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Sample records for middle east water

  1. Water resource conflicts in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Drake, C

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses the causes and sources of water resource conflict in the 3 major international river basins of the Middle East: the Tigris-Euphrates, the Nile, and the Jordan-Yarmuk. The physical geography of the Middle East is arid due to descending air, northeast trade winds, the southerly location, and high evaporation rates. Only Turkey, Iran, and Lebanon have adequate rainfall for population needs. Their mountainous geography and more northerly locations intercept rain and snow bearing westerly winds in winter. Parts of every other country are vulnerable to water shortages. Rainfall is irregular. Water resource conflicts are due to growing populations, economic development, rising standards of living, technological developments, political fragmentation, and poor water management. Immigration to the Jordan-Yarmuk watershed has added to population growth in this location. Over 50% of the population in the Middle East lives in urban areas where populations consume 10-12 times more water than those in rural areas. Water is wasted in irrigation schemes and huge dams with reservoirs where increased evaporation occurs. Technology results in greater water extraction of shallow groundwater and pollution of rivers and aquifers. British colonial government control led to reduced friction in most of the Nile basin. Now all ethnic groups have become more competitive and nationalistic. The Cold War restrained some of the conflict. Israel obtains 40% of its water from aquifers beneath the West Bank and Gaza. Geopolitical factors determine the mutual goodwill in managing international water. The 3 major water basins in the Middle East pose the greatest risk of water disputes. Possible solutions include conservation, better management, prioritizing uses, technological solutions, increased cooperation among co-riparians, developing better and enforceable international water laws, and reducing population growth rates. PMID:12178551

  2. Water Resource Conflicts in the Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Christine

    1997-01-01

    Analyzes the causes and conditions of the major sources of conflict concerning the three major international river basins in the Middle East: the Tigris-Euphrates, the Nile, and the Jordan-Yarmuk. Investigates possible solutions. Includes maps and population statistics of the major countries involved in the conflict. (MJP)

  3. Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Hemer, D.O.; Mason, J.F.; Hatch, G.C.

    1981-10-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1980 totaled 6,747,719,000 bbl or an average rate of 18,436,390,000 bbl/d, down 13.9% from 1979. Increases were in Saudi Arabia and Syria. Significant decreases occurred in Iraq, Iran, Kuwait, and Turkey. New discoveries were made in Abu Dhabi, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Sharjah, and Oman. New areas were explored in Bahrain, Oman, Syria, and Yemen. 9 figures, 16 tables.

  4. Natural-derived contaminants and their resolution in transboundary water resources in the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vengosh, A.; Weinthal, E.

    2005-12-01

    The rapidly growing population in the Middle East and the ensuing increase in exploitation have led to the degradation its renewable aquifers. In turn, countries in the Middle East have been forced to search for alternative resources like non- renewable (fossil) groundwater and to develop new technologies such as desalination. Here, we show that most of the contamination of the transboundary water resources in the Middle East is due to natural processes. We integrate hydrogeological, geochemical, and isotopic investigations to show that salinization of groundwater in the Gaza Strip, the Jordan River, and the groundwater along the Jordan and Arava valleys are natural phenomena triggered by over-exploitation and distraction of the fragile balance of the hydrological systems in the region. Recent investigations also show that fresh and brackish groundwater from the Nubian Sandstone aquifer in Israel and Jordan contains high level of natural radioactivity. Groundwater from similar basins in Egypt and Libya may also suffer from similar problems of high natural radioactivity in the groundwater. The scientific evidences that most of the contamination is natural raises new challenges for political and legal solutions for such transboundary water resources. Unlike the traditional upstream/downstream conflicts associated with transboundary water resources, the natural contamination demands a reevaluation of water resource management approaches in the Middle East. We argue that regional cooperation must be based upon political bargaining and side-payments rather than just international water law in order to not only foster cooperation, but, more important, to address the poor water quality situation in the Middle East.

  5. The Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blouin, Virginia; And Others

    This sixth grade resource unit focuses on Middle East culture as seen through five areas of the social sciences: anthropology-sociology, geography, history, economics, and political science. Among objectives that the student is expected to achieve are the following: 1) given general information on the Middle East through the use of film, visuals,…

  6. Optimal water management and conflict resolution: The Middle East Water Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Franklin M.; Arlosoroff, Shaul; Eckstein, Zvi; Haddadin, Munther; Hamati, Salem G.; Huber-Lee, Annette; Jarrar, Ammar; Jayyousi, Anan; Shamir, Uri; Wesseling, Hans

    2002-11-01

    In many situations, actual water markets will not allocate water resources optimally, largely because of the perceived social value of water. It is possible, however, to build optimizing models which, taking account of demand as well as supply considerations, can substitute for actual markets. Such models can assist the formation of water policies, taking into account user-supplied values and constraints. They provide powerful tools for the system-wide cost-benefit analysis of infrastructure; this is illustrated by an analysis of the need for desalination in Israel and the cost and benefits of adding a conveyance line. Further, the use of such models can facilitate cooperation in water, yielding gains that can be considerably greater than the value of the disputed water itself. This can turn what appear to be zero-sum games into win-win situations. The Middle East Water Project has built such a model for the Israeli-Jordanian-Palestinian region. We find that the value of the water in dispute in the region is very small and the possible gains from cooperation are relatively large. Analysis of the scarcity value of water is a crucial feature.

  7. Strategy for managing water in the Middle East and North Africa. Arabic edition

    SciTech Connect

    Berkoff, J.

    1995-03-21

    Proposes a practical, step-by-step approach to managing water resources in a coordinated and sustainable manner. The people of the Middle East and North Africa have faced scarce water resources since time immemorial. Today, burgeoning populations dwarf the concerns of the past. New strategies for planning and managing water are urgently needed to avoid escalating conflicts and to reverse environmental degradation. This booklet details the implications of a new World Bank policy for the region, calling for a strong effort by governments and Bank staff to manage water resources in a coordinated and sustainable manner. A practical, step-by-step strategy is proposed that could lead to new Bank-funded operations throughout the water sector. The issues involved are complex but must be addressed if water scarcity is not to hinder development projects. The strategy proposed in this booklet could help build a new partnership for sustainable water management between the World Bank and regional governments.

  8. Water and Land Limitations to Future Agricultural Production in the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, J. A. M.; Wimmer, F.; Schaldach, R.

    2015-12-01

    Countries in the Middle East use a large fraction of their scarce water resources to produce cash crops, such as fruit and vegetables, for international markets. At the same time, these countries import large amounts of staple crops, such as cereals, required to meet the nutritional demand of their populations. This makes food security in the Middle East heavily dependent on world market prices for staple crops. Under these preconditions, increasing food demand due to population growth, urban expansion on fertile farmlands, and detrimental effects of a changing climate on the production of agricultural commodities present major challenges to countries in the Middle East that try to improve food security by increasing their self-sufficiency rate of staple crops.We applied the spatio-temporal land-use change model LandSHIFT.JR to simulate how an expansion of urban areas may affect the production of agricultural commodities in Jordan. We furthermore evaluated how climate change and changes in socio-economic conditions may influence crop production. The focus of our analysis was on potential future irrigated and rainfed production (crop yield and area demand) of fruit, vegetables, and cereals. Our simulation results show that the expansion of urban areas and the resulting displacement of agricultural areas does result in a slight decrease in crop yields. This leads to almost no additional irrigation water requirements due to the relocation of agricultural areas, i.e. there is the same amount of "crop per drop". However, taking into account projected changes in socio-economic conditions and climate conditions, a large volume of water would be required for cereal production in order to safeguard current self-sufficiency rates for staple crops. Irrigation water requirements are expected to double until 2025 and to triple until 2050. Irrigated crop yields are projected to decrease by about 25%, whereas there is no decrease in rainfed crop yields to be expected.

  9. Understanding the Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Evelyn C.

    This nine-week unit on the Middle East for sixth graders was developed as part of a series by the Public Education Religion Studies Center at Wright State University. A major objective is to help students understand and appreciate sacred times and sacred places within this cultural setting. They learn how beliefs and practices cause the people to…

  10. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)

    MedlinePlus

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus; MERS-CoV; Novel coronavirus; nCoV ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Middle East ... 2, 2015. www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/mers/faq.html . Accessed April ...

  11. Progressive development of water resources in the Middle East for sustainable water supply in a period of climate change.

    PubMed

    Issar, Arie S; Adar, Eilon

    2010-11-28

    The history of the Middle East has been influenced by past global climatic changes. Warm periods caused droughts, resulting in desertification, migration and war. Cold periods were humid and brought prosperity and agricultural settlement to the desert fringes. The forecast based on this correlation is that the present global warming will cause the drying up of the Middle East. As in the past, this negative impact should be mitigated by using the groundwater resources stored from past wetter times. This will involve deep drilling, pumping and modern irrigation methods within the framework of a new policy of 'progressive development', which will entail the use of currently undeveloped natural water resources beyond that of present water replenishment. While the use of the one-time groundwater reserves is taking place, a master long-term comprehensive progressive development plan for the Middle East will be prepared. This plan will include the step-by-step development of other water resources such as treated effluents, desalinated brackish groundwater and desalination of seawater. PMID:20956375

  12. How uncertain are climate model projections of water availability indicators across the Middle East?

    PubMed

    Hemming, Debbie; Buontempo, Carlo; Burke, Eleanor; Collins, Mat; Kaye, Neil

    2010-11-28

    The projection of robust regional climate changes over the next 50 years presents a considerable challenge for the current generation of climate models. Water cycle changes are particularly difficult to model in this area because major uncertainties exist in the representation of processes such as large-scale and convective rainfall and their feedback with surface conditions. We present climate model projections and uncertainties in water availability indicators (precipitation, run-off and drought index) for the 1961-1990 and 2021-2050 periods. Ensembles from two global climate models (GCMs) and one regional climate model (RCM) are used to examine different elements of uncertainty. Although all three ensembles capture the general distribution of observed annual precipitation across the Middle East, the RCM is consistently wetter than observations, especially over the mountainous areas. All future projections show decreasing precipitation (ensemble median between -5 and -25%) in coastal Turkey and parts of Lebanon, Syria and Israel and consistent run-off and drought index changes. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) GCM ensemble exhibits drying across the north of the region, whereas the Met Office Hadley Centre work Quantifying Uncertainties in Model ProjectionsAtmospheric (QUMP-A) GCM and RCM ensembles show slight drying in the north and significant wetting in the south. RCM projections also show greater sensitivity (both wetter and drier) and a wider uncertainty range than QUMP-A. The nature of these uncertainties suggests that both large-scale circulation patterns, which influence region-wide drying/wetting patterns, and regional-scale processes, which affect localized water availability, are important sources of uncertainty in these projections. To reduce large uncertainties in water availability projections, it is suggested that efforts would be well placed to focus on the understanding and modelling of both

  13. Virtual industrial water usage and wastewater generation in the Middle East/North African region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakhel, S. R.; Geissen, S.-U.; Vogelpohl, A.

    2013-01-01

    This study deals with the quantification of volumes of water usage, wastewater generation, virtual water export, and wastewater generation from export for eight export relevant industries present in the Middle East/North Africa (MENA). It shows that about 3400 million m3 of water is used per annum while around 793 million m3 of wastewater is generated from products that are meant for domestic consumption and export. The difference between volumes of water usage and wastewater generation is due to water evaporation or injecting underground (oil wells pressure maintenance). The wastewater volume generated from production represents a population equivalent of 15.5 million in terms of wastewater quantity and 30.4 million in terms of BOD. About 409 million m3 of virtual water flows from MENA to EU27 (resulting from export of eight commodities) which is equivalent to 12.1% of the water usage of those industries and Libya is the largest virtual water exporter (about 87 million m3). Crude oil and refined petroleum products represent about 89% of the total virtual water flow, fertilizers represent around 10% and 1% remaining industries. EU27 poses the greatest indirect pressure on the Kuwaiti hydrological system where the virtual water export represents about 96% of the actual renewable water resources in this country. The Kuwaiti crude oil water use in relation to domestic water withdrawal is about 89% which is highest among MENA countries. Pollution of water bodies, in terms of BOD, due to production is very relevant for crude oil, slaughterhouses, refineries, olive oil, and tanneries while pollution due to export to EU27 is most relevant for crude oil industry and olive oil mills.

  14. Modeling drought variability in the water scarce Middle East and Southwest Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlow, Mathew; Hoell, Andrew; Schubert, Siegfried; Wang, Hailan

    2016-04-01

    The ability to simulate drought variability across the water scarce Middle East and Southwest Asia [40-80E,10-45N] is examined in terms of the seasonal precipitation variability simulated in a suite of different atmospheric models forced with observed sea surface temperatures. Several, but not all, of the models are able to capture key circulation changes known to be associated with large-scale forcing of severe drought in the region. Simulation skill also varies across the region. The model differences and skill areas have important implications for seasonal prediction of regional drought, which is explored both in general and for specific regional drought events, including 1999-2001, 2007-2008, and 2014-2015. The societal impact of the drought variability is considered in terms of the occurrence of drought disasters, as recorded in the CRED EM-DAT database.

  15. Bilharziasis control in relation to water resources development in Africa and the Middle East

    PubMed Central

    McMullen, Donald B.; Buzo, Z. J.; Rainey, Marshall B.; Francotte, Jean

    1962-01-01

    As part of its world-wide programme for the control of bilharziasis, the World Health Organization has set up a Bilharziasis Advisory Team, composed of an epidemiologist and an engineer, to investigate in different countries the prevalence of the disease and its relationship to irrigation, agriculture and a variety of factors associated with the development of water resources. This paper is an appraisal of the situation in 15 countries in Africa and the Middle East, based largely on surveys conducted by the Bilharziasis Advisory Team in the period 1958-60. Analyses of data from these 15 countries indicate that about 26 million people, out of a total population of 107 million, have bilharziasis. In spite of considerable expenditure on control measures, the prevalence of the disease is increasing. This trend is closely related to water resources development. On the basis of observations in the field, it is believed that improved water management and agricultural methods, stream and water impoundment control, the proper use of molluscicides and mechanical barriers, and certain aspects of environmental sanitation offer practical solutions to this problem. The complexity of these measures requires the closest co-operation between the various agencies, national and international, concerned with agriculture, water resources and public health. PMID:20604119

  16. Seasonal Scale Water Deficit Forecasting in East Africa and the Middle East Region Using the NMME Models Forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, S.; Funk, C. C.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Narapusetty, B.; Arsenault, K. R.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    In this presentation we report on our ongoing efforts to provide seasonal scale water deficit forecasts in East Africa and the Middle East regions. First, we report on the skill of the seasonal climate forecasts from the North American Multimodel Ensemble (NMME) models over this region. We evaluated deterministic (anomaly correlation), categorical (the equitable threat score) and probabilistic (the ranked probabilistic skill score) skill of the NMME models forecasts over the hindcast period of 1982-2010, focusing on the primary rainy seasons of March-May (MAM), July-September (JAS) and October-December (OND). We also examined the potential predictability of the NMME models using the anomaly correlation between the ensemble mean forecasts from a given model against a single ensemble member of the same model (homogenous predictability) and rest of the models (heterogeneous predictability), and observations (forecast skill). Overall, we found precipitation forecast skill in this region to be sparse and limited (up to three month of lead) to some locations and seasons, and temperature forecast skill to be much more skillful than the precipitation forecast skill. Highest level of skill exists over equatorial East Africa (OND season) and over parts of northern Ethiopia and southern Sudan (JAS season). Categorical and probabilistic forecast skills are also higher in those regions. We found the homogeneous predictability to be greater than the forecast skill indicating potential for forecast skill improvement. In the rest of the presentation we describe implementation and evaluation of a hybrid approach (that combines statistical and dynamical approaches) of downscaling climate forecasts to improve the precipitation forecast skill in this region. For this part of the analysis we mainly focus on two of the NMME models (NASA's GMAO and NCEP's CFSv2). Past research on a hybrid approach focusing only over equatorial East Africa has shown promising results. We found that MAM

  17. Middle East respiratory syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zumla, Alimuddin; Hui, David S; Perlman, Stanley

    2015-09-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is a highly lethal respiratory disease caused by a novel single-stranded, positive-sense RNA betacoronavirus (MERS-CoV). Dromedary camels, hosts for MERS-CoV, are implicated in direct or indirect transmission to human beings, although the exact mode of transmission is unknown. The virus was first isolated from a patient who died from a severe respiratory illness in June, 2012, in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. As of May 31, 2015, 1180 laboratory-confirmed cases (483 deaths; 40% mortality) have been reported to WHO. Both community-acquired and hospital-acquired cases have been reported with little human-to-human transmission reported in the community. Although most cases of MERS have occurred in Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, cases have been reported in Europe, the USA, and Asia in people who travelled from the Middle East or their contacts. Clinical features of MERS range from asymptomatic or mild disease to acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiorgan failure resulting in death, especially in individuals with underlying comorbidities. No specific drug treatment exists for MERS and infection prevention and control measures are crucial to prevent spread in health-care facilities. MERS-CoV continues to be an endemic, low-level public health threat. However, the virus could mutate to have increased interhuman transmissibility, increasing its pandemic potential. PMID:26049252

  18. Treated Wastewater's Potential for Improving Water and Food Security in the Middle East and North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dare, A. E.

    2014-12-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) contains just 1% of the world's freshwater; however, even in the very arid countries of the Gulf region, high quality treated wastewater rarely sees a productive use. As countries deal with growing populations and strive for increased food security, freshwater alone cannot be relied upon to meet these demands. This research identifies best practices from the MENA for reusing treated wastewater in agricultural production, and calculates the potential of treated wastewater for increasing food production in select countries. Drawing upon both published and original treated wastewater quality data for locations in the MENA, the annual volume of treated wastewater produced, and crop water demands, estimates for potential crop production from treated wastewater are calculated. The volume of wastewater treated annually is equivalent to 10-40% of agricultural withdrawals in most MENA countries. Irrigation by treated wastewater has significant potential to impact water and food security by reducing agricultural water withdrawals and increasing domestic food production. Such initiatives require application of best management practices, such as transparent monitoring and evaluation of reuse projects for public and environmental health risks, and support from both farmers and policy makers.

  19. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zumla, Alimuddin; Hui, David S; Perlman, Stanley

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) is a newly recognized highly lethal respiratory disease caused by a novel single stranded, positive sense RNA betacoronavirus (MERS-CoV). Dromedary camels, host species for MERS-CoV are implicated in the direct or indirect transmission to humans, although the exact mode of transmission remains unknown. First isolated from a patient who died from a severe respiratory illness in June 2012 in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, as of 16 February 2015, 983 laboratory-confirmed cases of MERS-CoV (360 deaths; 36.6% mortality) were reported to the WHO. Cases have been acquired in both the community and hospitals with limited human-to-human transmission reported in the community. Whilst the majority of MERS cases have occurred in Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, cases have been reported from Europe, USA and Asia in people who traveled from the Middle East or their contacts. Clinical features of MERS range from asymptomatic or mild disease to acute respiratory distress syndrome and multi-organ failure resulting in death, especially in individuals with underlying co-morbidities. There is no specific drug treatment for MERS and infection prevention and control measures are crucial to prevent spread of MERS-CoV in health care facilities. MERS-CoV continues to be an endemic,low level public health threat. However, the concern remains that the virus could mutate to exhibit increased interhuman transmissibility, increasing pandemic potential. Our seminar presents an overview of current knowledge and perspectives on the epidemiology, virology, mode of transmission, pathogen-host responses, clinical features, diagnosis and development of new drugs and vaccines. PMID:26049252

  20. Hydrologic modeling for monitoring water availability in Africa and the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNally, A.; Getirana, A.; Arsenault, K. R.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Verdin, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Drought impacts water resources required by crops and communities, in turn threatening lives and livelihoods. Early warning systems, which rely on inputs from hydro-climate models, are used to help manage risk and provide humanitarian assistance to the right place at the right time. However, translating advancements in hydro-climate science into action is a persistent and time-consuming challenge: scientists and decision-makers need to work together to enhance the salience, credibility, and legitimacy of the hydrological data products being produced. One organization that tackles this challenge is the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET), which has been using evidence-based approaches to address food security since the 1980s.In this presentation, we describe the FEWS NET Land Data Assimilation System (FLDAS), developed by FEWS NET and NASA hydrologic scientists to maximize the use of limited hydro-climatic observations for humanitarian applications. The FLDAS, an instance of the NASA Land Information System (LIS), is comprised of land surface models driven by satellite rainfall inputs already familiar to FEWS NET food security analysts. First, we evaluate the quality of model outputs over parts of the Middle East and Africa using remotely sensed soil moisture and vegetation indices. We then describe derived water availability indices that have been identified by analysts as potentially useful sources of information. Specifically, we demonstrate how the Baseline Water Stress and Drought Severity Index detect recent water availability crisis events in the Tigris-Euphrates Basin and the Gaborone Reservoir, Botswana. Finally we discuss ongoing work to deliver this information to FEWS NET analysts in a timely and user-friendly manner, with the ultimate goal of integrating these water availability metrics into regular decision-making activities.

  1. Understanding and predicting climate variations in the Middle East for sustainable water resource management and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuels, Rana

    Water issues are a source of tension between Israelis and Palestinians. In the and region of the Middle East, water supply is not just scarce but also uncertain: It is not uncommon for annual rainfall to be as little as 60% or as much as 125% of the multiannual average. This combination of scarcity and uncertainty exacerbates the already strained economy and the already tensed political situation. The uncertainty could be alleviated if it were possible to better forecast water availability. Such forecasting is key not only for water planning and management, but also for economic policy and for political decision making. Water forecasts at multiple time scales are necessary for crop choice, aquifer operation and investments in desalination infrastructure. The unequivocal warming of the climate system adds another level of uncertainty as global and regional water cycles change. This makes the prediction of water availability an even greater challenge. Understanding the impact of climate change on precipitation can provide the information necessary for appropriate risk assessment and water planning. Unfortunately, current global circulation models (GCMs) are only able to predict long term climatic evolution at large scales but not local rainfall. The statistics of local precipitation are traditionally predicted using historical rainfall data. Obviously these data cannot anticipate changes that result from climate change. It is therefore clear that integration of the global information about climate evolution and local historical data is needed to provide the much needed predictions of regional water availability. Currently, there is no theoretical or computational framework that enables such integration for this region. In this dissertation both a conceptual framework and a computational platform for such integration are introduced. In particular, suite of models that link forecasts of climatic evolution under different CO2 emissions scenarios to observed rainfall

  2. Sustainable Electricity and Water for Europe, Middle East and North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller-Steinhagen, H.; Trieb, F.

    2009-04-01

    Sufficient supply of energy and water are among the key requirements for a sustainable development of nations. Both depend strongly on energy carriers such as oil, gas, coal and uranium which have limited availability and a negative impact on the environment during their use. Within the framework of a series of detailed studies, conventional and renewable energy sources available for electricity production and desalination in Europe, North Africa and the Middle East (EU-MENA) have been analysed. Scenarios have been developed for a sustainable electricity supply based on increased plant and user efficiency, and an accelerated introduction of renewable energy sources. Even if all potential exclusion criteria are applied and only those technologies are considered which will become economically competitive within the next decades, a potential has been identified which exceeds the present electricity demand by orders of magnitude. Solar energy is, in this context, the by far largest resource which will most economically be exploited in centralised solar thermal power plants. In combination with heat storage, these power plants can provide bulk and peak electricity, and can be combined with thermal or reverse osmosis desalination plants. At present, solar thermal power plants with a total capacity exceeding 10 GW are in operation or under construction in Abu Dhabi, Algeria, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Italy, Morocco, Spain and the USA. Ultimately, the increasing electricity demand of EU-MENA can only be secured in conjunction with the required climate and resource protection targets, if all renewable energy sources are exploited where appropriate, and conversion and user efficiency are increased. To utilise the enormous energy resources of the Mediterranean countries, high voltage direct current power lines will have to be built, linking the most abundant and economic resources with the load centres in the North. With electricity losses below 10% over a distance of 3000 km

  3. Security in the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, S.F. Jr.; Bruzonsky, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    The full range of U.S. security interests in the Middle East is covered in this volume of original contributions from prominent international scholars. Case studies of key countries emphasize the prospects for peaceful political, economic, and cultural change in the region. The Arab-Israeli conflict is examined with particular attention to the ''Palestine problem,'' U.S. policy and diplomacy, and the peace process. Finally, the involvement of the U.S. and the USSR and the policy options open to them are considered. Includes chapters on oil and its role in Middle-East security issues.

  4. AED in the Middle East

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy for Educational Development, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Founded in 1961, the Academy for Educational Development (AED) is an independent, nonprofit, charitable organization that operates development programs in the United States and throughout the world. This directory presents an overview of the varied activities undertaken by AED throughout the Middle East. Current AED Programs include: (1) Behavior…

  5. Middle East and North African Oil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Quazzaz, Ayad

    1981-01-01

    Traces the history of oil and natural gas in the Middle East and relates the importance of the Middle East's current stores of oil to economic development. Information is presented on the relationship of major oil companies and local governments, OPEC, rate of production, and the impact of oil on the societies of the Middle East and North Africa.…

  6. Middle East Composite

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... Because the individual orbit swaths are only 400 kilometers wide, they were "mosaicked" together to form this composite picture, which ... the Dead Sea, one of the saltiest inland water bodies in the world. At its northern edge is Qumran, where the ancient Scrolls were ...

  7. Characterizing the Effects of Irrigation in the Middle East and North Africa Using Remotely Sensed Vegetation and Water Cycle Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolten, John; Ozdogan, Mutlu; Beaudoing, Hiroko; Rodell, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    A majority of the countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region suffer from water scarcity due in part to widespread rainfall deficits, unprecedented levels of water demand, and the inefficient use of renewable freshwater resources. Since a majority of the water withdrawal in the MENA is used for irrigation, there is a desperate need for improved understanding of irrigation practices and agricultural water use in the region. Here, satellite-derived irrigation maps and crop-type agricultural data are applied to the Land Data Assimilation System for the MENA region (MENA LDAS), designed to provide regional, gridded fields of hydrological states and fluxes relevant for water resources assessments. Within MENA-LDAS, the Catchment Land Surface Model (CLSM) simulates the location, timing, and amount of water applied through agricultural irrigation practices over the region from 2002-2012. In addition to simulating the irrigation impact on evapotranspiration, soil moisture, and runoff, we also investigate regional changes in terrestrial water storage (TWS) observed from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and simulated by CLSM.

  8. The Middle East population puzzle.

    PubMed

    Omran, A R; Roudi, F

    1993-07-01

    An overview is provided of Middle Eastern countries on the following topics; population change, epidemiological transition theory and 4 patterns of transition in the middle East, transition in causes of death, infant mortality declines, war mortality, fertility, family planning, age and sex composition, ethnicity, educational status, urbanization, labor force, international labor migration, refugees, Jewish immigration, families, marriage patterns, and future growth. The Middle East is geographically defined as Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Gaza and the West Bank, Iran, Turkey, and Israel. The Middle East's population grew very little until 1990 when the population was 43 million. Population was about doubled in the mid-1950s at 80 million. Rapid growth occurred after 1950 with declines in mortality due to widespread disease control and sanitation efforts. Countries are grouped in the following ways: persistent high fertility and declining mortality with low to medium socioeconomic conditions (Jordan, Oman, Syria, Yemen, and the West Bank and Gaza), declining fertility and mortality in intermediate socioeconomic development (Egypt, Lebanon, Turkey, and Iran), high fertility and declining mortality in high socioeconomic conditions (Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates), and low fertility and mortality in average socioeconomic conditions (Israel). As birth and death rates decline, there is an accompanying shift from communicable diseases to degenerative diseases and increases in life expectancy; this pattern is reflected in the available data from Egypt, Kuwait, and Israel. High infant and child mortality tends to remain a problem throughout the Middle East, with the exception of Israel and the Gulf States. War casualties are undetermined, yet have not impeded the fastest growing population growth rate in the world. The average fertility is 5 births

  9. Quality of water in mines in the western middle coal field, anthracite region, east-central Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, L.; Beard, M.M.; Growitz, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    The quality of mine water in the 75 sq-mi Western middle anthracite field, Pennsylvania was determined by sampling discharges and boreholes at 60 abandoned and flooded mines during 1975-78. The Vulcan-Buck Mountain mine, east-northeast of Mahanoy City, contains an estimated 6,100 acre-ft of water with a specific conductance of 380 to 460 micromhos and a pH of 4.4 to 4.6 units. Twenty-two mines are in a 15-sq mi area between Mahanoy City and Girardville, all of which closed prior to 1958. Seven of these mines in the Mahanoy Basin may contain 30,000 acre-ft of water. Specific conductance ranges from 630 micromhos in the Tunnel mine to 1,800 micromhos in the Gilberton mine. Fifteen of these mines are in the Shenandoah complex; specific conductance ranges from 240 to 310 micromhos in mines in the eastern end of the complex to 2,400 micromhos in the western end. The specific conductance of water in 25 mines in the Mount Carmel-Shamokin area ranges from 460 to 980 micromhos. The North Franklin mine near Trevorton contains about 4,900 acre-ft of water with a specific conductance of about 1,100 micromhos. 36 figs., 12 tabs.

  10. Quality of water in mines in the Western Middle Coal Field, Anthracite Region, east-central Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, L.A.; Beard, M.M.; Growitz, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    The quality of mine water in the 75 sq-mi Western Middle anthracite field, Pennsylvania was determined by sampling discharges and boreholes at 60 abandoned and flooded mines during 1975-78. The Vulcan-Buck Mountain mine, east-northeast of Mahanoy City, contains an estimated 6,100 acre-ft of water with a specific conductance of 380 to 460 micromhos and a pH of 4.4 to 4.6 units. Twenty-two mines are in a 15-sq mi area between Mahanoy City and Girardville, all of which closed prior to 1958. Seven of these mines in the Mahanoy Basin may contain 30,000 acre-ft of water. Specific conductance ranges from 630 micromhos in the Tunnel mine to 1,800 micromhos in the Gilberton mine. Fifteen of these mines are in the Shenandoah complex; specific conductance ranges from 240 to 310 micromhos in mines in the eastern end of the complex to 2,400 micromhos in the western end. The specific conductance of water in 25 mines in the Mount Carmel-Shamokin area ranges from 460 to 980 micromhos. The North Franklin mine near Trevorton contains about 4,900 acre-ft of water with a specific conductance of about 1,100 micromhos. (USGS)

  11. Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Cheston B; Opal, Steven M

    2014-01-01

    Coronaviruses have traditionally been associated with mild upper respiratory tract infections throughout the world. In the fall of 2002, a new coronavirus emerged in in Asia causing severe viral pneumonia, i.e., severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Nearly a decade following the SARS epidemic, a new coronavirus causing severe viral pneumonia has emerged, i.e., middle east respiratory syndrome (MERS). Since the initial case of MERS-CoV occurred in June of 2012 in Saudi Arabia there have been 688 confirmed cases and 282 deaths in 20 countries.   Although both SARS and MERS are caused by coronaviruses, SARS was characterized by efficient human transmission and relatively low mortality rate. In contrast, MERS is relatively inefficiently transmitted to humans but has a high mortality rate. Given the potential overlap in presentation and manifestation, it is important to understand the clinical and epidemiologic differences between MERS, SARS and influenza. PMID:25089913

  12. Children in the Muslim Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernea, Elizabeth Warnock, Ed.

    The Middle East has been undergoing vast social and economic change, but in all reports available today, little attention has been paid to the situation of children. The purpose of this book is to help readers better understand the children of the Middle East to give a sense of their lives today and a sense of attitudes toward children and their…

  13. Teaching the Literature of Today's Middle East

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Allen

    2011-01-01

    Providing a gateway into the real literature emerging from the Middle East, this book shows teachers how to make the topic authentic, powerful, and relevant. "Teaching the Literature of Today's Middle East": (1) Introduces teachers to this literature and how to teach it; (2) Brings to the reader a tremendous diversity of teachable texts and…

  14. Greening of the Sahara - a paleo perspective on the history of water in the Middle East and North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Matthews, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Middle-East, mostly at its southern edge together with North Africa, the northern edge of the Sahara Desert, are located at the boundary between high- to-mid latitude and tropical-subtropical climate systems. The geographical duality of desert adjacent to Mediterranean-type climate regions played and still plays a major role on the water availability. Thanks to the number of important paleoclimate studies that been made on accurate dating of cave speleothems in Southern Arabia and Oman (Fleitmann et al., 2011) and in the northeast Sahara, the Negev Desert Israel (Vaks et al., 2010) and the study of sapropels in Eastern and central Mediterranean (Almogi-Labin et al., 2009; Osborne et al, 2008), it is clear that the region was graced with water during peak interglacials when the African monsoon and westerly storm/rainfall systems intensified. Northward penetration of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone over the Arabian and African continents resulted in increased discharge of the Nile River and rivers that emerged from central Sahara into the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Correspondingly, enhanced westerly wind activity led to an increase in rainfall from Atlantic-Mediterranean sources over the entire Mediterranean basin, which even penetrated south into the north-east corner of the Sahara Desert. The Saharo-Arabian Desert became narrower and climatic "windows" opened for the dispersal of hominids and animals out of the African continent at 250-239, 210-193, 138-120, 108-98, 87-84 and 10-6.5 ka BP, with severe dry conditions in between. Greening of the Sahara Desert at these intervals is supported also by various marine and terrestrial records, such as corals, lakes, tufa deposits and archeological findings. Dry conditions prevailed in the Sahara desert during glacials. This is in contrast to the climatic conditions in the Eastern Mediterranean coastal region and the Jordan Rift Valley (Bar-Matthews et al., 2003; Lisker et al., 2010), where water was available for

  15. Impact of climate change on the water resources of the eastern Mediterranean and Middle East region: Modeled 21st century changes and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenoweth, Jonathan; Hadjinicolaou, Panos; Bruggeman, Adriana; Lelieveld, Jos; Levin, Zev; Lange, Manfred A.; Xoplaki, Elena; Hadjikakou, Michalis

    2011-06-01

    The likely effects of climate change on the water resources of the eastern Mediterranean and Middle East region are investigated using a high-resolution regional climate model (PRECIS) by comparing precipitation simulations of 2040-2069 and 2070-2099 with 1961-1990. The simulations show about a 10% decline in precipitation across the region by both the middle and the end of the century, with considerable variation between countries and international river basins. Results suggest that per capita water resources will not change particularly significantly in southeastern Europe, where they are relatively plentiful and population growth is minimal. However, in much of the Middle East, climate change coupled with population growth is likely to reduce per capita water resources considerably. This will inevitably result in major social, economic, and environmental change in the region. Countries where the required adaptation is likely to be particularly challenging include Turkey and Syria because of the large agricultural workforces, Iraq because of the magnitude of the change and its downstream location, and Jordan because of its meager per capita water resources coupled with limited options for desalination. If the internal water footprint of the region declines in line with precipitation but the total water footprint of the region increases in line with population, then by midcentury, as much as half the total water needs of the region may need to be provided through desalination and imported in the form of virtual water.

  16. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS).

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Sonja A; Watson, Amelia K; Swerdlow, David L

    2016-06-01

    Since the identification of the first patients with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012, over 1,600 cases have been reported as of February 2016. Most cases have occurred in Saudi Arabia or in other countries on or near the Arabian Peninsula, but travel-associated cases have also been seen in countries outside the Arabian Peninsula. MERS-CoV causes a severe respiratory illness in many patients, with a case fatality rate as high as 40%, although when contacts are investigated, a significant proportion of patients are asymptomatic or only have mild symptoms. At this time, no vaccines or treatments are available. Epidemiological and other data suggest that the source of most primary cases is exposure to camels. Person-to-person transmission occurs in household and health care settings, although sustained and efficient person-to-person transmission has not been observed. Strict adherence to infection control recommendations has been associated with control of previous outbreaks. Vigilance is needed because genomic changes in MERS-CoV could result in increased transmissibility, similar to what was seen in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). PMID:27337460

  17. Groundwater depletion in the Middle East from GRACE with implications for transboundary water management in the Tigris-Euphrates-Western Iran region

    PubMed Central

    Voss, Katalyn A; Famiglietti, James S; Lo, MinHui; Linage, Caroline; Rodell, Matthew; Swenson, Sean C

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we use observations from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission to evaluate freshwater storage trends in the north-central Middle East, including portions of the Tigris and Euphrates River Basins and western Iran, from January 2003 to December 2009. GRACE data show an alarming rate of decrease in total water storage of approximately −27.2±0.6 mm yr−1 equivalent water height, equal to a volume of 143.6 km3 during the course of the study period. Additional remote-sensing information and output from land surface models were used to identify that groundwater losses are the major source of this trend. The approach used in this study provides an example of “best current capabilities” in regions like the Middle East, where data access can be severely limited. Results indicate that the region lost 17.3±2.1 mm yr−1 equivalent water height of groundwater during the study period, or 91.3±10.9 km3 in volume. Furthermore, results raise important issues regarding water use in transboundary river basins and aquifers, including the necessity of international water use treaties and resolving discrepancies in international water law, while amplifying the need for increased monitoring for core components of the water budget. PMID:23658469

  18. Groundwater Depletion in the Middle East from GRACE with Implications for Transboundary Water Management in the Tigris-Euphrates-Western Iran Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voss, Katalyn; Famiglietti, James S.; Lo, MinHui; de Linage, Caroline; Rodell, Matthew; Swenson, Sean C.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we use observations from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission to evaluate freshwater storage trends in the north-central Middle East, including portions of the Tigris and Euphrates River Basins and western Iran, from January 2003 to December 2009. GRACE data show an alarming rate of decrease in total water storage of approximately -27.2 plus or minus 0.6 mm per yr equivalent water height, equal to a volume of 143.6 cubic kilometers during the course of the study period. Additional remote-sensing information and output from land surface models were used to identify that groundwater losses are the major source of this trend. The approach used in this study provides an example of ''best current capabilities'' in regions like the Middle East, where data access can be severely limited. Results indicate that the region lost 17.3 plus or minus 2.1 mm per yr equivalent water height of groundwater during the study period, or 91.3 plus or minus 10.9 cubic kilometers in volume. Furthermore, results raise important issues regarding water use in transboundary river basins and aquifers, including the necessity of international water use treaties and resolving discrepancies in international water law, while amplifying the need for increased monitoring for core components of the water budget

  19. Groundwater Depletion in the Middle East from GRACE with Implications for Transboundary Water Management in the Tigris-Euphrates-Western Iran Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voss, Katalyn A.; Famiglietti, James S.; Lo, MinHui; De Linage, Caroline; Rodell, Matthew; Swenson, Sean C.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we use observations from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission to evaluate freshwater storage trends in the north-central Middle East, including portions of the Tigris and Euphrates River Basins and western Iran, from January 2003 to December 2009. GRACE data show an alarming rate of decrease in total water storage of approximately -27.2 plus or minus 0.6 millimeters per year equivalent water height, equal to a volume of 143.6 cubic kimometers during the course of the study period. Additional remote-sensing information and output from land surface models were used to identify that groundwater losses are the major source of this trend. The approach used in this study provides an example of ''best current capabilities'' in regions like the Middle East, where data access can be severely limited. Results indicate that the region lost 17.3 plus or minus 2.1 millimeters per year equivalent water height of groundwater during the study period, or 91.3 plus or minus 10.9 cubic kilometers in volume. Furthermore, results raise important issues regarding water use in transboundary river basins and aquifers, including the necessity of international water use treaties and resolving discrepancies in international water law, while amplifying the need for increased monitoring for core components of the water budget.

  20. MISR Views the Middle East

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image, generated using 16 orbits of MISR data collected between August 16 and August 30, 2000, takes us to the cradle of many civilizations. The data are from the 60-degree aftward-viewing camera. Because the individual orbit swaths are only 400 kilometers wide, they were 'mosaiced' together to form this composite picture, which covers about 2700 kilometers from west to east and 1750 kilometers from north to south. A few discontinuities are present in the mosaic, particularly near clouds, due to changes in the scene which occurred between dates when the individual orbit data were acquired.

    At the northern tip of the Red Sea, the Gulf of Suez and the Gulf of Aqaba frame the sandy deserts and spectacular mountains of the Sinai Peninsula. The highest peaks are Gebel Katherina (Mountain of St. Catherine, 2637 meters) and Gebel Musa (Mountain of Moses, also known as Mount Sinai, 2285 meters). To the northeast, Israel and Jordan flank the Dead Sea, one of the saltiest inland water bodies in the world. At its northern edge is Qumran, where the ancient Scrolls were discovered; the city of Jerusalem lies about 30 kilometers to the west.

    Several large rivers are prominent. Flowing southeastward through Iraq are the Tigris and Euphrates. The dark area between the two rivers, northwest of the Persian Gulf, is a very fertile region where fishing and farming are prevalent. Wending its way through eastern Egypt is the Nile. In the south is Lake Nasser and the Aswan Dam; continuing northward the Nile passes the Temple of Luxor as it sharply loops to the east. It then turns west and northward, eventually passing the capital city of Cairo, and finally spreading into a prominent delta as it empties into the Mediterranean Sea. The bright dot just west of the apex of the delta marks the location of the great Pyramids and Sphinx complexes on the Giza Plateau. On the coast, west of the delta, is the ancient city of Alexandria, Egypt's main seaport.

    'MISR', as it turns

  1. Armageddon, oil, and the Middle East crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Walvoord, J.F.; Walvoord, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    This book relates the intricate subject of biblical prophecy to the current crisis in the Middle East. With the development of oil politics, Dr. Walvoord believes a new world government will emerge, centered in the Middle East, which will eclipse the United States and Russia as world powers. The world government will be subjected to catastrophic, divine judgments which precipitate a gigantic world war culminating in Armageddon. Each chapter is devoted to the scriptural explanations of events leading to the second coming of Christ. The result is a prophetic calendar summing up to the countdown to Armageddon. Some of the chapter titles include: the Arab oil blackmail; watch Jerusalen; the rising tide of world religion; the coming Middle East peace; the coming world dictator; and Armageddon: the world's death struggle.

  2. Education Quality in the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, David W.; Miric, Suzanne L.

    2009-07-01

    Some of the most dramatic growth in the provision of primary and secondary education over the last decade has occurred across countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Yet student achievement across MENA is lagging compared to many other parts of the world. Low quality of education is a primary concern and one of the greatest challenges facing education and government leaders across the region. This paper summarises recent evidence regarding student learning in the MENA region and draws on Galal's model of policy formulation in considering ways that governments across the Middle East might address this problem.

  3. The Middle East in global strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, A.

    1986-01-01

    This book emphasizes the links between international politics and strategy. The contributors provide an analysis of the strategic interests of the major international actors in the Middle East. The policies of the superpowers toward the Middle East are evaluated. The awareness of the strategic value and interests of two key regional actors - Syria and Israel - are discussed. The author further discusses NATO and the Warsaw Treaty Organization (WTO), West European allies and the U.S., as well as Soviet dominance in foreign policy decisions made in the WTO. There is emphasis on the Arab-Israeli conflict and the Iran-Iraq war.

  4. Strategy for managing water in the Middle East and North Africa; Strategie pour la gestion de l`eau au moyen-orient et en afrique du nord

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    Water has always been of central concern to life in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Burgeoning populations are placing unprecendented pressures on the resource, calling urgently for new approaches to water planning and management if escalating conflicts are to be avoided and if environmental degradation is to be reversed. The booklet sets out the implications of the new Bank policy for the MENA region, calling for a concerted effort by government and Bank staff to address water resources in a coordinated and sustainable manner. It proposes a practical, step-by-step approach to achieving this objective that could lead to new Bank-supported operations to address the water sector as a whole.

  5. Media and Teaching about the Middle East

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaviani, Khodadad

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study was conducted in 2006-2007 and found that teachers relied on a variety of readily available media to stay informed about the Middle East and used some of them in their teaching. Teachers tried to explain to their students that every Middle Eastern Muslim is not a terrorist and Iraq was not behind the 9/11 terrorist attacks.…

  6. Academic Freedom and Middle East Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colla, Elliott

    2007-01-01

    When the author and his colleague Marsha Pripstein Posusney of Bryant College organized a workshop, entitled "The Study of the Middle East and Islam: Challenges after 9-11," at the Watson Institute for International Studies at Brown University, he naively assumed it would come off without friction. After all, he thought, they were not even talking…

  7. Education Quality in the Middle East

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, David W.; Miric, Suzanne L.

    2009-01-01

    Some of the most dramatic growth in the provision of primary and secondary education over the last decade has occurred across countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Yet student achievement across MENA is lagging compared to many other parts of the world. Low quality of education is a primary concern and one of the greatest…

  8. Educational Policies in the Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szyliowicz, Joseph S.

    1979-01-01

    Educational developments in the Middle East are analyzed in terms of the relationship between educational systems and developmental goals, especially manpower. Accompanying commentaries by Orin D. Parker and Joy W. Viola contend that educational quality has been sacrificed for quantity and that judgment of the system must be made within a cultural…

  9. RAND's Impact in the Middle East. Corporate Publication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RAND Corporation, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The RAND Corporation works throughout the Middle East to analyze complex policy problems and help policymakers create enduring solutions. RAND's work in the Middle East focuses on the issues that drive economic development. This brief report provides an overview of RAND's impact in the Middle East in the areas of supporting youth, health and…

  10. Understanding farmers' intention and behavior regarding water conservation in the Middle-East and North Africa: a case study in Iran.

    PubMed

    Yazdanpanah, Masoud; Hayati, Dariush; Hochrainer-Stigler, Stefan; Zamani, Gholam Hosein

    2014-03-15

    There is a high risk of serious water shortages in Middle-East and North African countries. To decrease this threat water conservation strategies are gaining overall importance and one main focus is now on farmer's behavior. Among other dimensions it is assumed that normative issues play an important role in predicting environmental oriented intentions and actual actions. To empirically test the possible interactions the Theory of Planned Behavior was used, revised and expanded for the specific case on water management issues and applied to Iranian farmers. The results could not validate the TPB framework which emphasizes the importance of perceived behavioral control for intention and actual behavior and findings are much more in line with the Theory of Reasoned Action. Normative inclinations as well as perception of risk are found to be important for intention as well as actual water conservation behavior. Additionally, the importance and linkages of the dimensions are found to be different between sub-groups of farmers, especially between traditional water management farmers and those who already using advanced water management strategies. This raises the question if one-fits-all behavioral models are adequate for practical studies where sub-groups may very much differ in their actions. Still, our study suggests that in the context of water conservation, normative inclination is a key dimension and it may be useful to consider the role of positive, self-rewarding feelings for farmers when setting up policy measures in the region. PMID:24513405

  11. The post-war Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Tempest, P.

    1992-03-09

    The Middle East remains today the global energy fulcrum. One year after the Persian Gulf war, the region is in greater turmoil and political uncertainty than it has known in modern times. The Iraqi invasion of Kuwait and subsequent external military intervention forced neighboring states to question the need for a foreign military presence in the future. The rift between the secular revolutionary states in the region led by Iraq, Libya, Yemen, Algeria, and Syria and the traditional monarchy of Saudi Arabia and the emirates of the gulf has widened. Egypt provides, at present, an uncomfortable bridge. The balance of political forces may be shifting. This paper attempts to answer the following questions: Where will we see the new leadership in the Middle East Will it again play a role through the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries and determination of the oil price in shaping the structure of global energy supply and demand

  12. US petroleum production mission visits Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    McQueen, C.

    1984-08-06

    To help US petroleum executives promote American equipment and technical expertise, the Commerce Department is sponsoring a petroleum production trade mission, November 26-December 11, to Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Oman, and Iraq - four Middle East countries where petroleum is the lifeline of the economy and a sector targeted for further investment. Participation affords US executives access to key officials, agents, and private buyers, and is especially valuable to new-to-market companies that experience difficulty in arranging individual travel and business appointments. The author summarizes the market for petroleum equipment and services in each of the countries to be visited. Business representatives interested in taking advantage of this trade/investment opportunity in the Middle East should contact: Thomas H. Shugart, Project Coordinator, US Department of Commerce, 1100 Commerce St., Room 7A5, Dallas, Texas, telephone 214-767-0546.

  13. Antithrombotic Prophylaxis in the Middle East

    PubMed Central

    Arnaout, Samir; Samaha, Hanady R.; Succar, Julien; Bou-Akl, Imad; Musallam, Khaled M.; Taher, Ali T.

    2011-01-01

    Several factors have been proposed to explain the persistence of a high incidence of venous thromboembolism worldwide with its associated morbidity and mortality. Underutilization of anticoagulants and failure of adherence to thromboprophylaxis guidelines are emerging global health concerns. We herein review this alarming observation with special emphasis on the Middle East region. We also discuss strategies that could help control this increasingly reported problem. PMID:21713074

  14. Genomic landscape of the Greater Middle East.

    PubMed

    Özçelik, Tayfun; Onat, Onur Emre

    2016-08-30

    Study of the Greater Middle East (GME), home to approximately 10% of the world's population, has made invaluable contributions to the characterization of rare genetic disease, especially recessive conditions arising from the tradition of consanguinity and large families with multiple children. A new study now reports 1,111 unrelated exomes from the GME and provides a comprehensive view of genetic variation for enhanced discovery of disease-associated genes. PMID:27573686

  15. Recent developments of the Middle East catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zare, Mehdi; Amini, Hamideh; Yazdi, Pouye; Sesetyan, Karin; Demircioglu, Mine Betul; Kalafat, Dogan; Erdik, Mustafa; Giardini, Domenico; Khan, M. Asif; Tsereteli, Nino

    2014-10-01

    This article summarizes a recent study in the framework of the Global Earth model (GEM) and the Earthquake Model of the Middle East (EMME) project to establish the new catalog of seismicity for the Middle East, using all historical (pre-1900), early and modern instrumental events up to 2006. According to different seismicity, which depends on geophysical, geological, tectonic, and seismicity data, this region is subdivided to nine subregions, consisting of Alborz-Azerbaijan, Afghanistan-Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Caucasus, Central Iran, Kopeh-Dagh, Makran, Zagros, and Turkey (Eastern Anatolia; after 30° E). After omitting the duplicate events, aftershocks, and foreshocks by using the Gruenthal method, and uniform all magnitude to Mw scale, 28,244 main events remain for the new catalog of Middle East from 1250 B.C. through 2006. The magnitude of completeness ( Mc) was determined as 4.9 for five out of nine subregions, where the least values of Mc were found to be 4.2. The threshold of Mc is around 5.5, 5.0, 4.5, and 4.0, for the time after 1950, 1963, 1975, and 2000, respectively. The average of teleseismic depths in all regions is less than 15 km. Totally, majority of depth for Kopeh-Dagh and Central Iran, Zagros, and Alborz-Azerbaijan, approximately, is 15, 13, and 11 km and for Afghanistan-Pakistan, Caucasus, Makran, Turkey (after 30° E), and Saudi Arabia is about 9 km.

  16. Adjoint tomography of the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, D. B.; Savage, B.; Rodgers, A. J.; Tromp, J.

    2010-12-01

    Improvements in nuclear explosion monitoring require refined seismic models of the target region. In our study, we focus on the Middle East, spanning a region from Turkey to the west and West India to the east. This area represents a complex geologic and tectonic setting with sparse seismic data coverage. This has lead to diverging interpretations of crustal and underlying upper-mantle structure by different research groups, complicating seismic monitoring of the Middle East at regional distances. We evaluated an initial 3D seismic model of this region by computing full waveforms for several regional earthquakes by a spectral-element method. We measure traveltime and multitaper phase shifts between observed broadband data and synthetic seismograms for distinct seismic phases within selected time windows using a recently developed automated measurement algorithm. Based on the remaining misfits, we setup an iterative inversion procedure for a fully numerical 3D seismic tomography approach. In order to improve the initial 3D seismic model, the sensitivity to seismic structure of the traveltime and multitaper phase measurements for all available seismic network recordings is computed. As this represents a computationally very intensive task, we take advantage of a fully numerical adjoint approach by using the efficient software package SPECFEM3D_GLOBE on a dedicated cluster. We show examples of such sensitivity kernels for different seismic events and use them in a steepest descent approach to update the 3D seismic model, starting at longer periods between 60 s and up to 200 s and moving towards shorter periods of 11 s. We highlight various improvements in the initial seismic structure during the iterations in order to better fit regional seismic waveforms in the Middle East.

  17. Adjoint tomography of the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, D. B.; Savage, B.; Rodgers, A.; Morency, C.; Tromp, J.

    2011-12-01

    Improvements in nuclear explosion monitoring require refined seismic models of the target region. In our study, we focus on the Middle East, spanning a region from Turkey to the west and West India to the east. This area represents a complex geologic and tectonic setting with sparse seismic data coverage. This has lead to diverging interpretations of crustal and underlying upper-mantle structure by different research groups, complicating seismic monitoring of the Middle East at regional distances. We evaluated an initial 3D seismic model of this region by computing full waveforms for several regional earthquakes based on a spectral-element method. We measure traveltime and multitaper phase differences between observed broadband data and synthetic seismograms for distinct seismic phases within selected time windows using a recently developed automated measurement algorithm. Based on the remaining misfits, we setup an iterative inversion procedure for a fully numerical 3D seismic tomography approach. In order to improve the initial 3D seismic model, sensitivity to seismic structures of traveltime and multitaper phase measurements for all available seismic network recordings is computed. As this represents a computationally very intensive task, we take advantage of a fully numerical adjoint approach by using the efficient software package SPECFEM3D_GLOBE on a dedicated cluster. We show examples of such sensitivity kernels for different seismic events. All these `event kernels' are then summed, smoothed and further used in a preconditioned conjugate-gradient approach. Thus we iteratively update the 3D seismic model, starting at longer periods between 60~s and up to 150~s and moving towards shorter periods of 11~s. We highlight various improvements in the initial seismic structure during the iterations in order to better fit regional seismic waveforms in the Middle East.

  18. Huntington Disease (Chorea) in the Middle East

    PubMed Central

    Scrimgeour, Euan M

    2009-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) has been reported in Arab families in several Middle East countries including Saudi Arabia, Oman, Syria, Lebanon, and Egypt and in non-Arab populations in other countries in the region. It is probably under-reported, and until now, has not been recorded in Yemen, the United Arab Emirates, Jordan or in Iraq. The Middle East has always been on the crossroads of trade and travel, and HD was probably introduced to some of these countries in previous times. The prevalence rate in Middle Eastern Arabs is estimated to vary from 3 to 4 per 100,000. Although the HD gene which codes for the protein huntingtin has been identified, the function of this protein is not known. At present, no treatment has been found to delay the onset of HD or to treat it effectively. Although relatively rare, HD has increasingly become a focus of international gene research, with the support and collaboration of the International Huntington Association (IHA). The IHA has been represented in Saudi Arabia and Oman. PMID:21509270

  19. In search of an oasis: Opportunity in the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    VanderMeer, D.C.

    1996-03-01

    Across the Middle East, people contend with heat, dust, lack of rainfall, and a harsh geography. In this century, industrial development, political upheaval, and war have left a legacy of environmental and health problems. Scarce arable land is being lost to desertification. Fresh water is diverted, misused, and polluted with hazardous wastes, sewage, and agricultural and other chemicals. Coastal zones are polluted with oil, threatening pristine coral reefs, wild fowl, and fishing areas. Unprecedented urbanization and migration of traditionally rural peoples and resettlement of political refugees and foreign workers strain city services. Yet there is reason for optimism in the Middle East. Peace in the region is in sight, bringing an opportunity to stop the rapid environmental decline. Technology is available to assess the degradation, and the impact of environmental conditions on human health can be quantified.

  20. Purdah and overpopulation in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Misch, A

    1990-01-01

    The Middle East and North Africa constitute the Islamic world. From Morocco to Afghanistan the population is 340 million and growing at a rate of 3% annually and will double in 23 years. Currently food, water, and land resources are being taxed to their limit and continued growth will only cause larger scale problems for the region. To complicate the issue public policies and private practices and attitudes are leading to continued population growth. The rise of Islamic fundamentalism does not recognize the problem of over population. In fact the revision of family law by fundamentalist politicians has done a great deal of damage to the improvements in the status of women throughout the region. The revival of Purdah, the practice of keeping women out of the public eye and confined to home, is just one example or how the rise of Islamic fundamentalism is turning back the clock in terms of women's rights. The primary disadvantage is that since women are being returned to the home, their only source of values is as child bearers. Women cloistered at home are expected to be prolific child bearers, in fact their value as human beings is judged primarily on this basis. It is their ability to bear sons that is coveted. This of course will only compound the population problems being experienced in the region. Few countries have tried to institute state wide family planning programs, namely: Algeria, Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia and Yemen, but none of these programs has been very successful. In Iraq, Kuwait, Oman and Saudi Arabia, population growth is viewed as a positive event because it will help eliminate the need for foreign workers. Even in this region, educated people have a lower fertility rate. For example in Jordan 60% of illiterate males "did not believe in" contraception while only 15% of men educated past the secondary level felt the same way. If women are forced out of the labor force and into the home to have children, the population problem will only grow. PMID

  1. The impacts of Middle East dust on Indian summer rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Q.; Yang, Z. L.; Wei, J.

    2014-12-01

    Using the Weather Research and Forecasting model with online chemistry (WRF-Chem), the impact of Middle East dust aerosols on the Indian summer monsoon rainfall was studied. Eight numerical experiments were conducted to take into account uncertainties related to dust-absorbing properties, various assumptions used in calculating aerosol optical depth (AOD), and various radiation schemes. In order to obtain reasonable dust emission, model-simulated AOD and radiation forcing at the top of the atmosphere were compared with multiple satellite- and surface-based observations. Consistent with observations, modeled results show heavy dust loadings in the Arabian Peninsula and Pakistan, which can be transported through long distance to the Arabian Sea and the Indian Peninsula. By heating the atmosphere in the lower troposphere over the Iranian Plateau, these dust aerosols result in strengthened Indian summer monsoon circulations, which in turn transport more water vapor to the Indian Peninsula. The model shows that northern India becomes wetter during the monsoon season in dust cases than non-dust cases. Further observational analyses show an increasing trend in AOD over the Arabian Peninsula, which corresponds to an increasing trend of rainfall in northern India during summer monsoon seasons from 2000 to 2013. These observed trends of AOD and rainfall are consistent with the model-simulated positive relationship between Middle East dust and Indian summer monsoon rainfall. Our results highlight long-term (decadal) impacts of Middle East dust aerosols on the Indian summer rainfall.

  2. Sn Attenuation in the Middle-East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, W.; Kaviani, A.; Bao, X.; Sandvol, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Turkish-Iranian Plateau and Zagros Mountains, a dominant tectonic feature in the Middle-East, were formed as a result of the continental collision (between Arabian plate and Eurasia plates). In order to better understand the nature of the lithosphere mantle and origin of the measure seismic velocity anomalies we have made detailed measurements of the uppermost mantle attenuation using the high frequency regional phase Sn. In order to measure Sn attenuation. We have collected a large data set consisting of 18 years (1995-2012) of waveforms recorded by 305 permanent and temporary stations. We used a bandpass filter (0.1-0.5Hz) to identify efficient longer period Sn phases. In order to determine Sn Q we applied a Two Station Method (TSM) and Reverse Two Station Method (RTM) to eliminate the source effects. We have used the LSQR algorithm to tomographically map Sn attenuation tomography across the Middle-East. We also determined the Sn propagation efficiencies visually and tomographically map qualitatively assigned Sn propagation efficiencies across the Middle-East. The Sn Attenuation Tomography show moderately low Q values beneath the Turkish-Iranian Plateau (~250) and high Q values beneath the south Caspian sea (~400) and Arabian shield (~400). We also observe high Q values beneath the Zagros mountains (~450) that is consistent with the Arabian plate underthrusting beneath the Eurasia plate. The Sn Efficiency Tomography shows high attenuation within the Turkish-Iranian Plateau and low attenuation in the Arabian Plate and across the Caspian Sea. This is consistent with prior studies that suggest a hot and thin lithosphere beneath the Turkish-Iranian Plateau and it also suggests that intrinsic attenuation is the dominant component in Sn Q across the Turkish-Iranian Plateau. Due to the signal-to-noise criterion to select amplitudes and the efficiency criterion to select two-station and reverse-two-station paths for the inversion, the data are left-censored and the

  3. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Virus Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sunit K

    2016-08-01

    Coronaviruses (CoVs) are enveloped RNA viruses that infect birds, mammals, and humans. Infections caused by human coronaviruses (hCoVs) are mostly associated with the respiratory, enteric, and nervous systems. The hCoVs only occasionally induce lower respiratory tract disease, including bronchitis, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia. In 2002 to 2003, a global outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was the seminal detection of a novel CoV (SARS-CoV). A decade later (June 2012), another novel CoV was implicated as the cause of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) in Saudi Arabia. Although bats might serve as a reservoir of MERS-CoV, it is unlikely that they are the direct source for most human cases. Severe lines of evidence suggest that dromedary camels have been the major cause of transmission to humans. The emergence of MERS-CoV has triggered serious concerns about the potential for a widespread outbreak. All MERS cases were linked directly or indirectly to the Middle East region including Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Qatar, Oman, Kuwait, and UAE. MERS cases have also been reported in the later phases in the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and Tunisia. Most of these MERS cases were linked with the Middle East. The high mortality rates in family-based and hospital-based outbreaks were reported among patients with comorbidities such as diabetes and renal failure. MERS-CoV causes an acute, highly lethal pneumonia and renal dysfunction. The major complications reported in fatal cases are hyperkalemia with associated ventricular tachycardia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, pericarditis, and multiorgan failure. The case-fatality rate seems to be higher for MERS-CoV (around 30%) than for SARS-CoV (9.6%). The combination regimen of type 1 interferon + lopinavir/ritonavir is considered as the first-line therapy for MERS. Antiviral treatment is generally recommended for 10 to 14 days in patients with MERS-CoV infection. Convalescent plasma

  4. Middle East: Slow year on the Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-08-01

    This article surveys the petroleum outlook in the Middle East area. Observations include: Saudi Arabia's money crunch continues to keep the lid on exploration, production work; Abu Dhabi has also curtailed operations because of low oil prices, reduced budgets; Followup drilling has been disappointing around recent gas strikes in Sharjah, Dubai; Oman's aggressive EandP program will result in a 30% drilling increase this year; Kuwait isn't slowing down its development of light oil either; the goal is 40 new wells; Iran and Iraq are still boosting export capacities despite attacks on oil facilities; North Yemen's Alief field is a major find. Numerous structures remain to be drilled; Syria, Bahrain have development projects underway. Turkey is attracting U.S. majors.

  5. MODIS Views the Middle-East

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    To paraphrase English author T.H. White, borders are the one thing a man sees that a bird cannot see as it flies high overhead. For the 15th consecutive day, differences in ideology have sparked violence and tension in the middle-east as the rest of the world watches, concerned. This true-color image of the region was taken on September 10, 2000, by the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The image shows the lands of Israel along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea, with the countries of Jordan to the southeast and Syria to the Northeast. Jerusalem, labeled, is Israel's capital city and Aman, labeled, is the capital of Jordan. The region known as the West Bank lies between the two countries. Running from north to south, the Jordan River links the Sea of Galilee to the Dead Sea. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Group, NASA GSFC

  6. GRACE water storage estimates for the Middle East and other regions with significant reservoir and lake storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longuevergne, L.; Wilson, C. R.; Scanlon, B. R.; Crétaux, J. F.

    2012-10-01

    While GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellites are increasingly being used to monitor water storage changes globally, the impact of spatial distribution of water storage within a basin is generally ignored but may be substantial. In many basins, water may be stored in reservoirs, lakes, flooded areas, small aquifer systems, and other localized regions with sizes typically below GRACE resolution. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of non-uniform water storage distribution on GRACE estimates as basin-wide averages, focusing on surface water reservoirs. Analysis included numerical experiments testing the effect of mass size and position within a basin, and application to the Lower Nile (Lake Nasser) and Tigri-Euphrates (TE) basins as examples. Numerical experiments show that by assuming uniform mass distribution, GRACE estimates may under- or over-estimate basin-average water storage by up to a factor of two, depending on reservoir location and extent. Although their spatial extent may be unresolved by GRACE, reservoir storage may dominate in some basins. For example, it accounts for 95% of seasonal variations in the Lower Nile and 10% in the TE basins. Because reservoirs are used to mitigate droughts and buffer against climate extremes, their influence on interannual time scales can be large, for example accounting for 50% of total water storage decline during the 2007-2009 drought in the TE basin. Effects on GRACE estimates are not easily accounted for via simple multiplicative scaling, but in many cases independent information may be available to improve estimates. Accurate estimation of the reservoir contribution is critical, especially when separating groundwater from GRACE total water storage changes. Because the influence of spatially concentrated water storage - and more generally water distribution - is significant, GRACE estimates will be improved when it is possible to combine independent spatial distribution information

  7. GRACE water storage estimates for the Middle East and other regions with significant reservoir and lake storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longuevergne, L.; Wilson, C. R.; Scanlon, B. R.; Crétaux, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    While GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellites are increasingly being used to monitor total water storage (TWS) changes globally, the impact of spatial distribution of water storage within a basin is generally ignored but may be substantial. In many basins, water is often stored in reservoirs or lakes, flooded areas, small aquifer systems, and other localized regions with areas typically below GRACE resolution (~200 000 km2). The objective of this study was to assess the impact of nonuniform water storage distribution on GRACE estimates of TWS changes as basin-wide averages, focusing on surface water reservoirs and using a priori information on reservoir storage from radar altimetry. Analysis included numerical experiments testing effects of location and areal extent of the localized mass (reservoirs) within a basin on basin-wide average water storage changes, and application to the lower Nile (Lake Nasser) and Tigris-Euphrates basins as examples. Numerical experiments show that by assuming uniform mass distribution, GRACE estimates may under- or overestimate basin-wide average water storage by up to a factor of ~2, depending on reservoir location and areal extent. Although reservoirs generally cover less than 1% of the basin area, and their spatial extent may be unresolved by GRACE, reservoir storage may dominate water storage changes in some basins. For example, reservoir storage accounts for ~95% of seasonal water storage changes in the lower Nile and 10% in the Tigris-Euphrates. Because reservoirs are used to mitigate droughts and buffer against climate extremes, their influence on interannual timescales can be large. For example, TWS decline during the 2007-2009 drought in the Tigris-Euphrates basin measured by GRACE was ~93 km3. Actual reservoir storage from satellite altimetry was limited to 27 km3, but their apparent impact on GRACE reached 45 km3, i.e., 50% of GRACE trend. Therefore, the actual impact of reservoirs would have been greatly

  8. Kicking up Sand in Middle-East Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Professors who attended the Association for the Study of the Middle East and Africa (ASMEA) were alarmed about the state of Middle East studies. The group's co-founder, Bernard Lewis, said in his keynote address that the freedom to study and write on the topic of Islam was under assault by a Cerberus of "postmodernism," "political correctness,"…

  9. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome in 3 Persons, South Korea, 2015.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jeong-Sun; Park, SungHan; Kim, You-Jin; Kang, Hae Ji; Kim, Hak; Han, Young Woo; Lee, Han Saem; Kim, Dae-Won; Kim, A-Reum; Heo, Deok Rim; Kim, Joo Ae; Kim, Su Jin; Nam, Jeong-Gu; Jung, Hee-Dong; Cheong, Hyang-Min; Kim, Kisoon; Lee, Joo-Shil; Kim, Sung Soon

    2015-11-01

    In May 2015, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection was laboratory confirmed in South Korea. Patients were a man who had visited the Middle East, his wife, and a man who shared a hospital room with the index patient. Rapid laboratory confirmation will facilitate subsequent prevention and control for imported cases. PMID:26488745

  10. Middle East Geopolitical Transformation: The Disappearance of a Shatterbelt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Saul B.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the future of the Middle East in the wake of the end of the Cold War. Examines the ongoing political reorientation of the region. Suggests that the United States and Europe can foster a political balance in the Middle East by acting as competitive but allied stabilizers. (SG)

  11. The Middle East Institute Resource Guide for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fix, Jerrold E.

    Abstracts and evaluations of over 50 instructional and resource materials related to the Middle East are presented in the resource guide. The guide is intended for use by elementary and secondary school social studies classroom teachers as they seek information about availability and potential uses of resources dealing with the Middle East. Four…

  12. A Global Perspective on Public Relations Ethics: The Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruckeberg, Dean

    Sophisticated public relations is being practiced in the Middle East. However, the models used in that region are not identical to American models, nor are they identical to those in other Western countries usually considered part of the "First World." In particular, Moslem culture heavily influences Middle East practice. Can the ethics of public…

  13. Books about the Middle East for Children and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Patricia

    This bibliography comprises a list of 236 reviewed children's books about the Middle East. All books were published since 1970 in the United States. For the purpose of this document the countries of the Middle East number 16: Bahrain, Cyprus, Iraq, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, United Arab…

  14. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome in 3 Persons, South Korea, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jeong-Sun; Park, SungHan; Kim, You-Jin; Kang, Hae Ji; Kim, Hak; Han, Young Woo; Lee, Han Saem; Kim, Dae-Won; Kim, A-Reum; Heo, Deok Rim; Kim, Joo Ae; Kim, Su Jin; Nam, Jeong-Gu; Jung, Hee-Dong; Cheong, Hyang-Min; Kim, Kisoon; Lee, Joo-Shil

    2015-01-01

    In May 2015, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection was laboratory confirmed in South Korea. Patients were a man who had visited the Middle East, his wife, and a man who shared a hospital room with the index patient. Rapid laboratory confirmation will facilitate subsequent prevention and control for imported cases. PMID:26488745

  15. The rabies situation in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Seimenis, A

    2008-01-01

    Rabies is a public health problem of significant importance in the majority of Southern and Eastern Mediterranean and Middle Eastern countries. In some of these countries, there is a considerable death rate due to rabies. Dogs are the main source of human infection, while cats constitute the second most important group of domestic animals followed by cattle, sheep, goats, camels, donkeys and then wild animals. There are around 300 reported human cases in these regions annually, with several hundred thousand post-exposure treatments. Laboratory confirmation of rabies cases is not always performed. In most countries, there is one central rabies diagnosis laboratory with trained staff and the diagnosis capability of district laboratories is weak. Animal rabies control consists of the vaccination of dogs and cats, the elimination of stray animals, health education for the public, etc. Mass vaccination of dogs is not implemented, and the effective coverage rate is not exactly known. The elimination of stray dogs and other animals by shooting and poisoning is still implemented in certain countries, however, this has a minimal effect on rabies transmission. Certain countries of the Middle East region are facing increasing problems due to wildlife rabies, including Saudi Arabia, Oman, Yemen, Israel, Iran and Turkey. The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and golden jackal (Canis aureus) are usually involved. Coordinated actions to confront the serious rabies public health and economic problems should be undertaken by affected countries, with the assistance of international organisations, under conditions that are suitable for each country. PMID:18634465

  16. Oil, turmoil, and Islam in the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Sheikh, A.R.

    1986-01-01

    The turmoil and strife of the Middle East raises serious questions about the security of the world's oil supply. The author argues that OPEC and OAPEC can no longer afford to impose indiscriminate price increases on the marketplace because they hurt not only themselves but oil poor Third World nations as well. The author analyzes the importance of Middle Eastern oil in world politics. He emphasizes that any consideration of the forces influencing development in the Middle East should take Islamic tradition into account. Each chapter is organized around a current Middle Eastern problem: oil politics in relation to international energy needs; the ramifications of the new oil wealth and power of the Middle East; The Iran-Iraq War; Muslim insurgency in Afghanistan; The Arab-Israel conflict; turmoil in Lebanon; Palestinian nationalism; and the Middle East as a superpower.

  17. Middle East future line plans muddled following Gulf War

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    This paper reports that the recent Gulf War has left the middle East in an awkward situation on current and future pipe line projects. Much of Kuwait's production capacity was destroyed and its ability to regain its previous position as an oil producer in the Middle East in the near term is questionable. Iraq's production remains severely curtailed by international agreement. Saudi Arabia and the other Middle Eastern states continue to produce at the higher than normal levels instigated in the early days of the crisis. The continuing efforts to bring the Kuwait oilfields under control, coupled with ongoing excessive production by some Middle eastern countries and the world response to Sadam Hussein's questionable intentions leave the Middle East pipe line construction picture muddled. The war forestalled pipe line projects in Kuwait and Iraq and many of the planned projects now are questionable. In other areas of the Middle East, the war may have firmed tentative plans for pipe line construction.

  18. Climatology of the Middle East dust events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezazadeh, M.; Irannejad, P.; Shao, Y.

    2013-09-01

    Major sources of dust in the Middle East have been identified by analyzing the surface meteorological records from weather stations for the period 1998-2003. The geographical distribution, possible sources, and the wind patterns favoring the occurrence of four different types of dust events, i.e. dust-in-suspension, blowing dust, dust storm and severe dust storm, are examined. Four major regions of dust events are found in the study domain. These regions cover Sudan, parts of Saudi Arabia and Iraq, Pakistan, and parts of Iran and Afghanistan. The highest frequency of dust events occurs in Sudan, where the number of dust-in-suspension and severe dust storm is maximum. These events generally occur when north-easterly and north-westerly winds of less than 8 ms-1 prevail. The maximum numbers of blowing dust and dust storm are observed over Iran and Afghanistan as a result of strong north-westerlies, known as Sistan's 120-day winds. The highest values of mean dust concentration, estimated based on visibility, are found in Pakistan. The region of Saudi Arabia and Iraq are associated with relatively strong wind speeds during dust events that may carry dust particles from the sources. Because the synoptic features responsible for dust emission are different, the peak of the seasonal cycle of dust events occurs in different months of the year in different dust source regions. The major sources of dust are seen in the western parts of the domain during the winter months and shift to the east progressing towards the summer.

  19. Wind Resource Assessment in the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yip, C. M. A.; Gunturu, U. B.; Stenchikov, G. L.

    2014-12-01

    This study constructs wind power resource in the Middle East using the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) boundary layer flux data at 80m, 100m, and 120m. The resource is then characterized using robust metrics on abundance, variability, and intermittency of wind power density at separate heights. The analyses suggest high resource in western regions of Saudi Arabia, especially at the Red Sea and the mountainous regions away from the coastline. Southern coast of Oman and the Gulf of Aden also demonstrate high median wind power density. These corresponding high wind regions also exhibit high availability over the period of record length (1979-2013) as characterized by power density above 200W/m2, as well as similar behavior in episode length, which measures the persistence of the resource. These identified high wind regions differ in resource variability in terms of the coefficient of variation. The western mountainous regions of Saudi Arabia and the coastline of Oman show moderate variability compared to the Red Sea, where it sees two different regimes of variability, low in the north and high in the south. The Gulf of Aden demonstrates surprisingly low variability. Further statistical measures of variability, abundance, and intermittency will be elaborated. We will also discuss the geographical and meteorological factors controlling the wind resource in the region.

  20. Earthquake Model of the Middle East (EMME) Project: Active Fault Database for the Middle East Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gülen, L.; Wp2 Team

    2010-12-01

    The Earthquake Model of the Middle East (EMME) Project is a regional project of the umbrella GEM (Global Earthquake Model) project (http://www.emme-gem.org/). EMME project region includes Turkey, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Iran, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. Both EMME and SHARE projects overlap and Turkey becomes a bridge connecting the two projects. The Middle East region is tectonically and seismically very active part of the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt. Many major earthquakes have occurred in this region over the years causing casualties in the millions. The EMME project will use PSHA approach and the existing source models will be revised or modified by the incorporation of newly acquired data. More importantly the most distinguishing aspect of the EMME project from the previous ones will be its dynamic character. This very important characteristic is accomplished by the design of a flexible and scalable database that will permit continuous update, refinement, and analysis. A digital active fault map of the Middle East region is under construction in ArcGIS format. We are developing a database of fault parameters for active faults that are capable of generating earthquakes above a threshold magnitude of Mw≥5.5. Similar to the WGCEP-2007 and UCERF-2 projects, the EMME project database includes information on the geometry and rates of movement of faults in a “Fault Section Database”. The “Fault Section” concept has a physical significance, in that if one or more fault parameters change, a new fault section is defined along a fault zone. So far over 3,000 Fault Sections have been defined and parameterized for the Middle East region. A separate “Paleo-Sites Database” includes information on the timing and amounts of fault displacement for major fault zones. A digital reference library that includes the pdf files of the relevant papers, reports is also being prepared. Another task of the WP-2 of the EMME project is to prepare

  1. Ecology and distribution of Bulinus truncatus in the Middle East

    PubMed Central

    Watson, J. M.

    1958-01-01

    The author gives a comprehensive account of the present status of knowledge regarding the ecology and distribution of Bulinus truncatus, the intermediate host of Schistosoma haematobium in the Middle East and North Africa. He discusses in detail the types of habitat favoured by this snail, its life-cycle and seasonal variations in its populations, the effect of ecological factors on its distribution and occurrence, and the relationship between its control and its bionomics, stressing the many aspects of these subjects that require further investigation and suggesting lines for future research. In addition, the author outlines briefly the effect of some human activities (for example, extension of irrigation and agriculture), in their relationship to the snail host, on the incidence of bilharziasis haematobia in the Middle East and Africa. He concludes the paper with a summary of the three basic needs in respect of bilharziasis control: ecological research; prevention of pollution of waters with human excrement; and avoidance of human contact with infective water. PMID:13573115

  2. Drought is a recurring challenge in the Middle East

    PubMed Central

    Kaniewski, David; Van Campo, Elise; Weiss, Harvey

    2012-01-01

    Climate change and water availability in the Middle East are important in understanding human adaptive capacities in the face of long-term environmental changes. The key role of water availability for sedentary and nomad populations in these arid to semiarid landscapes is understood, but the millennium-scale influence of hydrologic instability on vegetation dynamics, human occupation, and historic land use are unknown, which has led to a stochastic view of population responses and adaptive capacities to precipitation anomalies. Within the time-frame of the last two global climate events, the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age, we report hydrologic instability reconstructed from pollen-derived climate proxies recovered near Tell Leilan, at the Wadi Jarrah in the Khabur Plains of northeastern Syria, at the heart of ancient northern Mesopotamia. By coupling climate proxies with archaeological-historical data and a pollen-based record of agriculture, this integrative study suggests that variability in precipitation is a key factor on crop yields, productivity, and economic systems. It may also have been one of the main parameters controlling human settlement and population migrations at the century to millennial timescales in the arid to semiarid areas of the Middle East. An abrupt shift to drier conditions at ca. AD 1400 is contemporaneous with a change from sedentary village life to regional desertion and nomadization (sheep/camel pastoralists) during the preindustrial era in formerly Ottoman realms, and thereby adds climate change to the multiple causes for Ottoman Empire “decline.” PMID:22355126

  3. Drought is a recurring challenge in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Kaniewski, David; Van Campo, Elise; Weiss, Harvey

    2012-03-01

    Climate change and water availability in the Middle East are important in understanding human adaptive capacities in the face of long-term environmental changes. The key role of water availability for sedentary and nomad populations in these arid to semiarid landscapes is understood, but the millennium-scale influence of hydrologic instability on vegetation dynamics, human occupation, and historic land use are unknown, which has led to a stochastic view of population responses and adaptive capacities to precipitation anomalies. Within the time-frame of the last two global climate events, the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age, we report hydrologic instability reconstructed from pollen-derived climate proxies recovered near Tell Leilan, at the Wadi Jarrah in the Khabur Plains of northeastern Syria, at the heart of ancient northern Mesopotamia. By coupling climate proxies with archaeological-historical data and a pollen-based record of agriculture, this integrative study suggests that variability in precipitation is a key factor on crop yields, productivity, and economic systems. It may also have been one of the main parameters controlling human settlement and population migrations at the century to millennial timescales in the arid to semiarid areas of the Middle East. An abrupt shift to drier conditions at ca. AD 1400 is contemporaneous with a change from sedentary village life to regional desertion and nomadization (sheep/camel pastoralists) during the preindustrial era in formerly Ottoman realms, and thereby adds climate change to the multiple causes for Ottoman Empire "decline." PMID:22355126

  4. Evening Pass Over the Sahara Desert and the Middle East

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video over the Sahara Desert and the Middle East was taken by the crew of Expedition 29 aboard the International Space Station. This sequence of shots was taken on Oct. 6, 2011, from 19:46:23 ...

  5. Chemical weapons proliferation in the Middle East. Study project

    SciTech Connect

    Schumeyer, G.

    1990-04-01

    Since the early 1980s, chemical weapons proliferation in the Middle East has been a growing problem. Most recently, the eight year Iran-Iraq War, marked by the repeated use of chemical weapons, has set an alarming precedent in this region that can no longer be ignored. The threat is acute and the implications for the Middle East, an area where animosities are high and relations tense, are significant. The study will address chemical weapons proliferation in the Middle East. It will examine why proliferation occurred and look at initiatives and efforts to prevent proliferation. This study will also discuss the chemical weapons capabilities of the Middle East states, the threat to the region posed by chemical weapons, and some of the implications for balance and stability in the region. Finally, this study will examine future prospects for the region in terms of chemical weapons proliferation there.

  6. 37. VIEW, LOOKING EAST, OF TYPICAL MIDDLE PIER FRAMING SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. VIEW, LOOKING EAST, OF TYPICAL MIDDLE PIER FRAMING SHOWING COUNTERWEIGHTS FOR STEEL PEDESTRIAN BRIDGES - Central Railroad of New Jersey, Jersey City Ferry Terminal, Johnson Avenue at Hudson River, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  7. Night Pass over Central Africa and the Middle East

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video over Central Africa and the Middle East was taken by the crew of Expedition 29 aboard the International Space Station. This sequence of shots was taken on Oct. 1, 2011, from 21:20:24 to ...

  8. Population policies vary in Middle East.

    PubMed

    Roudi, N

    1993-04-01

    The Middle East's fast-growing population not only puts constraints on the environment and natural resources but also on governments by increasing the demand for education, housing, health care, and jobs. Cairo has 9 million inhabitants, Tehran, 7 million, and Istanbul, 7 million. These countries have 253 million people, and the number is expected to grow to 400 million by 2010. Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Syria, yemen, Oman, Jordan, and the West Bank and Gaza have an annual rate of growth of 3%. Iran has 60 million people, Iraq, 18 million, Saudi Arabia, 16 million, and Yemen, 10 million, totalling 126 million people. Egypt, Turkey, Lebanon, Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates comprise 123 million people growing at a rate of 2-3% per year. Only Israel with 5 million and Cyprus with less than 1 million people have a rate of natural increase of 1.5% and 1.1%, respectively. The total fertility rate (TFR) for the region is close to 5 children. In 1991/1992, women in rural Yemen averaged more than 8 children; in contrast, Cyprus has a TFR of 2.4, and Jewish women in Israel have a TFR of 2.7. About half of the people of the region are under 20. Egypt, Iran, Jordan, and Turkey have policies to lower fertility and subsidize family planning services. Yemen recently adopted a national population policy to reduce the TFR to 4.0 by 2018. Iraq, Kuwait, Israel, and Cyprus want to raise fertility by providing incentives to families, such as child allowances, greater access to housing, and tax breaks. Kuwait provides cash child allowances, maternity benefits, and subsidies to families of government workers. Israel has social welfare policies to increase the size of the Jewish population, although it provides contraceptive information. Saudi Arabia restrict access to contraceptives by banning their advertising. PMID:12318175

  9. A Review of Dietary Selenium Intake and Selenium Status in Europe and the Middle East

    PubMed Central

    Stoffaneller, Rita; Morse, Nancy L.

    2015-01-01

    This is a systematic review of existing data on dietary selenium (Se) intake and status for various population groups in Europe (including the United Kingdom (UK)) and the Middle East. It includes English language systematic reviews, meta-analyses, randomised controlled trials, cohort studies, cross-sectional and case-control studies obtained through PUBMED searches from January, 2002, to November, 2014, for European data and from 1990 to November 2014, for Middle Eastern data. Reports were selected if they included data on Se intake and status. The search identified 19 European/UK studies and 15 investigations in the Middle East that reported Se intake and Se concentration in water and/or food and 48 European/UK studies and 44 investigations in the Middle East reporting Se status. Suboptimal Se status was reported to be widespread throughout Europe, the UK and the Middle East, and these results agreed with previous reports highlighting the problem. Eastern European countries had lower Se intake than Western European countries. Middle Eastern studies provided varying results, possibly due to varying food habits and imports in different regions and within differing socioeconomic groups. In conclusion, Se intake and status is suboptimal in European and Middle Eastern countries, with less consistency in the Middle East. PMID:25734564

  10. The Middle East: An Annotated Bibliography of Literature for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Jane

    This is an annotated bibliography of folklore, fiction and nonfiction about the Middle East, written in English for children aged 5 and older. There are eleven chapters - one which focuses on the entire Middle Eastern region, and ten which deal with individual countries: Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, and…

  11. Sources and Resources for Teaching about the Middle East

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merkle, Armin S.; Pearson, Robert P.

    1978-01-01

    Teaching and resource materials on the Middle East are identified in three areas: textbooks, audiovisual materials (filmstrips, audiotapes, maps, and films), and background reading for teachers on Middle Eastern history, religion, daily life, literature, and politics. For each resource, a brief annotation and ordering information are given.…

  12. Middle East Studies: A Catalogue of Middle East Studies Resources In or Near Connecticut. Area Studies Resource Guides, Number Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Frank A., Comp.

    This directory of Middle Eastern resource materials in or near Connecticut is designed for use by educators, librarians, media specialists, and the general public. The Middle East is defined as the part of the world known as Southwest Asia/North Africa (SWANA). The information is organized under ten major categories: associations and…

  13. The Middle East Content Priority Teaching Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fix, Jerrold E.

    Variations of a social studies unit on Middle Eastern culture, history, and geography are presented to aid secondary school classroom teachers as they develop and implement Middle Eastern area studies educational programs. The guide is presented in four parts, each of which represents one version of the unit. Teachers are directed to select the…

  14. Past, present and future precipitation in the Middle East: insights from models and observations.

    PubMed

    Black, Emily; Brayshaw, David J; Rambeau, Claire M C

    2010-11-28

    Anthropogenic changes in precipitation pose a serious threat to society-particularly in regions such as the Middle East that already face serious water shortages. However, climate model projections of regional precipitation remain highly uncertain. Moreover, standard resolution climate models have particular difficulty representing precipitation in the Middle East, which is modulated by complex topography, inland water bodies and proximity to the Mediterranean Sea. Here we compare precipitation changes over the twenty-first century against both millennial variability during the Holocene and interannual variability in the present day. In order to assess the climate model and to make consistent comparisons, this study uses new regional climate model simulations of the past, present and future in conjunction with proxy and historical observations. We show that the pattern of precipitation change within Europe and the Middle East projected by the end of the twenty-first century has some similarities to that which occurred during the Holocene. In both cases, a poleward shift of the North Atlantic storm track and a weakening of the Mediterranean storm track appear to cause decreased winter rainfall in southern Europe and the Middle East and increased rainfall further north. In contrast, on an interannual time scale, anomalously dry seasons in the Middle East are associated with a strengthening and focusing of the storm track in the north Mediterranean and hence wet conditions throughout southern Europe. PMID:20956367

  15. Oil and gas developments in Middle East in 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Hemer, D.O.; Gohrbandt, K.H.A.

    1987-10-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1986 totaled 4,493,973,000 bbl (an average rate of 12,312,254 BOPD), up 22.3% from the revised 1985 total of 3,673,729,000 bbl. Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Abu Dhabi, and Oman had significant increased; Iran was the only Middle East country with a significant decrease. New fields went on production in Oman and Yemen Arab Republic, and significant discoveries were reported in Iraq, Yemen Arab Republic, Oman, and Syria. However, exploration was generally down in most countries. Exploration and production operations continued to be affected by war in Iraq and Iran. 8 figures, 7 tables.

  16. Evidence for zoonotic origins of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Han, Hui-Ju; Yu, Hao; Yu, Xue-Jie

    2016-02-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is an emerging infectious disease, caused by Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and is considered to be a zoonosis. However, the natural reservoirs of MERS-CoV remain obscure, with bats and camels as the most suspected sources. In this article, we review the evidence supporting a bat/camel origin of human MERS-CoV infection and current knowledge on the modes of camel-to-human transmission of MERS-CoV. PMID:26572912

  17. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Shehata, Mahmoud M; Gomaa, Mokhtar R; Ali, Mohamed A; Kayali, Ghazi

    2016-06-01

    The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus was first identified in 2012 and has since then remained uncontrolled. Cases have been mostly reported in the Middle East, however travel-associated cases and outbreaks have also occurred. Nosocomial and zoonotic transmission of the virus appear to be the most important routes. The infection is severe and highly fatal thus necessitating rapid and efficacious interventions. Here, we performed a comprehensive review of published literature and summarized the epidemiology of the virus. In addition, we summarized the virological aspects of the infection and reviewed the animal models used as well as vaccination and antiviral tested against it. PMID:26791756

  18. Language Teacher Research in the Middle East

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombe, Christine, Ed.; Barlow, Lisa, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    An openness to new ways of teaching and learning is vital for growth among English language teachers, teacher educators, teachers in training, and students. This volume in the Language Teacher Research Series (Thomas S. C. Farrell, series editor) shares the studies and reflections of teacher researchers working in Middle Eastern countries with…

  19. Evaluating Land Information System (LIS) capabilities in simulating the water budget and surface water dynamics over data-scarce areas in the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getirana, A.; Jung, H. C.; McNally, A.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Cretaux, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Despite recent advances in land surface modeling and remote sensing, estimates of the global water budget are still fairly uncertain. Uncertainties are particularly high in areas where data for model calibration and evaluation are scarce or unavailable. This study presents recent developments in the hydrological modeling over the Tigris-Euphrates River basin. An intercomparison effort is performed in order to determine how models and meteorological forcings represent physical processes. In this sense, multiple experiments are performed using state-of-the-art capabilities implemented in the NASA Land Information System (LIS). The NASA Modern Era Retrospective Reanalysis for Applications (MERRA) and Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) meteorological datasets are used as main forcings. Additional experiments are performed replacing their precipitation with the Climate Hazards Group Infra-Red Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPS) dataset. Both Catchment and Noah land surface models coupled with the Hydrological Modeling and Analysis Platform (HyMAP) river routing scheme are considered to simulate the water budget and surface water dynamics. Due to the scarce ground-based data availability, satellite-based estimates of the terrestrial water storage, evapotranspiration, water level and floodplain extent are used as complimentary information to evaluate the hydrological behavior in the basin. In particular, the water shortage observed in 2015 in that region is analyzed based on model outputs. Finally, we discuss prospects and challenges in considering anthropogenic impacts (irrigation and dams) on the hydrological modeling of the basin.

  20. Middle East Regional Irrigation Management Information Systems project-Some science products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Similarities in the aridity of environments and water scarcity for irrigation allow common approaches to irrigation management problems and research methods in the Southern Great Plains of the United States and the Middle East. Measurement methods involving weighing lysimeters and eddy covariance sy...

  1. The Middle East Today: An Atlas of Reproducible Pages. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Eagle, Inc., Wellesley, MA.

    This book contains blank outline maps of the continent/region, tables and graphics depicting the size, population, resources and water, commodities , trade, cities, languages, religions, industry, energy, food and agriculture, demographic statistics, aspects of the national economies, and aspects of the national governments of the Middle East.…

  2. Education in the Broader Middle East: Borrowing a Baroque Arsenal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donn, Gari, Ed.; Al Manthri, Yahya, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    This book brings together academics and postgraduate students, practitioners and Ministry officials all of whom are wedded to developing an understanding of what is happening to education in the broader Middle East. They cover many countries whilst recognising that many more could have been included. In drawing attention to education in Pakistan,…

  3. Oil and gas developments in Middle East in 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Hemer, D.O; Mason, J.F.; Hatch, G.C.

    1982-11-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1981 totaled 5,741,096,000 bbl, or an average rate of 15,729,030 BOPD, down 14.9% from 1980. Increases were in Oman, Dubai, and Turkey. Significant decreases occurred in Iraq, Iran, Kuwait, Divided Neutral Zone, Qatar, and Abu Dhabi. New discoveries were made in Oman, Saudi Arabia, and Abu Dhabi.

  4. Sprue in the Middle East: five case reports

    PubMed Central

    Haeney, M. R.; Montgomery, R. D.; Schneider, R.

    1974-01-01

    Tropical sprue is a well documented condition with a special geographical distribution. This paper describes five patients with unexplained malabsorption whose symptoms began during a period of residence in the Middle East or Mediterranean areas. ImagesFig 4Fig 6 PMID:18668847

  5. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus in Bats, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Memish, Ziad A.; Mishra, Nischay; Olival, Kevin J.; Fagbo, Shamsudeen F.; Kapoor, Vishal; Epstein, Jonathan H.; AlHakeem, Rafat; Durosinloun, Abdulkareem; Al Asmari, Mushabab; Islam, Ariful; Kapoor, Amit; Briese, Thomas; Daszak, Peter; Al Rabeeah, Abdullah A.

    2013-01-01

    The source of human infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus remains unknown. Molecular investigation indicated that bats in Saudi Arabia are infected with several alphacoronaviruses and betacoronaviruses. Virus from 1 bat showed 100% nucleotide identity to virus from the human index case-patient. Bats might play a role in human infection. PMID:24206838

  6. Literature from the Modern Middle East: Making a Living Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Allen

    2009-01-01

    While the United States is deeply involved in the Middle East, most Americans, including students, lack knowledge about the region. Yet from Afghanistan to Palestine, from Morocco to Iraq, there is a vibrant and exciting literature by living authors that can bring the diverse experiences and perspectives of this vital part of the world to classes.…

  7. Aspects of Education in the Middle East and North Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Colin, Ed.; Levers, Lila Zia

    2007-01-01

    The chapters in this volume do not represent the whole of the Middle East and North Africa, as such a collection would have been too large for one volume. Rather, the selection here is intended to present different perspectives on a range of educational issues, relevant to a particular focus or country, or common to a number of countries in the…

  8. Academic Dishonesty in the Middle East: Individual and Contextual Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Donald L.; Feghali, Tony; Abdallah, Hanin

    2008-01-01

    Little work has been done on academic dishonesty in the Middle East. This research investigates the nature of the relationship between contextual factors and academic dishonesty using a sample from three private universities in Lebanon, and compares the results to a sample from seven large universities in the US. Using the basic model of McCabe et…

  9. America's Role in the Middle East. Public Talk Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Martha

    This program guide encourages discussion on what role the United States should pursue in the Middle East. The guide is designed to assist in the discussion of critical social and political issues through a balanced, nonpartisan presentation of a spectrum of views. The core of the program considers four underlying goals: (1) the United States as…

  10. Cooperative monitoring workshop: Focus on the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Pregenzer, A.L.; Vannoni, M.; Biringer, K.; Dobranich, P.

    1995-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and the Institute for Global Conflict and Cooperation hosted a workshop on the application of cooperative monitoring to the Middle East. The workshop, held in Albuquerque, New Mexico, from July 17 through 21, 1994, was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, and the US Department of State. The meeting, which focused on use of technical monitoring tools and sharing of collected information to facilitate regional agreements, included participants from five regional countries as well as from American universities, the US government, and US National Laboratories. Some attendees previously participated in meetings of the Arms Control and Regional Security working group of the Middle East Multilateral Peace Talks. The workshop combined presentations, demonstrations and hands-on experimentation with monitoring hardware and software. An exercise was conducted to evaluate and recommend cooperative monitoring options for a model agreement between two hypothetical countries. Historical precedents were reviewed and the role of environmental and natural resource conflicts explored. These activities were supplemented by roundtable discussions covering Middle East security issues, the relationship of ``national means`` to cooperative monitoring, and cooperative monitoring of ballistic missiles in the Middle East.

  11. Archaeologists' Group Proposes Safekeeping of Middle East Artifacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalman, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Israeli, Palestinian, and American archaeologists unveiled a draft agreement on archaeological and cultural heritage that they hope to see included in a future Middle East peace agreement. Presenting their proposal to an audience of archaeologists at the Van Leer Jerusalem Institute, they said it was the first time that Israelis and Palestinians…

  12. Transnational Higher Education: Offshore Campuses in the Middle East

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller-Idriss, Cynthia; Hanauer, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This paper maps the landscape of transnational higher education in the Middle East, focusing in particular on the recent expansion of satellite, branch, and offshore educational institutions and programs that foreign institutions have set up in the region. Of the estimated 100 branch campuses currently operating worldwide, over one-third are in…

  13. The Middle East in Conflict. Strategies and Worksheets: Experimental.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    This curriculum guide presents strategies for teaching a unit on the Middle East conflict including a rationale, performance objectives, background information, and questions. Worksheets contain simulations, poetry, and news stories which are used to teach the origins of and issues concerning the conflict. A simulation of the 1897 Zionist Congress…

  14. Relighting the Torch: East Middle School's OA Success Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pokorny, Nancy

    1995-01-01

    Describes the implementation of outcomes accreditation at East Middle School, in Aurora, Colorado. Reports significant gains in student success, including a 68% decline in student tardiness and a 60% decrease in suspensions. Indicates that the school was selected as a state Governor's Challenger School. (MAB)

  15. Agrarian Reform Policies and Development in the Arab Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baali, Fuad

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze and evaluate the nature, scope, and implications of the rural development in the Arab countries of the Middle East and North Africa. The first section of the paper deals with the forces that have caused changes in agrarian reform policies as they affected rural development in these countries. Specifically…

  16. United States security strategy for the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    One of the most controversial questions the United States faces in the aftermath of the Cold War is when to use military force in this complex world. But there is little dispute that we must be prepared to use force to defend our vital interests: when the survival of the United States or its key allies is in danger, when our critical economic interests are threatened, or when dealing with the emergence of a future nuclear threat. Nowhere are these criteria met more clearly than in the Middle East. This report is the second in a series of regional reports undertaken by the Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs with the aim of defining U.S. interests and commitments in critical parts of the world. It outlines a strategy for promoting stability and peaceful change through a combination of diplomacy, peacetime engagement, forward presence, and rapid response capabilities. It also explains how we can carry out this strategy without formal alliances or permanent basing arrangements that are familiar elsewhere in the world. The prospects for stability in the Middle East in the coming decades are mixed. On the positive side, unprecedented progress has recently been made in the Middle East peace process, holding forth the hope that Israelis and Palestinians alike can finally be integrated fully into the political and economic life of the Middle East. Furthermore, U.S. capabilities to defend its vital interests in the Middle East are at an all-time high, in stark contrast to the situation less than two decades ago.

  17. [Impacts of urbanization on the water quality and macrobenthos community structure of the tributaries in middle reach of Qiantang River, East China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong-Xiao; Yu, Hai-Yan; Liu, Shuo-Ru; Hu, Zun-Ying; Yu, Jian; Wang, Bei-Xin

    2012-05-01

    The 59 1st-3rd order tributaries in the middle reach of Qiantang River are negatively affected by different intensities of urbanization. In April 2010, an investigation was conducted on the water bodies' physical and chemical properties and macrobenthos communities of the tributaries, with the relationships between the tributaries' water quality and biological communities and the percentage of ground surface impervious area (PIA), an indicator of urbanization intensity. The Spearman correlation analysis showed that the water bodies' NH(4+)-N, PO4(3-)-P, TP, COD(Mn), conductivity, width, depth, and fine sand/silt ratio were positively correlated with PIA, and negatively correlated with forest land area. The fitted nonlinear regression equations revealed that all the test macro-benthic invertebrate's parameters had significant relationships with PIA, of which, the total number of taxa, Shannon diversity index, richness index, EPT (%), predators (%), shredders (%), filterers (%) and scrapers (%) were negatively correlated to PIA but positively correlated to forest land area, and the BI, collectors (%), tolerance taxa (%) and oligochaeta (%) were positively correlated to the PIA. Our study indicated that under the impact of urbanization, these tributaries presented the common features of degradation, i. e., high concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus, degradation of physical habitat, disappearance of pollution-sensitive macro-benthic invertebrate species, and dramatic increase of pollution-tolerant species individuals. PMID:22919851

  18. Freshwater Losses In The Middle East

    NASA Video Gallery

    › Related story› Download video in HD formatsThe visualization shows variations in total water storage from normal,in millimeters, in the Tigris and Euphrates river basins, as measuredby N...

  19. Conflict, displacement and health in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Mowafi, Hani

    2011-01-01

    Displacement is a hallmark of modern humanitarian emergencies. Displacement itself is a traumatic event that can result in illness or death. Survivors face challenges including lack of adequate shelter, decreased access to health services, food insecurity, loss of livelihoods, social marginalisation as well as economic and sexual exploitation. Displacement takes many forms in the Middle East and the Arab World. Historical conflicts have resulted in long-term displacement of Palestinians. Internal conflicts have driven millions of Somalis and Sudanese from their homes. Iraqis have been displaced throughout the region by invasion and civil strife. In addition, large numbers of migrants transit Middle Eastern countries or live there illegally and suffer similar conditions as forcibly displaced people. Displacement in the Middle East is an urban phenomenon. Many displaced people live hidden among host country populations in poor urban neighbourhoods - often without legal status. This represents a challenge for groups attempting to access displaced populations. Furthermore, health information systems in host countries often do not collect data on displaced people, making it difficult to gather data needed to target interventions towards these vulnerable populations. The following is a discussion of the health impacts of conflict and displacement in the Middle East. A review was conducted of published literature on migration and displacement in the region. Different cases are discussed with an emphasis on the recent, large-scale and urban displacement of Iraqis to illustrate aspects of displacement in this region. PMID:21590557

  20. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension in the Middle East: A growing concern

    PubMed Central

    Almarzouqi, Sumayya J.; Morgan, Michael L.; Lee, Andrew G.

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (IIH) is a disorder of increased intracranial pressure without any identifiable etiology. It is defined by elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) with normal neuroimaging and normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contents. IIH typically affects young obese women and produces symptoms and signs related to high ICP. Headache and blurred vision are the most common symptoms, and papilledema is the major clinical sign. In this review we examine the epidemiology and demographic features of IIH in Middle Eastern countries and compare and contrast them with the published IIH literature from Western countries. The incidence of IIH in several Middle East countries has been estimated at 2.02–2.2/100,000 in the general population, which is higher than the Western rate. Obesity is a major risk factor globally and it is associated with an increased risk of severe vision loss due to IIH. There has been an increase in obesity prevalence in the Middle East countries mainly affecting the Gulf Council Countries (GCC), which parallels increased industrial development. This rise may be contributing to the increasing incidence of IIH in these countries. Other risk factors may also be contributing to IIH in Middle East countries and the differences and similarities to Western IIH merit further study. PMID:25859136

  1. Oil and turmoil: America faces OPEC and the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Rustow, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    Middle-East expert Rustow traces the chain of events that placed economic power in an unstable region. He recounts how European imperialists acquired and surrendered their positions of domination, how nationalists such as Nasser and Qaddafi sought to manipulate the superpowers, and how leaders such as Sadat and Begin wrestled with war and peace. Meanwhile, the oil industry's Seven Sisters lost their preeminence as OPEC grew from a loose confederacy of oil shiekdoms into a cartel strong enough to shake the world economy. Rustow analyzes the confusion in oil-consuming countries that led to long gasoline lines one year and talk of an oil glut and OPEC's collapse the next. He puts into context Washington's uneven efforts to bring stability to the strife-torn Middle East. 221 references, 3 figures, 7 tables.

  2. Leishmaniasis in the Middle East: Incidence and Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Salam, Nasir; Al-Shaqha, Waleed Mohammed; Azzi, Arezki

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a major health problem worldwide, with several countries reporting cases of leishmaniasis resulting in loss of human life or a lifelong stigma because of bodily scars. The Middle East is endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis, with countries like Syria reporting very high incidence of the disease. Despite several countries establishing national control programs for containing the sandfly vector and treatment of infection, the disease continues to spread. In addition to the endemicity of the region for leishmaniasis, the Middle East has seen a great deal of human migration either for earning of livelihood or due to political upheaval in the region. These factors contribute to the spread and proliferation of the causative species Leishmania and its sandfly host. This review discusses the current epidemiological scenario in Iraq, Syria, Saudi Arabia, and Jordan, emphasizing the number of cases reported, vector species, Leishmania species, and treatment available. The data is primarily from WHO reports for each country and current and old literature. PMID:25275483

  3. Positive response of Indian summer rainfall to Middle East dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Qinjian; Wei, Jiangfeng; Yang, Zong-Liang

    2014-06-01

    Using observational and reanalyses data, we investigated the impact of dust aerosols over the Middle East and the Arabian Sea (AS) on the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) rainfall. Satellite and aerosol reanalysis data show extremely heavy aerosol loading, mainly mineral dust, over the Middle East and AS during the ISM season. Multivariate empirical orthogonal function analyses suggest an aerosol-monsoon connection. This connection may be attributed to dust-induced atmospheric heating centered over the Iranian Plateau (IP), which enhances the meridional thermal contrast and strengthens the ISM circulation and rainfall. The enhanced circulation further transports more dust to the AS and IP, heating the atmosphere (positive feedback). The aerosols over the AS and the Arabian Peninsula have a significant correlation with rainfall over central and eastern India about 2 weeks later. This finding highlights the nonlocal radiative effect of dust on the ISM circulation and rainfall and may improve ISM rainfall forecasts.

  4. Active Faults and Seismic Sources of the Middle East Region: Earthquake Model of the Middle East (EMME) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulen, L.; EMME WP2 Team*

    2011-12-01

    The Earthquake Model of the Middle East (EMME) Project is a regional project of the GEM (Global Earthquake Model) project (http://www.emme-gem.org/). The EMME project covers Turkey, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Iran, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. Both EMME and SHARE projects overlap and Turkey becomes a bridge connecting the two projects. The Middle East region is tectonically and seismically very active part of the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt. Many major earthquakes have occurred in this region over the years causing casualties in the millions. The EMME project consists of three main modules: hazard, risk, and socio-economic modules. The EMME project uses PSHA approach for earthquake hazard and the existing source models have been revised or modified by the incorporation of newly acquired data. The most distinguishing aspect of the EMME project from the previous ones is its dynamic character. This very important characteristic is accomplished by the design of a flexible and scalable database that permits continuous update, refinement, and analysis. An up-to-date earthquake catalog of the Middle East region has been prepared and declustered by the WP1 team. EMME WP2 team has prepared a digital active fault map of the Middle East region in ArcGIS format. We have constructed a database of fault parameters for active faults that are capable of generating earthquakes above a threshold magnitude of Mw≥5.5. The EMME project database includes information on the geometry and rates of movement of faults in a "Fault Section Database", which contains 36 entries for each fault section. The "Fault Section" concept has a physical significance, in that if one or more fault parameters change, a new fault section is defined along a fault zone. So far 6,991 Fault Sections have been defined and 83,402 km of faults are fully parameterized in the Middle East region. A separate "Paleo-Sites Database" includes information on the timing and amounts of fault

  5. Petroleum developments in Middle East countries in 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Hemer, D.O.; Mason, J.F.; Hatch, G.C.

    1980-11-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries in 1979 totaled 7,779,619,000 bbl at an average rate of 21,314,024 b/d, up 0.4% from 1978. Principal increases were in Iraq, Kuwait, Divided Neutral Zone, and Saudi Arabia. Significant new discoveries were made in Saudi Arabia, Oman, and Abu Dhabi. New areas were explored in Oman, Syria, offshore South Yemen, Dubai, and Qatar.

  6. Oil and gas developments in Middle East in 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Hemer, D.O.; Hatch, G.C.

    1983-10-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1982 totaled 4,499,464,000 bbl (an average rate of 12,162,915 BOPD), down 21.5% from 1981. Increases were in Iraq, Iran, and Oman. Significant decreases occurred in Kuwait, Divided Neutral Zone, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and Abu Dhabi. New discoveries were reported in Oman, Syria, Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Iran, and Saudi Arabia.

  7. Saved Lives at Risk in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Skouri, Hadi; Shurrab, Mohammed; Haj-Yahia, Saleem

    2016-01-01

    In the Middle East, heart failure prevalence seems to be high as the rest of the world. Few countries in the region recently have started implanting left ventricular assist devices (LVADs), basically as destination therapy. Terrorism and terrorist activities have been expanded worldwide especially in this part of the world. We present a case that highlights the relation between suicide bombers and LVAD patients. PMID:26735560

  8. Medical records and the Middle East: a partnership in development.

    PubMed

    Hostetler, D

    1986-01-01

    Mention the Middle East and many people think of giant oil exports. However, medical record professionals have been importing their expertise to the region for more than 20 years, and in the process, making a valuable contribution to modernizing the health care systems in these countries. This article describes the experiences of some of these medical record pioneers and offers insights into changes in the region which will affect future expatriates. PMID:10275062

  9. A new inventory for middle east dust source points.

    PubMed

    Moridnejad, Ali; Karimi, Neamat; Ariya, Parisa A

    2015-09-01

    We use the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor on both Terra and Aqua satellites to present new high-resolution mapping of major atmospheric dust source points in the Middle East region on the basis of the improved version of the recently developed Middle East Dust Index (MEDI) applied to 70 dust storms, which occurred during the period between 2001 and 2012. Results indicate that 247 different source points have participated in dust storm generation in the Middle East region in which Iraq and Syria are the highest efficient sites for dust storm generation in this region, respectively. Using extracted indices for Deep Blue algorithm, identified dust sources were classified into three levels of intensity. The frequency of occurrence approach, the relationship between high atmospheric dust content and its number of occurrences, is also used to identify sensitive source points. High-intensity dust storms are mainly located west of Iraq and the border of Iraq and Syria. We will discuss the implications of our results in understanding the global dust cycle. PMID:26297415

  10. Patterns of Uveitis in the Middle East and Europe

    PubMed Central

    Nashtaei, Ebrahim M.; Soheilian, Masoud; Herbort, Carl P.; Yaseri, Mehdi

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To compare the patterns of uveitis, emphasizing similarities and discrepancies, in the Middle East and Europe. Methods Six articles reporting uveitis patterns from the Middle East including a total of 2,693 cases, and seven articles with a sum of 4,379 cases from Europe were analyzed and patterns in each region were defined and compared. Results In both regions, uveitis was most commonly seen in the fourth decade of life with anterior uveitis being the most common anatomical form. Idiopathic cases accounted for the majority of anterior and intermediate uveitis; toxoplasmosis was the most frequent entity in posterior uveitis while Behcet’s disease and idiopathic forms were the next most common causes in the Middle East and in Europe, respectively. Conclusion Since patterns of uveitis differ in various geographic regions, discovering these patterns would be helpful for the diagnosis and treatment of this broad category of conditions. This necessitates applying a universal diagnostic classification system to enable accurate comparisons. PMID:22454745

  11. Oil jobs have big impact on heavily populated Middle East.

    PubMed

    Omran, A R; Roudi, F

    1993-09-01

    Labor force interdependence creates a complex pattern among countries in the Middle East. Oil-rich countries (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates) must import two-thirds of their labor force, including 80% of their professional and technical workers. These migrant workers come from Egypt (60%), Jordan, Yemen, Sudan, and South Asia, and the money they send home is a major factor in the economies of their native lands. Many Arabs who are considered foreign laborers have spent their entire lives, or have even been born, in the oil-rich countries; they have no hope of attaining citizenship. South Asians compete with Arabs for work in the Gulf States and tend to accept less-desirable jobs and lower wages. South Asian workers migrate from Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Korea, the Philippines, and Thailand. Middle Eastern women have social constraints on labor force participation, and most of the women working n the Gulf States are Asian; they often work as domestics. The women of the Middle East are an untapped resource for this labor market. PMID:12286978

  12. Migration to the medieval Middle East with the crusades.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Piers D; Millard, Andrew R

    2009-11-01

    During the 12th and 13th centuries thousands of people moved from Europe to the Middle East to fight, undertake pilgrimage, or settle and make a new life. The aim of this research is to investigate two populations from the Crusader kingdom of Jerusalem, by determining who was born in Europe and who came from the Middle East. Oxygen and strontium stable isotope analyses were conducted on the enamel of teeth from skeletal remains excavated from Crusader contexts. Twenty individuals from the coastal city of Caesarea (10 high status and 10 low status), and two local Near Eastern Christian farmers from the village of Parvum Gerinum (Tel Jezreel) were analyzed as a control sample. Results were compared with known geographic values for oxygen and strontium isotopes. The population of the city of Caesarea appears to have been dominated by European-born individuals (probably 19/20, but at least 13/20), with few locals. This was surprising as a much higher proportion of locals were expected. Both controls from the farming village of Parvum Gerinum had spent their childhood in the area of the village, which matches our understanding of limited mobility among poor Medieval farmers. This is the first time that stable isotope analysis has been applied to the study of the migration of peoples between Medieval Europe and the Middle East at the time of the crusades. In view of these findings, we must now rethink past estimations of population social structure in Levantine coastal Medieval cities during the Crusader period. PMID:19530140

  13. Counting Pakistanis in the Middle East: problems and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Stahl, C W; Farooq-i-azam

    1990-01-01

    "Using Pakistan as a case study, this article focuses on the difficulties of measuring both the outflow of workers over time and the stock abroad at any particular time. The various estimates of the number of Pakistanis in the Middle East are evaluated and an alternative estimate is provided based on hitherto unused data from two major surveys of returning workers. The alternative estimate differs substantially from the others, the difference being attributed principally to clandestine worker immigration. The concluding section discusses the policy implications of inaccurate information about the numbers of workers abroad and the likely effects of the current Persian Gulf crisis on Pakistan's economy." PMID:12283581

  14. Oil and gas developments in Middle East in 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Hemer, D.O.; Lyle, J.H.

    1985-10-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1984 totaled 4,088,853,000 bbl (an average rate of 11,144,407 BOPD), down less than 1.0% from the revised total of 4,112,116,000 bbl produced in 1983. Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, and Oman had significant increases; Iran and Dubai had significant decreases. Jordan produced oil, although a minor amount, for the first time ever, and new production facilities were in the planning stage in Syria, North Yemen, and Oman, which will bring new fields on stream when completed.

  15. Oil and gas developments in Middle East in 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Hemer, D.O.; Gohrbandt, K.H.A.

    1986-10-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1985 totaled 3,837,580,000 bbl (an average rate of 10,513,917 BOPD), down 2.2% from the revised 1984 total of 3,924,034,000 bbl. Iran, Iraq, Dubai, Oman, and Syria had significant increases; Kuwait, Kuwait-Saudi Arabia Divided Neutral Zone, Saudi Arabia, and Qatar had significant decreases. New fields went on production in Iraq, Abu Dhabi, Oman, and Syria. In North Yemen, the first ever oil production in that country was nearing the start-up stage at year end. 9 figures, 9 tables.

  16. Oil and gas developments in Middle East in 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Hemer, D.O.; Lyle, J.H.

    1985-10-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1984 totaled 4,088,853,000 bbl (an average rate of 11,144,407 BOPD), down less than 1.0% from the revised total of 4,112,116,000 bbl produced in 1983. Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, and Oman had significant increases; Iran and Dubai had significant decreases. Jordan produced oil, although a minor amount, for the first time ever, and new production facilities were in the planning stage in Syria, North Yemen, and Oman, which will bring new fields on stream when completed. 4 figures, 9 tables.

  17. Asymptomatic Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    van den Brand, Judith M. A.; Provacia, Lisette B.; Raj, V. Stalin; Stittelaar, Koert J.; Getu, Sarah; de Waal, Leon; Bestebroer, Theo M.; van Amerongen, Geert; Verjans, Georges M. G. M.; Fouchier, Ron A. M.; Smits, Saskia L.; Kuiken, Thijs; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.

    2015-01-01

    The ability of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) to infect small animal species may be restricted given the fact that mice, ferrets, and hamsters were shown to resist MERS-CoV infection. We inoculated rabbits with MERS-CoV. Although virus was detected in the lungs, neither significant histopathological changes nor clinical symptoms were observed. Infectious virus, however, was excreted from the upper respiratory tract, indicating a potential route of MERS-CoV transmission in some animal species. PMID:25810539

  18. Treatment strategies for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Modjarrad, Kayvon

    2016-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), an emerging infectious disease of growing global importance, has caused severe acute respiratory disease in more than 1600 people, resulting in almost 600 deaths. The high case fatality rate, growing geographic distribution and vaguely defined epidemiology of this novel pathogen have created an urgent need for effective public health countermeasures, including safe and effective treatment strategies. Despite the relatively few numbers of cases to date, research and development of MERS-CoV therapeutic candidates is advancing quickly. This review surveys the landscape of these efforts and assesses their potential for use in affected populations. PMID:26866060

  19. Retinoblastoma major review with updates on Middle East management protocols

    PubMed Central

    Othman, Ihab Saad

    2012-01-01

    Many advances in the field of management of retinoblastoma emerged in the past few years. Patterns of presentation of retinoblastoma in the Middle East region differ from Western community. The use of enucleation as a radical method of eradicating advanced disease is not easily accepted by patient’s family. We still do see stage E, failed or resistant retinoblastoma and advanced extraocular disease ensues as a result of delayed enucleation decision. In this review, we discuss updates in management of retinoblastoma with its implication on patients in our part of the world. Identifying clinical and high risk characteristics is important prognostically and are discussed for further management of retinoblastoma cases. PMID:23960988

  20. Middle East respiratory syndrome: A new global threat

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Pradeep Kumar; Sethi, Priyanka; Gupta, Neeraj; Biyani, Ghansham

    2016-01-01

    The outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is reported from Saudi Arabia and the Republic of Korea. It is a respiratory disease caused by coronavirus. Camels are considered as a source for MERS transmission in humans, although the exact source is unknown. Human-to-human transmission is reported in the community with droplet and contact spread being the possible modes. Most patients without any underlying diseases remain asymptomatic or develop mild clinical disease, but some patients require critical care for mechanical ventilation, dialysis and other organ support. MERS is a disease with pandemic potential and awareness, and surveillance can prevent such further outbreaks. PMID:27013745

  1. Oil and gas development in Middle East in 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Hemer, D.O.; Gohrbandt, K.H.A.; Phillips, C.B.

    1988-10-01

    Petroleum production in Middle East countries during 1987 totaled an estimated 4,500,500,000 bbl (an average rate of 12,330,137 b/d), up slightly from the revised 1986 total of 4,478,972,000 bbl. Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Yemen Arab Republic had significant increases; Kuwait and Saudi Arabia had significant decreases. Production was established for the first time in People's Democratic Republic of Yemen. New fields went on production in Iraq, Oman, People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, and Syria, and significant oil discoveries were reported in Iraq, Oman, People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, Syria, and Yemen Arab Republic. The level of exploration increased in 1987 with new concessions awarded in some countries, drilling and seismic activities on the increase, new regions in mature areas explored for the first time, and significant reserve additions reported in new and old permits. The Iraq-Iran war still had a negative impact in some regions of the Middle East, particularly in and around the Gulf. 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. The distribution of Akabane virus in the Middle East.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, W. P.; Mellor, P. S.

    1994-01-01

    Serological evidence was used to confirm an outbreak of Akabane disease in cattle in the Turkish Province of Aydin in 1980. Thereafter, serum collections from the Middle East were screened for the presence of neutralizing antibodies to Akabane virus. The results indicate that the virus was present in a number of provinces on the south Turkish coast in 1979 and 1980 but that it probably did not persist into 1981; the virus had also been present on Cyprus in 1980 and on at least one previous occasion. There was also evidence of limited virus transmission in the Orontes river valley in Syria in 1979 and less precise evidence to show that occasional infection occurred in the lower Jordan river valley. The failure of Akabane virus to persist in southern Turkey for more than two years indicates that this area is open to epidemic rather than endemic infection. The presence of neutralizing antibodies in the eastern Turkish Provinces of Gaziantep and Diyarbakir suggests that this might be the route whereby Akabane virus occasionally invades the Middle East region. PMID:8062874

  3. Aerosol optical depth trend over the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingmueller, Klaus; Pozzer, Andrea; Metzger, Swen; Abdelkader, Mohamed; Stenchikov, Georgiy; Lelieveld, Jos

    2016-04-01

    We use the combined Dark Target/Deep Blue aerosol optical depth (AOD) satellite product of the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) collection 6 to study trends over the Middle East between 2000 and 2015. Our analysis corroborates a previously identified positive AOD trend over large parts of the Middle East during the period 2001 to 2012. By relating the annual AOD to precipitation, soil moisture and surface wind, being the main factors controlling the dust cycle, we identify regions where these attributes are significantly correlated to the AOD over Saudi Arabia, Iraq and Iran. The Fertile Crescent turns out to be of prime importance for the AOD trend over these countries. Using multiple linear regression we show that AOD trend and interannual variability can be attributed to the above mentioned dust cycle parameters, confirming that the AOD increase is predominantly driven by dust. In particular, the positive AOD trend relates to a negative soil moisture trend. This suggests that increasing temperature and decreasing relative humidity in the last decade have promoted soil drying, leading to increased dust emissions and AOD; consequently an AOD increase is expected due to climate change. Based on simulations using the ECHAM/MESSy atmospheric chemistry-climate model (EMAC), we interpret the correlations identified in the observational data in terms of causal relationships.

  4. Broadband Lg Attenuation Modeling in the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Pasyanos, M E; Matzel, E M; Walter, W R; Rodgers, A J

    2008-08-21

    We present a broadband tomographic model of Lg attenuation in the Middle East derived from source- and site-corrected amplitudes. Absolute amplitude measurements are made on hand-selected and carefully windowed seismograms for tens of stations and thousands of crustal earthquakes resulting in excellent coverage of the region. A conjugate gradient method is used to tomographically invert the amplitude dataset of over 8000 paths over a 45{sup o} x 40{sup o} region of the Middle East. We solve for Q variation, as well as site and source terms, for a wide range of frequencies ranging from 0.5-10 Hz. We have modified the standard attenuation tomography technique to more explicitly define the earthquake source expression in terms of the seismic moment. This facilitates the use of the model to predict the expected amplitudes of new events, an important consideration for earthquake hazard or explosion monitoring applications. The attenuation results have a strong correlation to tectonics. Shields have low attenuation, while tectonic regions have high attenuation, with the highest attenuation at 1 Hz is found in eastern Turkey. The results also compare favorably to other studies in the region made using Lg propagation efficiency, Lg/Pg amplitude ratios and two-station methods. We tomographically invert the amplitude measurements for each frequency independently. In doing so, it appears the frequency-dependence of attenuation is not compatible with the power law representation of Q(f), an assumption that is often made.

  5. Hepatitis B epidemiology in Asia, the Middle East and Africa.

    PubMed

    André, F

    2000-02-18

    Asia and Africa have previously been classified as areas of high endemicity for hepatitis B virus (HBV), but in some countries highly effective vaccination programmes have shifted this pattern towards intermediate or low endemicity. Thus, China is now the only country in Asia where HBV endemicity is high. Countries with intermediate endemicity include India, Korea, the Philippines, Taiwan and Thailand, and those with low endemicity include Japan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Singapore, Sri Lanka and Malaysia. Most countries in Africa have high HBV endemicity, with the exceptions of Tunisia and Morocco, which have intermediate endemicity. Zambia has borderline intermediate/high endemicity. In the Middle East, Bahrain, Iran, Israel and Kuwait are areas of low endemicity, Cyprus, Iraq and the United Arab Emirates have intermediate endemicity, and Egypt, Jordan, Oman, Palestine, Yemen and Saudi Arabia have high endemicity. All of these Middle East countries reach a large proportion of their population with hepatitis B vaccination, which is reducing the infection rate, particularly in Saudi Arabia. The vaccination programme in Taiwan has also greatly reduced the HBV infection rate. Future vaccination programmes must take into account the mode of transmission of HBV, the healthcare infrastructure to deliver vaccination, and the socioeconomic and political factors in each individual country, to determine the most cost-effective way of infection control. PMID:10683538

  6. Broad-band Lg attenuation modelling in the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasyanos, Michael E.; Matzel, Eric M.; Walter, William R.; Rodgers, Arthur J.

    2009-06-01

    We present a broad-band tomographic model of Lg attenuation in the Middle East derived from source- and site-corrected amplitudes. Absolute amplitude measurements are made on hand-selected and carefully windowed seismograms for tens of stations and thousands of crustal earthquakes resulting in excellent coverage of the region. A conjugate gradient method is used to tomographically invert the amplitude data set of over 8000 paths over a 45° × 40° region of the Middle East. We solve for Q variation, as well as site and source terms, for a wide range of frequencies ranging from 0.5 to 10 Hz. We have modified the standard attenuation tomography technique to more explicitly define the earthquake source expression in terms of the seismic moment. This facilitates the use of the model to predict the expected amplitudes of new events, an important consideration for earthquake hazard or explosion monitoring applications. The attenuation results have a strong correlation to tectonics. Shields have low attenuation, whereas tectonic regions have high attenuation, with the highest attenuation at 1 Hz found in eastern Turkey. The results also compare favourably to other studies in the region made using Lg propagation efficiency, Lg/Pg amplitude ratios and two-station methods. We tomographically invert the amplitude measurements for each frequency independently. In doing so, it appears the frequency dependence of attenuation in all regions is not compatible with the power-law representation of Q(f), an assumption that is often made.

  7. Diasporic dreaming: return reproductive tourism to the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Inhorn, Marcia C

    2011-11-01

    This article attempts to capture the dynamics of return reproductive tourism to the Middle East, based on ethnographic research undertaken at four different Middle Eastern locales (Egypt, Lebanon, United Arab Emirates and Arab America). Across the Middle Eastern diaspora, which is now vast, due to the disruptions of war and political violence, infertile couples often dream of making a test-tube baby 'back home' for a variety of cultural, moral and psychological reasons. These reasons – including medical expatriotism, the language of medicine, co-religion and moral trustworthiness, donor phenotype, the comforts of home and discrimination – are rarely highlighted in the scholarly literature on cross-border reproductive care. Thus, further empirical investigation is needed in order to assess additional reasons for reproductive travel beyond Euro-America. Of particular concern are the needs of 'stranded' refugee populations, who are constrained from seeking assisted reproduction technology 'back home', but who may face economic constraints and cultural discrimination in host communities. PMID:21955490

  8. Contaminant profiles for surface water, sediment, flora and fauna associated with the mangrove fringe along middle and lower East Tampa Bay

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contaminant concentrations are reported for surface water, sediment, seagrass, mangroves, Florida Crown conch, blue crabs and fish collected during 2010-2011 from the mangrove fringe along eastern Tampa Bay. Concentrations of trace metals, chlorinated pesticides, atrazine, total ...

  9. Game theory, international law, and future environmental cooperation in the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Hirsch, M.

    1998-12-31

    Through the use of game theory, this article explores some of the principal factors influencing the emergence and maintenance of international cooperation in order to develop legal guidelines for establishing an effective environmental mechanism in the Middle East. As this article shows, game theory concepts and models provide a valuable tool for analyzing the phenomenon of cooperation, enabling international lawyers to shape legal norms which will enhance the prospects for environmental cooperation in the Middle East. Part 2 of this article sets for the basic concepts and models of game theory and its relationship to modern international relations theory. Part 3 presents a game theoretical analysis of two major environmental settings in the Middle East: marine pollution in the Gulf of Aqaba and water contamination of the Mountain Aquifer. It then suggests some legal mechanisms to enhance the likelihood of cooperation in these settings. Part 4 concludes the article by exploring the options nd limits of combining game theory and international law as an instrument to improve the prospects of cooperation. The article ultimately states that this combination offers scholars and policy-makers important insights into better legal mechanisms for long-term international cooperation.

  10. Biochemical Characterization of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Helicase

    PubMed Central

    Lazarus, Hilary

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) helicase is a superfamily 1 helicase containing seven conserved motifs. We have cloned, expressed, and purified a Strep-fused recombinant MERS-CoV nonstructural protein 13 (M-nsp13) helicase. Characterization of its biochemical properties showed that it unwound DNA and RNA similarly to severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV nsp13 (S-nsp13) helicase. We showed that M-nsp13 unwound in a 5′-to-3′ direction and efficiently unwound the partially duplex RNA substrates with a long loading strand relative to those of the RNA substrates with a short or no loading strand. Moreover, the Km of ATP for M-nsp13 is inversely proportional to the length of the 5′ loading strand of the partially duplex RNA substrates. Finally, we also showed that the rate of unwinding (ku) of M-nsp13 is directly proportional to the length of the 5′ loading strand of the partially duplex RNA substrate. These results provide insights that enhance our understanding of the biochemical properties of M-nsp13. IMPORTANCE Coronaviruses are known to cause a wide range of diseases in humans and animals. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a novel coronavirus discovered in 2012 and is responsible for acute respiratory syndrome in humans in the Middle East, Europe, North Africa, and the United States of America. Helicases are motor proteins that catalyze the processive separation of double-stranded nucleic acids into two single-stranded nucleic acids by utilizing the energy derived from ATP hydrolysis. MERS-CoV helicase is one of the most important viral replication enzymes of this coronavirus. Herein, we report the first bacterial expression, enzyme purification, and biochemical characterization of MERS-CoV helicase. The knowledge obtained from this study might be used to identify an inhibitor of MERS-CoV replication, and the helicase might be used as a therapeutic target.

  11. Analysis and modeling of fractures in Middle East reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Nurmi, R.; Waterhouse, M.; Akbar, M.

    1988-02-01

    To assist model development, a map showing Middle East areas containing fractures of similar origin was constructed using the following classification: (1) Orogenic belts where fold-related fractures dominate with a lesser number of fault-related fractures. Stearns classification of fracture types does not distinguish between fold and fault-related fractures. (2) Shear zones are dominated by fault-related fractures. (3) Platforms with gentle anticlines may have regional and/or tectonic fractures. (4) Deeply buried formations of reactivated anticlines are dominated by fold-related fractures. (5) Domes over deeply buried salt structures have radial and/or preferred fracture orientations. (6) Evaporite dissolution areas often have fractures and brecciated zones associated with collapse. Outcrop examination and case studies have also provided an insight into the nature of reservoir fracturing within each of these settings.

  12. Antiviral Treatment Guidelines for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Yong Pil; Song, Joon Young; Seo, Yu Bin; Choi, Jae-Phil

    2015-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is an acute infectious disease of the respiratory system caused by the new betacoronavirus (MERS coronavirus, MERS-CoV), which shows high mortality rates. The typical symptoms of MERS are fever, cough, and shortness of breath, and it is often accompanied by pneumonia. The MERS-CoV was introduced to Republic of Korea in May 2015 by a patient returning from Saudi Arabia. The disease spread mostly through hospital infections, and by the time the epidemic ended in August, the total number of confirmed diagnoses was 186, among which 36 patients died. Reflecting the latest evidence for antiviral drugs in the treatment of MERS-CoV infection and the experiences of treating MERS patients in Republic of Korea, these guidelines focus on antiviral drugs to achieve effective treatment of MERS-CoV infections. PMID:26483999

  13. Development of Medical Countermeasures to Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Uyeki, Timothy M; Erlandson, Karl J; Korch, George; O'Hara, Michael; Wathen, Michael; Hu-Primmer, Jean; Hojvat, Sally; Stemmy, Erik J; Donabedian, Armen

    2016-07-01

    Preclinical development of and research on potential Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) medical countermeasures remain preliminary; advancements are needed before most countermeasures are ready to be tested in human clinical trials. Research priorities include standardization of animal models and virus stocks for studying disease pathogenesis and efficacy of medical countermeasures; development of MERS-CoV diagnostics; improved access to nonhuman primates to support preclinical research; studies to better understand and control MERS-CoV disease, including vaccination studies in camels; and development of a standardized clinical trial protocol. Partnering with clinical trial networks in affected countries to evaluate safety and efficacy of investigational therapeutics will strengthen efforts to identify successful medical countermeasures. PMID:27191188

  14. Astronomy in the Middle East and North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athem Alsabti, Abdul

    2015-08-01

    Recent turbulent events in the Middle East and North Africa have influenced all aspects of life. Education in general, including astronomy, teaching and research has all been greatly affected. In this presentation, the current situation regarding astronomy in this region is reviewed in detail. This is based on visits made to Tunisia and Algeria recently on behalf of the IAU and other visits to Iraq, Qatar, Egypt and Jordan in recent years, as well as on discussions and communications with astronomers, officials and astronomical and educational institutes in the region. Discussions have also been established with astronomers from Iran, Oman and Morocco. Ideas and proposals will be presented on the best ways for the IAU and the international academic community to help under these circumstances.

  15. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus: epidemiology and disease control measures

    PubMed Central

    Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Memish, Ziad A

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection in 2012 resulted in an increased concern of the spread of the infection globally. MERS-CoV infection had previously caused multiple health-care-associated outbreaks and resulted in transmission of the virus within families. Community onset MERS-CoV cases continue to occur. Dromedary camels are currently the most likely animal to be linked to human MERS-CoV cases. Serologic tests showed significant infection in adult camels compared to juvenile camels. The control of MERS-CoV infection relies on prompt identification of cases within health care facilities, with institutions applying appropriate infection control measures. In addition, determining the exact route of transmission from camels to humans would further add to the control measures of MERS-CoV infection. PMID:25395865

  16. A novel human coronavirus: Middle East respiratory syndrome human coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Geng, HeYuan; Tan, WenJie

    2013-08-01

    In 2012, a novel coronavirus, initially named as human coronavirus EMC (HCoV-EMC) but recently renamed as Middle East respiratory syndrome human coronavirus (MERS-CoV), was identified in patients who suffered severe acute respiratory infection and subsequent renal failure that resulted in death. Ongoing epidemiological investigations together with retrospective studies have found 61 laboratory-confirmed cases of infection with this novel coronavirus, including 34 deaths to date. This novel coronavirus is culturable and two complete genome sequences are now available. Furthermore, molecular detection and indirect immunofluorescence assay have been developed. The present paper summarises the limited recent advances of this novel human coronavirus, including its discovery, genomic characterisation and detection. PMID:23917839

  17. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus: update for clinicians.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Sonja A; Gerber, Susan I; Swerdlow, David L

    2015-06-01

    Although much recent focus has been on the recognition of Ebola virus disease among travelers from West Africa, cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), including travel-associated cases, continue to be reported. US clinicians need to be familiar with recommendations regarding when to suspect MERS-CoV, how to make a diagnosis, and what infection control measures need to be instituted when a case is suspected. Infection control is especially critical, given that most cases have been healthcare-associated. Two cases of MERS-CoV were identified in the United States in May 2014; because these cases were detected promptly and appropriate control measures were put in place quickly, no secondary cases occurred. This paper summarizes information that US clinicians need to know to prevent secondary cases of MERS-CoV from occurring in the United States. PMID:25701855

  18. Aeroallergens, atopy and allergic rhinitis in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Goronfolah, L

    2016-01-01

    The literature on the nature and prevalence of indoor and/or outdoor aeroallergens, atopy and symptoms of rhinitis and asthma in the Middle East region (defined here as Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia - KSA, Syria, United Arab Emirates and Yemen) was reviewed. Although documentation was poor in all countries other than Iran and the KSA, a wide range of "global" and "local" aeroallergens (grass, weed and tree pollens, fungal spores, insect allergens, dander, and house dust mites) has been observed across the region. The prevalence of current self-reported or parent-reported symptoms of rhinitis ranged from 9% to 38%. Researchers have suggested that the high atopy rates and self-reported rhinitis rates are associated with an on-going shift towards a "western" lifestyle. PMID:26808447

  19. Middle East respiratory syndrome: obstacles and prospects for vaccine development

    PubMed Central

    Papaneri, Amy B.; Johnson, Reed F.; Wada, Jiro; Bollinger, Laura; Jahrling, Peter B.; Kuhn, Jens H.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The recent emergence of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) highlights the need to engineer new methods for expediting vaccine development against emerging diseases. However, several obstacles prevent pursuit of a licensable MERS vaccine. First, the lack of a suitable animal model for MERS complicates in vivo testing of candidate vaccines. Second, due to the low number of MERS cases, pharmaceutical companies have little incentive to pursue MERS vaccine production as the costs of clinical trials are high. In addition, the timeline from bench research to approved vaccine use is 10 years or longer. Using novel methods and cost-saving strategies, genetically engineered vaccines can be produced quickly and cost-effectively. Along with progress in MERS animal model development, these obstacles can be circumvented or at least mitigated. PMID:25864502

  20. Stillbirth during infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Payne, Daniel C; Iblan, Ibrahim; Alqasrawi, Sultan; Al Nsour, Mohannad; Rha, Brian; Tohme, Rania A; Abedi, Glen R; Farag, Noha H; Haddadin, Aktham; Al Sanhouri, Tarek; Jarour, Najwa; Swerdlow, David L; Jamieson, Denise J; Pallansch, Mark A; Haynes, Lia M; Gerber, Susan I; Al Abdallat, Mohammad Mousa

    2014-06-15

    We conducted an epidemiologic investigation among survivors of an outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection in Jordan. A second-trimester stillbirth occurred during the course of an acute respiratory illness that was attributed to MERS-CoV on the basis of exposure history and positive results of MERS-CoV serologic testing. This is the first occurrence of stillbirth during an infection with MERS-CoV and may have bearing upon the surveillance and management of pregnant women in settings of unexplained respiratory illness potentially due to MERS-CoV. Future prospective investigations of MERS-CoV should ascertain pregnancy status and obtain further pregnancy-related data, including biological specimens for confirmatory testing. PMID:24474813

  1. Stillbirth During Infection With Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Daniel C.; Iblan, Ibrahim; Alqasrawi, Sultan; Al Nsour, Mohannad; Rha, Brian; Tohme, Rania A.; Abedi, Glen R.; Farag, Noha H.; Haddadin, Aktham; Sanhouri, Tarek Al; Jarour, Najwa; Swerdlow, David L.; Jamieson, Denise J.; Pallansch, Mark A.; Haynes, Lia M.; Gerber, Susan I.; Al Abdallat, Mohammad Mousa

    2015-01-01

    We conducted an epidemiologic investigation among survivors of an outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection in Jordan. A second-trimester stillbirth occurred during the course of an acute respiratory illness that was attributed to MERS-CoV on the basis of exposure history and positive results of MERS-CoV serologic testing. This is the first occurrence of stillbirth during an infection with MERS-CoV and may have bearing upon the surveillance and management of pregnant women in settings of unexplained respiratory illness potentially due to MERS-CoV. Future prospective investigations of MERS-CoV should ascertain pregnancy status and obtain further pregnancy-related data, including biological specimens for confirmatory testing. PMID:24474813

  2. Development of Medical Countermeasures to Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Erlandson, Karl J.; Korch, George; O’Hara, Michael; Wathen, Michael; Hu-Primmer, Jean; Hojvat, Sally; Stemmy, Erik J.; Donabedian, Armen

    2016-01-01

    Preclinical development of and research on potential Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) medical countermeasures remain preliminary; advancements are needed before most countermeasures are ready to be tested in human clinical trials. Research priorities include standardization of animal models and virus stocks for studying disease pathogenesis and efficacy of medical countermeasures; development of MERS-CoV diagnostics; improved access to nonhuman primates to support preclinical research; studies to better understand and control MERS-CoV disease, including vaccination studies in camels; and development of a standardized clinical trial protocol. Partnering with clinical trial networks in affected countries to evaluate safety and efficacy of investigational therapeutics will strengthen efforts to identify successful medical countermeasures. PMID:27191188

  3. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome and Medical Students: Letter from China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mengxue; Jiang, Chengsheng; Donovan, Connor; Wen, Yufeng; Wenjie, Sun

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate the knowledge of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) among Chinese medical students. Methods: A structured questionnaire on MERS was conducted among 214 medical students in China. Results: The average correction of the single question varied from 36.0% to 89.7%. There is a significant difference on MERS knowledge among different majors of medical students (p < 0.05). Management students scored significantly higher than students of other majors (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Chinese medical students had good knowledge of MERS. The MERS knowledge score varied among students of different majors. Education on disease control should be included in the school curriculum. PMID:26512679

  4. Event location in the Middle East and North Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, C.A.; Myers, S.C.; Ruppert, S.D.

    1997-07-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) CTBT R{ampersand}D program has made significant progress towards improving the ability of the IMS seismic network to locate small-magnitude events in the Middle East and North Africa (MIYNA). Given that high-grade ground truth (such as known explosions) has been difficult to obtain in these regions, we have placed a significant effort towards the development of a teleseismically constrained seismic database that provides event locations good to within 20m km. This data set is used to make an initial evaluation of the effectiveness of calibration on the proposed seismic IMS network in the MWNA. Utilizing a surrogate IMS regional network in the Middle East we find that when a seismic event lies within the footprint of the recording network the uncalibrated event locations are good to within about 25 km of the teleseismically constrained (TC) location. Using region-specific static station corrections further reduces this difference to about 20 km. To obtain further improvement in location accuracy we have used the modified kriging technique developed by SNL to interpolate new travel-time corrections. We compare this technique withe other robust linear interpolation techniques with the goal of enhancing the estimation of travel-time corrections. This is important to TC events which we find can have large uncorrelated uncertainties. Finally, we are making a large effort to incorporate LLNL analyst picks on primary and secondary phases and develop azimuth and slownsess estimates horn current IMS arrays to improve/supplement the NEIC picks.

  5. Aerosol optical depth trend over the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingmüller, Klaus; Pozzer, Andrea; Metzger, Swen; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Lelieveld, Jos

    2016-04-01

    We use the combined Dark Target/Deep Blue aerosol optical depth (AOD) satellite product of the moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) collection 6 to study trends over the Middle East between 2000 and 2015. Our analysis corroborates a previously identified positive AOD trend over large parts of the Middle East during the period 2001 to 2012. We relate the annual AOD to precipitation, soil moisture and surface winds to identify regions where these attributes are directly related to the AOD over Saudi Arabia, Iraq and Iran. Regarding precipitation and soil moisture, a relatively small area in and surrounding Iraq turns out to be of prime importance for the AOD over these countries. Regarding surface wind speed, the African Red Sea coastal area is relevant for the Saudi Arabian AOD. Using multiple linear regression we show that AOD trends and interannual variability can be attributed to soil moisture, precipitation and surface winds, being the main factors controlling the dust cycle. Our results confirm the dust driven AOD trends and variability, supported by a decreasing MODIS-derived Ångström exponent and a decreasing AERONET-derived fine mode fraction that accompany the AOD increase over Saudi Arabia. The positive AOD trend relates to a negative soil moisture trend. As a lower soil moisture translates into enhanced dust emissions, it is not needed to assume growing anthropogenic aerosol and aerosol precursor emissions to explain the observations. Instead, our results suggest that increasing temperature and decreasing relative humidity in the last decade have promoted soil drying, leading to increased dust emissions and AOD; consequently an AOD increase is expected due to climate change.

  6. Tropical Plumes over the Middle East: Climatology and synoptic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tubi, Amit; Dayan, Uri

    2014-08-01

    A 10-yr climatological study of Tropical Plumes (TPs) observed over the Middle East was undertaken. Several tools were used to identify and analyze these mid-tropospheric elongated cloudbands: satellite images, reanalysis and radiosonde data, backward trajectories, and cluster analysis. In order to conduct an in-depth examination of the synoptic conditions controlling this tropical-extratropical phenomenon, a dual methodology was adopted. In the first analysis, the identified 45 plumes were classified to precipitative and non-precipitative. In the second analysis, backward trajectories of the plumes were clustered in order to detect their moisture origins and pathways. In addition to the well documented south-western plumes originating in West Africa, a more southern pathway was identified, in which moisture was transported from Central to East African sources. The ‘south-western’ plumes are associated with a southwards penetration of mid-latitude troughs, associated with an intensified thermal wind and a longer jet streak, extending as far as Northwestern Africa. In the ‘southern’ category the Sub-Tropical Jet is associated with an anticyclonic flow over the south of the Arabian Peninsula, serving as an essential vehicle advecting moisture from tropical origins. This moisture pathway is considerably shorter than the south-western one. Several conditions favor precipitation induced by TPs over the domain: a northward migration of the jet streak resulting in a weakening of the wind speed over the target area, a deeper trough at the 500 hPa level and a shorter moisture corridor.

  7. "Tropical Plumes over the Middle East: Climatology and synoptic conditions"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayan, Uri; Tubi, Amit

    2015-04-01

    A 10-yr climatological study of Tropical Plumes (TPs) observed over the Middle East was undertaken. Several tools were used to identify and analyze these mid-tropospheric elongated cloudbands: satellite images, reanalysis and radiosonde data, backward trajectories, and cluster analysis. In order to conduct an in-depth examination of the synoptic conditions controlling this tropical-extratropical phenomenon, a dual methodology was adopted. In the first analysis, the identified 45 plumes were classified to precipitative and non-precipitative. In the second analysis, backward trajectories of the plumes were clustered in order to detect their moisture origins and pathways. In addition to the well documented south-western plumes originating in West Africa, a more southern pathway was identified, in which moisture was transported from Central to East African sources. The 'south-western' plumes are associated with a southwards penetration of mid-latitude troughs, associated with an intensified thermal wind and a longer jet streak, extending as far as Northwestern Africa. In the 'southern' category the Sub-Tropical Jet is associated with an anticyclonic flow over the south of the Arabian Peninsula, serving as an essential vehicle advecting moisture from tropical origins. This moisture pathway is considerably shorter than the south-western one. Several conditions favor precipitation induced by TPs over the domain: a northward migration of the jet streak resulting in a weakening of the wind speed over the target area, a deeper trough at the 500 hPa level and a shorter moisture corridor.

  8. American School Textbooks: How They Portrayed the Middle East from 1898 to 1994

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Hani

    2008-01-01

    The portrayal of the Middle East in school textbooks has been reported to be inaccurate and negative as late as the mid 1990's. Numerous major studies conducted by various researchers and organizations indicate that school textbooks written between the 1970's and 1990's contributed to existing stereotypes of the Middle East held by many Americans.…

  9. Exportations of Symptomatic Cases of MERS-CoV Infection to Countries outside the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Carias, Cristina; O'Hagan, Justin J; Jewett, Amy; Gambhir, Manoj; Cohen, Nicole J; Haber, Yoni; Pesik, Nicki; Swerdlow, David L

    2016-04-01

    In 2012, an outbreak of infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), was detected in the Arabian Peninsula. Modeling can produce estimates of the expected annual number of symptomatic cases of MERS-CoV infection exported and the likelihood of exportation from source countries in the Middle East to countries outside the region. PMID:27358972

  10. Exportations of Symptomatic Cases of MERS-CoV Infection to Countries outside the Middle East

    PubMed Central

    O’Hagan, Justin J.; Jewett, Amy; Gambhir, Manoj; Cohen, Nicole J.; Haber, Yoni; Pesik, Nicki; Swerdlow, David L.

    2016-01-01

    In 2012, an outbreak of infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), was detected in the Arabian Peninsula. Modeling can produce estimates of the expected annual number of symptomatic cases of MERS-CoV infection exported and the likelihood of exportation from source countries in the Middle East to countries outside the region. PMID:27358972

  11. A Dialog of Faith: Reflections on Middle East Conflict from Jewish, Muslim and Christian Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, William James

    2005-01-01

    In 2004, Santa Clara University's Bannan Center for Jesuit Education brought together online religious teachers and practitioners from the three world religions to discuss important issues associated with Middle East conflict: resistance, suicide bombing, America's role in the Middle East, and the future shape of peace. These conversations aimed…

  12. LLNL Middle East and North Africa research database

    SciTech Connect

    Dodge, D; Hauk, T; Moore, R M; O'Boyle, J; Ruppert, S

    1999-07-23

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Research and Development (CTBT R and D) program has made significant progress populating a comprehensive seismic research database (RDB) for seismic events and derived research products in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Our original ME/NA study region has enlarged and is now defined as an area including the Middle East, Africa, Europe, Southwest Asia, the Former Soviet Union and the Scandinavian/Arctic region. The LLNL RDB will facilitate calibration of all International Monitoring System (IMS) stations (primary and auxiliary) or their surrogates (if not yet installed) as well as a variety of gamma stations. The RDB provides not only a coherent framework in which to store and organize large volumes of collected seismic waveforms and associated event parameter information, but also provides an efficient data processing/research environment for deriving location and discrimination correction sur faces and capabilities. In order to accommodate large volumes of data from many sources with diverse formats the RDB is designed to be flexible and extensible in addition to maintaining detailed quality control information and associated metadata. Station parameters, instrument responses, phase pick information, and event bulletins were compiled and made available through the RDB. For seismic events in the MENA region occurring between 1976 and 1999, we have systematically assembled, quality checked and organized event waveforms; continuous seismic data from 1990 to present are archived for many stations. Currently, over 11,400 seismic events and 1.2 million waveforms are maintained in the RDB and made readily available to researchers. In addition to open sources of seismic data, we have established collaborative relationships with several ME/NA countries that have yielded additional ground truth and broadband waveform data essential for regional calibration and capability

  13. Enhancing Middle East climate change monitoring and indexes

    SciTech Connect

    Sensoy, S.; Peterson, T.C.; Zhang, X.

    2007-08-15

    Extreme climate events can have significant impacts on both natural and human systems, and therefore it is important to know if and how climate extremes are changing. Analysis of extremes requires long-term daily station data and, unfortunately, there are many regions in the world where these data are not internationally exchanged. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Third Assessment Report (Folland et al. 2001) relied heavily on the multinational analysis of Frich et al (2002). However, Frich et al. had no results from all of Central and South America, and most of Africa and southern Asia, including the Middle East. To remedy this situation for the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, the joint World Meteorological Organization Commission for Climatology/World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) project on Climate Variability and Predictability (CLIVAR) Expert Team on Climate Change Detection, Monitoring, and Indices (Zwiers et al. 2003) internationally coordinated a series of five regional climate change workshops and a set of indices for analyses of extremes. Two workshops covered the Americas, one in Brazil and one in Guatemala. One workshop addressed southern Africa. A workshop in India involved south and central Asia, while the workshop for the Middle East sought to address the region from Turkey to Iran and from Georgia to the southern tip of the Arabian Peninsula. The key to a successful workshop is a collaborative approach between outside experts and regional participants. The participants here broght long-term daily precipitation and maximum and minimum temperature data, station history information, an understanding of their country's climate, and a willingness to analyze thse data under the tutelage of outside experts. The outside experts brought knowledge of the crucial data and climate change issues, presentations to explain these issues, and user-friendly software to aid the analyses. Xuebin Zhang of Environment Canada wrote the workshop

  14. Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Development in the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasyanos, M. E.; Walter, W. R.; Myers, S. C.; Matzel, E.; Gok, R.; Simmons, N. A.; Ford, S. R.; Rodgers, A. J.; Ruppert, S.; Hauk, T. F.; Dodge, D.; Ganzberger, M.; Ramirez, A. L.; Ryall, F.

    2010-12-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has a long-standing research and development program for nuclear explosion monitoring. Here, we cover aspects of recent work applied to the Middle East region, specifically data management, seismic location, event identification, and magnitude estimation. Seismic data from broadband stations in the region is available through a combination of expanding global networks, improved and increasingly available national networks, and temporary deployments. Managing the huge amounts of data necessary to perform the work is an underappreciated aspect of monitoring research. Our research database provides vertically-integrated management of seismic data, catalogs, picks, magnitudes, etc., as well as analysis tools that are fully integrated into the database. Seismic locations have improved significantly through a succession of models starting with empirical corrections to 1-D models, progressing through to 2 1/2 -D models which significantly improve regional body-wave travel times by characterizing the upper mantle as a gradient, and on through high-resolution fully 3-D models that are currently in development. Our surface wave tomography results provide additional constraints on Earth lithospheric structure and can be used to improve Ms determination. Event identification has been achieved through a number of methods including the traditional mb:Ms discriminant, regional high-frequency P/S discriminants, and analysis of the complete moment tensor solution, which also has the possibility of distinguishing between explosions and mining-type events. Optimal use of these methods requires calibration, such as the multi-phase attenuation model of the crust and upper mantle that has been developed for the region. Use of the models reduces scatter of the earthquake population and reduces misclassification. Another important aspect of explosion monitoring is getting robust estimates of event magnitude, and hence explosive yield. This has been

  15. 76 FR 30152 - East Calloway County Middle School Mercury Spill Site, Murray, Calloway County, KY; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... AGENCY East Calloway County Middle School Mercury Spill Site, Murray, Calloway County, KY; Notice of... response costs concerning the East Calloway County Middle School Mercury Spill Site located in Murray... Site name East Calloway County ] Middle School Mercury Spill Site by one of the following methods:...

  16. Genetic differentiation of Puccinia triticina populations in the Middle East and genetic similarity with populations in Central Asia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf rust of wheat, caused by Puccinia triticina is a common and widespread disease in the Middle East. The objective of this study was to determine if genetically differentiated groups of P. triticina are present in the Middle East region and to compare the population from the Middle East with the ...

  17. Collaborative Intervention of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome: Rapid Response Team

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    On May 20th 2015, a 68 year old man was the first to be diagnosed with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-Corona Virus (MERS-CoV) in Korea. He travelled to Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, and Qatar for 16 days. On May 4th 2015, the patient entered Korea, with febrile sense and respiratory symptoms that appeared on May 11th. The MERS-CoV Outbreak became worse and several patients had to be admitted throughout various hospitals starting at the beginning of June. This situation led to a nationwide chaos. The Rapid Response Team (RRT) was organized after the Korean government's calling for specialists that were composed of 15 Infectious disease Doctors and 2 Infection Control professionals on the 8th of June 2015. The main purpose of the RRT were: 1) consultation to the Government controlling MERS-CoV outbreak. 2) Visit hospitals that were exposed to MERS-CoV infected patients, and to provide advice regarding infection control strategy for rehabilitating of the exposed hospitals. Since June 8th, the RRT visited more than 10 hospitals and an effective consultation was carried out. Most of the hospitals were recovering from the MERS outbreak since early July. Cooperation between the government and private sector experts was very effective. The efforts of government and private sector experts overcame the initial chaos situation. It could prevent further deterioration of the MERS outbreak. PMID:27433376

  18. LLNL Middle East and North Africa research database

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppert, S.D.; Hauk, T.F.; Leach, R.

    1997-07-15

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) CTBT R{ampersand}D program has made significant progress assembling a comprehensive seismic database (DB) for events and derived parameters in the Middle East and North Africa (ME/NA). The LLNL research DB provides not only a coherent framework in which store and organize large volumes of collected seismic waveforms and associated event parameter information but also provides an efficient data processing/research environment. The DB is designed to be flexible and extensible in order to accommodate the large volumes of data in diverse formats from many sources in addition to maintaining detailed quality control and metadata. Researchers can make use of the relational nature of the DB and interactive analysis tools to quickly and efficiently process large volumes of data. Seismic waveforms have been systematically collected form a wide range of local and regional networks using numerous earthquake bulletins and converted a common format based on CSS3.O while undergoing quality control and corrections of errors. By combining traveltime observations, event characterization studies, and regional wave-propagation studies of the LLNL CTBT team, we are assembling a library of ground truth information and event location correction surfaces required to support the ME/NA regionalization program. Corrections and parameters distilled from the LLNL research DB will provide needed contributions to the DOE knowledge base for the ME/NA region and enable the USNDC and IDC to effectively verify CTBT compliance.

  19. Is the Saudi public aware of Middle East respiratory syndrome?

    PubMed

    Al-Mohrej, Omar A; Al-Shirian, Sarah D; Al-Otaibi, Salman K; Tamim, Hani M; Masuadi, Emad M; Fakhoury, Hana M

    2016-01-01

    To limit the spread of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in Saudi Arabia, the Ministry of Health tried to raise public awareness using different public campaigns. We aimed to measure public awareness of MERS in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted between May and June 2014 using a newly designed Arabic questionnaire that was distributed and completed online. We analyzed the response of 1149 respondents across Saudi Arabia. We found that 97% of the participants were aware of MERS. In addition, 72% realized that coughing and sneezing could spread the infection. Furthermore, 83% thought that some patients with MERS could be cured. Moreover, 62% knew that no vaccine can prevent the disease. However, only 36% realized that taking antibiotics will not stop the infection, and only 41% recognized that no medication has yet been manufactured to treat it. Regarding protection measures, 74% used hand sanitizers, 43% avoided crowded places, and 11% wore masks in public places. Moreover, only 47% knew that bats and camels are the primary source of the virus. As anticipated, this level of awareness varied between the different categories of the studied population. Female, married, older, and more educated participants were significantly more knowledgeable about the disease. Public awareness of MERS is generally sufficient. However, some false beliefs about treatment were fairly common. In addition, almost half of the population remains unaware that bats and camels are the most likely sources of the virus. PMID:26589657

  20. Fibrous calcite from the Middle Ordovician Holston Formation (east Tennessee)

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, K.J.; Walker, K.R. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-03-01

    Fibrous calcite from buildups, which occur near the top of the Middle Ordovician Holston Formation, were examined from two localities near Knoxville, TN (Alcoa Highway and Deanne Quarry). Buildups at these localities were deposited under open-marine conditions, slightly down-slope from the platform edge. Fibrous calcite (mainly radiaxial fibrous) occur most commonly as cements in mainly stromatactis structures present in bioherms and intergranular porosity in beds that flank bioherms. Fibrous calcite is interpreted to have been precipitated in a marine setting. Fibrous calcite is uniformly turbid or banded with interlayered turbid and clearer cement. Fibrous calcite most commonly shows patchy or blotchy dull-non-luminescence under cathodoluminescence. Bands of uniformly non-luminescent and relatively bright luminescent calcite are present. [delta][sup 13]C compositions of fibrous calcite vary little (0.6 to 1.0%) but [delta][sup 18]O values are highly variable ([minus]4.8 to [minus]7.1%). Post-marine cement consists of ferroan and non-ferroan, dull luminescent equant calcite ([delta][sup 13]C = 0.3 to 0.8; [delta][sup 18]O = [minus]8.6 to [minus]11.5) and is interpreted as precipitated in a deep meteoric or burial setting. Depleted [delta][sup 18]O compositions of fibrous calcite reflect addition of post-depositional calcite during stabilization. Most enriched [delta][sup 13]C and [delta][sup 18]O fibrous calcite composition are similar to enriched values from other Middle Ordovician southern Appalachian buildups (other localities of Holston (TN) and Effna (VA) formations) ([delta][sup 13]C = 0.3 to 0.8; [delta][sup 18]O = [minus]3.9 to [minus]4.8) and may reflect fibrous calcite precipitated in isotopic equilibrium with Middle Ordovician sea water.

  1. Reinvestigating Three Paleo Lake Records in the Middle East using new Model Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuter, J. M.; Stott, L. D.; Buenning, N. H.; Yoshimura, K.

    2013-12-01

    Here we present a reinterpretation of three oxygen isotope records from three Middle Eastern Lakes (Zeribar, Van and Eski Acigo). These lake isotope records were interpreted previously to document changes in the precipitation-to-evaporation ratio (Eski and Van) and varying seasonality of precipitation over the lake (Zeribar). These differing interpretations are a consequence of inadequate constraints on atmospheric dynamics that influence isotopic variability in the water cycle of the Middle East. We present new isotope-enabled atmospheric model results that provide a more comprehensive view of each of the potential influences that affected these lake records. Currently the Middle East exhibits a highly seasonal precipitation cycle with the bulk of the rainfall occurring during the winter months. The yearly isotopic composition of rainfall exhibits a seasonal cycle as well with decreased values during the winter and higher isotopic values in both fall and spring. We conducted two model simulations with the Isotope-incorporated Global Spectral Model (IsoGSM): 1) with present-day conditions and 2) with mid-Holocene conditions. For the mid-Holocene simulations changes were made to the surface forcing, orbital parameters and greenhouse gas concentrations. These results show that the annual averaged oxygen isotopes in precipitation 6000 years ago were depleted on the order of 1 to 3‰ compared to present day. The model results are consistent with the published lake core records. However, the shift in isotopic composition of precipitation results from the combined influences of orbital changes, the changes in green house gases and surface forcings. We have evaluated the relative contribution of each of the forcings and present a re-interpretation of the Middle Eastern lake records.

  2. Complete Genome Sequences of Lineage III Peste des Petits Ruminants Viruses from the Middle East and East Africa.

    PubMed

    Muniraju, Murali; Munir, Muhammad; Banyard, Ashley C; Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom; Wensman, Jonas; Zohari, Siamak; Berg, Mikael; Parthiban, AravindhBabu R; Mahapatra, Mana; Libeau, Geneviève; Batten, Carrie; Parida, Satya

    2014-01-01

    For the first time, complete genome sequences of four lineage III peste des petits ruminants (PPR) viruses (Oman 1983, United Arab Emirates 1986, Ethiopia 1994, and Uganda 2012) originated from the Middle East and East Africa are reported here. The availability of complete genome sequences from all four lineages (I to IV) of the PPR virus (PPRV) would greatly help in a comprehensive understanding of the molecular evolution and emergence of PPRV. PMID:25342675

  3. 75 FR 15686 - Middle East Public Health Mission; Application Deadline Extended

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Middle East Public Health Mission; Application Deadline Extended AGENCY... Applications Mission recruitment will be conducted in an open and public manner, including publication in...

  4. 75 FR 18783 - Middle East Public Health Mission; Application Deadline Extended

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Middle East Public Health Mission; Application Deadline Extended AGENCY... Applications Mission recruitment will be conducted in an open and public manner, including publication in...

  5. The Islamic Middle East: A Short Annotated Bibliography for High School Teachers and Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnbaum, E.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    An annotated bibliography of 133 books about the Middle East. Categories are reference works; general works; pre-modern history and geography; Islamic religion, law, institutions, and thought; Islamic literature; and Islamic art and archaeology. (AV)

  6. Migration and manpower needs in the Middle East and North Africa, 1975-85.

    PubMed

    Serageldin, I; Socknat, J

    1980-01-01

    The authors review current flows and expected changes in the volume and characteristics of international labor migration to eight oil-producing Middle East countries. The implications for both labor-exporting and importing countries are explored PMID:12279365

  7. Current Status of Nuclear Medicine Practice in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Paez, Diana; Becic, Tarik; Bhonsle, Uday; Jalilian, Amir R; Nuñez-Miller, Rodolfo; Osso, Joao Alberto

    2016-07-01

    The practice of nuclear medicine (NM) in the Middle East region has experienced an important growth in the last 2 decades and has become crucial in providing healthcare to the region's population of about 395 million people. Even though there are some countries in which the services provided are limited to basic coverage of studies with (99m)Tc and (131)I, most have well-established practices covering most of the available studies in this medical specialty; this is the case in for example, Iran, Israel, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Turkey. According to data provided by the NM professionals in the 17 countries included in the present publication, which was collected by the International Atomic Energy Agency in 2015, the total number of gamma cameras in the region is 910 with an average of 2.3 gamma cameras per million inhabitants. Out of these, 107 cameras, or 12%, are SPECT/CT cameras. There are 194 operating PET/CT scanners, translating to one PET/CT scanner for 2.04 million people on average. The availability of PET/CT scanners in relation to population is the highest in Lebanon and Kuwait, with 2.2 and 1.7 scanners per million people, respectively. There is a total of 628 NM centers in the 17 countries, whereas most NM centers belong to the public healthcare system and in most of the countries are widely spread and not confined exclusively to capital cities. As for the radionuclide therapies, (131)I is used regularly in diagnostic workup as well as in therapeutic applications in all the countries included in this analysis. Only five countries have the capability of assembling (99)Mo-(99m)Tc generators (Egypt, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Israel, and Turkey), and cold kits are produced in several countries. Although there are no capabilities in the region to produce (99)Mo from nuclear reactors, a total of 46 cyclotrons are operated for production of PET radionuclides. The most widely used PET tracer in the region is (18)F-FDG followed by (18)F-NaF; concomitantly, the

  8. Hypovitaminosis D in the Middle East and North Africa

    PubMed Central

    Bassil, Darina; Rahme, Maya; Hoteit, Maha; Fuleihan, Ghada El-Hajj

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region registers some of the highest rates of hypovitaminosis D worldwide.   Aim: We systematically reviewed the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D, rickets and osteomalacia, their predictors and impact on major outcomes, in the region. Methods: Medline, Pubmed and Embase search engines, entering keywords and concepts, combined with individual countries of interest, were used. Search was limited years 2000–2012; and review articles were used for the period preceding year 2000. Results: Rickets and osteomalacia still occur in this sunny region. Hypovitaminosis D prevails, with rates varying 30–90%, considering a desirable serum 25 hydroxy-vitamin D [25(OH)D] of 20 ng/ml. Advancing age, female gender, multi-parity, clothing style, season, socio-economic status and urban living are recognized predictors of hypovitaminosis D in adults. Prolonged breastfeeding without vitamin D supplementation and low dietary calcium intake are the recognized risk factors for rickets and hypovitaminosis D in children.. Associations with pain score and disease activity in rheumatologic disorders, viral load and interleukins in hepatitis C, BMI, lipids and insulin sensitivity, blood pressure, heart failure and mortality are described. Sun exposure in adults decreased prevalence of metabolic syndrome in one study. Few randomized vitamin D trials revealed that the majority of mothers or children failed to achieve a desirable 25(OH)D level, even with doses by far exceeding current recommendations. A trial in adolescent girls reveals substantial bone and lean mass increments. Conclusion: Hypovitaminosis D is prevalent in MENA. The lack of populations based studies, gaps in studies in infants, pre-pubertal children and pregnant women, hinder the development of region specific guidelines and constitute a major obstacle to impact this chronic and most often subclinical disease. PMID:24194968

  9. Impacts of The Future Changes in Extreme Events on Migration in The Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Nazan; Turp, M. Tufan; Ozturk, Tugba; Kurnaz, M. Levent

    2016-04-01

    Natural hazards are defined as extreme events that threat people, their homes and their neighborhoods. They damage housing, food production system and other infrastructures. The frequency of natural hazards namely drought, floods can influence the residential decision-making and can cause substantial residential mobility by affecting relatively greater numbers of people in the region. Developing countries are more vulnerable to the impacts of natural hazards. Therefore, environmental migration can be associated with natural hazards especially in the developing countries. Limited water resources and demographic dynamics of the Middle East make the region one of the most affected domains from the impacts of natural hazards. In this study, we consider the relationship between migration as a demographic process and the frequency of natural hazards in the Middle East for the period of 2020 - 2045 with respect to 1980 - 2005 by performing the projection according to the scenario of IPCC, namely RCP8.5 through the RegCM4.4 and combining them with an econometric analysis. This research has been supported by Boǧaziçi University Research Fund Grant Number 10421.

  10. Cardiovascular Risk Factor Burden in Africa and the Middle East: The Africa Middle East Cardiovascular Epidemiological (ACE) Study

    PubMed Central

    Alsheikh-Ali, Alawi A.; Omar, Mohamed I.; Raal, Frederick J.; Rashed, Wafa; Hamoui, Omar; Kane, Abdoul; Alami, Mohamed; Abreu, Paula; Mashhoud, Walid M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Increased urbanization in the developing world parallels a rising burden of chronic diseases. Developing countries account for ∼80% of global cardiovascular (CV) deaths, but contribute a paucity of systematic epidemiological data on CV risk factors. Objective To estimate the prevalence of CV risk factors in rural and urban cohorts attending general practice clinics in the Africa and Middle East (AfME) region. Methods In a cross-sectional epidemiological study, the presence of CV risk factors (hypertension, diabetes mellitus (diabetes), dyslipidemia, obesity, smoking and abdominal obesity) were evaluated in stable adult outpatients attending general practice primary care clinics. A rural population was defined as isolated (>50 km or lack of easy access to commuter transportation) from urban centers. Results 4,378 outpatients were systematically recruited from 94 clinics across 14 AfME countries. Mean age was 46±14 years and 52% of outpatients were female. A high prevalence of dyslipidemia (70%) and abdominal obesity (68%) were observed, followed by hypertension (43%) and diabetes (25%). The vast majority of outpatients (92%) had at least one modifiable CV risk factor, many (74%) had more than one, and half (53%) had 3 or more. These findings were observed in both genders and across urban and rural centers. Among outpatients with pre-existing hypertension or dyslipidemia, many were not at their target blood pressure or LDL-cholesterol goals. Conclusion Cardiovascular risk factors are highly prevalent among relatively young, stable outpatients attending general practice clinics across AfME. The findings support opportunistic screening for CV risk factors whenever outpatients visit a general practitioner and provide an opportunity for early identification and management of CV risk factors, including lifestyle interventions. PMID:25090638

  11. Disillusionment with Higher Education in the Middle East and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Judith A.

    2011-01-01

    University graduates in the Middle East and the United States of America are disillusioned with their higher education degrees. Youth expect to be well employed upon graduation and to improve their social status. Employment has been guaranteed from the earliest university certificates granted in Middle Eastern yeshivas, Houses of Learning, and…

  12. School Improvement Planning in East Tennessee Middle Schools: A Content Analysis and Perceptions Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Anfara A., Jr.; Patterson, Faye; Buehler, Alison; Gearity, Brian

    2006-01-01

    This mixed-methods study focuses on school improvement planning in middle schools in east Tennessee. Utilizing the improvement plans of 17 middle schools and surveys that were administered to 493 teachers and 35 administrators, this study found that there was (A) an overemphasis on academic goals, (B) an overreliance on the use of "homemade" data…

  13. Teaching East Asia in Middle Schools: Lesson Plans Contributed at the 1998 East Asian Studies Center Summer Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Univ., Bloomington. East Asian Studies Center.

    This document contains five middle school lesson plans that teach about East Asia, focusing on Japan, China, and Korea. Lessons deal with geography, history, cultural comparisons, and trade relations. Lesson plans include background information, materials needed, extension and enrichment ideas, a lesson script, a rubric, a list of resources, and…

  14. WATER QUALITY OF THE MIDDLE SNAKE RIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Clear Spring Foods, Inc., conducted a year-long study in the Middle Snake River to provide a perspective on water quality issues and the impact of aquaculture activities on water quality. The study area extended from Shoshone Falls Park to below Box Canyon. Physical and chemical ...

  15. Crustal Structure of the Middle East from Regional Seismic Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritto, Roland; Sibol, Matthew; Caron, Pierre; Ghalib, Hafidh; Chen, Youlin

    2010-05-01

    We present results of crustal studies obtained with seismic data from the Northern Iraq Seismic Network (NISN). NISN has operated ten broadband stations in north-eastern Iraq since late 2005. This network was supplemented by the five-element broadband Iraq Seismic Array (KSIRS) in 2007. More recently, the former Iraq Seismic Network (ISN), destroyed during the war with Iran, was reestablished with the deployment of six broadband stations throughout Iraq. The aim of the present study is to derive models of the local and regional crustal structure of the Middle East, including Eastern Turkey, Iraq and Iran. To achieve this goal, we derive crustal velocity models using receiver function, surface wave and body wave analyses. These refined velocity models will eventually be used to obtain accurate hypocenter locations and event focal mechanisms. Our analysis of preliminary hypocenter locations produced a clearer picture of the seismicity associated with the tectonics of the region. The largest seismicity rate is confined to the active northern section of the Zagros thrust zone, while it decreases towards the southern end, before the intensity increases in the Bandar Abbas region again. Additionally, the rift zones in the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden are clearly demarked by high seismicity rates. Surface wave velocity analysis resulted in a clear demarcation of the tectonic features in the region. The Arabian shield, Zagros thrust zone and the Red Sea are apparent through distinct velocity distributions separating them from each other. Furthermore, the shear wave velocity of the crust in North Iraq appears to be 10% higher than that of the Iranian plateau. The velocity anomaly of the Zagros mountains appears to be present into the upper mantle beyond the resolving limit of our model. Analysis of waveform data for obstructed pathways indicates clear propagation paths from the west or south-west across the Arabian shield as well as from the north and east into NISN. Phases

  16. LLNL Middle East, North Africa and Western Eurasia Knowledge Base

    SciTech Connect

    O'Boyle, J; Ruppert, S D; Hauk, T F; Dodge, D A; Ryall, F; Firpo, M A

    2001-07-12

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Ground-Based Nuclear Event Monitoring (GNEM) program has made significant progress populating a comprehensive Seismic Research Knowledge Base (SRKB) and deriving calibration parameters for the Middle East, North Africa and Western Eurasia (ME/NA/WE) regions. The LLNL SRKB provides not only a coherent framework in which to store and organize very large volumes of collected seismic waveforms, associated event parameter information, and spatial contextual data, but also provides an efficient data processing/research environment for deriving location and discrimination correction surfaces. The SRKB is a flexible and extensible framework consisting of a relational database (RDB), Geographical Information System (GIS), and associated product/data visualization and data management tools. This SRKB framework is designed to accommodate large volumes of data (almost 3 million waveforms from 57,000 events) in diverse formats from many sources (both LLNL derived research and integrated contractor products), in addition to maintaining detailed quality control and metadata. We have developed expanded look-up tables for critical station parameter information (including location and response) and an integrated and reconciled event catalog data set (including specification of preferred origin solutions and associated phase arrivals) for the PDE, CMT, ISC, REB and selected regional catalogs. Using the SRKB framework, we are combining traveltime observations, event characterization studies, and regional tectonic models to assemble a library of ground truth information and phenomenology (e.g. travel-time and amplitude) correction surfaces required for support of the ME/NA/WE regionalization program. We also use the SRKB to integrate data and research products from a variety of sources, such as contractors and universities, to merge and maintain quality control of the data sets. Corrections and parameters distilled from the LLNL SRKB

  17. Evaluation ofthe Middle East and North Africa Land Data Assimilation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolten, John D.; Rodell, Matthew; Zaitchik, Benjamin; Ozdogan, Mutlu; Anderson, Martha; Bergaoui, Karim B.; Khalaf, Adla J.; McDonnell, Rachael A.

    2012-01-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is dominated by dry, warm deserts, areas of dense population, and inefficient use of fresh water resources. Due to the scarcity, high intensity, and short duration of rainfall in the MENA, the region is prone to hydro climatic extremes that are realized by devastating floods and times of drought. However, given its widespread water stress and the considerable demand for water, the MENA remains relatively poorly monitored. This is due in part to the shortage of meteorological observations and the lack of data sharing between nations. As a result, the accurate monitoring of the dynamics of the water cycle in the MENA is difficult. The Land Data Assimilation System for the MENA region (MENA LDAS) has been developed to provide regional, gridded fields of hydrological states and fluxes relevant for water resources assessments. As an extension of the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS), the MENA LDAS was designed to aid in the identification and evaluation of regional hydrological anomalies by synergistically combining the physically-based Catchment Land Surface Model (CLSM) with observations from several independent data products including soil-water storage variations from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and irrigation intensity derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). In this fashion, we estimate the mean and seasonal cycle of the water budget components across the MENA.

  18. Teaching about the Middle East: Challenges and Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffee, Cyrisse

    2004-01-01

    Barbara Petzen began working as a part-time outreach coordinator at Harvard University's Center for Middle Eastern Studies (CMES) a week before September 11, 2001. She was finishing her dissertation in Middle Eastern studies, specializing in the Ottoman Empire and Arab history, and thought it would be a good job to have while she completed her…

  19. Middle East, North Africa and Western Eurasia Seismic Research Database

    SciTech Connect

    O'Boyle, J L; Ruppert, S D; Hauk, T F; Dodge, D A; Ganzberger, M D; Ryall, F

    2003-07-14

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Engineering (GNEM R&E) Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has made significant progress populating a comprehensive Seismic Research Database (SRDB) used for deriving seismic calibration parameters for the Middle East, North Africa and Western Eurasia (ME/NA/WE) regions. In addition to an overview of select individual information products, we present an overview of our visualization, integration, validation, and organizational processes. Development of these processes and the LLNL SRDB was necessitated by both the very large amount of data and information involved (over 15 terabytes) and the varied data and research result formats utilized. The LLNL SRDB allows for the collection of raw and contextual seismic data used in research, provides an interface for researchers to access data, provides a framework to store research results and integrate datasets, and supports assembly, integration and dissemination of datasets to the NNSA Knowledge Base (KB). The LLNL SRDB is a flexible and extensible framework consisting of a relational database (RDB), Geographical Information System (GIS), and associated product/data visualization and data management tools. This framework is designed to accommodate large volumes of data in diverse formats from many sources (both in-house-derived research and integrated contractor products), in addition to maintaining detailed quality control and metadata. In order to efficiently organize information within the LLNL SRDB, it was necessary to automate procedures needed to create and update database tables, but a large effort is still required by technicians and scientists to load special datasets, review results of automated processing and resolve quality issues. The LLNL SRDB currently has 3 million reconciled event origins and arrivals from several global, regional and local seismic bulletins and 30 million

  20. Intravenous drug abuse and tricuspid valve endocarditis: Growing trends in the Middle East Gulf region.

    PubMed

    Panduranga, Prashanth; Al-Abri, Seif; Al-Lawati, Jawad

    2013-11-26

    Traditionally, tricuspid valve endocarditis is uncommon in the Middle East region. However, recent global data indicate growing trends in the use of illicit drug abuse, specifically injectable heroin, in the Middle East Gulf region. The presence of many transit port services in the Middle East Gulf States has led to smuggling of substance abuse drugs in the region. The Middle East Gulf States, currently a transit market, are also becoming a growing consumer market in view of the increased substance abuse in the youth. However, there is a paucity of data with respect to the prevalence or incidence of tricuspid valve endocarditis in the region, probably due to underdiagnosis or underreporting. A high index of suspicion of tricuspid valve endocarditis is essential in patients with a history of intravenous drug abuse. This article reviews the epidemiology of illicit drug abuse in the Middle East Gulf region, as well as the diagnosis and treatment of tricuspid valve endocarditis, and calls for all physicians in the region to be vigilant while dealing with intravenous drug abuse. PMID:24829628

  1. Obesity Researches Over the Past 24 years: A Scientometrics Study in Middle East Countries

    PubMed Central

    Djalalinia, Shirin; Peykari, Niloofar; Qorbani, Mostafa; Moghaddam, Sahar Saeedi; Larijani, Bagher; Farzadfar, Farshad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Researchers, practitioners, and policy-makers call for updated valid evidences to monitor, prevent, and control of alarming trends of obesity. We quantify the trends of obesity/overweight researches outputs of Middle East countries. Methods: We systematically searched Scopus database as the only sources for multidisciplinary citation reports, with the most coverage in health and biomedicine disciplines for all related obesity/overweight publications, from 1990 to 2013. These scientometrics analysis assessed the trends of scientific products, citations, and collaborative papers in Middle East countries. We also provided Information on top institutions, journals, and collaborative research centers in the field of obesity/overweight. Results: Over 24-year period, the number of obesity/overweight publications and related citations in Middle East countries had increasing trend. Globally, during 1990–2013, 415,126 papers have been published, from them, 3.56% were affiliated to Middle East countries. Iran with 26.27%, compare with other countries in the regions, after Turkey (47.94%) and Israel (35.25%), had the third position. Israel, Turkey, and Iran were leading countries in citation analysis. The most collaborative country with Middle East countries was USA and within the region, the most collaborative country was Saudi Arabia. Conclusions: Despite the ascending trends in research outputs, more efforts required for promotion of collaborative partnerships. Results could be useful for better health policy and more planned studies in this field. These findings also could be used for future complementary analysis. PMID:26015861

  2. Middle Rio Grande Cooperative Water Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-11-01

    This is computer simulation model built in a commercial modeling product Called Studio Expert, developed by Powersim, Inc. The simulation model is built in a system dynamics environment, allowing the simulation of the interaction among multiple systems that are all changing over time. The model focuses on hydrology, ecology, demography, and economy of the Middle Rio Grande, with Water as the unifying feature.

  3. Recent outbreaks of rift valley Fever in East Africa and the middle East.

    PubMed

    Himeidan, Yousif E; Kweka, Eliningaya J; Mahgoub, Mostafa M; El Rayah, El Amin; Ouma, Johnson O

    2014-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an important neglected, emerging, mosquito-borne disease with severe negative impact on human and animal health. Mosquitoes in the Aedes genus have been considered as the reservoir, as well as vectors, since their transovarially infected eggs withstand desiccation and larvae hatch when in contact with water. However, different mosquito species serve as epizootic/epidemic vectors of RVF, creating a complex epidemiologic pattern in East Africa. The recent RVF outbreaks in Somalia (2006-2007), Kenya (2006-2007), Tanzania (2007), and Sudan (2007-2008) showed extension to districts, which were not involved before. These outbreaks also demonstrated the changing epidemiology of the disease from being originally associated with livestock, to a seemingly highly virulent form infecting humans and causing considerably high-fatality rates. The amount of rainfall is considered to be the main factor initiating RVF outbreaks. The interaction between rainfall and local environment, i.e., type of soil, livestock, and human determine the space-time clustering of RVF outbreaks. Contact with animals or their products was the most dominant risk factor to transfer the infection to humans. Uncontrolled movement of livestock during an outbreak is responsible for introducing RVF to new areas. For example, the virus that caused the Saudi Arabia outbreak in 2000 was found to be the same strain that caused the 1997-98 outbreaks in East Africa. A strategy that involves active surveillance with effective case management and diagnosis for humans and identifying target areas for animal vaccination, restriction on animal movements outside the affected areas, identifying breeding sites, and targeted intensive mosquito control programs has been shown to succeed in limiting the effect of RVF outbreak and curb the spread of the disease from the onset. PMID:25340047

  4. Recent Outbreaks of Rift Valley Fever in East Africa and the Middle East

    PubMed Central

    Himeidan, Yousif E.; Kweka, Eliningaya J.; Mahgoub, Mostafa M.; El Rayah, El Amin; Ouma, Johnson O.

    2014-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an important neglected, emerging, mosquito-borne disease with severe negative impact on human and animal health. Mosquitoes in the Aedes genus have been considered as the reservoir, as well as vectors, since their transovarially infected eggs withstand desiccation and larvae hatch when in contact with water. However, different mosquito species serve as epizootic/epidemic vectors of RVF, creating a complex epidemiologic pattern in East Africa. The recent RVF outbreaks in Somalia (2006–2007), Kenya (2006–2007), Tanzania (2007), and Sudan (2007–2008) showed extension to districts, which were not involved before. These outbreaks also demonstrated the changing epidemiology of the disease from being originally associated with livestock, to a seemingly highly virulent form infecting humans and causing considerably high-fatality rates. The amount of rainfall is considered to be the main factor initiating RVF outbreaks. The interaction between rainfall and local environment, i.e., type of soil, livestock, and human determine the space-time clustering of RVF outbreaks. Contact with animals or their products was the most dominant risk factor to transfer the infection to humans. Uncontrolled movement of livestock during an outbreak is responsible for introducing RVF to new areas. For example, the virus that caused the Saudi Arabia outbreak in 2000 was found to be the same strain that caused the 1997–98 outbreaks in East Africa. A strategy that involves active surveillance with effective case management and diagnosis for humans and identifying target areas for animal vaccination, restriction on animal movements outside the affected areas, identifying breeding sites, and targeted intensive mosquito control programs has been shown to succeed in limiting the effect of RVF outbreak and curb the spread of the disease from the onset. PMID:25340047

  5. Impacts of Climate Change on the Climate Extremes of the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turp, M. Tufan; Collu, Kamil; Deler, F. Busra; Ozturk, Tugba; Kurnaz, M. Levent

    2016-04-01

    The Middle East is one of the most vulnerable regions to the impacts of climate change. Because of the importance of the region and its vulnerability to global climate change, the studies including the investigation of projected changes in the climate of the Middle East play a crucial role in order to struggle with the negative effects of climate change. This research points out the relationship between the climate change and climate extremes indices in the Middle East and it investigates the changes in the number of extreme events as described by the joint CCl/CLIVAR/JCOMM Expert Team (ET) on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI). As part of the study, the regional climate model (RegCM4.4) of the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) is run to obtain future projection data. This research has been supported by Boǧaziçi University Research Fund Grant Number 10421.

  6. Dust storm detection using random forests and physical-based approaches over the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souri, Amir Hossein; Vajedian, Sanaz

    2015-07-01

    Dust storms are important phenomena over large regions of the arid and semi-arid areas of the Middle East. Due to the influences of dust aerosols on climate and human daily activities, dust detection plays a crucial role in environmental and climatic studies. Detection of dust storms is critical to accurately understand dust, their properties and distribution. Currently, remotely sensed data such as MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) with appropriate temporal and spectral resolutions have been widely used for this purpose. This paper investigates the capability of two physical-based methods, and random forests (RF) classifier, for the first time, to detect dust storms using MODIS imagery. Since the physical-based approaches are empirical, they suffer from certain drawbacks such as high variability of thresholds depending on the underlying surface. Therefore, classification-based approaches could be deployed as an alternative. In this paper, the most relevant bands are chosen based on the physical effects of the major classes, particularly dust, cloud and snow, on both emissive infrared and reflective bands. In order to verify the capability of the methods, OMAERUV AAOD (aerosol absorption optical depth) product from OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) sensor is exploited. In addition, some small regions are selected manually to be considered as ground truth for measuring the probability of false detection (POFD) and probability of missing detection (POMD). The dust class generated by RF is consistent qualitatively with the location and extent of dust observed in OMERAUV and MODIS true colour images. Quantitatively, the dust classes generated for eight dust outbreaks in the Middle East are found to be accurate from 7% and 6% of POFD and POMD respectively. Moreover, results demonstrate the sound capability of RF in classifying dust plumes over both water and land simultaneously. The performance of the physical-based approaches is found weaker than RF

  7. Sickle cell disease in Middle East Arab countries

    PubMed Central

    El-Hazmi, Mohsen A. F.; Al-Hazmi, Ali M.; Warsy, Arjumand S.

    2011-01-01

    The sickle cell (HbS) gene occurs at a variable frequency in the Middle Eastern Arab countries, with characteristic distribution patterns and representing an overall picture of blood genetic disorders in the region. The origin of the gene has been debated, but studies using β-globin gene haplotypes have ascertained that there were multiple origins for HbS. In some regions the HbS gene is common and exhibits polymorphism, while the reverse is true in others. A common causative factor for the high prevalence and maintenance of HbS and thalassaemia genes is malaria endemicity. The HbS gene also co-exists with other haemoglobin variants and thalassaemia genes and the resulting clinical state is referred to as sickle cell disease (SCD). In the Middle Eastern Arab countries, the clinical picture of SCD expresses two distinct forms, the benign and the severe forms, which are related to two distinct β-globin gene haplotypes. These are referred to as the Saudi-Indian and the Benin haplotypes, respectively. In a majority of the Middle Eastern Arab countries the HbS is linked to the Saudi-Indian haplotype, while in others it is linked to the Benin haplotype. This review outlines the frequency, distribution, clinical feature, management and prevention as well as gene interactions of the HbS genes with other haemoglobin disorders in the Middle Eastern Arab countries. PMID:22199098

  8. Sickle cell disease in Middle East Arab countries.

    PubMed

    El-Hazmi, Mohsen A F; Al-Hazmi, Ali M; Warsy, Arjumand S

    2011-11-01

    The sickle cell (HbS) gene occurs at a variable frequency in the Middle Eastern Arab countries, with characteristic distribution patterns and representing an overall picture of blood genetic disorders in the region. The origin of the gene has been debated, but studies using β-globin gene haplotypes have ascertained that there were multiple origins for HbS. In some regions the HbS gene is common and exhibits polymorphism, while the reverse is true in others. A common causative factor for the high prevalence and maintenance of HbS and thalassaemia genes is malaria endemicity. The HbS gene also co-exists with other haemoglobin variants and thalassaemia genes and the resulting clinical state is referred to as sickle cell disease (SCD). In the Middle Eastern Arab countries, the clinical picture of SCD expresses two distinct forms, the benign and the severe forms, which are related to two distinct β-globin gene haplotypes. These are referred to as the Saudi-Indian and the Benin haplotypes, respectively. In a majority of the Middle Eastern Arab countries the HbS is linked to the Saudi-Indian haplotype, while in others it is linked to the Benin haplotype. This review outlines the frequency, distribution, clinical feature, management and prevention as well as gene interactions of the HbS genes with other haemoglobin disorders in the Middle Eastern Arab countries. PMID:22199098

  9. The "Repoliticization" of Islam in the Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Robert W.; Abell, Robert

    1984-01-01

    Islamic fundamentalist groups are demanding political power and posing stiff changes to Middle Eastern regimes. The attainment of political independence, modernization, the incorporation of millions of newcomers as active participants in the political process, and the inability to deal effectively with Israel have contributed to conditions…

  10. Middle East Studies Teacher Training Program. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sefein, Naim A.

    This guide presents a teacher training program in Middle Eastern studies and procedures for program implementation. Details concerning program announcement, participant selection, and travel accommodations are included. Participants attended an orientation and registration workshop and an intensive academic workshop before flying to Egypt for the…

  11. Seeking Truth in the Social Studies Classroom: Media Literacy, Critical Thinking and Teaching about the Middle East

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperry, Chris

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author relates how he uses media literacy activities in his classroom when discussing issues involving the Middle East countries. He relates how this strategy helps him to teach accurate information about the most challenging and controversial aspects of the contemporary Middle East. He shares that through media analysis,…

  12. Internationalisation in US Higher Education: Studying the Middle East in the American University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller-Idriss, Cynthia; Worden, Elizabeth Anderson

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the organisation of the production of knowledge about international issues in US higher education, drawing on six case studies of Middle East studies. We review three key findings. First, we suggest that the American model for studying "the international" is rooted in a default, and outmoded, way of thinking about international…

  13. Enhancing Services for Students with Mild Disabilities in the Middle East Gulf Region: A Kuwait Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.; Koch, Kourtland R.; Braaten, Sheldon R.

    2008-01-01

    At a conference, titled: "Childhood Disabilities: Assessment and Early Intervention" held between March 20-22, 2006, at Kuwait University, a range of discussion topics were considered that would enhance and design specific best practices in special education for the Middle East Arab Gulf region. Governmental representatives, post-secondary…

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Isolated from a Dromedary Camel in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Shehata, Mahmoud M.; El Shesheny, Rabeh; Gomaa, Mokhtar R.; Ali, Mohamed A.; Kayali, Ghazi

    2016-01-01

    We generated the near-full genome sequence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) from a collected nasal sample of dromedary camel in Egypt. The newly characterized Egyptian strain has high similarity to the previously characterized Egyptian virus and both of viruses fell into a cluster distinct from other MERS-CoVs. PMID:27125484

  15. Experimental Infection and Response to Rechallenge of Alpacas with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Crameri, Gary; Klein, Reuben; Foord, Adam; Yu, Meng; Riddell, Sarah; Haining, Jessica; Johnson, Dayna; Hemida, Maged G.; Barr, Jennifer; Peiris, Malik; Middleton, Deborah; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a challenge/rechallenge trial in which 3 alpacas were infected with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. The alpacas shed virus at challenge but were refractory to further shedding at rechallenge on day 21. The trial indicates that alpacas may be suitable models for infection and shedding dynamics of this virus. PMID:27070733

  16. Teaching East Asia: China, Japan, Korea. Lesson Plans for Middle School Teachers. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beville, Francie; Boone, Mark; Chapman, Kelly; Crump, Claudia; Curtis, Lonnie; Erickson, Stacy; Kaiser-Polge, Tami; Klus, John A.; Luebbehusen, Mary Lou; Rea, Patrick S.; Ward, Mary E.

    This volume contains 23 lesson plans that were written for middle school teachers to help students learn about East Asia. The lessons are organized across six themes: (1) "People, Places & Environment"; (2) "Technology, Production, Distribution & Consumption"; (3) "Cultures, Continuity, and Change"; (4) "Aesthetics, Celebrations and Values"; (5)…

  17. Acute Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection in Livestock Dromedaries, Dubai, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Corman, Victor M.; Wong, Emily Y.M.; Tsang, Alan K.L.; Muth, Doreen; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Khazanehdari, Kamal; Zirkel, Florian; Ali, Mansoor; Nagy, Peter; Juhasz, Jutka; Wernery, Renate; Joseph, Sunitha; Syriac, Ginu; Elizabeth, Shyna K.; Patteril, Nissy Annie Georgy; Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Drosten, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Camels carry Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, but little is known about infection age or prevalence. We studied >800 dromedaries of all ages and 15 mother–calf pairs. This syndrome constitutes an acute, epidemic, and time-limited infection in camels <4 years of age, particularly calves. Delayed social separation of calves might reduce human infection risk. PMID:25989145

  18. Experimental Infection and Response to Rechallenge of Alpacas with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Crameri, Gary; Durr, Peter A; Klein, Reuben; Foord, Adam; Yu, Meng; Riddell, Sarah; Haining, Jessica; Johnson, Dayna; Hemida, Maged G; Barr, Jennifer; Peiris, Malik; Middleton, Deborah; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2016-06-01

    We conducted a challenge/rechallenge trial in which 3 alpacas were infected with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. The alpacas shed virus at challenge but were refractory to further shedding at rechallenge on day 21. The trial indicates that alpacas may be suitable models for infection and shedding dynamics of this virus. PMID:27070733

  19. Deletion Variants of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus from Humans, Jordan, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Lamers, Mart M.; Raj, V. Stalin; Shafei, Mah’d; Ali, Sami Sheikh; Abdallh, Sultan M.; Gazo, Mahmoud; Nofal, Samer; Lu, Xiaoyan; Erdman, Dean D.; Koopmans, Marion P.; Abdallat, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    We characterized Middle East respiratory syndrome coronaviruses from a hospital outbreak in Jordan in 2015. The viruses from Jordan were highly similar to isolates from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, except for deletions in open reading frames 4a and 3. Transmissibility and pathogenicity of this strain remains to be determined. PMID:26981770

  20. Selected Factors Influencing Student Enrollment at Area Vocational Schools in East, Middle and West Tennessee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey, Willie E., Jr.

    An analysis was made of selected factors influencing students to enroll in area postsecondary vocational schools in East, Middle, and West Tennessee. Four hundred forty-three students were surveyed concerning three broad areas of dependent variables: domestic environment, perceived opportunities, and assessment of program. Data were analyzed by…

  1. History Didactics in the Post Cold War World: Central Asia, the Middle East, and China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsyth, Louise; Gould, David; Lawrence, David

    2000-01-01

    Examines three key geographical regions, Central Asia, the Middle East, and China, discussing how the political changes resulting from the end of the Cold War have affected each area. Attempts to demonstrate how teachers can address these changes in their classrooms. (CMK)

  2. Bioinformatics in Middle East Program Curricula--A Focus on the Arabian Gulf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucif, Samia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the inclusion of bioinformatics in program curricula in the Middle East, focusing on educational institutions in the Arabian Gulf. Bioinformatics is a multidisciplinary field which has emerged in response to the need for efficient data storage and retrieval, and accurate and fast computational and…

  3. Contact Tracing for Imported Case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, China, 2015.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min; Song, Tie; Zhong, Haojie; Hou, Jie; Wang, Jun; Li, Jiansen; Wu, Jie; He, Jianfeng; Lin, Jinyan; Zhang, Yonghhui

    2016-09-01

    Confirmation of an imported case of infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in China triggered intensive contact tracing and mandatory monitoring. Using a hotline and surveillance video footage was effective for tracing all 110 identified contacts. Contact monitoring detected no secondary transmission of infection in China. PMID:27532887

  4. Dissemination of carbapenemases producing Gram negative bacteria in the Middle East

    PubMed Central

    Zahedi bialvaei, Abed; Samadi kafil, Hossein; Ebrahimzadeh Leylabadlo, Hamed; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Aghazadeh, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The emergence and spread of carbapenemase-producing bacteria, that hydolyze most β-lactams, including carbapenems, are a major concern of public health system worldwide, particularly in the Middle East area. Since the plasmids harboring resistance genes could be spread across other bacterial populations, detection of carbapenemase-producing organisms has become more problematic. These organisms produce different types of enzymes including the most prevalent types including KPC, VIM, IMP, NDM, and OXA-48. Carbapenemase producers are mostly identified among Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii. This study reviewed almost all papers, which conducted in the Middle East. In order to decrease the spread of resistance, the regional cooperation has been emphasized by the Middle East countries. The highest resistance, which is mediated by KPC has been observed in Afghanistan, Saudi Arabia and Jordan followed by NDM in Pakistan and OXA in Turkey and Pakistan. It is important to mention that the spread of these types have been reported sporadically in the other countries of this area. This review described the widespread carbapenemases in the Middle East area, which have been identified in an alarming rate. PMID:26719779

  5. Modern Tools of Propaganda: Television Treatments of National Anthems in the Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leidman, Mary Beth

    Because of the close proximity of countries in the Middle East, broadcast signals freely cross national boundaries, bringing not always friendly endemic populations into contact with each other through radio and television programming--a fact that has not been lost on the governments which fund broadcasting facilities. National anthems are…

  6. Enhanced MERS coronavirus surveillance of travelers from the Middle East to England.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Helen Lucy; Zhao, Hongxin; Green, Helen K; Boddington, Nicola L; Carvalho, Carlos F A; Osman, Husam K; Sadler, Carol; Zambon, Maria; Bermingham, Alison; Pebody, Richard G

    2014-09-01

    During the first year of enhanced MERS coronavirus surveillance in England, 77 persons traveling from the Middle East had acute respiratory illness and were tested for the virus. Infection was confirmed in 2 travelers with acute respiratory distress syndrome and 2 of their contacts. Patients with less severe manifestations tested negative. PMID:25148267

  7. Enhanced MERS Coronavirus Surveillance of Travelers from the Middle East to England

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Helen Lucy; Zhao, Hongxin; Green, Helen K.; Boddington, Nicola L.; Carvalho, Carlos F.A.; Osman, Husam K.; Sadler, Carol; Zambon, Maria; Bermingham, Alison

    2014-01-01

    During the first year of enhanced MERS coronavirus surveillance in England, 77 persons traveling from the Middle East had acute respiratory illness and were tested for the virus. Infection was confirmed in 2 travelers with acute respiratory distress syndrome and 2 of their contacts. Patients with less severe manifestations tested negative. PMID:25148267

  8. Disputes and Resignations Roil the Middle East Center at the University of Utah

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasley, Paula

    2008-01-01

    Controversial faculty reassignments and resignations in March have left the Middle East Center at the University of Utah in turmoil. The problems come only a year before the university must reapply for the grant from the U.S. Department of Education that supports the center, which is among the oldest such academic units in the country. The…

  9. Launching of an American Medical College in the Middle East: "Educational Challenges in a Multicultural Environment"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hajjar, David P.; Gotto, Antonio M., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The graduation of the first class of medical students in May 2008 from the Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar (WCMC-Q), Cornell University's branch campus in the Middle East, was the first time that an M.D. degree from an American university was awarded abroad. It marked a milestone in American higher education. The establishment of WCMC-Q is…

  10. The American Role in Education in the Middle East: Ideology and Experiment, 1920-1940

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ment, David M.

    2011-01-01

    In a significant 1925 essay, "Western Education in Moslem Lands", Paul Monroe addressed the emerging cultural and political forces faced by American educators in the Middle East. Monroe was widely recognised at the time as editor of the Cyclopedia of Education and director of the International Institute of Teachers College, Columbia University.…

  11. Spotlight on the Muslim Middle East - Crossroads. A Student Reader [and] Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelahan, Brian, Ed.; Penn, Marni, Ed.

    These books offer primary source readings focusing on significant eras of world history and the pivotal role of the Middle East. Each "crossroad" examines a particular juncture in world history through the cultural and economic crosscurrents that existed at the time. The eras identified include: (1) "The Medieval Period"; (2) "The Pre-Colonial…

  12. A Matter of Perspective: Teaching International Relations in the Middle East

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Sean

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author looks at several popular international relations textbooks in light of his experience teaching students in the Middle East. He finds that, for their many strengths, most of the books lack some key features that would make them more useful for students abroad.

  13. Faculty Response to Ethical Issues at an American University in the Middle-East

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabsh, Sami W.; El Kadi, Hany A.; Abdelfatah, Akmal S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study is to get feedback on faculty perception of ethical issues related to teaching, scholarship and service at a relatively new American-style university in the Middle-East. Design/methodology/approach: A questionnaire involving 21 scenarios with multiple choice answers was developed and distributed to all faculty…

  14. TeachMideast: An Educational Initiative of the Middle East Policy Council

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petzen, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author presents an activity wherein she uses the first Arab Human Development Report to examine not only the levels and measures of development in the Arab countries of the Middle East, but also to examine the act of measuring itself. The goal of the Arab Human Development Report is to measure "development in all its…

  15. Contact Tracing for Imported Case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, China, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Min; Zhong, Haojie; Hou, Jie; Wang, Jun; Li, Jiansen; Wu, Jie; He, Jianfeng; Lin, Jinyan; Zhang, Yonghhui

    2016-01-01

    Confirmation of an imported case of infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in China triggered intensive contact tracing and mandatory monitoring. Using a hotline and surveillance video footage was effective for tracing all 110 identified contacts. Contact monitoring detected no secondary transmission of infection in China. PMID:27532887

  16. Becoming Jordan's Writers: Developing Powerful Writing Instruction in the Middle East

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Christopher; DeLiddo, Emily

    2010-01-01

    The United States involvement in the Middle East has been prominent in our recent national history, sometimes clouded by myths and misrepresentations of the people of that region of the world. This article details the experiences of teacher-researchers working with teachers and students in Amman, Jordan, to develop powerful English writing…

  17. Spotlight on the Muslim Middle East - Issues of Identity. A Student Reader [and] Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Hazel Sara, Ed.; Mahony, Liz, Ed.

    These books offer primary source readings focusing on issues of identity and personality in the Middle East. Individual sections of the books examine a particular issue in personality development through the perspectives of Islamic religion and cultural tradition. The issues of identity include: (1) "Religion"; (2) "Community"; (3) "Ethnicity";…

  18. Microevolution of Outbreak-Associated Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus, South Korea, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Seong, Moon-Woo; Kim, So Yeon; Corman, Victor Max; Kim, Taek Soo; Cho, Sung Im; Kim, Man Jin; Lee, Seung Jun; Lee, Jee-Soo; Seo, Soo Hyun; Ahn, Ji Soo; Yu, Byeong Su; Park, Nare; Oh, Myoung-don; Park, Wan Beom; Lee, Ji Yeon; Kim, Gayeon; Joh, Joon Sung; Jeong, Ina; Kim, Eui Chong

    2016-01-01

    During the 2015 Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus outbreak in South Korea, we sequenced full viral genomes of strains isolated from 4 patients early and late during infection. Patients represented at least 4 generations of transmission. We found no evidence of changes in the evolutionary rate and no reason to suspect adaptive changes in viral proteins. PMID:26814649

  19. Seeing Other Sides: Nongame Simulations and Alternative Perspectives of Middle East Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baylouny, Anne Marie

    2009-01-01

    Simple role-play simulations can not only demonstrate the dynamics of a conflict but also create awareness of multiple perspectives even among populations relatively set in their opinions. To teach my student population of military officers, I utilize simple, nongame simulations of multisided Middle East conflicts that not only facilitate learning…

  20. International Trends in Health Science Librarianship Part 18: The Middle East (Iran, Qatar and Turkey).

    PubMed

    Zeraatkar, Kimia; Ayatollahi, Haleh; Havlin, Tracy; Neves, Karen; Şendir, Mesra

    2016-06-01

    This is the 18th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship in the 21st century. The focus of the present issue is the Middle East (Iran, Qatar and Turkey). The next feature column will investigate trends in the Balkan States JM. PMID:27168258

  1. Conventional Middle East arms control: Impact of the end of the cold war. Study project report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.L.; Johnsen, W.T.

    1993-03-31

    The end of the Gulf War brought to the forefront concern for dangers posed by unrestrained militarization of the Middle East. In response, on 29 May 1991 President Bush unveiled a comprehensive Middle East arms control policy in a speech at the U.S. Air Force Academy. A key element of the policy banned the sale of the most dangerous conventional weapons to the region. Although the major arms suppliers (which also happen to be the five permanent members of the U.N. Security Council) have held a series of high level meetings to discuss options for restricting sales to the region, all continue conventional arms transfers to the Middle East and are likely to continue to do so. This paper contends that the end of the Cold War put additional economic pressure on the major suppliers to export arms to the Middle East; and, their interests are so compelling that the suppliers are unlikely to support President Bush's proposal. This position is supported by analyzing the interests that influence major arms suppliers to sell arms abroad. The format for this analysis includes an assessment of: each country's interest in selling arms during the Cold War; the impact of the Cold War's end on those interests; and whether the post Cold War interests conflict with President Bush's conventional arms control proposal. The paper concludes with recommendations for US policy in the region.

  2. A Song for Humanistic Education: Pedagogy and Politics in the Middle East

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera, Linda A.

    2008-01-01

    Background/Context: If we take as a given the desirability of an education that promotes principles of respect, pluralism, rational critical inquiry, compassion, innovation, and excellence, then humanistic pedagogies should be paramount to that educational vision. Yet humanistic education in the Middle East has been on the demise in past decades…

  3. Microevolution of Outbreak-Associated Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus, South Korea, 2015.

    PubMed

    Seong, Moon-Woo; Kim, So Yeon; Corman, Victor Max; Kim, Taek Soo; Cho, Sung Im; Kim, Man Jin; Lee, Seung Jun; Lee, Jee-Soo; Seo, Soo Hyun; Ahn, Ji Soo; Yu, Byeong Su; Park, Nare; Oh, Myoung-don; Park, Wan Beom; Lee, Ji Yeon; Kim, Gayeon; Joh, Joon Sung; Jeong, Ina; Kim, Eui Chong; Drosten, Christian; Park, Sung Sup

    2016-02-01

    During the 2015 Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus outbreak in South Korea, we sequenced full viral genomes of strains isolated from 4 patients early and late during infection. Patients represented at least 4 generations of transmission. We found no evidence of changes in the evolutionary rate and no reason to suspect adaptive changes in viral proteins. PMID:26814649

  4. Oil and the economic geography of the Middle East and North Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Kortepeter, C.M. )

    1990-01-01

    This book gives us the opportunity to follow the development of the field of economic geography as applied to the Middle East during the past half century. The materials are arranged under the following three headings: Geography and Petroleum: Boundaries and Boundary Disputes: and Social Geography.

  5. Teaching East Asia: China, Japan, Korea. Lesson Plans for Middle School Teachers. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiken, Geoff; Benton, Susan; Duvall, James; Eltzroth, Diane; Hooyberg, Astrid; Keim, Marilee; Norris, Elizabeth; Smith, Peggy; Vogel, Kathy; Williams, Steven

    This volume contains 40 lesson plans that were written for middle school teachers to help students learn about East Asia. The lessons are organized across five themes: (1) "People, Places & Environment"; (2) "Technology, Production, Distribution & Consumption"; (3) "Cultures, Continuity, Change"; (4) Institutions, Power & Government"; and (5)…

  6. Escaping from Sunday School: Teaching "The Middle East" in the Setting of Religion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marten, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The article argues that, in the teaching of religion at undergraduate level, many students approach understanding the historical or contemporary Middle East in ways that are coloured by what they think is biblical knowledge or basic Christian beliefs. This is less noticeable for students in disciplines such as history or politics. Many history or…

  7. At the Crossroads of the World: Women of the Middle East

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crocco, Margaret S.; Pervez, Nadia; Katz, Meredith

    2009-01-01

    The authors offer a brief introduction to the history of women of the Middle East, with a focus on three major religions (Judaism, Christianity, and Islam). Schools are paying increased attention to teaching world history, but they are giving too little attention to incorporating women as part of world history. One of the major dividing lines…

  8. Refinement of late-Early and Middle Miocene diatom biostratigraphy for the east coast of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barron, John A.; Browning, James; Sugarman, Peter; Miller, Kenneth G.

    2013-01-01

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 313 continuously cored Lower to Middle Miocene sequences at three continental shelf sites off New Jersey, USA. The most seaward of these, Site M29, contains a well-preserved Early and Middle Miocene succession of planktonic diatoms that have been independently correlated with the geomagnetic polarity time scale derived in studies from the equatorial and North Pacific. Shallow water diatoms (species of Delphineis, Rhaphoneis, and Sceptroneis) dominate in onshore sequences in Maryland and Virginia, forming the basis for the East Coast Diatom Zones (ECDZ). Integrated study of both planktonic and shallow water diatoms in Hole M29A as well as in onshore sequences in Maryland (the Baltimore Gas and Electric Company well) and Delaware (the Ocean Drilling Program Bethany Beach corehole) allows the refinement of ECDZ zones into a high-resolution biochronology that can be successfully applied in both onshore and offshore regions of the East Coast of the United States. Strontium isotope stratigraphy supports the diatom biochronology, although for much of the Middle Miocene it suggests ages that are on average 0.4 m.y. older. The ECDZ zonal definitions are updated to include evolutionary events of Delphineis species, and regional occurrences of important planktonic diatom marker taxa are included. Updated taxonomy, reference to published figures, and photographic images are provided that will aid in the application of this diatom biostratigraphy.

  9. Abrupt recent trend changes in atmospheric nitrogen dioxide over the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Lelieveld, Jos; Beirle, Steffen; Hörmann, Christoph; Stenchikov, Georgiy; Wagner, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    Nitrogen oxides, released from fossil fuel use and other combustion processes, affect air quality and climate. From the mid-1990s onward, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) has been monitored from space, and since 2004 with relatively high spatial resolution by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument. Strong upward NO2 trends have been observed over South and East Asia and the Middle East, in particular over major cities. We show, however, that a combination of air quality control and political factors, including economical crisis and armed conflict, has drastically altered the emission landscape of nitrogen oxides in the Middle East. Large changes, including trend reversals, have occurred since about 2010 that could not have been predicted and therefore are at odds with emission scenarios used in projections of air pollution and climate change in the early 21st century. PMID:26601240

  10. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) origin and animal reservoir.

    PubMed

    Mohd, Hamzah A; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Memish, Ziad A

    2016-01-01

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a novel coronavirus discovered in 2012 and is responsible for acute respiratory syndrome in humans. Though not confirmed yet, multiple surveillance and phylogenetic studies suggest a bat origin. The disease is heavily endemic in dromedary camel populations of East Africa and the Middle East. It is unclear as to when the virus was introduced to dromedary camels, but data from studies that investigated stored dromedary camel sera and geographical distribution of involved dromedary camel populations suggested that the virus was present in dromedary camels several decades ago. Though bats and alpacas can serve as potential reservoirs for MERS-CoV, dromedary camels seem to be the only animal host responsible for the spill over human infections. PMID:27255185