Science.gov

Sample records for midcontinent interactive digital

  1. Midcontinent Interactive Digital Carbon Atlas and Relational Database (MIDCARB)

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy R. Carr; Scott W. White

    2002-06-01

    This annual report describes progress of the project entitled ''Midcontinent Interactive Digital Carbon Atlas and Relational Database (MIDCARB)''. This project, funded by the Department of Energy, is a cooperative project that assembles a consortium of five states (Indiana, Illinois, Kansas, Kentucky and Ohio) to construct an online distributed Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) covering aspects of carbon dioxide geologic sequestration (http://www.midcarb.org). The system links the five states in the consortium into a coordinated regional database system consisting of datasets useful to industry, regulators and the public. The project is working to provide advanced distributed computing solutions to link database servers across the five states into a single system where data is maintained at the local level but is accessed through a single Web portal and can be queried, assembled, analyzed and displayed. Each individual state has strengths in data gathering, data manipulation and data display, including GIS mapping, custom application development, web development, and database design. Sharing of expertise provides the critical mass of technical expertise to improve CO{sub 2} databases and data access in all states. This project improves the flow of data across servers in the five states and increases the amount and quality of available digital data. The MIDCARB project is developing improved online tools to provide real-time display and analyze CO{sub 2} sequestration data. The system links together data from sources, sinks and transportation within a spatial database that can be queried online. Visualization of high quality and current data can assist decision makers by providing access to common sets of high quality data in a consistent manner.

  2. MIDCONTINENT INTERACTIVE DIGITAL CARBON ATLAS AND RELATIONAL DATABASE (MIDCARB)

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy R. Carr; Scott W. White

    2003-07-01

    This annual report describes progress in the second year of the three-year project entitled ''Midcontinent Interactive Digital Carbon Atlas and Relational Database (MIDCARB)''. This project, funded by the Department of Energy, is a cooperative project that assembles a consortium of five states (Indiana, Illinois, Kansas, Kentucky and Ohio) to construct an online distributed Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) covering aspects of carbon dioxide geologic sequestration (http://www.midcarb.org). The system links the five states in the consortium into a coordinated regional database system consisting of datasets useful to industry, regulators and the public. The project is providing advanced distributed computing solutions to link database servers across the five states into a single system where data is maintained at the local level but is accessed through a single Web portal and can be queried, assembled, analyzed and displayed. Each individual state has strengths in data gathering, data manipulation and data display, including GIS mapping, custom application development, web development, and database design. Sharing of expertise provides the critical mass of technical expertise to improve CO{sub 2} databases and data access in all states. This project improves the flow of data across servers in the five states and increases the amount and quality of available digital data. Data is being assembled to analyze CO{sub 2} sequestration potential from a single object (e.g., power plant or well) to a region and across geographic boundaries. The MIDCARB system is robust and capable of being updated from multiple sources on a daily basis. The MIDCARB project has developed improved online tools to provide real-time display and analysis of CO{sub 2} sequestration data. The MIDCARB project is a functional template for distributed data systems to address CO{sub 2} sequestration and other natural resource issues that cross the

  3. NATIONAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION DATABASE AND GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM (NATCARB) FORMER TITLE-MIDCONTINENT INTERACTIVE DIGITAL CARBON ATLAS AND RELATIONAL DATABASE (MIDCARB)

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy R. Carr

    2004-07-16

    This annual report describes progress in the third year of the three-year project entitled ''Midcontinent Interactive Digital Carbon Atlas and Relational Database (MIDCARB)''. The project assembled a consortium of five states (Indiana, Illinois, Kansas, Kentucky and Ohio) to construct an online distributed Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) covering aspects of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) geologic sequestration (http://www.midcarb.org). The system links the five states in the consortium into a coordinated regional database system consisting of datasets useful to industry, regulators and the public. The project has been extended and expanded as a ''NATional CARBon Sequestration Database and Geographic Information System (NATCARB)'' to provide national coverage across the Regional CO{sub 2} Partnerships, which currently cover 40 states (http://www.natcarb.org). Advanced distributed computing solutions link database servers across the five states and other publicly accessible servers (e.g., USGS) into a single system where data is maintained and enhanced at the local level but is accessed and assembled through a single Web portal and can be queried, assembled, analyzed and displayed. This project has improved the flow of data across servers and increased the amount and quality of available digital data. The online tools used in the project have improved in stability and speed in order to provide real-time display and analysis of CO{sub 2} sequestration data. The move away from direct database access to web access through eXtensible Markup Language (XML) has increased stability and security while decreasing management overhead. The MIDCARB viewer has been simplified to provide improved display and organization of the more than 125 layers and data tables that have been generated as part of the project. The MIDCARB project is a functional demonstration of distributed management of data systems that cross the boundaries

  4. Assessment of information on ground-water/surface-water interactions in the northern midcontinent

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strobel, Michael L.

    1995-01-01

    Ground-water/surface-water interactions are important to the hydrology of shallow aquifers, streams, lakes, and wetlands. Information on ground-water/surface-water interactions in the northern midcontinent was assessed. The ground-water/surface-water interactions in physiographic and climatic areas that contain many wetlands differed from the interactions in areas that consisted predominantly of alluvial aquifers along large streams. In both types of areas, however, the interactions are complex. The distribution of shallow ground-water observation wells in the northern midcontinent and the frequency of measurement were evaluated. Most shallow wells are located adjacent to major streams, especially in areas where wetlands are not a dominant surface-water feature. The frequency of measurement was inconsistent between states.

  5. Fault Interaction and Earthquake Migration in Mid-Continents: Insights from Numerical Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, M.; Lu, Y.; Chen, L.; Luo, G.; Wang, H.

    2011-12-01

    Historic records in North China and other mid-continents show large earthquakes migrating among widespread fault systems. Mechanical coupling of these faults is indicated by complimentary seismic moment release on these faults. In a conceptual model (Liu et al., 2011, Lithosphere), the long-distance fault interaction and earthquake migration are explained as the consequences of regional stress readjustment among a system of intraplate faults that collectively accommodates tectonic loading at the plate boundaries. In such a system, failure of one fault (a large earthquake) can cause stress shifting on all other faults. Here we report preliminary results of numerical investigations of such long-distance fault interaction in mid-continents. In a set of elastic models, we have a model crust with internal faults loaded from the boundaries, and calculate the stress distribution on the faults when the system reaches equilibrium. We compare the results with those of a new model that has one or more of the faults weakened (ruptured). The results show that failure of one fault can cause up to a few MPa of stress changes on other faults over a large distance; the magnitude of the stress change and the radius of the impacted area are much greater than those of the static Coulomb stress changes associated with dislocation on the fault plane. In time-dependent viscoelasto-plastic models, we found that variations of seismicity on one fault can significantly affect the loading rates on other faults that share the same tectonic loading. Similar fault interactions are also found in complex plate boundary fault systems, such as between the San Andreas Fault and the San Jacinto Fault in southern California. The spatially migrating earthquakes resulting from the long-distance fault interactions in mid-continents can cause different spatial patterns of seismicity when observed through different time-windows. These results have important implications for assessing earthquake hazards in

  6. Interactive digital signal processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mish, W. H.; Wenger, R. M.; Behannon, K. W.; Byrnes, J. B.

    1982-01-01

    The Interactive Digital Signal Processor (IDSP) is examined. It consists of a set of time series analysis Operators each of which operates on an input file to produce an output file. The operators can be executed in any order that makes sense and recursively, if desired. The operators are the various algorithms used in digital time series analysis work. User written operators can be easily interfaced to the sysatem. The system can be operated both interactively and in batch mode. In IDSP a file can consist of up to n (currently n=8) simultaneous time series. IDSP currently includes over thirty standard operators that range from Fourier transform operations, design and application of digital filters, eigenvalue analysis, to operators that provide graphical output, allow batch operation, editing and display information.

  7. IDSP- INTERACTIVE DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSOR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mish, W. H.

    1994-01-01

    The Interactive Digital Signal Processor, IDSP, consists of a set of time series analysis "operators" based on the various algorithms commonly used for digital signal analysis work. The processing of a digital time series to extract information is usually achieved by the application of a number of fairly standard operations. However, it is often desirable to "experiment" with various operations and combinations of operations to explore their effect on the results. IDSP is designed to provide an interactive and easy-to-use system for this type of digital time series analysis. The IDSP operators can be applied in any sensible order (even recursively), and can be applied to single time series or to simultaneous time series. IDSP is being used extensively to process data obtained from scientific instruments onboard spacecraft. It is also an excellent teaching tool for demonstrating the application of time series operators to artificially-generated signals. IDSP currently includes over 43 standard operators. Processing operators provide for Fourier transformation operations, design and application of digital filters, and Eigenvalue analysis. Additional support operators provide for data editing, display of information, graphical output, and batch operation. User-developed operators can be easily interfaced with the system to provide for expansion and experimentation. Each operator application generates one or more output files from an input file. The processing of a file can involve many operators in a complex application. IDSP maintains historical information as an integral part of each file so that the user can display the operator history of the file at any time during an interactive analysis. IDSP is written in VAX FORTRAN 77 for interactive or batch execution and has been implemented on a DEC VAX-11/780 operating under VMS. The IDSP system generates graphics output for a variety of graphics systems. The program requires the use of Versaplot and Template plotting

  8. The interactive digital video interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, Michael D.

    1989-01-01

    A frequent complaint in the computer oriented trade journals is that current hardware technology is progressing so quickly that software developers cannot keep up. A example of this phenomenon can be seen in the field of microcomputer graphics. To exploit the advantages of new mechanisms of information storage and retrieval, new approaches must be made towards incorporating existing programs as well as developing entirely new applications. A particular area of need is the correlation of discrete image elements to textural information. The interactive digital video (IDV) interface embodies a new concept in software design which addresses these needs. The IDV interface is a patented device and language independent process for identifying image features on a digital video display and which allows a number of different processes to be keyed to that identification. Its capabilities include the correlation of discrete image elements to relevant text information and the correlation of these image features to other images as well as to program control mechanisms. Sophisticated interrelationships can be set up between images, text, and program control mechanisms.

  9. An Interactive Program on Digitizing Historical Seismograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y.; Xu, T.

    2013-12-01

    Retrieving information from historical seismograms is of great importance since they are considered the unique sources that provide quantitative information of historical earthquakes. Modern techniques of seismology require digital forms of seismograms that are essentially a sequence of time-amplitude pairs. However, the historical seismograms, after scanned into computers, are two dimensional arrays. Each element of the arrays contains the grayscale value or RGB value of the corresponding pixel. The problem of digitizing historical seismograms, referred to as converting historical seismograms to digital seismograms, can be formulated as an inverse problem that generating sequences of time-amplitude pairs from a two dimension arrays. This problem has infinite solutions. The algorithm for automatic digitization of historical seismogram presented considers several features of seismograms, including continuity, smoothness of the seismic traces as the prior information, and assumes that the amplitude is a single-valued function of time. An interactive program based on the algorithm is also presented. The program is developed using Matlab GUI and has both automatic and manual modality digitization. Users can easily switch between them, and try different combinations to get the optimal results. Several examples are given to illustrate the results of digitizing seismograms using the program, including a photographic record and a wide-angle reflection/refraction seismogram. Digitized result of the program (redrawn using Golden Software Surfer for high resolution image). (a) shows the result of automatic digitization, and (b) is the result after manual correction.

  10. Interactive digital image manipulation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henze, J.; Dezur, R.

    1975-01-01

    The system is designed for manipulation, analysis, interpretation, and processing of a wide variety of image data. LANDSAT (ERTS) and other data in digital form can be input directly into the system. Photographic prints and transparencies are first converted to digital form with an on-line high-resolution microdensitometer. The system is implemented on a Hewlett-Packard 3000 computer with 128 K bytes of core memory and a 47.5 megabyte disk. It includes a true color display monitor, with processing memories, graphics overlays, and a movable cursor. Image data formats are flexible so that there is no restriction to a given set of remote sensors. Conversion between data types is available to provide a basis for comparison of the various data. Multispectral data is fully supported, and there is no restriction on the number of dimensions. In this way multispectral data collected at more than one point in time may simply be treated as a data collected with twice (three times, etc.) the number of sensors. There are various libraries of functions available to the user: processing functions, display functions, system functions, and earth resources applications functions.

  11. New Integrated Video and Graphics Technology: Digital Video Interactive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Optical Information Systems, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Describes digital video interactive (DVI), a new technology which combines the interactivity of the graphics capabilities in personal computers with the realism of high-quality motion video and multitrack audio in an all-digital integrated system. (MES)

  12. Preparation of northern mid-continent petroleum atlas

    SciTech Connect

    Gerhard, L.C.; Carr, T.R.; Watney, W.L.

    1997-02-13

    The prototype Digital Petroleum Atlas (DPA) Project is part of a long-term effort to develop a new methodology to provide efficient and timely access to the latest petroleum data and technology for the domestic oil and gas industry, public sector research organizations and local governmental units. The DPA provides real-time access through the Internet using widely available tools such as World-Wide-Web browsers. The latest technologies and information are published electronically when individual project components are completed removing the lag and expense of transferring technology using traditional paper publication. Active links, graphical user interfaces and database search mechanisms of the DPA provide a product with which the operator can interact in ways that are impossible in the paper publication. Contained in the DPA are forms of publication that can only be displayed in an electronic environment (for example, animated exploration histories through time). Improvement in data and technology access for the domestic petroleum industry represents one of the best and cost-effective options that is available for mitigating the continued decline in domestic production. The prototype DPA concentrated on developing methodologies and computerized procedures to generate and to publish a limited set of field and play studies concentrated in Kansas and to a lesser extent the Northern Mid-continent. Access is provided through the DPA to previously existing and new regional, play, field and individual well information. Methodologies, developed in year one of the prototype DPA Project, provide a published product and ongoing technology transfer activity that is continuously updated with the latest information and technology.

  13. Digital Storytelling as an Interactive Digital Media Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kate T.; Chua, Puay Hoe

    2010-01-01

    Digital storytelling involves the creation of short, personal narratives combining images, sounds, and text in a multimedia computer-based platform. In education, digital storytelling has been used to foster learning in formal and informal spaces worldwide. The authors offer a critical discussion of claims about digital storytelling's usefulness…

  14. The Purpose, Design, and Evolution of Online Interactive Textbooks: The Digital Learning Interactive Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ronald

    2000-01-01

    Describes the Digital Learning Interactive textbook which allows instructors to customize an online textbook to meet the needs of the instructor and the students. Discusses the features and components aimed at engaging students in the Digital Learning Interactive text. (CMK)

  15. Interactive Digital Technologies' Use in Southwest Nigerian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbatogun, Alaba Olaoluwakotansibe

    2013-01-01

    The interactive digital technologies in education is an effective means used to widen educational opportunities. However, many faculty members do not use or adopt digital technologies as instructional tools. The purpose of this study was to predict faculty members' use of digital technologies in Nigerian Universities. 492 university lecturers from…

  16. Interacting with Visual Poems through AR-Based Digital Artwork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Hao-Chiang Koong; Hsieh, Min-Chai; Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng; Chuang, Tsung-Yen

    2012-01-01

    In this study, an AR-based digital artwork called "Mind Log" was designed and evaluated. The augmented reality technique was employed to create digital artwork that would present interactive poems. A digital poem was generated via the interplay between a video film and a text-based poem. This artwork was created following a rigorous design flow,…

  17. Does Digital Game Interactivity Always Promote Self-Efficacy?

    PubMed

    Lee, Yu-Hao

    2015-11-01

    Interactive digital games can promote self-efficacy by engaging players in enactive and observational learning. However, interactivity does not always lead to greater self-efficacy. Important constructs in social cognitive theory, such as performance outcome and perceived similarity, are often not accounted for in studies that have tested the effect of digital game interactivity on self-efficacy. This study assessed the effects of interactive digital games compared with passive digital games based on video comparison, a common experimental design used to test the effect of digital game interactivity on self-efficacy. In addition, this study also evaluated player performance and measured perceived similarity to the observed player. Findings suggested that in general, digital game interactivity predicted higher self-efficacy compared with noninteractive passive games. However, in the noninteractive conditions, the effects of performance on self-efficacy were moderated by perceived similarity between the observer and the observed player. When the observed player was perceived to be similar to the observer, the effects of performance on self-efficacy were comparable to the interactive game, but when the observed player was perceived as dissimilar to the observer, observing the dissimilar player failed to increase observer self-efficacy. Implications for interactivity manipulations and game developers are discussed. PMID:26378739

  18. 78 FR 65641 - Midcontinent Independent System Operator, Inc.; Notice of Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Midcontinent Independent System Operator, Inc.; Notice of Technical... Commission (Commission) directed staff to convene a technical conference regarding a proposal by Midcontinent..., subject to the outcome of the technical conference and further Commission order. \\1\\ Midcontinent...

  19. An interactive method for digitizing zone maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giddings, L. E.; Thompson, E. J.

    1975-01-01

    A method is presented for digitizing maps that consist of zones, such as contour or climatic zone maps. A color-coded map is prepared by any convenient process. The map is then read into memory of an Image 100 computer by means of its table scanner, using colored filters. Zones are separated and stored in themes, using standard classification procedures. Thematic data are written on magnetic tape and these data, appropriately coded, are combined to make a digitized image on tape. Step-by-step procedures are given for digitization of crop moisture index maps with this procedure. In addition, a complete example of the digitization of a climatic zone map is given.

  20. The DigitalSeed: An Interactive Toy for Investigating Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherubini, Mauro; Gash, Hugh; McCloughlin, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Plant growth, development and reproduction are fundamental concepts in biology; yet there is a recorded lack of motivation for young people to grapple with these concepts. Here we present the "DigitalSeed" toy for making investigations around these concepts more accessible to children through hands-on digital interaction. This is part of an…

  1. User experience interaction design for digital educational games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jiugen; Zhang, Wenting; Xing, Ruonan

    2014-04-01

    Leading the elements of games into education is the newest teaching concepts in the field of educational technology, which is by using healthy games to impel and preserve the learner's motivation, improve the learning efficiency and bring one experience in learning something by playing games. First of all, this article has introduced the concept of Digital Game and User Experience and brought the essence of Digital Game to light to construct the frame of user experience interaction design for digital educational games and offer one design idea for the development of related products and hoping that Digital Game will bring us continuous innovation experience.

  2. Empowering Digital Interactions with Real World Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tscholl, Michael; Lindgren, Robb

    2014-01-01

    The potential of augmented reality technologies (AR) for learning in a social and informal setting has been recognized, but little is yet known about the kinds of learning interactions it promotes and supports. In this paper, we describe initial findings from a study where an interactive, immersive, full-body simulation was deployed in a science…

  3. Digital interactive image analysis by array processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabels, B. E.; Jennings, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    An attempt is made to draw a parallel between the existing geophysical data processing service industries and the emerging earth resources data support requirements. The relationship of seismic data analysis to ERTS data analysis is natural because in either case data is digitally recorded in the same format, resulting from remotely sensed energy which has been reflected, attenuated, shifted and degraded on its path from the source to the receiver. In the seismic case the energy is acoustic, ranging in frequencies from 10 to 75 cps, for which the lithosphere appears semi-transparent. In earth survey remote sensing through the atmosphere, visible and infrared frequency bands are being used. Yet the hardware and software required to process the magnetically recorded data from the two realms of inquiry are identical and similar, respectively. The resulting data products are similar.

  4. Implementing Digital Interactive Textbooks in the Science Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Gary R.

    Digital interactive textbooks represent a major step forward in the quest to integrate technology into instructional methodology. Because this technology is new, virtually no research has been done as to the response of teachers to this innovation. The purpose of this study was to understand the process of change in relation to implementing these digital interactive textbooks in science classrooms at the high school level. The conceptual framework was based on Senge's theory of organizational change, Rogers' theory of the diffusion of innovations, and Davis' research regarding factors involved in technology acceptance. Participants included 7 science teachers and 2 administrators who were members of a professional learning community at a Title I high school in the southeastern region of the United States. A case study design was used to collect data from teacher and administrator interviews and observations of instructional activities in the classroom and professional learning community meetings. Data were coded, categorized, and analyzed for common themes. Results indicated that the digital interactive textbook was met with teacher apprehension and anxiety regarding the transition from teacher-led to student-led instruction, and this apprehension manifested in resistance. During the course of the study, educators found that the digital interactive textbook engaged students and was demonstrated to be a successful tool of instruction. The study is important because educators will develop a better understanding of how to implement technology innovations in the classroom that minimize teacher resistance to instructional change.

  5. Multimetric Macroinvertebrate Indices for Mid-continent US Great Rivers

    EPA Science Inventory

    We developed a set of great river macroinvertebrate indices of condition (GRMICs) for the mid-continent great rivers. We used a multiscale (site, reach, landscape) multimetric abiotic stressor gradient to select macroinvertebrate assemblage metrics sensitive to human disturbance ...

  6. The interactive contents authoring system for terrestrial digital multimedia broadcasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheong, Won-Sik; Ahn, Sangwoo; Cha, Jihun; Moon, Kyung Ae

    2007-02-01

    This paper introduces an interactive contents authoring system which can easily and conveniently produce interactive contents for the Terrestrial Digital Multimedia Broadcasting (T-DMB). For interactive broadcasting service, T-DMB adopted MPEG-4 Systems technology. In order to the interactive service becomes flourishing on the market, various types of interactive contents should be well provided prior to the service. In MPEG-4 Systems specification, broadcasting contents are described by the combination of a large number of nodes, routes and descriptors. In order to provide interactive data services through the T-DMB network, it is essential to have an interactive contents authoring system which allows contents authors to compose interactive contents easily and conveniently even if they lack any background on MPEG-4 Systems technology. The introduced authoring system provides powerful graphical user interface and produces interactive broadcasting contents in the forms of binary and textual format. Therefore, the interactive contents authoring system presented in this paper would vastly contribute to the flourishing interactive service.

  7. Digital Ecology: Coexistence and Domination among Interacting Networks

    PubMed Central

    Kleineberg, Kaj-Kolja; Boguñá, Marián

    2015-01-01

    The overwhelming success of Web 2.0, within which online social networks are key actors, has induced a paradigm shift in the nature of human interactions. The user-driven character of Web 2.0 services has allowed researchers to quantify large-scale social patterns for the first time. However, the mechanisms that determine the fate of networks at the system level are still poorly understood. For instance, the simultaneous existence of multiple digital services naturally raises questions concerning which conditions these services can coexist under. Analogously to the case of population dynamics, the digital world forms a complex ecosystem of interacting networks. The fitness of each network depends on its capacity to attract and maintain users’ attention, which constitutes a limited resource. In this paper, we introduce an ecological theory of the digital world which exhibits stable coexistence of several networks as well as the dominance of an individual one, in contrast to the competitive exclusion principle. Interestingly, our theory also predicts that the most probable outcome is the coexistence of a moderate number of services, in agreement with empirical observations. PMID:25988318

  8. Digital Ecology: Coexistence and Domination among Interacting Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleineberg, Kaj-Kolja; Boguñá, Marián

    2015-05-01

    The overwhelming success of Web 2.0, within which online social networks are key actors, has induced a paradigm shift in the nature of human interactions. The user-driven character of Web 2.0 services has allowed researchers to quantify large-scale social patterns for the first time. However, the mechanisms that determine the fate of networks at the system level are still poorly understood. For instance, the simultaneous existence of multiple digital services naturally raises questions concerning which conditions these services can coexist under. Analogously to the case of population dynamics, the digital world forms a complex ecosystem of interacting networks. The fitness of each network depends on its capacity to attract and maintain users’ attention, which constitutes a limited resource. In this paper, we introduce an ecological theory of the digital world which exhibits stable coexistence of several networks as well as the dominance of an individual one, in contrast to the competitive exclusion principle. Interestingly, our theory also predicts that the most probable outcome is the coexistence of a moderate number of services, in agreement with empirical observations.

  9. Genome complexity, robustness and genetic interactions in digital organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenski, Richard E.; Ofria, Charles; Collier, Travis C.; Adami, Christoph

    1999-08-01

    Digital organisms are computer programs that self-replicate, mutate and adapt by natural selection. They offer an opportunity to test generalizations about living systems that may extend beyond the organic life that biologists usually study. Here we have generated two classes of digital organism: simple programs selected solely for rapid replication, and complex programs selected to perform mathematical operations that accelerate replication through a set of defined `metabolic' rewards. To examine the differences in their genetic architecture, we introduced millions of single and multiple mutations into each organism and measured the effects on the organism's fitness. The complex organisms are more robust than the simple ones with respect to the average effects of single mutations. Interactions among mutations are common and usually yield higher fitness than predicted from the component mutations assuming multiplicative effects; such interactions are especially important in the complex organisms. Frequent interactions among mutations have also been seen in bacteria, fungi and fruitflies. Our findings support the view that interactions are a general feature of genetic systems.

  10. Interactive display system having a digital micromirror imaging device

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T.; DeSanto, Leonard; Kaull, Lisa; Brewster, Calvin

    2006-04-11

    A display system includes a waveguide optical panel having an inlet face and an opposite outlet face. A projector cooperates with a digital imaging device, e.g. a digital micromirror imaging device, for projecting an image through the panel for display on the outlet face. The imaging device includes an array of mirrors tiltable between opposite display and divert positions. The display positions reflect an image light beam from the projector through the panel for display on the outlet face. The divert positions divert the image light beam away from the panel, and are additionally used for reflecting a probe light beam through the panel toward the outlet face. Covering a spot on the panel, e.g. with a finger, reflects the probe light beam back through the panel toward the inlet face for detection thereat and providing interactive capability.

  11. Creating potentiometric surfaces from combined water well and oil well data in the midcontinent of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gianoutsos, Nicholas J.; Nelson, Philip H.

    2013-01-01

    For years, hydrologists have defined potentiometric surfaces using measured hydraulic-head values in water wells from aquifers. Down-dip, the oil and gas industry is also interested in the formation pressures of many of the same geologic formations for the purpose of hydrocarbon recovery. In oil and gas exploration, drillstem tests (DSTs) provide the formation pressure for a given depth interval in a well. These DST measurements can be used to calculate hydraulic-head values in deep hydrocarbon-bearing formations in areas where water wells do not exist. Unlike hydraulic-head measurements in water wells, which have a low number of problematic data points (outliers), only a small subset of the DST data measure true formation pressures. Using 3D imaging capabilities to view and clean the data, we have developed a process to estimate potentiometric surfaces from erratic DST data sets of hydrocarbon-bearing formations in the midcontinent of the U.S. The analysis indicates that the potentiometric surface is more readily defined through human interpretation of the chaotic DST data sets rather than through the application of filtering and geostatistical analysis. The data are viewed as a series of narrow, 400-mile-long swaths and a 2D viewer is used to select a subset of hydraulic-head values that represent the potentiometric surface. The user-selected subsets for each swath are then combined into one data set for each formation. These data are then joined with the hydraulic-head values from water wells to define the 3D potentiometric surfaces. The final product is an interactive, 3D digital display containing: (1) the subsurface structure of the formation, (2) the cluster of DST-derived hydraulic head values, (3) the user-selected subset of hydraulic-head values that define the potentiometric surface, (4) the hydraulic-head measurements from the corresponding shallow aquifer, (5) the resulting potentiometric surface encompassing both oil and gas and water wells, and (6

  12. Visual Design Guidelines for Improving Learning from Dynamic and Interactive Digital Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Sung-Hee

    2013-01-01

    Despite the dynamic and interactive features of digital text, the visual design guidelines for digital text are similar to those for printed text. The purpose of this study was to develop visual design guidelines for improving learning from dynamic and interactive digital text and to validate them by controlled testing. Two structure design…

  13. The Midcontinent Rift and Grenville connection

    SciTech Connect

    Cambray, F.W.; Fujita, K. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1994-04-01

    The Mid-Proterozoic, Midcontinent Rift System (MRS) is delineated by an inverted U shaped gravity and magnetic anomaly. It terminates in southeast Michigan but a less continuous series of anomalies and sediments, the Eastcontinent Rift occur on a north-south line through Ohio and Kentucky. The geometry allows for a north-south opening, the Lake Superior section being orthogonal to opening, the western arm transtensional and the north-south trending eastern arm a transform boundary offset by pull-apart basins. The opening and closing of the rift overlaps in time with the Grenville Orogeny. Grenville age rocks can also be found in the Llano uplift of Texas. The authors propose a model to explain the temporal and geographic association of the opening and closing of the MRS with the Grenville Orogeny that involves irregular suturing between two continental masses. Initiation of Grenville suturing, associated with south dipping subduction, in the northeast and in the Llano area of Texas would leave portion of unclosed ocean in between. Tensional stresses in the continental crust adjacent to the oceanic remnant could lead to its fragmentation and the formation of the MRS. The remaining oceanic lithosphere would eventually subduct, limiting the opening of the MRS. Continued convergence of the plates would induce compressional stresses thus accounting for the deformation of the MRS. An analogy is made with more recent opening of the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden Rift System in association with irregular collision along the Zagros-Bitlis Sutures.

  14. A Digital Realization of Astrocyte and Neural Glial Interactions.

    PubMed

    Hayati, Mohsen; Nouri, Moslem; Haghiri, Saeed; Abbott, Derek

    2016-04-01

    The implementation of biological neural networks is a key objective of the neuromorphic research field. Astrocytes are the largest cell population in the brain. With the discovery of calcium wave propagation through astrocyte networks, now it is more evident that neuronal networks alone may not explain functionality of the strongest natural computer, the brain. Models of cortical function must now account for astrocyte activities as well as their relationships with neurons in encoding and manipulation of sensory information. From an engineering viewpoint, astrocytes provide feedback to both presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons to regulate their signaling behaviors. This paper presents a modified neural glial interaction model that allows a convenient digital implementation. This model can reproduce relevant biological astrocyte behaviors, which provide appropriate feedback control in regulating neuronal activities in the central nervous system (CNS). Accordingly, we investigate the feasibility of a digital implementation for a single astrocyte constructed by connecting a two coupled FitzHugh Nagumo (FHN) neuron model to an implementation of the proposed astrocyte model using neuron-astrocyte interactions. Hardware synthesis, physical implementation on FPGA, and theoretical analysis confirm that the proposed neuron astrocyte model, with significantly low hardware cost, can mimic biological behavior such as the regulation of postsynaptic neuron activity and the synaptic transmission mechanisms. PMID:26390499

  15. Structure of the midcontinent basement. Topography, gravity, seismic, and remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guinness, E. A.; Strebeck, J. W.; Arvidson, R. E.; Scholz, K.; Davies, G. F.

    1981-01-01

    Some 600,000 discrete Bouguer gravity estimates of the continental United States were spatially filtered to produce a continuous tone image. The filtered data were also digitally painted in color coded form onto a shaded relief map. The resultant image is a colored shaded relief map where the hue and saturation of a given image element is controlled by the value of the Bouguer anomaly. Major structural features (e.g., midcontinent gravity high) are readily discernible in these data, as are a number of subtle and previously unrecognized features. A linear gravity low that is approximately 120 to 150 km wide extends from southeastern Nebraska, at a break in the midcontinent gravity high, through the Ozark Plateau, and across the Mississippi embayment. The low is also aligned with the Lewis and Clark lineament (Montana to Washington), forming a linear feature of approximately 2800 km in length. In southeastern Missouri the gravity low has an amplitude of 30 milligals, a value that is too high to be explained by simple valley fill by sedimentary rocks.

  16. Proterozoic history of the midcontinent region of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bickford, M. E.; van, W. R.; Zietz, Isidore

    1986-06-01

    Age and petrographic data from the buried basement of the midcontinent region of North America, integrated with information from exposed rocks and magnetic- and gravity-anomaly maps, allow much of the Proterozoic history of the region to be assembled. The Superior craton may be traced into the subsurface on the basis of characteristic magnetic patterns and limited age data. The region between the Superior craton and the Wyoming craton to the west is evidently underlain by southerly extension of the Trans-Hudson orogen of Canada. The Penokean orogen formed on the southern margin of the Superior craton 1890 1830 Ma, but is not inferred west of northwestern Iowa in the subsurface. Between 1780 and 1720 Ma, a major orogen developed along the southern margin of the continent and is exposed in Arizona and Colorado. These rocks are volcanogenic and, for the most part, juvenile additions to the crust; they can be traced beneath the plains as far as eastern Kansas and Nebraska. Another orogen formed farther to the south about 1700 1630 Ma and is exposed in southern Arizona and New Mexico; rocks of this age and type have beer, traced as far east as central Missouri but may extend as far as central Michigan. A major geophysical feature of the midcontinent is a system of northwest-trending magnetic and gravity anomalies in Missouri, Kansas, and Nebraska; the origin of these is not currently understood. The tectonic history of the midcontinent between 1480 and 1340 Ma was dominated by extensional formation of two widespread granite-rhyolite terranes that evidently were formed from, and overlie, the orogenic provinces. The older, formed 1450 1480 Ma, underlies the eastern midcontinent, whereas the younger, formed 1340 1400 Ma, underlies the southwestern midcontinent. The latest Proterozoic events were the formation of the midcontinent rift system and the collisional Grenville and Llano provinces about 1100 Ma.

  17. North America's Midcontinent Rift: when Rift MET Lip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, C. A.; Stein, S. A.; Kley, J.; Keller, G. R., Jr.; Bollmann, T. A.; Wolin, E.; Zhang, H.; Frederiksen, A. W.; Ola, K.; Wysession, M. E.; Wiens, D.; Alequabi, G.; Waite, G. P.; Blavascunas, E.; Engelmann, C. A.; Flesch, L. M.; Rooney, T. O.; Moucha, R.; Brown, E.

    2015-12-01

    Rifts are segmented linear depressions, filled with sedimentary and igneous rocks, that form by extension and often evolve into plate boundaries. Flood basalts, a class of Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs), are broad regions of extensive volcanism due to sublithospheric processes. Typical rifts are not filled with flood basalts, and typical flood basalts are not associated with significant crustal extension and faulting. North America's Midcontinent Rift (MCR) is an unusual combination. Its 3000-km length formed as part of the 1.1 Ga rifting of Amazonia (Precambrian NE South America) from Laurentia (Precambrian North America) and became inactive once seafloor spreading was established, but contains an enormous volume of igneous rocks. MCR volcanics are significantly thicker than other flood basalts, due to deposition in a narrow rift rather than a broad region, giving a rift geometry but a LIP's magma volume. Structural modeling of seismic reflection data shows an initial rift phase where flood basalts filled a fault-controlled extending basin, and a postrift phase where volcanics and sediments were deposited in a thermally subsiding basin without associated faulting. The crust thinned during rifting and rethickened during the postrift phase and later compression, yielding the present thicker crust. The coincidence of a rift and LIP yielded the world's largest deposit of native copper. This combination arose when a new rift associated with continental breakup interacted with a mantle plume or anomalously hot or fertile upper mantle. Integration of diverse data types and models will give insight into questions including how the magma source was related to the rifting, how their interaction operated over a long period of rapid plate motion, why the lithospheric mantle below the MCR differs only slightly from its surroundings, how and why extension, volcanism, and compression varied along the rift arms, and how successful seafloor spreading ended the rift phase. Papers

  18. Proterozoic Midcontinent Rift System, an overview

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, S.D.; Landon, S.M.

    1992-01-01

    The Middle and Late Proterozoic Midcontinent Rift System (MRS) extends across the middle US, from Lake Superior through Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa and Nebraska into Kansas on the southwest limb and across upper and lower Michigan on the southeast limb. Exploration for oil and gas generated over 7,000 miles of seismic, a leasehold of near seven million acres, but only three test wells. The initial extension of the MRS was marked by filling with layered basalt. Thickness documented by GLIMPCE suggests crustal separation was nearly achieved. The thick dense basalts and thinned pre-rift crust provide high amplitude gravity anomalies which characterize the rift trend. Extension slowed and eventually ceased, creating a sag phase during which clastic sediments were deposited, including sapropelic shale and siltstone, fluvial sandstones and siltstones, and fluvial/alluvial conglomerates. Tectonic inversion to compressional and transpressional forces occurred late in rift history, possibly during part of the period of clastic fill. The MRS trend is highly segmented, with varied tectonic styles, suggesting complex stress systems in its development. The Nonesuch Formation is marine or lacustrine siltstone and shale containing sufficient organic matter to be an effective source rock for oil and gas. Similar facies have been identified along the extent of the western limb, in the subsurface in Minnesota, Iowa and Kansas. TOC values are as high as 3% and maturity ranges from peak oil to advanced. Surface seeps, fluid inclusions, mud log shows and modeling indicate the potential for multiple episodes of generation. Potential reservoir rocks have been identified and seals are present as lacustrine and fluvial shales and possible evaporites. The MRS remains a relatively unexplored frontier hydrocarbon province with giant field potential in the heart of North America.

  19. Assistive technology delivery to remote areas using interactive digital communication

    SciTech Connect

    Janssen, H.F.; Johnson, K.; Li, Hua

    1996-12-31

    Assistive Technology is used to help individuals overcome limitations produced by a disability. In rural areas, it is often difficult to establish the rehabilitation team needed to evaluate the individual and to make recommendations for the appropriate assistive technology. Teleassistive technology helps overcome this difficulty by allowing the evaluation to be performed using digital interactive teleconferencing. Current technology is unable to produce full motion video over standard rural telephone lines; however, this limitation is being reduced by the post-evaluation distribution of full motion images stored on video tape. Future plans call for a time delayed transmission of video images over standard telephone lines. The current system is capable of providing cost effective assistance to individuals with disabilities who live in rural areas. Future advances in technology will undoubtedly improve our ability to provide these services.

  20. Petroleum Technology Transfer Council boosts North Mid-continent technology

    SciTech Connect

    Lyle, D.

    1995-10-01

    The Kansas Tertiary Oil Recovery Project served as one of the primary models for the Petroleum Technology Transfer Council, so it`s fitting this series on regional applications should start with the North Mid-Continent organization. The technology transfer program is described.

  1. Midcontinent operators embrace vlaue in DOE improved production program

    SciTech Connect

    Lyle, D.

    1996-05-01

    In less than four years, the DOE`s fluvial-dominated deltaic reservoir program is paying off in a big way for Midcontinent operators. Many of the projects are getting to the point where they are showing real production impacts.

  2. Archaeomagnetic research in the United States midcontinent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lengyel, Stacey Nicole

    This dissertation combines archaeomagnetic and independent chronometric data from 240 archaeological features to develop a regional secular variation curve for the U.S. midcontinent. These data were obtained from features located between 31.5--40.5° N latitude and 82.5--93.5° W longitude that have been dated to between 60 and 10,700 cal BP. The archaeomagnetic samples were collected from 41 sites within this region over the past 35 years under the direction of four different researchers: Robert DuBois (University of Oklahoma), Daniel Wolfman (University of Arkansas and New Mexico State Museum), Wulf Gose (University of Texas at Austin), and myself. In this project, the data are initially smoothed through the moving windows method to form the first approximation of the curve. Outlier analyses and pairwise statistical comparisons are utilized to refine the smoothed curve, and the results are compared to other Holocene-aged secular variation records from North America. These analyses indicate that the final curve should be treated as three distinct segments with different precision and use recommendations. First, the 850--75 cal BP segment can be used to date archaeomagnetic sample from the project area with expected temporal precision of 100--200 years. Second, the 2528--850 cal BP segment can be used cautiously to date archaeomagnetic samples with an expected temporal precision of 200--300 years. Third, the 9755--4650 cal BP segment should be used for contextual dating purposes only, in that an undated sample can be put into a regional context through comparison with the segment's constituent samples. Finally, three archaeological problems are addressed through the archaeomagnetic data. First, archaeomagnetic data are used to resolve the temporal conflict between an eastern Tennessee structure's morphology and a much earlier radiocarbon date obtained for the structure. Then, archaeomagnetic data are used to address a number of internal chronology questions

  3. Mid-continent natural gas reservoirs and plays

    SciTech Connect

    Bebout, D.G. )

    1993-09-01

    Natural gas reservoirs of the mid-continent states of Oklahoma, Kansas, and Arkansas (northern part) have produced 103 trillion cubic ft (tcf) of natural gas. Oklahoma has produced the most, having a cumulative production of 71 tcf. The major reservoirs (those that have produced more than 10 billion ft[sup 3]) have been identified and organized into 28 plays based on geologic age, lithology, and depositional environment. The Atlas of Major Midcontinent Gas Reservoirs, published in 1993, provides the documentation for these plays. This atlas was a collaborative effort of the Gas Research Institute; Bureau of Economic Geology. The University of Texas at Austin; Arkansas Geological Commission; Kansas Geological survey; and Oklahoma Geological Survey. Total cumulative production for 530 major reservoirs is 66 tcf associated and nonassociated gas. Oklahoma has the highest production with 39 tcf from 390 major reservoirs, followed by Kansas with 26 tcf from 105 major reservoirs. Most of the mid-continent production is from Pennsylvanian (46%) and Permian (41%) reservoirs; Mississippian reservoirs account for 10% production, and lower Paleozoic reservoirs, 3%. The largest play by far is the Wolfcampian Shallow Shelf Carbonate-Hugoton Embayment play with 25 tcf cumulative production, most of which is from the Hugoton and Panoma fields in Kansas and Guymon-Hugoton gas area in Oklahoma. A total of 53% of the mid-continent gas production is from dolostone and limestone reservoirs; 39% is from sandstone reservoirs. The remaining 8% is from chert conglomerate and granite-wash reservoirs. Geologically based plays established from the distribution of major gas reservoirs provide important support for the extension of productive trends, application of new resource technology to more efficient field development, and further exploration in the mid-continent region.

  4. Mid-Continent rift system - a frontier hydrocarbon province

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.K.; Kerr, S.D. Jr.

    1983-08-01

    Geophysical evidence in the Mid-Continent has led to delineation of a rift system active during the Proterozoic Y Era. The Mid-Continent rift system can be traced by the Mid-Continent gravity high and corresponding aeromagnetic anomaly signature from the surface exposure of the Keweenawan Supergroup in the Lake Superior basin southwest in the subsurface through Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, Nebraska, and Kansas. The aeromagnetic anomaly signature of the rift trend discloses where these sediments have been preserved. Thick accumulations of upper Proterozoic sediments are indicated by both upward continuation of the aeromagnetic profiles across the rift trend and gravity models which incorporate: 1) a deep mafic body to create the narrow gravity high, 2) anomalously thick crust to account for the more regional gravity low, and 3) sedimentary accumulations on the Precambrian surface to explain the small-scale notches which occur within the narrow gravity high. Reflection seismic data are virtually unknown in the rift area; however, data recently acquired by COCORP across the southern end of the feature in Kansas provide evidence of thick stratified sequences in the rift valley. Studies of the East African rift have revealed that the tropical rift valley is an exceptionally fertile environment for deposition and preservation of kerogenous material. The Sirte, Suez, Viking, Dnieper-Donetz, and Tsaidam basins are just a few of the rift basins currently classed as giant producers. The existence of a rift basin trend with thick accumulations of preserved sediments, demonstrably organic rich, introduces the northern Mid-Continent US as a new frontier for hydrocarbon exploration.

  5. Low oil and gas prices slow Midcontinent activity

    SciTech Connect

    Duey, R.

    1995-12-01

    The Midcontinent is home to some of the nation`s oldest, most well-established fields. But state officials are beginning to see the results of long-term industry saturation: The majors are beginning to leave, nobody can afford to use advanced recovery techniques when oil and gas prices are so low and sometimes today`s producers are being asked to clean up yesterday`s mistakes.

  6. Tentative correlation of midcontinent glacial sequence with marine chronology

    SciTech Connect

    Dube, T.E.

    1985-01-01

    A tentative glacial-interglacial 3-million-year chronology is synthesized by regional correlation of Midcontinent tills and paleosols to marine paleotemperature/eustatic cycles and oxygen isotope stages. The paleotemperature curves of Beard et al. (1982), based on planktonic foraminiferal abundances, correspond directly with eustatic cycles during the last 3 Ma. These generalized curves are shown to correlate reasonably well with standard oxygen isotope stages at least for the past 900 ka. This indicates that paleotemperature and Vail-type eustatic cycles have been glacially induced during the last 3 Ma. The chronology developed here utilizes both paleotemperature and oxygen isotope stages; however, below the Jaramillo magnetic subchron, isotope curves are more variable and only paleotemperature stages are used. Tills and paleosols at type localities in the Midcontinent area of the US are correlated to the SPECMAP oxygen isotope time scale. Because mid-Brunhes events are poorly constrained by radiometric dates, alternative correlations are possible. The oldest known Midcontinent tills correlate to the first Plio-Pleistocene cold paleotemperature stage and drop in sea level at 2.4 Ma. This Late Pliocene event also corresponds to the first major isotopic enrichment and the onset of late Cenozoic ice-rafting in the North Atlantic region.

  7. Advancing geodesy in the U.S. Midcontinent: workshop report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamburger, Michael W.; Boyd, Oliver S.; Calais, Eric; King, Nancy E.; Stein, Seth A.

    2014-01-01

    The workshop on “Advancing Geodesy in the U.S. Midcontinent” was held from October 31 to November 1, 2012, at Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois. The workshop included 28 participants from academia, government, and private-sector organizations that are involved in research on geodesy and earthquake hazards in the seismically active areas of the U.S. midcontinent (the region of relatively undeformed crust roughly between the Great Plains and Appalachian Mountains). The workshop was intended to provide guidance to the U.S. Geological Survey’s internal and external Earthquake Hazards research programs in the U.S. midcontinent. The 2012 workshop was developed as a follow-up to the “Workshop on New Madrid Geodesy and Understanding Intraplate Earthquakes,” held in Norwood, Massachusetts, in March 2011. The goal of the 2012 workshop was to provide specific recommendations to the U.S. Geological Survey on priorities for infrastructure and research investments related to geodesy in the U.S. midcontinent.

  8. Tablet PC interaction with digital micromirror device (DMD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refai, Hakki H.; Dahshan, Mostafa H.; Sluss, James J., Jr.

    2007-02-01

    Digital light processing (DLP) is an innovative display technology that uses an optical switch array, known as a digital micromirror device (DMD), which allows digital control of light. To date, DMDs have been used primarily as high-speed spatial light modulators for projector applications. A tablet PC is a notebook or slate-shaped mobile PC. Its touch screen or digitizing tablet technology allows the user to operate the notebook with a stylus or digital pen instead of using a keyboard or mouse. In this paper, we describe an interface solution that translates any sketch on the tablet PC screen to an identical mirror-copy over the cross-section of the DMD micromirrors such that the image of the sketch can be projected onto a special screen. An algorithm has been created to control each single micromirror of the hundreds of thousands of micromirrors that cover the DMD surface. We demonstrate the successful application of a DMD to a high-speed two-dimensional (2D) scanning environment, acquiring the data from the tablet screen and launching its contents to the projection screen; with very high accuracy up to 13.68 μm x 13.68 μm of mirror pitch.

  9. Preparation of northern mid-continent petroleum. Quarterly report, July 1--September 20, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Gerhard, L.C.; Carr, T.R.; Watney, W.L.

    1997-04-01

    Project will develop a prototype for a digital and hard-copy atlas of petroleum fields and reservoirs in the northern Mid-continent region. A limited number of reservoirs in Kansas are to be included in the prototype project,but the goal is to expand beyond the prototype atlas to include significant reservoirs representing the major plays in Kansas, Nebraska, south dakota, North Dakota, the Williston basin portion of Montana, the Denver-Julesburg basin of eastern Colorado and southeastern Colorado. Primary products of the prototype atlas will be on-line accessible digital data bases covering two selected petroleum plays in Kansas. ``Pages`` and data schema for the atlas overview and field studies have been developed and are accessible through the world-wide-web. The atlas structure includes access to geologic, geophysical and production information at levels from the national, to the regional, to the field to the individual well. Several approaches have been developed that provide efficient and flexible screening and search procedures. The prototype of the digital atlas is accessible through the Kansas Geological Survey Petroleum Research Section (PRS) HomePage (the Universal Resource Locator [URL] is http://www.kgs.ukans.edu/PRS/PRS.html). The Digital Petroleum Atlas (DPA) HomePage is available directly at http://www.kgs. ukans.edu/DPA/dpaHome.html. Technology transfer is underway through presentations at national and regional meetings and through the use of monthly electronic updates and the on-line availability of the DPA products. Project information and Quarterly Progress Reports are linked to the Digital Petroleum Atlas HomePage.

  10. Interactive Computing and Graphics in Undergraduate Digital Signal Processing. Microcomputing Working Paper Series F 84-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onaral, Banu; And Others

    This report describes the development of a Drexel University electrical and computer engineering course on digital filter design that used interactive computing and graphics, and was one of three courses in a senior-level sequence on digital signal processing (DSP). Interactive and digital analysis/design routines and the interconnection of these…

  11. Slow Mid-Lithosphere Beneath the Mid-continent, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedle, H.; van der Lee, S.

    2005-12-01

    The Illinois basin is one of several basins within the North American craton. Despite years of study, the formational mechanisms of the basin remain largely unknown. While the crustal structure of the basin is well-defined from seismic studies, it remains unclear whether the basin is expressed in the sub-crustal structure; and, if the mantle structure provides clues towards an understanding the basin. We study the S-velocity structure of the upper-mantle using seismic tomography beneath the Illinois basin and its surrounding area. Since this area of the North American craton has been relatively stable since 1.4 Gy, significant deviations in S-velocities within the uppermost mantle are not expected. Nevertheless, a slower S-velocity in the upper-mantle of the Illinois basin was previously modeled in the 3D model NA04 (van der Lee and Frederiksen, 2005). To improve resolution and verify the existence of this seismically slow region, we fit seismic waveforms from 11 mid-continent events, using the methodology of Partitioned Waveform Inversion (Nolet, 1990). In doing so, we also incorporate constraints that are representative of the Illinois basin's crustal and sedimentary layering. The resultant 3D model, IL05, confirms the existence of a slow S-velocity structure in the uppermost mantle beneath this region. This anomalously slow region exists from the base of the crust to depths of ~100 km, and is slower than a cratonic average by about 200 m/s. The slow uppermost-mantle beneath the Illinois basin is then underlain by a faster lithosphere typical of the North American craton to depths of ~200 km. The coherency of this deeper cratonic lithosphere rules out a lithospheric delamination origin of the anomaly. The model IL05 points to a heterogeneous mantle beneath the mid-continent. Our imaging agrees with evidence of a heterogeneous mantle recently found in the form of sub-Moho reflectors from reprocessed seismic reflection surveys (McBride and Okure, 2004). The

  12. Preparation of Northern Mid-Continent Petroleum Atlas

    SciTech Connect

    Lee C. Gerhard; Timothy R. Carr; W. Lynn Watney.

    1998-05-01

    As proposed, the third year program will continue and expand upon the Kansas elements of the original program, and provide improved on-line access to the prototype atlas. The third year of the program will result in a digital atlas sufficient to provide a permanent improvement in data access to Kansas operators. The ultimate goal of providing an interactive history-matching interface with a regional database will be demonstrated as the program covers more geographic territory and the database expands. The atlas will expand to include significant reservoirs representing the major plays in Kansas, and North Dakota. Primary products of the third year prototype atlas will be on-line accessible digital databases and technical publications covering two additional petroleum plays in Kansas and one in North Dakota. Regional databases will be supplemented with geological field studies of selected fields in each play. Digital imagery, digital mapping, relational data queries, and geographical information systems will be integral to the field studies and regional data sets. Data sets will have relational links to provide opportunity for history-matching, feasibility, and risk analysis tests on contemplated exploration and development projects. The flexible web-like design of the atlas provides ready access to data, and technology at a variety of scales from regional, to field, to lease, and finally to the individual well bore. The digital structure of the atlas permits the operator to access comprehensive reservoir data and customize the interpretative products (e.g., maps and cross-sections) to their needs. The atlas will be accessible in digital form on-line using a World-Wide-Web browser as the graphical user interface. Regional data sets and field studies will be freestanding entities that will be made available on-line through the Internet to users as they are completed. Technology transfer activities will be ongoing from the earliest part of this project, providing data

  13. Preparation of Northern Mid-Continent Petroleum Atlas

    SciTech Connect

    Lee C. Gerhard; Timothy R. Carr; W. Lynn Watney

    1998-05-01

    As proposed, the third year program will continue and expand upon the Kansas elements of the original program, and provide improved on-line access to the prototype atlas. The third year of the program will result in a digital atlas sufficient to provide a permanent improvement in data access to Kansas operators. The ultimate goal of providing an interactive history-matching interface with a regional database will be demonstrated as the program covers more geographic territory and the database expands. The atlas will expand to include significant reservoirs representing the major plays in Kansas, and North Dakota. Primary products of the third year prototype atlas will be on-line accessible digital databases and technical publications covering two additional petroleum plays in Kansas and one in North Dakota. Regional databases will be supplemented with geological field studies of selected fields in each play. Digital imagery, digital mapping, relational data queries, and geographical information systems will be integral to the field studies and regional data sets. Data sets will have relational links to provide opportunity for history-matching, feasibility, and risk analysis tests on contemplated exploration and development projects. The flexible "web-like" design of the atlas provides ready access to data, and technology at a variety of scales from regional, to field, to lease, and finally to the individual well bore. The digital structure of the atlas permits the operator to access comprehensive reservoir data and customize the interpretative products (e.g., maps and cross-sections) to their needs. The atlas will be accessible in digital form on-line using a World-Wide-Web browser as the graphical user interface. Regional data sets and field studies will be freestanding entities that will be made available on-line through the Internet to users as they are completed. Technology transfer activities will be ongoing from the earliest part of this project, providing

  14. A Study of Multimodal Discourse in the Design of Interactive Digital Material for Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burset, Silvia; Bosch, Emma; Pujolà, Joan-Tomàs

    2016-01-01

    This study analyses some published interactive materials for the learning of Spanish as a f?irst language and English as a Foreign Language (EFL) commonly used in primary and secondary education in Spain. The present investigation looks into the relationships between text and image on the interface of Interactive Digital Material (IDM) to develop…

  15. Study of the HVDC-torsional interactions through digital dynamic simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Padiyar, K.R.; Kothari, A.G.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the detailed dynamic digital simulation for the study of phenomenon of torsional interaction between HVDC-Turbine generator shaft dynamics using the novel converter model. The system model includes detailed representation of the synchronous generator and the shaft dynamics, the ac and dc network transients. The results of a case study indicate the various factors that influence the torsional interaction.

  16. Permo-carboniferous hydrocarbon accumulations, Mid-continent, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Rascoe, B.; Adler, F.J.

    1983-06-01

    Approximately 19.4 billion bbl of oil and 119 tcf of nonassociated gas have been discovered in the Mid-Continent as of January 1, 1978. Although these volumes of hydrocarbons were trapped in thousands of fields throughout the Mid-Continent, the bulk of these resources were emplaced in a relatively few fields about 14.2 billion bbl of oil have been found in 111 significant and giant oil fields, and 103 tcf of nonassociated gas have been discovered in 57 significant and giant gas fields. PermoCarboniferous reservoirs are important in 101 of the large oil fields and 55 of the large gas fields; these fields contained 9.5 billion bbl of oil and 99 tcf of gas, respectively. Our calculations of the total oil and gas accumulations in Permo-Carboniferous reservoirs extrapolated from these data. About 2.1 billion bbl of oil and 5.1 tcf of nonassociated gas accumulated in Lower Carboniferous (Mississippian) reservoirs. Most of this oil and gas was stratigraphically trapped in Upper Mississippian sandstones and carbonates which are truncated at the pre-Pennsylvanian unconformity surface.

  17. Correlation of Mid-Continent Virgilian (Late Pennsylvanian) Brachiopods

    SciTech Connect

    Weibel, C.P.

    1986-05-01

    Biostratigraphic correlations of Pennsylvanian strata in the Illinois basin with those of the Western Interior basin have been restricted largely to comparison of ostracode faunules and a few fusulinid occurrences. Seventeen brachiopod species from the Bogota and Greenup Limestone Members of the upper Mattoon Formation in east-central Illinois resemble species from Late Pennsylvanian Mid-Continent localities. Five Bogota species have relatively restricted ranges and are useful for correlation. Neochonetes granulifer var. transversalis is rare in the Douglas Group but abundant in the Shawnee and Wabaunsee. Lissochonetes geinitzianus var. plattsmouthensis ranges from uppermost Missourian to upper Shawnee and L. geinitzianus var. geronticus ranges from upper Wabaunsee to Lower Permian. Derbyia texana occurs in the Thrifty Formation of north Texas (probably upper Shawnee or lower Wabaunsee). Antiquatonia jemezensis has not been reported in the Mid-Continent but occurs in the upper Madera formation (probable Shawnee or early Wabaunsee) of New Mexico. A compositid from the younger Greenup Limestone Member is morphologically intermediate between the Early Pennsylvanian Composita wasatchensis and the middle Permian C. affinis. Other species from the Bogota and Greenup members range throughout the Upper Pennsylvanian, except for one linoproductid of Missourian affinities. This study, along with a previous study of brachiopods (Shumway Limestone Member) and of fusulinids, indicates that the Bogota is of middle Shawnee age, the Greenup is of upper Shawnee or lower Wabaunsee age, and the Missourian-Virgilian boundary in the Illinois basin is stratigraphically near the Omega Limestone Member.

  18. Coordination between digit forces and positions: interactions between anticipatory and feedback control.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qiushi; Santello, Marco

    2014-04-01

    Humans adjust digit forces to compensate for trial-to-trial variability in digit placement during object manipulation, but the underlying control mechanisms remain to be determined. We hypothesized that such digit position/force coordination was achieved by both visually guided feed-forward planning and haptic-based feedback control. The question arises about the time course of the interaction between these two mechanisms. This was tested with a task in which subjects generated torque (± 70 N·mm) on a virtual object to control a cursor moving to target positions to catch a falling ball, using a virtual reality environment and haptic devices. The width of the virtual object was varied between large (L) and small (S). These object widths result in significantly different horizontal digit relative positions and require different digit forces to exert the same task torque. After training, subjects were tested with random sequences of L and S widths with or without visual information about object width. We found that visual cues allowed subjects to plan manipulation forces before contact. In contrast, when visual cues were not available to predict digit positions, subjects implemented a "default" digit force plan that was corrected after digit contact to eventually accomplish the task. The time course of digit forces revealed that force development was delayed in the absence of visual cues. Specifically, the appropriate digit force adjustments were made 250-300 ms after initial object contact. This result supports our hypothesis and further reveals that haptic feedback alone is sufficient to implement digit force-position coordination. PMID:24401711

  19. GLIMPCE Seismic reflection evidence of deep-crustal and upper-mantle intrusions and magmatic underplating associated with the Midcontinent Rift system of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Behrendt, John C.; Hutchinson, D.R.; Lee, M.; Thornber, C.R.; Trehu, A.; Cannon, W.; Green, A.

    1990-01-01

    Deep-crustal and Moho reflections, recorded on vertical incidence and wide angle ocean bottom Seismometer (OBS) data in the 1986 GLIMPCE (Great Lakes International Multidisciplinary Program on Crustal Evolution) experiment, provide evidence for magmatic underplating and intrusions within the lower crust and upper mantle contemporaneous with crustal extension in the Midcontinent Rift system at 1100 Ma. The rift fill consists of 20-30 km (7-10 s) of basalt flows, secondary syn-rift volcaniclastic and post-basalt sedimentary rock. Moho reflections recorded in Lake Superior over the Midcontinent Rift system have times from 14-18 s (about 46 km to as great as 58 km) in contrast to times of about 11-13 s (about 36-42 km crustal thickness) beneath the surrounding Great Lakes. The Seismically complex deep-crust to mantle transition zone (30-60 km) in north-central Lake Superior, which is 100 km wider than the rift half-graben, reflects the complicated products of tectonic and magmatic interaction of lower-crustal and mantle components during evolution or shutdown of the aborted Midcontinent Rift. In effect, mantle was changed into crust by lowering Seismic velocity (through intrusion of lower density magmatic rocks) and increasing Moho (about 8.1 km s-1 depth. ?? 1990.

  20. A digital implementation of neuron-astrocyte interaction for neuromorphic applications.

    PubMed

    Nazari, Soheila; Faez, Karim; Amiri, Mahmood; Karami, Ehsan

    2015-06-01

    Recent neurophysiologic findings have shown that astrocytes play important roles in information processing and modulation of neuronal activity. Motivated by these findings, in the present research, a digital neuromorphic circuit to study neuron-astrocyte interaction is proposed. In this digital circuit, the firing dynamics of the neuron is described by Izhikevich model and the calcium dynamics of a single astrocyte is explained by a functional model introduced by Postnov and colleagues. For digital implementation of the neuron-astrocyte signaling, Single Constant Multiply (SCM) technique and several linear approximations are used for efficient low-cost hardware implementation on digital platforms. Using the proposed neuron-astrocyte circuit and based on the results of MATLAB simulations, hardware synthesis and FPGA implementation, it is demonstrated that the proposed digital astrocyte is able to change the firing patterns of the neuron through bidirectional communication. Utilizing the proposed digital circuit, it will be illustrated that information processing in synaptic clefts is strongly regulated by astrocyte. Moreover, our results suggest that the digital circuit of neuron-astrocyte crosstalk produces diverse neural responses and therefore enhances the information processing capabilities of the neuromorphic circuits. This is suitable for applications in reconfigurable neuromorphic devices which implement biologically brain circuits. PMID:25814323

  1. Project ITCH: Interactive Digital Simulation in Electrical Engineering Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, F. N.; Kain, R. Y.

    A two-stage project is investigating the educational potential of a low-cost time-sharing system used as a simulation tool in Electrical Engineering (EE) education. Phase I involves a pilot study and Phase II a full integration. The system employs interactive computer simulation to teach engineering concepts which are not well handled by…

  2. Digital Gaming Perspectives of Older Adults: Content vs. Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marston, Hannah R.

    2013-01-01

    There were two objectives to this study: (a) to establish flow and (2) to establish whether computer game interaction or content was important to the older adult, using the Nintendo Wii and the Sony PlayStation 2 consoles. An earlier study had identified the sports genre as a preference, and three games (golf, tennis, and boxing) were selected…

  3. Interactivity and the Digital Whiteboard: Weaving the Fabric of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haldane, Maureen

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the interactive whiteboard as a unique teaching and learning medium and explores the distinctive pedagogy that is emerging as its functionality continues to be exploited by increasing numbers of teachers. It draws on Kozma's studies of the characteristics of other learning media and how these define pedagogic opportunities to…

  4. KINPLOT: An Interactive Pharmacokinetics Graphics Program for Digital Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Robert C.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Inability to see the relevance of mathematics to understanding the time course of drugs in the body may discourage interest in pharmacokinetics. A UNC-developed computer graphics simulation program helps visualize the nature of pharmacokinetic-patient interactions, generates classroom handouts, and is used in the pharmaceuticals industry to…

  5. 78 FR 44556 - Chesapeake Energy Marketing, Inc. v. Midcontinent Express Pipeline LLC; Notice of Complaint

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Chesapeake Energy Marketing, Inc. v. Midcontinent Express Pipeline LLC... Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission), 18 CFR 385.206, Chesapeake Energy Marketing, Inc. (CEMI...

  6. Preparation of Northern Mid-Continent Petroleum Atlas

    SciTech Connect

    Lee C. Gerhard; Timothy R. Carr; W. Lynn Watney

    1998-05-01

    As proposed, the third year program will continue and expand upon the Kansas elements of the original program, and provide improved on-line access to the prototype atlas. The third year of the program will result in a digital atlas sufficient to provide a permanent improvement in data access to Kansas operators. The ultimate goal of providing an interactive history-matching interface with a regional data base will be demonstrated as the program covers more geographic territory and the data base expands. The atlas will expand to include significant reservoirs representing the major plays in Kansas, and North Dakota. Primary products of the third year prototype atlas will be on-line accessible digital data bases and technical publications covering two additional petroleum plays in Kansas and one in North Dakota. Regional databases will be supplemented with geological field studies of selected fields in each play. Digital imagery, digital mapping, relational data queries, and geographical information systems will be integral to the field studies and regional data sets. Data sets will have relational links to provide opportunity for history-matching, feasibility, and risk analysis tests on contemplated exploration and development projects. The flexible "web-like" design of the atlas provides ready access to data, and technology at a variety of scales from regional, to field, to lease, and finally to the individual well bore. The digital structure of the atlas permits the operator to access comprehensive reservoir data and customize the interpretative products (e.g., maps and cross-sections) to their needs. The atlas will be accessible in digital form on-line using a World-Wide-Web browser as the graphical user interface. Regional data sets and field studies will be free-standing entities that will be made available on-line through the Internet to users as they are completed. Technology transfer activities will be ongoing from the earliest part of this project

  7. Preparation of Northern Mid-Continent Petroleum Atlas

    SciTech Connect

    Lee C. Gerhard; Timothy R. Carr; W. Lynn Watney.

    1997-12-01

    As proposed, the third year program will continue and expand upon the Kansas elements of the original program, and provide improved on-line access to the prototype atlas. The third year of the program will result in a digital atlas sufficient to provide a permanent improvement in data access to Kansas operators. The ultimate goal of providing an interactive history-matching interface with a regional data base will be demonstrated as the program covers more geographic territory and the data base expands. The atlas will expand to include significant reservoirs representing the major plays in Kansas, and North Dakota. Primary products of the third year prototype atlas will be on-line accessible digital data bases and technical publications covering two additional petroleum plays in Kansas and one in North Dakota. Regional databases will be supplemented with geological field studies of selected fields in each play. Digital imagery, digital mapping, relational data queries, and geographical information systems will be integral to the field studies and regional data sets. Data sets will have relational links to provide opportunity for history-matching, feasibility, and risk analysis tests on contemplated exploration and development projects. The flexible web-like design of the atlas provides ready access to data, and technology at a variety of scales from regional, to field, to lease, and finally to the individual well bore. The digital structure of the atlas permits the operator to access comprehensive reservoir data and customize the interpretative products (e.g., maps and cross-sections) to their needs. The atlas will be accessible in digital form on-line using a World-Wide-Web browser as the graphical user interface. Regional data sets and field studies will be free-standing entities that will be made available on-line through the Internet to users as they are completed. Technology transfer activities will be ongoing from the earliest part of this project, providing

  8. Preparation of Northern Mid-Continent Petroleum Atlas

    SciTech Connect

    Lee C. Gerhard; Timothy R. Carr; W. Lynn Watney.

    1998-05-01

    As proposed, the third year program will continue and expand upon the Kansas elements of the original program, and provide improved on-line access to the prototype atlas. The third year of the program will result in a digital atlas sufficient to provide a permanent improvement in data access to Kansas operators. The ultimate goal of providing an interactive history-matching interface with a regional data base will be demonstrated as the program covers more geographic territory and the data base expands. The atlas will expand to include significant reservoirs representing the major plays in Kansas, and North Dakota. Primary products of the third year prototype atlas will be on-line accessible digital data bases and technical publications covering two additional petroleum plays in Kansas and one in North Dakota. Regional databases will be supplemented with geological field studies of selected fields in each play. Digital imagery, digital mapping, relational data queries, and geographical information systems will be integral to the field studies and regional data sets. Data sets will have relational links to provide opportunity for history-matching, feasibility, and risk analysis tests on contemplated exploration and development projects. The flexible web-like design of the atlas provides ready access to data, and technology at a variety of scales from regional, to field, to lease, and finally to the individual well bore. The digital structure of the atlas permits the operator to access comprehensive reservoir data and customize the interpretative products (e.g., maps and cross-sections) to their needs. The atlas will be accessible in digital form on-line using a World-Wide-Web browser as the graphical user interface. Regional data sets and field studies will be free-standing entities that will be made available on-line through the Internet to users as they are completed. Technology transfer activities will be ongoing from the earliest part of this project, providing

  9. Beyond image quality: designing engaging interactions with digital products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ridder, Huib; Rozendaal, Marco C.

    2008-02-01

    Ubiquitous computing (or Ambient Intelligence) promises a world in which information is available anytime anywhere and with which humans can interact in a natural, multimodal way. In such world, perceptual image quality remains an important criterion since most information will be displayed visually, but other criteria such as enjoyment, fun, engagement and hedonic quality are emerging. This paper deals with engagement, the intrinsically enjoyable readiness to put more effort into exploring and/or using a product than strictly required, thus attracting and keeping user's attention for a longer period of time. The impact of the experienced richness of an interface, both visually and degree of possible manipulations, was investigated in a series of experiments employing game-like user interfaces. This resulted in the extension of an existing conceptual framework relating engagement to richness by means of two intermediating variables, namely experienced challenge and sense of control. Predictions from this revised framework are evaluated against results of an earlier experiment assessing the ergonomic and hedonic qualities of interactive media. Test material consisted of interactive CD-ROM's containing presentations of three companies for future customers.

  10. Social Phenomenon of Community on Online Learning: Digital Interaction and Collaborative Learning Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aleksic-Maslac, Karmela; Magzan, Masha; Juric, Visnja

    2009-01-01

    Digital interaction in e-learning offers great opportunities for education quality improvement in both--the classical teaching combined with e-learning, and distance learning. Zagreb School of Economics & Management (ZSEM) is one of the few higher education institutions in Croatia that systematically uses e-learning in teaching. Systematically…

  11. Effects of Message Interactivity upon Relational Maintenance Strategy in Digital Communications between Organizations and the Public

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Zhan-Qing

    2012-01-01

    Digital communication between organizations and the public is strategically important in shaping mutual understanding and long term relationship. The primary focus of this project was to investigate the relationship between message interactivity and relational maintenance strategy in the email communication process on organization websites. At…

  12. Making Learning Active with Interactive Whiteboards, Podcasts, and Digital Storytelling in ELL Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hur, Jung Won; Suh, Suhyun

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine effective ways to integrate an interactive whiteboard, podcast, and digital storytelling for language proficiency development in English language learners. Researchers integrated these three technologies into a 60-hour intensive summer English program and investigated their impacts on student vocabulary…

  13. Learning in the Early Years: Social Interactions around Picturebooks, Puzzles and Digital Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagle, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops an approach to thinking about young children, digital technologies and learning, drawing on research literature that relates children's learning to the use of books, and on literature that discusses the nature of interaction between adults and children and its relationship to children's learning. An analysis is given of parents…

  14. Digital Video Interaction (DVI) Technology: The World's New Frontier in Education, Training and Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassoppo-Moyo, Temba C.

    1997-01-01

    Explores the power of Digital Video Interaction (DVI) technology, specifically its ability to combine multimedia tools to form a single communication engine. Looks at what DVI is, its historical origins, its importance, how it works, and where its impact might be felt in the next century. Examines the potential of DVI in developing countries for…

  15. Interactive Web-based tutorials for teaching digital electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Donald G.

    2000-10-01

    With a wide range of student abilities in a class, it is difficult to effectively teach and stimulate all students. A series of web based tutorials was designed to help weaker students and stretch the stronger students. The tutorials consist of a series of HTML web pages with embedded Java applets. This combination is particularly powerful for providing interactive demonstrations because any textual content may be easily provided within the web page. The applet is able to be a compete working program that dynamically illustrates the concept, or provides a working environment for the student to experiment and work through their solution. The applet is dynamic, and responds to the student through both mouse clicks and keyboard entry. These allow the student to adjust parameters, make selections, and affect the way the program is run or information is displayed. Such interaction allows each applet to provide a mini demonstration or experiment to help the student understand a particular concept or technique. The approach taken is illustrated with a tutorial that dynamically shows the relationships between a truth table, Karnaugh amp, logic circuit and Boolean algebra representations of a logic function, and dramatically illustrates the effect of minimization on the resultant circuit. Use of the tutorial has resulted in significant benefits, particularly with weaker students.

  16. Parallel algorithms for interactive manipulation of digital terrain models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, E. W.; Mcallister, D. F.; Nagaraj, V.

    1988-01-01

    Interactive three-dimensional graphics applications, such as terrain data representation and manipulation, require extensive arithmetic processing. Massively parallel machines are attractive for this application since they offer high computational rates, and grid connected architectures provide a natural mapping for grid based terrain models. Presented here are algorithms for data movement on the massive parallel processor (MPP) in support of pan and zoom functions over large data grids. It is an extension of earlier work that demonstrated real-time performance of graphics functions on grids that were equal in size to the physical dimensions of the MPP. When the dimensions of a data grid exceed the processing array size, data is packed in the array memory. Windows of the total data grid are interactively selected for processing. Movement of packed data is needed to distribute items across the array for efficient parallel processing. Execution time for data movement was found to exceed that for arithmetic aspects of graphics functions. Performance figures are given for routines written in MPP Pascal.

  17. Getting off the Straight and Narrow: Exploiting Non-Linear, Interactive Narrative Structures in Digital Stories for Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prosser, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Digital storytelling is already used extensively in language education. Web documentaries, particularly in terms of design and narrative structure, provide an extension of the digital storytelling concept, specifically in terms of increased interactivity. Using a model of interactive, non-linear storytelling, originally derived from computer game…

  18. Implicit interactions between number and space in digit-color synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Niessen, Eva; Fink, Gereon R; Schweitzer, Lisa; Kluender, Nora; Weiss, Peter H

    2015-03-01

    In digit-color synesthesia, a variant of grapheme-color synesthesia, digits trigger an additional color percept. Recent work on number processing in synesthesia suggests that colors can implicitly elicit numerical representations in digit-color synesthetes implying that synesthesia is bidirectional. Furthermore, morphometric investigations revealed structural differences in the parietal cortex of grapheme-color synesthetes, i.e., in the brain region where interactions between number and space occur in non-synesthetic subjects. Based upon these previous findings, we here examined whether implicitly evoked numerical representations interact with spatial representations in synesthesia in such a way that even a non-numerical, visuo-spatial task (here: line bisection) is modulated, i.e., whether synesthetes exhibit a systematic bisection bias for colored lines. Thirteen digit-color synesthetes were asked to bisect two sets of lines which were colored in their individual synesthetic colors associated with a small or a large digit, respectively. For all colored line stimuli combined, digit-color synesthetes showed--like control subjects (n = 13, matched for age, gender, IQ and handedness)--a pseudo-neglect when bisecting colored lines. Measuring the color-induced change of the bisection bias (i.e., comparing the biases when bisecting lines colored according to a small number vs those lines corresponding to a large number) revealed that only digit-color synesthetes were significantly influenced by line color. The results provide further evidence for the bidirectional nature of synesthesia and support the concept of a mental number line. In addition, they extend previous reports on bidirectionality in synesthesia by showing that even non-numerical, visuo-spatial performance can be modulated by implicit bidirectional processes. PMID:25498947

  19. 3D interactive augmented reality-enhanced digital learning systems for mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Kai-Ten; Tseng, Po-Hsuan; Chiu, Pei-Shuan; Yang, Jia-Lin; Chiu, Chun-Jie

    2013-03-01

    With enhanced processing capability of mobile platforms, augmented reality (AR) has been considered a promising technology for achieving enhanced user experiences (UX). Augmented reality is to impose virtual information, e.g., videos and images, onto a live-view digital display. UX on real-world environment via the display can be e ectively enhanced with the adoption of interactive AR technology. Enhancement on UX can be bene cial for digital learning systems. There are existing research works based on AR targeting for the design of e-learning systems. However, none of these work focuses on providing three-dimensional (3-D) object modeling for en- hanced UX based on interactive AR techniques. In this paper, the 3-D interactive augmented reality-enhanced learning (IARL) systems will be proposed to provide enhanced UX for digital learning. The proposed IARL systems consist of two major components, including the markerless pattern recognition (MPR) for 3-D models and velocity-based object tracking (VOT) algorithms. Realistic implementation of proposed IARL system is conducted on Android-based mobile platforms. UX on digital learning can be greatly improved with the adoption of proposed IARL systems.

  20. Interactive generation of digital anthropomorphic phantoms from XCAT shape priors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, C.; Gennert, M. A.; Connolly, C. M.; Konik, A.; Dasari, P. K.; Segars, W. P.; King, M. A.

    2012-03-01

    In SPECT imaging, patient respiratory and body motion can cause artifacts that degrade image quality. Developing and evaluating motion correction algorithms are facilitated by simulation studies where a numerical phantom and its motion are precisely known, from which image data can be produced. Previous techniques to test motion correction methods generated XCAT phantoms modeled from MRI studies and motion tracking but required manually segmenting the major structures within the whole upper torso, which can take 8 hours to perform. Additionally, segmentation in two dimensional MRI slices and interpolating into three dimensional shapes can lead to appreciable interpolation artifacts as well as requiring expert knowledge of human anatomy in order to identify the regions to be segmented within each slice. We propose a new method that mitigates the long manual segmentation times for segmenting the upper torso. Our interactive method requires that a user provide only an approximate alignment of the base anatomical shapes from the XCAT model with an MRI data. Organ boundaries from aligned XCAT models are warped with displacement fields generated from registering a baseline MR image to MR images acquired during pre-determined motions, which amounts to automated segmentation each organ of interest. With our method we can show the quality of segmentation is equal that of expert manual segmentation does not require a user who is an expert in anatomy, and can be completed in minutes not hours. In some instances, due to interpolation artifacts, our method can generate higher quality models than manual segmentation.

  1. Towards the application of interaction design to digital TV content development.

    PubMed

    Fialho, Francisco A P; Santos, Paloma Maria; Braga, Marcus de Melo; Thaler, Anelise

    2012-01-01

    Television can be considered one of the main means of mass entertainment. It occupies an important place in people's lives, influencing behavior and creating and/or enforcing consumer's habits and needs. With the advent of Digital Television, a series of new features tend to further impact upon society in many different ways. The main agent of this change is interactivity, which is the leverage that will transform the traditional viewer's role. Interactivity turns the viewer into a user, a partner who receives the content, but also produces, participates and collaborates during the viewing process. This paper aims to discuss the importance of applying interaction design in the development of projects related to digital television. The main factors that may contribute to improve the interaction design in applications for digital TV were identified drawing on a descriptive and qualitative method of investigation. The results showed that the interface design for this new media should not only be aesthetically appealing, but should also focus on usability (i.e. user's wishes and needs). Additionally, the creation of these interfaces requires the investigation of some characteristics and limitations of device interaction, considering the choice of colors, saturation levels and brightness, avoiding graphic symbols and prioritizing the navigation through the numerical buttons of the remote control. PMID:22316930

  2. Virtual Reality and Interactive Digital Game Technology: New Tools to Address Obesity and Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    “Skip” Rizzo, Albert; Lange, Belinda; Suma, Evan A; Bolas, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The convergence of the exponential advances in virtual reality (VR)-enabling technologies with a growing body of clinical research and experience has fueled the evolution of the discipline of clinical VR. This article begins with a brief overview of methods for producing and delivering VR environments that can be accessed by users for a range of clinical health conditions. Interactive digital games and new forms of natural movement-based interface devices are also discussed in the context of the emerging area of exergaming, along with some of the early results from studies of energy expenditure during the use of these systems. While these results suggest that playing currently available active exergames uses significantly more energy than sedentary activities and is equivalent to a brisk walk, these activities do not reach the level of intensity that would match playing the actual sport, nor do they deliver the recommended daily amount of exercise for children. However, these results provide some support for the use of digital exergames using the current state of technology as a complement to, rather than a replacement, for regular exercise. This may change in the future as new advances in novel full-body interaction systems for providing vigorous interaction with digital games are expected to drive the creation of engaging, low-cost interactive game-based applications designed to increase exercise participation in persons at risk for obesity. PMID:21527091

  3. Timing of spring surveys for midcontinent sandhill cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearse, Aaron T.; Krapu, Gary L.; Brandt, David A.; Sargeant, Glen A.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has used spring aerial surveys to estimate numbers of migrating sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) staging in the Platte River Valley of Nebraska, USA. Resulting estimates index the abundance of the midcontinent sandhill crane population and inform harvest management decisions. However, annual changes in the index have exceeded biologically plausible changes in population size (>50% of surveys between 1982 and 2013 indicate >±20% change), raising questions about nuisance variation due to factors such as migration chronology. We used locations of cranes marked with very-high-frequency transmitters to estimate migration chronology (i.e., proportions of cranes present within the Platte River Valley). We also used roadside surveys to determine the percentage of cranes staging at the Platte River Valley but outside of the survey area when surveys occur. During March 2001–2007, an average of 86% (71–94%; SD = 7%) of marked cranes were present along the Platte River during scheduled survey dates, and 0–11% of cranes that were present along the Platte River were not within the survey boundaries. Timing of the annual survey generally corresponded with presence of the greatest proportion of marked cranes and with least inter-annual variation; consequently, accuracy of estimates could not have been improved by surveying on different dates. Conducting the survey earlier would miss birds not yet arriving at the staging site; whereas, a later date would occur at a time when a larger portion of birds may have already departed the staging site and when a greater proportion of birds occurred outside of the surveyed area. Index values used to monitor midcontinent sandhill crane abundance vary annually, in part, due to annual variation in migration chronology and to spatial distribution of cranes in the Platte River Valley; therefore, managers should interpret survey results cautiously, with awareness of a continuing need to identify and

  4. Interactive food and beverage marketing: targeting adolescents in the digital age.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Kathryn C; Chester, Jeff

    2009-09-01

    Because of their avid use of new media and their increased spending power, adolescents have become primary targets of a new "Media and Marketing Ecosystem." Digital media resonate particularly well with many of the fundamental developmental tasks of adolescence by enabling instantaneous and constant contact with peers, providing opportunities for self-expression, identity exploration, and social interaction, and facilitating mobility and independence. Six key features of interactive media--ubiquitous connectivity, personalization, peer-to-peer networking, engagement, immersion, and content creation--are emblematic of the ways in which young people are both shaping and being shaped by this new digital culture. The advertising industry, in many instances led by food and beverage marketers, is purposefully exploiting the special relationship that teenagers have with new media, with online marketing campaigns that create unprecedented intimacies between adolescents and the brands and products that now literally surround them. Major food and beverage companies, including Coca-Cola, McDonald's, Burger King, and Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC), have incorporated these elements into their interactive marketing strategies, posing particular risks to adolescents, who are not being addressed in the current U.S. policy and self-regulatory regimens. However, recent and emerging neuroscience and psychological research on adolescents suggests a need to revisit the traditional approach to regulation of advertising. Despite the growth of interactive marketing, academic research on the impact of digital advertising on children and youth remains underdeveloped. Additional research and policy initiatives are needed to address the growing health threat facing youth in the digital marketplace. PMID:19699433

  5. The power of digital audio in interactive instruction: An unexploited medium

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, J.; Trainor, M.

    1989-01-01

    Widespread use of audio in computer-based training (CBT) occurred with the advent of the interactive videodisc technology. This paper discusses the alternative of digital audio, which, unlike videodisc audio, enables one to rapidly revise the audio used in the CBT and which may be used in nonvideo CBT applications as well. We also discuss techniques used in audio script writing, editing, and production. Results from evaluations indicate a high degree of user satisfaction. 4 refs.

  6. IMAGES: A digital computer program for interactive modal analysis and gain estimation for eigensystem synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    An interactive digital computer program for modal analysis and gain estimation for eigensystem synthesis was written. Both mathematical and operation considerations are described; however, the mathematical presentation is limited to those concepts essential to the operational capability of the program. The program is capable of both modal and spectral synthesis of multi-input control systems. It is user friendly, has scratchpad capability and dynamic memory, and can be used to design either state or output feedback systems.

  7. 77 FR 39696 - Atlas Pipeline Mid-Continent WestTex, LLC; Pioneer Natural Resources USA, Inc.; Notice of Intent...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Atlas Pipeline Mid-Continent WestTex, LLC; Pioneer Natural Resources USA... by Atlas Pipeline Mid-Continent WestTex, LLC and Pioneer Natural Resources USA, Inc. (Atlas and... provided landowners with a fact sheet prepared by the FERC entitled ``An Interstate Natural Gas Facility...

  8. Grenville foreland thrust belt hidden beneath the eastern US midcontinent

    SciTech Connect

    Hauser, E.C. )

    1993-01-01

    Grenville foreland thrust structures are observed beneath the eastern US midcontinent on COCORP (Consortium for Continental Reflection Profiling) line OH-1 and a short seismic line in southwest Ohio. These structures represent the first evidence for a significant Grenville foreland thrust belt preserved in eastern North America. On the COCORP lines, the structures include a thrust ramp anticline and an associated asymmetric syncline. The Grenville front tectonic zone appears to truncate these foreland structures, indicating a later, second phase expressed as a deeply penetrating, out-of-sequence thrust zone associated with the main uplift of the Grenville province on the east. A short, shallow seismic line in southwestern Ohio reveals an east-dipping sequence of prominently layered rocks that may lie above a footwall ramp to a deeper Grenville thrust fault. A drill hole into the less reflective top of this dipping sequence encountered unmetamorphosed sedimentary rocks like those increasingly reported from other drill holes in southwestern Ohio and adjacent states. Although possibly part of a late Precambrian (Keweenawan ) rift, these clastic sedimentary rocks may instead preserve evidence of a heretofore unrecognized Grenville foreland basin in eastern North America. Alternatively these Precambrian sedimentary rocks together with an underlying, but yet undrilled, strongly layered sequence may correlate with similarly layered rocks observed on COCORP and industrial seismic lines within the Middle Proterozoic granite-rhyolite province to the west in Indiana and Illinois and indicate that unmetamorphosed sedimentary material is an important constituent of the granite-rhyolite province. 25 refs., 6 figs.

  9. Harmonic Analysis of Sedimentary Cyclic Sequences in Kansas, Midcontinent, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merriam, D.F.; Robinson, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    Several stratigraphic sequences in the Upper Carboniferous (Pennsylvanian) in Kansas (Midcontinent, USA) were analyzed quantitatively for periodic repetitions. The sequences were coded by lithologic type into strings of datasets. The strings then were analyzed by an adaptation of a one-dimensional Fourier transform analysis and examined for evidence of periodicity. The method was tested using different states in coding to determine the robustness of the method and data. The most persistent response is in multiples of 8-10 ft (2.5-3.0 m) and probably is dependent on the depositional thickness of the original lithologic units. Other cyclicities occurred in multiples of the basic frequency of 8-10 with persistent ones at 22 and 30 feet (6.5-9.0 m) and large ones at 80 and 160 feet (25-50 m). These levels of thickness relate well to the basic cyclothem and megacyclothem as measured on outcrop. We propose that this approach is a suitable one for analyzing cyclic events in the stratigraphic record.

  10. Clastic rocks associated with the Midcontinent rift system in Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Raymond R.; McKay, Robert M.

    1997-01-01

    The Middle Proterozoic Midcontinent Rift System (MRS) of North America is a failed rift that formed in response to region-wide stresses about 1,100 Ma. In Iowa, the MRS is buried beneath 2,200?3,500 ft of Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks and Quaternary glaciogenic deposits. An extremely large volume of sediments was deposited within basins associated with the rift at several stages during its development. Although the uplift of a rift-axial horst resulted in the erosional removal of most of these clastic rocks from the central region of the MRS in Iowa, thick sequences are preserved in a series of horst-bounding basins. Recent studies incorporating petrographic analysis, geophysical modeling, and other analytical procedures have led to the establishment of a preliminary stratigraphy for these clastic rocks and interpretations of basin geometries. This information has allowed the refinement of existing theories and history of MRS formation in Iowa. Additionally, drill samples previously interpreted as indicating the existence of early Paleozoic basins overlying the Proterozoic MRS basins were re-examined. Samples previously interpreted as deep-lying Paleozoic rocks are now known to have caved from upper levels of the drillhole and were out of stratigraphic position. No deep Paleozoic basins exist in this area. These investigations led to the development of petrographic parameters useful in differentiating the Proterozoic MRS Red clastics from Paleozoic clastic rocks having similar lithologies.

  11. Using Lake Superior Parks to Present the Midcontinent Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, C. A.; Stein, S. A.; Blavascunas, E.

    2014-12-01

    Some of the Midwest's most spectacular scenery occurs near Lake Superior, in places like Pictured Rocks and Apostle Islands National Lakeshores, Isle Royale National Park, Interstate Park, and Porcupine Mountains State Park. These landscapes provide an enormous, but underutilized opportunity for park interpreters and educators to explain some of the most exciting concepts of modern geology. A crucial aspect of doing this is recognizing that many of the rocks and landforms in individual parks are pieces of a huge regional structure. This structure, called the Midcontinent Rift System (MCRS), is a 1.1 billion year old 3000 km (2000 mile) long scar along which the North American continent started to tear apart, just as Africa is splitting today along the East African Rift, but for some reason failed to form a new ocean. Drawing on our experience as researchers and teachers studying the MCRS (Steins) and as an interpreter at Isle Royale National Park (Blavascunas), we seek to give interpreters a brief introduction to MCRS to help them present information about what geologists know already and what they are learning from continuing research. Our goal is to help interpreters visualize how what they see at a specific site fits into an exciting regional picture spanning much of the Midwest.

  12. Known and suggested quaternary faulting in the midcontinent United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wheeler, R.L.; Crone, A.J.

    2001-01-01

    The midcontinent United States between the Appalachian and Rocky Mountains contains 40 known faults or other potentially tectonic features for which published geologic information shows or suggests Quaternary tectonic faulting. We report results of a systematic evaluation of published and other publicly available geologic evidence of Quaternary faulting. These results benefit seismic-hazard assessments by (1) providing some constraints on the recurrence intervals and magnitudes of large, prehistoric earthquakes, and (2) identifying features that warrant additional study. For some features, suggested Quaternary tectonic faulting has been disproved, whereas, for others, the suggested faulting remains questionable. Of the 40 features, nine have clear geologic evidence of Quaternary tectonic faulting associated with prehistoric earthquakes, and another six features have evidence of nontectonic origins. An additional 12 faults, uplifts, or historical seismic zones lack reported paleoseismological evidence of large. Quaternary earthquakes. The remaining 13 features require further paleoseismological study to determine if they have had Quaternary earthquakes that were larger than any known from local historical records; seven of these 13 features are in or near urbanized areas where their study could affect urban hazard estimates. These seven are: (1) the belt of normal faults that rings the Gulf of Mexico from Florida to Texas. (2) the Northeast Ohio seismic zone, (3) the Valmont and (4) Goodpasture faults of Colorado. (5) the Champlain lowlands normal faults of New York State and Vermont, and (6) the Lexington and (7) Kentucky River fault systems of eastern Kentucky. Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  13. The MIDAS processor. [Multivariate Interactive Digital Analysis System for multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kriegler, F. J.; Gordon, M. F.; Mclaughlin, R. H.; Marshall, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    The MIDAS (Multivariate Interactive Digital Analysis System) processor is a high-speed processor designed to process multispectral scanner data (from Landsat, EOS, aircraft, etc.) quickly and cost-effectively to meet the requirements of users of remote sensor data, especially from very large areas. MIDAS consists of a fast multipipeline preprocessor and classifier, an interactive color display and color printer, and a medium scale computer system for analysis and control. The system is designed to process data having as many as 16 spectral bands per picture element at rates of 200,000 picture elements per second into as many as 17 classes using a maximum likelihood decision rule.

  14. BrainMaps.org - Interactive High-Resolution Digital Brain Atlases and Virtual Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Mikula, Shawn; Stone, James M; Jones, Edward G

    2008-01-01

    BrainMaps.org is an interactive high-resolution digital brain atlas and virtual microscope that is based on over 20 million megapixels of scanned images of serial sections of both primate and non-primate brains and that is integrated with a high-speed database for querying and retrieving data about brain structure and function over the internet. Complete brain datasets for various species, including Homo sapiens, Macaca mulatta, Chlorocebus aethiops, Felis catus, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, and Tyto alba, are accessible online. The methods and tools we describe are useful for both research and teaching, and can be replicated by labs seeking to increase accessibility and sharing of neuroanatomical data. These tools offer the possibility of visualizing and exploring completely digitized sections of brains at a sub-neuronal level, and can facilitate large-scale connectional tracing, histochemical and stereological analyses. PMID:19129928

  15. Digital Holographic Measurement of Nanometric Optical Excitation on Soft Matter by Optical Pressure and Photothermal Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, David C.

    In this dissertation we use digital holographic quantitative phase microscopy to observe and measure phase-only structures due to induced photothermal interactions and nanoscopic structures produced by photomechanical interactions. Our use of the angular spectrum method combined with off-axis digital holography allows for the successful hologram acquisition and processing necessary to view these phenomena with nanometric and, in many cases, subnanometric precision. We show through applications that this has significance in metrology of bulk fluid and interfacial properties. Our accurate quantitative phase mapping of the optically induced thermal lens in media leads to improved measurement of the absorption coefficient over existing methods. By combining a mathematical model describing the thermal lens with that describing the surface deformation effect of optical radiation pressure, we simulate the ability to temporally decouple the two phenomena. We then demonstrate this ability experimentally as well as the ability of digital holography to clearly distinguish the phase signatures of the two effects. Finally, we devise a pulsed excitation method to completely isolate the optical pressure effect from the thermal lensing effect. We then develop a noncontact purely optical approach to measuring the localized surface properties of an interface within a system using a single optical pressure pulse and a time-resolved digital holographic quantitative phase imaging technique to track a propagating nanometric capillary disturbance. We demonstrate the method's ability to accurately measure the surface energy of pure media and chemical monolayers formed by surfactants with good agreement to published values. We discuss the possible adaptation of this technique to applications for living biological cell membranes.

  16. Organic geochemistry of mid-continent Ordovician oils

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, S.E.

    1985-01-01

    Early Paleozoic oils retain the biochemical imprint of oceanic life prior to evolution of land plants and vertebrates. Thus, these oils have geochemical features which make them unique with respect to younger oils, but also share some common properties with the latter. Characteristic mid-continent Ordovician oil features include predominance of n-C/sub 14/ to n-C/sub 19/ over n-C/sub 20/+ alkanes in the C/sub 15/+ saturate hydrocarbon fraction, low amounts of isoprenoids and abundant C/sub 27/ and C/sub 29/ diasteranes relative to normal steranes. Properties common to both Ordovician and younger oils are: nearly equal amounts of C/sub 15/+ n-alkanes, cycloalkanes, and aromatics and pristane/phytane ratios of 0.7 to 1.6. Collectively, these Ordovician oils have a relatively negative stable carbon isotopic composition but are not unique with respect to other marine oils. Although terpane distributions are generally similar to geologically-younger oils, the Ordovician oils contain significant amounts of C/sub 19/, C/sub 20/, and C/sub 21/ tricyclic diterpanes relative to the C/sub 23/ homolog as well as large contributions by C/sub 31/+ pentacyclic triterpanes. Presence of long-chained n-alkanes, C/sub 29/ steranes, and C/sub 24/ tetracyclic terpanes, which are generally accepted as input from land plants in, e.g., Tertiary deposits, are also present in Ordovician oils. The characteristics listed above describe oils from the Williston and Michigan basins as well as Ordovician oils from Kansas and Oklahoma.

  17. Layered rocks beneath the Phanerozoic platform of the US midcontinent

    SciTech Connect

    Hauser, E.C. )

    1991-03-01

    A thick sequence of layered rocks lies hidden beneath the Phanerozoic cover of the central US over large regions. A thick sequence of Precambrian layered rocks in imaged on the COCORP transect across southern Illinois and Indiana. The thickness of this layered sequence varies from 1-3 times the thickness of the overlying Phanerozoic section of the Illinois basin. The layered sequence is observed for close to 200 km in an east-west direction. Similar layered reflections are seen on the COCORP data from Hardeman Co., TX, and neighboring southwest Oklahoma. Both of these known occurrences lie within the region of the middle Proterozoic Granite/Rhyolite province of the US midcontinent, an area within which scattered wells to basement commonly encounter 1.3-1.5 Ga undeformed granite and/or compositionally similar rhyolite. Therefore, these layered assemblages may comprise a thick sequence of silicic volcanic and sedimentary rocks (perhaps also injected by mafic sills) between scattered volcanic-intrusive centers, such as exposed in the St. Francois Mountains of southeast Missouri. However, in places such as Illinois and Indiana, the near absence of deep wells leaves the possibility that the upper portion of these layered rocks may locally be of late Proterozoic or earliest Paleozoic age. The reprocessing of available industry data, analyzed in conjunction with the existing COCORP data, includes extended vibroseis correlation. These industry data are invaluable in the author's effort to expand the known distribution of these layered rocks (e.g., into north-central Illinois) and to map their structures.

  18. The MiSPOT System: Personalized Publicity and Marketing over Interactive Digital TV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Nores, Martín; Pazos-Arias, José Juan; Blanco-Fernández, Yolanda; García-Duque, Jorge; Tubío-Pardavila, Ricardo; Rey-López, Marta

    The development of Interactive Digital TV bears a great potential for electronic commerce, which remains heavily underexploited to date. The early initiatives to harness these technologies rely on the advertising techniques traditionally employed by the television industry, which have proven deficiencies related to viewers' comfort, locality and targeting. Furthermore, out of dedicated channels, there are very few attempts to provide interactive commercial functionalities through the TV, for example to sell products or to hire services. This chapter presents an overview of a system called MiSPOT that introduces solutions to these problems in two levels: (i) to advertise items that match the preferences and needs of the viewers, without interfering with their enjoyment of the TV programs; and (ii) to assemble specialized interactive applications that provide them with tailor-made commercial functionalities. These solutions are grounded on techniques from the Semantic Web, and are valid for both domestic TV receivers and mobile ones.

  19. Investigating Pupils' Interactions around Digital Texts: A Spatial Perspective on the "Classroom-Ness" of Digital Literacy Practices in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Cathy

    2014-01-01

    This paper complements debates around use of new technologies and literacy in education by proposing a focus on "classroom-ness." It highlights the significance of incidental, everyday and ephemeral practices associated with classroom technology-use. Using examples from a study of primary pupils' interactions around digital texts,…

  20. A digital computer program for the dynamic interaction simulation of controls and structure (DISCOS), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodley, C. S.; Devers, A. D.; Park, A. C.; Frisch, H. P.

    1978-01-01

    A theoretical development and associated digital computer program system for the dynamic simulation and stability analysis of passive and actively controlled spacecraft are presented. The dynamic system (spacecraft) is modeled as an assembly of rigid and/or flexible bodies not necessarily in a topological tree configuration. The computer program system is used to investigate total system dynamic characteristics, including interaction effects between rigid and/or flexible bodies, control systems, and a wide range of environmental loadings. In addition, the program system is used for designing attitude control systems and for evaluating total dynamic system performance, including time domain response and frequency domain stability analyses.

  1. To Improve the Interactivity of the History Educational Games with Digital Interactive Storytelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Qiulian; He, Ling; Hu, Xiaoqiang

    DIS and History Educational Games are two important tools in Technology-Enhances Learning for History knowledge that would benefit from their mutual cooperation. On the one hand History Educational Games can help the history courses more attractive and motivational for the students; on the other hand, DIS supplies the interactive and adaptive environment for the students to have the chances to select the different plot and control the development of the history.

  2. Profiles on Rural Education in the Seven State Mid-Continent Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Office of Social and Economic Data Analysis.

    Based on interviews with State Education Department personnel, this report presents information regarding the status of rural education in the seven-state region (Colorado, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming) served by the Mid-Continent Regional Laboratory. Of the 2,400 school districts in this region, 93 percent…

  3. Modeled summer background concentration nutrients and suspended sediment in the mid-continent (USA) great rivers

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used regression models to predict background concentration of four water quality indictors: total nitrogen (N), total phosphorus (P), chloride, and total suspended solids (TSS), in the mid-continent (USA) great rivers, the Upper Mississippi, the Lower Missouri, and the Ohio. F...

  4. 78 FR 41392 - Indicated Load-Serving Entities v. Midcontinent Independent System Operator, Inc. and PJM...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Indicated Load-Serving Entities v. Midcontinent Independent System Operator, Inc. and PJM Interconnection, L.L.C.; Notice of Complaint Take notice that on July 2, 2013, the Indicated Load-Serving Entities,...

  5. Mid-continent fall temperatures at the 10-cm soil depth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recommendations for applying N-fertilizer in autumn involve delaying applications until daily soil temperature at 10 cm depth is = or < 10° C. Daily soil temperature data during autumn were examined from 26 sites along a transect from 36° to 49° N latitude in the mid-continent USA. After soils first...

  6. Littoral and Shoreline Wood in Mid-continent Great Rivers (USA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Less is known about the ecology of wood in great rivers than in smaller lotic systems. We used a probability survey to estimate the abundance of littoral and shoreline wood along the mid-continent great rivers of the United States: the Missouri, Upper Mississippi, and the Ohio Ri...

  7. 78 FR 43876 - AmerenEnergy Resources Generating Company v. Midcontinent Independent System Operator, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission AmerenEnergy Resources Generating Company v. Midcontinent Independent System Operator, Inc.; Notice of Complaint Take notice that on July 5, 2013, AmerenEnergy Resources...

  8. Evaluation Plan of the Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning, FY1996-FY2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barley, Zoe

    This evaluation plan, which is updated annually, provides a synthesis of the various evaluation activities of Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL). During 1999, the fourth year of the Laboratory's contract period with the Office of Educational Research and Improvement, special studies and integrated studies were designed to…

  9. Taking advantage of reduced droplet-surface interaction to optimize transport of bioanalytes in digital microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Freire, Sergio L S; Thorne, Nathaniel; Wutkowski, Michael; Dao, Selina

    2014-01-01

    Digital microfluidics (DMF), a technique for manipulation of droplets, is a promising alternative for the development of "lab-on-a-chip" platforms. Often, droplet motion relies on the wetting of a surface, directly associated with the application of an electric field; surface interactions, however, make motion dependent on droplet contents, limiting the breadth of applications of the technique. Some alternatives have been presented to minimize this dependence. However, they rely on the addition of extra chemical species to the droplet or its surroundings, which could potentially interact with droplet moieties. Addressing this challenge, our group recently developed Field-DW devices to allow the transport of cells and proteins in DMF, without extra additives. Here, the protocol for device fabrication and operation is provided, including the electronic interface for motion control. We also continue the studies with the devices, showing that multicellular, relatively large, model organisms can also be transported, arguably unaffected by the electric fields required for device operation. PMID:25407533

  10. TRIIG - Time-lapse reproduction of images through interactive graphics. [digital processing of quality hard copy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckner, J. D.; Council, H. W.; Edwards, T. R.

    1974-01-01

    Description of the hardware and software implementing the system of time-lapse reproduction of images through interactive graphics (TRIIG). The system produces a quality hard copy of processed images in a fast and inexpensive manner. This capability allows for optimal development of processing software through the rapid viewing of many image frames in an interactive mode. Three critical optical devices are used to reproduce an image: an Optronics photo reader/writer, the Adage Graphics Terminal, and Polaroid Type 57 high speed film. Typical sources of digitized images are observation satellites, such as ERTS or Mariner, computer coupled electron microscopes for high-magnification studies, or computer coupled X-ray devices for medical research.

  11. Design of an interactive digital nutritional education package for elderly people.

    PubMed

    Ali, Nazlena Mohamad; Shahar, Suzana; Kee, You Lee; Norizan, Azir Rezha; Noah, Shahrul Azman Mohd

    2012-12-01

    Designing a system for the elderly is crucial, as aging is associated with physiological changes that may impair perception, cognition and other social aspects; therefore, many aspects need consideration, especially in interface design. This study was conducted to develop a digital nutritional education package (WE Sihat) by following appropriate guidelines for elderly people to achieve better design interface and interaction. Touch-screen technology was used as a platform for user interaction. The nutritional content was based on previous nutrition studies and a lifestyle education package on healthy aging, which contains four modules. The questionnaires were distributed to 31 Malay subjects aged 60-76 years old, containing an evaluation about the overall content, graphics, design layout, colour, font size, audio/video, user-perceived satisfaction and acceptance levels. The findings showed positive feedback and acceptance. Most subjects agreed that the digital nutritional education package can increase their nutritional knowledge for a healthy lifestyle and is easy to use. The touch-screen technology was also well accepted by elderly people and can be used as a kiosk for disseminating nutrition education for healthy aging. PMID:22583111

  12. Digit patterning during limb development as a result of the BMP-receptor interaction

    PubMed Central

    Badugu, Amarendra; Kraemer, Conradin; Germann, Philipp; Menshykau, Denis; Iber, Dagmar

    2012-01-01

    Turing models have been proposed to explain the emergence of digits during limb development. However, so far the molecular components that would give rise to Turing patterns are elusive. We have recently shown that a particular type of receptor-ligand interaction can give rise to Schnakenberg-type Turing patterns, which reproduce patterning during lung and kidney branching morphogenesis. Recent knockout experiments have identified Smad4 as a key protein in digit patterning. We show here that the BMP-receptor interaction meets the conditions for a Schnakenberg-type Turing pattern, and that the resulting model reproduces available wildtype and mutant data on the expression patterns of BMP, its receptor, and Fgfs in the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) when solved on a realistic 2D domain that we extracted from limb bud images of E11.5 mouse embryos. We propose that receptor-ligand-based mechanisms serve as a molecular basis for the emergence of Turing patterns in many developing tissues. PMID:23251777

  13. Quaternary Reorganization of North American Mid-continent Drainage Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, E. C.; Rawling, J. E., III; Attig, J. W.; Bates, B. R.

    2013-12-01

    Identification of ancestral drainage systems in the North American mid-continent has been a topic of research and debate among geologists since the middle of the 19th Century. Over time our understanding of the significance of Quaternary glaciations in reshaping drainage patterns has grown. The ancestral Teays River, which drained large areas of the central Appalachians and flowed westward across Indiana and western Illinois, was dammed multiple times by Quaternary glaciers before finally being rerouted to the course of the modern central Ohio River. Similarly, the northward-flowing ancestral Pittsburgh River was dammed by pre-Illinoian glaciers; subsequent stream piracy converted this river system into the modern Allegheny, Monongahela and uppermost Ohio Rivers. Deposits and geomorphic features along the westward-flowing lower Wisconsin River indicate that the modern upper Mississippi River and Wisconsin River may have experienced a similar history of ice blockage, stream piracy, and radical rerouting. Coring into the Bridgeport strath terrace along the lower Wisconsin River reveals that the bedrock surface dips to the east, indicating the valley was cut by an eastward-flowing river. We believe the most likely scenario following this interpretation is that an ancestral river flowing along the modern upper Mississippi River valley made a sharp bend at Prairie du Chien, WI, and flowed eastward along the valley occupied by the modern lower Wisconsin River. This river, referred to here as the Wyalusing River, likely flowed northeastward into the Great Lakes (St. Lawrence) drainage until that path was blocked by ice advancing from the northwest. Subsequent stream piracy immediately south of the modern confluence of the Mississippi and Wisconsin Rivers rerouted these streams, converting them to the headwaters of the greater Mississippi drainage. The combined rerouting of these river systems into entirely different drainage basins necessitates significant fundamental

  14. Optical analysis of nanomaterial-cell interactions: flow cytometry and digital holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mues, Sarah; Antunovic, Jan; Ossig, Rainer; Kemper, Björn; Schnekenburger, Jürgen

    2015-05-01

    The in vitro cytotoxicity assessment of engineered nanoparticles commonly involves the measurement of different endpoints like the formation of reactive oxygen species, cell viability or cell death. Usually these parameters are determined by optical readouts of enzymatically converted substrates that often interfere with the tested nanomaterials. Using cell viability (WST-8) and cell death (LDH) as parameter we have initially investigated the toxic effects of spherical (NM 300) and rod shaped (NM 302) silver nanomaterials with a matrix of four cell lines representing different functions: lung and kidney epithelial cells, macrophages and fibroblasts. In addition, we have used a label-free flow cytometer configuration to investigate interactions of particles and macrophages by side scatter signal analysis. Finally, we explored digital holographic microscopy (DHM) for multimodal label-free analysis of nanomaterial toxicity. Quantitative DHM phase images were analyzed for cell thickness, volume, density, dry mass and refractive index. We could demonstrate that silver spheres lead to more cytotoxic effects than rods in all four examined cell lines and both assay. Exemplarily a dose dependent interaction increase of cells with NM 300 and NM 302 analyzed by flow cytometry is shown. Furthermore, we found that the refractive index of cells is influenced by incubation with NM 300 in a decreasing manner. A 24 hours time-lapse measurement revealed a dose dependent decrease of dry mass and surface area development indicating reduced cell viability and cell death. Our results demonstrate digital holographic microscopy and flow cytometry as valuable label-free tools for nanomaterial toxicity and cell interaction studies.

  15. Mesohabitat-specific Macroinvertebrate Assemblage Responses to Water Quality Variation in Mid-continent (North America) Great Rivers

    EPA Science Inventory

    We compared the responsiveness of macroinvertebrate assemblages to water quality stressors (ions, nutrients, dissolved metals and suspended sediment) in two mesohabitats within the main-channel macrohabitat of three mid-continent North American rivers, the Upper Mississippi, Miss...

  16. Understanding Urban Watersheds through Digital Interactive Maps, San Francisco Bay Area, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowers, J. M.; Ticci, M. G.; Mulvey, P.

    2014-12-01

    Dense urbanization has resulted in the "disappearance" of many local creeks in urbanized areas surrounding the San Francisco Bay. Long reaches of creeks now flow in underground pipes. Municipalities and water agencies trying to reduce non-point-source pollution are faced with a public that cannot see and therefore does not understand the interconnected nature of the drainage system or its ultimate discharge to the bay. Since 1993, we have collaborated with the Oakland Museum, the San Francisco Estuary Institute, public agencies, and municipalities to create creek and watershed maps to address the need for public understanding of watershed concepts. Fifteen paper maps are now published (www.museumca.org/creeks), which have become a standard reference for educators and anyone working on local creek-related issues. We now present digital interactive creek and watershed maps in Google Earth. Four maps are completed covering urbanized areas of Santa Clara and Alameda Counties. The maps provide a 3D visualization of the watersheds, with cartography draped over the landscape in transparent colors. Each mapped area includes both Present and Past (circa 1800s) layers which can be clicked on or off by the user. The Present layers include the modern drainage network, watershed boundaries, and reservoirs. The Past layers include the 1800s-era creek systems, tidal marshes, lagoons, and other habitats. All data are developed in ArcGIS software and converted to Google Earth format. To ensure the maps are interesting and engaging, clickable icons pop-up provide information on places to visit, restoration projects, history, plants, and animals. Maps of Santa Clara Valley are available at http://www.valleywater.org/WOW.aspx. Maps of western Alameda County will soon be available at http://acfloodcontrol.org/. Digital interactive maps provide several advantages over paper maps. They are seamless within each map area, and the user can zoom in or out, and tilt, and fly over to explore

  17. Path (un)predictability of two interacting cracks in polycarbonate sheets using Digital Image Correlation.

    PubMed

    Koivisto, J; Dalbe, M-J; Alava, M J; Santucci, S

    2016-01-01

    Crack propagation is tracked here with Digital Image Correlation analysis in the test case of two cracks propagating in opposite directions in polycarbonate, a material with high ductility and a large Fracture Process Zone (FPZ). Depending on the initial distances between the two crack tips, one may observe different complex crack paths with in particular a regime where the two cracks repel each other prior to being attracted. We show by strain field analysis how this can be understood according to the principle of local symmetry: the propagation is to the direction where the local shear - mode KII in fracture mechanics language - is zero. Thus the interactions exhibited by the cracks arise from symmetry, from the initial geometry, and from the material properties which induce the FPZ. This complexity makes any long-range prediction of the path(s) impossible. PMID:27578388

  18. Path (un)predictability of two interacting cracks in polycarbonate sheets using Digital Image Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Koivisto, J.; Dalbe, M.-J.; Alava, M. J.; Santucci, S.

    2016-01-01

    Crack propagation is tracked here with Digital Image Correlation analysis in the test case of two cracks propagating in opposite directions in polycarbonate, a material with high ductility and a large Fracture Process Zone (FPZ). Depending on the initial distances between the two crack tips, one may observe different complex crack paths with in particular a regime where the two cracks repel each other prior to being attracted. We show by strain field analysis how this can be understood according to the principle of local symmetry: the propagation is to the direction where the local shear - mode KII in fracture mechanics language - is zero. Thus the interactions exhibited by the cracks arise from symmetry, from the initial geometry, and from the material properties which induce the FPZ. This complexity makes any long-range prediction of the path(s) impossible. PMID:27578388

  19. A 'user friendly' geographic information system in a color interactive digital image processing system environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, W. J.; Goldberg, M.

    1982-01-01

    NASA's Eastern Regional Remote Sensing Applications Center (ERRSAC) has recognized the need to accommodate spatial analysis techniques in its remote sensing technology transfer program. A computerized Geographic Information System to incorporate remotely sensed data, specifically Landsat, with other relevant data was considered a realistic approach to address a given resource problem. Questions arose concerning the selection of a suitable available software system to demonstrate, train, and undertake demonstration projects with ERRSAC's user community. The very specific requirements for such a system are discussed. The solution found involved the addition of geographic information processing functions to the Interactive Digital Image Manipulation System (IDIMS). Details regarding the functions of the new integrated system are examined along with the characteristics of the software.

  20. A user's guide for DTIZE an interactive digitizing and graphical editing computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, C. C.

    1981-01-01

    A guide for DTIZE, a two dimensional digitizing program with graphical editing capability, is presented. DTIZE provides the capability to simultaneously create and display a picture on the display screen. Data descriptions may be permanently saved in three different formats. DTIZE creates the picture graphics in the locator mode, thus inputting one coordinate each time the terminator button is pushed. Graphic input devices (GIN) are also used to select function command menu. These menu commands and the program's interactive prompting sequences provide a complete capability for creating, editing, and permanently recording a graphical picture file. DTIZE is written in FORTRAN IV language for the Tektronix 4081 graphic system utilizing the Plot 80 Distributed Graphics Library (DGL) subroutines. The Tektronix 4953/3954 Graphic Tablet with mouse, pen, or joystick are used as graphics input devices to create picture graphics.

  1. An application of the MPP to the interactive manipulation of stereo images of digital terrain models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pol, Sanjay; Mcallister, David; Davis, Edward

    1987-01-01

    Massively Parallel Processor algorithms were developed for the interactive manipulation of flat shaded digital terrain models defined over grids. The emphasis is on real time manipulation of stereo images. Standard graphics transformations are applied to a 128 x 128 grid of elevations followed by shading and a perspective projection to produce the right eye image. The surface is then rendered using a simple painter's algorithm for hidden surface removal. The left eye image is produced by rotating the surface 6 degs about the viewer's y axis followed by a perspective projection and rendering of the image as described above. The left and right eye images are then presented on a graphics device using standard stereo technology. Performance evaluations and comparisons are presented.

  2. SpectroWeb : An Interactive Graphical Database of Digital Stellar Spectral Atlases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobel, A.

    2006-08-01

    SpectroWeb is an online maintained interactive graphical database of digital spectral atlases of bright stars at http://spectra.freeshell.org . It is an efficient and user-friendly research tool for accurate analyses of stellar spectra observed with large spectral resolution, including the solar spectrum. The web-interface displays observed and theoretical stellar spectra, and comprehensively provides detailed atomic and molecular line information via user interaction. It fully integrates interactive spectrum visualization tools for the analysis, management, and maintenance of large volumes of spectral line-identification, -transition, and -property data. SpectroWeb 1.0 currently offers optical (3300-6800 A) flux normalized high-resolution spectra of Betelgeuse (M2), Arcturus (K1), The Sun (G2), Beta Aqr (G0), Procyon (F5), and Canopus (F0). The provided line identifications are based on state of the art spectrum synthesis calculations. The graphical database is under permanent development as an online repository of identified (absorption) lines in bright star reference spectra, covering a broad range of stellar spectral types. Its object-oriented (Java) implementation offers future expansion capabilities to link and read stellar spectral atlases from various public internet sites.

  3. SpectroWeb : an interactive graphical database of digital stellar spectral atlases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobel, A.

    2007-07-01

    SpectroWeb is under development as an online interactive repository for identified spectral lines in spectral standard stars. SpectroWeb is an online maintained interactive graphical database of digital spectral atlases of spectral standard stars at http://spectra.freeshell.org . It is an efficient and user-friendly research tool for accurate analyses of stellar spec- tra observed with large spectral resolution, including the solar spectrum. The web-interface displays observed and theoretical stellar spectra, and comprehen- sively provides detailed atomic and molecular line information via user interac- tion. It fully integrates interactive spectrum visualization tools for the analysis, management, and maintenance of large volumes of spectral line-identification, -transition, and -property data. SpectroWeb 1.0 currently offers optical (3300- 6800 °A) flux normalized high-resolution spectra of Betelgeuse (M2), Arcturus (K1), The Sun (G2), Beta Aqr (G0), Procyon (F5), and Canopus (F0). The provided line identifications are based on state of the art spectrum synthesis cal- culations. The graphical database is under permanent development as an online repository of identified (absorption) lines in spectral standard reference stars, covering a broad range of stellar spectral types. Its object-oriented (Java) im- plementation offers future expansion capabilities to link and read stellar spectral atlases from various public internet sites.

  4. Deep crustal sediment study: Widespread Precambrian layered rocks (Sedimentary ) beneath the US midcontinent

    SciTech Connect

    Hauser, E.C.

    1992-01-01

    A thick sequence of layered rocks occurs beneath the Phanerozoic platform strata which blanket the US midcontinent. Observed on COCORP deep reflection data in southern Illinois and Indiana and in SW Oklahoma and adjacent Texas, this sequence is locally 1--3 times as thick as the overlying Paleozoic cover, but the origin of this sequence, its ultimate lateral extent, and resource potential are unknown. The objective of this project is to seek and reprocess seismic reflection data provided by industry from the US midcontinent and together with the COCORP deep reflection data and information from the scattered basement-penetrating drill holes, to begin to constrain the distribution, origin and evolution of this enigmatic layered sequence, particularly to evaluate if sedimentary material may be an important constituent (i.e., deep gas potential).

  5. Deep crustal sediment study: Widespread Precambrian layered rocks (Sedimentary ?) beneath the US midcontinent

    SciTech Connect

    Hauser, E.C.

    1992-06-01

    A thick sequence of layered rocks occurs beneath the Phanerozoic platform strata which blanket the US midcontinent. Observed on COCORP deep reflection data in southern Illinois and Indiana and in SW Oklahoma and adjacent Texas, this sequence is locally 1--3 times as thick as the overlying Paleozoic cover, but the origin of this sequence, its ultimate lateral extent, and resource potential are unknown. The objective of this project is to seek and reprocess seismic reflection data provided by industry from the US midcontinent and together with the COCORP deep reflection data and information from the scattered basement-penetrating drill holes, to begin to constrain the distribution, origin and evolution of this enigmatic layered sequence, particularly to evaluate if sedimentary material may be an important constituent (i.e., deep gas potential).

  6. Changes in atmospheric circulation patterns affect midcontinent wetlands sensitive to climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaBaugh, J.W.; Winter, T.C.; Swanson, G.A.; Rosenberry, D.

    1996-01-01

    Twenty-seven years of data from midcontinent wetlands indicate that the response of these wetlands to extremes in precipitation-drought and deluge-persists beyond the extreme events. Chemical changes transcend such simple relations as increased salinity during dry periods because drought provides mechanisms for removal of salt by deflation and seepage to groundwater. Inundation of vegetation zones including rooted or floating mats of cattail (Typha glauca) can stimulate sulfate reduction and shift the anion balance from sulfate to bicarbonate dominance. Disruptions in the circulation of moisture-laden air masses over the midcontinent, as in the drought of 1988 and the deluge of 1993, have a major effect on these wetlands, which are representatives of the primary waterfowl breeding habitat of the continent.

  7. 78 FR 69079 - Midcontinent Independent System Operator, Inc.; Supplemental Notice of Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-18

    ... times given below are approximate and may change, as needed. Session 1: Schedule 46 (9:00 a.m.-10:15 a.m... before the 9:00 a.m. (Eastern Time) start time of the conference. \\1\\ Midcontinent Independent System... proposed revisions to section 40.3.3.a.v. Break: (10:15 a.m.-10:30 a.m.) Session 2: Constraint...

  8. Use of MAGSAT anomaly data for crustal structure and mineral resources in the US midcontinent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carmichael, R. S.

    1983-01-01

    Magnetic field data acquired by NASA's MAGSAT satellite is used to construct a long-wavelength magnetic anomaly map for the U.S. midcontinent. This aids in interpretation of gross crustal geology (structure, lithologic composition, resource potential) of the region. Magnetic properties of minerals and rocks are investigated and assessed, to help in evaluation and modelling of crustal magnetization sources and depth to the Curie-temperature isotherm.

  9. Feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the Midcontinent region (Kansas, Missouri, Oklahoma)

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.K.; Johnson, W.I.

    1993-08-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility/constraints of increasing domestic heavy oil production. Each report covers a select area of the United States. The Midcontinent (Kansas, Nssouri, Oklahoma) has produced significant oil, but contrary to early reports, the area does not contain the huge volumes of heavy oil that, along with the development of steam and in situ combustion as oil production technologies, sparked the area`s oil boom of the 1960s. Recovery of this heavy oil has proven economically unfeasible for most operators due to the geology of the formations rather than the technology applied to recover the oil. The geology of the southern Midcontinent, as well as results of field projects using thermal enhanced oil recovery (TEOR) methods to produce the heavy oil, was examined based on analysis of data from secondary sources. Analysis of the performance of these projects showed that the technology recovered additional heavy oil above what was produced from primary production from the consolidated, compartmentalized, fluvial dominated deltaic sandstone formations in the Cherokee and Forest City basins. The only projects producing significant economic and environmentally acceptable heavy oil in the Midcontinent are in higher permeability, unconsolidated or friable, thick sands such as those found in south-central Oklahoma. There are domestic heavy oil reservoirs in other sedimentary basins that are in younger formations, are less consolidated, have higher permeability and can be economically produced with current TEOR technology. Heavy oil production from the carbonates of central and wester Kansas has not been adequately tested, but oil production is anticipated to remain low. Significant expansion of Midcontinent heavy oil production is not anticipated because the economics of oil production and processing are not favorable.

  10. Computer and Video Games in Family Life: The Digital Divide as a Resource in Intergenerational Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aarsand, Pal Andre

    2007-01-01

    In this ethnographic study of family life, intergenerational video and computer game activities were videotaped and analysed. Both children and adults invoked the notion of a digital divide, i.e. a generation gap between those who master and do not master digital technology. It is argued that the digital divide was exploited by the children to…

  11. A digital interactive human brain atlas based on Chinese visible human datasets for anatomy teaching.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiyu; Ran, Xu; Zhang, Shaoxiang; Tan, Liwen; Qiu, Mingguo

    2014-01-01

    As we know, the human brain is one of the most complicated organs in the human body, which is the key and difficult point in neuroanatomy and sectional anatomy teaching. With the rapid development and extensive application of imaging technology in clinical diagnosis, doctors are facing higher and higher requirement on their anatomy knowledge. Thus, to cultivate medical students to meet the needs of medical development today and to improve their ability to read and understand radiographic images have become urgent challenges for the medical teachers. In this context, we developed a digital interactive human brain atlas based on the Chinese visible human datasets for anatomy teaching (available for free download from http://www.chinesevisiblehuman.com/down/DHBA.rar). The atlas simultaneously provides views in all 3 primary planes of section. The main structures of the human brain have been anatomically labeled in all 3 views. It is potentially useful for anatomy browsing, user self-testing, and automatic student assessment. In a word, it is interactive, 3D, user friendly, and free of charge, which can provide a new, intuitive means for anatomy teaching. PMID:24336036

  12. The Digital Learning Classroom: Improving English Language Learners' Academic Success in Mathematics and Reading Using Interactive Whiteboard Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Omar S.

    2010-01-01

    This study presents the findings from the first-year evaluation of the Round Rock Independent School District's (ISD) Digital Learning Classroom project, an initiative focused on the improvement of English Language Learners' (ELL) learning using interactive whiteboard (IWB) technology. An objective of the evaluation was to determine the extent IWB…

  13. An Agent-Based Approach for Delivering Educational Contents through Interactive Digital TV in the Context of T-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendes Neto, Francisco Milton; de Carvalho Muniz, Raphael; Filgueira Burlamaqui, Aquiles Medeiros; Castro de Souza, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    The support of technological resources in teaching and learning has contributed to make them more efficient and enjoyable. Through this support has become quite common to use media resources before explored only for entertainment for educational purposes, among them the TV. The interactive Digital TV (iDTV) provides resources that make possible…

  14. Catalyzing Student-Teacher Interactions and Teacher Learning in Science Practical Formative Assessment with Digital Video Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Aik Ling; Towndrow, Phillip A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports how a teacher-researcher partnership examined a biology teacher's existing pedagogical practices and attempted, through a task design innovation, to create the circumstances under which more interactive and emergent assessment for learning practices could flourish in her classroom. This work involved the use of digital video…

  15. Integrated Mid-Continent Carbon Capture, Sequestration & Enhanced Oil Recovery Project

    SciTech Connect

    Brian McPherson

    2010-08-31

    A consortium of research partners led by the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration and industry partners, including CAP CO2 LLC, Blue Source LLC, Coffeyville Resources, Nitrogen Fertilizers LLC, Ash Grove Cement Company, Kansas Ethanol LLC, Headwaters Clean Carbon Services, Black & Veatch, and Schlumberger Carbon Services, conducted a feasibility study of a large-scale CCS commercialization project that included large-scale CO{sub 2} sources. The overall objective of this project, entitled the 'Integrated Mid-Continent Carbon Capture, Sequestration and Enhanced Oil Recovery Project' was to design an integrated system of US mid-continent industrial CO{sub 2} sources with CO{sub 2} capture, and geologic sequestration in deep saline formations and in oil field reservoirs with concomitant EOR. Findings of this project suggest that deep saline sequestration in the mid-continent region is not feasible without major financial incentives, such as tax credits or otherwise, that do not exist at this time. However, results of the analysis suggest that enhanced oil recovery with carbon sequestration is indeed feasible and practical for specific types of geologic settings in the Midwestern U.S.

  16. THE NSF National Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Education Digital Library (NSDL) Program; Software for Building a Full-Featured Discipline-Based Web Portal; A Metadata Framework Developed at the Tsinghua University Library To Aid in the Preservation of Digital Resources; A Scalable Architecture for Harvest-Based Digital Libraries; The Design and Evaluation of Interactivities in a Digital Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zia, Lee L.; Almasy, Edward; Sleasman, David; Bower, Rachael; Niu, Jingfang; Liu, Xiaoming; Maly, Kurt; Zubair, Mohammad; Nelson, Michael L.; Brody, Tim; Harnard, Stevan; Carr, Les; Budhu, Muniram; Coleman, Anita

    2002-01-01

    Includes five articles that discuss digital library programs related to the National Science Foundation; software for building Web portals; metadata developed at Tsinghua University Library (China) for preserving digital resources; the Open Archives Initiative for metadata and the need for a common infrastructure; and interactivity in a digital…

  17. Timing and origin of midcontinent rift alkaline magmatism, North America: evidence from the Coldwell Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heaman, L. M.; Machado, N.

    1992-04-01

    The Coldwell Complex represents the largest alkaline intrusion associated with the Midcontinent Rift System in North America. This complex contains a plethora of rock types that have previously been subdivided into three intrusive centers. A detailed U-Pb zircon/baddeleyite age study of five samples indicates that the majority of the complex was emplaced into “cold” Archean crust at 1108±1 Ma and likely experienced a rapid cooling history. These data, combined with published U-Pb zircon/baddeleyite results for other rift related igneous activity, document the contemporaneous production and emplacement of tholeiitic and alkaline magmas at the onset of rifting. The Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions of selected minerals from different phases of the complex display considerable scatter that is best explained by the presence of magmas with different initial isotopic compositions. The initial Sr and Nd isotopic compositions for clinopyroxene and plagioclase from one of the earliest gabbro phases (ɛNd=+0.5 to +1.6; ɛSr=+2.4 to +3.1) are identical to published data for primitive olivine tholeiites from the rift and indicate that the majority of magmas, both tholeiitic and alkaline, have a uniform, nearly chondritic isotopic composition. This very reproducible isotopic composition for rift magmatism can be explained by the dominance of a well-mixed mantle plume signature in magma genesis. The shift in isotopic compositions observed for the more evolved granite and syenite samples (ɛNd=-4.6 to -6.4; ɛSr=+10.2 to +13.8) combined with a less radiogenic Pb isotopic signature is consistent with derivation of these magmas from or interaction with an older granulite facies lower crust. The chondritic isotopic signature typical of most MRS volcanic and plutonic rocks is quite distinct from published results on associated carbonatites (ɛNd=+2.1 to +4.5; ɛSr=-8.0 to 2212;11.5) indicating the presence of at least two distinct subcontinental mantle isotopic reservoirs in this

  18. Preparation of Northern Mid-Continent Petroleum Atlas

    SciTech Connect

    Gerhard, Lee C.; Carr, Timothy R.; Watney, W. Lynn

    2003-02-24

    This report covers the fourth year of the Digital Petroleum Atlas (DPA) Project. The DPA is a longterm effort to develop a new methodology for efficient and timely access to the latest petroleum data and technology for the domestic oil and gas industry, research organizations and local governmental units. The DPA is a new and evolving approach to generating and publishing petroleum reservoir, field, play and basin studies.

  19. The impact of a digital speaker on a teacher's interaction with a child with limited functional speech.

    PubMed

    Popich, E; Alant, E

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the impact of the implementation of a digital speaker and teacher training on the quality of a teacher's interaction with an AAC user. The data was obtained by recording and analysing classroom story time interactions. The types of utterances directed at each child in the class, the types of questions used as well as the messages recorded onto the digital speaker were determined for each research phase. There were four major phases in the research, namely, a pre-implementation phase, a post-implementation phase, a post-training phase and a post-withdrawal phase. The results indicated that the implementation of the digital speaker and the training of the teacher resulted in certain changes in the way that the teacher interacted with the AAC user. Utterance types such as answering and imitating were used more frequently after the implementation of the device. There was also a much greater variety in the teacher's use of questions as well as in the messages that were recorded onto the digital speaker after the five training sessions were completed. This study highlighted the importance of formal training for the communication partners of the AAC user. One of the most important communication partners of the school-aged AAC user is the classroom teacher. PMID:10894006

  20. The Midcontinent Strategic and Critical Minerals Project; summary and background information to accompany folio of maps of the northern Midcontinent area, latitude 36-46 degrees N. and longitude 88-100 degrees W.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pratt, Walden P.

    1995-01-01

    The Midcontinent Strategic and Critical Minerals Project was a broad investigation into the mineral-resource potential of the northern Midcontinent region of the United States. One product of the project is a folio of 10 sets of maps and one set of cross sections, all at a scale of 1:1,000,000, showing several subsurface geologic aspects of the region. This report summarizes the history of the multi-state cooperative project and the general content of the 11 map publications, and gives a visual sense of the scope and content of the folio through page-size samples of each of the map products.

  1. PREPARATION OF NORTHERN MID-CONTINENT PETROLEUM ATLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Lee C. Gerhard; Timothy R. Carr

    2005-03-28

    Report covers the fifth year of the Digital Petroleum Atlas (DPA) Project. To the present day, the DPA remains a long-term effort to develop new methodologies for efficient and timely access to the latest petroleum data and technology for the domestic oil and gas industry, research organizations and local governmental units. The DPA is an evolving approach to generating and publishing petroleum reservoir, field, play and basin studies. Atlas products are integrated with the Kansas Geological Survey web site and are available for every field in Kansas (6,395 fields in Kansas), anywhere in the world using a standard point-and-click world-wide-web interface (http://www.kgs.ku.edu/PRS/petroIndex.html). In order to provide efficient transfer of the technology for client-defined solutions, all information and technology in the DPA can be accessed, manipulated and downloaded. The DPA increases and improves online access from data through to ''final publication''. Until recently the petroleum atlas circulated like all scholarly information, through personal exchanges, subscriptions, and libraries. Today, digital scientific information is becoming the norm. The result--a dramatic increase in the international and disciplinary scope of information exchange in the petroleum industry. Digital communication has made traditional collaborative activity more informal, intimate, instantaneous, and continuous. At the present the DPA provides worldwide access to constantly increasing data and interpreted information. For example, data from each of over 300,000 oil and gas wells in Kansas are being accessed online for projects in locations from Chanute, Kansas, to Houston, Texas, to Berlin, Germany. Programs developed through the DPA provide oil and gas operators and the public tools to make exploration and development decisions using production data, interpreted well logs, and real-time mapped petroleum information. The DPA provides online access to digital versions of published

  2. Interacting With A Near Real-Time Urban Digital Watershed Using Emerging Geospatial Web Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Fazio, D. J.; Abdelzaher, T.; Minsker, B.

    2007-12-01

    The value of real-time hydrologic data dissemination including river stage, streamflow, and precipitation for operational stormwater management efforts is particularly high for communities where flash flooding is common and costly. Ideally, such data would be presented within a watershed-scale geospatial context to portray a holistic view of the watershed. Local hydrologic sensor networks usually lack comprehensive integration with sensor networks managed by other agencies sharing the same watershed due to administrative, political, but mostly technical barriers. Recent efforts on providing unified access to hydrological data have concentrated on creating new SOAP-based web services and common data format (e.g. WaterML and Observation Data Model) for users to access the data (e.g. HIS and HydroSeek). Geospatial Web technology including OGC sensor web enablement (SWE), GeoRSS, Geo tags, Geospatial browsers such as Google Earth and Microsoft Virtual Earth and other location-based service tools provides possibilities for us to interact with a digital watershed in near-real-time. OGC SWE proposes a revolutionary concept towards a web-connected/controllable sensor networks. However, these efforts have not provided the capability to allow dynamic data integration/fusion among heterogeneous sources, data filtering and support for workflows or domain specific applications where both push and pull mode of retrieving data may be needed. We propose a light weight integration framework by extending SWE with open source Enterprise Service Bus (e.g., mule) as a backbone component to dynamically transform, transport, and integrate both heterogeneous sensor data sources and simulation model outputs. We will report our progress on building such framework where multi-agencies" sensor data and hydro-model outputs (with map layers) will be integrated and disseminated in a geospatial browser (e.g. Microsoft Virtual Earth). This is a collaborative project among NCSA, USGS Illinois Water

  3. Crustal signatures of the tectonic development of the North American midcontinent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGlannan, Austin J.; Gilbert, Hersh

    2016-01-01

    The stable eastern portion of the North American continent offers an excellent environment to study the tectonic development of intra-continental structures. The midcontinent of North America formed by the accretion of Proterozoic terranes, and has since experienced episodes of deformation during the subsidence of the Illinois Basin and uplift of the Ozark Plateau. Rifting also initiated in eastern North America, but extension did not continue and arms of failed rifts extend across the region. The New Madrid Seismic Zone, situated within a portion of the failed Reelfoot Rift, represents an active zone of intraplate seismicity. Analyzing the structure of the crust and upper mantle within the midcontinent will therefore provide insight into the factors that lead to intraplate deformation. Using data from over 180 Transportable Array seismic stations, we calculate receiver functions to investigate the crust and upper mantle of the midcontinent. At close to 40 km thick, the crust of the New Madrid Seismic Zone is thinner than in the surrounding areas outside of the Reelfoot Rift and Rough Creek Graben. The Illinois Basin cannot be characterized by a single crustal structure, as crust near 50 km thick in the central portion of the basin thins to between 40 and 45 km thick towards the northern and southern portions of the basin. Discontinuities within the crust and upper mantle are prominent in and around the New Madrid Seismic Zone and mark locations of crustal modification and underplating. Comparing changes in crustal structure to the distribution of Bouguer gravity anomalies, the presence of positive gravity anomalies suggests that higher density crust plays a role in maintaining low surface elevations within the Reelfoot Rift. Conversely, a negative gravity anomaly in an area of thinner crust within the Ozark Plateau supports the need for low-density crustal material to influence the uplift of the plateau.

  4. Deep crustal structure of the Precambrian basement beneath northern Lake Michigan, midcontinent North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, W.F.; Lee, M.W.; Hinze, W. J.; Schulz, K.J.; Green, A.G.

    1991-01-01

    A deep seismic-reflection profile in northern Lake Michigan, midcontinent North America, provides a cross section of the crust across the 1850 Ma Penokean orogen, in which an Early Proterozoic island-arc complex was deformed between two converging Archean continental masses. The island-arc crust is about 40 km thick and has a few kilometres of intensely reflective rocks near its base, above which it is variably reflective to transparent. The Archean terranes have thicker crust, as much as 50 km, the lower 20-25 km of which is strongly reflective. Abrupt offsets of Moho near terrane boundaries may have been preserved since accretion during the Penokean orogeny. -Authors

  5. Deep crustal structure of the Precambrian basement beneath northern Lake Michigan, midcontinent North America

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, W.F.; Schulz, K.J. ); Lee, M.W. ); Hinze, W.J. ); Green, A.G. )

    1991-03-01

    A deep seismic-reflection profile in northern Lake Michigan, midcontinent North America, provides a cross section of the crust across the 1850 Ma Penokean orogen, in which an Early Proterozoic island-arc complex was deformed between two converging Archean continental masses. The island-arc crust is about 40 km thick and has a few kilometres of intensely reflective rocks near its base, above which it is variably reflective to transparent. The Archean terranes have thicker crust, as much as 50 km, the lower 20-25 km of which is strongly reflective. Abrupt offsets of Moho near terrane boundaries may have been preserved since accretion during the Penokean orogeny.

  6. The Impact of an Intensive Experience on Prospective Teachers' Perception of the Uses of Digital, Interactive Text among K-12 Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stonier, Francis W.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure pre-service teacher perception, awareness, and potential use of digital literacies, media, and digital interactive text in their future classrooms. The study grew from the theoretical rationales of new literacies, technological pedagogical content knowledge, and constructivism. New literacies are…

  7. Midcontinent U.S. fault and fold zones: A legacy of Proterozoic intracratonic extensional tectonism?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshak, Stephen; Paulsen, Timothy

    1996-02-01

    The U.S. continental interior (midcontinent) contains numerous fault and fold zones. Seismic and drilling data indicate that some of these zones first formed as Proterozoic-Eocambrian rift faults, but the origin of most remains enigmatic. We propose that the enigmatic fault and fold zones also began as Proterozoic-Eocambrian normal faults. We base our hypothesis on the following: (1) enigmatic zones parallel known rifts, (2) the structural style of enigmatic zones mirrors the structural style of known rifts, (3) the map pattern of some enigmatic zones (e.g., the La Salle deformation belt of Illinois) resembles the map pattern of contemporary rifts, and (4) it is easier to rupture an intact craton by normal faulting than by reverse or strike-slip faulting. These zones, along with known rifts, represent the legacy of widespread extensional tectonism that brittlely broke up the craton into fault-bounded blocks prior to deposition of Phanerozoic platform cover. Once formed, midcontinent fault and fold zones remained weak, allowing cratonic blocks to jostle relative to one another during the Phanerozoic, thereby inverting faults (and creating transpressional or transtensional structural assemblages), localizing seismicity, and channeling (or releasing) ore-generating fluids.

  8. Organic geochemistry of Mid-Continent middle and Late Ordovician oils

    SciTech Connect

    Longman, M.W.; Palmer, S.E.

    1987-08-01

    Ordovician oils in Mohawkian and Cincinnatian reservoirs of the US Mid-Continent retain the biochemical imprint of Middle and Upper Ordovician oceanic life before the evolution of land plants and most vertebrates. Thus, these oils have some geochemical features that distinguish them from younger oils. These features include (1) a predominance of n-C/sub 15/, n-C/sub 17/, and n-C/sub 19/ alkanes in the saturated hydrocarbon fraction, (2) relatively low amounts of longer chain n-alkanes, (3) low amounts of chlorophyll-derived isoprenoids, such as pristane and phytane, and (4) abundant C/sub 29/ sterane relative to C/sub 27/ with rearranged forms (diasteranes) predominant over normal steranes. Ordovician oils also generally contain little sulfur and have a somewhat variable light stable carbon isotopic composition with delta/sup 13/C/sub sat/ and delta/sup 13/C/sub aro/ values of -28 to -31 per thousand (PDB), but these features are typical of many marine oils. The unusual chemistry of these Ordovician oils supports the interpretation of Reed, Illich, and Horsfield (1986) that prokaryotic organisms provided the organic matter for most Ordovician oils. Although their claim for Gloeocapsamorpha (a problematic unicellular prokaryote, possibly a blue-green alga or an unusually large bacterium) cannot be proven from oil chemistry alone, knowing that indigenous Mid-Continent Ordovician oils were derived from prokaryotic organisms may aid in future exploration for these reservoirs. 7 figures, 3 tables.

  9. Paleokarst and fracture overprints in Mid-Continent carbonates in evaluation of horizontal drilling potential

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, R.D.; Shelton, J.W. ); Esteban, M. ); Wilson, J.L.

    1991-03-01

    The Mid-Continent region, especially in Oklahoma and Arkansas, contains thick Paleozoic carbonate sections that are dolomitic and karstic in character. These sections commonly exhibit strong structural overprints, including intense fracturing, due primarily to Pennsylvanian orogenies. Because of their rather wide association with source rocks, these carbonates are thought to represent good potential targets for horizontal drilling. The Cambro-Ordovician Arbuckle Group, the Ordovician Viola Group, the Siluro-Devonian Hunton Group, and the Mississippian Limestone all contain zones that are locally productive. These stratigraphic units are either uniformly tight or they are heterogeneous with complex porosity profiles. In karst terranes both types commonly occur together; both require fracturing to increase porosity and permeability. Both youthful and mature stages of paleokarst are observed in the Arbuckle Group; the best porosity is developed in the youthful stage. These stages can develop microporous, planar porous, or macroporous types of reservoir geometry. All of these may be heterogeneous in nature, requiring fractures to interconnect porous intervals. Horizontal drilling is yet to be proved as a reliable method for increasing production efficiency in Mid-Continent carbonates. An evaluation of diagenetic history, especially karst processes, along with local and regional structural settings, may provide a key for improved understanding of the horizontal drilling potential in these carbonates.

  10. 77 FR 35959 - Atlas Pipeline Mid-Continent WestTex, LLC; Pioneer Natural Resources USA, Inc.; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Atlas Pipeline Mid-Continent WestTex, LLC; Pioneer Natural Resources...Tex, LLC (Atlas) and Pioneer Natural Resources USA, Inc. (Pioneer), filed in the above referenced docket a joint application pursuant to section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA) and Part 157 of...

  11. CO2 uptake and ecophysiological parameters of the grain crops of midcontinent North America: estimates from flux tower measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We present net CO2 exchange data from 13 flux tower sites with 27 site-years of measurements over maize and wheat fields across midcontinent North America. A numerically robust “light-soil temperature-VPD”-based method was used to partition the data into photosynthetic assimilation and ecosystem re...

  12. An Assessment of Stressor Extent and Biological Condition in the North American Mid-continent Great Rivers (USA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We assessed the North American mid-continent great rivers (Upper Mississippi, Missouri, and Ohio). We estimated the extent of each river in most- (MDC) or least-disturbed condition (LDC) based on multiple biological response indicators: fi sh and macroinvertebrate, trophic stat...

  13. 78 FR 65306 - City of Pella, Iowa v. Midcontinent Independent System Operator, Inc., Mid-American Energy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ...-American Energy Company; Notice of Complaint Take notice that on October 23, 2013, pursuant to section 206... Independent System Operator, Inc. and MidAmerican Energy Company, 140 FERC ] 61,029 (2012). Any person... (Complainant) filed a formal complaint against Midcontinent Independent System Operator, Inc. and...

  14. Evaluation of smartphone-based interaction techniques in a CAVE in the context of immersive digital project review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Paul; Kemeny, Andras; Colombet, Florent; Merienne, Frédéric; Chardonnet, Jean-Rémy; Thouvenin, Indira Mouttapa

    2014-02-01

    Immersive digital project reviews consist in using virtual reality (VR) as a tool for discussion between various stakeholders of a project. In the automotive industry, the digital car prototype model is the common thread that binds them. It is used during immersive digital project reviews between designers, engineers, ergonomists, etc. The digital mockup is also used to assess future car architecture, habitability or perceived quality requirements with the aim to reduce using physical mockups for optimized cost, delay and quality efficiency. Among the difficulties identified by the users, handling the mockup is a major one. Inspired by current uses of nomad devices (multi-touch gestures, IPhone UI look'n'feel and AR applications), we designed a navigation technique taking advantage of these popular input devices: Space scrolling allows moving around the mockup. In this paper, we present the results of a study we conducted on the usability and acceptability of the proposed smartphone-based interaction metaphor compared to traditional technique and we provide indications of the most efficient choices for different use-cases accordingly. It was carried out in a traditional 4-sided CAVE and its purpose is to assess a chosen set of interaction techniques to be implemented in Renault's new 5-sides 4K x 4K wall high performance CAVE. The proposed new metaphor using nomad devices is well accepted by novice VR users and future implementation should allow an efficient industrial use. Their use is an easy and user friendly alternative of the existing traditional control devices such as a joystick.

  15. An Analysis of Surface and Subsurface Lineaments and Fractures for Oil and Gas Exploration in the Mid-Continent Region

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Genliang; and George, S.A.

    1999-04-08

    An extensive literature search was conducted and geological and mathematical analyses were performed to investigate the significance of using surface lineaments and fractures for delineating oil and gas reservoirs in the Mid-Continent region. Tremendous amount of data were acquired including surface lineaments, surface major fracture zones, surface fracture traces, gravity and magnetic lineaments, and Precambrian basement fault systems. An orientation analysis of these surface and subsurface linear features was performed to detect the basic structural grains of the region. The correlation between surface linear features and subsurface oil and gas traps was assessed, and the implication of using surface lineament and fracture analysis for delineating hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Mid-Continent region discussed. It was observed that the surface linear features were extremely consistent in orientation with the gravity and magnetic lineaments and the basement faults in the Mid-Continent region. They all consist of two major sets bending northeast and northwest, representing, therefore, the basic structural grains of the region. This consistency in orientation between the surface and subsurface linear features suggests that the systematic fault systems at the basement in the Mid-Continent region have probably been reactivated many times and have propagated upward all the way to the surface. They may have acted as the loci for the development of other geological structures, including oil and gas traps. Also observed was a strong association both in orientation and position between the surface linear features and the subsurface reservoirs in various parts of the region. As a result, surface lineament and fracture analysis can be used for delineating additional oil and gas reserves in the Mid-Continent region. The results presented in this paper prove the validity and indicate the significance of using surface linear features for inferring subsurface oil and gas reservoirs

  16. Assessment of Learning in Digital Interactive Social Networks: A Learning Analytics Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Mark; Gochyyev, Perman; Scalise, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarizes initial field-test results from data analytics used in the work of the Assessment and Teaching of 21st Century Skills (ATC21S) project, on the "ICT Literacy--Learning in digital networks" learning progression. This project, sponsored by Cisco, Intel and Microsoft, aims to help educators around the world enable…

  17. Young Learners' Transactions with Interactive Digital Texts Using E-Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sally

    2016-01-01

    This year-long qualitative study draws from multimodal theory and New Literacies Studies to document the digital literacy experiences of a diverse group of 2nd-graders using e-readers. Twenty-first century classrooms must expand traditional notions of literacy to prepare students for the ever-changing, media-rich world. Students participated in…

  18. Problem-Solving Examples as Interactive Learning Objects for Educational Digital Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brusilovsky, Peter; Yudelson, Michael; Hsiao, I-Han

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyzes three major problems encountered by our team as we endeavored to turn problem solving examples in the domain of programming into highly reusable educational activities, which could be included as first class objects in various educational digital libraries. It also suggests three specific approaches to resolving these problems,…

  19. Blending Coherence and Control in the Construction of Interactive Educational Narratives from Digital Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulholland, Paul; Wolff, Annika; Zdrahal, Zdenek; Collins, Trevor

    2008-01-01

    Digital learning environments are generally composed of resources that cumulatively meet some specified educational objective, with each resource facilitating the acquisition of a subset of the concepts to be learned. In such contexts narrative has, for example, been used to support the understanding and navigation of a course or curriculum…

  20. The Integration of Digital Tools during Strategic and Interactive Writing Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilpatrick, Jennifer Renée; Saulsburry, Rachel; Dostal, Hannah M.; Wolbers, Kimberly A.; Graham, Steve

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to gain insight from the ways a group of elementary teachers of the deaf and hard of hearing chose to integrate digital tools into evidence-based writing instruction and the ways these technologies were used to support student learning. After professional development that exposed these teachers to twelve new digital…

  1. A Geophysical Overview of the Structure and Evolution of the Crust of the Mid-Continent Region of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, G. R., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    A variety of geophysical data, including newly released 3-D seismic reflection data, show us that the crustal structure of the Mid-Continent region of North America is very complex. The dimensions of many of the crustal structures is very large by global standards, and thus, they are a tectonic puzzle because of their size, structural complexity, and distance from active plate margins that usually create the driving mechanisms for intraplate deformation evident. The crust of the Mid-Continent region formed during a period of continental growth that extended from about 1.8 to 0.9 Ga. The impressive Mid-Continent rift system (MCRS) tried to interrupt this period of continental growth at about 1.1 Ga but it its western arm failed even though it modified the crust massively. However, the supercontinent resulting from this growth did not survive long and began to break up by ~700 Ma. This period of rifting established the structural framework of the southern Mid-Continent region, subsequent Early Paleozoic basin development, and at least partly, the formation of the Ancestral Rocky Mountains in the late Paleozoic. The Southern Oklahoma aulacogen (SOA) is an impressive example of this rifting event. The deformation that formed the Ancestral Rocky Mountains resulted in massive inversion of SOA rift structures and is due to a plate collision in the late Paleozoic whose origin is under debate. There has been increased emphasis on the use of gravity, magnetic, seismic, drilling, and remote sensing data in studies of the Mid-Continent region. For example, the MCRS is traditionally viewed as ending in central Kansas and the SOA can be interpreted as ending in the Texas panhandle. However, we used enhancement of gravity and magnetic data, seismic data, geologic mapping, and deep-drilling data to study its southern extent, and it appears that the MCRS could extend further southward beneath the much younger Anadarko basin of Oklahoma to abut the SOA.

  2. Learning Collaboratively with Technology: Students' Social Interactions Demand New Applications of Digital Learning Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Jim

    2005-01-01

    A recent study published by the Kaiser Family Foundation titled "Generation M: Media in the Lives of 8-18 Year Olds" finds that young people today spend an average 6 1/2 hours per day with one or more forms of media. Given that a majority of media available today is in digital format, students are increasingly expecting to use the same or similar…

  3. Interactive Panel and Audience Discussion: The Future is Here: Can EPO Navigate the Digital Age?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipp, S. S.; Dribin, N.; Gay, P. L.; Stockman, S.

    2010-08-01

    The digital divide refers to the gap between individuals with access to digital technology and those with limited or no access. In the EPO profession there is another digital divide: the divide between EPO practitioners who believe Twitter and other forms of social networking are the downfall of literacy—and perhaps of American society, and those who see boundless potential for engaging a global audience in Earth and space science. One thing is certain: we're not in our parent's world anymore—our's is a world increasingly run by electrons and hand-held devices that inform, entertain, connect, and fragment our audiences into an infinite number of special-interest groups with shortened attention spans that form and reform in nonlinear ways. How does EPO evolve to match the new media and electronic realities? Is there still a place for storytelling, for laddered learning experiences, for traditional methods? How do we adapt? How do we rise to the new challenges of the new media age?

  4. Manual stage acquisition and interactive display of digital slides in histopathology.

    PubMed

    Gherardi, Alessandro; Bevilacqua, Alessandro

    2014-07-01

    More powerful PC architectures, high-resolution cameras working at increasing frame rates, and more and more accurate motorized microscopes have boosted new applications in the field of biomedicine and medical imaging. In histopathology, the use of digital slides (DSs) imaging through dedicated hardware for digital pathology is increasing for several reasons: digital annotation of suspicious lesions, recorded clinical history, and telepathology as a collaborative environment. In this paper, we propose the first method known in the literature for real-time whole slide acquisition and displaying conceived for conventional nonautomated microscopes. Differently from DS scanner, our software enables biologists and histopathologists to build and view the DS in real time while inspecting the sample, as they are accustomed to. In addition, since our approach is compliant with existing common microscope positions, provided with camera and PC, this could contribute to disseminate the whole slide technology in the majority of small labs not endowed with DS hardware facilities. Experiments performed with different histologic specimens (referring to tumor tissues of different body parts as well as to tumor cells), acquired under different setup conditions and devices, prove the effectiveness of our approach both in terms of quality and speed performances. PMID:25014942

  5. Development of an Intelligent Digital Watershed to understand water-human interaction for a sustainable Agroeconomy in Midwest USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, S. K.; Rapolu, U.; Ding, D.; Muste, M.; Bennett, D.; Schnoor, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    Human activity is intricately linked to the quality and quantity of water resources. Although many studies have examined water-human interaction, the complexity of such coupled systems is not well understood largely because of gaps in our knowledge of water-cycle processes which are heavily influenced by socio-economic drivers. Considerable research has been performed to develop an understanding of the impact of local land use decisions on field and catchment processes at an annual basis. Still less is known about the impact of economic and environmental outcomes on decision-making processes at the local and national level. Traditional geographic information management systems lack the ability to support the modeling and analysis of complex spatial processes. New frameworks are needed to track, query, and analyze the massive amounts of data generated by ensembles of simulations produced by multiple models that couple socioeconomic and natural system processes. On this context, we propose to develop an Intelligent Digital Watershed (IDW) which fuses emerging concepts of Digital Watershed (DW). DW is a comprehensive characterization of the eco hydrologic systems based on the best available digital data generated by measurements and simulations models. Prototype IDW in the form of a cyber infrastructure based engineered system will facilitate novel insights into human/environment interactions through multi-disciplinary research focused on watershed-related processes at multiple spatio-temporal scales. In ongoing effort, the prototype IDW is applied to Clear Creek watershed, an agricultural dominating catchment in Iowa, to understand water-human processes relevant to management decisions by farmers regarding agro ecosystems. This paper would also lay out the database design that stores metadata about simulation scenarios, scenario inputs and outputs, and connections among these elements- essentially the database. The paper describes the cyber infrastructure and

  6. A systematic review of digital interactive television systems and their applications in the health and social care fields.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Steven; Brownsell, Simon; Hawley, Mark S

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review of the applications and technical features of digital interactive television (DITV) in the health and social care fields. The Web of Knowledge and IEEE Xplore databases were searched for articles published between January 2000 and March 2010 which related to DITV systems facilitating the communication of information to/from an individual's home with either a health or social care application. Out of 1679 articles retrieved, 42 met the inclusion criteria and were selected for review. An additional 20 articles were obtained from online grey literature sources. Twenty-five DITV systems operating in health and social care were identified, including seven commercial systems. The most common applications were related to health care, such as vital signs monitoring (68% of systems) and health information or advice (56% of systems). The most common technical features of DITV systems were two-way communication (88%), medical peripherals (68%), on-screen messaging (48%) and video communication (36%). Digital interactive television has the potential to deliver health and social care to people in their own homes. However, the requirement for a high-bandwidth communications infrastructure, the usability of the systems, their level of personalisation and the lack of evidence regarding clinical and cost-effectiveness will all need to be addressed if this approach is to flourish. PMID:21398387

  7. Sterane and triterpane biomarkers in the Precambrian Nonesuch Formation, North American Midcontinent Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, Lisa M.; Summons, Roger E.; Hieshima, Glenn B.

    1991-03-01

    Molecular fossils and organic matter from microbial communities living around 1.1 Ga ago are well preserved in the Nonesuch Formation of the US Midcontinent Rift System. Although some compound classes of biological markers have been recognized repeatedly in previous studies of Nonesuch rocks and associated petroleums, steranes and triterpanes have not been detected. Failure to detect these compounds was due primarily to instrumental limitations and the relatively high thermal maturity of samples collected within zones of copper mineralization. Our analyses of Nonesuch samples from the White Pine Mine and nonmineralized localities in Michigan and Wisconsin reveal suites of C 26-C 30 steranes and C 27-C 35 pentacyclic triterpanes similar to those found in Phanerozoic oils and sedimentary rocks of marine origin. Stereoisomeric distributions in the Nonesuch samples are consistent with moderate thermal maturity except in the mineralized zone near White Pine.

  8. The Goodman swell: a lithospheric flexure caused by crustal loading along the Midcontinent rift system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterman, Z.E.; Sims, P.K.

    1988-01-01

    Rb-Sr biotite ages of Archean and Early to Middle Proterozoic crystalline rocks in northern Wisconsin and adjacent Upper Peninsula of Michigan describe a regionally systematic pattern related to differential uplift. An "age low' occurs in northern Wisconsin where values range from 1070-1172 Ma for rocks with crystallization ages of 1760 to 1865 Ma. These values overlap with the main episode of mafic igneous activity (1090 to 1120 Ma) along the Midcontinent rift system (MRS). We interpret these low biotite ages as registering closure due to cooling below the 300??C isotherm as a consequence of uplift and rapid erosion of an area that we are informally naming the Goodman swell. We interpret the swell to be a forebulge imposed on an elastic crust by loading of mafic igneous rocks along and within the axis of the MRS. -from Authors

  9. Regional ground-water mixing and the origin of saline fluids: Midcontinent, United States

    SciTech Connect

    Musgrove, M.; Banner, J.L. )

    1993-03-26

    Ground waters in three adjacent regional flow systems in the midcontinent exhibit extreme chemical and isotopic variations that delineate large-scale fluid flow and mixing processes and two distinct mechanisms for the generation of saline fluids. Systematic spatial variations of major ion concentrations, H, O, and Sr isotopic compositions, and ground-water migration pathways indicate that each flow system contains water of markedly different origin. Mixing of the three separate ground waters exerts a fundamental control on ground-water composition. The three ground waters are: (i) dilute meteoric water recharged in southern Missouri; (ii) saline Na-Ca-Cl water in southeastern Kansas of far-traveled meteoric origin that acquired its salinity by halite dissolution; and (iii) Na-Ca-Cl brines in north-central Oklahoma that may have originated as Paleozoic seawater. 45 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. New Model of the Midcontinent Rift in Eastern Minnesota and Western Wisconsin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McSwiggen, Peter L.; Morey, G. B.; Chandler, Val W.

    1987-12-01

    The Midcontinent rift contains a central zone of mostly volcanic and associated intrusive rocks. Flanking, and in places overlying, these mafic igneous rocks are clastic sedimentary basins which range in thickness from less than 1.5 km southwest of the west end of Lake Superior to more than 3.0 km near the Minnesota-Iowa border. New gravity and magnetic modeling of the rift has shown that most of the volcanic and intrusive rocks are contained within a central block, which in Minnesota and Wisconsin extends to a depth of at least 10 to 20 km. The geometry of this central block, which ranges from fairly symmetric to very asymmetric, appears to reflect a change from predominantly a graben to only a half-graben development. The modeling has also suggested the presence of a major prerift intrusive body along the Minnesota-Iowa border which could have locally controlled the rift's development.

  11. Closing of the Midcontinent-Rift - a far-field effect on Grenvillian compression

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, W.F.

    1994-01-01

    The Midcontinent rift formed in the Laurentian supercontinent between 1109 and 1094 Ma. Soon after rifting, stresses changed from extensional to compressional, and the central graben of the rift was partly inverted by thrusting on original extensional faults. Thrusting culminated at about 1060 Ma but may have begun as early as 1080 Ma. On the southwest-trending arm of the rift, the crust was shortened about 30km; on the southeast-trending arm, strike-slip motion was dominant. The rift developed adjacent to the tectonically active Grenville province, and its rapid evolution from an extensional to a compressional feature at c1080 Ma was coincident with renewal of northwest-directed thrusting in the Grenville, probably caused by continent-continent collision. A zone of weak lithosphere created by rifting became the locus for deformation within the otherwise strong continental lithosphere. Stresses transmitted from the Grenville province utilized this weak zone to close and invert the rift. -Author

  12. The Midcontinent rift in the Lake Superior region with emphasis on its geodynamic evolution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, W.F.

    1992-01-01

    The Midcontinent rift is a Middle Proterozoic continental rift which records about 15 m.y. of extension, subsidence, and voluminous volcanism in the period 1109-1094 Ma in the central part of North America. During that time the crust was nearly totally separated and as much as 25 km of subaerial basalts accumulated in a deep central depression. Following extension and volcanism, a longer period of subsidence resulted in development of a post-rift sedimentary basin in which as much a 8 km of fluvial and lacustrine clastic rocks were deposited. Partial inversion of the central depression occurred about 30-50 m.y. after extension to produce the current configuration of a central horst, composed mostly of thick volcanic accumulations, between shallower flanking basins. ?? 1992.

  13. Sterane and triterpane biomarkers in the Precambrian Nonesuch Formation, North American Midcontinent Rift

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, L.M.; Hieshima, G.B. ); Summons, R.E. )

    1991-03-01

    Molecular fossils and organic matter from microbial communities living around 1.1 Ga ago are well preserved in the Nonesuch Formation of the US Midcontinent Rift System. Although some compound classes of biological markers have been recognized repeatedly in previous studies of Nonesuch rocks and associated petroleums, steranes and triterpanes have not been detected. Failure to detect these compounds was due primarily to instrumental limitations and the relatively high thermal maturity of samples collected within zones of copper mineralization. The authors analyses of Nonesuch samples from the White Pine Mine and nonmineralized localities in Michigan and Wisconsin reveal suites of C{sub 26}-C{sub 30} steranes and C{sub 27}-C{sub 35} pentacyclic triterpanes similar to those found in Phanerozolic oils and sedimentary rocks of marine origin. Stereoisomeric distributions in the Nonesuch samples are consistent with moderate thermal maturity except in the mineralized zone near White Pine.

  14. Earthquake Hazard When the Rate Is Non-Stationary: The Challenge of the U. S. Midcontinent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellsworth, W. L.; Cochran, E. S.; Llenos, A. L.; McGarr, A.; Michael, A. J.; Mueller, C. S.; Petersen, M. D.; Rubinstein, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    In July 2014, the U. S. Geological Survey released an update of the 2008 National Seismic Hazard Map for the coterminous U. S. The Map provides guidance for the seismic provisions of the building codes and portrays ground motions with a 2% chance of being exceeded in an exposure time of 50 years. Over most of the midcontinent the hazard model is derived by projecting the long-term historic, declustered earthquake rate forward in time. However, parts of the midcontinent have experienced increased seismicity levels since 2009 - locally by 2 orders of magnitude - which is incompatible with the underlying assumption of a constant-rate Poisson process. The 2014 Map acknowledged this problem, and for its intended purpose of underpinning seismic design used seismicity rates that are consistent with the entire historic record. Both the developers of the Map and its critics acknowledge that the remarkable rise of seismicity in Oklahoma and nearby states must be addressed if we are to fully capture the hazard in both space and time. The nature of the space/time distribution of the increased seismicity, as well as numerous published case studies strongly suggest that much of the increase is of anthropogenic origin. If so, the assumptions and procedures used to forecast natural earthquake rates from past rates may not be appropriate. Here we discuss key issues that must be resolved include: the geographic location of areas with elevated seismicity, either active now or potentially active in the future; local geologic conditions including faults and the state of stress; the spatial smoothing of catalog seismicity; the temporal evolution of the earthquake rate change; earthquake sequence statistics including clustering behavior; the magnitude-frequency distribution of the excess earthquakes, particularly to higher and yet unobserved magnitudes; possible source process differences between natural and induced earthquakes; and the appropriate ground motion prediction equations.

  15. Petroleum potential of lower and middle Paleozoic rocks in Nebraska portion of Mid-Continent

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, M.P. )

    1989-08-01

    Central North America during the Paleozoic was characterized by northern (Williston) and southern (Anadarko) depositional regimes separated by a stable Transcontinental arch. Nebraska lies on the southern flank of this arch and contains the northern zero edges of the lower and middle Paleozoic rocks of the southern regime. Most of these rocks are secondary dolomites with zones of excellent intercrystalline porosity. The Reagan-LaMotte Sandstones and the overlying Arbuckle dolomites are overlapped by Middle Ordovician rocks toward the Transcontinental arch. Rocks equivalent to the Simpson consist of a basal sand (St. Peter) and overlying interbedded gray-green shales and dolomitic limestones. An uppermost shale facies is present in the Upper Ordovician (Viola-Maquoketa) eastward and southward across Nebraska. The dolomite facies extends northward into the Williston basin. The Silurian dolomites, originally more widely deposited, are overlapped by Devonian dolomites in southeastern Nebraska. Upper Devonian rocks exhibit a regional facies change from carbonate to green-gray shale to black shale southeastward across the Mid-Continent. Mississippian carbonates overlap the Devonian westward and northward across the Transcontinental arch. Pennsylvanian uplift and erosion were widespread, producing numerous stratigraphic traps. Sands related to the basal Pennsylvanian unconformity produce along the Cambridge arch. Arbuckle, Simpson, Viola, and Hunton production is present in the Forest City basin and along the Central Kansas uplift. Although source rocks are scarce and the maturation is marginal, current theories of long-distance oil migration encourage exploration in the extensive lower and middle Paleozoic reservoirs in this portion of the Mid-Continent.

  16. Assessing Microseismicity of the Northern Mid-Continent Rift Zone and Surrounding Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartz, D.; Wysession, M. E.; Wiens, D. A.; Aleqabi, G. I.; Shore, P.; van der Lee, S.; Jurdy, D. M.; Stein, S. A.; Revenaugh, J.; Wolin, E.; Bollmann, T. A.; Frederiksen, A. W.; Darbyshire, F. A.

    2014-12-01

    SPREE is a flexible array (FA) deployment associated with the EarthScope project with the aim of better understanding the Mid-Continent Rift Zone (MCRZ). We have used data from SPREE FA and TA stations to detect and locate small earthquakes in the vicinity of the northwestern arm of the Mid-Continent Rift Zone, covering Minnesota, Wisconsin, and parts of Iowa, Michigan, and Ontario. This region, now stable craton, is a failed Precambrian rift marked by low levels of recorded seismicity, perhaps resulting in part from a historic dearth of stations deployed in the region. We assessed this possibility by taking advantage of the densest array that has been deployed in the region. Processing has allowed for regional stress constraints and a means of distinguishing earthquakes from mine blasts, and a quantitative method to differentiate natural earthquakes from mine blasting events, frequent here. After automated event identification, a manual review confirmed 14 earthquakes and several hundred blasting events with magnitudes ranging from M1 - M3. Observed seismicity is in reasonable agreement with available historical data. We use these earthquakes in conjunction with historical catalogs to estimate regional recurrence intervals for events of greater magnitudes. While initial earthquake/blast discrimination was done manually, the ratio of Rayleigh to P-wave amplitude appears to be a reliable discriminant for distinguishing between earthquakes and mine blasting in this region in a systematic way, with earthquakes displaying a systematically depressed ratio. Additionally, P-wave first-motion data and S/P amplitude ratios from natural events constrain focal mechanisms and regional stresses. These methods indicate roughly WSW-ENE compression, consistent with other determinations and absolute plate motion. The majority of events detected lie some distance from the actual rift; we thus conclude current seismicity bears no preferred association with the MCR.

  17. Interactive high-resolution computed tomography digital atlas of interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Walker, Christopher M; Chung, Jonathan H; Wall, Corey; Pipavath, Sudhakar N; Chapman, Teresa; Reddy, Gautham P; Stern, Eric J; Godwin, J David; Weinberger, Ed

    2011-11-01

    High-resolution computed tomography is a necessary tool used in the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease. The interpretation of high-resolution computed tomography can be difficult given the wide spectrum of imaging appearances within the same disease and among different diseases. The authors provide a new educational method to learn about the spectrum of idiopathic interstitial lung disease through the use of a free online digital atlas and review article. This atlas can be downloaded at http://www.seattlechildrens.org/radiologyeducation/ILD. PMID:21889896

  18. Midcontinent seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastings, David A.

    I enjoyed reading Arch Johnston's article on the Arkansas earthquake swarm (Eos, December 14, 1982, p. 1209), particularly as it appeared shortly after the fourth recent sizeable earthquake here in South Dakota. Recently we had a fifth earthquake. Using preliminary USGS [U.S. Geological Survey] information, the recent history for southern South Dakota is as follows (magnitude (M) is Richter scale)

  19. Interacting for Learning: Digital Portfolios for a Learning Community in a University Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, Ina; Mor, Nili; Neuthal, Tami

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates student interactions in a blog-based learning community in a university course. In addition, this study explores the dynamics of group interactions in individual blog-based environments compared with collaborative "wiki"-based educational activities. A learning community of 56 graduate students wrote individual…

  20. Interactive Whiteboards and Digital Teaching Book to Secondary School Teachers and Contextual Affordances: Hybrid or Substitute?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacurar, Ecaterina; Clad, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The objective of our study is to analyze the utility and the integration of the interactive whiteboard (IWB) and interactive textbook into the teaching skills. This project concerns middle and high school teachers with professional career guidance in France. The research had as objectives the appropriation in the use of IWB features and the…

  1. Interaction of image noise, spatial resolution, and low contrast fine detail preservation in digital image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artmann, Uwe; Wueller, Dietmar

    2009-01-01

    We present a method to improve the validity of noise and resolution measurements on digital cameras. If non-linear adaptive noise reduction is part of the signal processing in the camera, the measurement results for image noise and spatial resolution can be good, while the image quality is low due to the loss of fine details and a watercolor like appearance of the image. To improve the correlation between objective measurement and subjective image quality we propose to supplement the standard test methods with an additional measurement of the texture preserving capabilities of the camera. The proposed method uses a test target showing white Gaussian noise. The camera under test reproduces this target and the image is analyzed. We propose to use the kurtosis of the derivative of the image as a metric for the texture preservation of the camera. Kurtosis is a statistical measure for the closeness of a distribution compared to the Gaussian distribution. It can be shown, that the distribution of digital values in the derivative of the image showing the chart becomes the more leptokurtic (increased kurtosis) the stronger the noise reduction has an impact on the image.

  2. Inventory and mapping of flood inundation using interactive digital image analysis techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rohde, Wayne G.; Nelson, Charles A.; Taranik, J.V.

    1979-01-01

    LANDSAT digital data and color infra-red photographs were used in a multiphase sampling scheme to estimate the area of agricultural land affected by a flood. The LANDSAT data were classified with a maximum likelihood algorithm. Stratification of the LANDSAT data, prior to classification, greatly reduced misclassification errors. The classification results were used to prepare a map overlay showing the areal extent of flooding. These data also provided statistics required to estimate sample size in a two phase sampling scheme, and provided quick, accurate estimates of areas flooded for the first phase. The measurements made in the second phase, based on ground data and photo-interpretation, were used with two phase sampling statistics to estimate the area of agricultural land affected by flooding These results show that LANDSAT digital data can be used to prepare map overlays showing the extent of flooding on agricultural land and, with two phase sampling procedures, can provide acreage estimates with sampling errors of about 5 percent. This procedure provides a technique for rapidly assessing the areal extent of flood conditions on agricultural land and would provide a basis for designing a sampling framework to estimate the impact of flooding on crop production.

  3. HistoStitcher© : An Interactive Program for Accurate and Rapid Reconstruction of Digitized Whole Histological Sections from Tissue Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Chappelow, Jonathan; Tomaszewski, John E.; Feldman, Michael; Shih, Natalie; Madabhushi, Anant

    2011-01-01

    We present an interactive program called HistoStitcher© for accurate and rapid reassembly of histology fragments into a pseudo-whole digitized histological section. HistoStitcher© provides both an intuitive graphical interface to assist the operator in performing the stitch of adjacent histology fragments by selecting pairs of anatomical landmarks, and a set of computational routines for determining and applying an optimal linear transformation to generate the stitched image. Reconstruction of whole histological sections from images of slides containing smaller fragments is required in applications where preparation of whole sections of large tissue specimens is not feasible or efficient, and such whole mounts are required to facilitate (a) disease annotation and (b) image registration with radiological images. Unlike manual reassembly of image fragments in a general purpose image editing program (such as Photoshop), HistoStitcher© provides memory efficient operation on high resolution digitized histology images and a highly flexible stitching process capable of producing more accurate results in less time. Further, by parameterizing the series of transformations determined by the stitching process, the stitching parameters can be saved, loaded at a later time, refined, or reapplied to multi-resolution scans, or quickly transmitted to another site. In this paper, we describe in detail the design of HistoStitcher© and the mathematical routines used for calculating the optimal image transformation, and demonstrate its operation for stitching high resolution histology quadrants of a prostate specimen to form a digitally reassembled whole histology section, for 8 different patient studies. To evaluate stitching quality, a 6 point scoring scheme, which assesses the alignment and continuity of anatomical structures important for disease annotation, is employed by three independent expert pathologists. For 6 studies compared with this scheme, reconstructed sections

  4. Quantification of myocardial fibrosis by digital image analysis and interactive stereology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiac fibrosis disrupts the normal myocardial structure and has a direct impact on heart function and survival. Despite already available digital methods, the pathologist’s visual score is still widely considered as ground truth and used as a primary method in histomorphometric evaluations. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of digital image analysis tools and the pathologist’s visual scoring for evaluating fibrosis in human myocardial biopsies, based on reference data obtained by point counting performed on the same images. Methods Endomyocardial biopsy material from 38 patients diagnosed with inflammatory dilated cardiomyopathy was used. The extent of total cardiac fibrosis was assessed by image analysis on Masson’s trichrome-stained tissue specimens using automated Colocalization and Genie software, by Stereology grid count and manually by Pathologist’s visual score. Results A total of 116 slides were analyzed. The mean results obtained by the Colocalization software (13.72 ± 12.24%) were closest to the reference value of stereology (RVS), while the Genie software and Pathologist score gave a slight underestimation. RVS values correlated strongly with values obtained using the Colocalization and Genie (r > 0.9, p < 0.001) software as well as the pathologist visual score. Differences in fibrosis quantification by Colocalization and RVS were statistically insignificant. However, significant bias was found in the results obtained by using Genie versus RVS and pathologist score versus RVS with mean difference values of: -1.61% and 2.24%. Bland-Altman plots showed a bidirectional bias dependent on the magnitude of the measurement: Colocalization software overestimated the area fraction of fibrosis in the lower end, and underestimated in the higher end of the RVS values. Meanwhile, Genie software as well as the pathologist score showed more uniform results throughout the values, with a slight underestimation in the mid

  5. iSOIL: Interactions between soil related sciences - Linking geophysics, soil science and digital soil mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, Peter; Werban, Ulrike; Sauer, Uta

    2010-05-01

    High-resolution soil property maps are one major prerequisite for the specific protection of soil functions and restoration of degraded soils as well as sustainable land use, water and environmental management. To generate such maps the combination of digital soil mapping approaches and remote as well as proximal soil sensing techniques is most promising. However, a feasible and reliable combination of these technologies for the investigation of large areas (e.g. catchments and landscapes) and the assessment of soil degradation threats is missing. Furthermore, there is insufficient dissemination of knowledge on digital soil mapping and proximal soil sensing in the scientific community, to relevant authorities as well as prospective users. As one consequence there is inadequate standardization of techniques. At the poster we present the EU collaborative project iSOIL within the 7th framework program of the European Commission. iSOIL focuses on improving fast and reliable mapping methods of soil properties, soil functions and soil degradation risks. This requires the improvement and integration of advanced soil sampling approaches, geophysical and spectroscopic measuring techniques, as well as pedometric and pedophysical approaches. The focus of the iSOIL project is to develop new and to improve existing strategies and innovative methods for generating accurate, high resolution soil property maps. At the same time the developments will reduce costs compared to traditional soil mapping. ISOIL tackles the challenges by the integration of three major components: (i)high resolution, non-destructive geophysical (e.g. Electromagnetic Induction EMI; Ground Penetrating Radar, GPR; magnetics, seismics) and spectroscopic (e.g., Near Surface Infrared, NIR) methods, (ii)Concepts of Digital Soil Mapping (DSM) and pedometrics as well as (iii)optimized soil sampling with respect to profound soil scientific and (geo)statistical strategies. A special focus of iSOIL lies on the

  6. INDUCED SEISMICITY. High-rate injection is associated with the increase in U.S. mid-continent seismicity.

    PubMed

    Weingarten, M; Ge, S; Godt, J W; Bekins, B A; Rubinstein, J L

    2015-06-19

    An unprecedented increase in earthquakes in the U.S. mid-continent began in 2009. Many of these earthquakes have been documented as induced by wastewater injection. We examine the relationship between wastewater injection and U.S. mid-continent seismicity using a newly assembled injection well database for the central and eastern United States. We find that the entire increase in earthquake rate is associated with fluid injection wells. High-rate injection wells (>300,000 barrels per month) are much more likely to be associated with earthquakes than lower-rate wells. At the scale of our study, a well's cumulative injected volume, monthly wellhead pressure, depth, and proximity to crystalline basement do not strongly correlate with earthquake association. Managing injection rates may be a useful tool to minimize the likelihood of induced earthquakes. PMID:26089509

  7. High-rate injection is associated with the increase in U.S. mid-continent seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weingarten, M.; Ge, S.; Godt, J. W.; Bekins, B. A.; Rubinstein, J. L.

    2015-06-01

    An unprecedented increase in earthquakes in the U.S. mid-continent began in 2009. Many of these earthquakes have been documented as induced by wastewater injection. We examine the relationship between wastewater injection and U.S. mid-continent seismicity using a newly assembled injection well database for the central and eastern United States. We find that the entire increase in earthquake rate is associated with fluid injection wells. High-rate injection wells (>300,000 barrels per month) are much more likely to be associated with earthquakes than lower-rate wells. At the scale of our study, a well’s cumulative injected volume, monthly wellhead pressure, depth, and proximity to crystalline basement do not strongly correlate with earthquake association. Managing injection rates may be a useful tool to minimize the likelihood of induced earthquakes.

  8. High-rate injection is associated with the increase in U.S. mid-continent seismicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weingarten, Matthew; Ge, Shemin; Godt, Jonathan W.; Bekins, Barbara A.; Rubinstein, Justin L.

    2015-01-01

    An unprecedented increase in earthquakes in the U.S. mid-continent began in 2009. Many of these earthquakes have been documented as induced by wastewater injection. We examine the relationship between wastewater injection and U.S. mid-continent seismicity using a newly assembled injection well database for the central and eastern United States. We find that the entire increase in earthquake rate is associated with fluid injection wells. High-rate injection wells (>300,000 barrels per month) are much more likely to be associated with earthquakes than lower-rate wells. At the scale of our study, a well’s cumulative injected volume, monthly wellhead pressure, depth, and proximity to crystalline basement do not strongly correlate with earthquake association. Managing injection rates may be a useful tool to minimize the likelihood of induced earthquakes.

  9. The impact of banners on digital television: the role of program interactivity and product involvement.

    PubMed

    Cauberghe, Verolien; De Pelsmacker, Patrick

    2008-02-01

    In a sample of 281 respondents, the effect of a noninteractive and a medium-interactive television program on recall and brand attitudes for low- and high-involvement products advertised in banners during these programs was investigated. Medium-interactive programs resulted in less product and brand recall and recognition of brands in embedded banner advertisements, but generated more positive brand attitudes than noninteractive programs. These effects were more outspoken for a high-involvement product than for a low-involvement product. The impact of perceived program interactivity on brand attitude is fully mediated program valence and involvement for low-involvement products, but not for high-involvement products, for which perceived program interactivity had a direct impact on brand attitude. PMID:18275319

  10. MIDAS, prototype Multivariate Interactive Digital Analysis System, Phase 1. Volume 2: Diagnostic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kriegler, F. J.; Christenson, D.; Gordon, M.; Kistler, R.; Lampert, S.; Marshall, R.; Mclaughlin, R.

    1974-01-01

    The MIDAS System is a third-generation, fast, multispectral recognition system able to keep pace with the large quantity and high rates of data acquisition from present and projected sensors. A principal objective of the MIDAS Program is to provide a system well interfaced with the human operator and thus to obtain large overall reductions in turn-around time and significant gains in throughout. The hardware and software generated in Phase I of the over-all program are described. The system contains a mini-computer to control the various high-speed processing elements in the data path and a classifier which implements an all-digital prototype multivariate-Gaussian maximum likelihood decision algorithm operating 2 x 105 pixels/sec. Sufficient hardware was developed to perform signature extraction from computer-compatible tapes, compute classifier coefficients, control the classifier operation, and diagnose operation. Diagnostic programs used to test MIDAS' operations are presented.

  11. MIDAS, prototype Multivariate Interactive Digital Analysis System, phase 1. Volume 1: System description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kriegler, F. J.

    1974-01-01

    The MIDAS System is described as a third-generation fast multispectral recognition system able to keep pace with the large quantity and high rates of data acquisition from present and projected sensors. A principal objective of the MIDAS program is to provide a system well interfaced with the human operator and thus to obtain large overall reductions in turnaround time and significant gains in throughput. The hardware and software are described. The system contains a mini-computer to control the various high-speed processing elements in the data path, and a classifier which implements an all-digital prototype multivariate-Gaussian maximum likelihood decision algorithm operating at 200,000 pixels/sec. Sufficient hardware was developed to perform signature extraction from computer-compatible tapes, compute classifier coefficients, control the classifier operation, and diagnose operation.

  12. Man-machine interactive imaging and data processing using high-speed digital mass storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alsberg, H.; Nathan, R.

    1975-01-01

    The role of vision in teleoperation has been recognized as an important element in the man-machine control loop. In most applications of remote manipulation, direct vision cannot be used. To overcome this handicap, the human operator's control capabilities are augmented by a television system. This medium provides a practical and useful link between workspace and the control station from which the operator perform his tasks. Human performance deteriorates when the images are degraded as a result of instrumental and transmission limitations. Image enhancement is used to bring out selected qualities in a picture to increase the perception of the observer. A general purpose digital computer, an extensive special purpose software system is used to perform an almost unlimited repertoire of processing operations.

  13. Primary School Teachers' Use of Digital Resources with Interactive Whiteboards: The Australian Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Damian; Phelps, Renata; Urane, Nikkita; Lee, Mal

    2012-01-01

    As interactive whiteboards appear in increasing numbers in primary classrooms, questions will continue to be asked about the effectiveness of these devices in supporting teaching and learning. It is not the board itself, however, which is likely to make a difference to student learning outcomes, but the resources which teachers choose to use in…

  14. Digital Approaches to Researching Learners' Computer Interactions Using Gazes, Actions, Utterances and Sketches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Diego, Jonathan P.; Aczel, James C.; Hodgson, Barbara K.; Scanlon, Eileen

    2012-01-01

    When learners use computers, they typically look at the screen, type, use the mouse, talk, write, sketch and make gestures. This paper identifies technical, practical, ethical and methodological challenges associated with traditional methods for studying such interactions. It examines the potential of recent technologies for identifying learners'…

  15. SELECTION AND TREATMENT OF STRIPPER GAS WELLS FOR PRODUCTION ENHANCEMENT IN THE MID-CONTINENT

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Reeves

    2003-03-01

    Stripper gas wells are an important source of domestic energy supply and under constant threat of permanent loss (shut-in) due to marginal economics. In 1998, 192 thousand stripper gas wells produced over a Tcf of gas, at an average rate of less than 16 Mcfd. This represents about 57% of all producing gas wells in the onshore lower-48 states, yet only 8% of production. Reserves of stripper gas wells are estimated to be only 1.6 Tcf, or slightly over 1% of the onshore lower-48 total (end of year 1996 data). Obviously, stripper gas wells are at the very margin of economic sustenance. As the demand for natural gas in the U.S. grows to the forecasted estimate of over 30 Tcf annually by the year 2010, supply from current conventional sources is expected to decline. Therefore, an important need exists to fully exploit known domestic resources of natural gas, including those represented by stripper gas wells. The overall objectives of this project are to develop an efficient and low-cost methodology to broadly categorize the well performance characteristics for a stripper gas field, identify the high-potential candidate wells for remediation, and diagnose the specific causes for well underperformance. With this capability, stripper gas well operators can more efficiently and economically produce these resources and maximize these gas reserves. A further objective is to identify/develop, evaluate and test ''new and novel,'' economically viable remediation options. Finally, it is the objective of this project that all the methods and technologies developed in this project, while being tested in the Mid-Continent, be widely applicable to stripper gas wells of all types across the country. The project activities during the reporting period were: (1) Continued to solicit industry research partners to provide test sites. A Cooperative Research Agreement has been signed with Oneok, for a test site in the Mocane-Laverne field in the Anadarko basin (Oklahoma). The site consists of

  16. Aeromagrnetic study of the midcontinent gravity high of central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Elizabeth R.; Zietz, Isidore

    1971-01-01

    A composite map of detailed aeromagnetic surveys over the midcontinent gravity high provides coverage of the 600-mi-long buried belt of mafic rocks of the Keweenawan Series from their outcrop localities in Minnesota and Wisconsin through Iowa and Nebraska. A map of the subsurface extent of the mafic rocks, based on the intricate magnetic patterns, shows that the rocks form a long, semicontinuous block, averaging 40 mi wide and consisting mainly of a sequence of layered flows. This sequence is probably fault-bounded and has been tilted up along the margins, where the linearity of the anomalies indicates steeper dips. The associated clastic rocks, indicated by a smoother magnetic pattern, occur in basins along both sides of the mafic belt and in grabens and a series of axial basins on the upper surface of the block. The well-defined outliers of flows marginal to the main block and the truncation of some of the outermost flow units along a diagonal boundary striking at an angle to them suggest that the present boundaries of the block are postdepositional structural features. The basins and the edges of the block appear to have controlled later, largely vertical movement in the overlying Paleozoic and younger sedimentary cover. Calculated models based on coincident magnetic and detailed gravity profiles along typical cross sections of the midcontinent gravity high show that the block of mafic rocks is steep-sided and as much as several miles thick. The free-air gravity anomaly, which consists of a large positive maximum flanked by minima, averages very close to zero, indicating that this major crustal feature is regionally compensated, although locally each of its components shows a large departure from equilibrium. Remanent magnetization is a primary factor in the interpretation of the magnetic data. Magnetic property studies of Keweenawan mafic rocks in the Lake Superior region show that remanent magnetization may be five times the magnetization induced by the

  17. Aeromagnetic study of the midcontinent gravity high of central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Elizabeth R.; Zietz, Isidore

    1971-01-01

    A composite map of detailed aeromagnetic surveys over the midcontinent gravity high provides coverage of the 600-mi-long buried belt of mafic rocks of the Keweenawan Series from their outcrop localities in Minnesota and Wisconsin through Iowa and Nebraska. A map of the subsurface extent of the mafic rocks, based on the intricate magnetic patterns, shows that the rocks form a long, semicontinuous block, averaging 40 mi wide and consisting mainly of a sequence of layered flows. This sequence is probably fault-bounded and has been tilted up along the margins, where the linearity of the anomalies indicates steeper dips. The associated clastic rocks, indicated by a smoother magnetic pattern, occur in basins along both sides of the mafic belt and in grabens and a series of axial basins on the upper surface of the block. The well-defined outliers of flows marginal to the main block and the truncation of some of the outermost flow units along a diagonal boundary striking at an angle to them suggest that the present boundaries of the block are postdepositional structural features. The basins and the edges of the block appear to have controlled later, largely vertical movement in the overlying Paleozoic and younger sedimentary cover. Calculated models based on coincident magnetic and detailed gravity profiles along typical cross sections of the midcontinent gravity high show that the block of mafic rocks is steep-sided and as much as several miles thick. The free-air gravity anomaly, which consists of a large positive maximum flanked by minima, averages very close to zero, indicating that this major crustal feature is regionally compensated, although locally each of its components shows a large departure from equilibrium. Remanent magnetization is a primary factor in the interpretation of the magnetic data. Magnetic property studies of Keweenawan mafic rocks in the Lake Superior region show that remanent magnetization may be five times the magnetization induced by the

  18. Distributing Sloan Digital Sky Survey Plates and Posters as Interactive Teaching Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, Danielle; Meredith, Kate; Masters, Karen; MacDonald, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Thousands of aluminum spectroscopic plug plates from the Sloan Digital Sky Surveys await second lives as teaching tools in the Plates for Education program. Educators from formal and informal settings around the globe can take part in this program, which was launched in August of 2015. As part of this EPO effort, educators are provided with a plate, a corresponding poster, and educational materials (through the voyages.sdss.org website). Each plug plate represents the spectroscopic targets from a unique three-degree section of the sky. The poster displays the optical image associated with the target area. Together with the SkyServer Plate Browser and Navigate tools, students can locate individual objects, examine spectra, and pursue their own studies. As of September 2015, forty-five plates and posters had been distributed to teachers during professional development workshops. Follow-up research will be conducted to determine how effective the plates and posters are in teaching students about astronomy and the SDSS data. Materials and outlines for conducting professional development workshops are available to SDSS collaborators interested in hosting their own educational events.

  19. Development of digital interactive processing system for NOAA satellites AVHRR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, R. K.; Murthy, N. N.

    The paper discusses the digital image processing system for NOAA/AVHRR data including Land applications - configured around VAX 11/750 host computer supported with FPS 100 Array Processor, Comtal graphic display and HP Plotting devices; wherein the system software for relational Data Base together with query and editing facilities, Man-Machine Interface using form, menu and prompt inputs including validation of user entries for data type and range; preprocessing software for data calibration, Sun-angle correction, Geometric Corrections for Earth curvature effect and Earth rotation offsets and Earth location of AVHRR image have been accomplished. The implemented image enhancement techniques such as grey level stretching, histogram equalization and convolution are discussed. The software implementation details for the computation of vegetative index and normalized vegetative index using NOAA/AVHRR channels 1 and 2 data together with output are presented; scientific background for such computations and obtainability of similar indices from Landsat/MSS data are also included. The paper concludes by specifying the further software developments planned and the progress envisaged in the field of vegetation index studies.

  20. The development of the Midcontinent Rift in the context of rapid paleogeographic change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson-Hysell, N.; Vaughn, A. A.; Mustain, M. R.; Feinberg, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    Despite being active for >20 million years and resulting in the thinning of pre-rift crust by a factor of 3 or more, the 1.1 Ga Midcontinent Rift failed to dismember the Laurentian craton. This failure resulted in the preservation of a thick record of rift-related volcanic and sedimentary rocks that give geoscientists a powerful window into the development of this ancient rift. Most models for the development of the Midcontinent Rift attribute its origin to the upwelling and decompression melting of a mantle plume. On the basis of the great volume of generated magma and interpretation of geochemical data, it is argued that the early stage plateau flood basalts of the rift (~1110-1105 Ma) and the main stage volcanics that erupted into the central basin (~1100-1095 Ma) were both dominated by plume-sourced melts. However, this model needs to be reconciled with paleomagnetic data from rift volcanics that reveal a significant decrease in inclination between the early and main stage volcanics. New data we have developed from 90+ flows of the early stage Osler Volcanic Group bolster evidence from the succession at Mamainse Point that this change in inclination is the result of fast equatorward plate motion during the early stage and into the main stage of rift volcanism. Even with >20° of latitudinal motion from the time of initial volcanism to eruption of the thick main stage volcanics, magmatism was largely confined to the same geographic region in a relatively narrow central basin. If a long-lived plume was in a fixed position relative to Earth's spin axis, the large relative motion of Laurentia would make it unable to continue to be a source of melt to the rift. Two possible explanations to reconcile a plume-contribution in the main stage with this latitudinal change are: (1) That the active contribution from an underlying plume was limited to the early stage of volcanism, but substantial volume of material accreted to the lithosphere that was subsequently sampled

  1. Climate variability of Late Pleistocene deglaciation in the North American midcontinent derived from tree rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panyushkina, Irina P.; Livina, Valerie N.; Leavitt, Steve W.; Mode, William N.

    2016-04-01

    High-resolution climatic proxies, such as tree rings spanning millennia, have excellent potential to describe high- and low-frequency variability of climate. In practice, however, although the number of Holocene millennium-length tree-ring records is still rather limited, they are especially rare for the Late Pleistocene warming period following the Last Glacial Maximum. Furthermore, detection of climatic variability in tree-ring data is hindered due to intricate methodology of chronology development that transforms changes in tree geometry and a variety of environmental responses of tree growth to a climatic signal. Following meticulous derivation of a new tree-ring chronology, we propose a novel approach to analyze annual, decadal, multi-decadal and centennial climate-related variability of floating tree rings dated back near the end of the Pleistocene. We have developed a 1400-year tree-ring width chronology of spruce from the Green Bay area (Wisconsin) dated from 14.5 ka to 13.1ka cal BP. This new North American midcontinent record is composed of 10 overlapped site chronologies and has two short gaps filled with linear interpolation. The Green Bay chronology covers most of the warm and moist Bølling-Allerød interstadial (14.7 ka -12.7 ka BP). Within the Bølling-Allerød interstadial, there were several abrupt and brief cooling excursions such as the Older Dryas with full-glacial-like temperature conditions. We have applied tipping point analysis to detect the changes of climate-system states during these turbulent times and obtained early warning signals in the tree-ring variance. The analysis detected four short-term bifurcations dated ca. 14,450 cal BP, 14,000 cal BP, 13,750-13,600 cal BP and 13,180-13,100 cal BP. The bifurcation events of the tree-ring record correspond well to the abrupt and short cooling temperature excursions of the Bølling-Allerød interstadial documented in δ18O and Ca of GRIP ice-core records, and the Laurentide ice sheet dynamics

  2. Low-accommodation detrital apron alongside a basement uplift, Pennsylvanian of Midcontinent North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joeckel, R. M.; Nicklen, B. L.; Carlson, M. P.

    2007-04-01

    The northern end of the 650-km-long Nemaha Uplift (Nebraska and Kansas, USA) is an important example of basin-margin sedimentation in the North American Midcontinent. An apron of coarse, basal Pennsylvanian arkosic clastic sediments (BPC) was deposited on the flanks of the uplift while marine cyclothems were encroaching from the east. Small-scale fining-upward intervals, many with demonstrably erosional bases, dominate the BPC and are interpreted as overridingly fluvial in origin. Weak paleosols, desiccation cracks, and reddened intervals in the BPC record episodic subaerial exposure. Multiple, burrowed horizons and heterolithic strata of probable tidal origin and rare marine fossils also indicate episodic marine influence. The BPC appear to have been deposited as a thin apron of coalesced, alluvial fans and fan deltas. Deposition of the BPC occurred during the waning of uplift and subsequent quiescence. The comparative thinness and large-scale packaging of the BPC are compatible with the controlling effects of relict relief, regional subsidence, and eustasy, rather than ongoing, major vertical displacements along active faults. A strong autocyclic influence on sedimentation is evidenced by stacked fining-upward intervals of poorly-sorted conglomerates, sandstones, and sandy mudstones. Correlations demonstrate that the accumulation of the BPC took place over more than seven major sea-level cycles, beginning in Cherokee Group times (middle Moscovian/middle Pennsylvanian) and ending only when the eroded uplift was inundated and buried by marine cyclothems. On the basis of local correlations with marine cyclothems, and using black phosphatic shales (so-called "core shales" of Heckel, P.H., 1986. Sea-level surve for Pennsylvanian eustatic marine transgressive-regressive depositional cycles along Midcontinent outcrop belt, North America: Geology 14, 330-334., Heckel, P.H., 1994. Evaluation of evidence for glacio-eustatic control over marine Pennsylvanian cyclothems in

  3. User-Appropriate Viewer for High Resolution Interactive Engagement with 3d Digital Cultural Artefacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillespie, D.; La Pensée, A.; Cooper, M.

    2013-07-01

    Three dimensional (3D) laser scanning is an important documentation technique for cultural heritage. This technology has been adopted from the engineering and aeronautical industry and is an invaluable tool for the documentation of objects within museum collections (La Pensée, 2008). The datasets created via close range laser scanning are extremely accurate and the created 3D dataset allows for a more detailed analysis in comparison to other documentation technologies such as photography. The dataset can be used for a range of different applications including: documentation; archiving; surface monitoring; replication; gallery interactives; educational sessions; conservation and visualization. However, the novel nature of a 3D dataset is presenting a rather unique challenge with respect to its sharing and dissemination. This is in part due to the need for specialised 3D software and a supported graphics card to display high resolution 3D models. This can be detrimental to one of the main goals of cultural institutions, which is to share knowledge and enable activities such as research, education and entertainment. This has limited the presentation of 3D models of cultural heritage objects to mainly either images or videos. Yet with recent developments in computer graphics, increased internet speed and emerging technologies such as Adobe's Stage 3D (Adobe, 2013) and WebGL (Khronos, 2013), it is now possible to share a dataset directly within a webpage. This allows website visitors to interact with the 3D dataset allowing them to explore every angle of the object, gaining an insight into its shape and nature. This can be very important considering that it is difficult to offer the same level of understanding of the object through the use of traditional mediums such as photographs and videos. Yet this presents a range of problems: this is a very novel experience and very few people have engaged with 3D objects outside of 3D software packages or games. This paper

  4. Development of real time digital holographic microscope for cell flow interactions using a High Performance Computing (HPC) cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hojjati, Avesta; Molaei, Mehdi; Sheng, Jian

    2013-11-01

    Real-time imaging and analysis of 3D cell migration and locomotion is crucial to understand the underlying physics of cell environment interactions. In addition, such a microscopy would provide vital diagnostic capability in cell detection, particle sorting and drug screening with large throughput. However, 3D holographic imaging and subsequent analysis are computational intensive and up-to-date prohibitive for real-time applications. With the advances in high performance computing, we are developing a real-time digital holographic microscope (DHM) that includes an in-line DHM, a large format CCD camera, and a 24-node windows-based HPC cluster. The cluster is organized as the master-slave parallel computing paradigm with Message Passing Interface (MPI) as its communication protocol. The holograms are recorded, streamed and analyzed by the HPC cluster in real time, the 3D distributions and in focus images are rendered back on the data acquisition computer. The system will be applied to study marine protest interacting with oil droplets. Supports from GoMRI are acknowledged.

  5. Digital Video Interactive (DVI) Based Authoring Tools for Unit Level Training. Final Technical Report for Period 27 September 1991 - 27 May 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyltin, John P.; And Others

    This report describes DVI (Digital Video Interactive) technology, current authoring languages and tools, and the reasons for developing new tools and applications. The work described was performed by Betac Corporation as part of a Phase II Small Business Innovation Research project. Section I provides background information on DVI. DVI technology…

  6. Interactions with Virtual People: Do Avatars Dream of Digital Sheep?. Chapter 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, Mel; Sanchez-Vives, Maria V.

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores another form of artificial entity, ones without physical embodiment. We refer to virtual characters as the name for a type of interactive object that have become familiar in computer games and within virtual reality applications. We refer to these as avatars: three-dimensional graphical objects that are in more-or-less human form which can interact with humans. Sometimes such avatars will be representations of real-humans who are interacting together within a shared networked virtual environment, other times the representations will be of entirely computer generated characters. Unlike other authors, who reserve the term agent for entirely computer generated characters and avatars for virtual embodiments of real people; the same term here is used for both. This is because avatars and agents are on a continuum. The question is where does their behaviour originate? At the extremes the behaviour is either completely computer generated or comes only from tracking of a real person. However, not every aspect of a real person can be tracked every eyebrow move, every blink, every breath rather real tracking data would be supplemented by inferred behaviours which are programmed based on the available information as to what the real human is doing and her/his underlying emotional and psychological state. Hence there is always some programmed behaviour it is only a matter of how much. In any case the same underlying problem remains how can the human character be portrayed in such a manner that its actions are believable and have an impact on the real people with whom it interacts? This paper has three main parts. In the first part we will review some evidence that suggests that humans react with appropriate affect in their interactions with virtual human characters, or with other humans who are represented as avatars. This is so in spite of the fact that the representational fidelity is relatively low. Our evidence will be from the realm of psychotherapy

  7. A Digital Repository and Execution Platform for Interactive Scholarly Publications in Neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Victoria; Jessop, Mark; Fletcher, Martyn; Weeks, Michael; Turner, Aaron; Jackson, Tom; Ingram, Colin; Smith, Leslie; Austin, Jim

    2016-01-01

    The CARMEN Virtual Laboratory (VL) is a cloud-based platform which allows neuroscientists to store, share, develop, execute, reproduce and publicise their work. This paper describes new functionality in the CARMEN VL: an interactive publications repository. This new facility allows users to link data and software to publications. This enables other users to examine data and software associated with the publication and execute the associated software within the VL using the same data as the authors used in the publication. The cloud-based architecture and SaaS (Software as a Service) framework allows vast data sets to be uploaded and analysed using software services. Thus, this new interactive publications facility allows others to build on research results through reuse. This aligns with recent developments by funding agencies, institutions, and publishers with a move to open access research. Open access provides reproducibility and verification of research resources and results. Publications and their associated data and software will be assured of long-term preservation and curation in the repository. Further, analysing research data and the evaluations described in publications frequently requires a number of execution stages many of which are iterative. The VL provides a scientific workflow environment to combine software services into a processing tree. These workflows can also be associated with publications and executed by users. The VL also provides a secure environment where users can decide the access rights for each resource to ensure copyright and privacy restrictions are met. PMID:26306864

  8. Biostratigraphic correlation of eustatic cyclothems (basic Pennsylvanian sequence units) from Midcontinent to Texas and Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Heckel, P.H.; Lambert, L.L. ); Barrick, J.E.; Boardman, D.R. ); Watney, W.L. ); Weibel, C.P. )

    1991-03-01

    The basic Midcontinent Pennsylvanian eustatic cyclothem (transgressive limestone, offshore shale, regressive limestone, nearshore/terrestrial shale/paleosol) has sequence stratigraphic counterparts (major eustatic cycles) in Texas and Illinois, in which the limestone members are poorly developed or localized because of proximity to detrital influx. The gray to black phosphatic facies of the offshore shales in all three areas, however, are characterized by abundant conodont faunas that not only are conspecific at each level across the entire region but also are diagnostic of individual cycles. These faunas, supplemented at several horizons by distinctive fusulinids and ammonoids, allow correlation of up to 16 of the major eustatic cycles at a time scale of about 400,000 years across a large area of North America. This correlation can be refined to perhaps 100,000 years when the intervening minor eustatic cycles are matched between the biostratigraphically diagnostic horizons. Similar successions of conodont faunas are reported in preliminary work on marine horizons in the Appalachians and in published work on the Russian platform augur well for eventual worldwide correlation of eustatic cycles on a time scale within the Milankovitch band of the Earth's orbital parameters during a period of time when glacial eustasy seems to have controlled inundation and withdrawal of the sea over large portions of the continents.

  9. Midcontinent Rift and Remnants of Initiating Mantle Plume Imaged With Magnetotellurics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowles-martinez, E.; Schultz, A.

    2015-12-01

    Geologic evidence has long suggested that the Midcontinent Rift (MCR) was initiated by a mantle plume 1.1 Ga in the western Lake Superior region. EarthScope magnetotelluric data has been inverted to create a 3D resistivity model that shows remnants of the plume to depths of at least 150 km. The mantle plume remnants are imaged as a body of highly conductive material in the lithosphere. It is focused below western Lake Superior and northwestern Wisconsin, and elongated in a NW-SE direction, consistent with plate motion vectors. Recent seismic velocity models from EarthScope data also show an anomaly at this location. The presence of a plume after so much time has passed invites many questions regarding the long-term stability of conductive materials, the thickness of the lithosphere, and the stability of sub-craton mantle over long time periods. The resistivity model also shows features defining the length of the MCR as well as the Grenville orogeny. New data being collected this summer is incorporated into the model, extending it southeast across Grenville.

  10. When Did Midcontinent Rift Volcanism End and Where Was Laurentia at that Time?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairchild, L. M.; Swanson-Hysell, N.; Ramezani, J.; Sprain, C. J.; Gaastra, K. M.; Bowring, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Data from the North American Midcontinent Rift provide a robust record of Laurentia's (cratonic North America's) paleogeographic position from ca. 1110 to 1080 Ma. The resulting apparent polar wander path (APWP) reveals rapid motion of the continent towards the equator throughout the rift's lifetime. Constraints on the age of the youngest volcanics within the rift and on the paleolatitude of Laurentia at that time are important for quantifying the rate of this motion and its apparent deceleration in the late stage of rift development. Furthermore, precise calibration of the APWP enhances the robustness of paleogeographic reconstructions. The three rift successions with ca. 1090 to 1085 Ma late stage volcanics are the Lake Shore Traps of Michigan, the Michipicoten Island Formation of Ontario and the Schroeder-Lutsen basalts of Minnesota. In past studies, paleomagnetic data from the Schroeder-Lutsen basalts have been grouped with results from the North Shore Volcanic Group, which it unconformably overlies. In this study, we separate these data and add newly developed results from 40 additional flows. New data from the Michipicoten Island Formation allow for a well constrained pole that now includes data from more than 25 flows. High quality paleomagnetic data are published for the Lake Shore Traps, and we complement these with a newly developed high precision U-Pb zircon date as an update to current constraints. Taken altogether, these data strengthen our understanding of the rift's demise and the rate of Laurentia's motion as rift volcanism gave way to post-rift sedimentation.

  11. Biogeochemistry of Hypersaline Springs Supporting a Mid-Continent Marine Ecosystem: An Analogue for Martian Springs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasby, Stephen E.; Londry, Kathleen L.

    2007-08-01

    Hypersaline springs that host unique mid-continent marine ecosystems were examined in central Manitoba, Canada. The springs originate from a reflux of glacial meltwater that intrudes into underlying bedrock and dissolved buried salt beds. Two spring types were distinguished based both on flow rate and geochemistry. High flow springs (greater than 10 L/s) hosted extensive marine microbial mats, which were dominated by algae but also included diverse microbes. These varied somewhat between springs as indicated by changes in profiles of fatty acid methyl esters. Culture studies confirmed the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria in sediments at the high flow sites. In contrast, low flow springs were affected by solar evaporation, increasing salinity, and temperature. These low flow springs behaved more like closed nutrient-limited systems and did not support microbial mats. Direct comparison of the high and low flow springs revealed interesting implications for the potential to record biosignatures in the rock record. High flow springs have abundant, well-developed microbial mats, which desiccate and are cemented along the edges of the spring pools; however, the high mass flux overwhelms any geochemical signature of microbial activity. In contrast, the nutrient-limited low flow sites develop strong geochemical signatures of sulfate reduction, even in the absence of microbial mats, due to less dilution with the lower flows. Geochemical and physical evidence for life did not correlate with the abundance of microbial life but, rather, with the extent to which the biological system formed a closed ecosystem.

  12. Secondary natural gas recovery -- infield reserve growth joint venture: Applications in midcontinent sandstones

    SciTech Connect

    Finley, R.J.; Hardage, B.A.

    1995-06-01

    The primary objective of the Infield Reserve Growth/Secondary Natural Gas Recovery (SGR) project is to develop, test, and verify technologies and methodologies with near- to midterm potential for maximizing the recovery of natural gas from conventional reservoirs in known fields. Additional technical and technology transfer objectives of the SGR project include: To establish how depositional and diagenetic heterogeneities in reservoirs of conventional permeability cause reservoir compartmentalization and, hence, incomplete recovery of natural gas. To document examples of reserve growth occurrence and potential from deltaic and valley-fill sandstones of the Midcontinent as a natural laboratory for developing concepts and testing applications to find secondary gas; to demonstrate how the integration of geology, reservoir engineering, geophysics, and well log analysis/petrophysics leads to strategic recompletion and well placement opportunities for reserve growth in mature fields; and to transfer project results to a wide array of natural gas producers, not just as field case studies, but as conceptual models of how heterogeneities determine natural gas flow units and how to recognize the geologic and engineering clues that operators can use in a cost-effective manner to identify incremental, or secondary, gas.

  13. An example of neotectonism in a continental interior - Thebes Gap, Midcontinent, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrison, R.W.; Hoffman, D.; Vaughn, J.D.; Palmer, J.R.; Wiscombe, C.L.; McGeehin, J.P.; Stephenson, W.J.; Odum, J.K.; Williams, R.A.; Forman, S.L.

    1999-01-01

    Some of the most intense neotectonic activity known in the continental interior of North America has been recently discovered on a fault zone in the Thebes Gap area, Missouri and Illinois. This faulting almost assuredly was accompanied by large earthquakes. The zone is located approximately 30 km north of the New Madrid seismic zone and consists of complex north-northeast- to northeast-striking, steeply dipping faults that have had a long-lived history of reactivation throughout most of the Phanerozoic. Geophysical studies by others suggest that the faults are rooted in the deeply buried Late Proterozoic and Early Cambrian Reelfoot rift system. Quaternary deposits are cut by at least four episodes of faulting, two of which occurred during the Holocene. The overall style of neotectonic deformation is interpreted as right-lateral strike-slip faulting. At many locations, however, near-surface displacements have stepped from one fault strand to another and produced normal and oblique-slip faults in areas of transtension and high-angle reverse faults, thrust faults, and folds in areas of transpression. There is evidence of reactivation of some near-surface fault segments during the great 1811-1812 New Madrid earthquakes. Quaternary faulting at Thebes Gap demonstrates that there are additional seismic-source zones in the Midcontinent, U.S., other than New Madrid, and that even in the absence of plate-margin orogenesis, intense neotectonic activity does occur over long time periods along crustal weakenesses in continental interiors.

  14. SELECTION AND TREATMENT OF STRIPPER GAS WELLS FOR PRODUCTION ENHANCEMENT IN THE MID-CONTINENT

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Reeves

    2003-03-01

    Stripper gas wells are an important source of domestic energy supply and under constant threat of permanent loss (shut-in) due to marginal economics. In 1998, 192 thousand stripper gas wells produced over a Tcf of gas, at an average rate of less than 16 Mcfd. This represents about 57% of all producing gas wells in the onshore lower-48 states, yet only 8% of production. Reserves of stripper gas wells are estimated to be only 1.6 Tcf, or slightly over 1% of the onshore lower-48 total (end of year 1996 data). Obviously, stripper gas wells are at the very margin of economic sustenance. As the demand for natural gas in the U.S. grows to the forecasted estimate of over 30 Tcf annually by the year 2010, supply from current conventional sources is expected to decline. Therefore, an important need exists to fully exploit known domestic resources of natural gas, including those represented by stripper gas wells. The overall objectives of this project are to develop an efficient and low-cost methodology to broadly categorize the well performance characteristics for a stripper gas field, identify the high-potential candidate wells for remediation, and diagnose the specific causes for well underperformance. With this capability, stripper gas well operators can more efficiently and economically produce these resources and maximize these gas reserves. A further objective is to identify/develop, evaluate and test ''new and novel,'' economically viable remediation options. Finally, it is the objective of this project that all the methods and technologies developed in this project, while being tested in the Mid-Continent, be widely applicable to stripper gas wells of all types across the country. The project activities during the reporting period were: (1) Prepared various materials to describe the project for promotional purposes and to attract potential industry partners. Materials included slides for DOE's displays at the SPE Eastern Regional and Annual Technical Conference, and

  15. Estimates of Phytolith-Occluded Carbon in Soils of Midcontinent North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyerson, P. E.

    2011-12-01

    Previous studies have suggested that organic carbon occluded in phytoliths (phytC) may be a stable and relatively large sink of atmospheric C. An important first step, therefore, is to quantify the size of soil phytC pools under various biomes and compare those values to other organic C pools. A total of 8 grassland and hardwood forest soils from the midcontinent of North America were sampled to a depth of 200 cm for this study. Total phytolith content (greater than 10 μm particle size) was extracted and quantified using the floatation method, and microscope analysis was used to evaluate nonbiogenic particulate contamination. Total phytC was then estimated, assuming an average of 2.4% phytolith C content. As a comparison, total soil organic C (SOC) was quantified by loss on ignition. Total phytC content for the study soils averaged less than 3 tons per hectare, or approximately 1% of total SOC. Grassland soils contained slightly more phytC, most likely due to increased phytolith production. This is in contrast to previous work, which documented phytC content at least an order of magnitude greater for tropical, volcanic soils. The findings of the present study suggest that direct C sequestration by phytoliths may not be as significant as once thought.

  16. Contour mapping of relic structures in the Precambrian basement of the Reelfoot rift, North American midcontinent

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dart, R.L.; Swolfs, H.S.

    1998-01-01

    A new contour map of the basement of the Reelfoot rift constructed from drill hole and seismic reflection data shows the general surface configuration as well as several major and minor structural features. The major features are two asymmetric intrarift basins, bounded by three structural highs, and the rift margins. The basins are oriented normal to the northeast trend of the rift. Two of the highs appear to be ridges of undetermined width that extend across the rift. The third high is an isolated dome or platform located between the basins. The minor features are three linear structures of low relief oriented subparallel to the trend of the rift. Two of these, located within the rift basins, may divide the rift basins into paired subbasins. These mapped features may be the remnants of initial extensional rifting, half graben faulting, and basement subsidence. The rift basins are interpreted as having formed as opposing half graben, and the structural highs are interpreted as having formed as associated accommodation zones. Some of these features appear to be reactivated seismogenic structures within the modem midcontinent compressional stress regime. A detailed knowledge of the geometries of the Reelfoot rift's basement features, therefore, is essential when evaluating their seismic risk potential.

  17. Stratified precambrian rocks (sedimentary?) beneath the midcontinent region of the US. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Hauser, E.C.

    1993-02-01

    A thick sequence of layered rocks occurs beneath the Phanerozoic platform strata which blanket the US midcontinent. Observed on COCORP deep reflection data in southern Illinois and Indiana and in SW Oklahoma and adjacent Texas, this sequence is locally 1--3 times as thick as the overlying Paleozoic cover, but the origin of this sequence and its ultimate lateral extent are unknown. However, the occurrences of Precambrian layered rocks on both the COCORP profiles and reprocessed industry seismic reflection data from the region lie within regions of generally low amplitude and low frequency aeromagnetic anomaly, suggesting an even greater distribution. Unmetamorphosed Precambrian sedimentary rocks have been recovered from drill holes in southwest Ohio and adjacent northern Kentucky and southwesternmost Indiana. These Precambrian sedimentary rocks lie above and may be part of an underlying package of strongly layered rocks imaged on a short and shallow seismic profile in southwest Ohio. These Precambrian sedimentary rocks were originally viewed as part of a late Precambrian (Keweenawan?) rift; however, in light of Grenville foreland structures seen on the COCORP profile to the north in west central Ohio, these Precambrian strata may (1) be part of a heretofore unrecognized Grenville foreland basin, or (2) indicate that unmetamorphosed Precambrian sedimentary material may be an important constituent of the layered rocks observed on COCORP beneath southern Illinois and Indiana.

  18. Stratified precambrian rocks (sedimentary ) beneath the midcontinent region of the US

    SciTech Connect

    Hauser, E.C.

    1993-02-01

    A thick sequence of layered rocks occurs beneath the Phanerozoic platform strata which blanket the US midcontinent. Observed on COCORP deep reflection data in southern Illinois and Indiana and in SW Oklahoma and adjacent Texas, this sequence is locally 1--3 times as thick as the overlying Paleozoic cover, but the origin of this sequence and its ultimate lateral extent are unknown. However, the occurrences of Precambrian layered rocks on both the COCORP profiles and reprocessed industry seismic reflection data from the region lie within regions of generally low amplitude and low frequency aeromagnetic anomaly, suggesting an even greater distribution. Unmetamorphosed Precambrian sedimentary rocks have been recovered from drill holes in southwest Ohio and adjacent northern Kentucky and southwesternmost Indiana. These Precambrian sedimentary rocks lie above and may be part of an underlying package of strongly layered rocks imaged on a short and shallow seismic profile in southwest Ohio. These Precambrian sedimentary rocks were originally viewed as part of a late Precambrian (Keweenawan ) rift; however, in light of Grenville foreland structures seen on the COCORP profile to the north in west central Ohio, these Precambrian strata may (1) be part of a heretofore unrecognized Grenville foreland basin, or (2) indicate that unmetamorphosed Precambrian sedimentary material may be an important constituent of the layered rocks observed on COCORP beneath southern Illinois and Indiana.

  19. Stratigraphy of Mid-Continent rift system in Kansas as revealed by recent exploration wells

    SciTech Connect

    Newell, K.D.; Berendsen, P.; Watney, W.L.; Doveton, J.H.; Steeples, D.

    1989-03-01

    The Texaco 1 Poersch well in Kansas (11,300 ft TD) was the first significant exploration test of the Mid-Continent Rift System (MRS). An upper succession of rift-related rocks (2846-7429 ft) contains approximately 90% mafic igneous rocks with minor pegmatites and 10% oxidized siltstone and arkose. Arkose and subarkose with minor siltstone and shale make up 90% of a lower succession (7429 ft to TD). The remaining lower succession is composed of mafic igneous rocks. Mafic rocks are typically alkali basalts. Individual flows (detected by presence of amygdules, interflow sediments, compositional differences, and oxidized zones) range in thickness from 20 to 250 ft. Sedimentary rocks in the lower succession are divided into three sequences, each 1000-2000 ft thick. The sequences overlie relatively thin mafic flows or intrusives. Each sequence is generally composed of fining-upward units (50-150 ft thick) attributed to episodic movement and erosion of fault blocks in alluvial fan-dominated sedimentary environments. Shales and siltstones are too oxidized to be viable petroleum source rocks, but gray shale with approximately 0.5% total organic carbon was found in the MRS by the 1-4 Finn well, 21 mi to the northeast. Geologic examination of several shallower Precambrian tests holes near 1 Poersch shows considerable variability in sedimentary and tectonic settings along the MRS. Correlation between wells in Kansas and exposed areas of the MRS is still problematic. Additional wells will be necessary to better understand its hydrocarbon potential.

  20. Diagenetic history of the Stanton Limestone (Missourian, Upper Pennsylvanian) in northern midcontinent

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, B.; Heckel, P.H. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    The Stanton Limestone in the northern midcontinent represents a complete cyclothem deposited during eustatic sea level change. The transgressive and regressive limestone members of the Stanton Limestone experienced initially different but later similar diagenetic patterns. Three phases of diagenesis are recognized. Early phase in the transgressive limestone took place during shallow burial probably up through maximum transgression. It is characterized by aragonite botryoids in skeletal cavities and in sheltered pore space beneath algal blades. Pervasive pyrite cement near the upper part resulted from sulfate reduction under the anoxic environment established at maximum transgression. Early diagenesis of the regressive limestone, however, is characterized by a great abundance of isopachous rims of fibrous to bladed calcite and inclusion-rich syntaxial overgrowths. The second phase of diagenesis involved meteoric water, which caused leaching of unstable grains and subsequent collapse and micro-brecciation in both limestones. Cements precipitated during early diagenesis were geochemically overprinted during meteoric diagenesis, giving rise to bright luminescence (higher Mn[sup 2+] ) under CL for all the early marine cements. The late diagenetic phase occurred during deeper burial when higher cyclothems were at their early to second phases of diagenesis. Much iron (Fe[sup 2+]) was incorporated into carbonate cements dominated by ankerite and Fe-dolomite, because of the reducing nature of deep burial environments. In some cases, silica void-filling and replacement of earlier cements represent the latest generation of cements.

  1. Increasing condom use in heterosexual men: development of a theory-based interactive digital intervention.

    PubMed

    Webster, R; Michie, S; Estcourt, C; Gerressu, M; Bailey, J V

    2016-09-01

    Increasing condom use to prevent sexually transmitted infections is a key public health goal. Interventions are more likely to be effective if they are theory- and evidence-based. The Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW) provides a framework for intervention development. To provide an example of how the BCW was used to develop an intervention to increase condom use in heterosexual men (the MenSS website), the steps of the BCW intervention development process were followed, incorporating evidence from the research literature and views of experts and the target population. Capability (e.g. knowledge) and motivation (e.g. beliefs about pleasure) were identified as important targets of the intervention. We devised ways to address each intervention target, including selecting interactive features and behaviour change techniques. The BCW provides a useful framework for integrating sources of evidence to inform intervention content and deciding which influences on behaviour to target. PMID:27528531

  2. Clinical Neuropathology Views – 2/2016: Digital networking in European neuropathology: An initiative to facilitate truly interactive consultations

    PubMed Central

    Idoate, Miguel A.; García-Rojo, Marcial

    2016-01-01

    Digital technology is progressively changing our vision of the practice of neuropathology. There are a number of facts that support the introduction of digital neuropathology. With the development of whole-slide imaging (WSI) systems the difficulties involved in implementing a neuropathology network have been solved. A relevant difficulty has been image standardization, but an open digital image communication protocol defined by the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) standard is already a reality. The neuropathology network should be established in Europe because it is the expected geographic context for relationships among European neuropathologists. There are several limitations in the implementation of a digital neuropathology consultancy network such as financial support, operational costs, legal issues, and technical assistance of clients. All of these items have been considered and should be solved before implementing the proposal. Finally, the authors conclude that a European digital neuropathology network should be created for patients’ benefit. PMID:26833552

  3. Clinical Neuropathology Views - 2/2016: Digital networking in European neuropathology: An initiative to facilitate truly interactive consultations.

    PubMed

    Idoate, Miguel A; García-Rojo, Marcial

    2016-01-01

    Digital technology is progressively changing our vision of the practice of neuropathology. There are a number of facts that support the introduction of digital neuropathology. With the development of wholeslide imaging (WSI) systems the difficulties involved in implementing a neuropathology network have been solved. A relevant difficulty has been image standardization, but an open digital image communication protocol defined by the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) standard is already a reality. The neuropathology network should be established in Europe because it is the expected geographic context for relationships among European neuropathologists. There are several limitations in the implementation of a digital neuropathology consultancy network such as financial support, operational costs, legal issues, and technical assistance of clients. All of these items have been considered and should be solved before implementing the proposal. Finally, the authors conclude that a European digital neuropathology network should be created for patients' benefit. PMID:26833552

  4. Stratigraphy and conodont biostratigraphy of the uppermost Carboniferous and Lower Permian from the North American Midcontinent

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boardman, Darwin R., II; Wardlaw, Bruce R.; Nestell, Merlynd K.

    2009-01-01

    Part A The uppermost Wabaunsee, Admire, Council Grove, and lower Chase Groups of Kansas, Oklahoma, and Nebraska are placed into three third-order depositional sequences: a Gzhelian late-highstand sequence set, a Council Grove transgressive and highstand sequence set, and a Chase transgressive sequence set. Sequences are defined by bounding maximum-exposure surfaces and are placed within the zone of exposure surfaces (typically, stacked paleosols). Conodonts are abundant in open-marine deposits and most marine units have a differing and characteristic faunal make-up. Eleven species are described as new: Streptognathodus binodosus, S. denticulatus, S. elongianus, S. florensis, S. lineatus, S. nevaensis, S. postconstrictus, S. postelongatus, S. robustus, S. translinearis, and S. trimilus. Part B Maximum-marine flooding levels and marine-condensed sections from uppermost Carboniferous and Lower Permian fourth-order (0.1-1 m.y.) depositional sequences of the North American midcontinent reveal a rich stratigraphic succession of species of Streptognathodus and Sweetognathus conodonts that permits high-precision correlation of the Carboniferous-Permian boundary as well as the Asselian-Sakmarian and Sakmarian-Artinskian boundaries. Eleven new species of Streptognathodus are described: Streptognathodus binodosus, S. denticulatus, S. elongianus, S. florensis, S. lineatus, S. nevaensis, S. postconstrictus, S. postelongatus, S. robustus, S. translinearis, and S. trimilus. Seventeen species are redescribed and clarified and include Streptognathodus alius, S. barskovi, S. bellus, S. brownvillensis, S. conjunctus, S. constrictus, S. elongatus, S. farmeri, S. flexuosus, S. fuchengensis, S. fusus, S. invaginatus, S. isolatus, S. longissimus, S. minacutus, S. nodulinearis, and S. wabaunsensis. The correlated level of the Carboniferous-Permian boundary is recognized in the lower part of the Red Eagle Depositional Sequence based on the introduction of Streptognathodus isolatus Chernykh

  5. Imaging the midcontinent rift beneath Lake Superior using large aperture seismic data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trehu, Anne M.; Morel-a-l'Huissier, Patrick; Meyer, R.; Hajnal, Z.; Karl, J.; Mereu, R. F.; Sexton, J.; Shay, J.; Chan, W. K.; Epili, D.; Jefferson, T.; Shih, X. R.; Wendling, S.; Milkereit, B.; Green, A.; Hutchinson, Deborah R.

    1991-01-01

    We present a detailed velocity model across the 1.1 billion year old Midcontinent Rift System (MRS) in central Lake Superior. The model was derived primarily from onshore-offshore large-aperture seismic and gravity data. High velocities obtained within a highly reflective half-graben that was imaged on coincident seismic reflection data demonstrate the dominantly mafic composition of the graben fill and constrain its total thickness to be at least 30km. Strong wide-angle reflections are observed from the lower crust and Moho, indicating that the crust is thickest (55–60km) beneath the axis of the graben. The total crustal thickness decreases rapidly to about 40 km beneath the south shore of the lake and decreases more gradually to the north. Above the Moho is a high-velocity lower crust interpreted to result from syn-rift basaltic intrusion into and/or underplating beneath the Archean lower crust. The lower crust is thickest beneath the axis of the main rift half-graben. A second region of thick lower crust is found approximately 100km north of the axis of the rift beneath a smaller half graben that is interpreted to reflect an earlier stage of rifting. The crustal model presented here resembles recent models of some passive continental margins and is in marked contrast to many models of both active and extinct Phanerozoic continental rift zones. It demonstrates that the Moho is a dynamic feature, since the pre-rift Moho is probably within or above the high-velocity lower crust, whereas the post-rift Moho is defined as the base of this layer. In the absence of major tectonic activity, however, the Moho is very stable, since the large, abrupt variations in crustal thickness beneath the MRS have been preserved for at least a billion years.

  6. The Midcontinent rift system and the Precambrian basement in southern Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.A. . Dept. of Geology)

    1994-04-01

    The Precambrian basement within Michigan consists of at least three provinces, each characterized by distinctive potential field anomalies: (1) the Eastern Granite-Rhyolite Province (EGRP) in the south, (2) the Grenville Province in the southeast and (3) the Penokean Province to the north. Also located within the basement is the Mid-Michigan rift (MMR), which is the eastern arm of the Midcontinent rift system (MRS). Southwest and parallel to the MMR is a series of linear positive gravity anomalies which has been referred to as the Ft. Wayne rift (FWR) and the Southwest Michigan Anomaly (SWMA). The EGRP, which is characterized by undeformed and unmetamorphosed rhyolite to dacite and epizonal granites, was emplaced ca. 1510--1450 Ma. However, the EGRP may be comprised of several terranes of varying extent and origin based on analysis of potential field data and rock and mineral ages. The MMR and the FWR/SWMA are characterized by linear arrays of positive magnetic and gravity anomalies, which are probably due to thick accumulations of mafic igneous rocks within the rifts. The extent and trends of the FWR/SWMA have been largely inferred from geophysical data with a presumption of the age of about 1,100 Ma. The continuation of the MMR southward into Ohio and Kentucky as a sequence of gravity highs is questionable and needs further resolution. The FWR/SWMA may be part of the East Continent Rift Basin (ECRB). The ECRB, which is a large complex of related rift basins of Keweenawan age (1300 --1100 Ma), may be an extension of the MRS but it is not physically continuous with it. The ECRB lies to the west of the Grenville Front and extends at least from northwest Ohio to central Kentucky. Extensions of the ECRB north and south are speculative.

  7. Holocene siliciclastic-carbonate facies mosaics, Northern Belize: Exploration analog to some midcontinent Pennsylvanian (Morrowan) reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, D.B.; Mazzullo, S.J.

    1995-09-01

    Midwinter Lagoon is a large, shallow coastal lagoon, bordered on its seaward side by a barrier, along the mainland coast of northern Belize. As much as 19 ft of Holocene sediments, deposited on karsted Tertiary limestones during the Flandrian transgression, consist of a complex mosaic of mixed siliciclastic and carbonate facies. Basal transgressive marine, intra-lagoonal facies are variously siliciclastic-rich carbonates to carbonate-rich siliciclastics, locally with layers of shoreline mangrove peat. These facies shallow-upward to either siliciclastic or carbonate-dominated sands or muds. Lagoonal facies were deposited within a broad topographic low, locally punctuated by bedrock highs, on the underlying limestone. The seaward edge of the barrier bar complex, which was deposited on a linear topographic high, consists mostly of quartz sands, whereas the lagoonal side is a mixture of quartzose and carbonate sediments (sands and muds). The barrier bar appears to have accreted southward in response to southerly longshore drift as a tidal inlet-spit complex; quartz sands are being transported into the lagoon from its seaward side. In terms of geometry, modern and buried, intra-lagoonal carbonate sands occur as lobes deposited proximal to extant and older tidal inlets. Either carbonate or siliciclastic sands variously occur as erratically distributed, anastomosing beach deposits around small mangrove islands and along the irregular mainland coast. In contrast, siliciclastic sands on the seaward side of the barrier define a narrow but areally persistent linear trend. Similar complex facies associations and geometries are typical of many Pennsylvanian (Morrowan) reservoirs in the midcontinent US.

  8. A hydrogeologic model of stratiform copper mineralization in the Midcontinent Rift System, Northern Michigan, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swenson, J.B.; Person, M.; Raffensperger, J.P.; Cannon, W.F.; Woodruff, L.G.; Berndt, M.E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a suite of two-dimensional mathematical models of basin-scale groundwater flow and heat transfer for the middle Proterozoic Midcontinent Rift System. The models were used to assess the hydrodynamic driving mechanisms responsible for main-stage stratiform copper mineralization of the basal Nonesuch Formation during the post-volcanic/pre-compressional phase of basin evolution. Results suggest that compaction of the basal aquifer (Copper Harbor Formation), in response to mechanical loading during deposition of the overlying Freda Sandstone, generated a pulse of marginward-directed, compaction-driven discharge of cupriferous brines from within the basal aquifer. The timing of this pulse is consistent with the radiometric dates for the timing of mineralization. Thinning of the basal aquifer near White Pine, Michigan, enhanced stratiform copper mineralization. Focused upward leakage of copper-laden brines into the lowermost facies of the pyrite-rich Nonesuch Formation resulted in copper sulfide mineralization in response to a change in oxidation state. Economic-grade mineralization within the White Pine ore district is a consequence of intense focusing of compaction-driven discharge, and corresponding amplification of leakage into the basal Nonesuch Formation, where the basal aquifer thins dramatically atop the Porcupine Mountains volcanic structure. Equilibrium geochemical modeling and mass-balance calculations support this conclusion. We also assessed whether topography and density-driven flow systems could have caused ore genesis at White Pine. Topography-driven flow associated with the Ottawan orogeny was discounted because it post-dates main-stage ore genesis and because recent seismic interpretations of basin inversion indicates that basin geometry would not be conductive to ore genesis. Density-driven flow systems did not produce focused discharge in the vicinity of the White Pine ore district.

  9. Age relationships for magmatic units of Mid-Continent rift system

    SciTech Connect

    Van Schmus, W.R.

    1989-03-01

    K-Ar ages ranging from about 600 to 1000 Ma have recently been reported for gabbro and basalt recovered from the Texaco 1 Poersch well in Kansas. This has prompted suggestions that rift magmatism there may be distinctly younger than that in the Lake Superior region, and that development of the rift may have lasted several hundred million years. Review of ages from Keweenawan volcanic and plutonic rocks in the Lake Superior region shows that the best results are obtained from U-Pb analyses of zircon and baddeleyite; recent published results range from 1087 to 1108 Ma, with uncertainties on individual ages of /plus minus/ 4 m.y. This finding is consistent with earlier reported U-Pb zircon results. Virtually all other techniques are susceptible to geologic error and generally yield ages of significant less than 1100 Ma. The reliability decreases approximately in the sequence Rb-Sr (whole rock), K-Ar (biotite), Ar/sup 39/-Ar/sup 40/ (whole rock), K-Ar (whole rock), with fresh, coarse-grained plutonic rocks yielding older ages than altered, fine-grained volcanic rocks. K-Ar data on altered, fine-grained mafic rocks, therefore, are very poor indicators of original crystallization ages. Since the rocks from the Texaco 1 Poersch well are fine grained and slightly to moderately altered, their true ages are probably substantially older than 800-900 Ma. Interpretations based on the K-Ar ages from this well are ill advised; tectonic interpretation of the Mid-Continent rift system must wait for more accurate results. Several possibilities exist for obtaining more reliable ages from samples of the Poersch well and other, older wells in the region. These studies are in progress, and any available results will be presented.

  10. Diabase dikes of the Midcontinent Rift in Minnesota: a record of Keweenawan magmatism and tectonic development

    SciTech Connect

    Green, J.C.; Chandler, V.C.

    1985-01-01

    Swarms of both reversed-polarity (R, older) and normal-polarity (N, younger) basaltic dikes help to define the evolution of the Minnesota portion of the Midcontinent Rift of North America. Each swarm, representing fissure-feeders for a package of overlying plateau lavas now eroded away, shows the direction of least principal stress at that time and place in the complex evolution of this abortive but nearly-successful rift. Paleomagnetic pole determinations for Carlton county (CC) and Grand Portage (GP) R dikes are coincident along the Logan Loop of the Proterozoic track, showing essential contemporaneity, though their trends are different (N.30/sup 0/E vs. N. 70-90/sup 0/E.) and they are 250 km apart. These poles match that of the R lavas of the North Shore Volcanic Group (NSVG) and imply a younger age than the R Logan sills and dikes. The geochemistry of the dikes (71 analyses) also correlates well with NSVG flows, ranging from olivine tholeiites to transitional basalts and basaltic andesites and is similar to tholeiites of Columbia River, Parana, and Tertiary No. Atlantic provinces. Though each swarm shows a range of compositions, some are dominantly more evolved, whereas others contain more primitive dikes with higher Al, Mg/Fe, Cr and Ni and lower Fe, Ti, P and LIL's. An early major episode of rifting during the R polarity interval was followed by at least one major N episode in Minnesota before the final one along the present Lake Superior syncline axis. Rifting directions and mantle sources were different for each episode as shown by cross-trending dike sets, indicating complex rift development.

  11. SELECTION AND TREATMENT OF STRIPPER GAS WELLS FOR PRODUCTION ENHANCEMENT IN THE MID-CONTINENT

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Reeves

    2003-03-01

    Stripper gas wells are an important source of domestic energy supply and under constant threat of permanent loss (shut-in) due to marginal economics. In 1998, 192 thousand stripper gas wells produced over a Tcf of gas, at an average rate of less than 16 Mcfd. This represents about 57% of all producing gas wells in the onshore lower-48 states, yet only 8% of production. Reserves of stripper gas wells are estimated to be only 1.6 Tcf, or slightly over 1% of the onshore lower-48 total (end of year 1996 data). Obviously, stripper gas wells are at the very margin of economic sustenance. As the demand for natural gas in the U.S. grows to the forecasted estimate of over 30 Tcf annually by the year 2010, supply from current conventional sources is expected to decline. Therefore, an important need exists to fully exploit known domestic resources of natural gas, including those represented by stripper gas wells. The overall objectives of this project are to develop an efficient and low-cost methodology to broadly categorize the well performance characteristics for a stripper gas field, identify the high-potential candidate wells for remediation, and diagnose the specific causes for well underperformance. With this capability, stripper gas well operators can more efficiently and economically produce these resources and maximize these gas reserves. A further objective is to identify/develop, evaluate and test ''new and novel,'' economically viable remediation options. Finally, it is the objective of this project that all the methods and technologies developed in this project, while being tested in the Mid-Continent, be widely applicable to stripper gas wells of all types across the country. The project activities during the reporting period were: (1) The contract was signed on August 20, 2000. Little work has been performed other than preliminary planning to get the project underway.

  12. SELECTION AND TREATMENT OF STRIPPER GAS WELLS FOR PRODUCTION ENHANCEMENT IN THE MID-CONTINENT

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Reeves

    2003-04-01

    Stripper gas wells are an important source of domestic energy supply and under constant threat of permanent loss (shut-in) due to marginal economics. In 1998, 192 thousand stripper gas wells produced over a Tcf of gas, at an average rate of less than 16 Mcfd. This represents about 57% of all producing gas wells in the onshore lower-48 states, yet only 8% of production. Reserves of stripper gas wells are estimated to be only 1.6 Tcf, or slightly over 1% of the onshore lower-48 total (end of year 1996 data). Obviously, stripper gas wells are at the very margin of economic sustenance. As the demand for natural gas in the U.S. grows to the forecasted estimate of over 30 Tcf annually by the year 2010, supply from current conventional sources is expected to decline. Therefore, an important need exists to fully exploit known domestic resources of natural gas, including those represented by stripper gas wells. The overall objectives of this project are to develop an efficient and low-cost methodology to broadly categorize the well performance characteristics for a stripper gas field, identify the high-potential candidate wells for remediation, and diagnose the specific causes for well underperformance. With this capability, stripper gas well operators can more efficiently and economically produce these resources and maximize these gas reserves. A further objective is to identify/develop, evaluate and test ''new and novel,'' economically viable remediation options. Finally, it is the objective of this project that all the methods and technologies developed in this project, while being tested in the Mid-Continent, be widely applicable to stripper gas wells of all types across the country. The project activities during the reporting period were: Continued coordinating the final selection of candidates and field implementation with Oneok. Oneok plans on performing the operations early in 2003.

  13. SELECTION AND TREATMENT OF STRIPPER GAS WELLS FOR PRODUCTION ENHANCEMENT IN THE MID-CONTINENT

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Reeves

    2003-03-01

    Stripper gas wells are an important source of domestic energy supply and under constant threat of permanent loss (shut-in) due to marginal economics. In 1998, 192 thousand stripper gas wells produced over a Tcf of gas, at an average rate of less than 16 Mcfd. This represents about 57% of all producing gas wells in the onshore lower-48 states, yet only 8% of production. Reserves of stripper gas wells are estimated to be only 1.6 Tcf, or slightly over 1% of the onshore lower-48 total (end of year 1996 data). Obviously, stripper gas wells are at the very margin of economic sustenance. As the demand for natural gas in the U.S. grows to the forecasted estimate of over 30 Tcf annually by the year 2010, supply from current conventional sources is expected to decline. Therefore, an important need exists to fully exploit known domestic resources of natural gas, including those represented by stripper gas wells. The overall objectives of this project are to develop an efficient and low-cost methodology to broadly categorize the well performance characteristics for a stripper gas field, identify the high-potential candidate wells for remediation, and diagnose the specific causes for well underperformance. With this capability, stripper gas well operators can more efficiently and economically produce these resources and maximize these gas reserves. A further objective is to identify/develop, evaluate and test ''new and novel,'' economically viable remediation options. Finally, it is the objective of this project that all the methods and technologies developed in this project, while being tested in the Mid-Continent, be widely applicable to stripper gas wells of all types across the country. The project activities during the reporting period were: (1) Continued coordinating the final selection of candidates and field implementation with Oneok. Oneok plans on performing the operations early in 2003.

  14. SELECTION AND TREATMENT OF STRIPPER GAS WELLS FOR PRODUCTION ENHANCEMENT IN THE MID-CONTINENT

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Reeves

    2003-03-01

    Stripper gas wells are an important source of domestic energy supply and under constant threat of permanent loss (shut-in) due to marginal economics. In 1998, 192 thousand stripper gas wells produced over a Tcf of gas, at an average rate of less than 16 Mcfd. This represents about 57% of all producing gas wells in the onshore lower-48 states, yet only 8% of production. Reserves of stripper gas wells are estimated to be only 1.6 Tcf, or slightly over 1% of the onshore lower-48 total (end of year 1996 data). Obviously, stripper gas wells are at the very margin of economic sustenance. As the demand for natural gas in the U.S. grows to the forecasted estimate of over 30 Tcf annually by the year 2010, supply from current conventional sources is expected to decline. Therefore, an important need exists to fully exploit known domestic resources of natural gas, including those represented by stripper gas wells. The overall objectives of this project are to develop an efficient and low-cost methodology to broadly categorize the well performance characteristics for a stripper gas field, identify the high-potential candidate wells for remediation, and diagnose the specific causes for well underperformance. With this capability, stripper gas well operators can more efficiently and economically produce these resources and maximize these gas reserves. A further objective is to identify/develop, evaluate and test ''new and novel,'' economically viable remediation options. Finally, it is the objective of this project that all the methods and technologies developed in this project, while being tested in the Mid-Continent, be widely applicable to stripper gas wells of all types across the country. The project activities during the reporting period were: (1) Began preparing final project report, less the field implementation component. (2) Coordinated the final selection of candidates and field implementation with Oneok.

  15. Changes in nutrient dynamics of midcontinent greater white-fronted geese during spring migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearse, Aaron T.; Alisauskas, Ray T.; Krapu, Gary L.; Cox, Robert R., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Waterfowl and other migratory birds commonly store nutrients at traditional staging areas during spring for later use during migration and reproduction. We investigated nutrient-storage dynamics in the midcontinent population of greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons; hereafter white-fronted geese) at spring staging sites in the Rainwater Basin of Nebraska during February-April and in southern Saskatchewan during April-May, 1998 and 1999. In Nebraska, lipid content of white-fronted geese did not increase, and protein content changed little over time for most age and sex categories. In Saskatchewan, lipids increased 11.4 g/day (SE = 1.7) and protein content increased 1.6 g/day (SE = 0.6) in the sample of adult geese collected over a 3-week period. A study conducted during 1979-1980 in the Rainwater Basin reported that white-fronted geese gained 8.8-17.7 g of lipids per day during spring, differing greatly from our results 2 decades later. In addition, lipid levels were less in the 1990s compared to spring 1980 for adult geese nearing departure from staging sites in Saskatchewan. This shift in where geese acquired nutrient stores from Nebraska to more northern staging sites coincided with a decrease in availability of waste corn in Nebraska, their primary food source while staging at that stopover site, and an increase in cultivation of high-energy pulse crops in Saskatchewan. White-fronted geese exhibited flexibility in nutrient dynamics during spring migration, likely in response to landscape-level variation in food availability caused by changes in agricultural trends and practices. Maintaining a wide distribution of wetlands in the Great Plains may allow springstaging waterfowl to disperse across the region and facilitate access to high-energy foods over a larger cropland base.

  16. Revisiting Geschwind's hypothesis on brain lateralisation: a functional MRI study of digit ratio (2D:4D) and sex interaction effects on spatial working memory.

    PubMed

    Kalmady, Sunil Vasu; Agarwal, Sri Mahavir; Shivakumar, Venkataram; Jose, Dania; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Reddy, Y C Janardhan

    2013-01-01

    The Geschwind-Behan-Galaburda (GBG) hypothesis links cerebral lateralisation with prenatal testosterone exposure. Digit ratio measures in adults have been established as potential markers of foetal sex hormonal milieu. The aim of the study was to evaluate the sex-dependent interaction of digit ratio measures and cerebral lateralization as well as their neurohemodynamic correlates using functional MRI (fMRI). Digit ratio measures-ratio of index finger (2D) length to ring finger (4D) length (2D:4D) and difference between 2D:4D of two hands, i.e., right minus left (DR-L)-were calculated using high resolution digital images in 70 right-handed participants (42 men) based on reliable and valid method. fMRI was acquired during the performance of a spatial working memory task in a subset of 25 individuals (14 men), and analysed using Statistical Parametric Mapping 8 (SPM8) and the Laterality Index toolbox for SPM8. Men had significantly less bilateral 2D:4D than women. There was a significant negative correlation between right 2D:4D and 2-Back task accuracy (2BACC) in women. A significant sex-by-right 2D:4D interaction was observed in left parahippocampal gyrus activation. Additionally, sex-by-DR-L interaction was observed in left IPL activation. DR-L showed a significant positive correlation with the whole brain Laterality Index (LI), and LI, in turn, demonstrated a significant negative correlation with 2BACC. Our study observations suggest several novel sex-differential relationships between 2D:4D measures and fMRI activation during spatial working memory task performance. Given the pre-existing background data supporting digit ratio measures as putative indicator of prenatal sex hormonal milieu, our study findings add support to the Geschwind-Behan-Galaburda (GBG) hypothesis. PMID:23458090

  17. Geochemistry of hypabyssal rocks of the Midcontinent Rift system in Minnesota, and implications for a Keweenawan magmatic ``family tree``

    SciTech Connect

    Jerde, E.A.

    1998-11-01

    The hypabyssal rocks associated with the Keweenawan (1.1 Ga) Midcontinent Rift along the Minnesota shore of Lake Superior are a distinct suite within the rock associations of this region. These rocks are found predominantly as ophitic diabase dikes and sills of various sizes, ranging from a few meters to several hundred meters across. Chilled margins were sampled and analyzed by neutron activation analysis and microprobe fused-bead techniques for bulk chemistry. Mineral compositions were obtained by electron microprobe. Variations in composition were found that are consistent with fractionation. Major-element modeling of fractionation indicates that the majority of the hypabyssal rocks formed at moderate pressures ({approximately}6 kbar), although a number show evidence of fractionation at near-surface levels, and some deeper ({approximately}10 kbar). Resorption features seen in plagioclase phenocrysts are evidence for magmatic evolution at varying levels in the crust. It is possible to relate the varied hypabyssal rocks to a single primary parent through polybaric fractionation. This parent is a high-Al primitive olivine tholeiite--a magma composition common among the volcanic rocks associated with the Midcontinent Rift. Trace-element modeling with this same parent composition yields results consistent with the formation of some hypabyssal rocks as products of a periodically tapped and replenished, constantly fractionating magma chamber, which can decouple the behavior of major and trace elements.

  18. The relationship of conodont biofacies to spatially variable water mass properties in the Late Pennsylvanian Midcontinent Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Achim D.; Barrick, James E.; Algeo, Thomas J.

    2015-03-01

    Molybdenum and uranium enrichment factors and nitrogen isotopes suggest that an interplay of open ocean upwelling and riverine runoff led to distinct spatial and secular variations in water mass properties within the epicontinental Late Pennsylvanian Midcontinent Sea of North America. In particular, the intensity of continental runoff influenced the flux of bulk organic matter to the sediment. Benthic anoxia appears to have been controlled by the vertical density gradient in the water column associated with continental runoff combined with the advection of basinal water. Anoxic conditions were stronger in proximal (i.e., more shoreward) areas of the Midcontinent Shelf, indicating that anoxia did not develop primarily due to upwelling of nutrient-rich waters along the southern shelf margin, as previously suggested. Changes in water mass redox conditions not only drove authigenic enrichment of redox-sensitive trace elements across the basin but also had a strong effect on the spatial distribution of various conodont taxa. Our analysis suggests that the widely accepted depth-stratification model for the distribution of conodonts is incomplete. Conodont biofacies distributions seem to have been controlled by physicochemical properties of the water mass (e.g., salinity, temperature, nutrients, turbidity, and/or dissolved oxygen levels) that may correspond less directly to water depth. The proximity to terrestrial freshwater influx and the strength of anoxia/euxinia in the subpycnoclinal water mass played significant roles in the spatial and temporal distributions of conodont taxa.

  19. Nature and origin of authigenic K-feldspar in Precambrian basement rocks of the North American midcontinent

    SciTech Connect

    Duffin, M.E. )

    1989-08-01

    Authigenic K-feldspar occurs in alteration profiles in uppermost Precambrian igneous and metamorphic basement rocks of the midcontinent. The K-feldspar is widespread and has been identified in six states. The profiles occur directly below the Cambrian-Precambrian unconformity and range from about <1 to 8 m in thickness. Authigenic K-feldspar occurs throughout the profile. The K-feldspar is monoclinic or triclinic by X-ray diffraction, of end-member composition, and may compose 63% of rock volume. Much of the K-feldspar formed by replacement of primary feldspar. A sample of wholly authigenic K-feldspar from altered basement in southern Illinois gives a K/Ar data of 549 {plus minus} 18 Ma (Early Cambrian). This data is in agreement with Early Cambrian Rb/Sr dates for potassic alteration of uppermost Precambrian basement in Ohio. Dated authigenic K-feldspars from both Ohio and Illinois give identical {delta}{sup 18}O values of 17.5, suggesting formation from a very similar fluid. Concordancy of both dates and {delta}{sup 18}O values suggests that the K-feldspar formed during an episode of potassic alteration during Early Cambrian time that affected much of midcontinent North America. The dates and {delta}{sup 18}O values for K-feldspar, when considered together, do not fit any of the hypotheses presented here.

  20. Q.U.E.S.T. An Interactive Earth Science Study Tool: Connecting Real Students to Digital Libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, A.; Danowski, D.; Brindisi, C.; Sandvol, C.; Seber, D.

    2001-05-01

    Quick Use Earth Study Tool (QUEST) is an experimental educational interface to the Cornell University's Geoscience Information System (http://atlas.geo.cornell.edu). The information system currently includes more than 100 geographic, geologic, and geophysical data sets along with World Wide Web based interactive mapping tools for data display and analysis. The system is GIS based and accessible via any web browser that support Java applets. QUEST is the companion module that has been developed to assist educators who wish to use these data to their fullest potential, providing tutorials, sample exercises, and suggested projects. Clearly, students learn best when they engage in the practice of science. One means to accomplish this is to have students access primary scientific data. Our experience suggests that a structured exploration of original data sets enhances student learning. For this reason we have selected a subset of Cornell's available geoscience data, and have designed a series of activities that allow students to explore dynamic Earth processes. Currently, these data include the ISC seismicity catalog, volcanism data from the Smithsonian Institution, and digital topography from the USGS and NOAA. The QUEST interface allows students to query the data sets based on a variety of criteria (e.g., earthquakes can be sorted by date, magnitude, depth, and location), or perform computations on data (e.g., sea level can be interactively mapped at any elevation on the DEM). Because the system is GIS-based, multiple data sets can be displayed simultaneously in order for users to examine the spatial relationships between geological features. Users can zoom in to regions of interest, and a map history window keeps track of student work so that comparisons are easily made. QUEST is accompanied by a Teacher's Manual to assist teachers in extracting the most information from the available data and tools. Through these efforts we hope to provide teachers and students

  1. Modeling pilot interaction with automated digital avionics systems: Guidance and control algorithms for contour and nap-of-the-Earth flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, Ronald A.

    1990-01-01

    A collection of technical papers are presented that cover modeling pilot interaction with automated digital avionics systems and guidance and control algorithms for contour and nap-of-the-earth flight. The titles of the papers presented are as follows: (1) Automation effects in a multiloop manual control system; (2) A qualitative model of human interaction with complex dynamic systems; (3) Generalized predictive control of dynamic systems; (4) An application of generalized predictive control to rotorcraft terrain-following flight; (5) Self-tuning generalized predictive control applied to terrain-following flight; and (6) Precise flight path control using a predictive algorithm.

  2. Reduction of Risk in Exploration and Prospect Generation through a Multidisciplinary Basin-Analysis Program in the South-Central Mid-Continent Region

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, S.; Barker, C.; Fite, J.; George, S.; Guo, Genliang; Johnson, W.; Jordan, J., Szpakiewicz, M.; Person, M.; Reeves, T.K.; Safley, E.; Swenson, J.B.; Volk, L.; and Erickson, R.

    1999-04-02

    This report will discuss a series of regional studies that were undertaken within the South-Central Mid-Continent region of the U.S. Coverage is also provided about a series of innovative techniques that were used for this assessment.

  3. Failure was not an option- the Mid-Continent Rift system succeeded

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merino, M.; Stein, C. A.; Stein, S. A.; Keller, G. R.; Flesch, L. M.; Jurdy, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    The 1.1 Ga Mid-Continent Rift (MCR) in North America is often viewed as a failed rift formed by isolated midplate volcanism and extension within the ~1.3-~0.98 Ga Grenville orogeny. An alternative view is suggested by analogy with younger and morphologically similar rift systems, whose plate tectonic settings are more easily understood because their surroundings - including seafloor with magnetic anomalies - have not been deformed or destroyed by subsequent collisions and rifting events. In this view, the MCR was part of a larger plate boundary rifting event that resulted in a successful episode of seafloor spreading. This view is motivated by various pieces of evidence. The MCR rifting looks much like rigid plate block motion, such as associated with the West Central African Rift systems formed during the Mesozoic breakup of Africa and South America and the ongoing rifting in the East African Rift region with seafloor spreading in the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea. This view explains the affinities of the Grenville-age rocks in the central and southern Appalachians to Amazonia rather than Canadian Grenville-age Appalachian rocks. The MCR extends farther to the south than traditionally assumed along the East Continental Gravity High (a buried feature from Ohio to Alabama). This failed portion of the rift system connected to the rift successfully separating Laurentia and Amazonia. The seafloor spreading separating Amazonia from Laurentia may explain the former's relative motion toward Greenland and Baltica. This model is consistent with some of the ~1.1 Ga geological events in Amazonia. A change in the apparent polar wander path for Laurentia during the period of volcanism of the MCR could be attributed to this plate reconfiguration. The extensional phase on the MCR may have ended because motion was taken up by seafloor spreading between Laurentia and Amazonia rather ending due to another continental collision. Later reverse faulting on the MCR normal faults due to

  4. SELECTION AND TREATMENT OF STRIPPER GAS WELLS FOR PRODUCTION ENHANCEMENT IN THE MID-CONTINENT

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Reeves

    2003-03-01

    Stripper gas wells are an important source of domestic energy supply and under constant threat of permanent loss (shut-in) due to marginal economics. In 1998, 192 thousand stripper gas wells produced over a Tcf of gas, at an average rate of less than 16 Mcfd. This represents about 57% of all producing gas wells in the onshore lower-48 states, yet only 8% of production. Reserves of stripper gas wells are estimated to be only 1.6 Tcf, or slightly over 1% of the onshore lower-48 total (end of year 1996 data). Obviously, stripper gas wells are at the very margin of economic sustenance. As the demand for natural gas in the U.S. grows to the forecasted estimate of over 30 Tcf annually by the year 2010, supply from current conventional sources is expected to decline. Therefore, an important need exists to fully exploit known domestic resources of natural gas, including those represented by stripper gas wells. The overall objectives of this project are to develop an efficient and low-cost methodology to broadly categorize the well performance characteristics for a stripper gas field, identify the high-potential candidate wells for remediation, and diagnose the specific causes for well underperformance. With this capability, stripper gas well operators can more efficiently and economically produce these resources and maximize these gas reserves. A further objective is to identify/develop, evaluate and test ''new and novel,'' economically viable remediation options. Finally, it is the objective of this project that all the methods and technologies developed in this project, while being tested in the Mid-Continent, be widely applicable to stripper gas wells of all types across the country. The project activities during the reporting period were: (1) The search for another field site was abandoned after discussion with DOE. There is a clear absence of willing industry partners to participate in this project. The greatest obstacle is having the necessary data to perform the

  5. SELECTION AND TREATMENT OF STRIPPER GAS WELLS FOR PRODUCTION ENHANCEMENT IN THE MID-CONTINENT

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Reeves

    2003-08-01

    Stripper gas wells are an important source of domestic energy supply and under constant threat of permanent loss (shut-in) due to marginal economics. In 1998, 192 thousand stripper gas wells produced over a Tcf of gas, at an average rate of less than 16 Mcfd. This represents about 57% of all producing gas wells in the onshore lower-48 states, yet only 8% of production. Reserves of stripper gas wells are estimated to be only 1.6 Tcf, or slightly over 1% of the onshore lower-48 total (end of year 1996 data). Obviously, stripper gas wells are at the very margin of economic sustenance. As the demand for natural gas in the U.S. grows to the forecasted estimate of over 30 Tcf annually by the year 2010, supply from current conventional sources is expected to decline. Therefore, an important need exists to fully exploit known domestic resources of natural gas, including those represented by stripper gas wells. The overall objectives of this project are to develop an efficient and low-cost methodology to broadly categorize the well performance characteristics for a stripper gas field, identify the high-potential candidate wells for remediation, and diagnose the specific causes for well underperformance. With this capability, stripper gas well operators can more efficiently and economically produce these resources and maximize these gas reserves. A further objective is to identify/develop, evaluate and test ''new and novel,'' economically viable remediation options. Finally, it is the objective of this project that all the methods and technologies developed in this project, while being tested in the Mid-Continent, be widely applicable to stripper gas wells of all types across the country. The project activities during the reporting period were: (1) Compiled information and results of field activities that Oneok has conducted in relation to the project. Field activities have included performing six pressure transient tests, and implementing six workovers, four of which were

  6. SELECTION AND TREATMENT OF STRIPPER GAS WELLS FOR PRODUCTION ENHANCEMENT IN THE MID-CONTINENT

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Reeves

    2003-03-01

    Stripper gas wells are an important source of domestic energy supply and under constant threat of permanent loss (shut-in) due to marginal economics. In 1998, 192 thousand stripper gas wells produced over a Tcf of gas, at an average rate of less than 16 Mcfd. This represents about 57% of all producing gas wells in the onshore lower-48 states, yet only 8% of production. Reserves of stripper gas wells are estimated to be only 1.6 Tcf, or slightly over 1% of the onshore lower-48 total (end of year 1996 data). Obviously, stripper gas wells are at the very margin of economic sustenance. As the demand for natural gas in the U.S. grows to the forecasted estimate of over 30 Tcf annually by the year 2010, supply from current conventional sources is expected to decline. Therefore, an important need exists to fully exploit known domestic resources of natural gas, including those represented by stripper gas wells. The overall objectives of this project are to develop an efficient and low-cost methodology to broadly categorize the well performance characteristics for a stripper gas field, identify the high-potential candidate wells for remediation, and diagnose the specific causes for well underperformance. With this capability, stripper gas well operators can more efficiently and economically produce these resources and maximize these gas reserves. A further objective is to identify/develop, evaluate and test ''new and novel,'' economically viable remediation options. Finally, it is the objective of this project that all the methods and technologies developed in this project, while being tested in the Mid-Continent, be widely applicable to stripper gas wells of all types across the country. The project activities during the reporting period were: (1) Finished preparing the final project report, less the field implementation component. Sent to DOE for review. (2) Continued coordinating the final selection of candidates and field implementation with Oneok. Oneok postponed field

  7. SELECTION AND TREATMENT OF STRIPPER GAS WELLS FOR PRODUCTION ENHANCEMENT IN THE MID-CONTINENT

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Reeves

    2003-03-01

    Stripper gas wells are an important source of domestic energy supply and under constant threat of permanent loss (shut-in) due to marginal economics. In 1998, 192 thousand stripper gas wells produced over a Tcf of gas, at an average rate of less than 16 Mcfd. This represents about 57% of all producing gas wells in the onshore lower-48 states, yet only 8% of production. Reserves of stripper gas wells are estimated to be only 1.6 Tcf, or slightly over 1% of the onshore lower-48 total (end of year 1996 data). Obviously, stripper gas wells are at the very margin of economic sustenance. As the demand for natural gas in the U.S. grows to the forecasted estimate of over 30 Tcf annually by the year 2010, supply from current conventional sources is expected to decline. Therefore, an important need exists to fully exploit known domestic resources of natural gas, including those represented by stripper gas wells. The overall objectives of this project are to develop an efficient and low-cost methodology to broadly categorize the well performance characteristics for a stripper gas field, identify the high-potential candidate wells for remediation, and diagnose the specific causes for well underperformance. With this capability, stripper gas well operators can more efficiently and economically produce these resources and maximize these gas reserves. A further objective is to identify/develop, evaluate and test ''new and novel,'' economically viable remediation options. Finally, it is the objective of this project that all the methods and technologies developed in this project, while being tested in the Mid-Continent, be widely applicable to stripper gas wells of all types across the country. The project activities during the reporting period were: (1) Type curve matching continued during the reporting period. (2) A second data collection trip to Tulsa was performed to gather information on the additional reservoirs to be included in the analysis. Created updated database

  8. SELECTION AND TREATMENT OF STRIPPER GAS WELLS FOR PRODUCTION ENHANCEMENT IN THE MID-CONTINENT

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Reeves

    2003-03-01

    Stripper gas wells are an important source of domestic energy supply and under constant threat of permanent loss (shut-in) due to marginal economics. In 1998, 192 thousand stripper gas wells produced over a Tcf of gas, at an average rate of less than 16 Mcfd. This represents about 57% of all producing gas wells in the onshore lower-48 states, yet only 8% of production. Reserves of stripper gas wells are estimated to be only 1.6 Tcf, or slightly over 1% of the onshore lower-48 total (end of year 1996 data). Obviously, stripper gas wells are at the very margin of economic sustenance. As the demand for natural gas in the U.S. grows to the forecasted estimate of over 30 Tcf annually by the year 2010, supply from current conventional sources is expected to decline. Therefore, an important need exists to fully exploit known domestic resources of natural gas, including those represented by stripper gas wells. The overall objectives of this project are to develop an efficient and low-cost methodology to broadly categorize the well performance characteristics for a stripper gas field, identify the high-potential candidate wells for remediation, and diagnose the specific causes for well underperformance. With this capability, stripper gas well operators can more efficiently and economically produce these resources and maximize these gas reserves. A further objective is to identify/develop, evaluate and test ''new and novel,'' economically viable remediation options. Finally, it is the objective of this project that all the methods and technologies developed in this project, while being tested in the Mid-Continent, be widely applicable to stripper gas wells of all types across the country. The project activities during the reporting period were: (1) Continued to solicit industry research partners to provide test sites, including Patina Oil and Gas and EOG Resources, each of whom have previously worked with ARI on a similar projects funded by the Gas Technology Institute. Both

  9. SELECTION AND TREATMENT OF STRIPPER GAS WELLS FOR PRODUCTION ENHANCEMENT IN THE MID-CONTINENT

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Reeves

    2003-03-01

    Stripper gas wells are an important source of domestic energy supply and under constant threat of permanent loss (shut-in) due to marginal economics. In 1998, 192 thousand stripper gas wells produced over a Tcf of gas, at an average rate of less than 16 Mcfd. This represents about 57% of all producing gas wells in the onshore lower-48 states, yet only 8% of production. Reserves of stripper gas wells are estimated to be only 1.6 Tcf, or slightly over 1% of the onshore lower-48 total (end of year 1996 data). Obviously, stripper gas wells are at the very margin of economic sustenance. As the demand for natural gas in the U.S. grows to the forecasted estimate of over 30 Tcf annually by the year 2010, supply from current conventional sources is expected to decline. Therefore, an important need exists to fully exploit known domestic resources of natural gas, including those represented by stripper gas wells. The overall objectives of this project are to develop an efficient and low-cost methodology to broadly categorize the well performance characteristics for a stripper gas field, identify the high-potential candidate wells for remediation, and diagnose the specific causes for well underperformance. With this capability, stripper gas well operators can more efficiently and economically produce these resources and maximize these gas reserves. A further objective is to identify/develop, evaluate and test ''new and novel,'' economically viable remediation options. Finally, it is the objective of this project that all the methods and technologies developed in this project, while being tested in the Mid-Continent, be widely applicable to stripper gas wells of all types across the country. The project activities during the reporting period were: (1) Completed both type curve and artificial neural network analysis of the field. Developed list of production enhancement candidates. (2) Made final presentation of results to Oneok in Tulsa (February 26). (3) Made presentations on

  10. Progress Towards Well-Constrained Regional Inversions: Results from the NACP Midcontinent Intensive Regional Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, K. J.; Diaz Isaac, L. I.; Lauvaux, T.; Miles, N. L.; Richardson, S.; Andrews, A. E.; Jacobson, A. R.; Sweeney, C.; Ogle, S. M.; Schuh, A. E.

    2011-12-01

    Atmospheric inversions for ecosystem carbon fluxes have traditionally been limited both by sparse atmospheric data and by uncertainty regarding atmospheric transport. These two limits have proven difficult to disentangle in past studies. The NACP Midcontinent Intensive regional study provides both unprecedented measurement density and prior knowledge of regional fluxes, thus presents a unique opportunity to examine the impacts of measurement density, atmospheric transport uncertainty, and assumptions underlying the inversion process. We present results from a regional inversion system that includes the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model, the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (LPDM), a Bayesian matrix inversion, and boundary and initial conditions from NOAA's Carbon Tracker (CT) system. We show that the regional inversion produces an estimated flux that, for 2007, is quite similar both in magnitude and spatial distribution to the results from agricultural inventory. We show that this result in robust to most of the assumptions (coherence of the flux correction in space, prior flux estimate, boundary conditions, model-data mismatch) required for this inverse system. We show also that the magnitude of the regional flux, but not the spatial pattern, is relatively robust with respect to the removal of data from the inversion, suggesting different network design requirements depending on the goals of a regional inversion. Finally, we explore comparisons between the forwards simulations of WRF and CT to examine the impact of atmospheric transport on simulation of regional CO2, thus, indirectly, on the regional inversions. We find that, given the same surface fluxes and boundary conditions, CT's transport model (TM5) simulates a more spatially uniform mixing ratio field than WRF. We hypothesize that this is due to a combination of limited horizontal resolution and overestimated vertical mixing in TM5. The WRF model, in contrast, shows errors in its forwards

  11. Enhancing the Reuse of Digital Resources for Integrated Systems to Represent, Understand and Dynamize Complex Interactions in Architectural Cultural Heritage Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, F. J.; Martinez, R.; Finat, J.; Martinez, J.; Puche, J. C.; Finat, F. J.

    2013-07-01

    In this work we develop a multiply interconnected system which involves objects, agents and interactions between them from the use of ICT applied to open repositories, users communities and web services. Our approach is applied to Architectural Cultural Heritage Environments (ACHE). It includes components relative to digital accessibility (to augmented ACHE repositories), contents management (ontologies for the semantic web), semiautomatic recognition (to ease the reuse of materials) and serious videogames (for interaction in urban environments). Their combination provides a support for local real/remote virtual tourism (including some tools for low-level RT display of rendering in portable devices), mobile-based smart interactions (with a special regard to monitored environments) and CH related games (as extended web services). Main contributions to AR models on usual GIS applied to architectural environments, concern to an interactive support performed directly on digital files which allows to access to CH contents which are referred to GIS of urban districts (involving facades, historical or preindustrial buildings) and/or CH repositories in a ludic and transversal way to acquire cognitive, medial and social abilities in collaborative environments.

  12. EarthScope in Midcontinent North America: Investigating the Architecture and Tectonic History of Cratonic-Platform Lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshak, S.; Larson, T.; Hamburger, M. W.; Pavlis, G. L.; Gilbert, H. J.; Parke, M.

    2010-12-01

    The transportable array of EarthScope will sweep across the Midcontinent of North America during 2011 and 2012. The central portion of this swath, between latitudes 36°N and 38°N, covers a "type example" of cratonic-platform lithosphere, where a veneer of Paleozoic sedimentary strata overlies Precambrian crystalline basement. In anticipating this scientific opportunity, we have compiled a unique suite of geologic, geophysical, subsurface, and topographic data sets for this area. The maps emphasize that, in spite of low topographic relief, the region has large subsurface structural relief. Specifically, its western portion includes a large intracratonic uplift (the Ozark Plateau), whereas its central portion includes a major intracratonic basin (the Illinois Basin). The elevation difference between the Cambrian-Precambrian unconformity at the crest of the Ozark Plateau and the same horizon at the base of the Illinois Basin (< 100 km to the east) is over 7.5 km. The region also includes the northern end of the Mississippi embayment (an anomalous depression), three major Proterozoic lithosphere accretionary boundaries (borders of the Yavapai, Mazatzal, and Grenville belts), one of the world's largest anorogenic igneous provinces (the Eastern Granite-Rhyolite Province), pronounced gravity and magnetic anomalies, and numerous fault-and-fold zones. Many of the zones remain active, both within and outside the notorious New Madrid seismic zone, making the central Midcontinent one of the most seismically active examples of cratonic platform lithosphere anywhere. As part of the USArray deployment in this region, a number of research groups (some of whom met at an EarthScope Workshop held in Urbana) have proposed dense, Flex-Array networks that would densify the sparser Transportable Array network. We propose an experiment that would span the Ozark Dome and the Illinois Basin, the Rough Creek Graben and other fault zones including the Wabash Valley seismic zone. This

  13. MISR Interactive Explorer (MINX) : Production Digitizing to Retrieve Smoke Plume Heights and Validating Heights Against Lidar Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunst, Ben

    2011-01-01

    The height at which smoke from a wildfire is injected into the atmosphere is an important parameter for climatology, because it determines how far the smoke can be transported. Using the MINX program to analyze MISR (Multi-angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer) data, I digitized wildfire smoke plumes to add to an existing database of these heights for use by scientists studying smoke transport and plume dynamics. In addition to using MINX to do production digitizing of heights, I assisted in gathering lidar data for an ongoing validation of MINX and helped evaluate those data.

  14. Estimating Carbon Dioxide Fluxes from Sources and Sinks in the Mid-Continent Intensive using Inventories and Satellite Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, T. O.; Bandaru, V.; Brandt, C. C.; Schuh, A. E.; Gurney, K. R.; Heath, L. S.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Liu, S.; Li, Z.; Ogle, S. M.

    2009-12-01

    Estimates of carbon dioxide sources and sinks have been compiled from numerous models and national inventories. Flux estimates include those for cropland, grassland, and forest biomass; cropland and grassland soils; fossil-fuel emissions; emissions from livestock and humans; and movement of carbon into and out of the region. Estimates have been scaled to coincide with entities responsible for respective carbon fluxes and for consistent estimates among flux sources. We will present methods used to scale fluxes using satellite remote sensing data and present comprehensive results of carbon fluxes within a ten-state region surrounding the State of Iowa. Results will be compared to previous carbon flux estimates produced under the Mid-Continent Intensive Interim synthesis. We will discuss significant changes in estimation methods and variability associated with components of the current estimates.

  15. The Heinz Electronic Library Interactive Online System (HELIOS): Building a Digital Archive Using Imaging, OCR, and Natural Language Processing Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Edward A.; Michalek, Gabrielle V.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the conversion project of the congressional papers of Senator John Heinz into digital format and the provision of electronic access to these papers by Carnegie Mellon University. Topics include collection background, project team structure, document processing, scanning, use of optical character recognition software, verification…

  16. Investigating Children's Interactions around Digital Texts in Classrooms: How Are These Framed and What Counts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that, in informing our understanding of the possibilities and challenges associated with new technologies in educational contexts, we need to explore what counts to children when using digital texts in classrooms, and what children think counts for their teachers. It suggests that such insights can be gained by investigating…

  17. Origin and development of plains-type folds in the mid-continent (United States) during the late Paleozoic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merriam, D.F.

    2005-01-01

    Plains-type folds are local, subtle anticlines formed in the thin sedimentary package overlying a shallow, crystalline basement on the craton. They are small in areal extent (usually less than 1-3 km 2 [0.4-1.2 mi2]), and their amplitude increases with depth (usually tens of meters), which is mainly the result of differential compaction of sediments (usually clastic units) over tilted, rigid, basement fault blocks. The development of these structural features by continuous but intermittent movement of the basement fault blocks in the late Paleozoic in the United States mid-continent is substantiated by a record of stratigraphic and sedimentological evidence. The recurrent structural movement, which reflects adjustment to external stresses, is expressed by the change in thickness of stratigraphic units over the crest of the fold compared to the flanks. By plotting the change in thickness for different stratigraphic units of anticlines on different fault blocks, it is possible to determine the timing of movement of the blocks that reflect structural adjustment. These readjustments are confirmed by sedimentological evidence, such as convolute, soft-sediment deformation features and small intraformational faults. The stratigraphic interval change in thickness for numerous structures in the Cherokee, Forest City, and Salina basins and on the Nemaha anticline of the mid-continent United States was determined and compared for location and timing of the adjustments. Most of the adjustment occurred during and after time of deposition of the Permian-Pennsylvanian clastic units, which, in turn, reflect tectonic disturbance in adjacent areas, and the largest amount of movement on the plains-type structures occurred on those nearest and semiparallel to major positive features, such as the Nemaha anticline. Depending on the time of origin and development of plains-type folds, they may control the entrapment and occurrence of oil and gas. Copyright ??2005. The American

  18. Fluid migration in a cratonic setting: The fluid histories of two fault zones in the eastern midcontinent

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramsey, D.W.; Onasch, C.M.

    1999-01-01

    A combined field, petrographic, fluid inclusion, and stable isotope study was undertaken in two fault zones in the eastern midcontinent of the North American craton in order to determine their fluid histories. Because both the Kentucky River fault zone in central Kentucky and the Bowling Green fault zone in northwest Ohio were active intermittently throughout much of the Paleozoic, it was thought that one or both may record the passage of the late Paleozoic brine migration that affected large portions of the eastern midcontinent. Three fluid events were recognized in calcite veins of the Kentucky River fault zone. Each tapped the same dominantly meteoric, low-salinity fluid reservoir, but at different times as the fault zone was cooling (T(h) 110??to 75??C) at relatively shallow depths (<1.0 km). Although the fluid history of the Bowling Green fault zone also reflects a general cooling (T(h) 115??to 60??C) at a shallow depth (<1.5 km), multiple fluid sources were involved. In the first fluid event, brown calcite was precipitated from a methane-rich, aqueous fluid with an immiscible petroleum phase derived from ascending fluids originating in underlying lower Paleozoic or basement units. The second fluid event is similar to the first except it lacks the petroleum phase which resulted in the precipitation of white, rather than brown, calcite. The third event precipitated calcite from a mixture of vertically and horizontally flowing brines. The youngest event resulted in little or no additional mineralization and is recorded by secondary fluid inclusions in preexisting veins. The fluid source is probably meteoric or seawater. From the characteristics of each fluid event, it is concluded that only the Bowling Green fault zone appears to contain evidence for the late Paleozoic regional brine migration. The Kentucky River fault zone either was bypassed by the brines, had an unfavorable orientation, or did not have any permeability at the time of brine migration.

  19. An assessment of stressor extent and biological condition in the North American mid-continent great rivers (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angradi, Ted R.; Bolgriend, David W.; Jicha, Terri M.; Pearson, Mark S.; Taylor, Debra L.; Moffett, Mary F.; Blocksom, Karen A.; Walters, David M.; Elonen, Colleen M.; Anderson, Leroy E.; Lazorchak, James M.; Reavie, Euan D.; Kireta, Amy R.; Hill, Brian H.

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the North American mid-continent great rivers (Upper Mississippi, Missouri, and Ohio). We estimated the extent of each river in most- (MDC) or least-disturbed condition (LDC) based on multiple biological response indicators: fish and macroinvertebrate, trophic state based on chlorophyll a, macrophyte cover, and exposure of fish-eating wildlife to toxic contaminants in fish tissue (Hg, total chlordane, total DDT, PCBs). We estimated the extent of stressors on each river including nutrients, suspended solids, sediment toxicity, invasive species, and land use (agriculture and impervious surface). All three rivers had a greater percent of their river length in MDC than in LDC based on fish assemblages. The Upper Mississippi River had the greatest percent of river length with eutrophic status. The Ohio River had the greatest percent of river length with fish with tissue contaminant levels toxic to wildlife. Overall, condition indices based on fish assemblages were more sensitive to stress than macroinvertebrate indices. Compared to the streams in its basin, more of the Upper Mississippi and Missouri Rivers were in MDC for nutrients than the Ohio River. Invasive species (Asian carp and Dreissenid mussels) were less widespread and less abundant on the Missouri River than on the other great rivers. The Ohio River had the most urbanized floodplains (greatest percent impervious surface). The Missouri River had the most floodplain agriculture. The effect of large urban areas on river condition was apparent for several indicators. Ecosystem condition based in fish assemblages, trophic state, and fish tissue contamination was related to land use on the floodplain and at the subcatchment scale. This is the first unbiased bioassessment of the mid-continent great rivers in the United States. The indicators, condition thresholds, results, and recommendations from this program are a starting point for improved future great river assessments.

  20. Digital data and geologic map of the Powder Mill Ferry Quadrangle, Shannon and Reynolds counties, Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDowell, Robert C.; Harrison, Richard W.; Lagueux, Kerry M.

    2000-01-01

    The geology of the Powder Mill Ferry 7 1/2-minute quadrangle , Shannon and Reynolds Counties, Missouri was mapped from 1997 through 1998 as part of the Midcontinent Karst Systems and Geologic Mapping Project, Eastern Earth Surface Processes Team. The map supports the production of a geologic framework that will be used in hydrogeologic investigations related to potential lead and zinc mining in the Mark Twain National Forest adjacent to the Ozark National Scenic Riverways (National Park Service). Digital geologic coverages will be used by other federal and state agencies in hydrogeologic analyses of the Ozark karst system and in ecological models.

  1. Secondary natural gas recovery: Targeted applications for infield reserve growth in midcontinent reservoirs, Boonsville Field, Fort Worth Basin, Texas. Topical report, May 1993--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hardage, B.A.; Carr, D.L.; Finley, R.J.; Tyler, N.; Lancaster, D.E.; Elphick, R.Y.; Ballard, J.R.

    1995-07-01

    The objectives of this project are to define undrained or incompletely drained reservoir compartments controlled primarily by depositional heterogeneity in a low-accommodation, cratonic Midcontinent depositional setting, and, afterwards, to develop and transfer to producers strategies for infield reserve growth of natural gas. Integrated geologic, geophysical, reservoir engineering, and petrophysical evaluations are described in complex difficult-to-characterize fluvial and deltaic reservoirs in Boonsville (Bend Conglomerate Gas) field, a large, mature gas field located in the Fort Worth Basin of North Texas. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate approaches to overcoming the reservoir complexity, targeting the gas resource, and doing so using state-of-the-art technologies being applied by a large cross section of Midcontinent operators.

  2. Navigate the Digital Rapids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Julie; Davis, Vicki

    2010-01-01

    How can teachers teach digital citizenship when the digital landscape is changing so rapidly? How can teachers teach proper online social interactions when the students are outside their classroom and thus outside their control? Will encouraging students to engage in global collaborative environments land teachers in hot water? These are the…

  3. Music Instruction Goes Digital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demski, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Faced with meager enrollment in band, orchestra, and choir programs, schools are using digital technology to excite students about creating music on today's terms. This article discusses how music educators reinvent their profession by acknowledging and incorporating the way students interact with music today--digitally. Bill Evans, a music…

  4. Chemical reaction path modeling of ore deposition in Mississippi Valley-type Pb-Zn deposits of the Ozark region, US midcontinent

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plumlee, G.S.; Leach, D.L.; Hofstra, A.H.; Landis, G.P.; Rowan, E.L.; Viets, J.G.

    1994-01-01

    The Ozark region of the US midcontinent is host to a number of Mississippi Valley-type districts. This study uses chemical speciation and reaction path calculations, based on quantitative chemical analyses of fluid inclusions, to constrain likely hydrothermal brine compositions and to determine which precipitation mechanisms are consistent with the hydrothermal mineral assemblages observed regionally and locally within each Mississippi Valley-type district in the Ozark region. -from Authors

  5. Hydrothermal flow systems in the Midcontinent Rift: Oxygen and hydrogen isotopic studies of the North Shore Volcanic Group and related hypabyssal sills, Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y.R.; Ripley, E.M.

    1999-06-01

    shallower portions of the system. The increase in {delta}{sup 18}O values of massive flow interiors with depth is interpreted as a result of rock interaction with a fluid of constant oxygen isotopic composition with increasing temperature. The stable isotopic data are supportive of previous suggestions that seawater was involved in the hydrothermal system associated with the Midcontinent Rift. Although the origin of the seawater remains problematic, it appears that marine incursions may have occurred during the late stages of Portage Lake volcanism, and periodically thereafter.

  6. Digital psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Tang, S; Helmeste, D

    2000-02-01

    The American managed care movement has been viewed as a big experiment and is being watched closely by the rest of the world. In the meanwhile, computer-based information technology (IT) is changing the practice of medicine, much more rapidly than managed care. A New World of digitized knowledge and information has been created. Although literature on IT in psychiatry is largely absent in peer-reviewed psychiatric journals, IT is finding its way into all aspects of medicine, particularly psychiatry. Telepsychiatry programs are becoming very popular. At the same time, medical information sites are flourishing and evolving into a new health-care industry. Patient-physician information asymmetry is decreasing as patients are gaining easy access to medical information hitherto only available to professionals. Thus, psychiatry is facing another paradigm shift, at a time when most attention has been focused on managed care. In this new digital world, knowledge and information are no longer the sole property of professionals. Value will migrate from traditional in-person office-based therapy to digital clinical products, from in-person library search and classroom didactic instruction to interactive on-line searches and distance learning. In this time of value migration, psychiatrists have to determine what their 'distinctive competence' is and where best to add value in the health-care delivery value chain. The authors assess the impact of IT on clinical psychiatry and review how clinical practice, education and research in psychiatry are expected to change in this emerging digital world. PMID:15558872

  7. Digital Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Edward A.; Urs, Shalini R.

    2002-01-01

    Provides an overview of digital libraries research, practice, and literature. Highlights include new technologies; redefining roles; historical background; trends; creating digital content, including conversion; metadata; organizing digital resources; services; access; information retrieval; searching; natural language processing; visualization;…

  8. Crustal Structure in the area of the North American Mid-Continent Rift System from P-wave Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; van der Lee, S.; Wolin, E.; Bollmann, T. A.; Revenaugh, J.; Wiens, D. A.; Wysession, M. E.; Aleqabi, G. I.; Frederiksen, A. W.; Darbyshire, F. A.; Stein, S. A.; Jurdy, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Mid-continent Geophysical Anomaly (MGA) represents the largest gravity anomaly in the North American continental interior, its strongest portion stretching from Iowa to Lake Superior, and is the direct result of 1.1 Ga deposition and uplift of volcanic rocks in the Mid-continent Rift System (MRS). The Superior Province Rifting Earthscope Experiment (SPREE) collected broadband seismic data around this prominent portion of the MGA for 2.5 years from 82 seismic stations, simultaneously with about 30 Transportable Array (TA) stations in the region. To image crustal structure around the MGA, we analyzed the P-wave trains of 119 teleseismic earthquakes at these stations using the time-domain iterative-deconvolution method of Ligorria and Ammon (1999), the waveform-fitting method of Van der Meijde et al. (2003), and the H-κ stacking method of Zhu and
Kanamori (2000). Our aim was to resolve intra-crustal layering and Moho characteristics. Despite considerable noise related to station installation constraints, we find that outside of the MGA, the Moho is sharp and relatively flat, both beneath the Archean Superior Province as well as beneath the Proterozoic terranes to its south. This Moho produces consistent P to S converted phases in the analyzed receiver functions. Receiver functions show much more complexity along the MGA, where P to S converted phases from the Moho are much weaker and more variable with azimuth and epicentral distance. Similar results have been found in Iowa by French et al. (2009). For many stations along the MGA, multiple weak S phases arrive around the time expected for the Moho-converted phase. In addition, strong P-to-S converted phases are observed from the base of shallow sedimentary layers. The base of the sedimentary layer is fairly shallow outside of the MGA, thickens near the flanks where gravity anomalies are low and shallows again in the center where the gravity peaks. We conclude that the Moho is not a strong feature of the MRS

  9. Variable deep structure of a midcontinent fault and fold zone from seismic reflection: La Salle deformation belt, Illinois basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McBride, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    Deformation within the United States mid-continent is frequently expressed as quasilinear zones of faulting and folding, such as the La Salle deformation belt, a northwest-trending series of folds cutting through the center of the Illinois basin. Seismic reflection profiles over the southern La Salle deformation belt reveal the three-dimensional structural style of deformation in the lower Paleozoic section and uppermost Precambrian(?) basement. Individual profiles and structural contour maps show for the first time that the folds of the La Salle deformation belt are underlain at depth by reverse faults that disrupt and offset intrabasement structure, offset the top of interpreted Precambrian basement, and accommodate folding of overlying Paleozoic strata. The folds do not represent development of initial dips by strata deposited over a preexisting basement high. Rather, the structures resemble subdued "Laramide-style" forced folds, in that Paleozoic stratal reflectors appear to be flexed over a fault-bounded basement uplift with the basement-cover contact folded concordantly with overlying strata. For about 40 km along strike, the dominant faults reverse their dip direction, alternating between east and west. Less well expressed antithetic or back thrusts appear to be associated with the dominant faults and could together describe a positive flower structure. The overall trend of this part of the La Salle deformation belt is disrupted by along-strike discontinuities that separate distinct fold culminations. Observations of dual vergence and along-strike discontinuities suggest an original deformation regime possibly involving limited transpression associated with distant late Paleozoic Appalachian-Ouachita mountain building. Moderate-magnitude earthquakes located west of the western flank of the La Salle deformation belt have reverse and strike-slip mechanisms at upper trustai depths, which might be reactivating deep basement faults such as observed in this study

  10. Paleomagnetism and geochemistry of the Geordie Lake and Silver Mountain basalts: Implications for the Midcontinent Rift evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulakov, E.; Smirnov, A. V.; Bornhorst, T. J.; Cundari, R.; Hollings, P. N.

    2012-12-01

    We report the results of paleomagnetic and geochemical investigations of two basaltic lava sequences as a part of our on-going efforts to better understand the evolution of North American Midcontinent Rift (MCR) system. The first sequence of 17 flat-lying lava flows is located north of the rift axis, near Geordie Lake (Ontario, Canada). This sequence overlays the ~1108 Ma gabbros of the Coldwell Complex and is thought to be of a similar age, but no direct contact between the basalts and gabbros has been observed. The other sequence of 13 flows slightly dipping northwest is exposed at Silver Mountain (Baraga County, Upper Michigan), south of the rift axis. The lavas form a ~100 m high glacially polished dome, east of the Keweenawan fault, and are surrounded by glacial deposits. The Silver Mountain basalts have been tentatively interpreted to be a part of the Siemens Creek volcanics, the lowermost formation of the Powder Mill Group. At both locations, we collected six to ten core samples from each lava flow for paleomagnetic analyses. Practically all measured samples have yielded well-defined characteristic remanent magnetizations (ChRM) upon thermal demagnetization. After the correction for structural tilt, the group mean from Silver Mountain flows (D=107.9°, I=-60.4°, α95=2.43°, k=232, N=13) is statistically indistinguishable from the group mean direction of the Geordie Lake basalts (D=109.1°, I=-63.1°, α95=3.81°, k=89, N=17). In addition, both mean directions are statistically similar to the direction reported for the reversely magnetized Lower North Shore Volcanics (LNSV) U-Pb dated at 1107.9±0.8 Ma. The Silver Mountain mean direction is similar to that reported for the Powder Mill basalts dated at 1107.3±1.6 Ma. In addition to paleomagnetic analyses, we conducted geochemical analyses of 17 flows of the Geordie Lake sequence and 7 of the Silver Mountain basalts. Trace element compositions of both sequences are very similar to those reported for the

  11. Constraints on the Mid-Continent Deformation Gravity Gradient Determined from Co-located GPS and Absolute Gravity Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, T. S.; Mazzotti, S.; Mazzotti, S.; Lambert, A.

    2001-12-01

    The deformation gravity gradient (DGG) is the ratio of the time rate of change of surface gravity to vertical crustal velocity. Different processes generate different theoretical predictions of the DGG. Consequently, observational constraints on the DGG are necessary to link crustal uplift observations to satellite-derived observations of the time rate of change of the Earth's gravitational field, which will be generated by upcoming satellite missions such as GRACE. Larson and van Dam (2000) have compared secular gravity trends from 4 sites in interior North America to crustal uplift rates obtained from global point-positioning analyses of GPS observations, and found they agree, assuming a nominal DGG value appropriate to postglacial rebound of -0.15 μ Gal/mm (Wahr et al., 1995). Here we revisit and extend their analysis in order to determine the observational constraints on the DGG in mid-continent North America. We use recently published gravity rates derived from significantly more absolute gravity observations and a different GPS analysis scheme. Lambert et al. (2001) have published secular gravity rates for 7 sites in mid-continent North America, using all available absolute gravity observations and allowing for instrumental offsets. The sites, chosen to sample postglacial rebound, lie on a transect from Churchill, Manitoba, located on Hudson Bay, to North Liberty, Iowa. Four of these sites (Churchill, Flin Flon, Lac du Bonnet, and North Liberty) also feature a nearby GPS station. The GPS observations were analyzed using double differencing with Bernese 4.2, yielding 5 year time series for vertical position. The daily repeatabilities of 5 to 9 mm compare well to the weekly repeatabilities of 7-8 mm reported by Larson and van Dam (2000). A comparison of the vertical rates derived from these time series to the secular solid-surface gravity trends finds a DGG of -0.14 +/- 0.06 μ Gal/mm. This value is in good agreement with model predictions for postglacial

  12. Interactive production planning and ergonomic assessment with Digital Human Models--introducing the Editor for Manual Work Activities (ema).

    PubMed

    Fritzsche, Lars; Leidholdt, Wolfgang; Bauer, Sebastian; Jäckel, Thomas; Moreno, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    The aging workforce is a risk factor for manufacturing industries that contain many jobs with high physical workloads. Thus, ergonomic risk factors have to be avoided in early phases of production planning. This paper introduces a new tool for simulating manual work activities with 3D human models, the so-called emaΦ. For the most part, the emaΦ software is based on a unique modular approach including a number of complex operations that were theoretically developed and empirically validated by means of motion capturing technologies. Using these modules for defining the digital work process enables the production planner to compile human simulations more accurately and much quicker compared to any of the existing modeling tools. Features of the emaΦ software implementation, such as ergonomic evaluation and MTM-time analyses, and the workflow for practical application are presented. PMID:22317401

  13. APPLEPIPS /Apple Personal Image Processing System/ - An interactive digital image processing system for the Apple II microcomputer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masuoka, E.; Rose, J.; Quattromani, M.

    1981-01-01

    Recent developments related to microprocessor-based personal computers have made low-cost digital image processing systems a reality. Image analysis systems built around these microcomputers provide color image displays for images as large as 256 by 240 pixels in sixteen colors. Descriptive statistics can be computed for portions of an image, and supervised image classification can be obtained. The systems support Basic, Fortran, Pascal, and assembler language. A description is provided of a system which is representative of the new microprocessor-based image processing systems currently on the market. While small systems may never be truly independent of larger mainframes, because they lack 9-track tape drives, the independent processing power of the microcomputers will help alleviate some of the turn-around time problems associated with image analysis and display on the larger multiuser systems.

  14. Galaxy pairs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey - X. Does gas content alter star formation rate enhancement in galaxy interactions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scudder, Jillian M.; Ellison, Sara L.; Momjian, Emmanuel; Rosenberg, Jessica L.; Torrey, Paul; Patton, David R.; Fertig, Derek; Mendel, J. Trevor

    2015-06-01

    New spectral line observations, obtained with the Jansky Very Large Array (VLA), of a sample of 34 galaxies in 17 close pairs are presented in this paper. The sample of galaxy pairs is selected to contain galaxies in close, major interactions (i.e. projected separations <30 h_{70}^{-1} kpc, and mass ratios less extreme than 4:1), while still having a sufficiently large angular separation that the VLA can spatially resolve both galaxies in the pair. Of the 34 galaxies, 17 are detected at >3σ. We compare the H I gas fraction of the galaxies with the triggered star formation present in that galaxy. When compared to the star formation rates (SFRs) of non-pair galaxies matched in mass, redshift, and local environment, we find that the star formation enhancement is weakly positively correlated (˜2.5σ) with H I gas fraction. In order to help understand the physical mechanisms driving this weak correlation, we also present results from a small suite of binary galaxy merger simulations with varying gas fractions. The simulated galaxies indicate that larger initial gas fractions are associated with lower levels of interaction-triggered star formation (relative to an identical galaxy in isolation), but also show that high gas fraction galaxies have higher absolute SFRs prior to an interaction. We show that when interaction-driven SFR enhancements are calculated relative to a galaxy with an average gas fraction for its stellar mass, the relationship between SFR and initial gas fraction dominates over the SFR enhancements driven by the interaction. Simulated galaxy interactions that are matched in stellar mass but not in gas fraction, like our VLA sample, yield the same general positive correlation between SFR enhancement and gas fraction that we observe.

  15. Structure of the Southern Keweenawan Rift from COCORP Surveys across the midcontinent geophysical anomaly in northeastern Kansas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serpa, L.; Setzer, T.; Farmer, H.; Brown, L.; Oliver, J.; Kaufman, S.; Sharp, J.; Steeples, Don W.

    1984-06-01

    COCORP profiling across the midcontinent geophysical anomaly in northeastern Kansas reveals structural basins and other features of the Precambrian Keweenawan rift buried beneath the Phanerozoic cover. The 40-km-wide main basin is asymmetric, with a maximum depth of 3 km on the east and 8 km on the west. The basin fill is characterized by a lower layered sequence of strong continuous west dipping reflectors which may be correlated with Middle Keweenawan interbedded volcanic and clastic rocks exposed along the MGA in the Lake Superior region. Overlying this layered sequence is a zone of weak, discontinuous reflectors correlated here with the predominantly clastic rocks characteristic of the Upper Keweenawan sequence near Lake Superior. A second tilted but shallower basin lies to the east of the main basin and appears to be filled predominantly with clastic sedimentary rocks. The character of the seismic data, the seismic velocity distribution, and gravity modeling suggest that mafic intrusions lie beneath the main rift basin. Normal faults associated with the rift dip at moderate angles to the east. Palinspastic reconstruction indicates that the rift basin formed by the rotation of fault bounded blocks during crustal extension. Although reactivation of preexisting structures appears to have occurred in many other rifts profiled by COCORP, the evidence is inconclusive on this point in the case of the Kansas data. The structures mapped by COCORP surveys in Kansas and elsewhere suggest that asymmetric sequences of layered reflectors are characteristic, and perhaps diagnostic, of rift basin deposits in general.

  16. Potential for producing oil and gas from Woodford Shale (Devonian-Mississippian) in the southern Mid-Continent, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Comer, J.B. )

    1991-03-01

    Woodford Shale is a prolific oil source rock throughout the southern Mid-Continent of the US. Extrapolation of thickness and organic geochemical data based on the analysis of 614 samples from the region indicate that on the order of 100 {times} 10{sup 9} bbl of oil (300 {times} 10{sup 12} ft {sup 3} of natural gas equivalent). Tapping this resource is most feasible in areas where the Woodford subcrop contains competent lithofacies (e.g., chert, sandstone, siltstone, dolostone) and is high fractured. Horizontal drilling may provide the optimum exploitation technique. Areas with the greatest potential and the most prospective lithologies include (1) the Nemaha uplift (chert, sandstone, dolostone), (2) Marietta-Ardmore basin (chert), (3) southern flank of the Anadarko basin along the Wichita Mountain uplift (chert), (4) frontal zone of the Ouachita tectonic belt in Oklahoma (chert), and (5) the Central Basin platform in west Texas and New Mexico (chert and siltstone). In virtually all of these areas the Woodford is in the oil or gas window. Thus, fracture porosity would be continuously fed by hydrocarbons generated in the enclosing source rocks. Reservoir systems such as these have typically produced at low to moderate flow rates for many decades.

  17. Potential for producing oil and gas from the Woodford Shale (Devonian-Mississippian) in the southern mid-continent, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Comer, J.B. )

    1992-04-01

    The Woodford Shale is a prolific oil source rock throughout the southern mid-continent of the United States. Extrapolation of thickness and organic geochemical data based on the analysis of 614 samples from the region indicate that on the order of 100 {times} 10{sup 9} bbl of oil (300 {times} 10{sup 12} ft{sup 3} of natural gas equivalent) reside in the Woodford in Oklahoma and northwestern Arkansas. The Woodford in west Texas and southeastern New Mexico contains on the order of 80 {times} 10{sup 9} bbl of oil (240 {times} 10{sup 12} ft{sup 3} of natural gas equivalent). Tapping this resource is most feasible in areas where the Woodford subcrop contains competent lithofacies (e.g., chert, sandstone, siltstone, dolostone) and is highly fractured. Horizontal drilling may provide the optimum exploitation technique. Areas with the greatest potential and the most prospective lithologies include (1) the Nemaha uplift (chert, sandstone, dolostone), (2) Marietta-Ardmore basin (chert), (3) southern flank of the Anadarko basin along the Wichita Mountain uplift (chert), (4) frontal zone of the Ouachita tectonic belt in Oklahoma (chert), and (5) the Central Basin platform in west Texas and New Mexico (chert and siltstone). In virtually all of these areas, the Woodford is in the oil or gas window. Thus, fracture porosity would be continuously fed by hydrocarbons generated in the enclosing source rocks. Reservoir systems such as these typically have produced at low to moderate flow rates for many decades.

  18. CO2 uptake and ecophysiological parameters of the grain crops of midcontinent North America: estimates from flux tower measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilmanov, Tagir; Wylie, Bruce; Tieszen, Larry; Meyers, Tilden R.; Baron, Vern S.; Bernacchi, Carl J.; Billesbach, David P.; Burba, George G.; Fischer, Marc L.; Glenn, Aaron J.; Hanan, Niall P.; Hatfield, Jerry L.; Heuer, Mark W.; Hollinger, Steven E.; Howard, Daniel M.; Matamala, Roser; Prueger, John H.; Tenuta, Mario; Young, David G.

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed net CO2 exchange data from 13 flux tower sites with 27 site-years of measurements over maize and wheat fields across midcontinent North America. A numerically robust “light-soil temperature-VPD”-based method was used to partition the data into photosynthetic assimilation and ecosystem respiration components. Year-round ecosystem-scale ecophysiological parameters of apparent quantum yield, photosynthetic capacity, convexity of the light response, respiration rate parameters, ecological light-use efficiency, and the curvature of the VPD-response of photosynthesis for maize and wheat crops were numerically identified and interpolated/extrapolated. This allowed us to gap-fill CO2 exchange components and calculate annual totals and budgets. VPD-limitation of photosynthesis was systematically observed in grain crops of the region (occurring from 20 to 120 days during the growing season, depending on site and year), determined by the VPD regime and the numerical value of the curvature parameter of the photosynthesis-VPD-response, σVPD. In 78% of the 27 site-years of observations, annual gross photosynthesis in these crops significantly exceeded ecosystem respiration, resulting in a net ecosystem production of up to 2100 g CO2 m−2 year−1. The measurement-based photosynthesis, respiration, and net ecosystem production data, as well as the estimates of the ecophysiological parameters, provide an empirical basis for parameterization and validation of mechanistic models of grain crop production in this economically and ecologically important region of North America.

  19. Midcontinent rift volcanism in the Lake Superior region: Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic evidence for a mantle plume origin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nicholson, S.W.; Shirey, S.B.

    1990-01-01

    Between 1091 and 1098 Ma, most of a 15- to 20-km thickness of dominantly tholeiitic basalt erupted in the Midcontinent Rift System of the Lake Superior region, North America. The Portage Lake Volcanics in Michigan, which are the younget MRS flood basalts, fall into distinctly high- and low-TiO2 types having different liquid lines of descent. Incompatible trace elements in both types of tholeiites are enriched compared to depleted or primitive mantle and both basalt types are isotopically indistinguishable. The isotopic enrichment of the MRS source compared to depleted mantle is striking and must have occurred at least 700 m.y. before 1100 Ma. There are two likely sources for such magmatism: subcontinental lithospheric mantle enriched during the early Proterozoic or enriched mantle derived from an upwelling plume. Decompression melting of an upwelling enriched mantle plume in a region of lithosphere thinned by extension could have successfully generated the enormous volume (850 ?? 103 km3) of relatively homogeneous magma in a restricted time interval. -from Authors

  20. Proterozoic basin in the southern Midcontinent of the United States revealed by COCORP deep seismic reflection profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, J. A.; Brown, L. D.; Steiner, D.; Oliver, J. E.; Kaufman, S.; Denison, R. E.

    1981-12-01

    COCORP deep crustal seismic profiles in southwestern Oklahoma show strong, persistent, continuous, and undeformed layering in the basement over an area probably very much greater than 2,500 km2. Such layering is very unusual, judging by COCORP experience with basement rocks elsewhere in the United States. The data can be interpreted as representing a Proterozoic basin filled with clastic sedimentary and felsic volcanic rocks 7 to 10 km thick, whose base lies 10 to 13 km deep. These rocks are believed, on the basis of sparse evidence from regional geology, to have been deposited or extruded about 1,200 to 1,400 m.y. ago, and some of them may now be metamorphosed. This basin lies on the south side of the Wichita Mountains, under the Paleozoic Hardeman Basin, and is similar in depth to the Paleozoic Anadarko Basin north of the mountains. The deep basement layering is truncated on the south side of the Wichita Mountains, probably by Precambrian faults in conjunction with granitic intrusions. Pennsylvanian compression probably reactivated these Precambrian trends. Extensive Precambrian basin deposits in this area were unexpected, on the basis of evidence from sparse well control, and reports of other layered basement reflections elsewhere in the southern Midcontinent suggest that Precambrian basins may be an important feature of this region. Simple models for the evolution of southwestern Oklahoma as an aulacogen must be reformulated in the light of these new data.

  1. Reconciliation of Carbon Dioxide Flux Estimates from Atmospheric Inversions and Inventories in the Mid-Continent Intensive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breidt, F. J.; Cooley, D. S.; Thurier, Q.; Wang, Y.; Schuh, A. E.; Denning, A.; Davis, K. J.; West, T. O.; Ogle, S. M.

    2009-12-01

    Atmospheric inversions and inventories provide two distinct data sources for describing regional carbon budgets in the Mid-Continent Intensive (MCI) study of the North American Carbon Program (NACP). Inversions rely on temporally rich CO2 concentration measurements to infer fluxes between the terrestrial surface and atmosphere. Since towers from which concentration measurements are obtained are sparsely distributed on the landscape, inversion data tend to be temporally rich and spatially poor. Inventories are typically conducted using models for which the inputs are driving variables that influence uptake and release of CO2 from the terrestrial surface, and the outputs are predicted changes in C pools, or CO2 fluxes directly. In contrast to inversions, the inventory data tend to be spatially rich and temporally poor. A statistical methodology based on a state-space model and the Kalman recursions is proposed to combine the inversion and inventory data for optimal estimation of CO2 fluxes. The methodology trades off the strengths and weaknesses of the two data streams. This synthesis activity provides the most rigorous estimates of CO2 flux for the MCI, along with estimated uncertainties. In particular, it identifies portions of the region and time series, as well as sources and C pools, with the largest uncertainties.

  2. Comparison of Regional Carbon Dioxide Fluxes from Atmospheric Inversions and Inventories in the Mid-Continent Intensive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogle, S. M.; Cooley, D. S.; Schuh, A. E.; Denning, A.; Davis, K. J.; West, T. O.; Breidt, F. J.

    2009-12-01

    Atmospheric inversions and inventories represent two lines of evidence on the carbon budget of regions. Inversions rely on repeated CO2 concentration measurements to infer fluxes between the terrestrial surface and atmosphere. Inventories are typically conducted using models to predict changes in C pools, or CO2 fluxes directly, based on various driving variables influencing uptake and release of CO2 from the terrestrial surface. Both of the approaches have their strengths and weaknesses, and one of the key objectives of the Mid-Continent Intensive (MCI) for the North American Carbon Program (NACP) is to reconcile differences in estimates between these approaches, to the extent possible. An exploratory approach has been undertaken to compare inventory and inversions using graphical tools, testing for spatial and temporal autocorrelations, and a regression analysis where the differences between the inventories and inversions are regressed against both inventory estimates and land-use characteristics. Results from a pre-campaign time period (2000-05) suggest limited agreement between the inversions and inventory results that is due to a lack of atmospheric observations in the MCI region. However, sampling density is much greater during the campaign years (2007-08), and inventory and inversion data are more comparable given the improved observational constraint on the high resolution inversions. Overall, this synthesis activity is improving diagnosis of regional carbon fluxes, which is a key objective of the NACP.

  3. Contrasting styles of chemical compaction in the Upper Pennsylvanian Dennis Limestone in the Midcontinent region, U. S. A

    SciTech Connect

    Railsback, L.B. )

    1993-01-01

    The Upper Pennsylvanian Dennis Limestone of the US Midcontinent region displays a wide variety of pressure dissolution features, the distribution of which was governed largely by patterns of earlier diagenesis. Intergranular compaction in grainstones, measured quantitatively using a newly-developed compaction index, is generally restricted to diagenetic facies that received little cement. Compaction is greatest in the most seaward and stratigraphically lowest facies, where degrading neomorphism, an apparent result of compaction, also occurred despite shallow burial and absence of tectonic deformation. The least compaction in grainstones occurred in the two well-cemented diagenetic facies that are geographically and stratigraphically in the middle of the formation. Intermediate degrees of compaction occurred in the uppermost, most landward diagenetic facies, which was less extensively cemented than the facies just below. Patterns of earlier cementation, and perhaps dissolution of early cement, were more important than porewater chemistry during burial in determining the extent of pressure dissolution in Dennis formation limestones. The style and extent of chemical compaction vary greatly in the Dennis Formation across as little as 5 m vertically and 40 km laterally. This extreme variability within one formation illustrates that compaction and porosity destruction in limestones may often be unpredictable from a purely geographic or stratigraphic perspective, and emphasizes the necessity of understanding earlier diagenetic and hydrologic systems within any given formation.

  4. Mid-continent Magnetoseismic Chain (McMAC): A Ground-based Magnetometer Chain for Magnetospheric Sounding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, P. J.; Engebretson, M. J.; Moldwin, M. B.; Russell, C. T.; Mann, I. R.; Samson, J. C.; Lopez, R. E.; Cruz-Abeyro, J. A.; Yumoto, K.; Lee, D.

    2004-05-01

    The Mid-continent Magnetoseismic Chain (McMaC) is a National Science Foundation (NSF) project that conducts research in magnetospheric sounding using ground magnetic field observations. We refer to the methodology used in this research as ``magneto-seismology,'' reflecting its similarity to terrestrial seismology and helioseismology. The magnetoseismic research consists of two parts: the normal mode analysis that deduces the plasma density along a field line from its resonant frequencies, and the travel-time analysis that infers the density distribution in an extended region by timing the arrival of impulsive signals at multiple locations. To provide necessary data for employing magnetoseismic methods, 9 new magnetic stations will be installed in the United States and Mexico roughly along the 330° magnetic longitude meridian. These new stations will be equipped with highly sensitive fluxgate magnetometers synchronized by GPS signals. The McMAC stations and the ``Fort Churchill Line'' of the CANOPUS will be on the same meridian, and together they form a long north-south chain of magnetometers whose L-values range from 1.3 to 11.7. A database of the mass density of magnetospheric plasma derived from magnetoseismic methods will be established to investigate magnetospheric dynamics under different solar wind and ionospheric conditions.

  5. Increasing Interactivity in the Online Learning Environment: Using Digital Tools to Support Students in Socially Constructed Meaning-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreillon, Judi

    2015-01-01

    As more and more library and LIS education migrates to the online environment, college and university faculty are called upon to expand their pedagogy. Interactivity has been cited as one factor in attracting and retaining students in online courses and programs. LIS educators can reach outside the online learning management system (LMS) to…

  6. Digital Preservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yakel, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    Reviews research on digital preservation issues, including born-digital and digitally recreated documents. Discusses electronic records research; metadata and other standards; electronic mail; Web-based documents; moving images media; selection of materials for digitization, including primary sources; administrative issues; media stability…

  7. MIDAS, prototype Multivariate Interactive Digital Analysis System for large area earth resources surveys. Volume 1: System description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christenson, D.; Gordon, M.; Kistler, R.; Kriegler, F.; Lampert, S.; Marshall, R.; Mclaughlin, R.

    1977-01-01

    A third-generation, fast, low cost, multispectral recognition system (MIDAS) able to keep pace with the large quantity and high rates of data acquisition from large regions with present and projected sensots is described. The program can process a complete ERTS frame in forty seconds and provide a color map of sixteen constituent categories in a few minutes. A principle objective of the MIDAS program is to provide a system well interfaced with the human operator and thus to obtain large overall reductions in turn-around time and significant gains in throughput. The hardware and software generated in the overall program is described. The system contains a midi-computer to control the various high speed processing elements in the data path, a preprocessor to condition data, and a classifier which implements an all digital prototype multivariate Gaussian maximum likelihood or a Bayesian decision algorithm. Sufficient software was developed to perform signature extraction, control the preprocessor, compute classifier coefficients, control the classifier operation, operate the color display and printer, and diagnose operation.

  8. The Digitized and Interactive Photographic Atlas of Selected Regions of the Milky Way by E.E. Barnard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowell, J. R.; Crafts, L. E.

    2004-12-01

    Edward Emerson Barnard is considered to be one of the greatest astronomers of the 19th century. His keen eyesight made possible the discovery of the fifth moon of Jupiter, Almathea, and of numerous comets. He was one of the first to apply the use of photographic plates toward studying his favorite objects -- dark nebulae. Near the end of his career, Barnard began producing his A Photographic Atlas of Selected Regions of the Milky Way. He personally inspected, evaluated, and chose each reproduction print of his photographic plates, making each copy of the Atlas an exquisite book. The Library of the Georgia Institute of Technology has digitized the Atlas and placed it on-line at http://www.library.gatech.edu/barnard. The goals and desires for this project have been twofold: (1) to make the Atlas and web site a research tool for those studying dark nebulae; and (2) to make more available a "jewel" from the rare-book archives for admirers, historians, and astronomers.

  9. Insights into the late Cenozoic configuration of the Laurentide Ice Sheet from 40Ar/39Ar dating of glacially transported minerals in midcontinent tills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Martin; Clark, Peter U.; Duncan, Robert A.; Hemming, Sidney R.

    2007-09-01

    Glacial sedimentary sequences in the north central United States record multiple advances of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) since ˜2 Ma. Although the tills found in these sequences were deposited by southward flowing glacial lobes, little information is available on the geometry of flow lines in the interior of the LIS during any one glaciation, and the provenance of glacial deposits older than the last ice advance is largely unknown. Systematic changes in the composition of midcontinent tills and other paleogeographic considerations, however, raise the possibility of significant shifts in the trajectory of flow lines feeding the lobes of the southwestern LIS margin. Here we constrain till provenance using 40Ar/39Ar ages of individual hornblende and feldspar grains retrieved from tills representing several glaciations since ˜2 Ma. Hornblende grains show 40Ar/39Ar ages that indicate erosion of Paleoproterozoic (˜1.7-2.0 Ga) and late Archean (>2.5 Ga) rock sources, whereas feldspar grains show a broad range of Paleoproterozoic ages (˜1.4-2.4 Ga). Dating of hornblende and feldspar minerals in single pebbles suggests that this latter distribution of ages is related to the greater sensitivity of feldspars to thermal resetting during minor tectonic events. Accordingly, the range of 40Ar/39Ar ages for the predominant population of Paleoproterozoic hornblende and feldspar grains in our samples is consistent with a source from terrains forming the Churchill province of the Canadian Shield, while the small population of Archean-age grains likely reflects a source from the southwestern tip of the Archean Superior province that crops out near the study area. These results indicate that midcontinent tills were deposited by ice derived from the northwestern (Keewatin) sector of the LIS. The nearly identical distribution of hornblende and feldspar ages in the till samples identifies the Keewatin ice dome and the related ice flow to the midcontinent as long-standing features

  10. From Archean to Present - Structure and Evolution of the North American Mid-Continent through the Lens of EarthScope Magnetotelluric Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedrosian, P.

    2015-12-01

    The North American mid-continent presents a window into craton growth and stabilization as well as a 1.1 Ga rifting event that nearly tore Laurentia apart. Unique to this region is the preservation of this tectonic collage, largely unmodified by subsequent tectonic events, which permits examination of if and how such events are preserved in the continental lithosphere. I will present a three-dimensional lithospheric-scale resistivity model derived from EarthScope magnetotelluric data. I will discuss details of the resistivity model in relation to lithospheric sutures, defined primarily from aeromagnetic and geochronologic data, which record the southward growth of the Laurentian margin in the Precambrian. I will examine in detail the resistivity signature of the 1.1 Ga Mid-Continent Rift System as relates to rift geometry, extent, and segmentation. I further speculate that axial drainage along the southwest rift arm created an unrecognized expanse of (concealed) Precambrian deltaic deposits in Kansas akin to the Rio Grande delta that today drains multiple sub-basins within the Rio Grande Rift. The resistivity model also reveals the distribution of highly conductive Paleoproterozoic metasediments in Minnesota, Michigan, and Wisconsin. The high conductivity is attributed to metallic sulfides and in some cases graphite. The former is considered a potential source of sulfur for multiple types of mineral deposits found in the region. Finally, I consider the imprint left within the mantle following the 1.1 Ga rifting event. Throughout the mid-continent, variations in lithospheric mantle conductivity are revealed, most likely reflecting variations in hydration (depleted versus metasomatized mantle). The spatial pattern of conductivity variations bears little resemblance to past tectonic events or to the direction of North American absolute plate motion.

  11. Exploration for Hot Dry Rock geothermal resources in the Midcontinent USA. Volume 1. Introduction, geologic overview, and data acquisition and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Hinze, W.J.; Braile, L.W.; von Frese, R.R.B.; Lidiak, E.G.; Denison, R.E.; Keller, G.R.; Roy, R.F.; Swanberg, C.A.; Aiken, C.L.V.; Morgan, P.

    1986-02-01

    The Midcontinent of North America is commonly characterized as a stable cratonic area which has undergone only slow, broad vertical movements over the past several hundreds of millions of years. This tectonically stable crust is an unfertile area for hot dry rock (HDR) exploration. However, recent geophysical and geological studies provide evidence for modest contemporary tectonic activity in limited areas within the continent and, therefore, the possibility of localized thermal anomalies which may serve as sites for HDR exploration. HDR, as an energy resource in the Midcontinent, is particularly appealing because of the high population density and the demand upon conventional energy sources. Five generalized models of exploration targets for possible Midcontinent HDR sites are identified: (1) radiogenic heat sources, (2) conductivity-enhanced normal geothermal gradients, (3) residual magnetic heat, (4) sub-upper crustal sources, and (5) hydrothermal generated thermal gradients. Three potential sources of HDR, each covering approximately a 2/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ area, were identified and subjected to preliminary evaluation. In the Mississippi Embayment test site, lateral thermal conductivity variations and subcrustal heat sources may be involved in producing abnormally high subsurface temperatures. Studies indicate that enhanced temperatures are associated primarily with basement rift features where vertical displacement of aquifers and faults cause the upward migration of hot waters leading to anomalously high local upper crustal temperatures. The Western Nebraska test site is a potential low temperature HDR source also related, at least in part, to groundwater movement. The Southeast Michigan test site was selected for study because of the possible presence of radiogenic plutons overlain by a thickened sedimentary blanket.

  12. The Paleozoic Dust Bowl: Dust Deposition in Tropical Western Pangaea (Midcontinent U.S.) at the Terminus of the Late Paleozoic Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soreghan, G. S.; Heavens, N. G.; Benison, K. C.; Soreghan, M. J.; Mahowald, N. M.; Foster, T.; Zambito, J.; Sweet, A.; Kane, M.

    2012-12-01

    Atmospheric dust is well recognized and studied as both an archive and agent of climate change in Earth's relatively recent past. Archives of past dust include loess deposits and dust recovered from ocean- and ice-cores. Dust remains poorly known in Earth's past prior to the Cenozoic, but is increasingly recognized in the form of paleo-loess deposits, and (epeiric) marine strata that accumulated isolated from fluvio-deltaic influx. Here, we report on the growing recognition of voluminous dust deposits preserved in the Permian record of the U.S. Midcontinent (western tropical Pangaea). Fine-grained redbeds predominate in Permian strata throughout the U.S. Midcontinent, but notably in a swath extending from Oklahoma through South Dakota. These units consist predominantly of red mudstone and siltstone in commonly massive units, but sedimentary structures and bedding that signal aqueous processes (e.g. laminations, ripples) have led most to infer deltaic or tidal deposition. The absence of channel systems to deliver the sediment, as well as the predominantly massive and laterally continuous character and the uniform fine grain size signal wind transport, implying that these units record sustained dust deposition overprinted at times by sub-aqueous deposition in lakes, including ephemeral saline and acid lakes that led to evaporite cementation. Detrital zircon geochronology indicates that much of the dust originated in the relatively distant Appalachian-Ouachita orogenic systems, which formed part of the central Pangaean mountains (CPM), the collisional zone that sutured the supercontinent. Within the Anadarko basin of Oklahoma, Permian redbeds record >2 km of predominantly dust deposition, some of the thickest dust deposits yet documented in Earth's record. Yet the tropical setting is remarkably non-uniformitarian, as much Quaternary loess occurs in mid- to high-latitude regions, commonly linked to glacial genesis. We are currently investigating with both data and

  13. Implications of calcite twin style in midcontinent carbonate rocks of the LaSalle anticlinal belt, Illinois Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, S.L.; Marshak, S. . Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Standard strain gage'' analysis of twinning in calcite was completed on oriented samples from localities in the northernmost extension of the LaSalle anticlinal belt in the Illinois Basin. Units examined included Ordovician and Pennsylvanian bioclastic dolomitic calcarenites and limestones. These strata have been affected by outcrop-scale low-amplitude folding and reverse faulting. Preliminary results indicate that penetrative strain magnitudes associated with the twinning are low. The majority of twins observed in the Ordovician units are thick twins, and within the ordovician units the number of twins is low. Locally, thick twins pinch out toward the edge of a grain and/or taper to thin twins midway along the width of the grain. Within a very small percentage of the grains, the trace of the twin planes is continuously curved into an open arc. The majority of twins in the Pennsylvanian units are noticeably thinner than those of Ordovician units, suggesting a possible change in twin characteristics with stratagraphic level. Observed features of twinning in the Ordovician strata are comparable to borderline high temperature features of twinned calcite reported by Ferrill (1991), suggesting that twinning strain in the LaSalle anticlinal belt developed at temperatures of approximately 150-200 C. Such temperatures are higher than would be expected for shallow platform carbonate strata on the margin of an intracratonic basin, and are compatible with models in which formation of the twins was synchronous with regional hot-brine migrations linked to the Alleghanian orogeny. Heat transferred to shallow strata by these brine migrations may have effectively weakened midcontinent carbonate rocks, thereby permitting twinning to develop even though differential tectonic stresses were low.

  14. Carbon isotope variation in mid-continent Ordovician-type oils: relationship to a major middle Ordovician carbon isotope shift

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch, J.R.; Jacobson, S.R.; Witzke, B.J.; Anders, D.E.; Watney, W.L.; Newell, K.D.

    1985-05-01

    Detailed organic geochemical comparisons of Mid-Continent Ordovician oils with extracts of potential source rocks show that in the Forest City basin of northeastern Kansas and southeastern Nebraska, oil source rocks are Middle Ordovician shales of the Simpson Group. For the Keota Dome field, Washington County, Iowa, the oil source rock is the Middle Ordovician Glenwood Shale Member of the Platteville Formation. Analyses of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbon fractions of Ordovician-type oils from the Forest City basin, Keota Dome field, and the Michigan basin show that sigma TC of the two fractions are similar and that sigma T varies over a considerable range, from -32.5 per mil to -25.5 per mil (PDB). This large range in sigma TC reflects a major shift in the carbon isotope composition of organic matter during the Middle Ordovician. This shift is shown in a 62.5-ft (19 m) interval of core from the Decorah and Platteville Formations in the E.M. Greene 1 well in Washington County, Iowa, where organic carbon sigma TC changes regularly upward from -32.2 per mil to -22.7 per mil (PDB). The change in organic carbon sigma TC in this core is not related to variations in amount (0.13-41.4% TOC) or type (hydrogen index = 69 to 1000 mg HC/g TOC) of the marginally mature (T/sub max/ = 440 +/- 5C) organic matter. Ordovician-type oils in both the Forest City and Michigan basins show variable sigma TC, suggesting that the sigma TC shift displayed in the Middle Ordovician rocks of southeastern Iowa is a regional and possibly a global effect, related to changes in the sigma TC of the ocean-atmosphere carbon reservoir. Isotopic analyses of coexisting carbonate minerals support this interpretation.

  15. Sea-level curve for Pennsylvanian eustatic marine transgressive-regressive depositional cycles along midcontinent outcrop belt, North America

    SciTech Connect

    Heckel, P.H.

    1986-04-01

    At least 55 cycles of marine inundation and withdrawal are recognized in the mid-Desmoinesian to mid-Virgilian Midcontinent outcrop sequence in North America. They range from widespread major cycles (classic cyclothems) with deep-water facies extending across the northern shelf, through intermediate cycles persisting as marine horizons across the shelf, to minor cycles developed on the lower shelf or as parts of major cycles. Biostratigraphic differentiation of the cycles should establish interbasinal correlation on a scale fine enough to allow evaluation of differential tectonics and sedimentation. Sequential groupings of cycles are more irregular than proposed megacyclothems or mesothems, but they may be obscured by the distinctness of the major cyclothems. Estimates of cycle periods range from about 40 to 120 x 10/sup 3/ yr for the minor cycles up to about 235 to 400 x 10/sup 3/ yr for the major cyclothems. The range for all cycles corresponds well to the range of periods of Earth's orbital parameters that constitute the Milankovitch insolation theory for the Pleistocene ice ages, and it further supports Gondwanan glacial control for the Pennsylvanian cycles. Even though the dominant period of the major Pennsylvanian cyclothems is up to four times longer than the dominant 100,000-yr period in the Pleistocene, the shapes of both curves display rapid marine transgression (rapid melting of ice caps) and slow interrupted regression (slow buildup of ice caps), which suggest similar linkages between the climatic effects of the orbital parameters and ice-cap formation and melting, at the two different scales, widely separated in time. 28 references, 3 figures.

  16. Elevated lateral stress in unlithified sediment, Midcontinent, United States - geotechnical and geophysical indicators for a tectonic origin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woolery, E.W.; Schaefer, J.A.; Wang, Z.

    2003-01-01

    Indirect and direct geotechnical measurements revealed the presence of high lateral earth pressure (Ko) in shallow, unlithified sediment at a site in the northernmost Mississippi embayment region of the central United States. Results from pile-load and pressuremeter tests showed maximum Ko values greater than 10; however, the complex geologic environment of the Midcontinent made defining an origin for the anomalous Ko based solely on these measurements equivocal. Although in situ sediment characteristics indicated that indirect tectonic or nontectonic geologic mechanisms that include transient overburden loads (e.g., fluvial deposition/erosion, glacial advance/retreat) and dynamic shear loads (e.g., earthquakes) were not the dominant cause, they were unable to provide indicators for a direct tectonic generation. Localized stresses induced anthropogenically by the geotechnical field tests were also considered, but ruled out as the primary origin. A high-resolution shear-wave (SH) reflection image of geologic structure in the immediate vicinity of the test site revealed compression-style neotectonism, and suggested that the elevated stress was a tectonic manifestation. Post-Paleozoic reflectors exhibit a Tertiary (?) structural inversion, as evidenced by post-Cretaceous fault displacement and pronounced positive folds in the hanging wall of the interpreted faults. The latest stratigraphic extent of the stress effects (i.e., all measurements were in the Late Cretaceous to Tertiary McNairy Formation), as well as the relationship of stress orientation with the orientation of local structure and regional stress, remain unknown. These are the subjects of ongoing studies. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Constraining the Thermal History of the Midcontinent Rift System with Clumped Isotopes and Organic Thermal Maturity Indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, T. M.; Sheldon, N. D.; Mauk, J. L.; Gueneli, N.; Brocks, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Mesoproterozoic (~1.1 Ga) North American Midcontinent Rift System (MRS) has been of widespread interest to researchers studying its economic mineral deposits, continental rifting processes, and the evolution of early terrestrial life and environments. For their age, the MRS rocks are well preserved and have not been deeply buried, yet a thorough understanding of the regional thermal history is necessary to constrain the processes that emplaced the mineral deposits and how post-burial alteration may have affected various paleo-records. To understand the thermal history of the MRS better, this study presents carbonate clumped isotope (Δ47) temperatures from deposits on the north and south sides of the rift. Due to the age of these deposits and known post-depositional processes, uncertainties exist about whether the clumped isotope signature has been reset. To test this, three generations of calcite were analyzed from the Nonesuch Fm. from the White Pine mine in Michigan including: sedimentary limestone beds, early diagenetic carbonate nodules, and hydrothermal calcite veins associated with the emplacement of copper mineralization. Clumped isotope temperatures from the White Pine mine range from 84 to 131°C, with a hydrothermal vein producing the hottest temperature. The clumped isotope temperature range for samples throughout the rift expands to 41-134°C. The hottest temperatures are associated with areas of known copper mineralization, whereas the coolest temperatures are found on the northern arm of the rift in Minnesota, far from known basin-bounding faults. Our hottest temperatures are broadly consistent with preexisting maximum thermal temperature estimates based on clay mineralogy, fluid inclusions, and organic geochemistry data. Clumped isotope results will also be compared to new hydrocarbon maturity data from the Nonesuch Fm., which suggest that bitumen maturities consistently fall within the early oil window across Michigan and Wisconsin.

  18. Thermal history of the 1.1-Ga Nonesuch Formation, North American mid-continent rift, White Pine, Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Price, K.L.; Huntoon, J.E.; McDowell, S.D.

    1996-01-01

    The Nonesuch Formation, a black siltstone, was deposited in the Lake Superior portion of the mid-continent rift system during middle Proterozoic rifting. Despite its age of nearly 1.1 Ga, the Nonesuch Formation contains liquid petroleum and solid pyrobitumen. Numerical modeling techniques were used in this study to constrain the thermal history of the Nonesuch Formation at White Pine, Michigan. Thermal modeling addresses two issues: (1) the utility of illite-smectite expandability as a limiting parameter for describing the thermal history of ancient (Proterozoic) sedimentary rocks, and (2) the potential for hydrocarbon maturation within the Nonesuch Formation at White Pine. A range of potential burial histories for the Nonesuch Formation was constructed based on geological evidence. Time-temperature histories were calculated for each burial history model assuming one-dimensional, transient, conductive heat flow. Results of numerical time-temperature models were then evaluated on the basis of organic and inorganic thermal maturity indicators including Rock-Eval{reg_sign} pyrolysis data and biomarker indices (correlated to equivalent vitrinite reflectance values), in addition to illite-smectite expendability. Modeling results demonstrate that a combination of elevated basal heat flow and rapid burial during the Proterozoic is required to produce the observed thermal maturities at White Pine, Michigan. More specifically, modeling indicates that maximum temperatures for the Nonesuch Formation, 110 to 125{degrees}C, were reached at about 1075 Ma, coincident with a maximum burial depth of about 6 km, although 4 km represents a more plausible value. The results support a thermal history consistent with in-situ oil generation at White Pine; however, thermal modeling alone cannot rule out the possibility that oil was generated and expelled elsewhere and migrated into the area with fluids expelled during an episode of postrift compression.

  19. Correlation and implications of results from recent wildcat wells in Mid-Continent rift in northeastern Kansas

    SciTech Connect

    Newll, K.D.; Berendsen, P.; Doveton, J.H.; Watney, W.L. )

    1989-08-01

    Three recent wildcat wells, the Texaco 1 Poersch (Sec. 31, T5S, R5E), the Producers Engineering et al 1 Finn (Sec. 4, T4S, R7E), and 1 Freiderich (Sec. 8, T7S, R5E), respectively, penetrated 8,455, 1,848, and 1,781 ft of Precambrian rocks in the Mid-Continent rift system (MRS) in Kansas. The Producers Engineering et al 1 Finn, which is 18 mi northeast of the Texaco 1 Poersch, encountered mostly arkosic sandstones and shales. The Producers Engineering et al 1 Freiderich, 7 mi south of the Texaco 1 Poersch, penetrated mafic igneous and volcanic clastic rocks. In contrast, the Poersch well drilled approximately 90% mafic igneous rocks and 10% arkosic sandstones in the upper 4,584 ft of the Precambrian section. In the lower 3,871 ft of the well, the proportions of these rock-types were reversed. No Precambrian petroleum source rocks were found in the Poersch and Freiderich wells, but 300 ft of gray siltstone (approximately 0.5% TOC) were encountered directly below the Precambrian unconformity in the Finn well. The Finn well also has significantly more red siltstones than the Poersch well, thereby possibly indicating more distal lacustrine or low-energy marine environments of deposition. Alluvial fans and playas are probably responsible for most of the sedimentary deposition in the Poersch well. Geophysical and well data indicate the MRS in northeastern Kansas is divided into small subbasins that probably are only a few tens of square miles in areal extent. Abrupt facies changes and complicated structure make lithostratigraphic correlations difficult.

  20. Crustal Structure of and near the North American Mid-continent Rift System from Receiver Function Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; van der Lee, S.; Wolin, E.; Bollmann, T. A.; Revenaugh, J.; Aleqabi, G. I.; Wiens, D. A.; Frederiksen, A. W.; Darbyshire, F. A.

    2014-12-01

    The more than 1000-km-long main branch of the mid-continent rift system (MRS) near Lake Superior and the Minnesota-Wisconsin border nearly took North America apart, but ceased rifting soon after it began. Thermal and magmatic events and subsidence- related sedimentary processes significantly changed the structure of the upper crust across and along the MRS. To map the depth extent and lateral changes in deep lithospheric structure related to the MRS, we estimated and studied receiver functions (RFs) from 82 SPREE (Superior Province Rifting EarthScope Experiment) broadband seismic stations and seven EarthScope Transportable Array stations. We inverted the RFs for depths of seismic-velocity discontinuities and shear-velocity structure of the crust. The RFs for each station are derived from the deconvolution of the radial component with the vertical component in the time domain (Ammon et al., 1991). Using a relatively high corner frequency in the deconvolution passband helps us resolve multiple layers within the crust. The most prominent feature of the RFs is the P-to-S wave converted at the Moho (Fig. 1), which reflects the contrast in rock properties between the lower crust and upper mantle. This Moho-generated P-to-S converted wave is very clear in RFs for stations outside of the MRS. Inside the MRS, the RFs are more ambiguous and suggestive of a basal crustal layer with shear velocities in between typical lower crust and upper mantle values. There is more variation among the RFs for stations within the MRS than among stations outside of the MRS.

  1. The Vulcan Project: Recent advances and emissions estimation for the NACP mid-continent intensive campaign region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurney, K. R.; Zhou, Y.; Geethakumar, S.; Godbole, A.; Mendoza, D. L.; Vaidhyanathan, M.; Sahni, N.

    2009-12-01

    The Vulcan Project has quantified 2002 fossil fuel CO2 for the US at the sub-county/hourly scale and is a key component of attributing CO2 fluxes within the North American Carbon Program. Vulcan approached quantification of CO2 emissions by leveraging information already contained within regulatory and monitoring agencies including the US EPA’s Acid Rain Program, the EPA’s National Emissions Inventory for the assessment of nationally regulated air pollution, the Department of Energy, the U.S. Census and the Department of Transportation. By utilizing the inventory emissions of carbon monoxide combined with fuel/device-specific emission factors, we have calculated CO2 emissions for industrial point sources, power plants, mobile sources, residential and commercial sectors with information on fuel used and source classification information. In this presentation, I provide critical recent advances in the Vulcan Project with particular emphasis on our contribution to the NACP mid-continent intensive campaign. Version 1.2 of the Vulcan fossil fuel CO2 emissions inventory includes the 2008 US Census road atlas, overcoming many of the missing roads and links that were prevalent in previous road atlas releases. This offers better spatial allocation of the onroad emissions. Figure 1 shows the improved road layer density for the MCI study region. Furthermore the temporal dimension of onroad emissions have been improved through the use of hourly traffic monitoring data at roughly 6000 monitoring locations across the US. The residential and commercial sector emissions now have hourly time structure via a spatially explicit heating degree day calculation utilizing the North American Regional Reanalysis temperature output. Finally, we have generated a multiyear (1997-2008) data product for the MCI region through use of Energy Information Administration state-level fuel sales data. Figure 1. improved road density via utilization of the new 2008 US census road layer. Left

  2. The Men's Safer Sex (MenSS) trial: protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial of an interactive digital intervention to increase condom use in men

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Julia V; Webster, Rosie; Hunter, Rachael; Freemantle, Nick; Rait, Greta; Michie, Susan; Estcourt, Claudia; Anderson, Jane; Gerressu, Makeda; Stephenson, Judith; Ang, Chee Siang; Hart, Graham; Dhanjal, Sacha; Murray, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Sexually transmitted infections (STI) are a major public health problem. Condoms provide effective protection but there are many barriers to use. Face-to-face health promotion interventions are resource-intensive and show mixed results. Interactive digital interventions may provide a suitable alternative, allowing private access to personally tailored behaviour change support. We have developed an interactive digital intervention (the Men's Safer Sex (MenSS) website) which aims to increase condom use in men. We describe the protocol for a pilot trial to assess the feasibility of a full-scale randomised controlled trial of the MenSS website in addition to usual sexual health clinical care. Methods and analysis Participants: Men aged 16 or over who report female sexual partners and recent unprotected sex or suspected acute STI. Participants (N=166) will be enrolled using a tablet computer in clinic waiting rooms. All trial procedures will be online, that is, eligibility checks; study consent; trial registration; automated random allocation; and data submission. At baseline and at 3, 6 and 12 months, an online questionnaire will assess condom use, self-reported STI diagnoses, and mediators of condom use (eg, knowledge, intention). Reminders will be by email and mobile phone. The primary outcome is condom use, measured at 3 months. STI rates will be recorded from sexual health clinic medical records at 12 months. The feasibility of a cost-effectiveness analysis will be assessed, to calculate incremental cost per STI prevented (Chlamydia or Gonorrhoea), from the NHS perspective. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval: City and East NHS Research Ethics Committee (reference number 13 LO 1801). Findings will be made available through publication in peer-reviewed journals, and to participants and members of the public via Twitter and from the University College London eHealth Unit website. Raw data will be made available on request. Trial registration

  3. Computer-based image-analyses of laminated shales, carboniferous of the Midcontinent and surrounding areas

    SciTech Connect

    Archer, A.W. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-02-01

    Computerized image-analyses of petrographic data can greatly facilitate the quantification of detailed descriptions and analyses of fine-scale fabric, or petrofabric. In thinly laminated rocks, manual measurement of successive lamina thicknesses is very time consuming, especially when applied to thick, cored sequences. In particular, images of core materials can be digitized and the resulting image then processed as a large matrix. Using such techniques, it is relatively easy to automate continuous measurements of lamina thickness and lateral continuity. This type of analyses has been applied to a variety of Carboniferous strata, particularly those siliciclastics that occur within the outside shale' portions of Kansas cyclothems. Of the various sedimentological processes capable of producing such non-random thickness variations, a model invoking tidal processes appears to be particularly robust. Tidal sedimentation could not only have resulted in the deposition of individual lamina, but in addition tidal-height variations during various phases of the lunar orbit can serve to explain the systematic variations. Comparison of these Carboniferous shales with similar laminations formed in modern high tidal-range environments indicates many similarities. These modern analogs include the Bay of Fundy in Canada, and Bay of Mont-Staint-Michel in France. Lamina-thickness variations, in specific cases, can be correlated with known tidal periodicities. In addition, in some samples, details of the tidal regime can be interpolated, such as the nature of the tidal system (i.e., diurnal or semidiurnal) and some indicators of tidal range can be ascertained based upon modern analogs.

  4. Digital Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isman, Aytekin; Canan Gungoren, Ozlem

    2014-01-01

    Era in which we live is known and referred as digital age.In this age technology is rapidly changed and developed. In light of these technological advances in 21st century, schools have the responsibility of training "digital citizen" as well as a good citizen. Digital citizens must have extensive skills, knowledge, Internet and …

  5. Os, Nd, O and S isotope constraints on country rock contamination in the conduit-related Eagle Cu-Ni-(PGE) deposit, Midcontinent Rift System, Upper Michigan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Xin; Ripley, Edward M.; Shirey, Steven B.; Li, Chusi

    2012-07-01

    The Eagle Cu-Ni-(PGE) deposit is hosted by mafic to ultramafic intrusive rocks associated with the Marquette-Baraga dike swarm in northern Michigan. Sulfide mineralization formed in a conduit system during early stages in the development of the ∼1.1 Ga Midcontinent Rift System. The conduit environment represents a prime location for melt-rock interaction. In order to better assess the extent of country rock contamination in the Eagle system, a combined trace element, Nd, Os, O and S isotope study of country rocks, sulfide-bearing igneous rocks and massive sulfide was undertaken. Both the Eagle and the weakly mineralized East Eagle intrusion show trace element patterns that are similar to those of picritic basalts that formed during early stages of rift development. The trace element, Os, Nd, and O isotopic values of the igneous rocks are consistent with <5% of bulk contamination by Paleoproterozoic and Archean country rocks. Both the Re-Os and Sm-Nd system provide isochrons that are in agreement with the 1107 Ma U-Pb baddeleyite age of the intrusive rocks. Calculated γOs(1100) and εNd(1100) values for the magmas are +34 and -2. δ18O values of pyroxene in feldspathic pyroxenite range from 6.5‰ to 6.6‰ and provide the only indication that bulk contamination may locally have exceeded 20%. Sulfur isotopic values of disseminated and massive sulfide in the Eagle intrusion range from 0.3‰ to 4.6‰. The δ34S values are much lower than those that characterize most of the country rocks, but could still be indicative of a contribution of S from country rocks of up to ∼50%. Δ33S values of the disseminated and massive sulfides range from -0.10‰ to 0.09‰ indicating a source in Paleoproterozoic country rocks. Semi-massive sulfide in the Eagle deposit has δ34S values between 2.2‰ and 5.3‰, and Δ33S values show a broad range between -0.86‰ and 0.86‰ indicating a major contribution from an Archean source. Isotopic data from the Eagle deposit strongly

  6. Digital biology and chemistry.

    PubMed

    Witters, Daan; Sun, Bing; Begolo, Stefano; Rodriguez-Manzano, Jesus; Robles, Whitney; Ismagilov, Rustem F

    2014-09-01

    This account examines developments in "digital" biology and chemistry within the context of microfluidics, from a personal perspective. Using microfluidics as a frame of reference, we identify two areas of research within digital biology and chemistry that are of special interest: (i) the study of systems that switch between discrete states in response to changes in chemical concentration of signals, and (ii) the study of single biological entities such as molecules or cells. In particular, microfluidics accelerates analysis of switching systems (i.e., those that exhibit a sharp change in output over a narrow range of input) by enabling monitoring of multiple reactions in parallel over a range of concentrations of signals. Conversely, such switching systems can be used to create new kinds of microfluidic detection systems that provide "analog-to-digital" signal conversion and logic. Microfluidic compartmentalization technologies for studying and isolating single entities can be used to reconstruct and understand cellular processes, study interactions between single biological entities, and examine the intrinsic heterogeneity of populations of molecules, cells, or organisms. Furthermore, compartmentalization of single cells or molecules in "digital" microfluidic experiments can induce switching in a range of reaction systems to enable sensitive detection of cells or biomolecules, such as with digital ELISA or digital PCR. This "digitizing" offers advantages in terms of robustness, assay design, and simplicity because quantitative information can be obtained with qualitative measurements. While digital formats have been shown to improve the robustness of existing chemistries, we anticipate that in the future they will enable new chemistries to be used for quantitative measurements, and that digital biology and chemistry will continue to provide further opportunities for measuring biomolecules, understanding natural systems more deeply, and advancing molecular and

  7. Possible late middle Ordovician organic carbon isotope excursion: evidence from Ordovician oils and hydrocarbon source rocks, Mid-Continent and east-central United States

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch, J.R.; Jacobson, S.R.; Witzke, B.J.; Risatti, J.B.; Anders, D.E.; Watney, W.L.; Newell, K.D.; Vuletich, A.K.

    1987-11-01

    A possible coeval excursion in organic-matter delta/sup 13/C is recognized in different late Middle Ordovician lithologic facies over a distance of 480 mi (770 km), perhaps 930 mi (1500 km), in the Mid-Continent and east-central US. The large variability in the carbon isotope compositions of Ordovician oils from the Mid-Continent and east-central US is a direct result of the variable carbon isotope composition of organic matter in the Middle Ordovician hydrocarbon source rocks. The excursion in organic-matter delta/sup 13/C in late Middle Ordovician rocks may reflect significantly increased organic matter productivity and/or preservation. The excursion is not directly related to maceral composition of the organic matter. Limited dissolved CO/sub 2/ availability, possibly a result of continued high organic matter productivity, and limited circulation in the Middle Ordovician seas may have increased the size of the excursion in organic matter delta/sup 13/C. 5 figures, 4 tables.

  8. Glacial-eustatic sea-level curve for early Late Pennsylvanian sequence in north-central Texas and biostratigraphic correlation with curve for midcontinent North America

    SciTech Connect

    Boardman, D.R. II ); Heckel, P.H. )

    1989-09-01

    At least 30 transgressive-regressive cycles of deposition are recognized from the upper Desmoinesian East Mountain Shale to the mid-Virgilian Wayland Shale in north-central Texas. Maximum regressive deposits are typically paleosol mudstones and fluvial sandstones; maximum transgressive deposits are typically widespread, ammonoid-bearing, conodont-rich, dark phosphatic shales in more major cycles, and persistent fossiliferous shales or limestones overlying terrestrial deposits in more minor cycles. Delta complexes dominate the regressive sequences of many cycles. Using biostratigraphic criteria of first, last, sole, or acme occurrence of ammonoid, conodont, and fusulinid taxa, the authors correlate 17 cycles in the Texas sequence directly with 17 glacial-eustatic cycles of similar magnitude in the northern midcontinent. This correlation suggests that glacial eustacy was the basic control over the cyclic sequence in Texas, that tectonic masking of the eustatic signal by nearby orogenic movement in Texas was negligible, and that delta shifting, though conspicuous, was only a secondary control over the cyclicity there. Minor cycles recognized between the correlated cycles also match well enough between Texas and the midcontinent to further discount potential tectonic or deltaic masking of glacial-eustatic cyclicity. This strengthens the likelihood of correlating glacial-eustatic events across larger parts of North America, and perhaps with other parts of the world.

  9. New model of succession of Middle and Late Pennsylvanian fossil communities in north Texas, Mid-Continent, and Appalachians with implications on black shale controversy

    SciTech Connect

    Boardman, D.R. II; Yancey, T.E.; Mapes, R.H.; Malinky, J.M.

    1983-03-01

    A new model for the succession of Pennsylvanian fossil communities, preserved in cyclothems, is proposed on the basis of more than 200 fossil localities in the Mid-Continent, Appalachians, and north Texas. Early models for Mid-Continent cyclothems placed the black shales in shallow water, with maximum transgression at the fusulinid-bearing zone in the overlying limestone. The most recent model proposed that the black phosphatic shales, which commonly occur between two subtidal carbonates, are widespread and laterally continuous over great distances and represent maximum transgression. The black phosphatic shales contain: ammonoids; inarticulate brachiopods; radiolarians; conularids; shark material and abundant and diverse conodonts. The black shales grade vertically and laterally into dark gray-black shales which contain many of the same pelagic and epipelagic forms found in the phosphatic black shales. This facies contains the deepest water benthic community. Most of these forms are immature, pyritized, and generally are preserved as molds. The dark gray-black facies grades into a medium gray shale facies which contains a mature molluscan fauna. The medium gray shale grades into a lighter gray facies, which is dominated by brachiopods, crinoids, and corals, with occasional bivalves and gastropods. (These facies are interpreted as being a moderate to shallow depth shelf community). The brachiopid-crinoid community is succeeded by shallow water communities which may have occupied shoreline, lagoonal, bay, interdeltaic, or shallow prodeltaic environments.

  10. Glacial-eustatic sea-level fluctuation curve for Carboniferous-Permian boundary strata based on outcrops in the North American Midcontinent and North-Central Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Boardman, D.R. . School of Geology)

    1993-02-01

    Based on lithologic and faunal analysis of uppermost Carboniferous through Lower Permian strata (Wabaunsee through lower Chase groups) exposed from southeastern Nebraska through north-central Oklahoma, a preliminary glacial-eustatic sea-level fluctuation curve is presented herein. In addition to the sea-level curve presented for the Midcontinent region, one for coeval outcropping strata (middle and upper Cisco Group) of the Eastern Shelf of the Midland Basin is also presented based on similar criteria. This sea-level curve is derived from new field studies as well as a refinement of earlier curves presented by Harrison (1973), and Boardman and Malinky (1985). The conclusion on the nature of the Carboniferous-Permian boundary strata cyclothems in the Midcontinent is mirrored by the results of that from North-Central Texas. Each of the primary biostratigraphically-based picks for the Carboniferous-Permian boundary coincide with either intermediate of major cycles in both study areas. Utilization of a glacial-eustatic maximum transgressive event for the Carboniferous-Permian boundary should result in a more correlatable level for intercontinental correlation.

  11. Analysis and use of MAGSAT satellite magnetic data for interpretation of crustal structure and character in the U.S. midcontinent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmichael, Robert S.; Black, Ross A.

    1986-12-01

    Magnetic anomaly data, acquired by NASA's MAGSAT satellite, have been processed, analyzed, and interpreted in terms of causative crustal sources (major structures, tectonic development, geologic provinces, crustal composition and magnetic properties) in the central U.S. midcontinent. An optimum data set was developed by cleaning, correcting, and editing, and then reduced to a 1° × 1° latitude/longitude grid at a common altitude of 400 km, then wavelength filtered and reduced to the magnetic pole. The resulting satellite anomalies have a magnitude range up to ±15 nT in the region. The relationship between these long-wavelength anomalies and crustal sources is investigated. A magnetic high over Kentucky/Tennessee is associated with more mafic and thicker lower crust, and a high over Texas/Oklahoma and trending northeast through Missouri may be due to a geologic province and anomalously-magnetic lower crust. A magnetic low over the Mississippi Embayment/aulacogen can be explained by crustal thinning and less-magnetic crust, and one over Georgia by less-magnetic lower crust. The magnetic anomaly gradient pattern generally follows and reflects the southern ancient rifted continental margin of the North American craton, and there is a lack of apparent magnetic expression of the Central North American Rift system (Midcontinent Geophysical Anomaly).

  12. Digital Natives or Digital Tribes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Ian Robert

    2013-01-01

    This research builds upon the discourse surrounding digital natives. A literature review into the digital native phenomena was undertaken and found that researchers are beginning to identify the digital native as not one cohesive group but of individuals influenced by other factors. Primary research by means of questionnaire survey of technologies…

  13. Depth-of-interaction measurement in a single-layer crystal array with a single-ended readout using digital silicon photomultiplier.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min Sun; Lee, Jae Sung

    2015-08-21

    We present the first experimental evaluation of a depth-of-interaction (DOI) positron emission tomography (PET) detector using a digital silicon photomultiplier (dSiPM). To measure DOI information from a mono-layer array of scintillation crystals with a single-ended readout, our group has previously proposed and developed a new method based on light spread using triangular reflectors. Since this method relies on measurement of the light distribution, dSiPM, which has a fully digital interface, has several merits for our DOI measurement. The DOI PET detector comprised of a dSiPM sensor (DPC-3200-22-44) coupled with a 14   ×   14 array of 2 mm  ×  2 mm  ×  20 mm unpolished LGSO crystals. All crystals were covered with triangular reflectors. To obtain a good performance of the DOI PET detector, several parameters of detector were selected as a preliminary experiment. Detector performance was evaluated with the selected parameters and the optimal experimental setup, and a DOI measurement was conducted by irradiating the crystal block at five DOI positions spaced at intervals of 4 mm. Maximum-likelihood estimation was employed for DOI positioning and the optimal DOI estimation scheme was also investigated in this study. As a result, the DOI PET detector showed clear crystal identification. The energy resolution (full-width at half-maximum (FWHM)) averaged over all depths was 10.21%  ±  0.15% at 511 keV, and time resolution averaged over all depths was 1198.61   ±   39.70 ps FWHM. The average DOI positioning accuracy for all depths was 74.22%  ±  6.77%, which equates to DOI resolution of 4.67 mm. Energy and DOI resolutions were uniform over all crystal positions except for the back parts of the array. Furthermore, additional simulation studies were conducted to verify the results of our DOI measurement method that is combined with dSiPM technology. In conclusion, our continuous DOI PET detector

  14. Depth-of-interaction measurement in a single-layer crystal array with a single-ended readout using digital silicon photomultiplier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Min Sun; Lee, Jae Sung

    2015-08-01

    We present the first experimental evaluation of a depth-of-interaction (DOI) positron emission tomography (PET) detector using a digital silicon photomultiplier (dSiPM). To measure DOI information from a mono-layer array of scintillation crystals with a single-ended readout, our group has previously proposed and developed a new method based on light spread using triangular reflectors. Since this method relies on measurement of the light distribution, dSiPM, which has a fully digital interface, has several merits for our DOI measurement. The DOI PET detector comprised of a dSiPM sensor (DPC-3200-22-44) coupled with a 14   ×   14 array of 2 mm  ×  2 mm  ×  20 mm unpolished LGSO crystals. All crystals were covered with triangular reflectors. To obtain a good performance of the DOI PET detector, several parameters of detector were selected as a preliminary experiment. Detector performance was evaluated with the selected parameters and the optimal experimental setup, and a DOI measurement was conducted by irradiating the crystal block at five DOI positions spaced at intervals of 4 mm. Maximum-likelihood estimation was employed for DOI positioning and the optimal DOI estimation scheme was also investigated in this study. As a result, the DOI PET detector showed clear crystal identification. The energy resolution (full-width at half-maximum (FWHM)) averaged over all depths was 10.21%  ±  0.15% at 511 keV, and time resolution averaged over all depths was 1198.61   ±   39.70 ps FWHM. The average DOI positioning accuracy for all depths was 74.22%  ±  6.77%, which equates to DOI resolution of 4.67 mm. Energy and DOI resolutions were uniform over all crystal positions except for the back parts of the array. Furthermore, additional simulation studies were conducted to verify the results of our DOI measurement method that is combined with dSiPM technology. In conclusion, our continuous DOI PET detector

  15. Real-time digital imaging of leukocyte-endothelial interaction in ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) of the rat cremaster muscle.

    PubMed

    Thiele, Jan R; Goerendt, Kurt; Stark, G Bjoern; Eisenhardt, Steffen U

    2012-01-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) has been implicated in a large array of pathological conditions such as cerebral stroke, myocardial infarction, intestinal ischemia as well as following transplant and cardiovascular surgery. Reperfusion of previously ischemic tissue, while essential for the prevention of irreversible tissue injury, elicits excessive inflammation of the affected tissue. Adjacent to the production of reactive oxygen species, activation of the complement system and increased microvascular permeability, the activation of leukocytes is one of the principle actors in the pathological cascade of inflammatory tissue damage during reperfusion. Leukocyte activation is a multistep process consisting of rolling, firm adhesion and transmigration and is mediated by a complex interaction between adhesion molecules in response to chemoattractants such as complement factors, chemokines, or platelet-activating factor. While leukocyte rolling in postcapillary venules is predominantly mediated by the interaction of selectins with their counter ligands, firm adhesion of leukocytes to the endothelium is selectin-controlled via binding to intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAM) and vascular cellular adhesion molecules (VCAM). Gold standard for the in vivo observation of leukocyte-endothelial interaction is the technique of intravital microscopy, first described in 1968. Though various models of IRI (ischemia-reperfusion injury) have been described for various organs, only few are suitable for direct visualization of leukocyte recruitment in the microvascular bed on a high level of image quality. We here promote the digital intravital epifluorescence microscopy of the postcapillary venule in the cremasteric microcirculation of the rat as a convenient method to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze leukocyte recruitment for IRI-research in striated muscle tissue and provide a detailed manual for accomplishing the technique. We further illustrate common pitfalls and

  16. The Interaction Effects of Working Memory Capacity, Gaming Expertise, and Scaffolding Design on Attention and Comprehension in Digital Game Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yu-Hao

    2013-01-01

    Educational digital games are often complex problem-solving experiences that can facilitate systematic comprehension. However, empirical studies of digital game based learning (DGBL) have found mixed results regarding DGBL's effect in improving comprehension. While learners generally enjoyed the DGBL learning experience, they often failed to…

  17. Midcontinent rift volcanism in the Lake Superior region: Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic evidence for a mantle plume origin

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholson, S.W. Univ. of Minnesota, MN ); Shirey, S.B. )

    1990-07-10

    Between 1091 and 1098 Ma, most of a 15- to 20-km thickness of dominantly tholeiitic basalt erupted in the Midcontinent Rift System of the Lake Superior region, North American. The Portage Lake Volcanics in Michigan, which are the youngest MRS flood basalts, fall into distinctly high- and low-TiO{sub 2} types having different liquid lines of descent. Incompatible trace elements in both types of tholeiites are enriched compared to depleted or primitive mantle (La/Yb = 4.3-5.3; Th/Ta = 2.12-2.16; Zr/Y = 4.3-4.4), and both basalt types are isotopically indistinguishable. Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic compositions of the Portage Lake tholeiites have {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr{sub i} {approx}0.7038, {epsilon}{sub Nd(1095 Ma)} {approx}0 {plus minus} 2, and {mu}{sub 1} {approx}8.2. Model ages with respect to a depleted mantle source (T{sub DM}) average about 1950-2100 Ma. Portage Lake rhyolits fall into two groups. Type I rhyolites have Nd and Pb isotopic characteristics ({epsilon}{sub Nd(1095 Ma)} {approx}0 to {minus}4.7; {mu}{sub 1} {approx}8.2-7.8) consistent with contamination of tholeiitic rocks by 5-10% Archean crust. The one type II rhyolite analyzed has Nd and Pb isotopic compositions ({epsilon}{sub Nd(1095 Ma)} {approx}{minus}13 to {minus}16; {mu}{sub 1} {approx}7.6-7.7) which are consistent with partial melting of Archean crust. Early Proterozoic crust was not a major contaminant of MRS rocks in the Lake Superior region. Most reported Nd and Pb isotopic compositions of MRS tholeiites from the main stage of volcanism in the Lake Superior region and of the Duluth Complex are comparable to the Nd and Pb isotopic data for Portage lake tholeiites. The isotopic enrichment of the MRS source compared to depleted mantle is striking and must have occurred at least 700 m.y. before 1100 Ma.

  18. Properties of the proterozoic geomagnetic field and geological applications of paleomagnetic data from rocks of the North American Midcontinent rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulakov, Evgeniy V.

    Rocks of the North American Midcontinent rift (MCR) exposed in the Lake Superior area provide an excellent opportunity to use paleomagnetism as a means of studying the characteristics of the Proterozoic geomagnetic field and the history of the rift itself. Detailed paleomagnetic and paleointensity studies of different rock units associated with the MCR, including the 1108 Ma alkaline Coldwell Complex (Ontario, Canada), the basaltic lava flows of the Geordie Lake (Ontario, Canada) and Silver Mountain (Upper Michigan, USA) that are assumed to be 1107-1108 Ma, the ˜1095 Ma lava flows of the Portage Lake Volcanics (PLV) (Keweenaw Peninsula, Michigan), and the ˜1088 Ma flows of the Lake Shore Traps (LST) (Keweenaw Peninsula, Michigan) are presented. Paleomagnetic data from the Coldwell Complex indicate that the apparent asymmetry of geomagnetic reversal, recorded by many Keweenawan rocks is an artifact due to fast equator-ward motion of the North American plate during the MCR evolution. The Coldwell Complex data support the validity of the geocentric axial dipole assumption for the ˜1.1 Ga. Extrusive rocks exposed on the Keweenaw Peninsula reveal similar to that of the present day geomagnetic field paleosecular variation. Samples from the ˜1088 Ma Lake Shore Traps yielded consistent paleofield values with a mean value of 26.3 +/- 4.7 μT, which corresponds to a virtual dipole moment of 5.9 +/- 1.1 x 10 22 Am2. The mean and range of paleofield values are similar to those of the recent Earth's magnetic field and incompatible with a "Proterozoic dipole low". These results are consistent with a modern type compositionally-driven geodynamo operating by the end of Mesoproterozoic. New high-quality paleomagnetic poles calculated for the ˜1108 Ma Coldwell Complex and coeval extrusive rocks, and ˜ 1094 Ma PLV indicate that North America was moving directly equator-ward with an approximately 20-25 cm/year rate between 1108 and 1094 Ma with a significant slowdown in motion

  19. Teleseismic P-wave Delay Time Tomography of the southern Superior Province and Midcontinent Rift System (MRS) Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollmann, T. A.; van der Lee, S.; Frederiksen, A. W.; Wolin, E.; Aleqabi, G. I.; Revenaugh, J.; Wiens, D. A.; Darbyshire, F. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Superior Province Rifting Earthscope Experiment (SPREE) and the northern midwest footprint of USArray's Transportable Array recorded continuous ground motion for a period of 2.5 years. From around 400 M>5.5 teleseismic earthquakes recorded at 337 stations, we measured body wave delay times for 255 of these earthquakes. The P wave delays are accumulated over more than 45 thousand wave paths with turning points in the lower mantle. We combine these delay times with a similar number delay times used in previous tomographic studies of the study region. The latter delay times stem from fewer stations, including Polaris and CNSN stations, and nearly a thousand earthquakes. We combine these two sets of delay times to image the three-dimensional distribution of seismic velocity variations beneath the southern Superior Province and surrounding provinces. This combined data coverage is illustrated in the accompanying figure for a total number of 447 stations . The coverage and the combined delays form the best configuration yet to image the three-dimensional distribution of seismic P and S-wave velocity variations beneath the southern Superior and surrounding provinces. Closely spaced stations (~12 km) along and across the MRS provide higher resolving power for lithospheric structure beneath the rift system. Conforming to expectations that the entire region is underlain by thick, cool lithosphere, a mean delay of -.55 +/- .54 s. This is very similar to the mean delays -.6s +/- .37s measured for this region before 2012. Event corrections range from -.2 +/-.54 s and correlate with tectonics for 80% of the earthquakes. An inversion of these nearly one hundred thousand P and around thirty thousand S-wave delay times for high-resolution P and S-wave velocity structure, respectively, does not show structures that are obviously related to the crustal signature of the MRS. None of structures imaged, align with or have a similar shape to the high Mid-continent Gravity Anomaly

  20. Semantic Research for Digital Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsinchun

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the need for semantic research in digital libraries to help overcome interoperability problems. Highlights include federal initiatives; semantic analysis; knowledge representations; human-computer interactions and information visualization; and the University of Illinois DLI (Digital Libraries Initiative) project through partnership with…

  1. Digital Intelligence Fostered by Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Nan B.

    2004-01-01

    Through interaction with digital technologies for work, play, and communication, the pattern for intellectual development is being altered. The multiple intelligences theoretical framework developed by Gardner (1983) is easily employed to provide evidence that yet another intelligence, digital intelligence, has emerged. In a postmodern pluralistic…

  2. Digital Theater: Dynamic Theatre Spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sood, Sara Owsley; Vasilakos, Athanasios V.

    Digital technology has given rise to new media forms. Interactive theatre is such a new type of media that introduces new digital interaction methods into theatres. In a typical experience of interactive theatres, people enter cyberspace and enjoy the development of a story in a non-linear manner by interacting with the characters in the story. Therefore, in contrast to conventional theatre which presents predetermined scenes and story settings unilaterally, interactive theatre makes it possible for the viewer to actually take part in the plays and enjoy a first person experience.

  3. Digital metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Della Giovampaola, Cristian; Engheta, Nader

    2014-12-01

    Balancing complexity and simplicity has played an important role in the development of many fields in science and engineering. One of the well-known and powerful examples of such balance can be found in Boolean algebra and its impact on the birth of digital electronics and the digital information age. The simplicity of using only two numbers, ‘0’ and ‘1’, in a binary system for describing an arbitrary quantity made the fields of digital electronics and digital signal processing powerful and ubiquitous. Here, inspired by the binary concept, we propose to develop the notion of digital metamaterials. Specifically, we investigate how one can synthesize an electromagnetic metamaterial with a desired permittivity, using as building blocks only two elemental materials, which we call ‘metamaterial bits’, with two distinct permittivity functions. We demonstrate, analytically and numerically, how proper spatial mixtures of such metamaterial bits lead to elemental ‘metamaterial bytes’ with effective material parameters that are different from the parameters of the metamaterial bits. We then apply this methodology to several design examples of optical elements, such as digital convex lenses, flat graded-index digital lenses, digital constructs for epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) supercoupling and digital hyperlenses, thus highlighting the power and simplicity of the methodology.

  4. Digital metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Della Giovampaola, Cristian; Engheta, Nader

    2014-12-01

    Balancing complexity and simplicity has played an important role in the development of many fields in science and engineering. One of the well-known and powerful examples of such balance can be found in Boolean algebra and its impact on the birth of digital electronics and the digital information age. The simplicity of using only two numbers, '0' and '1', in a binary system for describing an arbitrary quantity made the fields of digital electronics and digital signal processing powerful and ubiquitous. Here, inspired by the binary concept, we propose to develop the notion of digital metamaterials. Specifically, we investigate how one can synthesize an electromagnetic metamaterial with a desired permittivity, using as building blocks only two elemental materials, which we call 'metamaterial bits', with two distinct permittivity functions. We demonstrate, analytically and numerically, how proper spatial mixtures of such metamaterial bits lead to elemental 'metamaterial bytes' with effective material parameters that are different from the parameters of the metamaterial bits. We then apply this methodology to several design examples of optical elements, such as digital convex lenses, flat graded-index digital lenses, digital constructs for epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) supercoupling and digital hyperlenses, thus highlighting the power and simplicity of the methodology. PMID:25218061

  5. Play and Digital Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, James E.; Christie, James F.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines how play is affected by computers and digital toys. Research indicates that when computer software targeted at children is problem-solving oriented and open-ended, children tend to engage in creative play and interact with peers in a positive manner. On the other hand, drill-and-practice programs can be quite boring and limit…

  6. The Digital Divide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Hannah Trierweiler

    2011-01-01

    Megan is a 14-year-old from Nebraska who just started ninth grade. She has her own digital camera, cell phone, Nintendo DS, and laptop, and one or more of these devices is usually by her side. Compared to the interactions and exploration she's engaged in at home, Megan finds the technology in her classroom falls a little flat. Most of the…

  7. Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources: Arkoma Basin, Kansas Basins, and Midcontinent Rift Basin study areas: Chapter F in Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buursink, Marc L.; Craddock, William H.; Blondes, Madalyn S.; Freeman, Phillip A.; Cahan, Steven M.; DeVera, Christina A.; Lohr, Celeste D.

    2013-01-01

    2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (Public Law 110–140) directs the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to conduct a national assessment of potential geologic storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2). The methodology used by the USGS for the national CO2 assessment follows that of previous USGS work. This methodology is non-economic and intended to be used at regional to subbasinal scales. This report identifies and contains geologic descriptions of three storage assessment units (SAUs) in Upper Cambrian to Mississippian sedimentary rocks within the Arkoma Basin study area, and two SAUs in Upper Cambrian to Mississippian sedimentary rocks within the Kansas Basins study area. The Arkoma Basin and Kansas Basins are adjacent with very similar geologic units; although the Kansas Basins area is larger, the Arkoma Basin is more structurally complex. The report focuses on the characteristics, specified in the methodology, that influence the potential CO2 storage resource in the SAUs. Specific descriptions of the SAU boundaries as well as their sealing and reservoir units are included. Properties for each SAU, such as depth to top, gross thickness, porosity, permeability, groundwater quality, and structural reservoir traps, are usually provided to illustrate geologic factors critical to the assessment. Although assessment results are not contained in this report, the geologic information herein was employed, as specified in the USGS methodology, to calculate a probabilistic distribution of potential storage resources in each SAU. The Midcontinent Rift Basin study area was not assessed, because no suitable storage formations meeting our size, depth, reservoir quality, and regional seal guidelines were found. Figures in this report show study area boundaries along with the SAU boundaries and cell maps of well penetrations through sealing units into the top of the storage formations. The cell maps show the number of penetrating wells within one-square mile and are

  8. Digital Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzam, Amy M.

    2006-01-01

    This article details the content of a recently released report from the Children's Partnership titled "Measuring Digital Opportunity for America's Children: Where We Stand and Where We Go From Here". On the basis of 40 indicators, the report's Digital Opportunity Measuring Stick showed how U.S. children and young adults use information and…

  9. Digital TMI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rios, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Presenting the current status of the Digital TMI project to visiting members of the FAA Command Center. Digital TMI is an effort to store national-level traffic management initiatives in a standards-compliant manner. Work is funded by the FAA.

  10. Digital Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blansett, Jim

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, the Internet has become a digital commons of commerce and education. However, accessibility standards have often been overlooked online, and the digital equivalents to curb-cuts and other physical accommodations have only rarely been implemented to serve those with print disabilities. (A print disability can be a learning…

  11. Digital Roundup

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    State policy is crucial to the spread of digital-learning opportunities at the elementary and secondary level. A review of recent legislative action reveals policies that are constantly in flux and differ quite markedly from one state to another. Some have hoped for model digital-learning legislation that could handle all the various issues…

  12. Why Digitize?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Abby

    This paper is a response to discussions of digitization at meetings of the National Humanities Alliance (NHA). NHA asked the Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR) to evaluate the experiences of cultural institutions with digitization projects to date and to summarize what has been learned about the advantages and disadvantages of…

  13. The Coming of Digital Desktop Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galbreath, Jeremy

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the movement toward digital-based platforms including full-motion video for multimedia products. Hardware- and software-based compression techniques for digital data storage are considered, and a chart summarizes features of Digital Video Interactive, Moving Pictures Experts Group, P x 64, Joint Photographic Experts Group, Apple…

  14. Non-depleted sub-continental mantle beneath the Superior Province of the Canadian Shield: Nd-Sr isotopic and trace element evidence from Midcontinent Rift basalts

    SciTech Connect

    Paces, J.B. ); Bell, K. )

    1989-08-01

    Midcontinent Rift flood basalts represent a sample of the relatively shallow, sub-continental upper mantle beneath the Canadian Shield at 1.1 Ga. A thick sequence of olivine tholeiite lavas, including minor intermediate to rhyolitic lavas, from the Portage Lake Volcanics (PLV) in northern Michigan have initial Nd and Sr isotopic compositions which cluster near Bulk Earth values. The effects of assimilation of old LREE-enriched continental crust into mantle-derived fractionating liquids are isotopically discernible in evolved lavas as well as in olivine tholeiites from the lowest portion of the volcanic pile. However, the effects of crustal contamination decrease with stratigraphic height and are absent in more primitive lavas in the upper half of the section. The source for PLV tholeiites is substantially less depleted than previously reported mantle values from the Superior Province. An origin for the PLV source is compatible with either of several mantle evolution models. The PLV source may have been associated with upwelling of a LIL element-enriched, asthenospheric plume which emplaced non-depleted material from deeper sources into the shallow sub-continental mantle beneath the Midcontinent Rift during continental break-up. Alternatively, the PLV source may have originated by enrichment of refractory sub-continental lithospheric mantle which was previously depleted in incompatible trace elements during Archean-aged melt extraction and continental crust formation. Concurrent generation of carbonatite magmas in other areas beneath the Superior Province indicates the widespread presence of sub-continental mantle with substantially higher {epsilon}{sub Nd}(T) and lower {epsilon}{sub Sr}(T) than the PLV source.

  15. Thermal maturation and organic richness of potential petroleum source rocks in Proterozoic Rice Formation, North American Mid-Continent rift system, northeastern Kansas

    SciTech Connect

    Newell, K.D. ); Burruss, R.C.; Palacas, J.G. )

    1993-11-01

    A recent well in northeastern Kansas penetrated 296 ft (90.2 m) of dark gray siltstone in the Precambrian Mid-Continent rift (Proterozoic Rice Formation). Correlations indicate this unit may be as thick as 600 ft (183 m) and is possibly time-equivalent to the Nonesuch Shale (Middle Proterozoic) in the Lake Superior region. The upper half of this unit qualifies as a lean source rock (averaging 0.66 wt.% TOC), and organic matter in it is in the transition stage between oil and wet gas generation. The presence of the gray siltstone in this well and similar lithologies in other wells is encouraging because it indicates the source rock deposition may be common along the Mid-Continent rift, and that parts of the rift may remain thermally within the oil and gas window. Microscopic examination of calcite veins penetrating the dark gray siltstone reveals numerous oil-filled and subordinate aqueous fluid inclusions. Homogenization temperatures indicate these rocks have been subjected to temperature of at least 110-115[degrees]C (230-239[degrees]F). Burial during the Phanerozoic is inadequate to account for the homogenization temperatures and thermal maturity of the Precambrian rocks. With the present geothermal gradient, at least 8250 ft (2.5 km) of burial is necessary, but lesser burial may be likely with probably higher geothermal gradients during rifting. Fluorescence colors and gas chromatograms indicate compositions of oils in the fluid inclusions vary. However, oils in the fluid inclusions are markedly dissimilar to the nearest oils produced from Paleozoic rocks.

  16. Pristine Rhyolite Glass Melt Inclusions in Quartz Phenocrysts From the 1.1 Ga Midcontinent Rift System, Keweenaw Peninsula, Michigan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Student, J. J.; Wark, D. A.; Mutchler, S. R.; Bodnar, R. J.

    2006-12-01

    Pristine rhyolite glass from the Proterozoic eon is rarely reported in the literature. Glass-bearing melt inclusions (MI) have been identified in quartz phenocrysts from rhyolite cobbles found in rift related conglomerates within the Portage Lake Volcanics (PLV) near Calumet, Michigan. The rhyolites represent an aspect of mantle plume related bi-modal magmatism that is contemporaneous with the 1.1 Ga Midcontinent Rift System (MRS). Previous studies classified felsic rocks from the PLV into two types, one that is similar to Icelandic rhyolites (Type I) and another similar to Cenozoic topaz rhyolites (Type II). The MRS rhyolite magmas are thought to have been at high temperatures (900-1100 °C) and low water contents prior to eruption. Low-grade burial metamorphism and hydrothermal alteration has affected some rocks in the region. The MI in this study have been categorized based on their phase assemblages and preservation history. Type 1 MI contain clear glass and a shrinkage bubble, Type 2 contain clear glass, a shrinkage bubble and 1 or more, coarser grained (> 3 um) crystals, and Type 3 MI are totally devitrified or otherwise breached. The MI range in size from 1 to over 200 um in diameter and have a negative hexagonal bi-pyramidal morphology. Major element oxide compositions (75.4-SiO2, 0.09-TiO2, 11.3-Al2O3, 2.2-FeO, 0.04- MnO, 0.06-MgO, 0.84-CaO, 5.9-K2O and 2.85-Na2O in wt %) determined by EPMA for Type 1 MI are similar to whole rock compositions reported for rhyolites in the MRS. The water contents of MI are low, as evidenced by the high totals (98.67 wt %) from the EPMA and the fact that a water peak was not observed during Raman analysis (indicating that the MI contain less than 1 wt % H2O). LA-ICPMS analysis for additional trace elements (Cu, Rb, Sr, Zr, Nb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Eu, Yb, Ta, Th and U) were preformed on both Type 1 and Type 2 MI. Discrimination based on Ba/Rb and Ba/Th indicate that the MI are most similar to the Type II rhyolites in the region

  17. Petrogenesis of the Ni-Cu-PGE sulfide-bearing Tamarack Intrusive Complex, Midcontinent Rift System, Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taranovic, Valentina; Ripley, Edward M.; Li, Chusi; Rossell, Dean

    2015-01-01

    The Tamarack Intrusive Complex (TIC, 1105.6 ± 1.2 Ma) in NE Minnesota, was emplaced during the early stages of the development of the Midcontinent Rift System (MRS, "Early Stage": 1110-1106 Ma). Country rocks of the TIC are those of the Paleoproterozoic Thomson Formation, part of the Animikie Group including sulfide-bearing metasedimentary black shale. The magmatic system is composed of at least two principal mafic-ultramafic intrusive sequences: the sulfide-barren Bowl Intrusion in the south and the "dike" area intrusions in the north which host Ni-Cu-Platinum Group Elements (PGE) mineralization with up to 2.33% Ni, 1.24% Cu, 0.34 g/t Pt, 0.23 g/t Pd and 0.18 g/t Au. Two distinct intrusive units in the "dike" area are the CGO (coarse-grained olivine-bearing) Intrusion, a sub-vertical dike-like body, and the overlying sub-horizontal FGO (fine-grained olivine-bearing) Intrusion. Both intrusions comprise peridotite, feldspathic peridotite, feldspathic pyroxenite, melatroctolite and melagabbro. Massive sulfides are volumetrically minor and mainly occur as lenses emplaced into the country rocks associated with both intrusions. Semi-massive (net-textured) sulfides are distributed at the core of the CGO Intrusion, surrounded by a halo of the disseminated sulfides. Disseminated sulfides also occur in lenses along the base of the FGO Intrusion. Olivine compositions in the CGO Intrusion are between Fo89 and Fo82 and in the FGO Intrusion from Fo84 to Fo82. TIC intrusions have more primitive olivine compositions than that of olivine in the sheet-like intrusions in the Duluth Complex (below Fo70), as well as olivine from the smaller, conduit-related, Eagle and East Eagle Intrusions in Northern Michigan (Fo86 to Fo75). The FeO/MgO ratios of the CGO and FGO Intrusion parental magmas, inferred from olivine compositions, are similar to those of picritic basalts erupted during the early stages of the MRS formation. Trace element ratios differ slightly from other intrusions in the

  18. The 1.1-Ga Midcontinent Rift System, central North America: sedimentology of two deep boreholes, Lake Superior region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojakangas, Richard W.; Dickas, Albert B.

    2002-03-01

    The Midcontinent Rift System (MRS) of central North America is a 1.1-Ga, 2500-km long structural feature that has been interpreted as a triple-junction rift developed over a mantle plume. As much as 20 km of subaerial lava flows, mainly flood basalts, are overlain by as much as 10 km of sedimentary rocks that are mostly continental fluvial red beds. This rock sequence, known as the Keweenawan Supergroup, has been penetrated by a few deep boreholes in the search for petroleum. In this paper, two deep boreholes in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan are described in detail for the first time. Both the Amoco Production #1-29R test, herein referred to as the St. Amour well, and the nearby Hickey Creek well drilled by Cleveland Cliffs Mining Services, were 100% cored. The former is 7238 ft (2410 m) deep and the latter is 5345 ft (1780 m) deep. The entirety of the stratigraphic succession of the Hickey Creek core correlates very well with the upper portion of the St. Amour core, as determined by core description and point-counting of 43 thin sections selected out of 100 studied thin sections. Two Lower Paleozoic units and two Keweenawan red bed units—the Jacobsville Sandstone and the underlying Freda Sandstone—are described. The Jacobsville is largely a feldspatholithic sandstone and the Freda is largely a lithofeldspathic sandstone. Below the Freda, the remaining footage of the St. Amour core consists of a thick quartzose sandstone unit that overlies a heterogenous unit of intercalated red bed units of conglomerate, sandstone, siltstone, and shale; black shale; individual basalt flows; and a basal ignimbritic rhyolite. This lower portion of the St. Amour core presents an enigma, as it correlates very poorly with other key boreholes located to the west and southwest. While a black shale sequence is similar to the petroleum-bearing Nonesuch Formation farther west, there is no conglomerate unit to correlate with the Copper Harbor Conglomerate. Other key boreholes are

  19. A Spectrum of Interoperability: The Site for Science Prototype for the NSDL; Re-Inventing the Wheel? Standards, Interoperability and Digital Cultural Content; Preservation Risk Management for Web Resources: Virtual Remote Control in Cornell's Project Prism; Safekeeping: A Cooperative Approach to Building a Digital Preservation Resource; Object Persistence and Availability in Digital Libraries; Illinois Digital Cultural Heritage Community-Collaborative Interactions among Libraries, Museums and Elementary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arms, William Y.; Hillmann, Diane; Lagoze, Carl; Krafft, Dean; Marisa, Richard; Saylor, John; Terizzi, Carol; Van de Sompel, Herbert; Gill, Tony; Miller, Paul; Kenney, Anne R.; McGovern, Nancy Y.; Botticelli, Peter; Entlich, Richard; Payette, Sandra; Berthon, Hilary; Thomas, Susan; Webb, Colin; Nelson, Michael L.; Allen, B. Danette; Bennett, Nuala A.; Sandore, Beth; Pianfetti, Evangeline S.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses digital libraries, including interoperability, metadata, and international standards; Web resource preservation efforts at Cornell University; digital preservation at the National Library of Australia; object persistence and availability; collaboration among libraries, museums and elementary schools; Asian digital libraries; and a Web…

  20. Digital clubbing

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Malay; Mahesh, D. M.; Madabhavi, Irappa

    2012-01-01

    Digital clubbing is an ancient and important clinical signs in medicine. Although clubbed fingers are mostly asymptomatic, it often predicts the presence of some dreaded underlying diseases. Its exact pathogenesis is not known, but platelet-derived growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor are recently incriminated in its causation. The association of digital clubbing with various disease processes and its clinical implications are discussed in this review. PMID:23243350

  1. Digital Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Salathé, Marcel; Bengtsson, Linus; Bodnar, Todd J.; Brewer, Devon D.; Brownstein, John S.; Buckee, Caroline; Campbell, Ellsworth M.; Cattuto, Ciro; Khandelwal, Shashank; Mabry, Patricia L.; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Mobile, social, real-time: the ongoing revolution in the way people communicate has given rise to a new kind of epidemiology. Digital data sources, when harnessed appropriately, can provide local and timely information about disease and health dynamics in populations around the world. The rapid, unprecedented increase in the availability of relevant data from various digital sources creates considerable technical and computational challenges. PMID:22844241

  2. Digital photography

    PubMed Central

    Windsor, J S; Rodway, G W; Middleton, P M; McCarthy, S

    2006-01-01

    Objective The emergence of a new generation of “point‐and‐shoot” digital cameras offers doctors a compact, portable and user‐friendly solution to the recording of highly detailed digital photographs and video images. This work highlights the use of such technology, and provides information for those who wish to record, store and display their own medical images. Methods Over a 3‐month period, a digital camera was carried by a doctor in a busy, adult emergency department and used to record a range of clinical images that were subsequently transferred to a computer database. Results In total, 493 digital images were recorded, of which 428 were photographs and 65 were video clips. These were successfully used for teaching purposes, publications and patient records. Conclusions This study highlights the importance of informed consent, the selection of a suitable package of digital technology and the role of basic photographic technique in developing a successful digital database in a busy clinical environment. PMID:17068281

  3. Digital radiography.

    PubMed

    Mattoon, J S

    2006-01-01

    Digital radiography has been used in human medical imaging since the 1980s with recent and rapid acceptance into the veterinary profession. Using advanced image capture and computer technology, radiographic images are viewed on a computer monitor. This is advantageous because radiographic images can be adjusted using dedicated computer software to maximize diagnostic image quality. Digital images can be accessed at computer workstations throughout the hospital, instantly retrieved from computer archives, and transmitted via the internet for consultation or case referral. Digital radiographic data can also be incorporated into a hospital information system, making record keeping an entirely paperless process. Digital image acquisition is faster when compared to conventional screen-film radiography, improving workflow and patient throughput. Digital radiography greatly reduces the need for 'retake' radiographs because of wide latitude in exposure factors. Also eliminated are costs associated with radiographic film and x-ray film development. Computed radiography, charged coupled devices, and flat panel detectors are types of digital radiography systems currently available. PMID:16971994

  4. Evolving Digital Ecological Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Aaron P.; Ofria, Charles

    2013-01-01

    “It is hard to realize that the living world as we know it is just one among many possibilities” [1]. Evolving digital ecological networks are webs of interacting, self-replicating, and evolving computer programs (i.e., digital organisms) that experience the same major ecological interactions as biological organisms (e.g., competition, predation, parasitism, and mutualism). Despite being computational, these programs evolve quickly in an open-ended way, and starting from only one or two ancestral organisms, the formation of ecological networks can be observed in real-time by tracking interactions between the constantly evolving organism phenotypes. These phenotypes may be defined by combinations of logical computations (hereafter tasks) that digital organisms perform and by expressed behaviors that have evolved. The types and outcomes of interactions between phenotypes are determined by task overlap for logic-defined phenotypes and by responses to encounters in the case of behavioral phenotypes. Biologists use these evolving networks to study active and fundamental topics within evolutionary ecology (e.g., the extent to which the architecture of multispecies networks shape coevolutionary outcomes, and the processes involved). PMID:23533370

  5. Digital Collections, Digital Libraries & the Digitization of Cultural Heritage Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Clifford

    2002-01-01

    Discusses digital collections and digital libraries. Topics include broadband availability; digital rights protection; content, both non-profit and commercial; digitization of cultural content; sustainability; metadata harvesting protocol; infrastructure; authorship; linking multiple resources; data mining; digitization of reference works;…

  6. Digital caliper

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cable, Louella E.

    1967-01-01

    The large number of measurements needed to describe fully the characteristics of biological specimens and other objects has always been tedious and time consuming. The work can be done much more rapidly and with greater accuracy with a digital caliper recently developed by us. The digital caliper is a new electronic instrument built to measure objects precisely throughout the range of 0.1 mm to 1.0 m. Calipers of several different discrete sizes make it possible to select the most convenient unit for the particular range of length and degree of accuracy desired.

  7. Digital Radiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    System One, a digital radiography system, incorporates a reusable image medium (RIM) which retains an image. No film is needed; the RIM is read with a laser scanner, and the information is used to produce a digital image on an image processor. The image is stored on an optical disc. System allows the radiologist to "dial away" unwanted images to compare views on three screens. It is compatible with existing equipment and cost efficient. It was commercialized by a Stanford researcher from energy selective technology developed under a NASA grant.

  8. MENTOR-BASED EFFORT TO ADVANCE IMPLEMENTATION OF PREFERRED MANAGEMENT PRACTICES (PMPS) FOR OIL PRODUCERS IN SOUTH MIDCONTINENT (OKLAHOMA/ARKANSAS) AND WEST COAST (CALIFORNIA) REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Donald F. Duttlinger; E. Lance Cole

    2004-12-01

    The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) and cooperating Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs) in its South Midcontinent (Oklahoma Geological Survey, Norman, Oklahoma) and West Coast (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California) regions conducted a ''Mentor-Based Effort to Advance Implementation of Preferred Management Practices (PMPs) For Oil Producers'' (DE-FC26-01BC15272) under an award in Phase I of Department of Energy's (DOE's) PUMP (Preferred Upstream Management Practices) program. The project's objective was to enable producers in California, Oklahoma and Arkansas to increase oil production, moderating or potentially reversing production declines and extending the life of marginal wells in the near term. PTTC identified the primary constraints inhibiting oil production through surveys and PUMPer direct contacts in both regions. The leading common constraint was excess produced water and associated factors. Approaches for addressing this common constraint were tailored for each region. For Oklahoma and Arkansas, the South Midcontinent Region developed a concise manual titled ''Produced Water And Associated Issues'' that led to multiple workshops across the region, plus workshops in several other regions. In California, the West Coast Region leveraged PUMP funding to receive an award from the California Energy Commission for $300,000 to systematically evaluate water control solutions for the California geological environment. Products include still-developing remedial action templates to help producers identify underlying causes of excess water production and screen appropriate solutions. Limited field demonstrations are being implemented to build producer confidence in water control technologies. Minor leverage was also gained by providing technology transfer support to a Global Energy Partners project that demonstrated affordable approaches for reducing power consumption. PTTC leveraged PUMP project results nationally through expanding

  9. Digital Tidbits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumaran, Maha; Geary, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Technology has transformed libraries. There are digital libraries, electronic collections, online databases and catalogs, ebooks, downloadable books, and much more. With free technology such as social websites, newspaper collections, downloadable online calendars, clocks and sticky notes, online scheduling, online document sharing, and online…

  10. Digital Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubler, Alfred

    2009-03-01

    The energy density in conventional capacitors is limited by sparking. We present nano-capacitor arrays, where - like in laser diodes and quantum wells [1] - quantization prevents dielectric breakthrough. We show that the energy density and the power/weight ratio are very high, possibly larger than in hydrogen [2]. Digital batteries are a potential clean energy source for cars, laptops, and mobile devices. The technology is related to flash drives. However, because of the high energy density, safety is a concern. Digital batteries can be easily and safely charged and discharged. In the discharged state they pose no danger. Even if a charged digital battery were to explode, it would produce no radioactive waste, no long-term radiation, and probably could be designed to produce no noxious chemicals. We discuss methodologies to prevent shorts and other measures to make digital batteries safe. [1] H. Higuraskh, A. Toriumi, F. Yamaguchi, K. Kawamura, A. Hubler, Correlation Tunnel Device, U. S. Patent No. 5,679,961 (1997) [2] Alfred Hubler, http://server10.how-why.com/blog/

  11. Digital books.

    PubMed

    Wink, Diane M

    2011-01-01

    In this bimonthly series, the author examines how nurse educators can use the Internet and Web-based computer technologies such as search, communication, and collaborative writing tools; social networking and social bookmarking sites; virtual worlds; and Web-based teaching and learning programs. This article describes digital books. PMID:22024672

  12. Digital Badges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederiksen, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Unlike so much of the current vocabulary in education and technology that seems to stir more confusion than clarity, most public service librarians may already have a general idea about digital badges. As visual representations of individual accomplishments, competencies or skills that are awarded by groups, institutions, or organizations, they…

  13. POSSIBLE LATE MIDDLE ORDOVICIAN ORGANIC CARBON ISOTOPE EXCURSION: EVIDENCE FROM ORDOVICIAN OILS AND HYDROCARBON SOURCE ROCKS, MID-CONTINENT AND EAST-CENTRAL UNITED STATES.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatch, Joseph R.; Jacobson, Stephen R.; Witzke, Brian J.; Risatti, J. Bruno; Anders, Donald E.; Watney, W. Lynn; Newell, K. David; Vuletich, April K.

    1987-01-01

    Oils generated by Middle Ordovician rocks are found throughout the Mid-Continent and east-central regions of the United States. Gas chromatographic characteristics of these oils include a relatively high abundance of n-alkanes with carbon numbers less than 20, a strong predominance of odd-numbered n-alkanes between C//1//0 and C//2//0, and relatively small amounts of branched and cyclic alkanes. The wide ranges in delta **1**3C for oils and rock extracts reflect a major, positive excursion(s) in organic matter delta **1**3C in late Middle Ordovician rocks. This excursion has at least regional significance in that it can be documented in sections 480 mi apart in south-central Kansas and eastern Iowa. The distance may be as much as 930 mi. The parallel shifts in organic and carbonate delta **1**3C in core samples from 1 E. M. Greene well, Washington County, Iowa, imply changes in the isotope composition of the ocean-atmosphere carbon reservoir. These and other aspects of the subject are discussed.

  14. Glaciation and saline-freshwater mixing as a possible cause of cave formation in the eastern midcontinent region of the United States: A conceptual model

    SciTech Connect

    Panno, S.V. ); Bourcier, W.L. )

    1990-08-01

    We present a hypothesis for the formation of caves and associated karst features near the southern margins of the Illinois, Michigan, and Appalachian basins. Spatial and temporal relations among intracratonic basins, karstic terrain, and continental glaciation suggest that Pleistocene glaciation may have initiated the discharge of saline waters from the margins of these basins. Glaciation-induced discharge of saline waters could result from the consolidation of sediments due to the overlying pressure of glacial ice, and flushing of underlying aquifers as a result of bottom melting in recharge areas of basic aquifers. The upward migration of basin-derived saline waters into near-surface aquifers would result in the mixing of saline waters with infiltrating glacial meltwater and meteoric water. The development of a vertically restricted zone of mixing of saline and fresh water in limestone aquifers would result in the dissolution of limestone; this mechanism could be responsible for the formation, or at least the initiation of, some caves and associated karst features in the midcontinent region.

  15. A random-walk algorithm for modeling lithospheric density and the role of body forces in the evolution of the Midcontinent Rift

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Levandowski, William Brower; Boyd, Oliver; Briggs, Richard; Gold, Ryan D.

    2015-01-01

    We test this algorithm on the Proterozoic Midcontinent Rift (MCR), north-central U.S. The MCR provides a challenge because it hosts a gravity high overlying low shear-wave velocity crust in a generally flat region. Our initial density estimates are derived from a seismic velocity/crustal thickness model based on joint inversion of surface-wave dispersion and receiver functions. By adjusting these estimates to reproduce gravity and topography, we generate a lithospheric-scale model that reveals dense middle crust and eclogitized lowermost crust within the rift. Mantle lithospheric density beneath the MCR is not anomalous, consistent with geochemical evidence that lithospheric mantle was not the primary source of rift-related magmas and suggesting that extension occurred in response to far-field stress rather than a hot mantle plume. Similarly, the subsequent inversion of normal faults resulted from changing far-field stress that exploited not only warm, recently faulted crust but also a gravitational potential energy low in the MCR. The success of this density modeling algorithm in the face of such apparently contradictory geophysical properties suggests that it may be applicable to a variety of tectonic and geodynamic problems. 

  16. Comparison of conventional (100%), two dimensional (2D), and three-dimensional (3D) seismic data: Case histories from the Midcontinent

    SciTech Connect

    Schloeder, F.X. III

    1995-09-01

    The principal objective of seismic exploration is to determine three geologic parameters, the structural top, the bottom, and the lateral extent of an oil and gas reservoir. Conventional (100%) data is very efficient in locating the structural top and bottom of reservoirs. Two-dimensional (2D) common depth point (CDP) seismic data provides an immense improvement in seismic data quality over conventional (100%) data. This improvement enables the explorer to better visualize and map the reservoir in each direction of the seismic line. Three-dimensional (3D) seismic technology provides even more mappable data and capability. The explorer may visualize every imaginable direction and subtlety of a reservoir. This talk compares conventional (100%), two-dimensional (2D), and three-dimensional (3D) seismic data from the Midcontinent. Case histories of the Douglass (Upper Pennsylvanian) in Texas, the Morrow (Lower Pennsylvanian) in Colorado, the {open_quotes}Chat{close_quotes} (Mississippian) and the Hunton (Silurian-Devonian) in Oklahoma, and the Simpson (Ordovician) in Kansas will be discussed. Major and independent operators can maximize their exploration efforts by integrating existing data with three-dimensional (3D) technology and a solid geologic interpretation.

  17. In Digital Age, Sunshine Laws Turn Hazy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Nora

    2013-01-01

    School board members are struggling to interpret laws that govern where and how they do business now that as many conversations take place digitally as they do face to face. As online and digital interactions increase, so too does public concern that officials have more opportunities to violate state open-meetings and open-records laws meant to…

  18. When Digital Natives Come to School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyck, Brenda A.

    2006-01-01

    As the first generation of students to grow up surrounded by and using digital media comes through the classroom doors, teachers must realize that these students' almost constant interaction with technology has caused them to think and process information differently than students did 10 years ago. Marc Prensky calls today's digital learners…

  19. Digitized sunshine aids architects

    SciTech Connect

    Stix, G.

    1988-03-01

    The author explains how computers are being used to help architects design buildings to apply natural lighting. This is called daylighting. The aim is to reduce energy usage and to cut down on the need for harsh, expensive electric lighting. To help analyze distribution of natural light in a scale model architects employ innovative sky simulators, as well as digitized images and computer models that determine surface brightness. Mainframe computer programs calculate light distribution and model how daylight interacts with electric lighting systems. This article explains how daylighting is used at the Olympic Oval built for the Winter Games in Calgary, Alta., Canada and at Seattle's Pacific Museum of Flight.

  20. The Digital Medium Meets the Advertising Message.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisenholtz, Martin

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the likelihood that companies will use online services as an advertising medium. Topics addressed include the art of interactive marketing; advertising in the digital age; early experiments with interactive marketing, including the use of videotex and videodisc; and recent trends that set the stage for interactive marketing to personal…

  1. The Effect Teaching Experience Has on Perceived Effectiveness of Interactive Television as a Distance Education Model for Elementary School Science Teacher's Professional Development: Another Digital Divide?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annetta, Leonard A.; Minogue, James

    2004-01-01

    The first year of a 5 year professional development project for elementary teachers in two mid-western states integrated a bridge of two distinctly different distance education networks (T-1 and fiber optics) to provide science professional development for elementary school teachers in rural communities. "Interactive television" (ITV), the title…

  2. Designing for Diversity: The Role of Reading Strategies and Interactive Vocabulary in a Digital Reading Environment for Fifth-Grade Monolingual English and Bilingual Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Bridget; Proctor, C. Patrick; Uccelli, Paola; Mo, Elaine; Snow, Catherine E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relative contribution of reading comprehension strategies and interactive vocabulary in Improving Comprehension Online (ICON), a universally designed web-based scaffolded text environment designed to improve fifth-grade monolingual English and bilingual students' reading achievement. Seventy-five monolingual English and 31…

  3. Scanning for Digitization Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wentzel, Larry

    2007-01-01

    Librarians and archivists find themselves facing the prospect of digitization. Everyone is doing it, everyone needs it. Discussions rage nationally and internationally concerning what to digitize and the best means to present and retain digital objects. Digitization is the act of making something digital, expressing a physical object "in numerical…

  4. Chalcophile element (Ni, Cu, PGE, and Au) variations in the Tamarack magmatic sulfide deposit in the Midcontinent Rift System: implications for dynamic ore-forming processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taranovic, Valentina; Ripley, Edward M.; Li, Chusi; Rossell, Dean

    2016-03-01

    The Tamarack magmatic sulfide deposit is hosted by the Tamarack Intrusive Complex (1105.6 ± 1.2 Ma) in the Midcontinent Rift System. The most important sulfide mineralization in the Complex occurs in the northern part, which consists of two separate intrusive units: an early funnel-shaped layered peridotite body containing relatively fine-grained olivine (referred to as the FGO Intrusion) at the top, and a late gabbro-troctolite-peridotite dike-like body containing relatively coarse-grained olivine (referred to as the CGO Intrusion) at the bottom. Disseminated, net-textured, and massive sulfides occur in the base of the FGO Intrusion as well as in the upper part of the CGO Intrusion. The widest part of the CGO Intrusion also hosts a large semi-massive (net-textured) sulfide ore body locally surrounded by disseminated sulfide mineralization. Small massive sulfide veins occur in the footwall of the FGO Intrusion and in the wall rocks of the CGO dike. The sulfide mineralization is predominantly composed of pyrrhotite, pentlandite, and chalcopyrite, plus minor magnetite. Pyrrhotite containing the highest Ni and Co contents occurs in the FGO disseminated sulfides and in the CGO semi-massive sulfide ores, respectively. The most important platinum-group minerals associated with the base metal sulfides are sperrylite (PtAs2), sudburyite (PdSb), and michenerite (PdBiTe). Nickel shows a strong positive correlation with S in all types of sulfide mineralization, and Cu shows a strong positive correlation with S in the disseminated sulfide mineralization. At a given S content, the concentrations of Pt, Pd, and Au in the CGO disseminated sulfides are significantly higher than those in the FGO disseminated sulfides. The semi-massive sulfide ores are characterized by significantly higher IPGE (Ir, Os, Ru, and Rh) concentrations than most of the massive sulfide ores. With few exceptions, all of the various textural types of sulfide mineralization collectively show a good positive

  5. Landscape-scale Habitat Templates and Life Histories of Endangered and Invasive Fish Species in Large Rivers of the Mid-Continent USA (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, R. B.; Braaten, P. J.; Chapman, D.; DeLonay, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    Many fish species migrate through river systems to complete their life cycles, occupying specific habitats during specific life stages. Regional geomorphology sets a template for their habitat-use patterns and ontogenetic development. In large rivers of the Mid-continent USA, understanding of relations of fish life histories to landscape-scale habitat templates informs recovery of endangered species and prevention of spread of invasive species. The endangered pallid sturgeon has evolved in the Missouri-Mississippi river system over 150 Ma. Its present-day distribution probably results from extensive drainage re-arrangements during the Pleistocene, followed by contemporary fragmentation. The reproductive and early life-stage needs of pallid sturgeon encompass hundreds of km, as adults migrate upstream to spawn and free embryos and larvae disperse downstream. Spawning requires coarse, hard substrate for incubation of adhesive eggs but adult pallid sturgeon are found predominately over sand, indicating that coarse substrate is a critical but transient habitat need. Once hatched, free-embryos initiate 9-17 days of downstream dispersal that distributes them over several hundreds of km. Lotic conditions at the dispersal terminus are required for survival. Persistent recruitment failure has been attributed to dams and channelization, which have fragmented migration and dispersal corridors, altered flow regimes, and diminished rearing habitats. Key elements of the natural history of this species remain poorly understood because adults are rare and difficult to observe, while the earliest life stages are nearly undetectable. Recent understanding has been accelerated using telemetry and hydroacoustics, but such assessments occur in altered systems and may not be indicative of natural behaviors. Restoration activities attempt - within considerable uncertainty -- to restore elements of the habitat template where they are needed. In comparison, invasive Asian carps have been

  6. Anisotropic zonation in the lithosphere of Central North America: Influence of a strong cratonic lithosphere on the Mid-Continent Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ola, O.; Frederiksen, A. W.; Bollmann, T.; van der Lee, S.; Darbyshire, F.; Wolin, E.; Revenaugh, J.; Stein, C.; Stein, S.; Wysession, M.

    2016-06-01

    We present shear-wave splitting analyses of SKS and SKKS waves recorded at sixteen Superior Province Rifting Earthscope Experiment (SPREE) seismic stations on the north shore of Lake Superior, as well as fifteen selected Earthscope Transportable Array instruments south of the lake. These instruments bracket the Mid-Continent Rift (MCR) and sample the Superior, Penokean, Yavapai and Mazatzal tectonic provinces. The data set can be explained by a single layer of anisotropic fabric, which we interpret to be dominated by a lithospheric contribution. The fast S polarization directions are consistently ENE-WSW, but the split time varies greatly across the study area, showing strong anisotropy (up to 1.48 s) in the western Superior, moderate anisotropy in the eastern Superior, and moderate to low anisotropy in the terranes south of Lake Superior. We locate two localized zones of very low split time (< 0.6 s) adjacent to the MCR: one in the Nipigon Embayment, an MCR-related magmatic feature immediately north of Lake Superior, and the other adjacent to the eastern end of the lake, at the southern end of the Kapuskasing Structural Zone (KSZ). Both low-splitting zones are adjacent to sharp bends in the MCR axis. We interpret these two zones, along with a low-velocity linear feature imaged by a previous tomographic study beneath Minnesota and the Dakotas, as failed lithospheric branches of the MCR. Given that all three of these branches failed to propagate into the Superior Province lithosphere, we propose that the sharp bend of the MCR through Lake Superior is a consequence of the high mechanical strength of the Superior lithosphere ca. 1.1 Ga.

  7. U-Pb zircon geochronology of Paleoproterozoic plutons from the northern midcontinent, USA: Evidence for subduction flip and continued convergence after geon 18 Penokean orogenesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holm, D.K.; Van Schmus, W. R.; MacNeill, L.C.; Boerboom, Terrence; Schweitzer, D.; Schneider, D.

    2005-01-01

    We propose that the late Paleoproterozoic igneous and deformational history preserved in the northern midcontinent United States can be explained by a change in subduction-polarity from geon 18 south-dipping subduction during Penokean accretion to geon 17 north-dipping subduction as convergence continued after Penokean orogenesis. New U-Pb zircon ages indicate that late to post-Penokean magmatism occurred at ca. 1800, 1775, and 1750 Ma and generally migrated southeastward across the newly accreted Penokean terrane. We suggest that geon 17 Yavapai slab rollback caused continental arc magmatism to step southeastward between 1800 and 1750 Ma. As the slab steepened, reduced compressional stresses and magma-induced thermal weakening allowed for collapse of the overthickened portions of the Penokean crust. Postcollapse crustal stabilization (the 1750-1650 Ma Baraboo interval) was followed by geon 16 Mazatzal arc accretion further south. The 1900-1600 Ma tectonic history of the north-central United States, not surprisingly, records events related to the southward growth and tectonic development of the southern Laurentian margin. New and published 40Ar/ 39Ar mineral ages delineate the northern and western extent of geon 16 Mazatzal deformation. Interestingly, only little exhumed crust intruded by a small volume of shallow-level ca. 1750 Ma plutons (and associated rhyolites) was deformed significantly during geon 16. In contrast, more deeply exhumed crust and crust pervasively invaded by a large volume of post-Penokean magma (i.e., East-Central Minnesota Batholith) were largely unaffected by Mazatzal deformation and reheating. We suggest that posttectonic intrusions and crustal thinning were an important step in strengthening and stabilizing the crust in the southern Lake Superior region. ?? 2005 Geological Society of America.

  8. Variations in the reflectivity of the moho transition zone beneath the Midcontinent Rift System of North America: results from true amplitude analysis of GLIMPCE data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Lee, Myung W.; Behrendt, John C.; Cannon, William F.; Green, Adrian

    1992-01-01

    True amplitude processing of The Great Lakes International Multidisciplinary Program on Crustal Evolution seismic reflection data from the Midcontinent Rift System of North America shows large differences in the reflectivity of the Moho transition zone beneath the axial rift, beneath the rift flanks, and outside of the rift. The Moho reflection from the axial rift has a discontinuous, diffractive character marginally stronger (several decibels) than an otherwise transparent lower crust and upper mantle. Beneath the axial rift, Moho is interpreted to be a synrift igneous feature. Beneath the rift flanks, the reflectivity of the Moho transition is generally well developed with two identifiable boundaries, although in places it is weakly reflective to nonreflective, similar to Moho outside the rift. The two boundaries are interpreted as the base of essentially intact, although stretched, prerift Archean crust (upper boundary) and new synrift Moho 1-2 s (6-7 km) deeper (lower boundary). Beneath the rift flanks, the layered reflection Moho transition results from the preexisting crustal composition and fabric modified by synrift igneous processes and extensional tectonic/metamorphic processes. The geologic evidence for extensive basaltic magmatism in the rift is the basis for interpreting the Moho signature as a Keweenawan structure that has been preserved for 1.1 b.y. Extension and magmatism appear to enhance reflectivity in the lower crust and Moho transition zone only where stretching factors are moderate (rift flanks) and not where they are extreme (axial rift). This leads to the prediction that the reflectivity across analogous volcanic passive continental margins should be greatest beneath the moderately stretched continental shelves and should decrease towards the ocean-continent boundary.

  9. The GLIMPCE seismic experiment: Onshore refraction and wide-angle reflection observations from a fan line over the Lake Superior Midcontinent Rift System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epili, Duryodhan; Mereu, Robert F.

    The 1986 GLIMPCE experiment (Great Lakes International Multidisciplinary Program for Crustal Evolution) was a combined on-ship seismic reflection and onshore seismic refraction experiment designed to determine the structure of the crust beneath the Great Lakes. The main tectonic targets of interest were the Midcontinent Rift System, the Grenville Front, the Penokean and Huronian Fold Belts and the Michipicoten Greenstone Belt. The source of the seismic energy came from a large air gun array fired at closely spaced intervals (50-350 m) over several long lines (150-350 km) crossing the lakes. Major participants of this experiment were the Geological Survey of Canada, the United States Geological Survey and a number of universities and research institutes on both sides of the border. The University of Western Ontario (UWO) collected data at five separate land stations using portable seismic refraction instruments. In this paper we present the results of a fan profile which was recorded from a UWO station on Michipicoten Island for the N-S line A which crossed the axis of the Lake Superior Synclinal Basin. The azimuth and distance ranges for this profile were 237 to 321 degrees and 120 to 170 km respectively. Detailed observations of the record sections show that p. is not a simple arrival but forms a rather complex pattern of irregular multiple arrivals. The wide-angle PmP reflection signals from the Moho are strong and well obilerved only for the shots fired near the ends of the line. The signals from the middle of the profile arrive relatively late and form very weak complex wave trains. These results indicate that the Moho in that area is probably greatly disrupted and gives added support to the rift theory for the structure under the lake. The observations also support the results of earlier crustal studies of Lake Superior which showed that the crust under the eastern part of the lake was exceedingly thick.

  10. A random-walk algorithm for modeling lithospheric density and the role of body forces in the evolution of the Midcontinent Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levandowski, Will; Boyd, Oliver S.; Briggs, Rich W.; Gold, Ryan D.

    2015-12-01

    This paper develops a Monte Carlo algorithm for extracting three-dimensional lithospheric density models from geophysical data. Empirical scaling relationships between velocity and density create a 3-D starting density model, which is then iteratively refined until it reproduces observed gravity and topography. This approach permits deviations from uniform crustal velocity-density scaling, which provide insight into crustal lithology and prevent spurious mapping of crustal anomalies into the mantle. We test this algorithm on the Proterozoic Midcontinent Rift (MCR), north-central United States. The MCR provides a challenge because it hosts a gravity high overlying low shear-wave velocity crust in a generally flat region. Our initial density estimates are derived from a seismic velocity/crustal thickness model based on joint inversion of surface-wave dispersion and receiver functions. By adjusting these estimates to reproduce gravity and topography, we generate a lithospheric-scale model that reveals dense middle crust and eclogitized lowermost crust within the rift. Mantle lithospheric density beneath the MCR is not anomalous, consistent with geochemical evidence that lithospheric mantle was not the primary source of rift-related magmas and suggesting that extension occurred in response to far-field stress rather than a hot mantle plume. Similarly, the subsequent inversion of normal faults resulted from changing far-field stress that exploited not only warm, recently faulted crust but also a gravitational potential energy low in the MCR. The success of this density modeling algorithm in the face of such apparently contradictory geophysical properties suggests that it may be applicable to a variety of tectonic and geodynamic problems.

  11. A veterinary digital anatomical database.

    PubMed Central

    Snell, J. R.; Green, R.; Stott, G.; Van Baerle, S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the Veterinary Digital Anatomical Database Project. The purpose of the project is to investigate the construction and use of digitally stored anatomical models. We will be discussing the overall project goals and the results to date. Digital anatomical models are 3 dimensional, solid model representations of normal anatomy. The digital representations are electronically stored and can be manipulated and displayed on a computer graphics workstation. A digital database of anatomical structures can be used in conjunction with gross dissection in teaching normal anatomy to first year students in the professional curriculum. The computer model gives students the opportunity to "discover" relationships between anatomical structures that may have been destroyed or may not be obvious in the gross dissection. By using a digital database, the student will have the ability to view and manipulate anatomical structures in ways that are not available through interactive video disk (IVD). IVD constrains the student to preselected views and sections stored on the disk. Images Figure 1 PMID:1807707

  12. Digital Natives? New and Old Media and Children's Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bittman, Michael; Rutherford, Leonie; Brown, Jude; Unsworth, Lens

    2011-01-01

    The current generation of young children has been described as "digital natives", having been born into a ubiquitous digital media environment. They are envisaged as educationally independent of the guided interaction provided by "digital immigrants": parents and teachers. This article uses data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children…

  13. Digital video delivery for a digital library in computer science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Edward A.; Abdulla, Ghaleb

    1994-04-01

    With support from four NSF awards we aim to develop a prototype digital library in computer science and apply it to improve undergraduate educations. First, Project Envision, `A User- Centered Database from the Computer Science Literature,' 1991-94, deals with translation, coding standards including SGML, retrieval/previewing/presentation/browsing/linking, human-computer interaction, and construction of a partial archive using text and multimedia materials provided by ACM. Second, `Interactive Learning with a Digital Library in Computer Science,' 1993-96, supported by NSF and ACM with additional assistance from other publishers, focuses on improving learning through delivery of materials from the archive. Third, `Networked Multimedia File System with HyTime,' funded by NSF through the SUCCEED coalition, considers networking support for distributed multimedia applications and the use of HyTime for description of such applications. Fourth, equipment support comes from the Information Access Laboratory allotment of the `Interactive Accessibility: Breaking Barriers to the Power of Computing' grant funded by NSF for 1993-98. In this paper we report on plans and work with digital video relating to these projects. In particular we focus on our analysis of the requirements for a multimedia digital library in computer science and our experience with MPEG as it applies to that library.

  14. Digital demodulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shull, T. A. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A digital demodulator for converting pulse code modulated data from phase shift key (PSK) to non return to zero (NRZ) and to biphase data is described. The demodulator is composed of standard integrated logic circuits. The key to the demodulation function is a pair of cross coupled one shot multivibrators and which with a flip-flop produce the NRZ-L is all that is required, the circuitry is greatly simplified and the 2(v) times bit rate contraint can be removed from the carrier. A flip-flop, an OR gate, and AND gate and a binary counter generate the bit rate clock (BTCK) for the NRZ-L. The remainder of the circuitry is for converting the NRZ-L and BTCK into biphase data. The device was designed for use in the space shuttle bay environment measurements.

  15. Digital Avionics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koelbl, Terry G.; Ponchak, Denise; Lamarche, Teresa

    2002-01-01

    The field of digital avionics experienced another year of important advances in civil aviation, military systems, and space applications. As a result of the events of 9/11/2001, NASA has pursued activities to apply its aerospace technologies toward improved aviation security. Both NASA Glenn Research Center and Langley Research Center have performed flight research demonstrations using advanced datalink concepts to transmit live pictures from inside a jetliner, and to downlink the contents of the plane's 'black box' recorder in real time. The U.S. Navy and General Electric demonstrated survivable engine control (SEC) algorithms during engine ground tests at the Weapons Survivability Laboratory at China Lake. The scientists at Boeing Satellite Systems advanced the field of stellar inertial technology with the development of a new method for positioning optical star trackers on satellites.

  16. Digital Avionics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koelbl, Terry G.; Ponchak, Denise; Lamarche, Teresa

    2003-01-01

    Digital Avionics activities played an important role in the advancements made in civil aviation, military systems, and space applications. This document profiles advances made in each of these areas by the aerospace industry, NASA centers, and the U.S. military. Emerging communication technologies covered in this document include Internet connectivity onboard aircraft, wireless broadband communication for aircraft, and a mobile router for aircraft to communicate in multiple communication networks over the course of a flight. Military technologies covered in this document include avionics for unmanned combat air vehicles and microsatellites, and head-up displays. Other technologies covered in this document include an electronic flight bag for the Boeing 777, and surveillance systems for managing airport operations.

  17. Digital structural

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dohm, J.M.; Anderson, R.C.; Tanaka, K.L.

    1998-01-01

    Magmatic and tectonic activity have both contributed significantly to the surface geology of Mars. Digital structural mapping techniques have now been used to classify and date centers of tectonic activity in the western equatorial region. For example, our results show a center of tectonic activity at Valles Marineris, which may be associated with uplift caused by intrusion. Such evidence may help explain, in part, the development of the large troughs and associated outflow channels and chaotic terrain. We also find a local centre of tectonic activity near the source region of Warrego Valles. Here, we suggest that the valley system may have resulted largely from intrusive-related hydrothermal activity. We hope that this work, together with the current Mars Global Surveyor mission, will lead to a better understanding of the geological processes that shaped the Martian surface.

  18. Soundscapes/Artabilitation - Evolution of a Hybrid Human Performance Concept, Method & Apparatus Where Digital Interactive Media, The Arts, & Entertainment are Combined

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, A. L.

    'SoundScapes' is a body of empirical research that for almost two decades has focused upon investigating noninvasive gesture control of multi-sensory stimuli and potential uses in therapy and the arts. In this context noninvasive gesture refers to motion in invisible activity zones of a system input device utilizing technology outside of human vision. Especially targeted are disabled people of all ages, and special focus has been on the profoundly impaired who especially have limited opportunities for creative self-articulation and playful interaction. The concept has been explored in various situations including: - live stage performances; interactive room installations for museums, workshops, and festivals; and in health-care sessions at hospitals, institutes and special schools. Multifaceted aspects continuously cross-inform in a systemic manner, and each situation where the motion-sensitive environment is applied is considered as a hybrid system. Whilst simplistic in concept, i.e. learning by playful and creative doings, inherent are complexities of optimizing the interactive system to user-experience and evaluation of same. This chapter presents the system in context to its conceived-for-target community; it also presents the parallel practice-led investigations in performance art. Reciprocal design and reflective cross-analysis of the activities has resulted such that performance informs design and strategies of intervention and evaluation with impaired users, and vice versa.

  19. Digital communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peebles, Peyton Z., Jr.

    The fundamental principles of digital communication and the design of practical digital communication systems are explored in an introductory textbook for senior and graduate students of electrical engineering. Chapters are devoted to sampling principles, baseband digital waveforms, baseband digital systems, bandpass binary digital systems, and M-ary digital systems. Deterministic signals, networks, and random-signal theory are reviewed in extensive appendices, and graphs, flow charts, diagrams, and problems are provided.

  20. Advanced simulation of digital filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, G. S.

    1980-09-01

    An Advanced Simulation of Digital Filters has been implemented on the IBM 360/67 computer utilizing Tektronix hardware and software. The program package is appropriate for use by persons beginning their study of digital signal processing or for filter analysis. The ASDF programs provide the user with an interactive method by which filter pole and zero locations can be manipulated. Graphical output on both the Tektronix graphics screen and the Versatec plotter are provided to observe the effects of pole-zero movement.

  1. Can We Teach Digital Natives Digital Literacy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Wan

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, there has been much debate about the concept of digital natives, in particular the differences between the digital natives' knowledge and adoption of digital technologies in informal versus formal educational contexts. This paper investigates the knowledge about educational technologies of a group of undergraduate students…

  2. Digital photorefraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Manuel F.; Jorge, Jorge M.

    1997-12-01

    The early evaluation of the visual status of human infants is of a critical importance. It is of utmost importance to the development of the child's visual system that she perceives clear, focused, retinal images. Furthermore if the refractive problems are not corrected in due time amblyopia may occur. Photorefraction is a non-invasive clinical tool rather convenient for application to this kind of population. A qualitative or semi-quantitative information about refractive errors, accommodation, strabismus, amblyogenic factors and some pathologies (cataracts) can the easily obtained. The photorefraction experimental setup we established using new technological breakthroughs on the fields of imaging devices, image processing and fiber optics, allows the implementation of both the isotropic and eccentric photorefraction approaches. Essentially both methods consist on delivering a light beam into the eyes. It is refracted by the ocular media, strikes the retina, focusing or not, reflects off and is collected by a camera. The system is formed by one CCD color camera and a light source. A beam splitter in front of the camera's objective allows coaxial illumination and observation. An optomechanical system also allows eccentric illumination. The light source is a flash type one and is synchronized with the camera's image acquisition. The camera's image is digitized displayed in real time. Image processing routines are applied for image's enhancement and feature extraction.

  3. Digital photorefraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Manuel F. M.; Jorge, Jorge M.

    1998-01-01

    The early evaluation of the visual status of human infants is of a critical importance. It is of utmost importance to the development of the child's visual system that she perceives clear, focused, retinal images. Furthermore if the refractive problems are not corrected in due time amblyopia may occur. Photorefraction is a non-invasive clinical tool rather convenient for application to this kind of population. A qualitative or semi-quantitative information about refractive errors, accommodation, strabismus, amblyogenic factors and some pathologies (cataracts) can the easily obtained. The photorefraction experimental setup we established using new technological breakthroughs on the fields of imaging devices, image processing and fiber optics, allows the implementation of both the isotropic and eccentric photorefraction approaches. Essentially both methods consist on delivering a light beam into the eyes. It is refracted by the ocular media, strikes the retina, focusing or not, reflects off and is collected by a camera. The system is formed by one CCD color camera and a light source. A beam splitter in front of the camera's objective allows coaxial illumination and observation. An optomechanical system also allows eccentric illumination. The light source is a flash type one and is synchronized with the camera's image acquisition. The camera's image is digitized displayed in real time. Image processing routines are applied for image's enhancement and feature extraction.

  4. H. Sapiens Digital: From Digital Immigrants and Digital Natives to Digital Wisdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prensky, Marc

    2009-01-01

    As we move further into the 21st century, the digital native/digital immigrant paradigm created by Marc Prensky in 2001 is becoming less relevant. In this article, Prensky suggests that we should focus instead on the development of what he calls "digital wisdom." Arguing that digital technology can make us not just smarter but truly wiser, Prensky…

  5. Early diagenetic partial oxidation of organic matter and sulfides in the Middle Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Excello Shale Member of the Fort Scott Limestone and equivalents, northern Midcontinent region, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatch, J.R.; Leventhal, M.S.

    1997-01-01

    A process of early diagenetic partial oxidation of organic matter and sulfides has altered the chemical composition of the Middle Pennsylvanian Excello Shale Member of the Fort Scott Limestone and equivalents in the northern Midcontinent region. This process was identified by comparison of organic carbon contents, Rock-Eval hydrogen indices, organic carbon ??13C and element compositions of core and surface mine samples of the Excello Shale Member with analyses of three other underlying and overlying organic-matter-rich marine shales (offshore shale lithofacies) from southern Iowa, northern Missouri, eastern Kansas and northeastern Oklahoma. The end product of the partial oxidation process is shale with relatively low contents of hydrogen-poor, C13-enriched organic matter, lower contents of sulfur and sulfide-forming elements, and relatively unchanged contents of phosphorus and many trace elements (e.g. Cr, Ni, and V). However, because of lower organic carbon contents, element/organic carbon ratios are greatly increased. The partial oxidation process apparently took place during subaerial exposure of the overlying marine carbonate member (Blackjack Creek Member of the Fort Scott Limestone) following a marine regression when meteoric waters percolated down to the level of the Excello muds allowing oxidation of organic matter and sulfides. This hypothesis is supported by earlier workers, who have identified meteoric carbonate cements within, and soil horizons at the top of the Blackjack Creek Member. The period of oxidation is constrained in that organic matter and sulfides in the Little Osage Shale Member of the Fort Scott Limestone and equivalents (immediately overlying the Blackjack Creek Member) appear unaltered. Similar alteration of other shales in the Middle and Upper Pennsylvanian sections may be local to regional in extent and would depend on the extent and duration of the marine regression and be influenced by local variations in permeability and topography

  6. Diagenesis of Upper Carboniferous rocks in the Ouachita foreland shelf in mid-continent USA: an overview of widespread effects of a Variscan-equivalent orogeny

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walton, A.W.; Wojcik, K.M.; Goldstein, R.H.; Barker, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    Diagenesis of Upper Carboniferous foreland shelf rocks in southeastern Kansas took place at temperatures as high as 100-150?? C at a depth of less than 2 km. High temperatures are the result of the long distance (hundreds of kilometers) advection of groundwater related to collisional orogeny in the Ouachita tectonic belt to the south. Orogenic activity in the Ouachita area was broadly Late Carboniferous, equivalent to the Variscan activity of Europe. Mississippi Valley-type Pb-Zn deposits and oil and gas fields in the US midcontinent and elsewhere are commonly attributed to regional groundwater flow resulting from such collisional events. This paper describes the diagenesis and thermal effects in sandstone and limestone of Upper Carboniferous siliciclastic and limestone-shale cyclothems, the purported confining layer of a supposed regional aquifer. Diagenesis took place in early, intermediate, and late stages. Many intermediate and late stage events in the sandstones have equivalents in the limestones, suggesting that the causes were regional. The sandstone paragenesis includes siderite cement (early stage), quartz overgrowths (intermediate stage), dissolution of feldspar and carbonates, followed by minor Fe calcite, pore-filling kaolinite and sub-poikilotopic Ca ankerite (late stage). The limestone paragenesis includes calcite cement (early stage); megaquartz, chalcedony, and Fe calcite spar (intermediate stage); and dissolution, Ca-Fe dolomite and kaolinite (late stage). The Rm value of vitrinite shows a regional average of 0.6-0.7%; Rock-Eval TmaX suggests a comparable degree of organic maturity. The Th of aqueous fluid inclusions in late stage Ca-Fe-Mg carbonates ranges from 90 to 160?? and Tmice indicates very saline water (>200000 ppm NaCl equivalent); ??18O suggests that the water is of basinal origin. Local warm spots have higher Rm, Tmax, and Th. The results constrain numerical models of regional fluid migration, which is widely viewed as an artesian flow

  7. The Eagle and East Eagle sulfide ore-bearing mafic-ultramafic intrusions in the Midcontinent Rift System, upper Michigan: Geochronology and petrologic evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Xin; Li, Chusi; Ripley, Edward M.; Rossell, Dean; Kamo, Sandra

    2010-03-01

    The Eagle and East Eagle intrusions are small, subvertical dike-like mafic-ultramafic bodies that cut Proterozoic sedimentary strata in the Baraga Basin in northern Michigan. The Eagle intrusion hosts a newly discovered magmatic Ni-Cu-PGE deposit. The nearby East Eagle intrusion also contains sulfide mineralization, but the extent of this mineralization has yet to be determined by further drilling. Both intrusions contain olivine-bearing rocks such as feldspathic peridotite, melatroctolite, and olivine melagabbro. Sulfide accumulations range from disseminated at both Eagle and East Eagle to semimassive and massive at Eagle. U-Pb baddeleyite dating gives a crystallization age of 1107.2 ± 5.7 Ma for the Eagle intrusion, coeval with eruption of picritic basalts at the base of the volcanic succession in the Midcontinent Rift System (MRS). The Fo contents of olivine cores in the Eagle and East Eagle intrusions vary between 75 and 85 mol %, higher than those of olivine in larger layered intrusions in the MRS such as the Duluth Complex. The FeO/MgO ratios and Al2O3 contents of the parental magmas for the Eagle and East Eagle intrusions inferred from olivine and spinel compositions are similar to those of picritic basalts in the base of the MRS volcanic succession. These petrochemical data suggest that the Eagle and East Eagle intrusions are the intrusive equivalents of high-MgO basalts that erupted in the early stages of continental magmatism associated with the development of the rift. Variations in mineral compositions and incompatible trace element ratios suggest that at least three major pulses of magmas were involved in the formation of low-sulfide rocks in the Eagle intrusion. Lower Fo contents of olivine associated with semimassive sulfides as compared to that of olivine in low-sulfide rocks suggest that the magma associated with the semimassive sulfide was more fractionated than the parental magmas of the low-sulfide rocks in the Eagle intrusion. Accumulation of

  8. Machine vision for digital microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yong-Jun; Lee, Jeong-Bong

    2010-01-01

    Machine vision is widely used in an industrial environment today. It can perform various tasks, such as inspecting and controlling production processes, that may require humanlike intelligence. The importance of imaging technology for biological research or medical diagnosis is greater than ever. For example, fluorescent reporter imaging enables scientists to study the dynamics of gene networks with high spatial and temporal resolution. Such high-throughput imaging is increasingly demanding the use of machine vision for real-time analysis and control. Digital microfluidics is a relatively new technology with expectations of becoming a true lab-on-a-chip platform. Utilizing digital microfluidics, only small amounts of biological samples are required and the experimental procedures can be automatically controlled. There is a strong need for the development of a digital microfluidics system integrated with machine vision for innovative biological research today. In this paper, we show how machine vision can be applied to digital microfluidics by demonstrating two applications: machine vision-based measurement of the kinetics of biomolecular interactions and machine vision-based droplet motion control. It is expected that digital microfluidics-based machine vision system will add intelligence and automation to high-throughput biological imaging in the future. PMID:20113117

  9. Digital Sensor Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Ted Quinn; Jerry Mauck; Richard Bockhorst; Ken Thomas

    2013-07-01

    The nuclear industry has been slow to incorporate digital sensor technology into nuclear plant designs due to concerns with digital qualification issues. However, the benefits of digital sensor technology for nuclear plant instrumentation are substantial in terms of accuracy, reliability, availability, and maintainability. This report demonstrates these benefits in direct comparisons of digital and analog sensor applications. It also addresses the qualification issues that must be addressed in the application of digital sensor technology.

  10. KEK digital accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwashita, T.; Adachi, T.; Takayama, K.; Leo, K. W.; Arai, T.; Arakida, Y.; Hashimoto, M.; Kadokura, E.; Kawai, M.; Kawakubo, T.; Kubo, Tomio; Koyama, K.; Nakanishi, H.; Okazaki, K.; Okamura, K.; Someya, H.; Takagi, A.; Tokuchi, A.; Wake, M.

    2011-07-01

    The High Energy Accelerator Research Organization KEK digital accelerator (KEK-DA) is a renovation of the KEK 500 MeV booster proton synchrotron, which was shut down in 2006. The existing 40 MeV drift tube linac and rf cavities have been replaced by an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source embedded in a 200 kV high-voltage terminal and induction acceleration cells, respectively. A DA is, in principle, capable of accelerating any species of ion in all possible charge states. The KEK-DA is characterized by specific accelerator components such as a permanent magnet X-band ECR ion source, a low-energy transport line, an electrostatic injection kicker, an extraction septum magnet operated in air, combined-function main magnets, and an induction acceleration system. The induction acceleration method, integrating modern pulse power technology and state-of-art digital control, is crucial for the rapid-cycle KEK-DA. The key issues of beam dynamics associated with low-energy injection of heavy ions are beam loss caused by electron capture and stripping as results of the interaction with residual gas molecules and the closed orbit distortion resulting from relatively high remanent fields in the bending magnets. Attractive applications of this accelerator in materials and biological sciences are discussed.

  11. Human-machine interactions

    DOEpatents

    Forsythe, J. Chris; Xavier, Patrick G.; Abbott, Robert G.; Brannon, Nathan G.; Bernard, Michael L.; Speed, Ann E.

    2009-04-28

    Digital technology utilizing a cognitive model based on human naturalistic decision-making processes, including pattern recognition and episodic memory, can reduce the dependency of human-machine interactions on the abilities of a human user and can enable a machine to more closely emulate human-like responses. Such a cognitive model can enable digital technology to use cognitive capacities fundamental to human-like communication and cooperation to interact with humans.

  12. Digital Immersive Virtual Environments and Instructional Computing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blascovich, Jim; Beall, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews theory and research relevant to the development of digital immersive virtual environment-based instructional computing systems. The review is organized within the context of a multidimensional model of social influence and interaction within virtual environments that models the interaction of four theoretical factors: theory…

  13. An Assessment of the Vulnerability of Native Phreatophytes to Replacement by Invasive Species in a Mid-Continent Riparian Setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shea, J. A.; Bauer, J. P.; Keller, J.; Butler, J. J.; Kluitenberg, G. J.; Whittemore, D. O.; Jin, W.; Loheide, S. P.

    2005-12-01

    In many areas of the Great Plains region of the United States, non-native phreatophytes, particularly the salt cedar (Tamarix spp.) and the Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia L.), have become the dominant riparian-zone vegetation. The factors that contribute to the establishment of invasive species are under investigation at the Larned Research Site (LRS), located in the riparian corridor of the Arkansas River in south-central Kansas. The riparian zone at the LRS consists of native vegetation; the major phreatophytes at the site are the cottonwood (Populus deltoids), willow (Salix spp.), and mulberry (Morus spp.). The LRS has been the focus of extensive research on stream-aquifer interactions, so considerable data have been collected on the shallow groundwater flow system underlying the area. On-site instrumentation includes 18 wells equipped for continuous water-level monitoring, eight neutron-probe access tubes for observation of soil moisture, and a weather station. Inventories of all trees larger than 0.08 m in diameter at breast height (1266 trunks) were conducted in a portion of the LRS in the summers of 2002 and 2005, and sapflow data were collected in the summers of 2003 and 2004. Water-level data from mid-August 2002 to the present show diurnal fluctuations during the growing season superimposed on a general water-level decline. These diurnal fluctuations are a diagnostic indicator of phreatophyte activity, while the declining water levels can be attributed to regional irrigation pumping during periods of little recharge from streamflow. Estimates of groundwater consumption by phreatophytes, obtained using the approach of White (1932), show a year-to-year decrease in water use, associated with a falling water table; however, potential evapotranspiration values calculated from meteorological data did not decrease significantly. Groundwater consumption estimates using the White method are consistent with sapflow and soil-moisture data. In addition

  14. A new program on digitizing analog seismograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Maofa; Jiang, Qigang; Liu, Qingjie; Huang, Meng

    2016-08-01

    Historical seismograms contain a great variety of useful information which can be used in the study of earthquakes. It is necessary for researchers to digitize analog records and extract the information just as modern computing analysis requires. Firstly, an algorithm based on color scene filed method is presented in order to digitize analog seismograms. Secondly, an interactive software program using C# has been developed to digitize seismogram traces from raster files quickly and accurately. The program can deal with gray-scale images stored in a suitable file format and it offers two different methods: manual digitization and automatic digitization. The test result of the program shows that the methods presented in this paper can lead to good performance.

  15. Robustness in Digital Hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Roger; Lightbody, Gaye

    The growth in electronics has probably been the equivalent of the Industrial Revolution in the past century in terms of how much it has transformed our daily lives. There is a great dependency on technology whether it is in the devices that control travel (e.g., in aircraft or cars), our entertainment and communication systems, or our interaction with money, which has been empowered by the onset of Internet shopping and banking. Despite this reliance, there is still a danger that at some stage devices will fail within the equipment's lifetime. The purpose of this chapter is to look at the factors causing failure and address possible measures to improve robustness in digital hardware technology and specifically chip technology, giving a long-term forecast that will not reassure the reader!

  16. Digital image processing.

    PubMed

    Seeram, Euclid

    2004-01-01

    Digital image processing is now commonplace in radiology, nuclear medicine and sonography. This article outlines underlying principles and concepts of digital image processing. After completing this article, readers should be able to: List the limitations of film-based imaging. Identify major components of a digital imaging system. Describe the history and application areas of digital image processing. Discuss image representation and the fundamentals of digital image processing. Outline digital image processing techniques and processing operations used in selected imaging modalities. Explain the basic concepts and visualization tools used in 3-D and virtual reality imaging. Recognize medical imaging informatics as a new area of specialization for radiologic technologists. PMID:15352557

  17. Digital copying of medium-frequency halftones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eschbach, Reiner

    1998-01-01

    Modern digital copiers offer distinct advantages over conventional analog copiers in their ability to perform added functionality. One disadvantage of digital copiers, however, is their susceptibility to moire. This is caused by interactions of the input data, the scanning resolution and the subsequent binarization for printing. Medium resolution halftones, often cause the severe problems. This paper describes a method to reduce the moire amplitude in for medium frequency halftones.

  18. An Action Research Study Investigating Children's Use of an iPad during Free Play in a Kindergarten Classroom: An Exploration of Teaching Pedagogy and Children's Learning, Social Interactions, and Digital Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds-Blankenship, Tara

    2013-01-01

    As part of human development, technology plays an important role in many children's lives. As digital technologies continue to permeate aspects of many children's everyday lives, educators are integrating digital technologies into classroom practices and, as such, have created a need to examine the ways in which children use technologies in their…

  19. Record of glacial-eustatic sea-level fluctuations in complex middle to late Pennsylvanian facies in the Northern Appalachian Basin and relation to similar events in the Midcontinent basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belt, Edward S.; Heckel, Philip H.; Lentz, Leonard J.; Bragonier, William A.; Lyons, Timothy W.

    2011-06-01

    Pennsylvanian cycles in the Northern Appalachian Basin (NAB) were historically considered to result from delta-lobe switching, and more recently from sea-level fluctuation with sandy deltas prograding during highstand. These interpretations are revised using new data from cores and outcrop exposures. Thick (> 5 m) channel deposits with a marked erosion surface at their base cutting down across previous cycles are re-interpreted as incised valley fill (IVF) deposits in paleovalleys, because the basal erosion surfaces are widespread, and thus reflect a record of lowstand. Most common are simple paleovalleys that contain mainly sandy fluvial deposits. Compound paleovalleys with sequence boundaries above the basal erosion surface, contain terrestrial, estuarine, and marine deposits. Early to late highstand deposits in interfluvial parts of the cycles are dominated by shale and mudstone, with paleosols, coals, and local non-marine limestone, which reflect floodbasin to lacustrine conditions. These reinterpretations are applied to previously and newly recognized cycles in ascending order: Upper Kittanning, Lower Freeport, Upper Freeport Leader (new), Upper Freeport, Piedmont (new), Mahoning, Mason interval (locally includes Upper New Galilee in the north), and Brush Creek, across a 300-km arc in the Northern Appalachian Basin. These deposits accumulated in a 'high shelf' setting that experienced fewer marine transgressions, and were interrupted by more frequent exposure and downcutting, in contrast to the thicker and more complete succession with more numerous marine units in the Midcontinent. Magnitudes of highstand transgressions into this basin, deduced from the up-dip extent of marine and brackish fossil assemblages, were greatest for the Brush Creek, less so for the Upper Kittanning and Mahoning, and least for the Lower Freeport, Upper Freeport Leader, Piedmont, and Mason. The anomalous basin-wide fresh-water roofshales and equivalents of the Upper Freeport coal may

  20. Digital photography: a primer for pathologists.

    PubMed

    Riley, Roger S; Ben-Ezra, Jonathan M; Massey, Davis; Slyter, Rodney L; Romagnoli, Gina

    2004-01-01

    adjacent microscopic fields can be stitched together to prepare "zoomable" panoramas that encompass a large part of a microscope slide and closely simulate observation through a real microscope. With further advances in computer speed and Internet streaming technology, the virtual microscope could easily replace the real microscope in pathology education. Later in this decade, interactive immersive computer experiences may completely revolutionize hematology education and make the conventional lecture and laboratory format obsolete. Patient care is enhanced by the transmission of digital images to other individuals for consultation and education, and by the inclusion of these images in patient care documents. In research laboratories, digital cameras are widely used to document experimental results and to obtain experimental data. PMID:15065212

  1. Digital subtraction laryngography

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, B.W.; Enzmann, D.R.; Hopp, M.L.; Castellino, R.A.

    1983-06-01

    Digital subtraction laryngography was used to evaluate laryngeal function in 8 patients: 4 with normal larynxes and 4 with laryngeal disease. Subtracted digital images provided a dynamic display of the extent and symmetry of vocal cord excursions and pyriform sinus inflation, and the vocal cord resting position was also clearly depicted. The technical details of digital subtraction laryngography and its application are described.

  2. Bridging the Digital Divide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Alan; Milner, Helen; Killer, Terry; Dixon, Genny

    2008-01-01

    As the Government publishes its action plan for consultation on digital inclusion, the authors consider some of the challenges and opportunities for the delivery of digital inclusion. Clarke argues that digital inclusion requires more than access to technology or the skills to use it effectively, it demands information and media literacy. Milner…

  3. Digital Ink and Notetaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colwell, Kenneth E.

    2004-01-01

    Tablet PCs and graphics tablets employ digital ink technology. In this paper the author introduces the reader to digital ink technology with the aim of promoting its use in various instructional or training settings, with the goal of improving instructor-learner dialogue and student learning. The potential of digital ink for improved instructional…

  4. Reconceptualising Critical Digital Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pangrazio, Luciana

    2016-01-01

    While it has proved a useful concept during the past 20 years, the notion of "critical digital literacy" requires rethinking in light of the fast-changing nature of young people's digital practices. This paper contrasts long-established notions of "critical digital literacy" (based primarily around the critical consumption of…

  5. Digital Literacy. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    21st Century students need a complex set of skills to be successful in a digital environment. Digital literacy, similar to traditional definitions of literacy, is a set of skills students use to locate, organize, understand, evaluate and create information. The difference is that it occurs in an environment where a growing set of digital tools…

  6. Digital Language Death

    PubMed Central

    Kornai, András

    2013-01-01

    Of the approximately 7,000 languages spoken today, some 2,500 are generally considered endangered. Here we argue that this consensus figure vastly underestimates the danger of digital language death, in that less than 5% of all languages can still ascend to the digital realm. We present evidence of a massive die-off caused by the digital divide. PMID:24167559

  7. Mass Digitization of Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Mass digitization of the bound volumes that we generally call "books" has begun, and, thanks to the interest in Google and all that it does, it is getting widespread media attention. The Open Content Alliance (OCA), a library initiative formed after Google announced its library book digitization project, has brought library digitization projects…

  8. NEXUS: Digitizing Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Camille

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of digital technology in the context of higher education planning considers how these technologies change teaching; the digital divide; the costs of information technology; hard wiring the campus; material consequences of information technology; digitally enabled crimes and misdemeanors; and libraries and scholarly publishing. Concludes…

  9. Digital language death.

    PubMed

    Kornai, András

    2013-01-01

    Of the approximately 7,000 languages spoken today, some 2,500 are generally considered endangered. Here we argue that this consensus figure vastly underestimates the danger of digital language death, in that less than 5% of all languages can still ascend to the digital realm. We present evidence of a massive die-off caused by the digital divide. PMID:24167559

  10. Interactive Digital Computing in Undergraduate Physical Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herber, R. H.; Hazony, Y.

    1974-01-01

    Presents the results of educational experiments aimed at incorporating APL programming techniques in an undergraduate physical-analytical laboratory course. Included are a list of first year experiments and some examples of operations. (CC)

  11. Digital Mammography and Digital Breast Tomosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Moseley, Tanya W

    2016-06-01

    Breast imaging technology has advanced significantly from the 1930s until the present. American women have a 1 in 8 chance of developing breast cancer. Mammography has been proven in multiple clinical trials to reduce breast cancer mortality. Although a mainstay of breast imaging and improved from film-screen mammography, digital mammography is not a perfect examination. Overlapping obscuring breast tissue limits mammographic interpretation. Breast digital tomosynthesis reduces and/or eliminates overlapping obscuring breast tissue. Although there are some disadvantages with digital breast tomosynthesis, this relatively lost-cost technology may be used effectively in the screening and diagnostic settings. PMID:27101241

  12. Digital photography in anatomical pathology.

    PubMed

    Leong, F J; Leong, A S

    2004-01-01

    Digital imaging has made major inroads into the routine practice of anatomical pathology and replaces photographic prints and Kodachromes for reporting and conference purposes. More advanced systems coupled to computers allow greater versatility and speed of turnaround as well as lower costs of incorporating macroscopic and microscopic pictures into pathology reports and publications. Digital images allow transmission to remote sites via the Internet for consultation, quality assurance and educational purposes, and can be stored on and disseminated by CD-ROM. Total slide digitisation is now a reality and will replace glass slides to a large extent. Three-dimensional images of gross specimens can be assembled and posted on websites for interactive educational programmes. There are also applications in research, allowing more objective and automated quantitation of a variety of morphological and immunohistological parameters. Early reports indicate that medical vision systems are a reality and can provide for automated computer-generated histopathological diagnosis and quality assurance. PMID:15048004

  13. Digital rights management for digital cinema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirovski, Darko; Peinado, Marcus; Petitcolas, Fabien A. P.

    2001-12-01

    There is a wide consensus among the feature film production studios that the Internet era brings a new paradigm for film distribution to cinemas worldwide. The benefits of digital cinema to both producers and cinemas are numerous: significantly lower distribution and maintenance costs, immediate access to film libraries, higher presentation quality, and strong potential for developing new business models. Despite these advantages, the studios are still reluctant to jump into the digital age. The main showstopper for digital cinema is the danger of widespread piracy. Piracy already costs Hollywood an estimated two billion dollars annually and digital cinema without proper copyright enforcement could increase this number. In this paper, we present a copyright management system that aims at providing the set of necessary security tools: standard cryptographic primitives and copyright protection mechanisms that enable a reliable and secure feature film delivery system.

  14. Digital Collections, Digital Libraries and the Digitization of Cultural Heritage Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Clifford

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the development of digital collections and digital libraries. Topics include digitization of cultural heritage information; broadband issues; lack of compelling content; training issues; types of materials being digitized; sustainability; digital preservation; infrastructure; digital images; data mining; and future possibilities for…

  15. Digital photogrammetry at the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greve, Clifford W.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is converting its primary map production and revision operations to use digital photogrammetric techniques. The primary source of data for these operations is the digital orthophoto quadrangle derived from National Aerial Photography Program images. These digital orthophotos are used on workstations that permit comparison of existing vector and raster data with the orthophoto and interactive collection and revision of the vector data.

  16. Tree-Structured Digital Organisms Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Teruhiko; Nobesawa, Shiho; Tahara, Ikuo

    Tierra and Avida are well-known models of digital organisms. They describe a life process as a sequence of computation codes. A linear sequence model may not be the only way to describe a digital organism, though it is very simple for a computer-based model. Thus we propose a new digital organism model based on a tree structure, which is rather similar to the generic programming. With our model, a life process is a combination of various functions, as if life in the real world is. This implies that our model can easily describe the hierarchical structure of life, and it can simulate evolutionary computation through mutual interaction of functions. We verified our model by simulations that our model can be regarded as a digital organism model according to its definitions. Our model even succeeded in creating species such as viruses and parasites.

  17. Digital Earth Initiative: A Joint Interagency Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halem, Milton

    1999-01-01

    The Digital Earth is a virtual representation of our planet that enables a person to explore and interact with the vast amounts of natural and cultural information gathered about the Earth. The Digital Earth comprises data interfaces and standards enabling access to geo-referenced data from remote sensing, cartographic, demographic, medical, and other sources to respond to questions posed by the user. In a recent address at the California Science Center in Los Angeles, Vice President Al Gore articulated a Digital Earth Vision. That vision spoke to developing a multi-resolution, three-dimensional representation of the planet, into which we can roam and zoom into vast quantities of embedded geo-referenced data. The vision was not limited to moving through space but also allowing travel over a time-line, which can be set for days, years, centuries, or even geological epochs. As prototypes become available, it would also be possible to interact with the Digital Earth in multiple places around the country with access to high-speed networks and at a more limited level of access over the Internet. NASA was asked by the Vice President to lead an interagency initiative that would take steps to bring this vision to the public. This talk describes the start-up and plans of the Digital Earth Interagency Working Group in the formulation of its charter, an architecture reference model for Digital Earth, public/private partnerships, cooperative agreement notices, Digital Earth prototypes, and testbeds. Animations employing technologies for virtual roaming and zooming through multi-resolution satellite data set as prototype systems will be presented along with examples of potential user scenarios. Plans for engaging academia and industry in implementing the Digital Earth initiative will be discussed.

  18. Construction of a Digital Learning Environment Based on Cloud Computing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Jihong; Xiong, Caiping; Liu, Huazhong

    2015-01-01

    Constructing the digital learning environment for ubiquitous learning and asynchronous distributed learning has opened up immense amounts of concrete research. However, current digital learning environments do not fully fulfill the expectations on supporting interactive group learning, shared understanding and social construction of knowledge.…

  19. Designing Digital Environments for Art Education/Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milekic, Slavko

    2000-01-01

    Examines the role of digital technology in the context of art education and art exploration. Discusses the development of digital environments as the next step in the evolution of traditional computers, whose main characteristic is support for simultaneous multiple-user interactions and for social and collaborative activities. (LRW)

  20. Information Seeking Behavior in Digital Image Collections: A Cognitive Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matusiak, Krystyna K.

    2006-01-01

    Presents the results of a qualitative study that focuses on search patterns of college students and community users interacting with a digital image collection. The study finds a distinct difference between the two groups of users and examines the role of mental models in information seeking behavior in digital libraries.

  1. Digital Portfolios: Powerful Marketing Tool for Communications Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikirk, Martin

    2008-01-01

    A digital portfolio is a powerful marketing tool for young people searching for employment in the communication or interactive media fields. With a digital portfolio, students can demonstrate their skills at working with software tools, demonstrate appropriate use of materials, explain technical procedures, show an understanding of processes and…

  2. Radical Change: Books for Youth in a Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dresang, Eliza T.

    2008-01-01

    "Radical Change: Books for Youth in a Digital Age" (Dresang, 1999) is a landmark work that examines ways in which young readers are affected by the Digital Age. The impetus for the book grew out of Eliza Dresang's observation that printed books with nonlinear, interactive qualities appeal strongly to contemporary children. She noted that…

  3. More than Digital Content: Long Live Your Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Jack M.

    2002-01-01

    Examines digital content management issues and intellectual property rights in higher education. Topics include ownership of digital materials; ownership of courses; faculty rights and compensation; and the value of a university learning experience that is far more than the value of course content, including interaction and being part of an…

  4. Colloquium: Digital Technologies--Help or Hindrance for the Humanities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Elton; Bissell, Chris; Hardwick, Lorna; Jones, Allan; Ridge, Mia; Wolffe, John

    2012-01-01

    This article offers reflections arising from a recent colloquium at the Open University on the implications of the development of digital humanities for research in arts disciplines, and also for their interactions with computing and technology. Particular issues explored include the ways in which the digital turn in humanities research is also a…

  5. Digital work-flow

    PubMed Central

    MARSANGO, V.; BOLLERO, R.; D’OVIDIO, N.; MIRANDA, M.; BOLLERO, P.; BARLATTANI, A.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective. The project presents a clinical case in which the digital work-flow procedure was applied for a prosthetic rehabilitation in natural teeth and implants. Materials. Digital work-flow uses patient’s photo for the aesthetic’s planning, digital smile technology for the simulation of the final restoration and real time scanning to register the two arches. Than the scanning are sent to the laboratory that proceed with CAD-CAM production. Results. Digital work-flow offers the opportunities to easily speak with laboratory and patients, gives better clinical results and demonstrated to be a less invasiveness method for the patient. Conclusion. Intra-oral scanner, digital smile design, preview using digital wax-up, CAD-CAM production, are new predictable opportunities for prosthetic team. This work-flow, compared with traditional methods, is faster, more precise and predictable. PMID:25694797

  6. Digital radiography: an overview.

    PubMed

    Parks, Edwin T; Williamson, Gail F

    2002-11-15

    Since the discovery of X-rays in 1895, film has been the primary medium for capturing, displaying, and storing radiographic images. It is a technology that dental practitioners are the most familiar and comfortable with in terms of technique and interpretation. Digital radiography is the latest advancement in dental imaging and is slowly being adopted by the dental profession. Digital imaging incorporates computer technology in the capture, display, enhancement, and storage of direct radiographic images. Digital imaging offers some distinct advantages over film, but like any emerging technology, it presents new and different challenges for the practitioner to overcome. This article presents an overview of digital imaging including basic terminology and comparisons with film-based imaging. The principles of direct and indirect digital imaging modalities, intraoral and extraoral applications, image processing, and diagnostic efficacy will be discussed. In addition, the article will provide a list of questions dentists should consider prior to purchasing digital imaging systems for their practice. PMID:12444400

  7. Parallel digital modem using multirate digital filter banks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadr, Ramin; Vaidyanathan, P. P.; Raphaeli, Dan; Hinedi, Sami

    1994-01-01

    A new class of architectures for an all-digital modem is presented in this report. This architecture, referred to as the parallel receiver (PRX), is based on employing multirate digital filter banks (DFB's) to demodulate, track, and detect the received symbol stream. The resulting architecture is derived, and specifications are outlined for designing the DFB for the PRX. The key feature of this approach is a lower processing rate then either the Nyquist rate or the symbol rate, without any degradation in the symbol error rate. Due to the freedom in choosing the processing rate, the designer is able to arbitrarily select and use digital components, independent of the speed of the integrated circuit technology. PRX architecture is particularly suited for high data rate applications, and due to the modular structure of the parallel signal path, expansion to even higher data rates is accommodated with each. Applications of the PRX would include gigabit satellite channels, multiple spacecraft, optical links, interactive cable-TV, telemedicine, code division multiple access (CDMA) communications, and others.

  8. Digital Sensor Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Ken D.; Quinn, Edward L.; Mauck, Jerry L.; Bockhorst, Richard M.

    2015-02-01

    The nuclear industry has been slow to incorporate digital sensor technology into nuclear plant designs due to concerns with digital qualification issues. However, the benefits of digital sensor technology for nuclear plant instrumentation are substantial in terms of accuracy and reliability. This paper, which refers to a final report issued in 2013, demonstrates these benefits in direct comparisons of digital and analog sensor applications. Improved accuracy results from the superior operating characteristics of digital sensors. These include improvements in sensor accuracy and drift and other related parameters which reduce total loop uncertainty and thereby increase safety and operating margins. An example instrument loop uncertainty calculation for a pressure sensor application is presented to illustrate these improvements. This is a side-by-side comparison of the instrument loop uncertainty for both an analog and a digital sensor in the same pressure measurement application. Similarly, improved sensor reliability is illustrated with a sample calculation for determining the probability of failure on demand, an industry standard reliability measure. This looks at equivalent analog and digital temperature sensors to draw the comparison. The results confirm substantial reliability improvement with the digital sensor, due in large part to ability to continuously monitor the health of a digital sensor such that problems can be immediately identified and corrected. This greatly reduces the likelihood of a latent failure condition of the sensor at the time of a design basis event. Notwithstanding the benefits of digital sensors, there are certain qualification issues that are inherent with digital technology and these are described in the report. One major qualification impediment for digital sensor implementation is software common cause failure (SCCF).

  9. Digital Longitudinal Tomosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimkus, Daniel Steven

    1985-12-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to investigate the clinical utility of digital longitudinal tomosynthesis in radiology. By acquiring a finite group of digital images during a longitudinal tomographic exposure, and processing these images, tomographic planes, other than the fulcrum plane, can be reconstructed. This process is now termed "tomosynthesis". A prototype system utilizing this technique was developed. Both phantom and patient studies were done with this system. The phantom studies were evaluated by subjective, visual criterion and by quantitative analysis of edge sharpness and noise in the reconstructions. Two groups of patients and one volunteer were studied. The first patient group consisted of 8 patients undergoing intravenous urography (IVU). These patients had digital tomography and film tomography of the abdomen. The second patient group consisted of 4 patients with lung cancer admitted to the hospital for laser resection of endobronchial tumor. These patients had mediastinal digital tomograms to evaluate the trachea and mainstem bronchi. The knee of one volunteer was imaged by film tomography and digital tomography. The results of the phantom studies showed that the digital reconstructions accurately produced images of the desired planes. The edge sharpness of the reconstructions approached that of the acquired images. Adequate reconstructions were achieved with as few as 5 images acquired during the exposure, with the quality of the reconstructions improving as the number of images acquired increased. The IVU patients' digital studies had less contrast and spatial resolution than the film tomograms. The single renal lesion visible on the film tomograms was also visible in the digital images. The digital mediastinal studies were felt by several radiologists to be superior to a standard chest xray in evaluating the airways. The digital images of the volunteer's knee showed many of the same anatomic features as the film tomogram, but the digital

  10. Cameras for digital microscopy.

    PubMed

    Spring, Kenneth R

    2013-01-01

    This chapter reviews the fundamental characteristics of charge-coupled devices (CCDs) and related detectors, outlines the relevant parameters for their use in microscopy, and considers promising recent developments in the technology of detectors. Electronic imaging with a CCD involves three stages--interaction of a photon with the photosensitive surface, storage of the liberated charge, and readout or measurement of the stored charge. The most demanding applications in fluorescence microscopy may require as much as four orders of greater magnitude sensitivity. The image in the present-day light microscope is usually acquired with a CCD camera. The CCD is composed of a large matrix of photosensitive elements (often referred to as "pixels" shorthand for picture elements, which simultaneously capture an image over the entire detector surface. The light-intensity information for each pixel is stored as electronic charge and is converted to an analog voltage by a readout amplifier. This analog voltage is subsequently converted to a numerical value by a digitizer situated on the CCD chip, or very close to it. Several (three to six) amplifiers are required for each pixel, and to date, uniform images with a homogeneous background have been a problem because of the inherent difficulties of balancing the gain in all of the amplifiers. Complementary metal oxide semiconductor sensors also exhibit relatively high noise associated with the requisite high-speed switching. Both of these deficiencies are being addressed, and sensor performance is nearing that required for scientific imaging. PMID:23931507

  11. Enhancing children's health through digital story.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Tami H; Hauenstein, Emily

    2008-01-01

    Stories in all of their many forms, including books, plays, skits, movies, poems, and songs, appeal to individuals of all ages but especially the young. Children are easily engaged in stories, and today's generation of children, the millennium generation, demands interactive, multimedia-rich environments. Story as a teaching and learning technique is pervasive in the classroom but is infrequently used to promote health. Because of advancing technology, it is possible to create interactive digital storytelling programs that teach children health topics. Using digital storytelling in an interactive environment to promote health has not been tested, but there is empirical support for using story in health education and interactive technology to promote health. This article briefly reviews the literature and discusses how technology and storytelling can be joined to promote positive health outcomes. PMID:18438149

  12. Digital In, Digital Out: Digital Editing with Firewire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Bob; Sauer, Jeff

    1997-01-01

    Reviews linear and nonlinear digital video (DV) editing equipment and software, using the IEEE 1394 (FireWire) connector. Includes a chart listing specifications and rating eight DV editing systems, reviews two DV still-photo cameras, and previews beta DV products. (PEN)

  13. Debunking the "Digital Native": Beyond Digital Apartheid, towards Digital Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, C.; Czerniewicz, L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper interrogates the currently pervasive discourse of the "net generation" finding the concept of the "digital native" especially problematic, both empirically and conceptually. We draw on a research project of South African higher education students' access to and use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) to show that age is…

  14. Digital security technology simplified.

    PubMed

    Scaglione, Bernard J

    2007-01-01

    Digital security technology is making great strides in replacing analog and other traditional security systems including CCTV card access, personal identification and alarm monitoring applications. Like any new technology, the author says, it is important to understand its benefits and limitations before purchasing and installing, to ensure its proper operation and effectiveness. This article is a primer for security directors on how digital technology works. It provides an understanding of the key components which make up the foundation for digital security systems, focusing on three key aspects of the digital security world: the security network, IP cameras and IP recorders. PMID:17907609

  15. Digital solar system geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batson, R. M.; Kozak, R. C.; Isbell, Nancy K.

    1991-01-01

    All available synoptic maps of the solid-surface bodies of the Solar System were digitized for presentation in the planned Atlas of the Solar System by Greeley and Batson. Since the last report (Batson et al., 1990), preliminary Uranian satellite maps were replaced with improved versions, Galilean satellite geology was simplified and digitized, structure was added to many maps, and the maps were converted to a standard format, with corresponding standing colors for the mapped units. Following these changes, the maps were re-reviewed by their authors and are now undergoing final editing before preparation for publication. In some cases (for Mercury, Venus, and Mars), more detailed maps were digitized and then simplified for the Atlas. Other detailed maps are planned to be digitized in the coming year for the Moon and the Galilean satellites. For most of the remaining bodies such as the Uranian satellites, the current digitized versions contain virtually all the detail that can be mapped given the available data; those versions will be unchanged for the Atlas. These digital geologic maps are archived at the digital scale of 1/16 degree/ pixel, in sinusoidal format. The availability of geology of the Solar System in a digital database will facilitate comparisons and integration with other data: digitized lunar geologic maps have already been used in a comparison with Galileo SSI observations of the Moon.

  16. Experiments in digital literacy.

    PubMed

    Eshet-Alkali, Yoram; Amichai-Hamburger, Yair

    2004-08-01

    Having digital literacy requires more than just the ability to use software or to operate a digital device; it includes a large variety of complex skills such as cognitive, motoric, sociological, and emotional that users need to have in order to use digital environments effectively. A conceptual model that was recently described by the authors suggests that digital literacy comprises five major digital skills: photo-visual skills ("reading" instructions from graphical displays), reproduction skills (utilizing digital reproduction to create new, meaningful materials from preexisting ones), branching skills (constructing knowledge from non-linear, hypertextual navigation), information skills (evaluating the quality and validity of information), and socio-emotional skills (understanding the "rules" that prevail in cyberspace and applying this understanding in online cyberspace communication). The present paper presents results from a performance-based pioneer study that investigated the application of the above digital literacy skills conceptual model among different groups of scholars. Results clearly indicate that the younger participants performed better than the older ones, with photo-visual and branching literacy tasks, whereas the older participants were found to be more literate in reproduction and information literacy tasks. Research results shed light on the cognitive skills that users utilize in performing with digital environments, and provide educators and software developers with helpful guidelines for designing better user-centered digital environments. PMID:15331029

  17. Digitization Best Practices

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Fei; Holtkamp, Irma S.; Knudson, Frances L.

    2012-07-31

    This project involved performing tests and documenting results to determine best practices for digitizing older print documents. The digitization process is complicated, especially when original documents exhibit non-standard fonts and are faded. Tests focused on solutions to improve high quality scanning, increase OCR accuracy, and efficiently use embedded metadata. Results are summarized. From the test results on the right sides, we know that when we plan to digitize documents, we should balance Quantity and Quality based on our expectation, and then make final decision for the digitization process.

  18. Exploring digital professionalism.

    PubMed

    Ellaway, Rachel H; Coral, Janet; Topps, David; Topps, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    The widespread use of digital media (both computing devices and the services they access) has blurred the boundaries between our personal and professional lives. Contemporary students are the last to remember a time before the widespread use of the Internet and they will be the first to practice in a largely e-health environment. This article explores concepts of digital professionalism and their place in contemporary medical education, and proposes a series of principles of digital professionalism to guide teaching, learning and practice in the healthcare professions. Despite the many risks and fears surrounding their use, digital media are not an intrinsic threat to medical professionalism. Professionals should maintain the capacity for deliberate, ethical, and accountable practice when using digital media. The authors describe a digital professionalism framework structured around concepts of proficiency, reputation, and responsibility. Digital professionalism can be integrated into medical education using strategies based on awareness, alignment, assessment, and accountability. These principles of digital professionalism provide a way for medical students and medical practitioners to embrace the positive aspects of digital media use while being mindful and deliberate in its use to avoid or minimize any negative consequences. PMID:26030375

  19. Students and the Interactive Whiteboard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biró, Piroska

    2011-01-01

    The spread of Interactive Whiteboards in Hungary has made students more curious, interested and motivated. The new digital generation claims reform and besides the traditional education they need digital material, extra knowledge since it is much easier to access extra information in connection with a particular curriculum. They spend a lot of…

  20. Digital Learning Environments: New Possibilities and Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Otto

    2000-01-01

    New ways of teaching online allow integration of different presentation methods, multisensory instruction, extensive interactivity, and improved support systems. The digital environment makes autonomous learning even more autonomous. There is a shift from instruction to enablement of independent and self-directed learning. (SK)

  1. ESL and Digital Video Integration: Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, J., Ed.; Gromik, N., Ed.; Edwards, N., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    It should come as no surprise that digital video technology is of particular interest to English language learners; students are drawn to its visual appeal and vibrant creative potential. The seven original case studies in this book demonstrate how video can be an effective and powerful tool to create fluid, fun, interactive, and collaborative…

  2. Digital Audio: A Sound Design Element.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Ann; Varnadoe, Susan

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of incorporating audio into videodiscs for multimedia educational applications highlights a project developed for the Navy that used digital audio in an interactive video delivery system (IVDS) for training sonar operators. Storage constraints with videodiscs are explained, design requirements for the IVDS are described, and production…

  3. Increasing Accessibility by Pooling Digital Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cushion, Steve

    2004-01-01

    There are now many CALL authoring packages that can create interactive websites and a large number of language teachers are writing materials for the whole range of such packages. Currently, each product stores its data in different formats thus hindering interoperability, pooling of digital resources and moving between software packages based in…

  4. Building the Digital Library Infrastructure: A Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tebbetts, Diane R.

    1999-01-01

    Provides a framework for examining the complex infrastructure needed to successfully implement a digital library. Highlights include database development, online public-access catalogs, interactive technical services, full-text documents, hardware and wiring, licensing, access, and security issues. (Author/LRW)

  5. The Evolution of Research on Digital Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillenbourg, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    How does AI&EdAIED today compare to 25 years ago? This paper addresses this evolution by identifying six trends. The trends are ongoing and will influence learning technologies going forward. First, the physicality of interactions and the physical space of the learner became genuine components of digital education. The frontier between the…

  6. OneCleveland: Connecting the Digital City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonick, Lev; Junnar, Priya

    2005-01-01

    A new urban landscape characterizes cities around the globe, eclipsing the smokestacks of the 19th century and skyscrapers of the 20th century, yet the topography of the 21st century digital cityscape is almost invisible. In sharp contrast to the limits of interaction imposed by geography, architecture, and physical distances characteristic of…

  7. Promoting Gender Equality in Digital Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertl, Bernhard; Helling, Kathrin

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with gender phenomena in the context of digital literacy. Studies show that computer use, computer skills, and computer-related self-concepts are subject to gender differences. These differences may affect classroom interactions as well as learning processes and have therefore to be considered carefully by teachers who apply…

  8. The digital library: an oxymoron?

    PubMed Central

    Guédon, J C

    1999-01-01

    "Virtual libraries" and "digital libraries" have become stock phrases of our times. But what do they really mean? While digital refers to a new form of document encoding and must be approached from that perspective, virtual resonates with aspects that modern philosophy treats with benign neglect at best. The word virtual harbors the notion of potential, and therein lies its hidden strength. Although strong commercial interests try to use the shift to a digital environment to redefine the political economy of knowledge, and thus virtualize libraries into a state of almost complete impotence, all hope is not lost. Librarians of virtualized libraries may well discover that they have re-empowered institutions if they place human interaction at the heart of their operations. In other words, rather than envisioning themselves as knowledge bankers sitting on treasure vaults of knowledge, they should see themselves as "hearts" dynamizing human communities. They should also see themselves as an essential part of these communities, and not as external repositories of knowledge. In this fashion, they will avoid the fate of becoming an oxymoron. PMID:9934524

  9. Interactive Books for Primary and Secondary Education for the Course of Religion in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitropoulou, Vasiliki

    2012-01-01

    The Greek Ministry of Education has initiated the project "Digital School" since September 2011. One of the actions of the Digital School concerns the development of digital interactive books (in html) for all school courses. These interactive books are enriched with digital components with activities which are embedded in them. The Course…

  10. Digital rights language support for evolving digital cinema requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orri, Xavier; Mas, Joan-Maria; Macq, Benoit M. M.

    2003-06-01

    Digital cinema can be defined as the digital electronic distribution and display of theatrical film content or live material to the theatre. However, this simple definition does not reflect the complex mesh of balanced business relationships between the different parties involved in the worldwide cinematic distribution. Its transition from an analogue to a digital business will happen progressively, starting with only content being digitally distributed and going until an all-digital business. From these facts derive strong requirements on digital rights management (DRM) systems for digital cinema and therefore on the digital rights language supporting it. This paper explores the requirements imposed by the cinematic distribution model and by its progressive transition to digital, and the impact these have on digital rights languages. We analyze the support provided by different digital rights languages, identifying weaknesses and exploring solutions in fulfilling the requirements of the digital cinema distribution model.

  11. The Digital Absurd

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Steve

    2010-01-01

    I believe that the concept of the absurd, as described in philosophy and reflected in works of drama and literature, provides an unusual and helpful perspective from which to view the emerging field of digital media. In my opinion, absurd principles can help us understand the mixed feelings we may have when engaging with digital media: joy and…

  12. Educating Digital Citizens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Digital citizenship is how educators, citizens, and parents can teach where the lines of cyber safety and ethics are in the interconnected online world their students will inhabit. Aside from keeping technology users safe, digital citizenship also prepares students to survive and thrive in an environment embedded with information, communication,…

  13. Digital Media and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, 2012

    2012-01-01

    MacArthur launched the digital media and learning initiative in 2006 to explore how digital media are changing the way young people learn, socialize, communicate, and play. Since 2006, the Foundation has awarded grants totaling more than $100 million for research, development of innovative new technologies, new learning environments for youth,…

  14. Digital automatic gain control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uzdy, Z.

    1980-01-01

    Performance analysis, used to evaluated fitness of several circuits to digital automatic gain control (AGC), indicates that digital integrator employing coherent amplitude detector (CAD) is best device suited for application. Circuit reduces gain error to half that of conventional analog AGC while making it possible to automatically modify response of receiver to match incoming signal conditions.

  15. Digital rotation measurement unit

    DOEpatents

    Sanderson, S.N.

    1983-09-30

    A digital rotation indicator is disclosed for monitoring the position of a valve member having a movable actuator. The indicator utilizes mercury switches adapted to move in cooperation with the actuator. Each of the switches produces an output as it changes state when the actuator moves. A direction detection circuit is connected to the switches to produce a first digital signal indicative of the direction of rotation of the actuator. A count pulse generating circuit is also connected to the switches to produce a second digital pulse signal having count pulses corresponding to a change of state of any of the mercury switches. A reset pulse generating circuit is provided to generate a reset pulse each time a count pulse is generated. An up/down counter is connected to receive the first digital pulse signal and the second digital pulse signal and to count the pulses of the second digital pulse signal either up or down depending upon the instantaneous digital value of the first digital signal whereby a running count indicative of the movement of the actuator is maintained.

  16. Occupying the Digital Humanities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    This essay questions the digital humanities' dependence on interpretation and critique as strategies for reading and responding to texts. Instead, the essay proposes suggestion as a digital rhetorical practice, one that does not replace hermeneutics, but instead offers alternative ways to respond to texts. The essay uses the Occupy movement as an…

  17. The Digital Vaults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaacs, Suzanne; Potter, Lee Ann

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the Digital Vaults and offers suggestions in introducing this site to students. The Digital Vaults, inspired by the permanent Public Vaults exhibition launched by the National Archives in 2004, is not just another website, but it designed to be an online exhibit and teaching tool, by offering both exposure to historical…

  18. Digital Pinhole Camera

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancor, Rachael; Lancor, Brian

    2014-01-01

    In this article we describe how the classic pinhole camera demonstration can be adapted for use with digital cameras. Students can easily explore the effects of the size of the pinhole and its distance from the sensor on exposure time, magnification, and image quality. Instructions for constructing a digital pinhole camera and our method for…

  19. Digital Collections Inventory Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClung, Patricia A.

    This report is intended to inform and stimulate discussion on digital library programs as well as the potential usefulness, scope, and desired features of future inventories of online digital collections. It describes a joint project by the Commission on Preservation and Access and the Council on Library Resources to determine the extent to which…

  20. Cresting the Digital Divide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Kay; Steelman, Joyce

    2008-01-01

    Catawba Valley Community College has introduced digital storytelling (DS), an innovative instructional method that has produced extraordinary results. Digital storytelling uses affordable software to craft powerful multimedia presentations of student writing. Students create 3-to-4-minute movies with images, voiceovers, and music. This project…

  1. Digital Video Editing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, Terry

    2004-01-01

    Monica Adams, head librarian at Robinson Secondary in Fairfax country, Virginia, states that librarians should have the technical knowledge to support projects related to digital video editing. The process of digital video editing and the cables, storage issues and the computer system with software is described.

  2. Will Digital Texts Succeed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acker, Stephen R.

    2008-01-01

    With faculty changing instructional practices to take advantage of customizable, focused content (and digital delivery of that content), many people assume that digital distribution is the answer to bringing the costs of course content delivery in line. But the picture just isn't that simple. A wide continuum of options is available to faculty and…

  3. Shaping Digital Library Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Rush G.

    2002-01-01

    Explores issues related to the selection and purchase of digital content in academic libraries, including commercially-produced databases, electronic journals, and books and other electronic resources that are purchased from vendors; and in-house digitization projects. Considers the degree to which standard collection management principles apply.…

  4. Optimization of digital designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, Sterling R. (Inventor); Miles, Lowell H. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An application specific integrated circuit is optimized by translating a first representation of its digital design to a second representation. The second representation includes multiple syntactic expressions that admit a representation of a higher-order function of base Boolean values. The syntactic expressions are manipulated to form a third representation of the digital design.

  5. Digital Image Access & Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heidorn, P. Bryan, Ed.; Sandore, Beth, Ed.

    Recent technological advances in computing and digital imaging technology have had immediate and permanent consequences for visual resource collections. Libraries are involved in organizing and managing large visual resource collections. The central challenges in working with digital image collections mirror those that libraries have sought to…

  6. Creating Digital Authors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoch, Melody; Langston-DeMott, Brooke; Adams-Budde, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Elementary students find themselves engaged and learning at a digital writing camp. The authors find that such elementary students usually have limited access to technology at home and school, and posit that teachers should do all they can to give them more access to and experience in digital composing. Students were motivated and learned to use…

  7. Writing and Digital Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Waes, Luuk, Ed.; Leijten, Marielle, Ed.; Neuwirth, Chris, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Digital media has become an increasingly powerful force in modern society. This volume brings together outstanding European, American and Australian research in "writing and digital media" and explores its cognitive, social and cultural implications. In addition to presenting programs of original research by internationally known scholars from a…

  8. Digital Signature Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassler, Vesna; Biely, Helmut

    1999-01-01

    Describes the Digital Signature Project that was developed in Austria to establish an infrastructure for applying smart card-based digital signatures in banking and electronic-commerce applications. Discusses the need to conform to international standards, an international certification infrastructure, and security features for a public directory…

  9. Digital Knowledge Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandian, M. Paul

    2008-01-01

    Technology has revolutionized the concept of libraries. Networking and computing technologies have now become sufficiently advanced to support the design and deployment of large digital libraries which are capable of supporting the conventional end-user functions. Digital libraries are a natural extension of the evolution in which libraries have…

  10. Taming the Digital Beast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrizio, Andy

    2006-01-01

    As more and more schools move to digital repositories, it seems inevitable that the knowledge accumulated across universities will go digital. How smoothly an institution makes that transition will depend on how well its project is planned from inception, and how well it structure its data. All of the administrators and educators the authors spoke…

  11. Scholars | Digital Representation | Publishing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, Justin

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the current state of digital publishing means that writers can now do more and say more in more ways than ever before in human history. As modes, methods, media and mechanisms of expression mutate into newer and newer digital forms, writers find themselves at a moment when they can create, critique collaborate, and comment according…

  12. Changing State Digital Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2006-01-01

    Research has shown that state virtual or digital libraries are evolving into websites that are loaded with free resources, subscription databases, and instructional tools. In this article, the author explores these evolving libraries based on the following questions: (1) How user-friendly are the state digital libraries?; (2) How do state digital…

  13. Fundamentals of Digital Logic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noell, Monica L.

    This course is designed to prepare electronics personnel for further training in digital techniques, presenting need to know information that is basic to any maintenance course on digital equipment. It consists of seven study units: (1) binary arithmetic; (2) boolean algebra; (3) logic gates; (4) logic flip-flops; (5) nonlogic circuits; (6)…

  14. ISDN: The Digital Difference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piedmo, Greg

    1995-01-01

    Integrated services digital network (ISDN) is a dial-up digital transmission service supporting transmission of audio, video, and text data over standard copper telephone wires or fiber optic cables. Advantages of ISDN over analog transmission include the ability of one phone line to support up to three simultaneous, separate conversations (phone,…

  15. Digital communications study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boorstyn, R. R.

    1973-01-01

    Research is reported dealing with problems of digital data transmission and computer communications networks. The results of four individual studies are presented which include: (1) signal processing with finite state machines, (2) signal parameter estimation from discrete-time observations, (3) digital filtering for radar signal processing applications, and (4) multiple server queues where all servers are not identical.

  16. Towards a Digital Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    A month ago, a French court ruled that internet access is a basic human right. Gordon Brown has said it is as crucial for people as electricity and water. Yet, 17 million Britons are still excluded from digital technology and an estimated 13 per cent of the population--some six million people--are both socially and digitally excluded. There are…

  17. Utilization of KSC Present Broadband Communications Data System For Digital Video Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrawis, Alfred S.

    2001-01-01

    This report covers a visibility study of utilizing present KSC broadband communications data system (BCDS) for digital video services. Digital video services include compressed digital TV delivery and video-on-demand. Furthermore, the study examines the possibility of providing interactive video on demand to desktop personal computers via KSC computer network.

  18. Utilization of KSC Present Broadband Communications Data System for Digital Video Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrawis, Alfred S.

    2002-01-01

    This report covers a visibility study of utilizing present KSC broadband communications data system (BCDS) for digital video services. Digital video services include compressed digital TV delivery and video-on-demand. Furthermore, the study examines the possibility of providing interactive video on demand to desktop personal computers via KSC computer network.

  19. "Scratch"ing below the Surface: Mathematics through an Alternative Digital Lens?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calder, Nigel; Taylor, Merilyn

    2010-01-01

    A key element in the examination of how students process mathematics through digital technologies is considering the ways that digital pedagogical media might influence the learning process. How might students' understanding emerge through engagement in a digital-learning environment? Interactive software that has cross-curricula implications and…

  20. Parallel digital forensics infrastructure.

    SciTech Connect

    Liebrock, Lorie M.; Duggan, David Patrick

    2009-10-01

    This report documents the architecture and implementation of a Parallel Digital Forensics infrastructure. This infrastructure is necessary for supporting the design, implementation, and testing of new classes of parallel digital forensics tools. Digital Forensics has become extremely difficult with data sets of one terabyte and larger. The only way to overcome the processing time of these large sets is to identify and develop new parallel algorithms for performing the analysis. To support algorithm research, a flexible base infrastructure is required. A candidate architecture for this base infrastructure was designed, instantiated, and tested by this project, in collaboration with New Mexico Tech. Previous infrastructures were not designed and built specifically for the development and testing of parallel algorithms. With the size of forensics data sets only expected to increase significantly, this type of infrastructure support is necessary for continued research in parallel digital forensics. This report documents the implementation of the parallel digital forensics (PDF) infrastructure architecture and implementation.

  1. Solutions to Challenges Facing a University Digital Library and Press

    PubMed Central

    D'Alessandro, Michael P.; Galvin, Jeffrey R.; Colbert, Stephana I.; D'Alessandro, Donna M.; Choi, Teresa A.; Aker, Brian D.; Carlson, William S.; Pelzer, Gay D.

    2000-01-01

    During the creation of a university digital library and press intended to serve as a medical reference and education tool for health care providers and their patients, six distinct and complex digital publishing challenges were encountered. Over nine years, through a multidisciplinary approach, solutions were devised to the challenges of digital content ownership, management, mirroring, translation, interactions with users, and archiving. The result is a unique, author-owned, internationally mirrored, university digital library and press that serves as an authoritative medical reference and education tool for users around the world. The purpose of this paper is to share the valuable digital publishing lessons learned and outline the challenges facing university digital libraries and presses. PMID:10833161

  2. Digital technology and human development: a charter for nature conservation.

    PubMed

    Maffey, Georgina; Homans, Hilary; Banks, Ken; Arts, Koen

    2015-11-01

    The application of digital technology in conservation holds much potential for advancing the understanding of, and facilitating interaction with, the natural world. In other sectors, digital technology has long been used to engage communities and share information. Human development-which holds parallels with the nature conservation sector-has seen a proliferation of innovation in technological development. Throughout this Perspective, we consider what nature conservation can learn from the introduction of digital technology in human development. From this, we derive a charter to be used before and throughout project development, in order to help reduce replication and failure of digital innovation in nature conservation projects. We argue that the proposed charter will promote collaboration with the development of digital tools and ensure that nature conservation projects progress appropriately with the development of new digital technologies. PMID:26508341

  3. From Digital Divide to Digital Democracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de los Santos, Gerardo E., Ed.; de los Santos, Alfredo G., Jr., Ed.; Milliron, Mark David, Ed.

    This publication is one of many efforts of the League for Innovation in the Community College to address the issue of societal technology access and learning needs. This work addresses the issue of the digital divide, which includes the often conflicting perspectives of information technology (IT) access and literacy needs held by government…

  4. The Digital Carrot, the Digital Stick

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Gregory A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author asserts that technology is not the answer to digital piracy at colleges and universities. Citing the three most common explanations given for copyright infringement--that students cannot always get what they want, cannot always use what they can get, or think the price of what they can get is unfair--he asserts that the…

  5. Digital Booktalk: Digital Media for Reluctant Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunter, Glenda; Kenny, Robert

    2008-01-01

    New learning and communications paradigms of today's learners are extending the definition of literacy and directly affecting how reading and writing skills are acquired (Leu, 2000). Mirroring an ever-expanding definition of literacy, new college and K-12 curricular programs that redefine digital media are popping up all over the country. Story is…

  6. Computing Logarithms Digit-by-Digit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Mayer

    2005-01-01

    In this work, we present an algorithm for computing logarithms of positive real numbers, that bears structural resemblance to the elementary school algorithm of long division. Using this algorithm, we can compute successive digits of a logarithm using a 4-operation pocket calculator. The algorithm makes no use of Taylor series or calculus, but…

  7. Digital exploitation of synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, H. L.; Shuchman, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    A digital processing and analysis scheme for use with digitized synthetic aperture radar data was developed. Using data from a four channel system, the imagery is preprocessed using specially designed software and then analyzed using preexisting facilities originally intended for use with MSS type data. Geometric and radiometric correction may be performed if desired, as well as classification analysis, Fast Fourier transform, filtering and level slice and display functions. The system provides low cost output in real time, permitting interactive imagery analysis. System information flow diagrams as well as sample output products are shown.

  8. Comparison Of Digital Workstations And Conventional Reading For Evaluation Of User Interfaces In Digital Radiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeill, Kevin M.; Seeley, George W.; Maloney, Kris; Fajardo, Laurie; Kozik, Mark

    1988-06-01

    The User Interface Study Group at the University of Arizona is investigating the interaction of Radiologists with digital workstations. Using the Arizona Viewing Console we have conducted an experiment to compare a digital workstation with a particular conventional reading process used for cases from a local Health Maintenance Organization. A model consisting of three distinct phases of activity was developed to describe conventional reading process. From this model software was developed for the Arizona Viewing Console to approximate the process. Radiologists were then video taped reading similar sets of cases at each workstation and the tapes were analyzed for frequency of hand movements and time required for each phase of the process. This study provides a comparison between conventional reading and a digital workstation. This paper describes the reading process, the model and its approximation on the digital workstation, as well as the analysis of the video tapes.

  9. Virgilian (Upper Pennsylvanian) paleosols in the upper Lawrence Formation (Douglas Group) and in the Snyderville Shale member (Oread Formation, Shawnee Group) of the northern Midcontinent, USA: Pedologic contrasts in a cyclothem sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Joeckel, R.M. . Dept. of Geology)

    1994-10-03

    Paleosols in the upper Lawrence Formation and in the Snyderville Shale Member (Virgilian) extend over an estimated area of over 14,000 km[sup 2] in Nebraska, Iowa, Missouri, and Kansas. These paleosols, both within cyclothems, are: (1) critical indicators of nearly basin wide emergence (peak regression of the Midcontinent seaway) and geomorphic stability, and (2) useful stratigraphic markers. Both paleosols appear to be analogous to modern Vertisols: they have nested, synformal-antiformal sets ([approximately]4--10 m wide) of very large, intersecting slickensides. The upper Lawrence shows a single paleosol across the study area. The paleosol is thickest and best-developed shelfward (northward) and shows topohydrosequence variation at two basinward localities in northeastern Kansas. Stratigraphic trends suggest an appreciable time differential in the south-to-north migration of the toronto transgression. The Snyderville shows two welded paleosols in southeastern Nebraska and a single one elsewhere in the study area. Elsewhere in the Snyderville, there is local evidence for lowstand incision of streams and small lows that underwent little or no subaerial exposure. Snyderville paleogeography and pedogenesis, however, were markedly different from upper Lawrence paleogeography and pedogenesis. Contrasts between the two paleosols are likely to be related to intercycle changes in geomorphic conditions (driven by patterns of sedimentation, eustasy, and tectonics) and climate.

  10. Digital item for digital human memory--television commerce application: family tree albuming system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jaeil; Lee, Hyejoo; Hong, JinWoo

    2004-01-01

    Technical advance in creating, storing digital media in daily life enables computers to capture human life and remember it as people do. A critical point with digitizing human life is how to recall bits of experience that are associated by semantic information. This paper proposes a technique for structuring dynamic digital object based on MPEG-21 Digital Item (DI) in order to recall human"s memory and providing interactive TV service on family tree albuming system as one of its applications. DIs are a dynamically reconfigurable, uniquely identified, described by a descriptor language, logical unit for structuring relationship among multiple media resources. Digital Item Processing (DIP) provides the means to interact with DIs to remind context to user, with active properties where objects have executable properties. Each user can adapt DIs" active properties to tailor the behavior of DIs to match his/her own specific needs. DIs" technologies in Intellectual Property Management and Protection (IPMP) can be used for privacy protection. In the interaction between the social space and technological space, the internal dynamics of family life fits well sharing family albuming service via family television. Family albuming service can act as virtual communities builders for family members. As memory is shared between family members, multiple annotations (including active properties on contextual information) will be made with snowballing value.

  11. Digital sonar system

    SciTech Connect

    Young, K.K.; Wilkes, R.J.

    1995-11-21

    A transponder of an active digital sonar system identifies a multifrequency underwater activating sonar signal received from a remote sonar transmitter. The transponder includes a transducer that receives acoustic waves, including the activating sonar signal, and generates an analog electrical receipt signal. The analog electrical receipt signal is converted to a digital receipt signal and cross-correlated with a digital transmission signal pattern corresponding to the activating sonar signal. A relative peak in the cross-correlation value is indicative of the activating sonar signal having been received by the transponder. In response to identifying the activating sonar signal, the transponder transmits a responding multifrequency sonar signal. 4 figs.

  12. Digital sonar system

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Kenneth K.; Wilkes, R. Jeffrey

    1995-01-01

    A transponder of an active digital sonar system identifies a multifrequency underwater activating sonar signal received from a remote sonar transmitter. The transponder includes a transducer that receives acoustic waves, including the activating sonar signal, and generates an analog electrical receipt signal. The analog electrical receipt signal is converted to a digital receipt signal and cross-correlated with a digital transmission signal pattern corresponding to the activating sonar signal. A relative peak in the cross-correlation value is indicative of the activating sonar signal having been received by the transponder. In response to identifying the activating sonar signal, the transponder transmits a responding multifrequency sonar signal.

  13. Fast transient digitizer

    SciTech Connect

    Villa, F.

    1981-07-08

    Method and apparatus are presented for sequentially scanning a plurality of target elements with an electron scanning beam modulated in accordance with variations in a high-frequency analog signal to provide discrete analog signal samples representative of successive portions of the analog signal; coupling the discrete analog signal samples from each of the target elements to a different one of a plurality of high speed storage devices; converting the discrete analog signal samples to equivalent digital signals; and storing the digital signals in a digital memory unit for subsequent measurement or display.

  14. Digital Citizenship Means Character Education for the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohler, Jason

    2011-01-01

    The reality of students' cyber lives has thrust upon educators a new approach: creating character education programs tuned to digital youth that are both proactive and aggressive. Taking this approach will help integrate students' digital activities within the context of the communities in which they live, both local and digital. The digital age…

  15. Digital Citizenship Means Character Education for the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohler, Jason

    2012-01-01

    The reality of students' cyber lives has thrust upon educators a new approach: creating character education programs tuned to digital youth that are proactive and aggressive. This will help integrate students' digital activities within the context of the communities in which they live, both local and digital. The digital age beckons a new era of…

  16. Digital Library and Digital Reference Service: Integration and Mutual Complementarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jia

    2008-01-01

    Both the digital library and the digital reference service were invented and have been developed under the networked environment. Among their intersections, the fundamental thing is their symbiotic interest--serving the user in a more efficient way. The article starts by discussing the digital library and its service and the digital reference…

  17. Can specific biological signals be digitized?

    PubMed

    Jonas, Wayne B; Ives, John A; Rollwagen, Florence; Denman, Daniel W; Hintz, Kenneth; Hammer, Mitchell; Crawford, Cindy; Henry, Kurt

    2006-01-01

    At the request of the United States Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, we attempted to replicate the data of Professor Jacques Benveniste that digital signals recorded on a computer disc produce specific biological effects. The hypothesis was that a digitized thrombin inhibitor signal would inhibit the fibrinogen-thrombin coagulation pathway. Because of the controversies associated with previous research of Prof. Benveniste, we developed a system for the management of social controversy in science that incorporated an expert in social communication and conflict management. The social management approach was an adaptation of interactional communication theory, for management of areas that interfere with the conduct of good science. This process allowed us to successfully complete a coordinated effort by a multidisciplinary team, including Prof. Benveniste, a hematologist, engineer, skeptic, statistician, neuroscientist and conflict management expert. Our team found no replicable effects from digital signals. PMID:16394263

  18. First Digit Law and Its Application to Digital Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yun Q.

    Digital data forensics, which gathers evidence of data composition, origin, and history, is crucial in our digital world. Although this new research field is still in its infancy stage, it has started to attract increasing attention from the multimedia-security research community. This lecture addresses the first digit law and its applications to digital forensics. First, the Benford and generalized Benford laws, referred to as first digit law, are introduced. Then, the application of first digit law to detection of JPEG compression history for a given BMP image and detection of double JPEG compressions are presented. Finally, applying first digit law to detection of double MPEG video compressions is discussed. It is expected that the first digit law may play an active role in other task of digital forensics. The lesson learned is that statistical models play an important role in digital forensics and for a specific forensic task different models may provide different performance.

  19. Implantable digital hearing aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kissiah, A. M., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Hearing aid converts analog output of microphone into digital pulses in about 10 channels of audiofrequencies. Each pulse band could be directly connected to portion of auditory nerve most sensitive to that range.

  20. Digital ac monitor

    DOEpatents

    Hart, George W.; Kern, Jr., Edward C.

    1987-06-09

    An apparatus and method is provided for monitoring a plurality of analog ac circuits by sampling the voltage and current waveform in each circuit at predetermined intervals, converting the analog current and voltage samples to digital format, storing the digitized current and voltage samples and using the stored digitized current and voltage samples to calculate a variety of electrical parameters; some of which are derived from the stored samples. The non-derived quantities are repeatedly calculated and stored over many separate cycles then averaged. The derived quantities are then calculated at the end of an averaging period. This produces a more accurate reading, especially when averaging over a period in which the power varies over a wide dynamic range. Frequency is measured by timing three cycles of the voltage waveform using the upward zero crossover point as a starting point for a digital timer.