less constrained.

  4. Theoretical models of free-free microwave emission from solar magnetic loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brosius, Jeffrey W.; Holman, Gordon D.

    1988-01-01

    The free-free microwave emission is calculated from a series of model magnetic loops. The loops are surrounded by a cooler external plasma, as required by recent simultaneous X ray and microwave observations, and a narrow transition zone separating the loops from the external plasma. To be consistent with the observational results, upper limits on the density and temperature scale lengths in the transition zone are found to be 360 km and 250 km, respectively. The models which best produce agreement with X-ray and microwave observations also yielded emission measure curves which agree well with observational emission measure curves for solar active regions.

  5. AKARI and Spinning Dust: A look at microwave dust emission via the Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Aaron Christopher; Onaka, Takashi; Wu, Ronin; Doi, Yasuo

    2015-08-01

    Rapidly spinning dust particles having a permanent electric dipole moment have been shown to be a likely carrier of the anomalous microwave emission (AME), a continuous excess of microwave flux in the 10 to 90 GHz range. Small grains, possibly polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), are a leading suspect. Due to the overlap frequency overlap with the CMB, the AME is requiring cosmologists to consider the ISM with more care. ISM astronomers are also needing to consider the contribution of cosmological radiation to large-scale dust investigations. We present data from AKARI/Infrared Camera (IRC) due to the effective PAH band coverage of its 9 um survey to investigate PAH emission within 98 AME candidate regions identified by Planck Collaboration et al. (2014). We supplement AKARI data with the four Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) all-sky maps and complement with the Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) bands at 857 and 545GHz to constrain the full dust SED. We sample analyse the SEDs of all 98 regions. We utilize all 7 AKARI photometric bands, as well as the 4 IRAS bands and 2 HFI. We carry out a modified blackbody fitting, and estimate the optical depth of thermal dust at 250 um, and compare this to AME parameters. We also show plots of each band's average intensity for all 98 regions vs. AME parameters. We find a positive trend between the optical depth and AME. In the band-by-band comparison the AKARI 9 um intensity shows a weaker trend with AME. In general, the MIR correlates less strongly with AME than the FIR. The optical depth vs. AME trend improves slightly when looking only at significant AME regions. Scaling the IR intensities by the ISRF strength G0 does not improve the correlations. We cannot offer strong support of a spinning dust model. The results highlight the need for full dust SED modelling, and for a better understanding of the role that magnetic dipole emission from dust grains could play in producing the AME.

  6. Anomalous Series of Bands in the Edge Emission Spectra of CdS(О)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozova, N. K.; Kanakhin, A. A.; Galstyan, V. G.; Shnitnikov, A. S.

    2015-02-01

    The region of the edge emission spectrum of CdS(O) single crystals with cadmium excess is examined. An anomalous series of equidistant bands with leading line at 514 nm and phonon replicas has been revealed. These bands grow in intensity with increase of the excitation density up to 1026-1027 cm-3ṡs-1 at 80 K, and the leading line of the series is observed even at 300 K. It is shown that luminescence is conditioned by the exciton spectrum in perfect bulk single-crystals of CdO. Some characteristics of this spectrum are presented, in particular, the dependence on temperature, excitation intensity, composition and size of the crystals, and the LO interaction. The results experimentally confirm the theoretically calculated magnitude of the direct band gap of CdO.

  7. A large-scale anomaly in Enceladus' microwave emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ries, Paul A.; Janssen, Michael

    2015-09-01

    The Cassini spacecraft flew by Enceladus on 6 November 2011, configured to acquire synthetic aperture RADAR imaging of most of the surface with the RADAR instrument. The pass also recorded microwave thermal emission from most of the surface. We report on global patterns of thermal emission at 2.17 cm based on this data set in the context of additional unresolved data both from the ground and from Cassini. The observed thermal emission is consistent with dielectric constants of pure water or methane ice, but cannot discriminate between the two. The emissivity is similar to those of other icy satellites (≈ 0.7), consistent with volume scattering. The most intriguing result, however, is an anomaly in the thermal emission of Enceladus' leading hemisphere. Evidence presented here suggests the anomaly is buried at depths on the order of a few meters. This anomaly is located in similar geographic location to anomalies previously detected with the CIRS and ISS instruments on Mimas, Tethys, and Dione (Howett, C.J.A. et al. [2011]. Icarus 216, 221-226; Howett, C.J.A. et al. [2012]. Icarus 221, 1084-1088; Howett, C.J.A. et al. [2014]. Icarus 241, 239-247; Schenk, P. et al. [2011]. Icarus 211, 740-757), but also corresponds with a geological feature on Enceladus' leading terrain (Crow-Willard, E., Pappalardo, R.T. [2011]. Global geological mapping of Enceladus. In: EPSC-DPS Joint Meeting 2011. p. 635). Simple models show that the Crow-Willard and Pappalardo (Crow-Willard, E., Pappalardo, R.T. [2011]. Global geological mapping of Enceladus. In: EPSC-DPS Joint Meeting 2011. p. 635) model is a better fit to the data. Our best-supported hypothesis is that the leading hemisphere smooth terrain is young enough (<75-200 Myr old) that the micrometeorite impact gardening depth is shallower than the electromagnetic skin depth of the observations (≈ 3-5 m), a picture consistent with ground and space radar measurements, which show no variation at 2 cm, but an increase in albedo in the anomaly region at 13 cm.

  8. Observed effects of soil organic matter content on the microwave emissivity of soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neill, P. E.; Jackson, T. J.

    1990-01-01

    In order to determine the significance of organic matter content on the microwave emissivity of soils when estimating soil moisture, field experiments were conducted in which 1.4 GHz microwave emissivity data were collected over test plots of sandy loam soil with different organic matter levels (1.8, 4.0, and 6.1 percent) for a range of soil moisture values. Analyses of the observed data show only minor variation in microwave emissivity due to a change in organic matter content at a given moisture level for soils with similar texture and structure. Predictions of microwave emissivity made using a dielectric model for aggregated soils exhibit the same trends and type of response as the measured data when appropriate values for the input parameters were utilized.

  9. Microwave backscattering and emission model for grass canopies

    SciTech Connect

    Saatchi, S.S. ); Le Vine, D.M. . Goddard Space Flight Center); Lang, R.H. . Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering)

    1994-01-01

    Microwave radar and radiometer measurements of grasslands indicate a substantial reduction in sensor sensitivity to soil moisture in the presence of a thatch layer. When this layer is wet it masks changes in the underlying soil, making the canopy appear warm in the case of passive sensors (radiometer) and decreasing backscatter in the active case (scatterometer). A model for a grass canopy with thatch will be presented in this paper to explain this behavior and to compare with observations. The canopy model consists of three layers: grass, thatch, and the underlying soil. The grass blades are modeled by elongated elliptical discs and the thatch is modeled as a collection of disk shaped water droplets (i.e., the dry matter is neglected). The ground is homogeneous and flat. The distorted Born approximation is used to compute the radar cross section of this three layer canopy and the emissivity is computed from the radar cross section using the Peake formulation for the passive problem. Results are computed at L-band (1.4 GHz) and C-band (4.75 GHz) using canopy parameters (i.e., plant geometry, soil moisture, plant moisture, etc.) representative of Konza Prairie grasslands. The results are compared to C-band scatterometer measurements and L-band radiometer measurements at these grasslands.

  10. Electron-cyclotron maser and solar microwave millisecond spike emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Hong-Wei; Li, Chun-Sheng; Fu, Qi-Jun

    1986-01-01

    An intense solar microwave millisecond spike emission (SMMSE) event was observed on May 16, 1981 by Zhao and Jin at Beijing Observatory. The peak flux density of the spikes is high to 5 x 100,000 s.f.u. and the corresponding brightness temperature (BT) reaches approx. 10 to the 15th K. In order to explain the observed properties of SMMSE, it is proposed that a beam of electrons with energy of tens KeV injected from the acceleration region downwards into an emerging magnetic arch forms so-called hollow beam distribution and causes electron-cyclotron maser (ECM) instability. The growth rate of second harmonic X-mode is calculated and its change with time is deduced. It is shown that the saturation time of ECM is t sub s approx. equals 0.42 ms and only at last short stage (delta t less than 0.2 t sub s) the growth rate decreases to zero rather rapidly. So a SMMSE with very high BT will be produced if the ratio of number density of nonthermal electrons to that of background electrons, n sub s/n sub e, is larger than 4 x .00001.

  11. Planck intermediate results. XVII. Emission of dust in the diffuse interstellar medium from the far-infrared to microwave frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck Collaboration; Abergel, A.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Alves, M. I. R.; Aniano, G.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Burigana, C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Crill, B. P.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falgarone, E.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Guillet, V.; Hansen, F. K.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Joncas, G.; Jones, A.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Kalberla, P.; Keihänen, E.; Kerp, J.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G. W.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Savini, G.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Verstraete, L.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Winkel, B.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-06-01

    The dust-Hi correlation is used to characterize the emission properties of dust in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) from far infrared wavelengths to microwave frequencies. The field of this investigation encompasses the part of the southern sky best suited to study the cosmic infrared and microwave backgrounds. We cross-correlate sky maps from Planck, the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), and the diffuse infrared background experiment (DIRBE), at 17 frequencies from 23 to 3000 GHz, with the Parkes survey of the 21 cm line emission of neutral atomic hydrogen, over a contiguous area of 7500 deg2 centred on the southern Galactic pole. We present a general methodology to study the dust-Hi correlation over the sky, including simulations to quantify uncertainties. Our analysis yields four specific results. (1) We map the temperature, submillimetre emissivity, and opacity of the dust per H-atom. The dust temperature is observed to be anti-correlated with the dust emissivity and opacity. We interpret this result as evidence of dust evolution within the diffuse ISM. The mean dust opacity is measured to be (7.1 ± 0.6) × 10-27 cm2 H-1 × (ν/ 353 GHz)1.53 ± 0.03 for 100 ≤ ν ≤ 353 GHz. This is a reference value to estimate hydrogen column densities from dust emission at submillimetre and millimetre wavelengths. (2) We map the spectral index βmm of dust emission at millimetre wavelengths (defined here as ν ≤ 353 GHz), and find it to be remarkably constant at βmm = 1.51 ± 0.13. We compare it with the far infrared spectral index βFIR derived from greybody fits at higher frequencies, and find a systematic difference, βmm - βFIR = - 0.15, which suggests that the dust spectral energy distribution (SED) flattens at ν ≤ 353 GHz. (3) We present spectral fits of the microwave emission correlated with Hi from 23 to 353 GHz, which separate dust and anomalous microwave emission (AME). We show that the flattening of the dust SED can be accounted for with an additional component with a blackbody spectrum. This additional component, which accounts for (26 ± 6)% of the dust emission at 100 GHz, could represent magnetic dipole emission. Alternatively, it could account for an increasing contribution of carbon dust, or a flattening of the emissivity of amorphous silicates, at millimetre wavelengths. These interpretations make different predictions for the dust polarization SED. (4) We analyse the residuals of the dust-Hi correlation. We identify a Galactic contribution to these residuals, which we model with variations of the dust emissivity on angular scales smaller than that of our correlation analysis. This model of the residuals is used to quantify uncertainties of the CIB power spectrum in a companion Planck paper. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  12. An SSM/I radiometer simulator for studies of microwave emission from soil. [Special Sensor Microwave/Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galantowicz, J. F.; England, A. W.

    1992-01-01

    A ground-based simulator of the defense meterological satellite program special sensor microwave/imager (DMSP SSM/I) is described, and its integration with micrometeorological instrumentation for an investigation of microwave emission from moist and frozen soils is discussed. The simulator consists of three single polarization radiometers which are capable of both Dicke radiometer and total power radiometer modes of operation. The radiometers are designed for untended operation through a local computer and a daily telephone link to a laboratory. The functional characteristics of the radiometers are described, together with their field deployment configuration and an example of performance parameters.

  13. Microwave emission from lead zirconate titanate induced by impulsive mechanical load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aman, A.; Majcherek, S.; Hirsch, S.; Schmidt, B.

    2015-10-01

    This paper focuses on microwave emission from Lead zirconate titanate Pb [ZrxTi1-x] O3 (PZT) induced by mechanical stressing. The mechanical stress was initiated by impact of a sharp tungsten indenter on the upper surface of PZT ceramic. The sequences of microwave and current impulses, which flew from indenter to electric ground, were detected simultaneously. The voltage between the upper and lower surface of ceramic was measured to obtain the behavior of mechanical force acting on ceramic during the impact. It was found that the amplitude, form, and frequency of measured microwave impulses were different by compression and restitution phase of impact. Two different mechanisms of electron emission, responsible for microwave impulse generation, were proposed based on the dissimilar impulse behavior. The field emission from tungsten indenter is dominant during compression, whereas ferroemission dominates during restitution phase. Indeed, it was observed that the direction of the current flow, i.e., sign of current impulses is changed by transitions from compression to restitution phase of impact. The observed dissimilar behavior of microwave impulses, caused by increasing and decreasing applied force, can be used to calculate the contact time and behavior of mechanical force during mechanical impact on ceramic surface. It is shown that the generation of microwave impulses exhibits high reproducibility, impulse intensity, a low damping factor, and high mechanical failure resistance. Based on these microwave emission properties of PZT, the development of new type of stress sensor with spatial resolution of few microns becomes possible.

  14. Characterization of Different Land Classes and Disaster Monitoring Using Microwave Land Emissivity for the Indian Subcontinent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Korak; Raju, Suresh; Antony, Tinu; Krishna Moorthy, K.

    Despite the ability of satellite borne microwave radiometers to measure the atmospheric pa-rameters, liquid water and the microphysical properties of clouds, they have serious limitations over the land owing its large and spatially heterogeneous emissivity compared to the relatively low and homogenous oceans. This calls for determination of the spatial maps of land-surface emissivity with accuracies better than ˜2%. In this study, the characterization of microwave emissivity of different land surface classes over the Indian region is carried out with the forth-coming Indo-French microwave satellite program Megha-Tropiques in focus. The land emissivity is retrieved using satellite microwave radiometer data from Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) at 10, 19, 22, 37 and 85 GHz. After identify-ing the clear sky daily data, the microwave radiative transfer computation, is applied to the respective daily atmospheric profile for deducing the upwelling and downwelling atmospheric radiations. This, along with the skin temperature data, is used to retrieve land emission from satellites data. The emissivity maps of placecountry-regionIndia for three months representing winter (January) and post-monsoon (September-October) seasons of 2008 at V and H polar-izations of all the channels (except for 22 GHz) are generated. Though the land emissivity values in V-polarization vary between 0.5 and ˜1, some land surface classes such as the desert region, marshy land, fresh snow covered region and evergreen forest region, etc, show distinct emissivity characteristics. On this basis few typical classes having uniform physical properties over sufficient area are identified. Usually the Indian desert region is dry and shows low emis-sivity (˜0.88 in H-polarisation) and high polarization difference, V-H (˜0.1). Densely vegetated zones of tropical rain forests exhibit high emissivity values (˜0.95) and low polarization dif-ference (lt;0.01). The mangrove forest region and marshy areas exhibit very low emissivities (˜0.8) with very high polarization difference (˜0.2). The usefulness of microwave emissivity to identify and quantify natural disasters such as the inundated regions in the vast Ganga basin during the severe floods in 2008 over country-regionIndia and placecountry-regionBangladesh is also demonstrated as a case study Keywords: Land surface emissivity, Microwave Remote sensing, Megha-Tropiques, Disaster monitoring *corresponding author: koraksaha@gmail.com

  15. Spontaneous coherent microwave emission and the sawtooth instability in a compact storage ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arp, U.; Fraser, G. T.; Hight Walker, A. R.; Lucatorto, T. B.; Lehmann, K. K.; Harkay, K.; Sereno, N.; Kim, K.-J.

    2001-05-01

    Strong evidence for self-excited emission of coherent synchrotron radiation in the microwave spectral region was observed at the Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (SURF III) electron storage ring at the NIST. The microwave emission between 25 and 35 mm was dominated by intense bursts of radiation. The intensity enhancement during these bursts was on the order of 10 000 to 50 000 over the incoherent value. The shape, width, and period of the bursts depend strongly on the operational parameters of the storage ring. Coherent microwave emission was observed only when the beam was unstable, namely, during bunch-length relaxation oscillations. We report on the measurements of the microwave bursts, and correlate the data with signals from a beam monitor electrode and photodiode detector. The coherent enhancement of the radiation intensity is ascribed to spontaneous self-induced microbunching of the electrons within the bunch.

  16. Application of microwave energy in the control of DPM, oxides of nitrogen and VOC emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallavkar, Sameer M.

    The emissions of DPM (diesel particulate matter), NOx (oxides of nitrogen), and toxic VOCs (volatile organic compounds) from diesel engine exhaust gases and other sources such as chemical process industry and manufacturing industry have been a great environmental and health concern. Most control technologies for these emissions require elevated temperatures. The use of microwave energy as a source of heat energy, however, has not been fully explored. In this study, the microwave energy was used as the energy source in three separate emission control processes, namely, the regeneration of diesel particulate filter (DPF) for DPM control, the NOx reduction using a platinum catalyst, and the VOC destruction involving a ceramic based material. The study has demonstrated that microwave heating is an effective method in providing heat for the studied processes. The control efficiencies associated with the microwave-assisted processes have been observed to be high and acceptable. Further research, however, is required for the commercial use of these technologies.

  17. Microwave thermal emission from the zodiacal dust cloud predicted with contemporary meteoroid models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikarev, Valery V.; Schwarz, Dominik J.

    2015-12-01

    Predictions of the microwave thermal emission from the zodiacal dust cloud are made using several contemporary meteoroid models to construct the distributions of the cross-section area of dust in space, and by applying the Mie light-scattering theory to estimate the temperatures and emissivities of dust particles in a wide range of sizes and heliocentric distances. In particular, the Kelsall model of the zodiacal light emission based on COBE infrared observations is extrapolated to the microwaves with assistance from fits to selected IRAS and Planck data. Furthermore, the five populations of interplanetary meteoroids by Divine and the Interplanetary Meteoroid Engineering Model (IMEM) based on a variety of remote and in situ observations of dust are used in combination with the optical properties of olivine, carbonaceous, and iron spherical particles. The Kelsall model has been accepted by the cosmic microwave background (CMB) community for subtraction of the zodiacal cloud's foreground emission. We show, however, that the Kelsall model predicts microwave emission from interplanetary dust that is remarkably different from the results obtained by applying the meteoroid engineering models. We make maps and spectra of the microwave emission predicted by all three models assuming different compositions of dust particles. The predictions can be used to look for the emission from interplanetary dust in CMB experiments and to plan new observations.

  18. Seasonal characterization of microwave emissions from snow-covered first-year sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harouche, Isabelle P.-F.; Barber, David G.

    2001-12-01

    Brightness temperature TB data were collected with a surface-based radiometer operating on both vertical and horizontal polarizations at frequencies of 19, 37, and 85 GHz. Both microwave emissions and thermophysical data were collected as part of the Collaborative-Interdisciplinary Cryospheric Experiment between 15 May and 25 June 2000, in the Canadian High Arctic. Each season was characterized by a running variance of the time series in the microwave emissions. The seasonal analysis was conducted through observed changes in the physical characteristics of the sea ice and the overlying snow pack. Results from a k-means clustering analysis show that variability in the microwave response can be categorized into phenomenological states that were described by Livingstone et al. [IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 1987; 25(2): 174-187] as winter, early melt, melt onset and advanced melt. We describe the average thermophysical conditions associated with each one of these ablation states and interpret the relative contributions of each to the observed microwave response. Emissivities were calculated and used as part of a descriptive analysis of the seasonal variation of TB. Our results confirm other findings that the strength and pattern of the relationship are frequency dependent and relative to snow and ice dielectric properties. Useful information on the thermodynamic state of the snow-sea-ice system can be derived from passive microwave data, since the microwave emissions respond to the general seasonal changes associated with the transition from winter to a melt ponded sea ice surface.

  19. A noncontact method for detecting acoustic emission using a microwave Doppler radar motion detector.

    PubMed

    Smith, Gregory C

    2005-09-01

    A noncontact method for detecting acoustic emission was developed, using a microwave Doppler radar detector and an active band-pass filter. A theoretical model was developed and a prototype sensor was built and tested. The prototype responds to acoustic emissions (AE), from pencil lead break tests, at ranges up to 1.5 feet. PMID:16285461

  20. Anomalous hydrogen emissions from the San Andreas fault observed at the Cienega Winery, central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sato, M.; Sutton, A.J.; McGee, K.A.

    1985-01-01

    We began continuous monitoring of H2 concentration in soil along the San Andreas and Calaveras faults in central California in December 1980, using small H2/O2 fuel-cell sensors. Ten monitoring stations deployed to date have shown that anomalous H2 emissions take place occasionally in addition to diurnal changes. Among the ten sites, the Cienega Winery site has produced data that are characterized by very small diurnal changes, a stable baseline, and remarkably distinct spike-like H2 anomalies since its installation in July 1982. A major peak appeared on 1-10 November 1982, and another on 3 April 1983, and a medium peak on 1 November 1983. The occurrences of these peaks coincided with periods of very low seismicity within a radius of 50 km from the site. In order to methodically assess how these peaks are related to earthquakes, three H2 degassing models were examined. A plausible correlational pattern was obtained by using a model that (1) adopts a hemicircular spreading pattern of H2 along an incipient fracture plane from the hypocenter of an earthquake, (2) relies on the FeO-H2O reaction for H2 generation, and (3) relates the accumulated amount of H2 to the mass of serpentinization of underlying ophiolitic rocks; the mass was tentatively assumed to be proportional to the seismic energy of the earthquake. ?? 1985 Birkha??user Verlag.

  1. Jet-shocked H2 and CO in the Anomalous Arms of Molecular Hydrogen Emission Galaxy NGC 4258

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogle, P. M.; Lanz, L.; Appleton, P. N.

    2014-06-01

    We present a Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph map of H2 emission from the nearby galaxy NGC 4258 (Messier 106). The H2 emission comes from 9.4 ± 0.4 × 106 M ⊙ of warm molecular hydrogen heated to 240-1040 K in the inner anomalous arms, a signature of jet interaction with the galaxy disk. The spectrum is that of a molecular hydrogen emission galaxy (MOHEG), with a large ratio of H2 over 7.7 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission (0.37), characteristic of shocked molecular gas. We find close spatial correspondence between the H2 and CO emission from the anomalous arms. Our estimate of cold molecular gas mass based on CO emission is 10 times greater than our estimate of 1.0 × 108 M ⊙ based on dust emission. We suggest that the X CO value is 10 times lower than the Milky Way value because of high kinetic temperature and enhanced turbulence. The H2 disk has been overrun and is being shocked by the jet cocoon, and much of the gas originally in the disk has been ejected into the galaxy halo in an X-ray hot outflow. We measure a modest star formation rate of 0.08 M ⊙ yr-1 in the central 3.4 kpc2 that is consistent with the remaining gas surface density.

  2. Simulation of Seasonal Snow Microwave TB Using Coupled Multi-Layered Snow Evolution and Microwave Emission Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brucker, Ludovic; Royer, Alain; Picard, Ghislain; Langlois, Alex; Fily, Michel

    2014-01-01

    The accurate quantification of SWE has important societal benefits, including improving domestic and agricultural water planning, flood forecasting and electric power generation. However, passive-microwave SWE algorithms suffer from variations in TB due to snow metamorphism, difficult to distinguish from those due to SWE variations. Coupled snow evolution-emission models are able to predict snow metamorphism, allowing us to account for emissivity changes. They can also be used to identify weaknesses in the snow evolution model. Moreover, thoroughly evaluating coupled models is a contribution toward the assimilation of TB, which leads to a significant increase in the accuracy of SWE estimates.

  3. Influence of microwave frequency electromagnetic radiation on terpene emission and content in aromatic plants.

    PubMed

    Soran, Maria-Loredana; Stan, Manuela; Niinemets, Ülo; Copolovici, Lucian

    2014-09-15

    Influence of environmental stress factors on both crop and wild plants of nutritional value is an important research topic. The past research has focused on rising temperatures, drought, soil salinity and toxicity, but the potential effects of increased environmental contamination by human-generated electromagnetic radiation on plants have little been studied. Here we studied the influence of microwave irradiation at bands corresponding to wireless router (WLAN) and mobile devices (GSM) on leaf anatomy, essential oil content and volatile emissions in Petroselinum crispum, Apium graveolens and Anethum graveolens. Microwave irradiation resulted in thinner cell walls, smaller chloroplasts and mitochondria, and enhanced emissions of volatile compounds, in particular, monoterpenes and green leaf volatiles (GLV). These effects were stronger for WLAN-frequency microwaves. Essential oil content was enhanced by GSM-frequency microwaves, but the effect of WLAN-frequency microwaves was inhibitory. There was a direct relationship between microwave-induced structural and chemical modifications of the three plant species studied. These data collectively demonstrate that human-generated microwave pollution can potentially constitute a stress to the plants. PMID:25050479

  4. Influence of microwave frequency electromagnetic radiation on terpene emission and content in aromatic plants

    PubMed Central

    Soran, Maria-Loredana; Stan, Manuela; Niinemets, Ülo; Copolovici, Lucian

    2015-01-01

    Influence of environmental stress factors on both crop and wild plants of nutritional value is an important research topic. The past research has focused on rising temperatures, drought, soil salinity and toxicity, but the potential effects of increased environmental contamination by human-generated electromagnetic radiation on plants have little been studied. Here we studied the influence of microwave irradiation at bands corresponding to wireless router (WLAN) and mobile devices (GSM) on leaf anatomy, essential oil content and volatile emissions in Petroselinum crispum, Apium graveolens and Anethum graveolens. Microwave irradiation resulted in thinner cell walls, smaller chloroplasts and mitochondria, and enhanced emissions of volatile compounds, in particular, monoterpenes and green leaf volatiles. These effects were stronger for WLAN-frequency microwaves. Essential oil content was enhanced by GSM-frequency microwaves, but the effect of WLAN-frequency microwaves was inhibitory. There was a direct relationship between microwave-induced structural and chemical modifications of the three plant species studied. These data collectively demonstrate that human-generated microwave pollution can potentially constitute a stress to the plants. PMID:25050479

  5. Anomalous three-dimensional refraction in the microwave region by ultra-thin high efficiency metalens with phase discontinuities in orthogonal directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kuang; Ding, Xumin; Zhang, Liang; Wu, Qun

    2014-10-01

    An ultrathin flat metalens that experimentally realizes three-dimensional microwave manipulation has been demonstrated as able to approach the theoretical limit of cross-polarization (cross-pol) conversion efficiency of the transmission, as predicted by Monticone et al (2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 110 203903). The helicity-dependent phase change is introduced to the transmission and can be engineered by assembling the spatial orientation of each Pancharatnam-Berry phase element. By realizing the constant phase gradients in orthogonal directions, an anomalous non-coplanar refraction is unanimously demonstrated in the three-dimensional space under the circular-polarized incidence, and the refraction angle is well predicted with the generalized Snell’s law, derived with phase gradients in orthogonal directions. More importantly, the maximum conversion efficiency of the cross-pol transmission is as high as 24%, which approaches the upper-bound of the theoretical limit. The proposed metalens has only a single layer as thin as 0.001 λ, which massively reduces the thickness of the microwave lens along the wave propagation direction. With the great improvements in efficiency and the thickness reduction, as well as the excellent non-coplanar refraction, our design provides a promising approach to miniaturize, planarize and integrate multiple microwave components.

  6. Detection of microwave emission from solid targets ablated with an ultrashort pulsed laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miragliotta, Joseph A.; Brawley, Benjamin; Sailor, Caroline; Spicer, James B.; Spicer, Jane W. M.

    2011-06-01

    In addition to visible and near-IR emission, recent investigations have shown that electromagnetic pulses (EMP) in the microwave and RF regions of the spectrum are generated during femtosecond laser-matter interactions if the laser source is sufficiently intense to ablate and ionize an illuminated solid target material. Although the mechanisms for the laserinduced EMP pulse are not fully characterized, it is reported that this phenomenon arises from two mechanisms associated with terawatt to petawatt level laser interactions with matter: (1) ionization via propagation in air, and (2) plasma generation associated with the laser-excited solid material. Over the past year, our group has examined the microwave emission profiles from a variety of femtosecond laser ablated materials, including metals, semiconductors, and dielectrics. We have directed our measurements towards the characterization of microwave emission from ablated surfaces in air using laser peak powers in excess of 1012 Watts (energy/pulse ~50 mJ, pulse width ~30 fs, laser diameter at target ~200 microns). We have characterized the temporal profile of the microwave emission and determined the emission from all samples is omni-directional. We have also observed a difference in the minimum fluence required to generate emission from conducting and insulating materials although the peak amplitudes from these materials were quite similar at the upper laser energy levels of our system (~50 mJ).

  7. Inter-Sensor Comparison of Microwave Land Surface Emissivity Products to Improve Precipitation Retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norouzi, H.; Temimi, M.; Turk, J.; Prigent, C.; Furuzawa, F.; Tian, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Microwave land surface emissivity acts as the background signal to estimate rain rate, cloud liquid water, and total precipitable water. Therefore, its accuracy can directly affect the uncertainty of such measurements. Over land, unlike over oceans, the microwave emissivity is relatively high and and varies significantly as surface conditions and land cover change. Lack of ground truth measurement of microwave emissivity especially on global scale has made the uncertainty analysis of this parameter very challenging. The present study investigates the consistency among the existing global land emissivity estimates from different microwave sensors. The products are determined from various sensors and frequencies ranging from 7 to 90 GHz. The selected emissivity products in this study are from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) by NOAA - Cooperative remote Sensing and Science and Technology Center (CREST), the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) by The Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) in France, TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) by Nagoya University, Japan, and WindSat by NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The emissivity estimates are based on different algorithms and ancillary data sets. This work investigates the difference among these emissivity products from 2003 to 2008 dynamically and spectrally. The similarities and discrepancies of the retrievals are studied at different land cover types. The mean relative difference (MRD) and other statistical parameters are calculated temporally for all five years of the study. Some inherent discrepancies between the selected products can be attributed to the difference in geometry in terms of incident angle, spectral response, and the foot print size which can affect the estimations. The results reveal that in lower frequencies (=<19 GHz) ancillary data especially skin temperature data set is the major source of difference in emissivity retrievals, while in higher frequencies (>19 GHz) the residuals of atmospheric effect on the signal cause inconsistency among the products. The time series and correlation between emissivity maps were analyzed over different land classes to assess the consistency of emissivity variations with geophysical variable such as soil moisture, precipitation, and vegetation.

  8. Strong localization induced anomalous temperature dependence exciton emission above 300 K from SnO2 quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, S. S.; Li, F. D.; Liu, Q. W.; Xu, S. C.; Luo, Y. Y.; Li, G. H.

    2015-05-01

    SnO2 quantum dots (QDs) are potential materials for deep ultraviolet (DUV) light emitting devices. In this study, we report the temperature and excitation power-dependent exciton luminescence from SnO2 QDs. The exciton emission exhibits anomalous blue shift, accompanied with band width reduction with increasing temperature and excitation power above 300 K. The anomalous temperature dependences of the peak energy and band width are well interpreted by the strongly localized carrier thermal hopping process and Gaussian shape of band tails states, respectively. The localized wells and band tails at conduction minimum are considered to be induced by the surface oxygen defects and local potential fluctuation in SnO2 QDs.

  9. Microwave Emission from Hybridized States in a Semiconductor Charge Qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockklauser, A.; Maisi, V. F.; Basset, J.; Cujia, K.; Reichl, C.; Wegscheider, W.; Ihn, T.; Wallraff, A.; Ensslin, K.

    2015-07-01

    We explore the microwave radiation emitted from a biased double quantum dot due to the inelastic tunneling of single charges. Radiation is detected over a broad range of detuning configurations between the dot energy levels, with pronounced maxima occurring in resonance with a capacitively coupled transmission line resonator. The power emitted for forward and reverse resonant detuning is found to be in good agreement with a rate equation model, which considers the hybridization of the individual dot charge states.

  10. Microwave Emission from Hybridized States in a Semiconductor Charge Qubit.

    PubMed

    Stockklauser, A; Maisi, V F; Basset, J; Cujia, K; Reichl, C; Wegscheider, W; Ihn, T; Wallraff, A; Ensslin, K

    2015-07-24

    We explore the microwave radiation emitted from a biased double quantum dot due to the inelastic tunneling of single charges. Radiation is detected over a broad range of detuning configurations between the dot energy levels, with pronounced maxima occurring in resonance with a capacitively coupled transmission line resonator. The power emitted for forward and reverse resonant detuning is found to be in good agreement with a rate equation model, which considers the hybridization of the individual dot charge states. PMID:26252704

  11. Impact of ice temperature on microwave emissivity of thin newly formed sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Byong Jun; Ehn, Jens K.; Barber, David G.

    2008-02-01

    This study examines the impact of ice temperature on microwave emissivity over thin, newly formed sea ice at 6, 19, and 37 GHz during October 2003 in the southern Beaufort Sea, where the physical properties of newly formed sea ice were coincidently measured with microwave emissions. Six ice stations with distinct properties were selected and divided according to ice surface temperature into warm (above -3°C) or cold (below -3°C) stations. The warm stations had a lower emissivity at the vertical polarization by 0.1 than the cold stations and a corresponding difference in brine volume and dielectric properties. Significant correlations were observed between brine volume and ice emissivity (R2 = 0.8, p value < 0.05). A sensitivity study showed that decreasing ice temperatures from -2.1° to -5.0°C explained the observed difference of 0.1 in ice emissivity between warm and cold stations. The results suggest that the temperature of thin bare ice could be the critical factor in determining ice emissivity near the melting point (about -2°C). Furthermore, a slight decrease in ice temperature (i.e., from -2° to -5°C) significantly reduces the brine volume, thus resulting in high ice emissivity. Finally, we demonstrate the potential of newly formed ice to cause errors in estimating sea ice concentrations using Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-E data.

  12. JET-SHOCKED H{sub 2} AND CO IN THE ANOMALOUS ARMS OF MOLECULAR HYDROGEN EMISSION GALAXY NGC 4258

    SciTech Connect

    Ogle, P. M.; Lanz, L.; Appleton, P. N.

    2014-06-20

    We present a Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph map of H{sub 2} emission from the nearby galaxy NGC 4258 (Messier 106). The H{sub 2} emission comes from 9.4 ± 0.4 × 10{sup 6} M {sub ☉} of warm molecular hydrogen heated to 240-1040 K in the inner anomalous arms, a signature of jet interaction with the galaxy disk. The spectrum is that of a molecular hydrogen emission galaxy (MOHEG), with a large ratio of H{sub 2} over 7.7 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission (0.37), characteristic of shocked molecular gas. We find close spatial correspondence between the H{sub 2} and CO emission from the anomalous arms. Our estimate of cold molecular gas mass based on CO emission is 10 times greater than our estimate of 1.0 × 10{sup 8} M {sub ☉} based on dust emission. We suggest that the X {sub CO} value is 10 times lower than the Milky Way value because of high kinetic temperature and enhanced turbulence. The H{sub 2} disk has been overrun and is being shocked by the jet cocoon, and much of the gas originally in the disk has been ejected into the galaxy halo in an X-ray hot outflow. We measure a modest star formation rate of 0.08 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} in the central 3.4 kpc{sup 2} that is consistent with the remaining gas surface density.

  13. Acoustic emission feedback control for control of boiling in a microwave oven

    DOEpatents

    White, Terry L.

    1991-01-01

    An acoustic emission based feedback system for controlling the boiling level of a liquid medium in a microwave oven is provided. The acoustic emissions from the medium correlated with surface boiling is used to generate a feedback control signal proportional to the level of boiling of the medium. This signal is applied to a power controller to automatically and continuoulsly vary the power applied to the oven to control the boiling at a selected level.

  14. Anomalous scattering factor using proton induced X-ray emission technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latha, P.; Magudapathy, P.; Abdullah, K. K.; Nair, K. G. M.; Babu, B. R. S.; Varier, K. M.

    2015-02-01

    Atomic scattering factor is in general a complex number represented by the sum of normal scattering factor (f0) and anomalous scattering factors [real (f ‧) and imaginary (f ″)]. Anomalous scattering factors in Ag, In, Cd and Sn were determined experimentally from attenuation data measured using PIXE and compared with theoretical values. The data cover the energy region from 10 to 30 keV and atomic number Z from 47 to 50 keV. Our results found to be in close agreement with theoretical values.

  15. Characterization of errors in a coupled snow hydrology-microwave emission model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andreadis, K.M.; Liang, D.; Tsang, L.; Lettenmaier, D.P.; Josberger, E.G.

    2008-01-01

    Traditional approaches to the direct estimation of snow properties from passive microwave remote sensing have been plagued by limitations such as the tendency of estimates to saturate for moderately deep snowpacks and the effects of mixed land cover within remotely sensed pixels. An alternative approach is to assimilate satellite microwave emission observations directly, which requires embedding an accurate microwave emissions model into a hydrologic prediction scheme, as well as quantitative information of model and observation errors. In this study a coupled snow hydrology [Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC)] and microwave emission [Dense Media Radiative Transfer (DMRT)] model are evaluated using multiscale brightness temperature (TB) measurements from the Cold Land Processes Experiment (CLPX). The ability of VIC to reproduce snowpack properties is shown with the use of snow pit measurements, while TB model predictions are evaluated through comparison with Ground-Based Microwave Radiometer (GBMR), air-craft [Polarimetric Scanning Radiometer (PSR)], and satellite [Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System (AMSR-E)] TB measurements. Limitations of the model at the point scale were not as evident when comparing areal estimates. The coupled model was able to reproduce the TB spatial patterns observed by PSR in two of three sites. However, this was mostly due to the presence of relatively dense forest cover. An interesting result occurs when examining the spatial scaling behavior of the higher-resolution errors; the satellite-scale error is well approximated by the mode of the (spatial) histogram of errors at the smaller scale. In addition, TB prediction errors were almost invariant when aggregated to the satellite scale, while forest-cover fractions greater than 30% had a significant effect on TB predictions. ?? 2008 American Meteorological Society.

  16. Microwave snow emission model using a long-term field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz-Barreto, Jonathan

    Microwave remote sensing has shown great potential in estimating snowpack properties such as: snow depth and Snow Water Equivalent (SWE). However, other snow properties like density, wetness and grain size, which are variable in space and time, largely impact the microwave signal scattering, still need to be investigated and understood. With the objective to improve our understanding of the effect of changing snow characteristics (grain size, snow wetness, density, temperature) under various meteorological conditions on the microwave emission of snow, the CREST-Snow Analysis and Field Experiment (CREST-SAFE) was established at the research site of the National Weather Service office, Caribou, ME, USA. In this ground experiment, 37 and 89 GHz dual polarized microwave observations are conducted continuously, along with detailed synchronous observations of snowpack physical properties. The first part of this work provides an overview of the field experiment, the snow pack and other environmental parameters which are routinely measured at the station both automatically and manually. The measurement programme includes microwave observations, meteorological observations (air temperature, snow skin-temperature, humidity, wind speed and direction, precipitation, incoming and outgoing radiations), along with the measurements of the snow pack bulk physical properties (snow depth, grain size, shape, hardness, and density) and vertical temperature profiles. The detailed analysis of microwave observations collected during the last three years along with the observed and simulated snowpack properties are presented. The second component of this work focuses on the development of a new approach to estimate the snow wetness (liquid water content) using information on the snow grain size and temperature. The objective of these efforts is to directly assimilate the predicted snow wetness in the HUT (Helsinki University of Technology) microwave emission model. The modified version of the model suggest potential improvements to retrievals of snowpack properties on the microwave spectral band and also offers better characterization of the microwave emission over wet snow. Additionally, as part of this initiative, new instrumentation was developed and tested for accurate estimation of snow wetness throughout the winter season.

  17. Land Surface Microwave Emissivities Derived from AMSR-E and MODIS Measurements with Advanced Quality Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moncet, Jean-Luc; Liang, Pan; Galantowicz, John F.; Lipton, Alan E.; Uymin, Gennady; Prigent, Catherine; Grassotti, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    A microwave emissivity database has been developed with data from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS (AMSR-E) and with ancillary land surface temperature (LST) data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the same Aqua spacecraft. The primary intended application of the database is to provide surface emissivity constraints in atmospheric and surface property retrieval or assimilation. An additional application is to serve as a dynamic indicator of land surface properties relevant to climate change monitoring. The precision of the emissivity data is estimated to be significantly better than in prior databases from other sensors due to the precise collocation with high-quality MODIS LST data and due to the quality control features of our data analysis system. The accuracy of the emissivities in deserts and semi-arid regions is enhanced by applying, in those regions, a version of the emissivity retrieval algorithm that accounts for the penetration of microwave radiation through dry soil with diurnally varying vertical temperature gradients. These results suggest that this penetration effect is more widespread and more significant to interpretation of passive microwave measurements than had been previously established. Emissivity coverage in areas where persistent cloudiness interferes with the availability of MODIS LST data is achieved using a classification-based method to spread emissivity data from less-cloudy areas that have similar microwave surface properties. Evaluations and analyses of the emissivity products over homogeneous snow-free areas are presented, including application to retrieval of soil temperature profiles. Spatial inhomogeneities are the largest in the vicinity of large water bodies due to the large water/land emissivity contrast and give rise to large apparent temporal variability in the retrieved emissivities when satellite footprint locations vary over time. This issue will be dealt with in the future by including a water fraction correction. Also note that current reliance on the MODIS day-night algorithm as a source of LST limits the coverage of the database in the Polar Regions. We will consider relaxing the current restriction as part of future development.

  18. Measurement of dielectric properties and determination of microwave emissivity of polluted waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blume, H.-J. C.

    1980-01-01

    The dielectric properties of polluted waters are measured with a reflection-type resonant cavity at 1.43 GHz. Very small water samples in quartz tubes of known volume are placed in the center of the maximum electric field. Measurement of the resonance-frequency variation and a change of the cavity's quality factor are used to determine the dielectric properties. The microwave emissivity of the polluted water is then calculated via the Fresnel equation and applied to data reductions of microwave radiometer measurements.

  19. Theory of solar microwave bursts. [analysis of gyrosynchrotron emission and absorption in magnetoactive plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaty, R.

    1973-01-01

    The theory of solar microwave bursts is discussed in terms of gyrosynchrotron emission and absorption in a magnetoactive plasma and other absorption processes by the background medium. Simplified formulas for all turnover frequencies are given. Above about 2 GHz the most likely absorption processes for large bursts are free-free absorption and gyrosynchrotron self-absorption. The former process is capable of producing flux densities which are flat or slowly varying functions of frequency. The latter process sets absolute upper limits on the intensities of microwave bursts, which at a given frequency, depend only on the magnetic field in the source region.

  20. A radiative transfer model for microwave emissions from bare agricultural soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, W. J.; Paris, J. F.

    1975-01-01

    A radiative transfer model for microwave emissions from bare, stratified agricultural soils was developed to assist in the analysis of data gathered in the joint soil moisture experiment. The predictions of the model were compared with preliminary X band (2.8 cm) microwave and ground based observations. Measured brightness temperatures at vertical and horizontal polarizations can be used to estimate the moisture content of the top centimeter of soil with + or - 1 percent accuracy. It is also shown that the Stokes parameters can be used to distinguish between moisture and surface roughness effects.

  1. Study on microwave emission mechanisms on the basis of hypervelocity impact experiments on various target plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnishi, H.; Chiba, S.; Soma, E.; Ishii, K.; Maki, K.; Takano, T.; Hasegawa, S.

    2007-06-01

    It was formerly confirmed by experiment that hypervelocity impacts on aluminum plates cause microwave emission. In this study, we have carried out experiments in order to clarify the mechanism of the emission. The microwave is detected by heterodyne detection scheme at 22 and 2 GHz with an intermediate frequency bandwidth of 500 and 120 MHz, respectively. A nylon projectile is accelerated using a light-gas gun to impact a target. First, aluminum plates with ten different thicknesses ranging from 1 to 40 mm were used as a target, and microwave signals were detected. The experimental results are statistically analyzed assuming a Gaussian distribution of the emitted power. The standard deviation of pulse voltage is calculated to show the existence of two kinds of signals: sharp pulse and thermal noise. It is shown that the emitted energy and the dispersion have a relation with the extent of the target destruction. Next, nylon projectiles are impacted on different metals such as aluminum, iron, and copper. These results suggest that microcracks are essential to microwave emission. Finally, in order to clarify the mechanism of charging and discharging across the microcracks, the experimental results are compared with this model for the following factors: (1) the thermally excited electrons and the emitted power, and (2) the bond dissociation energy of target material and emitted power. The analytical results suggest that electrons are excited thermally and by transition from a crystalline state to an atomic state.

  2. Anomalous Arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    In this composite image of spiral galaxy M106 (NGC 4258), optical data from the Digitized Sky Survey is shown as yellow, radio data from the Very Large Array appears as purple, X-ray data from Chandra is coded blue, and infrared data from the Spitzer Space Telescope appears red. Two anomalous arms, which aren't visible at optical wavelengths, appear as purple and blue emission.

  3. Diacetyl emissions and airborne dust from butter flavorings used in microwave popcorn production.

    PubMed

    Boylstein, Randy; Piacitelli, Chris; Grote, Ardith; Kanwal, Richard; Kullman, Greg; Kreiss, Kathleen

    2006-10-01

    In microwave popcorn workers, exposure to butter flavorings has been associated with fixed obstructive lung disease resembling bronchiolitis obliterans. Inhalation toxicology studies have shown severe respiratory effects in rats exposed to vapors from a paste butter flavoring, and to diacetyl, a diketone found in most butter flavorings. To gain a better understanding of worker exposures, we assessed diacetyl emissions and airborne dust levels from butter flavorings used by several microwave popcorn manufacturing companies. We heated bulk samples of 40 different butter flavorings (liquids, pastes, and powders) to approximately 50 degrees C and used gas chromatography, with a mass selective detector, to measure the relative abundance of volatile organic compounds emitted. Air sampling was conducted for diacetyl and for total and respirable dust during the mixing of powder, liquid, or paste flavorings with heated soybean oil at a microwave popcorn plant. To further examine the potential for respiratory exposures to powders, we measured dust generated during different simulated methods of manual handling of several powder butter flavorings. Powder flavorings were found to give off much lower diacetyl emissions than pastes or liquids. The mean diacetyl emissions from liquids and pastes were 64 and 26 times larger, respectively, than the mean of diacetyl emissions from powders. The median diacetyl emissions from liquids and pastes were 364 and 72 times larger, respectively, than the median of diacetyl emissions from powders. Fourteen of 16 powders had diacetyl emissions that were lower than the diacetyl emissions from any liquid flavoring and from most paste flavorings. However, simulated handling of powder flavorings showed that a substantial amount of the airborne dust generated was of respirable size and could thus pose its own respiratory hazard. Companies that use butter flavorings should consider substituting flavorings with lower diacetyl emissions and the use of ventilation and enclosure engineering controls to minimize exposures. Until controls are fully implemented, companies should institute mandatory respiratory protection for all exposed workers. PMID:16998985

  4. Spectral characteristics of the microwave emission from a wind-driven foam-covered sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, W. J., Jr.; Wilheit, T. T.; Gloersen, P.; Ross, D. B.

    1976-01-01

    Aircraft observations of the microwave emission from the wind-driven foam-covered Bering Sea substantiate earlier results and show that the combination of surface roughness and white water yields a significant microwave brightness temperature dependence on wind speed over a wide range of microwave wavelengths, with a decreasing dependence for wavelengths above 6 cm. The spectral characteristic of brightness temperature as a function of wind speed is consistent with a foam model in which the bubbles give rise to a cusped surface between the foam and the sea. In the fetch-limited situation the contribution of the wave structure at the surface appears to increase as the foam coverage decreases. Although the data show that the thin streaks are the most important part of the white water signature, there is some evidence for the contribution of whitecaps.

  5. The MIDAS experiment: A prototype for the microwave emission of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monasor, M.; Alekotte, I.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Berlin, A.; Bertou, X.; Bodgan, M.; Bohacova, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Carvalho, W.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; Genat, J. F.; Facal San Luis, P.; Mills, E.; Rouille D'Orfeuil, B.; Wayne, S.; Reyes, L. C.; Santos, E. M.; Privitera, P.; Williams, C.; Zas, E.

    2011-06-01

    Recent measurements suggest that extensive air showers initiated by ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) emit signals in the microwave band of the electromagnetic spectrum caused by the collisions of the free-electrons with the atmospheric neutral molecules in the plasma produced by the passage of the shower. Such emission is isotropic and could allow the detection of air showers with 100% duty cycle and a calorimetric-like energy measurement, a significant improvement over current detection techniques. We have built MIDAS (MIcrowave Detection of Air Showers), a prototype of microwave detector, which consists of a 4.5 m diameter antenna with a cluster of 53 feed-horns in the 4 GHz range. The details of the prototype and first results will be presented.

  6. Rapid synthesis of white-light emissive ZnO nanorods using microwave assisted method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimipour, M.; Mohammad-Sadeghipour, A.; Molaei, M.; Khanzadeh, M.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, firstly we have synthesized ZnO nanowires using zinc acetate, ethanol and ammonium hydroxide by a thermo-chemical method and then ZnO nanorods (NRs) have been prepared by microwave irradiation (MI) of an initial solution containing ZnO nanowires. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed the rare zinc-blende phase which grows on the surface of NRs and its crystallite size increases with the increase of microwave power. The average length and width of rods were observed several hundreds of nanometer and 80nm, respectively, from scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis. Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectroscopy indicates that a band tail forms due to MI, which has roughly 2eV energy gap. Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy indicated a blue emission and a white emission for ZnO nanowires and NRs, respectively. MI quenches the UV emission from ZnO NRs and enhances the surface defects’ emission. The resultant visible PL of the samples increases with the increase of microwave power that shows the growth of zinc-blende phase which has crucial effect on the defect density of NRs.

  7. Toward Probing Martian Ground Ice Using Microwave Emission: Data and Calculations from Antarctic Dry Valley Analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winebrenner, D. P.; Sletten, R. S.; Hallet, B.

    2004-12-01

    Recent observations and modeling indicate widespread, near-surface ground ice on Mars, but leave its depth of occurrence and form (e.g., interstitial or massive) significantly uncertain. We show here that the propagation of surface temperature variations to depth, together with thermal microwave emission that originates from commensurate depths and which is observed over time, provide a basis to probe the nature and depth of ice deposits. We utilize analogs in Antarctic Dry Valley soils, where time-resolved temperature profiles reveal that surface temperature variations on daily and longer time scales propagate to depths of decimeters and greater, especially in desiccated, fine-grained (low thermal inertia) soils. For example, diurnal surface variations of 10C produce 3C variations at 20 cm depth in desiccated soil in Beacon Valley. Ice-cemented (but not saturated) soils in Victoria Valley, by contrast, show diurnal variations (with similar thermal forcing) of only a fraction of a degree at similar depths. Thus thermal microwave emission at wavelengths that probe to decimeter depths will also differ between cases. We compute expected properties of microwave brightness temperature time series using measurements of mineral dielectric properties (including observations of Martian analogs), mixing formulae to account for ice content, and recent theory from Winebrenner et al. (Annals of Glaciology, v 39, 2004). According to the latter theory, a single parameter governs the relationship between surface and brightness temperature time series. That parameter is a characteristic time-scale given by the square of the microwave emission depth-scale over the soil thermal diffusivity. Calculations show that the characteristic time-scale increases strongly with increasing ice content and with decreasing burial depth. Based on such variations, we outline a remote sensing method to estimate characteristics of ground ice based on infrared surface temperature and microwave brightness temperature observations with specified temporal resolution and duration. Existing satellite observations of spatially extensive terrestrial analogs can be used to develop this method for flight-readiness.

  8. Temperature measurements in microwave argon plasma source by using overlapped molecular emission spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Fattah, E.; Bazavan, M.; Shindo, H.

    2015-09-01

    The electron excitation temperature Texc, vibrational Tvib, and rotational Trot temperatures were measured in a high-pressure line-shaped microwave plasma source in argon over a wide range of gas pressure and microwave power, by using optical emission spectra. The selected ArI transition lines 5p-4s and 4p-4s were chosen to calculate electron excitation temperature using Boltzmann's plot method. Meanwhile, the emission spectra of hydroxyl OH molecular ( A 2 Σ + - X 2 Π i , Δ ν = 0 ) band and the nitrogen N2 second positive system ( C 3 Π u - B 3 Π g , Δ ν = + 1 ), both second diffraction order, were used to evaluate the vibrational Tvib and rotational Trot temperatures using the method of comparing the measured and calculated spectra with a chi-squared minimization procedure. The components of the overlapped spectrum are greatly influenced by the gas pressure; however, they are independent on microwave power. For temperatures, it was found that the Texc dramatically decreases from 2.5 to 0.75 eV, which qualitatively agrees with T e deduced from zero-global model. Both of Tvib and Trot significantly decrease with as gas pressure increase from 0.4 to 50 Torr. Yet, they behave differently with microwave power.

  9. The long-term oscillations in sunspots and related inter-sunspot sources in microwave emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakunina, I. A.; Abramov-Maximov, V. E.; Smirnova, V. V.

    2016-02-01

    This work presents the microwave long-term oscillations with periods of a few tens of minutes obtained from Nobeyama radioheliograph (NoRH) at frequency 17 GHz. In two active regions the fluctuations of radio emission of different types of intersunspot sources (ISS) (compact and extended) were compared with the fluctuations in magnetic fields of sunspots. Common periods in variations of microwave emission of different type of sources and magnetic field of sunspots were discovered. The delay of 17 minutes was revealed for oscillations of the extended ISS with respect to variations of magnetic field of its tail sunspot. The model of the sunspot magnetic structure based on the concept of three magnetic fluxes for explanation of this fact is discussed.

  10. Characteristics of nebulizers for microwave induced plasma atomic emission spectrometry. II. Ultrasonic nebulizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jankowski, Krzysztof; Karmasz, Dorota; Ramsza, Andrzej; Reszke, Edward

    1997-10-01

    Ultrasonic nebulizers were designed and matched to low power microwave induced plasma operating conditions. The dependence of aerosol concentration on vibrational amplitude and operating temperature of the transducer as well as the carrier gas and sample flows has been studied. Optimal performance parameters of the nebulizer have been determined. Spectroscopic evaluation of analytical performance of nebulizers was carried out for several elements. The relationship between mechanical efficiency of the nebulizer and emission intensity was discussed.

  11. Impact of Conifer Forest Litter on Microwave Emission at L-Band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurum, Mehmet; O'Neill, Peggy E.; Lang, Roger H.; Cosh, Michael H.; Joseph, Alicia T.; Jackson, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    This study reports on the utilization of microwave modeling, together with ground truth, and L-band (1.4-GHz) brightness temperatures to investigate the passive microwave characteristics of a conifer forest floor. The microwave data were acquired over a natural Virginia Pine forest in Maryland by a ground-based microwave active/passive instrument system in 2008/2009. Ground measurements of the tree biophysical parameters and forest floor characteristics were obtained during the field campaign. The test site consisted of medium-sized evergreen conifers with an average height of 12 m and average diameters at breast height of 12.6 cm. The site is a typical pine forest site in that there is a surface layer of loose debris/needles and an organic transition layer above the mineral soil. In an effort to characterize and model the impact of the surface litter layer, an experiment was conducted on a day with wet soil conditions, which involved removal of the surface litter layer from one half of the test site while keeping the other half undisturbed. The observations showed detectable decrease in emissivity for both polarizations after the surface litter layer was removed. A first-order radiative transfer model of the forest stands including the multilayer nature of the forest floor in conjunction with the ground truth data are used to compute forest emission. The model calculations reproduced the major features of the experimental data over the entire duration, which included the effects of surface litter and ground moisture content on overall emission. Both theory and experimental results confirm that the litter layer increases the observed canopy brightness temperature and obscure the soil emission.

  12. Optical Emission Spectroscopic Evaluation of Different Microwave Plasma Discharges and Its Potential Application for Sterilization Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueso, José L.; Rico, Víctor J.; Yanguas-Gil, Ángel; Cotrino, José; González-Elipe, Agustín R.

    The present work aims at studying different microwave flowing discharges containing Ar and/or NO as alternative candidates to more extended N2 containing plasma mixtures like N2-O2. Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES) is used to demonstrate the potential possibilities of these plasma mixtures to provide O* and UV intermediate species demanded for sterilization purposes at low temperatures and extended discharge gaps. Additionally, some plasma sterilization experiments with Escherichia coli cultures are presented.

  13. Ultrahigh-energy pulsed emission from Hercules X-1 with anomalous air-shower muon production

    SciTech Connect

    Dingus, B.L.; Alexandreas, D.E.; Allen, R.C.; Burman, R.L.; Butterfield, K.B.; Cady, R.; Chang, C.Y.; Ellsworth, R.W.; Goodman, J.A.; Gupta, S.K.; and others

    1988-10-24

    A search for bursts of air-shower events from Hercules X-1 at energies above 50 TeV during the calendar period 2 April 1986 to 5 July 1987 yielded two significant bursts, both occurring on UT 24 July 1986. The events during these bursts were pulsed with a period of 1.235 68 s, significantly different from estimates of the contemporaneous x-ray period. The probability that this represents random statistical fluctuations of the background is estimated to be 2 x 10/sup -5/. The muon content of the burst events is anomalous when compared with expectations from ..gamma..-ray showers.

  14. Excellent Field Emission Properties of Short Conical Carbon Nanotubes Prepared by Microwave Plasma Enhanced CVD Process

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Randomly oriented short and low density conical carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were prepared on Si substrates by tubular microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition process at relatively low temperature (350–550 °C) by judiciously controlling the microwave power and growth time in C2H2 + NH3gas composition and Fe catalyst. Both length as well as density of the CNTs increased with increasing microwave power. CNTs consisted of regular conical compartments stacked in such a way that their outer diameter remained constant. Majority of the nanotubes had a sharp conical tip (5–20 nm) while its other side was either open or had a cone/pear-shaped catalyst particle. The CNTs were highly crystalline and had many open edges on the outer surface, particularly near the joints of the two compartments. These films showed excellent field emission characteristics. The best emission was observed for a medium density film with the lowest turn-on and threshold fields of 1.0 and 2.10 V/μm, respectively. It is suggested that not only CNT tip but open edges on the body also act as active emission sites in the randomly oriented geometry of such periodic structures.

  15. Simulations of gyrosynchrotron microwave emission from an oscillating magnetic loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Alexey; Reznikova, Veronika; Van Doorsselaere, Tom; Antolin, Patrick

    Radio observations of solar flares often reveal various periodic or quasi-periodic oscillations. Most likely, these oscillations are caused by MHD oscillations of flaring loops which modulate the radio emission via variations of the magnetic field and electron concentration. We perform numerical simulations of gyrosynchrotron radiation from a toroidal-shaped magnetic loop containing sausage-mode MHD oscillations. Different parameters of the loop and MHD oscillations and different loop orientations are considered. The simulation results are compared with the observations of the Nobeyama Radioheliograph.

  16. The anomalous 3.43 and 3.53 micron emission features toward HD 97048 and Elias 1 - C-C vibrational modes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutte, W. A.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Allamandola, L. J.; Wooden, D. H.; Cohen, M.

    1990-01-01

    The 5-8 micron spectra obtained toward the two protostellar sources, HD 97048 and Elias 1 exhibit strong anomalous emission features at 3.43 and 3.53 microns. Combining these results with earlier data established that the emission in the general IR features is extended on at least a 20-arcsec scale. In view of the high energy density in the emission zone, as well as the apparent correspondence of the anomalous 3.43 and 3.53 micron features with weak emission shoulders associated with the general family of IR emission bands, an explanation for these observations in terms of C-C overtones and combination tones of large or dehydrogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is judged to be provisionally suitable.

  17. Modelling Surface Emissivity at Microwave Frequencies: Impact of the Surface Assumptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermozo, Laura; Eymard, Laurence; Karbou, Fatima

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a new method is proposed to monitor and characterize Arctic sea ice. As inputs, passive microwave observations at window frequencies ranging from 23.8 to 89 GHz from the Advanced Microwave Sounding Units (AMSU) -A and -B are used. Unlike several studies which use a simplified flat surface assumption to retrieve sea ice surface emissivity, the relative roughness of the surface is taken into account to retrieve a rough ‘Lambertian’ (additionally to a flat ‘Specular’) surface emissivity over Arctic. The effect of the two surface assumptions is analyzed at different window frequencies, using a Specular/Lambertian emissivity ratio over a one-year database of near-nadir observations. A monthly ice/no ice delimitation is obtained using emissivity ratio at low frequencies and is found to be in very good agreement with other available sea ice products. The potential of emissivity ratio at 50.3 GHz over sea ice, combined with the signal at other window frequencies, is used towards a sea ice classification over Arctic.

  18. Relative influence upon microwave emissivity of fine-scale stratigraphy, internal scattering, and dielectric properties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    England, A.W.

    1976-01-01

    The microwave emissivity of relatively low-loss media such as snow, ice, frozen ground, and lunar soil is strongly influenced by fine-scale layering and by internal scattering. Radiometric data, however, are commonly interpreted using a model of emission from a homogeneous, dielectric halfspace whose emissivity derives exclusively from dielectric properties. Conclusions based upon these simple interpretations can be erroneous. Examples are presented showing that the emission from fresh or hardpacked snow over either frozen or moist soil is governed dominantly by the size distribution of ice grains in the snowpack. Similarly, the thickness of seasonally frozen soil and the concentration of rock clasts in lunar soil noticeably affect, respectively, the emissivities of northern latitude soils in winter and of the lunar regolith. Petrophysical data accumulated in support of the geophysical interpretation of microwave data must include measurements of not only dielectric properties, but also of geometric factors such as finescale layering and size distributions of grains, inclusions, and voids. ?? 1976 Birkha??user Verlag.

  19. A parameterization of effective soil temperature for microwave emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, B. J.; Schmugge, T. J.; Mo, T. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    A parameterization of effective soil temperature is discussed, which when multiplied by the emissivity gives the brightness temperature in terms of surface (T sub o) and deep (T sub infinity) soil temperatures as T = T sub infinity + C (T sub o - T sub infinity). A coherent radiative transfer model and a large data base of observed soil moisture and temperature profiles are used to calculate the best-fit value of the parameter C. For 2.8, 6.0, 11.0, 21.0 and 49.0 cm wavelengths. The C values are respectively 0.802 + or - 0.006, 0.667 + or - 0.008, 0.480 + or - 0.010, 0.246 + or - 0.009, and 0,084 + or - 0.005. The parameterized equation gives results which are generally within one or two percent of the exact values.

  20. High brightness field emission from printed carbon nanotubes in an S-band microwave gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qilong; Li, Xiangkun; Di, Yusong; Yu, Cairu; Zhang, Xiaobing; Li, Ming; Lei, Wei

    2016-02-01

    Printed carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were applied as cold cathode and placed into an S-band microwave gun operating at 2856 MHz with the pulse duration of 2.8 μs. High brightness field emission was demonstrated and the current density achieves the value more than 4.2 A/cm2. The emittance of field emission beam is calculated to be nearly 21 μm based on the beam profile of emission electrons monitored via yttrium aluminum garnet screen. The infrared image of printed CNTs confirms that the emitters in the center contributed more electrons and the heat generated during the large current density field emission. The results in the paper imply that randomly distributed printed CNTs have the potential to be applied as the high brightness electron sources for free electron lasers.

  1. Antarctic snow and sea ice processes: Effects on passive microwave emissions and AMSR-E sea ice products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Michael John, Jr.

    In this research, passive microwave remote sensing products generated for the Antarctic sea ice zone from the Advance Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) sensor were compared with various in situ field measurements, both from previous Antarctic campaigns in the published literature and as obtained during the Sea Ice Mass Balance in the Antarctic (SIMBA) project during the International Polar Year (IPY) 2007--2008. Data gathered during the SIMBA project was used to understand the geophysical processes occurring in the sea ice and snow cover of the Bellingshausen Sea and to provide a physical basis for modeling of microwave emissions. In Chapter 2, the AMSR-E sea ice temperature product was compared with AMSR-E snow depth product and previous in situ field measurements. The comparisons were not intended to provide a strict validation of remote sensing products, but to evaluate the physical context of the remotely sensed data and examine potential trends. From examination of the data, it was found that the AMSR-E sea ice temperature product conflicted with several generally observed sea ice properties. The apparent contradictory behavior of the satellite data product is indicative of radiative temperature behavior related to changes in emissivity within the ice pack. Further comparisons of the AMSR-E sea ice temperature product with in situ temperature data from Ice Mass-balance Buoys (IMB) from two Antarctic field programs showed no correlation. However, apparent response of sea ice temperature product to snow/ice interface flooding events was noted. In Chapter 3, an important sea ice process related to the formation of "gap layers" within Antarctic sea ice was examined and modeled. Gap layers are horizontal voids that develop internally within the sea ice structure, often filled with decaying sea ice, saline slush, and a microbial biological community that thrives on the available nutrients. Gap layers are commonly observed in summer melt conditions in Antarctic sea ice, but are not widely observed in the Arctic. A thermodynamic model was developed based on a typical summer temperature gradient reversal in the snow pack and sea ice, typical salinity profile and heat flux to explain the internal melting of sea ice and formation of gap layers. The modeled rates of gap layer formation generally agreed with published field observations. In Chapter 4, an overview of the Sea Ice Mass Balance in the Antarctic (SIMBA) experiment is provided detailing various geophysical measurements and the observed snow and sea ice processes occurring during the winter-spring transition in the Bellingshausen Sea. Time series measurements were obtained for snow and sea ice conditions during a 27-day drift station through a number of atmospheric cycles of warming and cooling that are typical of the season for this region. Characteristic sites representing the range of snow and ice conditions on the drifting floe (Ice Station Belgica) were sampled at regular intervals to understand changing conditions in response to the atmospheric events. Detailed snow and ice properties and structure, including high resolution time-series records of snow and ice temperature were obtained from ice mass-balance buoys (IMBs) and other sources to record the changes. Chapter 5 presents the results of microwave emission modeling performed using the SIMBA field data, specifically processes that are commonly observed in the Antarctic sea ice zone that are considered to have an impact on passive microwave retrievals from space. In several model cases of varying snow cover thickness, the flooding of the snow-ice interface with sea water to form a saline slush layer in the snow cover was simulated. Additionally, a model case including brine wicking at the surface of first year sea ice with thin snow cover was simulated. These processes (related to Chapter 2) have been attributed to anomalous behavior in the AMSR-E sea ice temperature product and were identified as sources of error in other passive microwave sea ice products. The modeling results indicated that brightness temperature at low frequencies (6.9 and 10.7 GHz) showed a large decrease (on the order of 15 to 30 °K) and are consistent with previous laboratory experiments. Further time-series examination of microwave emissions from space, cross frequency and polarization responses, has potential to indicate areas with widespread snow/ice interface flooding. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  2. Anomalous temperature dependent magneto-conductance in organic light-emitting diodes with multiple emissive states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chen-xiao; Jia, Wei-yao; Huang, Ke-Xun; Zhang, Qiao-ming; Yang, Xiao-hui; Xiong, Zu-hong

    2015-07-01

    The temperature dependence of the magneto-conductance (MC) in organic electron donor-acceptor hybrid and layer heterojunction diodes was studied. The MC value increased with temperature in layer heterojunction and in 10 wt. % hybrid devices. An anomalous decrease of the MC with temperature was observed in 25 wt. %-50 wt. % hybrid devices. Further increasing donor concentration to 75 wt. %, the MC again increased with temperature. The endothermic exciplex-exciton energy transfer and the change in electroplex/exciton ratio caused by change in charge transport with temperature may account for these phenomena. Comparative studies of the temperature evolutions of the IV curves and the electroluminescence and photoluminescence spectra back our hypothesis.

  3. Anomalous temperature dependent magneto-conductance in organic light-emitting diodes with multiple emissive states

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Chen-xiao; Jia, Wei-yao; Huang, Ke-Xun; Zhang, Qiao-ming; Yang, Xiao-hui; Xiong, Zu-hong

    2015-07-13

    The temperature dependence of the magneto-conductance (MC) in organic electron donor-acceptor hybrid and layer heterojunction diodes was studied. The MC value increased with temperature in layer heterojunction and in 10 wt. % hybrid devices. An anomalous decrease of the MC with temperature was observed in 25 wt. %–50 wt. % hybrid devices. Further increasing donor concentration to 75 wt. %, the MC again increased with temperature. The endothermic exciplex-exciton energy transfer and the change in electroplex/exciton ratio caused by change in charge transport with temperature may account for these phenomena. Comparative studies of the temperature evolutions of the IV curves and the electroluminescence and photoluminescence spectra back our hypothesis.

  4. Unique Properties of Thermally Tailored Copper: Magnetically Active Regions and Anomalous X-ray Fluorescence Emissions

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    When high-purity copper (≥99.98%wt) is melted, held in its liquid state for a few hours with iterative thermal cycling, then allowed to resolidify, the ingot surface is found to have many small regions that are magnetically active. X-ray fluorescence analysis of these regions exhibit remarkably intense lines from “sensitized elements” (SE), including in part or fully the contiguous series V, Cr, Mn, Fe, and Co. The XRF emissions from SE are far more intense than expected from known impurity levels. Comparison with blanks and standards show that the thermal “tailoring” also introduces strongly enhanced SE emissions in samples taken from the interior of the copper ingots. For some magnetic regions, the location as well as the SE emissions, although persistent, vary irregularly with time. Also, for some regions extraordinarily intense “sensitized iron” (SFe) emissions occur, accompanied by drastic attenuation of Cu emissions. PMID:20037657

  5. MEMLS3&a: Microwave Emission Model of Layered Snowpacks adapted to include backscattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proksch, M.; Mätzler, C.; Wiesmann, A.; Lemmetyinen, J.; Schwank, M.; Löwe, H.; Schneebeli, M.

    2015-08-01

    The Microwave Emission Model of Layered Snowpacks (MEMLS) was originally developed for microwave emissions of snowpacks in the frequency range 5-100 GHz. It is based on six-flux theory to describe radiative transfer in snow including absorption, multiple volume scattering, radiation trapping due to internal reflection and a combination of coherent and incoherent superposition of reflections between horizontal layer interfaces. Here we introduce MEMLS3&a, an extension of MEMLS, which includes a backscatter model for active microwave remote sensing of snow. The reflectivity is decomposed into diffuse and specular components. Slight undulations of the snow surface are taken into account. The treatment of like- and cross-polarization is accomplished by an empirical splitting parameter q. MEMLS3&a (as well as MEMLS) is set up in a way that snow input parameters can be derived by objective measurement methods which avoid fitting procedures of the scattering efficiency of snow, required by several other models. For the validation of the model we have used a combination of active and passive measurements from the NoSREx (Nordic Snow Radar Experiment) campaign in Sodankylä, Finland. We find a reasonable agreement between the measurements and simulations, subject to uncertainties in hitherto unmeasured input parameters of the backscatter model. The model is written in Matlab and the code is publicly available for download through the following website: http://www.iapmw.unibe.ch/research/projects/snowtools/memls.html.

  6. MEMLS3&a: Microwave Emission Model of Layered Snowpacks adapted to include backscattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proksch, M.; Mätzler, C.; Wiesmann, A.; Lemmetyinen, J.; Schwank, M.; Löwe, H.; Schneebeli, M.

    2015-03-01

    The Microwave Emission Model of Layered Snowpacks (MEMLS) was originally developed for microwave emissions of snowpacks in the frequency range 5-100 GHz. It is based on six-flux theory to describe radiative transfer in snow including absorption, multiple volume scattering, radiation trapping due to internal reflection and a combination of coherent and incoherent superposition of reflections between horizontal layer interfaces. Here we introduce MEMLS3&a, an extension of MEMLS, which includes a backscatter model for active microwave remote sensing of snow. The reflectivity is decomposed into diffuse and specular components. Slight undulations of the snow surface are taken into account. The treatment of like and cross polarization is accomplished by an empirical splitting parameter q. MEMLS3&a (as well as MEMLS) is set up in a way that snow input parameters can be derived by objective measurement methods which avoids fitting procedures of the scattering efficiency of snow, required by several other models. For the validation of the model we have used a combination of active and passive measurements from the NoSREx campaign in Sodankylä, Finland. We find a reasonable agreement between the measurements and simulations, subject to uncertainties in hitherto unmeasured input parameters of the backscatter model. The model is written in MATLAB and the code is publicly available for download through the following website: http://www.iapmw.unibe.ch/research/projects/snowtools/memls.html.

  7. Derivation of an analytical approximation of the spectrum of spinning dust emission

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, Matthew A.

    2014-02-01

    An analytical function for the spectrum of spinning dust emission is presented. It is derived through the application of careful approximations, with each step tested against numerical calculations. This approach ensures accuracy while providing an intuitive picture of the physics. The final result may be useful for fitting of anomalous microwave emission observations, as is demonstrated by a comparison with the Planck observations of the Perseus Molecular Cloud. It is hoped that this will lead to a broader consideration of the spinning dust model when interpreting microwave continuum observations, and that it will provide a standard framework for interpreting and comparing the variety of anomalous microwave emission observations.

  8. Observations of the microwave emission of Venus from 1.3 to 3.6 cm.

    PubMed

    Steffes, P G; Klein, M J; Jenkins, J M

    1990-03-01

    Laboratory measurements of Steffes (1986) have suggested that the intensity and shape of the microwave spectrum of Venus might be especially sensitive to the subcloud abundance of constituents such as SO2 and gaseous H2SO4. It was likewise suggested that some variations of the shape of the emission spectrum might occur between 1.5 and 3 cm (10 to 20 GHz), a wavelength range which had previously only been sparsely observed. As a result, coordinated observations of Venus emission were conducted at four wavelengths between 1.35 cm (22.2 GHz) and 3.6 cm (8.42 GHz) using the 43-m NRAO antenna at Green Bank, West Virginia, and the 64-m antenna at NASA's Deep Space Communication Complex, Goldstone, California. In this paper, we report the methodology and results of these observations, and compare the results with other observations and with calculated emission spectra. We conclude that the observed emission spectrum is consistent with an average subcloud abundance of gaseous H2SO4 in equatorial and midlatitude regions which is approximately 5 ppm. It is suggested that additional measurements of atmospheric microwave opacity be made with the Pioneer-Venus Orbiter Radio Occultation experiment to search for temporal and spatial variations in gaseous H2SO4 abundance in the Venus atmosphere. An upper limit for the subcloud abundance of SO2 is also determined. PMID:11538401

  9. Impulsive microwave burst and solar noise storm emission resolved with the VLA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willson, Robert F.; Lang, Kenneth R.; Liggett, Margaret

    1990-01-01

    The evolution of a microwave burst at 20.7 cm wavelength and a type I noise storm at 91.6 cm wavelength are examined using VLA. The magnetic loops in the two spectral regions are studied. The sizes and brightness temperatures of the 20.7 cm burst sources are compared with those predicted by multithermal and nonthermal models of microwave burst emission of Dulk and Dennis (1982). The data reveal that: (1) the precursor, impulsive, and post-impulsive phases of the 20.7 cm burst are located in spatially separated sources; (2) the gradual enhancement of a 91.6 cm noise storm continuum source suggests a feed-back mechanism exists between activity in higher and lower lying loops; and (3) the derived magnetic field strengths at 20.7 cm for the nonthermal models are 35-160 G with core field strengths of 125-220 G.

  10. THE LOCAL DUST FOREGROUNDS IN THE MICROWAVE SKY. I. THERMAL EMISSION SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Dikarev, Valeri; Preuss, Oliver; Solanki, Sami; Krueger, Harald; Krivov, Alexander

    2009-11-01

    Analyses of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation maps made by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) have revealed anomalies not predicted by the standard inflationary cosmology. In particular, the power of the quadrupole moment of the CMB fluctuations is remarkably low, and the quadrupole and octopole moments are aligned mutually and with the geometry of the solar system. It has been suggested in the literature that microwave sky pollution by an unidentified dust cloud in the vicinity of the solar system may be the cause for these anomalies. In this paper, we simulate the thermal emission by clouds of spherical homogeneous particles of several materials. Spectral constraints from the WMAP multi-wavelength data and earlier infrared observations on the hypothetical dust cloud are used to determine the dust cloud's physical characteristics. In order for its emissivity to demonstrate a flat, CMB-like wavelength dependence over the WMAP wavelengths (3 through 14 mm), and to be invisible in the infrared light, its particles must be macroscopic. Silicate spheres of several millimeters in size and carbonaceous particles an order of magnitude smaller will suffice. According to our estimates of the abundance of such particles in the zodiacal cloud and trans-Neptunian belt, yielding the optical depths of the order of 10{sup -7} for each cloud, the solar system dust can well contribute 10 muK (within an order of magnitude) in the microwaves. This is not only intriguingly close to the magnitude of the anomalies (about 30 muK), but also alarmingly above the presently believed magnitude of systematic biases of the WMAP results (below 5 muK) and, to an even greater degree, of the future missions with higher sensitivities, e.g., Planck.

  11. Effects of Atmospheric Emission on Ground-based MicrowaveBackground Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Bersanelli, M.; Bensadoun, M.; Danese, L.; Deamici, G.; Kogut,A.; Levin, S.; Limon, M.; Maino, D.; Smoot, G.F.; Witebsky, C.

    1994-10-20

    We present an analysis of multifrequency measurements ofatmospheric emission in the Rayleigh-Jeans portion of the cosmicmicrowave background spectrum (1-90 GHz) taken since 1986 from WhiteMountain, CA, and from the South Pole. Correlations of simultaneous dataat 10 and 90 GHz and accurate low-frequency measurements show goodagreement with model predictions for both sites. Our data from the SouthPole 1989 campaign combined with real-time measurements of the localatmospheric profiles provide accurate verification of the expectedindependent contributions of H2O and O2 emission. We show that variationson the order of 10 percent of the oxygen emission (both resonant andnonresonant components) are present on timescales of hours to days,mainly due to the evolution of the atmospheric pressure profile. Oxygenemission fluctuations appear larger than previously expected and may havesignificant consequences for ground-based cosmic microwave backgroundexperiments.

  12. Modeling and measurement of microwave emission and backscattering from bare soil surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saatchi, S.; Wegmuller, U.

    1992-01-01

    A multifrequency ground-based radiometer-scatterometer system working at frequencies between 3.0 GHz and 11.0 GHz has been used to study the effect of soil moisture and roughness on microwave emission and backscattering. The freezing and thawing effect of the soil surface and the changes of the surface roughness due to rain and erosion are reported. To analyze the combined active and passive data, a scattering model based on physical optics approximation for the low frequency and geometrical optics approximation for high frequency has been developed. The model is used to calculate the bistatic scattering coefficients from the surface. By considering the conservation of energy, the result has been integrated over a hemisphere above the surface to calculate the emissivity. The backscattering and emission model has been coupled with the observed data in order to extract soil moisture and surface roughness.

  13. Microwave coherent emissions from solar flares - a look at through a large interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altyntsev, Alexandre; Sergei, Lesovoi; Natalia, Meshalkina; Dmitrii, Zhdanov; Natalia, Korolkova

    2013-04-01

    The report discusses the results of microwave observations of coherent emission sources with broadband spectropolarimeters and the Siberian Solar Radio Telescope (receiving frequency about 5.7 GHz). To date, more than 300 events with narrowband subsecond pulses were recorded. It is revealed that at the small real sizes of sources their apparent sizes can reach the SSRT beam width (? 15 arcsec) due to electromagnetic wave scattering by density fluctuations in the lower corona, or due to emission reflection from the underlying layers of the solar atmosphere. The fine emission sources usually occur near tops of the flare loops. In some events it was possible to reveal plasma parameters in the vicinity of the fine emission exciters from the X-ray, optical and continuum microwave images, and to identify the mechanisms of the coherent emission. The SSRT is an interferometer that allows to record spatial brightness distributions of a flare region at two close frequencies simultaneously. Such observations have showed that the frequency dynamics of fast drifting narrowband bursts (type III - like) is controlled not only by the velocity of exciter movement through gradients of the plasma parameters, but also by rapid changes in plasma parameters over time. We discuss the diagnostic potential of the observations of coherent emission sources and new possibilities of the instruments which are under construction now. The work is supported by the Ministry of education and science of the Russian Federation (State Contracts 16.518.11.7065 and 02.740.11.0576), and by the grants RFBR (12-02-91161-GFEN-a, 12-02-00616 and 12-02-00173-a

  14. Anomalous enhanced emission from PbS quantum dots on a photonic-crystal microcavity

    SciTech Connect

    Luk, Ting Shan; Xiong, Shisheng; Chow, Weng W.; Miao, Xiaoyu; Subramania, Ganesh; Resnick, Paul J.; Fischer, Arthur J.; Brinker, Jeffrey C.

    2011-05-09

    We report up to 75 times enhancement in emission from lithographically produced photonic crystals with postprocessing close-packed colloidal quantum-dot incorporation. In our analysis, we use the emission from a close-packed free-standing film as a reference. After discounting the angular redistribution effect, our analysis shows that the observed enhancement is larger than the combined effects of Purcell enhancement and dielectric enhancement with the microscopic local field. The additional enhancement mechanisms, which are consistent with all our observations, are thought to be spectral diffusion mediated by phonons and local polarization fluctuations that allow off-resonant excitons to emit at the cavity wavelengths.

  15. TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL ANALYSES OF SPECTRAL INDICES OF NONTHERMAL EMISSIONS DERIVED FROM HARD X-RAYS AND MICROWAVES

    SciTech Connect

    Asai, Ayumi; Kiyohara, Junko; Takasaki, Hiroyuki; Narukage, Noriyuki; Yokoyama, Takaaki; Masuda, Satoshi; Shimojo, Masumi; Nakajima, Hiroshi

    2013-02-15

    We studied electron spectral indices of nonthermal emissions seen in hard X-rays (HXRs) and microwaves. We analyzed 12 flares observed by the Hard X-Ray Telescope aboard Yohkoh, Nobeyama Radio Polarimeters, and the Nobeyama Radioheliograph (NoRH), and compared the spectral indices derived from total fluxes of HXRs and microwaves. Except for four events, which have very soft HXR spectra suffering from the thermal component, these flares show a gap {Delta}{delta} between the electron spectral indices derived from HXRs {delta} {sub X} and those from microwaves {delta}{sub {mu}} ({Delta}{delta} = {delta} {sub X} - {delta}{sub {mu}}) of about 1.6. Furthermore, from the start to the peak times of the HXR bursts, the time profiles of the HXR spectral index {delta} {sub X} evolve synchronously with those of the microwave spectral index {delta}{sub {mu}}, keeping the constant gap. We also examined the spatially resolved distribution of the microwave spectral index by using NoRH data. The microwave spectral index {delta}{sub {mu}} tends to be larger, which means a softer spectrum, at HXR footpoint sources with stronger magnetic field than that at the loop tops. These results suggest that the electron spectra are bent at around several hundreds of keV, and become harder at the higher energy range that contributes the microwave gyrosynchrotron emission.

  16. A model describing the microwave emission from a multi-layer snowpack at 37 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdelrazik, M.; Ulaby, F.; Stiles, H.

    1981-01-01

    A multilayer emission model is described and applied to emission measurements obtained at 37 GHz and H polarization using a microwave radiometer attached to a truck-mounted boom in Steamboat Springs, Colorado in 1977. Estimated absorption and scattering coefficients and their dependence on wetness were obtained using calculated values of the dielectric constant at 37 GHz along with the model. It was found that the scattering coefficient is comparable in value to the absorption coefficient for dry snow however, the absorption coefficient increases linearly with increasing snow wetness while the scattering coefficient decreases linearly with increasing wetness. The emission from each layer of the snowpack was also calculated using the estimated coefficients. It is shown that for dry snow, the ground underneath the snowpack contributes about 45% of all measured emission while the rest is due to emission from all the layers within the snowpack. When the wetness of the top 5 cm layer of snowpack increases to about 2% by volume, this top 5 cm snowlayer contributes more than 90% of all the measured emission.

  17. A Comparison of Microwave Window Channel Retrieved and Forward-Modeled Emissivities Over the U.S. Southern Great Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ringerud, Sarah; Kummerow, C.; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Tian, Y.; Harrison, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    An accurate understanding of land surface emissivity in terms of associated surface properties is necessary for improved passive microwave remote sensing of the atmosphere, including water vapor, clouds, and precipitation, over land. In an effort to advance this understanding, emissivities are calculated for a 5? latitude by 5? longitude region in the U.S. Southern Great Plains using a combination of land surface model and physical emissivity model. Results are compared to retrieved values from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System passive microwave observations for cloud-free scenes over a six-year period. The resulting emissivities are compared in the context of surface properties including surface temperature, leaf area index (LAI), soil moisture, and precipitation. The comparison confirms that lower frequency channels respond most directly to the surface soil and its dielectric properties. Differences between retrieved and modeled emissivities are generally lower than 2%-3% and appear to be a function of soil moisture and LAI at frequencies less than 37 GHz. Agreement is better for the vertical polarization channels. At 89 GHz, a large difference is present between retrieved and modeled emissivities in both mean and magnitude of variability, particularly in the summer months. Problems are likely present at higher microwave frequencies in both the retrieved and modeled products, including the inability of the emissivity model to represent liquid water in the form of dew or precipitation interception on the vegetation canopy.

  18. A possible explanation of the anomalous emissive probe behavior in a reactive RF plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kar, R.; Barve, S. A.; Chopade, S. S.; Das, A. K.; Patil, D. S.

    2012-10-01

    Emissive probe diagnostics in saturated floating potential mode was carried out in RF plasmas of argon (Ar)-methane (CH4) and Ar-CH4-hexa methyl disiloxane (HMDSO). These plasmas are used for the deposition of diamond-like carbon (DLC) and SiOx-containing DLC films, respectively. While performing the experiments it was found that the probe characteristics had two saturation regions instead of one. The same measurements when repeated in Ar and Ar-N2 plasmas showed a single saturation as expected. The first experiments when repeated again showed the same anomaly. The experimental findings question the validity of emissive probe diagnostics in reactive plasmas. A possible model of dust formation inside the reactive plasma is predicted and the first saturation is linked to dust. The second saturation is credited as the actual plasma potential. The concept of dust was invoked after being sure that no effects of RF and reference electrode contamination are responsible for this behavior. The results indicate that we should remain cautious when using emissive probes in reactive plasmas as they may occasionally lead to erroneous results.

  19. Spatial Scaling of Snow Observations and Microwave Emission Modeling During CLPX and Appropriate Satellite Sensor Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Edward J.; Tedesco, Marco

    2005-01-01

    Accurate estimates of snow water equivalent and other properties play an important role in weather, natural hazard, and hydrological forecasting and climate modeling over a range of scales in space and time. Remote sensing-derived estimates have traditionally been of the "snapshot" type, but techniques involving models with assimilation are also being explored. In both cases, forward emission models are useful to understand the observed passive microwave signatures and developing retrieval algorithms. However, mismatches between passive microwave sensor resolutions and the scales of processes controlling subpixel heterogeneity can affect the accuracy of the estimates. Improving the spatial resolution of new passive microwave satellite sensors is a major desire in order to (literally) resolve such subpixel heterogeneity, but limited spacecraft and mission resources impose severe constraints and tradeoffs. In order to maximize science return while mitigating risk for a satellite concept, it is essential to understand the scaling behavior of snow in terms of what the sensor sees (brightness temperature) as well as in terms of the actual variability of snow. NASA's Cold Land Processes Experiment-1 (CLPX-1: Colorado, 2002 and 2003) was designed to provide data to measure these scaling behaviors for varying snow conditions in areas with forested, alpine, and meadow/pasture land cover. We will use observations from CLPX-1 ground, airborne, and satellite passive microwave sensors to examine and evaluate the scaling behavior of observed and modeled brightness temperatures and observed and retrieved snow parameters across scales from meters to 10's of kilometers. The conclusions will provide direct examples of the appropriate spatial sampling scales of new sensors for snow remote sensing. The analyses will also illustrate the effects and spatial scales of the underlying phenomena (e.g., land cover) that control subpixel heterogeneity.

  20. First detection of nonflare microwave emissions from the coronae of single late-type dwarf stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, D. E.; Linsky, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    Results are presented of a search for nonflare microwave radiation from the coronae of nearby late-type dwarf stars comparable to the sun: single stars without evidence for either a large wind or circumstellar envelope. The observing program consisted of flux measurements of six stars over a 24-h period with the VLA in the C configuration at a wavelength of 6 cm with 50 MHz bandwidth. Positive detections at 6 cm were made for Chi 1 Ori (0.6 mJy) and the flare star UV Cet (1.55 mJy), and upper limits were obtained for the stars Pi 1 UMa, Xi Boo A, 70 Oph A and Epsilon Eri. It is suggested that Chi 1 Ori, and possibly UV Cet, represent the first detected members of a new class of radio sources which are driven by gyroresonance emission, i.e. cyclotron emission from nonrelativistic Maxwellian electrons.

  1. Microwave observations of jupiter's synchrotron emission during the galileo flyby of amalthea in 2002.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, M. J.; Bolton, S. J.; Bastian, T. S.; Blanc, M.; Levin, S. M.; McLeod, R. J.; MacLaren, D.; Roller, J. P.; Santos-Costa, D.; Sault, R.

    2003-04-01

    In November, 2002, the Galileo spacecraft trajectory provided a close flyby of Amalthea, one of Jupiter's inner most moons (˜2.4 RJ). During this pass, Galileo entered into a region rarely explored by spacecraft, the inner radiation belts of Jupiter. We present preliminary results from a campaign of microwave observations of Jovian synchrotron emission over a six month interval centered around the flyby. The observations were made with NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) antennas at Goldstone, California, and the NRAO Very Large Array. We report preliminary measurements of the flux density of the synchrotron emission and the rotational beaming curves and a compare them with the long term history of Jupiter's microwave emission which varies significantly on timescales of months to years. The new data are also being examined to search for evidence of short-term variations and to compare single aperture beaming curves with the spatially resolved images obtained with the VLA. These radio astronomy data will be combined with in-situ measurements from Galileo (see companion paper by Bolton et al) to improve models of the synchrotron emission from Jupiter's radiation belts. A large percentage of the Goldstone observations were conducted by middle- and high school students from classrooms across the nation. The students and their teachers are participants in the Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) science education project, which is a partnership involving NASA, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the Lewis Center for Educational Research (LCER) in Apple Valley, CA. Working with the Lewis Center over the Internet, GAVRT students conduct remotely controlled radio astronomy observations using 34-m antennas at Goldstone. The JPL contribution to this paper was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration 2756 Planetary magnetospheres (5443, 5737, 6030) 6218 Jovian satellites 6220 Jupiter Planetary Sciences

  2. On the wavelength dependence of apparent emissivity of asteroid microwave emissions - Ceres and Vesta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, William J., Jr.; Johnston, Kenneth J.

    1989-01-01

    Observations of Ceres and Vesta demonstrate the need for modifying the physical parameters of the standard model procedure in treating single-wavelength observations. It is suggested that simultaneous IR and cm-wavelength data should be used in order to determine such properties as the surface dielectric characteristics, layer depth, and radio emissivity. If using the standard model, an emissivity of 0.8 should be adopted for wavelengths of longer than 1 cm.

  3. Comparative study of x ray and microwave emissions during solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winglee, Robert M.

    1993-01-01

    The work supported by the grant consisted of two projects. The first project involved making detailed case studies of two flares using SMM data in conjunction with ground based observations. The first flare occurred at 1454 UT on June 20, 1989 and involved the eruption of a prominence near the limb. In the study we used data from many wavelength regimes including the radio, H-alpha, hard X-rays, and soft X-rays. We used a full gyrosynchrotron code to model the apparent presence of a 1.4 GHz source early in the flare that was in the form of a large coronal loop. The model results lead us to conclude that the initial acceleration occurs in small, dense loops which also produced the flare's hard X-ray emission. We also found evidence that a source at 1.4 GHz later in the event was due to second harmonic plasma emission. This source was adjacent to a leg of the prominence and comes from a dense column of material in the magnetic structure supporting the prominence. Finally, we investigated a source of microwaves and soft X-rays, occurring approximately 10 min after the hard X-ray peak, and calculate a lower limit for the density of the source. The second flare that was studied occurred at 2156 UT on June 20, 1989 and was observed with the VLA and the Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO) Frequency Agile Array. We have developed a gyrosynchrotron model of the sources at flare peak using a new gyrosynchrotron approximation which is valid at very low harmonics of the gyrofrequency. We found that the accelerated particle densities of the sources decreased much more with radius from the source center than had been supposed in previous work, while the magnetic field varied less. We also used the available data to analyze a highly polarized source which appeared late in the flare. The second project involved compiling a statistical base for the relative timing of the hard X-ray peak, the turbulent and blue-shift velocities inferred from soft X-ray line emissions observed by SMM and the microwave peak as determined from ground-based observations. This timing was then used to aid the testing of newly developed global models for flares that incorporate the global magnetic topology as well as the electron dynamics that are responsible for the hard X-rays and microwaves.

  4. L-Band H Polarized Microwave Emission During the Corn Growth Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joseph, A. T.; va der Velde, R.; O'Neill, P. E.; Kim, E.; Lang, R. H.; Gish, T.

    2012-01-01

    Hourly L-band (1.4 GHz) horizontally (H) polarized brightness temperatures (T(sub B))'s measured during five episodes (more than two days of continuous measurements) of the 2002 corn growth cycle are analyzed. These T(sub B)'s measurements were acquired as a part of a combined active/passive microwave field campaign, and were obtained at five incidence and three azimuth angles relative to the row direction. In support of this microwave data collection, intensive ground sampling took place once a week. Moreover, the interpretation of the hourly T(sub B)'s could also rely on the data obtained using the various automated instruments installed in the same field. In this paper, the soil moisture and temperature measured at fixed time intervals have been employed as input for the tau-omega model to reproduce the hourly T(sub B). Through the calibration of the vegetation and surface roughness parameterizations, the impact of the vegetation morphological changes on the microwave emission and the dependence of the soil surface roughness parameter, h(sub r), on soil moisture are investigated. This analysis demonstrates that the b parameter, appearing in the representation of the canopy opacity, has an angular dependence that varies throughout the growing period and also that the parameter hr increases as the soil dries in a portion of the dry-down cycle. The angular dependence of the b parameter imposes the largest uncertainty on T(sub B) simulations near senescence as the response of b to the incidence is also affected by the crop row orientation. On the other hand, the incorporation of a soil moisture dependent h(sub r) parameterization was responsible for the largest error reduction of T(sub B) simulations in the early growth cycle.

  5. Iapetus' near surface thermal emission modeled and constrained using Cassini RADAR Radiometer microwave observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Gall, A.; Leyrat, C.; Janssen, M. A.; Keihm, S.; Wye, L. C.; West, R.; Lorenz, R. D.; Tosi, F.

    2014-10-01

    Since its arrival at Saturn, the Cassini spacecraft has had only a few opportunities to observe Iapetus, Saturn's most distant regular satellite. These observations were all made from long ranges (>100,000 km) except on September 10, 2007, during Cassini orbit 49, when the spacecraft encountered the two-toned moon during its closest flyby so far. In this pass it collected spatially resolved data on the object's leading side, mainly over the equatorial dark terrains of Cassini Regio (CR). In this paper, we examine the radiometry data acquired by the Cassini RADAR during both this close-targeted flyby (referred to as IA49-3) and the distant Iapetus observations. In the RADAR's passive mode, the receiver functions as a radiometer to record the thermal emission from planetary surfaces at a wavelength of 2.2-cm. On the cold icy surfaces of Saturn's moons, the measured brightness temperatures depend both on the microwave emissivity and the physical temperature profile below the surface down to a depth that is likely to be tens of centimeters or even a few meters. Combined with the concurrent active data, passive measurements can shed light on the composition, structure and thermal properties of planetary regoliths and thus on the processes from which they have formed and evolved. The model we propose for Iapetus' microwave thermal emission is fitted to the IA49-3 observations and reveals that the thermal inertias sensed by the Cassini Radiometer over both CR and the bright mid-to-high latitude terrains, namely Ronceveaux Terra (RT) in the North and Saragossa Terra (ST) in the South, significantly exceed those measured by Cassini's CIRS (Composite Infrared Spectrometer), which is sensitive to much smaller depths, generally the first few millimeters of the surface. This implies that the subsurface of Iapetus sensed at 2.2-cm wavelength is more consolidated than the uppermost layers of the surface. In the case of CR, a thermal inertia of at least 50 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2, and most probably >200 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2 is inferred. This suggests a gradient in density with depth or, more likely, that the Radiometer has probed the icy substrate underlying the dark layer. Furthermore, the measured thermal emission is found to arise from the upper few meters of the subsurface, which points to tholins, rather than iron oxide compounds, as the primary contaminants of the dark material. We also find that, although there is a latitudinal decrease probably related to the thinning of the dark layer away from the Equator, the CR region exhibits a high 2.2-cm emissivity, 0.87 in average, which is close to the emissivity of Phoebe, a putative source of the dark matter. In the case of RT + ST, model fitting points to a mean thermal inertia of ∼160 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2 along with the possible presence of an absorbing compound in the regolith of the bright terrains. Nevertheless, this layer is transparent enough for the Radiometer to capture the seasonal contrast between the northern and southern hemispheres. Lastly, a global decline of the microwave emissivity with latitude is revealed; it is probably indicative of a progressive increase of the water ice content in the near surface.

  6. Microwave response and photon emission of a voltage baised Josephson junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jebari, Salha; Grimm, Alexander; Hazra, Dibyendu; Hofheinz, Max

    The readout of superconducting qubits requires amplifiers combining noise close to the quantum limit, high gain, large bandwidth, and sufficient dynamic range. Josephson parametric amplifiers using Josephson junctions in the 0-voltage state, driven by a large microwave signals, begin to perform sufficiently well in all 4 of these aspects to be of practical use, but remain difficult to optimize and use. Recent experiments with superconducting circuits consisting of a DC voltage-biased Josephson junction in series with a resonator, showed that a tunneling Cooper pair can emit one or several photons with a total energy of 2e times the applied voltage. We present microwave reflection measurements on this device indicating that amplification is possible with a simple DC voltage-biased Josephson junction. We compare these measurements with the noise power emitted by the junction and show that, for low Josephson energy, transmission and noise emission can be explained within the framework of P(E) theory of inelastic Cooper pair tunneling. Combined with a theoretical model, our results indicate that voltage-biased Josephson junctions might be useful for amplification near the quantum limit, offering simpler design and a different trade-off between gain, bandwidth and dynamic range.

  7. Applications of anomalous diffraction systems, generation of attosecond electron and photon pulses and Raman amplification by stimulated emission of radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vartak, Sameer Dinkar

    1998-10-01

    Anomalous diffraction is scattering process due to phase distortion introduced on incident phase front by scattering object. Phase mask or hologram, Christiansen filter, PDLC are examples of an anomalously diffracting systems. Phase hologram modulates an input wavefront to produce a wavefront which when Fourier transformed using a converging lens gives desired image on to a screen. We made a nonlinear optical element using phase mask made up of nonlinear material. It forms a lens because of nonlinear index of refraction when a high intensity beam is incident. This lens Fourier transforms the phase mask and images the phase mask. This nonlinear optical element can be used for various applications like image gating and 3-D memory writing and read out. Christiansen filter (CF) is a two component scattering system whose dispersion curves intersect at certain wavelength. Thus light corresponding to this wavelength traverses the filter without any scattering and light at other wavelengths gets scattered. This results in narrow wavelength dependent transmission curve centered at the index matching wavelength. When materials with an intensity dependent refractive index are used to make a CF, the index matching condition of CF becomes function of the input intensity resulting in intensity dependent beam size and transmittance through the filter. This property of nonlinear CF can be used to switch beam optically in both self and cross-modulation modes. Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystal (PDLC) is dispersion of liquid crystal droplets in polymer whose index of refraction is same as ordinary refractive index of liquid crystal. PDLC shows voltage dependent scattering and are used in flat panel displays. We used this element as voltage controlled intracavity loss element in a laser cavity to make a lasing pixel projection display. Output of this pixel shows all desired properties for a projection display like narrow linewidth, high brightness, TTL switching compatibility and efficient delivery of this power to the screen. We describe a method based on optical rectification to create an electron acceleration process which can act simultaneously on a femtosecond photo-electron pulse as well as cancel space-charge effects. This method can be used to produce attosecond electron and photon pulses. Narrow linewidth high intensity tunable light pulses are very useful for applications such as spectroscopic studies and remote sensing. Tunable lasers and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) process are commonly used for this purpose. SRS process has high threshold because of small spontaneous Raman scattering cross-sections. We combined amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) from dye molecules with SRS process in solvent molecules in which dye molecules are dissolved. ASE seeds SRS process and SRS peak is further amplified by stimulated emission gain. We got amplifications ~100 over SRS from pure solvent. This peak can be tuned over gain bandwidth of dye molecules.

  8. Thermospray nebulizer as sample introduction technique for microwave plasma torch atomic emission spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chenglong; Zhuang, Zhixia; Tu, Yi; Yang, Pengyuan; Wang, Xiaoru

    1998-09-01

    A thermospray nebulizer was used as a sample introduction device for microwave plasma torch (MPT) atomic emission spectrometry (AES). Experimental parameters, including the power supplied to the MPT, the flow rates of support and carrier gases, the observation height, the sample uptake rate, the thermospray working temperature, the temperature of the aerosol spray chamber and cooling water were optimized. Under optimum conditions, the relative standard deviation (RSD) of 10 measurements for 21 elements is in the range 0.3-2.0%. The detection limits were improved in comparison with the ultrasonic nebulizer as sample introduction technique for MPT-AES. The inclusion of 20% methanol into the MPT showed there is no effect on the stability of MPT discharge. The technique can thus be held to have the potential for interface to reverse-phase HPLC systems.

  9. Correlated Cooper pair transport and microwave photon emission in the dynamical Coulomb blockade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leppäkangas, Juha; Fogelström, Mikael; Marthaler, Michael; Johansson, Göran

    2016-01-01

    We study theoretically electromagnetic radiation emitted by inelastic Cooper-pair tunneling. We consider a dc-voltage-biased superconducting transmission line terminated by a Josephson junction. We show that the generated continuous-mode electromagnetic field can be expressed as a function of the time-dependent current across the Josephson junction. The leading-order expansion in the tunneling coupling, similar to the P (E ) theory, has previously been used to investigate the photon emission statistics in the limit of sequential (independent) Cooper-pair tunneling. By explicitly evaluating the system characteristics up to the fourth order in the tunneling coupling, we account for dynamics between consecutively tunneling Cooper pairs. Within this approach we investigate how temporal correlations in the charge transport can be seen in the first- and second-order coherences of the emitted microwave radiation.

  10. Theory for microwave thermal emission from a layer of cloud or rain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsang, L.; Kong, J. A.; Staelin, D. H.; Njoku, E.; Waters, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    Microwave thermal emission from a layer of cloud or rain consisting of spherical particles has been investigated. Scattering effects are studied in great detail with both numerical and analytical approaches. In the absence of ground emission, it is found that scattering induces brightening for optically thin layers and vice versa for optically thick layers. As a function of observation angle, brightening occurs near nadir, while darkening occurs at large angles in the case of small optical thickness. For large optical thickness, darkening occurs at all angles because of backscattering effects. When the layer of cloud or rain is above an air layer and an ocean surface at a higher temperature, it is found that the darkening effect at large optical thickness is much more pronounced. The darkening effect is also larger for vertical polarizations because the ocean emits more vertically polarized components. The effect of thermal emission and molecular absorption by atmospheric gases is also taken into account. Results obtained from analytical formulas under single-scattering assumptions are compared and illustrated.

  11. A comparison of radiative transfer models for predicting the microwave emission from soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmugge, T. J.; Choudhury, B. J.

    1980-01-01

    Two general types of numerical models for predicting microwave emission from soils are compared-coherent and noncoherent. In the former, radiation in the soil is treated coherently, and the boundary conditions on the electric fields across the layer boundaries are used to calculate the radiation intensity. In the latter, the radiation is assumed to be noncoherent, and the intensities of the radiation are considered directly. The results of the two approaches may be different because of the effects of interference, which can cause the transmitted intensity at the surface (i.e., emissivity) to be sometimes higher and sometimes lower for the coherent case than for the noncoherent case, depending on the relative phases of reflected fields from the lower layers. This coupling between soil layers in the coherent models leads to greater soil moisture sampling depths observed with this type of model, and is the major difference that is found between the two types of models. In noncoherent models, the emissivity is determined by the dielectric constraint at the air/soil interface. The subsequent differences in the results are functions of both the frequency of the radiation being considered and the steepness of the moisture gradient near the surface. The calculations were performed at frequencies of 1.4 and 19.4 GHz and for two sets of soil profiles. Little difference was observed between the models at 19.4 GHz; and only at the lower frequency were differences apparent because of the greater soil moisture sampling depth at this frequency.

  12. Comparison among physical process based snow models in estimating SWE and upwelling microwave emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, D.; Durand, M. T.; Margulis, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    Snowpack serves as a critical water resource and an important climate indicator. Accurately estimating snow water equivalent (SWE) and melt timing has both civil and scientific merits. Physical process based multi-layer land surface models (LSM) characterize snowpack by tracking the energy balance and mass balance in each layer. However, in terms of the number of layers used to model the snowpack stratigraphy, as well as the complexity of the simulated mass/energy exchanges in each single layer, significant variances exist among different LSMs. Previous work has largely focused on assessing the impact of layering and stratigraphy representation on mass and energy balance, with little attention paid to the implications of these factors on predicted microwave brightness temperature (Tb). In this paper, three LSMs with varying snow layer schemes: SSiB (3-layer), CoLM (5-layer), and SNOWPACK (N-layer), are coupled to the Microwave Emission from Multi-Layer Snowpacks (MEMLS) radiative transfer model (RTM) to simulate the snowpack mass/energy budgets and microwave signature over a full season. The simulations are performed at five in-situ gage locations in the Kern River Basin, Sierra Nevada, CA where it is known that large snow events occur that can be problematic to represent using a small number of snow layers. A particular emphasis is placed on assessment of the impact of layering scheme on the results. Preliminary results show that even for SSiB which has a relative simple empirical layering scheme, the modeled annual SWE could be highly correlated with the in-situ SWE (r¬2=0.91) if the precipitation bias is corrected, also, the comparison between the Tb simulated by SSiB+MEMLS and the downscaled AMSR-E Tb measurements shows a correlation coefficient of 0.94 during the snow accumulation season (Oct to Apr) if the grain growth parameters and the soil snow reflectivity is properly calibrated. Future work includes comparing SWE and Tb from all threemodels and quantitatively determining how the more complex models (SNOWPACK) could possibly further improve the Tb estimates, and how they will increase the computational loads, which are highly relevant to the ultimate goal of estimation of SWE via assimilation of multi-frequency passive microwave observations.

  13. Snow stratigraphic heterogeneity within ground-based passive microwave radiometer footprints: Implications for emission modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutter, Nick; Sandells, Mel; Derksen, Chris; Toose, Peter; Royer, Alain; Montpetit, Benoit; Langlois, Alex; Lemmetyinen, Juha; Pulliainen, Jouni

    2014-03-01

    Two-dimensional measurements of snowpack properties (stratigraphic layering, density, grain size, and temperature) were used as inputs to the multilayer Helsinki University of Technology (HUT) microwave emission model at a centimeter-scale horizontal resolution, across a 4.5 m transect of ground-based passive microwave radiometer footprints near Churchill, Manitoba, Canada. Snowpack stratigraphy was complex (between six and eight layers) with only three layers extending continuously throughout the length of the transect. Distributions of one-dimensional simulations, accurately representing complex stratigraphic layering, were evaluated using measured brightness temperatures. Large biases (36 to 68 K) between simulated and measured brightness temperatures were minimized (-0.5 to 0.6 K), within measurement accuracy, through application of grain scaling factors (2.6 to 5.3) at different combinations of frequencies, polarizations, and model extinction coefficients. Grain scaling factors compensated for uncertainty relating optical specific surface area to HUT effective grain size inputs and quantified relative differences in scattering and absorption properties of various extinction coefficients. The HUT model required accurate representation of ice lenses, particularly at horizontal polarization, and large grain scaling factors highlighted the need to consider microstructure beyond the size of individual grains. As variability of extinction coefficients was strongly influenced by the proportion of large (hoar) grains in a vertical profile, it is important to consider simulations from distributions of one-dimensional profiles rather than single profiles, especially in sub-Arctic snowpacks where stratigraphic variability can be high. Model sensitivity experiments suggested that the level of error in field measurements and the new methodological framework used to apply them in a snow emission model were satisfactory. Layer amalgamation showed that a three-layer representation of snowpack stratigraphy reduced the bias of a one-layer representation by about 50%.

  14. The DMRT-ML Model: Numerical Simulations of the Microwave Emission of Snowpacks Based on the Dense Media Radiative Transfer Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Picard, Ghislain; Brucker, Ludovic; Roy, Alexandre; DuPont, FLorent; Champollion, Nicolas; Morin, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Microwave radiometer observations have been used to retrieve snow depth and snow water equivalent on both land and sea ice, snow accumulation on ice sheets, melt events, snow temperature, and snow grain size. Modeling the microwave emission from snow and ice physical properties is crucial to improve the quality of these retrievals. It also is crucial to improve our understanding of the radiative transfer processes within the snow cover, and the snow properties most relevant in microwave remote sensing. Our objective is to present a recent microwave emission model and its validation. The model is named DMRT-ML (DMRT Multi-Layer).

  15. The DMRT-ML Model: Numerical Simulations of the Microwave Emission of Snowpacks Based on the Dense Media Radiative Transfer Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brucker, Ludovic; Picard, Ghislain; Roy, Alexandre; Dupont, Florent; Fily, Michel; Royer, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Microwave radiometer observations have been used to retrieve snow depth and snow water equivalent on both land and sea ice, snow accumulation on ice sheets, melt events, snow temperature, and snow grain size. Modeling the microwave emission from snow and ice physical properties is crucial to improve the quality of these retrievals. It also is crucial to improve our understanding of the radiative transfer processes within the snow cover, and the snow properties most relevant in microwave remote sensing. Our objective is to present a recent microwave emission model and its validation. The model is named DMRT-ML (DMRT Multi-Layer), and is available at http:lgge.osug.frpicarddmrtml.

  16. Snow stratigraphic heterogeneity within ground-based passive microwave radiometer footprints: implications for emission modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandells, M.; Rutter, N.; Derksen, C.; Langlois, A.; Lemmetyinen, J.; Montpetit, B.; Pulliainen, J. T.; Royer, A.; Toose, P.

    2012-12-01

    Remote sensing of snow mass remains a challenging area of research. Scattering of electromagnetic radiation is sensitive to snow mass, but is also affected by contrasts in the dielectric properties of the snow. Although the argument that errors from simple algorithms average out at large scales has been used to justify current retrieval methods, it is not obvious why this should be the case. This hypothesis needs to be tested more rigorously. A ground-based field experiment was carried out to assess the impact of sub-footprint snow heterogeneity on microwave brightness temperature, in Churchill, Canada in winter in early 2010. Passive microwave measurements of snow were made using sled-mounted radiometers at 75cm intervals over a 5m transect. Measurements were made at horizontal and vertical polarizations at frequencies of 19 and 37 GHz. Snow beneath the radiometer footprints was subsequently excavated, creating a snow trench wall along the centrepoints of adjacent footprints. The trench wall was carefully smoothed and photographed with a near-infrared camera in order to determine the positions of stratigraphic snow layer boundaries. Three one-dimensional vertical profiles of snowpack properties (density and snow specific surface area) were taken at 75cm, 185cm and 355cm from the left hand side of the trench. These profile measurements were used to derive snow density and grain size for each of the layers identified from the NIR image. Microwave brightness temperatures for the 2-dimensional map of snow properties was simulated with the Helsinki University of Technology (HUT) model at 1cm intervals horizontally across the trench. Where each of five ice lenses was identified in the snow stratigraphy, a decrease in brightness temperature was simulated. However, the median brightness temperature simulated across the trench was substantially higher than the observations, of the order of tens of Kelvin, dependent on frequency and polarization. In order to understand and quantify possible sources of error in the simulations, a number of experiments were carried out to investigate the sensitivity of the brightness temperature to: 1) uncertainties in field observations, 2) representation of ice lenses, 3) model layering structure, and 4) near-infrared derived grain size representing snow grain size at microwave wavelengths. Field measurement error made little difference to the simulated brightness temperature, nor did the representation of ice lenses as crusts of high density snow. As the number of layers in the snow was reduced to 3, 2, or 1, the simulated brightness temperature increased slightly. However, scaling of snow grain size had a dramatic effect on the simulated brightness temperatures, reducing the median bias of the simulations to within measurement error for the statistically different brightness temperature distributions. This indicated that further investigation is required to define what is meant by the microwave grain size, and how this relates to the grain size that is used in the microwave emission model.

  17. Extending lean operating limit and reducing emissions of methane spark-ignited engines using a microwave-assisted spark plug

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rapp, Vi H.; DeFilippo, Anthony; Saxena, Samveg; Chen, Jyh-Yuan; Dibble, Robert W.; Nishiyama, Atsushi; Moon, Ahsa; Ikeda, Yuji

    2012-01-01

    Amore » microwave-assisted spark plug was used to extend the lean operating limit (lean limit) and reduce emissions of an engine burning methane-air. In-cylinder pressure data were collected at normalized air-fuel ratios of λ = 1.46, λ = 1.51, λ = 1.57, λ = 1.68, and λ = 1.75. For each λ, microwave energy (power supplied to the magnetron per engine cycle) was varied from 0 mJ (spark discharge alone) to 1600 mJ. At lean conditions, the results showed adding microwave energy to a standard spark plug discharge increased the number of complete combustion cycles, improving engine stability as compared to spark-only operation. Addition of microwave energy also increased the indicated thermal efficiency by 4% at λ = 1.68. At λ = 1.75, the spark discharge alone was unable to consistently ignite the air-fuel mixture, resulting in frequent misfires. Although microwave energy produced more consistent ignition than spark discharge alone at λ = 1.75, 59% of the cycles only partially burned. Overall, the microwave-assisted spark plug increased engine performance under lean operating conditions (λ = 1.68) but did not affect operation at conditions closer to stoichiometric.« less

  18. Anomalous resistivity effect on multiple ion beam emission and hard x-ray generation in a Mather type plasma focus device

    SciTech Connect

    Behbahani, R. A.; Aghamir, F. M.

    2011-10-15

    Multi ion beam and hard x-ray emissions were detected in a high inductance (more than 100 nH) Mather type plasma focus (PF) device at different filling gas pressures and charging voltages. The signal analysis was performed through the current trace, as it is the fundamental signal from which all of the phenomena in a PF device can be extracted. Two different fitting processes were carried out according to Lee's computational (snow-plow) model. In the first process, only plasma dynamics and classical (Spitzer) resistances were considered as energy consumer parameters for plasma. This led to an unsuccessful fitting and did not answer the energy transfer mechanism into plasma. A second fitting process was considered through the addition of anomalous resistance, which provided the best fit. Anomalous resistance was the source of long decrease in current trace, and multi dips and multi peaks of high voltage probe. Multi-peak features were interpreted considering the second fitting process along with the mechanisms for ion beam production and hard x-ray emission. To show the important role of the anomalous resistance, the duration of the current drop was discussed.

  19. Strong localization induced anomalous temperature dependence exciton emission above 300 K from SnO{sub 2} quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, S. S. E-mail: ghli@issp.ac.cn; Li, F. D.; Liu, Q. W.; Xu, S. C.; Luo, Y. Y.; Li, G. H. E-mail: ghli@issp.ac.cn

    2015-05-07

    SnO{sub 2} quantum dots (QDs) are potential materials for deep ultraviolet (DUV) light emitting devices. In this study, we report the temperature and excitation power-dependent exciton luminescence from SnO{sub 2} QDs. The exciton emission exhibits anomalous blue shift, accompanied with band width reduction with increasing temperature and excitation power above 300 K. The anomalous temperature dependences of the peak energy and band width are well interpreted by the strongly localized carrier thermal hopping process and Gaussian shape of band tails states, respectively. The localized wells and band tails at conduction minimum are considered to be induced by the surface oxygen defects and local potential fluctuation in SnO{sub 2} QDs.

  20. Microwave and hard X-ray emissions during the impulsive phase of solar flares: Nonthermal electron spectrum and time delay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gu, Ye-Ming; Li, Chung-Sheng

    1986-01-01

    On the basis of the summing-up and analysis of the observations and theories about the impulsive microwave and hard X-ray bursts, the correlations between these two kinds of emissions were investigated. It is shown that it is only possible to explain the optically-thin microwave spectrum and its relations with the hard X-ray spectrum by means of the nonthermal source model. A simple nonthermal trap model in the mildly-relativistic case can consistently explain the main characteristics of the spectrum and the relative time delays.

  1. Spatial Variability of Barrow-Area Shore-Fast Sea Ice and Its Relationships to Passive Microwave Emissivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maslanik, J. A.; Rivas, M. Belmonte; Holmgren, J.; Gasiewski, A. J.; Heinrichs, J. F.; Stroeve, J. C.; Klein, M.; Markus, T.; Perovich, D. K.; Sonntag, J. G.; Tape, K.

    2006-01-01

    Aircraft-acquired passive microwave data, laser radar height observations, RADARSAT synthetic aperture radar imagery, and in situ measurements obtained during the AMSR-Ice03 experiment are used to investigate relationships between microwave emission and ice characteristics over several space scales. The data fusion allows delineation of the shore-fast ice and pack ice in the Barrow area, AK, into several ice classes. Results show good agreement between observed and Polarimetric Scanning Radiometer (PSR)-derived snow depths over relatively smooth ice, with larger differences over ridged and rubbled ice. The PSR results are consistent with the effects on snow depth of the spatial distribution and nature of ice roughness, ridging, and other factors such as ice age. Apparent relationships exist between ice roughness and the degree of depolarization of emission at 10,19, and 37 GHz. This depolarization .would yield overestimates of total ice concentration using polarization-based algorithms, with indications of this seen when the NT-2 algorithm is applied to the PSR data. Other characteristics of the microwave data, such as effects of grounding of sea ice and large contrast between sea ice and adjacent land, are also apparent in the PSR data. Overall, the results further demonstrate the importance of macroscale ice roughness conditions such as ridging and rubbling on snow depth and microwave emissivity.

  2. Direct solid atomic emission spectrometric analysis of metal samples by an argon microwave plasma torch coupled to spark ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, U.; Kehden, A.; Voges, E.; Broekaert, J. A. C.

    1999-09-01

    Spark ablation has been combined to microwave plasma torch atomic emission spectrometry for the direct analysis of compact metallic samples. The material is ablated by a medium voltage spark (450 V, 370 Hz) in a point-to-plane configuration and swept into a 100-W, 2.45-GHz argon microwave discharge. The microwave plasma is observed end-on and the radiation analysed with a polychromator. The detection limits for Fe, Ni, Pb and Sn in brass, Cr, Cu, Ni, Mn, Mo, Si and V in steel and Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Si and Zn in aluminium with the microwave plasma torch in the case of measurements with a polychromator are in the μg/g range and by a factor of up to 20 higher than those obtained with spark ablation coupled to inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry using a high resolution sequential spectrometer. The stability of the emission signal depends on the element studied and relative standard deviations usually are between 0.5 and 3.5%. In the case of low-alloy steels, the linearity and the precision of the calibration could be improved by internal standardisation. Several elements (Cr, Cu, Ni, Si and V) could be determined in a steel sample (BAS SS 410/1) with high accuracy and precision.

  3. First detection of nonflare microwave emission from the coronae of single late-type dwarf stars

    SciTech Connect

    Gary, D.E.; Linsky, J.L.

    1981-11-01

    We report on an observing program with the VLA in its C configuration to detect microwave radiation from the coronae of nearby late-type dwarf stars which are not members of close binary systems and do not have large winds. Six stars, chosen on the basis of strong apparent X-ray flux, were observed during a 24 hour period, and two stars were detected chi/sup 1/ Orionis (G0 V) was detected as a 0.6 mJy source (S/Nroughly-equal7) at 6 cm, and we obtained an upper limit at 2 cm. The flare star UV Cet (dM 5.5e) was detected as a steady 1.55 mJy source (S/Nroughly-equal17) at 6 cm during a 2.5 hour observation. We obtained upper limits at 6 cm for the other stars observed: ..pi../sup 1/ UMa (G0 V), zeta Boo A (G8 V), 70 Oph A (K0 V), and epsilon Eri (K2 V). We believe that the most likely emission mechanism is gyro-resonance emission, i.e., cyclotron emission from nonrelativistic Maxwellian electrons. Assuming a coronal temperature of 0.5--0.1 x 10/sup 7/ K consistent with the X-ray data, we find that the observed 6 cm fluxes are consistent with emission in the sixth or lower harmonics with coronal magnetic fields roughly-equal300 gauss or larger covering a large fraction of the star. It is likely that chi/sup 1/ Ori, solar active regions (plages), and perhaps UV Cet, are the first detected members of a new class of radio sources.

  4. Establishing a Calibration for a Microwave Plasma Continuous Emissions Monitor For Stack Exhaust Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, G. J., III; Green, K. M.; Woskov, P. P.; Hadidi, K.; Thomas, P.

    1998-11-01

    A real-time continuous emissions monitor for hazardous metals in stack exhaust is in development to replace the regulatory standard, EPA Method 29. A microwave plasma is sustained in ambient stack exhaust flow for real-time atomic emission spectroscopy. A metals injection calibration subsystem using a pneumatic nebulizer and standard metals solution is attached to the exhaust flow for real-time span calibration of the monitored metals. A novel approach to determine the nebulizer injection efficiency during plasma operation was tested. A known metal mass on a tungsten filament attached to an alumina rod was introduced into a nitrogen plasma at different axial positions. These signals were then correlated to masses of metals aspirated into the plasma by the nebulizer. The metals injection efficiency as a function of rod insertion position was calculated by dividing the correlated mass by the total mass aspirated by the nebulizer, and extrapolated to the end of the sample line. The resulting efficiency was compared to samples collected directly by Gelman Science Type A/E glass fiber filters off line from the plasma. The results to date give the nebulizer metals injection efficiencies less than one percent.

  5. An evaluation of microwave-assisted fusion and microwave-assisted acid digestion methods for determining elemental impurities in carbon nanostructures using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Patole, Shashikant P; Simões, Filipa; Yapici, Tahir F; Warsama, Bashir H; Anjum, Dalaver H; Costa, Pedro M F J

    2016-02-01

    It is common for as-prepared carbon nanotube (CNT) and graphene samples to contain remnants of the transition metals used to catalyze their growth; contamination may also leave other trace elemental impurities in the samples. Although a full quantification of impurities in as-prepared samples of carbon nanostructures is difficult, particularly when trace elements are intercalated or encapsulated within a protective layer of graphitic carbon, reliable information is essential for reasons such as quantifying the adulteration of physico-chemical properties of the materials and for evaluating environmental issues. Here, we introduce a microwave-based fusion method to degrade single- and double-walled CNTs and graphene nanoplatelets into a fusion flux thereby thoroughly leaching all metallic impurities. Subsequent dissolution of the fusion product in diluted hydrochloric and nitric acid allowed us to identify their trace elemental impurities using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Comparisons of the results from the proposed microwave-assisted fusion method against those of a more classical microwave-assisted acid digestion approach suggest complementarity between the two that ultimately could lead to a more reliable and less costly determination of trace elemental impurities in carbon nanostructured materials. PMID:26653428

  6. SEVEN-YEAR WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE (WMAP ) OBSERVATIONS: GALACTIC FOREGROUND EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, B.; Bennett, C. L.; Larson, D.; Odegard, N.; Weiland, J. L.; Hill, R. S.; Kogut, A.; Hinshaw, G.; Dunkley, J.; Halpern, M.; Jarosik, N.; Page, L.; Spergel, D. N.; Komatsu, E.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Nolta, M. R.; Smith, K. M.; Tucker, G. S.

    2011-02-01

    We present updated estimates of Galactic foreground emission using seven years of WMAP data. Using the power spectrum of differences between multi-frequency template-cleaned maps, we find no evidence for foreground contamination outside of the updated (KQ85y7) foreground mask. We place a 15 {mu}K upper bound on rms foreground contamination in the cleaned maps used for cosmological analysis. Further, the cleaning process requires only three power-law foregrounds outside of the mask. We find no evidence for polarized foregrounds beyond those from soft (steep-spectrum) synchrotron and thermal dust emission; in particular we find no indication in the polarization data of an extra 'haze' of hard synchrotron emission from energetic electrons near the Galactic center. We provide an updated map of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) using the internal linear combination method, updated foreground masks, and updates to point source catalogs using two different techniques. With additional years of data, we now detect 471 point sources using a five-band technique and 417 sources using a three-band CMB-free technique. In total there are 62 newly detected point sources, a 12% increase over the five-year release. Also new are tests of the Markov chain Monte Carlo foreground fitting procedure against systematics in the time-stream data, and tests against the observed beam asymmetry. Within a few degrees of the Galactic plane, the behavior in total intensity of low-frequency foregrounds is complicated and not completely understood. WMAP data show a rapidly steepening spectrum from 20 to 40 GHz, which may be due to emission from spinning dust grains, steepening synchrotron, or other effects. Comparisons are made to a 1 deg 408 MHz map (Haslam et al.) and the 11 deg ARCADE 2 data (Singal et al.). We find that spinning dust or steepening synchrotron models fit the combination of WMAP and 408 MHz data equally well. ARCADE data appear inconsistent with the steepening synchrotron model and consistent with the spinning dust model, though some discrepancies remain regarding the relative strength of spinning dust emission. More high-resolution data in the 10-40 GHz range would shed much light on these issues.

  7. The ultra-rapid synthesis of 2D graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets via direct microwave heating for field emission.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yongzhi; Zhou, Qing; Wang, Jigang

    2016-02-16

    The 2D g-C3N4 nanosheets were ultra-rapidly prepared via a direct microwave heating approach. The as-synthesized g-C3N4 possessed a large surface area, few stacking layers, a large aspect ratio and an enlarged bandgap. As a consequence, the excellent field emission properties of 2D g-C3N4 nanosheets were exhibited with extremely low turn-on fields. PMID:26879135

  8. MICROWAVE EMISSION FROM THE EDGEWORTH-KUIPER BELT AND THE ASTEROID BELT CONSTRAINED FROM THE WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE

    SciTech Connect

    Ichikawa, Kazuhide; Fukugita, Masataka

    2011-08-01

    Objects in the Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt and the main asteroid belt should emit microwaves that may give rise to extra anisotropy signals in the multipole of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiment. Constraints are derived from the absence of positive detection of such anisotropies for l {approx}< 50, meaning the total mass of Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt objects is smaller than 0.2 M{sub +}. This limit is consistent with the mass extrapolated from the observable population with the size of a {approx}> 15 km, assuming that the small-object population follows the power law in size dN/da {approx} a{sup -q} with the canonical index expected for collisional equilibrium, q {approx_equal} 3.5, with which 23% of the mass is ascribed to objects smaller than are observationally accessible down to grains. A similar argument applied to the main asteroid belt indicates that the grain population should not increase more quickly than q {approx_equal} 3.6 toward smaller radii, if the grain population follows the power law that continues to observed asteroids with larger radii. Both cases are at or only slightly above the limit that can be physically significant, implying the importance of further tightening the CMB anisotropy limit, which may be attained with observation at higher radio frequencies.

  9. Ozone-stimulated emission due to atomic oxygen population inversions in an argon microwave plasma torch

    SciTech Connect

    Lukina, N. A.; Sergeichev, K. F.

    2008-06-15

    It is shown that, in a microwave torch discharge in an argon jet injected into an oxygen atmosphere at normal pressure, quasi-resonant energy transfer from metastable argon atoms to molecules of oxygen and ozone generated in the torch shell and, then, to oxygen atoms produced via the dissociation of molecular oxygen and ozone leads to the inverse population of metastable levels of atomic oxygen. As a result, the excited atomic oxygen with population inversions becomes a gain medium for lasing at wavelengths of 844.6 and 777.3 nm (the 3{sup 3}P-3{sup 3}S and 3{sup 5}P-3{sup 5}S transitions). It is shown that an increase in the ozone density is accompanied by an increase in both the lasing efficiency at these wavelength and the emission intensity of the plasma-forming argon at a wavelength of 811.15 nm (the {sup 2}P{sup 0}4s-{sup 2}P{sup 0}4p transition). When the torch operates unstably, the production of singlet oxygen suppresses ozone generation; as a result, the lasing effect at these wavelengths disappears.

  10. Microwave plasma atomic emission spectrometric determination of Ca, K and Mg in various cheese varieties.

    PubMed

    Ozbek, Nil; Akman, Suleyman

    2016-02-01

    Microwave plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (MP-AES) was used to determine calcium, magnesium and potassium in various Turkish cheese samples. Cheese samples were dried at 100 °C for 2 days and then digested in a mixture of nitric acid/hydrogen peroxide (3:1). Good linearities (R(2) > 0.999) were obtained up to 10 μg mL(-1) of Ca, Mg and K at 445.478 nm, 285.213 nm and 766.491 nm, respectively. The analytes in a certified reference milk powder sample were determined within the uncertainty limits. Moreover, the analytes added to the cheese samples were recovered quantitatively (>90%). All determinations were performed using aqueous standards for calibration. The LOD values for Ca, Mg and K were 0.036 μg mL(-1), 0.012 μg mL(-1) and 0.190 μg mL(-1), respectively. Concentrations of Ca, K and Mg in various types of cheese samples produced in different regions of Turkey were found between 1.03-3.70, 0.242-0.784 and 0.081-0.303 g kg(-1), respectively. PMID:26304350

  11. Effects of varying soil moisture contents and vegetation canopies on microwave emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, H.-H. K.; Schmugge, T. J.

    1982-01-01

    Results of NASA airborne passive microwave scans of bare and vegetated fields for comparison with ground truth tests are discussed and a model for atmospheric scattering of radiation by vegetation is detailed. On-board radiometers obtained data at 21, 2.8, and 1.67 cm during three passes over each of 46 fields, 28 of which were bare and the others having wheat or alfalfa. Ground-based sampling included moisture in five layers down to 15 cm in addition to soil temperature. The relationships among the brightness temperature and soil moisture, as well as the surface roughness and the vegetation canopy were examined. A model was developed for the dielectric coefficient and volume scattering for a vegetation medium. L- to C-band data were found useful for retrieving soil information directly. A surface moisture content of 5-35% yielded an emissivity of 0.9-0.7. The data agreed well with a combined multilayer radiative transfer model with simple roughness correction.

  12. Emission of non-thermal microwave radiation by a Martian dust storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruf, Christopher; Renno, Nilton O.; Kok, Jasper F.; Bandelier, Etienne; Sander, Michael J.; Gross, Steven; Skjerve, Lyle; Cantor, Bruce

    2009-07-01

    We report evidence for the emission of non-thermal microwave radiation by a deep Martian dust storm. The observations were made using an innovative detector that can discriminate between radiation of thermal and non-thermal origin by measuring the high order moments of its electric field strength. Measurements with this detector, installed in a 34 m radio telescope of the Deep Space Network (DSN), were made for about 5 hours a day over a dozen days between 22 May and 16 June 2006. Non-thermal radiation was detected for a few hours only when a 35 km deep Martian dust storm was within the field of view of the radio telescope on 8 June 2006. The spectrum of the non-thermal radiation has significant peaks around predicted values of the lowest three modes of the Martian Schumann Resonance (SR). The SR results from electromagnetic standing waves formed in the concentric spherical cavity between the Martian surface and its ionosphere and forced by large-scale electric discharge. Thus, the non-thermal radiation was probably caused by electric discharge in the Martian dust storm.

  13. Standard dilution analysis of beverages by microwave-induced plasma optical emission spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, Daniel A; McSweeney, Tina; Santos, Mirian C; Jones, Bradley T; Donati, George L

    2016-02-25

    In this work, standard dilution analysis (SDA) is combined with microwave-induced plasma optical emission spectrometry (MIP OES) to determine seven elements in coffee, green tea, energy drink, beer, whiskey and cachaça (Brazilian hard liquor). No sample preparation other than simple dilution in HNO3 1% v v(-1) is required. Due to relatively low plasma temperatures, matrix effects may compromise accuracies in MIP OES analyzes of complex samples. The method of standard additions (SA) offers enhanced accuracies, but is time-consuming and labor intensive. SDA offers a simpler, faster approach, with improved accuracies for complex matrices. In this work, SDA's efficiency is evaluated by spike experiments, and the results are compared to the traditional methods of external calibration (EC), internal standard (IS), and standard additions (SA). SDA is comparable to the traditional calibration methods, and it provides superior accuracies for applications involving ethanol-containing beverage samples. The SDA-MIP OES procedure is effective. Using only two calibration solutions, it may be easily automated for accurate and high sample throughput routine applications. PMID:26851081

  14. Modeling microwave backscatter and thermal emission from linear dune fields: Application to Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Gall, A.; Janssen, M. A.; Kirk, R. L.; Lorenz, R. D.

    2014-02-01

    We present an electromagnetic model that relates the microwave backscatter and thermal emission from linear dune fields to their compositional, physical (roughness, subsurface porosity/heterogeneity) and geometrical (slope, orientation) properties. This model shows the value of exploring these highly directional and geometrical features in light of both their backscattering cross-section and emissivity. Compared to Cassini concurrent radar and radiometry data acquired from October 2004 to June 2011 over Titan's dune fields, it provides clues to understand variations among dune regions on the largest Saturn's moon. In particular, it brings a formal support to the idea first advanced in Le Gall et al. (Le Gall, A., Janssen, M.A., Wye, L.C., Hayes, A.G., Radebaugh, J., Savage, C., Zebker, H., Lorenz, R.D., Lunine, J.I., Kirk, R.L., Lopes, R.M.C., Wall, S., Callahan, P., Stofan, E.R., Farr, T. and the Cassini Radar Team [2011]. Icarus 213, 608-624) that the size of the interdune valleys (relative to that of the dunes) varies across Titan as well as the diffuse scattering properties of these interdune areas due to different thickness of sand cover (i.e. bedrock contribution) or degree of compaction/heterogeneity of the sand cover. The Fensal and Belet dune fields, in particular, are quite different in terms of these properties. The comparison between the model and Cassini data also reveals the potential presence of structures, possibly small-superposed dunes, oriented perpendicular to the dune crests in the Aztlan region.

  15. Anomalous Diffuse CO2 Emission prior to the January 2002 Short-term Unrest at San Miguel Volcano, El Salvador, Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Nemesio M.; Hernández, Pedro A.; Padrón, Eleazar; Cartagena, Rafael; Olmos, Rodolfo; Barahona, Francisco; Melián, Gladys; Salazar, Pedro; López, Dina L.

    2006-04-01

    On January 16, 2002, short-term unrest occurred at San Miguel volcano. A gas-and-steamash plume rose a few hundred meters above the summit crater. An anomalous microseismicity pattern, about 75 events between 7:30 and 10:30 hours, was also observed. Continuous monitoring of CO2 efflux on the volcano started on November 24, 2001, in the attempt to provide a multidisciplinary approach for its volcanic surveillance. The background mean of the diffuse CO2 emission is about 16 g m-2 d-1, but a 17- fold increase, up to 270 g m-2 d-1, was detected on January 7, nine days before the January 2002 short-term unrest at San Miguel volcano. These observed anomalous changes on diffuse CO2 degassing could be related to either a sharp increase of CO2 pressure within the volcanic-hydrothermal system or degassing from an uprising fresh gas-rich magma within the shallow plumbing system of the volcano since meteorological fluctuations cannot explain this observed increase of diffuse CO2 emission.

  16. Frequency drifts of 3-min oscillations in microwave and EUV emission above sunspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sych, R.; Zaqarashvili, T. V.; Nakariakov, V. M.; Anfinogentov, S. A.; Shibasaki, K.; Yan, Y.

    2012-03-01

    Aims: We analysed 3-min oscillations of microwave and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission generated at different heights of a sunspot atmosphere, studied the amplitude and frequency modulation of the oscillations, and its relationship with the variation of the spatial structure of the oscillations. Methods: High-resolution data obtained with the Nobeyama Radioheliograph, TRACE and SDO/AIA were analysed with pixelised wavelet filtering (PWF) and wavelet skeleton techniques. Results: Three-minute oscillations in sunspots appear in the form of recurring trains of 8-20 min duration (13 min in average). The typical interval between the trains is 30-50 min. The oscillation trains are transient in frequency and power. The relative amplitude of 3-min oscillations was about 3-8% and sometimes reached 17%. Recurring frequency drifts of 3-min oscillations were detected during the development of individual trains, with the period varying in the range 90-240 s. A wavelet analysis showed that there are three types of oscillation trains: with positive drifts (to high frequencies), negative drifts, and without a drift. Negative drifts, i.e., when the 3-min oscillation period gradually increases, were found to occur more often. The start and end of the drifts coincides with the start time and end of the train. Sometimes two drifts co-exist, i.e. during the end of the previous drift, a new drift appears near 160 s, when the frequency is in the low-frequency part of the 3-min spectrum, near 200 s. This behaviour is seen at all levels of the sunspot atmosphere. The speed of the drift is 4-5 mHz/h in the photosphere, 5-8 mHz/h in the chromosphere, and 11-13 mHz/h in the corona. There were also low-frequency peaks in the spectrum, corresponding to the periods of 10-20 min, and 30-60 min. The comparative study of the spatial structure of 3-min oscillations in microwave and EUV shows the appearance of new sources of the sunspot oscillations during the development of the trains. Conclusions: These structures can be interpreted as waveguides that channel upward propagating waves, which in turn are responsible for the 3-min oscillations. A possible explanation of the observed properties are two simultaneously operating factors: dispersive evolution of the upward propagating wave pulses and the non-uniformity of the oscillation power distribution over the sunspot umbra with different wave sources that correspond to different magnetic flux tubes with different physical conditions and line-of-sight angles.

  17. Impact of conifer forest litter on microwave emission at L-band

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study reports on the utilization of microwave modeling, together with ground truth and L-bank (1.4 GHz) brightness temperatures to investigate the characteristics of conifer forest floor. The microwave data were acquired over natural Virginia pine forest in Maryland by ComRAD, a ground-based mi...

  18. Satellite Microwave Detection of Boreal-Arctic Wetland Inundation Changes and Their Impact on Regional Methane Emission Estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, J. D.; Kimball, J. S.; Bartsch, A.

    2014-12-01

    Surface water inundation strongly regulates land-atmosphere energy and carbon exchange in northern environments. However, the dynamic nature of inundation in boreal-Arctic landscapes, and the impact of changing surface water extent on wetland methane (CH4) emissions, is not well understood. We examine recent (2003-2011) changes and spatiotemporal variability in surface inundation across high latitude wetland regions (> 45 deg. N) using passive microwave remote sensing retrievals of fractional open water extent (Fw) derived from Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) 18.7 and 23.8 GHz brightness temperatures. The daily Fw retrievals are sensitive to sub-grid scale (~25-km resolution) open water area (e.g. lakes and emergent vegetation), and are insensitive to solar illumination and atmosphere contamination effects. We also explore the potential implications of surface Fw variability on high latitude methane emissions using a remote sensing data driven model sensitivity analysis. Our results show widespread surface wetting across the Arctic continuous permafrost zone, which increased model simulated high latitude methane emissions by 0.56 Tg CH4 yr-1 relative to the 2003-2011 mean. This increase was largely offset (-0.38 Tg CH4 yr-1) by drying in boreal Alaska, Canada and western Eurasia. We also find that accounting for dynamic Fw variability in model simulations may significantly lower regional methane emission budgets. These findings accentuate the need for frequent satellite remote sensing driven Fw monitoring across the high latitude systems, to better assess regional sensitivities to climate change. An extended Fw record using AMSR2 data and enhanced (3-9 km) resolution L-band active/passive microwave retrievals from the NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive mission, are expected to improve understanding of regional surface water trends and variability, and reduce uncertainty in boreal-Arctic wetland emission estimates.

  19. Microwave absorption properties and infrared emissivities of ordered mesoporous C-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites with crystalline framework

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Tao; He, Jianping; Zhou, Jianhua; Tang, Jing; Guo, Yunxia; Ding, Xiaochun; Wu, Shichao; Zhao, Jianqing

    2010-12-15

    Ordered mesoporous C-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites with crystalline framework were prepared by the evaporation-induced triconstituent co-assembly method. The products were characterized by XRD, TEM, N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption and TG. Their microwave absorption properties were investigated by mixing the product and epoxy resin. It is found that the peak with minimum reflection loss value moves to lower frequencies and the ordered mesoporous C-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite possesses an excellent microwave absorbing property with the maximum reflection loss of -25.4 dB and the bandwidth lower than -10 dB is 6.6 GHz. The attenuation of microwave can be attributed to dielectric loss and their absorption mechanism is discussed in detail. The mesoporous C-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites also exhibit a lower infrared emissivity in the wavelength from 8 to 14 {mu}m than that of TiO{sub 2}-free powder. -- Graphical abstract: Ordered mesoporous C-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite with crystalline framework possess excellent microwave absorbing properties with the maximum reflection loss of -25.4 dB and the bandwidth lower than -10 dB is 6.6 GHz. Display Omitted

  20. Microwave emission related to cyclotron instabilities in a minimum-B electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izotov, I.; Tarvainen, O.; Mansfeld, D.; Skalyga, V.; Koivisto, H.; Kalvas, T.; Komppula, J.; Kronholm, R.; Laulainen, J.

    2015-08-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) have been essential in the research and applications of nuclear physics over the past 40 years. They are extensively used in a wide range of large-scale accelerator facilities for the production of highly charged heavy ion beams of stable and radioactive elements. ECRISs are susceptible to kinetic instabilities due to resonance heating mechanism leading to anisotropic electron velocity distribution function. Instabilities of cyclotron type are a proven cause of frequently observed periodic bursts of ‘hot’ electrons and bremsstrahlung, accompanied with emission of microwave radiation and followed by considerable drop of multiply charged ions current. Detailed studies of the microwave radiation associated with the instabilities have been performed with a minimum-B 14 GHz ECRIS operating on helium, oxygen and argon plasmas. It is demonstrated that during the development of cyclotron instability ‘hot’ electrons emit microwaves in sub-microsecond scale bursts at temporally descending frequencies in the 8-15 GHz range with two dominant frequencies of 11.09 and 12.59 GHz regardless of ECRIS settings i.e. magnetic field strength, neutral gas pressure or species and microwave power. The experimental data suggest that the most probable excited plasma wave is a slow extraordinary Z-mode propagating quasi-longitudinally with respect to the external magnetic field.

  1. Anomalous magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2013-09-01

    Anomalous symmetries induce currents which can be parallel rather than orthogonal to the hypermagnetic field. Building on the analogy of charged liquids at high magnetic Reynolds numbers, the persistence of anomalous currents is scrutinized for parametrically large conductivities when the plasma approximation is accurate. Different examples in globally neutral systems suggest that the magnetic configurations minimizing the energy density with the constraint that the helicity be conserved coincide, in the perfectly conducting limit, with the ones obtainable in ideal magnetohydrodynamics where the anomalous currents are neglected. It is argued that this is the rationale for the ability to extend to anomalous magnetohydrodynamics the hydromagnetic solutions characterized by finite gyrotropy. The generally covariant aspects of the problem are addressed with particular attention to conformally flat geometries which are potentially relevant for the description of the electroweak plasma prior to the phase transition.

  2. Comparison of 2.8- and 21-cm microwave radiometer observations over soils with emission model calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, W. J.; Schmugge, T.; Paris, J. F.

    1979-01-01

    An airborne experiment was conducted under NASA auspices to test the feasibility of detecting soil moisture by microwave remote sensing techniques over agricultural fields near Phoenix, Arizona at midday of April 5, 1974 and at dawn of the following day. Extensive ground data were obtained from 96 bare, sixteen hectare fields. Observations made using a scanning (2.8 cm) and a nonscanning (21 cm) radiometer were compared with the predictions of a radiative transfer emission model. It is shown that (1) the emitted intensity at both wavelengths correlates best with the near surface moisture, (2) surface roughness is found to more strongly affect the degree of polarization than the emitted intensity, (3) the slope of the intensity-moisture curves decreases in going from day to dawn, and (4) increased near surface moisture at dawn is characterized by increased polarization of emissions. The results of the experiment indicate that microwave techniques can be used to observe the history of the near surface moisture. The subsurface history must be inferred from soil physics models which use microwave results as boundary conditions.

  3. Emission, absorption and group delay of microwaves in the atmosphere in relation to water vapour content over the Indian subcontinent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, A. K.; Gupta, A. K. D.; Karmakar, P. K.; Barman, S. D.; Bhattacharya, A. B.; Purkait, N.; Gupta, M. K. D.; Sehra, J. S.

    1985-01-01

    The advent of satellite communication for global coverage has apparently indicated a renewed interest in the studies of radio wave propagation through the atmosphere, in the VHF, UHF and microwave bands. The extensive measurements of atmosphere constituents, dynamics and radio meterological parameters during the Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP) have opened up further the possibilities of studying tropospheric radio wave propagation parameters, relevant to Earth/space link design. The three basic parameters of significance to radio propagation are thermal emission, absorption and group delay of the atmosphere, all of which are controlled largely by the water vapor content in the atmosphere, particular at microwave bands. As good emitters are also good absorbers, the atmospheric emission as well as the absorption attains a maximum at the frequency of 22.235 GHz, which is the peak of the water vapor line. The group delay is practically independent of frequency in the VHF, UHF and microwave bands. However, all three parameters exhibit a similar seasonal dependence originating presumably from the seasonal dependence of the water vapor content. Some of the interesting results obtained from analyses of radiosonde data over the Indian subcontinent collected by the India Meteorological Department is presented.

  4. Ultralow field emission from thinned, open-ended, and defected carbon nanotubes by using microwave hydrogen plasma processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Jian-Hua; Cheng, Lin; Wang, Fan-Jie; Yu, Bin; Li, Guo-Zheng; Li, De-Jun; Cheng, Guo-An

    2015-01-01

    Ultralow field emission is achieved from carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by using microwave hydrogen plasma processing. After the processing, typical capped CNT tips are removed, with thinned, open-ended, and defected CNTs left. Structural analyses indicate that the processed CNTs have more SP3-hybridized defects as compared to the pristine ones. The morphology of CNTs can be readily controlled by adjusting microwave powers, which change the shape of CNTs by means of hydrogen plasma etching. Processed CNTs with optimal morphology are found to have an ultralow turn-on field of 0.566 V/μm and threshold field of 0.896 V/μm, much better than 0.948 and 1.559 V/μm of the as-grown CNTs, respectively. This improved FE performance is ascribed to the structural changes of CNTs after the processing. The thinned and open-ended shape of CNTs can facilitate electron tunneling through barriers and additionally, the increased defects at tube walls can serve as new active emission sites. Furthermore, our plasma processed CNTs exhibit excellent field emission stability at a large emission current density of 10.36 mA/cm2 after being perfectly aged, showing promising prospects in applications as high-performance vacuum electron sources.

  5. CREST-Snow Analysis and Field Experiment (CREST-SAFE): Continuous In Situ Observations of Snow Physical Properties and Microwave Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz, J.; Lakhankar, T.; Romanov, P.; Powell, A. M.; Khanbilvardi, R.

    2012-12-01

    The CREST-Snow Analysis and Field Experiment (CREST-SAFE) is being carried out for two winter seasons (2011 and 2012) at the research site of the National Weather Service office, Caribou ME, USA. In this ground experiment, dual polarized microwave (37 and 89 GHz) observations are conducted continuously from the time of snow onset to snow melt off along with detailed synchronous observations of snowpack physical properties. The objective of this long term field experiment is to improve our understanding of the effect of changing snow characteristics (grain size, density, temperature) under various meteorological conditions on the microwave emission of snow and hence to improve retrievals of snow cover properties from satellite observations in the microwave spectral range. In this presentation, we give an overview of the field experiment and of available datasets. We also present the analysis of microwave observations collected during the two years of experiment along with observations of the snowpack properties. The simulations of seasonal changes of the snow pack physical properties were simulated with the SNTHERM model whereas to simulate the snowpack emission in the microwave we have used from SNTHERM and the HUT (Helsinki University of Technology) snow emission model. For different snow conditions simulated microwave brightness temperatures were compared with brightness temperatures observed in situ and with satellite based brightness temperature. The analysis of microwave observations has revealed a large difference in the microwave brightness temperature over fresh and aged snow pack even under the same snow depth. This suggests a substantial impact of other physical parameters on the microwave emission of snow as snow grain size, ice layer formation and density.

  6. Simulating the effects of mid- to upper-tropospheric clouds on microwave emissions in EC-Earth using COSP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, M. S.; Holl, G.; Hocking, J.; Cooper, S. J.; Chen, D.

    2015-11-01

    In this work, the Cloud Feedback Model Intercomparison (CFMIP) Observation Simulation Package (COSP) is expanded to include scattering and emission effects of clouds and precipitation at passive microwave frequencies. This represents an advancement over the official version of COSP (version 1.4.0) in which only clear-sky brightness temperatures are simulated. To highlight the potential utility of this new microwave simulator, COSP results generated using the climate model EC-Earth's version 3 atmosphere as input are compared with Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) channel (190.311 GHz) observations. Specifically, simulated seasonal brightness temperatures (TB) are contrasted with MHS observations for the period December 2005 to November 2006 to identify possible biases in EC-Earth's cloud and atmosphere fields. The EC-Earth's atmosphere closely reproduces the microwave signature of many of the major large-scale and regional scale features of the atmosphere and surface. Moreover, greater than 60 % of the simulated TB are within 3 K of the NOAA-18 observations. However, COSP is unable to simulate sufficiently low TB in areas of frequent deep convection. Within the Tropics, the model's atmosphere can yield an underestimation of TB by nearly 30 K for cloudy areas in the ITCZ. Possible reasons for this discrepancy include both incorrect amount of cloud ice water in the model simulations and incorrect ice particle scattering assumptions used in the COSP microwave forward model. These multiple sources of error highlight the non-unique nature of the simulated satellite measurements, a problem exacerbated by the fact that EC-Earth lacks detailed micro-physical parameters necessary for accurate forward model calculations. Such issues limit the robustness of our evaluation and suggest a general note of caution when making COSP-satellite observation evaluations.

  7. Extremely Coherent Microwave Emission from Spin Torque Oscillator Stabilized by Phase Locked Loop.

    PubMed

    Tamaru, Shingo; Kubota, Hitoshi; Yakushiji, Kay; Yuasa, Shinji; Fukushima, Akio

    2015-01-01

    Spin torque oscillator (STO) has been attracting a great deal of attention as a candidate for the next generation microwave signal sources for various modern electronics systems since its advent. However, the phase noise of STOs under free running oscillation is still too large to be used in practical microwave applications, thus an industrially viable means to stabilize its oscillation has been strongly sought. Here we demonstrate implementation of a phase locked loop using a STO as a voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) that generates a 7.344 GHz microwave signal stabilized by a 153 MHz reference signal. Spectrum measurement showed successful phase locking of the microwave signal to the reference signal, characterized by an extremely narrow oscillation peak with a linewidth of less than the measurement limit of 1 Hz. This demonstration should be a major breakthrough toward various practical applications of STOs. PMID:26658880

  8. Extremely Coherent Microwave Emission from Spin Torque Oscillator Stabilized by Phase Locked Loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamaru, Shingo; Kubota, Hitoshi; Yakushiji, Kay; Yuasa, Shinji; Fukushima, Akio

    2015-12-01

    Spin torque oscillator (STO) has been attracting a great deal of attention as a candidate for the next generation microwave signal sources for various modern electronics systems since its advent. However, the phase noise of STOs under free running oscillation is still too large to be used in practical microwave applications, thus an industrially viable means to stabilize its oscillation has been strongly sought. Here we demonstrate implementation of a phase locked loop using a STO as a voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) that generates a 7.344 GHz microwave signal stabilized by a 153 MHz reference signal. Spectrum measurement showed successful phase locking of the microwave signal to the reference signal, characterized by an extremely narrow oscillation peak with a linewidth of less than the measurement limit of 1 Hz. This demonstration should be a major breakthrough toward various practical applications of STOs.

  9. Extremely Coherent Microwave Emission from Spin Torque Oscillator Stabilized by Phase Locked Loop

    PubMed Central

    Tamaru, Shingo; Kubota, Hitoshi; Yakushiji, Kay; Yuasa, Shinji; Fukushima, Akio

    2015-01-01

    Spin torque oscillator (STO) has been attracting a great deal of attention as a candidate for the next generation microwave signal sources for various modern electronics systems since its advent. However, the phase noise of STOs under free running oscillation is still too large to be used in practical microwave applications, thus an industrially viable means to stabilize its oscillation has been strongly sought. Here we demonstrate implementation of a phase locked loop using a STO as a voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) that generates a 7.344 GHz microwave signal stabilized by a 153 MHz reference signal. Spectrum measurement showed successful phase locking of the microwave signal to the reference signal, characterized by an extremely narrow oscillation peak with a linewidth of less than the measurement limit of 1 Hz. This demonstration should be a major breakthrough toward various practical applications of STOs. PMID:26658880

  10. Comparison between ECMWF L-band brightness temperatures and SMOS observations using the Community Microwave Emission Modelling Platform (CMEM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Rosnay, Patricia; Muñoz Sabater, Joaquín; Dutra, Emanuel; Albergel, Clément; Balsamo, Gianpaolo; Boussetta, Souhail; Isaksen, Lars

    2015-04-01

    Soil moisture initialisation is crucial for Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP). New generations of satellites, such as SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) and SMAP (Soil Moisture Active and Passive) provide highly suitable data from passive and active microwave sensors for soil moisture remote sensing. In order to make it possible to combine use of satellite, in situ and proxy observations to analyse soil moisture, ECMWF implemented an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) soil moisture analysis which is used for operational NWP in the ECMWF Integrated Forecasting System (IFS). The use of passive microwave sensors in the EKF soil moisture data assimilation requires an accurate radiative transfer model. In this poster we present ECMWF developments in radiative transfer modelling conducted to use SMOS and SMAP brightness temperature observations in the ECMWF data assimilation system. The ECMWF Community Microwave Emission Modelling Platform (CMEM) is described. CMEM input global fields, including soil moisture, soil temperature, snow depth and vegetation cover, were obtained from H-TESSEL land surface model simulations forced by ERA-Interim atmospheric conditions. CMEM multi-year simulations were performed using a land surface model configuration which is similar to the current operational IFS. In CMEM, combinations of three soil dielectric models, three vegetation opacity models and four soil roughness parametrizations were used, allowing comparing 36 different configurations of the microwave emission model. Global scale forward simulations of dual polarization L-band (1.4 GHz) brightness temperature were conducted at 40 degrees incidence angle for each radiative transfer model and evaluated using the SMOS near real time brightness temperature data for 2010. Best microwave emission model performances were obtained with the Wang and Schmugge dielectric model combined with the Wigneron vegetation opacity model and the simple Wigneron soil roughness parametrization. The best CMEM configuration was used to simulate multi-angular brightness temperature at 30, 40 and 50 degrees incidence angle for 2010-2013 and evaluated against the observed SMOS brightness temperature. Results are presented at global and regional scales using RMSE, correlation and bias metrics in order to evaluate CMEM both at the monthly and annual time scales.

  11. Coupling the snow thermodynamic model SNOWPACK with the microwave emission model of layered snowpacks for subarctic and arctic snow water equivalent retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langlois, A.; Royer, A.; Derksen, C.; Montpetit, B.; Dupont, F.; GoïTa, K.

    2012-12-01

    Satellite-passive microwave remote sensing has been extensively used to estimate snow water equivalent (SWE) in northern regions. Although passive microwave sensors operate independent of solar illumination and the lower frequencies are independent of atmospheric conditions, the coarse spatial resolution introduces uncertainties to SWE retrievals due to the surface heterogeneity within individual pixels. In this article, we investigate the coupling of a thermodynamic multilayered snow model with a passive microwave emission model. Results show that the snow model itself provides poor SWE simulations when compared to field measurements from two major field campaigns. Coupling the snow and microwave emission models with successive iterations to correct the influence of snow grain size and density significantly improves SWE simulations. This method was further validated using an additional independent data set, which also showed significant improvement using the two-step iteration method compared to standalone simulations with the snow model.

  12. A simple flow-injection on-line clean-up system for microwave plasma-torch atomic emission spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhao, L; Li, M; Xie, X; Song, D; Tian, Y; Zhang, L; Jin, D; Zhang, H; Jin, Q

    2001-08-01

    A simple flow injection (FI) on-line clean-up system has been developed for microwave plasma-torch atomic emission spectrometry (MPT-AES). A non-selective strongly acidic cation-exchange resin was used to achieve the goal of "on-line clean-up". Ag and Zr, which form halogen-complex anions in halide acid media, and Cr, Mo, and P, which exist as acid group anions or acids (neutral) in acidic solution, were determined and the interfering matrix cations were removed on-line. Satisfactory analytical results were obtained from some practical samples by use of this procedure. PMID:11583087

  13. Microwave remediation of electronic circuitry waste and the resulting gaseous emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Rebecca L.

    The global community has become increasingly dependent on computer and electronic technology. As a result, society is faced with an increasing amount of obsolete equipment and electronic circuitry waste. Electronic waste is generally disposed of in landfills. While convenient, this action causes a substantial loss of finite resources and poses an environmental threat as the circuit board components breakdown and are exposed to the elements. Hazardous compounds such as lead, mercury and cadmium may leach from the circuitry and find their way into the groundwater supply. For this dissertation, a microwave waste remediation system was developed. The system was designed to remove the organic components from a wide variety of electronic circuitry. Upon additional heating of the resulting ash material in an industrial microwave, a glass and metal product can be recovered. Analysis of the metal reveals the presence of precious metals (gold, silver) that can be sold to provide a return on investment. a glass and metal product can be recovered. Analysis of the metal reveals the presence of precious metals (gold, silver) that can be sold to provide a return on investment. Gaseous organic compounds that were generated as a result of organic removal were treated in a microwave off gas system that effectively reduced the concentration of the products emitted by several orders of magnitude, and in some cases completely destroying the waste gas. Upon further heating in an industrial microwave, a glass and metal product were recovered. In order to better understand the effects of processing parameters on the efficiency of the off-gas system, a parametric study was developed. The study tested the microwave system at 3 flow rates (10, 30, and 50 ft 3/min) and three temperatures (400, 700 and 1000°C. In order to test the effects of microwave energy, the experiments were repeated using a conventional furnace. While microwave energy is widely used, the mechanisms of interaction with materials is not well understood. In an effort to better understand how microwaves couple with materials, a newly developed molecular orbital model was investigated. The model proposed an interaction mechanism associated with the development of coupled oscillators upon application of microwave energy. The model was used to model several of the waste gases that appear in the waste stream. Results from experimentation support the data generated thus far.

  14. Design of a portable optical emission tomography system for microwave induced compact plasma for visible to near-infrared emission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathore, Kavita; Munshi, Prabhat; Bhattacharjee, Sudeep

    2016-03-01

    A new non-invasive diagnostic system is developed for Microwave Induced Plasma (MIP) to reconstruct tomographic images of a 2D emission profile. A compact MIP system has wide application in industry as well as research application such as thrusters for space propulsion, high current ion beams, and creation of negative ions for heating of fusion plasma. Emission profile depends on two crucial parameters, namely, the electron temperature and density (over the entire spatial extent) of the plasma system. Emission tomography provides basic understanding of plasmas and it is very useful to monitor internal structure of plasma phenomena without disturbing its actual processes. This paper presents development of a compact, modular, and versatile Optical Emission Tomography (OET) tool for a cylindrical, magnetically confined MIP system. It has eight slit-hole cameras and each consisting of a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor linear image sensor for light detection. The optical noise is reduced by using aspheric lens and interference band-pass filters in each camera. The entire cylindrical plasma can be scanned with automated sliding ring mechanism arranged in fan-beam data collection geometry. The design of the camera includes a unique possibility to incorporate different filters to get the particular wavelength light from the plasma. This OET system includes selected band-pass filters for particular argon emission 750 nm, 772 nm, and 811 nm lines and hydrogen emission Hα (656 nm) and Hβ (486 nm) lines. Convolution back projection algorithm is used to obtain the tomographic images of plasma emission line. The paper mainly focuses on (a) design of OET system in detail and (b) study of emission profile for 750 nm argon emission lines to validate the system design.

  15. Design of a portable optical emission tomography system for microwave induced compact plasma for visible to near-infrared emission lines.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Kavita; Munshi, Prabhat; Bhattacharjee, Sudeep

    2016-03-01

    A new non-invasive diagnostic system is developed for Microwave Induced Plasma (MIP) to reconstruct tomographic images of a 2D emission profile. A compact MIP system has wide application in industry as well as research application such as thrusters for space propulsion, high current ion beams, and creation of negative ions for heating of fusion plasma. Emission profile depends on two crucial parameters, namely, the electron temperature and density (over the entire spatial extent) of the plasma system. Emission tomography provides basic understanding of plasmas and it is very useful to monitor internal structure of plasma phenomena without disturbing its actual processes. This paper presents development of a compact, modular, and versatile Optical Emission Tomography (OET) tool for a cylindrical, magnetically confined MIP system. It has eight slit-hole cameras and each consisting of a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor linear image sensor for light detection. The optical noise is reduced by using aspheric lens and interference band-pass filters in each camera. The entire cylindrical plasma can be scanned with automated sliding ring mechanism arranged in fan-beam data collection geometry. The design of the camera includes a unique possibility to incorporate different filters to get the particular wavelength light from the plasma. This OET system includes selected band-pass filters for particular argon emission 750 nm, 772 nm, and 811 nm lines and hydrogen emission Hα (656 nm) and Hβ (486 nm) lines. Convolution back projection algorithm is used to obtain the tomographic images of plasma emission line. The paper mainly focuses on (a) design of OET system in detail and (b) study of emission profile for 750 nm argon emission lines to validate the system design. PMID:27036771

  16. Evaluation of the effects of varying moisture contents on microwave thermal emissions from agriculture fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, H. H. K.

    1980-01-01

    Three tasks related to soil moisture sensing at microwave wavelengths were undertaken: (1) analysis of data at L, X and K sub 21 band wavelengths over bare and vegetated fields from the 1975 NASA sponsored flight experiment over Phoenix, Arizona; (2) modeling of vegetation canopy at microwave wavelengths taking into consideration both absorption and volume scattering effects; and (3) investigation of overall atmospheric effects at microwave wavelengths that can affect soil moisture retrieval. Data for both bare and vegetated fields are found to agree well with theoretical estimates. It is observed that the retrieval of surface and near surface soil moisture information is feasible through multi-spectral and multi-temporal analysis. It is also established that at long wavelengths, which are optimal for surface sensing, atmospheric effects are generally minimal. At shorter wavelengths, which are optimal for atmosheric retrieval, the background surface properties are also established.

  17. Attenuation of soil microwave emissivity by corn and soybeans at 1.4 and 5 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Thomas J.; O'Neill, Peggy E.

    1989-01-01

    Theory and experiments have shown that passive microwave radiometers can be used to measure soil moisture. However, the presence of a vegetative cover alters the measurement that might be obtained under bare conditions. Deterministically accounting for the effect of vegetation and developing algorithms for extracting soil moisture from observations of a vegetable-soil complex present significant obstacles to the practical use of this approach. The presence of a vegetation canopy reduces the sensitivity of passive microwave instruments to soil moisture variations. The reduction in sensitivity, as compared to a bare-soil relationship, increases as microwave frequency increases, implying that the longest wavelength sensors should provide the most information. Sensitivity also decreases as the amount of vegetative wet biomass increases for a given type of vegetation.

  18. Intervalence charge transfer luminescence: Interplay between anomalous and 5d - 4f emissions in Yb-doped fluorite-type crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barandiarán, Zoila; Seijo, Luis

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we report the existence of intervalence charge transfer (IVCT) luminescence in Yb-doped fluorite-type crystals associated with Yb2+-Yb3+ mixed valence pairs. By means of embedded cluster, wave function theory ab initio calculations, we show that the widely studied, very broad band, anomalous emission of Yb2+-doped CaF2 and SrF2, usually associated with impurity-trapped excitons, is, rather, an IVCT luminescence associated with Yb2+-Yb3+ mixed valence pairs. The IVCT luminescence is very efficiently excited by a two-photon upconversion mechanism where each photon provokes the same strong 4f14-1A1g→ 4f13(2F7/2)5deg-1T1u absorption in the Yb2+ part of the pair: the first one, from the pair ground state; the second one, from an excited state of the pair whose Yb3+ moiety is in the higher 4f13(2F5/2) multiplet. The Yb2+-Yb3+ → Yb3+-Yb2+ IVCT emission consists of an Yb2+ 5deg → Yb3+ 4f7/2 charge transfer accompanied by a 4f7/2 → 4f5/2 deexcitation within the Yb2+ 4f13 subshell: [2F5/25deg,2F7/2] → [2F7/2,4f14]. The IVCT vertical transition leaves the oxidized and reduced moieties of the pair after electron transfer very far from their equilibrium structures; this explains the unexpectedly large band width of the emission band and its low peak energy, because the large reorganization energies are subtracted from the normal emission. The IVCT energy diagrams resulting from the quantum mechanical calculations explain the different luminescent properties of Yb-doped CaF2, SrF2, BaF2, and SrCl2: the presence of IVCT luminescence in Yb-doped CaF2 and SrF2; its coexistence with regular 5d-4f emission in SrF2; its absence in BaF2 and SrCl2; the quenching of all emissions in BaF2; and the presence of additional 5d-4f emissions in SrCl2 which are absent in SrF2. They also allow to interpret and reproduce recent experiments on transient photoluminescence enhancement in Yb2+-doped CaF2 and SrF2, the appearance of Yb2+ 4f-5d absorption bands in the excitation spectra of the IR Yb3+ emission in partly reduced CaF2:Yb3+ samples, and to identify the broadband observed in the excitation spectrum of the so far called anomalous emission of SrF2:Yb2+ as an IVCT absorption, which corresponds to an Yb2+ 4f5/2 → Yb3+ 4f7/2 electron transfer.

  19. Intervalence charge transfer luminescence: Interplay between anomalous and 5d − 4f emissions in Yb-doped fluorite-type crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Barandiarán, Zoila Seijo, Luis

    2014-12-21

    In this paper, we report the existence of intervalence charge transfer (IVCT) luminescence in Yb-doped fluorite-type crystals associated with Yb{sup 2+}–Yb{sup 3+} mixed valence pairs. By means of embedded cluster, wave function theory ab initio calculations, we show that the widely studied, very broad band, anomalous emission of Yb{sup 2+}-doped CaF{sub 2} and SrF{sub 2}, usually associated with impurity-trapped excitons, is, rather, an IVCT luminescence associated with Yb{sup 2+}–Yb{sup 3+} mixed valence pairs. The IVCT luminescence is very efficiently excited by a two-photon upconversion mechanism where each photon provokes the same strong 4f{sup 14}–1A{sub 1g}→ 4f{sup 13}({sup 2}F{sub 7/2})5de{sub g}–1T{sub 1u} absorption in the Yb{sup 2+} part of the pair: the first one, from the pair ground state; the second one, from an excited state of the pair whose Yb{sup 3+} moiety is in the higher 4f{sup 13}({sup 2}F{sub 5/2}) multiplet. The Yb{sup 2+}–Yb{sup 3+} → Yb{sup 3+}–Yb{sup 2+} IVCT emission consists of an Yb{sup 2+} 5de{sub g} → Yb{sup 3+} 4f{sub 7/2} charge transfer accompanied by a 4f{sub 7/2} → 4f{sub 5/2} deexcitation within the Yb{sup 2+} 4f{sup 13} subshell: [{sup 2}F{sub 5/2}5de{sub g},{sup 2}F{sub 7/2}] → [{sup 2}F{sub 7/2},4f{sup 14}]. The IVCT vertical transition leaves the oxidized and reduced moieties of the pair after electron transfer very far from their equilibrium structures; this explains the unexpectedly large band width of the emission band and its low peak energy, because the large reorganization energies are subtracted from the normal emission. The IVCT energy diagrams resulting from the quantum mechanical calculations explain the different luminescent properties of Yb-doped CaF{sub 2}, SrF{sub 2}, BaF{sub 2}, and SrCl{sub 2}: the presence of IVCT luminescence in Yb-doped CaF{sub 2} and SrF{sub 2}; its coexistence with regular 5d-4f emission in SrF{sub 2}; its absence in BaF{sub 2} and SrCl{sub 2}; the quenching of all emissions in BaF{sub 2}; and the presence of additional 5d–4f emissions in SrCl{sub 2} which are absent in SrF{sub 2}. They also allow to interpret and reproduce recent experiments on transient photoluminescence enhancement in Yb{sup 2+}-doped CaF{sub 2} and SrF{sub 2}, the appearance of Yb{sup 2+} 4f–5d absorption bands in the excitation spectra of the IR Yb{sup 3+} emission in partly reduced CaF{sub 2}:Yb{sup 3+} samples, and to identify the broadband observed in the excitation spectrum of the so far called anomalous emission of SrF{sub 2}:Yb{sup 2+} as an IVCT absorption, which corresponds to an Yb{sup 2+} 4f{sub 5/2} → Yb{sup 3+} 4f{sub 7/2} electron transfer.

  20. Intervalence charge transfer luminescence: interplay between anomalous and 5d - 4f emissions in Yb-doped fluorite-type crystals.

    PubMed

    Barandiarán, Zoila; Seijo, Luis

    2014-12-21

    In this paper, we report the existence of intervalence charge transfer (IVCT) luminescence in Yb-doped fluorite-type crystals associated with Yb(2+)-Yb(3+) mixed valence pairs. By means of embedded cluster, wave function theory ab initio calculations, we show that the widely studied, very broad band, anomalous emission of Yb(2+)-doped CaF2 and SrF2, usually associated with impurity-trapped excitons, is, rather, an IVCT luminescence associated with Yb(2+)-Yb(3+) mixed valence pairs. The IVCT luminescence is very efficiently excited by a two-photon upconversion mechanism where each photon provokes the same strong 4f(14)-1A1g→ 4f(13)((2)F7/2)5deg-1T1u absorption in the Yb(2+) part of the pair: the first one, from the pair ground state; the second one, from an excited state of the pair whose Yb(3+) moiety is in the higher 4f(13)((2)F5/2) multiplet. The Yb(2+)-Yb(3+) → Yb(3+)-Yb(2+) IVCT emission consists of an Yb(2+) 5deg → Yb(3+) 4f7/2 charge transfer accompanied by a 4f7/2 → 4f5/2 deexcitation within the Yb(2+) 4f(13) subshell: [(2)F5/25deg,(2)F7/2] → [(2)F7/2,4f(14)]. The IVCT vertical transition leaves the oxidized and reduced moieties of the pair after electron transfer very far from their equilibrium structures; this explains the unexpectedly large band width of the emission band and its low peak energy, because the large reorganization energies are subtracted from the normal emission. The IVCT energy diagrams resulting from the quantum mechanical calculations explain the different luminescent properties of Yb-doped CaF2, SrF2, BaF2, and SrCl2: the presence of IVCT luminescence in Yb-doped CaF2 and SrF2; its coexistence with regular 5d-4f emission in SrF2; its absence in BaF2 and SrCl2; the quenching of all emissions in BaF2; and the presence of additional 5d-4f emissions in SrCl2 which are absent in SrF2. They also allow to interpret and reproduce recent experiments on transient photoluminescence enhancement in Yb(2+)-doped CaF2 and SrF2, the appearance of Yb(2+) 4f-5d absorption bands in the excitation spectra of the IR Yb(3+) emission in partly reduced CaF2:Yb(3+) samples, and to identify the broadband observed in the excitation spectrum of the so far called anomalous emission of SrF2:Yb(2+) as an IVCT absorption, which corresponds to an Yb(2+) 4f5/2 → Yb(3+) 4f7/2 electron transfer. PMID:25527954

  1. Field emission from bias-grown diamond thin films in a microwave plasma

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M.; Krauss, Alan R.; Ding, Ming Q.; Auciello, Orlando

    2002-01-01

    A method of producing diamond or diamond like films in which a negative bias is established on a substrate with an electrically conductive surface in a microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition system. The atmosphere that is subjected to microwave energy includes a source of carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen. The negative bias is maintained on the substrate through both the nucleation and growth phase of the film until the film is continuous. Biases between -100V and -200 are preferred. Carbon sources may be one or more of CH.sub.4, C.sub.2 H.sub.2 other hydrocarbons and fullerenes.

  2. Publicly Available Numerical Codes for Modeling the X-ray and Microwave Emissions from Solar and Stellar Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, Gordon D.; Mariska, John T.; McTiernan, James M.; Ofman, Leon; Petrosian, Vahe; Ramaty, Reuven; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We have posted numerical codes on the Web for modeling the bremsstrahlung x-ray emission and the a gyrosynchrotron radio emission from solar and stellar activity. In addition to radiation codes, steady-state and time-dependent Fokker-Planck codes are provided for computing the distribution and evolution of accelerated electrons. A 1-D hydrodynamics code computes the response of the stellar atmosphere (chromospheric evaporation). A code for modeling gamma-ray line spectra is also available. On-line documentation is provided for each code. These codes have been developed for modeling results from the High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (HESSI) along related microwave observations of solar flares. Comprehensive codes for modeling images and spectra of solar flares are under development. The posted codes can be obtained on NASA/Goddard's HESSI Web Site at http://hesperia.gsfc.nasa.gov/hessi/modelware.htm. This work is supported in part by the NASA Sun-Earth Connection Program.

  3. Secondary-electron-emission properties of conducting surfaces with application to multistage depressed collectors for microwave amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forman, R.

    1977-01-01

    To improve the efficiency of high power microwave tubes, low secondary electron yield electrode surface for use in depressed collectors are needed. The secondary emission characteristics of a number of materials were investigated. The materials studied were beryllium, carbon (soot and pyrolytic graphite), copper, titanium carbide, and tantalum. Both total secondary yield delta and relative reflected primary yield were measured. These measurements were made in conjunction with Auger spectroscopy so that the secondary emission characteristics could be determined as a function of surface contamination or purity. The results show that low atomic weight elements, such as beryllium and carbon, have the lowest reflected primary yield and that roughening the surface of an electrode can markedly decrease secondary yield both for delta and reflected primaries. All factors considered, a roughened pyrolytic graphite surface showed the greatest potential for use as an electrode surface in depressed collectors.

  4. Electron pitch angle scattering and the impulsive phase microwave and hard X-ray emission from solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, G. D.; Kundu, M. R.; Papadopoulos, K.

    1982-01-01

    Observations and theoretical considerations have led to a model for impulsive phase flare emission involving the heating and acceleration of thermal electrons in the coronal part of a magnetic loop. The bulk of the heated gas is confined between conduction fronts, but particles with velocities a few times greater than the thermal velocity can escape into the lower part of the loop. It is shown that, when the electron gyrofrequency exceeds the plasma frequency, the escaping electrons are unstable to the generation of electrostatic plasma waves which scatter the particles in pitch angle to a nearly isotropic distribution. It is also shown that this scattering can (1) enhance the microwave emission from the upper part of the loop, and (2) due to the Landau damping of both low and high phase velocity waves, can lead to one or two breaks in the impulsive-phase hard X-ray spectrum.

  5. A large scale microwave emission model for forests. Contribution to the SMOS algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmoune, R.; Della Vecchia, A.; Ferrazzoli, P.; Guerriero, L.; Martin-Porqueras, F.

    2009-04-01

    1. INTRODUCTION It is well known that surface soil moisture plays an important role in the water cycle and the global climate. SMOS is a L-Band multi-angle dual-polarization microwave radiometer for global monitoring of this variable. In the areas covered by forests, the opacity is relatively high, and the knowledge of moisture remains problematic. A significant percentage of SMOS pixels at global scale is affected by fractional forest. Whereas the effect of the vegetation can be corrected thanks a simple radiative model, in case of dense forests the wave penetration is limited and the sensitivity to variations of soil moisture is poor. However, most of the pixels are mixed, and a reliable estimate of forest emissivity is important to retrieve the soil moisture of the areas less affected by forest cover. Moreover, there are many sparse woodlands, where the sensitivity to variations of soil moisture is still acceptable. At the scale of spaceborne radiometers, it is difficult to have a detailed knowledge of the variables which affect the overall emissivity. In order to manage effectively these problems, the electromagnetic model developed at Tor Vergata University was combined with information available from forest literature. Using allometric equations and other information, the geometrical and dielectric inputs required by the model were related to global variables available at large scale, such as the Leaf Area Index. This procedure is necessarily approximate. In a first version of the model, forest variables were assumed to be constant in time, and were simply related to the maximum yearly value of Leaf Area Index. Moreover, a unique sparse distribution of trunk diameters was assumed. Finally, the temperature distribution within the crown canopy was assumed to be uniform. The model is being refined, in order to consider seasonal variations of foliage cover, subdivided into arboreous foliage and understory contributions. Different distributions of trunk diameter are being considered. Also the effects of temperature gradients within the crown canopy are being considered. The model was tested against radiometric measurements carried out by towers and aircrafts. A new test has been done using the brightness temperatures measured over some forests in Finland by the AMIRAS radiometer, which is an airborne demonstrator of the MIRAS imaging radiometer to be launched with SMOS. The outputs produced by the model are used to fit the parameters of the simple radiative transfer model which will be used in the Level 2 soil moisture retrieval algorithm. It is planned to compare model outputs with L1C data, which will be made available during the commissioning phase. To this end, a number of adequate extended forest sites are being selected: the Amazon rain forest, the Zaire Basins, the Argentinian Chaco forest, and the Finland forest. 2. PARAMETRIC STUDIES In this paper, results of parametric simulations are shown. The emissivity at vertical and horizontal polarization is simulated as a function of soil moisture content for various conditions of forest cover. Seasonal effects are considered, and the values of Leaf Area Index in winter and summer are taken as basic inputs. The difference between the two values is attributed partially to arboreous foliage and partially to understory, while the woody biomass is assumed to be constant in time. Results indicate that seasonal effects are limited, but not negligible. The simulations are repeated for different distributions of trunk diameters. If the distributions is centered over lower diameter values, the forest is optically thicker, for a given biomass. Also the variations of brightness temperature due to a temperature gradient within the crown canopy have been estimated. The outputs are used to predict the values of a simple first order RT model. 3. COMPARISONS WITH EXPERIMENTAL DATA Results of previous comparisons between model simulations and experimental data are summarized. Experimental data were collected by tower, in the Julich and Les Landes forest (Bray site) and by aircraft, over some forests in Tuscany. New comparisons have been done between model simulations and brightness temperature data collected by the AMIRAS demonstrator in southern Finland, in the region of the Lohja Lake. The region was dominated by lakes and dense forests, of both broadleaf and coniferous species. The flights took place on June 2006, and the outputs were made available in an earth fixed grid together with the information describing the geometry between the target and the sensor similarly to forthcoming SMOS L1C data. For both forest types, the brightness temperature values predicted by the model are close to the center of the histograms of measured values. The experimental data show a slight difference between vertical and horizontal polarization, which is underestimated by the model.

  6. Enhanced field emission characteristics of boron doped diamond films grown by microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koinkar, Pankaj M.; Patil, Sandip S.; Kim, Tae-Gyu; Yonekura, Daisuke; More, Mahendra A.; Joag, Dilip S.; Murakami, Ri-ichi

    2011-01-01

    Boron doped diamond films were synthesized on silicon substrates by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) technique. The effect of B 2O 3 concentration varied from 1000 to 5000 ppm on the field emission characteristics was examined. The surface morphology and quality of films were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The surface morphology obtained by SEM showed variation from facetted microcrystal covered with nanometric grains to cauliflower of nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) particles with increasing B 2O 3 concentration. The Raman spectra confirm the formation of NCD films. The field emission properties of NCD films were observed to improve upon increasing boron concentration. The values of the onset field and threshold field are observed to be as low as 0.36 and 0.08 V/μm, respectively. The field emission current stability investigated at the preset value of ˜1 μA is observed to be good, in each case. The enhanced field emission properties are attributed to the better electrical conductivity coupled with the nanometric features of the diamond films.

  7. Microwave Radiometer (MWR) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, VR

    2006-08-01

    The Microwave Radiometer (MWR) provides time-series measurements of column-integrated amounts of water vapor and liquid water. The instrument itself is essentially a sensitive microwave receiver. That is, it is tuned to measure the microwave emissions of the vapor and liquid water molecules in the atmosphere at specific frequencies.

  8. On the Early-Time X-Ray Spectra of Swift Afterglows. I. Evidence for Anomalous Soft X-Ray Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, N. R.

    2007-02-01

    We have conducted a thorough and blind search for emission lines in >70 Swift X-ray afterglows of total exposure ~107 s. We find that most afterglows are consistent with pure power laws plus extinction. Significant outliers to the population exist at the 5%-10% level and have anomalously soft, possibly thermal spectra. Four bursts are singled out via possible detections of two to five lines: GRB 060218, GRB 060202, GRB 050822, and GRB 050714B. Alternatively, a blackbody model with kT~0.1-0.5 keV can describe the soft emission in each afterglow. The most significant soft-component detections in the full data set of ~2000 spectra correspond to GRB 060218/SN 2006aj, with line significances ranging up to ~20 σ. A thermal plasma model fit to the data indicates that the flux is primarily due to L-shell transitions of Fe at roughly solar abundance. We associate (>4 σ significant) line triggers in the three other events with K-shell transitions in light metals. We favor a model where the possible line emission in these afterglows arises from the mildly relativistic cocoon of matter surrounding the GRB jet as it penetrates and exits the surface of the progenitor star. The emitting material in each burst is at a similar distance ~1012-1013 cm, a similar density ~1017 cm-3, and subject to a similar flux of ionizing radiation. The lines may correlate with the X-ray flaring. For the blackbody interpretation, the soft flux may arise from breakout of the GRB shock or plasma cocoon from the progenitor stellar wind, as recently suggested for GRB 060218 (Campana et al. 2006). Due to the low z of GRB 060218, bursts faint in gamma rays with fluxes dominated by this soft X-ray component could outnumber classical GRBs 100 to 1.

  9. Near-infrared digital photography to estimate snow correlation length for microwave emission modeling.

    PubMed

    Toure, Ally Mounirou; Goïta, Kalifa; Royer, Alain; Mätzler, Christian; Schneebeli, Martin

    2008-12-20

    The study is based on experimental work conducted in alpine snow. We made microwave radiometric and near-infrared reflectance measurements of snow slabs under different experimental conditions. We used an empirical relation to link near-infrared reflectance of snow to the specific surface area (SSA), and converted the SSA into the correlation length. From the measurements of snow radiances at 21 and 35 GHz, we derived the microwave scattering coefficient by inverting two coupled radiative transfer models (the sandwich and six-flux model). The correlation lengths found are in the same range as those determined in the literature using cold laboratory work. The technique shows great potential in the determination of the snow correlation length under field conditions. PMID:19104524

  10. A semiempirical model for interpreting microwave emission from semiarid land surfaces as seen from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerr, Yann H.; Njoku, Eni G.

    1990-01-01

    A radiative-transfer model for simulating microwave brightness temperatures over land surfaces is described. The model takes into account sensor viewing conditions (spacecraft altitude, viewing angle, frequency, and polarization) and atmospheric parameters over a soil surface characterized by its moisture, roughness, and temperature and covered with a layer of vegetation characterized by its temperature, water content, single scattering albedo, structure, and percent coverage. In order to reduce the influence of atmospheric and surface temperature effects, the brightness temperatures are expressed as polarization ratios that depend primarily on the soil moisture and roughness, canopy water content, and percentage of cover. The sensitivity of the polarization ratio to these parameters is investigated. Simulation of the temporal evolution of the microwave signal over semiarid areas in the African Sahel is presented and compared to actual satellite data from the SMMR instrument on Nimbus-7.

  11. Anomalous Change of Diffuse CO2 Emission Rates at San Salvador volcano, El Salvador, Central America: a premonitory geochemical signature of magmatic and/or tectonic reactivation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, N.; Salazar, J.; Hernandez, P.; Soriano, T.; Barahona, F.; Cartagena, R.; Olmos, R.; Lopez, D.

    2002-12-01

    San Salvador volcano is located towards the southern part of the Central American graben. The most recent magmatic activity was mainly focused on the volcano NW flank forming monogenetic explosion craters, cinder cones, and lava flows. Flank vents continue to erupt at a rate of once every 82 yrs with the last eruption in 1917 (Sofield, 1999). The city of San Salvador, with a population 1.7 million located at the skirts of the volcano, will be at high risk if an eruption occurs. The purpose of this work is to provide a multidisciplinary approach for the volcanic surveillance by means of introducing geochemical continuous monitoring of diffuse CO2 and H2S emission rates. Soil CO2 and H2S efflux are continuously monitored at Cerro La Hoya, which is located at San Salvador volcano southern flank, by means of a soil gas efflux continuous monitoring station. Since Nov.11, 2001, until Aug.30, 2002, about 6,800 observations of soil gas efflux and meteorological measurements had been recorded. Soil H2S efflux values were negligible during this period. On the contrary, two distinct diffuse CO2 degassing periods have been observed: (1) a stationary period from Nov. 11 to Dec. 27, 2001, and (2) a clear increasing trend period from Dec. 28, 2001, up to date. From Nov.11 to Dec.27, 2001, CO2 efflux showed an average of 700 gm-2d-1 peaking values up to 1,194 gm-2d-1. From Dec.28, 2001, to Aug.30, 2002, CO2 efflux showed an average of 7,435 gm-2d-1 peaking values up to 45,285 gm-2d-1. Soil temperature showed similar average and peak values for both periods. It is quite evident that this anomalous change of CO2 efflux rate at San Salvador is not driven by meteorological fluctuations. Therefore, this anomalous change of diffuse CO2 emission should be related to an increase of CO2 pressure in the volcanic-hydrothermal system. This increase of fluid pressure could be related to subsurface strain/stress changes, which might be taking place due to either magmatic or tectonic reactivation in the study area.

  12. Fast polarization changes in mm microwave emission of weak multistructured solar bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufmann, P.; Strauss, F. M.; Costa, J. E. R.; Dennis, B. R.

    1982-01-01

    Circular polarization of weak multistructured solar bursts was measured at mm microwaves with unprecedented sensitivity (0.03 sfu rms) and high time resolution (1ms). It was shown that sudden changes occur in the degree of polarization with time scales of 0.04 to 0.3 s. In most cases the degree of polarization attained maximum values before the maximum flux in both mm microwaves and hard X-rays with time scales of 0.04 to 1.0 s. The timing accuracy in determining the degree of polarization was 40 ms. Physical phenomena are discussed invoking one or a combination of various possible causes for the observed effects. The bursts at mm microwaves were weak compared to the contribution of the preexisting active regions, and therefore the changes in magnetoionic propagation conditions for emerging radiation plays an important role in the observed effects. Composite effects due to more than one polarizing mechanism or more than one polarized spots within the antenna beam are discussed.

  13. Angular power spectrum of the FASTICA cosmic microwave background component from Background Emission Anisotropy Scanning Telescope data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donzelli, S.; Maino, D.; Bersanelli, M.; Childers, J.; Figueiredo, N.; Lubin, P. M.; Meinhold, P. R.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Seiffert, M. D.; Villela, T.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wuensche, C. A.

    2006-06-01

    We present the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) component extracted with FASTICA from the Background Emission Anisotropy Scanning Telescope (BEAST) data. BEAST is a 2.2-m off-axis telescope with a focal plane comprising eight elements at Q (38-45 GHz) and Ka (26-36 GHz) bands. It operates from the UC (University of California) White Mountain Research Station at an altitude of 3800 m. The BEAST CMB angular power spectrum has already been calculated by O'Dwyer et al. using only the Q-band data. With two input channels, FASTICA returns two possible independent components. We found that one of these two has an unphysical spectral behaviour, while the other is a reasonable CMB component. After a detailed calibration procedure based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, we extracted the angular power spectrum for the identified CMB component and found a very good agreement with the already published BEAST CMB angular power spectrum and with the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data.

  14. Influence of (FeO + TiO2) abundance on the thermal emission from the lunar regolith using Chang'E-2 microwave radiometer data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Zhiguo; Ping, Jinsong; Xu, Yi; Cai, Zhanchuan; Zheng, Yongchun

    Abstract:The microwave radiometer data obtained from Chang’E-2 mission (CELMS data) has provided new opportunity to study the influence of the (FeO+TiO2) abundance on the microwave thermal emission of the lunar regolith. In this paper, the radiative transfer simulation is employed to study the change of the brightness temperature with (FeO+TiO2) abundance at different frequencies and surface temperature. The (FeO+TiO2) abundance are derived from Clementine UV-VIS data and the samples from Apollo, Luna and Surveyor projects. The simulation results along the Equator indicate that the (FeO+TiO2) abundance has strong impact on the microwave thermal emission of the lunar regolith. However, the data along the Longitude 0° shows that the (FeO+TiO2) abundance is not the dominant influential factor of the microwave thermal emission of the lunar regolith. Specifically, the abnormal brightness temperature at 160°W (Unnamed crater), 138°W (Crater Vavilov), 125°W (Crater Hertzsprung), 116°E (Crater Abul Wáfa), 119°E (Crater Heron), 130°E (Crater Catena Gregory) and 140°E (Crater Catena Mendeleev) shows that the (FeO+TiO2) abundance is not the only influential factor for the observed brightness temperature. In addition, the correlations between the four-channel brightness temperature and the (FeO+TiO2) abundance in Apollo landing site and along the Equator both indicate that the (FeO+TiO2) abundance is slightly decreasing with depth. The research is essential for the inversion of the lunar regolith parameters with the microwave radiometer data from Chang’E satellites. Keywords: lunar regolith, microwave thermal emission, CELMS data, (FeO+TiO2) abundance

  15. Design of red/green emissive lanthanide activated nano-materials by supersonic and microwave co-irradiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qianming; Huo, Jiansheng; Zheng, Yuhui; Pang, Shuting; He, Zhouzhi

    2013-04-01

    ZnSnO3:Eu3+ and Sr1-xCaxMoO4:Tb3+ nanocrystals with controlled shape have been assembled in the presence of two driving forces (supersonic microwave co-assistance, abbreviated as SMC) simultaneously in less than 60 min at very low temperature (80 °C). Scanning Electronic Microscope (SEM) images further supported the existence of cubic crystals and shuttle-like structures. More interestingly, Eu(III) ion has been encapsulated into zinc stannate for the first time and ZnSnO3:Eu3+ can exhibit red emissions excited by long wavelength (395 nm). Similarly, it was found that Sr1-xCaxMoO4:Tb3+ had striking green luminescence. The parameters to improve the optical properties have been studied in detail. This convenient approach may be applicable to construct other phosphors with well-defined crystalline structures.

  16. Subnanogram determination of inorganic and organic mercury by helium-microwave induced plasma-atomic emission spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Fukushi, K. ); Willie, S.N.; Sturgeon, R.E. )

    1993-02-01

    Inorganic and organic mercury were determined by helium-microwave induced plasma-atomic emission spectrometry following cold vapor generation. Whereas only inorganic mercury was reduced by stannous ion in an acidic medium, both inorganic and organic mercury (total mercury) were reduced by stannous ion in the presence of cupric ion in a basic medium. Organic mercury was determined as the difference between total and inorganic mercury. Detection limits for inorganic and organic mercury were 11 and 10 pg, respectively. The accuracy of the proposed method was verified through the determination of inorganic, total and organic mercury in two marine biological standard reference materials, DORM-1 and TORT-1. 21 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  17. The Air Microwave Yield (AMY) experiment - A laboratory measurement of the GHz emission from extensive air showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louedec, K.

    The AMY experiment aims to measure the microwave bremsstrahlung radiation (MBR) emitted by air-showers secondary electrons accelerating in collisions with neutral molecules of the atmosphere. The measurements are performed using a beam of 510 MeV electrons at the Beam Test Facility (BTF) of Frascati INFN National Laboratories. The goal of the AMY experiment is to measure in laboratory conditions the yield and the spectrum of the GHz emission in the frequency range between 1 and 20 GHz. The final purpose is to characterise the process to be used in a next generation detectors of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. A description of the experimental setup and the first results are presented.

  18. Electric field-assisted metal insulator transition in vanadium dioxide (VO2) thin films: optical switching behavior and anomalous far-infrared emissivity variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crunteanu, Aurelian; Fabert, Marc; Cornette, Julie; Colas, Maggy; Orlianges, Jean-Christophe; Bessaudou, Annie; Cosset, Françoise

    2014-03-01

    We present the vanadium dioxide (VO2) thin films deposition using e-beam evaporation of a vanadium target under oxygen atmosphere on different substrates (sapphire, Si, SiO2/Si…) and we focus on their electrical and optical properties variations as the material undergoes a metal-insulator transition under thermal and electrical stimuli. The phase transition induces extremely abrupt changes in the electronic and optical properties of the material: the electrical resistivity increases up to 5 orders of magnitude while the optical properties (transmission, reflection, refractive index) are drastically modified. We present the integration of these films in simple planar optical devices and we demonstrate electrical-activated optical modulators for visible-infrared signals with high discrimination between the two states. We will highlight a peculiar behavior of the VO2 material in the infrared and far infrared regions (2- 20 μm), namely its anomalous emissivity change under thermal- end electrical activation (negative differential emittance phenomenon) with potential applications in active coatings for thermal regulation, optical limiting or camouflage coatings.

  19. Plasma upflows and microwave emission in hot supra-arcade structure associated with AN M1.6 limb flare

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.; Shibasaki, K.; Cho, K.-S.

    2014-04-20

    We have investigated a supra-arcade structure associated with an M1.6 flare, which occurred on the south-east limb on 2010 November 4. It is observed in EUV with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, microwaves at 17 and 34 GHz with the Nobeyama Radioheliograph (NoRH), and soft X-rays of 8-20 keV with RHESSI. Interestingly, we found exceptional properties of the supra-arcade thermal plasma from the AIA 131 Å and the NoRH: (1) plasma upflows along large coronal loops and (2) enhancing microwave emission. RHESSI detected two soft X-ray sources, a broad one in the middle of the supra-arcade structure and a bright one just above the flare-arcade. We estimated the number density and thermal energy for these two source regions during the decay phase of the flare. In the supra-arcade source, we found that there were increases of the thermal energy and the density at the early and last stages, respectively. On the contrary, the density and thermal energy of the source on the top of the flare-arcade decreases throughout. The observed upflows imply that there is continuous energy supply into the supra-arcade structure from below during the decay phase of the flare. It is hard to explain by the standard flare model in which the energy release site is located high in the corona. Thus, we suggest that a potential candidate of the energy source for the hot supra-arcade structure is the flare-arcade, which has exhibited a predominant emission throughout.

  20. Modeling of the nonstationary regimes of distributed-emission M-type microwave amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritsunov, A. V.

    An improved modeling procedure for the calculation of transient processes in M-type microwave amplifiers by the large-particle method is described which involves a three-dimensional mulitparticle configuration and rectangular and cylindrical geometry. The operating characteristics of the TUL'PAN applied program package based on the models developed are examined. Typical time dependences of the output parameters during the insertion process are shown for the QK-434 device, and the space-charge distribution in the interaction space under stationary conditions is presented.

  1. Resonance absorption of microwaves in He II: Evidence for roton emission

    SciTech Connect

    Rybalko, A.; Rubets, S.; Rudavskii, E.; Tikhiy, V.; Tarapov, S.; Golovashchenko, R.; Derkach, V.

    2007-10-01

    Microwave (MW) absorption in liquid {sup 4}He is investigated in the frequency range of 40-200 GHz at T=1.4-2.5 K. A 'whispering gallery' of waves was generated by a dielectric disk resonator immersed into the liquid. Resonance absorption of MWs was detected at the frequency, which corresponds to the roton minimum of the liquid helium excitation spectrum. The creation of a single roton is possible because of the presence of the resonator wall which absorbs an extra momentum. The resonance frequency is shown to decrease with temperature in an excellent agreement with the temperature dependence of the roton gap obtained previously in the neutron scattering experiment.

  2. A planetary radio astronomy discussion of the 1.55 cm microwave emission of the earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, W. J., Jr.; Chang, T. C.; Darby, L. T.; Finkelstein, H. M.

    1975-01-01

    Using 1.55 cm observations of the earth made by the Electrically Scanned Microwave Radiometer (ESMR) experiment on Nimbus 5, the appearance of the earth from Venus is simulated. A single antenna unable to resolve the earth's disk would give a time-averaged disk temperature of 183 K. In one rotation, the disk temperature would vary from 194 K to 172 K. During the 1973 inferior conjunction, a radio telescope with 1 arc sec resolution would resolve most of the major surface features of the earth.

  3. The Air Microwave Yield (AMY) experiment to measure the GHz emission from air shower plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Muiz, J.; Bohacova, M.; Cataldi, G.; Coluccia, M. R.; Creti, P.; De Mitri, I.; Di Giulio, C.; Engel, R.; Facal San Luis, P.; Iarlori, M.; Martello, D.; Monasor, M.; Perrone, L.; Petrera, S.; Privitera, P.; Riegel, M.; Rizi, V.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Salamida, F.; Salina, G.; Settimo, M.; Smida, R.; Verzi, V.; Werner, F.; Williams, C.

    2013-06-01

    The AMY experiment aims to measure the Microwave Bremsstrahlung Radiation (MBR) emitted by air-showers secondary electrons accelerating in collisions with neutral molecules of the atmosphere. The measurements are performed at the Beam Test Facility (BTF) of Frascati INFN National Laboratories and the final purpose is to characterize the process to be used in a next generation detectors of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (up to 1020eV). We describe the experimental set-up and the first test measurement performed in November 2011.

  4. Microwave emission from snow and glacier ice. [brightness temperature for snow fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, T. C.; Gloersen, P.; Schmugge, T.; Wilheit, T. T.; Zwally, H. J.

    1975-01-01

    The microwave brightness temperature for snow fields was studied assuming that the snow cover consists of closely packed scattering spheres which do not interact coherently. The Mie scattering theory was used to compute the volume scattering albedo. It is shown that in the wavelength range from 0.8 to 2.8 cm, most of the micro-radiation emanates from a layer 10 meters or less in thickness. It is concluded that it is possible to determine snow accumulation rates as well as near-surface temperature.

  5. Detection of microwave emission due to rock fracture as a new tool for geophysics: A field test at a volcano in Miyake Island, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Tadashi; Maeda, Takashi; Miki, Yoji; Akatsuka, Sayo; Hattori, Katsumi; Nishihashi, Masahide; Kaida, Daishi; Hirano, Takuya

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes a field test to verify a newly discovered phenomenon of microwave emission due to rock fracture in a volcano. The field test was carried out on Miyake Island, 150 km south of Tokyo. The main objective of the test was to investigate the applicability of the phenomenon to the study of geophysics, volcanology, and seismology by extending observations of this phenomenological occurrence from the laboratory to the natural field. We installed measuring systems for 300 MHz, 2 GHz, and 18 GHz-bands on the mountain top and mountain foot in order to discriminate local events from regional and global events. The systems include deliberate data subsystems that store slowly sampled data in the long term, and fast sampled data when triggered. We successfully obtained data from January to February 2008. During this period, characteristic microwave pulses were intermittently detected at 300 MHz. Two photographs taken before and after this period revealed that a considerably large-scale collapse occurred on the crater cliff. Moreover, seismograms obtained by nearby observatories strongly suggest that the crater subsidence occurred simultaneously with microwave signals on the same day during the observation period. For confirmation of the microwave emission caused by rock fracture, these microwave signals must be clearly discriminated from noise, interferences, and other disturbances. We carefully discriminated the microwave data taken at the mountaintop and foot, checked the lightning strike data around the island, and consequently concluded that these microwave signals could not be attributed to lightning. Artificial interferences were discriminated by the nature of their waveforms. Thus, we inferred that the signals detected at 300 MHz were due to rock fractures during cliff collapses. This result may provide a useful new tool for geoscientists and for the mitigation of natural hazards.

  6. Optical emission spectroscopy of microwave-plasmas at atmospheric pressure applied to the growth of organosilicon and organotitanium nanopowders

    SciTech Connect

    Kilicaslan, A.; Levasseur, O.; Roy-Garofano, V.; Profili, J.; Moisan, M.; Stafford, L.; Côté, C.; Sarkissian, A.

    2014-03-21

    An atmospheric-pressure plasma sustained by an electromagnetic surface wave (SW) in the microwave regime combined with a bubbler/flash evaporator for the injection of liquid precursors was used to produce organosilicon and organotitanium nanopowders. Following the addition of hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) vapors in the nominally pure argon plasma, optical emission spectra revealed the apparition of strong C{sub 2} molecular bands along with Si and Balmer H emission lines. Such features were not observed in our atmospheric-pressure Ar/HMDSO discharges controlled by dielectric barriers, indicating that microwave plasmas are characterized by much higher fragmentation levels of the precursors due to much higher electron densities. Emission spectra from the Ar/HMDSO SW plasma further showed a high-intensity continuum, the intensity of which decreased with time as powders started to form on the discharge tube walls. In presence of titanium isopropoxide (TTIP) vapors in the nominally pure Ar plasma, the emission was dominated by Ar and Ti lines, with no trace of carbon and no continuum. Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy of the powders formed in Ar/HMDSO plasmas showed very strong Si-(CH{sub 3}){sub x} and O-Si-(CH{sub 3}){sub x} bands, which is consistent with the formation of silicon oxycarbide. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) further showed tube and sheet-like nanofeatures as well as larger structures consisting of agglomerated primary clusters. On the other hand, introduction of O{sub 2} in Ar/HMDSO plasmas produced only round-like nanoparticles with strong Si-O-Si bands and no trace of carbon, consistent with the formation of SiO{sub x}. The average size of the silica nanoparticles was 50 nm. FTIR spectra of powders formed in Ar/TTIP plasmas showed strong Ti-O signals, even without the addition of O{sub 2} in the gas phase. Corresponding TEM analysis showed nano- and agglomerated features comparable to those obtained in Ar/HMDSO although the average size of the titanate nanoparticles was smaller (10 nm). This set of data indicates that SW plasmas represent a promising parametric tool not only to achieve nanopowders with tailored properties for applications, but also for fundamental studies of nanodusty plasmas at atmospheric-pressure.

  7. Optical emission spectroscopy of microwave-plasmas at atmospheric pressure applied to the growth of organosilicon and organotitanium nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilicaslan, A.; Levasseur, O.; Roy-Garofano, V.; Profili, J.; Moisan, M.; Côté, C.; Sarkissian, A.; Stafford, L.

    2014-03-01

    An atmospheric-pressure plasma sustained by an electromagnetic surface wave (SW) in the microwave regime combined with a bubbler/flash evaporator for the injection of liquid precursors was used to produce organosilicon and organotitanium nanopowders. Following the addition of hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) vapors in the nominally pure argon plasma, optical emission spectra revealed the apparition of strong C2 molecular bands along with Si and Balmer H emission lines. Such features were not observed in our atmospheric-pressure Ar/HMDSO discharges controlled by dielectric barriers, indicating that microwave plasmas are characterized by much higher fragmentation levels of the precursors due to much higher electron densities. Emission spectra from the Ar/HMDSO SW plasma further showed a high-intensity continuum, the intensity of which decreased with time as powders started to form on the discharge tube walls. In presence of titanium isopropoxide (TTIP) vapors in the nominally pure Ar plasma, the emission was dominated by Ar and Ti lines, with no trace of carbon and no continuum. Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy of the powders formed in Ar/HMDSO plasmas showed very strong Si-(CH3)x and O-Si-(CH3)x bands, which is consistent with the formation of silicon oxycarbide. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) further showed tube and sheet-like nanofeatures as well as larger structures consisting of agglomerated primary clusters. On the other hand, introduction of O2 in Ar/HMDSO plasmas produced only round-like nanoparticles with strong Si-O-Si bands and no trace of carbon, consistent with the formation of SiOx. The average size of the silica nanoparticles was 50 nm. FTIR spectra of powders formed in Ar/TTIP plasmas showed strong Ti-O signals, even without the addition of O2 in the gas phase. Corresponding TEM analysis showed nano- and agglomerated features comparable to those obtained in Ar/HMDSO although the average size of the titanate nanoparticles was smaller (10 nm). This set of data indicates that SW plasmas represent a promising parametric tool not only to achieve nanopowders with tailored properties for applications, but also for fundamental studies of nanodusty plasmas at atmospheric-pressure.

  8. Research relative to angular distribution of snow reflectance/snow cover characterization and microwave emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dozier, Jeff; Davis, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    Remote sensing has been applied in recent years to monitoring snow cover properties for applications in hydrologic and energy balance modeling. In addition, snow cover has been recently shown to exert a considerable local influence on weather variables. Of particular importance is the potential of sensors to provide data on the physical properties of snow with high spatial and temporal resolution. Visible and near-infrared measurements of upwelling radiance can be used to infer near-surface properties through the calculation of albedo. Microwave signals usually come from deeper within the snow pack and thus provide depth-integrated information, which can be measured through clouds and does not relay on solar illumination.Fundamental studies examining the influence of snow properties on signals from various parts of the electromagnetic spectrum continue in part because of the promise of new remote sensors with higher spectral and spatial accuracy. Information in the visible and near-infrared parts of the spectrum comprise nearly all available data with high spatial resolution. Current passive microwave sensors have poor spatial resolution and the data are problematic where the scenes consist of mixed landscape features, but they offer timely observations that are independent of cloud cover and solar illumination.

  9. Measurements of snow radiometric and microstructure properties over a transect of plot-scale field observations: Application to snow thermodynamic and passive microwave emission models (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langlois, A.; Royer, A.; Montpetit, B.; Roy, A.; Derksen, C.

    2010-12-01

    Snow geophysical and thermophysical properties are known to be sensitive to climate variability and change and are of primary importance for hydrological and climatological processes in northern regions. Specifically, spatial and temporal variations of snow extent and thickness are good indicators of climate variability and change, and better tools are required to assess those changes from space. Numerous studies have looked at the linkages between passive microwave brightness temperatures (Tb) and snow thickness and water equivalent (SWE), but lingering uncertainties remain with regards to the effect of snow grain metamorphism on the microwave emission. Snow grains play an important role in the scattering mechanisms, but the lack of objectivity and repeatability in the measurement of snow grain morphology highlights the need for improved observations in order to fully exploit passive microwave radiometry. This work presents an innovative approach to measure and better define snow grains through accurate measurements of specific surface area (SSA) using near-infrared photography at 715 nm and laser measurements at 1310 nm. The relationship between infrared reflectance and snow grain morphology parameters measured from directional lighting photographs is also investigated. Using the theoretical snow albedo model of Kokhanovsky and Zege (2004), vertical SSA profiles are derived and coupled to snow thermodynamic and microwave emission models (SNOWPACK and MEMLS). Measurements of snow properties and microwave emission at 19 and 37 GHz were performed over a transect of 2 000 km in northerneastern Canada, from the dense boreal forest to arctic tundra. A series of plot-scale observations were performed every 40 km. Results show that with proper assessment of snow grains, simulations of brightness temperatures are improved when compared to field measurements from airborne passive microwave radiometers.

  10. BaR-SPOrt: an experiment to measure the linearly polarized sky emission from both the cosmic microwave background and foregrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortiglioni, S.; Bernardi, G.; Carretti, E.; Cecchini, S.; Macculi, C.; Sbarra, C.; Ventura, G.; Baralis, M.; Peverini, O.; Tascone, R.; Bonometto, S.; Colombo, L.; Sironi, G.; Zannoni, M.; Natale, V.; Nesti, R.; Fabbri, R.; Monari, J.; Poloni, M.; Poppi, S.; Nicastro, L.; Boscaleri, A.; de Bernardis, P.; Masi, S.; Sazhin, M. V.; Vinyajkin, E. N.

    2003-08-01

    The BaR-SPOrt experiment is aimed at measuring the polarization of the microwave sky at 32 and 90 GHz with sub-degree angular resolution. In this spectral and angular window it is possible to detect the polarization of the cosmic microwave background, which is one of the most ambitious goals of the today astrophysics. The experiment has been designed to fly onboard a Long Duration Balloon to be launched from polar regions, where it is possible to observe low foreground emission sky patches situated at high galactic latitudes.

  11. Study on anti-emission materials for non-emitting grid applications in microwave power tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, J.; Jiang, B. Y.; Ren, C. X.; Zhang, F. M.; Feng, T.; Wang, X.; Liu, X. H.; Zou, S. C.

    2006-03-01

    Hafnium and platinum were deposited onto molybdenum grids by ion-beam assisted deposition method. Electron-emission characteristics from molybdenum grids with Hf and Pt films, which were contaminated by active electron-emission substances (Ba, BaO) of the cathode, were measured using analogous diode method. The surfaces of grids were analyzed by X-ray diffraction. The results revealed that the reaction between BaO and Hf formed BaHfO 3 compound, which greatly reduced the accumulation of BaO on the surface and accordingly decreased grid emission. In contrast, Ba were formed by the decomposition of BaO on the surface of Pt film under high temperature and re-evaporated from its surface, which reduced the active electron-emission substances on the surface of the grid and effectively restrained grid emission. Their mechanisms for grid-emission suppression are discussed and a good method to develop new grid-coating materials is suggested.

  12. Thermal microwave emission from vegetated fields - A comparison between theory and experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, J. R.; Shiue, J. C.; Dombrowski, M.; Chuang, S. L.; Shin, R. T.

    1984-01-01

    The radiometric measurements over bare field and fields covered with grass, soybean, corn, and alfalfa were made with 1.4- and 5-GHz microwave radiometers during August-October 1978. The measured results are compared with radiative transfer theory treating the vegetated fields as a two-layer random medium. It is found that the presence of a vegetation cover generally gives a higher brightness temperature T sub B than that expected from a bare soil. The amount of this T sub B excess increases with increase in the vegetation biomass and in the frequency of the observed radiation. The results of radiative transfer calculations, which include a parameter characterizing ground surface roughness, generally match well with the experimental data.

  13. Evidence of Convective Redistribution of Carbon Monoxide in Aura Tropospheric Emission Sounder (TES) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manyin, Michael; Douglass, Anne; Schoeberl, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Vertical convective transport is a key element of the tropospheric circulation. Convection lofts air from the boundary layer into the free troposphere, allowing surface emissions to travel much further, and altering the rate of chemical processes such as ozone production. This study uses satellite observations to focus on the convective transport of CO from the boundary layer to the mid and upper troposphere. Our hypothesis is that strong convection associated with high rain rate regions leads to a correlation between mid level and upper level CO amounts. We first test this hypothesis using the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) chemistry and transport model. We find the correlation is robust and increases as the precipitation rate (the strength of convection) increases. We next examine three years of CO profiles from the Tropospheric Emission Sounder (TES) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) instruments aboard EOS Aura. Rain rates are taken from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) 3B-42 multi-satellite product. Again we find a correlation between mid-level and upper tropospheric CO, which increases with rain rate. Our result shows the critical importance of tropical convection in coupling vertical levels of the troposphere in the transport of trace gases. The effect is seen most clearly in strong convective regions such as the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone.

  14. Preparation, Infrared Emissivity, and Dielectric and Microwave Absorption Properties of Fe-Doped ZnO Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Xiaolei; Jia, Yan; Liu, Xiaoqin; Wang, Junbo; Xu, Jie; He, Xinhai; Fu, Chong; Liu, Songtao

    2014-11-01

    Fe-doped ZnO powders have been synthesized by the coprecipitation method using zinc nitrate [Zn(NO3)2·6H2O] as starting material, urea [CO(NH2)2] as precipitator, and ferric nitrate [Fe(NO3)3·9H2O] as doping source. The microstructure of the prepared powders has been characterized by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Results show that, when the molar ratio of Fe to (Zn + Fe) was less than 0.09, the prepared powder was ZnO(Fe) solid solution, and the ZnFe2O4 impurity phase appeared when the Fe doping content was further increased. The electric permittivity in the frequency range of 8.2 GHz to 12.4 GHz and the average infrared emissivity in the wavelength range of 8 μm to 14 μm have been determined for the prepared powders. The average infrared emissivity decreased with increasing Fe doping content. The real ( ɛ') and imaginary part ( ɛ″) of the permittivity of the prepared powders showed opposite trends. When the molar ratio of Fe to (Zn + Fe) was 0.03, the prepared Fe-doped ZnO powder demonstrated the best microwave absorption in the frequency range of 8.2 GHz to 12.4 GHz.

  15. Miniaturized dielectric barrier discharge carbon atomic emission spectrometry with online microwave-assisted oxidation for determination of total organic carbon.

    PubMed

    Han, Bingjun; Jiang, Xiaoming; Hou, Xiandeng; Zheng, Chengbin

    2014-07-01

    A simple, rapid, and portable system consisted of a laboratory-built miniaturized dielectric barrier discharge atomic emission spectrometer and a microwave-assisted persulfate oxidation reactor was developed for sensitive flow injection analysis or continuous monitoring of total organic carbon (TOC) in environmental water samples. The standard/sample solution together with persulfate was pumped to the reactor to convert organic compounds to CO2, which was separated from liquid phase and transported to the spectrometer for detection of the elemental specific carbon atomic emission at 193.0 nm. The experimental parameters were systematically investigated. A limit of detection of 0.01 mg L(-1) (as C) was obtained based on a 10 mL sample injection volume, and the precision was better than 6.5% (relative standard deviation, RSD) at 0.1 mg L(-1). The system was successfully applied for TOC analysis of real environmental water samples. The obtained TOC value of 30 test samples agreed well with those by the standard high-temperature combustion coupled nondispersive infrared absorption method. Most importantly, the system showed good capability of in situ continuous monitoring of total organic carbon in environmental water. PMID:24862626

  16. Frequency and Angular Variations of Land Surface Microwave Emissivities: Can we Estimate SSM/T and AMSU Emissivities from SSM/I Emissivities?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prigent, Catherine; Wigneron, Jean-Pierre; Rossow, William B.; Pardo-Carrion, Juan R.

    1999-01-01

    To retrieve temperature and humidity profiles from SSM/T and AMSU, it is important to quantify the contribution of the Earth surface emission. So far, no global estimates of the land surface emissivities are available at SSM/T and AMSU frequencies and scanning conditions. The land surface emissivities have been previously calculated for the globe from the SSM/I conical scanner between 19 and 85 GHz. To analyze the feasibility of deriving SSM/T and AMSU land surface emissivities from SSM/I emissivities, the spectral and angular variations of the emissivities are studied, with the help of ground-based measurements, models and satellite estimates. Up to 100 GHz, for snow and ice free areas, the SSM/T and AMSU emissivities can be derived with useful accuracy from the SSM/I emissivities- The emissivities can be linearly interpolated in frequency. Based on ground-based emissivity measurements of various surface types, a simple model is proposed to estimate SSM/T and AMSU emissivities for all zenith angles knowing only the emissivities for the vertical and horizontal polarizations at 53 deg zenith angle. The method is tested on the SSM/T-2 91.655 GHz channels. The mean difference between the SSM/T-2 and SSM/I-derived emissivities is less than or equal to 0.01 for all zenith angles with an r.m.s. difference of approx. = 0.02. Above 100 GHz, preliminary results are presented at 150 GHz, based on SSM/T-2 observations and are compared with the very few estimations available in the literature.

  17. THE EFFECT OF DEW ON THE MICROWAVE EMISSION OF MAIZE AT L-BAND

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dew has the net effect of decreasing the brightness temperature of maize at L-band. Scattering is enhanced more than emission. This effect occurs at both polarizations, but vertically-polarized brightness is affected more than horizontally-polarized brightness. As more water condenses on the cano...

  18. Simulations of Gyrosynchrotron Microwave Emission from an Oscillating 3D Magnetic Loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, A. A.; Van Doorsselaere, T.; Reznikova, V. E.

    2015-04-01

    Radio observations of solar flares often reveal various periodic or quasi-periodic oscillations. Most likely, these oscillations are caused by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) oscillations of flaring loops which modulate the emission. Interpreting the observations requires comparing them with simulations. We simulated the gyrosynchrotron radio emission from a semicircular (toroidal-shaped) magnetic loop containing sausage-mode MHD oscillations. The aim was to detect the observable signatures specific to the considered MHD mode and to study their dependence on the various source parameters. The MHD waves were simulated using a linear three-dimensional model of a magnetized plasma cylinder; both standing and propagating waves were considered. The curved loop was formed by replicating the MHD solutions along the plasma cylinder and bending the cylinder; this model allowed us to study the effect of varying the viewing angle along the loop. The radio emission was simulated using a three-dimensional model, and its spatial and temporal variations were analyzed. We considered several loop orientations and different parameters of the magnetic field, plasma, and energetic electrons in the loop. In the model with low plasma density, the intensity oscillations at all frequencies are synchronous (with the exception of a narrow spectral region below the spectral peak). In the model with high plasma density, the emission at low frequencies (where the Razin effect is important) oscillates in anti-phase with the emissions at higher frequencies. The oscillations at high and low frequencies are more pronounced in different parts of the loop (depending on the loop orientation). The layers where the line-of-sight component of the magnetic field changes sign can produce additional peculiarities in the oscillation patterns.

  19. Connecting Surface Emissions, Convective Uplifting, and Long-Range Transport of Carbon Monoxide in the Upper Troposphere: New Observations from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiang, Jonathan H.; Livesey, Nathaniel J.; Su, Hui; Neary, Lori; McConnell, John C.; Richards, Nigel A. D.

    2007-01-01

    Two years of observations of upper tropospheric (UT) carbon monoxide (CO) from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder are analyzed; in combination with the CO surface emission climatology and data from the NCEP analyses. It is shown that spatial distribution, temporal variation and long-range transport of UT CO are closely related to the surface emissions, deep-convection and horizontal winds. Over the Asian monsoon region, surface emission of CO peaks in boreal spring due to high biomass burning in addition to anthropogenic emission. However, the UT CO peaks in summer when convection is strongest and surface emission of CO is dominated by anthropogenic source. The long-range transport of CO from Southeast Asia across the Pacific to North America, which occurs most frequently during boreal summer, is thus a clear imprint of Asian anthropogenic pollution influencing global air quality.

  20. SURFACE FILMS TO SUPPRESS FIELD EMISSION IN HIGH-POWER MICROWAVE COMPONENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Hirshfield, Jay l

    2014-02-07

    Results are reported on attempts to reduce the RF breakdown probability on copper accelerator structures by applying thin surface films that could suppress field emission of electrons. Techniques for application and testing of copper samples with films of metals with work functions higher than copper are described, principally for application of platinum films, since platinum has the second highest work function of any metal. Techniques for application of insulating films are also described, since these can suppress field emission and damage on account of dielectric shielding of fields at the copper surface, and on account of the greater hardness of insulating films, as compared with copper. In particular, application of zirconium oxide films on high-field portions of a 11.424 GHz SLAC cavity structure for breakdown tests are described.

  1. Detection of microwave emission from both components of the red dwarf binary EQ Pegasi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Topka, K.; Marsh, K. A.

    1982-01-01

    The detection at 4.9 GHz of the late main sequence binary EQ Pegasi (dM3.5e + dM4.5e) with the VLA is reported. Both components were detected, as flux levels of 0.69 mJy and 0.4 mJy, respectively. Thermal gyroresonance emission from the quiescent coronae of these stars appears to explain observations of the authors, as it does those of Gary and Linsky (1981) for chi Ori and UV Ceti, provided coronal magnetic fields in excess of 300 gauss exist over a region that has a length scale of at least twice the radii of these stars. Support for this model is provided by the unlikelihood of both stars flaring simultaneously, and by the fact that the emission was confined to each star within the observational uncertainty of a few AU.

  2. Emissivity measurements in thin metallized membrane reflectors used for microwave radiometer sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, Lyle C.; Cravey, Robin L.; Scherner, Michael J.; Hearn, Chase P.; Blume, Hans-Juergen C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is concerned with electromagnetic losses in metallized films used for inflatable reflectors. An inflatable membrane is made of tough elastic material such as Kapton, and it is not electromagnetically reflective by design. A film of conducting metal is added to the membrane to enhance its reflective properties. Since the impetus for use of inflatables for spacecraft is the light weight and compact packaging, it is important that the metal film be as thin as possible. However, if the material is not conductive or thick enough, the radiation due to the emissivity of the reflector could be a significant part of the radiation gathered by the radiometer. The emissivity would be of little consequence to a radar or solar collector; but for a radiometer whose signal is composed of thermal radiation, this contribution could be severe. Bulk properties of the metal film cannot be used to predict its loss. For this reason, a program of analysis and measurement was undertaken to determine the emissivities of a number of candidate metallized film reflectors. This paper describes the three types of measurements which were performed on the metallized thin films: (1) a network analyzer system with an L-band waveguide; (2) an S-band radiometer; and (3) a network analyzer system with a C-band antenna free-space transmission system.

  3. Calculations of the spectral nature of the microwave emission from soils. [Arizona and Georgia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mo, T.; Schmugge, T. J.; Choudhury, B. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The brightness temperatures for a set of soil profiles observed at USDA facilities in Arizona and Georgia were calculated at the wavelengths of 2.8, 6, 11, 21, and 49 cm using a coherent radiative transfer model. The soil moisture sampling depth is found to be a function of wavelength and is in the range 0.06 to 0.1 of a wavelength. The thermal sampling depth also depends on wavelength and is approximately equal to one wavelength at dry soil condition and 0.1 - 0.5 wavelengths at wet soil conditions. Calculated values of emissivity show strong diurnal variations when the soils are wet, while there is little diurnal change when the soil is dry. The soil moistures within the four depth intervals of 0-2, 0-5, 0-9, and 0-15 cm were parameterized as function of the calculated emissivity and brightness temperature. Best-fit parameters and correlation coefficients are presented for five wavelengths. Interrelationships among the effective temperature, surface temperature, and emissivity are displayed.

  4. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Engineering Test Report: Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A2, S/N 108, 08

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valdez, A.

    2000-01-01

    This is the Engineering Test Report, Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A2, S/N 108, for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A).

  5. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Engineering Test Report: Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A1, S/N 109

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valdez, A.

    2000-01-01

    This is the Engineering Test Report, Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A1, S/N 109, for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A).

  6. Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). Engineering Test Report: Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A1, S/N 108 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valdez, A.

    2000-01-01

    This is the Engineering Test Report, Radiated Emissions and SARR, SARP, DCS Receivers, Link Frequencies EMI Sensitive Band Test Results, AMSU-A1 SIN 108, for the Integrated Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A).

  7. Characterization of low-pressure microwave and radio frequency discharges in oxygen applying optical emission spectroscopy and multipole resonance probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steves, Simon; Styrnoll, Tim; Mitschker, Felix; Bienholz, Stefan; Nikita, Bibinov; Awakowicz, Peter

    2013-11-01

    Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and multipole resonance probe (MRP) are adopted to characterize low-pressure microwave (MW) and radio frequency (RF) discharges in oxygen. In this context, both discharges are usually applied for the deposition of permeation barrier SiOx films on plastic foils or the inner surface of plastic bottles. For technological reasons the MW excitation is modulated and a continuous wave (cw) RF bias is used. The RF voltage produces a stationary low-density plasma, whereas the high-density MW discharge is pulsed. For the optimization of deposition process and the quality of the deposited barrier films, plasma conditions are characterized using OES and MRP. To simplify the comparison of applied diagnostics, both MW and RF discharges are studied separately in cw mode. The OES and MRP diagnostic methods complement each other and provide reliable information about electron density and electron temperature. In the MW case, electron density amounts to ne = (1.25 ± 0.26) × 1017 m-3, and kTe to 1.93 ± 0.20 eV, in the RF case ne = (6.8 ± 1.8)×1015 m-3 and kTe = 2.6 ± 0.35 eV. The corresponding gas temperatures are 760±40 K and 440±20 K.

  8. The microwave induced plasma with optical emission spectrometry (MIP-OES) in 23 elements determination in geological samples.

    PubMed

    Niedzielski, P; Kozak, L; Wachelka, M; Jakubowski, K; Wybieralska, J

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the optimisation, validation and application of the microwave induced plasma optical emission spectrometry (MIP-OES) dedicated for a routine determination of Ag, Al, B, Ba, Bi, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, In, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr, Tl, Zn, in the geological samples. The three procedures of sample preparation has been proposed: sample digestion with the use of hydrofluoric acid for determination of total concentration of elements, extraction by aqua regia for determination of the quasi-total element concentration and extraction by hydrochloric acid solution to determine contents of the elements in acid leachable fraction. The detection limits were on the level 0.001-0.121 mg L(-1) (from 0.010-0.10 to 1.2-12 mg kg(-1) depend on the samples preparation procedure); the precision: 0.20-1.37%; accuracy 85-115% (for recovery for certified standards materials analysis and parallel analysis by independent analytical techniques: X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and flame absorption spectrometry (FAAS)). The conformity of the results obtained by MIP-OES analytical procedures with the results obtained by XRF and FAAS analysis allows to propose the procedures for studies of elemental composition of the fraction of the geological samples. Additionally, the MIP-OES technique is much less expensive than ICP techniques and much less time-consuming than AAS techniques. PMID:25476349

  9. Quasi-periodic pulsations of hard X-ray and microwave emissions in the 2003 May 29 solar flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimovets, Ivan

    Growing quasi-periodic pulsations with a period of about 1 minute of hard X-ray (the anticoincidence system of spectrometer onboard INTEGRAL and the RHESSI) and microwave emissions (the NoRP) are clearly observed during the X1.2 solar flare on 2003 May 29. Ultraviolet images (the TRACE) show the sigmoid-to-arcade evolution of flaring active region consisted of the complex quadruple magnetic structure (the MDI/SOHO). This scenario is confirmed by the RHESSI hard X-ray images (30-100 keV): the sigmoid-to-arcade evolution occurred during the first pulsation in the course of magnetic reconnection. During the next pulsations hard X-ray mainly emitted by practically motionless point-like east source and multiple and non-stationary west ones which are along flare west ribbon. Summary distance between the magnetic inversion line and the both hard X-ray sources reveal its growth in the course of the flare development according to the standard model of eruptive flares. But we don't find clear correlations between that distance and hard X-ray emission intensity. Peak intensities of the both sources reveal the same quasi-periodic pulsations. We interpret the observed pulsations in term of modulation of charged particle acceleration process (say current sheet dynamical resizing) by MHD oscillations of eruptive flux rope. Although estimated (the MDI/SOHO) photospheric longitudinal magnetic field in hard X-ray sources is about 5 times greater than the necessary one for the Alfven wave period of about 1 minute in the active region we think that coronal magnetic field may satisfy the observed period.

  10. Partial microwave-assisted wet digestion of animal tissue using a baby-bottle sterilizer for analyte determination by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matos, Wladiana O.; Menezes, Eveline A.; Gonzalez, Mário H.; Costa, Letícia M.; Trevizan, Lilian C.; Nogueira, Ana Rita A.

    2009-06-01

    A procedure for partial digestion of bovine tissue is proposed using polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) micro-vessels inside a baby-bottle sterilizer under microwave radiation for multi-element determination by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). Samples were directly weighed in laboratory-made polytetrafluoroethylene vessels. Nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide were added to the uncovered vessels, which were positioned inside the baby-bottle sterilizer, containing 500 mL of water. The hydrogen peroxide volume was fixed at 100 µL. The system was placed in a domestic microwave oven and partial digestion was carried out for the determination of Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn and Zn by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The single-vessel approach was used in the entire procedure, to minimize contamination in trace analysis. Better recoveries and lower residual carbon content (RCC) levels were obtained under the conditions established through a 2 4-1 fractional factorial design: 650 W microwave power, 7 min digestion time, 50 µL nitric acid and 50 mg sample mass. The digestion efficiency was ascertained according to the residual carbon content determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The accuracy of the proposed procedure was checked against two certified reference materials.

  11. Microwave Continuum Emission and Dense Gas Tracers in NGC 3627: Combining Jansky VLA and ALMA Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Eric J.; Dong, Dillon; Leroy, Adam K.; Momjian, Emmanuel; Condon, James J.; Helou, George; Meier, David S.; Ott, Jürgen; Schinnerer, Eva; Turner, Jean L.

    2015-11-01

    We present Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array Ka band (33 GHz) and Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) Band 3 (94.5 GHz) continuum images covering the nucleus and two extranuclear star-forming regions within the nearby galaxy NGC 3627 (M 66), observed as part of the Star Formation in Radio Survey. Both images achieve an angular resolution of ≲2″, allowing us to map radio spectral indices and estimate thermal radio fractions at a linear resolution of ≲90 pc. The thermal fraction at 33 GHz reaches unity at and around the peaks of each H ii region; the spectral index between 33 and 94.5 GHz additionally becomes both increasingly negative and positive away from the H ii region peaks, indicating an increase of non-thermal emission from diffusing cosmic-ray electrons and the possible presence of cold dust, respectively. While the ALMA observations were optimized for collecting continuum data, they also detected line emission from the J=1\\to 0 transitions of HCN and HCO+. The peaks of dense molecular gas traced by these two spectral lines are spatially offset from the peaks of the continuum emission for both extranuclear star-forming regions, indicating that our data reach an angular resolution at which one can spatially distinguish sites of recent star formation from the sites of future star formation. Finally, we find trends of decreasing dense gas fraction and velocity dispersion with increasing star formation efficiency among the regions observed, indicating that the dynamical state of the dense gas, rather than its abundance, plays a more significant role in the star formation process.

  12. Methods for correcting microwave scattering and emission measurements for atmospheric effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komen, M. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Algorithms were developed to permit correction of scattering coefficient and brightness temperature for the Skylab S193 Radscat for the effects of cloud attenuation. These algorithms depend upon a measurement of the vertically polarized excess brightness temperature at 50 deg incidence angle. This excess temperature is converted to an equivalent 50 deg attenuation, which may then be used to estimate the horizontally polarized excess brightness temperature and reduced scattering coefficient at 50 deg. For angles other than 50 deg, the correction also requires use of the variation of emissivity with salinity and water temperature.

  13. Five-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP1) Observations: Galactic Foreground Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gold, B.; Bennett, C.L.; Larson, D.; Hill, R.S.; Odegard, N.; Weiland, J.L.; Hinshaw, G.; Kogut, A.; Wollack, E.; Page, L.; Dunkley, J.; Jarosik, N.; Spergel, N.; Halpern, M.; Komatsu, E.; Meyer, S.S.; Nolta, M.R.; Wright, E.L.

    2008-01-01

    We present a new estimate of foreground emission in the WMAP data, using a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. The new technique delivers maps of each foreground component for a variety of foreground models, error estimates of the uncertainty of each foreground component, and provides an overall goodness-of-fit measurement. The resulting foreground maps are in broad agreement with those from previous techniques used both within the collaboration and by other authors. We find that for WMAP data, a simple model with power-law synchrotron, free-free, and thermal dust components fits 90% of the sky with a reduced X(sup 2) (sub v) of 1.14. However, the model does not work well inside the Galactic plane. The addition of either synchrotron steepening or a modified spinning dust model improves the fit. This component may account for up to 14% of the total flux at Ka-band (33 GHz). We find no evidence for foreground contamination of the CMB temperature map in the 85% of the sky used for cosmological analysis.

  14. Molecular phonons and their absorption/emission spectra from the far-IR to microwaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papoular, R.

    2015-07-01

    Together with their fingerprint modes, molecules carry coherent vibrations of all their atoms (phonons). Phonon spectra extend from ˜20 to more than 104 μm, depending on molecular size. These spectra are discrete but large assemblies of molecules of the same family, differing only by minor structural details, will produce continua. As such assemblies are expected to exist in regions where dust accumulates, they are bound to contribute to the observed continua underlying the unidentified infrared bands and the 21 μm band of planetary nebulae as well as to the diffuse galactic emission surveyed by the Planck astronomical satellite and other means. The purpose of this work is to determine, for carbon-rich molecules, the intensity of such continua and their extent into the millimetric range, and to evaluate their detectability in this range. The rules governing the spectral distributions of phonons are derived and shown to differ from those which obtain in the solid state. Their application allows the extinction cross-section per H atom, and its maximum wavelength, to be determined as a function of molecular size and dimensionality. Chemical modelling of more than 15 large molecules illustrates these results. It is found that the maximum phonon wavelength of a 2D structure increases roughly as the square of its larger dimension. Spectral energy distributions were computed as far as 4000 μm, for molecules up to 50 Å in length.

  15. Composition, seasonal change, and bathymetry of Ligeia Mare, Titan, derived from its microwave thermal emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Gall, A.; Malaska, M. J.; Lorenz, R. D.; Janssen, M. A.; Tokano, T.; Hayes, A. G.; Mastrogiuseppe, M.; Lunine, J. I.; Veyssière, G.; Encrenaz, P.; Karatekin, O.

    2016-02-01

    For the last decade, the passive radiometer incorporated in the Cassini RADAR has recorded the 2.2 cm wavelength thermal emission from Titan's seas. In this paper, we analyze the radiometry observations collected from February 2007 to January 2015 over one of these seas, Ligeia Mare, with the goal of providing constraints on its composition, bathymetry, and dynamics. In light of the depth profile obtained by Mastrogiuseppe et al. (2014) and of a two-layer model, we find that the dielectric constant of the sea liquid is <1.8, and its loss tangent is <3.6-2.1+4.3×10-5. Both results point to a composition dominated by liquid methane rather than ethane. A high methane concentration suggests that Ligeia Mare is primarily fed by methane-rich precipitation and/or ethane has been removed from it (e.g., by crustal interaction). Our result on the dielectric constant of the seafloor is less constraining (<2.9-0.9+0.9), but we favor a scenario where the floor of Ligeia Mare is covered by a sludge of compacted and possibly nitrile-rich organic material formed by the deposition of photochemical haze or by rain washing of the nearby shores. We use these results to produce a low-resolution bathymetry map of the sea. We also estimate the temperature variation of the bulk sea between February 2007 and July 2013 to be <2 K, which provides a constraint on its net evaporative cooling currently being explored in ocean circulation models. Lastly, we suggest a lag in the summer warming of the northern polar terrains.

  16. Application of microwave plasma atomic emission spectrometry (MP-AES) for environmental monitoring of industrially contaminated sites in Hyderabad city.

    PubMed

    Kamala C T; Balaram V; Dharmendra V; Satyanarayanan M; Subramanyam K S V; Krishnaiah A

    2014-11-01

    Recently introduced microwave plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (MP-AES) represents yet another and very important addition to the existing array of modern instrumental analytical techniques. In this study, an attempt is made to summarize the performance characteristics of MP-AES and its potential as an analytical tool for environmental studies with some practical examples from Patancheru and Uppal industrial sectors of Hyderabad city. A range of soil, sediment, water reference materials, particulate matter, and real-life samples were chosen to evaluate the performance of this new analytical technique. Analytical wavelengths were selected considering the interference effects of other concomitant elements present in different sample solutions. The detection limits for several elements were found to be in the range from 0.05 to 5 ng/g. The trace metals analyzed in both the sectors followed the topography with more pollution in the low-lying sites. The metal contents were found to be more in ground waters than surface waters. Since a decade, the pollutants are transfered from Patancheru industrial area to Musi River. After polluting Nakkavagu and turning huge tracts of agricultural lands barren besides making people residing along the rivulet impotent and sick, industrialists of Patancheru are shifting the effluents to downstream of Musi River through an 18-km pipeline from Patancheru. Since the effluent undergoes primary treatment at Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) at Patanchru and travels through pipeline and mixes with sewage, the organic effluents will be diluted. But the inorganic pollutants such as heavy and toxic metals tend to accumulate in the environmental segments near and downstreams of Musi River. The data generated by MP-AES of toxic metals like Zn, Cu, and Cr in the ground and surface waters can only be attributed to pollution from Patancheru since no other sources are available to Musi River. PMID:25086712

  17. Low gas flow inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry for the analysis of food samples after microwave digestion.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Sascha; Gesell, Monika; Holtkamp, Michael; Scheffer, Andy; Sperling, Michael; Karst, Uwe; Buscher, Wolfgang

    2014-11-01

    In this work, the recently introduced low flow inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) with a total argon consumption below 0.7 L/min is applied for the first time to the field of food analysis. One goal is the investigation of the performance of this low flow plasma compared to a conventional ICP-OES system when non-aqueous samples with a certain matrix are introduced into the system. For this purpose, arsenic is determined in three different kinds of fish samples. In addition several nutrients (K, Na, Mg, Ca) and trace metals (Co, Cu, Mn, Cd, Pb, Zn, Fe, and Ni) are determined in honey samples (acacia) after microwave digestion. The precision of the measurements is characterized by relative standard deviations (RSD) and compared to the corresponding precision values achieved using the conventional Fassel-type torch of the ICP. To prove the accuracy of the low flow ICP-OES method, the obtained data from honey samples are validated by a conventional ICP-OES. For the measurements concerning arsenic in fish, the low flow ICP-OES values are validated by conventional Fassel-type ICP-OES. Furthermore, a certified reference material was investigated with the low gas flow setup. Limits of detection (LOD), according to the 3σ criterion, were determined to be in the low microgram per liter range for all analytes. Recovery rates in the range of 96-106% were observed for the determined trace metal elements. It was proven that the low gas flow ICP-OES leads to results that are comparable with those obtained with the Fassel-type torch for the analysis of food samples. PMID:25127635

  18. Long wavelength (>1.55 {mu}m) room temperature emission and anomalous structural properties of InAs/GaAs quantum dots obtained by conversion of In nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Urbanczyk, A.; Keizer, J. G.; Koenraad, P. M.; Noetzel, R.

    2013-02-18

    We demonstrate that molecular beam epitaxy-grown InAs quantum dots (QDs) on (100) GaAs obtained by conversion of In nanocrystals enable long wavelength emission in the InAs/GaAs material system. At room temperature they exhibit a broad photoluminescence band that extends well beyond 1.55 {mu}m. We correlate this finding with cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy measurements. They reveal that the QDs are composed of pure InAs which is in agreement with their long-wavelength emission. Additionally, the measurements reveal that the QDs have an anomalously undulated top surface which is very different to that observed for Stranski-Krastanow grown QDs.

  19. LIRAS mission for lunar exploration by microwave interferometric radiometer: Moon's subsurface characterization, emission model and numerical simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pompili, Sara; Silvio Marzano, Frank; Di Carlofelice, Alessandro; Montopoli, Mario; Talone, Marco; Crapolicchio, Raffaele; L'Abbate, Michelangelo; Varchetta, Silvio; Tognolatti, Piero

    2013-04-01

    The "Lunar Interferometric Radiometer by Aperture Synthesis" (LIRAS) mission is promoted by the Italian Space Agency and is currently in feasibility phase. LIRAS' satellite will orbit around the Moon at a height of 100 km, with a revisiting time period lower than 1 lunar month and will be equipped with: a synthetic aperture radiometer for subsurface sounding purposes, working at 1 and 3 GHz, and a real aperture radiometer for near-surface probing, working at 12 and 24 GHz. The L-band payload, representing a novel concept for lunar exploration, is designed as a Y-shaped thinned array with three arms less than 2.5 m long. The main LIRAS objectives are high-resolution mapping and vertical sounding of the Moon subsurface by applying the advantages of the antenna aperture synthesis technique to a multi-frequency microwave passive payload. The mission is specifically designed to achieve spatial resolutions less than 10 km at surface and to retrieve thermo-morphological properties of the Moon subsurface within 5 m of depth. Among LIRAS products are: lunar near-surface brightness temperature, subsurface brightness temperature gross profile, subsurface regolith thickness, density and average thermal conductivity, detection index of possible subsurface discontinuities (e.g. ice presence). The following study involves the preliminary design of the LIRAS payload and the electromagnetic and thermal characterization of the lunar subsoil through the implementation of a simulator for reproducing the LIRAS measurements in response to observations of the Moon surface and subsurface layers. Lunar physical data, collected after the Apollo missions, and LIRAS instrument parameters are taken as input for the abovementioned simulator, called "LIRAS End-to-end Performance Simulator" (LEPS) and obtained by adapting the SMOS End-to-end Performance Simulator to the different instrumental, orbital, and geophysical LIRAS characteristics. LEPS completely simulates the behavior of the satellite when it becomes operational providing the extrapolation of lunar brightness temperature maps in both Antenna frame (the cosine domain) and on the Moon surface and allowing an accurate analysis of the instrument performance. The Moon stratigraphy is reproduced in LEPS environment through three scenarios: a macro-layer of regolith; two subsequent macro-layers of regolith and rock; three subsequent macro-layers of regolith, ice and rock, respectively. These scenarios are studied using an incoherent approach, taking into account the interaction between the upwelling and downwelling radiation contributions from each layer to model the resulting brightness temperature at the surface level. It has been considered that the radiative behavior of the Moon varies over time, depending on solar illumination conditions, and it is also function of the material properties, layer thickness and specific position on the lunar crust; moreover it has been examined its variation with frequency, observation angle, and polarization. Using the proposed emission model it has been possible to derive a digital thermal model in the microwave frequency of the Moon, allowing in-depth analysis of the lunar soil consistency; this collected information could be related with a lunar digital elevation model in order to achieve global coverage information on topological aspects. The main results of the study will be presented at the conference.

  20. Microwave imaging diagnostics for plasma fluctuation studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian

    Electron Cyclotron Emission Imaging (ECEI) and Microwave Imaging Reflectometry (MIR) combined systems are being investigated by the UC Davis Plasma Diagnostic Group (PDG), in collaboration with Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) researchers, Drs. E. Mazzucato, H.K. Park and T. Munsat, as well as researchers from the FOM-Instituut voor Plasmafysica Rijnhuizen,the Netherlands. The goal is to develop the plasma diagnostic systems based on the imaging technology developed in the UC Davis PDG group, for the study of plasma micro-turbulence, which is extremely important for the understanding of anomalous transport behavior of magnetically confined plasmas such as in tokamaks. This dissertation work provides the design of the optical systems, the design of the electronics, the testing of the antenna array and the data analysis of TEXTOR ECEI/MIR combined systems.

  1. X-radiation /E greater than 10 keV/, H-alpha and microwave emission during the impulsive phase of solar flares.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vorpahl, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    A study has been made of the variation in hard (E greater than 10 keV) X-radiation, H-alpha and microwave emission during the impulsive phase of solar flares. Analysis shows that the rise-time in the 20-30-keV X-ray spike depends on the electron hardness. The impulsive phase is also marked by an abrupt, very intense increase in H-alpha emission in one or more knots of the flare. Properties of these H-alpha kernels include: (1) a luminosity several times greater than the surrounding flare, (2) an intensity rise starting about 20-30 sec before, peaking about 20-25 sec after, and lasting about twice as long as the hard spike, (3) a location lower in the chromosphere than the remaining flare, (4) essentially no expansion prior to the hard spike, and (5) a position within 6000 km of the boundary separating polarities, usually forming on both sides of the neutral line near both feet of the same tube of force. Correspondingly, impulsive microwave events are characterized by: (1) great similarity in burst structure with 20-32 keV X-rays but only above 5000 MHz, (2) typical low frequency burst cutoff between 1400-3800 MHz, and (3) maximum emission above 7500 MHz.

  2. Investigations on the on-line determination of metals in air flows by capacitively coupled microwave plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seelig, M.; Broekaert, J. A. C.

    2001-09-01

    Plasma optical emission spectrometry with a capacitively coupled microwave plasma (CMP) operated with air has been investigated with respect to its possibilities for real-time environmental monitoring of combustion processes. The unique feature is the possibility to operate the CMP with air as working gas, as is usually the case in exhaust gases of combustion processes. The CMP also is shown to be stable in the presence of large amounts of water and CO 2, which makes this source ideally suitable for this purpose. The detection limits obtained for the environmentally relevant elements Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Mg, Ni and Pb show the possibility to monitor directly heavy metals in air in an on-line mode and down to the 2-160-μg m -3 level. These detection limits are generally lower than the threshold limit values of the 'Federal Law for Immission Protection' in Germany in the gaseous effluents of industrial plants. In order to investigate the influence of the water loading (32-222 g m -3) on the detection limits a comparison of results obtained with three different nebulizers (Légère nebulizer, hydraulic high-pressure nebulizer and ultrasonic nebulizer) was made, with which aerosols with different water loading are entered into the plasma. For the hydraulic high-pressure nebulizer and the ultrasonic nebulizer no desolvation unit was found to be necessary. It was shown that especially for elements with lines having high excitation energy (Cd) or for which ion lines are used (Mg II) the increase in water loading deteriorates the detection limits. The rotational temperatures ( Trot) and excitation temperatures ( Texe) in the case of different amounts of water are of the order of 3700-4900 K and 4700-7100 K, respectively. The temperatures show that changes in the geometry and temperature distribution in the case of Trot but also the values of Texe themselves are responsible for this increase in detection limits. Furthermore, different amounts of CO 2 mixed to the working gas (3-22%) while the total gas flow rate was kept constant at 1.2 l min -1 were also shown to increase the detection limits.

  3. The emission and scattering of L-band microwave radiation from rough ocean surfaces and wind speed measurements from the Aquarius sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meissner, Thomas; Wentz, Frank J.; Ricciardulli, Lucrezia

    2014-09-01

    In order to achieve the required accuracy in sea surface salinity (SSS) measurements from L-band radiometers such as the Aquarius/SAC-D or SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) mission, it is crucial to accurately correct the radiation that is emitted from the ocean surface for roughness effects. We derive a geophysical model function (GMF) for the emission and backscatter of L-band microwave radiation from rough ocean surfaces. The analysis is based on radiometer brightness temperature and scatterometer backscatter observations both taken on board Aquarius. The data are temporally and spatially collocated with wind speeds from WindSat and F17 SSMIS (Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder) and wind directions from NCEP (National Center for Environmental Prediction) GDAS (Global Data Assimilation System). This GMF is the basis for retrieval of ocean surface wind speed combining L-band H-pol radiometer and HH-pol scatterometer observations. The accuracy of theses combined passive/active L-band wind speeds matches those of many other satellite microwave sensors. The L-band GMF together with the combined passive/active L-band wind speeds is utilized in the Aquarius SSS retrieval algorithm for the surface roughness correction. We demonstrate that using these L-band wind speeds instead of NCEP wind speeds leads to a significant improvement in the SSS accuracy. Further improvements in the roughness correction algorithm can be obtained by adding VV-pol scatterometer measurements and wave height (WH) data into the GMF.

  4. A contribution to the analysis of microamounts of biological samples using a combination of graphite furnace and microwave induced plasma atomic emission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, A.; Broekaert, J. A. C.; Leis, F.

    The use of a commercial graphite furnace combined with a TM 110 microwave cavity for the multielement analysis of small-volume liquid samples by microwave-induced plasma atomic emission spectroscopy is described. Sample aliquots of 5-50 ?l are dried at 100C and subsequently vaporized by heating up to 2400C. When the dry vapour cloud is evoluted into a 40 W argon microwave plasma with an argon carrier gas flow of 4.51/min, detection limits for Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Tl and Zn range from 1-50 ng/ml. Atomic lines are predominant. In routine analysis the analytical performance of the system is judged by the analysis times of 2-3 min per sample, the absence of memory effects and relative standard deviations in the range of 0.02-6.07. The analytical precision is improved by a factor of 2 by using a reference line. As varying alkaline contents, organics and various anions evoke matrix effects, the analysis of real samples requires the use of standard addition methods. Analysis results for Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn in NBS orchard leaves and bovine liver agree well with certified values. Direct determinations of Fe, Cu and Zn in 50 ?l serum samples are possible when applying adequate thermal decomposition of samples in the furnace.

  5. Vacuum ultraviolet emission spectrum measurement of a microwave-discharge hydrogen-flow lamp in several configurations: Application to photodesorption of CO ice

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y.-J.; Wu, C.-Y. R.; Chuang, K.-J.; Chu, C.-C.; Yih, T.-S.; Muñoz Caro, G. M.; Nuevo, M.; Ip, W.-H.

    2014-01-20

    We report measurements of the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) emission spectra of a microwave-discharge hydrogen-flow lamp (MDHL), a common tool in astrochemistry laboratories working on ice VUV photoprocessing. The MDHL provides hydrogen Ly-α (121.6 nm) and H{sub 2} molecular emission in the 110-180 nm range. We show that the spectral characteristics of the VUV light emitted in this range, in particular the relative proportion of Ly-α to molecular emission bands, strongly depend on the pressure of H{sub 2} inside the lamp, the lamp geometry (F type versus T type), the gas used (pure H{sub 2} versus H{sub 2} seeded in He), and the optical properties of the window used (MgF{sub 2} versus CaF{sub 2}). These different configurations are used to study the VUV irradiation of CO ice at 14 K. In contrast to the majority of studies dedicated to the VUV irradiation of astrophysical ice analogs, which have not taken into consideration the emission spectrum of the MDHL, our results show that the processes induced by photons in CO ice from a broad energy range are different and more complex than the sum of individual processes induced by monochromatic sources spanning the same energy range, as a result of the existence of multistate electronic transitions and discrepancy in absorption cross sections between parent molecules and products in the Ly-α and H{sub 2} molecular emission ranges.

  6. Simulation of the Microwave Emission of Multi-layered Snowpacks Using the Dense Media Radiative Transfer Theory: the DMRT-ML Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Picard, G.; Brucker, Ludovic; Roy, A.; Dupont, F.; Fily, M.; Royer, A.; Harlow, C.

    2013-01-01

    DMRT-ML is a physically based numerical model designed to compute the thermal microwave emission of a given snowpack. Its main application is the simulation of brightness temperatures at frequencies in the range 1-200 GHz similar to those acquired routinely by spacebased microwave radiometers. The model is based on the Dense Media Radiative Transfer (DMRT) theory for the computation of the snow scattering and extinction coefficients and on the Discrete Ordinate Method (DISORT) to numerically solve the radiative transfer equation. The snowpack is modeled as a stack of multiple horizontal snow layers and an optional underlying interface representing the soil or the bottom ice. The model handles both dry and wet snow conditions. Such a general design allows the model to account for a wide range of snow conditions. Hitherto, the model has been used to simulate the thermal emission of the deep firn on ice sheets, shallow snowpacks overlying soil in Arctic and Alpine regions, and overlying ice on the large icesheet margins and glaciers. DMRT-ML has thus been validated in three very different conditions: Antarctica, Barnes Ice Cap (Canada) and Canadian tundra. It has been recently used in conjunction with inverse methods to retrieve snow grain size from remote sensing data. The model is written in Fortran90 and available to the snow remote sensing community as an open-source software. A convenient user interface is provided in Python.

  7. Simulation of the microwave emission of multi-layered snowpacks using the Dense Media Radiative transfer theory: the DMRT-ML model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picard, G.; Brucker, L.; Roy, A.; Dupont, F.; Fily, M.; Royer, A.; Harlow, C.

    2013-07-01

    DMRT-ML is a physically based numerical model designed to compute the thermal microwave emission of a given snowpack. Its main application is the simulation of brightness temperatures at frequencies in the range 1-200 GHz similar to those acquired routinely by space-based microwave radiometers. The model is based on the Dense Media Radiative Transfer (DMRT) theory for the computation of the snow scattering and extinction coefficients and on the Discrete Ordinate Method (DISORT) to numerically solve the radiative transfer equation. The snowpack is modeled as a stack of multiple horizontal snow layers and an optional underlying interface representing the soil or the bottom ice. The model handles both dry and wet snow conditions. Such a general design allows the model to account for a wide range of snow conditions. Hitherto, the model has been used to simulate the thermal emission of the deep firn on ice sheets, shallow snowpacks overlying soil in Arctic and Alpine regions, and overlying ice on the large ice-sheet margins and glaciers. DMRT-ML has thus been validated in three very different conditions: Antarctica, Barnes Ice Cap (Canada) and Canadian tundra. It has been recently used in conjunction with inverse methods to retrieve snow grain size from remote sensing data. The model is written in Fortran90 and available to the snow remote sensing community as an open-source software. A convenient user interface is provided in Python.

  8. Simulation of the microwave emission of multi-layered snowpacks using the dense media radiative transfer theory: the DMRT-ML model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picard, G.; Brucker, L.; Roy, A.; Dupont, F.; Fily, M.; Royer, A.

    2012-11-01

    DMRT-ML is a physically-based numerical model designed to compute the thermal microwave emission of a given snowpack. Its main application is the simulation of brightness temperatures at frequencies in the range 1-200 GHz similar to those acquired routinely by space-based microwave radiometers. The model is based on the Dense Media Radiative Transfer (DMRT) theory for the computation of the snow scattering and extinction coefficients and on the Discrete Ordinate Method (DISORT) to numerically solve the radiative transfer equation. The snowpack is modeled as a stack of multiple horizontal snow layers and an optional underlying interface representing the soil or the bottom ice. The model handles both dry and wet snow conditions. Such a general design allows the user to account for a wide range of snow conditions. Hitherto, the model has been used to simulate the thermal emission of the deep firn on ice sheets, shallow snowpacks overlying soil in Arctic and Alpine regions, and overlying ice on the large ice-sheet margins and glaciers. DMRT-ML has thus been validated in three very different conditions: Antarctica, Barnes Ice Cap (Canada) and Canadian tundra. It has been recently used in conjunction with inverse methods to retrieve snow grain size from remote sensing data. The model is written in Fortran90 and available to the snow remote sensing community as an open-source software.

  9. Study of anomalous absorption in interstellar formaldehyde molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musrif, Pramod G.

    In 1932, a radio engineer Karl Jansky of Bell Telephone Laboratories, New Jersey, U.S.A. noticed that radiation of long wavelength also reach the earth's surface from the interstellar space. This discovery of Karl Jansky opened up an entirely new astronomical world having range from few millimeter to few decameters in wavelength. The first interstellar molecule OH was however discovered in 1963 by Weinreb et al. (1963) its 18 cm radiation. With the detection of OH radical in interstellar space, scientists got interested in identification of cosmic molecules. As of today more than 150 molecules have been detected in the cosmic objects. Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) which corresponds to a temperature of 2.73 K was discovered by Penzias and Wilson (1965). Anomalous absorption may be defined as the absorption of a radiation by a molecule against the CMB. Obviously, it is an unusual phenomenon. For anomalous absorption, the brightness temperature (T_B) of the line lies between the excitation temperature (T_ex) of the line and the background temperature (T_bg) (i.e., T_ex < T_B < T_bg). Formaldehyde (H_2CO) is the first organic molecule identified in a number of cosmic objects through its transition 1_11 - 1_10 at 4.831 GHz. (Snyder et al., 1969). This transition 1_11 - 1_10 was observed in anomalous absorption in large number of cosmic objects (Palmer et al. 1969). In some cosmic objects, it has been found in emission and even as a maser line (Forster et al.1980; Whiteoak et al. 1983). Second transition 2_11 - 2_12 of H_2CO at 14.488 GHz was also observed in anomalous absorption (Evans et al. 1975). Hence, H_2CO molecule is of great astronomical importance. Thioformaldehyde (H_2CS) is very similar to H_2CO for the distribution of rotational energy levels. The first successful attempt for identification of H_2CS molecule in cosmic objects is in the name of Sinclair et al. (1973). They detected the molecule in Sgr B2 through its transition 2_11 - 2_12 at 3.139 GHz in absorption. Later on the transition 4_13 - 4_14 at 10.46 GHz of H_2CS molecule was detected by Doherty et al. (1974) in Sgr B2 in absorption. Therefore we decided to look into the details of both of H_2CO as well as H_2CS molecules.

  10. Optimization and evaluation of different chemical and electrochemical hydride generation systems for the determination of arsenic by microwave plasma torch optical emission spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özmen, Burcu; Matysik, Frank-Michael; Bings, Nicolas H.; Broekaert, José A. C.

    2004-07-01

    The determination of trace concentrations of As and its species in water and sediment samples by the use of microwave plasma torch optical emission spectrometry (MPT-OES) and chemical (CHG) as well as different electrochemical hydride generation (EcHG) systems was studied, when using Ar and He as working gases for the microwave plasmas. Under optimized conditions and with He as working gas the detection limits (3 σ) for As (228.82 nm) were found to be 21 and 13 μg/l for chemical and electrochemical hydride generation, respectively. When Ar is used as working gas, the detection limits are higher, i.e., 60 and 48 μg/l for chemical and electrochemical hydride generation, respectively. Several miniaturized electrochemical hydride generation cells, among which some use glassy carbon foam and carbon fiber for the cathode, were used and the detection limits with these systems were found to be by a factor of 3-5 higher than in the conventional electrochemical hydride generation cell. The effects of Ca, Fe, Bi, Se, etc., on the determination of As with chemical and miniaturized electrochemical hydride generation systems were studied, and it was found that the interferences in electrochemical hydride generation were lower than in chemical hydride generation. The efficiency of the generation of AsH 3 in chemical hydride generation and all electrochemical hydride generation systems, as determined by a coulometric titration of the remaining As(III) in the waste solutions of the gas-liquid separator, was found to be below 18% to 90%, depending on the cells. A modified graphite furnace (GF) unit was coupled to the hydride generation system for hot-trapping of the hydride forming elements. When trapping the AsH 3 produced in a miniaturized electrochemical hydride generation system on Pd in a graphite furnace and sweeping the As into the He microwave plasma torch, the detection limit for As could be improved to 1.7 μg/l (improvement by a factor of 14). The procedure without trapping could be used for the determination of As in a standard reference water (SRM 1643d) containing 56.02±0.73 mg/l of total As within an experimental error of 8%. With the miniaturized electrochemical hydride generation and microwave plasma torch emission spectrometry in the case of trapping the total As could be determined in Saxony river sediment samples and in Hungarian spring water samples at the 10-30 and 50-360 μg/l levels, respectively.

  11. High power microwave generator

    DOEpatents

    Ekdahl, C.A.

    1983-12-29

    A microwave generator efficiently converts the energy of an intense relativistic electron beam (REB) into a high-power microwave emission using the Smith-Purcell effect which is related to Cerenkov radiation. Feedback for efficient beam bunching and high gain is obtained by placing a cylindrical Smith-Purcell transmission grating on the axis of a toroidal resonator. High efficiency results from the use of a thin cold annular highly-magnetized REB that is closely coupled to the resonant structure.

  12. High power microwave generator

    DOEpatents

    Ekdahl, Carl A.

    1986-01-01

    A microwave generator efficiently converts the energy of an intense relativistic electron beam (REB) into a high-power microwave emission using the Smith-Purcell effect which is related to Cerenkov radiation. Feedback for efficient beam bunching and high gain is obtained by placing a cylindrical Smith-Purcell transmission grating on the axis of a toroidal resonator. High efficiency results from the use of a thin cold annular highly-magnetized REB that is closely coupled to the resonant structure.

  13. Models of Polarized Emission from Interstellar Dust Grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draine, Bruce

    2015-04-01

    Nonspherical aligned dust grains produce strong linearly-polarized thermal emission at submm and microwave frequencies, with polarized fractions exceeding 20% in some parts of the high-latitude sky. Observations of emission, absorption, and scattering by dust, together with our knowledge of the abundances of elements out of which dust grains can be formed, impose many constraints on dust modelers. The dust is in large part composed of amorphous silicates, but with a substantial component of carbonaceous materials, including nanoparticles of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The smallest particles radiate thermally in the mid-IR following single-photon heating, and also produce rotational emission at microwave frequencies. This rotational emission may account for the so-called Anomalous Microwave Emission. Iron contributes about 25% of the total mass of interstellar dust, but what form the Fe is in is largely unknown; much of the Fe could be in ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic materials that could emit magnetic dipole radiation at microwave frequencies. I will review the observational constraints on dust models, the current state of our physical models, and prospects for further progress.

  14. Chlorine and sulfur determination in extra-heavy crude oil by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry after microwave-induced combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Juliana S. F.; Mello, Paola A.; Moraes, Diogo P.; Duarte, Fábio A.; Dressler, Valderi L.; Knapp, Guenter; Flores, Érico M. M.

    2009-06-01

    In this study, microwave-induced combustion (MIC) of extra-heavy crude oil is proposed for further chlorine and sulfur determination by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). Combustion was carried out under oxygen pressure (20 bar) in quartz vessels using ammonium nitrate (50 µl of 6 mol l - 1 solution) as ignition aid. Samples were wrapped with polyethylene film and placed on a quartz holder positioned inside the quartz vessels. The need for an additional reflux step after combustion and the type and concentration of absorbing solution (water, 0.02 to 0.9 mmol l - 1 H 2O 2, 10 to 100 mmol l - 1 (NH 4) 2CO 3 or 0.1 to 14 mol l - 1 HNO 3) were studied. The influence of sample mass, O 2 pressure and maximum pressure attained during the combustion process were investigated. Recoveries from 92 to 102% were obtained for Cl and S for all absorbing solutions. For comparison, Cl and S determination was also performed by ion chromatography (IC) using 25 mmol l - 1 (NH 4) 2CO 3 as absorbing solution. Using MIC with a reflux step the agreement was better than 95% for certified reference materials of similar composition (crude oil, petroleum coke, coal and residual fuel oil). Microwave-assisted digestion and water extraction in high pressure closed vessels were also evaluated. Using these procedures the maximum recoveries were 30 and 98% for Cl and S, respectively, using microwave-assisted digestion and 70% for Cl and less than 1% for S by water extraction procedure. Limits of detection by ICP OES were 12 and 5 µg g - 1 for Cl and S, respectively, and the corresponding values by IC were 1.2 and 8 µg g - 1 . Using MIC it was possible to digest simultaneously up to eight samples resulting in a solution suitable for the determination of both analytes with a single combustion step.

  15. Hard X-ray emission cutoff in the anomalous X-ray pulsar 4U 0142+61 detected by INTEGRAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Tong, Hao; Guo, Yan-Jun

    2014-06-01

    The anomalous X-ray pulsar 4U 0142+61 has been studied with observations from INTEGRAL. The hard X-ray spectrum in the range 18-500 keV for 4U 0142+61 was derived using nearly nine years of INTEGRAL/IBIS data. We obtained the average hard X-ray spectrum of 4U 0142+61 with all available data. The spectrum of 4U 0142+61 can be fitted with a power law that includes an exponential high energy cutoff. This average spectrum is well fitted by a power law with Γ ~ 0.51 ± 0.11 plus a cutoff energy at 128.6 ± 17.2 keV. The hard X-ray flux of the source from 20-150 keV showed no significant variations (within 20%) from 2003-2011. The spectral profiles have some variability over the nine years such that the photon index varies from 0.3-1.5 and the cutoff energies from 110-250 keV. The detection of the high energy cutoff around 130 keV shows some constraints on the radiation mechanisms of magnetars and possibly probes the differences between magnetar and accretion models for this special class of neutron stars. Future HXMT observations could provide stronger constraints on the hard X-ray spectral properties of this source and other magnetar candidates.

  16. The theory of an auto-resonant field emission cathode relativistic electron accelerator for high efficiency microwave to direct current power conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, Robert M.

    1990-01-01

    A novel method of microwave power conversion to direct current is discussed that relies on a modification of well known resonant linear relativistic electron accelerator techniques. An analysis is presented that shows how, by establishing a 'slow' electromagnetic field in a waveguide, electrons liberated from an array of field emission cathodes, are resonantly accelerated to several times their rest energy, thus establishing an electric current over a large potential difference. Such an approach is not limited to the relatively low frequencies that characterize the operation of rectennas, and can, with appropriate waveguide and slow wave structure design, be employed in the 300 to 600 GHz range where much smaller transmitting and receiving antennas are needed.

  17. The DMRT-ML model: numerical simulations of the microwave emission of multilayered snowpacks based on the Dense Media Radiative Transfer theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picard, G.; Brucker, L.; Roy, A.; Dupont, F.; Fily, M.; Royer, A.; Champollion, N.; Morin, S.

    2012-12-01

    DMRT-ML is a physically-based model to compute the thermal microwave emission of a given snowpack for passive microwave remote sensing applications. The model is based on the Dense Media Radiative Transfer Theory (DMRT) for the computation of snow scattering and absorption properties. The radiative transfer equation is accurately solved using the DIscrete Ordinate Radiative Transfer Method (DISORT). The snowpack is described as a stack of horizontal snow layers and an optional underlying interface representing either the soil or the ice. The atmospheric downwelling contribution can be optionally taken into account. DMRT-ML is designed to work for most snow-covered surfaces, and can account for both dry and wet snowpack conditions over soil (e.g. Alpine or Arctic seasonal snow) and over ice (e.g. on ice sheet or lake). The model was initially validated against satellite observations at Dome C, East Antarctica, using in-situ snow grain size, density and temperature profile measurements. Recently, DMRT-ML was extended and applied to sub-Arctic seasonal snowpacks. Validation experiments were done using a set of 20 detailed snowpit measurements. Results were compared to ground-based radiometry. In addition, the model was applied to snowpacks overlying ice, as found on the Canadian Barnes ice cap and on the ablation areas of Antarctic ice sheets. Accounting for the ice properties (bubble size and density) appeared to be necessary to get the best agreement between the model simulations and the ground-based radiometer observations. This model provides accurate snow brightness temperature simulations over for a wide range of cryospheric environments, which are of particular interest for the assimilation of satellite passive microwave data in snow models and for improving simulations of snow properties. Indeed, the model can take input from a detailed snowpack model such as Crocus or SNOWPACK. It is entirely written in Fortran90 which makes its integration in numerical weather prediction land surface assimilation schemes as seamless as possible. DMRT-ML was publicly released under an open source license in spring 2012. Since then, a broader community of users working with passive microwave in the cryosphere is using the model. The objective of this poster is to describe the DMRT-ML model and present the validations in the sub-Arctic and Arctic.

  18. Continuous-flow determination of aqueous sulfur by atmospheric-pressure helium microwave-induced plasma atomic emission spectrometry with gas-phase sample introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakahara, Taketoshi; Mori, Toshio; Morimoto, Satoru; Ishikawa, Hiroshi

    1995-06-01

    A simple continuous-flow generation of volatile hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide by acidification of aqueous sulfide and sulfite ions, respectively, is described for the determination of low concentrations of sulfur by atmospheric-pressure helium microwave-induced plasma atomic emission spectrometry (MIP-AES) in the normal ultraviolet (UV) and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) regions of the spectrum. For measuring spectral lines in the VUV region, the monochromator and the enclosed external optical path between the MIP source and the entrance slit of the monochromator have both been purged with nitrogen to minimize oxygen absorption below 190 nm. Sulfur atomic emission lines at 180.73, 182.04 and 217.05 nm have been selected as the analytical lines. Of the various acids examined, 1.0 M hydrochloric acid is the most favorable for both the generation of hydrogen sulfide from sulfide ions and sulfur dioxide from sulfite ions. Either generated hydrogen sulfide or sulfur dioxide is separated from the solution in a simple gas-liquid separator and swept into the helium stream of a microwave-induced plasma for analysis. The best attainable detection limits (3 σ criterion) for sulfur at 180.73 nm were 0.13 and 1.28 ng ml -1 for the generation of hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide, respectively, with the corresponding background equivalent concentrations of 20.9 and 62.2 ng ml -1 in sulfur concentration. The typical analytical working graphs obtained under the optimized experimental conditions were rectilinear over approximately four orders of magnitude in sulfur concentration. The present method has been successfully applied to the recovery test of the sulfide spiked to waste water samples and to the determination of sulfite in some samples of commercially available wine.

  19. High frequency microwave signal generation using dual-wavelength emission of cascaded DFB fiber lasers with wavelength spacing tunability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanueva, Guillermo E.; Palací, Jesús; Cruz, José L.; Andrés, Miguel V.; Martí, Javier; Pérez-Millán, Pere

    2010-12-01

    A dual-wavelength fiber laser source based on two cascaded phase-shifted fiber Bragg gratings is presented. The gratings are written in an erbium-doped fiber, each configuring the cavity of a distributed feedback fiber laser. The spacing between lasing modes is controlled dynamically by the use of piezoelectric actuators. A continuous tuning range of 5-724 pm of the wavelength difference, which is equivalent to a photodetected 0.72-92 GHz range, is obtained. Efficient generation from the L to the W microwave and millimeter bands has been achieved by heterodyne photodetection of the dual-wavelength optical signal.

  20. The impact of an observationally based surface emissivity dataset on the simulation of Microwave Sounding Unit Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Hnilo, J J; Litten, L; Santer, B D; Christy, J R

    2005-08-15

    Relatively few studies have attempted to simulate synthetic MSU temperatures with use of a radiation model. Most employ the simpler and computationally less-expensive method of applying a static, global-mean weighting function to three-dimensional profiles of atmospheric temperature. Both approaches require a number of key assumptions. One of the major assumptions relates to surface emissivity. To date, two different strategies have been used for prescribing surface emissivity values. The first assumes a fixed global surface emissivity, while the second specifies separate (time-invariant) emissivity values for land and ocean. In this research, we introduce space- and time-dependence to the specified emissivity fields, using recent observationally-based estimates of surface emissivity changes over 1988 to 2000. We use a radiative transfer code to explore the impact of this more complex treatment of surface emissivity. This sensitivity analysis is performed with monthly-mean fields of surface temperature, atmospheric temperature, and moisture taken from multiple reanalyses. Our goal is to quantify the possible impact of emissivity changes on global-scale estimates of tropospheric temperature trends (e.g., trends estimated from MSU channel 2 and MSU 2LT), and to document the sensitivity of synthetic MSU temperatures to a variety of input data and processing choices.

  1. Chandra ACIS-S imaging spectroscopy of anomalously faint X-ray emission from Comet 103P/Hartley 2 during the EPOXI encounter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisse, C. M.; Christian, D. J.; Wolk, S. J.; Dennerl, K.; Bodewits, D.; Combi, M. R.; Lepri, S. T.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Li, J. Y.; Dello-Russo, N.; Belton, M. J. S.; Knight, M. M.

    2013-02-01

    We present results from the Chandra X-ray Observatory's characterization of the X-ray emission from Comet 103P/Hartley 2, in support of NASA's Deep Impact Extended close flyby of the comet on 04 November 2010. The comet was observed 4 times for a total on target time of ˜60 ks between the 17th of October and 16th of November 2010, with two of the visits occurring during the EPOXI close approach on 04 November and 05 November 2010. X-ray emission from 103P was qualitatively similar to that observed for collisionally thin Comets 2P/Encke (Lisse, C.M. et al. [2005]. Astrophys. J. 635, 1329-1347) and 9P/Tempel 1 (Lisse, C.M. et al. [2007]. Icarus 190, 391-405). Emission morphology offset sunward but asymmetrical from the nucleus and emission lines produced by charge exchange between highly stripped C, N, and O solar wind minor ions and coma neutral gas species were found. The comet was very under-luminous in the X-ray at all times, representing the 3rd faintest comet ever detected (LX = 1.1 ± 0.3 × 1014 erg s-1). The coma was collisionally thin to the solar wind at all times, allowing solar wind ions to flow into the inner coma and interact with the densest neutral coma gas. Localization of the X-ray emission in the regions of the major rotating gas jets was observed, consistent with the major source of cometary neutral gas species being icy coma dust particles. Variable spectral features due to changing solar wind flux densities and charge states were also seen. Modeling of the Chandra observations from the first three visits using observed gas production rates and ACE solar wind ion fluxes with a charge exchange mechanism for the emission is consistent with the temporal and spectral behavior expected for a slow, hot wind typical of low latitude emission from the solar corona interacting with the comet's neutral coma. The X-ray emission during the 4th visit on 16 November 2010 is similar to the unusual behavior seen for Comet 17P/Holmes in 2007 (Christian, D.J. et al. [2010]. Astrophys. J. Suppl. 187, 447-459) as the solar wind became dominated by a less ionized and faster plasma, more typical of outflow from polar coronal hole regions. We postulate that the overall faintness of the comet seen during all visits is due to the unusually well mixed dust and gas content of this hyperactive comet's coma producing Auger electrons rather than X-rays via charge exchange with the solar wind. An alternative possible explanation for the faintness of the comet's X-ray emission, and its unusual high CV and unusually low CVI emission, is that the impinging solar wind was drastically slowed in the inner coma, below 150 km s-1, before charge exchanging with cometary neutrals.

  2. Anomalous is ubiquitous

    SciTech Connect

    Eliazar, Iddo; Klafter, Joseph

    2011-09-15

    Brownian motion is widely considered the quintessential model of diffusion processes-the most elemental random transport processes in Science and Engineering. Yet so, examples of diffusion processes displaying highly non-Brownian statistics-commonly termed 'Anomalous Diffusion' processes-are omnipresent both in the natural sciences and in engineered systems. The scientific interest in Anomalous Diffusion and its applications is growing exponentially in the recent years. In this Paper we review the key statistics of Anomalous Diffusion processes: sub-diffusion and super-diffusion, long-range dependence and the Joseph effect, Levy statistics and the Noah effect, and 1/f noise. We further present a theoretical model-generalizing the Einstein-Smoluchowski diffusion model-which provides a unified explanation for the prevalence of Anomalous Diffusion statistics. Our model shows that what is commonly perceived as 'anomalous' is in effect ubiquitous. - Highlights: > The article provides an overview of Anomalous Diffusion (AD) statistics. > The Einstein-Smoluchowski diffusion model is extended and generalized. > The generalized model universally generates AD statistics. > A unified 'universal macroscopic explanation' for AD statistics is established. > AD statistics are shown to be fundamentally connected to robustness.

  3. The influence of ions and the induced secondary emission on the nanosecond high-gradient microwave breakdown at metal surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C.; Liu, C. L.; Chen, C. H.; Sun, J.; Liu, Y. S.; Guo, L. T.; Cao, Y. B.; Wang, Y.; Song, Z. M.

    2015-06-01

    The mechanism of ultrafast breakdown at metal/vacuum interface in the high-power microwave waveguides is studied. In order to realize the nanosecond discharge, the required ambient gas pressure above the metal surface is approximately calculated as high as several Torr due to the low ionization-rate for high-energy electrons and short pulse. The local high pressure may come from the evaporated microscopic protrusions due to Joule heating and gas desorption. Besides, ions accelerated by the ambient space charge field could obtain sufficient high energy to collide and sputter the metal atoms to increase the ambient pressure. The positive feedbacks during the rapid discharge are studied by particle-in-cell simulation. The relatively high-energy ions could generate secondary electrons. It is shown that, as the positive feedback, the secondary electrons induce the gas desorption and stronger ionization, resulting in ion and electron density increasing as well as sheath field further increasing. As a result, more higher-energy ions bombard metal surface, leading to higher secondary electron yield and higher density plasma generated to cut off the microwave transmission finally. These nonlinear courses realize the ultrafast discharge in waveguides.

  4. Thermal microwave emissions from vegetated fields: A comparison between theory and experiment. [Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, MD.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, J. R.; Shiue, J.; Chuang, S. L.; Dombrowski, M.

    1980-01-01

    The radiometric measurements over bare field and fields covered with grass, soybean, corn, and alfalfa were made with 1.4 GHz and 5 GHz microwave radiometers during August - October 1978. The measured results are compared with radiative transfer theory treating the vegetated fields as a two layer random medium. It is found that the presence of a vegetation cover generally gives a higher brightness temperature T(B) than that expected from a bare soil. The amount of this T(B) excess increases in the vegetation biomass and in the frequency of the observed radiation. The results of radiative transfer calculations generally match well with the experimental data, however, a detailed analysis also strongly suggests the need of incorporating soil surface roughness effect into the radiative transfer theory in order to better interpret the experimental data.

  5. Microwave Ovens

    MedlinePlus

    ... Required Reports for the Microwave Oven Manufacturers or Industry Exemption from Certain Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements for ... Microwave Ovens (PDF) (PDF - 2.5MB) FDA eSubmitter Industry Guidance - Documents of Interest Information Requirements for Cookbooks ...

  6. Microwave Ovens

    MedlinePlus

    ... pdf format ] This page describes the type of electromagnetic radiation emitted by microwave ovens. On this page: Overview ... it very quickly. Microwaves are a form of electromagnetic radiation; that is, they are waves of electrical and ...

  7. Measurement of Anomalously Strong Emission from the 1s-9p Transition in the Spectrum of H-like Phosphorus Following Charge Exchange with Molecular Hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leutenegger, M. A.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Brown, G. V.; Kelley, R. L.; Porter, F. S.

    2010-01-01

    We have measured K-shell x-ray spectra of highly ionized argon and phosphorus following charge exchange with molecular hydrogen at low collision energy in an electron beam ion trap using an x-ray calorimeter array with approx.6 eV resolution. We find that the emission at the high-end of the Lyman series is greater by a factor of two for phosphorus than for argon, even though the measurement was performed concurrently and the atomic numbers are similar. This does not agree with current theoretical models and deviates from the trend observed in previous measurements.

  8. Anomalous Soil Temperature and CO2 Emissions at Cerro Pacho (Coatepeque Caldera) and Santa Ana Volcano before the October 1, 2005 Eruption of Santa Ana Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olmos, R.; Barahona, F.; Benítez, J.; Henríquez, B.; Hernández, A.; Funes, R.; López, D.; Hernández, P.; Pérez, N.

    2007-05-01

    Coatepeque Caldera and Santa Ana Volcano belong to the Santa Ana-Izalco-Coatepeque volcanic complex in western El Salvador. The last eruption of Santa Ana Volcano on October 1, 2005 killed two people and damaged 65% of the cultivated land around the volcano due to ash emissions and gases. Prior and after the eruption, we carry out several CO2 soil efflux and soil temperature surveys of Cerro Pacho fumarolic field and Santa Ana Volcano crater. For the diffuse CO2 emission, at Cerro Pacho the total CO2 efflux emited to the atmosphere from an area of 2600 m2 on April 1, September 7, and October 26, 2005, was 77, 99 and 64 kg/day respectively. In comparison, at the south-east perimeter of Santa Ana Crater, CO2 emissions on September 2 and September 21, 2005, were 112 and 442 g/m2 day, respectively (Barahona et al.,2007,this meeting). These values are one order of magnitude higher than the 15 g/m2 day measured in the same region by Salazar et al. (2004). For the soil temperatures at Cerro Pacho and at the south of Santa Ana crater, three areas of temperatures higher than 60°C were identified. According to Allis (1979), for soil temperatures lower than 60°C the dominant heat transport mechanism is conductive, there is a transition zone between 60-70°C, and the convective zone occurs at temperatures higher than 70°C up to the boiling point. At Santa Ana crater and at Cerro Pacho, the temperature anomalies were oriented in the NW-SE and E-W direction. In Santa Ana crater, the conductive zone was more important with a 49.1% of the surveyed area on May 8, and a 57% on April 7, 2005. This increase in convective heat flow suggest an increase in thermal heat from the volcano. At Cerro Pacho we have only a slight difference of 90 to 92% in the conductive area during April 3 and October 26, 2005, respectively. The increase in diffuse soil CO2 and the variations in the thermal field at the Santa Ana Crater and the Cerro Pacho fumarolic field can be interpreted as premonitory signals of the Santa Ana Volcano eruption. At other active volcanoes, monitoring of the soil temperature and diffuse emissions of gases could be important methods to follow the state of activity of a volcano.

  9. Observations and modeling of the spatial distribution and microwave radiation spectrum of the active region NOAA 11734

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaltman, T. I.; Kochanov, A. A.; Myshyakov, I. I.; Maksimov, V. P.; Prosovetsky, D. V.; Tokhchukova, S. Kh.

    2015-12-01

    Microwave observations of the solar active region NOAA 11734 were done on April 28-May 8, 2013 with SSRT and the RATAN-600 radio telescopes. As a result of observations, two-dimensional distributions of the Stokes parameters I and V were obtained according to data from the SSRT at a frequency of 5.7 GHz and a microwave radiation spectra in the range of 3-18 GHz according to data from the RATAN-600. It was found that sunspots of the active region have an anomalous polarization that corresponds to the O-mode of microwave emisson up to 16 GHz. In order to explain the radio emission characteristics, the structure of the magnetic field in the nonlinear force-free approximation is restored, and free-free and gyroresonance radio emission are simulated. Maps of the model distribution of the brightness temperatures of both circular polarizations of the radio emission that replicate the observed spatial structure of the polarization on all days of observations were constructed. Analysis of the observational data and radio emission modeling make it possible to explain the characteristics of the polarization distribution within the mechanism of the weak interaction of radio emission modes in the quasi-transverse magnetic field above sunspots (Zheleznyakov, 1997).

  10. High frequency thermal emission from the lunar surface and near surface temperature of the Moon from Chang’E-2 microwave radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Tuo; Fa, Wenzhe

    2014-04-01

    Near surface temperature of the Moon and thermal behaviors of the lunar regolith can provide important information for constraining thermal and magmatic evolution models of the Moon and engineering constrains for in situ lunar exploration system. In this study, China’s Chang’E-2 (CE-2) microwave radiometer (MRM) data at high frequency channels are used to investigate near surface temperature of the Moon given the penetration ability of microwave into the desiccated and porous lunar regolith. Factors that affect high frequency brightness temperature (TB), such as surface slope, solar albedo and dielectric constant, are analyzed first using a revised Racca’s temperature model. Radiative transfer theory is then used to model thermal emission from a semi-infinite regolith medium, with considering dielectric constant and temperature profiles within the regolith layer. To decouple the effect of diurnal temperature variation in the uppermost lunar surface, diurnal averaged brightness temperatures at high frequency channels are used to invert mean diurnal surface and subsurface temperatures based on their bilinear profiles within the regolith layer. Our results show that, at the scale of the spatial resolution of CE-2 MRM, surface slope of crater wall varies typically from about 20° to 30°, and this causes a variation in TB about 10-15 K. Solar albedo can give rise to a TB difference of about 5-10 K between maria and highlands, whereas a ∼2-8 K difference can be compensated by the dielectric constant on the other hand. Inversion results indicate that latitude (ϕ) variations of the mean diurnal surface and subsurface temperatures follow simple rules as cos0.30ϕ and cos0.36ϕ, respectively. The inverted mean diurnal temperature profiles at the Apollo 15 and 17 landing sites are also compared with the Apollo heat flow experiment data, showing an inversion uncertainty <4 K for surface temperature and <1 K for subsurface temperature.

  11. Translational anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background radiation and far-infrared emission by galactic dust clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forman, M. A.

    1977-01-01

    The predicted emission spectrum of galactic dust at about 10 K is compared with the spectrum of 2.8-K universal blackbody radiation and with the spectrum of the anisotropy expected in the 2.8-K radiation due to motion of earth with respect to the coordinate system in which the radiation was last scattered. The extremely anisotropic galactic-dust emission spectrum may contribute a significant background to anisotropy measurements which scan through the galactic plane. The contamination would appear in an 8-mm scan around the celestial equator, for example, as a spurious 200 km/s velocity toward declination 0 deg, right ascension 19 hr, if predictions are correct. The predicted spectrum of dust emission in the galactic plane at longitudes not exceeding about 30 deg falls below the total 2.8-K cosmic background intensity at wavelengths of at least 1 mm.

  12. Microinstabilities and anomalous transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papadopoulos, K.

    1985-01-01

    The role of microinstabilities in producing dissipation and anomalous transport in collisionless shock waves is reviewed. Particular emphasis is placed on quasiturbulent magnetosonic shocks. The review follows the historical development of anomalous transport and the incorporation of the coefficients into multifluid and hybrid models. A general formalism is presented which describes in a self-consistent manner, the macroscopic transport produced by short wavelength microinstabilities. Similarities and differences with models incorporating classical transport are emphasized. The important instabilities and their transport properties are summarized. It is shown that multifluid simulations with anomalous transport explain many features of the experimental observations. The relevance of ion reflection and the necessity for kinetic ion description for supercritical shocks along with state of the art numerical studies are also discussed. The review concludes with a brief discussion of the piston shock problem and of quasi-parallel turbulent shocks.

  13. Quantitative Determination of Density of Ground State Atomic Oxygen from Both TALIF and Emission Spectroscopy in Hot Air Plasma Generated by Microwave Resonant Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchal, F.; Yousfi, M.; Merbahi, N.; Wattieaux, G.; Piquemal, A.

    2016-03-01

    Two experimental techniques have been used to quantify the atomic oxygen density in the case of hot air plasma generated by a microwave (MW) resonant cavity. The latter operates at a frequency of 2.45 GHz inside a cell of gas conditioning at a pressure of 600 mbar, an injected air flow of 12 L/min and an input MW power of 1 kW. The first technique is based on the standard two photon absorption laser induced fluorescence (TALIF) using xenon for calibration but applied for the first time in the present post discharge hot air plasma column having a temperature of about 4500 K near the axis of the nozzle. The second diagnostic technique is an actinometry method based on optical emission spectroscopy (OES). In this case, we compared the spectra intensities of a specific atomic oxygen line (844 nm) and the closest wavelength xenon line (823 nm). The two lines need to be collected under absolutely the same spectroscopic parameters. The xenon emission is due to the addition of a small proportion of xenon (1% Xe) of this chemically inert gas inside the air while a further small quantity of H2 (2%) is also added in the mixture in order to collect OH(A-X) and NH(A-X) spectra without noise. The latter molecular spectra are required to estimate gas and excitation temperatures. Optical emission spectroscopy measurements, at for instance the position z=12 mm on the axis plasma column that leads to a gas measured temperature equal to 3500 K, an excitation temperature of about 9500 K and an atomic oxygen density 2.09×1017±0.2×1017 cm-3. This is in very good agreement with the TALIF measurement, which is equal to 2.0×1017 cm-3.

  14. Burst and Persistent Emission Properties during the Recent Active Episode of the Anomalous X-Ray Pulsar 1E 1841-045

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Lin; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Gogus, Ersin; van der Horst, Alexander J.; Watts, Anna L.; Baring, Matthew G.; Kaneko, Yuki; Wijers, Ralph A. M. J.; Woods, Peter M.; Barthelmy, Scott; Burgess, J. Michael; Chaplin, Vandiver; Gehrels, Neil; Goldstein, Adam; Granot, Jonathan; Guiriec, Sylvain; Mcenery, Julie; Preece, Robert D.; Tierney, David; van der Klis, Michiel; von Kienlin, Andreas; Zhang, Shuang Nan

    2011-01-01

    SWift/BAT detected the first burst from 1E 1841-045 in May 2010 with intermittent burst activity recorded through at least July 2011. Here we present Swift and Fermi/GBM observations of this burst activity and search for correlated changes to the persistent X-ray emission of the source. The T90 durations of the bursts range between 18 - 140 ms, comparable to other magnetar burst durations, while the energy released in each burst ranges between (0.8-25) x 1038 erg, which is in the low side of SGR bursts. We find that the bursting activity did not have a significant effect on the persistent flux level of the source. We argue that the mechanism leading to this sporadic burst activity in IE 1841-045 might not involve large scale restructuring (either crustal or magnetospheric) as seen in other magnetar sources.

  15. Anomalous gauge boson interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Aihara, H.; Barklow, T.; Baur, U. |

    1995-03-01

    We discuss the direct measurement of the trilinear vector boson couplings in present and future collider experiments. The major goals of such experiments will be the confirmation of the Standard Model (SM) predictions and the search for signals of new physics. We review our current theoretical understanding of anomalous trilinear gauge-boson self interactions. If the energy scale of the new physics is {approximately} 1 TeV, these low energy anomalous couplings are expected to be no larger than {Omicron}(10{sup {minus}2}). Constraints from high precision measurements at LEP and low energy charged and neutral current processes are critically reviewed.

  16. Anomalous law of cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Lapas, Luciano C.; Ferreira, Rogelma M. S.; Rubí, J. Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A.

    2015-03-14

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton’s law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.

  17. A multi-frequency measurement of thermal microwave emission from soils: The effects of soil texture and surface roughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, J. R.; Oneill, P. E.; Jackson, T. J.; Engman, E. T. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    An experiment on remote sensing of soil moisture content was conducted over bare fields with microwave radiometers at the frequencies of 1.4 GHz, 5 GHz, and 10.7 GHz during July - September of 1981. Three bare fields with different surface roughnesses and soil textures were prepared for the experiment. Ground truth acquisition of soil temperatures and moisture contents for 5 layers down to the depths of 15 cm was made concurrently with radiometric measurements. The experimental results show that the effect of surface roughness is to increase the soils' brightness temperature and to reduce the slope of regression between brightness temperature and moisture content. The slopes of regression for soils with different textures are found to be comparable, and the effect of soil texture is reflected in the difference of regression line intercepts at brightness temperature axis. The result is consistent with laboratory measurement of soils' dielectric permittivity. Measurements on wet smooth bare fields give lower brightness temperatures at 5 GHz than at 1.4 GHz.

  18. Microwave-promoted pure host phase for red emission CaS:Eu2+ phosphor from single CaSO4 precursor and the photoluminescence property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jian; Lu, Qi-Fei; Wang, Yan-Ze; Lu, Zhi-Juan; Sun, Liang; Dong, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Da-Jian

    2014-08-01

    We report a novel approach to obtaining a classical blue-green excitable CaS:Eu2+ phosphor with desired red emission by microwave (MW) firing procedure in the absence of adding elemental sulphur. The disturbing effect of MW electromagnetic field on decomposition of CaSO4 into CaS activated by europium is distinctly observed to give pure host phase without adding any elemental sulphur and carbon. The host phase evolution is observed to be highly dependent on the variation of applied MW power from X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and the corresponding photoluminescence (PL), and a maximum PL intensity at 1100 W of MW power is acquired for the obtained purer host phase. The non-thermal and non-equilibrium effects by MW are revealed to correlate with the interaction between polar structure of the host and applied electromagnetic field. The results demonstrate an optional procedure to prepare this red-emitting phosphor in an effective, environment-friendly and scalable approach for phosphor production in the application of bio-illumination for plant cultivation and artificial photosynthesis.

  19. Multielement determination of heavy metals in water samples by continuous powder introduction microwave-induced plasma atomic emission spectrometry after preconcentration on activated carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jankowski, Krzysztof; Yao, Jun; Kasiura, Krzysztof; Jackowska, Adrianna; Sieradzka, Anna

    2005-03-01

    A novel continuous powder introduction microwave-induced plasma atomic emission spectrometry method (CPI-MIP-AES) has been developed for trace determination of metals in ground and tap water samples after preconcentration on activated carbon. The experimental setup consisted of integrated rectangular cavity TE 101 and vertically positioned plasma torch. The technical arrangement of the sample introduction system has been designed based on the fluidized bed concept. The satisfactory signal stability required for sequential analysis was attained owing to the vertical plasma configuration, as well as the plasma gas flow rate compatibility with sample introduction flow rate. The elements of interest (Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn) were preconcentrated in a batch procedure at pH 8-8.5 after addition of activated carbon and then, after filtering and drying of the activated carbon suspension, introduced to the MIP by the CPI system. An enrichment factor of about 1000-fold for a sample volume of 1 l was obtained. The detection limit values for the proposed method were 17-250 ng l -1. The proposed method was validated by analyzing the certified reference materials: SRW "Warta" Synthetic River Water and BCR CRM 399 major elements in freshwater. The method was successfully applied to the determination of the heavy metals in tap water samples.

  20. Method development for the determination of calcium, copper, magnesium, manganese, iron, potassium, phosphorus and zinc in different types of breads by microwave induced plasma-atomic emission spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ozbek, Nil; Akman, Suleyman

    2016-06-01

    A novel method was developed for the determination of calcium, magnesium, potassium, iron, copper, zinc, and manganese and phosphorous in various kinds of breads samples sold in Turkey by microwave plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (MIP-AES). Breads were dried at 100 °C for one day, ground thoroughly and then digested using nitric acid/hydrogen per oxide (3:1). The analytes in certified reference wheat flour and maize flour samples were determined in the uncertainty limits of the certified values as well as the analytes added to the mixture of ground bread and acid mixture prior to digestion were recovered quantitatively (>90%). Therefore, all determinations were made by linear calibration technique using aqueous standards. The LOD values for Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, P and Zn were 13.1, 0.28, 4.47, 118, 1.10, 0.41, 7550 and 3.00 ng mL(-1), respectively. No spectral interference was detected at the working wavelengths of the analytes. PMID:26830585

  1. Direct determination of trace elements in niobium, tantalum and their oxides by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry after microwave dissolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebneva, O. N.; Kubrakova, I. V.; Kudinova, T. F.; Kuz'min, N. M.

    1997-07-01

    Analytical schemes for the determination of trace elements in high-purity niobium, tantalum and their oxides are proposed. The schemes are based on microwave dissolution of the metals and oxides followed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) determination of impurities in the solutions. The possibilities of interelement and off-peak background corrections in ICP-AES analysis are discussed. The accuracy of the results obtained is confirmed by the determination of trace elements after a matrix sorption separation procedure. For a number of elements, a comparison of the results obtained by ICP-AES without and with the matrix separation procedure and by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) shows good agreement. The limits of detection for direct ICP-AES determination are in the range 0.4*1.0 μg g -1 for Ba, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, Y and La; between 2.0 and 10.0 μ g -1 for B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hf, Mo, Na, Nb, Ni, Pb, Sr, Ti, Zr and Ta; and for K, Sb and W a detection limit of 20 μ g -1 is achieved. The schemes proposed are intended for rapid routine analysis.

  2. Large-amplitude, narrow-linewidth microwave emission in a dual free-layer MgO spin-torque oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Nagasawa, Tazumi Kudo, Kiwamu; Suto, Hirofumi; Mizushima, Koichi; Sato, Rie

    2014-11-03

    Synchronized magnetization motion among the several magnetic layers composing a spin-torque oscillator (STO) is considered an effective way to improve spectral purity. To utilize this scheme in a MgO-based STO, we have fabricated a dual free-layer STO composed of a CoFeB free layer (FL), a MgO barrier layer, and a CoFe/Ru/CoFeB synthetic ferrimagnet free layer (SyF). Unlike conventional MgO-based STOs, this structure does not have an antiferromagnetic layer that pins the SyF, leading to a large-amplitude oscillation of magnetization in the SyF. The dual free-layer STO exhibits coherent microwave emissions with power spectrum density beyond 800 nW/GHz and narrow spectral linewidth below 5 MHz (Q-factor ≈ 2000). Macrospin simulations confirm that the stable oscillations originate from the synchronized magnetization motion of the FL and the SyF through dynamical dipolar coupling.

  3. Optimization of an open-focused microwave oven digestion procedure for determination of metals in diesel oil by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sant'Ana, Flavio W; Santelli, Ricardo E; Cassella, Alessandra R; Cassella, Ricardo J

    2007-10-01

    This work reports the optimization of a focused microwave assisted procedure for the wet acid dissolution of diesel oil in order to allow the determination of metals in the samples by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The dissolution process was monitored by measuring residual carbon content (RCC), also by ICP-OES, in the final solutions obtained after application of digestion program. All experimental work was performed using a commercial sample of diesel oil containing 85.74+/-0.13% of carbon. The initial dissolution program comprised three steps: (i) carbonization with H(2)SO(4); (ii) oxidation with HNO(3) and (iii) final oxidation with H(2)O(2). During work it was verified that the first step played an important role on the dissolution process of this kind of sample. It is therefore, necessary to give a detailed optimization of such step. Employing the optimized conditions it was possible to digest 2.5 g of diesel oil with a 40 min-heating program. At these conditions, residual carbon content was always lower than 5%. Optimized methodology was applied in the determination of metals in three diesel oil samples by ICP-OES. Recovery tests were also performed by adding 10 microg of metals, as organic standards, to the samples before digestion. Recovery percentages always higher than 90% were obtained for the metals of interest (Al, Cu, Fe and Ni), except for Zn, which presented recoveries between 70 and 78%. PMID:17509759

  4. The effects of layers in dry snow on its passive microwave emissions using dense media radiative transfer theory based on the quasicrystalline approximation (QCA/DMRT)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liang, D.; Xu, X.; Tsang, L.; Andreadis, K.M.; Josberger, E.G.

    2008-01-01

    A model for the microwave emissions of multilayer dry snowpacks, based on dense media radiative transfer (DMRT) theory with the quasicrystalline approximation (QCA), provides more accurate results when compared to emissions determined by a homogeneous snowpack and other scattering models. The DMRT model accounts for adhesive aggregate effects, which leads to dense media Mie scattering by using a sticky particle model. With the multilayer model, we examined both the frequency and polarization dependence of brightness temperatures (Tb's) from representative snowpacks and compared them to results from a single-layer model and found that the multilayer model predicts higher polarization differences, twice as much, and weaker frequency dependence. We also studied the temporal evolution of Tb from multilayer snowpacks. The difference between Tb's at 18.7 and 36.5 GHz can be S K lower than the single-layer model prediction in this paper. By using the snowpack observations from the Cold Land Processes Field Experiment as input for both multi- and single-layer models, it shows that the multilayer Tb's are in better agreement with the data than the single-layer model. With one set of physical parameters, the multilayer QCA/DMRT model matched all four channels of Tb observations simultaneously, whereas the single-layer model could only reproduce vertically polarized Tb's. Also, the polarization difference and frequency dependence were accurately matched by the multilayer model using the same set of physical parameters. Hence, algorithms for the retrieval of snowpack depth or water equivalent should be based on multilayer scattering models to achieve greater accuracy. ?? 2008 IEEE.

  5. Characterization of a low-pressure chlorine plasma column sustained by propagating surface waves using phase-sensitive microwave interferometry and trace-rare-gas optical emission spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Mattei, S.; Boudreault, O.; Stafford, L.; Khare, R.; Donnelly, V. M.

    2011-06-01

    Phase-sensitive microwave interferometry and trace-rare-gas optical emission spectroscopy were used to measure the line-integrated electron density, n{sub e}, and electron temperature, T{sub e}, in a high-density chlorine plasma sustained in a quartz discharge tube (inner diameter = 6 mm) by an electromagnetic surface wave at 2.45 GHz. For pressures in the 0.1-1 Torr range, n{sub e} decreased nearly linearly along the tube's z-axis down to the critical density for surface wave propagation, where the plasma decayed abruptly. At lower pressures (< 50 mTorr), however, the plasma extended well beyond this critical point, after which n{sub e} decreased quasiexponentially toward the end of the plasma column. The length of this expansion region increased with decreasing pressure, going from {approx}8 cm at 5 mTorr to {approx}1 cm at 50 mTorr. T{sub e} was nearly independent of the axial position in the main plasma region and strongly decreased in the expansion region at lower pressures. The Cl{sub 2} percent dissociation, {tau}{sub D}, obtained from the calibrated Cl{sub 2} (306 nm)-to-Xe (828 nm) emission ratio, displayed behavior similar to that of n{sub e} and T{sub e}. For example, at 5 mTorr, {tau}{sub D} was close to 100% near the wave launcher and {approx}70% at 0.5 cm from the end of the plasma column.

  6. Microwave detector

    DOEpatents

    Meldner, Heiner W.; Cusson, Ronald Y.; Johnson, Ray M.

    1986-01-01

    A microwave detector (10) is provided for measuring the envelope shape of a microwave pulse comprised of high-frequency oscillations. A biased ferrite (26, 28) produces a magnetization field flux that links a B-dot loop (16, 20). The magnetic field of the microwave pulse participates in the formation of the magnetization field flux. High-frequency insensitive means (18, 22) are provided for measuring electric voltage or current induced in the B-dot loop. The recorded output of the detector is proportional to the time derivative of the square of the envelope shape of the microwave pulse.

  7. Microwave detector

    DOEpatents

    Meldner, H.W.; Cusson, R.Y.; Johnson, R.M.

    1985-02-08

    A microwave detector is provided for measuring the envelope shape of a microwave pulse comprised of high-frequency oscillations. A biased ferrite produces a magnetization field flux that links a B-dot loop. The magnetic field of the microwave pulse participates in the formation of the magnetization field flux. High-frequency insensitive means are provided for measuring electric voltage or current induced in the B-dot loop. The recorded output of the detector is proportional to the time derivative of the square of the envelope shape of the microwave pulse.

  8. Recent Advancements in Microwave Imaging Plasma Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    H. Park; C.C. Chang; B.H. Deng; C.W. Domier; A.J.H. Donni; K. Kawahata; C. Liang; X.P. Liang; H.J. Lu; N.C. Luhmann, Jr.; A. Mase; H. Matsuura; E. Mazzucato; A. Miura; K. Mizuno; T. Munsat; K. and Y. Nagayama; M.J. van de Pol; J. Wang; Z.G. Xia; W-K. Zhang

    2002-03-26

    Significant advances in microwave and millimeter wave technology over the past decade have enabled the development of a new generation of imaging diagnostics for current and envisioned magnetic fusion devices. Prominent among these are revolutionary microwave electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI), microwave phase imaging interferometers, imaging microwave scattering and microwave imaging reflectometer (MIR) systems for imaging electron temperature and electron density fluctuations (both turbulent and coherent) and profiles (including transport barriers) on toroidal devices such as tokamaks, spherical tori, and stellarators. The diagnostic technology is reviewed, and typical diagnostic systems are analyzed. Representative experimental results obtained with these novel diagnostic systems are also presented.

  9. On the anomalous component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potgieter, M. S.; Fisk, L. A.; Lee, M. A.

    1985-01-01

    The so-called anomalous cosmic ray component, which occurs at energies of about 10 MeV/nucleon and consists only of He, N, O, and Ne, has been a subject of interest for more than a decade. The origin of this component is generally considered to be interstellar neutral gas that is ionized and accelerated in the solar wind. The mechanism and the location for the acceleration, however, remains an unsolved problem. A model is used which includes the effects of gradient and curvature drifts and considers the implications of observed spatial gradients of the anomalous component for the location of the acceleration region. It is concluded that if drifts are important the acceleration region cannot lie at the solar poles. It is also concluded that there is no single region for the acceleration which can account for both the observed intensities and gradients in models which include drift effects.

  10. Magnetic Nanoparticles in the Interstellar Medium: Emission Spectrum and Polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draine, B. T.; Hensley, Brandon

    2013-03-01

    The presence of ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic nanoparticles in the interstellar medium would give rise to magnetic dipole radiation at microwave and submillimeter frequencies. Such grains may account for the strong millimeter-wavelength emission observed from a number of low-metallicity galaxies, including the Small Magellanic Cloud. We calculate the absorption and scattering cross sections for such grains, with particular attention to metallic Fe, magnetite Fe3O4, and maghemite γ-Fe2O3, all potentially present in the interstellar medium. The rate of Davis-Greenstein alignment by magnetic dissipation is also estimated. We determine the temperature of free-flying magnetic grains heated by starlight and calculate the polarization of the magnetic dipole emission from both free-fliers and inclusions. For inclusions, the magnetic dipole emission is expected to be polarized orthogonally relative to the normal electric dipole radiation. Magnetic dipole radiation will contribute significantly to the 20-40 GHz anomalous microwave emission only if a large fraction of the Fe is in metallic Fe iron nanoparticles with extreme elongations. Finally, we present self-consistent dielectric functions for metallic Fe, magnetite Fe3O4, and maghemite γ-Fe2O3, enabling calculation of absorption and scattering cross sections from microwave to X-ray wavelengths.

  11. MAGNETIC NANOPARTICLES IN THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM: EMISSION SPECTRUM AND POLARIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Draine, B. T.; Hensley, Brandon

    2013-03-10

    The presence of ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic nanoparticles in the interstellar medium would give rise to magnetic dipole radiation at microwave and submillimeter frequencies. Such grains may account for the strong millimeter-wavelength emission observed from a number of low-metallicity galaxies, including the Small Magellanic Cloud. We calculate the absorption and scattering cross sections for such grains, with particular attention to metallic Fe, magnetite Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, and maghemite {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, all potentially present in the interstellar medium. The rate of Davis-Greenstein alignment by magnetic dissipation is also estimated. We determine the temperature of free-flying magnetic grains heated by starlight and calculate the polarization of the magnetic dipole emission from both free-fliers and inclusions. For inclusions, the magnetic dipole emission is expected to be polarized orthogonally relative to the normal electric dipole radiation. Magnetic dipole radiation will contribute significantly to the 20-40 GHz anomalous microwave emission only if a large fraction of the Fe is in metallic Fe iron nanoparticles with extreme elongations. Finally, we present self-consistent dielectric functions for metallic Fe, magnetite Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, and maghemite {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, enabling calculation of absorption and scattering cross sections from microwave to X-ray wavelengths.

  12. Microwave radiometric observations of snowpacks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, F. T.; Stiles, W. H.

    1980-01-01

    Models for the microwave emission from snowpacks were generated on the basis of radiometric observations made at 10.7 GHz, 37 HGz, and 94 GHz at a test site near Steamboat Springs, Colorado. In addition to conducting measurements on an approximately daily basis over a six week observation period, measurements were made over several diurnal cycles during which the change in snow wetness was tracked by the microwave radiometers. Also, the variation in emissivity with snow water equivalent was examined, as was the sensitivity to changes in snow surface geometry. The microwave emissivity was observed to (1) decrease exponentially with snow water equivalent and (2) increase with snow wetness. Thus, the emission behavior is the reverse of the backscattering behavior observed by the radar. By fitting the models to the measured data, the variation of the optical depth with snow wetness was estimated.

  13. Microwave off-gas treatment apparatus and process

    DOEpatents

    Schulz, Rebecca L.; Clark, David E.; Wicks, George G.

    2003-01-01

    The invention discloses a microwave off-gas system in which microwave energy is used to treat gaseous waste. A treatment chamber is used to remediate off-gases from an emission source by passing the off-gases through a susceptor matrix, the matrix being exposed to microwave radiation. The microwave radiation and elevated temperatures within the combustion chamber provide for significant reductions in the qualitative and quantitative emissions of the gas waste stream.

  14. Anomalous Diffusion Near Resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, Tanaji; /Fermilab

    2010-05-01

    Synchro-betatron resonances can lead to emittance growth and the loss of luminosity. We consider the detailed dynamics of a bunch near such a low order resonance driven by crossing angles at the collision points. We characterize the nature of diffusion and find that it is anomalous and sub-diffusive. This affects both the shape of the beam distribution and the time scales for growth. Predictions of a simplified anomalous diffusion model are compared with direct simulations. Transport of particles near resonances is still not a well understood phenomenon. Often, without justification, phase space motion is assumed to be a normal diffusion process although at least one case of anomalous diffusion in beam dynamics has been reported [1]. Here we will focus on the motion near synchro-betatron resonances which can be excited by several means, including beams crossing at an angle at the collision points as in the LHC. We will consider low order resonances which couple the horizontal and longitudinal planes, both for simplicity and to observe large effects over short time scales. While the tunes we consider are not practical for a collider, nonetheless the transport mechanisms we uncover are also likely to operate at higher order resonances.

  15. Nonlocal Anomalous Hall Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Steven S.-L.; Vignale, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    The anomalous Hall (AH) effect is deemed to be a unique transport property of ferromagnetic metals, caused by the concerted action of spin polarization and spin-orbit coupling. Nevertheless, recent experiments have shown that the effect also occurs in a nonmagnetic metal (Pt) in contact with a magnetic insulator [yttrium iron garnet (YIG)], even when precautions are taken to ensure that there is no induced magnetization in the metal. We propose a theory of this effect based on the combined action of spin-dependent scattering from the magnetic interface and the spin-Hall effect in the bulk of the metal. At variance with previous theories, we predict the effect to be of first order in the spin-orbit coupling, just as the conventional anomalous Hall effect—the only difference being the spatial separation of the spin-orbit interaction and the magnetization. For this reason we name this effect the nonlocal anomalous Hall effect and predict that its sign will be determined by the sign of the spin-Hall angle in the metal. The AH conductivity that we calculate from our theory is in order of magnitude agreement with the measured values in Pt /YIG structures.

  16. Microwave stimulus

    SciTech Connect

    Osepchuk, J.M.

    1981-10-01

    A review of the physical aspects of microwave systems for study of the effects of microwave exposure or sensation is presented. It is pointed out that aspects of low-frequency electricity and optical radiant heating both play a role within the microwave range in sensation phenomena. Resonant absorption and penetration in the microwave range will possibly produce unique sensations. A review of sources and the engineering aspects of closed exposure systems reveals a host of potential artifacts that need to be isolated and controlled in experiments involving exposure of biological targets. Temporal variations and local concentrations of microwave energy will play a prominent role in sensation phenomena, both in the laboratory and in real life.

  17. Polarization of Magnetic Dipole Emission and Spinning Dust Emission from Magnetic Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Thiem; Lazarian, Alex

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic dipole emission (MDE) from interstellar magnetic nanoparticles is potentially an important Galactic foreground in the microwave frequencies, and its polarization level may pose great challenges for achieving reliable measurements of cosmic microwave background B-mode signal. To obtain realistic predictions for the polarization of MDE, we first compute the degree of alignment of big silicate grains incorporated with magnetic inclusions. We find that thermally rotating big grains with magnetic inclusions are weakly aligned and can achieve alignment saturation when the magnetic alignment rate becomes much faster than the rotational damping rate. We then compute the degree of alignment for free-flying magnetic nanoparticles, taking into account various interaction processes of grains with the ambient gas and radiation field, including neutral collisions, ion collisions, and infrared emission. We find that the rotational damping by infrared emission can significantly decrease the degree of alignment of small particles from the saturation level, whereas the excitation by ion collisions can enhance the alignment of ultrasmall particles. Using the computed degrees of alignment, we predict the polarization level of MDE from free-flying magnetic nanoparticles to be rather low. Such a polarization level is within the upper limits measured for anomalous microwave emission (AME), which indicates that MDE from free-flying iron particles may not be ruled out as a source of AME. We also quantify rotational emission from free-flying iron nanoparticles with permanent magnetic moments and find that its emissivity is about one order of magnitude lower than that from spinning polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  18. The magnetic field in the anomalous arms in NGC 4258

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummel, E.; Krause, M.; Beck, R.

    The linearly polarized emission and total emission of NGC 4258 at 4.9 and 1.5 GHz were observed with the VLA in its D and C arrays respectively. The results strongly suggest that the anomalous arms are in the plane of NGC 4258, hence excluding models that require them to be out of the plane. The observed magnetic field structure is in essence bisymmetric (dynamo mode m = 1) and the magnetic field strength is highest in the ridges of the anomalous arms. The present structure may be the result of compression of a preexisting (not necessarily primordial) bisymmetric field. The KOM expulsion model could give an explanation for this compression.

  19. Beta function and anomalous dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco

    2011-06-01

    We demonstrate that it is possible to determine the coefficients of an all-orders beta-function linear in the anomalous dimensions using as data the 2-loop coefficients together with the first one of the anomalous dimensions which are universal. The beta function allows us to determine the anomalous dimension of the fermion masses at the infrared fixed point, and the resulting values compare well with the lattice determinations.

  20. Fickian dispersion is anomalous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cushman, John H.; O'Malley, Dan

    2015-12-01

    The thesis put forward here is that the occurrence of Fickian dispersion in geophysical settings is a rare event and consequently should be labeled as anomalous. What people classically call anomalous is really the norm. In a Lagrangian setting, a process with mean square displacement which is proportional to time is generally labeled as Fickian dispersion. With a number of counter examples we show why this definition is fraught with difficulty. In a related discussion, we show an infinite second moment does not necessarily imply the process is super dispersive. By employing a rigorous mathematical definition of Fickian dispersion we illustrate why it is so hard to find a Fickian process. We go on to employ a number of renormalization group approaches to classify non-Fickian dispersive behavior. Scaling laws for the probability density function for a dispersive process, the distribution for the first passage times, the mean first passage time, and the finite-size Lyapunov exponent are presented for fixed points of both deterministic and stochastic renormalization group operators. The fixed points of the renormalization group operators are p-self-similar processes. A generalized renormalization group operator is introduced whose fixed points form a set of generalized self-similar processes. Power-law clocks are introduced to examine multi-scaling behavior. Several examples of these ideas are presented and discussed.

  1. Fickian dispersion is anomalous

    SciTech Connect

    Cushman, John H.; O’Malley, Dan

    2015-06-22

    The thesis put forward here is that the occurrence of Fickian dispersion in geophysical settings is a rare event and consequently should be labeled as anomalous. What people classically call anomalous is really the norm. In a Lagrangian setting, a process with mean square displacement which is proportional to time is generally labeled as Fickian dispersion. With a number of counter examples we show why this definition is fraught with difficulty. In a related discussion, we show an infinite second moment does not necessarily imply the process is super dispersive. By employing a rigorous mathematical definition of Fickian dispersion we illustrate why it is so hard to find a Fickian process. We go on to employ a number of renormalization group approaches to classify non-Fickian dispersive behavior. Scaling laws for the probability density function for a dispersive process, the distribution for the first passage times, the mean first passage time, and the finite-size Lyapunov exponent are presented for fixed points of both deterministic and stochastic renormalization group operators. The fixed points of the renormalization group operators are p-self-similar processes. A generalized renormalization group operator is introduced whose fixed points form a set of generalized self-similar processes. Finally, power-law clocks are introduced to examine multi-scaling behavior. Several examples of these ideas are presented and discussed.

  2. Fickian dispersion is anomalous

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cushman, John H.; O’Malley, Dan

    2015-06-22

    The thesis put forward here is that the occurrence of Fickian dispersion in geophysical settings is a rare event and consequently should be labeled as anomalous. What people classically call anomalous is really the norm. In a Lagrangian setting, a process with mean square displacement which is proportional to time is generally labeled as Fickian dispersion. With a number of counter examples we show why this definition is fraught with difficulty. In a related discussion, we show an infinite second moment does not necessarily imply the process is super dispersive. By employing a rigorous mathematical definition of Fickian dispersion wemore » illustrate why it is so hard to find a Fickian process. We go on to employ a number of renormalization group approaches to classify non-Fickian dispersive behavior. Scaling laws for the probability density function for a dispersive process, the distribution for the first passage times, the mean first passage time, and the finite-size Lyapunov exponent are presented for fixed points of both deterministic and stochastic renormalization group operators. The fixed points of the renormalization group operators are p-self-similar processes. A generalized renormalization group operator is introduced whose fixed points form a set of generalized self-similar processes. Finally, power-law clocks are introduced to examine multi-scaling behavior. Several examples of these ideas are presented and discussed.« less

  3. Microwave Ovens

    MedlinePlus

    ... be used in cooking: They are reflected by metal They pass through glass, paper, plastic, and similar ... a magnetron. The microwaves are reflected within the metal interior of the oven where they are absorbed ...

  4. Microwave generator

    DOEpatents

    Kwan, T.J.T.; Snell, C.M.

    1987-03-31

    A microwave generator is provided for generating microwaves substantially from virtual cathode oscillation. Electrons are emitted from a cathode and accelerated to an anode which is spaced apart from the cathode. The anode has an annular slit there through effective to form the virtual cathode. The anode is at least one range thickness relative to electrons reflecting from the virtual cathode. A magnet is provided to produce an optimum magnetic field having the field strength effective to form an annular beam from the emitted electrons in substantial alignment with the annular anode slit. The magnetic field, however, does permit the reflected electrons to axially diverge from the annular beam. The reflected electrons are absorbed by the anode in returning to the real cathode, such that substantially no reflexing electrons occur. The resulting microwaves are produced with a single dominant mode and are substantially monochromatic relative to conventional virtual cathode microwave generators. 6 figs.

  5. Radio to infrared spectra of late-type galaxies with Planck and Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peel, M. W.; Dickinson, C.; Davies, R. D.; Clements, D. L.; Beswick, R. J.

    2011-09-01

    We use the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue combined with Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) and other archival measurements to construct continuum spectra of three nearby dusty star-forming galaxies: Messier 82, NGC 253 and NGC 4945. We carry out a least-squares fit to the spectra using a combination of simple synchrotron, free-free and thermal dust models, and look for evidence of anomalous microwave emission (AME). We find that the radio spectra of all three galaxies are consistent with steep spectrum synchrotron emission, with a significant amount of free-free emission required to explain the Planck and WMAP data points in the frequency range 30-150 GHz. This brings the star formation rate based on free-free emission into better agreement with that from the non-thermal emission. We place limits on the presence of AME in these galaxies, finding that it is lower than expectations based on the ratio of far-infrared to AME from the Galaxy. Nevertheless, the shape of the spectrum of NGC 4945 hints at the presence of AME with a peak around 30 GHz. Future Planck data will let us look more closely at these galaxies, as well as to extend the analysis to many more galaxies.

  6. An Anomalous Force on the Map Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starin, Scott R.; ODonnell, James R., Jr.; Ward, David K.; Wollack, Edward J.; Bay, P. Michael; Fink, Dale R.; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) orbits the second Earth-Sun libration point (L2)-about 1.5 million kilometers outside Earth's orbit-mapping cosmic microwave background radiation. To achieve orbit near L2 on a small fuel budget, the MAP spacecraft needed to swing past the Moon for a gravity assist. Timing the lunar swing-by required MAP to travel in three high-eccentricity phasing loops with critical maneuvers at a minimum of two, but nominally all three, of the perigee passes. On the approach to the first perigee maneuver, MAP telemetry showed a considerable change in system angular momentum that threatened to cause on-board Failure Detection and Correction (FDC) to abort the critical maneuver. Fortunately, the system momentum did not reach the FDC limit; however, the MAP team did develop a contingency strategy should a stronger anomaly occur before or during subsequent perigee maneuvers, Simultaneously, members of the MAP team developed and tested various hypotheses for the cause of the anomalous force. The final hypothesis was that water was outgassing from the thermal blanketing and freezing to the cold side of the solar shield. As radiation from Earth warmed the cold side of the spacecraft, the uneven sublimation of frozen water created a torque on the spacecraft.

  7. Anomalous electrodynamic explosions in liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Aspden, H.

    1986-06-01

    The recently reported Graneau experiments on electrodynamic explosions in liquids, which reveal anomalous longitudinal electrodynamic forces of the order of 10/sup 4/ times greater than expected, verify the need for a term in the law of electrodynamics that corresponds to the ion/electron mass ratio. This confirms an earlier theoretical interpretation of the anomalous cathode reaction forces found in the vacuum arc.

  8. Fractal model of anomalous diffusion.

    PubMed

    Gmachowski, Lech

    2015-12-01

    An equation of motion is derived from fractal analysis of the Brownian particle trajectory in which the asymptotic fractal dimension of the trajectory has a required value. The formula makes it possible to calculate the time dependence of the mean square displacement for both short and long periods when the molecule diffuses anomalously. The anomalous diffusion which occurs after long periods is characterized by two variables, the transport coefficient and the anomalous diffusion exponent. An explicit formula is derived for the transport coefficient, which is related to the diffusion constant, as dependent on the Brownian step time, and the anomalous diffusion exponent. The model makes it possible to deduce anomalous diffusion properties from experimental data obtained even for short time periods and to estimate the transport coefficient in systems for which the diffusion behavior has been investigated. The results were confirmed for both sub and super-diffusion. PMID:26129728

  9. Ultrasound- and microwave-assisted extractions followed by hydride generation inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry for lead determination in geological samples.

    PubMed

    Welna, Maja; Borkowska-Burnecka, Jolanta; Popko, Malgorzata

    2015-11-01

    Followed the current idea of simplified sample pretratmet before analysis we evaluated the procedure for the determination of Pb in calcium-rich materials such as dolomites after ultrasound- or microwave- assisted extraction with diluted acids using hydride generation inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (HG-ICP-OES). Corresponding Pb hydride was generated in the reaction of an acidified sample solution with NaBH4 after pre-oxidation of Pb(II) to Pb(IV) by K3[Fe(CN)6]. Several chemical (acidic media: HCl, HNO3 or CH3COOH, concentration of the reductant as well as type and concentration of oxidazing agents) and physical (reagents flow rates, reaction coil length) parameters affecting the efficiency of plumbane formation were optimized in order to improve the detectability of Pb using HG-ICP-OES. Limitation of the method derived from the matrix effects was pointed out. Employing Pb separation by HG technique allows the significant reduction of interferences caused by sample matrix constituents (mainly Ca and Mg), nevertheless they could not be overcame at all, hence calibration based on the standard addition method was recommended for Pb quantification in dolomites. Under the selected conditions, i.e. 0.3 mol L(-1) HCl, HNO3 or CH3COOH, 1.5% NaBH4 and 3.0% K3[Fe(CN)6] the limits of detection (LODs) between 2.3-5.6 μg L(-1) (3.4-6.8 μg L(-1) considering matrix effects) and the precision below 5% were achieved. The accuracy of the procedure was verified by analysis of certified reference materials (NCS DC70308 (Carbonate Rock) and NIST 14000 (Bone Ash)) and recovery test with satisfactory results of Pb recoveries ranging between 94-108% (CRMs analysis) and 92-114% (standard addition method). The applicability of the proposed method was demonstrated by the determination of Pb in dolomites used by different fertiliser factories. PMID:26452913

  10. Explosive Emission Cathode Based on a Carbon Fiber for Long-Term Pulsed-Periodic Mode of Operation and its Application in a High-Power Microwave Pulse Generator Without External Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutenkov, O. P.; Pegel, I. V.; Totmeninov, E. M.

    2014-09-01

    Current characteristics and operating lifetime of the explosive emission cathode based on a carbon microfiber are investigated in the pulsed-periodic mode of operation with pulse duration of about 5 ns. Long-term (for up to 3.6 million pulses) tests of the cathode operating lifetime are carried out. Specific ablation of the fiber material equal to 2.4·10-4 g/C is obtained. Change in the morphology of the fiber surface during long-time operation caused by deposition of carbon from the cathode plasma is revealed. The microscopic electric field strength on the fiber surface is estimated taking into account the surface microrelief. The efficiency of microwave generation comparable with that of a velvet cathode in low (200 kV/cm) average electric field in the gap is obtained for the Cherenkov microwave generator with vacuum diode without external magnetic field of decimeter wavelength range based on the SINUS-7 pulsed-periodic high-current electron accelerator with current pulse duration of 50 ns. The operating lifetime no less than 105 pulses is demonstrated for the carbon fiber-based cathode of the microwave generator operating in the mode of pulse batch with duration of several seconds and pulse repetition frequency of 20-50 Hz.

  11. Microwave furnace having microwave compatible dilatometer

    DOEpatents

    Kimrey, Jr., Harold D.; Janney, Mark A.; Ferber, Mattison K.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring and monitoring a change in the dimension of a sample being heated by microwave energy is described. The apparatus comprises a microwave heating device for heating a sample by microwave energy, a microwave compatible dilatometer for measuring and monitoring a change in the dimension of the sample being heated by microwave energy without leaking microwaves out of the microwave heating device, and a temperature determination device for measuring and monitoring the temperature of the sample being heated by microwave energy.

  12. Microwave furnace having microwave compatible dilatometer

    DOEpatents

    Kimrey, H.D. Jr.; Janney, M.A.; Ferber, M.K.

    1992-03-24

    An apparatus for measuring and monitoring a change in the dimension of a sample being heated by microwave energy is described. The apparatus comprises a microwave heating device for heating a sample by microwave energy, a microwave compatible dilatometer for measuring and monitoring a change in the dimension of the sample being heated by microwave energy without leaking microwaves out of the microwave heating device, and a temperature determination device for measuring and monitoring the temperature of the sample being heated by microwave energy. 2 figs.

  13. Microwave Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marec, J.; Bloyet, E.; Chaker, M.; Leprince, P.; Nghiem, P.

    Microwave discharges first appeared as unwanted and disturbing effects. However, beginning about the end of World War II, Professors Allis and Brown at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology started to investigate the physics of these discharges. During the next few years, many experimental and theoretical studies were undertaken. However, in the early 60's and for about 15 years, there were few studies of such discharges because of the theoretical difficulties encountered. Effectively, the impossibility of modeling microwave discharges prevented a good understanding of their behavior, and their future use did not appear promising. Recently there has been new interest in these discharges. The plasmas produced by microwave discharges find applications in areas such as: 1) spectroscopy (because of their low contamination), and 2) plasma chemistry. Another advantage of these discharges as compared to d.c. discharges is their ease of operation.

  14. A New Neural Network Approach Including First-Guess for Retrieval of Atmospheric Water Vapor, Cloud Liquid Water Path, Surface Temperature and Emissivities Over Land From Satellite Microwave Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aires, F.; Prigent, C.; Rossow, W. B.; Rothstein, M.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The analysis of microwave observations over land to determine atmospheric and surface parameters is still limited due to the complexity of the inverse problem. Neural network techniques have already proved successful as the basis of efficient retrieval methods for non-linear cases, however, first-guess estimates, which are used in variational methods to avoid problems of solution non-uniqueness or other forms of solution irregularity, have up to now not been used with neural network methods. In this study, a neural network approach is developed that uses a first-guess. Conceptual bridges are established between the neural network and variational methods. The new neural method retrieves the surface skin temperature, the integrated water vapor content, the cloud liquid water path and the microwave surface emissivities between 19 and 85 GHz over land from SSM/I observations. The retrieval, in parallel, of all these quantities improves the results for consistency reasons. A data base to train the neural network is calculated with a radiative transfer model and a a global collection of coincident surface and atmospheric parameters extracted from the National Center for Environmental Prediction reanalysis, from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project data and from microwave emissivity atlases previously calculated. The results of the neural network inversion are very encouraging. The r.m.s. error of the surface temperature retrieval over the globe is 1.3 K in clear sky conditions and 1.6 K in cloudy scenes. Water vapor is retrieved with a r.m.s. error of 3.8 kg/sq m in clear conditions and 4.9 kg/sq m in cloudy situations. The r.m.s. error in cloud liquid water path is 0.08 kg/sq m . The surface emissivities are retrieved with an accuracy of better than 0.008 in clear conditions and 0.010 in cloudy conditions. Microwave land surface temperature retrieval presents a very attractive complement to the infrared estimates in cloudy areas: time record of land surface temperature will be produced.

  15. Improvement of the emission properties from InGaN/GaN dot-in-a-wire nanostructures after treatment in the flowing afterglow of a microwave N₂ plasma.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, J Afonso; Nguyen, H P T; Mi, Z; Leonelli, R; Stafford, L

    2014-10-31

    Nominally pure GaN nanowires (NWs) and InGaN/GaN dot-in-a-wire heterostructures were exposed to the flowing afterglow of a N2 microwave plasma and characterized by photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. While the band-edge emission from GaN NWs and the GaN matrix of the InGaN/GaN NWs strongly decreased due to the creation of non-radiative recombination centers in the near-surface region, the emission from the InGaN dots strongly increased. PL excitation measurements indicate that such an increase cannot be explained by a plasma-induced shift of the GaN absorption edge. It is rather ascribed to the passivation of grown-in defects and dynamic annealing due to the presence of plasma-generated N atoms and N2 metastables without excessive introduction of ion-induced damage. PMID:25299752

  16. Microwave remote sensing of soil moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiue, J. C.; Wang, J. R.

    1988-01-01

    Knowledge of soil moisture is important to many disciplines, such as agriculture, hydrology, and meteorology. Soil moisture distribution of vast regions can be measured efficiently only with remote sensing techniques from airborne or satellite platforms. At low microwave frequencies, water has a much larger dielectric constant than dry soil. This difference manifests itself in surface emissivity (or reflectivity) change between dry and wet soils, and can be measured by a microwave radiometer or radar. The Microwave Sensors and Data Communications Branch is developing microwave remote sensing techniques using both radar and radiometry, but primarily with microwave radiometry. The efforts in these areas range from developing algorithms for data interpretation to conducting feasibility studies for space systems, with a primary goal of developing a microwave radiometer for soil moisture measurement from satellites, such as EOS or the Space Station. These efforts are listed.

  17. Constraint on the polarization of electric dipole emission from spinning dust

    SciTech Connect

    Hoang, Thiem; Martin, P. G.; Lazarian, A.

    2013-12-20

    Planck results have revealed that the electric dipole emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is the most reliable explanation for the anomalous microwave emission that interferes with cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation experiments. The emerging question is to what extent this emission component contaminates the polarized CMB radiation. We present constraints on polarized dust emission for the model of grain-size distribution and grain alignment that best fits the observed extinction and polarization curves. Two stars with a prominent polarization feature at λ = 2175 Å—HD 197770 and HD 147933-4—are chosen for our study. For HD 197770, we find that the model with aligned silicate grains plus weakly aligned PAHs can successfully reproduce the 2175 Å polarization feature; in contrast, for HD 147933-4, we find that the alignment of only silicate grains can account for that feature. The alignment function of PAHs for the best-fit model to the HD 197770 data is used to constrain polarized spinning dust emission. We find that the degree of polarization of spinning dust emission is about 1.6% at frequency ν ≈ 3 GHz and declines to below 0.9% for ν > 20 GHz. We also predict the degree of polarization of thermal dust emission at 353 GHz to be P {sub em} ≈ 11% and 14% for the lines of sight to the HD 197770 and HD 147933-4 stars, respectively.

  18. Anomalous - viscosity current drive

    DOEpatents

    Stix, Thomas H.; Ono, Masayuki

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus and method for maintaining a steady-state current in a toroidal magnetically confined plasma. An electric current is generated in an edge region at or near the outermost good magnetic surface of the toroidal plasma. The edge current is generated in a direction parallel to the flow of current in the main plasma and such that its current density is greater than the average density of the main plasma current. The current flow in the edge region is maintained in a direction parallel to the main current for a period of one or two of its characteristic decay times. Current from the edge region will penetrate radially into the plasma and augment the main plasma current through the mechanism of anomalous viscosity. In another aspect of the invention, current flow driven between a cathode and an anode is used to establish a start-up plasma current. The plasma-current channel is magnetically detached from the electrodes, leaving a plasma magnetically insulated from contact with any material obstructions including the cathode and anode.

  19. Passive microwave remote sensing of the ocean - A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, C. T.

    1980-01-01

    This paper reviews the current status of passive microwave remote sensing of the ocean. The physics of emission and instrumentation are highlighted in order to establish a relationship between the thermal emission and retrieved geophysical parameters. A discussion then follows on measurements of temperature, salinity, windspeed, etc. using passive microwave systems. These measurements are related to the accuracy and spatial resolution required by the users. The status of passive microwave remote sensing is summarized and recommendations for future research are presented.

  20. Petrology of Anomalous Eucrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Peng, Z. X.; Ross, D. K.

    2015-01-01

    Most mafic achondrites can be broadly categorized as being "eucritic", that is, they are composed of a ferroan low-Ca clinopyroxene, high-Ca plagioclase and a silica phase. They are petrologically distinct from angritic basalts, which are composed of high-Ca, Al-Ti-rich clinopyroxene, Carich olivine, nearly pure anorthite and kirschsteinite, or from what might be called brachinitic basalts, which are composed of ferroan orthopyroxene and high-Ca clinopyroxene, intermediate-Ca plagioclase and ferroan olivine. Because of their similar mineralogy and composition, eucrite-like mafic achondrites formed on compositionally similar asteroids under similar conditions of temperature, pressure and oxygen fugacity. Some of them have distinctive isotopic compositions and petrologic characteristics that demonstrate formation on asteroids different from the parent of the HED clan (e.g., Ibitira, Northwest Africa (NWA) 011). Others show smaller oxygen isotopic distinctions but are otherwise petrologically and compositionally indistinguishable from basaltic eucrites (e.g., Pasamonte, Pecora Escarpment (PCA) 91007). The degree of uniformity in delta O-17 of eucrites and diogenites is one piece of evidence considered to favor of a magma-ocean scenario for their petrogenesis. Given that the O isotopic differences separating Pasamonte and PCA 91007 from other eucrites are small, and that there is an absence of other distinguishing characteristics, a legitimate question is: Did the HED parent asteroid fail to homogenize via a magma-ocean stage, thus explaining outliers like Pasamonte? We are initiating a program of study of anomalous eucrite-like achondrites as one part of our effort to seek a resolution of this issue. Here we present preliminary petrologic information on Asuka (A-) 881394, Elephant Moraine (EET) 87520 and EET 87542. We will have studied several more by conference time.

  1. Microwave PASER Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Schoessow, P.; Kanareykin, A.; Antipov, S.; Poluektov, O.; Jing, C.

    2009-01-22

    The PASER (Particle Acceleration by Stimulated Emission of Radiation) concept for particle acceleration entails the direct transfer of energy from an active medium to a charged particle beam. The PASER was originally formulated for optical (laser) media; we are planning a PASER demonstration experiment based on an optically pumped X-band paramagnetic medium consisting of porphyrin or fullerene (C{sub 60}) derivatives in a toluene solution or polystyrene matrix. We discuss the background of this project and report on the status of the experiment to measure the acceleration of electrons using the microwave PASER.

  2. Passive microwave observations of asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, William J., Jr.; Johnston, Kenneth J.

    1989-01-01

    The advances made since 1979 in the quantity and quality of the radio observations of asteroids and in the understanding of the physics of asteroidal microwave emission are reviewed. Radio continuum spectra analyses are now available for the four largest asteroids (Ceres, Vesta, Pallas, and Hygiea) at several wavelengths and several smaller asteroids (including Interamnia and Eunomia) at one wavelength. The spectra show that most asteroids are covered by a layer of material with physical properties of finely divided dust. This surface material is in layers of variable depth and has dielectric properties which vary from asteroid to asteroid. The effect of instrumentation on the interpretation of microwave observations is examined.

  3. Element analysis and characteristic identification of non-fumigated and sulfur-fumigated Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. using microwave digestion-inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry combined with Fourier transform infrared spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Yajing; Cai, Hao; Liu, Xiao; Tu, Sicong; Pei, Ke; Zhao, Yingying; Cao, Gang; Li, Songlin; Qin, Kunming; Cai, Baochang

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sulfur-fumigation may induce chemical transformation of traditional Chinese medicines leading to harmful effects following patient ingestion. For quality control, it is urgently needed to develop a reliable and efficient method for sulfur-fumigation identification. Materials and Methods: The spectrochemical identification of non-fumigated and sulfur-fumigated Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. was carried out to evaluate inorganic elements and organic components. The concentrations of 12 elements, including Zn, Mn, Cu, Fe, Li, Mg, Sr, Pb, As, Cd, Hg, and S of samples were determined by microwave digestion - inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Meanwhile, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) was used for the study of chemical group characteristic reactions after sulfur-fumigation. Results: The concentrations of Fe, Mg, Hg, and S elements showed significant differences between non-fumigated and sulfur-fumigated Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. The characteristic stretching vibrations of some groups in FTIR spectra, such as -OH, -S = O and -S-O, provided the identification basis for the discrimination of non-fumigated and sulfur-fumigated Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. Conclusion: The application of microwave digestion - ICP-AES was successfully used in combination with FTIR to authenticate and evaluate the quality of medicinal Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. Further applications of this technique should be explored. PMID:24914306

  4. Improvement of AOAC Official Method 984.27 for the determination of nine nutritional elements in food products by Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy after microwave digestion: single-laboratory validation and ring trial.

    PubMed

    Poitevin, Eric; Nicolas, Marine; Graveleau, Laetitia; Richoz, Janique; Andrey, Daniel; Monard, Florence

    2009-01-01

    A single-laboratory validation (SLV) and a ring trial (RT) were undertaken to determine nine nutritional elements in food products by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy in order to improve and update AOAC Official Method 984.27. The improvements involved optimized microwave digestion, selected analytical lines, internal standardization, and ion buffering. Simultaneous determination of nine elements (calcium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, sodium, phosphorus, and zinc) was made in food products. Sample digestion was performed through wet digestion of food samples by microwave technology with either closed or open vessel systems. Validation was performed to characterize the method for selectivity, sensitivity, linearity, accuracy, precision, recovery, ruggedness, and uncertainty. The robustness and efficiency of this method was proved through a successful internal RT using experienced food industry laboratories. Performance characteristics are reported for 13 certified and in-house reference materials, populating the AOAC triangle food sectors, which fulfilled AOAC criteria and recommendations for accuracy (trueness, recovery, and z-scores) and precision (repeatability and reproducibility RSD and HorRat values) regarding SLV and RT. This multielemental method is cost-efficient, time-saving, accurate, and fit-for-purpose according to ISO 17025 Norm and AOAC acceptability criteria, and is proposed as an improved version of AOAC Official Method 984.27 for fortified food products, including infant formula. PMID:19916387

  5. The study of pinch regimes based on radiation-enhanced compression and anomalous resistivity phenomena and their effects on hard x-ray emission in a Mather type dense plasma focus device (SABALAN2)

    SciTech Connect

    Piriaei, D.; Javadi, S.; Ghoranneviss, M.; Mahabadi, T. D.; Saw, S. H.; Lee, S.

    2015-12-15

    In this study, by using argon and nitrogen as the filling gases in a Mather type dense plasma focus device at different values of pressure and charging voltage, two different kinds of pinch regimes were observed for each of the gases. The physics of the pinch regimes could be explained by using the two versions of the Lee's computational model which predicted each of the scenarios and clarified their differences between the two gases according to the radiation-enhanced compression and, additionally, predicted the pinch regimes through the anomalous resistivity effect during the pinch time. This was accomplished through the fitting process (simulation) on the current signal. Moreover, the characteristic amplitude and time scales of the anomalous resistances were obtained. The correlations between the features of the plasma current dip and the emitted hard x-ray pulses were observed. The starting time, intensity, duration, and the multiple or single feature of the emitted hard x-ray strongly correlated to the same respective features of the current dip.

  6. Compact Microwave Fourier Spectrum Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Matsko, Andrey; Strekalov, Dmitry

    2009-01-01

    A compact photonic microwave Fourier spectrum analyzer [a Fourier-transform microwave spectrometer, (FTMWS)] with no moving parts has been proposed for use in remote sensing of weak, natural microwave emissions from the surfaces and atmospheres of planets to enable remote analysis and determination of chemical composition and abundances of critical molecular constituents in space. The instrument is based on a Bessel beam (light modes with non-zero angular momenta) fiber-optic elements. It features low power consumption, low mass, and high resolution, without a need for any cryogenics, beyond what is achievable by the current state-of-the-art in space instruments. The instrument can also be used in a wide-band scatterometer mode in active radar systems.

  7. On the mechanism of electromagnetic microwave absorption in superfluid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pashitskii, E. A.; Pentegov, V. I.

    2012-08-01

    In experiments on electromagnetic (EM) wave absorption in the microwave range in superfluid (SF) helium [1-3], a narrow EM field absorption line with a width on the order of (20-200) kHz was observed against the background of a wide absorption band with a width of 30-40 GHz at frequencies f 0 ≈ 110-180 GHz corresponding to the roton gap energy Δ r ( T) in the temperature range 1.4-2.2 K. Using the so-called flexoelectric mechanism of polarization of helium atoms (4He) in the presence of density gradients in SF helium (HeII), we show that nonresonance microwave absorption in the frequency range 170-200 GHz can be due to the existence of time-varying local density gradients produced by roton excitations in the bulk HeII. The absorption bandwidth is determined by the roton-roton scattering time in an equilibrium Boltzmann gas of rotons, which is t r- r ≈ 3.4 × 10-11 s at T = 1.4 K and decreases upon heating. We propose that the anomalously narrow microwave resonance absorption line in HeII at the roton frequency f 0( T) = Δ r( T)/2π ħ appears due to the following two factors: (i) the discrete structure of the spectrum of the surface EM resonator modes in the form of a periodic sequence of narrow peaks and (ii) the presence of a stationary dipole layer in HeII near the resonator surface, which forms due to polarization of 4He atoms under the action of the density gradient associated with the vanishing of the density of the SF component at the solid wall. For this reason, the relaxation of nonequilibrium rotons generated in such a surface dipole layer is strongly suppressed, and the shape and width of the microwave resonance absorption line are determined by the roton density of states, which has a sharp peak at the edge of the roton gap in the case of weak dissipation. The effective dipole moments of rotons in the dipole layer can be directed either along or across the normal to the resonator surface, which explains the experimentally observed symmetric doublet splitting of the resonance absorption line in an external dc electric field perpendicular to the resonator surface. We show that negative absorption (induced emission) of EM field quanta observed after triggering a Kapitza "heat gun" occurs when the occupation numbers for roton states due to "pumping" of rotons exceed the occupation numbers of EM field photons in the resonator.

  8. An assessment of an atmospheric pressure helium microwave plasma produced by a surfatron as an excitation source in atomic emission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah, M. H.; Coulombe, S.; Mermet, J. M.; Hubert, J.

    A new microwave plasma at atmospheric pressure is described. The plasma is supported by a surface wave excitation structure called "surfatron". Both argon and helium can be used to sustain the plasma. In this study, helium has been selected. The sample introduction system consists of an ultrasonic nebulizer associated with a dcsolvation system. The analytical performance in terms of detection limits, calibration curves and some interferences have been assessed. Because of the relatively low power and the short residence time the main problem seems to be the atomization process.

  9. Tandem microwave waste remediation and decontamination system

    DOEpatents

    Wicks, George G.; Clark, David E.; Schulz, Rebecca L.

    1999-01-01

    The invention discloses a tandem microwave system consisting of a primary chamber in which microwave energy is used for the controlled combustion of materials. A second chamber is used to further treat the off-gases from the primary chamber by passage through a susceptor matrix subjected to additional microwave energy. The direct microwave radiation and elevated temperatures provide for significant reductions in the qualitative and quantitative emissions of the treated off gases. The tandem microwave system can be utilized for disinfecting wastes, sterilizing materials, and/or modifying the form of wastes to solidify organic or inorganic materials. The simple design allows on-site treatment of waste by small volume waste generators.

  10. Interaction of Microwave Radiation Undergoing Stochastic Phase Jumps with Plasmas or Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Karas', V.I.; Fainberg, Ya. B.; Alisov, A.F.; Artamoshkin, A.M.; Gavrilenko, I.V.; Mirny, V.I.; Bingham, R.; Levchenko, V.D.; Potapenko, I.F.; Lontano, M.; Starostin, A.N.

    2005-09-15

    New types of beam-plasma devices generating intense stochastic microwave radiation in the interaction of electron beams with hybrid plasma waveguides were developed and put into operation at the National Science Center Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (Ukraine). The objective of the paper is to discuss the results of theoretical and experimental studies and numerical simulations of the normal and oblique incidence of linearly polarized electromagnetic waves on an interface between a vacuum and an overcritical plasma. The main results of the reported investigations are as follows: (i) for the parameter values under analysis, the transmission coefficient for microwaves with a stochastically jumping phase is one order of magnitude greater than that for a broadband regular electromagnetic wave with the same spectral density; (ii) the electrons are heated most efficiently by obliquely incident waves with a stochastically jumping phase and, in addition, the electron distribution function has a high-energy tail; and (iii) necessary conditions for gas breakdown and for the initiation of a microwave discharge in stochastic fields in a light source are determined. The anomalously large transmission coefficient for microwaves, the anomalous character of the breakdown conditions, the anomalous behavior of microwave gas discharges, and the anomalous nature of collisionless electron heating, are attributed to stochastic jumps in the phase of microwave radiation.

  11. Wideband Agile Digital Microwave Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, Todd C.; Brown, Shannon T.; Ruf, Christopher; Gross, Steven

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this work were to take the initial steps needed to develop a field programmable gate array (FPGA)- based wideband digital radiometer backend (>500 MHz bandwidth) that will enable passive microwave observations with minimal performance degradation in a radiofrequency-interference (RFI)-rich environment. As manmade RF emissions increase over time and fill more of the microwave spectrum, microwave radiometer science applications will be increasingly impacted in a negative way, and the current generation of spaceborne microwave radiometers that use broadband analog back ends will become severely compromised or unusable over an increasing fraction of time on orbit. There is a need to develop a digital radiometer back end that, for each observation period, uses digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms to identify the maximum amount of RFI-free spectrum across the radiometer band to preserve bandwidth to minimize radiometer noise (which is inversely related to the bandwidth). Ultimately, the objective is to incorporate all processing necessary in the back end to take contaminated input spectra and produce a single output value free of manmade signals to minimize data rates for spaceborne radiometer missions. But, to meet these objectives, several intermediate processing algorithms had to be developed, and their performance characterized relative to typical brightness temperature accuracy re quirements for current and future microwave radiometer missions, including those for measuring salinity, soil moisture, and snow pack.

  12. Microwave technologies in coal power engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomatov, V. V.; Sladkov, S. O.; Pashchenko, S. É.

    2012-05-01

    An analysis of the modern state and prospects of using microwave radiation in the processes of drying, dispersion, burning, and fine processing of low-rank coals for the purpose of increasing the energy efficiency of coal technologies and decreasing harmful emissions from them has been carried out. It is shown that the use of microwave-radiation energy in coal power engineering is a promising method of complex action on coal in the process of its preparation and burning.

  13. Anomalous-viscosity current drive

    DOEpatents

    Stix, T.H.; Ono, M.

    1986-04-25

    The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for maintaining a steady-state current for magnetically confining the plasma in a toroidal magnetic confinement device using anomalous viscosity current drive. A second aspect of this invention relates to an apparatus and method for the start-up of a magnetically confined toroidal plasma.

  14. Giant Rings in the Cosmic Microwave Background Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovetz, Ely D.; Ben-David, Assaf; Itzhaki, Nissan

    2010-11-01

    We find a unique direction in the cosmic microwave background sky around which giant rings have an anomalous mean temperature profile. This direction is in very close alignment with the afore measured anomalously large bulk flow direction. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we estimate the significance of the giant rings at the 3σ level and the alignment with the bulk flow at 2.5σ. We argue that a cosmic defect seeded by a pre-inflationary particle could explain the giant rings, the large bulk flow, and their alignment.

  15. Optical Detection of Anomalous Nitrogen in Comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-12-01

    VLT Opens New Window towards Our Origins Summary A team of European astronomers [1] has used the UVES spectrograph on the 8.2-m VLT KUEYEN telescope to perform a uniquely detailed study of Comet LINEAR (C/2000 WM1) . This is the first time that this powerful instrument has been employed to obtain high-resolution spectra of a comet. At the time of the observations in mid-March 2002, Comet LINEAR was about 180 million km from the Sun, moving outwards after its perihelion passage in January. As comets are believed to carry "pristine" material - left-overs from the formation of the solar system, about 4,600 million years ago - studies of these objects are important to obtain clues about the origins of the solar system and the Earth in particular. The high quality of the data obtained of this moving 9th-magnitude object has permitted a determination of the cometary abundance of various elements and their isotopes [2]. Of particular interest is the unambiguous detection and measurement of the nitrogen-15 isotope. The only other comet in which this isotope has been observed is famous Comet Hale-Bopp - this was during the passage in 1997, when it was much brighter than Comet LINEAR. Most interestingly, Comet LINEAR and Comet Hale-Bopp display the same isotopic abundance ratio, about 1 nitrogen-15 atom for each 140 nitrogen-14 atoms ( 14 N/ 15 N = 140 ± 30) . That is about half of the terrestrial value (272). It is also very different from the result obtained by means of radio measurements of Comet Hale-Bopp ( 14 N/ 15 N = 330 ± 75). Optical and radio measurements concern different molecules (CN and HCN, respectively), and this isotopic anomaly must be explained by some differentiation mechanism. The astronomers conclude that part of the cometary nitrogen is trapped in macromolecules attached to dust particles . The successful entry of UVES into cometary research now opens eagerly awaited opportunities for similiar observations in other, comparatively faint comets. These studies will provide crucial information about the detailed composition of a much larger number of comets than hitherto possible and hence, more information about the primordial matter from which the solar system formed. A better understanding of the origins of the cometary material (in particular the HCN and CN molecules [3]) and the connection with heavier organic molecules is highly desirable. This is especially so in view of the probable rôle of comets in bringing to the young Earth materials essential for the subsequent formation of life on our planet . PR Photo 28a/03 : Comet LINEAR (C/2000 WM1) - direct image and UVES slit position. PR Photo 28b/03 : Part of the UVES spectrum of Comet LINEAR (C/2000 WM1) with CN-band. PR Photo 28c/03 : Identification of nitrogen-15 in the spectrum. Cometary material Knowledge of the abundance of the stable isotopes [2] of the light elements in different solar system objects provides critical clues to the origin and early evolution of these objects and of the system as a whole. In order to gain the best possible insight into the origins and formation of the niche in which we live, it is therefore important to determine such isotopic abundance ratios in as many members of the solar family as possible. This is particularly true for comets, believed to be carriers of well-preserved specimens of the pristine material from which the solar system was made, some 4,600 million years ago. However, the detailed study of cometary material is a difficult task. Measurements of isotopic ratios is an especially daunting undertaking, mainly because of the extreme weakness of the spectral signatures (emissions) of the less abundant species like carbon-13, nitrogen-15, etc.. Measurements of microwave emission from those atoms suffer from additional, inherent uncertainties connected to the much stronger emission of the more abundant species. Measurements in the optical spectral region thus take on particular importance in this context. However, it is exceedingly difficult to procure the high-quality, high-resolution spectra needed to show the very faint emissions of the rare species. So far, they were only possible when a very bright comet happened to pass by, perhaps once a decade, thereby significantly limiting such studies. And there has always been some doubt whether the brightest comets are also truly representative of this class of objects. Observations of fainter, more typical comets had to await the advent of powerful instruments and telescopes. First UVES spectrum of a comet ESO PR Photo 28a/03 ESO PR Photo 28a/03 [Preview - JPEG: 495 x 400 pix - 183k [Normal - JPEG: 990 x 800 pix - 450k] ESO PR Photo 28b/03 ESO PR Photo 28b/03 [Preview - JPEG: 502 x 400 pix - 115k [Normal - JPEG: 1004 x 800 pix - 290K] Captions : PR Photo 28a/03 displays an image of Comet LINEAR (C/2000 WM1) with the UVES slit viewer image. The colour composite in the large frame (sky field: 16 x 16 arcmin 2 ) was obtained by Gordon Garradd (Loomberah, NSW, Australia). [Image Copyright (c) 2002 Gordon Garradd (loomberah@ozemail.com.au]. The UVES slit viewer photo (small frame; 40 x 40 arcsec 2 ) is a false-colour image taken in the (red) R-band with UVES+KUEYEN on March 22, 2002; it shows the position of the narrow spectrograph slit (0.45 arcsec wide and 8 arcsec long) crossing the inner coma and through which the comet's light was captured to produce the high-resolution spectra. The slit has been offset from the center of light to reduce contamination from solar light reflected off dust particles in the comet's coma - there is most dust near the nucleus. PR Photo 28b/03 shows a small part of the UVES spectrum with an emission band (ultraviolet light at wavelength 390 nm) from CN molecules [3] in the comet's atmosphere. The emission lines are produced by absorption of the solar light by these molecules, followed by re-emission of lines of specific wavelengths. This physical process is known as "resonance-fluorescence" - it is the same process that causes glowing teeth and shirts in a Disco. The upper panel displays the "raw" spectrum; the lower is the "extracted" spectrum, now clearly displaying the individual emission lines. Observations of Comet LINEAR (C/2000 WM1) were carried out with the UV-Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) mounted on the 8.2-m VLT KUEYEN telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory (Chile) on four occasions during March 2002. At that time, the comet had moved past its perihelion and was by far the faintest comet for which such a detailed spectral analysis had ever been attempted. A number of 25-min exposures were secured, resulting in a total observing time of about 4 hours. The final spectrum covers the entire visual region (330 - 670 nm) and is one of the most detailed and information-rich cometary spectra ever obtained. PR Photo 28b/03 displays a small part of this spectrum. These observations are the first high resolution spectra of a comet taken with the VLT. Identification of nitrogen-15 ESO PR Photo 28c/03 ESO PR Photo 28c/03 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 524 pix - 109k [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 1047 pix - 285k] Captions : PR Photo 28c/03 is an enlarged view of a small section of the high-resolution UVES spectrum of Comet LINEAR ( PR Photo 28b/03 ) with emission lines from CN-molecules (blue line), compared to the "synthetic" spectrum based on theoretical calculations and laboratory measurements (black line ; some of the lines are labeled with quantum numbers). In the upper panel, the synthetic spectrum has been produced on the basis of the most abundant isotopic species ( 12 C 14 N). The lower panel shows that the observed spectrum is in nearly perfect agreement with a synthetic spectrum which includes contributions from two other isotopic species, 13 C 14 N (emission lines at wavelengths indicated by red ticks) and 12 C 15 N (blue ticks); they are added in proportions of 1/115 and 1/140, respectively. The isotopic abundances of carbon-13 and nitrogen-15 are measured accordingly. Introducing instead the terrestrial ratio for nitrogen-15 (1/272) significantly degrades the fit and thus that ratio can clearly be ruled out in Comet LINEAR. At the time of the VLT observations, the comet was of 9th magnitude, i.e. about 15 times fainter than what can be perceived with the unaided eye. The distance from the Sun was about 180 million km; the distance from the Earth was 186 million km. The observations included calibration spectra of sunlight reflected from the lunar surface; they were used to "subtract" the solar signatures in the comet's spectrum, caused by reflection of sunlight from the dust particles around the comet. As expected, in addition to emission from "normal" CN-molecules ( 12 C 14 N), the UVES data also show emission lines of the 13 C 14 N-molecule that contains the rare isotope carbon-13. The derived 12 C/ 13 C isotopic ratio is 115 ± 20, quite similar to the "standard" solar system value of 89. However, there is also a series of weak features that are positioned exactly at the theoretical wavelengths of emission lines from 12 C 15 N-molecules, cf. PR Photo 28c/03 . The excellent fit that is evident in this diagram proves beyond any doubt the presence of nitrogen-15 in Comet LINEAR and allows a quite accurate determination of the isotopic ratio. The "anomalous" nitrogen isotope ratio in comets In 1997, the same group of astronomers obtained spectra of the (at that time) much brighter Comet Hale-Bopp with the 2.6-m NOT telescope (Roque de los Muchachos Observatory, La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain) in order to investigate the isotopic ratio of carbon-12 to carbon-13. Claude Arpigny remembers: " Interestingly, our spectra of Hale-Bopp showed a number of weak and unidentified emission lines. We later realised that they were positioned close to the theoretical wavelengths of some lines from the 12 C 15 N-molecule. This was a pleasant surprise, as lines from that molecular species were previously believed to be so faint that they would not be observable." He continues: "This identification is now fully confirmed with the UVES observations of Comet LINEAR. Our detections in these two comets are the first ever of those emission lines in comets ". The estimates of the 14 N/ 15 N isotopic ratios are very similar, 140 ± 35 for Hale-Bopp and 140 ± 30 for LINEAR. These ratios are remarkably low and different from the terrestrial value of 272. This means that these comets have comparatively more nitrogen-15 than has the Earth. No measurement has yet been made of the abundance of nitrogen-15 in the Sun. So which of the values corresponds to the composition of the material from which the solar system was made? Different origins? To date, only four cometary values of the 14 N/ 15 N isotopic ratio have been reported: two in the radio wavelength range and the two now measured by means of optical spectra. The radio measurements concern the HCN-molecule (hydrocyanic acid) in Comet Hale-Bopp, a "parent" molecule for the CN-molecules present in comets. Contrary to the optical measurements, the radio values (about 330 ± 75) are compatible with the terrestrial value (272). But radio measurements of carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios are only possible on extraordinarily bright comets like Hale-Bopp, and even then, the achievable accuracy is very limited. This emphasizes the importance of performing this kind of research by means of optical observations. The origin of the isotopic discrepancy between different CN parents is likely due to fractionation mechanisms in the forming presolar nebula, e.g. when oxygen- and carbon-bearing molecules in high-density nebulae stick to cold (10K) dust grains. Macromolecules in space The astronomers think that the new results indicate that the HCN-molecule cannot be the only "parent" of the CN-molecule; the latter must also be produced by some as yet unknown parent(s) in which the nitrogen-15 isotope is even more abundant. In this connection, it is very interesting that an "excess" of nitrogen-15 is also known to exist in interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), captured by high-flying aircraft in the Earth's atmosphere. They represent the oldest material in the solar system that can be subjected to detailed laboratory analysis. Many of these particles are thought to originate from passing comets - this possibility is obviously supported by the new measurements. The nitrogen-15 carriers in IDPs have not been securely identified but are possibly organic macromolecules or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). It is thus possible that the additional parent(s) of cometary CN may belong to this ensemble of organic substances. Whatever the case, the longstanding question of nitrogen and its isotopic ratio(s) in the solar system, whether present and primordial, is notoriously enigmatic in several respects. However, the present results demonstrate that a detailed study of comets may deliver very useful clues. The team has now been granted more observing time with UVES and KUEYEN in order to pursue this important study by observing more comets.

  16. Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shay, T. M.; Yin, B.; Alvarez, L. S.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filters on infrared and blue transitions of some alkali atoms is calculated. A composite system is designed to further increase the background noise rejection. The measured results of the solar background rejection and image quality through the filter are presented. The results show that the filter may provide high transmission and high background noise rejection with excellent image quality.

  17. Horizon universality and anomalous conductivities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürsoy, Umut; Tarrío, Javier

    2015-10-01

    We show that the value of chiral conductivities associated with anomalous transport is universal in a general class of strongly coupled quantum field theories that admit a gravitational holographic dual in the large N limit. Our result only applies to theories in the presence of external gauge fields with no dynamical gluon fields. On the gravity side the result follows from near horizon universality of the fluctuation equations, similar to the holographic calculation of the shear viscosity.

  18. Colligative properties of anomalous water.

    PubMed

    Everett, D H; Haynes, J M; McElroy, P J

    1970-06-13

    Investigations of the phase behaviour on freezing and subsequent melting and of other properties indicate that anomalous water is a solution containing a fixed amount of relatively involatile material in normal water. There seems to be no need to postulate the existence of a new polymer of water in such solutions. If only water and silica are present, the properties are consistent with those of a silicic acid gel. PMID:16057643

  19. Microwave Imaging Reflectometry for the Visualization of Turbulence in Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    E. Mazzucato

    1999-12-16

    Understanding the mechanism of anomalous transport in magnetically confined plasmas requires the use of sophisticated diagnostic tools for the measurement of short-scale turbulent fluctuations. This paper describes the conceptual design of an experimental technique for the global visualization of density fluctuations in tokamaks. The proposed method is based on microwave reflectometry and consists in using a large diameter probing beam, collecting the reflected waves with a large aperture antenna, and forming an image of the reflecting plasma layer onto a 2D array of microwave receivers. Based on results from a series of numerical simulations, the theoretical feasibility conditions of the proposed method are discussed.

  20. Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Routt County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Warm Modeled Temperature Routt Edition: First Note: This “Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset differs from the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1σ and 2σ above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2σ temperatures contained in the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset. Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Routt County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature between 1σ and 2σ were considered ASTER modeled warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4501071.574000 m Left: 311351.975000 m Right: 359411.975000 m Bottom: 4447521.574000 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  1. Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Alamosa and Saguache Counties, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Alamosa Saguache Edition: First Note: This “Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset differs from the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1σ and 2σ above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2σ temperatures contained in the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset. Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Alamosa and Saguache Counties identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2σ were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4217727.601630 m Left: 394390.400264 m Right: 460179.841813 m Bottom: 4156258.036086 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  2. Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Chaffee County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Chaffee Edition: First Note: This “Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset differs from the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1σ and 2σ above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2σ temperatures contained in the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset. Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Chaffee County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2σ were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4333432.368072 m Left: 366907.700763 m Right: 452457.816015 m Bottom: 4208271.566715 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  3. Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Garfield County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Warm Modeled Temperature Garfield Edition: First Note: This “Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset differs from the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1σ and 2σ above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2σ temperatures contained in the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset. Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Garfield County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature between 1σ and 2σ were considered ASTER modeled warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4442180.552290 m Left: 268655.053363 m Right: 359915.053363 m Bottom: 4312490.552290 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  4. Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Archuleta County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Warm Modeled Temperature Archuleta Note: This “Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset differs from the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1σ and 2σ above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2σ temperatures contained in the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset. Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Archuleta County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature between 1σ and 2σ were considered ASTER modeled warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies). Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4144825.235807 m Left: 285446.256851 m Right: 350577.338852 m Bottom: 4096962.250137 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  5. Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Dolores County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Dolores Edition: First Note: This “Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset differs from the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1σ and 2σ above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2σ temperatures contained in the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset. Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Dolores County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2σ were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4186234.213315 m Left: 212558.673056 m Right: 232922.811862 m Bottom: 4176781.467043 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  6. Tracking Jupiter at microwave frequencies after the 2009 impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horiuchi, Shinji; García-Miró, Cristina; Rizzo, Ricardo; Forster, James; Hofstadter, Mark; Dorcey, Ryan; Jauncey, David; de Pater, Imke; Baines, Graham; Sotuela, Ioanna

    2010-05-01

    On 19 July 2009, amateur astronomer Anthony Wesley located near Canberra, Australia, discovered an anomalous dark feature near Jupiter's south pole. It was soon confirmed with additional observations that the new feature was an impact site created by an unknown object. The only other observed collision with Jupiter occurred 15 years earlier with the catastrophic impact of the Shoemaker-Levy 9 Comet (SL9). Unlike the well-predicted SL9 event, the biggest question to answer this time is whether the impact body was a comet or an asteroid. We started a campaign to track Jupiter at microwave frequencies with NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN), in Canberra, Goldstone (California), and Madrid, and the Allen Telescope Array (ATA) in California. A 34m DSN radio telescope at Goldstone was operated by students through GAVRT program. Our primary goal was first to detect molecular radio emissions possibly originating from cometary core components, such as OH, H2O, and NH3, and second to detect radio burst in non-thermal continuum emissions, as observed after the SL-9 impact 15 years ago. We used a 70m radio telescope in Canberra and another 70m in Madrid to search for molecular emissions at 1.6 GHz for OH, 22 GHz for water vapors, 23 GHz for ammonia. Several radio spectroscopy observing sessions have been successfully conducted from 23 July to 1 August. We also started continuum emission monitoring, mainly at 2.3 GHz and 8.4 GHz using 34m and 70m DSN telescopes and the ATA. At early stage of this still on-going monitoring, joint observations were conducted with two 34m telescopes in Canberra and the ATA on 30 July and 9 August in order to have long continuous time coverage and to check flux density scales using a common calibrator source. To highlight this campaign, on 22 November we undertook the Jupiter: Project 24 for the International Year of Astronomy. This campaign was over 24 hours of continuous observation of Jupiter using all three DSN complexes around the world. A couple of DSN 34m telescopes were operated by students organized by two educational programs: GAVRT in California and PARTNeR in Madrid. The Jupiter: Project 24 observations were broadcasted to the world in real time via the Internet. In this talk, we will present a summary of results from the molecular emission search and the continuum flux density monitoring. The evolution of the non-thermal Jupiter radio emission after the July 2009 impact will be discussed, along with a comparison to the increase in the synchrotron radiation caused by the SL9 impact in 1994.

  7. Examination of Broadband Coherent Synchrotron Radiation to Describe THz and Sub-THz Solar Flare Spectral Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klopf, Michael; Kaufmann, P.; Raulin, J.

    2010-05-01

    Over the past decade, interest in terrestrial applications for THz radiation has grown. In particular, much effort has been directed toward development of new higher power sources. One method for producing very high power coherent broadband sub-THz to microwave radiation has been demonstrated in laboratory accelerators, where relativistic bunches of electrons are compressed and accelerated using specially designed magnetic structures. The resulting synchrotron emission from suitably compressed electron bunches exhibits a coherent enhancement for wavelengths approximately equal to or longer than the bunch length. This produces a modified synchrotron spectrum with a second peak at lower frequency associated with the coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR), with power proportional to the square of the number electrons undergoing the process. The CSR spectrum can also be produced from microbunching that is self-induced in larger bunches as a result from the interaction of the high energy electrons with the coherent component of their own radiation field. In either case, the CSR peak occurs at a frequency related to the spatial charge density of the high energy electrons. Here, we propose how the CSR mechanism may operate as a source to explain certain anomalous spectral features recently identified in the microwave to sub-THz emission of solar flare events. We outline the methods used in laboratory accelerators to produce CSR emission from high energy electron bunches, and how these methods may be related to magneto-active plasma medium where solar flare electron beams are accelerated. Utilizing estimates for active region magnetic field structures and solar flare plasma parameters, we have calculated the CSR and the ISR spectral components and compare these results to the anomalous spectrum observed from microwaves to sub-THz frequencies during the solar flare event of November 4, 2003.

  8. Laboratory measurement of the millimeter wave properties of liquid sulfuric acid (H2SO4). [study of microwave emission from Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahd, Antoine K.; Steffes, Paul G.

    1991-01-01

    The methodology and the results of laboratory measurements of the millimeter wave properties of liquid sulfuric acid are presented. Measurements conducted at 30-40 and 90-100 GHz are reported, using different concentrations of liquid H2SO4. The measured data are used to compute the expected opacity of H2SO4 condensates and their effects on the millimeter wave emission from Venus. The cloud condensate is found to have an effect on the emission from Venus. The calculated decrease in brightness temperature is well below the observed decrease in brightness temperature found by de Pater et al. (1991). It is suggested that other constituents such as gaseous H2SO4 also affect the observed variation in the brightness temperature.

  9. Interpretation of observed cosmic microwave background radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollaine, S.

    1978-01-01

    The Alfven and Mendis (1977) conclusion that dust grains in galaxies render the universe opaque to cosmic microwave background at a red shift ratio equal to 40 is challenged by a calculation of the opacity of galactic dust grains to the microwave background radiation from the time of decoupling at emission red shift ratio equal to 1500 to the present in the standard big bang model. In the present calculation, evolutionary effects on grain opacity and abundance are estimated. At wavelengths used in studying the microwave background, the optical depth of the grains is found to be 0.18 when the deceleration parameter equals 0.03, and 0.05 when the deceleration parameter equals 0.5. The results indicate that microwave background can provide information on an early dense phase of the universe.

  10. Anomalous absorption in a-type asymmetric top molecules in cosmic objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Suresh

    Since the detection of the first molecule OH in cosmic objects in 1963, scientists got interested in identification of molecules in the cosmic objects. By now more than 170 molecules have been identified. In order to know about the physical conditions prevailing in the cool cosmic objects and about the chemical reactions going on there, scientists are interested in identification of as many molecules as possible. In some molecular clouds, the kinetic temperature is very low, 10 - 20 K. For such objects, anomalous absorption, i.e., the absorption against the cosmic microwave background, may play an important role for identification of molecules. The transition 111 - 110 at 4.829 GHz of H_2CO was the first one showing the anomalous absorption in the cosmic objects. The molecule H_2CS also has been identified in the cosmic objects. We have discussed about the anomalous absorption of 111 - 110 transition in a-type asymmetric top molecules. For the investigation, the required parameters are the radiative and collisional transition probabilities. We can calculate radiative transition probabilities between the rotational levels. Calculation of collisional rates is a tedious job. In absence of accurate collisional rates, we can investigated the anomalous absorption in a qualitative manner by using the scaled values for collisional rates. We find that anomalous absorption of 111 - 110 transition is possible, provided collisional rates satisfy the required condition.

  11. No evidence for anomalously low variance circles on the sky

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, Adam; Scott, Douglas; Zibin, James P. E-mail: dscott@phas.ubc.ca

    2011-04-01

    In a recent paper, Gurzadyan and Penrose claim to have found directions on the sky centred on which are circles of anomalously low variance in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). These features are presented as evidence for a particular picture of the very early Universe. We attempted to repeat the analysis of these authors, and we can indeed confirm that such variations do exist in the temperature variance for annuli around points in the data. However, we find that this variation is entirely expected in a sky which contains the usual CMB anisotropies. In other words, properly simulated Gaussian CMB data contain just the sorts of variations claimed. Gurzadyan and Penrose have not found evidence for pre-Big Bang phenomena, but have simply re-discovered that the CMB contains structure.

  12. Anomalous sounds from the entry of meteor fireballs.

    PubMed

    Keay, C S

    1980-10-01

    A very bright fireball observed over New South Wales in 1978 produced anomalous sounds clearly audible to some of the observers. An investigation of the phenomenon indicates that bright fireballs radiate considerable electromagnetic energy in the very-low-frequency (VLF) region of the spectrum. A mechanism for the production of VLF emissions from the highly energetic wake turbulence of the fireball is proposed. Trials with human subjects revealed a very extended range of thresholds for the perception of electrically excited sounds among a sample population, particularly when the VLF electric field excites surface acoustic waves in surrounding objects. This fact, together with variable propagation effects and local conditions, can account for the sporadic distribution of reports of anomalous sounds from fireballs and auroras. PMID:17751127

  13. The UARS and EOS Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, J. W.

    1997-01-01

    The Microwave Limb Sounder (MLlS) experiments obtain measurements of atmospheric composition, temperature and pressure by observations of millimeter and submillimeter-wavelength thermal emission as the instrument field-of-view is scanned through the atmospheric limb.

  14. Determination of soluble toxic arsenic species in alga samples by microwave-assisted extraction and high performance liquid chromatography-hydride generation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry.

    PubMed

    García Salgado, S; Quijano Nieto, M A; Bonilla Simón, M M

    2006-09-29

    A microwave-based procedure for arsenic species extraction in alga samples (Sargassum fulvellum, Chlorella vulgaris, Hizikia fusiformis and Laminaria digitata) is described. Extraction time and temperature were tested in order to evaluate the extraction efficiency of the process. Arsenic compounds were extracted in 8 ml of deionised water at 90 degrees C for 5 min. The process was repeated three times. Soluble arsenic compounds extracted accounted for about 78-98% of total arsenic. The results were compared with those obtained in a previous work, where the extraction process was carried out by ultrasonic focussed probe for 30 s. Speciation studies were carried out by high performance liquid chromatography-hydride generation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (HPLC-HG-ICP-AES). The chromatographic method allowed us to separate As(III), As(V), monomethylarsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid in less than 13 min. The chromatographic analysis of the samples allowed us to identify and quantify As(V) in Hizikia sample and Sargasso material, while the four arsenic species studied were found in Chlorella sample. In the case of Laminaria sample, none of these species was identified by HPLC-HG-ICP-AES. However, in the chromatographic analysis of this alga by HPLC-ICP-AES, an unknown arsenic species was detected. PMID:16876177

  15. Anomalous phosphenes in ocular protontherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, E.; Maréchal, F.; Dendale, R.; Mabit, C.; Calugaru, V.; Desjardin, L.; Narici, L.

    2010-04-01

    We have undertaken a clinical ground study of proton-induced light flashes (phosphenes). Patients treated at the Institut Curie - Centre de Protonthérapie in Orsay, France, received radiation therapy to cure ocular and skull-base cancers. Sixty percent of the patients treated for choroidal melanomas using 73 MeV protons report anomalous phosphenes. Delivering a radiation dose on the retina only is not sufficient to trigger the light flash. The present study may be the first indication of phosphenes triggered by protons of few tens of MeV.

  16. Galilean satellites - Anomalous temperatures disputed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, D.; Lebofsky, L. A.; Veeder, G. J.; Cutts, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    Anomalous averaged infrared brightness temperatures of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter reported by Gross (1975) are rejected as falsely conceived and lacking physical reality. It is argued that the calculations of equilibrium temperatures should be corrected, whereupon predictions would be in satisfactory agreement with observations, in conformity with the radiometric method of determining the diameters of asteroids and satellites. The IR irradiance and the related disk-averaged brightness temperature for the spectral band are recommended as more relevant. Attention is drawn to some interesting discrepancies between calculated and observed temperatures of the Jovian satellites which merit further investigation.

  17. Microwave Workshop for Windows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Colin

    1998-01-01

    "Microwave Workshop for Windows" consists of three programs that act as teaching aid and provide a circuit design utility within the field of microwave engineering. The first program is a computer representation of a graphical design tool; the second is an accurate visual and analytical representation of a microwave test bench; the third is a more…

  18. Microwave Radiometric Signatures of Different Surface Types in Deserts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prigent, Catherine; Rossow, William B.; Matthews, Elaine; Marticorena, Beatrice

    1999-01-01

    In arid environments, specific microwave signatures have been observed with the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I). For a given diurnal change in surface skin temperature, the corresponding change in the microwave brightness temperature is smaller than expected. With the help of a 1D, time-dependent heat conduction model, this behavior is explained by microwave radiation coming from different depths in the soil, depending on the soil type and on the microwave radiation frequency. Using the eight-times daily estimates of the surface skin temperature by the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) and a simple Fresnel model, collocated month-long time series of the SSM/I brightness temperatures and the surface skin temperatures give a consistent estimate of the effective microwave emissivity and penetration depth parameters. Results are presented and analyzed for the Sahara and the Arabian Peninsula, for July and November 1992. The case of the Australian desert is also briefly mentioned. Assuming a reasonable thermal diffusivity for the soil in desert areas, the microwave radiation is estimated to come from soil layers down to depths of at least five wavelengths in some locations. Regions where the microwave radiation comes from deeper soil layers also have large microwave emissivity polarization differences and large visible reflectances, suggesting that these areas correspond to sand dune fields.

  19. Hard x ray/microwave spectroscopy of solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, Dale E.

    1992-01-01

    The joint study of hard x ray and microwave observations of solar flares is extremely important because the two complementary ways of viewing the accelerated electrons yield information that cannot be obtained using hard x rays or microwaves alone. The microwaves can provide spatial information lacking in the hard x rays, and the x ray data can give information on the energy distribution of electrons that remove ambiguities in the radio data. A prerequisite for combining the two data-sets, however, is to first understand which range of microwave frequencies correlate best with the hard x rays. This SMM Guest Investigator grant enabled us to combine multi-frequency OVRO data with calibrated hard x ray data to shed light on the relationship between the two emissions. In particular, the questions of which microwave frequencies correspond to which hard x ray energies, and what is the corresponding energy of the electrons that produce both types of emission are investigated.

  20. ERTS-1 anomalous dark patches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strong, A. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Through combined use of imagery from ERTS-1 and NOAA-2 satellites was found that when the sun elevation exceeds 55 degrees, the ERTS-1 imagery is subject to considerable contamination by sunlight even though the actual specular point is nearly 300 nautical miles from nadir. Based on sea surface wave slope information, a wind speed of 10 knots will theoretically provide approximately 0.5 percent incident solar reflectance under observed ERTS multispectral scanner detectors. This reflectance nearly doubles under the influence of a 20 knot wind. The most pronounced effect occurs in areas of calm water where anomalous dark patches are observed. Calm water at distances from the specular point found in ERTS scenes will reflect no solar energy to the multispectral scanner, making these regions stand out as dark areas in all bands in an ocean scene otherwise comprosed by a general diffuse sunlight from rougher ocean surfaces. Anomalous dark patches in the outer parts of the glitter zones may explain the unusual appearance of some scenes.

  1. Geomagnetically trapped anomalous cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect

    Selesnick, R.S.; Cummings, A.C.; Cummings, J.R.

    1995-06-01

    Since its launch in July 1992, the polar-orbiting satellite SAMPEX has been collecting data on geomagnetically trapped heavy ions, predominantly O, N, and Ne, at energies {ge}15 MeV/nucleon and in a narrow L shell range L = 2. Their location, elemental composition, energy spectra, pitch angle distribution, and time variations all support the theory that these particles originated as singly ionized interplanetary anomalous cosmic rays that were stripped of electrons in the Earth`s upper atmosphere and subsequently trapped. The O are observed primarily at pitch angles outside the atmospheric loss cones, consistent with a trapped population, and their distribution there is nearly isotropic. The abundances relative to O of the N, possible Ne, and especially C are lower than the corresponding interplanetary values, which may be indicative of the trapping efficiencies. The distributions of trapped N, O, and Ne in energy and L shell suggest that most of the ions observed at the SAMPEX altitude of {approximately}600 km are not fully stripped when initially trapped. A comparison of the trapped intensity with the much lower interplanetary intensity of anomalous cosmic rays provides model-dependent estimates of the product of the trapping probability and the average trapped particle lifetime against ionization losses in the residual atmosphere for particles that mirror near the SAMPEX altitude. 36 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Microwave radiometry and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polívka, Jiří

    1995-09-01

    The radiometry in general is a method of detecting the radiation of matter. All material bodies and substances radiate energy in the form of electromagnetic waves according to Planck s Law. The frequency spectrum of such thermal radiation is determined, beyond the properties of a blackbody, by the emissivity of surfaces and by the temperature of a particular body. Also, its reflectivity and dispersion take part. Investigating the intensity of radiation and its spectral distribution, one may determine the temperature and characterize the radiating body as well as the ambient medium, all independently of distance. With the above possibilities, the radiometry represents a base of scientific method called remote sensing. Utilizing various models, temperature of distant bodies and images of observed scenes can be determined from the spatial distribution of radiation. In this method, two parameters are of paramount importance: the temperature resolution, which flows out from the detected energy, and the spatial resolution (or, angular resolution), which depends upon antenna size with respect to wavelength. An instrument usable to conduct radiometric observations thus consists of two basic elements: a detector or radiometer, which determines the temperature resolution, and an antenna which determines the angular or spatial resolution. For example, a photographic camera consists of an objective lens (antenna) and of a sensitive element (a film or a CCD). In remote sensing, different lenses and reflectors and different sensors are employed, both adjusted to a particular spectrum region in which certain important features of observed bodies and scenes are present: frequently, UV and IR bands are used. The microwave radiometry utilizes various types of antennas and detectors and provides some advantages in observing various scenes: the temperature resolution is recently being given in milikelvins, while the range extends from zero to millions of Kelvins. Microwaves also offer a chance to penetrate surfaces of non-metallic objects down to some wavelengths, by which it is advantageous in certain applications over e.g. IR waves. An extreme example of capabilities of the microwave radiometry is found in radio astronomy, where it determines temperatures and spectral features of bodies so remote that their distance from us is measured in millions of light years. Other apparatus serve in remote observation of Earth s resources: soils, water regions and atmosphere. Similar systems also have found applications in medical studies of human body, e.g. in cancer and inflammation diagnostics. The paper presents a background of the radiometric method, comments to equipment design and outlines some of the applications.

  3. Microwave sintering of ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, W.B.

    1989-01-01

    Successful adaptation of microwave heating to the densification of ceramic materials require a marriage of microwave and materials technologies. Using an interdisciplinary team of microwave and materials engineers, we have successfully demonstrated the ability to density ceramic materials over a wide range of temperatures. Microstructural evolution during microwave sintering has been found to be significantly different from that observed in conventional sintering. Our results and those of others indicate that microwave sintering has the potential to fabricate components to near net shape with mechanical properties equivalent to hot pressed or hot isostatically pressed material. 6 refs., 11 figs.

  4. Anomalous edge transport in the quantum anomalous Hall state.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Lian, Biao; Zhang, Haijun; Zhang, Shou-Cheng

    2013-08-23

    We predict by first-principles calculations that thin films of a Cr-doped (Bi,Sb)2Te3 magnetic topological insulator have gapless nonchiral edge states coexisting with the chiral edge state. Such gapless nonchiral states are not immune to backscattering, which would explain dissipative transport in the quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) state observed in this system experimentally. Here, we study the edge transport with both chiral and nonchiral states by the Landauer-Büttiker formalism and find that the longitudinal resistance is nonzero, whereas Hall resistance is quantized to h/e2. In particular, the longitudinal resistance can be greatly reduced by adding an extra floating probe even if it is not used, while the Hall resistance remains at the quantized value. We propose several transport experiments to detect the dissipative nonchiral edge channels. These results will facilitate the realization of pure dissipationless transport of QAH states in magnetic topological insulators. PMID:24010462

  5. High brightness microwave lamp

    DOEpatents

    Kirkpatrick, Douglas A.; Dolan, James T.; MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.; Simpson, James E.

    2003-09-09

    An electrodeless microwave discharge lamp includes a source of microwave energy, a microwave cavity, a structure configured to transmit the microwave energy from the source to the microwave cavity, a bulb disposed within the microwave cavity, the bulb including a discharge forming fill which emits light when excited by the microwave energy, and a reflector disposed within the microwave cavity, wherein the reflector defines a reflective cavity which encompasses the bulb within its volume and has an inside surface area which is sufficiently less than an inside surface area of the microwave cavity. A portion of the reflector may define a light emitting aperture which extends from a position closely spaced to the bulb to a light transmissive end of the microwave cavity. Preferably, at least a portion of the reflector is spaced from a wall of the microwave cavity. The lamp may be substantially sealed from environmental contamination. The cavity may include a dielectric material is a sufficient amount to require a reduction in the size of the cavity to support the desired resonant mode.

  6. Simultaneous measurements of OH(A) and OH(X) radicals in microwave plasma jet-assisted combustion of methane/air mixtures around the lean-burn limit using optical emission spectroscopy and cavity ringdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chuji; Wu, Wei

    2013-11-01

    We report a new plasma-assisted combustion system, in which a continuous atmospheric argon microwave plasma jet is employed to enhance combustion of methane/air mixtures in different fuel equivalence ratios (φ) ranging from 0.35 to 1.5. The combustor has three distinct reaction zones along the jet axis (the combustion flame direction): the pure plasma zone, the hybrid plasma-flame zone and the combustion flame zone. Each of the three zones is clearly defined by its emission spectral fingerprints. The plasma zone was featured by strong emissions from OH and NH electronic bands and atomic lines of Ar, Hα and Hβ. In the hybrid zone where the plasma jet met fuel mixtures, emission spectra were dominated by OH, NH and CN transitions and by weak or no atomic transitions. In the combustion flame zone, only weak OH emissions were observed. Simulations of optical emission spectroscopy (OES) yielded gas kinetic temperatures to be 1175 ± 50 K, 1450 ± 50 K and 1865 ± 50 K in each of the three zones, respectively. The plasma-enhancement effect was investigated by comparing the lean-burn limits of the combustion with and without plasma. At the same fuel mixture flow rate of 1.0 standard litre per minute and plasma power of 100 W, the lean-burn limit in terms of the fuel equivalence ratio φ was extended from 0.72 without assistance of the plasma to 0.35 with assistance of the plasma. In addition to OES that was employed to characterize the excited state species including OH(A) in the three different zones, pulsed cavity ringdown spectroscopy was utilized to measure absolute number densities of the ground state OH(X) using the OH A-X (0-0) R2 (1) line in different locations in the flame zone at φ = 0.51, 0.87, 1.10 and 1.45. For rich and lean combustions, significantly different OH(X) number densities and density profiles in the flame zone were observed. At φ = 0.51, the OH(X, V″ = 0, J″ = 0.5) number density increased from 2.29 × 1015 molecule cm-3 at the combustor nozzle to the maximum, 3.13 × 1015 molecule cm-3 at 2 mm downstream, and to the lowest detectable level of 0.12 × 1015 molecule cm-3 in the far downstream where optical emissions were too weak to be detected. Results from the simultaneous measurements of the electronically excited state OH(A) and the ground state OH(X) allow us to discuss the roles of OH(A) and OH(X) in the plasma-assisted ignition and the flame stabilization, respectively.

  7. Microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector

    DOEpatents

    Haddad, Waleed S.; Trebes, James E.

    2002-01-01

    The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector includes a low power pulsed microwave transmitter with a broad-band antenna for producing a directional beam of microwaves, an index of refraction matching cap placed over the patients head, and an array of broad-band microwave receivers with collection antennae. The system of microwave transmitter and receivers are scanned around, and can also be positioned up and down the axis of the patients head. The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector is a completely non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots or to measure blood flow within the head or body. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with specialized antennas and tomographic methods. The system can be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of blood pooling such as occurs with hemorrhagic stroke in human or animal patients as well as for the detection of hemorrhage within a patient's body.

  8. Microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector

    DOEpatents

    Haddad, Waleed S.; Trebes, James E.

    2007-06-05

    The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector includes a low power pulsed microwave transmitter with a broad-band antenna for producing a directional beam of microwaves, an index of refraction matching cap placed over the patients head, and an array of broad-band microwave receivers with collection antennae. The system of microwave transmitter and receivers are scanned around, and can also be positioned up and down the axis of the patients head. The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector is a completely non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots or to measure blood flow within the head or body. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with specialized antennas and tomographic methods. The system can be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of blood pooling such as occurs with hemorrhagic stoke in human or animal patients as well as for the detection of hemorrhage within a patient's body.

  9. Atmospheric Effect on Microwave Polarimetric Passive Remote Sensing of Ocean Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeang, C. P.; Yueh, S. H.; Ding, K. H.; Kong, J. A.

    1998-01-01

    A theoretical emission model of combined ocean surface and atmosphere is presented to predict the microwave emissivity of ocean. The modeled ocean surface is one-dimensional with a random rough profile.

  10. Wanted: A Positive Control for Anomalous Subdiffusion

    PubMed Central

    Saxton, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Anomalous subdiffusion in cells and model systems is an active area of research. The main questions are whether diffusion is anomalous or normal, and if it is anomalous, its mechanism. The subject is controversial, especially the hypothesis that crowding causes anomalous subdiffusion. Anomalous subdiffusion measurements would be strengthened by an experimental standard, particularly one able to cross-calibrate the different types of measurements. Criteria for a calibration standard are proposed. First, diffusion must be anomalous over the length and timescales of the different measurements. The length-scale is fundamental; the time scale can be adjusted through the viscosity of the medium. Second, the standard must be theoretically well understood, with a known anomalous subdiffusion exponent, ideally readily tunable. Third, the standard must be simple, reproducible, and independently characterizable (by, for example, electron microscopy for nanostructures). Candidate experimental standards are evaluated, including obstructed lipid bilayers; aqueous systems obstructed by nanopillars; a continuum percolation system in which a prescribed fraction of randomly chosen obstacles in a regular array is ablated; single-file diffusion in pores; transient anomalous subdiffusion due to binding of particles in arrays such as transcription factors in randomized DNA arrays; and computer-generated physical trajectories. PMID:23260043

  11. Anomalous scattering of light on Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfenstein, Paul; Lee, Pascal; Mccarthy, Derek; Veverka, Joseph

    1991-01-01

    Researchers report here the discovery of an isolated region of anomalously forward scattering materials on the surface of Triton. The researchers' best-fit Hapke parameters indicate that regolith particles in the anomalous scattering region are not only less backward scattering, but also slightly lower in single scattering albedo than average materials on Triton's surface. While it might be possible to account for such differences in terms of differences in particle size and transparency, it is also possible that the anomalous region is compositionally distinct from other terrains. It is noteworthy that, for the anomalous region, there exists a distinctively strong spatial correlation between the photometric ratios at different phase angles, and that, relative to other terrains, the anomalous region reddens at a different rate with increasing phase angle.

  12. Anomalous Growth of Aging Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebenkov, Denis S.

    2016-03-01

    We consider a discrete-time population dynamics with age-dependent structure. At every time step, one of the alive individuals from the population is chosen randomly and removed with probability q_k depending on its age, whereas a new individual of age 1 is born with probability r. The model can also describe a single queue in which the service order is random while the service efficiency depends on a customer's "age" in the queue. We propose a mean field approximation to investigate the long-time asymptotic behavior of the mean population size. The age dependence is shown to lead to anomalous power-law growth of the population at the critical regime. The scaling exponent is determined by the asymptotic behavior of the probabilities q_k at large k. The mean field approximation is validated by Monte Carlo simulations.

  13. Soft theorems from anomalous symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yu-tin; Wen, Congkao

    2015-12-01

    We discuss constraints imposed by soft limits for effective field theories arising from symmetry breaking. In particular, we consider those associated with anomalous conformal symmetry as well as duality symmetries in supergravity. We verify these soft theorems for the dilaton effective action relevant for the a-theorem, as well as the one-loop effective action for N=4 supergravity. Using the universality of leading transcendental coefficients in the α' expansion of string theory amplitudes, we study the matrix elements of operator R 4 with half maximal supersymmetry. We construct the non-linear completion of R 4 that satisfies both single and double soft theorems up to seven points. This supports the existence of duality invariant completion of R 4.

  14. Anomalous Growth of Aging Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebenkov, Denis S.

    2016-04-01

    We consider a discrete-time population dynamics with age-dependent structure. At every time step, one of the alive individuals from the population is chosen randomly and removed with probability q_k depending on its age, whereas a new individual of age 1 is born with probability r. The model can also describe a single queue in which the service order is random while the service efficiency depends on a customer's "age" in the queue. We propose a mean field approximation to investigate the long-time asymptotic behavior of the mean population size. The age dependence is shown to lead to anomalous power-law growth of the population at the critical regime. The scaling exponent is determined by the asymptotic behavior of the probabilities q_k at large k. The mean field approximation is validated by Monte Carlo simulations.

  15. Quantization of anomalous gauge theories

    SciTech Connect

    Wotzasek, C.J.

    1990-01-01

    The author discusses the quantization of Anomalous Gauge Theories (AGT) both in the context of functional integration and canonical Hamiltonian approach. The Wess-Zumino term (WZT), which repairs gauge symmetry in the AGT is discussed and its derivation is presented in the canonical approach as a consequence of the restoration of the first-class nature of the gauge constraints. He applied this technique in a few quantum field theories like the chiral Schwinger model, chiral bosons and massive electrodynamics. This construction of the WZT is intended to contrast with the one derived by functional methods with the use of the Faddeev-Popov trick. To shed some light into the physical significance of the WZ field he discusses a simple quantum mechanical model, the amputated planar rotor.' In the context the WZ field presents itself as a topological charge for the model. Possible generalizations are discussed.

  16. Microwave synthesis of cyanine dyes.

    PubMed

    Winstead, Angela J; Williams, Richard; Zhang, Yongchao; McLean, Charlee; Oyaghire, Stanley

    2010-01-01

    Heptamethine cyanine dyes are a class of near infrared (NIR) dyes that have captured the interest of the scientific community. Although applications that utilize NIR fluorescence technology are rapidly expanding, progress is limited by the lack of availability and cost of suitable compounds that can be utilized as labels and/or probes. Herein, we report the use of microwave assisted organic synthesis of five NIR cyanine dyes in yields ranging from 64-83% with a significant reduction in solvent use. Spectra characteristics including absorbance and emission spectra, molar absorptivity, quantum yield, fluorescence lifetime, and redox potentials were determined for each synthesized NIR cyanine dye. PMID:21721469

  17. Microwave sintering of nanopowder ZnNb2O6: Densification, microstructure and microwave dielectric properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bafrooei, H. Barzegar; Nassaj, E. Taheri; Hu, C. F.; Huang, Q.; Ebadzadeh, T.

    2014-12-01

    High density ZnNb2O6 ceramics were successfully fabricated by microwave sintering of ZnO-Nb2O5 and ZnNb2O6 nanopowders. Phase formation, microstructure and microwave electrical properties of the microwave sintered (MS) and microwave reaction sintered (MRS) specimens were examined using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy and microwave dielectric properties measurement. Specimens were sintered in a temperature range from 950 to 1075 °C for 30 min at an interval of 25 °C using a microwave furnace operated at 2.45 GHz frequency, 3 kW power. XRD pattern revealed the formation of pure columbite phase of ZnNb2O6. The SEM micrographs show grain growth and reduction in porosity of specimens with the increase in sintering temperature. Good combination of microwave dielectric properties (εr~23.6, Qf~64,300 GHz and τf~-66 ppm/°C and εr~24, Qf~75,800 GHz and τf~-64 ppm/°C) was obtained for MS- and MRS-prepared samples at 1000 °C and 1050 °C for 30 min, respectively.

  18. Anomalous Sediment Mixing by Bioturbation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, K. R.; Aubeneau, A. F.; Xie, M.; Packman, A. I.

    2013-12-01

    Bioturbation, the reworking of sediments by animals and plants, is the dominant mode of sediment mixing in low-energy environments, and plays an important role in sedimentary biogeochemical processes. Mixing resulting from bioturbation has historically been modeled as a diffusive process. However, diffusion models often do not provide a sufficient description of sediment mixing due to bioturbation. Stochastic models, such as the continuous time random walk (CTRW) model, provide more general descriptions of mixing behavior that are applicable even when regular diffusion assumptions are not met. Here we present results from an experimental investigation of anomalous sediment mixing by bioturbation in freshwater sediments. Clean and heavy-metal-contaminated sediments were collected from Lake DePue, a backwater lake of the Illinois River. The burrowing worm species Lumbriculus variegatus was introduced to homogenized Lake DePue sediments in aerated aquaria. We then introduced inert fine fluorescent particles to the sediment-water interface. Using time-lapse photography, we observed the mixing of the fluorescent particles into the sediment bed over a two-week period. We developed image analysis software to characterize the concentration distribution of the fluorescent particles as a function of sediment depth, and applied this to the time-series of images to evaluate sediment mixing. We fit a one-dimensional CTRW model to the depth profiles to evaluate the underlying statistical properties of the mixing behavior. This analysis suggests that the sediment mixing caused by L. variegatus burrowing is subdiffusive in time and superdiffusive in space. We also found that heavy metal contamination significantly reduces L. variegatus burrowing, causing increasingly anomalous sediment mixing. This result implies that there can be important feedbacks between sediment chemistry, organism behavior, and sediment mixing that are not considered in current environmental models.

  19. Microwave remote sensing of snowpacks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stiles, W. H.; Ulaby, F. T.

    1980-01-01

    The interaction mechanisms responsible for the microwave backscattering and emission behavior of snow were investigated, and models were developed relating the backscattering coefficient (sigma) and apparent temperature (T) to the physical parameters of the snowpack. The microwave responses to snow wetness, snow water equivalent, snow surface roughness, and to diurnal variations were investigated. Snow wetness was shown to have an increasing effect with increasing frequency and angle of incidence for both active and passive cases. Increasing snow wetness was observed to decrease the magnitude sigma and increase T. Snow water equivalent was also observed to exhibit a significant influence sigma and T. Snow surface configuration (roughness) was observed to be significant only for wet snow surface conditions. Diurnal variations were as large as 15 dB for sigma at 35 GHz and 120 K for T at 37 GHz. Simple models for sigma and T of a snowpack scene were developed in terms of the most significant ground-truth parameters. The coefficients for these models were then evaluated; the fits to the sigma and T measurements were generally good. Finally, areas of needed additional observations were outlined and experiments were specified to further the understanding of the microwave-snowpack interaction mechanisms.

  20. Effect of different glycation agents on Cu(II) binding to human serum albumin, studied by liquid chromatography, nitrogen microwave-plasma atomic-emission spectrometry, inductively-coupled-plasma mass spectrometry, and high-resolution molecular-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Corrales Escobosa, Alma Rosa; Wrobel, Katarzyna; Yanez Barrientos, Eunice; Jaramillo Ortiz, Sarahi; Ramirez Segovia, Alejandra Sarahi; Wrobel, Kazimierz

    2015-02-01

    The ability of human serum albumin to capture unbound copper under different clinical conditions is an important variable potentially affecting homeostasis of this element. Here, we propose a simple procedure based on size-exclusion chromatography with on-line UV and nitrogen microwave-plasma atomic-emission spectrometry (MP-AES) for quantitative evaluation of Cu(II) binding to HSA upon its glycation in vitro. The Cu-to-protein molar ratio for non-glycated albumin was 0.98 ± 0.09; for HSA modified with glyoxal (GO), methylglyoxal (MGO), oxoacetic acid (GA), and glucose (Glc), the ratios were 1.30 ± 0.22, 0.72 ± 0.14, 0.50 ± 0.06, and 0.95 ± 0.12, respectively. The results were confirmed by using ICP-MS as an alternative detection system. A reduced ability of glycated protein to coordinate Cu(II) was associated with alteration of the N-terminal metal-binding site during incubation with MGO and GA. In contrast, glycation with GO seemed to generate new binding sites as a result of tertiary structural changes in HSA. Capillary reversed-phase liquid chromatography with electrospray-ionization quadrupole-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry enabled detection and identification of Cu(II) coordinated to the N-terminal metal-binding site (Cu(II)-DAHK) in all tryptic digests analyzed. This is the first report confirming Cu(II)-DAHK species in HSA by means of high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry, and the first report on the use of MP-AES in combination with chromatographic separation. PMID:25428457

  1. Receivers for the Microwave Radiometer on Juno

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maiwald, F.; Russell, D.; Dawson, D.; Hatch, W.; Brown, S.; Oswald, J.; Janssen, M.

    2009-01-01

    Six receivers for the MicroWave Radiometer (MWR) are currently under development at JPL. These receivers cover a frequency range of 0.6 to 22 GHz in approximately octave steps, with 4 % bandwidth. For calibration and diagnosis three noise diodes and a Dicke switch are integrated into each receiver. Each receiver is connected to its own antenna which is mounted with its bore sights perpendicular to the spin axis of the spacecraft. As the spacecraft spins at 2 RPM, the antenna field of view scans Jupiter's atmosphere from limb to nadir to limb, measuring microwave emission down to 1000-bar.

  2. Microwave power generation by magnetic superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littlejohn, S.; Nogaret, A.; Davies, S. R.; Henini, M.; Beere, H. E.; Ritchie, D. A.

    2011-12-01

    We report on microwave power emission by ballistic electrons as they cross a region of spatially inhomogeneous magnetic field. Magnetic finger gates were fabricated at the surface of high mobility GaAs/AlGaAs Hall bars embedded in a coplanar waveguide. By modulating the current injected through the Hall bar and measuring the second harmonic of the signal rectified by a Schottky detector, we obtain the microwave power emitted by the superlattice. This power (˜6 W m-2) is compared to the fluorescence of electron spins that undergo spin resonance as they cross domains of opposite magnetic field.

  3. Microwave radiometric signatures of different surface types in deserts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prigent, Catherine; Rossow, William B.; Matthews, Elaine; Marticorena, BéAtrice

    1999-05-01

    In arid environments, specific microwave signatures have been observed with the Special Sensor Microwave /Imager (SSM/I). For a given diurnal change in surface skin temperature, the corresponding change in the microwave brightness temperature is smaller than expected. With the help of a one-dimensional, time-dependent heat conduction model, this behavior is explained by microwave radiation coming from different depths in the soil, depending on the soil type and on the microwave radiation frequency. Using the 8-times daily estimates of the surface skin temperature by the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) and a simple Fresnel model, collocated month-long time series of the SSM/I brightness temperatures and the surface skin temperatures give a consistent estimate of the effective microwave emissivity and penetration depth parameters. Results are presented and analyzed for the Sahara and the Arabian Peninsula, for July and November 1992. The case of the Australian desert is also briefly mentioned. Assuming a reasonable thermal diffusivity for the soil in desert areas, the microwave radiation is estimated to come from soil layers down to depths of at least five wavelengths in some locations. Regions where the microwave radiation comes from deeper soil layers also have large microwave emissivity polarization differences and large visible reflectances, suggesting that these areas correspond to sand dune fields. Two soil classification data sets show good correspondence of sand dunes and the microwave signature of significant penetration. This suggests that this analysis of microwave observations, along with other remote sensing technics, can be used to map the sand dunes in large, poorly surveyed deserts; a map of the sand dune fields in the Sahara and Saudi Arabia is derived from SSM/I observations.

  4. Anomalous neuronal responses to fluctuated inputs.

    PubMed

    Hosaka, Ryosuke; Sakai, Yutaka

    2015-10-01

    The irregular firing of a cortical neuron is thought to result from a highly fluctuating drive that is generated by the balance of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs. A previous study reported anomalous responses of the Hodgkin-Huxley neuron to the fluctuated inputs where an irregularity of spike trains is inversely proportional to an input irregularity. In the current study, we investigated the origin of these anomalous responses with the Hindmarsh-Rose neuron model, map-based models, and a simple mixture of interspike interval distributions. First, we specified the parameter regions for the bifurcations in the Hindmarsh-Rose model, and we confirmed that the model reproduced the anomalous responses in the dynamics of the saddle-node and subcritical Hopf bifurcations. For both bifurcations, the Hindmarsh-Rose model shows bistability in the resting state and the repetitive firing state, which indicated that the bistability was the origin of the anomalous input-output relationship. Similarly, the map-based model that contained bistability reproduced the anomalous responses, while the model without bistability did not. These results were supported by additional findings that the anomalous responses were reproduced by mimicking the bistable firing with a mixture of two different interspike interval distributions. Decorrelation of spike trains is important for neural information processing. For such spike train decorrelation, irregular firing is key. Our results indicated that irregular firing can emerge from fluctuating drives, even weak ones, under conditions involving bistability. The anomalous responses, therefore, contribute to efficient processing in the brain. PMID:26565270

  5. Parallel Telescope Observations of Anomalous Refraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Suzanne; McGraw, J.; Zimmer, P.; Pier, J.

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of an observing campaign at the US Naval Observatory, Flagstaff Station examining the relationship between anomalous refraction and coherent motions in the atmosphere. Anomalous refraction is a quasi-periodic error in astrometric positions with characteristic timescales of minutes to tens of minutes and amplitudes of up to several tenths of an arcsecond. Three dissimilar telescopes observed the same star field in drift-scan mode in tandem with a suite of atmospheric instrumentation for nine nights in 2008. All resulting astrometric data, when referenced against standard catalogs, such as UCAC2 or the Carlsberg Meridian Catalog, consistently exhibits residuals typical of anomalous refraction as described by previously published accounts. Comparing residuals from astrometric data taken simultaneously on multiple telescopes indicates whether the observed anomalous refraction is due to atmospheric effects that are coherent over spatial scales corresponding to the telescope separation (e.g. atmospheric gravity waves), or more localized sources (e.g. telescope motion, dome seeing). Atmospheric observations (wind, surface pressure, temperature, etc.) provide additional information on which conditions may be related to the occurrence of anomalous refraction and allow correlation of specific astrometric error timescales and events with certain atmospheric or weather conditions. This research constitutes the first detailed study of anomalous refraction employing multiple telescopes, weather instrumentation and instruments specifically designed to observe large-scale coherent atmospheric motions. As such these results provide valuable new insight into the phenomenon of anomalous refraction.

  6. Microwave Lightcraft concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Looking like an alien space ship or a flying saucer the Microwave Lightcraft is an unconventional launch vehicle approach for delivering payload to orbit using power transmitted via microwaves. Microwaves re beamed from either a ground station or an orbiting solar power satellite to the lightcraft. The energy received breaks air molecules into a plasma and a magnetohydrodynamic fanjet provides the lifting force. Only a small amount of propellant is required for circulation, attitude control and deorbit.

  7. Predicting molecular scale skin-effect in electrochemical impedance due to anomalous subdiffusion mediated adsorption phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushagra, Arindam

    2016-02-01

    Anomalous subdiffusion governs the processes which are not energetically driven, on a molecular scale. This paper proposes a model to predict the response of electrochemical impedance due to such diffusion process. Previous works considered the use of fractional calculus to predict the impedance behaviour in response to the anomalous diffusion. Here, we have developed an expression which predicts the skin-effect, marked by an increase in the impedance with increasing frequency, in this regime. Negative inductances have also been predicted as a consequence of the inertial response of adsorbed species upon application of frequency-mediated perturbations. It might help the researchers in the fields of impedimetric sensors to choose the working frequency and those working in the field of batteries to choose the parameters, likewise. This work would shed some light into the molecular mechanisms governing the impedance when exposed to frequency-based perturbations like electromagnetic waves (microwaves to ionizing radiations) and in charge storage devices like batteries etc.

  8. Microwave enhanced diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, J.D.; Blake, R.D. ); Kenkre, V.M. )

    1991-01-01

    The observation of more rapid reaction and/or sintering during microwave processing of ceramics has lead to speculation that microwave processing results in enhanced diffusion.'' The loss mechanisms by which microwaves interact with a crystal lattice have been reviewed. These mechanisms were evaluated with regard to the atomic theory of diffusion. The potential for these loss mechanisms to influence atomic diffusion, and thus produce enhancement will be discussed. Existing evidence, both direct and indirect, regarding microwave enhanced diffusion has been reviewed and will be discussed along with recent experimental data. 15 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Experimental phasing using zinc anomalous scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, Sun-Shin; An, Young Jun; Jeong, Chang-Sook; Kim, Min-Kyu; Lee, Sung-Gyu; Lee, Kwang-Hoon; Oh, Byung-Ha

    2012-09-01

    The surface of proteins can be charged with zinc ions and the anomalous signals from these zinc ions can be used for structure determination of proteins. Zinc is a suitable metal for anomalous dispersion phasing methods in protein crystallography. Structure determination using zinc anomalous scattering has been almost exclusively limited to proteins with intrinsically bound zinc(s). Here, it is reported that multiple zinc ions can easily be charged onto the surface of proteins with no intrinsic zinc-binding site by using zinc-containing solutions. Zn derivatization of protein surfaces appears to be a largely unnoticed but promising method of protein structure determination.

  10. Anomalous dispersion enhanced Cerenkov phase-matching

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalczyk, T.C.; Singer, K.D.; Cahill, P.A.

    1993-11-01

    The authors report on a scheme for phase-matching second harmonic generation in polymer waveguides based on the use of anomalous dispersion to optimize Cerenkov phase matching. They have used the theoretical results of Hashizume et al. and Onda and Ito to design an optimum structure for phase-matched conversion. They have found that the use of anomalous dispersion in the design results in a 100-fold enhancement in the calculated conversion efficiency. This technique also overcomes the limitation of anomalous dispersion phase-matching which results from absorption at the second harmonic. Experiments are in progress to demonstrate these results.

  11. Anomalous and classical neutral beam fast ion diffusion on JET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranov, Yu F.; Jenkins, I.; Alper, B.; Challis, C. D.; Conroy, S.; Kiptily, V.; Ongena, J.; Popovichev, S.; Smeulders, P.; Surrey, E.; Zastrow, K.-D.; JET EFDA contributors

    2009-04-01

    Trace tritium experiments (TTE) on JET were analysed using Monte Carlo modelling of the neutron emission resulting from the neutral beam injection (NBI) of short (~300 ms) tritium (T) beam blips into reversed shear, hybrid ELMy H-mode and L-mode deuterium plasmas for a wide range of plasma parameters. The calculated neutron fluxes from deuterium-tritium (DT) reactions could only be made consistent with all plasmas by applying an artificial reduction of the T beam power in the modelling of between 20% and 40%. A similar discrepancy has previously been observed in both JET (Gorini et al 2004 Proc. 31st EPS Conf. on Plasma Physics (London, UK) vol 28G (ECA)) and TFTR (Ruskov et al 1999 Phys. Rev. Lett. 82 924), although no mechanism has yet been found that could explain such a difference in the measured T beam power. Applying this correction in the T beam power, good agreement between calculated and measured DT neutron emission profiles was obtained in low to moderate line averaged density (\\overline {n_\\rme} <4\\times 10^{19}\\,m^{-3}) ELMy H-Mode plasmas assuming that the fast beam ions experience no, or relatively small, anomalous diffusion (Dan Lt 0.5 m2 s-1). However, the modelled neutron profiles do not agree with measurements in higher density plasmas using the same assumption and the disagreement between the measured and calculated shape of the neutron profile increases with plasma density. In this paper it is demonstrated that large anomalous losses of fast ions have to be assumed in the simulations to improve agreement between experimental and simulated neutron profiles, characterized by the goodness of fit. Various types of fast ion losses are modelled to explain aspects of the data, though further investigation will be required in order to gain a more detailed understanding of the nature of those anomalous losses.

  12. Ultraviolet atomic emission detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, W.; Peterson, N. C.; Bass, A. M.; Kurylo, M. J., III (Inventor)

    1972-01-01

    A device and method are provided for performing qualitative and quantitative elemental analysis through the utilization of a vacuum UV chromatographic detector. The method involves the use of a carrier gas at low pressure. The gas carries a sample to a gas chromatograph column; the column output is directed to a microwave cavity. In this cavity, a low pressure microwave discharge produces fragmentation of the compounds present and generates intense atomic emissions in the vacuum ultraviolet. These emissions are isolated by a monochromator and measured by photometer to establish absolute concentration for the elements.

  13. Anomalous biased diffusion in networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skarpalezos, Loukas; Kittas, Aristotelis; Argyrakis, Panos; Cohen, Reuven; Havlin, Shlomo

    2013-07-01

    We study diffusion with a bias toward a target node in networks. This problem is relevant to efficient routing strategies in emerging communication networks like optical networks. Bias is represented by a probability p of the packet or particle to travel at every hop toward a site that is along the shortest path to the target node. We investigate the scaling of the mean first passage time (MFPT) with the size of the network. We find by using theoretical analysis and computer simulations that for random regular (RR) and Erdős-Rényi networks, there exists a threshold probability, pth, such that for panomalously as Nα, where N is the number of nodes, and α depends on p. For p>pth, the MFPT scales logarithmically with N. The threshold value pth of the bias parameter for which the regime transition occurs is found to depend only on the mean degree of the nodes. An exact solution for every value of p is given for the scaling of the MFPT in RR networks. The regime transition is also observed for the second moment of the probability distribution function, the standard deviation. For the case of scale-free (SF) networks, we present analytical bounds and simulations results showing that the MFPT scales at most as lnN to a positive power for any finite bias, which means that in SF networks even a very small bias is considerably more efficient in comparison to unbiased walk.

  14. Ignition characteristics of methane/air premixed mixture by microwave-enhanced laser-induced breakdown plasma.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Atsushi; Moon, Ahsa; Ikeda, Yuji; Hayashi, Jun; Akamatsu, Fumiteru

    2013-11-01

    A microwave-enhanced plasma generation technique was combined with laser-induced ignition to improve ignition characteristics. A locally intensified microwave field was formed near the laser-induced breakdown plasma. As the plasma absorbed the microwaves, the plasma emission intensity increased. The plasma lifetime could be controlled by changing the microwave oscillation duration. Furthermore, the microwave-enhanced laser-induced breakdown plasma improved the minimum ignition energy of the methane/air pre-mixture with just a small amount of absorbed microwave energy. PMID:24514928

  15. On the mechanism of electromagnetic microwave absorption in superfluid helium

    SciTech Connect

    Pashitskii, E. A. Pentegov, V. I.

    2012-08-15

    In experiments on electromagnetic (EM) wave absorption in the microwave range in superfluid (SF) helium [1-3], a narrow EM field absorption line with a width on the order of (20-200) kHz was observed against the background of a wide absorption band with a width of 30-40 GHz at frequencies f{sub 0} Almost-Equal-To 110-180 GHz corresponding to the roton gap energy {Delta}{sub r}(T) in the temperature range 1.4-2.2 K. Using the so-called flexoelectric mechanism of polarization of helium atoms ({sup 4}He) in the presence of density gradients in SF helium (HeII), we show that nonresonance microwave absorption in the frequency range 170-200 GHz can be due to the existence of time-varying local density gradients produced by roton excitations in the bulk HeII. The absorption bandwidth is determined by the roton-roton scattering time in an equilibrium Boltzmann gas of rotons, which is t{sub r-r} Almost-Equal-To 3.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -11} s at T = 1.4 K and decreases upon heating. We propose that the anomalously narrow microwave resonance absorption line in HeII at the roton frequency f{sub 0}(T) = {Delta}r(T)/2{pi}h appears due to the following two factors: (i) the discrete structure of the spectrum of the surface EM resonator modes in the form of a periodic sequence of narrow peaks and (ii) the presence of a stationary dipole layer in HeII near the resonator surface, which forms due to polarization of {sup 4}He atoms under the action of the density gradient associated with the vanishing of the density of the SF component at the solid wall. For this reason, the relaxation of nonequilibrium rotons generated in such a surface dipole layer is strongly suppressed, and the shape and width of the microwave resonance absorption line are determined by the roton density of states, which has a sharp peak at the edge of the roton gap in the case of weak dissipation. The effective dipole moments of rotons in the dipole layer can be directed either along or across the normal to the resonator surface, which explains the experimentally observed symmetric doublet splitting of the resonance absorption line in an external dc electric field perpendicular to the resonator surface. We show that negative absorption (induced emission) of EM field quanta observed after triggering a Kapitza 'heat gun' occurs when the occupation numbers for roton states due to 'pumping' of rotons exceed the occupation numbers of EM field photons in the resonator.

  16. Evidence for anomalous nuclei among relativistic projectile fragments at Bevalac energies

    SciTech Connect

    Heckman, H.H.

    1981-01-01

    Two independent emulsion experiments using beams of /sup 16/O and /sup 56/Fe at approximately 2 GeV/nucleon find that the reaction mean free paths of projectile fragments (PF) with Z between 3 and 26 are shorter for a few centimeters after their emission than at larger distances, or than predicted from experiments on beam nuclei. Under the assumption that there are two populations of PF, a best fit to the data is obtained when approximately 6% of the PF have an anomalously short mean free path. The anomalous property of PF persists in subsequent fragmentation reactions. 6 figures. (RWR)

  17. Remote sensing of snowpack with microwave radiometers for hydrologic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiue, J. C.; Chang, A. T. C.; Boyne, H.; Ellerbruch, D.

    1978-01-01

    A microwave remote sensing of snowpack experiment is described and some preliminary data presented. A mobile field laboratory consisting of a four-frequency (5, 10.7, 18 and 37 GHz), all with dual linear (vertical and horizontal) polarizations, microwave radiometer system attached to a truck-mounted aerial lift was used to study the microwave emission characteristics of snowpacks in the Colorado Rocky Mountains during the winter of 1977-78. The influence of snowpack physical parameters such as water equivalent, grain size, and melt-freeze cycle on its microwave brightness temperature and its implications to the application of microwave radiometric technique to remote sensing of snowpack for runoff prediction are discussed.

  18. Microwave breakdown on the surface of ionic crystals in vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Batanov, G.M.; Ivanov, V.A.; Konyzhev, M.E.

    1995-12-31

    We report a new type of breakdown - surface microwave breakdown of an insulating crystal in vacuum during excitation of the near-surface layer of the crystal by electrons from a nonresonant secondary-emission electron discharge (SEED) in the field of single pulse microwave radiation. Cleaved or polished LiF, NaCl, KCl or some others crystals are positioned through a cutoff section at the electric-field maximum of a standing TE{sub 10} wave of a rectangular waveguide with a cross section of 120 x 57 mm{sup 2}. The waveguide is evacuated by titanium pumps to a pressure of 10{sup -4} Pa. A microwave pulse with a length {tau} from 1 to 60 {mu}s and a power P{sub o} up to 12 MW propagated from the magnetron to the vacuum section along a microwave line. The wavelength of microwave radiation in the waveguide is {lambda}{sub g} = 20 cm.

  19. Tunneling Anomalous and Spin Hall Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matos-Abiague, A.; Fabian, J.

    2015-07-01

    We predict, theoretically, the existence of the anomalous Hall effect when a tunneling current flows through a tunnel junction in which only one of the electrodes is magnetic. The interfacial spin-orbit coupling present in the barrier region induces a spin-dependent momentum filtering in the directions perpendicular to the tunneling current, resulting in a skew tunneling even in the absence of impurities. This produces an anomalous Hall conductance and spin Hall currents in the nonmagnetic electrode when a bias voltage is applied across the tunneling heterojunction. If the barrier is composed of a noncentrosymmetric material, the anomalous Hall conductance and spin Hall currents become anisotropic with respect to both the magnetization and crystallographic directions, allowing us to separate this interfacial phenomenon from the bulk anomalous and spin Hall contributions. The proposed effect should be useful for proving and quantifying the interfacial spin-orbit fields in metallic and metal-semiconductor systems.

  20. Enhancing phosphorylation cascades by anomalous diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellmann, M.; Heermann, D. W.; Weiss, M.

    2012-03-01

    A key event in many cellular signaling cascades is the multiple phosphorylation of proteins by specialized kinases. A prototypical example is the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) that alters the cell's gene transcription after having been phosphorylated twice by the same kinase. Here, we show that anomalous diffusion, induced, for example, by cytoplasmic crowding, can significantly improve the activation of MAPK. Our results on anomalous diffusion with the characteristics of fractional Brownian motion and obstructed diffusion compare favorably to very recent biochemical data on MAPK activation at varying degrees of cytoplasmic crowding. Our results predict any Michaelis-Menten scheme in which a substrate is modified by the same enzyme several times to show an increased performance due to anomalous diffusion when dissociation rates of the intermediate enzyme-substrate complexes are high while the irreversible catalytic step is slow. Thus, crowding-induced anomalous diffusion can strongly alter the behavior of many cellular signaling pathways.

  1. The charmonium dissociation in an ''anomalous wind''

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sadofyev, Andrey V.; Yin, Yi

    2016-01-11

    We study the charmonium dissociation in a strongly coupled chiral plasma in the presence of magnetic field and axial charge imbalance. This type of plasma carries "anomalous flow" induced by the chiral anomaly and exhibits novel transport phenomena such as chiral magnetic effect. We found that the "anomalous flow" would modify the charmonium color screening length by using the gauge/gravity correspondence. We derive an analytical expression quantifying the "anomalous flow" experienced by a charmonium for a large class of chiral plasma with a gravity dual. We elaborate on the similarity and it qualitative difference between anomalous effects on the charmoniummore » color screening length which are model-dependent and those on the heavy quark drag force which are fixed by the second law of thermodynamics. As a result, we speculate on the possible charmonium dissociation induced by the chiral anomaly in heavy ion collisions.« less

  2. Crystallographic phasing from weak anomalous signals.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qun; Hendrickson, Wayne A

    2015-10-01

    The exploitation of anomalous signals for biological structural solution is maturing. Single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD) is dominant in de novo structure analysis. Nevertheless, for challenging structures where the resolution is low (dmin≥3.5Å) or where only lighter atoms (Z≤20) are present, as for native macromolecules, solved SAD structures are still scarce. With the recent rapid development in crystal handling, beamline instrumentation, optimization of data collection strategies, use of multiple crystals and structure determination technologies, the weak anomalous diffraction signals are now robustly measured and should be used for routine SAD structure determination. The review covers these recent advances on weak anomalous signals measurement, analysis and utilization. PMID:26432413

  3. Anomalous right upper lobe venous drainage

    PubMed Central

    Tarazi, M.; Mayooran, N.; Philip, B.; Anjum, M.N.; O'Regan, K.; Doddakula, K.

    2016-01-01

    Lung resections are usually not associated with significant bleeding, but can be fatal, especially in cases of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Anomalous vascular structures could be a major reason for unexpected bleeding in such surgeries. We present a case of an aberrant upper lobe pulmonary vein that was encountered posterior to the right upper lobe bronchus during a right upper lobectomy via thoracotomy. The anomalous pulmonary vein was identified preoperatively on a computed tomography (CT) scan and hence was looked for before dividing the bronchus. Many centres are adopting the VATS approach for performing lung resections. If an anomalous vein is present posterior to the bronchus, it might be in a blind spot and could be damaged inadvertently, leading to profuse and potentially fatal bleeding. We conclude that the identification of anomalous vascular structures prior to surgery with the help of CT helps in avoiding adverse outcomes. PMID:27016516

  4. The charmonium dissociation in an "anomalous wind"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadofyev, Andrey V.; Yin, Yi

    2016-01-01

    We study the charmonium dissociation in a strongly coupled chiral plasma in the presence of magnetic field and axial charge imbalance. This type of plasma carries "anomalous flow" induced by the chiral anomaly and exhibits novel transport phenomena such as chiral magnetic effect. We found that the "anomalous flow" would modify the charmonium color screening length by using the gauge/gravity correspondence. We derive an analytical expression quantifying the "anomalous flow" experienced by a charmonium for a large class of chiral plasma with a gravity dual. We elaborate on the similarity and qualitative difference between anomalous effects on the charmonium color screening length which are model-dependent and those on the heavy quark drag force which are fixed by the second law of thermodynamics. We speculate on the possible charmonium dissociation induced by the chiral anomaly in heavy ion collisions.

  5. Anomalous Diffraction in Crystallographic Phase Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Hendrickson, Wayne A.

    2014-01-01

    X-ray diffraction patterns from crystals of biological macromolecules contain sufficient information to define atomic structures, but atomic positions are inextricable without having electron-density images. Diffraction measurements provide amplitudes, but the computation of electron density also requires phases for the diffracted waves. The resonance phenomenon known as anomalous scattering offers a powerful solution to this phase problem. Exploiting scattering resonances from diverse elements, the methods of multiwavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD) and single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD) now predominate for de novo determinations of atomic-level biological structures. This review describes the physical underpinnings of anomalous diffraction methods, the evolution of these methods to their current maturity, the elements, procedures and instrumentation used for effective implementation, and the realm of applications. PMID:24726017

  6. A discussion on the existence of the anomalous high and the anomalous low

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, N.

    2015-10-01

    The air flow in a three-way balance between the Coriolis force, the centrifugal force and the pressure gradient force, i.e., the gradient wind, is discussed. The author studies formation mechanisms and possible existence of four types of gradient wind (the normal high, the normal low, the anomalous high and the anomalous low), and proposes reasonable explanation of the evolution of the gradient wind, especially for the anomalous high and the anomalous low, both of which are considered to be pure mathematical solutions and are overlooked in classic literature.

  7. Effects of Microwave Radiation on Oil Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmaeili, Abdollah

    2011-12-01

    A variety of oil recovery methods have been developed and applied to mature and depleted reservoirs in order to improve the efficiency. Microwave radiation oil recovery method is a relatively new method and has been of great interest in the recent years. Crude oil is typically co-mingled with suspended solids and water. To increase oil recovery, it is necessary to remove these components. The separation of oil from water and solids using gravitational settling methods is typically incomplete. Oil-in-water and oil-water-solid emulsions can be demulsified and separated into their individual layers by microwave radiation. The data also show that microwave separation is faster than gravity separation and can be faster than conventional heating at many conditions. After separation of emulsion into water and oil layers, water can be discharged and oil is collected. High-frequency microwave recycling process can recover oil and gases from oil shale, residual oil, drill cuttings, tar sands oil, contaminated dredge/sediments, tires and plastics with significantly greater yields and lower costs than are available utilizing existing known technologies. This process is environmentally friendly, fuel-generating recycler to reduce waste, cut emissions, and save energy. This paper presents a critical review of Microwave radiation method for oil recovery.

  8. Microwave device investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, K. K. D.; Haddad, G. I.; Kwok, S. P.; Masnari, N. A.; Trew, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    Materials, devices and novel schemes for generation, amplification and detection of microwave and millimeter wave energy are studied. Considered are: (1) Schottky-barrier microwave devices; (2) intermodulation products in IMPATT diode amplifiers; and (3) harmonic generation using Read diode varactors.

  9. MICROWAVES IN ORGANIC SYNTHESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of microwaves, a non-ionizing radiation, on organic reactions is described both in polar solvents and under solvent-free conditions. The special applications are highlighted in the context of solventless organic synthesis which involve microwave (MW) exposure of neat r...

  10. Television Microwave--1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Roger E.

    Since it became a reality just before World War II, terrestrial microwave has improved in systems and equipments, but with the improvements have come higher costs. Television microwave costs are so high because users are demanding more capability, land prices have increased, operating costs are higher, and there is frequency congestion along many

  11. Variable frequency microwave heating apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Bible, D.W.; Lauf, R.J.; Johnson, A.C.; Thigpen, L.T.

    1999-10-05

    A variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a multi-mode microwave cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) and a high-power microwave amplifier (20) or a high-power microwave oscillator (14). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the high-power microwave oscillator (14) or microwave amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction and amplitude of signals incident upon and reflected from the microwave cavity (34). A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

  12. Variable frequency microwave heating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Bible, Don W.; Lauf, Robert J.; Johnson, Arvid C.; Thigpen, Larry T.

    1999-01-01

    A variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a multi-mode microwave cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) and a high-power microwave amplifier (20) or a high-power microwave oscillator (14). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the high-power microwave oscillator (14) or microwave amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction and amplitude of signals incident upon and reflected from the microwave cavity (34). A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

  13. Satellite microwave observations of soil moisture variations. [by the microwave radiometer on the Nimbus 5 satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmugge, T. J.; Rango, A.; Neff, R.

    1975-01-01

    The electrically scanning microwave radiometer (ESMR) on the Nimbus 5 satellite was used to observe microwave emissions from vegetated and soil surfaces over an Illinois-Indiana study area, the Mississippi Valley, and the Great Salt Lake Desert in Utah. Analysis of microwave brightness temperatures (T sub B) and antecedent rainfall over these areas provided a way to monitor variations of near-surface soil moisture. Because vegetation absorbs microwave emission from the soil at the 1.55 cm wavelength of ESMR, relative soil moisture measurements can only be obtained over bare or sparsely vegetated soil. In general T sub B increased during rainfree periods as evaporation of water and drying of the surface soil occurs, and drops in T sub B are experienced after significant rainfall events wet the soil. Microwave observations from space are limited to coarse resolutions (10-25 km), but it may be possible in regions with sparse vegetation cover to estimate soil moisture conditions on a watershed or agricultural district basis, particularly since daily observations can be obtained.

  14. Microwave hydrology: A trilogy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacey, J. M.; Johnston, E. J.; Girard, M. A.; Regusters, H. A.

    1985-01-01

    Microwave hydrology, as the term in construed in this trilogy, deals with the investigation of important hydrological features on the Earth's surface as they are remotely, and passively, sensed by orbiting microwave receivers. Microwave wavelengths penetrate clouds, foliage, ground cover, and soil, in varying degrees, and reveal the occurrence of standing liquid water on and beneath the surface. The manifestation of liquid water appearing on or near the surface is reported by a microwave receiver as a signal with a low flux level, or, equivalently, a cold temperature. Actually, the surface of the liquid water reflects the low flux level from the cosmic background into the input terminals of the receiver. This trilogy describes and shows by microwave flux images: the hydrological features that sustain Lake Baykal as an extraordinary freshwater resource; manifestations of subsurface water in Iran; and the major water features of the Congo Basin, a rain forest.

  15. Radiofrequency and microwave radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hileman, B.

    1982-08-01

    This paper deals with the controversy and disagreement surrounding the issue of harm from radiofrequency (RF) and microwaves. The radiation standards adopted by different countries are quite divergent with the least strict standard for microwave exposure differing from the most strict by a factor of 100. Among the most powerful sources of RF and microwave radiation are radar systems used for tracking and guidance purposes, as well as transmiters used in satellite communication systems. RF and microwaves are nonionizing because the energy of each photon is relatively low. Biological systems exposed to RF and microwaves acquire induced electric and magnetic fields which can be focused by a combination of high refractive index within an animal and convex body contours. The effects on animals and humans are summarized. (KRM)

  16. Microwave ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani; Thomae, Rainer W.

    2005-07-26

    A compact microwave ion source has a permanent magnet dipole field, a microwave launcher, and an extractor parallel to the source axis. The dipole field is in the form of a ring. The microwaves are launched from the middle of the dipole ring using a coaxial waveguide. Electrons are heated using ECR in the magnetic field. The ions are extracted from the side of the source from the middle of the dipole perpendicular to the source axis. The plasma density can be increased by boosting the microwave ion source by the addition of an RF antenna. Higher charge states can be achieved by increasing the microwave frequency. A xenon source with a magnetic pinch can be used to produce intense EUV radiation.

  17. HARMONIC IN-PAINTING OF COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND SKY BY CONSTRAINED GAUSSIAN REALIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jaiseung; Naselsky, Pavel; Mandolesi, Nazzareno

    2012-05-01

    The presence of astrophysical emissions between the last scattering surface and our vantage point requires us to apply a foreground mask on cosmic microwave background (CMB) sky maps, leading to large cuts around the Galactic equator and numerous holes. Since many CMB analysis, in particular on the largest angular scales, may be performed on a whole-sky map in a more straightforward and reliable manner, it is of utmost importance to develop an efficient method to fill in the masked pixels in a way compliant with the expected statistical properties and the unmasked pixels. In this Letter, we consider the Monte Carlo simulation of a constrained Gaussian field and derive it CMB anisotropy in harmonic space, where a feasible implementation is possible with good approximation. We applied our method to simulated data, which shows that our method produces a plausible whole-sky map, given the unmasked pixels, and a theoretical expectation. Subsequently, we applied our method to the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe foreground-reduced maps and investigated the anomalous alignment between quadrupole and octupole components. From our investigation, we find that the alignment in the foreground-reduced maps is even higher than the Internal Linear Combination map. We also find that the V-band map has higher alignment than other bands, despite the expectation that the V-band map has less foreground contamination than other bands. Therefore, we find it hard to attribute the alignment to residual foregrounds. Our method will be complementary to other efforts on in-painting or reconstructing the masked CMB data, and of great use to Planck surveyor and future missions.

  18. Microwave radiation hazards around large microwave antenna.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klascius, A.

    1973-01-01

    The microwave radiation hazards associated with the use of large antennas become increasingly more dangerous to personnel as the transmitters go to ever higher powers. The near-field area is of the greatest concern. It has spill over from subreflector and reflections from nearby objects. Centimeter waves meeting in phase will reinforce each other and create hot spots of microwave energy. This has been measured in front of and around several 26-meter antennas. Hot spots have been found and are going to be the determining factor in delineating safe areas for personnel to work. Better techniques and instruments to measure these fields are needed for the evaluation of hazard areas.

  19. Joint microwave and infrared studies for soil moisture determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Njoku, E. G.; Schieldge, J. P.; Kahle, A. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of using a combined microwave-thermal infrared system to determine soil moisture content is addressed. Of particular concern are bare soils. The theoretical basis for microwave emission from soils and the transport of heat and moisture in soils is presented. Also, a description is given of the results of two field experiments held during vernal months in the San Joaquin Valley of California.

  20. Microwave detection of air showers with the MIDAS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Privitera, Paolo; Alekotte, I.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Berlin, A.; Bertou, X.; Bogdan, M.; Boháčová, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Carvalho, W. R.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; Facal San Luis, P.; Genat, J. F.; Hollon, N.; Mills, E.; Monasor, M.; Reyes, L. C.; Rouille d'Orfeuil, B.; Santos, E. M.; Wayne, S.; Williams, C.; Zas, E.

    2011-03-01

    Microwave emission from Extensive Air Showers could provide a novel technique for ultra-high energy cosmic rays detection over large area and with 100% duty cycle. We describe the design, performance and first results of the MIDAS (MIcrowave Detection of Air Showers) detector, a 4.5 m parabolic dish with 53 feeds in its focal plane, currently installed at the University of Chicago.

  1. Anomalous cross-B field transport and spokes in HiPIMS plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecimovic, A.

    2016-05-01

    Localized light emission patterns observed during on time of a high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharge on a planar magnetron, known as spokes or ionization zones, have been identified as a potential source of anomalous cross-B field diffusion. In this paper experimental evidence is presented that anomalous diffusion is triggered by the appearance of spokes. The Hall parameter {ω\\text{ce}}{τ\\text{c}} , product of the electron cyclotron frequency and the classical collision time, reduces from Bohm diffusion values (∼ 16 and higher) down to the value of 3 as spokes appear, indicating anomalous cross-B field transport. A combination of intensified charge coupled device imaging and electric probe measurements reveals that the ions from the spokes are instantaneously diffusing away from the target. The ion diffusion coefficients calculated from a sideways image of the spoke are six times higher than Bohm diffusion coefficients, which is consistent with the reduction of the Hall parameter.

  2. Anomalous Centrifugal Distortion in HDO and Spectroscopic Data Bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coudert, L. H.

    2015-06-01

    The HDO molecule is important from the atmospheric point of view as it can be used to study the water cycle in the earth atmosphere. It is also interesting from the spectroscopic point of view as it displays an anomalous centrifugal distortion similar to that of the normal species H_2O. A model developed to treat the anomalous distortion in HDO should account for the fact that it lacks a two-fold axis of symmetry. A new treatment aimed at the calculation of the rovibrational energy of the HDO molecule and allowing for anomalous centrifugal distortion effects has been developed. It is based on an effective Hamiltonian in which the large amplitude bending ν_2 mode and the overall rotation of the molecule are treated simultaneously. Due to the lack of a two-fold axis of symmetry, this effective Hamiltonian contains terms arising from the non-diagonal component of the inertia tensor and from the Coriolis-coupling between the large amplitude bending ν_2 mode and the overall rotation of the molecule. This new treatment has been used to perform a line position analysis of a large body of infrared, microwave, and hot water vapor data involving the ground and (010) states up to J=22. For these 4413 data, a unitless standard deviation of 1.1 was achieved. A line intensity analysis was also carried out and allowed us to reproduce the strength of 1316 transitions^c with a unitless standard deviation of 1.1. In the talk, the new theoretical approach will be presented. The results of both analyses will be discussed and compared with those of a previous investigation. The new spectroscopic data base built will be compared with HITRAN 2012. Herbin et al., Atmos. Chem. Phys.~9 (2009) 9433; and Schneider and Hase, Atmos. Chem. Phys.~ 11 (2011) 11207. Coudert, Wagner, Birk, Baranov, Lafferty, and Flaud, J. Molec. Spectrosc.~251 (2008) 339. Johns, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B~2 (1985) 1340 Toth, J. Molec. Spectrosc.~162 (1993) 20 Paso and Horneman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B~12 (1995) 1813 Toth, J. Molec. Spectrosc.~195 (1999) 73. Messer, De Lucia, and Helminger, J. Molec. Spectrosc.~105 (1984) 139; and Baskakov et al., Opt. Spectrosc.~63 (1987) 1016. Parekunnel et al., J. Molec. Spectrosc.~210 (2001) 28 Janca et al., J. Molec. Specrosc.~219 (2003) 132. Tennyson et al., J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer~111 (2010) 2160. Rothman et al., J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer~130 (2013) 4.

  3. Emissivity corrected infrared method for imaging anomalous structural heat flows

    DOEpatents

    Del Grande, Nancy K.; Durbin, Philip F.; Dolan, Kenneth W.; Perkins, Dwight E.

    1995-01-01

    A method for detecting flaws in structures using dual band infrared radiation. Heat is applied to the structure being evaluated. The structure is scanned for two different wavelengths and data obtained in the form of images. Images are used to remove clutter to form a corrected image. The existence and nature of a flaw is determined by investigating a variety of features.

  4. Emissivity corrected infrared method for imaging anomalous structural heat flows

    DOEpatents

    Del Grande, N.K.; Durbin, P.F.; Dolan, K.W.; Perkins, D.E.

    1995-08-22

    A method for detecting flaws in structures using dual band infrared radiation is disclosed. Heat is applied to the structure being evaluated. The structure is scanned for two different wavelengths and data obtained in the form of images. Images are used to remove clutter to form a corrected image. The existence and nature of a flaw is determined by investigating a variety of features. 1 fig.

  5. Microwave bonding of MEMS component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, Martin B. (Inventor); Mai, John D. (Inventor); Jackson, Henry W. (Inventor); Budraa, Nasser K. (Inventor); Pike, William T. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Bonding of MEMs materials is carried out using microwave. High microwave absorbing films are placed within a microwave cavity, and excited to cause selective heating in the skin of the material. This causes heating in one place more than another. Thereby minimizing the effects of the bonding microwave energy.

  6. Microwave photonic signal processing.

    PubMed

    Minasian, R A; Chan, E H W; Yi, X

    2013-09-23

    Photonic signal processing offers the advantages of large time-bandwidth capabilities to overcome inherent electronic limitations. In-fibre signal processors are inherently compatible with fibre optic microwave systems that can integrate with wireless antennas, and can provide connectivity with in-built signal conditioning and electromagnetic interference immunity. Recent methods in wideband and adaptive signal processing, which address the challenge of realising programmable microwave photonic phase shifters and true-time delay elements for phased array beamforming; ultra-wideband Hilbert transformers; single passband, widely tunable, and switchable microwave photonic filters; and ultra-wideband microwave photonic mixers, are described. In addition, a new microwave photonic mixer structure is presented, which is based on using the inherent frequency selectivity of the stimulated Brillouin scattering loss spectrum to suppress the carrier of a dual-phase modulated optical signal. Results for the new microwave photonic mixer demonstrate an extremely wide bandwidth operation of 0.2 to 20 GHz and a large conversion efficiency improvement compared to the conventional microwave photonic mixer. PMID:24104178

  7. Planck intermediate results. XXII. Frequency dependence of thermal emission from Galactic dust in intensity and polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Alves, M. I. R.; Aniano, G.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J. J.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Burigana, C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falgarone, E.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Guillet, V.; Hansen, F. K.; Harrison, D. L.; Helou, G.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Magalhães, A. M.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oppermann, N.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G. W.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Salerno, E.; Sandri, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Spencer, L. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wandelt, B. D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2015-04-01

    Planck has mapped the intensity and polarization of the sky at microwave frequencies with unprecedented sensitivity. We use these data to characterize the frequency dependence of dust emission. We make use of the Planck 353 GHz I, Q, and U Stokes maps as dust templates, and cross-correlate them with the Planck and WMAP data at 12 frequencies from 23 to 353 GHz, over circular patches with 10° radius. The cross-correlation analysis is performed for both intensity and polarization data in a consistent manner. The results are corrected for the chance correlation between the templates and the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background. We use a mask that focuses our analysis on the diffuse interstellar medium at intermediate Galactic latitudes. We determine the spectral indices of dust emission in intensity and polarization between 100 and 353 GHz, for each sky patch. Both indices are found to be remarkably constant over the sky. The mean values, 1.59 ± 0.02 for polarization and 1.51 ± 0.01 for intensity, for a mean dust temperature of 19.6 K, are close, but significantly different (3.6σ). We determine the mean spectral energy distribution (SED) of the microwave emission, correlated with the 353 GHz dust templates, by averaging the results of the correlation over all sky patches. We find that the mean SED increases for decreasing frequencies at ν< 60 GHz for both intensity and polarization. The rise of the polarization SED towards low frequencies may be accounted for by a synchrotron component correlated with dust, with no need for any polarization of the anomalous microwave emission. We use a spectral model to separate the synchrotron and dust polarization and to characterize the spectral dependence of the dust polarization fraction. The polarization fraction (p) of the dust emission decreases by (21 ± 6)% from 353 to 70 GHz. We discuss this result within the context of existing dust models. The decrease in p could indicate differences in polarization efficiency among components of interstellar dust (e.g., carbon versus silicate grains). Our observational results provide inputs to quantify and optimize the separation between Galactic and cosmological polarization. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  8. Great microwave bursts and hard X-rays from solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiehl, H. J.; Batchelor, D. A.; Crannell, C. J.; Dennis, B. R.; Price, P. N.

    1985-01-01

    In the present study of the microwave and hard X-ray characteristics of 13 solar flares emitting microwave fluxes greater than 500 solar flux units, simultaneous 3-35 GHz and hard X-ray observations were conducted in the 30-500 keV energy range. An analysis is conducted to determine whether the same distribution of energetic electrons can explain both emissions; tests for any correlations between them yield results suggesting that optically thick microwave emission, near the peak frequency, originates in the same electron population that produces the hard X-rays. A single temperature model and a multitemperature model were tested for consistency with the coincident X-ray and microwave spectra at microwave burst maximum; neither model, however, attempts to explain the high frequency component of the microwave spectrum.

  9. Microwave coupler and method

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, Cressie E.

    1985-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a microwave coupler for enhancing the heating or metallurgical treatment of materials within a cold-wall, rapidly heated cavity as provided by a microwave furnace. The coupling material of the present invention is an alpha-rhombohedral-boron-derivative-structure material such as boron carbide or boron silicide which can be appropriately positioned as a susceptor within the furnace to heat other material or be in powder particulate form so that composites and structures of boron carbide such as cutting tools, grinding wheels and the like can be rapidly and efficiently formed within microwave furnaces.

  10. Microwave Comb Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sigman, E. H.

    1989-01-01

    Stable reference tones aid testing and calibration of microwave receivers. Signal generator puts out stable tones in frequency range of 2 to 10 GHz at all multiples of reference input frequency, at any frequency up to 1 MHz. Called "comb generator" because spectral plot resembles comb. DC reverse-bias current switched on and off at 1 MHz to generate sharp pulses in step-recovery diode. Microwave components mounted on back of special connector containing built-in attenuator. Used in testing microwave and spread-spectrum wide-band receivers.

  11. Microwave leakage detector

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, D.D.

    1982-07-06

    A portable microwave leakage detector comprises a dipole antenna and a hot carrier diode connected in parallel with a light emitting diode, the circuit incorporating minimum solder joints and affording maximum sensitivity without moving parts such that the detector circuit does not decay with time. The dipole antenna is oriented diagonally in a detector case so that the user of the detector automatically presents the antenna to the radiating microwave field (or leakage field) at a maximum receiving attitude with respect to the field. The detector can be utilized to determine whether a microwave oven or any other device is leaking radiation beyond limits imposed by the food and drug administration.

  12. Microwave vision for robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Leon; Struckman, Keith

    1994-01-01

    Microwave Vision (MV), a concept originally developed in 1985, could play a significant role in the solution to robotic vision problems. Originally our Microwave Vision concept was based on a pattern matching approach employing computer based stored replica correlation processing. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) processor technology offers an attractive alternative to the correlation processing approach, namely the ability to learn and to adapt to changing environments. This paper describes the Microwave Vision concept, some initial ANN-MV experiments, and the design of an ANN-MV system that has led to a second patent disclosure in the robotic vision field.

  13. Microwave coupler and method

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, C.E.

    1984-11-29

    The present invention is directed to a microwave coupler for enhancing the heating or metallurgical treatment of materials within a cold-wall, rapidly heated cavity as provided by a microwave furnace. The coupling material of the present invention is an alpha-rhombohedral-boron-derivative-structure material such as boron carbide or boron silicide which can be appropriately positioned as a susceptor within the furnace to heat other material or be in powder particulate form so that composites and structures of boron carbide such as cutting tools, grinding wheels and the like can be rapidly and efficiently formed within microwave furnaces.

  14. Monolithic microwave integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pucel, R. A.

    Monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs), a new microwave technology which is expected to exert a profound influence on microwave circuit designs for future military systems as well as for the commercial and consumer markets, is discussed. The book contains an historical discussion followed by a comprehensive review presenting the current status in the field. The general topics of the volume are: design considerations, materials and processing considerations, monolithic circuit applications, and CAD, measurement, and packaging techniques. All phases of MMIC technology are covered, from design to testing.

  15. Microwave thawing apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Fathi, Zakaryae; Lauf, Robert J.; McMillan, April D.

    2004-06-01

    An apparatus for thawing a frozen material includes: a microwave energy source; a microwave applicator which defines a cavity for applying microwave energy from the microwave source to a material to be thawed; and a shielded region which is shielded from the microwave source, the shielded region in fluid communication with the cavity so that thawed material may flow from the cavity into the shielded region.

  16. Parametric probability distributions for anomalous change detection

    SciTech Connect

    Theiler, James P; Foy, Bernard R; Wohlberg, Brendt E; Scovel, James C

    2010-01-01

    The problem of anomalous change detection arises when two (or possibly more) images are taken of the same scene, but at different times. The aim is to discount the 'pervasive differences' that occur thoughout the imagery, due to the inevitably different conditions under which the images were taken (caused, for instance, by differences in illumination, atmospheric conditions, sensor calibration, or misregistration), and to focus instead on the 'anomalous changes' that actually take place in the scene. In general, anomalous change detection algorithms attempt to model these normal or pervasive differences, based on data taken directly from the imagery, and then identify as anomalous those pixels for which the model does not hold. For many algorithms, these models are expressed in terms of probability distributions, and there is a class of such algorithms that assume the distributions are Gaussian. By considering a broader class of distributions, however, a new class of anomalous change detection algorithms can be developed. We consider several parametric families of such distributions, derive the associated change detection algorithms, and compare the performance with standard algorithms that are based on Gaussian distributions. We find that it is often possible to significantly outperform these standard algorithms, even using relatively simple non-Gaussian models.

  17. ON THE SOURCE OF ASTROMETRIC ANOMALOUS REFRACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, M. Suzanne; McGraw, John T.; Zimmer, Peter C.; Pier, Jeffrey R.

    2013-03-15

    More than a century ago, astronomers using transit telescopes to determine precise stellar positions were hampered by an unexplained periodic shifting of the stars they were observing. With the advent of CCD transit telescopes in the past three decades, this unexplained motion, termed 'anomalous refraction' by these early astronomers, is again being observed. Anomalous refraction is described as a low-frequency, large angular scale ({approx}2 Degree-Sign ) motion of the entire image plane with respect to the celestial coordinate system as observed and defined by astrometric catalogs. These motions, of typically several tenths of an arcsecond amplitude with timescales on the order of 10 minutes, are ubiquitous to ground-based drift-scan astrometric measurements regardless of location or telescopes used and have been attributed to the effect of tilting of equal-density layers of the atmosphere. The cause of this tilting has often been attributed to atmospheric gravity waves, but this cause has never been confirmed. Although theoretical models of atmospheric refraction show that atmospheric gravity waves are a plausible cause of anomalous refraction, an observational campaign specifically directed at defining this relationship provides clear evidence that anomalous refraction is not consistent with the passage of atmospheric gravity waves. The source of anomalous refraction is found to be meter-scale, slowly evolving quasi-coherent dynamical structures in the boundary layer below 60 m above ground level.

  18. Analytical solutions for anomalous dispersion transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Malley, D.; Vesselinov, V. V.

    2014-06-01

    Groundwater flow and transport often occur in a highly heterogeneous environment (potentially heterogeneous at multiple spatial scales) and is impacted by geochemical reactions, advection, diffusion, and other pore scale processes. All these factors can give rise to large-scale anomalous dispersive behavior that can make complex model representation and prediction of plume concentrations challenging due to difficulties unraveling all the complexities associated with the governing processes, flow medium, and their parameters. An alternative is to use upscaled stochastic models of anomalous dispersion, and this is the approach used here. Within a probabilistic framework, we derive a number of analytical solutions for several anomalous dispersion models. The anomalous dispersion models are allowed to be either non-Gaussian (α-stable Lévy), correlated, or nonstationary from the Lagrangian perspective. A global sensitivity analysis is performed to gain a greater understanding of the extent to which uncertainty in the parameters associated with the anomalous behavior can be narrowed by examining concentration measurements from a network of monitoring wells and to demonstrate the computational speed of the solutions. The developed analytical solutions are encoded and available for use in the open source computational framework MADS (http://mads.lanl.gov).

  19. Microwave fluid flow meter

    DOEpatents

    Billeter, Thomas R.; Philipp, Lee D.; Schemmel, Richard R.

    1976-01-01

    A microwave fluid flow meter is described utilizing two spaced microwave sensors positioned along a fluid flow path. Each sensor includes a microwave cavity having a frequency of resonance dependent upon the static pressure of the fluid at the sensor locations. The resonant response of each cavity with respect to a variation in pressure of the monitored fluid is represented by a corresponding electrical output which can be calibrated into a direct pressure reading. The pressure drop between sensor locations is then correlated as a measure of fluid velocity. In the preferred embodiment the individual sensor cavities are strategically positioned outside the path of fluid flow and are designed to resonate in two distinct frequency modes yielding a measure of temperature as well as pressure. The temperature response can then be used in correcting for pressure responses of the microwave cavity encountered due to temperature fluctuations.

  20. Microwave Oven Observations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumrall, William J.; Richardson, Denise; Yan, Yuan

    1998-01-01

    Explains a series of laboratory activities which employ a microwave oven to help students understand word problems that relate to states of matter, collect data, and calculate and compare electrical costs to heat energy costs. (DDR)

  1. Emitron: microwave diode

    DOEpatents

    Craig, G.D.; Pettibone, J.S.; Drobot, A.T.

    1982-05-06

    The invention comprises a new class of device, driven by electron or other charged particle flow, for producing coherent microwaves by utilizing the interaction of electromagnetic waves with electron flow in diodes not requiring an external magnetic field. Anode and cathode surfaces are electrically charged with respect to one another by electron flow, for example caused by a Marx bank voltage source or by other charged particle flow, for example by a high energy charged particle beam. This produces an electric field which stimulates an emitted electron beam to flow in the anode-cathode region. The emitted electrons are accelerated by the electric field and coherent microwaves are produced by the three dimensional spatial and temporal interaction of the accelerated electrons with geometrically allowed microwave modes which results in the bunching of the electrons and the pumping of at least one dominant microwave mode.

  2. Microwave sensing from orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kritikos, H. N.; Shiue, J.

    1979-01-01

    Microwave sensors, used in conjunction with the traditional sensors of visible and infrared light to extend present capabilities of global weather forecasts and local storm watches, are discussed. The great advantage of these sensors is that they can penetrate or 'see' through cloud formations to monitor temperature, humidity and wind fields below the clouds. Other uses are that they can penetrate the earth deeper than optical and IR systems; they can control their own angle of incidence; they can detect oil spills; and they can enhance the studies of the upper atmosphere through measurement of temperature, water vapor and other gaseous species. Two types of microwave sensors, active and passive, are examined. Special attention is given to the study of the microwave radiometer and the corresponding temperature resolution as detected by the antenna. It is determined that not only will the microwave remote sensors save lives by allowing close monitoring of developing storms, but also save approximately $172 million/year.

  3. Microwave Radiation Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesh, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    Direct photon detector responds to microwave frequencies. Method based on trapped-ion frequency-generation standards proposed to detect radio-frequency (RF) radiation at 40.5 GHz. Technique used for directdetection (RF) communication, radar, and radio astronomy.

  4. Heat transfer in microwave heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Zhiwei

    Heat transfer is considered as one of the most critical issues for design and implement of large-scale microwave heating systems, in which improvement of the microwave absorption of materials and suppression of uneven temperature distribution are the two main objectives. The present work focuses on the analysis of heat transfer in microwave heating for achieving highly efficient microwave assisted steelmaking through the investigations on the following aspects: (1) characterization of microwave dissipation using the derived equations, (2) quantification of magnetic loss, (3) determination of microwave absorption properties of materials, (4) modeling of microwave propagation, (5) simulation of heat transfer, and (6) improvement of microwave absorption and heating uniformity. Microwave heating is attributed to the heat generation in materials, which depends on the microwave dissipation. To theoretically characterize microwave heating, simplified equations for determining the transverse electromagnetic mode (TEM) power penetration depth, microwave field attenuation length, and half-power depth of microwaves in materials having both magnetic and dielectric responses were derived. It was followed by developing a simplified equation for quantifying magnetic loss in materials under microwave irradiation to demonstrate the importance of magnetic loss in microwave heating. The permittivity and permeability measurements of various materials, namely, hematite, magnetite concentrate, wstite, and coal were performed. Microwave loss calculations for these materials were carried out. It is suggested that magnetic loss can play a major role in the heating of magnetic dielectrics. Microwave propagation in various media was predicted using the finite-difference time-domain method. For lossy magnetic dielectrics, the dissipation of microwaves in the medium is ascribed to the decay of both electric and magnetic fields. The heat transfer process in microwave heating of magnetite, which is a typical magnetic dielectric, was simulated by using an explicit finite-difference approach. It is demonstrated that the heat generation due to microwave irradiation dominates the initial temperature rise in the heating and the heat radiation heavily affects the temperature distribution, giving rise to a hot spot in the predicted temperature profile. Microwave heating at 915 MHz exhibits better heating homogeneity than that at 2450 MHz due to larger microwave penetration depth. To minimize/avoid temperature nonuniformity during microwave heating the optimization of object dimension should be considered. The calculated reflection loss over the temperature range of heating is found to be useful for obtaining a rapid optimization of absorber dimension, which increases microwave absorption and achieves relatively uniform heating. To further improve the heating effectiveness, a function for evaluating absorber impedance matching in microwave heating was proposed. It is found that the maximum absorption is associated with perfect impedance matching, which can be achieved by either selecting a reasonable sample dimension or modifying the microwave parameters of the sample.

  5. Anomalous scaling and anisotropy in turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Water, Willem; Herweijer, Janine A.

    1996-01-01

    Using realtime signal processing techniques it is possible to obtain precise values for the scaling exponents ζ(p) of high-order structure functions. The value of these exponents differs from the Kolmogorov 1941 prediction, they are anomalous. This anomalous behavior has been firmly confirmed in our experiments where it has been seen in structure functions that show convincing scaling behavior and that have a high statistical accuracy. The advantage of performing experiments in laboratory windtunnel turbulent flows is that development of detector technology is relatively easy. As a result, we have been able to measure transverse structure functions using a line of velocity probes. Such a configuration obviates usage of Taylor's hypothesis. Also the scaling of the transverse structure functions is anomalous. However, the transverse exponent ζT(p) is significantly different from the standard longitudinal exponent ζL(p): scaling anomaly is non-isotropic. We speculate about the meaning of this result.

  6. Anomalous scaling and anisotropy in turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Water, Willem

    1996-10-01

    Using realtime signal processing techniques it is possible to obtain precise values for the scaling exponents ζ( p) of high-order structure functions. The value of these exponents differs from the Kolmogorov 1941 prediction, that they are anomalous. This anomalous behavior has been firmly confirmed in our experiments where it has been seen in structure functions which show convincing scaling behavior and that have a high statistical accuracy. The advantage of performing experiments in laboratory windtunnel turbulent flows is that development of detector technology is relatively easy. As a result, we have been able to measure transverse structure functions using a line of velocity probes. Such a configuration obviates usage of Taylor's hypothesis. Also the scaling of the transverse structure functions is anomalous. However, the transverse exponent ζT( p) is significantly different from the standard longitudinal exponent ζL( p): scaling anomaly is non-isotropic. We speculate about the meaning of this result.

  7. The anomalous component of cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jokipii, J. R.

    1990-01-01

    The paper discusses the nature of the anomalous component in the quiet-time cosmic-ray flux, which was observed first by Garcia-Munoz et al. (1973) and Hovestadt et al. (1973). Models of the anomalous component suggest that most of its observed properties, including the composition, time-dependence, energy spectrum, and spatial gradients, can be understood as a natural consequence of the acceleration of freshly-ionized interstellar neutral atoms at the termination shock of the solar wind. It is shown that the models reasonably agree with observations under the condition that the polar heliospheric magnetic field is modified to be larger and more transverse than its present models, as suggested by Jokipii and Kota (1989). The models suggest that the energy density of the anomalous component may modify the solar wind flow and shock if the shock is at a heliospheric distance which is significantly greater than 80-100 AU.

  8. The anomalous component of cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jokipii, J. R.

    The paper discusses the nature of the anomalous component in the quiet-time cosmic-ray flux, which was observed first by Garcia-Munoz et al. (1973) and Hovestadt et al. (1973). Models of the anomalous component suggest that most of its observed properties, including the composition, time-dependence, energy spectrum, and spatial gradients, can be understood as a natural consequence of the acceleration of freshly-ionized interstellar neutral atoms at the termination shock of the solar wind. It is shown that the models reasonably agree with observations under the condition that the polar heliospheric magnetic field is modified to be larger and more transverse than its present models, as suggested by Jokipii and Kota (1989). The models suggest that the energy density of the anomalous component may modify the solar wind flow and shock if the shock is at a heliospheric distance which is significantly greater than 80-100 AU.

  9. ?-iron nitrides: Intrinsic anomalous Hall ferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guo-Ke; Liu, Yan; Zhao, De-Wei; Song, Ping; Ma, Li; Zhen, Cong-Mian; Liu, Hui; Hou, Deng-Lu

    2015-02-01

    The anomalous Hall effect in ?-iron nitrides (?-Fe3-xN, 0 ? x ? 1) has been systematically investigated taking advantage of the fact that the exchange splitting of ?-Fe3-xN can be continuously tuned through the nitrogen concentration. It has been found that the anomalous Hall conductivity, ?x y A H , is proportional to the saturation magnetization MS, i.e., ?x y A H = S H M S , across significant variations in the saturation magnetization (96-1146 emu/cc). This relationship is in excellent agreement with the intrinsic mechanism as well as with the unified theory of AHE. Our results also demonstrate that the anomalous Hall conductivity is sensitive to the exchange splitting of the band structure.

  10. 47 CFR 101.515 - Emissions and bandwidth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES 24 GHz Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.515 Emissions and bandwidth. Different types of emissions may be authorized if the applicant describes fully the...

  11. 47 CFR 101.515 - Emissions and bandwidth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES 24 GHz Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.515 Emissions and bandwidth. Different types of emissions may be authorized if the applicant describes fully the...

  12. 47 CFR 101.515 - Emissions and bandwidth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES 24 GHz Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.515 Emissions and bandwidth. Different types of emissions may be authorized if the applicant describes fully the...

  13. Global Warming and the Microwave Background.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robitaille, Pierre-Marie

    2008-10-01

    The energy balance of our planet is determined by the relationship between absorbed (solar) and emitted (earthly) radiation. In many models, the Earth's radiation is derived by applying Stefan's Law, at a given effective temperature, thereby treating the globe as a uniform blackbody source. However, the oceans cannot be treated as simple blackbody emitters. In fact, while water can provide strong emission bands in the IR, the spectrum is far from blackbody. This is particularly important in the microwave region where the oceans mimic a 3K blackbody source (the Penzias and Wilson signal). As a result, the oceans are poor emitters of radiation in this spectral range. Their inability to efficiently emit radiation results in substantial retention of thermal energy within oceanic systems. Unable to dissipate heat through emission, the oceans turn to convection currents. This provides a driving force for oceanic currents and for hurricanes. It is in the interest of the United States to properly ascertain the Earth's emission profile by using an array of satellites which continually monitor spectral emissions from the microwave through the IR. These satellites will reveal that the Penzias and Wilson signal does originate from the oceans. It is only when the complete emission profile of the Earth is properly understood that mankind will begin to make real progress in modeling global warming.

  14. Microwave quantum illumination.

    PubMed

    Barzanjeh, Shabir; Guha, Saikat; Weedbrook, Christian; Vitali, David; Shapiro, Jeffrey H; Pirandola, Stefano

    2015-02-27

    Quantum illumination is a quantum-optical sensing technique in which an entangled source is exploited to improve the detection of a low-reflectivity object that is immersed in a bright thermal background. Here, we describe and analyze a system for applying this technique at microwave frequencies, a more appropriate spectral region for target detection than the optical, due to the naturally occurring bright thermal background in the microwave regime. We use an electro-optomechanical converter to entangle microwave signal and optical idler fields, with the former being sent to probe the target region and the latter being retained at the source. The microwave radiation collected from the target region is then phase conjugated and upconverted into an optical field that is combined with the retained idler in a joint-detection quantum measurement. The error probability of this microwave quantum-illumination system, or quantum radar, is shown to be superior to that of any classical microwave radar of equal transmitted energy. PMID:25768743