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Sample records for middle-aged female serial

  1. A middle-aged female serial killer.

    PubMed

    Ostrosky-Solís, Feggy; Vélez-García, Alicia; Santana-Vargas, Daniel; Pérez, Martha; Ardila, Alfredo

    2008-09-01

    The case of a 48-year-old woman accused of killing at least 12 elderly women and attempting to kill another one during the last 3 years is presented. Extensive neuropsychological, electrophysiological, and neuropsychiatric testing showed no evidence of a DSM-IV-TR Axis I diagnosis, but a decrease in executive functions and abnormalities in the processing of affective stimuli were found. Behavioral and psychophysiological studies revealed dissociation between knowing how to behave and actually behaving in socially acceptable ways. According to the woman, killing was just her response to "humiliating situations." Two potentially significant conditions in her past history are found: (i) childhood abuse; and (ii) multiple head injuries. It is conjectured that the nature of her crimes, paranoid and personality traits, a probable frontal brain dysfunction, as well as a specific demographic and social context represent unusual factors accounting for her violent behavior. PMID:18636980

  2. Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Functioning among Middle-Aged Female Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domenico, Donna; Windle, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Examined differences among middle-aged, middle-class female adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) and female non-ACOAs with regard to interpersonal and intrapersonal functioning. ACOAs report higher levels of depression, marital conflict, and parental role distress; lower levels of self-esteem, perceived social support, family cohesion, marital…

  3. Differential effects of Cytomegalovirus carriage on the immune phenotype of middle-aged males and females

    PubMed Central

    van der Heiden, Marieke; van Zelm, Menno C.; Bartol, Sophinus J. W.; de Rond, Lia G. H.; Berbers, Guy A. M.; Boots, Annemieke M. H.; Buisman, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    The elderly population is more susceptible to infections as a result of an altered immune response, commonly referred to as immunosenescence. Cytomegalovirus (CMV)-infection associated changes in blood lymphocytes are known to impact this process, but the interaction with gender remains unclear. Therefore, we analysed the effects and interaction of gender and CMV on the absolute numbers of a comprehensive set of naive and memory T- and B-cell subsets in people between 50 and 65 years of age. Enumeration and characterisation of lymphocyte subsets by flow cytometry was performed on fresh whole blood samples from 255 middle-aged persons. CMV-IgG serostatus was determined by ELISA. Gender was a major factor affecting immune cell numbers. CMV infection was mainly associated with an expansion of late-differentiated T-cell subsets. CMV+ males carried lower numbers of total CD4+, CD4+ central memory (CM) and follicular helper T-cells than females and CMV− males. Moreover, CMV+ males had significantly lower numbers of regulatory T (Treg)-cells and memory B-cells than CMV+ females. We here demonstrate an interaction between the effects of CMV infection and gender on T- and B-cells in middle-aged individuals. These differential effects on adaptive immunity between males and females may have implications for vaccination strategies at middle-age. PMID:27243552

  4. Physiological and Psychological Effects of a Forest Therapy Program on Middle-Aged Females

    PubMed Central

    Ochiai, Hiroko; Ikei, Harumi; Song, Chorong; Kobayashi, Maiko; Miura, Takashi; Kagawa, Takahide; Li, Qing; Kumeda, Shigeyoshi; Imai, Michiko; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi

    2015-01-01

    The natural environment is increasingly recognized as an effective counter to urban stress, and “Forest Therapy” has recently attracted attention as a relaxation and stress management activity with demonstrated clinical efficacy. The present study assessed the physiological and psychological effects of a forest therapy program on middle-aged females. Seventeen Japanese females (62.2 ± 9.4 years; mean ± standard deviation) participated in this experiment. Pulse rate, salivary cortisol level, and psychological indices were measured on the day before forest therapy and on the forest therapy day. Pulse rate and salivary cortisol were significantly lower than baseline following forest therapy, indicating that subjects were in a physiologically relaxed state. Subjects reported feeling significantly more “comfortable,” “relaxed,” and “natural” according to the semantic differential (SD) method. The Profile of Mood State (POMS) negative mood subscale score for “tension–anxiety” was significantly lower, while that for “vigor” was significantly higher following forest therapy. Our study revealed that forest therapy elicited a significant (1) decrease in pulse rate, (2) decrease in salivary cortisol levels, (3) increase in positive feelings, and (4) decrease in negative feelings. In conclusion, there are substantial physiological and psychological benefits of forest therapy on middle-aged females. PMID:26633447

  5. Physiological and Psychological Effects of a Forest Therapy Program on Middle-Aged Females.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Hiroko; Ikei, Harumi; Song, Chorong; Kobayashi, Maiko; Miura, Takashi; Kagawa, Takahide; Li, Qing; Kumeda, Shigeyoshi; Imai, Michiko; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi

    2015-12-01

    The natural environment is increasingly recognized as an effective counter to urban stress, and "Forest Therapy" has recently attracted attention as a relaxation and stress management activity with demonstrated clinical efficacy. The present study assessed the physiological and psychological effects of a forest therapy program on middle-aged females. Seventeen Japanese females (62.2 ± 9.4 years; mean ± standard deviation) participated in this experiment. Pulse rate, salivary cortisol level, and psychological indices were measured on the day before forest therapy and on the forest therapy day. Pulse rate and salivary cortisol were significantly lower than baseline following forest therapy, indicating that subjects were in a physiologically relaxed state. Subjects reported feeling significantly more "comfortable," "relaxed," and "natural" according to the semantic differential (SD) method. The Profile of Mood State (POMS) negative mood subscale score for "tension-anxiety" was significantly lower, while that for "vigor" was significantly higher following forest therapy. Our study revealed that forest therapy elicited a significant (1) decrease in pulse rate, (2) decrease in salivary cortisol levels, (3) increase in positive feelings, and (4) decrease in negative feelings. In conclusion, there are substantial physiological and psychological benefits of forest therapy on middle-aged females. PMID:26633447

  6. Sporotrichosis of Maxillary Sinuses in a Middle Aged Female Patient from Rural Area of Eastern India

    PubMed Central

    Das, Saumik; Sinha, Ramanuj; Aggarwal, Neeraj; Chakravorty, Sriparna

    2016-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is commonly a chronic infection caused by Sporothrix schenckii, a saprophytic fungus and is usually limited to cutaneous and subcutaneous tissues. Disseminated systemic, osteoarticular or pulmonary sporotrichosis have been reported but nasal sinusitis by this fungus is extremely infrequent. Earlier report from southern India documented a case of maxillary sinusitis by Sporothrix schenckii. Here we report a similar case of bilateral maxillary sinusitis in a middle aged female from a village of Bihar, a state in eastern India. She underwent endoscopic maxillary sinus surgery for nasal symptoms and diagnosed to have sporotrichotic infection of maxillary sinuses. The diagnosis was done by mycological and histopathological examination and patient improved under antifungal chemotherapy. PMID:27134873

  7. Spontaneous failure of the estrous cycle induces anxiogenic-related behaviors in middle-aged female mice.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Rebecca A M; Asth, Laila; Engelberth, Rovena C; Cavalcante, Jeferson de Souza; Soares-Rachetti, Vanessa de Paula; Gavioli, Elaine C

    2015-08-01

    Clinical studies have shown that women during perimenopause and menopause have a higher incidence in the diagnoses of psychiatric problems compared with men. However, little literature information about the influence of spontaneous perimenopause on anxiety- and mood-related behaviors in mice is available. To this aim, we compared the behavioral responses of middle-aged and young adult female mice both in the diestrus phase in the elevated plus-maze, open field and forced swimming tests. In middle-aged mice, the duration of the estrous cycle was significantly prolonged compared to young adults, thus indicating that our middle-aged mice are in the perimenopausal period. In the elevated plus-maze test, middle-aged mice explored less the open arms when compared to young adults, suggesting an anxiogenic-like phenotype. No significant differences were observed in the estrogen plasma levels and emotional behavior in the forced swim and open field tests. In conclusion, the spontaneous failure of the estrous cycle increased anxiety in middle-aged females. These data suggest that the perimenopausal period has a significant influence on anxiety-related behaviors in female mice. PMID:25980629

  8. Relationships among the Y balance test, Berg Balance Scale, and lower limb strength in middle-aged and older females

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Kyu; Kang, Min-Hyeok; Lee, Tae-Sik; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2015-01-01

    Background: Older females have less dynamic postural control and muscle strength than do middle-aged females. Aging-related strength losses may limit balancing performance. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of the Y Balance Test (YBT) and lower limb strength to discriminate between females in 2 age groups, the relationship between YBT distance and the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), and the degree to which performance on YBT distance is related to lower limb strength in middle-aged and older females. Method: The 40 healthy, independently active females were divided into 2 groups: older and middle-aged. The participants underwent measurements of YBT distance using the YBT, maximal muscular strength of the lower limbs using a handheld dynamometer, and the BBS. Results: The YBT distance in 3 directions and lower limb muscle strength for both lower limbs were significantly lower in the older adults than in the middle-aged group. A moderate correlation but insignificant correlation was found between the YBT composite distance and the BBS score. In the older females, YBT distance was significantly positively correlated with strength of the knee flexor and hip abductor. In the middle-aged group, YBT distance was significantly positively correlated with strength of the knee flexor and hip extensor. Conclusions: Performance on the YBT was influenced by the strength of lower limb. We suggested that YBT can be used to alternative as a measurement of dynamic balance. Proper training programs for older people could include not only strengthening exercises but also YBT performance to improve balance. PMID:26039033

  9. [A study on observation of bone metabolism in middle-aged and senile female Graves' disease].

    PubMed

    Zhu, L Q; Liu, Y H; Zhou, Y B

    1996-08-01

    Sixty-nine cases of middle aged and senile female Graves' desease (GD) patients suffered from abnormal bone metabolism have been studied. They were divided randomly into group A and B, treated separately with antithyroid drugs (Tapazol and inderal, etc.) in group A, and added with Chinese herbal medicine for tonifying Kidney and promoting blood circulation in group B. Before treatment, patients of both groups showed obvious higher blood calcium (Ca) 24-hour urinary Ca, phosphorus (P) and serum clcitonin (CT) levels than that in normal subjects. These patients' serum Ca, moreover, had a parallel relationship with serum T3 levels (r = 0.6142, P < 0.01) and the serum Ca also a paralleled with serum CT levels (r = 0.5714, P < 0.05). After six months of treatment, the serum Ca, 24-hour urinary Ca, P and blood CT values were all reduced in various degree. The decrease of these bone metabolic parameters were more significant in group B than that in group A. PMID:9387746

  10. Syphilis among middle-aged female sex workers in China: a three-site cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongjie; Dumenci, Levent; Morisky, Donald E; Xu, Yongfang; Li, Xiaojing; Jiang, Baofa

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study addresses the lack of empirical studies about the epidemic of syphilis among middle-aged female sex workers (FSWs). The objectives of this study were to investigate prevalence of syphilis, and its potential risk factors among middle-aged FSWs in China. Design A cross-sectional study with respondent-driven sampling (RDS). Setting A multisite study conducted at three Chinese cites (Nanning, Hefei, and Qingdao) with different levels of sexually transmitted diseases in 2014. Participants 1245 middle-aged female sex workers who were over 35 years old (about 400 per study site). Main outcome measures Unprotected commercial sex, and syphilis and HIV infection were biologically tested and measured. Results The RDS-adjusted prevalence of active syphilis was 17.3% in Hefei, 9.9% in Qingdao, and 5.4% in Nanning. The RDS-adjusted prevalence of prevalent syphilis was between 6.8% and 33.6% in the three cities. The proportion of unprotected sex in the past 48 h verified by the prostate-specific antigen test (PSA) was between 27.8% and 42.4%. Multiple log-binomial regression analyses indicate that middle-aged FSWs who had 5 or more clients in the past week prior to interviews and engaged in unprotected sex were more likely to be active syphilitic cases. Middle-aged FSWs who had rural residency were less likely to be active syphilitic cases. Conclusions In contrast with previous studies that reported low prevalence of syphilis and high prevalence of protected sex among FSWs in China, both the prevalence of syphilis and unprotected sex were high among middle-aged FSWs. Evidence-based intervention programmes should be developed and evaluated among this vulnerable population in China and other countries with similar settings. PMID:27165644

  11. Hypokalemic paralysis in a middle-aged female with classic Bartter syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Wen-Fang; Lin, Shih-Hung; Chan, Jenq-Shyong; Lin, Shih-Hua

    2014-02-01

    Inherited classic Bartter syndrome (cBS) is an autosomal recessive renal tubular disorder resulting from inactivating mutations in the asolateral chloride channel (C1C-Kb) and usually presents in early infancy or childhood with mild to moderate hypokalemia. Profound hypokalemic paralysis in patients with cBS is extremely rare, especially in middle age. A 45-year-old Chinese female patient was referred for evaluation of chronic severe hypokalemia despite regular K+ supplementation (1 mmol/kg/d). She had had two episodes of muscle paralysis due to severe hypokalemia (K+ 1.9 - 2.1 mmol/l) in the past 3 years. She denied vomiting, diarrhea, or the use of laxatives or diuretics. Her blood pressure was normal. Biochemical studies showed hypokalemia (K+ 2.5 mmol/l) with renal potassium wasting, metabolic alkalosis (HCO3- 32 mmol/l), normomagnesemia (Mg2+ 0.8 mmol/l), hypercalciuria (calcium to creatinine ratio 0.5 mmol/mmol; normal < 0.22 mmol/mol), high plasma renin activity, but normal plasma aldosterone concentration. Abdominal sonography revealed neither renal stones nor nephrocalcinosis. Acquired causes of cBS such as autoimmune disease and drugs were all excluded. Molecular analysis of the CLCNKB gene, encoding ClC-Kb, and SLC12A3, encoding the thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC), revealed compound heterozygous mutations in CLCNKB (L335P and G470E) inherited from her parents; her SLC12A3 was normal. These two mutations were not identified in 100 healthy subjects. Her plasma K+ concentration rose to 3 - 3.5 mmol/l after the addition of spironolactone. Inherited cBS may present with hypokalemic paralysis and should be considered in adult patients with hypokalemia and metabolic alkalosis. PMID:22854165

  12. The Effects of VR-based Wii Fit Yoga on Physical Function in Middle-aged Female LBP Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong-Sik; Min, Won-Kyu; Kim, Jung-Hee; Lee, Byoung-Hee

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of a virtual reality-based yoga program on middle-aged female low back pain patients. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty middle-aged female patients who suffered from low back pain were assigned to either a physical therapy program or a virtual reality-based yoga program for a period of four weeks. Participants could check their posture and weight bearing on a monitor as they shifted their weight or changed their postures on a Wii balance board. There were a total of seven exercise programs. A 30-minute, three times per week, virtual reality-based Wii Fit yoga program or trunk stabilizing exercise was performed, respectively. [Results] Repeated-measures analysis of covariance revealed significant differences in between pre- and post-training VAS, algometer, Oswestry low-back pain disability index (ODI), Roland Morris disability questionnaire (RMDQ), and fear avoidance beliefs questionnaire (FBQ) scores. The VAS, algometer, ODI, RMDQ, and FBQ scores showed significant differences in groups. Regarding the effect of time-by-group interaction, there were significant differences in VAS, ODI, ODI, and FBQ scores. [Conclusion] In conclusion, for middle-aged female patients who have low back pain, a virtual reality-based yoga program was shown to have positive effects on physical improvements, and this program can be employed as a therapeutic medium for prevention and cure of low back pain. PMID:24764631

  13. Estradiol valerate elicits antidepressant-like effects in middle-aged female rats under chronic mild stress.

    PubMed

    Romano-Torres, Mónica; Fernández-Guasti, Alonso

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the antidepressant-like actions of estradiol valerate (1 or 2 mg/rat, single injection) or citalopram (5 or 10 mg/kg, chronically administered for 21 days) given independently or combined at low doses, to middle-aged ovariectomized female rats, as a model of human menopause. Animals were exposed to chronic mild stress, a model of depression that mimics anhedonia as revealed by diminished sucrose solution intake. Stressed rats decreased their sucrose preference 1 week after chronic stress and treatment with vehicle did not reverse this reduction. A single injection of estradiol valerate (2 mg/rat) produced an antidepressant-like action, evidenced as an increase in sucrose preference specific to stressed rats. Chronic citalopram (10 mg/kg) produced an antidepressant-like effect after 1 week. A single low-dose of estradiol valerate (1 mg/rat) did not potentiate or shorten the latency of action of chronic citalopram (5 mg/kg). These results reveal the antidepressant-like action of estrogens in middle-aged rats exposed to chronic stress. These data may be of importance for clinical depression in menopausal women. PMID:20168212

  14. Insulin-like growth factor-I regulates LH release by modulation of kisspeptin and NMDA-mediated neurotransmission in young and middle-aged female rats.

    PubMed

    Neal-Perry, Genevieve; Yao, Dachun; Shu, Jun; Sun, Yan; Etgen, Anne M

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated potential mechanisms by which age and IGF-I receptor (IGF-Ir) signaling in the neuroendocrine hypothalamus affect estradiol-positive feedback effects on GnRH neuronal activation and on kisspeptin and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced LH release and on the abundance of NMDA receptor subunits Nr1 and Nr2b and Kiss1r transcript and protein in the hypothalamus of young and middle-aged female rats. We infused vehicle, IGF-I, or JB-1, a selective antagonist of IGF-Ir, into the third ventricle of ovariectomized female rats primed with estradiol or vehicle and injected with vehicle, kisspeptin (3 or 30 nmol/kg), or NMDA (15 or 30 mg/kg). Regardless of dose, NMDA and kisspeptin resulted in significantly more LH release, GnRH/c-Fos colabeling, and c-Fos immunoreative cells in young than in middle-aged females. Estradiol priming significantly increased Kiss1r, Nr1, and Nr2b receptor transcript and protein abundance in young but not middle-aged female hypothalamus. JB-1 attenuated kisspeptin and NMDA-induced LH release, numbers of GnRH/c-Fos and c-Fos cells, and Kiss1r, Nr1, and Nr2b transcript and protein abundance in young females to levels observed in middle-aged females. IGF-I significantly enhanced NMDA and kisspeptin-induced LH release in middle-aged females without increasing numbers of GnRH/c-Fos or c-Fos immunoreactive cells. IGF-I infusion in middle-aged females also increased Kiss1r, Nr1, and Nr2b protein and transcript to levels that were equivalent to young estradiol-primed females. These findings indicate that age-related changes in estradiol-regulated responsiveness to excitatory input from glutamate and kisspeptin reflect reduced IGF-Ir signaling. PMID:24617524

  15. Cannon ball appearance on radiology in a middle-aged diabetic female.

    PubMed

    Kshatriya, Ravish; Patel, Viral; Chaudhari, Sanjay; Patel, Purvesh; Prajapati, Dhaval; Khara, Nimit; Paliwal, Rajiv; Patel, Sateesh

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary tuberculosis is commonly presented as cavitary lesion and infiltrations. It commonly involves upper lobe. Lower lobe involvement is less common. Various atypical presentations of tuberculosis on radiology are reported like mass, solitary nodule, multi lober involvement including lower lobes. Atypical presentations are more commo in patients with immunocompromised conditions like Diabetes Mellitus, anemia, renal failure, liver diseases, HIV infection, malignancy, patients on immunosuppressive therapy. Cannon ball presentation of pulmonary tuberculosis is extremely rare and not so common. Common causes of cannon ball presentation in lung are metastasis, fungal infections, Wegener's grannulomatosis, sarcoidosis, etc. We report here a case of middle year female with diabetes mellitus presented with atypical symptoms with cannon ball appearance on radiology and found to be of tuberculosis in origin. Thus any patients with immunocompromised condition can present with atypical manifestation of tuberculosis either clinically or radiologicaly in high endemic countries for tuberculosis. PMID:27625459

  16. Cannon ball appearance on radiology in a middle-aged diabetic female

    PubMed Central

    Kshatriya, Ravish; Patel, Viral; Chaudhari, Sanjay; Patel, Purvesh; Prajapati, Dhaval; Khara, Nimit; Paliwal, Rajiv; Patel, Sateesh

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary tuberculosis is commonly presented as cavitary lesion and infiltrations. It commonly involves upper lobe. Lower lobe involvement is less common. Various atypical presentations of tuberculosis on radiology are reported like mass, solitary nodule, multi lober involvement including lower lobes. Atypical presentations are more commo in patients with immunocompromised conditions like Diabetes Mellitus, anemia, renal failure, liver diseases, HIV infection, malignancy, patients on immunosuppressive therapy. Cannon ball presentation of pulmonary tuberculosis is extremely rare and not so common. Common causes of cannon ball presentation in lung are metastasis, fungal infections, Wegener's grannulomatosis, sarcoidosis, etc. We report here a case of middle year female with diabetes mellitus presented with atypical symptoms with cannon ball appearance on radiology and found to be of tuberculosis in origin. Thus any patients with immunocompromised condition can present with atypical manifestation of tuberculosis either clinically or radiologicaly in high endemic countries for tuberculosis. PMID:27625459

  17. Insulin-Like Growth Factor (IGF)-I Modulates Endothelial Blood-Brain Barrier Function in Ischemic Middle-Aged Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Bake, Shameena; Okoreeh, Andre K; Alaniz, Robert C; Sohrabji, Farida

    2016-01-01

    In comparison with young females, middle-aged female rats sustain greater cerebral infarction and worse functional recovery after stroke. These poorer stroke outcomes in middle-aged females are associated with an age-related reduction in IGF-I levels. Poststroke IGF-I treatment decreases infarct volume in older females and lowers the expression of cytokines in the ischemic hemisphere. IGF-I also reduces transfer of Evans blue dye to the brain, suggesting that this peptide may also promote blood-brain barrier function. To test the hypothesis that IGF-I may act at the blood-brain barrier in ischemic stroke, 2 approaches were used. In the first approach, middle-aged female rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion and treated with IGF-I after reperfusion. Mononuclear cells from the ischemic hemisphere were stained for CD4 or triple-labeled for CD4/CD25/FoxP3 and subjected to flow analyses. Both cohorts of cells were significantly reduced in IGF-I-treated animals compared with those in vehicle controls. Reduced trafficking of immune cells to the ischemic site suggests that blood-brain barrier integrity is better maintained in IGF-I-treated animals. The second approach directly tested the effect of IGF-I on barrier function of aging endothelial cells. Accordingly, brain microvascular endothelial cells from middle-aged female rats were cultured ex vivo and subjected to ischemic conditions (oxygen-glucose deprivation). IGF-I treatment significantly reduced the transfer of fluorescently labeled BSA across the endothelial monolayer as well as cellular internalization of fluorescein isothiocyanate-BSA compared with those in vehicle-treated cultures, Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that IGF-I improves blood-brain barrier function in middle-aged females. PMID:26556536

  18. A middle-aged female with recurrent sinopulmonary infections: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Yalavarthy, Umesh C; Panda, Mukta

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a form of severe antibody deficiency with an estimated prevalence of 1 in 25,000 to 1 in 100,000. The disorder apparently results from currently undefined immune deregulations resulting in failed B-cell differentiation with impaired secretion of immunoglobulins. It has a broad range of clinical symptoms including recurrent infections of the respiratory tract, chronic lung disease, autoimmune diseases, liver and gastrointestinal disorders, granulomatous infiltrations, lymphoma and solid tumors. Case presentation A 42-year-old Caucasian female presented with a one-day history of high-grade fever and productive cough associated with retrosternal chest pain. The patient had been discharged one week prior after a prolonged stay in an intensive care unit with multiorgan failure requiring temporary hemodialysis for two weeks secondary to sepsis. Past medical history was significant for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, recurrent pneumonias and recurrent sinus infections since adolescence. She had a temperature of 99.8°F, was tachycardic (137/min), tachypneic (26/min) with a blood pressure of 109/59 mmHg and oxygen saturation of 88% on 2 l/min nasal oxygen. Physical examination was significant for bibasilar rhonchi. Laboratory data were significant for leukocytosis of 15,700/mm3. Chest X-ray demonstrated bibasilar infiltrates. The patient was started on intravenous levofloxacin and vancomycin, and sputum gram stain and cultures were performed. Given the patient's recurrent respiratory infections, an underlying immunologic disorder was considered. Work-up revealed immunoglobulin A (IgA) 11 mg/dl (normal 70–400 mg/dl), immunoglobulin M (IgM) 2 mg/dl (normal 40–230 mg/dl) and IgG 53 mg/dl (normal 700–1,600 mg/dl). The patient was diagnosed with CVID and started on intravenous immunoglobulin. She was initially started on a four-week regimen of intravenous immunoglobulin, which was later switched to a three

  19. Ovarian hormones, but not fluoxetine, impart resilience within a chronic unpredictable stress model in middle-aged female rats.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Rand; Wainwright, Steven R; Chaiton, Jessica A; Lieblich, Stephanie E; Galea, Liisa A M

    2016-08-01

    consequences of chronic unpredictable stress, and may modulate the effects of fluoxetine on cell proliferation, neurogenesis, and PSA-NCAM in the middle-aged female. PMID:27018449

  20. Chronic estradiol treatment increases CA1 cell survival but does not improve visual or spatial recognition memory after global ischemia in middle-aged female rats

    PubMed Central

    De Butte-Smith, M.; Gulinello, M.; Zukin, R.S.; Etgen, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Transient global ischemia induces selective, delayed neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 and cognitive deficits. Physiological levels of 17β-estradiol ameliorate ischemia-induced neuronal death and cognitive impairments in young animals. In view of concerns regarding hormone therapy in postmenopausal women, we investigated whether chronic estradiol treatment initiated 14 days prior to ischemia attenuates ischemia-induced CA1 cell loss and impairments in visual and spatial memory, in ovariohysterectomized (OVX), middle-aged (9-11 months) female rats. To determine whether the duration of hormone withdrawal affects the efficacy of estradiol treatment, hormone treatment was initiated immediately (0 week), 1 week, or 8 weeks after OVX. Age-matched, OVX and gonadally intact females were studied at each OVX interval. Ischemia was induced 1 week after animals were pretested on a variety of behavioral tasks. Global ischemia produced significant neuronal loss in the CA1 and impaired performance on visual and spatial recognition. Chronic estradiol modestly but significantly increased the number of surviving CA1 neurons in animals at all OVX durations. However, in contrast with previous results in young females, estradiol did not preserve visual or spatial memory performance in middle-aged females. All animals displayed normal locomotion, spontaneous alternation and social preference, indicating the absence of global behavioral impairments. Therefore, the neuroprotective effects of estradiol are different in middle-aged than in young rats. These findings highlight the importance of using older animals in studies assessing potential treatments for focal and global ischemia. PMID:19124025

  1. The Effects of Eight Weeks Selected Aerobic Exercises on Sleep Quality of Middle-Aged Non-Athlete Females

    PubMed Central

    Kashefi, Zahra; Mirzaei, Bahman; Shabani, Ramin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sleep is considered as one of the most important factors, directly influencing mental and physical health components. In the last decade, low sleep quality - i.e. poor sleep - has become one of the major problems of the individuals, especially in middle-aged women. Low quality sleep also directly influences memory, functional components, nutrition, and mood. Objectives: This study aims to detect the effect of selected aerobic exercises on sleep quality in non-athlete middle-aged women. Materials and Methods: Fifteen non-athlete middle-aged women participated in this study, all of them suffered from insomnia. Pittsburgh questionnaire was used for determining sleep quality in this sample. Four indices including sleep duration, sleep disturbance, sleep latency, and sleep efficiency have been investigated through this. The period of exercises included eight weeks, three one-hour sessions each week. The sample group was trained during eight weeks through performance of selected aerobic exercises including three groups: sequential movements equip mental movement and movements on the pad. The selected protocol included performance of exercises: 10 minutes for warm up, 10 minutes for sequential movements, 20 minutes for movements by using equipment, 15 minutes for movements performed on the pad, and 5 minutes for cooling down. The exercises during the first four weeks have been presented with 60% increase of the heart rate, and 75% increase during the second four weeks. The sample group was provided with Pittsburgh questionnaire at the beginning of the exercises and the end of each week. The information of each person was registered. Results: The results showed that the mean of sleep duration, sleep disturbance, sleep latency, and sleep efficiency indices significantly reduced 32%, 22%, 30%, 14% and 36%, respectively. The results also showed that the trend of changes in sleep duration, sleep disturbance, sleep latency, and sleep efficiency indices had

  2. Serum Ceramide Kinase as a Biomarker of Cognitive Functions, and the Effect of Using Two Slimming Dietary Therapies in Obese Middle Aged Females

    PubMed Central

    Moaty, Maha I. A.; Fouad, Suzanne; El Shebini, Salwa M.; Kazem, Yusr M. I.; Ahmed, Nihad H.; Mohamed, Magda S.; Hussein, Ahmed M. S.; Arafa, Atiat M.; Hanna, Laila M.; Tapozada, Salwa T.

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Highlighting the impact of obesity on mental and cognitive functions using serum ceramide kinase enzyme concentration as a biomarker for cognitive evaluation in the middle aged females, and also targeting to control the obesity and simultaneously postponing the deterioration of the cognitive functions, by implementing two slimming dietary therapies each incorporating different functional ingredients known to boost cognition. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Ninety six obese middle aged females, divided into two groups volunteered to follow a low caloric balanced diet combined with two bread supplements composed essentially of barley flour and wheat germ mixed with either 5% turmeric, group (A); or with 5% ginger, group (B) for 4 weeks, phase (1); to be followed by the hypocaloric diet alone for another 4 weeks, phase (2). RESULTS: By the end of phase (1), the biochemical analysis showed a positive response of the levels of C-peptide and modified homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance; also increased levels of the serum ceramide kinase enzyme, coupled with improved cognitive functions tests. Improvement of the relevant metabolic profile, fasting blood glucose, blood pressure and the anthropometric measurements was detected. CONCLUSION: Using dietary therapy supported by special formulas which contain active ingredients succeeded in reducing weight and improving both the metabolic profile and the cognitive functions. PMID:27275191

  3. Life history of female preferences for male faces: a comparison of pubescent girls, nonpregnant and pregnant young women, and middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Kościński, Krzysztof

    2011-12-01

    Although scientific interest in facial attractiveness has developed substantially in recent years, few studies have contributed to our understanding of the ontogeny of facial preferences. In this study, attractiveness of 30 male faces was evaluated by four female groups: girls at puberty, nonpregnant and pregnant young women, and middle-aged women. The main findings are as follows: (1) Preference for sexy-looking faces was strongest in young, nonpregnant women. (2) Biologically more mature girls displayed more adultlike preferences. (3) The intragroup consistency for postmenopausal women was relatively low. (4) In terms of the preference pattern, pregnant women were more similar to perimenopausal women than they were to their nonpregnant peers. (5) Preference for youthful appearance decreased with the age of the women. I argue that the life history of female preferences for male faces is, to a large extent, hormone-driven and underpinned by a set of evolutionary adaptations. PMID:22388946

  4. Association between fish and shellfish, and omega-3 PUFAs intake and CVD risk factors in middle-aged female patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyesook; Park, Seokyung; Yang, Hyesu; Choi, Young Ju; Huh, Kap Bum

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES This study was performed to investigate the association between the dietary intake of fish and shellfish, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in the middle-aged Korean female patients with Type 2 diabetes (T2D). SUBJECTS/METHODS A cross-sectional analysis was performed with 356 female patients (means age: 55.5 years), who were recruited from the Huh's Diabetes Clinic in Seoul, Korea between 2005 and 2011. The dietary intake was assessed by a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and analyzed using the Computer Aided Nutritional Analysis program (CAN-Pro) version 4.0 software. RESULTS In a multiple regression analysis after the adjustment for confounding factors such as age, BMI, duration of diagnosed T2D, alcohol consumption, fiber intake, sodium intake, and total energy intake, fish and shellfish intake of the subjects was negatively associated with triglyceride and pulse wave velocity (PWV). Omega-3 PUFAs intake was negatively associated with triglyceride, systolic blood pressures, diastolic blood pressures, and PWV. The multiple logistic regression analysis with the covariates showed a significant inverse relationship between the omega-3 PUFAs consumption and prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia [OR (95% CI) for greater than the median compared to less than the median: 0.395 (0.207-0.753)]. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that the consumption of fish and shellfish, good sources of omega-3 PUFAs, may reduce the risk factors for CVD in the middle-aged female patients with T2D. PMID:26425279

  5. Symptoms and lung function decline in a middle-aged cohort of males and females in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Abramson, Michael J; Kaushik, Sonia; Benke, Geza P; Borg, Brigitte M; Smith, Catherine L; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Thompson, Bruce R

    2016-01-01

    Background The European Community Respiratory Health Survey is a major international study designed to assess lung health in adults. This Australian follow-up investigated changes in symptoms between sexes and the roles of asthma, smoking, age, sex, height, and change in body mass index (ΔBMI) on lung function decline (LFD), which is a major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods LFD was measured as the rate of decline over time in FEV1 (mL/year) (ΔFEV1) and FVC (ΔFVC) between 1993 and 2013. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate associations between risk factors and LFD, separately for males and females. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess sex differences and changes in respiratory symptoms over time. Results In Melbourne, 318 subjects (53.8% females) participated. The prevalence of most respiratory symptoms had either remained relatively stable over 20 years or decreased (significantly so for wheeze). The exception was shortness of breath after activity, which had increased. Among the 262 subjects who completed spirometry, current smoking declined from 20.2% to 7.3%. Overall mean (± standard deviation) FEV1 declined by 23.1 (±17.1) and FVC by 22.9 (±20.2) mL/year. Predictors of ΔFEV1 in males were age, maternal smoking, and baseline FEV1; and in females they were age, ΔBMI, baseline FEV1, and pack-years in current smokers. Decline in FVC was predicted by baseline FVC, age, and ΔBMI in both sexes; however, baseline FVC predicted steeper decline in females than males. Conclusion Most respiratory symptoms remained stable or decreased over time in both sexes. Age, baseline lung function, and change in BMI were associated with the rate of decline in both sexes. However, obesity and personal smoking appear to put females at higher risk of LFD than males. Health promotion campaigns should particularly target females to prevent COPD. PMID:27307725

  6. Energy-restricted diet benefits body composition but degrades bone integrity in middle-aged obese female rats.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Zhu, Wenbin; Gao, Weimin; Wang, Shu; Chen, Lixia; Chyu, Ming-Chien

    2013-08-01

    This study investigates the effects of a restricted diet (RD) on body composition and musculoskeletal health along with endocrines and molecular mechanism in established mature obese rats. Twenty female rats were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) ad libitum for 4 months and then assigned to either HFD or RD group for another 4 months. Another 10 rats were on a low-fat diet for 8 months. Outcome measures included body composition, bone mineral density, microarchitecrure, and strength; serum leptin, adiponectin, insulin-like growth factor I, and liver glutathione peroxidase activity; and protein expression and spleen tumor necrosis factor α messenger RNA expression. We hypothesized that mature obese rats on a 35% energy restriction diet for 4 months would improve body composition but degrade microstructural and mechanical properties of long bones, and such changes in musculoskeletal integrity are related to the modulation of obesity-related endocrines and proinflammation. Relative to HFD, RD benefited body composition (decreased body weight and %fat mass and increased %fat-free mass); decreased insulin-like growth factor I and leptin; elevated adiponectin, glutathione peroxidase activity and protein expression and tumor necrosis factor α messenger RNA expression; and suppressed bone formation and increased bone resorption, resulting in decreased trabecular and cortical bone volume, bone mineral density, and bone strength. Relative to low-fat diet, RD had a similar effect on body composition and serum markers but increased bone turnover rate and decreased bone mineral density and strength. Our data suggest that long-term RD has a negative impact on bone remodeling in obese female rats, probably through modification of endocrines and elevation of proinflammation. PMID:23890357

  7. [Occupational and lifestyle factors related to musculoskeletal and fatigue symptoms among middle-aged female workers in a frozen food processing factory].

    PubMed

    Mizoue, T; Nishisaka, S; Nishikuma, K; Yoshimura, T

    1996-09-01

    A survey was conducted on musculoskeletal and fatigue symptoms related to individual and work-related risk factors among middle-aged female workers in a frozen food processing factory by using a self-administered questionnaire. Proportions of workers who frequently experienced, during the last one month, stiff muscle or pain in the neck-shoulder, back and lower limbs were 32.9%, 26.8% and 15.9%, respectively. The proportion for fatigue symptom was 30.5%. Factors related to fatigue were: short duration of employment [odds ratio (OR) 1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-2.9], light body weight [OR 0.6, CI 0.3-1.1], long house work [OR 1.7, CI 0.9-3.3], short sleep hours [OR 1.6, CI 1.0-2.5], walking to and from work [OR 0.5, CI 0.2-1.0], those related to back pain were: high body height [OR 2.4, CI 0.8-7.4], light body weight [OR 0.4, CI 0.2-0.9], those related to lower limb symptom were: working height below hip height [OR 2.3, CI 1.2-4.4], working height above shoulder height [OR 3.0, CI 1.5-5.7], high body height [OR 3.4, CI 1.2-10.1] and low body height [OR 2.4, CI 0.8-7.4]. Workers' subjective evaluation of height of work table was significantly related to the body height. These results indicate that it would be necessary to improve ergonomic aspects of work considering individual characteristics as well as to advise workers on their lifestyle. PMID:8936619

  8. Ovariectomy and subsequent treatment with estrogen receptor agonists tune the innate immune system of the hippocampus in middle-aged female rats.

    PubMed

    Sárvári, Miklós; Kalló, Imre; Hrabovszky, Erik; Solymosi, Norbert; Liposits, Zsolt

    2014-01-01

    The innate immune system including microglia has a major contribution to maintenance of the physiological functions of the hippocampus by permanent monitoring of the neural milieu and elimination of tissue-damaging threats. The hippocampus is vulnerable to age-related changes ranging from gene expression to network connectivity. The risk of hippocampal deterioration increases with the decline of gonadal hormone supply. To explore the impact of hormone milieu on the function of the innate immune system in middle-aged female rats, we compared mRNA expression in the hippocampus after gonadal hormone withdrawal, with or without subsequent estrogen replacement using estradiol and isotype-selective estrogen receptor (ER) agonists. Targeted profiling assessed the status of the innate immune system (macrophage-associated receptors, complement, inhibitory neuronal ligands), local estradiol synthesis (P450 aromatase) and estrogen reception (ER). Results established upregulation of macrophage-associated (Cd45, Iba1, Cd68, Cd11b, Cd18, Fcgr1a, Fcgr2b) and complement (C3, factor B, properdin) genes in response to ovariectomy. Ovariectomy upregulated Cd22 and downregulated semaphorin3A (Sema3a) expression, indicating altered neuronal regulation of microglia. Ovariectomy also led to downregulation of aromatase and upregulation of ERα gene. Of note, analogous changes were observed in the hippocampus of postmenopausal women. In ovariectomized rats, estradiol replacement attenuated Iba1, Cd11b, Fcgr1a, C3, increased mannose receptor Mrc1, Cd163 and reversed Sema3a expression. In contrast, reduced expression of aromatase was not reversed by estradiol. While the effects of ERα agonist closely resembled those of estradiol, ERβ agonist was also capable of attenuating the expression of several macrophage-associated and complement genes. These data together indicate that the innate immune system of the aging hippocampus is highly responsive to the gonadal hormone milieu. In

  9. The Popularization of Middle Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriam, Sharan

    1979-01-01

    Books, magazines, and newspapers for the general public have discovered middle age and, in spite of an exaggeration of mid-life crisis, provide adults with a broader perspective on mid-life adjustments. (SK)

  10. 17ß-Estradiol Regulates Histone Alterations Associated with Memory Consolidation and Increases "Bdnf" Promoter Acetylation in Middle-Aged Female Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortress, Ashley M.; Kim, Jaekyoon; Poole, Rachel L.; Gould, Thomas J.; Frick, Karyn M.

    2014-01-01

    Histone acetylation is essential for hippocampal memory formation in young adult rodents. Although dysfunctional histone acetylation has been associated with age-related memory decline in male rodents, little is known about whether histone acetylation is altered by aging in female rodents. In young female mice, the ability of 17ß-estradiol…

  11. The Rediscovery of Middle Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Harry

    2005-01-01

    The article argues the case for rethinking the way we look at the process of ageing in the work place and the images we use to describe the nature of life for people over 50. Rather than there being more old and frail people in the community, many more people are experiencing an extended middle age, and their numbers are increasing. There are in…

  12. Distracted Driving in Elderly and Middle-Aged Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Kelsey R.; Johnson, Amy M.; Emerson, Jamie L.; Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Boer, Erwin R.

    2011-01-01

    Automobile driving is a safety-critical real-world example of multitasking. A variety of roadway and in-vehicle distracter tasks create information processing loads that compete for the neural resources needed to drive safely. Drivers with mind and brain aging may be particularly susceptible to distraction due to waning cognitive resources and control over attention. This study examined distracted driving performance in an instrumented vehicle (IV) in 86 elderly (mean = 72.5 years, SD = 5.0 years) and 51 middle-aged drivers (mean = 53.7 years, SD = 9.3 year) under a concurrent auditory-verbal processing load created by the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT). Compared to baseline (no-task) driving performance, distraction was associated with reduced steering control in both groups, with middle-aged drivers showing a greater increase in steering variability. The elderly drove slower and showed decreased speed variability during distraction compared to middle-aged drivers. They also tended to “freeze up”, spending significantly more time holding the gas pedal steady, another tactic that may mitigate time pressured integration and control of information, thereby freeing mental resources to maintain situation awareness. While 39% of elderly and 43% of middle-aged drivers committed significantly more driving safety errors during distraction, 28% and 18%, respectively, actually improved, compatible with allocation of attention resources to safety critical tasks under a cognitive load. PMID:22269561

  13. Leg Strength Comparison between Younger and Middle-age Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sukwon; Lockhart, Thurmon; Nam, Chang S.

    2009-01-01

    Although a risk of occupational musculoskeletal diseases has been identified with age-related strength degradation, strength measures from working group are somewhat sparse. This is especially true for the lower extremity strength measures in dynamic conditions (i.e., isokinetic). The objective of this study was to quantify the lower extremity muscle strength characteristics of three age groups (young, middle, and the elderly). Total of 42 subjects participated in the study: 14 subjects for each age group. A commercial dynamometer was used to evaluate isokinetic and isometric strength at ankle and knee joints. 2 × 2 (Age group (younger, middle-age, and older adult groups) × Gender (male and female)) between-subject design and Post-hoc analysis were performed to evaluate strength differences among three age groups. Post-hoc analysis indicated that, overall, middle-age workers’ leg strengths (i.e. ankle and knee muscles) were significantly different from younger adults while middle-age workers’ leg strengths were virtually identical to older adults’ leg strengths. These results suggested that, overall, 14 middle-age workers in the present study could be at a higher risk of musculoskeletal injuries. Future studies looking at the likelihood of musculoskeletal injuries at different work places and from different working postures at various age levels should be required to validate the current findings. The future study would be a valuable asset in finding intervention strategies such that middle-age workers could stay healthier longer. PMID:20436934

  14. Social Perception of Middle-Aged Persons Varying in Physical Attractiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Gerald R.; Huston, Ted L.

    1975-01-01

    This study indicates that more socially desirable characteristics are attributed to physically attractive than unattractive middle-aged persons. It is suggested that this difference in social desirability is greater for female than male stimuli and that elderly persons stereotype middle-aged persons more favorably than young adults do. (JMB)

  15. Fatherhood and Men's Lives at Middle Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggebeen, David J.; Dew, Jeffrey; Knoester, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This article uses data on 2,024 men who were followed through the third wave of the National Survey of Families and Households to examine the implications of fatherhood experiences for men's involvement in altruistic social activities at middle age. We find that middle-aged men (ages 45-65) who at some point in their lives become fathers are…

  16. Speech Recognition and Temporal Processing in Middle-Aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Helfer, Karen S.; Vargo, Megan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This study was designed to examine speech understanding ability and temporal processing in middle-aged women with normal or near-normal pure-tone thresholds. Research Design Speech understanding, temporal processing ability, and self-assessed hearing were measured in groups of younger and middle-aged females. Study Sample Participants were younger and middle-aged females (n = 12 per group) with normal hearing through 4000 Hz bilaterally. Subjects were drawn from nonclinical populations. Data Collection and Analysis Speech understanding was measured in the presence of steady-state noise and competing speech, with and without perceived spatial separation of the target speech and masker. The Gaps-In-Noise (GIN) test (Musiek et al, 2005) was used to assess temporal resolution ability. In addition, subjects completed a questionnaire with several items from the Speech, Spatial, and Qualities of Hearing Scale (Gatehouse and Noble, 2004) to gauge their subjective ability to understand speech in complex listening situations. Data were analyzed via repeated-measures ANOVA and Pearson r correlations. Results Results showed that the performance of the middle-aged subjects was significantly poorer than that of the younger participants in the presence of a spatially coincident speech masker. Although performance in this listening condition was unrelated to pure-tone thresholds, it was strongly correlated with scores on the GIN test. Speech understanding performance in the presence of a steady-state masker was related to high-frequency pure-tone thresholds. Conclusions These results suggest that some middle-aged women with little or no pure-tone hearing loss experience listening difficulty in complex environments. Results also suggest a strong relationship between temporal processing and speech understanding in certain competing speech situations. PMID:19927698

  17. The Problems and Concerns of Middle Age

    PubMed Central

    Yaffe, Mark J.; Stewart, Moira A.

    1984-01-01

    Middle age is not defined solely by chronological age, but is a product of biological, social, and psychological factors. As a period in the life cycle, middle age poses many obstacles, or developmental tasks, to personal growth. Failure to deal successfully with these tasks may have a negative impact on a person's physical and psychological health. The family physician's role should be to learn the middle-aged patient's problems and concerns, to allow him to express such concerns, and to help place problems in perspective. PMID:21278990

  18. Approval of Spouse in Middle Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troll, Lillian E.

    A strongly positive opinion of spouse in middle age tends to be associated with social conformity and family integration. Mutually approving couples were more often politically moderate, homogamous in religious background, and had more interpersonal power than their children. They also had more highly integrated family structures with low conflict…

  19. Competing Speech Perception in Middle Age

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This research forum article summarizes research from our laboratory that assessed middle-aged adults' ability to understand speech in the presence of competing talkers. Method The performance of middle-aged adults on laboratory-based speech understanding tasks was compared to that of younger and older adults. Results Decline in the ability to understand speech in complex listening environments can be demonstrated in midlife. The specific auditory and cognitive contributors to these problems have yet to be established. Conclusion There is evidence that the ability to understand a target speech message in the presence of competing speech messages changes relatively early in the aging process. The nature and impact of these changes warrant further investigation. PMID:25768264

  20. The Middle Ages Contributions to Cardiovascular Medicine.

    PubMed

    Ranhel, André Silva; Mesquita, Evandro Tinoco

    2016-04-01

    The historical period called the Middle Ages, a long interval between the 5th and the 15th centuries, is still commonly known as the Dark Ages, especially in the area of health sciences. In the last decades, this "classic" view of the Middle Ages has been gradually modified with advances in historiographical studies and the history of science. During that period in Western Europe, knowledge about the human body suffered a regression in terms of anatomy and physiology, with the predominance of religious conceptions mainly about diseases and their treatments. Knowledge on the cardiovascular system and heart diseases has been classically described as a repetition of the concepts developed by Galen from the dissection of animals and his keen sense of observation. However, the Middle East, especially Persia, was the birth place of a lot of intellectuals who preserved the ancient knowledge of the Greeks while building new knowledge and practices, especially from the 8th to the 13th century. The invasion of the Arabs in North of Africa and the Iberian Peninsula and the eclosion of the Crusades resulted in a greater contact between the East and the West, which in turn brought on the arrival of the Arab medical knowledge, among others, to 12th century Europe. Such fact contributed to an extremely important change in the scientific medical knowledge in the West, leading to the incorporation of different concepts and practices in the field of cardiovascular Medicine. The new way of teaching and practicing Medicine of the great Arab doctors, together with the teaching hospitals and foundations in the Koran, transformed the Medicine practiced in Europe definitely. The objective of this paper is to describe the knowledge drawn up from the Middle Ages about the cardiovascular system, its understanding and therapeutic approach to cardiologists and cardiovascular surgeons. PMID:27556317

  1. Temporal Processing Deficits in Middle Age

    PubMed Central

    Mamo, Sara K.; Buss, Emily; Hall, Joseph W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this brief report is to provide a synopsis of recent work, primarily from the authors' laboratory, that points to the emergence of temporal processing deficits relatively early in the aging process. Method The approach taken was to provide a descriptive summary of selected published and current experiments focusing on the processing of temporal envelopes and fine structure. Conclusion Deficits in both temporal envelope and temporal fine structure processing are evident during middle age even while audiometric hearing sensitivity remains normal. PMID:25768652

  2. Listening Comprehension in Middle-Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this summary is to examine changes in listening comprehension across the adult lifespan and to identify factors associated with individual differences in listening comprehension. Method In this article, the author reports on both cross-sectional and longitudinal changes in listening comprehension. Conclusions Despite significant declines in both sensory and cognitive abilities, listening comprehension remains relatively unchanged in middle-aged listeners (between the ages of 40 and 60 years) compared with young listeners. These results are discussed with respect to possible compensatory factors that maintain listening comprehension despite impaired hearing and reduced cognitive capacities. PMID:25768392

  3. Visions and psychopathology in the Middle Ages.

    PubMed

    Kroll, J; Bachrach, B

    1982-01-01

    Descriptions of visionary experience from written medieval sources are examined from a cross-cultural perspective. The mental states of the persons having the visions range from terminal illnesses, states of starvation, stress-related syndromes, dreams and hypnagogic states, and seemingly unremarkable mental states. Although a few of the visions elicited some skepticism on the part of contemporaries, most reports of visions were accepted at face value as bona fide visions, with no discernible differentiation between starvation visions, dreams, deliria of illnesses, and possible mental illness. Only four of the visions appeared causally related, by today's standards, to mentally illnesses. These persons were not recognized as mentally ill by their contemporaries. Since there was a recognition of mental illness in the Middle Ages, it would appear that such recognition was based on symptoms other than visions or hallucinations. It is also possible that hallucinations, as culturally supported phenomena, were not as available as forms of expression of psychoses in the Middle Ages as they are today. Such a possibility has interesting implications regarding the role of a culture in shaping the forms by which mental illnesses are expressed, recognized, and labeled. PMID:7033474

  4. Oral contraception for women of middle age.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Xiangyan; Mueck, Alfred O

    2015-11-01

    Women at middle age have decreased fertility and their pregnancies are higher risk. Combined oral contraceptives (COC) are effective but confer increased risk of age-related diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases. These risks are lower, however, with progestogen-only pills (POP). Therefore, other than the levonorgestrel intrauterine device (LNG-IUD), POP are usually the first choice, even though they do often lead to bleeding problems, which are already frequent in the perimenopause. However, the main risk of COC, venous thromboembolism, seems not to be relevant in (non-hospitalized) Chinese women and perhaps also other Asian women. COC may therefore be in fact a better choice than POP for these groups. In contrast to POP and IUDs, they have a variety of benefits especially important for middle-aged women, including a large decrease of the risk of ovarian, endometrial and colorectal cancer, an improvement in bleeding irregularities, a reduction of climacteric symptoms and some protection against bone loss. Further research is needed into individualized and safe contraception that takes into account ethnicity, as well as other factors. PMID:26163075

  5. Green tea polyphenols supplementation improves bone microstructure in orchidectomized middle-Aged rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our recent study shows that green tea polyphenols (GTP) attenuate trabecular bone loss in ovariectomized middle-aged female rats. To investigate whether GTP prevents bone loss in male rats, 40 rats with and without oriectomy (ORX) were assigned to 4 groups in a 2 (sham vs. ORX)× 2 (no GTP and 0.5% G...

  6. Perceptions of Onsets of Young Adulthood, Middle Age, and Old Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drevenstedt, Jean

    1976-01-01

    Male and female undergraduates and older community volunteers were asked their opinions as to the age of onset of young man- and womanhood, middle-age man- and womanhood, and old man- and womanhood. Data indicated that older respondents generally judged onsets of both middle and old age to occur significantly later than did young respondents.…

  7. Estrogen effects on cognition and hippocampal transcription in middle-aged mice

    PubMed Central

    Aenlle, Kristina K.; Kumar, Ashok; Cui, Li; Jackson, Travis C.; Foster, Thomas C.

    2009-01-01

    Young and middle-aged female mice were ovariectomized and given cyclic injections of either estradiol or vehicle treatments. During the fifth week after surgery the Morris water maze was used to assess cognitive function. Age and treatment effects emerged over the course of spatial training such that middle-aged vehicle treated mice exhibited deficits in acquiring a spatial search strategy compared to younger vehicle treated mice and middle-age estradiol treated mice. Following behavioral characterization, mice were maintained on their injection schedule until week seven and hippocampi were collected 24 hr after the last injection. Hippocampal RNA was extracted and genes responsive to age and estrogen were identified using cDNA microarrays. Estradiol treatment in middle-aged mice altered the expression of genes related to transcriptional regulation, biosynthesis, growth, neuroprotection, and elements of cell signaling pathways. Expression profiles for representative genes were confirmed in a separate set of animals using oligonucleotide arrays and RT-PCR. Our results indicate that estrogen treatment in middle-aged animals may promote hippocampal health during the aging process. PMID:17950954

  8. The role of psychopathy and sexuality in a female serial killer.

    PubMed

    Myers, Wade C; Gooch, Erik; Meloy, J Reid

    2005-05-01

    The case of Aileen Wuornos, executed in Florida for the serial killing of seven men, is studied to determine her degree of psychopathy and the presence or absence of sexuality or sexual sadism as a motivation or gratification for her crimes. The authors, one of whom evaluated the subject shortly before her death, determined that she evidenced a psychopathic personality (PCL-R score 32). She also met DSM-IV-TR criteria for Antisocial Personality Disorder and Borderline Personality Disorder. While her killings ostensibly were carried out during routine acts of prostitution, there was ambiguous evidence that her crimes were sexually motivated or gratifying. Her articulated motivation was robbery and elimination of the witness/victim. After carefully considering all available data, the authors concluded there was no convincing evidence of sexual sadism in either her personal history or her method of committing serial murder, and it remains unclear whether sexual gratification was to some degree a motivating factor in her commission of these offenses. The confluence of early childhood attachment disruptions, severe psychopathy, other personality disorder pathology, and a traumagenic abuse history likely contributed to her having serially murdered seven victims. PMID:15932102

  9. Monograph: Young Adulthood and Middle Age, 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monograph: Young Adulthood and Middle Age, 1989

    1989-01-01

    The inaugural volume of this serial contains 12 articles that represent a diverse population of counselors: (1) "Issues in Counseling Immigrants" (Linda Sheppard); (2) "Family Support and Starting a Small Business" (Michael Cusack and Peter Emerson); (3) "Professional Disillusionment: Crisis or Catalyst" (Kay Miller, Susan Cooper-Shoup and…

  10. Unexpected regeneration in middle-aged mice.

    PubMed

    Reines, Brandon; Cheng, Lily I; Matzinger, Polly

    2009-02-01

    Complete regeneration of damaged extremities, including both the epithelium and the underlying tissues, is thought to occur mainly in embryos, fetuses, and juvenile mammals, but only very rarely in adult mammals. Surprisingly, we found that common strains of mice are able to regenerate all of the tissues necessary to completely fill experimentally punched ear holes, but only if punched at middle age. Although young postweaning mice regrew the epithelium without typical pre-scar granulation tissue, they showed only minimal regeneration of connective tissues. In contrast, mice punched at 5-11 months of age showed true amphibian-like blastema formation and regrowth of cartilage, fat, and dermis, with blood vessels, sebaceous glands, hair follicles, and, in black mice, melanocytes. These data suggest that at least partial appendage regeneration may be more common in adult mammals than previously thought and call into question the common view that regenerative ability is lost with age. The data suggest that the age at which various inbred mouse strains become capable of epimorphic regeneration may be correlated with adult body weight. PMID:19226206

  11. Progressive post-yield behavior of human cortical bone in compression for middle-aged and elderly groups

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Huijie; Dong, X. Neil; Wang, Xiaodu

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a progressive loading regimen (load–dwell–unloading–dwell–reloading) was applied on bone samples to examine the compressive post-yield response of bone at increasing strain levels. Cortical bone specimens from human tibiae of two age groups (middle-aged group: 53±2 years, 4 females and 4 males, elderly group: 83±6 years, 4 females and 4 males) were loaded in compression using the progressive loading scheme. Modulus degradation, plastic deformation, viscous response, and energy dissipation of bone during post-yield deformation were assessed. Although initial modulus was not significantly different between the two age groups, the degradation of modulus with the applied strain in the elderly group was faster than in the middle-aged group. The modulus loss (or microdamage accumulation) of bone occurred prior to plastic deformation. Plastic strain had a similar linear relationship with the applied strain for both middle-aged and the elderly group although middle-aged bone yielded at a greater strain. The viscoelastic time constant changed similarly with increasing strain for the two groups, whereas a higher magnitude of stress relaxation was observed in the middle-aged group. Energy dissipation was investigated through three pathways: elastic release strain energy, hysteresis energy, and plastic strain energy. The middle-aged group had significantly greater capacity of energy dissipation than the elderly group in all three pathways. The information obtained may provide important insights in age-related effects on bone fragility. PMID:19150716

  12. Journal of Young Adulthood and Middle Age, 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Young Adulthood and Middle Age, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Eleven articles are presented that focus on the family, sexuality, and developmental issues of young and middle aged adults. The "Articles" section includes: (1) "A Role/Career Development Model of Adult Development" (David Payne); (2) "Counseling the Middle-Aged: Misinformation, Myths and Implications for Counseling" (John D. Keshock); (3)…

  13. Longitudinal Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarker Changes in Preclinical Alzheimer Disease During Middle Age

    PubMed Central

    Sutphen, Courtney L.; Jasielec, Mateusz S.; Shah, Aarti R.; Macy, Elizabeth M.; Xiong, Chengjie; Vlassenko, Andrei G.; Benzinger, Tammie L. S.; Stoops, Erik E. J.; Vanderstichele, Hugo M. J.; Brix, Britta; Darby, Heather D.; Vandijck, Manu L. J.; Ladenson, Jack H.; Morris, John C.; Holtzman, David M.; Fagan, Anne M.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Individuals in the presymptomatic stage of Alzheimer disease (AD) are increasingly being targeted for AD secondary prevention trials. How early during the normal life span underlying AD pathologies begin to develop, their patterns of change over time, and their relationship with future cognitive decline remain to be determined. OBJECTIVE To characterize the within-person trajectories of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of AD over time and their association with changes in brain amyloid deposition and cognitive decline in cognitively normal middle-aged individuals. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS As part of a cohort study, cognitively normal (Clinical Dementia Rating [CDR] of 0) middle-aged research volunteers (n = 169) enrolled in the Adult Children Study at Washington University, St Louis, Missouri, had undergone serial CSF collection and longitudinal clinical assessment (mean, 6 years; range, 0.91–11.3 years) at 3-year intervals at the time of analysis, between January 2003 and November 2013. A subset (n = 74) had also undergone longitudinal amyloid positron emission tomographic imaging with Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) in the same period. Serial CSF samples were analyzed for β-amyloid 40 (Aβ40), Aβ42, total tau, tau phosphorylated at threonine 181 (P-tau181), visinin-like protein 1 (VILIP-1), and chitinase-3-like protein 1 (YKL-40). Within-person measures were plotted according to age and AD risk defined by APOE genotype (ε4 carriers vs noncarriers). Linear mixed models were used to compare estimated biomarker slopes among middle-age bins at baseline (early, 45–54 years; mid, 55–64 years; late, 65–74 years) and between risk groups. Within-person changes in CSF biomarkers were also compared with changes in cortical PiB binding and progression to a CDR higher than 0 at follow-up. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Changes in Aβ40, Aβ42, total tau, P-tau181, VILIP-1, and YKL-40 and, in a subset of participants, changes in cortical PiB binding

  14. [Production of glass in early middle ages].

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Martin

    2011-01-01

    For the production of glass three ingredients are necessary: sand, a flux to reduce the melting-temperature and calcium to reduce the danger of glass corrosion. The first objects of glass were made with calcium-rich ashes of halophytic plants, until, in the first millennium BC, the glassmakers began to use natron as a flux adding calcium deliberately or choosing a calcium-rich sand. Natron, a mineral applied to fertilize or to preserve, as a spice, a detergent or part of medical and cosmetic articles, was exploited in the regions south and east of the Mediterranean, so the Central European glassmakers had to import natron or the prefabricated raw glass for their work. Beginning in the 8th century AD in Central Europe the flux changed again: The glassmakers increasingly used ashes from wood growing in their native regions so becoming independent of the necessity to import the raw materials. There are various reasons for this change: First, the Mediterranean was no longer the trade area it had been at the time of the antique Roman Empire due to the activities of the Byzantine navy. Then, the climatic change in the 8th century and political upheavals during the 9th century in Egypt--being the main supplier of natron--caused a decrease in exploitation and trade with this good. Finally, the Egyptian state established a monopoly on the natron production, causing a permanent price increase. Nevertheless, during the Early Middle Ages natron was imported into Europe, although not necessarily for glass production. The article shows that glassmakers of Central Europe were able to produce glass since the end of the Western Roman Empire on the basis of the transfer of raw materials and know-how from the East. From the 8th century onwards they emancipated themselves from the dependency on imports by discovering and using native materials for glass production. PMID:21898980

  15. A mobile phone enabled health promotion program for middle-aged males.

    PubMed

    Ding, H; Karunanithi, M; Duncan, M; Ireland, D; Noakes, M; Hooker, C

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic diseases among middle aged males outweigh their female counterparts in developed countries. To prevent this, delivery of health promotion programs targeting lifestyle modifications of physical activity and nutrition in middle-aged males has been essential, but often difficult. ManUp health promotion program was a recent initiative that uses current advances in information and communication technology (ICT) to reach the middle-aged males. One of the key components of the ICT approach was the development of smartphone application to enable middle-aged men to uptake the program with their own mobile phone. The smart phone application was aimed at providing varied level of challenges towards physical activity and healthy eating behavior, with interactive and motivational feedback SMS messages. The ManUp program was recently implemented and trialed in a randomized control trial in Gladstone and Rockhampton, Queens. This paper describes the components of the smart phone application integrated within the ManUp health promotion program. PMID:24109902

  16. Developmental analysis of human figure drawings in adolescence, young adulthood, and middle age.

    PubMed

    Saarni, C; Azara, V

    1977-02-01

    Analyzed 195 human figure drawings (HFDs) of adolescents, young adults, and middle-aged adults in terms of developmental differences in anxiety signs, grouped into aggressive-hostile and insecure-labile categories, and according to sex-role stereotype, as measured by the Broverman Sex-role Stereotype Scale. Adolescent males and females were significantly more likely to obtain more anxiety signs than the two adult groups, although young adults and middle-aged adults did not differ from one another in HFD performance. The most reliable sex difference was that males reveal significantly more aggressive-hostile indices in the HFDs relative to females; no significant sex differences were obtained for number of insecure-labile indices. The degree to which one has adopted a conventional sex-role stereotype was not predictive of anxiety sign differences in HFD performance for either sex or for any age group. PMID:321746

  17. Effect of Eurycoma longifolia Jack on orientation activities in middle-aged male rats.

    PubMed

    Ang, H H; Lee, K L

    2002-12-01

    The effects of various fractions of Eurycoma longifolia Jack were studied on the orientation activities of the inbred, adult middle-aged Sprague-Dawley rats, 9 months old and retired breeders towards the receptive females (anogenital sniffing, licking, mounting), the environment (climbing, raring, exploration), themselves (nongenital grooming, genital grooming) and mobility (restricted, unrestricted) after treating these subjects twice daily for 10 days. Results showed that subjects treated with 800 mg/kg of E. longifolia Jack increased orientation activities towards the receptive females (anogenital sniffing, licking and mounting), increased genital grooming towards themselves and restricted movements to a particular area of the cage but decreased interest in the external environment (climbing, raring, exploration) as compared with the controls during the investigation period. In conclusion, this study gives further evidences that different fractions of E. longifolia Jack modified the orientation activities of the middle-aged male rats. PMID:12685506

  18. Noncritical soft tissues of the female pelvis: Serial MR imaging before, during and after radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Blomlie, V.; Rofstad, E.K.; Tvera, K.; Lien, H.H.

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to present the findings of the irradiated noncritical soft tissues of the female pelvis at magnetic resonance (MR) imaging within 18 months after radiation therapy (RT). The soft tissues of the pelvis of 24 women with advanced cervical carcinoma were studied in 240 MR examinations scheduled before, three times during, and 7 weeks and 3, 6, 9, 12, and 18 months after RT. Two radiologists visually evaluated the signal intensity (SI) of the subcutaneous fat, muscles, and presacral space (PS) on T1- and T2-weighted and short inversion time inversion-recovery images. SI compatible with edema appeared in the PS, pelvic muscles, and subcutaneous fat within 3 months after the end of RT and was observed in 23 (96%) of the 24 patients. During the observation period, the edema subsided. Eighteen months after treatment, edema in the PS was seen in 12 (50%) of the 24 patients. The soft tissues of the female pelvis showed a characteristic pattern of varying edema after irradiation. 27 refs., 12 figs.

  19. Psychological determinants of erectile dysfunction among middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Aghighi, A; Grigoryan, V H; Delavar, A

    2015-01-01

    We describe psychological determinants of erectile dysfunction (ED) among middle-aged men with no identifiable medical risk factors and compare them with a sample of young individuals. Two groups of young (⩽ 30 years, n = 59) and middle-aged men (⩾ 40 years, n = 63) who scored ⩽ 25 on the erectile functioning domain of the International Index of Erectile Functioning were enrolled. Patients were included if they had no metabolic diseases, prostate problems or external genitalia abnormalities. Patients were not included if they were smokers, excessive drinkers or took medications known to cause ED. To assess psychopathology, symptom check list 90-revised (SCL-90-R) was administered. Structural equation modeling was performed to assess the relationship between psychopathology and ED. One in five men had severe ED, and the proportion was not different between the two groups. Middle-aged men had lower scores on different SCL-90-R domains. In both age groups, somatization and interpersonal sensitivity contributed to ED. Among younger individuals, anxiety and psychosis-related domains were also associated with ED. Unique contributors to ED in middle-aged men were depression and additional questions. In conclusion, among middle-aged men, psychological factors significantly contribute to ED when no medical risk factors are present. The pattern and composition of distress depicts distinct features, not seen in young age. PMID:25164317

  20. Cardiac autonomic changes in middle-aged women: identification based on principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Trevizani, Gabriela A; Nasario-Junior, Olivassé; Benchimol-Barbosa, Paulo R; Silva, Lilian P; Nadal, Jurandir

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the application of the principal component analysis (PCA) technique on power spectral density function (PSD) of consecutive normal RR intervals (iRR) aiming at assessing its ability to discriminate healthy women according to age groups: young group (20-25 year-old) and middle-aged group (40-60 year-old). Thirty healthy and non-smoking female volunteers were investigated (13 young [mean ± SD (median): 22·8 ± 0·9 years (23·0)] and 17 Middle-aged [51·7 ± 5·3 years (50·0)]). The iRR sequence was collected during ten minutes, breathing spontaneously, in supine position and in the morning, using a heart rate monitor. After selecting an iRR segment (5 min) with the smallest variance, an auto regressive model was used to estimate the PSD. Five principal component coefficients, extracted from PSD signals, were retained for analysis according to the Mahalanobis distance classifier. A threshold established by logistic regression allowed the separation of the groups with 100% specificity, 83·2% sensitivity and 93·3% total accuracy. The PCA appropriately classified two groups of women in relation to age (young and Middle-aged) based on PSD analysis of consecutive normal RR intervals. PMID:25532598

  1. Hearing Loss in Middle-Age Persons with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evenhuis, H. M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This study assessed the hearing function of 35 middle-aged adults with Down's syndrome by means of otoscopy, impedance audiometry, brainstem evoked response audiometry, and pure tone audiometry. The study found brainstem evoked response audiometry useful for routine audiological assessment, as it identified hearing losses of 20 to 90 decibels in…

  2. Haptic Exploration in Young, Middle-Aged, and Elderly Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinman, Joel M.; Brodzinsky, David M.

    1978-01-01

    Matching accuracy and strategy utilization in young, middle-aged, and elderly adults was examined in a series of intramodal, haptic match-to-standard problems. Results indicated that elderly adults were less successful in solving the haptic problems. They also displayed less systematic and logical haptic search strategies. (Author)

  3. Achievement Orientation in Middle-Aged and Older Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troll, Lillian E.

    The suggestion is made that the flood of middle-aged women who have recently turned away from traditional approaches to achievement may have shifted their orientation to changing options, but have always had a great desire to achieve. The effect of the changing values of the women's movement is discussed, and a grid of achievement motivation…

  4. Supporting Unemployed, Middle-Aged Men: A Psychoeducational Group Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphey, Charlotte M.; Shillingford, M. Ann

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a comprehensive group counseling approach to support unemployed, middle-aged men. An inclusive group curriculum designed to provide support and address potential mental health issues related to unemployment is introduced. The focus of the group is divided into 6 major areas that research has shown to have a significant impact…

  5. Inner-Ages of Middle-Aged Prime-Lifers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barak, Benny

    1998-01-01

    Examines three age-role self-concepts: cognitive, ideal, and social with 40-69 year olds who consider themselves middle-aged. Reviews inner-age research and evaluates inner-age infrastructure as well as connections between inner-age and participants' characteristics in the context of eight psychographic trait sets. (Author/MKA)

  6. Experiences with physical conditioning programs in middle-aged men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, B.; Stanley, E.

    1969-01-01

    Long term effects of physical exercise and conditioning in the prevention and treatment of coronary heart disease are studied. Some aspects of the problem are outlined and difficulties encountered in a group of middle aged business executives using a carefully prescribed, but non-regimented and loosely supervised conditioning program employing commonly used forms of exercise (bicycling and jogging), are described.

  7. Impact of Elderly Mother's Death on Middle Age Daughters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Miriam S.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined middle aged daughters' (n=107) responses to death of their mother. In first six months of bereavement, many daughters experienced themes of holding on and letting go. Depression, grief, somatic reactions, impact on sense of self, acceptance of death, and ways in which ties with mother endure were differentially associated with…

  8. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis Among Middle-Aged Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Lori W.; Wallace, Lorraine Silver; Perry, Blake Allen; Bleeker, Jeanne

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the risk factors for osteoporosis among a sample of middle-aged women. Methods: Adipose tissue and bone mineral density levels at the left femur, lumbar spine, and total body were assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Subjects (n=342) were surveyed regarding a variety of osteoporosis-related risk factors.…

  9. Factors influencing STI transmission in middle-aged heterosexual individuals.

    PubMed

    Monsell, Ellen; McLuskey, John

    2016-06-23

    Research has shown that individuals aged 45-64, or the 'middle-aged' population, are at an increasing risk of contracting a sexually transmitted infection (STI). An exploration of the factors that may influence STIs in this age group was carried out to ascertain how to reduce the risk. A critical review identified 14 research papers that considered STIs in middle-aged people. The available evidence base highlighted an under-representation of women, the absence of a consistent definition of 'middle age', and a paucity of specific information on the sexual health needs of this group. Low condom use was found to be a possible contributor to increasing STI rates; men were shown to report particularly low use. Behaviours such as contact with sex workers and sexual encounters abroad were found to be additional risk factors in men, requiring further consideration. The breakdown and formation of relationships during middle age was also identified as a possible area to investigate, as were the behavioural traits of women and associated STI risk. Further research into these areas could facilitate the development of attitudes, knowledge, policy and practice that could help provide better support for individuals affected. PMID:27345071

  10. Adult Education in Germany from the Middle Ages to 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Textor, Martin R.

    1986-01-01

    The history of adult education in Germany is examined, including the power of the Church during the Middle Ages, self-instruction in informal groups during the Renaissance, Lutheran influence during the Reformation, emphasis on reason and science during the Enlightenment period, industrialization, the Weimar Republic, the Third Reich, and post-war…

  11. [Vertebrobasilar transient ischemic attacks in young and middle aged patients].

    PubMed

    Beliavskiĭ, N N; Likhachev, S A; Varenik, T N; Demarin, V

    2008-01-01

    A complex clinical, neurological, laboratory, ultrasound and neuroimaging examination of 70 patients, aged 31-59 years, suffering from vertebrobasilar transient ischemic attack (TIA) was carried out in order to determine clinical and pathogenetic peculiarities of the disease in young and middle aged patients. The hemodynamically significant atherosclerotic lesion of the large cerebral arteries (LCA) as a cause of TIA was observed more rarely in the young and middle age groups than in elderly and aged people. Heart valves lesion was the main cause of cerebral cardioembolism in young and middle aged patients with TIA. A greater number of cases with other established causes of the disease (dissections, kinking of vertebral arteries, hemorheological microocclusion) were revealed. An undetermined pathogenesis of the disease mostly due to the inability to choose the main pathogenetic mechanism out of other potential mechanisms, e.g., the association of arterial hypertension with kinking, the hypoplasia or anomaly of the entrance of vertebral artery into the transverse channel, was observed in these groups more often than in elderly and aged people. The clinical picture of TIA in young and middle aged patients with hemodynamically significant atherosclerotic lesion of LCA had the highest similarity with that in elderly and aged ones. In case of cardioembolic pathogenesis, it was characterized by the markedly less severe signs of the disease and in case of the disease due to isolated arterial hypertension--by the lower rate of vascular white matter abnormalities on neuroimaging. A relatively higher rate of symptoms attributed to the manifestation of hypertensive crisis during the attack was observed in young and middle aged patients with TIA due to isolated arterial hypertension comparing with other pathogenetic variants of the disease. The clinical picture of TIA due to other established causes was depended on the main pathogenetic mechanism of the disease. PMID:19431240

  12. Increased Bilateral Interactions in Middle-Aged Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Heetkamp, Jolien; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Zijdewind, Inge

    2014-01-01

    A hallmark of the age-related neural reorganization is that old versus young adults execute typical motor tasks by a more diffuse neural activation pattern including stronger ipsilateral activation during unilateral tasks. Whether such changes in neural activation are present already at middle age and affect bimanual interactions is unknown. We compared the amount of associated activity, i.e., muscle activity and force produced by the non-task hand and motor evoked potentials (MEPs) produced by magnetic brain stimulation between young (mean 24 years, n = 10) and middle-aged (mean 50 years, n = 10) subjects during brief unilateral (seven levels of % maximal voluntary contractions, MVCs) and bilateral contractions (4 × 7 levels of % MVC combinations), and during a 120-s-long MVC of sustained unilateral index finger abduction. During the force production, the excitability of the ipsilateral (iM1) or contralateral primary motor cortex (cM1) was assessed. The associated activity in the “resting” hand was ~2-fold higher in middle-aged (28% of MVC) versus young adults (11% of MVC) during brief unilateral MVCs. After controlling for the background muscle activity, MEPs in iM1 were similar in the two groups during brief unilateral contractions. Only at low (bilateral) forces, MEPs evoked in cM1 were 30% higher in the middle-aged versus young adults. At the start of the sustained contraction, the associated activity was higher in the middle-aged versus young subjects and increased progressively in both groups (30 versus 15% MVC at 120 s, respectively). MEPs were greater at the start of the sustained contraction in middle-aged subjects but increased further during the contraction only in young adults. Under these experimental conditions, the data provide evidence for the reorganization of neural control of unilateral force production as early as age 50. Future studies will determine if the altered neural control of such inter-manual interactions are of

  13. Working Memory in Bisphenol-A Treated Middle-Aged Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Neese, Steven L.; Bandara, Suren B.; Schantz, Susan L.

    2014-01-01

    Over 90% of the U.S. population has detectable bisphenol-A (BPA) in their urine according to recent biomonitoring data. BPA is best known for its estrogenic properties, and most rodent research on the nervous system effects of BPA has focused on determining if chronic exposures during pre- and perinatal development have organizational effects on brain development and behavior. Estrogens also have important impacts on brain and behavior during adulthood, particularly in females during aging, but the impact of BPA on the adult brain is less studied. We have published a series of studies documenting that chronic exposure to various estrogens including 17β-estradiol, ERβ selective SERMs and soy phytoestrogens impairs performance of middle-aged female rats on an operant working memory task. The purpose of this study was to determine if chronic oral exposure to BPA would alter working memory on this same task. Ovariectomized (OVX) middle-aged Long Evans rats were tested on an operant delayed spatial alternation (DSA) task. Rats were treated for 8–10 weeks with either a 0 (vehicle control), 5 or 50 μg/kg bw/day oral bolus of BPA. A subset of the vehicle control rats were implanted with a Silastic implant containing 17β-estradiol (low physiological range) to serve as a positive control. All rats were tested for 25 sessions on the DSA task. BPA treatment did not influence performance accuracy on the DSA task, whereas 17β-estradiol significantly impaired performance, as previously reported. The results of this study suggest that chronic oral exposure to BPA does not alter working memory processes of middle-aged OVX rats assessed by this operant DSA task. PMID:23339879

  14. [What did pigs look like in the Middle Ages?].

    PubMed

    Meyer, H

    2006-01-01

    The conformation of medieval swine is less well documented by written reports or osteological states. This paper evaluates the conformation of medieval pigs from about 140 pictures of various sources (books of hours, misericords, illustration of bibles text or proverbs, sculptures etc.). The pictures demonstrate that medieval pigs mainly were long legged, slender, razor backed, bristly with long snouts and prick ears (Tab. 1) well adapted for herding in forests and waste land. In mediterranean countries in early and high Middle Ages as well as in some regions of France and England in the late Middle Ages compact animals with shorts snouts and lopears were depicted. Probably these typs resulted from other housing and feeding conditions (stall feeding with wastes from fields, gardens, kitchen etc.). Medieval pigs were one-coloured white, grey, black and sometimes red, pictures from saddle-back animals came from Italy or south Germany. PMID:16475550

  15. Young Adults’ Provision of Support to Middle-Aged Parents

    PubMed Central

    Birditt, Kira S.; Zarit, Steven H.; Fingerman, Karen L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Middle-aged adults often provide support to aging parents, but researchers know little about support that young adults provide middle-aged parents. This study examined support that young adults provide parents and explanations for that support from both offspring’s and parents’ perspectives. Method. Young adults (n = 515, mean age = 22.34) and their parents (n = 364, mean age = 50.09) from the Family Exchanges Study reported support that offspring provide parents. Participants also reported parental personal problems, parental disability status, relationship quality, and support that parents provide offspring. Results. Offspring provided parents with emotional support and listening more often than other forms of support. Offspring reported providing more frequent support than parents reported receiving. We examined factors associated with support using multilevel models. Both offspring and parents reported more frequent support provided to parents when they had higher quality relationships and when parents gave more frequent support to offspring. Offspring (but not parents) reported providing more frequent support to parents when parents were disabled. Discussion. Findings are consistent with solidarity theory, which suggests that high-quality relationships may explain support. The concept of self-enhancement and generativity in middle-aged parents may explain the intergenerational differences in the association between parental disability and support. PMID:24162441

  16. Gender-related differences in susceptibility to oxidative stress in healthy middle-aged Serbian adults.

    PubMed

    Topic, Aleksandra; Malic, Zivka; Francuski, Djordje; Stankovic, Marija; Markovic, Bojan; Soskic, Blagoje; Tomic, Branko; Ilic, Stefan; Dobrivojevic, Snezana; Drca, Sanja; Radojkovic, Dragica

    2016-03-01

    Gender-related differences in the association between polymorphism of xenobiotic-metabolising enzymes or non-genetic biomarkers and susceptibility to oxidative stress was assessed in healthy middle-aged Serbian adults, by urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG/creatinine) and total antioxidant status in serum (TAOS). Females were more susceptible to oxidative stress. In both genders, positive predictor of the antioxidative protection was serum triglyceride, while BMI <25 kg/m(2) was associated with oxidative stress. Susceptibility to oxidative stress in males was associated with GSTT1*null allele and increased serum iron, but in females, it was decreased serum bilirubin. Early identification of the risk factors could be important in the prevention of oxidative stress-related diseases. PMID:26754535

  17. Sudden Cardiac Arrest During Sports Activity in Middle Age

    PubMed Central

    Marijon, Eloi; Uy-Evanado, Audrey; Reinier, Kyndaron; Teodorescu, Carmen; Narayanan, Kumar; Jouven, Xavier; Gunson, Karen; Jui, Jonathan; Chugh, Sumeet S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Sports-associated sudden cardiac arrests (SCAs) occur mostly during middle age. We sought to determine burden, characteristics, and outcomes of SCA during sports among middle aged residents of a large US community. Methods and Results SCA cases aged 35–65 years were identified in a large, prospective, population-based study (2002–2013), with systematic and comprehensive assessment of their lifetime medical history. Of the 1,247 SCA cases, 63 (5%) occurred during sports activities at a mean age of 51.1±8.8 years, yielding an incidence of 21.7 (95%CI 8.1–35.4) per million per year. The incidence varied significantly based on sex, with a higher incidence among men (RR 18.68 95%CI 2.50–139.56) for sports SCA, as compared to all other SCA (RR 2.58, 95%CI 2.12–3.13). Sports SCA was also more likely to be a witnessed event (87 vs. 53%, P<0.001), with cardiopulmonary resuscitation (44 vs. 25%, P=0.001) and ventricular fibrillation (84 vs. 51%, P<0.0001). Survival to hospital discharge was higher for sports-associated SCA (23.2 vs. 13.6%, P=0.04). Sports SCA cases presented with known pre-existing cardiac disease in 16%, ≥1 cardiovascular risk factor in 56%, and overall, 36% of cases had typical cardiovascular symptoms during the week preceding SCA. Conclusions Sports-associated SCA in middle age represents a relatively small proportion of the overall SCA burden, reinforcing the idea of the high benefit-low risk nature of sports activity. Especially in light of current population aging trends, our findings emphasize that targeted education could maximize both safety and acceptance of sports activity in the older athlete. PMID:25847988

  18. Chronic Ampakine Treatments Stimulate Dendritic Growth and Promote Learning in Middle-Aged Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lauterborn, Julie C.; Palmer, Linda C.; Jia, Yousheng; Pham, Danielle T.; Hou, Bowen; Wang, Weisheng; Trieu, Brian H.; Cox, Conor D.; Kantorovich, Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    Positive allosteric modulators of AMPA-type glutamate receptors (ampakines) have been shown to rescue synaptic plasticity and reduce neuropathology in rodent models of cognitive disorders. Here we tested whether chronic ampakine treatment offsets age-related dendritic retraction in middle-aged (MA) rats. Starting at 10 months of age, rats were housed in an enriched environment and given daily treatment with a short half-life ampakine or vehicle for 3 months. Dendritic branching and spine measures were collected from 3D reconstructions of Lucifer yellow-filled CA1 pyramidal cells. There was a substantial loss of secondary branches, relative to enriched 2.5-month-old rats, in apical and basal dendritic fields of vehicle-treated, but not ampakine-treated, 13-month-old rats. Baseline synaptic responses in CA1 were only subtly different between the two MA groups, but long-term potentiation was greater in ampakine-treated rats. Unsupervised learning of a complex environment was used to assess treatment effects on behavior. Vehicle- and drug-treated rats behaved similarly during a first 30 min session in the novel environment but differed markedly on subsequent measures of long-term memory. Markov sequence analysis uncovered a clear increase in the predictability of serial movements between behavioral sessions 2 and 3 in the ampakine, but not vehicle, group. These results show that a surprising degree of dendritic retraction occurs by middle age and that this can be mostly offset by pharmacological treatments without evidence for unwanted side effects. The functional consequences of rescue were prominent with regard to memory but also extended to self-organization of behavior. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Brain aging is characterized by a progressive loss of dendritic arbors and the emergence of impairments to learning-related synaptic plasticity. The present studies show that dendritic losses are evident by middle age despite housing in an enriched environment and can be

  19. The Relationship between Type D Personality and Suicidality in Low-Income, Middle-Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Dae Hyun; Kim, Seog Ju; Lee, Jong-Ha; Kim, Pyo-Min; Park, Doo-Heum; Ryu, Seung Ho; Yu, Jaehak

    2015-01-01

    Objective Low-income adults are considered to be a group at high risk for suicide. We sought to examine the effect of type D personality and other socio-demographic factors on suicidality in low-income, middle-aged Koreans. Methods In total, 306 low-income, middle-aged Koreans [age: 49.16±5.24 (40-59) years, 156 males, 150 females] were enrolled from the Korean National Basic Livelihood Security System. Socio-demographic data, including employment status, income, health, marital status, and educational attainment, were gathered. Beck's 19-item Scale for Suicidal Ideation (SSI) was applied to evaluate suicidality, and the DS14 was used to assess type D personality. Results Unemployment (p<0.01) and absence of spouse (p=0.03) predicted higher SSI scores independent of other socioeconomic factors. All type D personality scores [i.e., negative affectivity (NA), social inhibition (SI), and total score] predicted higher SSI scores independent of all socioeconomic factors (all, p<0.001). Subjects with type D personality had higher SSI scores (p<0.001), and the association between suicidality and socio-demographic factors (employment or physical health) could be found only in subjects without type D personality. Conclusion Type D personality was a risk factor for suicide in low-income Koreans, independently from socio-economic factors. In addition, the socio-demographic factors were less prominently associated with suicidality in those with type D personality. PMID:25670941

  20. Risk Factors for Urinary Incontinence among Middle-aged Women

    PubMed Central

    DANFORTH, Kim N.; TOWNSEND, Mary K.; LIFFORD, Karen; CURHAN, Gary C.; RESNICK, Neil M.; GRODSTEIN, Francine

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Identify risk factors for urinary incontinence in middle-aged women. Study Design: Cross-sectional analysis of 83,355 Nurses' Health Study II participants. Since 1989, women have provided health information on mailed questionnaires; in 2001, at age 37-54 years, information on urinary incontinence was requested. We examined adjusted odds ratios of incontinence using logistic regression. Results: 43% of women reported incontinence. After adjustment, African-American (OR=0.49, 95% CI 0.40-0.60) and Asian-American women (OR=0.57, 95% CI 0.46-0.72) were at reduced odds of severe incontinence compared to Caucasians. Increased age, body mass index, and parity were all positively associated with incontinence, as were current smoking, type 2 diabetes, and hysterectomy. Women aged 50-54 years had 1.81 times the odds of severe incontinence compared to women <40 years (95% CI 1.66-1.97); women with BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 had 3.10 times the odds of severe incontinence compared to BMI 22-24 kg/m2 (95% CI 2.91-3.30). Conclusions: Urinary incontinence is highly prevalent among these middle-aged women. Potential risk factors include age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, parity, smoking, diabetes, and hysterectomy. PMID:16458626

  1. Anoxygenic photosynthesis modulated Proterozoic oxygen and sustained Earth's middle age

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, D. T.; Wolfe-Simon, F.; Pearson, A.; Knoll, A. H.

    2009-01-01

    Molecular oxygen (O2) began to accumulate in the atmosphere and surface ocean ca. 2,400 million years ago (Ma), but the persistent oxygenation of water masses throughout the oceans developed much later, perhaps beginning as recently as 580–550 Ma. For much of the intervening interval, moderately oxic surface waters lay above an oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) that tended toward euxinia (anoxic and sulfidic). Here we illustrate how contributions to primary production by anoxygenic photoautotrophs (including physiologically versatile cyanobacteria) influenced biogeochemical cycling during Earth's middle age, helping to perpetuate our planet's intermediate redox state by tempering O2 production. Specifically, the ability to generate organic matter (OM) using sulfide as an electron donor enabled a positive biogeochemical feedback that sustained euxinia in the OMZ. On a geologic time scale, pyrite precipitation and burial governed a second feedback that moderated sulfide availability and water column oxygenation. Thus, we argue that the proportional contribution of anoxygenic photosynthesis to overall primary production would have influenced oceanic redox and the Proterozoic O2 budget. Later Neoproterozoic collapse of widespread euxinia and a concomitant return to ferruginous (anoxic and Fe2+ rich) subsurface waters set in motion Earth's transition from its prokaryote-dominated middle age, removing a physiological barrier to eukaryotic diversification (sulfide) and establishing, for the first time in Earth's history, complete dominance of oxygenic photosynthesis in the oceans. This paved the way for the further oxygenation of the oceans and atmosphere and, ultimately, the evolution of complex multicellular organisms. PMID:19805080

  2. Tranquillizer use in middle-aged British men

    PubMed Central

    Cummins, R. O.; Cook, D. G.; Hume, R. C.; Shaper, A. G.

    1982-01-01

    We have examined the use of tranquillizers by 7,735 middle-aged men currently enrolled in the British Regional Heart Study, a prospective study of cardiovascular disease in 24 towns throughout Great Britain. Tranquillizer use was reported by 620 men (8 per cent). There was a slightly greater prevalence of tranquillizer use in the older men and the non-manual workers. Men with physical disease diagnosed by their doctor or by objective measurements during the study were more likely to be using tranquillizers than men with no physical disease. This was most evident for ischaemic heart disease, however diagnosed, and for hypertension diagnosed by their doctors. There was an inverse relationship between drinking and tranquillizer usage: heavy drinkers had lower rates of usage. There was no association between tranquillizer use and smoking habits. This study indicates that tranquillizer use in these middle-aged men is little influenced by age, social class or smoking, but that there is a strong, positive association between tranquillizer use and the presence of doctor-diagnosed physical disease. While our data provide support for the suggestion that alcohol and tranquillizers may be used interchangeably by some individuals, this finding could also be an outcome of doctors' and patients' awareness of the undesirable effects of combining alcohol and tranquillizers. PMID:7153975

  3. Transient rapamycin treatment can increase lifespan and healthspan in middle-aged mice.

    PubMed

    Bitto, Alessandro; Ito, Takashi K; Pineda, Victor V; LeTexier, Nicolas J; Huang, Heather Z; Sutlief, Elissa; Tung, Herman; Vizzini, Nicholas; Chen, Belle; Smith, Kaleb; Meza, Daniel; Yajima, Masanao; Beyer, Richard P; Kerr, Kathleen F; Davis, Daniel J; Gillespie, Catherine H; Snyder, Jessica M; Treuting, Piper M; Kaeberlein, Matt

    2016-01-01

    The FDA approved drug rapamycin increases lifespan in rodents and delays age-related dysfunction in rodents and humans. Nevertheless, important questions remain regarding the optimal dose, duration, and mechanisms of action in the context of healthy aging. Here we show that 3 months of rapamycin treatment is sufficient to increase life expectancy by up to 60% and improve measures of healthspan in middle-aged mice. This transient treatment is also associated with a remodeling of the microbiome, including dramatically increased prevalence of segmented filamentous bacteria in the small intestine. We also define a dose in female mice that does not extend lifespan, but is associated with a striking shift in cancer prevalence toward aggressive hematopoietic cancers and away from non-hematopoietic malignancies. These data suggest that a short-term rapamycin treatment late in life has persistent effects that can robustly delay aging, influence cancer prevalence, and modulate the microbiome. PMID:27549339

  4. Nonbelieved memories in middle-aged and older people.

    PubMed

    Brédart, Serge; Bouffier, Marion

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies have reported that young participants typically date events that they remember, but no longer believe they experienced, to the period of childhood. The present study investigated whether participants aged between 40 and 79years dated events related to relinquished memories to the period of childhood, as do younger people, or whether they dated such events to a period later in life. The study also compared believed and nonbelieved memories with respect to memory perspective (1st vs 3rd person perspective). Results indicated that the majority of middle-aged and older people dated nonbelieved memories to the period of childhood (median age=8years). No correlation was found between the participants' current age and their age at the time the nonbelieved event occurred. In addition, results showed that believed memories were more likely to be retrieved from a 1st person perspective than were nonbelieved memories. PMID:27136268

  5. Reconstruction of skull defects in the middle ages and renaissance.

    PubMed

    Missori, Paolo; Currà, Antonio; Paris, Harry S; Peschillo, Simone; Fattapposta, Francesco; Paolini, Sergio; Domenicucci, Maurizio

    2015-06-01

    In Egyptian, Greco-Roman, and Arabic medicine, the closure of a skull defect was not provided at the end of a therapeutic trepanation or in cases of bone removal. The literature from the Middle Ages and Renaissance disclosed some striking and forgotten practices. Gilbertus Anglicus (c. 1180 to c. 1250) cites the use of a piece of a cup made from wooden bowl (ciphum or mazer) or a gold sheet to cover the gap and protect the brain in these patients; this citation probably reflected a widely known folk practice. Pietro d'Argellata introduced the use of a fixed piece of dried gourd for brain protection to reconstruct a skull defect. In the late Renaissance, the negative folklore describing this outlandish practice likely led to the use of silver and lead sheets. Nevertheless, for centuries, large numbers of surgeons preferred to leave the dura mater uncovered after bone removal, and failed to apply any brain protection. PMID:25403799

  6. History of allergy in the middle ages and renaissance.

    PubMed

    Ring, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    In the Middle Ages little innovative medical literature came from Western Europe. The Greek-Roman tradition with the scriptures of Hippocrates and Galenos was preserved in Byzantium and then in the Middle East by Arabic medicine; it then returned to Europe in Latin translations mostly made in Italy and Spain. There were innovative developments in Arabic medicine also with regard to the history of allergy, especially with the first description of 'rose fever', which is described as very similar in symptomatology to hay fever. Under Arabic influence, the first medical university in Salerno was famous for its well-known text Tacuinum sanitatis in which a description of asthma can be found. With the beginning of renaissance new developments were also registered in Europe, with new observations and a new way of thinking. PMID:24925380

  7. The Transnationalism of Nephrological Treatises during the Middle Ages.

    PubMed

    Diamandopoulos, Athanasios

    2016-02-01

    The paper presents the history of the dissemination of knowledge about renal issues during the Middle Ages based on the transfer of manuscripts from the centres of knowledge of the then known world to the periphery. Starting from the Greco-Roman world it follows the transfer of manuscripts and ideas via three main roads. Firstly, the North Road extends till the remote Ireland on the West and Russia to the East, secondly, the South Road reaching Arabia and Central Africa and thirdly, the East Road otherwise named the Silk Road. Emphasis is given to the role of monks (Greek Orthodox, Catholics, and Taoists) and the Arab intellectuals. The ways by which this transport materialized and the people involved (merchants, pilgrims, soldiers) is also discussed. Allowances are made for the merging of historical and mythological data, all of which represent the way society then was viewing the kidney, its role and its ailments. PMID:26913872

  8. Vision impairment and dual sensory problems in middle age

    PubMed Central

    Dawes, Piers; Dickinson, Christine; Emsley, Richard; Bishop, Paul; Cruickshanks, Karen; Edmondson-Jones, Mark; McCormack, Abby; Fortnum, Heather; Moore, David R.; Norman, Paul; Munro, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Vision and hearing impairments are known to increase in middle age. In this study we describe the prevalence of vision impairment and dual sensory impairment in UK adults aged 40 to 69 years in a very large and recently ascertained data set. The associations between vision impairment, age, sex, socioeconomic status, and ethnicity are reported. Methods This research was conducted using the UK Biobank Resource, with subsets of UK Biobank data analysed with respect to self-report of eye problems and glasses use. Better-eye visual acuity with habitually worn refractive correction was assessed with a logMAR chart (n = 116,682). Better-ear speech reception threshold was measured with an adaptive speech in noise test, the Digit Triplet Test (n = 164,770). Prevalence estimates were weighted with respect to UK 2001 Census data. Results Prevalence of mild visual impairment and low vision was estimated at 15.2% (95% CI 14.9–15.5%) and 0.9% (95% CI 0.8–1.0%), respectively. Use of glasses was 88.0% (95% CI 87.9–88.1%). The prevalence of dual sensory impairment was 3.1% (95% CI 3.0–3.2%) and there was a nine-fold increase in the prevalence of dual sensory problems between the youngest and oldest age groups. Older adults, those from low socioeconomic and ethnic minority backgrounds were most at risk for vision problems. Conclusions Mild vision impairment is common in middle aged UK adults, despite widespread use of spectacles. Possible barriers to optometric care for those from low socioeconomic and ethnic minority backgrounds may require attention. A higher than expected prevalence of dual impairment suggests that hearing and vision problems share common causes. Optometrists should consider screening for hearing problems, particularly among older adults. PMID:24888710

  9. Reversal of age-associated cognitive deficits is accompanied by increased plasticity-related gene expression after chronic antidepressant administration in middle-aged mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Abdourahman, Aicha; Tamm, Joseph A; Pehrson, Alan L; Sánchez, Connie; Gulinello, Maria

    2015-08-01

    Cognitive decline occurs during healthy aging, even in middle-aged subjects, via mechanisms that could include reduced stem cell proliferation, changed growth factor expression and/or reduced expression of synaptic plasticity genes. Although antidepressants alter these mechanisms in young rodents, their effects in older animals are unclear. In middle-aged mice, we examined the effects of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (fluoxetine) and a multimodal antidepressant (vortioxetine) on cognitive and affective behaviors, brain stem cell proliferation, growth factor and gene expression. Twelve-month-old female C57BL/6 mice exhibited impaired visuospatial memory in the novel object placement (location) task associated with reduced expression of several plasticity-related genes. Chronic treatment with vortioxetine, but not fluoxetine, improved visuospatial memory and reduced depression-like behavior in the forced swim test in middle-aged mice. Vortioxetine, but not fluoxetine, increased hippocampal expression of several neuroplasticity-related genes in middle-aged mice (e.g., Nfkb1, Fos, Fmr1, Camk2a, Arc, Shank1, Nlgn2, and Rab3a). Neither drug reversed the age-associated decrease in stem cell proliferation. Hippocampal growth factor levels were not consistent with behavioral outcomes. Thus, a change in the expression of multiple genes involved in neuronal plasticity by antidepressant treatment was associated with improved cognitive function and a reduction in depression-like behavior in middle-aged mice. PMID:26046533

  10. Health benefits of dancing activity among Korean middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Jeong; Lee, Chul Won

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the health benefits of line dancing activity in Korean middle-aged women. This study explored how Korean middle-aged women perceive health benefits through lived experiences of line dancing in their leisure time. Three themes emerged related to health benefits: (1) psychological benefit, (2) physical benefit, and (3) social benefit. This finding suggested that serious leisure experience aids health enhancements in the lives of Korean middle-aged women. This study also discusses the research implication that continuous participation in leisure activity is necessary for health improvement in Korean middle-aged women. PMID:27389818

  11. Health benefits of dancing activity among Korean middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Jeong; Lee, Chul Won

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the health benefits of line dancing activity in Korean middle-aged women. This study explored how Korean middle-aged women perceive health benefits through lived experiences of line dancing in their leisure time. Three themes emerged related to health benefits: (1) psychological benefit, (2) physical benefit, and (3) social benefit. This finding suggested that serious leisure experience aids health enhancements in the lives of Korean middle-aged women. This study also discusses the research implication that continuous participation in leisure activity is necessary for health improvement in Korean middle-aged women. PMID:27389818

  12. Parental Identity and Its Relation to Parenting and Psychological Functioning in Middle Age

    PubMed Central

    Fadjukoff, Päivi; Pulkkinen, Lea; Lyyra, Anna-Liisa; Kokko, Katja

    2016-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective. This article focuses on identity as a parent in relation to parenting and psychological functioning in middle age. Design. Drawn from the Jyväskylä Longitudinal Study of Personality and Social Development, 162 participants (53% females) with children (age 36), represented the Finnish age-cohort born in 1959. Parental identity was assessed at ages 36, 42, and 50. Results. In both women and men, parental identity achievement increased from age 36 to 42 and remained stable to 50. The level of parental identity achievement was higher in women than in men. Achievement was typical for women and foreclosure for men. Participants’ education, occupational status, and number of offspring were not related to parental identity status. As expected, parental identity achievement was associated with authoritative (indicated by higher nurturance and parental knowledge about the child’s activities) parenting style. No significant associations emerged between parental identity foreclosure and restrictiveness as an indicator of authoritarian parenting style. The diffused men outscored others in parental stress. Achieved parental identity was related to generativity in both genders and to higher psychological and social well-being in men. Conclusions. At present, many parenting programs are targeted to young parents. This study highlighted the importance of a later parenting phase at around age 40, when for many, the children are approaching puberty. Therefore, parenting programs and support should also be designed for middle-aged parents. Specifically men may need additional support for their active consideration and engagement in the fathering role. © Päivi Fadjukoff, Lea Pulkkinen, Anna-Liisa Lyyra, and Katja Kokko This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-No Derivatives License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and

  13. Expiratory muscle endurance in middle-aged healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Orozco-Levi, M; Gea, J; Ferrer, A; Mendez, R; Ramírez-Sarmiento, A; Maldonado, D; Broquetas, J

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate expiratory muscle endurance in middle-aged healthy subjects using incremental as well as constant expiratory loads, 14 healthy volunteers (51 +/- 16 years) were submitted to a specific endurance test, which was performed breathing against a threshold valve, and was divided into two parts. In part I, the load was progressively increased (50 g each 2 min) until task failure occurred. The mean mouth pressure generated against the highest load held for at least 60 sec was defined as the maximal expiratory sustainable pressure (Pth(max)). In part II, each subject breathed against a constant submaximal expiratory load (80% Pth(max)) until task failure occurred (expiratory endurance time or Tth(80)). Both parts of the test were repeated 24-48 h later. Progressive expiratory loading induced a linear increase in mouth expiratory pressure and the Pth(max) obtained was 141 +/- 43 cm H(2)O, representing 74 +/- 28% of the maximal expiratory pressure (PE(max)). Under constant loads, the Tth(80) was 17 +/- 9 min. At the end-point of both parts, the tension time index for expiratory muscles was dramatically increased (>0.25), and both EMG central frequency and PE(max) were decreased with no changes in maximal inspiratory pressure or inspiratory capacity. Extreme dyspnea was present in most of the subjects but no complications were observed. The endurance of expiratory muscles can be easily assessed in healthy subjects using this method, which has acceptable reproducibility and tolerance. PMID:11733852

  14. Wizards and scientists: the pharmacologic experience in the Middle Ages.

    PubMed

    Rossi, F; Mangrella, M; Loffreda, A; Lampa, E

    1994-01-01

    During the Dark ages, Greco-Roman science survived in the eastern Roman Empire and the most important advances in pharmacology and pharmacy were made in Byzantium. As the Arab empires spread in the 7th and 8th centuries, they incorporated earlier learning, and the most important contribution of Arabic medical writers was probably the introduction of formularies to aid in the preparation of medicines. In turn, the later spread of Arabic knowledge to the West introduced little-known plants and fostered an interest in collecting and cultivating them, and also introduced the palatable dose forms preferred by the Arabic doctors. In the West, however, the Christian Church taught a doctrine of unquestioning faith, and despite the centers of learning, e.g. at Salerno, most ordinary people depended on the healing power of faith, religious relics and traditional folk medicine. Hydrology was also well developed in the Middle Ages. The formularia that survive describe many indigenous plants, but with few illustrations. Their gathering and preparation is generally guided by magic ceremonies and ritual, and plants often took their properties from their habitat, e.g. the wayside plantain was thought good for tired or wounded feet. Concepts of therapeutic plants were also influenced by alchemy and were linked to related metals and planets. PMID:7847474

  15. Prevalence of ischaemic heart disease in middle aged British men.

    PubMed Central

    Shaper, A G; Cook, D G; Walker, M; Macfarlane, P W

    1984-01-01

    The prevalence of ischaemic heart disease was determined by an administered questionnaire and electrocardiography in 7735 men aged 40-59 years drawn at random from general practices in 24 British towns. Overall, one quarter of these men had some evidence of ischaemic heart disease on questionnaire or electrocardiogram or both. On questionnaire, 14% of men had possible myocardial infarction or angina, with considerable overlap of the two syndromes. The prevalence of possible myocardial infarction combined with angina and of definite angina only showed a fourfold increase over the age range studied. Electrocardiographic evidence of ischaemic heart disease (definite or possible) was present in 15% of men, there being myocardial infarction in 4.2% and myocardial ischaemia in 10.3%. Electrocardiographic evidence of myocardial infarction increased fourfold over the age range studied. There was considerable overlap of questionnaire and electrocardiographic evidence of ischaemic heart disease. Nevertheless, more than half of those with possible myocardial infarction combined with angina had no resting electrocardiographic evidence of ischaemic heart disease, and half of those with definite myocardial infarction on electrocardiogram had no history of chest pain at any time. This national population based study strongly suggests that the prevalence of ischaemic heart disease in middle aged British men is greater than has been indicated by previous studies based on occupational groups. PMID:6732989

  16. Body dissatisfaction among middle-aged and older women.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Catherine; Lengyel, Christina; Utioh, Alphonsus

    2012-01-01

    With the growing pervasiveness of mass media, individuals of all ages and both sexes are bombarded with images that glorify youthfulness, messages that tie self-worth to thinness, and products that promise youth and beauty forever. Aging women are vulnerable to these societal messages and experience strong pressures to maintain their youth and thinness. As the physiological changes that accompany normal aging move these women farther from the "ideal" image, body dissatisfaction may increase. These women are confronted with the impossible task of trying to defy the natural process of aging through a variety of means, including fashion, cosmetics, selective surgeries, and personal food choices. The resulting body image issues, weight preoccupation, and eating disturbances can lead to voluntary food restriction, depression, social withdrawal, lower self-esteem, and disordered eating, all of which can have a negative impact on quality of life and nutritional status. In this review we explore existing research on body dissatisfaction among middle-aged (30 to 60) and older (over 60) women, discuss the prevalence of body dissatisfaction, its predisposing risk factors, and the resulting eating and body maintenance behaviours, and examine implications for dietetic practice. PMID:22668843

  17. Effects of Endurance Jogging on Cardiovascular System and Body Composition in Middle-Aged Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooshi, Ali

    This study investigated the effects of 30 minutes of endurance jogging on pulse rates at rest, during exercise, and at recovery and eight skinfold fat measures in middle-aged women. Subjects were 15 middle-aged women between 30 and 58 years of age who had not been engaged in any exercise program at least for 1 year. Eight sedentary subjects were…

  18. Middle Age: A Review of the Literature and Its Implications for Educational Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriam, Sharan

    1978-01-01

    Reviews the research and theory related to middle age. The literature survey is divided into three parts: (1) When is middle aged?; (2) What are its psychosocial dynamics?; and (3) Is there a mid-life crisis? Suggests implications for educational practice. (Author/CSS)

  19. Why Stroke in Middle Age Is More Deadly for Blacks Than Whites

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stroke in Middle Age Is More Deadly for Blacks Than Whites Attacks come more frequently for blacks at this early age, research shows To use ... a stroke -- is the reason why middle-aged black Americans are more likely to die from a ...

  20. Memory Deficits Are Associated with Impaired Ability to Modulate Neuronal Excitability in Middle-Aged Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaczorowski, Catherine C.; Disterhoft, John F.

    2009-01-01

    Normal aging disrupts hippocampal neuroplasticity and learning and memory. Aging deficits were exposed in a subset (30%) of middle-aged mice that performed below criterion on a hippocampal-dependent contextual fear conditioning task. Basal neuronal excitability was comparable in middle-aged and young mice, but learning-related modulation of the…

  1. Perceptions and Attitudes toward Sexuality of the Elderly during the Middle Ages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covey, Herbert C.

    1989-01-01

    Examines literature, art, and historical works to identify major historical themes from European Middle Ages regarding sexuality of the elderly. Proposes that thoughts on the ages of life excluded the elderly from having normal sex lives. Suggests that the church of the Middle Ages defined sexual behavior by the elderly as immoral. (Author)

  2. "Not in the Middle Ages"?: Alan Garner's "The Owl Service" and the Literature of Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardwick, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Discusses connecting with the Middle Ages in adolescent fiction. Discusses how, in "The Owl Service," Garner addresses a relationship between adolescence in the late twentieth century and an aspect of the past--specifically the Middle Ages. Considers how "The Owl Service" is a story energized by myth, concerning the participation of successive…

  3. Apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype and the pesticide chlorpyrifos modulate attention, motivation and impulsivity in female mice in the 5-choice serial reaction time task.

    PubMed

    Peris-Sampedro, Fiona; Reverte, Ingrid; Basaure, Pia; Cabré, Maria; Domingo, José L; Colomina, Maria Teresa

    2016-06-01

    Organophosphate pesticides - and chlorpyrifos (CPF) in particular - contribute to a wide range of neurobehavioural disorders. Most experimental research focuses on learning and memory processes, while other behaviours remain understudied. The isoforms of the human apolipoprotein E (apoE) confer different cognitive skills on their carriers, but data on this topic are still limited. The current study was performed to assess whether the APOE genotypic variability differently modulates the effects of CPF on attentional performance, inhibitory control and motivation. Human apoE targeted replacement adult female mice (apoE2, apoE3 and apoE4) were trained to stably perform the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT). Animals were then subjected to daily dietary CPF (3.75 mg/kg body weight) for 4 weeks. After CPF exposure, we established a 4-week CPF-free period to assess recovery. All individuals acquired the task, apoE2 mice showed enhanced learning, while apoE4 mice displayed increased premature and perseverative responding. This genotype-dependent lack of inhibitory control was reversed by CPF. Overall, the pesticide induced protracted impairments in sustained attention and motivation, and it reduced anticipatory responding. ApoE3 mice exhibited delayed attentional disruptions throughout the wash-out period. Taken together, these findings provide notable evidence on the emergence of CPF-related attentional and motivational deficits. PMID:27106138

  4. Correlation of liver enzymes with diabetes and pre-diabetes in middle-aged rural population in China.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jun-hui; Liu, Qian; Yang, Yan; Liu, Zhe-long; Hu, Shu-hong; Zhou, Xin-rong; Yuan, Gang; Zhang, Mu-xun; Tao, Jing; Yu, Xue-feng

    2016-02-01

    The survey aimed to explore the association of liver transaminases with the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and pre-diabetes (pre-DM) in the middle-aged rural population in China. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 800 middle-aged subjects who lived in rural area of central China. The 75-g oral glucose-tolerance test (OGTT) was performed. Participants were asked to complete physical examination and standard questionnaire. The serum liver transaminases (ALT and GGT), HbA1C and serum lipids were measured. In middle-aged rural population, the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), impaired fasting glucose combined with impaired glucose tolerance (IFG+IGT) and DM was 4.0%, 11.8%, 2.6% and 10.0%, respectively. Some measurements were higher in males than in females, such as waist hip ratio (WHR), blood pressure, fasting blood glucose (FBG), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), and liver enzymes (ALT and GGT). Further, we found that elevated serum GGT and ALT levels were significantly positively correlated with the prevalence of DM, independent of central obesity, serum lipid and insulin resistance (IR) in both genders. However, the correlation of GGT and ALT with pre-DM was determined by genders and characteristics of liver enzymes. Higher serum GGT was indicative of IGT in both genders. The association of serum ALT with pre-DM was significant only in female IGT group. In conclusion, our present survey shows both serum GGT and ALT are positively associated with DM, independent of the cardiovascular risk factors in both genders. PMID:26838740

  5. A middle-aged man with increasing body fat.

    PubMed

    Lam, J K Y; Lam, K S L; Chow, W S; Tan, K C B

    2014-08-01

    A 51-year-old man was referred for evaluation of gradual increase in body fat over bilateral arms, chest and abdomen for 6 months. He was a non-smoker and he drank at least four bottles of beer daily since the age of 18. There was no significant past medical history or any family history of obesity or endocrine diseases. Physical examination showed localized large bulk of fat over the neck, both arms and mammary regions, abdomen, and back (Figs  and ). The lower limbs and buttock were relatively spared. There was telangiectasia over the face and chest wall, but no palmar erythema nor finger clubbing. The liver span was normal, and the spleen tip was palpated 2 cm below the costal margin. Examination of the cardiovascular, respiratory and neurological system was normal. [Figure: see text] [Figure: see text] Blood tests showed thrombocytopenia (platelet 140 × 10(9)  L(-1) [normal: 170-380 × 10(9)  L(-1) ]) and liver function derangement (bilirubin 27 μmol L(-1) , ALP 298 U L(-1) , ALT 127 U L(-1) , AST 165 U L(-1) , GGT 1353 U L(-1) , albumin 33 g L(-1) and globulin 42 g L(-1) ). His clotting profile and renal functions were normal. His hepatitis B surface antigen was positive, but his HBV DNA was <60 copies per mL. Fasting glucose was 5.0 mmol L(-1) . HbA1c was 5.6%. His lipid profile was satisfactory with total cholesterol of 2.9 mmol L(-1) , triglycerides 1.0 mmol L(-1) , HDL-C 1.37 mmol L(-1) and LDL-C 1.1 mmol L(-1) . Ultrasound of the abdomen showed normal-sized liver with coarsened liver parenchymal echogenicity. The spleen was enlarged to 14 cm. This middle-aged man suffered from multiple symmetric lipomatosis and alcoholic liver disease. Dual-energy X-ray showed 1746 gm (40.1%), 1498 gm (32.8%) and 8322 gm (26.8%) fat over the left arm, right arm and trunk, respectively. The legs were unaffected with 1703 gm (19.4%) and 1627 gm (17.7%) fat over the left and right sides

  6. [Physiological changes in middle-aged persons and old people before and after tennis competition].

    PubMed

    Chai, Z; Long, Y; Zhan, C; Wu, Z; Wang, R; Tang, C; Zhou, L

    1992-09-01

    An examination of medical and physiological changes before and after tennis competition was performed on 71 middle-aged persons and old people in order to know whether they were adapted to this intense match or not. The result was that in the male group 1 (50-59 yrs), the heart rate, respiration rate and blood pressure before and after the tennis game had no significant differences (P > 0.05), indicating that this group was fit for the tennis competition, in the male group 2 (60-69 yrs) and male group 3 (70-79 yrs), as age advances, the number of unfitness to this game was increased gradually; in the female group (50-59 yrs), 28.5% of them showed a marked increase in the heart rate after the competition. We think that when persons have an electrocardiogram showing a significant undue changes of the ST segment and T wave after the contest, they are not suitable to this violent competition. So the medical surveillance is very important for the old people to play violent games such as tennis. The periodical health examination should be done before any exercise event with emphasis on the cardiovascular system so that the old sportsman can choose the proper exercise item and take self-control during the exercise. PMID:1304549

  7. Transient rapamycin treatment can increase lifespan and healthspan in middle-aged mice

    PubMed Central

    Bitto, Alessandro; Ito, Takashi K; Pineda, Victor V; LeTexier, Nicolas J; Huang, Heather Z; Sutlief, Elissa; Tung, Herman; Vizzini, Nicholas; Chen, Belle; Smith, Kaleb; Meza, Daniel; Yajima, Masanao; Beyer, Richard P; Kerr, Kathleen F; Davis, Daniel J; Gillespie, Catherine H; Snyder, Jessica M; Treuting, Piper M; Kaeberlein, Matt

    2016-01-01

    The FDA approved drug rapamycin increases lifespan in rodents and delays age-related dysfunction in rodents and humans. Nevertheless, important questions remain regarding the optimal dose, duration, and mechanisms of action in the context of healthy aging. Here we show that 3 months of rapamycin treatment is sufficient to increase life expectancy by up to 60% and improve measures of healthspan in middle-aged mice. This transient treatment is also associated with a remodeling of the microbiome, including dramatically increased prevalence of segmented filamentous bacteria in the small intestine. We also define a dose in female mice that does not extend lifespan, but is associated with a striking shift in cancer prevalence toward aggressive hematopoietic cancers and away from non-hematopoietic malignancies. These data suggest that a short-term rapamycin treatment late in life has persistent effects that can robustly delay aging, influence cancer prevalence, and modulate the microbiome. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16351.001 PMID:27549339

  8. Prevalence and predictors of habitual snoring in a sample of Saudi middle-aged adults

    PubMed Central

    Wali, Siraj O.; Abaalkhail, Bahaa A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of habitual snoring among a sample of middle-aged Saudi adults, and its potential predictors. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from March 2013 until June 2013 in randomly selected Saudi Schools in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The enrolled subjects were 2682 school employees (aged 30-60 years, 52.1% females) who were randomly selected and interviewed. The questionnaire used for the interview included: the Wisconsin Sleep Questionnaire to assess for snoring, medical history, and socio-demographic data. Anthropometric measurements and blood pressure readings were recorded using standard methods. Results: Forty percent of the 2682 enrolled subjects were snorers: 23.5% were habitual snorers, 16.6% were moderate snorers, and 59.9%, were non-snorers. A multivariate analysis revealed that independent predictors of snoring were ageing, male gender, daytime sleepiness, hypertension, family history of both snoring and obstructive sleep apnea, water-pipe smoking, and consanguinity. Conclusion: This study shows that snoring is a common condition among the Saudi population. Previously reported risk factors were reemphasized but consanguinity was identified as a new independent predictive risk factor of snoring. Exploring snoring history should be part of the clinical evaluation. PMID:26219441

  9. Serial Wars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Orsdel, Lee C.; Born, Kathleen

    2007-01-01

    In a year filled with drama and hyperbole, the serials marketplace churned toward a future whose shape is the subject of fierce debate. Forecasts from commercial publishers touting collapse and disaster seemed oddly out of sync with the profits they enjoyed--around 25 percent on average. Nevertheless, in a market where prices continued to rise and…

  10. Middle-Aged More Often Diagnosed with Late-Stage Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Middle-Aged More Often Diagnosed With Late-Stage Lung Cancer British study highlights the need for better early ... more likely to be diagnosed with late-stage lung cancer than those who are slightly older, a new ...

  11. Why Stroke in Middle Age Is More Deadly for Blacks Than Whites

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159167.html Why Stroke in Middle Age Is More Deadly for Blacks ... THURSDAY, June 2, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A higher stroke rate -- not differences in care after a stroke -- ...

  12. Functional Activation during the Rapid Visual Information Processing Task in a Middle Aged Cohort: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Neale, Chris; Johnston, Patrick; Hughes, Matthew; Scholey, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVIP) task, a serial discrimination task where task performance believed to reflect sustained attention capabilities, is widely used in behavioural research and increasingly in neuroimaging studies. To date, functional neuroimaging research into the RVIP has been undertaken using block analyses, reflecting the sustained processing involved in the task, but not necessarily the transient processes associated with individual trial performance. Furthermore, this research has been limited to young cohorts. This study assessed the behavioural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) outcomes of the RVIP task using both block and event-related analyses in a healthy middle aged cohort (mean age = 53.56 years, n = 16). The results show that the version of the RVIP used here is sensitive to changes in attentional demand processes with participants achieving a 43% accuracy hit rate in the experimental task compared with 96% accuracy in the control task. As shown by previous research, the block analysis revealed an increase in activation in a network of frontal, parietal, occipital and cerebellar regions. The event related analysis showed a similar network of activation, seemingly omitting regions involved in the processing of the task (as shown in the block analysis), such as occipital areas and the thalamus, providing an indication of a network of regions involved in correct trial performance. Frontal (superior and inferior frontal gryi), parietal (precuenus, inferior parietal lobe) and cerebellar regions were shown to be active in both the block and event-related analyses, suggesting their importance in sustained attention/vigilance. These networks and the differences between them are discussed in detail, as well as implications for future research in middle aged cohorts. PMID:26488289

  13. Exploring the complexities of body image experiences in middle age and older adult women within an exercise context: The simultaneous existence of negative and positive body images.

    PubMed

    Bailey, K Alysse; Cline, Lindsay E; Gammage, Kimberley L

    2016-06-01

    Despite many body changes that accompany the aging process, the extant research is limited on middle age and older adults' body image experiences. The purpose of the present study was to explore how body image is represented for middle age and older adult women. Using thematic analysis, 10 women over the age of 55 were interviewed within an exercise context. The following themes were found: body dissatisfaction, body satisfaction despite ageist stereotypes, neutral body image within cohort, and positive body image characteristics. Negative and positive body images were experienced simultaneously, with neutral experiences expressed as low levels of dissatisfaction. This supports the contention that negative and positive body images exist on separate continuums and neutral body image is likely on the same continuum as negative body image. Programs that foster a social support network to reduce negative body image and improve positive body image in older female populations are needed. PMID:26989980

  14. Inflammatory markers and cognitive function in middle-aged adults: the Whitehall II study

    PubMed Central

    Gimeno, David; Marmot, Michael G.; Singh-Manoux, Archana

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To assess whether C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) are associated with low cognitive performance and decline in middle-aged adults. Design/Setting The Whitehall II study; an ongoing large-scale, prospective occupational cohort study of employees from 20 London-based white-collar Civil Service departments. Participants Data from over 3000 males and 1200 female employees. Measures Inflammatory makers measured in 1991-93 and five cognitive tests (short-term verbal memory, inductive reasoning (AH4-I), vocabulary (Mill Hill), and phonemic and semantic fluency) performed in 1997-99 and 2002-04. Performance in the lowest sex-specific quintile indicated low cognitive performance or decline. Covariates included sociodemographics, health behaviours and health conditions. Results In age-adjusted analyses both CRP and IL-6 were associated with all cognitive measures in 1997-99, even though the association with memory was not consistent. After extensive adjustment raised CRP levels were only associated with poor cognitive performance on the AH4-I (OR=1.38; 95% CI: 1.05-1.82) and Mill Hill (OR=1.52; 95% CI: 1.14-2.03) and IL-6 on semantic fluency (OR=1.27; 95%CI: 1.14-2.03). Associations were more evident in men than in women. No clear relationship was observed for decline. Conclusions Our results suggest that raised levels of inflammatory markers in midlife are moderately associated with lower cognitive status, but little with cognitive decline. PMID:18774232

  15. Biomechanical alterations of gait termination in middle-aged and elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sangwoo; Yi, Jaehoon; Song, Changho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the biomechanical changes and patterns of the lower extremities after gait termination in middle-aged and elderly women. [Subjects] The study population comprised an elderly group and middle-aged group. [Methods] To collect kinematic and kinetic data related to gait termination, six infrared cameras and one force platform were used, and variables were calculated by using Visual 3D. [Results] During the termination phase, the elderly group generated less braking force than the middle-aged group. During initiation of the termination phase and after the center of gravity completely stopped moving, there was a difference between the two groups in the hip joint angle. During the termination phase, the maximum angular velocity and extension moment of the ankle joint and those of the knee joint were higher in the elderly group than in the middle-aged group. [Conclusion] In contrast to the middle-aged group that showed a rapid increase and then decrease of the initial extension moment during gait termination, the maximum extension moment that was created during the early stage of the termination phase in the elderly group continued until the center of gravity completely stopped. PMID:27134373

  16. The effects of dietary treatment with S-equol on learning and memory processes in middle-aged ovariectomized rats

    PubMed Central

    Neese, Steven L.; Pisani, Samantha L.; Doerge, Daniel R.; Helferich, William G.; Sepehr, Estatira; Chittiboyina, Amar G.; Rotte, Sateesh Chandra Kumar; Smillie, Troy J.; Khan, Ikhlas A.; Korol, Donna L.; Schantz, Susan L.

    2014-01-01

    The use of over-the-counter botanical estrogens containing isolated soy isoflavones, including genistein and daidzein, has become a popular alternative to traditional hormone therapies. Menopausal women use these products as an aide in healthy aging, including for the maintenance of cognitive function. The safety and efficacy of many of these commercial preparations remains unknown. Previous research in our lab found that treatment of ovariectomized (OVX) female Long-Evans rats with genistein impaired working memory in an operant delayed spatial alternation (DSA) task and response learning in a plus-maze, but enhanced place learning assessed in the plus-maze. The present study further examined the effects of isolated isoflavones on working memory and place learning by treating middle-aged (12–13 month old) OVX female Long-Evans rats with S-equol, the exclusive enantiomer produced by metabolism of daidzein in the mammalian gut. S-equol binds selectively to ERβ with an affinity similar to that of genistein but has low transcriptional potency. For DSA testing, S-equol at 1.94, 0.97 mg, or 0 mg (sucrose control) was orally administered to animals daily, 30 minutes before behavioral testing, and again both 4 and 8 hours after the first treatment. Rats were tested on the DSA task following the first, morning dose. For place learning, rats received 0.97 mg S-equol every 4 hours during the light portion of the cycle beginning 48 hours prior to behavioral testing (total exposure 8.7 mg S-equol). S-equol treatment was largely without effect on the DSA and place learning tasks. This is the first study to test the behavioral effects of isolated S-equol in OVX rodents, and shows that, unlike genistein or estradiol, repeated daily treatment with this isoflavone metabolite does not alter learning and memory processes in middle-aged OVX rats. PMID:24368316

  17. The Practice of Holy Fasting in the Late Middle Ages: A Psychiatric Approach.

    PubMed

    Espi Forcen, Fernando; Espi Forcen, Carlos

    2015-08-01

    During the Late Middle Ages, the practice of fasting among religious women in an attempt to follow a pious and ascetic life was common. In this paper, three cases of medieval religious women are described with a particular attention to the figure of St. Catherine of Siena, her life, popularity, and iconography. In the Middle Ages, holy fasting was characterized by a refusal to eat that could involve binging and purging, lack of menstruation, an interest in cooking for others, and in some cases death due to inanition. In the Medieval narratives of fasting holy women, we can see patterns that are compatible with symptoms of anorexia nervosa. From a psychiatric perspective, it is possible to elucidate and understand the practice of fasting among religious people in the Late Middle Ages. PMID:26133274

  18. Viking and Early Middle Ages Northern Scandinavian Textiles Proven to be made with Hemp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoglund, G.; Nockert, M.; Holst, B.

    2013-10-01

    Nowadays most plant textiles used for clothing and household are made of cotton and viscose. Before the 19th century however, plant textiles were mainly made from locally available raw materials, in Scandinavia these were: nettle, hemp and flax. It is generally believed that in Viking and early Middle Ages Scandinavia hemp was used only for coarse textiles (i.e. rope and sailcloth). Here we present an investigation of 10 Scandinavian plant fibre textiles from the Viking and Early Middle Ages, believed to be locally produced. Up till now they were all believed to be made of flax. We show that 4 textiles, including two pieces of the famous Överhogdal Viking wall-hanging are in fact made with hemp (in three cases hemp and flax are mixed). This indicates that hemp was important, not only for coarse but also for fine textile production in Viking and Early Middle Ages in Scandinavia.

  19. Viking and early Middle Ages northern Scandinavian textiles proven to be made with hemp.

    PubMed

    Skoglund, G; Nockert, M; Holst, B

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays most plant textiles used for clothing and household are made of cotton and viscose. Before the 19th century however, plant textiles were mainly made from locally available raw materials, in Scandinavia these were: nettle, hemp and flax. It is generally believed that in Viking and early Middle Ages Scandinavia hemp was used only for coarse textiles (i.e. rope and sailcloth). Here we present an investigation of 10 Scandinavian plant fibre textiles from the Viking and Early Middle Ages, believed to be locally produced. Up till now they were all believed to be made of flax. We show that 4 textiles, including two pieces of the famous Överhogdal Viking wall-hanging are in fact made with hemp (in three cases hemp and flax are mixed). This indicates that hemp was important, not only for coarse but also for fine textile production in Viking and Early Middle Ages in Scandinavia. PMID:24135914

  20. Factors associated with quality of life in middle-aged and older patients living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Fabiana; Canavarro, Maria Cristina; Pereira, Marco

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT HIV infection has been historically considered a disease of young adults; however, adults aged 50 years and older represent now an increasing proportion of HIV cases worldwide, including in Portugal. In this context, given the considerable burden associated with living with HIV, the topic of quality-of-life (QoL) assessment has become increasingly relevant. The aims of this study were to examine the age-related differences in QoL and depressive symptoms of younger and middle-aged and older adults with HIV as well as the sociodemographic, HIV-related and depressive symptoms (cognitive-affective and somatic) associated with QoL domains. The sample consisted of 1194 HIV-infected patients, recruited from 10 Portuguese hospitals. QoL data were collected using the WHOQOL-HIV-Bref questionnaire. Patients also completed the Beck Depression Inventory. Of the 1194 patients, 185 (15.5%) were over 50 years old. Middle-aged and older patients reported significantly lower QoL in the physical, independence and social relationships domains. Regarding the specific facets of QoL, middle-aged and older patients reported significantly lower scores in seven of the 29 specific facets of the WHOQOL-HIV-Bref and higher scores in one facet (financial resources). Overall, among middle-aged and older patients, higher education, being employed, a shorter time since HIV diagnosis, use of combination anti-retroviral therapy and fewer depressive symptoms were significantly associated with higher QoL ratings. Our findings suggest that both cognitive-affective and somatic depressive symptoms account for significant variability in QoL scores in middle-aged and older patients. Because an important feature of healthy ageing is maintaining QoL, these data may provide useful information for tailoring age-appropriate and effective interventions to improve the mental health and QoL of middle-aged and older patients living with HIV. PMID:26881294

  1. Correlates of Root Caries Experience in Middle-Aged and Older Adults within the Northwest PRECEDENT

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Donald L.; Berg, Joel H.; Kim, Amy S.; Scott, JoAnna

    2014-01-01

    STRUCTURED ABSTRACT Background We examined the correlates of root caries experience for middle-aged (ages 45–64 years) and older adults (ages 65+ years) to test the hypothesis that the factors related to root caries are different for middle-aged versus older adults. Methods This observational cross-sectional study focused on adult patients ages 45–97 years recruited from the Northwest PRECEDENT (N=775 adults). The outcome variable was any root caries experience (no/yes). Sociodemographic, intraoral, and behavioral factors were hypothesized as potential root caries correlates. We used Poisson regression models to generate overall and age-stratified prevalence ratios (PR) of root caries and Generalized Estimating Equations to account for practice-level clustering of participants. Results About 20% of adults had any root caries. Dentists’ assessment that the patient was at high risk for any caries was associated with greater prevalence of root caries experience in both middle-aged adults (PR=2.70, 95% CI: 1.63,4.46) and older adults (PR=1.87, 95% CI: 1.19,2.95). The following factors were significantly associated with increased root caries prevalence, but only for middle-aged adults: male sex (P=.02), self-reported dry mouth (P<.0001), exposed roots (P=.03), and increased frequency of eating or drinking between meals (P=.03). No other covariates were related to root caries experience for older adults. Conclusions Within a practice-based research network, the factors associated with root caries experience were different for middle-aged and older adults. Future work should identify relevant root caries correlates for adults ages 65+ years. Clinical Implications Interventions aimed at preventing root caries are likely to be different for middle-aged and older adults. Root caries prevention programs should address the appropriate aged-based risk factors. PMID:23633699

  2. Peripheral venous distension elicits a blood pressure raising reflex in young and middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Evan L; Brian, Michael S; Coyle, Dana E; Edwards, David G; Stocker, Sean D; Wenner, Megan M; Farquhar, William B

    2016-06-01

    Distension of peripheral veins in humans elicits a pressor and sympathoexcitatory response that is mediated through group III/IV skeletal muscle afferents. There is some evidence that autonomic reflexes mediated by these sensory fibers are blunted with increasing age, yet to date the venous distension reflex has only been studied in young adults. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that the venous distension reflex would be attenuated in middle-aged compared with young adults. Nineteen young (14 men/5 women, 25 ± 1 yr) and 13 middle-aged (9 men/4 women, 50 ± 2 yr) healthy normotensive participants underwent venous distension via saline infusion through a retrograde intravenous catheter in an antecubital vein during limb occlusion. Beat-by-beat blood pressure, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), and model flow-derived cardiac output (Q), and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were recorded throughout the trial. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) increased during the venous distension in both young (baseline 83 ± 2, peak 94 ± 3 mmHg; P < 0.05) and middle-aged adults (baseline 88 ± 2, peak 103 ± 3 mmHg; P < 0.05). MSNA also increased in both groups [young: baseline 886 ± 143, peak 1,961 ± 242 arbitrary units (AU)/min; middle-aged: baseline 1,164 ± 225, peak 2,515 ± 404 AU/min; both P < 0.05]. TPR (P < 0.001), but not Q (P = 0.76), increased during the trial. However, the observed increases in blood pressure, MSNA, and TPR were similar between young and middle-aged adults. Additionally, no correlation was found between age and the response to venous distension (all P > 0.05). These findings suggest that peripheral venous distension elicits a pressor and sympathetic response in middle-aged adults similar to the response observed in young adults. PMID:27053648

  3. Factors associated with quality of life in middle-aged and older patients living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Fabiana; Canavarro, Maria Cristina; Pereira, Marco

    2016-01-01

    HIV infection has been historically considered a disease of young adults; however, adults aged 50 years and older represent now an increasing proportion of HIV cases worldwide, including in Portugal. In this context, given the considerable burden associated with living with HIV, the topic of quality-of-life (QoL) assessment has become increasingly relevant. The aims of this study were to examine the age-related differences in QoL and depressive symptoms of younger and middle-aged and older adults with HIV as well as the sociodemographic, HIV-related and depressive symptoms (cognitive-affective and somatic) associated with QoL domains. The sample consisted of 1194 HIV-infected patients, recruited from 10 Portuguese hospitals. QoL data were collected using the WHOQOL-HIV-Bref questionnaire. Patients also completed the Beck Depression Inventory. Of the 1194 patients, 185 (15.5%) were over 50 years old. Middle-aged and older patients reported significantly lower QoL in the physical, independence and social relationships domains. Regarding the specific facets of QoL, middle-aged and older patients reported significantly lower scores in seven of the 29 specific facets of the WHOQOL-HIV-Bref and higher scores in one facet (financial resources). Overall, among middle-aged and older patients, higher education, being employed, a shorter time since HIV diagnosis, use of combination anti-retroviral therapy and fewer depressive symptoms were significantly associated with higher QoL ratings. Our findings suggest that both cognitive-affective and somatic depressive symptoms account for significant variability in QoL scores in middle-aged and older patients. Because an important feature of healthy ageing is maintaining QoL, these data may provide useful information for tailoring age-appropriate and effective interventions to improve the mental health and QoL of middle-aged and older patients living with HIV. PMID:26881294

  4. The history of bronchial asthma from the ancient times till the Middle Ages.

    PubMed

    Cserháti, E

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to give an overview of the knowledge on asthma through the history of mankind. The text begins with ancient China and it is finished with the medicine of Middle Age. During this time, a lot of theories came and this appeared about the etiology and therapy of the disease. The paper is giving a short description of the changing medical views during this very long period including China, Egypt Greco-roman period, Mesopotamia, the Hebrews, the physicians of India, the pre-Columbian medicine in the America and the Arabic world, and partly the European medicine of the Middle Ages. PMID:16438118

  5. [Wine and alcohol in apothecaries' shops during the Middle Ages in Southern countries].

    PubMed

    Bénézet, J P

    2001-01-01

    Alcohol, wine and their derivatives do not play during the Middle Ages the role they played during Antiquity. The reading of ancient authors by Arab doctors was probably at the origin of this lack of interest for wine. As ordinary wine, medicinal wines were a matter of conviviality more than of therapeutics. Vinegar was more often used, maybe because of its lack of inebriating properties. Alcohol, this mysterious product, was probably more pertinent in the area of alchemy. Doctors and pharmacists of the enlightened age gave it a new importance. The influence of Islam on Middle Age medicine in Christian occident could explain this lack of interest for wine. PMID:11944654

  6. Neuroimmune and Neuropathic Responses of Spinal Cord and Dorsal Root Ganglia in Middle Age

    PubMed Central

    Galbavy, William; Kaczocha, Martin; Puopolo, Michelino; Liu, Lixin; Rebecchi, Mario J.

    2015-01-01

    Prior studies of aging and neuropathic injury have focused on senescent animals compared to young adults, while changes in middle age, particularly in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG), have remained largely unexplored. 14 neuroimmune mRNA markers, previously associated with peripheral nerve injury, were measured in multiplex assays of lumbar spinal cord (LSC), and DRG from young and middle-aged (3, 17 month) naïve rats, or from rats subjected to chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve (after 7 days), or from aged-matched sham controls. Results showed that CD2, CD3e, CD68, CD45, TNF-α, IL6, CCL2, ATF3 and TGFβ1 mRNA levels were substantially elevated in LSC from naïve middle-aged animals compared to young adults. Similarly, LSC samples from older sham animals showed increased levels of T-cell and microglial/macrophage markers. CCI induced further increases in CCL2, and IL6, and elevated ATF3 mRNA levels in LSC of young and middle-aged adults. Immunofluorescence images of dorsal horn microglia from middle-aged naïve or sham rats were typically hypertrophic with mostly thickened, de-ramified processes, similar to microglia following CCI. Unlike the spinal cord, marker expression profiles in naïve DRG were unchanged across age (except increased ATF3); whereas, levels of GFAP protein, localized to satellite glia, were highly elevated in middle age, but independent of nerve injury. Most neuroimmune markers were elevated in DRG following CCI in young adults, yet middle-aged animals showed little response to injury. No age-related changes in nociception (heat, cold, mechanical) were observed in naïve adults, or at days 3 or 7 post-CCI. The patterns of marker expression and microglial morphologies in healthy middle age are consistent with development of a para-inflammatory state involving microglial activation and T-cell marker elevation in the dorsal horn, and neuronal stress and satellite cell activation in the DRG. These changes, however, did not

  7. Levothyroxine and Prednisone Causing Generalized Weakness in a Middle-Aged Man

    PubMed Central

    Word, Andrew; Davidson, Kevin; Elsayed, Essam

    2012-01-01

    Thyrotoxic induced hypokalemic periodic paralysis is a rare disorder that had been described in middle-aged men, predominantly Asians and Hispanics. This case presented with generalized weakness and hypokalemia after changing prescription for levothyroxine and starting prednisone to treat upper respiratory infection in a previously asymptomatic middle-aged Hispanic male. In this paper, we will go over the clinical presentation, mechanisms, and treatment of thyrotoxic induced hypokalemic periodic paralysis. Our objectives are to identify the classic constellation of findings in thyrotoxic periodic paralysis and to recognize the importance of considering thyrotoxic periodic paralysis among patients with hypokalemia. PMID:23119192

  8. [Healing of a mental patient in the late Middle Ages. Community therapy by Hildegard of Bingen].

    PubMed

    Schipperges, H

    1985-01-01

    An account is given of the case history of a woman afflicted with mental disease and its course of healing, as described in the works of St. Hildegard of Bingen. The therapy may be considered as an early attempt of "team work" in health care. For better understanding of this rather casuistic contribution to the medicine of the High Middle Ages some principles of mediaeval medicine are explained. The key figure of "melancolia" is thereby given a position of central importance for the understanding of psychic disturbances in the Middle Ages. PMID:3898621

  9. Differences in temporal order memory among young, middle-aged, and older adults may depend on the level of interference

    PubMed Central

    Rotblatt, Lindsay J.; Sumida, Catherine A.; Van Etten, Emily J.; Turk, Eva Pirogovsky; Tolentino, Jerlyn C.; Gilbert, Paul E.

    2015-01-01

    Age-related changes in temporal order memory have been well documented in older adults; however, little is known about this ability during middle age. We tested healthy young, middle-aged, and older adults on a previously published visuospatial temporal order memory test involving high and low interference conditions. When interference was low, young and middle-aged adults did not differ, but both groups significantly outperformed older adults. However, when interference was high, significant differences were found among all three age groups. The data provide evidence that temporal order memory may begin to decline in middle age, particularly when temporal interference is high. PMID:25852544

  10. Gender differences in factors associated with suicidal ideation and depressive symptoms among middle-aged workers in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Norio; Yasui-Furukori, Norio; Sasaki, Giro; Tanaka, Osamu; Umeda, Takashi; Takahashi, Ippei; Danjo, Kazuma; Matsuzaka, Masashi; Kaneko, Sunao; Nakaji, Shigeyuki

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess middle-aged Japanese workers for possible gender differences in the risk factors associated with depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. 5,878 workers (40-60 yr of age) (3,631 males and 2,247 females) were recruited from randomly selected companies in northern Japan. Demographic and lifestyle factors, suicidal ideation rate, and the data for the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire (BJSQ) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies for Depression scale (CES-D) were obtained from the self-report questionnaires. After adjusting for possible confounding variables, marital status, absent of stress reduction technique and low job compatibility were significant independent risk factors for suicidal ideation among males. In females, marital status, feeling of insufficient sleep and absence of stress reduction techniques were significant independent risk factors after adjusting for all variables. Under the same adjustments, temporary employment also showed a protective effect against female suicidal ideation. In conclusion, our results suggest that factors related to suicidal ideation differed by gender. Different approaches for each gender might be useful in the development of suicide prevention programs. However, interpretation of work-related effects, such as temporary employment, interpersonal conflict and transportation industry, was hampered by lack of data concerning personal income, working hours and organizational commitment. Additional studies are needed to examine the longitudinal relationships between the risk factors associated with suicidal ideation and depressive symptoms. PMID:23268835

  11. Functional Imaging of Working Memory and Peripheral Endothelial Function in Middle-Aged Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Mitzi M.; Tarumi, Takashi; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Sugawara, Jun; Swann-Sternberg, Tali; Goudarzi, Katayoon; Haley, Andreana P.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between a prognostic indicator of vascular health, flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and working memory-related brain activation in healthy middle-aged adults. Forty-two participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while completing a 2-Back working memory task. Brachial artery…

  12. A Twin Study of Spatial and Non-Spatial Delayed Response Performance in Middle Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kremen, William S.; Mai, Tuan; Panizzon, Matthew S.; Franz, Carol E.; Blankfeld, Howard M.; Xian, Hong; Eisen, Seth A.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Lyons, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Delayed alternation and object alternation are classic spatial and non-spatial delayed response tasks. We tested 632 middle-aged male veteran twins on variants of these tasks in order to compare test difficulty, measure their inter-correlation, test order effects, and estimate heritabilities (proportion of observed variance due to genetic…

  13. Brain activity during source memory retrieval in young, middle-aged and old adults.

    PubMed

    Cansino, Selene; Trejo-Morales, Patricia; Estrada-Manilla, Cinthya; Pasaye-Alcaraz, Erick Humberto; Aguilar-Castañeda, Erika; Salgado-Lujambio, Perla; Sosa-Ortiz, Ana Luisa

    2015-08-27

    We investigated neurofunctional changes associated with source memory decline across the adult life span using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Young, middle-aged and old adults carried out a natural/artificial judgment of images of common objects that were randomly presented in one of the quadrants of the screen. At retrieval, the images were displayed at the center of the screen and the participants judged whether each image was new or old and, if old, they indicated in which quadrant of the screen the image had originally been presented. Comparing the items associated with correct versus incorrect source judgments revealed that no regions showed greater activity in young adults than in middle-aged adults; however, in young and middle-aged adults the activity in the left hippocampus and left anterior temporal cortex was of greater magnitude than in the older adults. Several regions also exhibited greater activity in young adults than in old adults. These results suggest that in middle age the recollection neural network, assessable by fMRI, is still preserved. PMID:26054305

  14. New Ideas for Promoting Physical Activity among Middle Age and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godbey, Geoffrey; Burnett-Wolle, Sarah; Chow, Hsueh-Wen

    2007-01-01

    Promoting physical activity among middle age and older adults to decrease the incidence of disease and premature death and to combat the health care costs associated with a sedentary lifestyle is more important now than ever. There is now a better understanding of what "successful aging" means and of what aspects of life have the greatest…

  15. Middle-Aged Independent-Living African Americans' Selections for Advance Directives: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Brenda J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this collective embedded qualitative case study was to examine the perspectives of three middle-aged independent-living African Americans who had participated in the process of advance care planning (ACP) and completed at least two advance directives (ADs), a Durable Power of Attorney for Health Care (DPAHC) and a Living Will (LW).…

  16. Middle-Aged More Often Diagnosed with Late-Stage Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Middle-Aged More Often Diagnosed With Late-Stage Lung Cancer British study highlights the need for better early detection, researchers say To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. (*this news item will not ...

  17. High-Frequency, Moderate-Intensity Training in Sedentary Middle-Aged Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johannessen, S.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The effects of a five-day-a-week, moderate-intensity aerobic training program were studied in previously sedentary middle-aged women. After 10 weeks of graduated-length sessions of continuous exercise, the subjects showed a 20 percent improvement in maximal oxygen uptake but no change in body weight or composition. Results are discussed.…

  18. Middle-aged adults exhibit altered spatial variations in Achilles tendon wave speed

    PubMed Central

    Slane, Laura Chernak; DeWall, Ryan; Martin, Jack; Lee, Kenneth; Thelen, Darryl G.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate spatial variations in measured wave speed in the relaxed and stretched Achilles tendons of young and middle-aged adults. Wave speed was measured from the distal Achilles tendon, soleus aponeurosis, medial gastrocnemius aponeurosis and medial gastrocnemius muscle in healthy young (n = 15, aged 25 ± 4 years) and middle-aged (n = 10, aged 49 ± 4 years) adults in resting, dorsiflexed and plantarflexed postures. In both age groups, Achilles tendon wave speed decreased proximally, with the lowest wave speed measured in the gastrocnemius aponeurosis. Measured wave speed increased with passive dorsiflexion, reflecting the strain-stiffening behavior of tendons. There were no significant aging effects on wave speed in the free tendon or soleus aponeurosis. However, a significant, inverse relationship between gastrocnemius aponeurosis wave speed and age was observed in the dorsiflexed posture. We also observed significantly lower wave speeds in the gastrocnemius muscles of middle-aged adults when compared with young adults. These results suggest that Achilles tendon compliance increases in a distal-to-proximal pattern, with middle-aged adults exhibiting greater compliance in the distal gastrocnemius muscle and tendinous structures. An age-related change in the spatial variation in Achilles tendon compliance could affect localised tissue deformation patterns and injury potential within the triceps surae muscle-tendon units. PMID:26020294

  19. The Pearl of Great Price: Copyright and Authorship from the Middle Ages to the Digital Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltrick, Susan

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the evolution of authorship and copyright from the Middle Ages to the present. Highlights include the rise in literacy and increased demand; censorship and state-granted licenses; legislation; intellectual property and the means of production and dissemination as the basis for the publishing business; information access and copyright…

  20. Correlates of War-Induced Stress Responses among Later Middle-Aged and Elderly Israelis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prager, Edward; Solomon, Zahava

    1995-01-01

    Interviews 164 late middle-aged and elderly Israelis with respect to their emotional and behavioral reactions to Scud missile attacks in Israel during the Gulf War. Discusses findings in light of the uniquely subjective, interpretive context of stress phenomena, and the need to identify those variables that explain individual differences among…

  1. Attitudes toward Cosmetic Surgery in Middle-Aged Women: Body Image, Aging Anxiety, and the Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slevec, Julie; Tiggemann, Marika

    2010-01-01

    Our study investigated factors that influence attitudes toward cosmetic surgery in middle-aged women. A sample of 108 women, aged between 35 and 55 years, completed questionnaire measures of body dissatisfaction, appearance investment, aging anxiety, media exposure (television and magazine), and attitudes toward cosmetic surgery (delineated in…

  2. The Middle-Aging 'Eighties in San Diego: Prospects for Lifelong Learning. AIR Forum 1979 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Thomas R.

    The processes and kinds of sources used in comprehensive educational planning employing institutional research are described to serve as a guide to provide recurrent education for a middle-aged population. The concept of lifelong learning has been addressed by postsecondary institutions because the traditional-aged college population has been…

  3. Health Promoting Behaviors of Older Americans versus Young and Middle Aged Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Craig; Arnold, William

    2004-01-01

    Health promoting behaviors have become increasingly important as Americans attempt to retain their youth and health. This study collected self-reported data from 559 participants in the Southwest United States using the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile II to compare the health promoting behaviors of older adults (60-92 years), middle-aged adults…

  4. Health Promoting Behaviors of Older Americans Versus Young and Middle Aged Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Craig M.; Arnold, William

    2004-01-01

    Health promoting behaviors have become increasingly important as Americans attempt to retain their youth and health. This study collected self-reported data from 559 participants in the Southwest United States using the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile II to compare the health promoting behaviors of older adults (60-92 years), middle-aged adults…

  5. Family Economic Hardship and Progression of Poor Mental Health in Middle-Aged Husbands and Wives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickrama, K. A. S.; Surjadi, Florensia F.; Lorenz, Frederick O.; Conger, Rand D.; O'Neal, Catherine Walker

    2012-01-01

    Using prospective data from 370 middle-aged husbands and wives during a 12-year period, we investigated the intra-individual and dyadic influence of family economic hardship on the levels of depressive symptoms of husbands and wives over their middle years. The results suggest that family economic hardship during the early middle years contributes…

  6. Learning the Faith in England in the Later Middle Ages: Contributions of the Franciscan Friars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Kevin E.

    2012-01-01

    In popular understanding, the late Middle Ages has been viewed as a time of relative religious ignorance for both laity and clergy. Recent scholarship is indicating a more knowledgeable and vigorous faith experience in this time period. This article examines the major educational ministry renewal of the church in England following the Fourth…

  7. Middle age has a significant impact on gene expression during skin wound healing in male mice.

    PubMed

    Yanai, Hagai; Lumenta, David Benjamin; Vierlinger, Klemens; Hofner, Manuela; Kitzinger, Hugo-Benito; Kamolz, Lars-Peter; Nöhammer, Christa; Chilosi, Marco; Fraifeld, Vadim E

    2016-08-01

    The vast majority of research on the impact of age on skin wound healing (WH) compares old animals to young ones. The middle age is often ignored in biogerontological research despite the fact that many functions that decline in an age-dependent manner have starting points in mid-life. With this in mind, we examined gene expression patterns during skin WH in late middle-aged versus young adult male mice, using the head and back punch models. The rationale behind this study was that the impact of age would first be detectable at the transcriptional level. We pinpointed several pathways which were over-activated in the middle-aged mice, both in the intact skin and during WH. Among them were various metabolic, immune-inflammatory and growth-promoting pathways. These transcriptional changes were much more pronounced in the head than in the back. In summary, the middle age has a significant impact on gene expression in intact and healing skin. It seems that the head punch model is more sensitive to the effect of age than the back model, and we suggest that it should be more widely applied in aging research on wound healing. PMID:27241672

  8. Private Prayer and Optimism in Middle-Aged and Older Patients Awaiting Cardiac Surgery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ai, Amy L.; Peterson, Christopher; Bolling, Steven F.; Koenig, Harold

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the use of private prayer among middle-aged and older patients as a way of coping with cardiac surgery and prayer's relationship to optimism. Design and Methods: The measure of prayer included three aspects: (a) belief in the importance of private prayer, (b) faith in the efficacy of prayer on the basis of previous…

  9. Recurrent Sleep Fragmentation Induces Insulin and Neuroprotective Mechanisms in Middle-Aged Flies

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Michael J.; Perland, Emelie; Eriksson, Mikaela M.; Carlsson, Josef; Erlandsson, Daniel; Laan, Loora; Mahebali, Tabusi; Potter, Ella; Frediksson, Robert; Benedict, Christian; Schiöth, Helgi B.

    2016-01-01

    Lack of quality sleep increases central nervous system oxidative stress and impairs removal of neurotoxic soluble metabolites from brain parenchyma. During aging poor sleep quality, caused by sleep fragmentation, increases central nervous system cellular stress. Currently, it is not known how organisms offset age-related cytotoxic metabolite increases in order to safeguard neuronal survival. Furthermore, it is not understood how age and sleep fragmentation interact to affect oxidative stress protection pathways. We demonstrate sleep fragmentation increases systems that protect against oxidative damage and neuroprotective endoplasmic reticulum molecular chaperones, as well as neuronal insulin and dopaminergic expression in middle-aged Drosophila males. Interestingly, even after sleep recovery the expression of these genes was still upregulated in middle-aged flies. Finally, sleep fragmentation generates higher levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in middle-aged flies and after sleep recovery these levels remain significantly higher than in young flies. The fact that neuroprotective pathways remain upregulated in middle-aged flies beyond sleep fragmentation suggests it might represent a strong stressor for the brain during later life. PMID:27531979

  10. Patterns of Self-Disclosure across Social Support Networks: Elderly, Middle-Aged, and Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Rhonda G.; Parrott, Roxanne

    1995-01-01

    Functions served by self-disclosure may vary depending upon the adults' gender and stage in the life span. Studies such issues in regard to the elderly, middle-aged, and young adults' use of four functions of self-disclosure: self-expression, self-clarification, social control, and social validation. Findings support the claim that greater…

  11. The effect of educational intervention on health promoting lifestyle: Focusing on middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Mahdipour, Nosaybeh; Shahnazi, Hossein; Hassanzadeh, Akbar; Sharifirad, Gholamreza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lifestyle affects people's health and life length, however, no sufficient studies have been done on the effect of lifestyle on middle-ageing, as the transitional period from adulthood to old-ageing, this study has been conducted to study the effect of educational intervention on health promoting lifestyle of middle-aged women in Lenjan city of Isfahan Province, Iran. Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 88 middle-aged women were selected through randomized sampling from two health centers in Lenjan, and then were categorized into experimental and control groups. To collect data, a researcher-made demographic and life style questionnaire was used. The educational intervention was performed in five sessions. Data were collected from both groups in two stages: Before the intervention and 3 months after the education. Data were analyzed with using SPSS-20 and P < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: The results showed that educational program had a positive significant effect on increasing the mean scores in the intervention group, considering the physical activity, mental health, and interpersonal relationship, P < 0.001. However, regarding the nutrition, the mean increase was not significant (P = 0.113). Conclusion: According to the findings, it is evident that educational intervention is beneficial for various aspects of middle-aged women's lifestyle. Therefore, applying a healthy lifestyle seems essential for having a healthy aging period, and educational intervention can be effective. PMID:26430678

  12. Associations of Child Sexual and Physical Abuse with Obesity and Depression in Middle-Aged Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohde, Paul; Ichikawa, Laura; Simon, Gregory E.; Ludman, Evette J.; Linde, Jennifer A.; Jeffery, Robert W.; Operskalski, Belinda H.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Examine whether (1) childhood maltreatment is associated with subsequent obesity and depression in middle-age; (2) maltreatment explains the associations between obesity and depression; and (3) binge eating or body dissatisfaction mediate associations between childhood maltreatment and subsequent obesity. Methods: Data were obtained…

  13. What Do Children Know about Their Futures: Do Children's Expectations Predict Outcomes in Middle Age?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallerod, Bjorn

    2011-01-01

    Are children's statements about their futures related to outcomes in middle age? In 1966 almost 13,500 children ages 12-13 were asked whether they thought their futures would be worse, similar or better as compared to others of their own age. It was shown that children with low, and surprisingly high, expectations did suffer from increased…

  14. Revisiting the Structure of Subjective Well-Being in Middle-Aged Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chmiel, Magda; Brunner, Martin; Martin, Romain; Schalke, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Subjective well-being is a broad, multifaceted construct comprising general satisfaction with life, satisfaction with life domains (health, family, people, free time, self, housing, work, and finances), positive affect, and negative affect. Drawing on representative data from middle-aged adults (N = 738), the authors used three different…

  15. Comparison of pharmacokinetics of tramadol between young and middle-aged dogs

    PubMed Central

    ITAMI, Takaharu; SAITO, Yasuo; ISHIZUKA, Tomohito; TAMURA, Jun; UMAR, Mohammed A.; INOUE, Hiroki; MIYOSHI, Kenjiro; YAMASHITA, Kazuto

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the pharmacokinetics of tramadol between young and middle-aged dogs. Tramadol (4 mg/kg) was administered intravenously (IV) to young and middle-aged dogs (2 and 8–10 years, respectively). Plasma concentrations of tramadol were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and its pharmacokinetics best fit a two-compartment model. The volume of distribution (Vd), elimination half-life (t1/2,β) and total body clearance (CLtot) of the young group were 4.77 ± 1.07 l/kg, 1.91 ± 0.26 hr and 29.9 ± 7.3 ml/min/kg, respectively, while those of the middle-aged group were 4.73 ± 1.43 l/kg, 2.39 ± 0.97 hr and 23.7 ± 5.4 ml/min/kg, respectively. Intergroup differences in the t1/2,β and CLtot were significant (P<0.05). In conclusion, tramadol excretion was significantly prolonged in middle-aged dogs. PMID:26875837

  16. [Central hemodynamics in young and middle-aged patients with the initial manifestations of cerebral circulatory failure].

    PubMed

    Rudenko, A E; Korzhenevskiĭ, L V

    1990-07-01

    The authors studied the indices of general hemodynamics in 53 patients with initial manifestations of cerebro-circulatory insufficiency of young and middle age. Young patients suffering of cerebral atherosclerosis and vegetative-vascular dystonia showed a hyperkinetic type of hemodynamics while the middle-aged with atherosclerosis showed the hypokinetic type evidencing abnormal function of autoregulatory mechanisms. PMID:2238601

  17. Barriers to participation in physical activity and exercise among middle-aged and elderly individuals.

    PubMed

    Justine, Maria; Azizan, Azliyana; Hassan, Vaharli; Salleh, Zoolfaiz; Manaf, Haidzir

    2013-10-01

    INTRODUCTION Although the benefits of physical activity and exercise are widely acknowledged, many middle-aged and elderly individuals remain sedentary. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the external and internal barriers to physical activity and exercise participation among middle-aged and elderly individuals, as well as identify any differences in these barriers between the two groups. METHODS Recruited individuals were categorised into either the middle-aged (age 45-59 years, n = 60) or elderly (age ≥ 60 years, n = 60) group. Data on demographics, anthropometry, as well as external and internal barriers to participation in physical activity and exercise were collected. RESULTS Analysis showed no significant differences in the total scores of all internal barriers between the two groups (p > 0.05). The total scores for most external barriers between the two groups also showed no significant differences (p > 0.05); only 'cost' (p = 0.045) and 'exercise interferes with social/family activities' (p = 0.011) showed significant differences. The most common external barriers among the middle-aged and elderly respondents were 'not enough time' (46.7% vs. 48.4%), 'no one to exercise with' (40.0% vs. 28.3%) and 'lack of facilities' (33.4% vs. 35.0%). The most common internal barriers for middle-aged respondents were 'too tired' (48.3%), 'already active enough' (38.3%), 'do not know how to do it' (36.7%) and 'too lazy' (36.7%), while those for elderly respondents were 'too tired' (51.7%), 'lack of motivation' (38.4%) and 'already active enough' (38.4%). CONCLUSION Middle-aged and elderly respondents presented with similar external and internal barriers to physical activity and exercise participation. These factors should be taken into account when healthcare policies are being designed and when interventions such as the provision of facilities to promote physical activity and exercise among older people are being considered. PMID:24154584

  18. Alcohol Consumption, Beverage Preference, and Diet in Middle-Aged Men from the STANISLAS Study

    PubMed Central

    Herbeth, Bernard; Samara, Anastasia; Stathopoulou, Maria; Siest, Gérard; Visvikis-Siest, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    The question about differences in dietary patterns associated with beer, wine, and spirits is still unresolved. We used diet data from 423 middle-aged males of the STANISLAS Study. Using adjusted values for covariates, we observed a negative significant association between increasing alcohol intakes and the consumption of milk, yogurt, and fresh/uncured cheese, sugar and confectionery, vegetables and fruits, and a significant positive relationship with cheese, meat and organs, pork-butcher's meat, and potatoes. In addition, the first dietary pattern identified by factor analysis (characterized a more prudent diet) was inversely related to alcohol intakes. Conversely, when analyzing daily consumption of specific food groups and diet patterns according to beverage preference (wine, beer, and spirits), no significant difference was observed. In conclusion, in this sample of middle-aged French males, there was a linear trend between increasing alcohol intakes and worsening of quality of diet, while no difference was observed according to beverage preference. PMID:23056930

  19. Susceptibility to interference by music and speech maskers in middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Başkent, Deniz; van Engelshoven, Suzanne; Galvin, John J

    2014-03-01

    Older listeners commonly complain about difficulty in understanding speech in noise. Previous studies have shown an age effect for both speech and steady noise maskers, and it is largest for speech maskers. In the present study, speech reception thresholds (SRTs) measured with competing speech, music, and steady noise maskers significantly differed between young (19 to 26 years) and middle-aged (51 to 63 years) adults. SRT differences ranged from 2.1 dB for competing speech, 0.4-1.6 dB for music maskers, and 0.8 dB for steady noise. The data suggest that aging effects are already evident in middle-aged adults without significant hearing impairment. PMID:24606308

  20. Susceptibility to interference by music and speech maskers in middle-aged adults

    PubMed Central

    Başkent, Deniz; van Engelshoven, Suzanne; Galvin, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Older listeners commonly complain about difficulty in understanding speech in noise. Previous studies have shown an age effect for both speech and steady noise maskers, and it is largest for speech maskers. In the present study, speech reception thresholds (SRTs) measured with competing speech, music, and steady noise maskers significantly differed between young (19 to 26 years) and middle-aged (51 to 63 years) adults. SRT differences ranged from 2.1 dB for competing speech, 0.4–1.6 dB for music maskers, and 0.8 dB for steady noise. The data suggest that aging effects are already evident in middle-aged adults without significant hearing impairment. PMID:24606308

  1. Predictors of stress and depressive mood in Portuguese middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Filipa; Maroco, João; Leitão, Mafalda; Leal, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigates the predictors of psychological symptoms-stress and depressive mood-in a sample of middle-aged women. A community sample of 1,003 women filled in the questionnaires and instruments, which included the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales and the Life Events Survey; sociodemographic, health, and menopause-related and lifestyle information was also collected. Structural equation modeling was used to build the model that had stress and depressive mood as dependent variables. Health status (both physical and psychological), recent life events, income and menopausal phase were significantly associated with the frequency of stress and depressive symptoms. Additionally, educational level and parity were also significant predictors of depressive mood. This study emphasizes that psychological symptoms occurrence in midlife depends not only on personal variables (such as health and menopausal status) but also on contextual ones (including recent stressful events) that can be a strong influence on how middle-aged women feel. PMID:27351694

  2. Effect of mat pilates exercise on postural alignment and body composition of middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyo Taek; Oh, Hyun Ok; Han, Hui Seung; Jin, Kwang Youn; Roh, Hyo Lyun

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to examine whether Pilates is an effective exercise for improving the postural alignment and health of middle-aged women. [Subjects and Methods] The participants in this study were 36 middle-aged women (20 in the experimental group, 16 in the control group). The experimental group participated in Pilates exercise sessions three times a week for 12 weeks. Body alignment and composition measurements before and after applying the Pilates exercise program were performed with a body composition analyzer and a three-dimensional scanner. [Results] Postural alignment in the sagittal and horizontal planes was enhanced in the Pilates exercise group. Trunk alignment showed correlations with body fat and muscle mass. [Conclusion] The Pilates exercises are performed symmetrically and strengthen the deep muscles. Moreover, the results showed that muscle mass was correlated with trunk postural alignment and that the proper amount of muscle is critical in maintaining trunk postural alignment. PMID:27390396

  3. Effect of mat pilates exercise on postural alignment and body composition of middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyo Taek; Oh, Hyun Ok; Han, Hui Seung; Jin, Kwang Youn; Roh, Hyo Lyun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to examine whether Pilates is an effective exercise for improving the postural alignment and health of middle-aged women. [Subjects and Methods] The participants in this study were 36 middle-aged women (20 in the experimental group, 16 in the control group). The experimental group participated in Pilates exercise sessions three times a week for 12 weeks. Body alignment and composition measurements before and after applying the Pilates exercise program were performed with a body composition analyzer and a three-dimensional scanner. [Results] Postural alignment in the sagittal and horizontal planes was enhanced in the Pilates exercise group. Trunk alignment showed correlations with body fat and muscle mass. [Conclusion] The Pilates exercises are performed symmetrically and strengthen the deep muscles. Moreover, the results showed that muscle mass was correlated with trunk postural alignment and that the proper amount of muscle is critical in maintaining trunk postural alignment. PMID:27390396

  4. Facial rejuvenation for middle-aged women: a combined approach with minimally invasive procedures

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Alberto; Wollina, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    Facial rejuvenation is a significant process involved in restoring youthfulness. The introduction of less invasive procedures has increased acceptance of such procedures. Often a combination of different techniques allows individualized treatment with optimal outcomes. Furthermore, this leads to a natural look without a significant downtime. We report herein the use of such a combined approach in middle-aged women with particular emphasis on botulinum toxin type A, dermal fillers, and chemical peels. PMID:20924438

  5. Comprehensively Assessing Cognitive and Behavioral Risks for HIV Infection among Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paniagua, Freddy A.; O'Boyle, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive survey of HIV/AIDS with middle-aged and older adults should include six domains (e.g., factual knowledge regarding the acquisition and transmission of HIV, traditionally-accepted behavioral risks for HIV infection). A sample of 23 women (54.8%) and 19 men (45.2%), ranging in age from 51 to 85 were surveyed across such domains.…

  6. A Narrative Study of the Experiences that Impact Educational Choices of Middle-Aged Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Shireese Redmond

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to answer the research questions of how middle-aged women perceive higher education and why they do or do not pursue a higher level of education. According to the U.S. Census Bureau's 2009 American Community Survey microdata, more than half of the women between the ages of 30-50 years in one Midwestern US…

  7. Parity-related mortality: shape of association among middle-aged and elderly men and women.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, Dena H; Neumark, Yehuda D; Eisenbach, Zvi; Manor, Orly

    2009-01-01

    Parity is associated with mortality among middle-aged women, while substantially less is known about this relationship for men and the elderly. Using the census-based Israel Longitudinal Mortality Study (ILMS) II (1995-2004) we sought to examine the parity-mortality relationship among men and women, middle-aged and elderly. In our study cohort of 71,733 married men and 62,822 married women ages 45-89 years at baseline, 19,437 deaths were reported. Mortality differentials by parity were assessed using Cox proportional hazard regression models adjusted stepwise for age, origin, education and number of rooms. Analyzes were carried out for middle-aged (45-64 years) and elderly (65-89 years) men and women separately. We observed a non-linear relationship between parity and mortality for all individuals even after adjustment for demographic and socio-economic variables. In fully adjusted models, for example, nulliparous middle-aged women experienced the highest mortality risks (hazard ratios [HR] = 1.57, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.24, 1.98) followed by those with one child (HR = 1.29, 95% CI 1.10, 1.51). These results were attenuated somewhat for nulliparous older women (HR = 1.25, 95% CI 1.11, 1.41). The detrimental effects of low and high parity on mortality among both men and women suggest a non pregnancy-related pathway that is likely mediated by biological and psychosocial factors and other lifestyle characteristics that have long-term consequences into older ages. Further research is warranted to examine the effects of parity by specific cause of death. PMID:19145406

  8. Effect of Cardiac Arrest on Cognitive Impairment and Hippocampal Plasticity in Middle-Aged Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Kunjan R.; Alekseyenko, Aleksey; Binkert, Marc; Stransky, Kenneth; Lin, Hung Wen; Barnes, Carol A.; Wright, Clinton B.; Perez-Pinzon, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary arrest is a leading cause of death and disability in the United States that usually occurs in the aged population. Cardiac arrest (CA) induces global ischemia, disrupting global cerebral circulation that results in ischemic brain injury and leads to cognitive impairments in survivors. Ischemia-induced neuronal damage in the hippocampus following CA can result in the impairment of cognitive function including spatial memory. In the present study, we used a model of asphyxial CA (ACA) in nine month old male Fischer 344 rats to investigate cognitive and synaptic deficits following mild global cerebral ischemia. These experiments were performed with the goals of 1) establishing a model of CA in nine month old middle-aged rats; and 2) to test the hypothesis that learning and memory deficits develop following mild global cerebral ischemia in middle-aged rats. To test this hypothesis, spatial memory assays (Barnes circular platform maze and contextual fear conditioning) and field recordings (long-term potentiation and paired-pulse facilitation) were performed. We show that following ACA in nine month old middle-aged rats, there is significant impairment in spatial memory formation, paired-pulse facilitation n dysfunction, and a reduction in the number of non-compromised hippocampal Cornu Ammonis 1 and subiculum neurons. In conclusion, nine month old animals undergoing cardiac arrest have impaired survival, deficits in spatial memory formation, and synaptic dysfunction. PMID:25933411

  9. Sexual protective strategies and condom use in middle-age African American women: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Tanyka K.

    2015-01-01

    The heterosexual transmission of HIV has affected middle-age African American women at alarming rates; yet there is a paucity of research and interventions focused on this population. This study used a qualitative approach to understand middle-age urban African American women’s experiences with HIV-related sexual risk behaviors and to identify the sexual protective strategies they employed to reduce their risk for HIV infection. Ten African American women, ages 45 to 56, were recruited from low-income neighborhoods in New York City. Data were collected using in-depth interviews and analyzed using content analysis. Investigator triangulation and member checking were used to ensure rigor. Five salient themes emerged that highlighted the individual, gender/relationship power factors, and the sociocultural elements that influenced sexual protection or risk-taking behavior. Findings provide new insight into the complexities of HIV sexual risk behavior and can guide future HIV prevention interventions for middle-age, African American, urban women. PMID:26194973

  10. Help With “Strings Attached”: Offspring Perceptions That Middle-Aged Parents Offer Conflicted Support

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Middle-aged adults often provide beneficial support to grown children. Yet, in some relationships, grown children may feel beholden or intruded upon when they receive parental help. The purpose of this study was to examine such conflicted support in relationships between middle-aged parents and young adults. Methods. Middle-aged parents (aged 40–60, n = 399) and their grown children (n = 592) participated. Parents rated perceptions of providing support and relationship quality with each child. Grown children indicated whether their mothers and fathers provided conflicted support and rated their perceptions of parental support, relationship quality, and other factors. Results. Multilevel models revealed that offspring’s perceptions of conflicted support were associated with (a) parents’ evaluations about providing support (e.g., greater stress and beliefs that grown children should be autonomous), (b) poorer quality relationships, and (c) offspring having more problems. Discussion. Findings suggest that perceptions of conflicted support are embedded in a larger constellation of relationship problems and underlying distress for parents and children. These patterns may reflect lifelong difficulties in the tie or that arise in adulthood. Researchers might seek to understand how dyads experiencing such conflicted support differ from more normative relationships characterized by warmth and well-received support. PMID:23707999

  11. Dietary Polyphenol Supplementation Prevents Alterations of Spatial Navigation in Middle-Aged Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bensalem, Julien; Servant, Laure; Alfos, Serge; Gaudout, David; Layé, Sophie; Pallet, Véronique; Lafenetre, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    Spatial learning and memory deficits associated with hippocampal synaptic plasticity impairments are commonly observed during aging. Besides, the beneficial role of dietary polyphenols has been suggested as potential functional food candidates to prevent this memory decline. Indeed, polyphenols could potentiate the signaling pathways of synaptic plasticity underlying learning and memory. In this study, spatial learning deficits of middle-aged mice were first highlighted and characterized according to their navigation patterns in the Morris water maze task. An eight-week polyphenol-enriched diet, containing a polyphenol-rich extract from grape and blueberry (PEGB; from the Neurophenols Consortium) with high contents of flavonoids, stilbenes and phenolic acids, was then successful in reversing these age-induced effects. The use of spatial strategies was indeed delayed with aging whereas a polyphenol supplementation could promote the occurrence of spatial strategies. These behavioral results were associated with neurobiological changes: while the expression of hippocampal calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) mRNA levels was reduced in middle-aged animals, the polyphenol-enriched diet could rescue them. Besides, an increased expression of nerve growth neurotrophic factor (NGF) mRNA levels was also observed in supplemented adult and middle-aged mice. Thus these data suggest that supplementation with polyphenols could be an efficient nutritional way to prevent age-induced cognitive decline. PMID:26903826

  12. Social relations and filial maturity in middle-aged adults: contextual conditions and psychological determinants.

    PubMed

    Perrig-Chiello, P; Sturzenegger, M

    2001-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to highlight the contextual and psychological preconditions of parent help and helpfulness in a sample of 260 middle-aged persons belonging to two age groups, 40-45 years and 50-55 years. In a first step we want to focus on the description of the contextual situation of the persons of this "hinge generation": What are their available social networks; what are their commitments towards children and parents in terms of perceived obligation and investment; how is their perceived balance of giving and receiving; how do they anticipate and experience dependency of their parents? In a second step we will highlight the readiness of middle-aged women and men to help their parents as well as the effectively reported help. Here we are interested in the psychological determinants of such attitude and behaviour. Structural equation models are performed to estimate the predictory power of personality variables, control beliefs and reported stress (family and job) on filial helpfulness and help. Results suggest that differential aspects such as gender and age group explain a large amount of variance of the variables intergenerational commitment and satisfaction with social networks and have--along with personality variables--a strong impact on filial help and helpfulness of middle-aged adults. PMID:11310223

  13. Neural correlates of source memory retrieval in young, middle-aged and elderly adults.

    PubMed

    Cansino, Selene; Hernández-Ramos, Evelia; Trejo-Morales, Patricia

    2012-04-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in young (21-27 years old), middle-aged (50-57 years old) and older adults (70-77 years old) to determine whether the decline in source memory that occurs with advancing age coincides with contemporaneous neurophysiological changes. Source memory for the spatial location (quadrant on the screen) of images presented during encoding was examined. The images were shown in the center of the screen during the retrieval task. Retrieval success for source information was characterized by different scalp topographies at frontal electrode sites in young adults relative to middle-aged and older adults. The right frontal effect during unsuccessful retrieval attempts showed amplitude and latency differences across age groups and was related to the ability to discriminate between old and new images only in young adults. These results suggest that the neural correlates of the retrieval success and attempt were affected by age and these effects were present by middle-age. PMID:22366225

  14. Involuntary Capture and Voluntary Reorienting of Attention Decline in Middle-Aged and Old Participants.

    PubMed

    Correa-Jaraba, Kenia S; Cid-Fernández, Susana; Lindín, Mónica; Díaz, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine the effects of aging on event-related brain potentials (ERPs) associated with the automatic detection of unattended infrequent deviant and novel auditory stimuli (Mismatch Negativity, MMN) and with the orienting to these stimuli (P3a component), as well as the effects on ERPs associated with reorienting to relevant visual stimuli (Reorienting Negativity, RON). Participants were divided into three age groups: (1) Young: 21-29 years old; (2) Middle-aged: 51-64 years old; and (3) Old: 65-84 years old. They performed an auditory-visual distraction-attention task in which they were asked to attend to visual stimuli (Go, NoGo) and to ignore auditory stimuli (S: standard, D: deviant, N: novel). Reaction times (RTs) to Go visual stimuli were longer in old and middle-aged than in young participants. In addition, in all three age groups, longer RTs were found when Go visual stimuli were preceded by novel relative to deviant and standard auditory stimuli, indicating a distraction effect provoked by novel stimuli. ERP components were identified in the Novel minus Standard (N-S) and Deviant minus Standard (D-S) difference waveforms. In the N-S condition, MMN latency was significantly longer in middle-aged and old participants than in young participants, indicating a slowing of automatic detection of changes. The following results were observed in both difference waveforms: (1) the P3a component comprised two consecutive phases in all three age groups-an early-P3a (e-P3a) that may reflect the orienting response toward the irrelevant stimulation and a late-P3a (l-P3a) that may be a correlate of subsequent evaluation of the infrequent unexpected novel or deviant stimuli; (2) the e-P3a, l-P3a, and RON latencies were significantly longer in the Middle-aged and Old groups than in the Young group, indicating delay in the orienting response to and the subsequent evaluation of unattended auditory stimuli, and in the reorienting of attention to

  15. Involuntary Capture and Voluntary Reorienting of Attention Decline in Middle-Aged and Old Participants

    PubMed Central

    Correa-Jaraba, Kenia S.; Cid-Fernández, Susana; Lindín, Mónica; Díaz, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine the effects of aging on event-related brain potentials (ERPs) associated with the automatic detection of unattended infrequent deviant and novel auditory stimuli (Mismatch Negativity, MMN) and with the orienting to these stimuli (P3a component), as well as the effects on ERPs associated with reorienting to relevant visual stimuli (Reorienting Negativity, RON). Participants were divided into three age groups: (1) Young: 21–29 years old; (2) Middle-aged: 51–64 years old; and (3) Old: 65–84 years old. They performed an auditory-visual distraction-attention task in which they were asked to attend to visual stimuli (Go, NoGo) and to ignore auditory stimuli (S: standard, D: deviant, N: novel). Reaction times (RTs) to Go visual stimuli were longer in old and middle-aged than in young participants. In addition, in all three age groups, longer RTs were found when Go visual stimuli were preceded by novel relative to deviant and standard auditory stimuli, indicating a distraction effect provoked by novel stimuli. ERP components were identified in the Novel minus Standard (N-S) and Deviant minus Standard (D-S) difference waveforms. In the N-S condition, MMN latency was significantly longer in middle-aged and old participants than in young participants, indicating a slowing of automatic detection of changes. The following results were observed in both difference waveforms: (1) the P3a component comprised two consecutive phases in all three age groups—an early-P3a (e-P3a) that may reflect the orienting response toward the irrelevant stimulation and a late-P3a (l-P3a) that may be a correlate of subsequent evaluation of the infrequent unexpected novel or deviant stimuli; (2) the e-P3a, l-P3a, and RON latencies were significantly longer in the Middle-aged and Old groups than in the Young group, indicating delay in the orienting response to and the subsequent evaluation of unattended auditory stimuli, and in the reorienting of

  16. Fourteen days of bed rest induces a decline in satellite cell content and robust atrophy of skeletal muscle fibers in middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Arentson-Lantz, Emily J; English, Kirk L; Paddon-Jones, Douglas; Fry, Christopher S

    2016-04-15

    Bed rest, a ground-based spaceflight analog, induces robust atrophy of skeletal muscle, an effect that is exacerbated with increasing age. We examined the effect of 14 days of bed rest on skeletal muscle satellite cell content and fiber type atrophy in middle-aged adults, an understudied age demographic with few overt signs of muscle aging that is representative of astronauts who perform long-duration spaceflight. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis of healthy middle-aged adults [n= 7 (4 male, 3 female); age: 51 ± 1 yr] before (Pre-BR) and after (Post-BR) 14 days of bed rest. Immunohistochemical analyses were used to quantify myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoform expression, cross-sectional area (CSA), satellite cell and myonuclear content, and capillary density. Peak oxygen consumption, knee extensor strength, and body composition were also measured Pre-BR and Post-BR. Post-BR MyHC type 2a fiber percentage was reduced, and mean CSA decreased in all fiber types (-24 ± 5%;P< 0.05). Satellite cell content was also reduced Post-BR (-39 ± 9%;P< 0.05), and the change in satellite cell content was significantly correlated with the change in mean fiber CSA (r(2)= 0.60;P< 0.05). A decline in capillary density was observed Post-BR (-23 ± 6%;P< 0.05), and Post-BR capillary content was significantly associated with Post-BR peak aerobic capacity (r(2)= 0.59;P< 0.05). A subtle decline in myonuclear content occurred during bed rest (-5 ± 1%;P< 0.05). The rapid maladaptation of skeletal muscle to 14 days of mechanical unloading in middle-aged adults emphasizes the need for robust countermeasures to preserve muscle function in astronauts. PMID:26796754

  17. Long working hours and occupational stress-related cardiovascular attacks among middle-aged workers in Japan.

    PubMed

    Uehata, T

    1991-12-01

    Two hundred and three Karoshi victims who suffered cardiovascular attacks and for whom workers' compensations was claimed were surveyed. These cases were 196 males and 7 females in middle age, and comprised 123 strokes, 50 acute cardiac failures, 27 myocardial infarctions and 4 aortic ruptures. As a sociomedical background, it was shown that two-thirds of them were working for long hours such as more than 60 hr per week, more than 50 hr overtime per month, or more than half of their fixed holidays before the attack. Moreover, among the white-collar workers, these long working hours were accompanied with other stressful work issues such as career problems, excessive business trips, strident norms, and changes of work places; among the blue-collar workers, they were accompanied with those such as irregular midnight work, insufficient manpower and long-distance driving, etc. On the other hand, eighty-eight cases of them experienced several minor and sudden events including work-related emotional anxiety or excitement, rapid increase of workload, unexpected work trouble or environmental changes of work places anticipated at least within 24 hr directly before the attack. It was concluded that Karoshi, meaning fatal attacks by overload, was one of the work-related diseases mainly triggered by long working hours. PMID:1842961

  18. Chronic disease and sitting time in middle-aged Australian males: findings from the 45 and Up Study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Compared to females, males experience a range of health inequities including higher rates of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Although sitting time is emerging as a distinct risk factor for chronic disease, research on the association of sitting time and chronic disease in middle-aged Australian males is limited. Methods A sample of 63,048 males aged 45-64 years was drawn from the baseline dataset of the 45 and Up Study – a longitudinal cohort study on healthy ageing with 267,153 participants from across New South Wales, Australia’s most populous state. Baseline data on self-reported chronic disease (heart disease, cancer, diabetes, high blood pressure, combined chronic diseases), sitting time, physical activity (Active Australia Survey), and a range of covariates were used for cross-sectional analyses. Crude (OR), partially and fully adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using binary logistic regression. Results Compared to those sitting <4 hours/day, participants reporting 4 to <6, 6 to <8, and ≥8 hours were significantly more likely to report ever having any chronic disease (AOR 1.06, 95% CI 1.00 – 1.12, p = 0.050; AOR 1.10, 95% CI 1.03 – 1.16, p = 0.003; AOR 1.09, 95% CI 1.03 – 1.15, p = 0.002, respectively). Participants who reported 6 to <8 hours and ≥8 hours of sitting were also significantly more likely to report ever having diabetes than those reporting <4 hours/day (AOR 1.15, 95% CI 1.03 – 1.28, p = 0.016; AOR 1.21, 95% CI 1.09 – 1.33, p <0.001, respectively). Conclusions Our findings suggest that higher volumes of sitting time are significantly associated with diabetes and overall chronic disease, independent of physical activity and other potentially confounding factors. Prospective studies using valid and reliable measures into domain-specific sitting time in middle-aged males are required to understand and explain the direction of these relationships. PMID:23394382

  19. Fitness and health-related quality of life dimensions in community-dwelling middle aged and older adults

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to identify the physical fitness (PF) tests of a multi-component battery more related to the perception of problems in each dimension of the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) assessed by the EuroQol 5 dimensions 3 level questionnaire (EQ-5D-3L) in community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with 7104 participants (6243 females and 861 males aged 50-99 years) who were recruited in the framework of the Exercise Looks After You Program, which is a public health program designed to promote physical activity (PA) in community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults. Participants were assessed by the EQ-5D-3L questionnaire and a battery of fitness tests. The responses to each EQ-5D-3L dimension were collapsed into a two-tier variable consisting of «perceive problems» and «do not perceive problems». Correlation coefficients for the relationships between the HRQoL variables, between the PF variables, and between the HRQoL and PF variables were obtained. Two logistic regression models, one adjusted and one unadjusted, were developed for each EQ-5D-3L dimension. Results There were significant correlations between all variables except anxiety/depression and the back scratch test. The PF tests that correlated best with the HRQoL dimensions were the Timed Up-and-Go Test (TUG) and the 6-min walk; pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression correlated less well. All PF tests correlated, especially the TUG and 6-min walk tests. Unadjusted logistic models showed significant goodness of fit for the mobility and pain/discomfort dimensions only. Adjusted logistic models showed significant goodness of fit for all dimensions when the following potential confounding variables were included: age, gender, weekly level of PA, smoking and alcohol habits, body mass index, and educational level. For all dimensions, the highest odds ratios for the association with PF tests were with the TUG; this was

  20. Prevalence of Spina Bifida Occulta and Its Relationship With Overactive Bladder in Middle-Aged and Elderly Chinese People

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the prevalence of spina bifida occulta (SBO) and its relationship with the presence of overactive bladder (OAB) in middle-aged and elderly people in China. Methods: A cross-sectional community-based survey was carried out at 7 communities in Zhengzhou City, China from December 15, 2013 to June 10, 2014, where residents aged over 40 years were randomly selected to participate. All of the participants underwent lumbosacral radiographic analysis and relevant laboratory tests. A questionnaire including basic information, past medical history and present illness, and the OAB symptom score was filled out by all participants. Chi-square tests and logistic regression were used for data analysis with a P-value of <0.05 denoting statistical significance. Results: A total of 1,061 subjects were qualified for the final statistical analysis (58.8±11.7 years; male, 471 [44.4%]; female, 590 [55.6%]). The overall prevalence of SBO was 15.1% (160 of 1,061): 18.3% (86 of 471) in men and 12.5% (74 of 590) in women. Among these subjects, 13.7% (145 of 1,061) had OAB: 13.2% (62 of 471) in men and 14.1% (83 of 590) in women. The results of logistic regression showed that age, SBO, history of cerebral infarction (HCI), and constipation were risk factors for OAB (P<0.05), while sex, history of childhood enuresis (HCE), body mass index (BMI), and diabetes mellitus (DM) were not (P>0.05). In men, age, SBO, and constipation were risk factors for OAB (P<0.05), while HCE, BMI, DM, HCI, and benign prostate hyperplasia were not (P>0.05). In women, age, SBO, and HCI were risk factors for OAB (P<0.05), while HCE, BMI, DM, vaginal delivery, and constipation were not (P>0.05). Conclusions: The prevalence of SBO is high and it is related to OAB in middle-aged and elderly people in China. PMID:27377948

  1. Four weeks of running sprint interval training improves cardiorespiratory fitness in young and middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Taura N; Thomas, Matthew P L; Schmale, Matthew S; Copeland, Jennifer L; Hazell, Tom J

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a 4-week running sprint interval training protocol to improve both aerobic and anaerobic fitness in middle-aged adults (40-50 years) as well as compare the adaptations to younger adults (20-30 years). Twenty-eight inactive participants - 14 young 20-30-year-olds (n = 7 males) and 14 middle-aged 40-50-year-olds (n = 5 males) - completed 4 weeks of running sprint interval training (4 to 6, 30-s "all-out" sprints on a curved, self-propelled treadmill separated by 4 min active recovery performed 3 times per week). Before and after training, all participants were assessed for maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), 2000 m time trial performance, and anaerobic performance on a single 30-s sprint. There were no interactions between group and time for any tested variable, although training improved relative VO2max (young = 3.9, middle-aged = 5.2%; P < 0.04), time trial performance (young = 5.9, middle-aged = 8.2%; P < 0.001), peak sprint speed (young = 9.3, middle-aged = 2.2%; P < 0.001), and average sprint speed (young = 6.8, middle-aged = 11.6%; P < 0.001) in both young and middle-aged groups from pre- to post-training on the 30-s sprint test. The current study demonstrates that a 4-week running sprint interval training programme is equally effective at improving aerobic and anaerobic fitness in younger and middle-aged adults. PMID:26514645

  2. Characteristics of middle-aged and older patients with temporomandibular disorders and burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Honda, Mika; Iida, Takashi; Komiyama, Osamu; Masuda, Manabu; Uchida, Takashi; Nishimura, Hitoshi; Okubo, Masakazu; Shimosaka, Michiharu; Narita, Noriyuki; Niwa, Hideo; Kubo, Hideyuki; De Laat, Antoon; Kawara, Misao; Makiyama, Yasuhide

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between pain intensities and psychosocial characteristics in middle-aged and older patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) and burning mouth syndrome (BMS). Subjects were selected according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (n = 705) and International Association for the Study of Pain criteria for BMS (n = 175). Patients were then divided into two age groups: 45-64 years (middle-aged, Group A) and 65-84 years (older, Group B). Pain intensity and depression and somatization scores were evaluated in both groups. In BMS patients, present and worst pain intensities were significantly higher in Group B than in Group A {4.6 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 4.0-5.2] vs. 3.5 [95% CI = 3.1-3.9] and 5.9 [95% CI = 5.2-6.4] vs. 5.0 [95% CI = 4.5-5.6], respectively; P < 0.05}, with no difference observed in TMD patients. The depression and somatization scores were significantly higher in Group A than in Group B among BMS patients [0.57 (95% CI = 0.45-0.69) vs. 0.46 (95% CI = 0.34-0.59) and 0.537 (95% CI = 0.45-0.63) vs. 0.45 (95% CI = 0.34-0.55); P < 0.05], with no difference observed in TMD patients. The results of the present study indicate that pain intensities and psychosocial characteristics in BMS appear to differ between middle-aged and older patients. PMID:26666859

  3. Body Mass Index Trajectories and Healthcare Utilization in Young and Middle-aged Adults.

    PubMed

    Elrashidi, Muhamad Y; Jacobson, Debra J; St Sauver, Jennifer; Fan, Chun; Lynch, Brian A; Rutten, Lila J Finney; Ebbert, Jon O

    2016-01-01

    The obesity epidemic is a significant public health issue with adverse impact on health and costs. Applying a life-course perspective to obesity may advance our understanding of the influence of obesity over time on patterns of healthcare utilization in young and middle-aged United States (US) adults.We identified baseline body mass index (BMI) and BMI trajectories, and assessed their association with outpatient visits, emergency department (ED) visits, and hospitalizations in a well-defined population of young and middle-aged US adults.Using the Rochester Epidemiology Project resources, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of adults (N = 23,254) aged 18 to 44 years, with at least 3 BMI measurements, residing in Olmsted County, MN from January 1, 2005 through December 31, 2012.We observed that 27.5% of the population was obese. Four BMI trajectories were identified. Compared to under/normal weight, obese class III adults had higher risk of outpatient visits (adjusted rate ratio [RR], 1.86; 95% confidence intervals [CIs], 1.67-2,08), ED visits (adjusted RR, 3.02; 95% CI, 2.74-3.34), and hospitalizations (adjusted RR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.59-1.75). BMI trajectory was positively associated with ED visits after adjustment for age, sex, race, and Charlson Comorbidity Index (P < 0.001 for trend).Among young and middle-aged US adults, baseline BMI is positively associated with outpatient visits, ED visits, and hospitalizations, while BMI trajectory is positively associated with ED visits. These findings extend our understanding of the longitudinal influence of obesity on healthcare utilization in early to mid-adulthood. PMID:26765446

  4. Microalbuminuria in Obese Young and Middle Aged Population: A Potential Marker of Cardiovascular Risk.

    PubMed

    Purohit, Purvi; Garg, Kunal; Singh, Vikram; Dwivedi, Shailendra; Sharma, Praveen

    2016-07-01

    Microalbuminuria is an established cardiovascular risk indicator in diabetes, hypertension and the general population. There is lack of information on MAU in healthy obese Indian adults and an ongoing debate whether obese adults deserve targeted identification and clinical intervention for MAU and prediabetes. We aimed to screen the healthy obese, young (group I) and middle aged (group II) adults for prevalence of MAU and prediabetes and study its association with Framingham risk score. The study included 50 healthy obese young (20-30 years) and middle aged adults (31-50 years), attending the outpatient clinic of Dept. of Medicine for a duration of 2 months (July-August). The patients were screened for fasting blood sugar, lipid profile and MAU. Of the total patients 28 % had MAU, 32.14 % of which had prediabetes and 33.33 % had diabetes whereas 10 % were normoglycemic. The group I patients had 50 % cases of MAU and group II had 25 % patients with MAU. Group II 63.63 % pre-diabetics. The values of MAU obtained were correlated with age, gender, body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, FBS, waist to hip ratio using Pearson's Coefficient (p < 0.05). The 10 year CVD risk calculated using FRS in subjects with MAU was higher as compared to those without MAU. Thus we conclude that Indian, young and middle aged obese adults to be at a risk of prediabetes, MAU and CV risk warranting their routine screening for better clinical outcomes. PMID:27382209

  5. The evolution of the hospital from antiquity to the end of the middle ages.

    PubMed

    Cilliers, L; Retief, F P

    2002-11-01

    The evolution of the hospital is traced from its onset in ancient Mesopotamia towards the end of the 2nd millennium to the end of the Middle Ages. Reference is made to institutionalised health care facilities in India as early as the 5th century BC, and with the spread of Buddhism to the east, to nursing facilities, the nature and function of which are not known to us, in Sri Lanka, China and South East Asia. Special attention is paid to the situation in the Graeco-Roman era: one would expect to find the origin of the hospital in the modern sense of the word in Greece, the birthplace of rational medicine in the 4th century BC, but the Hippocratic doctors paid house-calls, and the temples of Asclepius were visited for incubation sleep and magico-religious treatment. In Roman times the military and slave hospitals which existed since the 1st century AD, were built for a specialized group and not for the public, and were therefore also not precursors of the modern hospital. It is to the Christians that one must turn for the origin of the modern hospital. Hospices, initially built to shelter pilgrims and messengers between various bishops, were under Christian control developed into hospitals in the modern sense of the word. In Rome itself, the first hospital was built in the 4th century AD by a wealthy penitent widow, Fabiola. In the early Middle Ages (6th to 10th century), under the influence of the Benedictine Order, an infirmary became an established part of every monastery. During the late Middle Ages (beyond the 10th century) monastic infirmaries continued to expand, but public hospitals were also opened, financed by city authorities, the church and private sources. Specialized institutions, like leper houses, also originated at this time. During the Golden Age of Islam the Muslim world was clearly more advanced than its Christian counterpart with magnificent hospitals in various countries. PMID:14509111

  6. Plenty of action left in northern Europe's middle-aged offshore

    SciTech Connect

    Knott, D.J.

    1994-08-15

    Northern Europe's offshore oil industry this year has begun to reveal several symptoms generally associated with middle age. Though in its prime in terms of oil production, North Sea industry has begun a dramatic slimming program. It has started a search for fresh experiences, and it has begun to revisit the big successes of its youth. The paper cites examples demonstrating these trends. The paper then discusses production, outlook for exploration, trends in the United Kingdom, development advances in the natural gas industry, exploration activities, and redevelopment projects.

  7. Knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the spleen throughout Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages.

    PubMed

    Paraskevas, George K; Koutsouflianiotis, Konstantinos N; Nitsa, Zoi; Demesticha, Theano; Skandalakis, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of knowledge regarding the anatomy and physiology of the spleen throughout Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages is described, and general perceptions about this organ during different eras along this time line are presented. The original words of great physicians from the period of time stretching from Ancient Egypt to the Avicennan era are quoted and discussed to demonstrate how knowledge of the spleen has evolved and to present the theories that dominated each era. Furthermore, theories about illnesses relating to the spleen are reported, which show how this organ was perceived-in terms of its function and anatomy-during each era. PMID:26507317

  8. A comparison of attitudes about cremation among Black and White middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Glass, Anne P; Samuel, Linda F

    2011-05-01

    Social workers must be instrumental in educating elders and their families to make informed decisions about death and dying. As part of a larger qualitative study, we explored attitudes about cremation of 25 older and 25 middle-aged adults, evenly split between Black and White respondents. Major themes emerged about disposition of the body after death. Costs and land conservation influenced support for cremation; reasons against cremation include religious beliefs, lack of closure, and sense of place. Additionally, some respondents were against cremation primarily because of lack of exposure, as it was not their family tradition, suggesting a role for education. PMID:21547828

  9. Effects of Age on Female Reproductive Success in Drosophila bipectinata

    PubMed Central

    Somashekar, K; Krishna, Ms; Hegde, Sn; Jayaramu, SC

    2011-01-01

    Female age influence on mating success, courtship activities, mating latency, copulation duration, fecundity, ovarioles number, and wing length has been studied using isofemale lines of Drosophila bipectinata collected at three different localities. It was observed that in all localities, middle-aged D. bipectinata females had significantly greater mating success, showed less rejection responses to courting male, mated faster, copulated longer, and had greater fecundity and ovariole number than young and old-aged females. Further, old-aged females had comparatively less fitness traits than young age females. This research suggests the occurrence of age specific female reproductive success as follows: middle-aged > young > old-aged. PMID:22235980

  10. A Case of Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis in a Middle-Aged Adult

    PubMed Central

    Mahdi, Nicole; Abdelmalik, Peter A.; Curtis, Mark; Bar, Barak

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an inflammatory demyelinating disorder that is often preceded by infection or recent vaccination. Encephalopathy and focal neurological deficits are usually manifest several weeks after a prodromal illness with rapidly progressive neurologic decline. ADEM is most commonly seen in children and young adults, in which prognosis is favorable, but very few cases have been reported of older adults with ADEM and thus their clinical course is unknown. Methods. Here we present a case of ADEM in a middle-aged adult that recovered well after treatment. Results. A 62-year-old man presented with encephalopathy and rapid neurological decline following a gastrointestinal illness. A brain MRI revealed extensive supratentorial white matter hyperintensities consistent with ADEM and thus he was started on high dose intravenous methylprednisolone. He underwent a brain biopsy showing widespread white matter inflammation secondary to demyelination. At discharge, his neurological exam had significantly improved with continued steroid treatment and four months later, he was able to perform his ADLs. Conclusions. This case of ADEM in a middle-aged adult represents an excellent response to high dose steroid treatment with a remarkable neurological recovery. Thus it behooves one to treat suspected cases of ADEM in an adult patient aggressively, as outcome can be favorable. PMID:26180647

  11. Can Training Enhance Face Cognition Abilities in Middle-Aged Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Dolzycka, Dominika; Herzmann, Grit; Sommer, Werner; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Face cognition is a crucial skill for social interaction and shows large individual differences in healthy adults, suggesting a possibility for improvement in some. We developed and tested specific training procedures for the accuracy of face memory and the speed of face cognition. Two groups each of 20 healthy middle-aged trainees practiced for 29 daily sessions of 15 minutes duration with different computerized home-based training procedures. In addition, 20 matched and 59 non-matched controls were included. Face cognition speed training enhanced performance during the training and transferred to the latent factor level as measured in a pre-post comparison. Persistence of the training effect was evidenced at the manifest level after three months. However, the training procedure influenced the speed of processing object stimuli to the same extent as face stimuli and therefore seems to have affected a more general ability of processing complex visual stimuli and not only faces. No effects of training on the accuracy of face memory were found. This study demonstrates that face-specific abilities may be hard to improve but also shows the plasticity of the speed of processing complex visual stimuli – for the first time in middle-aged, normal adults. PMID:24632743

  12. Women, medicine and life in the Middle Ages (500-1500 AD).

    PubMed

    Sabatini, S

    1994-01-01

    The status of women in the Middle Ages was ambiguous, because although they had great responsibility and expertise in practical affairs they were viewed as chattel and inferior to men. They were skilled in cookery, often of highly spiced dishes using a variety of ingredients and flavorings, and they were taught the use of medicinal herbs. They were often skilled in simple first aid, though they were not allowed to practise outside the home. An important exception of this was Hildegarde von Bingen, whose Physica brought her great renown. In it she became the first woman to discuss plants in relation to their medicinal properties. For most people in the Middle Ages, treatment revolved around herbs and diet, together with faith and holy relics and the use of (forbidden) pagan incantation and ritual. Astrology was often a necessary adjunct to treatment. In Salerno, however, medicine had been practised from classical times, and medical training could last for 7 years or more. One of the greatest medieval medical texts is the Tacuinum Sanitatis, which describes in detail the 6 essentials for the preservation of man's health. Several vegetables and herbs are mentioned in connection with the kidneys, the picking and preparation of which are imbued with magic. PMID:7847475

  13. A Case of Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis in a Middle-Aged Adult.

    PubMed

    Mahdi, Nicole; Abdelmalik, Peter A; Curtis, Mark; Bar, Barak

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an inflammatory demyelinating disorder that is often preceded by infection or recent vaccination. Encephalopathy and focal neurological deficits are usually manifest several weeks after a prodromal illness with rapidly progressive neurologic decline. ADEM is most commonly seen in children and young adults, in which prognosis is favorable, but very few cases have been reported of older adults with ADEM and thus their clinical course is unknown. Methods. Here we present a case of ADEM in a middle-aged adult that recovered well after treatment. Results. A 62-year-old man presented with encephalopathy and rapid neurological decline following a gastrointestinal illness. A brain MRI revealed extensive supratentorial white matter hyperintensities consistent with ADEM and thus he was started on high dose intravenous methylprednisolone. He underwent a brain biopsy showing widespread white matter inflammation secondary to demyelination. At discharge, his neurological exam had significantly improved with continued steroid treatment and four months later, he was able to perform his ADLs. Conclusions. This case of ADEM in a middle-aged adult represents an excellent response to high dose steroid treatment with a remarkable neurological recovery. Thus it behooves one to treat suspected cases of ADEM in an adult patient aggressively, as outcome can be favorable. PMID:26180647

  14. Longitudinal examination of the exercise and self-esteem model in middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Elavsky, Steriani

    2010-12-01

    This 2-year prospective study examined the exercise and self-esteem model in middle-aged women (N = 143) previously enrolled in a randomized controlled exercise trial. Across the 2-year period, increases in physical activity (PA) and self-efficacy and reductions in body mass index (BMI) were associated with improved subdomain self-perceptions relative to physical condition, and reductions in BMI were associated with improved subdomain self-perceptions relative to physical condition and body attractiveness. The effects of PA, self-efficacy, and BMI on changes in physical self-worth and global self-esteem were mediated by changes in self-perceptions relative to physical condition and body attractiveness. The results of this longitudinal analysis support the hierarchical and multidimensional structure of self-esteem and indicate that middle-aged women can enhance how they perceive their condition and body attractiveness by continued participation in physical activity, increasing their self-efficacy, and maintaining healthy BMI levels. PMID:21282842

  15. Regional Brain Volumes and ADHD Symptoms in Middle-Aged Adults: The PATH Through Life Study.

    PubMed

    Das, Debjani; Cherbuin, Nicolas; Anstey, Kaarin J; Abhayaratna, Walter; Easteal, Simon

    2014-02-24

    Objective: We investigated whether volumetric differences in ADHD-associated brain regions are related to current symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity in healthy middle-aged adults and whether co-occurring anxiety/depression symptoms moderate these relationships. Method: ADHD Self-Report Scale and Brief Patient Health Questionnaire were used to assess current symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, anxiety, and depression in a population-based sample (n = 269). Brain volumes, measured using a semi-automated method, were analyzed using multiple regression and structural equation modeling to evaluate brain volume-inattention/hyperactivity symptom relationships for selected regions. Results: Volumes of the left nucleus accumbens and a region overlapping the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex were positively associated with inattention symptoms. Left hippocampal volume was negatively associated with hyperactivity symptoms. The brain volume-inattention/hyperactivity symptom associations were stronger when anxiety/depression symptoms were controlled for. Conclusion: Inattention and hyperactivity symptoms in middle-aged adults are associated with different brain regions and co-occurring anxiety/depression symptoms moderate these brain-behavior relationships. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:24567365

  16. Brain activation by visual erotic stimuli in healthy middle aged males.

    PubMed

    Kim, S W; Sohn, D W; Cho, Y-H; Yang, W S; Lee, K-U; Juh, R; Ahn, K-J; Chung, Y-A; Han, S-I; Lee, K H; Lee, C U; Chae, J-H

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify brain centers, whose activity changes are related to erotic visual stimuli in healthy, heterosexual, middle aged males. Ten heterosexual, right-handed males with normal sexual function were entered into the present study (mean age 52 years, range 46-55). All potential subjects were screened over 1 h interview, and were encouraged to fill out questionnaires including the Brief Male Sexual Function Inventory. All subjects with a history of sexual arousal disorder or erectile dysfunction were excluded. We performed functional brain magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in male volunteers when an alternatively combined erotic and nonerotic film was played for 14 min and 9 s. The major areas of activation associated with sexual arousal to visual stimuli were occipitotemporal area, anterior cingulate gyrus, insula, orbitofrontal cortex, caudate nucleus. However, hypothalamus and thalamus were not activated. We suggest that the nonactivation of hypothalamus and thalamus in middle aged males may be responsible for the lesser physiological arousal in response to the erotic visual stimuli. PMID:16467858

  17. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Risk Perceptions for Chronic Diseases in Younger and Middle-Aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Jada G.; Lobel, Marci

    2016-01-01

    Perceptions of disease risk play an important role in motivating people to adopt healthy behaviors. However, little is known about psychosocial factors that influence women’s perceived risk for developing disease. The present study investigated the extent to which individual traits, social influences, objective risk factors, and demographic characteristics were associated with women’s risk perceptions for cardiovascular disease, breast cancer, and lung cancer. Using structural equation modeling, we examined hypothesized associations among 452 younger (ages 18-25 years) and 167 middle-aged (ages 40-64 years) women. A greater number and variety of factors were associated with middle-aged women’s risk perceptions compared to younger women. For both groups, some objective risk factors were associated with risk perceptions; yet, associations also existed between multiple psychosocial variables (optimism, health locus of control, social exposure to disease, perceived stigma) and risk perceptions. Results suggested that women may base their risk estimates on factors beyond those considered important by healthcare providers. PMID:26110993

  18. Hippocampal Neuron Number Is Unchanged 1 Year After Fractionated Whole-Brain Irradiation at Middle Age

    SciTech Connect

    Shi Lei Molina, Doris P.; Robbins, Michael E.; Wheeler, Kenneth T.; Brunso-Bechtold, Judy K.

    2008-06-01

    Purpose: To determine whether hippocampal neurons are lost 12 months after middle-aged rats received a fractionated course of whole-brain irradiation (WBI) that is expected to be biologically equivalent to the regimens used clinically in the treatment of brain tumors. Methods and Materials: Twelve-month-old Fischer 344 X Brown Norway male rats were divided into WBI and control (CON) groups (n = 6 per group). Anesthetized WBI rats received 45 Gy of {sup 137}Cs {gamma} rays delivered as 9 5-Gy fractions twice per week for 4.5 weeks. Control rats were anesthetized but not irradiated. Twelve months after WBI completion, all rats were anesthetized and perfused with paraformaldehyde, and hippocampal sections were immunostained with the neuron-specific antibody NeuN. Using unbiased stereology, total neuron number and the volume of the neuronal and neuropil layers were determined in the dentate gyrus, CA3, and CA1 subregions of hippocampus. Results: No differences in tissue integrity or neuron distribution were observed between the WBI and CON groups. Moreover, quantitative analysis demonstrated that neither total neuron number nor the volume of neuronal or neuropil layers differed between the two groups for any subregion. Conclusions: Impairment on a hippocampal-dependent learning and memory test occurs 1 year after fractionated WBI at middle age. The same WBI regimen, however, does not lead to a loss of neurons or a reduction in the volume of hippocampus.

  19. Changes in Support Networks in Late Middle Age: The Extension of Gender and Educational Differences

    PubMed Central

    Beresford, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This paper tests whether differences by gender and by educational attainment in contact with friends and family and in support expected from friends and family narrow or widen in late middle age. Methods. The data are drawn from about 4,800 members of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Survey who answered questions about their frequency of contact with social ties and expectations of 3 kinds of help in both 1993, when they were in their early 50s, and again in 2004. Results. Using lagged dependent variable models, we find that between their 50s and 60s women’s network advantages over men and college graduates’ network advantages over high school graduates in frequency of social contact widened. The same was roughly true as well for expectations of social support, although here the divergences depended partly on the type of the support: Women gained relative to men in “talk” support and in help from nonkin if ill, but lost ground in financial support. The college-educated gained ground in all sorts of support from nonkin. Discussion. These results reinforce concern that late middle age is a period when men and the less educated become yet more disadvantaged in social support, making attention to connectedness yet more critical. PMID:24898029

  20. Cognitive decline and oral health in middle-aged adults in the ARIC study.

    PubMed

    Naorungroj, S; Slade, G D; Beck, J D; Mosley, T H; Gottesman, R F; Alonso, A; Heiss, G

    2013-09-01

    Even before dementia becomes apparent, cognitive decline may contribute to deterioration in oral health. This cohort study of middle-aged adults evaluated associations of six-year change in cognitive function with oral health behaviors and conditions in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Cognitive function was measured at study visits in 1990-1992 and 1996-1998 with three tests: (a) Delayed Word Recall (DWR), (b) Digit Symbol Substitution (DSS), and (c) Word Fluency (WF). Cognitive decline scores were computed as 'studentized' residuals of 1996-1998 scores regressed against 1990-1992 scores. In 1996-1998, 10,050 participants answered dental screening questions, and 5,878 of 8,782 dentate participants received a comprehensive oral examination. Multiple regression models used cognitive change to predict oral health behaviors and conditions with adjustment for covariates. In the fully adjusted models, greater decline in all three measures of cognitive function was associated with increased odds of complete tooth loss. Greater decline in DSS and WF scores was associated with infrequent toothbrushing. Decline in WF scores was also associated with higher plaque levels. In these middle-aged adults, six-year cognitive decline was modestly associated with less frequent toothbrushing, plaque deposit, and greater odds of edentulism, but not with other oral behaviors or diseases. PMID:23872988

  1. Lexical influences on competing speech perception in younger, middle-aged, and older adults.

    PubMed

    Helfer, Karen S; Jesse, Alexandra

    2015-07-01

    The influence of lexical characteristics of words in to-be-attended and to-be-ignored speech streams was examined in a competing speech task. Older, middle-aged, and younger adults heard pairs of low-cloze probability sentences in which the frequency or neighborhood density of words was manipulated in either the target speech stream or the masking speech stream. All participants also completed a battery of cognitive measures. As expected, for all groups, target words that occur frequently or that are from sparse lexical neighborhoods were easier to recognize than words that are infrequent or from dense neighborhoods. Compared to other groups, these neighborhood density effects were largest for older adults; the frequency effect was largest for middle-aged adults. Lexical characteristics of words in the to-be-ignored speech stream also affected recognition of to-be-attended words, but only when overall performance was relatively good (that is, when younger participants listened to the speech streams at a more advantageous signal-to-noise ratio). For these listeners, to-be-ignored masker words from sparse neighborhoods interfered with recognition of target speech more than masker words from dense neighborhoods. Amount of hearing loss and cognitive abilities relating to attentional control modulated overall performance as well as the strength of lexical influences. PMID:26233036

  2. Thermal properties of the middle-aged pulsar J1741–2054

    SciTech Connect

    Karpova, A.; Danilenko, A.; Shibanov, Yu.; Shternin, P.; Zyuzin, D.

    2014-07-10

    We present results of the spectral analysis of the X-ray emission from the middle-aged Fermi pulsar J1741–2054 using all Chandra archival data collected in 2010 and 2013. We confirm early findings by Romani et al. in 2010 that the pulsar spectrum contains a thermal emission component. The component is best described by the blackbody model with temperature ≈60 eV and emitting area radius ≈17 D{sub kpc} km. The thermal emission likely originates from the entire surface of the cooling neutron star if the distance to the pulsar is ≈0.8 kpc. The latter is supported by a large absorbing column density inferred from the X-ray fit and empirical optical extinction-distance relations along the pulsar line of sight. The neutron star surface temperature and characteristic age make it similar to the well studied middle-aged pulsar B1055–52. Like this pulsar, PSR J1741–2054 is hotter than predicted by the standard cooling scenario.

  3. Martial Art Training and Cognitive Performance in Middle-Aged Adults.

    PubMed

    Douris, Peter; Douris, Christopher; Balder, Nicole; LaCasse, Michael; Rand, Amir; Tarapore, Freya; Zhuchkan, Aleskey; Handrakis, John

    2015-09-29

    Cognitive performance includes the processes of attention, memory, processing speed, and executive functioning, which typically declines with aging. Previous research has demonstrated that aerobic and resistance exercise improves cognitive performance immediately following exercise. However, there is limited research examining the effect that a cognitively complex exercise such as martial art training has on these cognitive processes. Our study compared the acute effects of 2 types of martial art training to aerobic exercise on cognitive performance in middle-aged adults. We utilized a repeated measures design with the order of the 3 exercise conditions randomly assigned and counterbalanced. Ten recreational middle-aged martial artists (mean age = 53.5 ± 8.6 years) participated in 3 treatment conditions: a typical martial art class, an atypical martial art class, and a one-hour walk at a self-selected speed. Cognitive performance was assessed by the Stroop Color and Word test. While all 3 exercise conditions improved attention and processing speed, only the 2 martial art conditions improved the highest order of cognitive performance, executive function. The effect of the 2 martial art conditions on executive function was not different. The improvement in executive function may be due to the increased cortical demand required by the more complex, coordinated motor tasks of martial art exercise compared to the more repetitive actions of walking. PMID:26672872

  4. Cognitive Decline and Oral Health in Middle-aged Adults in the ARIC Study

    PubMed Central

    Naorungroj, S.; Slade, G.D.; Beck, J.D.; Mosley, T.H.; Gottesman, R.F.; Alonso, A.; Heiss, G.

    2013-01-01

    Even before dementia becomes apparent, cognitive decline may contribute to deterioration in oral health. This cohort study of middle-aged adults evaluated associations of six-year change in cognitive function with oral health behaviors and conditions in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Cognitive function was measured at study visits in 1990-1992 and 1996-1998 with three tests: (a) Delayed Word Recall (DWR), (b) Digit Symbol Substitution (DSS), and (c) Word Fluency (WF). Cognitive decline scores were computed as ‘studentized’ residuals of 1996-1998 scores regressed against 1990-1992 scores. In 1996-1998, 10,050 participants answered dental screening questions, and 5,878 of 8,782 dentate participants received a comprehensive oral examination. Multiple regression models used cognitive change to predict oral health behaviors and conditions with adjustment for covariates. In the fully adjusted models, greater decline in all three measures of cognitive function was associated with increased odds of complete tooth loss. Greater decline in DSS and WF scores was associated with infrequent toothbrushing. Decline in WF scores was also associated with higher plaque levels. In these middle-aged adults, six-year cognitive decline was modestly associated with less frequent toothbrushing, plaque deposit, and greater odds of edentulism, but not with other oral behaviors or diseases. PMID:23872988

  5. Employment status and depressive symptoms in middle-aged women: a longitudinal investigation.

    PubMed Central

    Bromberger, J T; Matthews, K A

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study investigated the psychological effects of paid employment and nonemployment, cross-sectionally and longitudinally, in 541 middle-aged women. METHODS. Women were seen for an extensive baseline evaluation and were reevaluated in an identical manner 3 years later. They were divided into four "synthetic" cohorts, based upon employment status at these two assessments. RESULTS. At baseline, nonemployed women reported higher levels of depressive symptoms than employed women, with nonemployed women with less education, low support from family and friends, or low marital satisfaction the most symptomatic. Symptoms decreased in women who were nonemployed initially but employed at the later exam; in all other groups, symptoms increased. Unlike the cross-sectional findings, however, the longitudinal findings showed that women who were nonemployed at baseline and had low levels of education, social support, or marital satisfaction did not benefit more from subsequent employment than did their counterparts who had high levels of these factors. CONCLUSIONS. New paid work may have a positive effect on mood for middle-aged women. However, given the contradictions between our cross-sectional and longitudinal results, caution should be exercised in drawing conclusions from cross-sectional studies that likely confound employment status, symptoms, and moderating variables. PMID:8296940

  6. α-Synuclein aggregation in the olfactory bulb of middle-aged common marmoset.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Reona; Takahashi-Fujigasaki, Junko; Shiozawa, Seiji; Hara-Miyauchi, Chikako; Inoue, Takashi; Okano, Hirotaka James; Sasaki, Erika; Okano, Hideyuki

    2016-05-01

    The synaptic protein α-synuclein has been identified as a major component of Lewy bodies, a pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD). Prior to the formation of Lewy bodies, mislocalization and aggregation of the α-synuclein in brain tissue is frequently observed in various neurodegenerative diseases. Aberrant accumulation and localization of α-synuclein are also observed in the aging human brain, for which reason aging is regarded as a risk factor for neurodegenerative disease. To investigate changes in α-synuclein properties in the aging brain, we compared α-synuclein immunoreactivity in brain tissue of young (2-years-old) and middle-aged (6-years-old) common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). Our analyses revealed marked changes in α-synuclein immunoreactivity in the olfactory bulb of common marmosets of these age cohorts. Perikaryal α-synuclein aggregations were formed in the olfactory bulb in middle-aged animals. We also observed signals of α-synuclein accumulation in hippocampus in this cohort; however, unlike in the olfactory bulb, hippocampal α-synuclein signals were localized in the synaptic terminals. We did not observe either of these features in younger marmosets, which suggest that aging may play a role in these phenomena. Our results using common marmoset brain corresponded with the observation that the α-synuclein aggregations were first occurred from olfactory bulb in human normal aged and PD brain. Therefore, common marmoset is expected as useful model for α-synuclein pathology. PMID:26643383

  7. fMRI subsequent source memory effects in young, middle-aged and old adults.

    PubMed

    Cansino, Selene; Estrada-Manilla, Cinthya; Trejo-Morales, Patricia; Pasaye-Alcaraz, Erick Humberto; Aguilar-Castañeda, Erika; Salgado-Lujambio, Perla; Sosa-Ortiz, Ana Luisa

    2015-03-01

    The ability to remember the spatial context in which our experiences occur declines linearly across the adult lifespan. However, little is known about whether this source memory decline is associated with neural activity changes. In the present study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans were recorded in young, middle-aged and old adults to investigate brain activity variations across the adult lifespan during encoding of subsequent spatial source memory retrieval. Twelve healthy individuals of both sexes were enrolled in each age group. During encoding, participants performed natural/artificial judgment of images of common objects that were randomly presented in one of the quadrants of the screen. During retrieval, the images presented at encoding were randomly mixed with new ones and displayed at the center of the screen. Participants judged whether each image was new or old and, if an image was old, they were instructed to indicate in which quadrant the image was presented in the encoding session. The contrast between study items that were later recognized and assigned a correct source judgment with those whose sources were subsequently forgotten revealed that positive subsequent memory effects disappear by middle age in the left medial orbitofrontal gyrus and appear in the left superior occipital gyrus. This under-recruitment and over-recruitment brain activity was also present in old adults. The results allowed us to identify the specific brain regions that first fail to encode spatial information into an episodic representation during the adult lifespan. PMID:25476566

  8. Association Between Hemodiafiltration and Hypoalbuminemia in Middle-Age Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Cheng-Hao; Hsu, Ching-Wei; Hu, Ching-Chih; Yen, Tzung-Hai; Huang, Wen-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The advantage of hemodiafiltration (HDF) is well known. One of the disadvantages of HDF is loss of serum albumin, but this issue is still obscure. Some risk factors associated with mortality were age dependent. Studies on serum albumin/hypoalbuminemia and HDF in different age stratification were limited. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the role of HDF and other clinical variables on serum albumin values in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients of different age groups. We recruited a total of 1216 patients on MHD. Patients were divided into 4 groups by age stratification of youth (<30 years old), young-middle age (30–44 years old), middle age (45–64 years old), and old age (≥65  years old). Biochemical, hematological, nutritional, inflammatory parameters, and receiving HDF or not were recorded. The associations between age groups, HDF, and variables mentioned above were analyzed. Only in middle-age group, patients with HDF was significantly (P = 0.013) associated with serum albumin <4 g/dL. In middle-age group, a multivariate-forward logistic regression analysis showed that male sex (2.169 [1.029, 4.574], P = 0.042), inflammation (4.167 [2.043, 8.498], P < 0.001), cardiovascular disease (2.92 [1.019, 8.402], P = 0.046), serum creatinine level (0.639 [0.538, 0.758], P < 0.001), and cholesterol level (0.984 [0.975, 0.993], P = 0.001) were associated with serum albumin level <3.6 g/dL. Hepatitis C virus infection (1.911 [1.186, 3.077], P = 0.008), HDF (2.143 [1.298, 3.540], P = 0.003), inflammation (2.309 [1.549, 3.440], P < 0.001), use of arterio-venous fistula (0.518 [0.327, 0.820], P = 0.005), Kt/V (0.395 [0.193, 0.809], P = 0.011), nonanuria (0.542 [0.337, 0.870], P = 0.011), serum creatinine level (0.744 [0.669, 0.828], P < 0.001), and cholesterol level (0.993 [0.987, 0.998], P = 0.013) were associated with serum albumin level <4 g/dL. HDF can predict serum

  9. Association Between Hemodiafiltration and Hypoalbuminemia in Middle-Age Hemodialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Weng, Cheng-Hao; Hsu, Ching-Wei; Hu, Ching-Chih; Yen, Tzung-Hai; Huang, Wen-Hung

    2016-04-01

    The advantage of hemodiafiltration (HDF) is well known. One of the disadvantages of HDF is loss of serum albumin, but this issue is still obscure. Some risk factors associated with mortality were age dependent. Studies on serum albumin/hypoalbuminemia and HDF in different age stratification were limited. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the role of HDF and other clinical variables on serum albumin values in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients of different age groups.We recruited a total of 1216 patients on MHD. Patients were divided into 4 groups by age stratification of youth (<30 years old), young-middle age (30-44 years old), middle age (45-64 years old), and old age (≥65  years old). Biochemical, hematological, nutritional, inflammatory parameters, and receiving HDF or not were recorded. The associations between age groups, HDF, and variables mentioned above were analyzed.Only in middle-age group, patients with HDF was significantly (P = 0.013) associated with serum albumin <4 g/dL. In middle-age group, a multivariate-forward logistic regression analysis showed that male sex (2.169 [1.029, 4.574], P = 0.042), inflammation (4.167 [2.043, 8.498], P < 0.001), cardiovascular disease (2.92 [1.019, 8.402], P = 0.046), serum creatinine level (0.639 [0.538, 0.758], P < 0.001), and cholesterol level (0.984 [0.975, 0.993], P = 0.001) were associated with serum albumin level <3.6 g/dL. Hepatitis C virus infection (1.911 [1.186, 3.077], P = 0.008), HDF (2.143 [1.298, 3.540], P = 0.003), inflammation (2.309 [1.549, 3.440], P < 0.001), use of arterio-venous fistula (0.518 [0.327, 0.820], P = 0.005), Kt/V (0.395 [0.193, 0.809], P = 0.011), nonanuria (0.542 [0.337, 0.870], P = 0.011), serum creatinine level (0.744 [0.669, 0.828], P < 0.001), and cholesterol level (0.993 [0.987, 0.998], P = 0.013) were associated with serum albumin level <4 g/dL.HDF can predict serum albumin level <4

  10. Changes in HIV and syphilis prevalence among female sex workers from three serial cross-sectional surveys in Karnataka state, South India

    PubMed Central

    Isac, Shajy; Ramesh, B M; Rajaram, S; Washington, Reynold; Bradley, Janet E; Reza-Paul, Sushena; Beattie, Tara S; Blanchard, James F; Moses, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This paper examined trends over time in condom use, and the prevalences of HIV and syphilis, among female sex workers (FSWs) in South India. Design Data from three rounds of cross-sectional surveys were analysed, with HIV and high-titre syphilis prevalence as outcome variables. Multivariable analysis was applied to examine changes in prevalence over time. Setting Five districts in Karnataka state, India. Participants 7015 FSWs were interviewed over three rounds of surveys (round 1=2277; round 2=2387 and round 3=2351). Women who reported selling sex in exchange for money or gifts in the past month, and aged between 18 and 49 years, were included. Interventions The surveys were conducted to monitor a targeted HIV prevention programme during 2004–2012. The main interventions included peer-led community outreach, services for the treatment and prevention of sexually transmitted infections, and empowering FSWs through community mobilisation. Results HIV prevalence declined significantly from rounds 1 to 3, from 19.6% to 10.8% (adjusted OR (AOR)=0.48, p<0.001); high-titre syphilis prevalence declined from 5.9% to 2.4% (AOR=0.50, p<0.001). Reductions were observed in most substrata of FSWs, although reductions among new sex workers, and those soliciting clients using mobile phones or from home, were not statistically significant. Condom use ‘always’ with occasional clients increased from 73% to 91% (AOR=1.9, p<0.001), with repeat clients from 52% to 86% (AOR=5.0, p<0.001) and with regular partners from 12% to 30% (AOR=4.2, p<0.001). Increased condom use was associated with exposure to the programme. However, condom use with regular partners remained low. Conclusions The prevalences of HIV infection and high-titre syphilis among FSWs have steadily declined with increased condom use. Further reductions in prevalence will require intensification of prevention efforts for new FSWs and those soliciting clients using mobile phones or from home, as well as

  11. Height loss starting in middle age predicts increased mortality in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Masunari, Naomi; Fujiwara, Saeko; Kasagi, Fumiyoshi; Takahashi, Ikuno; Yamada, Michiko; Nakamura, Toshitaka

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the mortality risk among Japanese men and women with height loss starting in middle age, taking into account lifestyle and physical factors. A total of 2498 subjects (755 men and 1743 women) aged 47 to 91 years old underwent physical examinations during the period 1994 to 1995. Those individuals were followed for mortality status through 2003. Mortality risk was estimated using an age-stratified Cox proportional hazards model. In addition to sex, adjustment factors such as radiation dose, lifestyle, and physical factors measured at the baseline--including smoking status, alcohol intake, total cholesterol, blood pressure, and diagnosed diseases--were used for analysis of total mortality and mortality from each cause of death. There were a total of 302 all-cause deaths, 46 coronary heart disease and stroke deaths, 58 respiratory deaths including 45 pneumonia deaths, and 132 cancer deaths during the follow-up period. Participants were followed for 20,787 person-years after baseline. Prior history of vertebral deformity and hip fracture were not associated with mortality risk. However, more than 2 cm of height loss starting in middle age showed a significant association with all-cause mortality among the study participants (HR = 1.76, 95% CI 1.31 to 2.38, p = 0.0002), after adjustment was made for sex, attained age, atomic-bomb radiation exposure, and lifestyle and physical factors. Such height loss also was significantly associated with death due to coronary heart disease or stroke (HR = 3.35, 95% CI 1.63 to 6.86, p = 0.0010), as well as respiratory-disease death (HR = 2.52, 95% CI 1.25 to 5.22, p = 0.0130), but not cancer death. Continuous HL also was associated with all-cause mortality and CHD- or stroke-caused mortality. Association between height loss and mortality was still significant, even after excluding persons with vertebral deformity. Height loss of more than 2 cm starting in middle age

  12. Diet, nutritional knowledge and health status of urban middle-aged Malaysian women.

    PubMed

    Pon, L W; Noor-Aini, M Y; Ong, F B; Adeeb, N; Seri, S S; Shamsuddin, K; Mohamed, A L; Hapizah, N; Mokhtar, A; Wan, H Wh

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess nutritional and health status as well as nutritional knowledge in urban middle-aged Malaysian women. The impact of menopause on diet and health indices was also studied. The study included 360 disease free women, non users of HRT,aged > or =45 years with an intact uterus recruited from November 1999 to October 2001. Personal characteristics, anthropometric measurements and blood sample were acquired followed by clinical examination. Nutrient intake and nutritional knowledge was determined by a quantitative FFQ and KAP. The findings showed that urban middle-aged women, aged 51.65+/-5.40 years had energy intakes (EI) 11% below RDA, consisting of 53% carbohydrates, 15% protein and a 32% fat which declined with age. The sample which comprised of 42.5% postmenopausal women had a satisfactory diet and healthy lifestyle practices. Premenopausal women consumed more dietary fat (6%) with other aspects of diet comparable to the postmenopausal women. Iron intake was deficient in premenopausal women, amounting to 56% RDA contributing to a 26% prevalence of anaemia. Overall, calcium intake reached 440 mg daily but dairy products were not the main source. The postmenopaused had a more artherogenic lipid profile with significantly higher total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C, but more premenopausal women were overweight/obese (49% versus 35%). EI was the strongest predictor for BMI and waist circumference (WC), with WC itself an independent predictor of fasting blood sugar and TC with BMI strongly affecting glucose tolerance. High nutritional knowledge was seen in 39% whereas 20% had poor knowledge. Newspapers and magazines, followed by the subject's social circle, were the main sources of nutritional information. Nutritional knowledge was positively associated with education, household income, vitamin/ mineral supplementation and regular physical activity but inversely related to TC. In conclusion, middle-aged urban women had an adequate diet

  13. Triiodothyronine Levels Are Independently Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in Euthyroid Middle-Aged Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye Jeong; Park, Hyeong Kyu; Byun, Dong Won; Suh, Kyoil; Yoo, Myung Hi; Kim, Jae Hyeon; Min, Yong-Ki; Kim, Sun Wook

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent studies have shown an association between thyroid hormone levels and metabolic syndrome (MetS) among euthyroid individuals; however, there have been some inconsistencies between studies. Here, we evaluated the relationship between thyroid hormone levels and MetS in euthyroid middle-aged subjects in a large cohort. Methods A retrospective analysis of 13,496 euthyroid middle-aged subjects who participated in comprehensive health examinations was performed. Subjects were grouped according to thyroid stimulating hormone, total triiodothyronine (T3), total thyroxine (T4), and T3-to-T4 ratio quartile categories. We estimated the odds ratios (ORs) for MetS according to thyroid hormone quartiles using logistic regression models, adjusted for potential confounders. Results Of the study patients, 12% (n=1,664) had MetS. A higher T3 level and T3-to-T4 ratio were associated with unfavourable metabolic profiles, such as higher body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, fasting glucose and glycated hemoglobin, and lower high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. The proportion of participants with MetS increased across the T3 quartile categories (P for trend <0.001) and the T3-to-T4 ratio quartile categories (P for trend <0.001). The multi-variate-adjusted OR (95% confidence interval) for MetS in the highest T3 quartile group was 1.249 (1.020 to 1.529) compared to the lowest T3 quartile group, and that in the highest T3-to-T4 ratio quartile group was 1.458 (1.141 to 1.863) compared to the lowest T3-to-T4 ratio quartile group, even after adjustment for potential confounders. Conclusion Serum T3 levels and T3-to-T4 ratio are independently associated with MetS in euthyroid middle-aged subjects. Longitudinal studies are needed to define this association and its potential health implications. PMID:27184017

  14. Cluster analysis of polyphenol intake in a French middle-aged population (aged 35-64 years).

    PubMed

    Julia, Chantal; Touvier, Mathilde; Lassale, Camille; Fezeu, Léopold; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    Polyphenols have been suggested as protective factors for a range of chronic diseases. However, studying the impact of individual polyphenols on health is hindered by the intrinsic inter-correlations among polyphenols. Alternatively, studying foods rich in specific polyphenols fails to grasp the ubiquity of these components. Studying overall dietary patterns would allow for a more comprehensive description of polyphenol intakes in the population. Our objective was to identify clusters of dietary polyphenol intakes in a French middle-aged population (35-64 years old). Participants from the primary prevention trial SUpplementation en VItamines et Minéraux AntioXydants (SU.VI.MAX) study were included in the present cross-sectional study (n 6092; 57·8 % females; mean age 48·7 (sd 6·4) years). The fifty most consumed individual dietary polyphenols were divided into energy-adjusted tertiles and introduced in a multiple correspondence analysis (MCA), leading to comprehensive factors of dietary polyphenol intakes. The identified factors discriminating polyphenol intakes were used in a hierarchical clustering procedure. Four clusters were identified, corresponding broadly to clustered preferences for their respective food sources. Cluster 1 was characterised by high intakes of tea polyphenols. Cluster 2 was characterised by high intakes of wine polyphenols. Cluster 3 was characterised by high intakes of flavanones and flavones, corresponding to high consumption of fruit and vegetables, and more broadly to a healthier diet. Cluster 4 was characterised by high intakes of hydroxycinnamic acids, but was also associated with alcohol consumption and smoking. Profiles of polyphenol intakes allowed for the identification of meaningful combinations of polyphenol intakes in the diet. PMID:27547391

  15. Middle-aged women’s decisions about body weight management: needs assessment and testing of a knowledge translation tool

    PubMed Central

    Stacey, Dawn; Jull, Janet; Beach, Sarah; Dumas, Alex; Strychar, Irene; Adamo, Kristi; Brochu, Martin; Prud’homme, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective This study aims to assess middle-aged women’s needs when making body weight management decisions and to evaluate a knowledge translation tool for addressing their needs. Methods A mixed-methods study used an interview-guided theory-based survey of professional women aged 40 to 65 years. The tool summarized evidence to address their needs and enabled women to monitor actions taken. Acceptability and usability were reported descriptively. Results Sixty female participants had a mean body mass index of 28.0 kg/m2 (range, 17.0-44.9 kg/m2), and half were premenopausal. Common options for losing (82%) or maintaining (18%) weight included increasing physical activity (60%), eating healthier (57%), and getting support (40%). Decision-making involved getting information on options (52%), soliciting others’ decisions/advice (20%), and being self-motivated (20%). Preferred information sources included written information (97%), counseling (90%), and social networking websites (43%). Five professionals (dietitian, personal trainer, occupational therapist, and two physicians) had similar responses. Of 53 women sent the tool, 27 provided acceptability feedback. They rated it as good to excellent for information on menopause (96%), body weight changes (85%), and managing body weight (85%). Most would tell others about it (81%). After 4 weeks of use, 25 women reported that the wording made sense (96%) and that the tool had clear instructions (92%) and was easy to use across time (88%). The amount of information was rated as just right (64%), but the tool had limited space for responding (72%). Conclusions When making decisions about body weight management, women’s needs were “getting information” and “getting support.” The knowledge translation tool was acceptable and usable, but further evaluation is required. PMID:25816120

  16. Relation between alcohol consumption and arterial stiffness: A cross-sectional study of middle-aged Japanese women and men.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Sachiko; Yoshioka, Eiji; Saijo, Yasuaki; Kita, Toshiko; Okada, Eisaku; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Kishi, Reiko

    2013-12-01

    Epidemiological data indicate the existence of a J-shaped association between alcohol consumption and cardiovascular mobility and mortality. However, studies assessing the relationship between alcohol consumption and pulse wave velocity (PWV) as a marker of arterial stiffness have provided inconsistent results. In addition, data regarding the effect of alcohol on arterial stiffness in women has been limited. This study aimed to clarify the relationship between alcohol consumption and PWV among female and male workers in Japan. Study participants were local government employees in Hokkaido, Japan, who underwent annual health check-ups. All data were collected using self-administered questionnaires. The average daily alcohol consumption of the previous month, based on the alcohol concentration of each beverage type (g/day, ethanol equivalent), was estimated according to the frequency and amount of consumption. Data from 3893 participants (812 women and 3081 men) were analyzed. In women, non-drinkers had significantly higher PWV than women who consumed <10 g/day of alcohol. In men, compared with those who reportedly drank 20-39 g/day, non-drinkers and those who drank <20 g/day and ≥60 g/day had significantly higher PWV. Alcohol consumption showed a J-shaped association with PWV in men (p for quadratic term < 0.036) and marginally in women (p < 0.056). The results of stratified analyses by age groups showed a significant J-shaped association, which was most notable for men ≥45 years (p < 0.005). In middle-aged Japanese women and men, light-to-moderate alcohol consumption is associated with lower PWV, which in turn correlates with a reduction in vascular stiffness. PMID:24239150

  17. Study of the Physical Condition of Middle-aged Office and Field Workers Aged 50 and Older.

    PubMed

    Yoo, ChanUk; Park, SooHee; Yang, DongJoo; Park, YunHee; Kim, DeokJu; Yang, YeongAe

    2014-10-01

    [Purpose] We investigated the physical condition of middle-aged workers in Korea by job category (office job vs. production job). [Subjects] In total, 3,650 middle-aged workers (production job, n = 2,615; office job, n = 1,035) ≥50 years of age from eight geographical areas were evaluated from 2007 to 2008. [Methods] The subjects' subjective physical condition, exercise status, smoking status, and drinking status were investigated, and precise physical measurements, cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, reflexes, and reactions were measured. [Results] Subjectively, the physical condition and exercise status of those with office jobs were superior to those of production job workers. Office workers exhibited a higher rate of drinking than production workers, and also had better cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, reflexes, and reactions. However, production workers were more flexible than office workers. [Conclusion] Middle-aged production job workers in Korea have poorer overall physical condition than middle-aged office job workers. The physical condition of middle-aged and elderly workers must be managed through various health management programs to secure a productive aging society. PMID:25364116

  18. Study of the Physical Condition of Middle-aged Office and Field Workers Aged 50 and Older

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, ChanUk; Park, SooHee; Yang, DongJoo; Park, YunHee; Kim, DeokJu; Yang, YeongAe

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] We investigated the physical condition of middle-aged workers in Korea by job category (office job vs. production job). [Subjects] In total, 3,650 middle-aged workers (production job, n = 2,615; office job, n = 1,035) ≥50 years of age from eight geographical areas were evaluated from 2007 to 2008. [Methods] The subjects’ subjective physical condition, exercise status, smoking status, and drinking status were investigated, and precise physical measurements, cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, reflexes, and reactions were measured. [Results] Subjectively, the physical condition and exercise status of those with office jobs were superior to those of production job workers. Office workers exhibited a higher rate of drinking than production workers, and also had better cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, reflexes, and reactions. However, production workers were more flexible than office workers. [Conclusion] Middle-aged production job workers in Korea have poorer overall physical condition than middle-aged office job workers. The physical condition of middle-aged and elderly workers must be managed through various health management programs to secure a productive aging society. PMID:25364116

  19. The conceptual structure of hwa-byung in middle-aged Korean women.

    PubMed

    Park, Young-Joo; Kim, Hesook Suzie; Schwartz-Barcott, Donna; Kim, Jong-Woo

    2002-06-01

    The term hwa-byung (HB) as a culture-bound syndrome of Koreans has been used to refer to certain types of symptom complexes. However, there is an ambiguity in relation to what sorts of experiences and personal attributes can be identified for describing HB. Our study was designed to reexamine the conceptual structure of HB through a qualitative analysis of interview data with six middle-aged women experiencing HB. The emerging common themes of HB were identified in three dimensions: (a) those related to personal attributes or life situations such as quick-temperedness, strong commitment to traditional values, a hard or unhappy life, and conflicted marital relationship; (b) those related to experiential accounts such as deep sorrow (hahn in Korean), a feeling of victimization, anger, and enduring; and (c) HB symptoms. "Enduring" as one of the core concepts of HB viewed as the only way of life for these women needs further examination. PMID:12148916

  20. Effects of metrifonate on radial arm maze acquisition in middle-aged rats.

    PubMed

    Dachir, S; Schmidt, B; Levy, A

    1997-11-28

    The efficacy of metrifonate, a well-tolerated cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitor, in attenuating the normal aging- and corticosterone-induced impairments of radial maze performance of rats was compared. Middle-aged Fischer 344 rats were screened for their spatial orientation performance in the Morris water escape task. Good and bad performers were selected: good performers (N= 22) were treated with subcutaneous sustained-release corticosterone pellets, resulting in hippocampal cell damage and impaired spatial orientation in the radial maze; age-induced bad performers (N = 20) were tested without additional pharmacological intervention. Metrifonate (MFT), administered daily during radial maze testing, 30 min before training, at a dose of 15 mg/kg p.o., facilitated the acquisition of the task in age-impaired rats, but not in corticosterone-impaired rats. PMID:9449438

  1. Autonomic predictors of Stroop performance in young and middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Mathewson, Karen J; Jetha, Michelle K; Drmic, Irene E; Bryson, Susan E; Goldberg, Joel O; Hall, Geoffrey B; Santesso, Diane L; Segalowitz, Sidney J; Schmidt, Louis A

    2010-06-01

    Although changes in autonomic activity have been extensively examined as responses to cognitive challenges, relatively few studies have used individual differences in autonomic parameters to predict executive performance in healthy adults. Here we examined baseline and task-related changes in heart rate and heart rate variability (measured by respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA)) to predict performance of a pictorial Stroop task in a group of 81 healthy adults aged 17-55. Greater autonomic reactivity (increased heart rate and reduced RSA for task performance) was associated with faster colour naming of faces in the Stroop task. Dividing the group by median age revealed that middle-aged adults reduced RSA to a greater degree than their younger counterparts in the context of equivalent performance across groups. Findings suggest that performance of executive function tasks that evoke attentional control may depend in part on the responsiveness of autonomic control parameters via age-dependent mechanisms. PMID:20193717

  2. BDNF infusion and up-regulation rescue synaptic plasticity in middle-aged ovariectomized rats

    PubMed Central

    Kramár, Enikö A.; Chen, Lulu Y; Lauterborn, Julie C; Simmons, Danielle A; Gall, Christine M; Lynch, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) has emerged as a possible broad-spectrum treatment for the plasticity losses found in rodent models of human conditions associated with memory and cognitive deficits. We have tested this strategy in the particular case of ovariectomy. The actin polymerization in spines normally found after patterned afferent stimulation was greatly reduced, along with the stabilization of long-term potentiation, in hippocampal slices prepared from middle-aged ovariectomized rats. Both effects were fully restored by a 60 min infusion of 2 nM BDNF. Comparable rescue results were obtained after elevating endogenous BDNF protein levels in hippocampus with four daily injections of a short half-life ampakine (positive modulator of AMPA-type glutamate receptors). These results provide the first evidence that minimally invasive, mechanism-based drug treatments can ameliorate defects in spine plasticity caused by depressed estrogen levels. PMID:20674095

  3. Older adults' evaluations of middle-aged children's attempts to initiate discussion of care needs.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Craig; Fisher, Carla L; Pitts, Margaret J

    2014-01-01

    We explored how older adults evaluated the strategies used by an adult child to initiate discussion of future care needs, and subsequently, whether these judgments affected older adults' willingness to engage in discussions about eldercare if approached in a similar fashion by one of their own children. One hundred and thirty older adults were randomly assigned to read one of four scripts depicting efforts by a middle-aged daughter to raise the topic of future care needs with her mother by implementing a variety of facework behaviors. Scripts manipulated the degree to which the daughter conveyed respect for her mother's desires for autonomy (negative face) and connection (positive face). The daughter's facework significantly predicted older parents' evaluation of her as supportive, which in turn predicted their willingness to discuss future care needs with one of their own children if they were to approach the conversation in a similar way. PMID:24156501

  4. Metabolic Youth in Middle Age: Predicting Aging in Caenorhabditis elegans Using Metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Davies, Sarah K; Bundy, Jacob G; Leroi, Armand M

    2015-11-01

    Many mutations and allelic variants are known that influence the rate at which animals age, but when in life do such variants diverge from normal patterns of aging? Is this divergence visible in their physiologies? To investigate these questions, we have used (1)H NMR spectroscopy to study how the metabolome of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans changes as it grows older. We identify a series of metabolic changes that, collectively, predict the age of wild-type worms. We then show that long-lived mutant daf-2(m41) worms are metabolically youthful compared to wild-type worms, but that this relative youth only appears in middle age. Finally, we show that metabolic age predicts the timing and magnitude of differences in age-specific mortality between these strains. Thus, the future mortality of these two genotypes can be predicted long before most of the worms die. PMID:26381038

  5. Human insulin/IGF-1 and familial longevity at middle age

    PubMed Central

    Rozing, Maarten P.; Westendorp, Rudi G.J.; Frölich, Marijke; de Craen, Anton J.M.; Beekman, Marian; Heijmans, Bastiaan T.; Mooijaart, Simon P.; Blauw, Gerard-Jan; Slagboom, P. Eline; van Heemst, Diana; Group, on behalf of the Leiden Longevity Study (LLS)

    2009-01-01

    Recently, we have shown that compared to controls, long-lived familial nonagenarians (mean age: 93.4 years) from the Leiden Longevity Study displayed a lower mortality rate, and their middle-aged offspring displayed a lower prevalence of cardio-metabolic diseases, including diabetes mellitus. The evolutionarily conserved insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) pathway has been implicated in longevity in model organisms, but its relevance for human longevity has generated much controversy. Here, we show that compared to their partners, the offspring of familial nonagenarians displayed similar non-fasted serum levels of IGF-1, IGFBP3 and insulin but lower non-fasted serum levels of glucose, indicating that familial longevity is associated with differences in insulin sensitivity. PMID:20157552

  6. Perception of "appropriate" age for retirement among young adults, middle-aged adults, and elderly people.

    PubMed

    Joulain, M; Mullet, E; Lecomte, C; Prévost, R

    2000-01-01

    The "appropriate" age for retirement as it is perceived by young adults, middle-aged adults, and elderly people has been studied. No respondents were surprised or had trouble expressing an opinion about the minimum and maximum "appropriate" ages for retirement. Representations of the "appropriate" retirement age vary primarily as a function of the perceived physical constraints involved in the occupation, and also depend on the age of the person being questioned; the younger the respondent, and lower the perceived "appropriate" minimum age. There was no tendency among the young adults to prolong the work life of older individuals. Nor was there a tendency to associate aging with the loss of intellectual capacities likely to lead to early retirement. PMID:10735183

  7. Management of Chronic Hyperplastic Pulpitis in Mandibular Molars of Middle Aged Adults- A Multidisciplinary Approach

    PubMed Central

    Lingeswaran, Somiya; Ari, Geetha; Thyagarajan, Ramakrishnan; Logaranjani, Anitha

    2016-01-01

    The molar tooth of children and young adults is a common site for chronic hyperplastic pulpitis (pulp polyp). It rarely occurs in middle aged adults. This condition is usually characterized by extensive involvement of the pulp, dictating the extraction of involved tooth. Extraction of permanent molars can lead to transient or permanent malocclusion, aesthetic, phonetic and functional problems. Here we report a case of pulp polyp in mandibular first molar of a 33-year-old woman that grew into the carious cavity. The aim of this case report is to describe the diagnosis of a chronic hyperplastic pulpitis involving the permanent molar as well as to describe its management in order to preserve them as a functional unit of the dentition. PMID:26894192

  8. Visceral predictors of cardiovascular deconditioning in late middle-aged men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldwater, D. J.; De Roshia, C.; Natelson, B. H.; Levin, B. E.

    1985-01-01

    A number of visceral and behavioral factors connected with cardiovascular deconditioning were investigated, in order to identify a method for predicting the degree of orthostatic intolerance to spaceflight in several late-middle-aged men (55-65 years). Preliminary measurements were made of: mean arterial blood pressure plasma cortisol levels; and norepinephrine levels. Measurements of core temperature; plasma epinephrine level and subjective arousal from sleep were also obtained. Pairwise correlations were found for each of the variables and the time-to-blackout due centrifugal acceleration of up to +3 Gz. It is shown that the men with relatively low resting blood pressure were at greater risk of developing the clinical signs of cardiovascular deconditioning than were the men with higher basal blood pressure. Some applications of the experimental results to the development of selection criteria for Shuttle crews are discussed.

  9. Cardioprotective effect of a biofermented nutraceutical on endothelial function in healthy middle-aged subjects.

    PubMed

    Marotta, Francesco; Yadav, Hariom; Kumari, Archana; Catanzaro, Roberto; Jain, Shalini; Polimeni, Ascanio; Lorenzetti, Aldo; Soresi, Vincenzo

    2012-04-01

    We tested a biofermented nutraceutical (FPP) that has been previously shown to positively modulate nitric oxide (NO). Forty-two healthy middle-aged subjects were given 3 grams of FPP three times a day for 6 weeks, and tests were repeated at 3 and 6 weeks; the control group was given a placebo. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was measured together with NO compounds (nitrogen oxides [NOx]: NO(2)(-)+NO(3)(-)) plasma levels and asymmetrical dimethylarginine (ADMA). In the interventional group, overall FMD significantly increased from 4.2% to 7.3% (p<0.05 vs. placebo). A significant increase in plasma NO and a decrease in ADMA were detected after consumption of FPP (p<0.01). Although larger studies are awaited, it appears that, at least in healthy individuals, such nutraceutical intervention by positively acting on significant cardiovascular parameters can be considered in the armamentarium of a proactive age-management strategy. PMID:22533427

  10. Management of Chronic Hyperplastic Pulpitis in Mandibular Molars of Middle Aged Adults- A Multidisciplinary Approach.

    PubMed

    Anilkumar, Kanakamedala; Lingeswaran, Somiya; Ari, Geetha; Thyagarajan, Ramakrishnan; Logaranjani, Anitha

    2016-01-01

    The molar tooth of children and young adults is a common site for chronic hyperplastic pulpitis (pulp polyp). It rarely occurs in middle aged adults. This condition is usually characterized by extensive involvement of the pulp, dictating the extraction of involved tooth. Extraction of permanent molars can lead to transient or permanent malocclusion, aesthetic, phonetic and functional problems. Here we report a case of pulp polyp in mandibular first molar of a 33-year-old woman that grew into the carious cavity. The aim of this case report is to describe the diagnosis of a chronic hyperplastic pulpitis involving the permanent molar as well as to describe its management in order to preserve them as a functional unit of the dentition. PMID:26894192

  11. Barriers to Cervical Cancer Screening among Middle-aged and Older Rural Appalachian Women

    PubMed Central

    Studts, Christina R.; Tarasenko, Yelena N.; Schoenberg, Nancy E.

    2012-01-01

    Although cervical cancer rates in the United States have declined sharply in recent decades, certain groups of women remain at elevated risk, including middle-aged and older women in central Appalachia. Cross-sectional baseline data from a community-based randomized controlled trial were examined to identify barriers to cervical cancer screening. Questionnaires assessing barriers were administered to 345 Appalachian women aged 40-64, years when Pap testing declines and cervical cancer rates increase. Consistent with the PRECEDE/PROCEED framework, participants identified barriers included predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors. Descriptive and bivariate analyses are reported, identifying (a) the most frequently endorsed barriers to screening, and (b) significant associations of barriers with sociodemographic characteristics in the sample. Recommendations are provided to decrease these barriers and, ultimately, improve rates of Pap tests among this traditionally underserved and disproportionately affected group. PMID:23179390

  12. Correlates of Physical Activity Among Middle-Aged and Older Korean Americans at Risk for Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Han, Benjamin; Sadarangani, Tina; Wyatt, Laura C.; Zanowiak, Jennifer M.; Kwon, Simona C.; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Lee, Linda; Islam, Nadia S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To explore correlates of meeting recommended physical activity (PA) among middle-aged and older Korean Americans at risk for diabetes mellitus (DM). Design and Methods PA patterns and their correlates were assessed among 292 middle-aged and older Korean Americans at risk for DM living in New York City (NYC) using cross-sectional design of baseline information from a diabetes prevention intervention. PA was assessed by self-report of moderate and vigorous activity, results were stratified by age group (45-64 and 65-75), and bivariate analyses compared individuals performing less than sufficient PA and individuals performing sufficient PA. Logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios predicting sufficient PA. Findings After adjusting for sex, age group, years lived in United States, marital status, health insurance and body mass index (BMI), sufficient PA was associated with male sex, older age, lower BMI, eating vegetables daily, and many PA-specific questions (lack of barriers, confidence, and engagement). When stratified by age group, male sex and eating vegetables daily was no longer significant among Koreans age 65 to 75 years of age, and BMI was not significant for either age group. Conclusions PA interventions targeting this population may be beneficial and should consider the roles of sex, age, physical and social environment, motivation, and self-efficacy. Clinical Relevance Clinical providers should understand the unique motivations for PA among Korean Americans and recognize the importance of culturally driven strategies to enable lifestyle changes and support successful aging for diverse populations. PMID:26641597

  13. Depression and anxiety among middle-aged women: A community-based study

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Priya; Chaudhary, Anurag; Soni, R. K.; Sharma, Sarit; Gupta, Vikram Kumar; Kaushal, Pushapindra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Anxiety and depressive disorders constitute a substantial proportion of the global burden of disease and are projected to form the second most common cause of disability by 2020. Objective: To assess the level of depression and anxiety among middle age women and the possible factors behind it. Materials and Methods: A total of 180 women aged 40–60 years were selected by proportionate sampling technique. Age, education, marital status, socioeconomic status, age at marriage, age at menopause, weight and height were noted. Zung-self-rating scales were used for calculating levels of depression and anxiety in these women. The data were analyzed by using statistical software SPSS. Results: The level of syndromal depression and anxiety was found to be 86.7% and 88.9%, respectively. Most of the subjects had the moderate type of depression (49.5%) followed by mild (29.4%) and severe depression (7.8%). While in case of anxiety, most of the subjects (69.4%) had a mild form of anxiety and 17.8% had moderate anxiety level. A significant difference was observed in the level of depression with respect to marital status (P = 0.009) and in the level of anxiety with respect to age (P = 0.021) in the study subjects. On applying logistic regression, none of the factors studied were found to be significant variables for anxiety or depression in the study population. Conclusion: Depression and anxiety are prevalent among the middle-aged women in rural Punjab. Provision of mental health services in this group is essential. PMID:26985419

  14. Functional Network Endophenotypes Unravel the Effects of Apolipoprotein E Epsilon 4 in Middle-Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gang; Li, Wenjun; Ward, B. Douglas; Franczak, Malgorzata B.; Jones, Jennifer L.; Antuono, Piero G.; Li, Shi-Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E-ε4 (APOE-ε4) accentuates memory decline, structural volume loss and cerebral amyloid deposition in cognitively healthy adults. We investigated whether APOE-ε4 carriers will show disruptions in the intrinsic cognitive networks, including the default mode (DMN), executive control (ECN) and salience (SN) networks, relative to noncarriers in middle-aged healthy adults; and the extent to which episodic-memory performance is related to the altered functional connectivity (Fc) in these networks. Resting-state functional connectivity MRI (R-fMRI) was used to measure the differences in the DMN, ECN and SN Fc between 20 APOE-ε4 carriers and 26 noncarriers. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to determine the relationship between episodic-memory performance and Fc differences in the three resting-state networks across all subjects. There were no significant differences in the demographic and neuropsychological characteristics and the gray-matter volumes in the carriers and noncarriers. While mostly diminished DMN and ECN functional connectivities were seen, enhanced connections to the DMN structures were found in the SN in ε4 carriers. Altered DMN and ECN were associated with episodic memory performance. Significant Fc differences in the brain networks implicated in cognition were seen in middle-aged individuals with a genetic risk for AD, in the absence of cognitive decline and gray-matter atrophy. Prospective studies are essential to elucidate the potential of R-fMRI technique as a biomarker for predicting conversion from normal to early AD in healthy APOE-ε4 carriers. PMID:23424640

  15. Blood glucose levels and cortical thinning in cognitively normal, middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Wennberg, Alexandra M V; Spira, Adam P; Pettigrew, Corinne; Soldan, Anja; Zipunnikov, Vadim; Rebok, George W; Roses, Allen D; Lutz, Michael W; Miller, Michael M; Thambisetty, Madhav; Albert, Marilyn S

    2016-06-15

    Type II diabetes mellitus (DM) increases risk for cognitive decline and is associated with brain atrophy in older demented and non-demented individuals. We investigated (1) the cross-sectional association between fasting blood glucose level and cortical thickness in a sample of largely middle-aged, cognitively normal adults, and (2) whether these associations were modified by genes associated with both lipid processing and dementia. To explore possible modifications by genetic status, we investigated the interaction between blood glucose levels and the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele and the translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOMM) 40 '523 genotype on cortical thickness. Cortical thickness measures were based on mean thickness in a subset of a priori-selected brain regions hypothesized to be vulnerable to atrophy in Alzheimer's disease (AD) (i.e., 'AD vulnerable regions'). Participants included 233 cognitively normal subjects in the BIOCARD study who had a measure of fasting blood glucose and cortical thickness measures, quantified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. After adjustment for age, sex, race, education, depression, and medical conditions, higher blood glucose was associated with thinner parahippocampal gyri (B=-0.002; 95% CI -0.004, -0.0004) and temporal pole (B=-0.002; 95% CI -0.004, -0.0001), as well as reduced average thickness over AD vulnerable regions (B=-0.001; 95% CI -0.002, -0.0001). There was no evidence for greater cortical thinning in ε4 carriers of the APOE gene or in APOE ε3/3 individuals carrying the TOMM40 VL/VL genotypes. When individuals with glucose levels in the diabetic range (≥126mg/dL), were excluded from the analysis, the associations between glucose levels and cortical thickness were no longer significant. These findings suggest that glucose levels in the diabetic range are associated with reduced cortical thickness in AD vulnerable regions as early as middle age. PMID:27206882

  16. Incidence of disorders of spermatogenesis in middle aged finnish men, 1981-91: two necropsy series.

    PubMed Central

    Pajarinen, J.; Laippala, P.; Penttila, A.; Karhunen, P. J.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate if the incidence of disorders of spermatogenesis and testicular tissue morphology have changed in middle aged Finnish men over 10 years. DESIGN: Two necropsy series completed in 1981 and in 1991. SETTING: Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Helsinki, Finland. SUBJECTS: 528 men, aged 35 to 69 years, subjected to medicolegal necropsy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Scoring of spermatogenesis and morphometric analysis of testicular tissue components. Individual risk factors for testicular disorders obtained by postmortem blind interviews with acquaintances. RESULTS: Normal spermatogenesis was found in 41.7% of the men (mean age 53.1 years). Between 1981 and 1991, the ratio of normal spermatogenesis decreased significantly (odds ratio 3.5; 95% confidence interval 2.5 to 5.1) from 56.4% to 26.9%, with a parallel increase in the incidence of partial and complete spermatogenic arrest (2.1; 1.4 to 2.9 and 2.9; 1.7 to 5.0, respectively). During this period, the size of seminiferous tubules decreased, the amount of fibrotic tissue increased, and the weight of testicles decreased significantly. Alterations in testicular characteristics over time could not be explained by changes in body mass index, smoking, alcohol drinking, or exposure to drugs. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of normal spermatogenesis decreased among middle aged Finnish men from 1981 to 1991, and the incidence of disorders of spermatogenesis and pathological alterations in testicles increased. Deteriorating spermatogenesis may thus be one important factor in the explanation of declining sperm counts observed worldwide. PMID:9001473

  17. Diet and cognitive decline at middle age: the role of antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Nooyens, Astrid C J; Milder, Ivon E J; van Gelder, Boukje M; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; van Boxtel, Martin P J; Verschuren, W M Monique

    2015-05-14

    To assess the relationship between dietary intake of antioxidants (vitamin C, vitamin E, β-carotene, lutein, flavonoids and lignans) and cognitive decline at middle age, analyses were performed on data from the population based Doetinchem Cohort Study. Habitual diet and cognitive function were assessed twice with a 5-year interval in 2613 persons aged 43-70 year at baseline (1995-2002). Diet was assessed with a validated 178-item semi-quantitative FFQ. Cognitive function was assessed with a neuropsychological test battery, consisting of the 15 Words Learning Test, the Stroop Test, the Word Fluency test, and the Letter Digit Substitution Test. Scores on global cognitive function, memory, processing speed, and cognitive flexibility were calculated. In regression analyses, quintiles of antioxidant intake were associated with change in cognitive domain scores. Results showed that higher lignan intake was linearly associated with less decline in global cognitive function (P= 0.01), memory (P< 0.01) and processing speed (P= 0.04), with about two times less declines in the highest v. the lowest quintile. In the lowest quintile of vitamin E intake, decline in memory was twice as fast as in all higher quintiles (P< 0.01). Global cognitive decline in the highest lutein intake group was greater than in the lowest intake group (P< 0.05). Higher flavonoid intake was associated with greater decline in cognitive flexibility (P for trend = 0.04). Intakes of other antioxidants were not associated with cognitive decline. We conclude that within the range of a habitual dietary intake, higher intake of lignans is associated with less cognitive decline at middle age. PMID:25851267

  18. Evolution of human serial pairbonding.

    PubMed

    Fisher, H E

    1989-03-01

    Data on divorce taken for all available years between 1947 and 1981 from the Demographic Yearbooks of the United Nations on 58 peoples illustrate that divorce has a consistent pattern. Divorces exhibit a skewed distribution, characterized by the occurrence of the mode early in marriage (with a divorce peak on or around the fourth year) and a gradual, long-tailed decline following this peak. Divorce risk peaks in age category 25-29 for males and age categories 20-24 and 25-29 for females, the height of reproductive and parenting years, and divorce counts peak among couples with two or fewer children. These properties of divorce are unrelated to divorce rate; they occur in societies with both high and low divorce rates. Data on available horticultural and gathering/hunting societies illustrate that divorce also peaks among young couples early in marriage. Remarriage by divorced and widowed individuals of reproductive age is also common cross-culturally. It is proposed that the above four-year modal marriage duration among couples of reproductive age who divorce reflects a hominid reproductive strategy that probably evolved some time after the appearance of Homo in response to increased female "reproductive burden" and functioned to ensure the survival of the hominid infant through weaning. Serial pairbonding during the female's reproductive years had ancestral adaptive advantages, producing the modern cross-cultural pattern of serial pairbonding. PMID:2929738

  19. Fluoxetine induces input-specific hippocampal dendritic spine remodeling along the septotemporal axis in adulthood and middle age.

    PubMed

    McAvoy, Kathleen; Russo, Craig; Kim, Shannen; Rankin, Genelle; Sahay, Amar

    2015-11-01

    Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), is known to induce structural rearrangements and changes in synaptic transmission in hippocampal circuitry. In the adult hippocampus, structural changes include neurogenesis, dendritic, and axonal plasticity of pyramidal and dentate granule neurons, and dedifferentiation of dentate granule neurons. However, much less is known about how chronic fluoxetine affects these processes along the septotemporal axis and during the aging process. Importantly, studies documenting the effects of fluoxetine on density and distribution of spines along different dendritic segments of dentate granule neurons and CA1 pyramidal neurons along the septotemporal axis of hippocampus in adulthood and during aging are conspicuously absent. Here, we use a transgenic mouse line in which mature dentate granule neurons and CA1 pyramidal neurons are genetically labeled with green fluorescent protein (GFP) to investigate the effects of chronic fluoxetine treatment (18 mg/kg/day) on input-specific spine remodeling and mossy fiber structural plasticity in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus in adulthood and middle age. In addition, we examine levels of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, maturation state of dentate granule neurons, neuronal activity, and glutamic acid decarboxylase-67 expression in response to chronic fluoxetine in adulthood and middle age. Our studies reveal that while chronic fluoxetine fails to augment adult hippocampal neurogenesis in middle age, the middle-aged hippocampus retains high sensitivity to changes in the dentate gyrus (DG) such as dematuration, hypoactivation, and increased glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) expression. Interestingly, the middle-aged hippocampus shows greater sensitivity to fluoxetine-induced input-specific synaptic remodeling than the hippocampus in adulthood with the stratum-oriens of CA1 exhibiting heightened structural plasticity. The input-specific changes and circuit

  20. Memory for Serial Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewandowsky, Stephan; Murdock, Bennet B., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    An extension to Murdock's Theory of Distributed Associative Memory, based on associative chaining between items, is presented. The extended theory is applied to several serial order phenomena, including serial list learning, delayed recall effects, partial report effects, and buildup and release from proactive interference. (TJH)

  1. Serial Dilution Simulation Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keler, Cynthia; Balutis, Tabitha; Bergen, Kim; Laudenslager, Bryanna; Rubino, Deanna

    2010-01-01

    Serial dilution is often a difficult concept for students to understand. In this short dry lab exercise, students perform serial dilutions using seed beads. This exercise helps students gain skill at performing dilutions without using reagents, bacterial cultures, or viral cultures, while being able to visualize the process.

  2. Automated Serials Control System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Elizabeth

    In 1967, the New York State Library at Albany (NYSL) developed a tape-oriented, off-line serials control system for 10,000 active titles. The system would perform all the serials control functions: bibliographic control, check-in of current receipts, claiming for gaps in receipts and late issues, binding notification for completed sets,…

  3. Age effects and sex differences in human brain white matter of young to middle-aged adults: A DTI, NODDI, and q-space study.

    PubMed

    Kodiweera, Chandana; Alexander, Andrew L; Harezlak, Jaroslaw; McAllister, Thomas W; Wu, Yu-Chien

    2016-03-01

    Microstructural changes in human brain white matter of young to middle-aged adults were studied using advanced diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging (dMRI). Multiple shell diffusion-weighted data were acquired using the Hybrid Diffusion Imaging (HYDI). The HYDI method is extremely versatile and data were analyzed using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI), Neurite Orientation Dispersion and Density Imaging (NODDI), and q-space imaging approaches. Twenty-four females and 23 males between 18 and 55years of age were included in this study. The impact of age and sex on diffusion metrics were tested using least squares linear regressions in 48 white matter regions of interest (ROIs) across the whole brain and adjusted for multiple comparisons across ROIs. In this study, white matter projections to either the hippocampus or the cerebral cortices were the brain regions most sensitive to aging. Specifically, in this young to middle-aged cohort, aging effects were associated with more dispersion of white matter fibers while the tissue restriction and intra-axonal volume fraction remained relatively stable. The fiber dispersion index of NODDI exhibited the most pronounced sensitivity to aging. In addition, changes of the DTI indices in this aging cohort were correlated mostly with the fiber dispersion index rather than the intracellular volume fraction of NODDI or the q-space measurements. While men and women did not differ in the aging rate, men tend to have higher intra-axonal volume fraction than women. This study demonstrates that advanced dMRI using a HYDI acquisition and compartmental modeling of NODDI can elucidate microstructural alterations that are sensitive to age and sex. Finally, this study provides insight into the relationships between DTI diffusion metrics and advanced diffusion metrics of NODDI model and q-space imaging. PMID:26724777

  4. Cardiovascular risk factors in middle age obese Indians: a cross-sectional study on association of per cent body fat and intra-abdominal fat mass

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Jaspal Singh; Esht, Vandana; Shenoy, Shweta

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine the association of per cent total body fat (TBF), intra-abdominal fat (IAF) mass and subcutaneous abdominal fat with cardiovascular risk factors in middle age obese Indians. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Hydrostatic Laboratory, Department of Sports Medicine and Physiotherapy, Guru Nanak Dev University, India. Participants: 51 subjects aged 30–55 years with a body mass index value 23 and above. Methodology In all the participants, TBF was estimated by underwater weighing machine and IAF and subcutaneous fat were measured by ultrasonography. Lipid profile was determined by a semiautomated analyser. Main outcome measures were: IAF, per cent body fat to TBF ratio, lipid profile and risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. Results IAF was found to be significantly associated with lipid variables (95% CI, p<0.01) and risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (95% CI, p≤0.05) in both male and female subjects. TBF and subcutaneous fat thickness showed no significant results (95% CI, p>0.05) with either lipid variables or risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (tables 1 and 2). IAF mass showed significant association with age (95% CI, p<0.01) and significant negative association with physical activity (95% CI, p<0.05) in male subjects (tables 3 and 4). Conclusion An ultrasonic measurement of IAF is a better predictor of the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases in middle aged Indian population. In male subjects, physical activity of 5 or more days a week showed lesser amount of IAF as compared with those with physical activity <5 days a week. PMID:27326015

  5. Factors Associated with Successful Completion of the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program among Middle-Aged and Older Asian-American Participants: A National Study

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, SangNam; Smith, Matthew Lee; Cho, Jinmyoung; Jiang, Luohua; Post, Lindsey; Ory, Marcia G.

    2014-01-01

    Asian-Americans are a small but fast-growing population in the United States who are increasingly experiencing multiple chronic diseases. While the evidence-based Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP) has been disseminated among various racial and ethnic populations, few studies specifically investigate participants with an Asian background. The study aims to identify characteristics of middle-aged and older Asian-American CDSMP participants (older than 50 years) and investigate factors related to successful workshop completion (i.e., attending 4+ of the 6 sessions) among this population. Data were analyzed from 2,716 middle-aged and older Asian-Americans collected during a 2-year national dissemination of CDSMP. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify individual- and workshop-level covariates related to successful workshop completion. The majority of participants were female, living with others, and living in metro areas. The average age was 71.3 years old (±9.2), and the average number of chronic conditions was 2.0 (±1.5). Successful completion of CDSMP workshops among participants was associated with their number of chronic conditions (OR = 1.10, P = 0.011), living in non-metro areas (OR = 1.77, P = 0.009), attending workshops from area agencies on aging (OR = 1.56, P = 0.018), and attending a workshop with higher completion rates (OR = 1.03, P < 0.001). This study is the first large-scale examination of Asian-American participants enrolled in CDSMP and highlights characteristics related to intervention attendance among this under-studied minority population. Knowing such characteristics is important for serving the growing number of Asian-Americans with chronic conditions. PMID:25964933

  6. Soy isoflavones interfere with thyroid hormone homeostasis in orchidectomized middle-aged rats

    SciTech Connect

    Šošić-Jurjević, Branka; Filipović, Branko; Wirth, Eva Katrin; Živanović, Jasmina; Radulović, Niko; Janković, Snežana; Milošević, Verica; Köhrle, Josef

    2014-07-15

    We previously reported that genistein (G) and daidzein (D) administered subcutaneously (10 mg/kg) induce changes in the angio-follicular units of the thyroid gland, reduce concentration of total thyroid hormones (TH) and increase thyrotropin (TSH) in serum of orchidectomized middle-aged (16-month-old) rats. To further investigate these effects, we now examined expression levels of the thyroglobulin (Tg), thyroperoxidase (Tpo), vascular endothelial growth factor A (Vegfa) and deiodinase type 1 (Dio 1) genes in the thyroid; in the pituitary, genes involved in TH feedback control (Tsh β, Dio 1, Dio 2, Trh receptor); and in the liver and kidney, expression of T{sub 3}-activated genes Dio 1 and Spot 14, as well as transthyretin (Ttr), by quantitative real-time PCR. We also analyzed TPO-immunopositivity and immunofluorescence of T{sub 4} bound to Tg, determined thyroid T{sub 4} levels and measured deiodinase enzyme activities in examined organs. Decreased expression of Tg and Tpo genes (p < 0.05) correlated with immunohistochemical staining results, and together with decreased serum total T{sub 4} levels, indicates decreased Tg and TH synthesis following treatments with both isoflavones. However, expression of Spot 14 (p < 0.05) gene in liver and kidney was up-regulated, and liver Dio 1 expression and activity (p < 0.05) increased. At the level of pituitary, no significant change in gene expression levels, or Dio 1 and 2 enzyme activities was observed. In conclusion, both G and D impaired Tg and TH synthesis, but at the same time increased tissue availability of TH in peripheral tissues of Orx middle-aged rats. - Highlights: • We tested how genistein and daidzein interfere with thyroid hormone homeostasis. • Thyroid: decreased expression of Tg and TPO genes correlated with IHC results. • Serum: total T{sub 4} reduced and TSH increased. • Liver and kidney: expression of Spot 14 and liver Dio 1 activity increased. • Pituitary: expression of T{sub 3}-regulated

  7. Different Predictors of Right and Left Ventricular Metabolism in Healthy Middle-Aged Men

    PubMed Central

    Heiskanen, Marja A.; Leskinen, Tuija; Eskelinen, Jari-Joonas; Heinonen, Ilkka H. A.; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Virtanen, Kirsi; Pärkkä, Jussi P.; Hannukainen, Jarna C.; Kalliokoski, Kari K.

    2015-01-01

    Dysfunction of the right ventricle (RV) plays a crucial role in the outcome of various cardiovascular diseases. Previous studies on RV metabolism are sparse although evidence implies it may differ from left ventricular (LV) metabolism. Therefore, the aims of this study were (1) to determine predictors of RV glucose uptake (GU) and free fatty acid uptake (FFAU) and (2) to compare them to predictors of LV metabolism in healthy middle-aged men. Altogether 28 healthy, sedentary, middle-aged (40–55 years) men were studied. Insulin-stimulated GU and fasting FFAU were measured by positron emission tomography and RV and LV structural and functional parameters by cardiac magnetic resonance. Several parameters related to whole-body health were also measured. Predictors of RV and LV metabolism were determined by pairwise correlation analysis, lasso regression models, and variable clustering using heatmap. RVGU was most strongly predicted by age and moderately by RV ejection fraction (EF). The strongest determinants of RVFFAU were exercise capacity (peak oxygen uptake), resting heart rate, LVEF, and whole-body insulin-stimulated glucose uptake rate. When considering LV metabolism, age and RVEF were associated also with LVGU. In addition, LVGU was strongly, and negatively, influenced by whole-body insulin-stimulated glucose uptake rate. LVFFAU was predicted only by LVEF. This study shows that while RV and LV metabolism have shared characteristics, they also have unique properties. Age of the subject should be taken into account when measuring myocardial glucose utilization. Ejection fraction is related to myocardial metabolism, and even so that RVEF may be more closely related to GU of both ventricles and LVEF to FFAU of both ventricles, a finding supporting the ventricular interdependence. However, only RV fatty acid utilization associates with exercise capacity so that better physical fitness in a relatively sedentary population is related with decreased RV fat metabolism

  8. Relationship Between Decayed Teeth and Metabolic Syndrome: Data From 4716 Middle-Aged Male Japanese Employees

    PubMed Central

    Ojima, Miki; Amano, Atsuo; Kurata, Shu

    2015-01-01

    Background Epidemiological findings regarding the relationship between decayed teeth (DT) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are scarce. We evaluated the relationship of DT with MetS, obesity, and MetS components in early middle-aged male Japanese employees. Methods We cross-sectionally analyzed dental and medical health checkup results from a total of 4716 participants aged 42 or 46 years. Logistic regression models were employed to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) after adjustment for age, breakfast consumption frequency, drinking habits, smoking status, and physical activity. Results Significant differences in the prevalence of MetS, obesity determined by body mass index, and the components of MetS between participating men with and without DT were detected (all P < 0.01). The adjusted OR of MetS was 1.41 (95% CI, 1.14–1.74) for those with 1 or 2 DT, and 1.66 (95% CI, 1.28–2.16) for those with ≥3 DT (P for trend = 0.01), and this significant relationship was observed even in those without periodontal pocket formation (P for trend = 0.03) or missing teeth (P for trend = 0.02). DT was significantly related to overweight/obesity and the MetS components of hypertension, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia, with adjusted ORs of 1.35 (95% CI, 1.19–1.53), 1.22 (95% CI, 1.07–1.39), 1.18 (95% CI, 1.03–1.34), and 1.33 (95% CI, 1.13–1.56), respectively. In addition, even in non-overweight/non-obese men, DT was found to be related to dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia, though with marginal significance (P < 0.05). Conclusions Our findings suggest that having DT is related to MetS in early middle-aged Japanese men directly and through obesity and is independent of health behaviors, periodontal condition, and tooth loss. PMID:25716056

  9. Effects of Social Networks on the Quality of Life in an Elder and Middle-Aged Deaf Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerich, Joachim; Fellinger, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    This article endeavors to investigate the role of social networks in contributing to the quality of life of an elder and middle-aged Deaf population. In particular, it poses the question of whether a certain network composition (deaf and hearing network persons) provides positive resources to improve quality of life and attempts to identify…

  10. "Mommy Wants to Learn the Computer": How Middle-Aged and Elderly Women in Taiwan Learn ICT through Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Cecilia I. C.; Tang, Wen-hui; Kuo, Feng-Yang

    2012-01-01

    The group of middle-aged and elderly women represents the lowest usage rate of information and communication technology (ICT) in Taiwan. This article reports how a social intervention program, the Taiwan Women Up (TWU) program, has helped such group to successfully learn ICT skills with the support of members of nonprofit organizations. The study…

  11. Mediterranean Diet, Healthy Eating Index-2005, and Cognitive Function in Middle-Aged and Older Puerto Rican Adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adherence to a Mediterranean diet has recently been shown to protect against cognitive decline and dementia. It remains unclear, however, whether such protection extends to different ethnic groups and middle-aged individuals and how it might compare with adherence to the US Department of Agriculture...

  12. Aging in Movement Representations for Sequential Finger Movements: A Comparison between Young-, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cacola, Priscila; Roberson, Jerroed; Gabbard, Carl

    2013-01-01

    Studies show that as we enter older adulthood (greater than 64 years), our ability to mentally represent action in the form of using motor imagery declines. Using a chronometry paradigm to compare the movement duration of imagined and executed movements, we tested young-, middle-aged, and older adults on their ability to perform sequential finger…

  13. The Effect of Walking Exercise on Physical Fitness and Serum Lipids in Obese Middle-aged Women: Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Ho; Seo, Byoung-Do; Chung, Sang-Mi

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to identify the effects of walking on the body composition, health-related physical fitness, and serum lipids as part of efforts to encourage middle-aged people to participate in walking as a regular and sustainable exercise. [Methods] This study was conducted as a pretest-posttest control group study. The study period was for 12 weeks from January to March 2010. The participants were 43 middle-aged women (age range: 40–55 years) with body fat rates over 30%. Subjects in the experiment group participated in the walking exercise (n = 38), the control group did not participate in the exercise (n = 23). [Results] In the exercise group, statistically significant reductions in weight and body fat were observed among the body composition measurement variables, and statistically significant increases in flexibility and cardiopulmonary endurance were observed among the physical fitness measurement variables. TC, TG, and LDL-C levels in the serum lipid measurement variables showed a statistically significant reduction in the exercise group. [Conclusion] The results of this study showed that 12 weeks of walking exercise influenced middle-aged women in a positive way by effecting changes in their body composition, physical fitness, and serum lipids. We believe that these positive changes result in positive effects on the factors for prevention of various adult diseases that can occur in middle-aged women. PMID:24409014

  14. An Educational Intervention for Reducing the Intake of Dietary Fats and Cholesterol among Middle-Aged and Older Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Charlotte

    2001-01-01

    Middle aged and older women (n=14) attended a seminar on reducing saturated fat and cholesterol intake. Their 4-month follow-up reflections showed they adopted an average of 14.5 of 34 dietary practices. Those with higher adoption scores tended to be older and had less education and lower income. (SK)

  15. Chronic treatment with ginsenoside Rg1 promotes memory and hippocampal long-term potentiation in middle-aged mice.

    PubMed

    Zhu, G; Wang, Y; Li, J; Wang, J

    2015-04-30

    Ginseng serves as a potential candidate for the treatment of aging-related memory decline or memory loss. However, the related mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, we applied an intraperitoneal injection of ginsenoside Rg1, an active compound from ginseng in middle-aged mice and detected memory improvement and the underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that a period of 30-day administration of ginsenoside Rg1 enhanced long-term memory in the middle-aged animals. Consistent with the memory improvement, ginsenoside Rg1 administration facilitated weak theta-burst stimulation (TBS)-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) in acute hippocampal slices from middle-aged animals. Ginsenoside Rg1 administration increased the dendritic apical spine numbers and area in the CA1 region. In addition, ginsenoside Rg1 administration up-regulated the expression of hippocampal p-AKT, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), proBDNF and glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1), but not p-ERK. Interestingly, the phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) inhibitor (bpV) mimicked the ginsenoside Rg1 effects, including increasing p-AKT expression, promoting hippocampal basal synaptic transmission, LTP and memory. Taken together, our data suggest that ginsenoside Rg1 treatment improves memory in middle-aged mice possibly through regulating the PI3K/AKT pathway, altering apical spines and facilitating hippocampal LTP. PMID:25724866

  16. Orange juice improved lipid profile and blood lactate of overweight middle-aged women subjected to aerobic training

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the influence of regular consumption of orange juice associated with aerobic exercise on the lipid profile of middle aged women, previously sedentary. Twenty-six women, 30 to 55 years old, volunteered to consume orange juice daily for 3 months and participate in an aerobic train...

  17. Achilles tendon displacement patterns during passive stretch and eccentric loading are altered in middle-aged adults

    PubMed Central

    Slane, Laura Chernak; Thelen, Darryl G

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate middle-age effects on Achilles displacement patterns under passive stretch and eccentric loading. Healthy young (24.1±1.4 years, n=9) and middle-aged (49.0±3.1 years, n=9) adults were positioned prone and the ankle was cyclically (0.5 Hz, 25 deg range) dorsiflexed during passive stretch and active lengthening. Achilles displacements were tracked in cine ultrasound using 2D speckle tracking. Displacements were found to be non-uniform, with mid and deep portions of the tendon displacing more than superficial portions. However, the degree of non-uniformity was significantly reduced in middle-aged adults, suggesting a potential age-related reduction in inter-fascicle sliding or a shift in loading sharing between plantarflexors. Eccentric loading reduced displacement magnitudes, likely reflecting distal tendon stretch induced via active muscle contractions. Changes in tendon displacement with active loading were greater in middle-aged adults, which could reflect greater tendon compliance. The observed age-related changes in Achilles tendon behavior may have implications for both plantarflexor performance and injury risk. PMID:25962378

  18. Semantic and Phonological Loop Effects on Verbal Working Memory in Middle-Age Adults with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittler, Phyllis; Krinsky-McHale, Sharon J.; Devenny, Darlynne A.

    2004-01-01

    Semantic and phonological loop effects on verbal working memory were examined among middle-age adults with Down syndrome and those with unspecified mental retardation in the context of Baddeley's working memory model. Recall was poorer for phonologically similar, semantically similar, and long words compared to recall of dissimilar short words.…

  19. What Helps Middle-Aged Widows with Their Psychological and Social Adaptation Several Years after Their Loss?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungar, Lea; Florian, Victor

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the factors contributing to middle-aged widows' adaptation to their husbands' death due to physical illness, 1 to 5 years after the initial loss. Ninety-three widows and 93 married women, who served as controls, filled out questionnaires assessing their experience of stress and strain, their Sense of Coherence level, the social…

  20. Middle age aggravates myocardial ischemia through surprising upholding of complex II activity, oxidative stress, and reduced coronary perfusion.

    PubMed

    Mourmoura, Evangelia; Leguen, Marie; Dubouchaud, Hervé; Couturier, Karine; Vitiello, Damien; Lafond, Jean-Luc; Richardson, Melanie; Leverve, Xavier; Demaison, Luc

    2011-09-01

    Aging compromises restoration of the cardiac mechanical function during reperfusion. We hypothesized that this was due to an ampler release of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). This study aimed at characterising ex vivo the mitochondrial ROS release during reperfusion in isolated perfused hearts of middle-aged rats. Causes and consequences on myocardial function of the observed changes were then evaluated. The hearts of rats aged 10- or 52-week old were subjected to global ischemia followed by reperfusion. Mechanical function was monitored throughout the entire procedure. Activities of the respiratory chain complexes and the ratio of aconitase to fumarase activities were determined before ischemia and at the end of reperfusion. H(2)O(2) release was also evaluated in isolated mitochondria. During ischemia, middle-aged hearts displayed a delayed contracture, suggesting a maintained ATP production but also an increased metabolic proton production. Restoration of the mechanical function during reperfusion was however reduced in the middle-aged hearts, due to lower recovery of the coronary flow associated with higher mitochondrial oxidative stress indicated by the aconitase to fumarase ratio in the cardiac tissues. Surprisingly, activity of the respiratory chain complex II was better maintained in the hearts of middle-aged animals, probably because of an enhanced preservation of its membrane lipid environment. This can explain the higher mitochondrial oxidative stress observed in these conditions, since cardiac mitochondria produce much more H(2)O(2) when they oxidize FADH(2)-linked substrates than when they use NADH-linked substrates. In conclusion, the lower restoration of the cardiac mechanical activity during reperfusion in the middle-aged hearts was due to an impaired recovery of the coronary flow and an insufficient oxygen supply. The deterioration of the coronary perfusion was explained by an increased mitochondrial ROS release related to the

  1. Higher muscle content of perilipin 5 and endothelial lipase protein in trained than untrained middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Vigelso, A; Prats, C; Ploug, T; Dela, F; Helge, J W

    2016-06-20

    A high VO(2)max in middle-age is related to high metabolic flexibility and lowered risk of metabolic diseases. However, the influence of a high VO(2)max induced by years of regular training in middle-age on protein expression related to muscle metabolism is not well studied. This study measures key proteins involved in mitochondrial oxidation, glucose and lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle of trained and untrained middle-aged men. 16 middle-aged men, matched for lean body mass, were recruited into an endurance trained (TR, n=8) or an untrained (CON, n=8) group based on their VO(2)max. A muscle biopsy was obtained from m. vastus lateralis and protein levels were analyzed by Western blotting. The TR had higher protein levels of mitochondrial complex III-V, endothelial lipase (EL) and perilipin 5 compared to the CON. Glycogen synthase (P=0.05), perilipin 3 (P=0.09) and ATGL (P=0.09) tended to be higher in TR than CON, but there was no difference in AKT I/II, HKII, GLUT4 and LPL protein expression. Lastly, there was a positive correlation between plasma HDL and EL (R(2)=0.53, P<0.01). In conclusion, a high VO(2)max in middle-aged men was as expected is reflected in higher muscle oxidative capacity, but also in higher endothelial lipase and perilipin 5 expression and a borderline higher glycogen synthase protein expression, which may contribute to a higher metabolic flexibility. PMID:26447519

  2. Middle-Aged and Mobility-Limited: Prevalence of Disability and Symptom Attributions in a National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Gardener, Elizabeth A; Huppert, Felicia A; Guralnik, Jack M; Melzer, David

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Lower limb mobility disabilities are well understood in older people, but the causes in middle age have attracted little attention. OBJECTIVES To estimate the prevalence of mobility disabilities among noninstitutionalized adults in England and to compare the disabling symptoms reported by middle-aged and older people. DESIGN Cross-sectional data from the 2002 English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). Mobility disability was identified by level of reported difficulty walking a quarter mile. PARTICIPANTS Eleven thousand two hundred sixteen respondents aged 50 years and older living in private households in 2002. RESULTS The prevalence of difficulty walking a quarter mile increases sharply with age, but even in the middle-aged (50 to 64 years age-group) 18% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 16% to 19%) of men and 19% (95% CI: 17% to 20%) of women reported some degree of difficulty. Of the 16 main symptoms reported as causing mobility disability in middle age, 2 dominated: pain in the leg or the foot (43%; 95% CI: 40% to 46%) and shortness of breath/dyspnea (21%; 95% CI: 18% to 23%). Fatigue or tiredness, and stability problems were cited by only 5% and 6%, respectively. These proportions were slightly different from those in the 65 to 79-year age group: 40%, 23%, 6%, and 8%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Mobility (walking) disabilities in the middle-aged are relatively common. The symptoms reported as causes in this age group differ little from those reported by older groups, and are dominated by lower limb pain and shortness of breath. More clinical attention paid to disabling symptoms may lead to disability reductions in later life. PMID:16970558

  3. Surgical Treatment Options for the Young and Active Middle-Aged Patient with Glenohumeral Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Sanjeev; Hsu, Andrew; Lin, Emery C.; Chalmers, Peter; Ellman, Michael; Cole, Brian J.; Verma, Nikhil N.

    2012-01-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of symptomatic chondral lesions in young and active middle-aged patients continues to be a challenging issue. Surgeons must differentiate between incidental chondral lesions from symptomatic pathology that is responsible for the patient's pain. A thorough history, physical examination, and imaging work up is necessary and often results in a diagnosis of exclusion that is verified on arthroscopy. Treatment of symptomatic glenohumeral chondral lesions depends on several factors including the patient's age, occupation, comorbidities, activity level, degree of injury and concomitant shoulder pathology. Furthermore, the size, depth, and location of symptomatic cartilaginous injury should be carefully considered. Patients with lower functional demands may experience success with nonoperative measures such as injection or anti-inflammatory pharmacotherapy. When conservative management fails, surgical options are broadly classified into palliative, reparative, restorative, and reconstructive techniques. Patients with lower functional demands and smaller lesions are best suited for simpler, lower morbidity palliative procedures such as debridement (chondroplasty) and cartilage reparative techniques (microfracture). Those with higher functional demands and large glenohumeral defects will usually benefit more from restorative techniques including autograft or allograft osteochondral transfers and autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI). Reconstructive surgical options are best suited for patients with bipolar lesions. PMID:22536515

  4. Psychopathic personality traits in middle-aged male twins: a behavior genetic investigation.

    PubMed

    Brook, Michael; Panizzon, Matthew S; Kosson, David S; Sullivan, Elizabeth A; Lyons, Michael J; Franz, Carol E; Eisen, Seth A; Kremen, William S

    2010-08-01

    Psychopathic personality is characterized by interpersonal dominance, impulsivity, sensation seeking, poor planning, and aggressiveness. Studies have shown that the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ) can be used to estimate scores on the fearless-dominant (FD) and the impulsive-antisocial (IA) dimensions of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI), the best validated self-report measure of psychopathic personality traits. Prior behavior genetic studies reported roughly equal genetic and nonshared environmental influences for both FD and IA, which remained stable from adolescence to young adulthood. However, no prior studies address genetic and environmental influences on these dimensions beyond early adulthood. We utilized the classic twin method to examine genetic and environmental influences on variance in FD and IA in a sample of middle-aged male twins. Biometric modeling indicated that the variance in both factors is best explained by additive genetic and nonshared environmental influences. FD showed roughly equal contributions from genetic and environmental factors, whereas IA showed greater contributions from environmental than genetic factors. Additionally, the small phenotypic correlation between FD and IA was explained entirely by nonshared environmental factors. PMID:20695807

  5. Personality Trait Differences Between Young and Middle-Aged Adults: Measurement Artifacts or Actual Trends?

    PubMed

    Nye, Christopher D; Allemand, Mathias; Gosling, Samuel D; Potter, Jeff; Roberts, Brent W

    2016-08-01

    A growing body of research demonstrates that older individuals tend to score differently on personality measures than younger adults. However, recent research using item response theory (IRT) has questioned these findings, suggesting that apparent age differences in personality traits merely reflect artifacts of the response process rather than true differences in the latent constructs. Conversely, other studies have found the opposite-age differences appear to be true differences rather than response artifacts. Given these contradictory findings, the goal of the present study was to examine the measurement equivalence of personality ratings drawn from large groups of young and middle-aged adults (a) to examine whether age differences in personality traits could be completely explained by measurement nonequivalence and (b) to illustrate the comparability of IRT and confirmatory factor analysis approaches to testing equivalence in this context. Self-ratings of personality traits were analyzed in two groups of Internet respondents aged 20 and 50 (n = 15,726 in each age group). Measurement nonequivalence across these groups was negligible. The effect sizes of the mean differences due to nonequivalence ranged from -.16 to .15. Results indicate that personality trait differences across age groups reflect actual differences rather than merely response artifacts. PMID:25773456

  6. Association of Renal Function and Menopausal Status with Bone Mineral Density in Middle-aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Yueh-Hsuan; Chen, Jen-Hau; Chiou, Jeng-Min; Tsai, Keh-Sung; Lee, Yue-Yuan; Tsao, Chwen-Keng; Chen, Yen-Ching

    2015-01-01

    The association between mild renal dysfunction and bone mineral density (BMD) has not been fully explored. It is also unclear how menopausal status and the use of Chinese herb affect this association. This is a cross-sectional study that included a total of 1,419 women aged 40 to 55 years old who were recruited from the MJ Health Management Institution in Taiwan between 2009 and 2010. Spinal BMD was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Renal function was assessed using estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and creatinine clearance rate (CCr). The multivariable logistic regression and general linear models were employed to assess the association between renal function and BMD. Stratification analyses were performed by menopausal status and use of Chinese herbs. Low CCr levels were significantly associated with low BMD [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.15–1.90]. This association was observed in premenopausal women (AOR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.07–1.92) and in women not taking Chinese herbs (AOR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.14–1.94). CCr is a better predictor for low BMD in middle-aged women. Menopausal status and the use of Chinese herbs also affected this association. PMID:26459876

  7. Sensitivity and Specificity of Portable Hearing Screening in Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Carolina Louise; Bós, Ângelo José Gonçalves; Gonçalves, Andréa Krüger; Olchik, Maira Rozenfeld; Flores, Leticia Sousa; Seimetz, Bruna Macagnin; Bauer, Magda Aline; Coradini, Patricia Pérez; Teixeira, Adriane Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Hearing screening allows the identification of individuals with hearing loss. Aim To determine the sensitivity and specificity of a portable hearing screening device in middle-aged and older adults using the manufacturer scoring and a scoring system proposed by the researchers. Methods In this transversal study, participants underwent anamnesis, otoscopy, and hearing screening using portable equipment. After this, a pure tone audiometry was performed, with participants classified into two groups: with and without hearing loss. The sensitivity and specificity of the hearing screening were calculated for the right and left ears using two methods of interpretation: the original method recommended by the manufacturer (criteria 1) and the method proposed by researchers (criteria 2). Results The sample consisted of 55 individuals, 83.6% (n = 46) of whom were women. Per criteria 1, the sensitivities were 26.3 (right ear) and 21.4% (left ear). The specificity was 100% for both ears. Using criteria 2, the sensitivity was 94.7 (right ear) and 100% (left ear). The specificity was 74.3 (right ear) and 65.9% (left ear). Conclusion This study showed that the criteria proposed by the manufacturer presented low sensitivity in the hearing screening. The criteria proposed by the researchers to achieve a more efficient performance reached high and balanced values for sensitivity and specificity. PMID:25992058

  8. Infectious disease burden and cognitive function in young to middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Gale, Shawn D; Erickson, Lance D; Berrett, Andrew; Brown, Bruce L; Hedges, Dawson W

    2016-02-01

    Prior research has suggested an association between exposure to infectious disease and neurocognitive function in humans. While most of these studies have explored individual viral, bacterial, and even parasitic sources of infection, few have considered the potential neurocognitive burden associated with multiple infections. In this study, we utilized publically available data from a large dataset produced by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that included measures of neurocognitive function, sociodemographic variables, and serum antibody data for several infectious diseases. Specifically, immunoglobulin G antibodies for toxocariasis, toxoplasmosis, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C, cytomegalovirus, and herpes 1 and 2 were available in 5662 subjects. We calculated an overall index of infectious-disease burden to determine if an aggregate measure of exposure to infectious disease would be associated with neurocognitive function in adults aged 20-59 years. The index predicted processing speed and learning and memory but not reaction time after controlling for age, sex, race-ethnicity, immigration status, education, and the poverty-to-income ratio. Interactions between the infectious-disease index and some sociodemographic variables were also associated with neurocognitive function. In summary, an index aggregating exposure to several infectious diseases was associated with neurocognitive function in young- to middle-aged adults. PMID:26598104

  9. Thresholds of Central Systolic Blood Pressure in a Normotensive Chinese Middle-Aged Population.

    PubMed

    Hao, Guang; Wang, Zengwu; Zhang, Linfeng; Chen, Zuo; Wang, Xin; Guo, Min; Tian, Ye; Shao, Lan; Zhu, Manlu

    2016-02-01

    An increasing body of evidence has emerged showing that the central systolic blood pressure (CSBP) is more relevant to the risk of cardiovascular (CV) diseases than brachial blood pressure. However, there are no agreed CSBP threshold values above which the risk of CV disease is increased. The aim of our study was to define the threshold values of the CSBP in a normotensive Chinese population; 10 012 adults 35 to 65 years of age were eligible for analysis. We excluded 3765 participants with hypertension, and the final normotensive reference sample consisted of 6247 participants. We defined abnormally high CSBP as exceeding the 90th percentile age- and sex-specific values in the normotensive population. The 90th percentile cutoff value for CSBP in the reference sample was 125 mm Hg in men and 126 mm Hg in women. The CSBP was significantly higher in participants with diabetes, history of CV disease, and hyperlipidemia (P < .001). The CSBP values increased with age (P < .001). We established that the 90th percentile of the CSBP threshold value in normotensive Chinese middle-aged population is 125 mm Hg for men and 126 mm Hg for women. PMID:25934007

  10. Parity and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Middle-aged and Older Chinese Women

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Lijun; Wu, Jing; Xu, Guiqiang; Song, Lulu; Yang, Siyi; Yuan, Jing; Liang, Yuan; Wang, Youjie

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy leads to physiological changes in lipid, glucose levels, and weight, which may increase the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in later life. The purpose of this study was to examine whether parity is associated with CHD in middle-aged and older Chinese women. A total of 20,207 women aged 37 to 94 years from Dongfeng-Tongji Cohort who completed the questionnaire, were medically examined and provided blood samples, were included in our analysis. CHD cases were determined by self-report of physician diagnosis through face-to-face interviews. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between parity and CHD. The rate of CHD was 15.8%. Parity had a positive association with CHD without adjustment of covariates. After controlling for the potential confounders, increasing risk of coronary heart disease was observed in women who had two (OR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.41–1.93), three (OR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.44–2.16), and four or more live births (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.33–2.20) compared with women with just one live birth. High parity was significantly associated with increasing risk of CHD in Chinese women. This suggests that multiparity may be a risk factor for CHD among Chinese women. PMID:26607032

  11. Visceral Fat Accumulation, Insulin Resistance, and Elevated Depressive Symptoms in Middle-Aged Japanese Men

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Shuichiro; Matsushita, Yumi; Nakagawa, Toru; Honda, Toru; Hayashi, Takeshi; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Mizoue, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate visceral fat accumulation and markers of insulin resistance in relation to elevated depressive symptoms (EDS). Methods Participants were 4,333 male employees (mean age, 49.3 years) who underwent abdominal computed tomography scanning, measured fasting insulin, and did not self-report diabetes and mental disorders under treatment and history of cancer, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association of EDS with abdominal fat deposition and markers of insulin resistance. Results Visceral fat area (VFA) and fasting insulin were significantly, positively associated with EDS. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of high VFA for the lowest through highest quartile of depression score were 1 (reference), 1.18 (0.97–1.42), 1.25 (1.02–1.54), 1.23 (1.01–1.51), respectively, and corresponding figures for high fasting insulin were 1 (reference), 0.98 (0.80–1.19), 1.12 (0.91–1.38), and 1.29 (1.06–1.57), respectively. Subcutaneous fat area was not associated with EDS. Conclusions Results suggest that EDS is related to visceral, but not subcutaneous, fat accumulation and insulin resistance in middle-aged Japanese men. PMID:26891344

  12. Can the Treatment of Hypertension in the Middle-Aged Prevent Dementia in the Elderly?

    PubMed

    Coca, Antonio; Monteagudo, Eila; Doménech, Mónica; Camafort, Miguel; Sierra, Cristina

    2016-06-01

    Hypertension, one of the main risk factors for cardiovascular disease, is thought to play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of cognitive impairment. Studies have associated hypertension with subjective cognitive failures and objective cognitive decline. Subjective cognitive failures may reflect the early phase of a long pathological process leading to cognitive decline and dementia that has been associated with hypertension and other cardiovascular risk factors. The underlying cerebral structural change associated with cognitive decline may be a consequence of the cerebral small-vessel disease induced by high blood pressure and may be detected on magnetic resonance imaging as white matter hyperintensities, cerebral microbleeds, lacunar infarcts or enlarged perivascular spaces. The increasing interest in the relationship between hypertension and cognitive decline is based on the fact that blood pressure control in middle-aged subjects may delay or stop the progression of cognitive decline and reduce the risk of dementia in the elderly. Although more evidence is required, several studies on hypertension have shown a beneficial effect on the incidence of dementia. PMID:27075454

  13. Family Economic Hardship and Progression of Poor Mental Health in Middle-aged Husbands and Wives

    PubMed Central

    Wickrama, K. A. S.; Surjadi, Florensia F.; Lorenz, Frederick O.; Conger, Rand D.; Walker, Catie

    2011-01-01

    Using prospective data from 370 middle-aged husbands and wives during a 12-year period, we investigated the intra-individual and dyadic influence of family economic hardship on the levels of depressive symptoms of husbands and wives over their middle years. The results suggest that family economic hardship during the early middle years contributes to subsequent increase in depressive symptoms of husbands and wives after controlling for family economic hardship in late middle years. Consistent with stress-process theory, economic hardship influences depressive symptoms directly and indirectly through its influence on self-esteem. The results also provided evidence for the scar hypothesis which suggests that depression predicts subsequent level of self-esteem and form a reciprocal process between depressive symptoms and self-esteem over time. In sum, for both husbands and wives, our findings showed that depressive symptoms progress over the middle years through a self-perpetuating reciprocal process between self-esteem and depression initiated by early family economic hardship and through cross-spouse influences involving self-esteem and depressive symptoms. PMID:22577243

  14. Suicide Risk and Precipitating Circumstances Among Young, Middle-Aged, and Older Male Veterans

    PubMed Central

    McFarland, Bentson H.; Huguet, Nathalie; Valenstein, Marcia

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the risk of suicide among veteran men relative to nonveteran men by age and to examine the prevalence of suicide circumstances among male veterans in different age groups (18–34, 35–44, 45–64, and ≥ 65 years). Methods. Data from the National Violent Death Reporting System (2003–2008) were used to calculate age-specific suicide rates for veterans (n = 8440) and nonveterans (n = 21 668) and to calculate the age-stratified mortality ratio for veterans. Multiple logistic regression was used to compare health status, stressful life events preceding suicide, and means of death among young, middle-aged, and older veterans. Results. Veterans were at higher risk for suicide compared with nonveterans in all age groups except the oldest. Mental health, substance abuse, and financial and relationship problems were more common in younger than in older veteran suicide decedents, whereas health problems were more prevalent in the older veterans. Most male veterans used firearms for suicide, and nearly all elderly veterans did so. Conclusions. Our study highlighted heightened risk of suicide in male veterans compared with nonveterans. Within the veteran population, suicide might be influenced by different precipitating factors at various stages of life. PMID:22390587

  15. Age and race effects on pain sensitivity and modulation among middle-aged and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Joseph L.; Cruz-Almeida, Yenisel; Glover, Toni L.; King, Christopher D.; Goodin, Burel R.; Sibille, Kimberly T.; Bartley, Emily J.; Herbert, Matthew S.; Sotolongo, Adriana; Fessler, Barri J.; Redden, David T.; Staud, Roland; Bradley, Laurence A.; Fillingim, Roger B

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the effects of aging and race on responses to noxious stimuli using a wide range of stimulus modalities. The participants were 53 non-Hispanic Blacks and 138 non-Hispanic White adults, ages 45 to 76. The participants completed a single 3-hour sensory testing session where responses to thermal, mechanical, and cold stimuli were assessed. The results suggest that there are selected age differences, with the older group less sensitive to warm and painful heat stimuli than middle-aged participants, particularly at the knee. This site effect supports the hypothesis that the greatest decrement in pain sensitivity associated with aging occurs in the lower extremities. In addition, there were several instances where age and race effects were compounded, resulting in greater race differences in pain sensitivity among the older participants. Overall, the data suggest that previously reported race differences in pain sensitivity emerged in our older samples, and this study contributes new findings in that these differences may increase with age in non-Hispanic Blacks for temporal summation and both heat and cold immersion tolerance. We have added to the aging and pain literature by reporting several small to moderate differences in responses to heat stimuli between middle and older age adults. PMID:24239561

  16. A Candidate Optical Counterpart to the Middle Aged γ-RAY Pulsar PSRJ1741–2054

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignani, R. P.; Testa, V.; Marelli, M.; De Luca, A.; Salvetti, D.; Belfiore, A.; Pierbattista, M.; Razzano, M.; Shearer, A.; Moran, P.

    2016-07-01

    We carried out deep optical observations of the middle aged γ-ray pulsar PSR J1741‑2054 with the Very Large Telescope (VLT). We identified two objects, of magnitudes m v = 23.10 ± 0.05 and m v = 25.32 ± 0.08, at positions consistent with the very accurate Chandra coordinates of the pulsar, the faintest of which is more likely to be its counterpart. From the VLT images we also detected the known bow-shock nebula around PSR J1741‑2054. The nebula is displaced by ∼0.″9 (at the 3σ confidence level) with respect to its position measured in archival data, showing that the shock propagates in the interstellar medium consistently with the pulsar proper motion. Finally, we could not find evidence of large-scale extended optical emission associated with the pulsar wind nebula detected by Chandra, down to a surface brightness limit of ∼28.1 mag arcsec‑2. Future observations are needed to confirm the optical identification of PSR J1741‑2054 and characterize the spectrum of its counterpart. Based on observations collected at the European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere under ESO programme 095.D-0328(B).

  17. Cognitive Functioning and Driving Simulator Performance in Middle-aged and Older Adults with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Vance, David E.; Fazeli, Pariya L.; Ball, David A.; Slater, Larry Z.; Ross, Lesley A.

    2014-01-01

    Nearly half of people living with HIV experience cognitive deficits that may impact instrumental activities of daily living. As the number of people aging with HIV increases, concerns mount that disease-related cognitive deficits may be compounded by age-related deficits, which may further compromise everyday functions such as driving. In this cross-sectional pilot study, during a 2.5-hour visit, 26 middle-aged and older adults (40+ years) were administered demographic, health, psychosocial, and driving habits questionnaires; cognitive assessments; and driving simulator tests. Although CD4+T lymphocyte count and viral load were unrelated to driving performance, older age was related to poorer driving. Furthermore, poorer visual speed of processing performance (i.e., Useful Field of View) was related to poorer driving performance (e.g., average gross reaction time). Mixed findings were observed between driving performance and cognitive function on self-reported driving habits of participants. Implications for these findings on nursing practice and research are posited. PMID:24513104

  18. Intraindividual Variability in Basic Reaction Time Predicts Middle-Aged and Older Pilots’ Flight Simulator Performance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Intraindividual variability (IIV) is negatively associated with cognitive test performance and is positively associated with age and some neurological disorders. We aimed to extend these findings to a real-world task, flight simulator performance. We hypothesized that IIV predicts poorer initial flight performance and increased rate of decline in performance among middle-aged and older pilots. Method. Two-hundred and thirty-six pilots (40–69 years) completed annual assessments comprising a cognitive battery and two 75-min simulated flights in a flight simulator. Basic and complex IIV composite variables were created from measures of basic reaction time and shifting and divided attention tasks. Flight simulator performance was characterized by an overall summary score and scores on communication, emergencies, approach, and traffic avoidance components. Results. Although basic IIV did not predict rate of decline in flight performance, it had a negative association with initial performance for most flight measures. After taking into account processing speed, basic IIV explained an additional 8%–12% of the negative age effect on initial flight performance. Discussion. IIV plays an important role in real-world tasks and is another aspect of cognition that underlies age-related differences in cognitive performance. PMID:23052365

  19. X-ray jets from B2224+65: A Middle-aged Pulsar's New Trick

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q. Daniel; Johnson, Seth

    2015-01-01

    Pulsars, though typically not aged ones, are believed to be an important source of energetic cosmic rays. Therefore, it may not be too surprising to detect an X-ray jet associated with the middle-aged radio/X-ray pulsar B2224+65, which is well known for its very high proper motion and its trailing ``Guitar Nebula''. Most unexpected, however, is that this jet is offset from its proper motion direction by 118 degree. Furthermore, an X-ray counter jet and a faint X-ray trail associated with the ``Guitar Nebula'' are now identified in the combined data set of three epoch Chandra observations with a total exposure of 200 ks. We are carrying out a detailed measurements of the X-ray spectral variation with time and across the jets and are critically testing scenarios proposed to explain this enigmatic phenomenon. The study should have strong implications for understanding the origin of cosmic rays, as well as similar linear nonthermal X-ray-emitting features that are associated with more distant pulsars, especially pulsar wind nebula candidates in the central 100 pc region of the Galaxy.

  20. [Hospitals in Prague from the high Middle Ages to the Enlightenment (1135-1800)].

    PubMed

    Karenberg, A

    1995-01-01

    Based on hitherto unknown layouts and documents from the Prague archives, this paper reviews the evolution of the health care system in the capital of Bohemia. From the high Middle Ages to the Enlightenment, the town's history as well as changing political and religious tendencies provide a unique background for the development of different types of institutions for the care of the poor and sick. The first charitable foundations of the sovereigns and the archbishops were soon followed by the semi-monasterial infirmaries of the Hospitallers. Leprosoria and other shelters for the contagious deserve special attention. After the counter-reformation, the newly built hospitals of orders like the Brothers of Saint John of God and the Sisters of Saint Elizabeth played an important role. From the architectural point of view, the baroque hospitals built by Kilian Ignaz Dientzenhofer belong to the most impressive examples of hospital architecture in Europe. Finally, the medical reforms of Emperor Joseph II. led to a series of completely new institutions, which can be regarded as the beginning of modern medicine im Bohemia. It was especially intended to describe exactly the site and the architectonic appearance of the preserved buildings. Thus, the medical historian can contribute to the care and preservation of these medical monuments. PMID:7631381

  1. Adult romantic attachment, negative emotionality, and depressive symptoms in middle aged men: a multivariate genetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Franz, Carol E; York, Timothy P; Eaves, Lindon J; Prom-Wormley, Elizabeth; Jacobson, Kristen C; Lyons, Michael J; Grant, Michael D; Xian, Hong; Panizzon, Matthew S; Jimenez, Erica; Kremen, William S

    2011-07-01

    Adult romantic attachment styles reflect ways of relating in close relationships and are associated with depression and negative emotionality. We estimated the extent to which dimensions of romantic attachment and negative emotionality share genetic or environmental risk factors in 1,237 middle-aged men in the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging (VETSA). A common genetic factor largely explained the covariance between attachment-related anxiety, attachment-related avoidance, depressive symptoms, and two measures of negative emotionality: Stress-Reaction (anxiety), and Alienation. Multivariate results supported genetic and environmental differences in attachment. Attachment-related anxiety and attachment-related avoidance were each influenced by additional genetic factors not shared with other measures; the genetic correlation between the attachment measure-specific genetic factors was 0.41, indicating some, but not complete overlap of genetic factors. Genetically informative longitudinal studies on attachment relationship dimensions can help to illuminate the role of relationship-based risk factors in healthy aging. PMID:21213033

  2. Effects of Forest Bathing on Cardiovascular and Metabolic Parameters in Middle-Aged Males

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Maiko; Kumeda, Shigeyoshi; Ochiai, Toshiya; Miura, Takashi; Imai, Michiko; Wang, Zhiyu; Otsuka, Toshiaki; Kawada, Tomoyuki

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of a forest bathing on cardiovascular and metabolic parameters. Nineteen middle-aged male subjects were selected after they provided informed consent. These subjects took day trips to a forest park in Agematsu, Nagano Prefecture, and to an urban area of Nagano Prefecture as control in August 2015. On both trips, they walked 2.6 km for 80 min each in the morning and afternoon on Saturdays. Blood and urine were sampled before and after each trip. Cardiovascular and metabolic parameters were measured. Blood pressure and pulse rate were measured during the trips. The Japanese version of the profile of mood states (POMS) test was conducted before, during, and after the trips. Ambient temperature and humidity were monitored during the trips. The forest bathing program significantly reduced pulse rate and significantly increased the score for vigor and decreased the scores for depression, fatigue, anxiety, and confusion. Urinary adrenaline after forest bathing showed a tendency toward decrease. Urinary dopamine after forest bathing was significantly lower than that after urban area walking, suggesting the relaxing effect of the forest bathing. Serum adiponectin after the forest bathing was significantly greater than that after urban area walking. PMID:27493670

  3. Context Memory Decline in Middle Aged Adults is Related to Changes in Prefrontal Cortex Function.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Diana; Maillet, David; Pasvanis, Stamatoula; Ankudowich, Elizabeth; Grady, Cheryl L; Rajah, M Natasha

    2016-06-01

    The ability to encode and retrieve spatial and temporal contextual details of episodic memories (context memory) begins to decline at midlife. In the current study, event-related fMRI was used to investigate the neural correlates of context memory decline in healthy middle aged adults (MA) compared with young adults (YA). Participants were scanned while performing easy and hard versions of spatial and temporal context memory tasks. Scans were obtained at encoding and retrieval. Significant reductions in context memory retrieval accuracy were observed in MA, compared with YA. The fMRI results revealed that overall, both groups exhibited similar patterns of brain activity in parahippocampal cortex, ventral occipito-temporal regions and prefrontal cortex (PFC) during encoding. In contrast, at retrieval, there were group differences in ventral occipito-temporal and PFC activity, due to these regions being more activated in MA, compared with YA. Furthermore, only in YA, increased encoding activity in ventrolateral PFC, and increased retrieval activity in occipital cortex, predicted increased retrieval accuracy. In MA, increased retrieval activity in anterior PFC predicted increased retrieval accuracy. These results suggest that there are changes in PFC contributions to context memory at midlife. PMID:25882039

  4. An unusual case of spontaneous Mycobacterium chelonae corneal ulcer in a healthy middle-aged adult

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Vipul; Sriganesh, R; Relekar, Kirti

    2016-01-01

    Background To report a rare presentation of culture-positive Mycobacterium chelonae corneal ulcer and its management. Findings We report a rare case of a patient with a history of chronic pain and blurriness of vision. Examination revealed a chronic nonhealing paracentral corneal ulcer inferiorly at the 5–7 o’clock meridian with anterior chamber reaction unresponsive to routine antibiotic and antifungal medications with Mantoux test positivity in a middle-aged nondiabetic patient with no prior history of trauma, ocular surgery, and contact lens usage. Ziehl–Neelsen staining of the nonhealing ulcer revealed acid-fast bacilli typical of M. chelonae, with subsequent culture positivity in Löwenstein–Jensen medium. Subsequent treatment with topical fortified amikacin and tobramycin resulted in rapid healing of the corneal ulcer. Conclusion M. chelonae presenting as a chronic nonhealing corneal ulcer spontaneously occurring in a healthy adult with no predisposing factor draws attention towards the need to have a good index of suspicion by performing a Ziehl–Neelsen stain and culture, and subsequent successful management with topical fortified amikacin and tobramycin. PMID:27274315

  5. Interaction of APOE genotype and testosterone on episodic memory in middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Panizzon, Matthew S; Hauger, Richard; Xian, Hong; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Spoon, Kelly M; Mendoza, Sally P; Jacobson, Kristen C; Vasilopoulos, Terrie; Rana, Brinda K; McKenzie, Ruth; McCaffery, Jeanne M; Lyons, Michael J; Kremen, William S; Franz, Carol E

    2014-07-01

    Age-related changes in testosterone are believed to be a key component of the processes that contribute to cognitive aging in men. The APOE-ε4 allele may interact with testosterone and moderate the hormone's association with cognition. The goals of the present study were to examine the degree to which free testosterone is associated with episodic memory in a community-based sample of middle-aged men, and examine the potential interaction between free testosterone and the APOE-ε4 allele. Data were used from 717 participants in the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging. Average age was 55.4 years (standard deviation = 2.5). Significant positive associations were observed between free testosterone level and verbal episodic memory, as well as a significant interaction between free testosterone and APOE-ε4 status. In ε4 carriers free testosterone was positively associated with verbal episodic memory performance (story recall), whereas no association was observed in ε4 noncarriers. Results support the hypothesis that APOE-ε4 status increases susceptibility to other risk factors, such as low testosterone, which may ultimately contribute to cognitive decline or dementia. PMID:24444806

  6. Prehypertension and Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction in Middle-Aged Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Shin Yi; Kim, Sujin; Lee, Chang Kwan; Cho, Eun Jeong; Cho, Soo Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction is known to be a marker of myocardial damage, in particular myocardial fibrosis resulting from hypertension (HT). However, few studies have shown an association between the grade of diastolic dysfunction and blood pressure classification. We investigated the association between diastolic dysfunction and prehypertension (preHT) in apparently healthy adults who underwent routine health examinations. Subjects and Methods The study sample included 4261 Koreans, 45 to 64 years of age with no previous history of HT, diabetes mellitus, malignancy, proven coronary artery disease, or valvular heart disease based on echocardiography, who underwent routine health examinations including echocardiography. The subjects were classified into three groups based on resting blood pressure: prehypertensive, hypertensive, and normotensive. Results The prevalence of preHT in our study was 42.1%. After adjusting for age, gender, smoking status, alcohol consumption, fasting blood sugar, serum lipid profile, and body mass index, left ventricular diastolic dysfunction grades 1 and 2 were significantly more frequent in subjects with preHT (odds ratio [OR] 1.66 [95% confidence interval {CI} 1.40-1.96] and 1.37 [95% CI 0.95-1.97], respectively). When analyzed according to gender, the increased OR was especially notable in males. Conclusion Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction appears to be significantly associated with preHT in Korean middle-aged males. PMID:27482263

  7. Women healers of the middle ages: selected aspects of their history.

    PubMed Central

    Minkowski, W L

    1992-01-01

    The stellar role of women as healers during the Middle Ages has received some attention from medical historians but remains little known or appreciated. In the three centuries preceding the Renaissance, this role was heightened by two roughly parallel developments. The first was the evolution of European universities and their professional schools that, for the most part, systematically excluded women as students, thereby creating a legal male monopoly of the practice of medicine. Ineligible as healers, women waged a lengthy battle to maintain their right to care for the sick and injured. The 1322 case of Jacqueline Felicie, one of many healers charged with illegally practicing medicine, raises serious questions about the motives of male physicians in discrediting these women as incompetent and dangerous. The second development was the campaign--promoted by the church and supported by both clerical and civil authorities--to brand women healers as witches. Perhaps the church perceived these women, with their special, often esoteric, healing skills, as a threat to its supremacy in the lives of its parishioners. The result was the brutal persecution of unknown numbers of mostly peasant women. Images p290-a p291-a PMID:1739168

  8. Mechanisms for decreased exercise capacity after bed rest in normal middle-aged men

    SciTech Connect

    Hung, J.; Goldwater, D.; Convertino, V.A.; McKillop, J.H.; Goris, M.L.; DeBusk, R.F.

    1983-01-15

    The mechanisms responsible for the decrease in exercise capacity after bed rest were assessed in 12 apparently healthy men aged 50 +/- 4 years who underwent equilibrium gated blood pool scintigraphy during supine and upright multistage bicycle ergometry before and after 10 days of bed rest. After bed rest, echocardiographically measured supine resting left ventricular end-diastolic volume decreased by 16% (p less than 0.05). Peak oxygen uptake during supine effort after bed rest was diminished by 6% (p . not significant (NS)), whereas peak oxygen uptake during upright effort declined by 15% (p less than 0.05). After bed rest, increases in heart rate were also greater during exercise in the upright than in the supine position (p less than 0.05). Values of left ventricular ejection fraction increased normally during both supine and upright effort after bed rest and were higher than corresponding values before bed rest (p less than 0.05). After bed rest, increased left ventricular ejection fraction and heart rate largely compensated for the reduced cardiac volume during supine effort, but these mechanisms were insufficient to maintain oxygen transport capacity at levels during upright effort before bed rest. These results indicate that orthostatically induced cardiac underfilling, not physical deconditioning or left ventricular dysfunction, is the major cause of reduced effort tolerance after 10 days of bed rest in normal middle-aged men.

  9. Progesterone and vitamin D: improvement after traumatic brain injury in middle-aged rats

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Huiling; Hua, Fang; Wang, Jun; Sayeed, Iqbal; Wang, Xiaojing; Chen, Zhengjia; Yousuf, Seema; Atif, Fahim; Stein, Donald G.

    2013-01-01

    Progesterone (PROG) and vitamin D hormone (VDH) have both shown promise in treating traumatic brain injury (TBI). Both modulate apoptosis, inflammation, oxidative stress, and excitotoxicity. We investigated whether 21 days of VDH deficiency would alter cognitive behavior after TBI and whether combined PROG and VDH would improve behavioral and morphological outcomes more than either hormone alone in VDH-deficient middle-aged rats given bilateral contusions of the medial frontal cortex. PROG (16 mg/kg) and VDH (5 µg/kg) were injected intraperitoneally 1 hour post-injury. Eight additional doses of PROG were injected subcutaneously over 7 days post-injury. VDH deficiency itself did not significantly reduce baseline behavioral functions or aggravate impaired cognitive outcomes. Combination therapy showed moderate improvement in preserving spatial and reference memory but was not significantly better than PROG monotherapy. However, combination therapy significantly reduced neuronal loss and the proliferation of reactive astrocytes, and showed better efficacy compared to VDH or PROG alone in preventing MAP-2 degradation. VDH+PROG combination therapy may attenuate some of the potential long-term, subtle, pathophysiological consequences of brain injury in older subjects. PMID:23896206

  10. Heterogeneous depression responses to chronic pain onset among middle-aged adults: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhuoying; Galatzer-Levy, Isaac R; Bonanno, George A

    2014-06-30

    Studies on depression response to chronic pain are limited by lack of clarification of different forms of response patterns and cross-sectional measures. The current study examined heterogeneous long-term patterns of depression response to chronic pain onset prospectively using the mixture modeling technique. Depression symptoms prior to and following pain onset over a course of six years were charted in a nationally representative middle-aged sample. Four distinct depression symptom trajectories emerged. The resilience (72.0%) trajectory describes a pattern of no/minimal depression symptoms prior to and following pain onset. The post-pain depression trajectory (11.4%) describes a pattern of low depression at baseline and increasing symptoms following pain onset. The chronic depression (6.8%) trajectory is characterized by persistently high depression symptoms irrespective of pain onset. The prior depression improved (9.8%) trajectory describes a pattern of high depression at baseline and gradually declining symptoms following pain onset. Self-rated health at both baseline and following pain onset predicted the resilience trajectory. Baseline self-rated health distinguished the post-pain depression and chronic depression trajectories. Individuals in the prior depression improved trajectory were older and had more chronic illnesses at baseline but fewer illnesses following pain onset, compared to those in the resilience or post-pain depression trajectory. PMID:24679514

  11. Speech Recognition Across the Life Span: Longitudinal Changes From Middle-Age to Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of evidence of age-related declines in speech recognition in middle age to older adulthood; to review contributions of pure-tone thresholds, age, and gender; and to report preliminary results from a longitudinal study. Method Pure-tone thresholds and word recognition in quiet and babble are being measured in a large sample of adults yearly or every 2 to 3 years. Analyses included >16,000 audiograms and speech recognition scores from >1,200 adults whose ages ranged from the 40s to the 90s. A multivariable generalized linear repeated mixed model assessed changes in thresholds and speech recognition over time. Results Word recognition in quiet declined significantly while controlling for threshold increases, and declines appeared to accelerate near ages 65 to 70 years. Scores for men were poorer than those for women even after controlling for gender differences in thresholds, but rates of decline did not differ by gender. Smaller declines in key word recognition in babble were observed, and declines appeared to accelerate near ages 75 to 80 years. Conclusions Additional evidence is needed from large-scale longitudinal cohort studies to determine rates of change of auditory function across the life span. These studies can identify associations with modifiable risk factors and potential mechanisms to reduce, to prevent, or to delay the onset of age-related hearing loss. PMID:25767998

  12. Association between Metabolic Syndrome and Menstrual Irregularity in Middle-Aged Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Su; Nam, Ga-Eun; Nam, Hyo-Yun; Kim, Young Eun; Lee, Sung Ho; Han, Kyung Do; Park, Yong Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Background Menstrual irregularity is a common major complaint in women of reproductive age. It is also a known marker for underlying insulin resistance. We investigated the association between menstrual irregularity and metabolic syndrome in the general population of middle-aged women in Korea. Methods This cross-sectional study used data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010–2012. A total of 2,742 subjects were included in the analysis. Participants were divided into two categories based on their menstrual cycle regularity and the relationship between metabolic syndrome and its variables was investigated by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results Adjusted analyses revealed significantly higher odds ratios for metabolic syndrome, high waist circumference, high triglyceride levels, and low high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels with the presence of menstrual irregularity. Conclusion Metabolic syndrome and its components (high waist circumference, high triglyceride levels, and low high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels) were significantly associated with menstrual irregularity in women of reproductive age. PMID:26885320

  13. Age Differences in Prefrontal Surface Area and Thickness in Middle Aged to Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Dotson, Vonetta M.; Szymkowicz, Sarah M.; Sozda, Christopher N.; Kirton, Joshua W.; Green, Mackenzie L.; O’Shea, Andrew; McLaren, Molly E.; Anton, Stephen D.; Manini, Todd M.; Woods, Adam J.

    2016-01-01

    Age is associated with reductions in surface area and cortical thickness, particularly in prefrontal regions. There is also evidence of greater thickness in some regions at older ages. Non-linear age effects in some studies suggest that age may continue to impact brain structure in later decades of life, but relatively few studies have examined the impact of age on brain structure within middle-aged to older adults. We investigated age differences in prefrontal surface area and cortical thickness in healthy adults between the ages of 51 and 81 years. Participants received a structural 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scan. Based on a priori hypotheses, primary analyses focused on surface area and cortical thickness in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex. We also performed exploratory vertex-wise analyses of surface area and cortical thickness across the entire cortex. We found that older age was associated with smaller surface area in the dorsolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices but greater cortical thickness in the dorsolateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices. Vertex-wise analyses revealed smaller surface area in primarily frontal regions at older ages, but no age effects were found for cortical thickness. Results suggest age is associated with reduced surface area but greater cortical thickness in prefrontal regions during later decades of life, and highlight the differential effects age has on regional surface area and cortical thickness. PMID:26834623

  14. Organisationalbis justice and cognitive function in middle-aged employees: the Whitehall II study

    PubMed Central

    Elovainio, Marko; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Ferrie, Jane E; Shipley, Martin; Gimeno, David; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Marianna; Jokela, Markus; Marmot, Michael G; Kivimäki, Mika; De Vogli, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known about the role work-related factors play in the decline cognitive function. We examined the association between perceived organizational justice and cognitive function among middle-aged men and women. Methods Perceived organizational justice was measured at Phases 1 (1985–1988) and 2 (1989–1990) of the Whitehall II study when the participants were 35–55 years old. Assessment of cognitive function at the screening clinic at Phases 5 (1997–1999) and 7 (2003–2004) included the following tests in screening clinic: memory, inductive reasoning (Alice Heim 4), vocabulary (Mill Hill), and verbal fluency (phonemic and semantic). Mean exposure to lower organizational justice at Phases 1 and 2 in relation to cognitive function at Phases 5 and 7 were analysed using linear regression analyses. The final sample included 4531 men and women. Results Lower mean levels of justice at Phases 1 and 2 were associated with worse cognitive function in terms of memory, inductive reasoning, vocabulary and verbal fluency at both Phases 5 and 7. These associations were independent of covariates, such as age, occupational grade, behavioural risks, depression, hypertension and job strain. Conclusions This study suggests an association between perceived organizational justice and cognitive function. Further studies are needed to examine whether interventions designed to improve organizational justice would affect employees’ cognition function favourably. PMID:21084589

  15. Health in middle-aged and elderly women: A conceptual framework for healthy menopause.

    PubMed

    Jaspers, Loes; Daan, Nadine M P; van Dijk, Gabriella M; Gazibara, Tatjana; Muka, Taulant; Wen, Ke-Xin; Meun, Cindy; Zillikens, M Carola; Roeters van Lennep, Jeanine E; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W; Laan, Ellen; Rees, Margaret; Laven, Joop S E; Franco, Oscar H; Kavousi, Maryam

    2015-05-01

    Middle-aged and elderly women constitute a large and growing proportion of the population. The peri and postmenopausal period constitutes a challenging transition time for women's health, and menopausal health is a crucial aspect in healthy and successful aging. Currently, no framework for the concept of healthy menopause exists, despite its recognized importance. Therefore, we aimed to: (i) characterize healthy menopause; (ii) identify aspects that contribute to it; and (iii) explore potential approaches to measure it. We propose healthy menopause as a dynamic state, following the permanent loss of ovarian function, which is characterized by self-perceived satisfactory physical, psychological and social functioning, incorporating disease and disability, allowing the attainment of a woman's desired ability to adapt and capacity to self-manage. The concept of healthy menopause applies to all women from the moment they enter the menopausal transition, up until they reach early and late postmenopause and includes women with spontaneous, iatrogenic, and premature menopause. This conceptualization can be considered as a further step in the maintenance and improvement of health in menopausal women from different perspectives, foremost the woman's own perspective, followed by the clinical, public health, and societal perspectives, and can be seen as a further step in delineating lines for future research. Furthermore, it could facilitate the improvement of adequate preventive and treatment strategies, guide scientific efforts, and aid education and communication to health care practitioners and the general public, allowing women the achievement of their potential and the fulfillment of their fundamental role in society. PMID:25813865

  16. Ventromedial prefrontal cortex stimulation enhances memory and hippocampal neurogenesis in the middle-aged rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Albert; Jain, Neeraj; Vyas, Ajai; Lim, Lee Wei

    2015-01-01

    Memory dysfunction is a key symptom of age-related dementia. Although recent studies have suggested positive effects of electrical stimulation for memory enhancement, its potential targets remain largely unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that spatially targeted deep brain stimulation of ventromedial prefrontal cortex enhanced memory functions in a middle-aged rat model. Our results show that acute stimulation enhanced the short-, but not the long-term memory in the novel-object recognition task. Interestingly, after chronic high-frequency stimulation, both the short- and long-term memories were robustly improved in the novel-object recognition test and Morris water-maze spatial task compared to sham. Our results also demonstrated that chronic ventromedial prefrontal cortex high-frequency stimulation upregulated neurogenesis-associated genes along with enhanced hippocampal cell proliferation. Importantly, these memory behaviors were strongly correlated with the hippocampal neurogenesis. Overall, these findings suggest that chronic ventromedial prefrontal cortex high-frequency stimulation may serve as a novel effective therapeutic target for dementia-related disorders. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04803.001 PMID:25768425

  17. Effects of Forest Bathing on Cardiovascular and Metabolic Parameters in Middle-Aged Males.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Kobayashi, Maiko; Kumeda, Shigeyoshi; Ochiai, Toshiya; Miura, Takashi; Kagawa, Takahide; Imai, Michiko; Wang, Zhiyu; Otsuka, Toshiaki; Kawada, Tomoyuki

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of a forest bathing on cardiovascular and metabolic parameters. Nineteen middle-aged male subjects were selected after they provided informed consent. These subjects took day trips to a forest park in Agematsu, Nagano Prefecture, and to an urban area of Nagano Prefecture as control in August 2015. On both trips, they walked 2.6 km for 80 min each in the morning and afternoon on Saturdays. Blood and urine were sampled before and after each trip. Cardiovascular and metabolic parameters were measured. Blood pressure and pulse rate were measured during the trips. The Japanese version of the profile of mood states (POMS) test was conducted before, during, and after the trips. Ambient temperature and humidity were monitored during the trips. The forest bathing program significantly reduced pulse rate and significantly increased the score for vigor and decreased the scores for depression, fatigue, anxiety, and confusion. Urinary adrenaline after forest bathing showed a tendency toward decrease. Urinary dopamine after forest bathing was significantly lower than that after urban area walking, suggesting the relaxing effect of the forest bathing. Serum adiponectin after the forest bathing was significantly greater than that after urban area walking. PMID:27493670

  18. An in situ corrosion study of Middle Ages wrought iron bar chains in the Amiens Cathedral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grassini, S.; Angelini, E.; Parvis, M.; Bouchar, M.; Dillmann, P.; Neff, D.

    2013-12-01

    The corrosion behaviour of Middle Ages wrought iron bar chains exposed to indoor atmospheric corrosion for hundred of years in the Notre Dame Cathedral of Amiens (France) has been evaluated by means of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS), a well-established electrochemical technique extensively used for testing anticorrosive properties of metal coatings. The measurements have been performed in situ with a portable EIS instrument designed to work as a standalone device, in six different areas of the wrought iron bar chains characterized by different aesthetical appearance. Moreover, a properly designed electrochemical cell has been employed to carry out the impedance measurements without affecting the artefacts surfaces. The wrought iron bar chains, as evidenced by μ-Raman and microscopic analyses, are covered by corrosion products constituted by iron oxides and oxyhydroxides, such as goethite, lepidocrocite, maghemite, akaganeite, organized in complex layered structures. In situ EIS allows one to investigate the phenomena involved at the electrochemical interfaces among the various corrosion products and to assess and predict their corrosion behaviour. From the analysis of the experimental findings of this monitoring campaign, EIS measurements can be proposed to restorers/conservators as a reliable indicator of dangerous situations on which they must act for the preservation of the iron artefacts.

  19. Aspergillus Septic Arthritis of the Hip in an Immunocompetent Middle-aged Female with Undiagnosed Recurrent Pulmonary Aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Pil Whan; Song, Joo Ho; Yoon, Kang Sup; Chang, Jae Suk; Kim, Hee Joong

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of Aspergillus septic hip arthritis in an immunocompetent patient with undiagnosed recurrent pulmonary aspergillosis who underwent arthroscopic surgery. Biopsy specimens of synovium revealed fungal hyphae, confirming Aspergillus infection. Aspergillus septic hip arthritis can occur in immunocompetent patients, and arthroscopy can be a noninvasive surgical option in these cases. PMID:27536626

  20. Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of Middle-Aged versus Younger Adults Enrolled in a Clinical Trial of a Web-Delivered Psychosocial Treatment for Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kalapatapu, Raj K.; Campbell, Aimee; Aharonovich, Efrat; Hu, Mei-Chen; Levin, Frances R.; Nunes, Edward V.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Evidence suggests that substance abuse is becoming more prevalent in middle-aged adults. The objective of this secondary analysis was to add to the growing empirical literature on the unique features of middle-aged substance abuse populations. Methods We descriptively compared baseline demographic and clinical characteristics of middle-aged (age 45–62, n = 111) and younger (age 18–44, n = 395) substance abusers entering a web-based psychosocial treatment study as part of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Clinical Trials Network (CTN). Results A significantly greater percentage of middle-aged adults were non-Caucasian and had a marital status other than single/never married. There was a significant association between frequency of Internet use and the age group. Forty-six percent of middle-aged adults versus 21% of younger adults reported no Internet use in the prior 90 days. A significantly greater percentage of middle-aged adults used cocaine, and a significantly greater percentage of younger adults used marijuana and opioids. Clinically significant cognitive impairment (z less than −1.0) was found for the average participant in both groups on logical association of familiar concepts. Conclusions This secondary analysis of a NIDA CTN study provides additional information on the unique features of middle-aged substance abusers. Increasing knowledge of similarities and differences between younger and middle-aged substance abusers can help with potential age-specific substance abuse treatment planning. PMID:23340711

  1. Current asthma contributes as much as smoking to chronic bronchitis in middle age: a prospective population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Dharmage, Shyamali C; Perret, Jennifer L; Burgess, John A; Lodge, Caroline J; Johns, David P; Thomas, Paul S; Giles, Graham G; Hopper, John L; Abramson, Michael J; Walters, E Haydn; Matheson, Melanie C

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective Personal smoking is widely regarded to be the primary cause of chronic bronchitis (CB) in adults, but with limited knowledge of contributions by other factors, including current asthma. We aimed to estimate the independent and relative contributions to adult CB from other potential influences spanning childhood to middle age. Methods The population-based Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study cohort, people born in 1961, completed respiratory questionnaires and spirometry in 1968 (n=8,583). Thirty-seven years later, in 2004, two-thirds responded to a detailed postal survey (n=5,729), from which the presence of CB was established in middle age. A subsample (n=1,389) underwent postbronchodilator spirometry between 2006 and 2008 for the assessment of chronic airflow limitation, from which nonobstructive and obstructive CB were defined. Multivariable and multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate relevant associations. Results The prevalence of CB in middle age was 6.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.5, 6.8). Current asthma and/or wheezy breathing in middle age was independently associated with adult CB (odds ratio [OR]: 6.2 [95% CI: 4.6, 8.4]), and this estimate was significantly higher than for current smokers of at least 20 pack-years (OR: 3.0 [95% CI: 2.1, 4.3]). Current asthma and smoking in middle age were similarly associated with obstructive CB, in contrast to the association between allergy and nonobstructive CB. Childhood predictors included allergic history (OR: 1.3 [95% CI: 1.1, 1.7]), current asthma (OR: 1.8 [95% CI: 1.3, 2.7]), “episodic” childhood asthma (OR: 2.3 [95% CI: 1.4, 3.9]), and parental bronchitis symptoms (OR: 2.5 [95% CI: 1.6, 4.1]). Conclusion The strong independent association between current asthma and CB in middle age suggests that this condition may be even more influential than personal smoking in a general population. The independent associations of childhood allergy and asthma, though not

  2. Hormonal determinants of the severity of andropausal and depressive symptoms in middle-aged and elderly men with prediabetes

    PubMed Central

    Rabijewski, Michał; Papierska, Lucyna; Kuczerowski, Roman; Piątkiewicz, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Andropausal and depressive symptoms are common in aging males and may be associated with hormone deficiency. We investigated the severity of andropausal and depressive symptoms, as well as their hormonal determinants, in 196 middle-aged and elderly men (age range: 40–80 years) with prediabetes (PD) and in 184 healthy peers. PD was diagnosed according to the definition of the American Diabetes Association. The severity of andropausal and depressive symptoms was assessed using the Aging Males’ Symptoms Rating Scale and the Self-Rating Depression Scale. Total testosterone (TT), calculated free testosterone (cFT), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) were measured. The prevalence of andropausal syndrome in men with PD was significantly higher than that in healthy men (35% vs 11%, respectively). In men with PD aged 40–59 years, the severity of sexual, psychological, and all andropausal symptoms was greater than in healthy peers, while in elderly men (60–80 years), only the severity of psychological symptoms was greater than in healthy peers. The severity of depressive symptoms in the middle-aged men with PD was greater than in healthy peers, while the severity of depressive symptoms in elderly men with PD and healthy peers was similar. The higher prevalence of andropausal symptoms was independently associated with cFT and IGF-1 in middle-aged men and with TT and DHEAS in elderly men with PD. The more severe depression symptoms were associated with low TT and DHEAS in middle-aged men and with low cFT and DHEAS in elderly men with PD. In conclusion, the prevalence of andropausal symptoms, especially psychological, was higher in prediabetic patients as compared to healthy men, while the severity of depressive symptoms was higher only in middle-aged men with PD. Hormonal determinants of andropausal and depressive symptoms are different in middle-aged and elderly patients, but endocrine tests are necessary in all men with

  3. Relationship between insomnia and headache in community-based middle-aged Hong Kong Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Wing-Fai; Chung, Ka-Fai; Wong, Chun-Yue

    2010-06-01

    Limited studies have investigated the prevalence of insomnia symptoms among individuals with different headache diagnoses and the association between insomnia and headache in subjects with comorbid anxiety and depression. A total of 310 community-dwelling Hong Kong Chinese women aged 40-60 years completed a self-administered questionnaire on headache, sleep difficulties, mood disturbances, and functional impairment. About 31% of the sample complained of recurrent headache unrelated to influenza and the common cold in the past 12 months. The percentages of women diagnosed to have migraine, tension-type headache (TTH), and headache unspecified were 8.4, 15.5 and 7.1%, respectively. The most frequent insomnia complaint was "problem waking up too early" (29.4%), followed by "difficulty staying asleep" (28.0%) and "difficulty falling asleep" (24.4%). Women with headaches were significantly more likely to report insomnia symptoms than those without headaches. There were no significant differences among women with migraine, TTH, and headache unspecified in the prevalence of insomnia symptoms. Logistic regression analysis showed that women with insomnia disorder as defined by an insomnia severity index total score >or=8 had 2.2-fold increased risk of reporting recurrent headache, 3.2-fold increased risk of migraine, and 2.3-fold increased risk of TTH, after adjusting for anxiety and depression. Individual insomnia symptoms were not independent predictors. The association between insomnia and headache was stronger in subjects with more frequent headaches. Our findings suggest that insomnia and the associated distress, but not insomnia symptoms alone, is an independent risk factor for recurrent headache in middle-aged women with mixed anxiety, depression and sleep disturbances. PMID:20186559

  4. Footprints of Middle Ages Kingdoms Are Still Visible in the Contemporary Surname Structure of Spain

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Díaz, Roberto; Manni, Franz; Blanco-Villegas, María José

    2015-01-01

    To assess whether the present-day geographical variability of Spanish surnames mirrors historical phenomena occurred at the times of their introduction (13th-16th century), and to infer the possible effect of foreign immigration (about 11% of present-day) on the observed patterns of diversity, we have analyzed the frequency distribution of 33,753 unique surnames (tokens) occurring 51,419,788 times, according to the list of Spanish residents of the year 2008. Isonymy measures and surname distances have been computed for, and between, the 47 mainland Spanish provinces and compared to a numerical classification of corresponding language varieties spoken in Spain. The comparison of the two bootstrap consensus trees, representing surname and linguistic variability, suggests a similar picture; major clusters are located in the east (Aragón, Cataluña, Valencia), and in the north of the country (Asturias, Galicia, León). Remaining regions appear to be considerably homogeneous. We interpret this pattern as the long-lasting effect of the surname and linguistic normalization actively led by the Christian kingdoms of the north (Reigns of Castilla y León and Aragón) during and after the southwards reconquest (Reconquista) of the territories ruled by the Arabs from the 8th century to the late 15th century, that is when surnames became transmitted in a fixed way and when Castilian linguistic varieties became increasingly prestigious and spread out. The geography of contemporary surname and linguistic variability in Spain corresponds to the political geography at the end of the Middle-Ages. The synchronicity between surname adoption and the political and cultural effects of the Reconquista have permanently forged a Spanish identity that subsequent migrations, internal or external, did not deface. PMID:25849152

  5. Oral trehalose supplementation improves resistance artery endothelial function in healthy middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Kaplon, Rachelle E; Hill, Sierra D; Bispham, Nina Z; Santos-Parker, Jessica R; Nowlan, Molly J; Snyder, Laura L; Chonchol, Michel; LaRocca, Thomas J; McQueen, Matthew B; Seals, Douglas R

    2016-06-01

    We hypothesized that supplementation with trehalose, a disaccharide that reverses arterial aging in mice, would improve vascular function in middle-aged and older (MA/O) men and women. Thirty-two healthy adults aged 50-77 years consumed 100 g/day of trehalose (n=15) or maltose (n=17, isocaloric control) for 12 weeks (randomized, double-blind). In subjects with Δbody mass less than 2.3kg (5 lb.), resistance artery endothelial function, assessed by forearm blood flow to brachial artery infusion of acetylcholine (FBFACh), increased ~30% with trehalose (13.3±1.0 vs. 10.5±1.1 AUC, P=0.02), but not maltose (P=0.40). This improvement in FBFACh was abolished when endothelial nitric oxide (NO) production was inhibited. Endothelium-independent dilation, assessed by FBF to sodium nitroprusside (FBFSNP), also increased ~30% with trehalose (155±13 vs. 116±12 AUC, P=0.03) but not maltose (P=0.92). Changes in FBFACh and FBFSNP with trehalose were not significant when subjects with Δbody mass ≥ 2.3kg were included. Trehalose supplementation had no effect on conduit artery endothelial function, large elastic artery stiffness or circulating markers of oxidative stress or inflammation (all P>0.1) independent of changes in body weight. Our findings demonstrate that oral trehalose improves resistance artery (microvascular) function, a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, in MA/O adults, possibly through increasing NO bioavailability and smooth muscle sensitivity to NO. PMID:27208415

  6. Cilostazol but not sildenafil prevents memory impairment after chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in middle-aged rats.

    PubMed

    Godinho, Jacqueline; de Oliveira, Janaina Nicolau; Ferreira, Emilene Dias Fiuza; Zaghi, Gislene Gonçalves D; Bacarin, Cristiano Correia; de Oliveira, Rúbia Maria Weffort; Milani, Humberto

    2015-04-15

    We previously reported that the phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibitor sildenafil prevented neurodegeneration but not learning deficits in middle-aged rats that were subjected to the permanent, three-stage, four-vessel occlusion/internal carotid artery (4-VO/ICA) model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH). In the present study, we examined whether the PDE3 inhibitor cilostazol alleviates the loss of long-term memory (i.e., retrograde amnesia) caused by CCH. The effect of sildenafil was then compared to cilostazol. Naive rats (12-15 months old) were trained in a non-food-rewarded eight-arm radial maze and subjected to CCH. One week later, retrograde memory was assessed for 5 weeks. Cilostazol (50mg/kg, p.o.) was administered for 42 days or 15 days, beginning approximately 45 min after the first occlusion stage. Sildenafil (3mg/kg, p.o.) was similarly administered for 15 days only. Histological examination was performed after behavioral testing. Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion caused persistent retrograde amnesia, which was reversed by cilostazol after both short-term and long-term treatment. This antiamnesic effect of cilostazol was sustained throughout the experiment, even after discontinuing treatment (15-day treatment group). This effect occurred in the absence of neuronal rescue. Sildenafil failed to prevent CCH-induced retrograde amnesia, but it reduced hippocampal cell death. Extending previous findings from this laboratory, we conclude that sildenafil does not afford memory recovery after CCH, despite its neuroprotective effect. In contrast, cilostazol abolished CCH-induced retrograde amnesia, an effect that may not depend on histological neuroprotection. The present data suggest that cilostazol but not sildenafil represents a potential strategy for the treatment of cognitive sequelae associated with CCH. PMID:25623419

  7. The role of apolipoprotein E and glucose intolerance in gallstone disease in middle aged subjects

    PubMed Central

    Niemi, M; Kervinen, K; Rantala, A; Kauma, H; Paivansalo, M; Savolainen, M; Lilja, M; Kesaniemi, Y

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The polymorphism of apolipoprotein E has been suggested to be associated with the cholesterol content of gallstones, the crystallisation rate of gall bladder bile, and the prevalence of gallstone disease (GSD). 
AIMS—To investigate whether apolipoprotein E polymorphism modulates the susceptibility to GSD at the population level and to study the possible associations between impaired glucose tolerance, diabetes, and GSD. 
METHODS—Apolipoprotein E phenotypes were determined in a middle aged cohort of 261 randomly selected hypertensive men, 259 control men, 257 hypertensive women, and 267 control women. All subjects without a documented history of diabetes were submitted to a two hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). GSD was verified by ultrasonography. 
RESULTS—In women with apolipoprotein E2 (phenotypes E2/2, 2/3, and 2/4) compared with women without E2 (E3/3, 4/3, and 4/4), the odds ratio for GSD was 0.28 (95% confidence interval 0.08-0.92). There was no protective effect in men. The relative risk for GSD was 1.2 (0.8-1.7) for hypertensive women and 1.8(1.0-2.7) for hypertensive men. In a stepwise multiple logistic regression model, E2 protected against GSD in women, whereas two hour blood glucose in the OGTT, serum insulin, and plasma triglycerides were risk factors. Elevated blood glucose during the OGTT was also a significant risk factor for GSD in men. 
CONCLUSIONS—The data suggest that apolipoprotein E2 is a genetic factor providing protection against GSD in women. In contrast, impaired glucose tolerance and frank diabetes are associated with the risk of GSD. 

 Keywords: apolipoprotein E; gallstone disease; diabetes; impaired glucose tolerance; cholesterol PMID:10075965

  8. Correlation Between Working Capacity and APDL in Middle-Aged and Elderly People with Intellectual Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Kazuo

    1999-01-01

    In this study we investigated the correlation between working capacity and APDL of middle-aged and elderly residents of welfare homes for the intellectually retarded. The subjects were 313 intellectually retarded people over 35 years old. The subjects were chosen from residents of four welfare institutions and job-placement centers for intellectually retarded people in Otaru, Hokkaido. Personal attributes, working capacity, and APDL were investigated in each subject. The items of personal attributes were: gender, chronological age, severity of intellectual impairment, and presence/absence of Down's syndrome. Working capacity was evaluated according to the 6 items. APDL was evaluated according to the 51 items. For statistical analysis of the working capacity of the subjects, the variables were summarized using principal component analysis and scored. Next, a search was made for the common factors in the 51 items of APDL using the principal component method. Finally, the correlation between working capacity and APDL was investigated by multiple regression analysis, with the obtained composite scores as dependent variables and the scores of APDL factors extracted by principal component analysis as independent variables. The following three factors were selected for the subjects: health management, outdoor movement and social activity. The multiple correlation coefficient using these three factors was R=0.63 (F=55.20, p<0.01). This indicates the necessity, from the viewpoints of prevention of senility, to focus not only on the decrease in working capacity of aging residents with intellectual impairment in welfare institutions but to establish various countermeasures based on the interrelationship between working capacity and APDL. PMID:25792909

  9. Brain morphometry shows effects of long-term musical practice in middle-aged keyboard players

    PubMed Central

    Gärtner, H.; Minnerop, M.; Pieperhoff, P.; Schleicher, A.; Zilles, K.; Altenmüller, E.; Amunts, K.

    2013-01-01

    To what extent does musical practice change the structure of the brain? In order to understand how long-lasting musical training changes brain structure, 20 male right-handed, middle-aged professional musicians and 19 matched controls were investigated. Among the musicians, 13 were pianists or organists with intensive practice regimes. The others were either music teachers at schools or string instrumentalists, who had studied the piano at least as a subsidiary subject, and practiced less intensively. The study was based on T1-weighted MR images, which were analyzed using deformation-based morphometry. Cytoarchitectonic probabilistic maps of cortical areas and subcortical nuclei as well as myeloarchitectonic maps of fiber tracts were used as regions of interest to compare volume differences in the brains of musicians and controls. In addition, maps of voxel-wise volume differences were computed and analyzed. Musicians showed a significantly better symmetric motor performance as well as a greater capability of controlling hand independence than controls. Structural MRI-data revealed significant volumetric differences between the brains of keyboard players, who practiced intensively and controls in right sensorimotor areas and the corticospinal tract as well as in the entorhinal cortex and the left superior parietal lobule. Moreover, they showed also larger volumes in a comparable set of regions than the less intensively practicing musicians. The structural changes in the sensory and motor systems correspond well to the behavioral results, and can be interpreted in terms of plasticity as a result of intensive motor training. Areas of the superior parietal lobule and the entorhinal cortex might be enlarged in musicians due to their special skills in sight-playing and memorizing of scores. In conclusion, intensive and specific musical training seems to have an impact on brain structure, not only during the sensitive period of childhood but throughout life. PMID

  10. Alcohol consumption and risk of prostate cancer in middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Schoonen, W Marieke; Salinas, Claudia A; Kiemeney, Lambertus A L M; Stanford, Janet L

    2005-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is a modifiable lifestyle factor that may affect prostate cancer risk. Alcohol alters the hormonal milieu and contains chemical substances such as flavonoids (red wine), which may alter tumor cell growth. Data from a population-based case-control study in King County, WA, were utilized to evaluate the association of alcohol consumption with prostate cancer in middle-aged men. A total of 753 newly diagnosed prostate cancer cases, 40-64 years of age, participated in the study. Seven hundred three control subjects, frequency matched to cases by age, were selected through random digit dialing. All participants completed an in-person interview on lifetime alcohol consumption and other risk factors for prostate cancer. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and assess significance (95% confidence intervals [CI]). All tests of statistical significance were two-sided. No clear association with prostate cancer risk was seen for overall alcohol consumption. Each additional glass of red wine consumed per week showed a statistically significant 6% decrease in relative risk (OR = 0.94; 95% CI = 0.90-0.98), and there was evidence for a decline in risk estimates across increasing categories of red wine intake (trend p = 0.02). No clear associations were seen for consumption of beer or liquor. Our present study suggests that consumption of beer or liquor is not associated with prostate cancer. There may be, however, a reduced relative risk associated with increasing level of red wine consumption. Further research is needed to evaluate the potential negative association between red wine intake and prostate cancer risk. PMID:15386436

  11. Trajectories of brain aging in middle-aged and older adults: Regional and individual differences

    PubMed Central

    Raz, Naftali; Ghisletta, Paolo; Rodrigue, Karen M.; Kennedy, Kristen M.; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2010-01-01

    The human brain changes with age. However, the rate and the trajectories of change vary among the brain regions and among individuals, and the reasons for these differences are unclear. In a sample of healthy middle-aged and older adults, we examined mean volume change and individual differences in the rate of change in 12 regional brain volumes over approximately 30 months. In addition to the baseline assessment, there were two follow-ups, 15 months apart. We observed significant average shrinkage of the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, orbital–frontal cortex, and cerebellum in each of the intervals. Shrinkage of the hippocampus accelerated with time, whereas shrinkage of the caudate nucleus, prefrontal subcortical white matter, and corpus callosum emerged only at the second follow-up. Throughout both assessment intervals, the mean volumes of the lateral prefrontal and primary visual cortices, putamen, and pons did not change. Significant individual differences in shrinkage rates were observed in the lateral prefrontal cortex, the cerebellum, and all the white matter regions throughout the study, whereas additional regions (medial–temporal structures, the insula, and the basal ganglia) showed significant individual variation in change during the second follow-up. No individual variability was noted in the change of orbital frontal and visual cortices. In two white matter regions, we were able to identify factors associated with individual differences in brain shrinkage. In corpus callosum, shrinkage rate was greater in persons with hypertension, and in the pons, women and carriers of the ApoEε4 allele exhibited declines not noted in the whole sample. PMID:20298790

  12. Oral trehalose supplementation improves resistance artery endothelial function in healthy middle-aged and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Kaplon, Rachelle E.; Hill, Sierra D.; Bispham, Nina Z.; Santos-Parker, Jessica R.; Nowlan, Molly J.; Snyder, Laura L.; Chonchol, Michel; LaRocca, Thomas J.; McQueen, Matthew B.; Seals, Douglas R.

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that supplementation with trehalose, a disaccharide that reverses arterial aging in mice, would improve vascular function in middle-aged and older (MA/O) men and women. Thirty-two healthy adults aged 50-77 years consumed 100 g/day of trehalose (n=15) or maltose (n=17, isocaloric control) for 12 weeks (randomized, double-blind). In subjects with Δbody mass<2.3kg (5 lb.), resistance artery endothelial function, assessed by forearm blood flow to brachial artery infusion of acetylcholine (FBFACh), increased ∼30% with trehalose (13.3±1.0 vs. 10.5±1.1 AUC, P=0.02), but not maltose (P=0.40). This improvement in FBFACh was abolished when endothelial nitric oxide (NO) production was inhibited. Endothelium-independent dilation, assessed by FBF to sodium nitroprusside (FBFSNP), also increased ∼30% with trehalose (155±13 vs. 116±12 AUC, P=0.03) but not maltose (P=0.92). Changes in FBFACh and FBFSNP with trehalose were not significant when subjects with Δbody mass≥2.3kg were included. Trehalose supplementation had no effect on conduit artery endothelial function, large elastic artery stiffness or circulating markers of oxidative stress or inflammation (all P>0.1) independent of changes in body weight. Our findings demonstrate that oral trehalose improves resistance artery (microvascular) function, a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, in MA/O adults, possibly through increasing NO bioavailability and smooth muscle sensitivity to NO. PMID:27208415

  13. Loss of Lung Health from Young Adulthood and Cardiac Phenotypes in Middle Age

    PubMed Central

    Colangelo, Laura A.; Shah, Sanjiv J.; Lima, Joao; Kishi, Satoru; Arynchyn, Alexander; Jacobs, David R.; Thyagarajan, Bharat; Liu, Kiang; Lloyd-Jones, Donald; Kalhan, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Chronic lung diseases are associated with cardiovascular disease. How these associations evolve from young adulthood forward is unknown. Understanding the preclinical history of these associations could inform prevention strategies for common heart-lung conditions. Objectives: To use the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study to explore the development of heart-lung interactions. Methods: We analyzed cardiac structural and functional measurements determined by echocardiography at Year 25 of CARDIA and measures of pulmonary function over 20 years in 3,000 participants. Measurements and Main Results: Decline in FVC from peak was associated with larger left ventricular mass (β = 6.05 g per SD of FVC decline; P < 0.0001) and greater cardiac output (β = 0.109 L/min per SD of FVC decline; P = 0.001). Decline in FEV1/FVC ratio was associated with smaller left atrial internal dimension (β = −0.038 cm per SD FEV1/FVC decline; P < 0.0001) and lower cardiac output (β = −0.070 L/min per SD of FEV1/FVC decline; P = 0.03). Decline in FVC was associated with diastolic dysfunction (odds ratio, 3.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.37–8.36; P = 0.006). Conclusions: Patterns of loss of lung health are associated with specific cardiovascular phenotypes in middle age. Decline in FEV1/FVC ratio is associated with underfilling of the left heart and low cardiac output. Decline in FVC with preserved FEV1/FVC ratio is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction. Cardiopulmonary interactions apparent with common complex heart and lung diseases evolve concurrently from early adulthood forward. PMID:25876160

  14. Urban neighbourhood unemployment history and depressive symptoms over time among late middle age and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Wight, Richard G; Aneshensel, Carol S; Barrett, Christopher; Ko, Michelle; Chodosh, Joshua; Karlamangla, Arun S

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about how a neighbourhood’s unemployment history may set the stage for depressive symptomatology. This study examines the effects of urban neighbourhood unemployment history on current depressive symptoms and subsequent symptom trajectories among residentially stable late middle age and older adults. Contingent effects between neighbourhood unemployment and individual-level employment status (ie, cross-level interactions) are also assessed. Methods Individual-level survey data are from four waves (2000, 2002, 2004 and 2006) of the original cohort of the nationally representative US Health and Retirement Study. Neighbourhoods are operationalised with US Census tracts for which historical average proportion unemployed between 1990 and 2000 and change in proportion unemployed between 1990 and 2000 are used to characterise the neighbourhood’s unemployment history. Hierarchical linear regressions estimate three-level (time, individual and neighbourhood) growth models. Results Symptoms in 2000 are highest among those residing in neighbourhoods characterised by high historical average unemployment beginning in 1990 and increasing unemployment between 1990 and 2000, net of a wide range of socio-demographic controls including individual-level employment status. These neighbourhood unemployment effects are not contingent upon individual-level employment status in 2000. 6-year trajectories of depressive symptoms decrease over time on average but are not significantly influenced by the neighbourhood’s unemployment history. Conclusions Given the current US recession, future studies that do not consider historical employment conditions may underestimate the mental health impact of urban neighbourhood context. The findings suggest that exposure to neighbourhood unemployment earlier in life may be consequential to mental health later in life. PMID:22918896

  15. Differential FDDNP PET patterns in non-demented middle-aged and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Ercoli, Linda M.; Siddarth, Prabha; Kepe, Vladimir; Miller, Karen J.; Huang, S.-C.; Cole, Gregory M.; Lavretsky, Helen; Bookheimer, Susan Y; Kim, Jeanne; Phelps, Michael E.; Barrio, Jorge R.; Small, Gary W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective We explored whether positron emission tomography (PET) with 2-(1-{6-[(2-[F-18]fluoroethyl)(methyl) amino]-2-naphthyl} ethylidene)malononitrile (FDDNP), a molecule that binds to plaques and tangles in vitro, might identify homogeneous subgroups of persons in middle-aged and older persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or normal cognition. Participants Fifty-six subjects (MCI, N = 29; normal cognition, N = 27). Measurements FDDNP-PET scans were performed. Logan parametric images were produced using cerebellum as a reference region, and relative distribution volumes were obtained for regions of interest (ROIs) known to accumulate plaques and tangles in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Cluster analysis was used to identify subgroups of subjects according to FDDNP signal distribution. Once the FDDNP clusters were indentified, we then characterized the clusters also with respect to diagnosis and cognitive test performances and conducted analyses on cluster differences on these variables. Results We identified three FDDNP clusters: high signal in lateral temporal and posterior cingulate ROIs (high temporal-posterior cingulate HT/PC); low signal in all ROIs (low global cluster, LG); high frontal and parietal signal with intermediate temporal and posterior cingulate signal (HF/PA). Most MCI subjects belonged to the HT/PC and HF/PA clusters, while most cognitively normal subjects were in the LG cluster. On cognitive tests, the HT/PC and HF/PA clusters performed significantly worse than LG; but did not significantly differ from each other. Conclusions This approach may be useful in identifying potential high risk imaging cluster patterns. Longitudinal follow-up would be performed to determine the association of these subgroups with diagnostic and functional outcome. PMID:19390297

  16. Dynapenic Obesity and Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes in Middle-Aged Japanese Men

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Ryoko; Sawada, Susumu S.; Lee, I-Min; Matsushita, Munehiro; Gando, Yuko; Okamoto, Takashi; Tsukamoto, Koji; Higuchi, Mitsuru; Miyachi, Motohiko; Blair, Steven N.

    2015-01-01

    Background The independent and combined associations of muscle strength and obesity on the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Japanese men remain unclear. Methods Hand grip strength was cross-sectionally evaluated between 2011 and 2013 to assess muscle strength in 5039 male workers aged 40 to 64 years. Weight and height were measured, and overweight/obesity was defined as a body mass index ≥25 kg/m2. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes, defined as fasting plasma glucose ≥126 mg/dL and/or hemoglobin A1c ≥6.5% and/or self-reported physician-diagnosed diabetes, was evaluated. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the prevalence of type 2 diabetes were obtained using a logistic regression model. Results In total, 611 participants had type 2 diabetes, and 1763 participants were overweight/obese. After adjustment for covariates, we found an inverse association between muscle strength and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes (P for trend <0.01). In addition, when the analyses were stratified by obesity status, the multivariable-adjusted OR per 2-standard-deviation increase in muscle strength was 0.64 (95% CI, 0.49–0.83) in the overweight/obese group, compared to a weaker relationship in the normal-weight group (OR 0.79 per 2-standard-deviation increase; 95% CI, 0.60–1.06). Conclusions Dynapenia, an age-related decrease in muscle strength, is associated with increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes, and this relationship is stronger in overweight/obese middle-aged Japanese men than in normal-weight men. PMID:26256772

  17. Prognostic significance of exercise blood pressure and heart rate in middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Filipovský, J; Ducimetière, P; Safar, M E

    1992-09-01

    Systolic blood pressure and heart rate measured at rest and during a standardized exercise test were analyzed in the cohort of middle-aged male employees followed-up an average of 17 years in the Paris Prospective Study I. The population sample selected for the analysis included 4,907 men who completed at least 5 minutes of bicycle ergometry, who had no heart disease at entry, and whose resting blood pressure was less than or equal to 180/105 mm Hg. Exercise-induced increase in systolic blood pressure was positively correlated with resting systolic blood pressure (r = 0.104, p less than 0.0001), whereas the correlation of exercise-induced heart rate increase with resting heart rate was negative (r = -0.169, p less than 0.001). Using Cox regression analysis with the inclusion of resting systolic blood pressure and heart rate; exercise-induced elevations of systolic blood pressure and heart rate; and controlling for age, smoking, total cholesterol, body mass index, electrical left ventricular hypertrophy, and sports activities, cardiovascular mortality was found to be associated with the systolic blood pressure increase (p less than 0.05), whereas no association with resting systolic blood pressure was found. Total mortality was predicted by resting systolic blood pressure and its elevation (p less than 0.01 for both) and by resting heart rate (p less than 0.0001). The heart rate increase did not contribute to death prediction. In conclusion, the magnitude of the exercise-induced increase of systolic blood pressure, but not of heart rate, may represent a risk factor for death from cardiovascular as well as noncardiovascular causes, independently of resting blood pressure and heart rate. PMID:1387630

  18. Effects of prepubertal-onset exercise on body weight changes up to middle age in rats.

    PubMed

    Shindo, Daisuke; Matsuura, Tomokazu; Suzuki, Masato

    2014-03-15

    The present study was conducted to examine whether prepubertal-onset exercise might help adults maintain long-term body weight (BW) reduction and increased energy metabolism after the cessation of exercise. Furthermore, the effects of the exercise regimen were compared with those of food restriction. Twenty-three male obese-diabetic [Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF)] rats were randomly assigned to prepubertal-onset exercise (Childhood-Ex), food restriction (Childhood-Diet), and sedentary control (OLETF-Sed) groups. Childhood-Ex rats exercised voluntarily every day using a rotating wheel, while the food volume of the Childhood-Diet group was restricted to achieve a BW similar to that recorded in the Childhood-Ex group. Both treatments were conducted at 5-19 wk of age; after this period, the rats were kept sedentary and allowed ad libitum food intake until 45 wk of age. BW was significantly lower, and percent lean body mass was significantly higher, in the Childhood-Ex group compared with those in the Childhood-Diet and OLETF-Sed groups throughout maturation and middle age after cessation of the interventions. The Childhood-Ex group also demonstrated higher citrate synthase, succinate dehydrogenase, and phosphofructokinase activity levels, as well as uncoupling protein-3 mRNA expression in skeletal muscle. This study revealed that inhibited BW gain in an animal model of human obese diabetes by prepubertal-onset exercise lasted for a long period after the completion of the exercise intervention. This effect may be facilitated by increased energy metabolism. However, these benefits were not found by prepubertal food restriction treatment. Importantly, to allow translation of our work, these novel insights need to be assessed in obese human individuals. PMID:24458753

  19. Follow up study of moderate alcohol intake and mortality among middle aged men in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, J. M.; Ross, R. K.; Gao, Y. T.; Henderson, B. E.; Yu, M. C.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk of death associated with various patterns of alcohol intake. DESIGN: Prospective study of mortality in relation to alcohol consumption at recruitment, with active annual follow up. SETTING: Four small, geographically defined communities in Shanghai, China. SUBJECTS: 18,244 men aged 45-64 years enrolled in a prospective study of diet and cancer during January 1986 to September 1989. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: All cause mortality. RESULTS: By 28 February 1995, 1198 deaths (including 498 from cancer, 269 from stroke, and 104 from ischaemic heart disease) had been identified. Compared with lifelong non-drinkers, those who consumed 1-14 drinks a week had a 19% reduction in overall mortality (relative risk 0.81; 95% confidence interval 0.70 to 0.94) after age, level of education, and cigarette smoking were adjusted for. This protective effect was not restricted to any specific type of alcoholic drink. Although light to moderate drinking (28 or fewer drinks per week) was associated with a 36% reduction in death from ischaemic heart disease (0.64; 0.41 to 0.998), it had no effect on death from stroke, which is the leading cause of death in this population. As expected, heavy drinking (29 or more drinks per week) was significantly associated with increased risks of death from cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract, hepatic cirrhosis, and stroke. CONCLUSIONS: Regular consumption of small amounts of alcohol is associated with lower overall mortality including death from ischaemic heart disease in middle aged Chinese men. The type of alcoholic drink does not affect this association. PMID:9001474

  20. Association between serum total testosterone and Body Mass Index in middle aged healthy men

    PubMed Central

    Shamim, Muhammad Omar; Ali Khan, Farooq Munfaet; Arshad, Rabia

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine correlation of serum total testosterone with body mass index (BMI) and waist hip ratio (WHR) in healthy adult males. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on 200 nonsmoker healthy males (aged 30-50 years) university employees. They were selected by convenience sampling technique after a detailed medical history and clinical examination including BMI and Waist Hip Ratio (WHR) calculation. Blood sampling was carried out to measure serum total testosterone (TT) using facilities of Chemiluminescence assay (CLIA) technique in Dow Chemical Laboratory. Independent sample T test was used for mean comparisons of BMI and WHR in between low and normal testosterone groups. (Subjects having < 9.7 nmol/L of total testosterone in blood were placed in low testosterone group and subjects having ≥ 9.7 nmol/L of total testosterone in blood were placed in normal testosterone group). Correlation of testosterone with BMI and WHR was analyzed by Pearson Correlation. Results: Mean (± SD) age of the subjects included in this study was 38.7 (± 6.563) years mean (± SD) total testosterone was 15.92 (±6.322)nmol/L. The mean (± SD) BMI, and WHR were 24.95 (±3.828) kg/m2 and 0.946 (±0.0474) respectively. Statistically significant differences were observed in the mean values of BMI and WHR for the two groups of testosterone. Significant inverse correlation of serum total testosterone with BMI(r = -0.311, p = 0.000) was recorded in this study. However testosterone was not significantly correlated with waist/hip ratio.(r = -0.126, p = 0.076) Conclusion: Middle age men working at DUHS who have low level of serum total testosterone are more obese than individuals with normal total testosterone level. PMID:26101490

  1. Microfluidic serial dilution ladder.

    PubMed

    Ahrar, Siavash; Hwang, Michelle; Duncan, Philip N; Hui, Elliot E

    2014-01-01

    Serial dilution is a fundamental procedure that is common to a large number of laboratory protocols. Automation of serial dilution is thus a valuable component for lab-on-a-chip systems. While a handful of different microfluidic strategies for serial dilution have been reported, approaches based on continuous flow mixing inherently consume larger amounts of sample volume and chip real estate. We employ valve-driven circulatory mixing to address these issues and also introduce a novel device structure to store each stage of the dilution process. The dilution strategy is based on sequentially mixing the rungs of a ladder structure. We demonstrate a 7-stage series of 1 : 1 dilutions with R(2) equal to 0.995 in an active device area of 1 cm(2). PMID:24231765

  2. Assessment of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale factor structure among middle-aged workers in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Norio; Yasui-Furukori, Norio; Sasaki, Giro; Umeda, Takashi; Takahashi, Ippei; Danjo, Kazuma; Matsuzaka, Masashi; Kaneko, Sunao; Nakaji, Shigeyuki

    2011-02-01

    Our aim was to assess the internal consistency and structural/construct validity of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale among middle-aged employees in Japan. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 7284 workers, aged 49.0 ± 6.3 (mean ± SD) years old. Structural/construct validity was assessed by confirmatory factor analysis. The 4-factor structure reported in the general population was replicated, and a second-order model with an overarching depression factor fitted well. These findings indicate that the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale is a valid and reliable measure of depressive symptoms for middle-aged workers in Japan. PMID:21265946

  3. Does pilates exercise increase physical activity, quality of life, latency, and sleep quantity in middle-aged people?

    PubMed

    García-Soidán, J L; Giraldez, V Arufe; Cachón Zagalaz, J; Lara-Sánchez, A J

    2014-12-01

    This prospective study assessed the effects of a 12-wk. exercise program based on the Pilates method (2 one-hr. sessions per week) on 99 sedentary middle-aged volunteers (M age = 47.6 yr., SD = 0.8), using an accelerometry, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the SF-36 questionnaire to measure changes in physical activity, quality of life, sleep latency, and quantity. The variables (quality of life, sleep latency, and quantity) were compared before and after applying the Pilates program. All of the physical and emotional components of the SF-36 questionnaire showed significant improvement, and the latency and sleep quantity also showed significant increases. The results indicate that Pilates is an accessible, interesting exercise program that can generate important changes in middle age. PMID:25456245

  4. Reduced large elastic artery stiffness with regular aerobic exercise in middle-aged and older adults: potential role of suppressed nuclear factor κ B signalling

    PubMed Central

    Jablonski, Kristen L.; Donato, Anthony J.; Fleenor, Bradley S.; Nowlan, Molly J.; Walker, Ashley E.; Kaplon, Rachelle E.; Ballak, Dov B.; Seals, Douglas R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Aortic pulse-wave velocity (aPWV) increases with age and is a strong independent predictor of incident cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in healthy middle-aged and older adults. aPWV is lower in middle-aged and older adults who perform regular aerobic exercise than in their sedentary peers. As exercise is associated with reduced systemic inflammation, we hypothesized that suppression of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor κ B (NFκB) may mediate this process. Methods aPWV was measured in young sedentary [n =10, blood pressure (BP) 108 ± 3/59 ± 2 mmHg; mean ± SEM], middle-aged and older sedentary (n =9, 124 ± 7/73 ± 5 mmHg) and middle-aged and older aerobic exercise-trained (n =12, 110 ± 4/67 ± 2 mmHg) healthy, nonhypertensive men and women. Results Baseline aPWV increased with age [626 ± 14 (young sedentary) vs. 859 ± 49 (middle-aged and older sedentary) cm/s, P <0.001] but was 20% lower in middle-aged and older trained (686 ± 30 cm/s) than in middle-aged and older sedentary (P <0.005). Short-term (4 days × 2500–4500 mg) treatment with the NFκB inhibitor salsalate (randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over design) reduced aPWV (to 783 ± 44 cm/s, P <0.05) without changing BP (P =0.40) or heart rate (P =0.90) in middle-aged and older sedentary, but had no effect in young sedentary (623 ± 19) or middle-aged and older trained (699 ± 30). Following salsalate treatment, aPWV no longer was significantly different in middle-aged and older sedentary vs. middle-aged and older trained (P =0.29). The reduction in aPWV with salsalate administration was inversely related to baseline (placebo) aPWV (r = −0.60, P <0.001). Conclusion These results support the hypothesis that suppressed NFκB signalling may partially mediate the lower aortic stiffness in middle-aged and older adults who regularly perform aerobic exercise. Because aPWV predicts incident cardiovascular events in this population, this suggests that tonic suppression of

  5. Education and Physical Activity Mediate the Relationship between Ethnicity and Cognitive Function in Late Middle Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Masel, Meredith C.; Raji, Mukaila; Peek, M. Kristen

    2013-01-01

    Objective Minority status has been implicated as a risk factor for disparate scores on cognitive function tests in older adults. Research on ethnicity and cognitive function has yielded socioeconomic status (SES), particularly education, as a primary reason for the discrepancy. Other factors, such as physical activity may provide insight into the relationship. Despite this knowledge, few studies have thoroughly examined the mediating characteristics of education or physical activity in the relationship between ethnicity and cognitive function in younger aged groups. Most research conducted focuses only on older adults during a time when degeneration of brain tissue may complicate the exploration of the relationships among ethnicity and cognitive function. The current research will expand existing knowledge about education, physical activity, and cognitive function in minority groups. Design The study presents data from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative sample of late middle aged white, black, and Hispanic adults (n=9,204, mean age +-sd=55.8+-3.1). Regression and mediation testing determined the mediating effects of education and physical activity in the relationship between ethnicity and cognitive function. Results Significant association between white ethnicity and higher scores on cognitive tests was evident as early as late middle age. The magnitude of the association significantly diminished on adjusting for education and leisure time physical activity. Conclusion Our data suggest a potential mediating role of education and physical activity on the ethnic differences in cognitive tests in late middle aged white, black, and Hispanic adults. Our findings suggest a need for studies to understand if adult education and culturally-appropriate physical activity interventions in middle age influence ethnic disparities in prevalence of cognitive impairment in old age. PMID:20401816

  6. Metabolic adaptations in the adipose tissue that underlie the body fat mass gain in middle-aged rats.

    PubMed

    Sertié, Rogério Antonio Laurato; Caminhotto, Rennan de Oliveira; Andreotti, Sandra; Campaña, Amanda Baron; de Proença, André Ricardo Gomes; de Castro, Natalie Carolina; Lima, Fábio Bessa

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about adipocyte metabolism during aging process and whether this can influence body fat redistribution and systemic metabolism. To better understand this phenomenon, two animal groups were studied: young-14 weeks old-and middle-aged-16 months old. Periepididymal (PE) and subcutaneous (SC) adipocytes were isolated and tested for their capacities to perform lipolysis and to incorporate D-[U-(14)C]-glucose, D-[U-(14)C]-lactate, and [9,10(n)-(3)H]-oleic acid into lipids. Additionally, the morphometric characteristics of the adipose tissues, glucose tolerance tests, and biochemical determinations (fasting glucose, triglycerides, insulin) in blood were performed. The middle-aged rats showed adipocyte (PE and SC) hypertrophy and glucose intolerance, although there were no significant changes in fasting glycemia and insulin. Furthermore, PE tissue revealed elevated rates (+50 %) of lipolysis during beta-adrenergic-stimulation. There was also an increase (+62 %) in the baseline rate of glucose incorporation into lipids in the PE adipocytes, while these PE cells were almost unresponsive to insulin stimulation and less responsive (a 34 % decrease) in the SC tissue. Also, the capacity of oleic acid esterification was elevated in baseline state and with insulin stimulus in the PE tissue (+90 and 82 %, respectively). Likewise, spontaneous incorporation of lactate into lipids in the PE and SC tissues was higher (+100 and 11 %, respectively) in middle-aged rats. We concluded that adipocyte metabolism of middle-aged animals seems to strongly favor cellular hypertrophy and increased adipose mass, particularly the intra-abdominal PE fat pad. In discussion, we have interpreted all these results as a metabolic adaptations to avoid the spreading of fat that can reach tissues beyond adipose protecting them against ectopic fat accumulation. However, these adaptations may have the potential to lead to future metabolic dysfunctions seen in the senescence. PMID:26307156

  7. Middle-age male mice have increased severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and are unresponsive to testosterone therapy.

    PubMed

    Matejuk, Agata; Hopke, Corwyn; Vandenbark, Arthur A; Hurn, Patricia D; Offner, Halina

    2005-02-15

    Treatment with sex hormones is known to protect against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis. However, little is known about how age affects the course of EAE or response to hormone treatment. This study demonstrates striking differences between middle-age vs young C57BL/6 male mice in the clinical course of EAE and response to both testosterone (T4) and estrogen (E2) hormone therapy. Unlike young males that developed an acute phase of EAE followed by a partial remission, middle-age males suffered severe chronic and unremitting EAE that was likely influenced by alterations in the distribution and function of splenic immunocytes and a significant reduction in suppressive activity of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells in the spleen and spinal cord. Middle-age males had reduced numbers of splenic CD4+ T cells that were generally hypoproliferative, but enhanced numbers of splenic macrophages and MHC class II-expressing cells, and increased secretion of the proinflammatory factors IFN-gamma and MCP-1. Surprisingly, middle-age males were unresponsive to the EAE-protective effects of T4 and had only a transient benefit from E2 treatment; young males were almost completely protected by both hormone treatments. T4 treatment of young males inhibited proliferation of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein 35-55-specific T cells and secretion of TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma. The effects of T4 in vivo and in vitro were reversed by the androgen receptor antagonist, flutamide, indicating that the regulatory effects of T4 were mediated through the androgen receptor. These data are the first to define age-dependent differences in EAE expression and response to hormone therapy. PMID:15699175

  8. Assessing the Impact of Nationwide Smoking Cessation Interventions among Employed, Middle-Aged Japanese Men, 2005-2010

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Koji; Higuchi, Yoshiyuki; Smith, Derek R.

    2016-01-01

    Background A variety of tobacco control interventions have become available in Japan over the past decade, however, the magnitude to which they have impacted on smoking rates may have varied by socioeconomic status such as job content, particularly for middle-aged men who were formerly long-term smokers. We conducted a longitudinal study to investigate the differences between smoking cessation strategies among a national sample of middle-aged Japanese employed men between 2005 and 2010. Methods Data was extracted from a previous longitudinal survey of middle-aged and elderly people that had been conducted by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. In 2005, 16,738 Japanese men aged 50–59 years were recruited and sent a questionnaire in each year of the study. We analyzed data for individuals who reported being current smokers at baseline. Cox’s discrete time proportional hazard regression analysis was used to examine potential associations between smoking cessation and socioeconomic factors. Results Of the 6187 employed, male smokers who participated in 2005, 31% subsequently quit smoking during the 5-year follow-up period. Those working in manufacturing, transportation, or security were less likely to have quit smoking than those working in management. Having no marital partner, never having been married, or those experiencing psychological distress were significantly less likely to have quit smoking during this time. Conclusions Although almost one-third of middle-aged, male smokers quit their habit between 2005 and 2010; the uptake of this national strategy appears to have been far from uniform across Japanese society. Socioeconomic factors such as occupation, marital status and psychological distress were negatively correlated with quitting, suggesting that these groups should be more aggressively targeted in further interventions. PMID:27163286

  9. The Pre-Retirement Years: Five Years in the Work Lives of Middle-Aged Men. Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parnes, Herbert S.; And Others

    This volume examines a number of facets of the labor market experience and behavior of middle-aged men. It is based on a unique set of longitudinal data collected by personal interviews among the same sample of men in 1966, 1967, 1969, and 1971. The data contain a complete record of the labor market activity of the men over a five-year period,…

  10. Serial interprocessor communications system

    SciTech Connect

    Labiak, W.; Siemens, P.; Bailey, C.

    1980-04-03

    A serial communications system based on the EIA RS232-C standard with modem control lines has been developed. The DLV11-E interface is used for this purpose. All handshaking is done with the modem control lines. This allows totally independent full duplex communication. The message format consists of eight bit data with odd parity and a sixteen bit checksum on the whole message. All communications are fully interrupt driven. A program was written to load a program into a remote LSI-11 using the serial line without bootstrap ROM.

  11. The STEP model: Characterizing simultaneous time effects on practice for flight simulator performance among middle-aged and older pilots.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Quinn; Taylor, Joy; Noda, Art; Yesavage, Jerome; Lazzeroni, Laura C

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the possible effects of the number of practice sessions (practice) and time between practice sessions (interval) among middle-aged and older adults in real-world tasks has important implications for skill maintenance. Prior training and cognitive ability may impact practice and interval effects on real-world tasks. In this study, we took advantage of existing practice data from 5 simulated flights among 263 middle-aged and older pilots with varying levels of flight expertise (defined by U.S. Federal Aviation Administration proficiency ratings). We developed a new Simultaneous Time Effects on Practice (STEP) model: (a) to model the simultaneous effects of practice and interval on performance of the 5 flights, and (b) to examine the effects of selected covariates (i.e., age, flight expertise, and 3 composite measures of cognitive ability). The STEP model demonstrated consistent positive practice effects, negative interval effects, and predicted covariate effects. Age negatively moderated the beneficial effects of practice. Additionally, cognitive processing speed and intraindividual variability (IIV) in processing speed moderated the benefits of practice and/or the negative influence of interval for particular flight performance measures. Expertise did not interact with practice or interval. Results indicated that practice and interval effects occur in simulated flight tasks. However, processing speed and IIV may influence these effects, even among high-functioning adults. Results have implications for the design and assessment of training interventions targeted at middle-aged and older adults for complex real-world tasks. PMID:26280383

  12. Conflict and Collaboration in Middle-Aged and Older Couples: I: Age Differences in Agency and Communion during Marital Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Timothy W.; Berg, Cynthia A.; Florsheim, Paul; Uchino, Bert N.; Pearce, Gale; Hawkins, Melissa; Henry, Nancy J.M.; Beveridge, Ryan M.; Skinner, Michelle A.; Olsen-Cerny, Chrisanna

    2011-01-01

    Prior theory and research regarding age differences in marital interaction suggest that older couples display and experience more positivity and less negativity than middle-aged couples. However, studies of overt behavior in older couples are relatively rare and have emphasized disagreement, neglecting other important contexts for older couples such as collaboration during everyday problem solving. Further, the affiliation or communion dimension of social interaction (i.e., warmth vs. hostility) is commonly assessed, but not the control or agency dimension (e.g., dominance vs. submissiveness). The present study examined affect, cognitive appraisals, and overt behavior during disagreement (i.e., discussing a current conflict) and collaboration (i.e., planning errands) in 300 middle-aged and older married couples. Older couples reported less negative affect during disagreement and rated spouses as warmer than did middle-aged couples. However, these effects were eliminated when older couples’ greater marital satisfaction was controlled. For observed behavior, older couples displayed little evidence of greater positivity and reduced negativity – especially women. During collaboration, older couples displayed a unique blend of warmth and control, suggesting a greater focus on emotional and social concerns during problem solving. PMID:19485646

  13. Citalopram attenuates tau hyperphosphorylation and spatial memory deficit induced by social isolation rearing in middle-aged rats.

    PubMed

    Ren, Qing-Guo; Gong, Wei-Gang; Wang, Yan-Juan; Zhou, Qi-Da; Zhang, Zhi-Jun

    2015-05-01

    Social isolation (SI) is considered as a chronic stress. Here, middle-aged rats (8 months) were group or isolation reared for 6 weeks. Following the initial two-week period of rearing, citalopram (10 mg/kg i.p.) was administered for 28 days. Changes in recognition memory, depression and anxiety-like behavior, and phosphorylated tau were investigated. We found that SI did not lead to obvious depression/anxiety-like behavior in middle-aged rats. Memory deficits and increased tau hyperphosphorylation at Tau-1, Ser396 episodes could be almost reversed by citalopram. The level of Ser9-phosphorylated GSK-3β (inactive form) was significantly decreased in the SI group which also could be almost reversed by citalopram, suggesting that the citalopram could prevent GSK-3β from SI-induced overactivation. The melatonin level was decreased in SI group compared with group housed (GH) group, and citalopram could partly restore the level of melatonin. We also found that citalopram could increase MT1 and MT2 in mRNA level. Our results demonstrate that citalopram increases the level of melatonin which negatively regulates GSK-3β and attenuates tau hyperphosphorylation and spatial memory deficit induced by SI in middle-aged rats. Suggesting that SI might constitute a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), and citalopram may represent a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of AD. PMID:25476250

  14. Elder Care, Multiple Role Involvement, and Well-Being Among Middle-Aged Men and Women in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kikuzawa, Saeko

    2015-12-01

    Japan's population is aging at an unprecedented rate. Combined with the tradition of family responsibility for elder care, this rapid population aging has resulted in middle-aged Japanese people being much more likely today than in past decades to face the responsibility of caring for their elderly parents alongside their other major roles. Using nationally representative Japanese data, this study assessed the individual and combined implications of caregiving and other role involvements for the well-being of middle-aged men and women. Some evidence was found for deleterious psychological consequences of the caregiver role. However, in contrast to expectations, the interaction between the roles of caregiver and worker was positively associated with well-being among both men and women. The results suggest the importance of middle-aged adults being able to keep working when they have to care for their aging parents. Another important finding was significant gender differences in the psychological consequences of holding multiple family- and work-related roles and in combining these with the caregiver role. Further analysis showed that the spousal role was also negatively associated with depressive symptoms and positively associated with satisfaction for men but not for women. Gender differences in the findings appear to reflect the significant gender asymmetry in role experiences in Japan. PMID:26467034

  15. Serum cholesterol levels in middle-aged euthyroid subjects with positive thyroid peroxidase antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Dongmei; Yin, Quhua; Yan, Xiaoli; Song, Huaidong; Gao, Guanqi; Liang, Jun; Zhao, Jiajun

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to investigate serum cholesterol levels in middle-aged euthyroid subjects with positive thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAbs). Methods: We screened 1607 euthyroid subjects aged 35-65 years old. All the subjects were divided into 2 groups (i.e., TPOAb-positive group, n=205; TPOAb-negative group, n=1402) according to the level of TPOAb. The subjects were then subgrouped according to serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels; those with a TSH level of 0.3-0.99 mIU/L, 1.0-1.89 mIU/L, and 1.9-4.80 mIU/L were classified into the low-normal, mid-range, and high-normal TSH subgroups, respectively). Each TSH group further subdivided into TPOAb-positive and TPOAb-negative subgroup. Data regarding the subjects’ height, body weight, blood pressure, and levels of serum TSH, TPOAb, fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were collected. Results: Compared with TPOAb-negative subjects, TPOAb-positive patients had higher levels of TSH, TC, and HDL-C (P=0.001, P=0.012, and P=0.049 respectively) with a tendency for increased LDL-C levels (P=0.053). In the low-normal TSH subgroup, subjects with and without TPOAb had similar levels of TSH, TC, HDL-C, and LDL-C (P>0.05). In mid-range TSH subgroup, TPOAb-positive patients had higher HDL-C levels compared to TPOAb-negative subjects (P=0.008) and a tendency for increased TC levels (P=0.121). In the high-normal TSH subgroup, TPOAb-positive patients had higher TSH and TC levels compared to TPOAb-negative subjects (P<0.001 and P=0.046 respectively). Conclusions: High TPOAb levels above the normal range appears in euthyroid population, dyslipidemia have begun. PMID:26885115

  16. Modic changes and interleukin 1 gene locus polymorphisms in occupational cohort of middle-aged men

    PubMed Central

    Solovieva, Svetlana; Luoma, Katariina; Raininko, Raili; Leino-Arjas, Päivi; Riihimäki, Hilkka

    2009-01-01

    According to recent systematic reviews, Modic changes are associated with low-back pain. However, their pathophysiology remains largely unknown. A previous study of Northern Finnish males implicated that IL1A and MMP3 polymorphisms play a role in type II Modic changes. The purpose of the current study was to examine the association of IL1 cluster polymorphisms with Modic changes amongst middle-aged men in Southern Finland. The final study sample consisted of 108 men from three different occupations, who underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a 0.1 T-scanner. Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the IL1 gene cluster (IL1A c.1-889C>T; IL1B c.3954C>T; IL1RN c.1812G>A; IL1RN c.1887G>C; IL1RN c.11100T>C; IL1RN c.1506G>A) were genotyped with the SNP-TRAP method or by allele-specific primer extension on modified microarray. In all, 45 subjects had Modic changes at one or more disc levels. The presence of the minor allele of IL1A (c.1-889C>T) was associated with these changes (any Modic change p = 0.031, type II changes p = 0.036). The carriers of the T-allele had a 2.5-fold risk of Modic change and the association was independent of the other IL1 gene cluster loci studied. In addition, a minor haplotype, with a frequency of 7.5% in the study population, including the minor alleles of IL1A c.1-889C>T, IL1RN c.1812G>A, and IL1RN c.1506G>A, was significantly associated with Modic changes. This observation is in accordance with the previous finding from a different geographical area, and thus confirms the importance of the IL1A gene in the pathophysiology of Modic changes. PMID:19701653

  17. Prospective Cohort Study of Central Adiposity and Risk of Death in Middle Aged and Elderly Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Warren Andersen, Shaneda; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zhang, Xianglan; Cai, Hui; Yang, Gong; Li, Hong-Lan; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Zheng, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Asians have high prevalence of central obesity despite the low prevalence of general obesity. We evaluated associations between the central obesity measure, waist-hip ratio (WHR) with total and cause-specific mortality in middle-aged and elderly Chinese participants. Data arise from two prospective population-based cohort studies: the Shanghai Men’s Health Study involves 53,425 men (participation rate = 74.0%), age 40–74 at baseline, and the Shanghai Women’s Health Study involves 63,017 women (participation rate = 92.7%), age 40–70 at baseline. Information on lifestyle factors and anthropometric measurements were taken at baseline interview. Vital status and causes of death were obtained via surveys and annual linkages to relevant Shanghai registries through December 31, 2011. After median follow-up time of 7.5 years for the Shanghai Men’s Health Study and 13.2 years for the Shanghai Women’s Health Study, there were 2,058 and 3,167 deaths, respectively. In models adjusted for BMI and other potential confounders, WHR was associated with all-cause mortality; hazard ratios (HRs) (95% confidence intervals) across the first to fifth quintile increased from 1 (Reference), 1.10 (0.95,1.27), 1.21 (1.04,1.41), 1.11 (0.96,1.30), to 1.42 (1.22,1.65) in men and from 1 (Reference), 1.10 (0.96,1.27), 1.11 (0.97,1.27), 1.20 (1.05,1.37), to 1.48 (1.30,1.69) in women. WHR had a stronger association with cardiovascular disease, with multivariate-adjusted HRs of 1.5 to 1.7 observed for the highest versus lowest quintile of WHR. Dose-response associations were also seen for cancer and other-cause deaths. Stratified analyses suggested a stronger association with mortality among normal weight (BMI <25) than over-weight (BMI ≥25) individuals. Positive associations with mortality were observed in subgroups defined by follow-up duration, comorbidity, age, smoking, and physical activity. Greater central adiposity is associated with increased mortality in Chinese adults, even

  18. Endocrine determinants of incident sarcopenia in middle-aged and elderly European men

    PubMed Central

    Gielen, Evelien; O'Neill, Terence W; Pye, Stephen R; Adams, Judith E; Wu, Frederick C; Laurent, Michaël R; Claessens, Frank; Ward, Kate A; Boonen, Steven; Bouillon, Roger; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Verschueren, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    sarcopenia by any definition. Conclusions Low levels of T and 25OHD do not predict loss of muscle mass, gait speed, or grip strength in middle-aged and elderly community-dwelling European men. Low IGF-1 predicts change in gait speed in men aged ≥70 years. PMID:26401471

  19. Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration and Metabolic Syndrome Among Middle-Aged and Elderly Chinese Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ling; Yu, Zhijie; Pan, An; Hu, Frank B.; Franco, Oscar H.; Li, Huaixing; Li, Xiaoying; Yang, Xilin; Chen, Yan; Lin, Xu

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and metabolic syndrome in the Chinese population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Plasma 25(OH)D was measured in a cross-sectional sample of 1,443 men and 1,819 women aged 50–70 years from Beijing and Shanghai. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the updated National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for Asian Americans. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, lipid profile, A1C, and inflammatory markers were measured. RESULTS The geometric mean of plasma 25(OH)D was 40.4 nmol/l, and percentages of vitamin D deficiency [25(OH)D <50 nmol/l] and insufficiency [50 ≤ 25(OH)D <75 nmol/l] were 69.2 and 24.4%, respectively. Compared with the highest 25(OH)D quintile (≥57.7 nmol/l), the odds ratio for metabolic syndrome in the lowest quintile (≤28.7 nmol/l) was 1.52 (95% CI 1.17–1.98, Ptrend = 0.0002) after multiple adjustment. Significant inverse associations also existed between 25(OH)D and individual metabolic syndrome components plus A1C. Moreover, we observed significant inverse associations of 25(OH)D with fasting insulin and the insulin resistance index (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]) in overweight and obese individuals (BMI ≥24 kg/m2) but not in their normal-weight counterparts (test for interaction: P = 0.0363 and 0.0187 for insulin and HOMA-IR, respectively). CONCLUSIONS Vitamin D deficiency is common in the middle-aged and elderly Chinese population, and a low 25(OH)D level is significantly associated with an increased risk of having metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance. Prospective studies and randomized clinical trials are warranted to determine the role of 25(OH)D in the development of metabolic syndrome and related metabolic diseases. PMID:19366976

  20. X-Ray Observations of Parsec-scale Tails behind Two Middle-Aged Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargaltsev, O.; Misanovic, Z.; Pavlov, G. G.; Wong, J. A.; Garmire, G. P.

    2008-09-01

    Chandra and XMM-Newton resolved extremely long tails behind two middle-aged pulsars, J1509-5850 and J1740+1000. The tail of PSR J1509-5850 is discernible up to 5.6' from the pulsar, which corresponds to the projected length l⊥ = 6.5d4 pc, where d = 4d4 kpc is the distance to the pulsar. The observed tail flux is 2 × 10-13 ergs s-1 cm-2 in the 0.5-8 keV band. The tail spectrum fits an absorbed power law (PL) with the photon index Γ = 2.3 +/- 0.2 and 0.5-8 keV luminosity of 1 × 1033d42 ergs s-1, for nH = 2.1 × 1022 cm-2. The tail of PSR J1740+1000 is firmly detected up to 5' (l⊥ ~ 2d1.4 pc), with a flux of 6 × 10-14 ergs cm-2 s-1 in the 0.4-10 keV band. The PL fit yields Γ = 1.4-1.5, nH ≈ 1 × 1021 cm-2, and an 0.4-10 keV luminosity of ~2 × 1031d1.42 ergs s-1. The large extent of the tails suggests that the bulk flow in the tails starts as mildly relativistic downstream of the termination shock and then gradually decelerates. Within the observed extent of the J1509-5850 tail, the average flow speed exceeds 5000 km s-1, and the equipartition magnetic field is a few × 10-5 G. For the J1740+1000 tail, the equipartition field is a factor of a few lower. For the high-latitude PSR J1740+1000, the orientation of the tail suggests that the pulsar was born from a halo-star progenitor. The X-ray efficiencies of the ram pressure-confined pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) correlate poorly with the pulsar spin-down luminosities or ages. The efficiencies are systematically higher than those of PWNe around slowly moving pulsars with similar spin-down parameters.

  1. Dehydroepiandrosterone supplementation and bone turnover in middle-aged to elderly men.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Arnold J; Halloran, Bernard; Wolkowitz, Owen; Brizendine, Louann

    2002-04-01

    In the present placebo-controlled, double-blind study, we assessed the effect of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) supplementation (90 mg orally/d) on bone turnover in 43 healthy men, 56-80 yr old. Placebo or steroid was given for 6 months, followed by a 1-month washout period and then a further 6 months of the opposite agent. Serum samples were collected at baseline 3, 6, 7, and 13 months and assayed for procollagen peptide, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, and osteocalcin, all markers of bone formation. Measurements were also made of serum cortisol, DHEA/DHEA-S, E2 and free and total T. First void, fasting urine was collected at baseline, 6, 7, and 13 months and assessed for deoxypyridinoline, a marker of bone resorption. Mean serum DHEA and DHEA-S levels in treated men were increased approximately 3-fold ( approximately 2.2 ng/ml to approximately 6 ng/ml) and 4.5-fold ( approximately 1000 ng/ml to approximately 4500 ng/ml), respectively, after 6 months and returned to baseline after washout. Similarly, circulating E2 concentrations were also increased 1.4-fold (from approximately 16-23 pg/ml; P < 0.001), a finding not observed with any other measured hormone. Bone marker levels remained remarkably constant at each sampling interval; procollagen peptide at approximately 8.0 ng/ml; bone-specific alkaline phosphatase at approximately 21.0 U/liter; deoxypyridinoline at approximately 4.5 nmol/mmol Cr. Osteocalcin showed a transient reduction from approximately 10.2- 6.2 ng/ml, P < 0.005 to P < 0.001, at 3 months, but this decline was observed in both treated and controls. Stratifying the marker levels by age or baseline DHEA/DHEA-S levels did not affect the findings. We conclude that oral DHEA does not affect bone turnover in middle-aged to elderly men when used for a 6-month period at doses targeted to restore circulating levels of the steroid to that seen in young adults. PMID:11932279

  2. Young and Middle-Aged Schoolteachers Differ in the Neural Correlates of Memory Encoding and Cognitive Fatigue: A Functional MRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Klaassen, Elissa B.; Plukaard, Sarah; Evers, Elisabeth A. T.; de Groot, Renate H. M.; Backes, Walter H.; Veltman, Dick J.; Jolles, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    This investigation was inspired by growing evidence that middle-aged persons in a cognitively demanding profession might be characterized by subtle cognitive fatigue. We studied young and middle-aged male schoolteachers. They were compared in a study with functional magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate differences during successful memory encoding. The schoolteachers were additionally subjected to an induced fatigue condition involving the sustained performance of cognitively demanding tasks and to a control condition. Results showed age-related brain activation differences underlying behavioral performance including: (1) greater activation in middle-aged vs. young teachers in bilateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) areas; and (2) differential fatigue effects in the left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) depending on age group. Middle-aged schoolteachers showed decreased ACC activation in the fatigue compared to the control condition, whereas no change in activation was found in young teachers. Findings demonstrate age effects in these middle-aged subjects that are typically found in older adults, specifically in PFC over-activation. Findings also indicate that already in middle age cognitive aging may be associated with greater resource depletion following sustained task performance. The findings underscore the notion that persons in a cognitively demanding profession can experience subtle age effects, which are evident on fMRI and which impact daily functioning. Possible practical implications for middle-aged schoolteachers are discussed. PMID:27092068

  3. The Serials Marketplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treadwell, Jane; Ketcham, Lee

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the results of a national survey of libraries, publishers, and subscription agents that was conducted by the American Library Association (ALA) to address concerns about serials prices. Highlights include library budget trends; resource sharing; selection decisions; library automation; pricing practices of publishers; publisher services;…

  4. Stress in Harmonic Serialism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruitt, Kathryn Ringler

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation proposes a model of word stress in a derivational version of Optimality Theory (OT) called Harmonic Serialism (HS; Prince and Smolensky 1993/2004, McCarthy 2000, 2006, 2010a). In this model, the metrical structure of a word is derived through a series of optimizations in which the "best" metrical foot is chosen…

  5. Serial interface controller

    SciTech Connect

    Kandasamy, A.

    1995-04-14

    The idea of building a Serial Interface Controller (SIC) proposed by Paul O`Connor, Instrumentation Division, BNL is to determine the feasibility of incorporating a Serial Interface Controlled CMOS IC`s for charge amplification, shaping, analog storage and multiplexing used in particle detectors for high energy physics experiments. The serial data pumped into the CMOS ICs will be used to control many circuit parameters like digitally controlled gain, shaping time, precision preamplifier calibration circuits and many other parameters like timing discriminators mode of operation. The SIC board built will be tested on a Serial Interface Controlled Digital - to - Analog Convertor, which follows either Motorola`s SPI/QSPI or National Semiconductors Microwire interface technique. The DAC chosen for this was MAXIM`s MAX537, a Quad, 12-bit DAC. The function of this controller can be achieved by using some on-shelf micro-controllers like the Motorola`s MC68HC11, which offers dedicated SPI ports. The drawback encountered in using this controller is the overhead involved in putting together an user interface where the user can dynamically change its settings and load the SIC device. This is very critical in testing fewer number of CMOS IC`s having SIC. The SIC board described here takes care of this dynamic user interface issue.

  6. Vitamin D Levels Are Inversely Associated with Liver Fat Content and Risk of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in a Chinese Middle-Aged and Elderly Population: The Shanghai Changfeng Study

    PubMed Central

    Aleteng, Qiqige; Li, Xiaoming; Ma, Hui; Pan, Baishen; Gao, Jian; Gao, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives Vitamin D exerts metabolic activities. We investigated whether the 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] is associated with liver fat content (LFC) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in a middle-aged, elderly Chinese population. Subject/Methods A total of 2,960 participants (954 men and 2,006 women) aged over 45 years old were enrolled. Each participant underwent a standard interview, anthropometric measurements and laboratory examinations. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency was diagnosed when serum 25(OH) D level was < 50 and 50–75nmol/L. An ultrasound quantitative method was used to assess the LFC. Results Among the 2,960 participants, 1,982 (67.0%) subjects had vitamin D deficiency, 769 (26.0%) had vitamin D insufficiency, and 209 (7%) had normal vitamin D. Male subjects with vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency had significantly higher LFC than those with normal 25(OH)D (P = 0.034), while the LFC values showed no significant difference among the female subjects with vitamin D sufficiency, insufficiency and deficiency (P = 0.396). Univariate correlation analysis showed that 25(OH)D had a significantly negative association with LFC in men (r = -0.085, P = 0.009), but not in women. After adjusting for age, cigarette smoking, examination season, serum calcium, PTH and all possible confounders that displayed significant associations with LFC in univariate correlation analysis, serum 25(OH)D remained associated with LFC in middle-aged and elderly Chinese men. Conclusion Serum 25(OH)D level was inversely associated with LFC in middle-aged and elderly Chinese men. PMID:27284686

  7. Association between Lifetime Physical Activity and Cognitive Functioning in Middle-Aged and Older Community Dwelling Adults: Results from the Brain in Motion Study.

    PubMed

    Gill, Stephanie J; Friedenreich, Christine M; Sajobi, Tolulope T; Longman, R Stewart; Drogos, Lauren L; Davenport, Margie H; Tyndall, Amanda V; Eskes, Gail A; Hogan, David B; Hill, Michael D; Parboosingh, Jillian S; Wilson, Ben J; Poulin, Marc J

    2015-11-01

    To determine if total lifetime physical activity (PA) is associated with better cognitive functioning with aging and if cerebrovascular function mediates this association. A sample of 226 (52.2% female) community dwelling middle-aged and older adults (66.5 ± 6.4 years) in the Brain in Motion Study, completed the Lifetime Total Physical Activity Questionnaire and underwent neuropsychological and cerebrovascular blood flow testing. Multiple robust linear regressions were used to model the associations between lifetime PA and global cognition after adjusting for age, sex, North American Adult Reading Test results (i.e., an estimate of premorbid intellectual ability), maximal aerobic capacity, body mass index and interactions between age, sex, and lifetime PA. Mediation analysis assessed the effect of cerebrovascular measures on the association between lifetime PA and global cognition. Post hoc analyses assessed past year PA and current fitness levels relation to global cognition and cerebrovascular measures. Better global cognitive performance was associated with higher lifetime PA (p=.045), recreational PA (p=.021), and vigorous intensity PA (p=.004), PA between the ages of 0 and 20 years (p=.036), and between the ages of 21 and 35 years (p.5), but partially mediated the relation between current fitness and global cognition. This study revealed significant associations between higher levels of PA (i.e., total lifetime, recreational, vigorous PA, and past year) and better cognitive function in later life. Current fitness levels relation to cognitive function may be partially mediated through current cerebrovascular function. PMID:26581793

  8. Elevated White Blood Cell Count Is Associated with Higher Risk of Glucose Metabolism Disorders in Middle-Aged and Elderly Chinese People

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hua; Yan, Wen-Hua; Li, Chan-Juan; Wang, An-Ping; Dou, Jing-Tao; Mu, Yi-Ming

    2014-01-01

    White blood cell (WBC) count has been associated with diabetic risk, but whether the correlation is independent of other risk factors has hardly been studied. Moreover, very few such studies with large sample sizes have been conducted in Chinese. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between WBC count and glucose metabolism in china. We also examined the relevant variables of WBC count. A total of 9,697 subjects (mean age, 58.0 ± 9.1 years) were recruited. The subjects were classified into four groups, including subjects with normal glucose tolerance, isolated impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We found that WBC count increased as glucose metabolism disorders exacerbated. WBC count was also positively correlated with waist hip ratio, body mass index, smoking, triglycerides, glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and 2-h postprandial glucose. In addition, high density lipoprotein and the female gender were inversely correlated with WBC levels. In patients with previously diagnosed T2DM, the course of T2DM was not correlated with WBC count. Our findings indicate that elevated WBC count is independently associated with worsening of glucose metabolism in middle-aged and elderly Chinese. In addition, loss of weight, smoking cessation, lipid-modifying therapies, and control of postprandial plasma glucose and HbA1c may ameliorate the chronic low-grade inflammation. PMID:24852600

  9. Comparison of facial trauma in late middle age (55-64 years) and old age (older than 65 years).

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun; Huan, Fan; Hwang, Pil Joong

    2013-05-01

    In this study, we attempted to compare facial trauma of late-middle-age patients (55-64 years, LM group) and old-age patients (>65 years old, OL group). The goal of this study was to evaluate the natural history of facial trauma in geriatric patients.The medical record of patients older than 55 years seeking treatment for facial trauma between March 2006 and February 2009 were reviewed, and parameters were collected. Seven hundred seventy-two patients (553 male, 219 female) were analyzed. There were 438 patients of the LM group (55-64 years old) and 334 patients of the OL group (>65 years old).In men (n = 553), the number of patients within the LM group (n = 336, 60.8%) was greater than the number in the OL group (n = 217, 39.2%). Of the 219 women, the number within the OL group (n = 117, 53.4%) was greater than that within the LM group (n = 102, 46.6%) (P = 0.000, χ). Facial lacerations comprised a significantly higher proportion in the OL group (79.3%) than that in the ML group (70.1%), whereas facial bone fractures were more frequent in the ML group (29.9%) than in the OL group (20.7%), which was significant (P = 0.004, χ). Assault and automobile accidents were significantly more frequent in the ML group (n = 65 [15.1%] and n = 31 [7.2%], respectively) than the OL group (n = 20 [6.0%] and n = 11 [3.3%]), whereas falls and pedestrian accidents were more significantly frequent in the OL group (n = 30 [9.0%] and n = 23 [6.9%], respectively) than in the LM group (n = 30 [7.0%] and n = 19 [4.4%]) (P = 0.000, χ). During the hours of the day, between 4 to 6 PM and 6 to 8 PM, injuries occurred more frequently in the OL group (14.5% and 12.4%, respectively) than in the LM group (10.5% and 11.0%, respectively). At the times of 8 to 10 PM and 10 PM to midnight, however, injuries occurred more frequently in the LM group (17.1%, 12.1%, respectively) than in the OL group (12.1% and 8.2%, respectively) (P = 0.03, χ). Frequency of injuries at home within the OL group (n

  10. Risk indicators of coronal and root caries in Greek middle aged adults and senior citizens

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dental caries is the result of a complex interplay of multiple determinants which may change overtime. Therefore, periodic surveys of caries experience and redetermination of the risk indicators of the disease are needed. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and severity of coronal and root caries in Greeks aged 35-44 and 65-74-year-old in relation to socio-demographic parameters. Furthermore, trends in coronal caries experience of the 35-44-year-olds were investigated. Methods A sample of 1188 35-44-year-old and 1093 65-74-year-old individuals was selected in 2005 according to WHO guidelines for national pathfinder surveys. Caries was assessed in dentate subjects using the DMFT, DMFS, RDFS and RCI indices. Socio-demographic data were also collected. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify the effect of socio-demographic parameters. Results The mean DMFT and DMFS scores of the adults were 14.06 and 45.78 respectively, while those of the senior citizens were 20.63 and 89.82. Among the 35-44-year-ods, men and those having a higher educational attainment had significantly lower DMFS values (women OR = 1.679, CI: 1.243-2.267 and >12 years of education OR = 0.321, CI: 0.193-0.535 respectively), while educational level was the only predictor of DMFS in senior citizens (OR = 0.279, CI: 0.079-0.992). The mean DMFT score of the 35-44-year-olds has not improved since 1985, but there was a remarkable reduction in the number of DT related to a simultaneous increase in the number of FT. The mean RDFS rose from 0.39 in adults to 2.66 in senior citizens. The mean RDFS score of the middle aged adults was significantly correlated with education (OR = 0.346, CI: 0.180-0.664). The RCI was almost four times greater in seniors (9.73) than in adults (2.53). There were significant differences in caries experience between the surveyed regions. MS and RDS were the major components of the DMFS and RDFS indices

  11. Malaysian Serials: Issues and Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahri, Che Norma

    This paper analyzes the issues and problems while looking at the trends and developments of serials publishing in Malaysia. The first section provides background; topics addressed include the country and people of Malaysia, the history of serials publishing in Malaysia, categories and formats of serials publishing, academic publications,…

  12. Loss of myocardial protection against myocardial infarction in middle-aged transgenic mice overexpressing cardiac thioredoxin-1.

    PubMed

    D Annunzio, Verónica; Perez, Virginia; Mazo, Tamara; Muñoz, Marina C; Dominici, Fernando P; Carreras, María C; Poderoso, Juan José; Sadoshima, Junichi; Gelpi, Ricardo J

    2016-03-15

    Thioredoxin-1 (Trx1) protects the heart from ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Given that the age at which the first episode of coronary disease takes place has considerably decreased, life at middle-aged (MA) emerges as a new field of study. The aim was determine whether infarct size, Trx1 expression and activity, Akt and GSK-3β were altered in young (Y) and MA mice overexpressing cardiac Trx1, and in a dominant negative (DN-Trx1) mutant of Trx1. Langendorff-perfused hearts were subjected to 30 minutes of ischemia and 120 minutes of reperfusion (R). We used 3 and 12 month-old male of wild type (WT), Trx1, and DN-Trx1. Trx1 overexpression reduced infarct size in young mice (WT-Y: 46.8±4.1% vs. Trx1-Y: 27.6±3.5%, p < 0.05). Trx1 activity was reduced by 52.3±3.2% (p < 0.05) in Trx1-MA, accompanied by an increase in nitration by 17.5±0.9%, although Trx1 expression in transgenic mice was similar between young and middle-aged. The expression of p-Akt and p-GSK-3β increased during reperfusion in Trx1-Y. DN-Trx1 mice showed neither reduction in infarct size nor Akt and GSK-3β phosphorylation. Our data suggest that the lack of protection in Trx1 middle-aged mice even with normal Trx1 expression may be associated to decreased Trx1 activity, increased nitration and inhibition of p-Akt and p-GSK-3β. PMID:26933812

  13. APOE-ε4 Allele Altered the Rest-Stimulus Interactions in Healthy Middle-Aged Adults.

    PubMed

    Yan, Feng-Xian; Wu, Changwei W; Chao, Yi-Ping; Chen, Chi-Jen; Tseng, Ying-Chi

    2015-01-01

    The apolipoprotein E-ε4 allele is a well-known genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease, which also impacts the cognitive functions and brain network connectivity in healthy middle-aged adults without dementia. Previous studies mainly focused on the effects of apolipoprotein E-ε4 allele on single index using task or resting-state fMRI. However, how these evoked and spontaneous BOLD indices interact with each other remains largely unknown. Therefore, we evaluated the 'rest-stimulus interaction' between working-memory activation and resting-state connectivity in middle-aged apolipoprotein E-ε4 carriers (n=9) and non-carriers (n=8). Four n-back task scans (n = 0, 1, 2, 3) and one resting-state scan were acquired at a 3T clinical MRI scanner. The working-memory beta maps of low-, moderate-, and high-memory loads and resting-state connectivity maps of default mode, executive control, and hippocampal networks were derived and compared between groups. Apolipoprotein E-ε4 carriers presented declined working-memory activation in the high-memory load across whole brain regions and reduced hippocampal connectivity compared with non-carriers. In addition, disrupted rest-stimulus interactions were found in the right anterior insula and bilateral parahippocampal regions for middle-aged adults with apolipoprotein E-ε4 allele. The rest-stimulus interaction improved the detectability of network integrity changes in apolipoprotein E-ε4 carriers, demonstrating the disrupted intrinsic connectivity within the executive-functional regions and the modulated memory-encoding capability within hippocampus-related regions. PMID:26053677

  14. Comparative Cognitive and Subjective Side Effects of Immediate Release Oxycodone in Healthy Middle Age and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cherrier, M.; Amory, J.; Ersek, M.; Risler, L.; Shen, D.

    2009-01-01

    This study measured the objective and subjective neurocognitive effects of a single 10mg dose of immediate-release oxycodone in healthy, older (>65 years) and middle age (35 – 55 years) adults who were not suffering from chronic or significant daily pain. Seventy-one participants completed two separate study days and were blind to medication condition (placebo, 10 mg oxycodone). Plasma oxycodone concentration peaked between 60 and 90 min post dose (p<0.01) and pupil size, an indication of physiological effects of the medication peaked at approximately 90 to 120 min post dose (p<0.01). Significant declines in simple and sustained attention, working memory and verbal memory were observed at one hour post dose compared to baseline for both age groups with a trend toward return to baseline by five hours post dose. For almost all cognitive measures there were no medication by age interaction effects, which indicates that the two age groups exhibited a similar responses to the medication challenge. This study suggests that for healthy older adults who are not suffering from chronic pain, neurocognitive and pharmacodynamic changes in response to a 10 mg dose of immediate release oxycodone are similar to those observed for middle age adults. Perspective Study findings indicate that the metabolism, neurocognitive effects, and physical side effects of oral oxycodone are similar for healthy middle-age and older adults. Therefore, clinicians should not avoid prescribing oral opioids to older adults based on the belief that older adults are at higher risk for side effects than younger adults. PMID:19729346

  15. Effects of stretching on menopausal and depressive symptoms in middle-aged women: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Kai, Yuko; Nagamatsu, Toshiya; Kitabatake, Yoshinori; Sensui, Hiroomi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Exercise may help alleviate menopausal and depressive symptoms in middle-aged women, but sufficient evidence does not currently exist to fully support this theory. Whereas frequent moderate- to vigorous-intensity exercise may be associated with the risk of menopausal hot flashes, light-intensity exercise, such as stretching, is not likely to increase the occurrence of hot flashes. Little is, however, known about the effects of light-intensity exercise on menopausal and depressive symptoms. We examined the effects of a 3-week stretching program on the menopausal and depressive symptoms in middle-aged, Japanese women. Methods: Forty Japanese women, aged 40 to 61 years, were recruited (mean age, 51.1 ± 7.3 y). The participants were randomly assigned to either a stretching or a control group. The stretching group (n = 20) participated in a 3-week intervention program that involved 10 minutes of daily stretching, just before bedtime. The control group (n = 20) was assigned to a waiting list. Menopausal symptoms were evaluated using the Simplified Menopausal Index, which measures vasomotor, psychological, and somatic symptoms. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Self-Rating Depression Scale. Results: The compliance rate was 75.8% during the 3-week intervention program. The total Simplified Menopausal Index scores, including the vasomotor, psychological, and somatic symptoms, and the Self-Rating Depression Scale scores significantly decreased in the stretching group compared with that in the control group. No adverse events, including increased hot flashes, were reported by the participants during the study period. Conclusions: These findings suggest that 10 minutes of stretching before bedtime decreases menopausal and depressive symptoms in middle-aged, Japanese women. PMID:27300113

  16. APOE-ε4 Allele Altered the Rest-Stimulus Interactions in Healthy Middle-Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Feng-Xian; Wu, Changwei W.; Chao, Yi-Ping; Chen, Chi-Jen; Tseng, Ying-Chi

    2015-01-01

    The apolipoprotein E-ε4 allele is a well-known genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease, which also impacts the cognitive functions and brain network connectivity in healthy middle-aged adults without dementia. Previous studies mainly focused on the effects of apolipoprotein E-ε4 allele on single index using task or resting-state fMRI. However, how these evoked and spontaneous BOLD indices interact with each other remains largely unknown. Therefore, we evaluated the ‘rest-stimulus interaction’ between working-memory activation and resting-state connectivity in middle-aged apolipoprotein E-ε4 carriers (n=9) and non-carriers (n=8). Four n-back task scans (n = 0, 1, 2, 3) and one resting-state scan were acquired at a 3T clinical MRI scanner. The working-memory beta maps of low-, moderate-, and high-memory loads and resting-state connectivity maps of default mode, executive control, and hippocampal networks were derived and compared between groups. Apolipoprotein E-ε4 carriers presented declined working-memory activation in the high-memory load across whole brain regions and reduced hippocampal connectivity compared with non-carriers. In addition, disrupted rest-stimulus interactions were found in the right anterior insula and bilateral parahippocampal regions for middle-aged adults with apolipoprotein E-ε4 allele. The rest-stimulus interaction improved the detectability of network integrity changes in apolipoprotein E-ε4 carriers, demonstrating the disrupted intrinsic connectivity within the executive-functional regions and the modulated memory-encoding capability within hippocampus-related regions. PMID:26053677

  17. Loss of myocardial protection against myocardial infarction in middle-aged transgenic mice overexpressing cardiac thioredoxin-1

    PubMed Central

    Mazo, Tamara; Muñoz, Marina C.; Dominici, Fernando P.; Carreras, María C.; Poderoso, Juan José; Sadoshima, Junichi; Gelpi, Ricardo J.

    2016-01-01

    Thioredoxin-1 (Trx1) protects the heart from ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Given that the age at which the first episode of coronary disease takes place has considerably decreased, life at middle-aged (MA) emerges as a new field of study. The aim was determine whether infarct size, Trx1 expression and activity, Akt and GSK-3β were altered in young (Y) and MA mice overexpressing cardiac Trx1, and in a dominant negative (DN-Trx1) mutant of Trx1. Langendorff-perfused hearts were subjected to 30 minutes of ischemia and 120 minutes of reperfusion (R). We used 3 and 12 month-old male of wild type (WT), Trx1, and DN-Trx1. Trx1 overexpression reduced infarct size in young mice (WT-Y: 46.8±4.1% vs. Trx1-Y: 27.6±3.5%, p < 0.05). Trx1 activity was reduced by 52.3±3.2% (p < 0.05) in Trx1-MA, accompanied by an increase in nitration by 17.5±0.9%, although Trx1 expression in transgenic mice was similar between young and middle-aged. The expression of p-Akt and p-GSK-3β increased during reperfusion in Trx1-Y. DN-Trx1 mice showed neither reduction in infarct size nor Akt and GSK-3β phosphorylation. Our data suggest that the lack of protection in Trx1 middle-aged mice even with normal Trx1 expression may be associated to decreased Trx1 activity, increased nitration and inhibition of p-Akt and p-GSK-3β. PMID:26933812

  18. Water consumption increases weight loss during a hypocaloric diet intervention in middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Elizabeth A; Dengo, Ana Laura; Comber, Dana L; Flack, Kyle D; Savla, Jyoti; Davy, Kevin P; Davy, Brenda M

    2010-02-01

    Water consumption acutely reduces meal energy intake (EI) among middle-aged and older adults. Our objectives were to determine if premeal water consumption facilitates weight loss among overweight/obese middle-aged and older adults, and to determine if the ability of premeal water consumption to reduce meal EI is sustained after a 12-week period of increased water consumption. Adults (n = 48; 55-75 years, BMI 25-40 kg/m(2)) were assigned to one of two groups: (i) hypocaloric diet + 500 ml water prior to each daily meal (water group), or (ii) hypocaloric diet alone (nonwater group). At baseline and week 12, each participant underwent two ad libitum test meals: (i) no preload (NP), and (ii) 500 ml water preload (WP). Meal EI was assessed at each test meal and body weight was assessed weekly for 12 weeks. Weight loss was ~2 kg greater in the water group than in the nonwater group, and the water group (beta = -0.87, P < 0.001) showed a 44% greater decline in weight over the 12 weeks than the nonwater group (beta = -0.60, P < 0.001). Test meal EI was lower in the WP than NP condition at baseline, but not at week 12 (baseline: WP 498 +/- 25 kcal, NP 541 +/- 27 kcal, P = 0.009; 12-week: WP 480 +/- 25 kcal, NP 506 +/- 25 kcal, P = 0.069). Thus, when combined with a hypocaloric diet, consuming 500 ml water prior to each main meal leads to greater weight loss than a hypocaloric diet alone in middle-aged and older adults. This may be due in part to an acute reduction in meal EI following water ingestion. PMID:19661958

  19. Effect of regular swimming exercise on the physical composition, strength, and blood lipid of middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bo-Ae; Oh, Deuk-Ja

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to define the effects of regular swimming exercise on the physical composition, physical strength, and blood lipids of middle-aged women. The subjects of this study are a total of 24 middle-aged women in the swimming group and the control group, with 12 women for each group. The swimming group performed swimming exercise for 60 min every time for 3 times a week, for a total of 12 weeks. For data processing, SPSS 21.0 statistics program was used to calculate the mean and standard deviation. For the difference verification on the change in mean for each group and between the groups, paired and independent t-tests were respectively used. As a result, for physical composition, the body fat rate decreased in the swimming group. Moreover, the difference verification result showed a statistically significant difference between the groups. For physical strength, the difference verification result for each group showed that the swimming group had a statistically significant difference in flexibility and cardiovascular endurance. Moreover, the difference verification result between the groups showed a statistically significant difference only for flexibility. For blood lipids, as a result of the difference verification for each group, T-C and TG showed a significant decrease, and HDL-C, a significant increase. However, in the difference verification result between the groups, only T-C and TG showed a statistically significant difference. With these results, it is considered that regular swimming exercise is effective for improving the physical composition, physical strength, and blood lipids of middle-aged women. PMID:26535217

  20. Rapid-Onset Hyponatremia Induced by Duloxetine in a Middle-Aged Male with Depression and Somatic Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jung-Seok; Lee, Hae Woo; Lee, Jun Young

    2012-01-01

    Duloxetine is a relatively balanced selective serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor. We report a case of hyponatremia induced by duloxetine developed rapidly after starting the medication in a middle-aged male with multiple somatic symptoms and depression. Two days after discontinuation of duloxetine and management with hypertonic saline as well as fluid restriction, the serum sodium level normalized. The patient had two risk factors for developing hyponatremia, such as severe body weight loss and pneumonia. Therefore, when treating patients with depression and somatic symptoms, especially with risk factors for developing hyponatremia, close monitoring for clinical and laboratory evidence of hyponatremia may be essential. PMID:22396690

  1. Rapid-onset hyponatremia induced by duloxetine in a middle-aged male with depression and somatic symptoms.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jung-Seok; Lee, Hae Woo; Lee, Jun Young; Jung, Hee Yeon

    2012-03-01

    Duloxetine is a relatively balanced selective serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor. We report a case of hyponatremia induced by duloxetine developed rapidly after starting the medication in a middle-aged male with multiple somatic symptoms and depression. Two days after discontinuation of duloxetine and management with hypertonic saline as well as fluid restriction, the serum sodium level normalized. The patient had two risk factors for developing hyponatremia, such as severe body weight loss and pneumonia. Therefore, when treating patients with depression and somatic symptoms, especially with risk factors for developing hyponatremia, close monitoring for clinical and laboratory evidence of hyponatremia may be essential. PMID:22396690

  2. Observations on the history of Dutch physical stature from the late-Middle Ages to the present.

    PubMed

    de Beer, Hans

    2004-03-01

    In the late-Middle Ages and at the onset of the early modern period, the Dutch population was taller than in the first half of the 19th century. This inference is partially based on skeletal evidence, mainly collected by the Dutch physical anthropologist George Maat and his co-workers. A spectacular increase in Dutch heights began in the second half of the 19th century and accelerated in the second half of the 20th century. At the end of the 20th century, the Dutch became tallest in the world. PMID:15463992

  3. Hwa-Byung among middle-aged Korean women: family relationships, gender-role attitudes, and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunha; Hogge, Ingrid; Ji, Peter; Shim, Young R; Lothspeich, Catherine

    2014-05-01

    We surveyed 395 Korean middle-aged women and examined how their perceptions of family relationships, gender-role attitudes, and self-esteem were associated with Hwa-Byung (HB; Korean anger syndrome). Our regression analyses revealed that participants who reported worse family relationship problems experienced more HB symptoms. Having profeminist, egalitarian attitudes toward women's gender roles was also associated with more HB symptoms. Self-esteem was not significantly associated with HB. Based on the results, we suggest that what is crucial to understanding HB is not how women evaluate themselves, but rather the level of stress caused by family relationship problems and their perception of women's roles. PMID:23627346

  4. [Human nature and the complexion of the body as seen by Italian physicians at the end of the middle ages].

    PubMed

    Chandelier, Joël; Robert, Aurélien

    2013-01-01

    Is it possible to apprehend man from a medical standpoint without offering a purely materialistic definition ? Such was the question raised by Italian physicians at the end of the Middle Ages when they developed a full scale theory of the idea of complexion, which they saw as a "substantial quality" specific to man, but one that also depended on hereditary traits, food, age, or even climate and mores. Practicing their art, some of these physicians could thus contemplate improving not simply the health, but also the well being of each individual. PMID:24464157

  5. Trajectories of the healthy ageing phenotype among middle-aged and older Britons, 2004–2013

    PubMed Central

    Tampubolon, Gindo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Since the ageing population demands a response to ensure older people remain healthy and active, we studied the dynamics of a recently proposed healthy ageing phenotype. We drew the phenotype’s trajectories and tested whether their levels and rates of change are influenced by health behaviours, comorbidities and socioeconomic positions earlier in the life course. Design and outcomes The English Longitudinal Ageing Study, a prospective, nationally representative sample of people aged ≥50 years, measured a set of eight biomarkers which make up the outcome of the healthy ageing phenotype three times over nearly a decade (N2004 = 5009, N2008 = 5301, N2013 = 4455). A cluster of health behaviours, comorbidities and socioeconomic positions were also measured repeatedly. We assessed the phenotype’s distribution non-parametrically, then fitted linear mixed models to phenotypic change and further examined time interactions with gender and socioeconomic position. We ran additional analyses to test robustness. Results Women had a wider distribution of the healthy ageing phenotype than men had. The phenotype declined annually by −0.242 (95% confidence interval [CI]: −0.352, −0.131). However, there was considerable heterogeneity in the levels and rates of phenotypic change. Women started at higher levels, then declined more steeply by −0.293 (CI: −0.403, −0.183) annually, leading to crossover in the trajectories. Smoking and physical activity assessed on the Allied Dunbar scale were strongly associated with the trajectories. Conclusion Though marked by secular decline, the trajectories of the healthy ageing phenotype showed distinct socioeconomic gradients. The trajectories were also susceptible to variations in health behaviours, strengthening the case for serial interventions to attain healthy and active ageing. PMID:27105690

  6. Dose-response relations between second-hand smoke exposure and depressive symptoms among middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xiaohua; Li, LiXia; Gao, Yanhui; Zhou, Shudong; Yang, Yi; Chen, Sidong

    2015-09-30

    A growing body of evidence indicates a strong association between smoking and depression. However, little is known about the possible effects of second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure on depression. This study aimed to examine the potential dose-response relation between SHS exposure and depressive symptoms among non-smoking middle-aged women. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a stratified three-stage sampling method. Depressive symptoms were measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale with a cut-off point of 16. Self-reported SHS exposure was defined as non-smokers׳ inhalation of the smoke exhaled from smokers on at least one day a week. The multivariable logistic regression analysis was completed with adjustment for potential confounders. Among 1280 middle-aged women, 19.4% were classified as having depressive symptoms. There was a 104% increased odds of depressive symptoms corresponding to SHS exposure in general (OR=2.04, 95% CI 1.48-2.79) using no exposure as reference. There were significant positive relations between SHS exposure in general and depressive symptoms in a dose-response manner. These significant trends were observed consistently whether SHS exposure occurred in homes or workplaces. Our findings suggest that long-term and regular SHS exposure is associated with a significant, dose-dependent increase in risk of depressive symptoms. PMID:26231582

  7. Validation of Horne and Ostberg morningness-eveningness questionnaire in a middle-aged population of French workers.

    PubMed

    Taillard, Jacques; Philip, Pierre; Chastang, Jean-François; Bioulac, Bernard

    2004-02-01

    As suggested by the authors, the Horne and Ostberg morning/evening questionnaire (MEQ) has never been adapted to evaluate a nonstudent population. The purpose of this study was to validate this MEQ in a sample of middle-aged workers by modifying only the cutoffs. It was administered in 566 non-shift-workers aged 51.2 to 3.2 years who presented no sleep disorders. According to the Home and Ostberg classification, the sample consisted of 62.1% morning type, 36.6% neither type, and 2.2% evening type. Multiple correspondence analysis, which determines the principal components, was performed on all MEQ items. Then an ascending hierarchical classification was applied to determine 3 clusters from these principal components. On the basis of these 3 clusters, new cutoffs were determined: evening types were considered as scoring under 53 and morning types above 64, thus giving 28.1% morning type, 51.7% neither type, and 20.2% evening type. As an external validation, eveningness was associated with later bedtime and waking-up time (more pronounced at the weekend), greater need for sleep, larger daily sleep debt, greater morning sleepiness, and ease of returning to sleep in the early morning. A positive correlation between age and morningness was again found. This study confirms that "owls" are not rare in a middle-aged sample. We conclude that this adapted MEQ could be useful when investigating age-related changes in sleep. PMID:14964706

  8. Redox proteomic profiling of neuroketal-adducted proteins in human brain: Regional vulnerability at middle age increases in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Mayelín; de Oliveira, Eliandre; Odena, María Antonia; Portero, Manuel; Pamplona, Reinald; Ferrer, Isidro

    2016-06-01

    Protein lipoxidation was assessed in the parietal cortex (PC), frontal cortex (FC), and cingulate gyrus (CG) in middle-aged and old-aged individuals with no clinical manifestations of cognitive impairment, in order to increase understanding of regional brain vulnerability to oxidative damage during aging. Twenty-five lipoxidized proteins were identified in all the three regions although with regional specificities, by using redox proteomics to detect target proteins of neuroketals (NKT) adduction. The number of cases with NKT-adducted proteins was higher in old-aged individuals but most oxidized proteins were already present in middle-aged individuals. Differences in vulnerability to oxidation were dependent on the sub-cellular localization, secondary structure, and external exposition of certain amino acids. Lipoxidized proteins included those involved in energy metabolism, cytoskeleton, proteostasis, neurotransmission and O2/CO2, and heme metabolism. Total NKT and soluble oligomer levels were estimated employing slot-blot, and these were compared between age groups. Oligomers increased with age in PC and FC; NKT significantly increased with age in FC, whereas total NKT and oligomer levels were not modified in CG, thus highlighting differences in brain regional vulnerability with age. Oligomers significantly correlated with NKT levels in the three cortical regions, suggesting that protein NKT adduction parallels soluble oligomer formation. PMID:26968793

  9. Feasibility of a Home-based Speed of Processing Training Program in Middle-aged and Older Adults with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Cody, Shameka L.; Fazeli, Pariya; Vance, David E.

    2015-01-01

    There has been much optimism over the positive impact of cART on life expectancy for people with HIV; however, those aging with HIV fear potential day-to-day challenges associated with the development of cognitive deficits. The presence of cognitive deficits has generated major safety concerns as it has been shown to impact driving, mobility, and employment. Given the efficacy of a computerized speed of processing training program administered in the laboratory to older adults and adults with HIV, this study was designed to determine the feasibility of a home-based speed of processing training program in improving cognitive function in middle-aged and older adults with HIV. In this within-subjects pre-post experimental design, twenty middle-aged and older adults (i.e., age 40+) with HIV were administered a brief neuropsychological assessment to gauge their baseline cognitive function before participating in a 10-hour home-based computerized cognitive remediation training program. In addition to self-reported cognitive gains, a six-week posttest indicated significant improvements on the Useful Field of View (UFOV®), a measure of speed of processing and possible transfer to the Timed Instrumental Activities of Daily Living test, a measure of everyday functioning. These findings show that speed of processing training can successfully improve cognitive function in this vulnerable population even when administered in remote settings such as the privacy of one's home. PMID:26153789

  10. Suicide among US veterans: A prospective study of 500,000 middle-aged and elderly men.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthew; Barber, Catherine; Azrael, Deborah; Calle, Eugenia E; Lawler, Elizabeth; Mukamal, Kenneth J

    2009-08-15

    Expert opinion is divided about whether US military veterans, the vast majority of whom are middle-aged or older, are at increased risk of suicide. To assess the risk of suicide associated with veteran status, the authors conducted a prospective cohort study of 499,356 male participants in the Cancer Prevention Study II. Participants reported their veteran status and other characteristics in 1982 and were followed for mortality through 2004. The relative risk of mortality from suicide according to veteran status at baseline was estimated by using Cox proportional hazards models. During follow-up, 1,248 veterans and 614 nonveterans died by suicide. In age-adjusted analyses, the risk of suicide did not differ by veteran status. Additional adjustment for several sociodemographic, behavioral, and clinical factors had little effect on hazard ratios. The authors concluded that the risk of death from suicide among middle-aged and older US males is independent of veteran status and suggest that policies to prevent veteran suicide should focus on factors that may heighten suicide risk rather than on veteran status per se. PMID:19584133

  11. Gender Difference on the Association between Dietary Patterns and Obesity in Chinese Middle-Aged and Elderly Populations

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Ya-Qun; Li, Fan; Meng, Pai; You, Jie; Wu, Min; Li, Shu-Guang; Chen, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Dietary patterns are linked to obesity, but the gender difference in the association between dietary patterns and obesity remains unclear. We explored this gender difference in a middle-aged and elderly populations in Shanghai. Residents (n = 2046; aged ≥45 years; 968 men and 1078 women) who participated in the Shanghai Food Consumption Survey were studied. Factor analysis of data from four periods of 24-h dietary recalls (across 2012–2014) identified dietary patterns. Height, body weight, and waist circumference were measured to calculate the body mass index. A log binominal model examined the association between dietary patterns and obesity, stratified by gender. Four dietary patterns were identified for both genders: rice staple, wheat staple, snacks, and prudent patterns. The rice staple pattern was associated positively with abdominal obesity in men (prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.358; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.132–1.639; p = 0.001), but was associated negatively with general obesity in women (PR = 0.745; 95% CI: 0.673–0.807; p = 0.031). Men in the highest quartile of the wheat staple pattern had significantly greater risk of central obesity (PR = 1.331; 95% CI: 1.094–1.627; p = 0.005). There may be gender differences in the association between dietary patterns and obesity in middle-aged and elderly populations in Shanghai, China. PMID:27455322

  12. Consumption of Milk Protein or Whey Protein Results in a Similar Increase in Muscle Protein Synthesis in Middle Aged Men

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Cameron J.; McGregor, Robin A.; D’Souza, Randall F.; Thorstensen, Eric B.; Markworth, James F.; Fanning, Aaron C.; Poppitt, Sally D.; Cameron-Smith, David

    2015-01-01

    The differential ability of various milk protein fractions to stimulate muscle protein synthesis (MPS) has been previously described, with whey protein generally considered to be superior to other fractions. However, the relative ability of a whole milk protein to stimulate MPS has not been compared to whey. Sixteen healthy middle-aged males ingested either 20 g of milk protein (n = 8) or whey protein (n = 8) while undergoing a primed constant infusion of ring 13C6 phenylalanine. Muscle biopsies were obtained 120 min prior to consumption of the protein and 90 and 210 min afterwards. Resting myofibrillar fractional synthetic rates (FSR) were 0.019% ± 0.009% and 0.021% ± 0.018% h−1 in the milk and whey groups respectively. For the first 90 min after protein ingestion the FSR increased (p < 0.001) to 0.057% ± 0.018% and 0.052% ± 0.024% h−1 in the milk and whey groups respectively with no difference between groups (p = 0.810). FSR returned to baseline in both groups between 90 and 210 min after protein ingestion. Despite evidence of increased rate of digestion and leucine availability following the ingestion of whey protein, there was similar activation of MPS in middle-aged men with either 20 g of milk protein or whey protein. PMID:26506377

  13. The Apolipoprotein E Polymorphism rs7412 Associates with Body Fatness Independently of Plasma Lipids in Middle Aged Men

    PubMed Central

    Tejedor, M. Teresa; Garcia-Sobreviela, Maria Pilar; Ledesma, Marta; Arbones-Mainar, Jose M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene is polymorphic, encoding one of 3 common alleles (ε2, ε3, ε4) produced from combinations of 2 non-synonymous SNPs (rs429358 and rs7412). APOE plays an important role controlling plasma lipids but its association with adipocyte functionality and body fatness remains to be determined. Methods We analyzed fasting plasma lipids and genotyped the two main APOE-SNPs (rs429358 and rs7412), both located in the fourth exon of the APOE, in 4660 Caucasian middle-aged men free of cardiovascular disease. Results The rs7412 SNP, which determines the APOE2 isoform, was significantly associated with Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Girth (WG) in a multivariate model accounting for age, smoking status and plasma lipids. BMI and WG were highest in TT homozygotes and lowest in CC homozygotes. This effect was independent of the rs429358 SNP, which failed to show any association with the BMI and WG variables. The odds ratio of being obese (BMI>30) for individuals carrying the APOε2 allele, present in 14% of the cohort and defined by the rs7412 SNP, was also significant in this multivariate model, with an OR of 1.27 (95% CI: 1.01–1.59). Conclusions This study provides an evidence of a lipid-independent association between the APOE SNP rs7412 and body fatness surrogates, BMI and WG, in a large cohort of middle-aged males. PMID:25268647

  14. Development of anatomic science in the late middle ages: the roles played by Mondino de Liuzzi and Guido da Vigevano.

    PubMed

    Rengachary, Setti S; Colen, Chaim; Dass, Kathleen; Guthikonda, Murali

    2009-10-01

    Medical historians generally consider anatomic science, as we know it today, to have been established through the pioneering work of Vesalius during the Renaissance. Although this is largely true, detailed assessment of the scientific advances made in the late Middle Ages, though not as spectacular as those made during the Renaissance period, did pave the way and form a foundation for subsequent progress. During the two centuries of AD 1300 to 1500, several worthwhile advances occurred. Many universities, centers of learning excellence, were established throughout Europe, most notably in Italy. King Frederick II, the Holy Roman Emperor, established guidelines for medical education and practice that seem to parallel current regulations. Human cadaveric dissection was performed, after a hiatus of over 1700 years, as the foundation for the study of anatomy. Observation of human dissection became a requirement for medical students. A manual for anatomic dissection was written, printed, and published for the first time in history by Mondino de Liuzzi. His student, Guido da Vigevano, who also had an engineering background, established two "firsts" of his own: providing illustrations of anatomy and designing the first automobile in history. The authors believe that the contributions of these two key anatomists in the late Middle Ages should not be forgotten. PMID:19834385

  15. The effect of intensity controlled aerobic dance exercise on aerobic capacity of middle-aged, overweight women.

    PubMed

    Gillett, P A; Eisenman, P A

    1987-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of intensity controlled exercise on the aerobic capacity of overweight, middle-aged women. Thirty-eight moderately overweight women, ages 35-57, participated in a 16-week dance-exercise program. Random assignment was made to an experimental group (n = 20) in which intensity of exercise was controlled and prescribed, and a control group (n = 18) in which exercise was of an intensity typical to commercial aerobic classes. Prior to the onset of training, and at the completion of 16 weeks, the following fitness tests were administered: Aerobic capacity expressed as VO2 max, body composition analysis, blood chemistry, blood pressure, resting heart rate, muscular endurance, and flexibility. T-tests, ANCOVA, and gain-score analyses were utilized to evaluate data. Both groups showed small changes in weight, percent fat, resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure, resting heart rate, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), muscular endurance, and flexibility, but these changes were statistically nonsignificant. The VO2 max for the experimental group increased 41%, while the VO2 max for the control group increased 22% (p less than 0.05). The results suggest that the cardiovascular fitness changes for overweight, middle-aged women are greater when exercise intensity and progression are tailored to their age and fitness level. PMID:3423310

  16. An effective strategy to reduce blood pressure after forest walking in middle-aged and aged people.

    PubMed

    Horiuchi, Masahiro; Endo, Junko; Akatsuka, Shin; Hasegawa, Tatsuya; Yamamoto, Eriko; Uno, Tadashi; Kikuchi, Sachiko

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] Forest walking may be effective for human health, but little information is available about effects of energy expenditure on blood pressure responses after forest walking. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the activity energy expenditure and changes in blood pressure in individuals after forest walking. [Subjects] The subjects were 54 middle-aged and elderly people. [Methods] All subjects walked in the forest for approximately 90 min. Blood pressure, salivary amylase, and the Profile of Mood States were evaluated before and after forest walking, and activity energy expenditure was monitored throughout forest walking. Subjects were divided into two groups according to mean arterial pressure changes: a responder group (>5% decreases) and a nonresponder group (<5%). [Results] Forest walking significantly reduced the mean arterial pressure and improved the Profile of Mood States in both groups. Activity energy expenditure was related to changes in mean arterial pressure in the responder group, while this relation was not observed in the nonresponder group. Differential activity energy expenditure did not strongly affect improvement of the Profile of Mood States. [Conclusion] Greater walking-related greater activity energy expenditure might be required to accentuate physiological beneficial effects on in middle-aged and aged people. Furthermore, the forest environment per se can attenuate psychological stress. PMID:26834337

  17. An effective strategy to reduce blood pressure after forest walking in middle-aged and aged people

    PubMed Central

    Horiuchi, Masahiro; Endo, Junko; Akatsuka, Shin; Hasegawa, Tatsuya; Yamamoto, Eriko; Uno, Tadashi; Kikuchi, Sachiko

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Forest walking may be effective for human health, but little information is available about effects of energy expenditure on blood pressure responses after forest walking. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the activity energy expenditure and changes in blood pressure in individuals after forest walking. [Subjects] The subjects were 54 middle-aged and elderly people. [Methods] All subjects walked in the forest for approximately 90 min. Blood pressure, salivary amylase, and the Profile of Mood States were evaluated before and after forest walking, and activity energy expenditure was monitored throughout forest walking. Subjects were divided into two groups according to mean arterial pressure changes: a responder group (>5% decreases) and a nonresponder group (<5%). [Results] Forest walking significantly reduced the mean arterial pressure and improved the Profile of Mood States in both groups. Activity energy expenditure was related to changes in mean arterial pressure in the responder group, while this relation was not observed in the nonresponder group. Differential activity energy expenditure did not strongly affect improvement of the Profile of Mood States. [Conclusion] Greater walking-related greater activity energy expenditure might be required to accentuate physiological beneficial effects on in middle-aged and aged people. Furthermore, the forest environment per se can attenuate psychological stress. PMID:26834337

  18. Correlates of Self-Reported Sleep Duration in Middle-Aged and Elderly Koreans: from the Health Examinees Study

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Hyung-Suk; Yang, Jae Jeong; Song, Minkyo; Lee, Hwi-Won; Han, Sohee; Lee, Sang-Ah; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Lee, Jong-koo; Kang, Daehee

    2015-01-01

    Though various factors related to fluctuations in sleep duration have been identified, information remains limited regarding the correlates of short and long sleep duration among the Korean population. Thus, we investigated characteristics that could be associated with short and/or long sleep duration among middle-aged and elderly Koreans. A total of 84,094 subjects (27,717 men and 56,377 women) who participated in the Health Examinees Study were analyzed by using multinomial logistic regression models. To evaluate whether sociodemographic factors, lifestyle factors, psychological conditions, anthropometry results, and health conditions were associated with short and/or long sleep duration, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated with sleep duration of 6–7 hours as the reference group, accounting for putative covariates. Regardless of sexual differences, we found that adverse behaviors and lifestyle factors including low educational attainment, unemployment, being unmarried, current smoking status, lack of exercise, having irregular meals, poor psychosocial well-being, frequent stress events, and poor self-rated health were significantly associated with abnormal sleep duration. Similarly, diabetes mellitus and depression showed positive associations with abnormal sleep duration in both men and women. Our findings suggest that low sociodemographic characteristics, adverse lifestyle factors, poor psychological conditions, and certain disease morbidities could be associated with abnormal sleep duration in middle-aged and elderly Koreans. PMID:25933418

  19. Effect of Forest Walking on Autonomic Nervous System Activity in Middle-Aged Hypertensive Individuals: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chorong; Ikei, Harumi; Kobayashi, Maiko; Miura, Takashi; Taue, Masao; Kagawa, Takahide; Li, Qing; Kumeda, Shigeyoshi; Imai, Michiko; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi

    2015-01-01

    There has been increasing attention on the therapeutic effects of the forest environment. However, evidence-based research that clarifies the physiological effects of the forest environment on hypertensive individuals is lacking. This study provides scientific evidence suggesting that a brief forest walk affects autonomic nervous system activity in middle-aged hypertensive individuals. Twenty participants (58.0 ± 10.6 years) were instructed to walk predetermined courses in forest and urban environments (as control). Course length (17-min walk), walking speed, and energy expenditure were equal between the forest and urban environments to clarify the effects of each environment. Heart rate variability (HRV) and heart rate were used to quantify physiological responses. The modified semantic differential method and Profile of Mood States were used to determine psychological responses. The natural logarithm of the high-frequency component of HRV was significantly higher and heart rate was significantly lower when participants walked in the forest than when they walked in the urban environment. The questionnaire results indicated that, compared with the urban environment, walking in the forest increased “comfortable”, “relaxed”, “natural” and “vigorous” feelings and decreased “tension-anxiety,” “depression,” “anxiety-hostility,” “fatigue” and “confusion”. A brief walk in the forest elicited physiological and psychological relaxation effects on middle-aged hypertensive individuals. PMID:25739004

  20. Menopausal Status and Physical Performance in Middle Aged Women: A Cross-Sectional Community-Based Study in Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da Câmara, Saionara M. A.; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Pirkle, Catherine; Moreira, Mayle A.; Maciel, Álvaro C. C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between menopausal status and physical performance in middle-aged women from the Northeast region of Brazil. Methods Cross-sectional study of women between 40 to 65 years old living in Parnamirim. Women were recruited by advertisements in primary care neighborhood centers across the city. Physical performance was assessed by grip strength, gait speed and chair stands. Menopausal status was determined using the Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop classification and women were classified in: premenopausal, perimenopausal or postmenopausal. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to model the effect of menopausal status on each physical performance measure, adjusting for covariates (age, family income, education, body mass index, parity and age at first birth). Results The premenopausal women were significantly stronger and performed better in chair stands than perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. Gait speed did not vary significantly by menopausal status. In multivariate analyses, menopausal status remained statistically significant only for grip strength. In fully adjusted analyses, premenopausal women had grip strength mean of 2.226 Kgf (95% CI: 0.361 – 4.091) higher than the postmenopausal group. Conclusions This study provides further evidence for the associations between menopause and physical performance in middle-aged women, since grip strength is weaker in peri and postmenopausal women compared to premenopausal, even adjusted for age and other covariates. PMID:25822526

  1. Physical Activity, Sleep, and Nutrition Do Not Predict Cognitive Performance in Young and Middle-Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gijselaers, Hieronymus J. M.; Elena, Barberà; Kirschner, Paul A.; de Groot, Renate H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Biological lifestyle factors (BLFs) such as physical activity, sleep, and nutrition play a role in cognitive functioning. Research concerning the relation between BLFs and cognitive performance is scarce however, especially in young and middle-aged adults. Research has not yet focused on a multidisciplinary approach with respect to this relation in the abovementioned population, where lifestyle habits are more stable. The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of these BLFs to cognitive performance. Path analysis was conducted in an observational study in which 1131 adults were analyzed using a cross-validation approach. Participants provided information on physical activity, sedentary behavior, chronotype, sleep duration, sleep quality, and the consumption of breakfast, fish, and caffeine via a survey. Their cognitive performance was measured using objective digital cognitive tests. Exploration yielded a predictive cohesive model that fitted the data properly, χ2/df = 0.8, CFI = 1.00, RMSEA < 0.001, SRMR = 0.016. Validation of the developed model indicated that the model fitted the data satisfactorily, χ2/df = 2.75, CFI = 0.95, RMSEA < 0.056, SRMR = 0.035. None of the variables within the BLFs were predictive for any of the cognitive performance measures, except for sedentary behavior. Although sedentary behavior was positively predictive for processing speed its contribution was small and unclear. The results indicate that the variables within the BLFs do not predict cognitive performance in young and middle-aged adults. PMID:27199867

  2. Middle age onset short-term intermittent fasting dietary restriction prevents brain function impairments in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rumani; Manchanda, Shaffi; Kaur, Taranjeet; Kumar, Sushil; Lakhanpal, Dinesh; Lakhman, Sukhwinder S; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2015-12-01

    Intermittent fasting dietary restriction (IF-DR) is recently reported to be an effective intervention to retard age associated disease load and to promote healthy aging. Since sustaining long term caloric restriction regimen is not practically feasible in humans, so use of alternate approach such as late onset short term IF-DR regimen which is reported to trigger similar biological pathways is gaining scientific interest. The current study was designed to investigate the effect of IF-DR regimen implemented for 12 weeks in middle age rats on their motor coordination skills and protein and DNA damage in different brain regions. Further, the effect of IF-DR regimen was also studied on expression of energy regulators, cell survival pathways and synaptic plasticity marker proteins. Our data demonstrate that there was an improvement in motor coordination and learning response with decline in protein oxidative damage and recovery in expression of energy regulating neuropeptides. We further observed significant downregulation in nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and cytochrome c (Cyt c) levels and moderate upregulation of mortalin and synaptophysin expression. The present data may provide an insight on how a modest level of short term IF-DR, imposed in middle age, can slow down or prevent the age-associated impairment of brain functions and promote healthy aging by involving multiple regulatory pathways aimed at maintaining energy homeostasis. PMID:26318578

  3. Cognitive function and brain structure after recurrent mild traumatic brain injuries in young-to-middle-aged adults

    PubMed Central

    List, Jonathan; Ott, Stefanie; Bukowski, Martin; Lindenberg, Robert; Flöel, Agnes

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBIs) are regarded as an independent risk factor for developing dementia in later life. We here aimed to evaluate associations between recurrent mTBIs, cognition, and gray matter volume and microstructure as revealed by structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the chronic phase after mTBIs in young adulthood. We enrolled 20 young-to-middle-aged subjects, who reported two or more sports-related mTBIs, with the last mTBI > 6 months prior to study enrolment (mTBI group), and 21 age-, sex- and education matched controls with no history of mTBI (control group). All participants received comprehensive neuropsychological testing, and high resolution T1-weighted and diffusion tensor MRI in order to assess cortical thickness (CT) and microstructure, hippocampal volume, and ventricle size. Compared to the control group, subjects of the mTBI group presented with lower CT within the right temporal lobe and left insula using an a priori region of interest approach. Higher number of mTBIs was associated with lower CT in bilateral insula, right middle temporal gyrus and right entorhinal area. Our results suggest persistent detrimental effects of recurrent mTBIs on CT already in young-to-middle-aged adults. If additional structural deterioration occurs during aging, subtle neuropsychological decline may progress to clinically overt dementia earlier than in age-matched controls, a hypothesis to be assessed in future prospective trials. PMID:26052275

  4. Physical Activity, Sleep, and Nutrition Do Not Predict Cognitive Performance in Young and Middle-Aged Adults.

    PubMed

    Gijselaers, Hieronymus J M; Elena, Barberà; Kirschner, Paul A; de Groot, Renate H M

    2016-01-01

    Biological lifestyle factors (BLFs) such as physical activity, sleep, and nutrition play a role in cognitive functioning. Research concerning the relation between BLFs and cognitive performance is scarce however, especially in young and middle-aged adults. Research has not yet focused on a multidisciplinary approach with respect to this relation in the abovementioned population, where lifestyle habits are more stable. The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of these BLFs to cognitive performance. Path analysis was conducted in an observational study in which 1131 adults were analyzed using a cross-validation approach. Participants provided information on physical activity, sedentary behavior, chronotype, sleep duration, sleep quality, and the consumption of breakfast, fish, and caffeine via a survey. Their cognitive performance was measured using objective digital cognitive tests. Exploration yielded a predictive cohesive model that fitted the data properly, χ(2) /df = 0.8, CFI = 1.00, RMSEA < 0.001, SRMR = 0.016. Validation of the developed model indicated that the model fitted the data satisfactorily, χ(2) /df = 2.75, CFI = 0.95, RMSEA < 0.056, SRMR = 0.035. None of the variables within the BLFs were predictive for any of the cognitive performance measures, except for sedentary behavior. Although sedentary behavior was positively predictive for processing speed its contribution was small and unclear. The results indicate that the variables within the BLFs do not predict cognitive performance in young and middle-aged adults. PMID:27199867

  5. What kinds of website and mobile phone-delivered physical activity and nutrition interventions do middle-aged men want?

    PubMed

    Vandelanotte, Corneel; Caperchione, Cristina M; Ellison, Marcus; George, Emma S; Maeder, Anthony; Kolt, Gregory S; Duncan, Mitch J; Karunanithi, Mohanraj; Noakes, Manny; Hooker, Cindy; Viljoen, Pierre; Mummery, W Kerry

    2013-01-01

    Within a health context, men in Western societies are a hard-to-reach population who experience higher rates of chronic disease compared with women. Innovative technology-based interventions that specifically target men are needed; however, little is known about how these should be developed for this group. This study aimed to examine opinions and perceptions regarding the use of Internet and mobile phones to improve physical activity and nutrition behaviors for middle-aged men. The authors conducted 6 focus groups (n = 30) in Queensland, Australia. Their analyses identified 6 themes: (a) Internet experience, (b) website characteristics, (c) Web 2.0 applications, (d) website features, (e) self-monitoring, and (f) mobile phones as delivery method. The outcomes indicate that men support the use of the Internet to improve and self-monitor physical activity and dietary behaviors on the condition that the website-delivered interventions are quick and easy to use, because commitment levels to engage in online tasks are low. Participants also indicated that they were reluctant to use normal mobile phones to change health behaviors, although smartphones were perceived to be more acceptable. This pilot study suggests that there are viable avenues to engage middle-aged men in Internet- or in mobile-delivered health interventions. This study also suggests that to be successful, these interventions need to be tailor-made especially for men, with an emphasis on usability and convenience. A wider quantitative study would bring further support to these findings. PMID:23647448

  6. Severity of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms among Middle Aged and Elderly Nigerian Men: Impact on Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Adebayo, Philip Babatunde

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the severity of LUTS among middle aged and elderly Nigerian men and determine the influence of LUTS severity on QoL. Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted among new patients presenting with LUTS attending Urology clinic between 2011 and 2015. Assessment of symptoms was based on IPSS and bother score completed by the eligible subjects on the same day of their clinic visits. Results. Four hundred patients were studied comprising 229 middle aged and 171 elderly men. Interquartile range (IQR) of IPSS scores for men <65 years and those ≥65 years was 14.0 (16.0) and 19 (15.0), respectively (p < 0.001). Mild LUTS was significantly associated with best, good, and poor quality of life while moderate LUTS was associated with poor QoL. Severe LUTS was significantly associated with all the categories of QoL (Best-Worst). Among the cohort of subjects with poor QoL, elderly patients had a significantly higher median IPSS score (p < 0.05). Conclusions. There is no level of severity of LUTS in which patients' QoL is not impaired although mild symptomatology may be associated with better QoL and severe symptomatology with poor QoL. Careful attention to QoL may help identify patients who require early and prompt treatment irrespective of the IPSS. PMID:27413368

  7. Visceral adipose tissue influences on coronary artery calcification at young and middle-age groups using computed tomography angiography

    PubMed Central

    Abazid, Rami M.; Kattea, M. Obadah; Sayed, Sawsan; Saqqah, Hanaa; Qintar, Mohammed; Smettei, Osama A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the impact of excessive visceral adipose tissue (VAT) on subclinical coronary atherosclerosis and coronary artery calcifications (CAC) in young and middle-age groups using multislice computed tomography. Methods: This study is a single center, cross-sectional study. Eligible patients (n = 159), who under the age of 61 years, with chest pain and mild to moderate probability to have coronary artery disease (CAD) were enrolled. Coronary calcium score and epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) were measured at the level of the left main coronary artery while VAT was measured at the level of the iliac crest. Results: The average age was (48 ± 8 years). The mean VAT was (38 ± 21 cm2) with no significant difference between men and women (38 ± 22 vs. 37 ± 19 P = 0.8) respectively. Student's t-test analysis showed significantly higher VAT in patients with detectable CAC than patients with no CAC (48 ± 24 vs. 33 ± 18 P = 0.00002), respectively. Univariate regression analysis showed that VAT and EAT, are strong predictor for CAC (hazard ratio [HR] 1.034, 95% confidence interval [CI: 1.016–1.052]. P <0.001 and [HR] 1.344, 95% CI: [1.129–1.601] P = 0.001), respectively. Conclusion: Excessive VAT is significantly associated with positive CAC. VAT can strongly predict subclinical CAD in individuals at young and middle-age groups. PMID:26229760

  8. Comparison of Physical Fitness Status between Middle-aged and Elderly Male Laborers According to Lifestyle Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Mi-hyun; Shin, Joong-il; Yang, Dong-joo; Yang, Yeong-ae

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] We sought to examine the relationship between lifestyle behavior and physical fitness in middle-aged and elderly laborers. [Subjects] In total, 2,469 male laborers between 45 and 64 years of age residing in eight cities in South Korea were studied between January and December 2007. [Methods] Age, height, and weight were evaluated as general characteristics. Lifestyle behavior items included exercise, dietary habits, smoking, drinking, and sleeping hours. Physical fitness was assessed by measuring muscle strength, muscle endurance, flexibility, reflexes, and agility. [Results] In terms of physical fitness status, all items except handgrip strength showed significant changes according to exercise frequency. Dietary habits were associated with significant differences in the Sargent jump and whole-body reaction time between groups. Smoking and drinking were associated with significant differences in sit-ups between subgroups. Sleeping hours demonstrated significant differences in the Sargent jump and whole-body reaction time between groups. [Conclusion] Although there were differences according to physical fitness status, exercise frequency, dietary habits, smoking, drinking, and sleeping hours showed significant associations with physical fitness. Thus, healthy lifestyle behaviors, such as regular exercise, regular dietary habits, not smoking, moderate drinking, and adequate sleep, are important for physical fitness management and work capacity improvement in middle-aged and elderly laborers. PMID:25540509

  9. Feasibility of a Home-Based Speed of Processing Training Program in Middle-Aged and Older Adults With HIV.

    PubMed

    Cody, Shameka L; Fazeli, Pariya L; Vance, David E

    2015-08-01

    There has been much optimism over the positive impact of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on life expectancy for people with HIV; however, those aging with HIV fear potential day-to-day challenges associated with the development of cognitive deficits. The presence of cognitive deficits has generated major safety concerns because it has been shown to impact driving, mobility, and employment. Given the efficacy of a computerized speed of processing training program administered in the laboratory to older adults and adults with HIV, this study was designed to determine the feasibility of using a home-based speed of processing training program to improve cognitive function in middle-aged and older adults with HIV. In this within-subject pre-post experimental design, 20 middle-aged and older adults (i.e., age of 40+ years) with HIV were administered a brief neuropsychological assessment to gauge their baseline cognitive function before participating in a 10-hour home-based computerized cognitive remediation training program. In addition to self-reported cognitive gains, a 6-week posttest indicated significant improvements on the Useful Field of View, a measure of speed of processing and possible transfer to the Timed Instrumental Activities of Daily Living test, a measure of everyday functioning. These findings show that speed of processing training can successfully improve cognitive function in this vulnerable population even when administered in remote settings such as the privacy of one's home. PMID:26153789

  10. Gender Difference on the Association between Dietary Patterns and Obesity in Chinese Middle-Aged and Elderly Populations.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ya-Qun; Li, Fan; Meng, Pai; You, Jie; Wu, Min; Li, Shu-Guang; Chen, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Dietary patterns are linked to obesity, but the gender difference in the association between dietary patterns and obesity remains unclear. We explored this gender difference in a middle-aged and elderly populations in Shanghai. Residents (n = 2046; aged ≥45 years; 968 men and 1078 women) who participated in the Shanghai Food Consumption Survey were studied. Factor analysis of data from four periods of 24-h dietary recalls (across 2012-2014) identified dietary patterns. Height, body weight, and waist circumference were measured to calculate the body mass index. A log binominal model examined the association between dietary patterns and obesity, stratified by gender. Four dietary patterns were identified for both genders: rice staple, wheat staple, snacks, and prudent patterns. The rice staple pattern was associated positively with abdominal obesity in men (prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.358; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.132-1.639; p = 0.001), but was associated negatively with general obesity in women (PR = 0.745; 95% CI: 0.673-0.807; p = 0.031). Men in the highest quartile of the wheat staple pattern had significantly greater risk of central obesity (PR = 1.331; 95% CI: 1.094-1.627; p = 0.005). There may be gender differences in the association between dietary patterns and obesity in middle-aged and elderly populations in Shanghai, China. PMID:27455322

  11. Effects of a low-volume, vigorous intensity step exercise program on functional mobility in middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Doheny, Emer P; McGrath, Denise; Ditroilo, Massimiliano; Mair, Jacqueline L; Greene, Barry R; Caulfield, Brian; De Vito, Giuseppe; Lowery, Madeleine M

    2013-08-01

    Aging-related decline in functional mobility is associated with loss of independence. This decline may be mitigated through programs of physical activity. Despite reports of aging-related mobility impairment in middle-aged adults, this age group has been largely overlooked in terms of exercise programs that target functional mobility and the preservation of independence in older age. A method to quantitatively assess changes in functional mobility could direct rehabilitation in a proactive rather than reactive manner. Thirty-three healthy but sedentary middle-aged adults participated in a four week low-volume, vigorous intensity stepping exercise program. Two baseline testing sessions and one post-training testing session were conducted. Functional mobility was assessed using the timed up and go (TUG) test, with its constituent sit-to-walk and walk-to-sit phases examined using a novel inertial sensor-based method. Additionally, semi-tandem balance and knee extensor muscle isometric torque were assessed. Trunk acceleration during walk-to-sit reduced significantly post-training, suggesting altered movement control due to the exercise program. No significant training-induced changes in sit-to-walk acceleration, TUG time, balance or torque were observed. The novel method of functional mobility assessment presented provides a reliable means to quantify subtle changes in mobility during postural transitions. Over time, this exercise program may improve functional mobility. PMID:23568151

  12. Effect of parental family history of Alzheimer’s disease on serial position profiles

    PubMed Central

    La Rue, Asenath; Hermann, Bruce; Jones, Jana E.; Johnson, Sterling; Asthana, Sanjay; Sager, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Background An exaggerated recency effect (i.e., disproportionate recall of last-presented items) has been consistently observed in the word list learning of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Our study sought to determine if there were similar alterations in serial position learning among asymptomatic persons at risk for AD due to parental family history. Methods Subjects included 623 asymptomatic middle-aged children of patients with AD (median = 53 years) and 157 control participants whose parents survived to at least age 70 without AD or other memory disorders. All participants were administered the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test which requires learning and recall of 15 unrelated nouns. Results There was no significant difference in total words recalled between the AD children and control groups. However, compared to controls, AD children showed a significantly greater tendency to recall words from the end (recency) versus beginning (primacy) of the list. Serial position effects were unrelated to apolipoprotein allele epsilon 4 (APOE ε4) or depressive symptoms. Conclusions Asymptomatic persons at risk for AD by virtue of family history do not show a difference in total words recalled compared to controls, but exhibit a distinctly different serial position curve suggesting greater reliance on immediate as opposed to episodic memory. This is the same serial position pattern observed in mild AD, seen here in reduced severity. Longitudinal follow-up is planned to determine whether changes in serial position patterns are a meaningful marker for preclinical detection of AD. PMID:18631980

  13. The constraints of a normal life: the management of urinary incontinence by middle aged women.

    PubMed

    Peake, Susan; Manderson, Lenore

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we explore social aspects of the management of urinary incontinence (UI) by women in their middle years. Drawing on interview data with 75 women, and on sociological theories of the body, we illustrate the problematic nature of UI. The occurrence of UI is commonly regarded as a sign of bodily neglect and a lack of self-discipline. To ensure continued social membership, women must devise ways and adhere to various social rules to manage the physiologically "leaky" body that defies cultural norms of restraint and control. Managing UI involves anticipating and masking a problem that invokes persistent cultural ideas about the female body. PMID:12839306

  14. Long-Term Estrogen Receptor Beta Agonist Treatment Modifies the Hippocampal Transcriptome in Middle-Aged Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sárvári, Miklós; Kalló, Imre; Hrabovszky, Erik; Solymosi, Norbert; Rodolosse, Annie; Liposits, Zsolt

    2016-01-01

    Estradiol (E2) robustly activates transcription of a broad array of genes in the hippocampal formation of middle-aged ovariectomized rats via estrogen receptors (ERα, ERβ, and G protein-coupled ER). Selective ERβ agonists also influence hippocampal functions, although their downstream molecular targets and mechanisms are not known. In this study, we explored the effects of long-term treatment with ERβ agonist diarylpropionitrile (DPN, 0.05 mg/kg/day, sc.) on the hippocampal transcriptome in ovariectomized, middle-aged (13 month) rats. Isolated hippocampal formations were analyzed by Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarray and quantitative real-time PCR. Four hundred ninety-seven genes fulfilled the absolute fold change higher than 2 (FC > 2) selection criterion. Among them 370 genes were activated. Pathway analysis identified terms including glutamatergic and cholinergic synapse, RNA transport, endocytosis, thyroid hormone signaling, RNA degradation, retrograde endocannabinoid signaling, and mRNA surveillance. PCR studies showed transcriptional regulation of 58 genes encoding growth factors (Igf2, Igfb2, Igf1r, Fgf1, Mdk, Ntf3, Bdnf), transcription factors (Otx2, Msx1), potassium channels (Kcne2), neuropeptides (Cck, Pdyn), peptide receptors (Crhr2, Oprm1, Gnrhr, Galr2, Sstr1, Sstr3), neurotransmitter receptors (Htr1a, Htr2c, Htr2a, Gria2, Gria3, Grm5, Gabra1, Chrm5, Adrb1), and vesicular neurotransmitter transporters (Slc32a1, Slc17a7). Protein-protein interaction analysis revealed networking of clusters associated with the regulation of growth/troph factor signaling, transcription, translation, neurotransmitter and neurohormone signaling mechanisms and potassium channels. Collectively, the results reveal the contribution of ERβ-mediated processes to the regulation of transcription, translation, neurogenesis, neuromodulation, and neuroprotection in the hippocampal formation of ovariectomized, middle-aged rats and elucidate regulatory channels responsible for

  15. Effect of Alzheimer Disease Risk on Brain Function During Self-Appraisal in Healthy Middle-Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Sterling C.; Ries, Michele L.; Hess, Timothy M.; Carlsson, Cynthia M.; Gleason, Carey E.; Alexander, Andrew L.; Rowley, Howard A.; Asthana, Sanjay; Sager, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Context Recently asymptomatic middle-aged adult children of patients with Alzheimer Disease (AD) were found to exhibit fMRI deficits in the mesial temporal lobe during an encoding task. Whether this effect will be observed on other fMRI tasks is not yet known. This study examines the neural substrates of self-appraisal in people at risk for AD. Accurate appraisal of deficits is a problem for many AD patients, and prior fMRI studies of healthy young adults indicates that brain areas vulnerable to AD such as the anterior mesial temporal lobe and posterior cingulate are involved during self appraisal tasks. Objective To determine whether parental family history of AD (FH) or the ε4 allele of the Apolipoprotein E gene (APOE4) exert independent effects on brain function during self-appraisal. Design Cross-sectional factorial design in which APOE4 status (present/absent) was one factor, and FH status was the other. All participants received cognitive testing, genotyping and an fMRI task that required subjective self-appraisal (SA) decisions regarding trait adjective words in comparison to semantic decisions about the same words. Setting An academic medical center with a research-dedicated 3.0 Tesla MRI facility. Participants Cognitively normal middle-aged adults (N=110): 51 +FH; 59 −FH. Outcome measure Blood oxygen-dependent contrast measured with T2* weighted echo-planar imaging. Results FH and APOE4 status interacted in the posterior cingulate as well as left superior and medial frontal regions. There were main effects of FH (−FH > +FH) in left hippocampus, and ventral posterior cingulate. There were no main effects of APOE. Conclusion These results suggest that a parental history of AD may influence brain function during subjective self-appraisal in regions commonly affected by AD. Although these participants were asymptomatic and middle-aged, the findings suggest there may be subtle alterations in brain function attributable to AD risk factors. PMID:17909128

  16. Identifying Coronary Artery Disease in Asymptomatic Middle-Aged Sportsmen: The Additional Value of Pulse Wave Velocity

    PubMed Central

    Braber, Thijs L.; Prakken, Niek H. J.; Mosterd, Arend; Mali, Willem P. Th. M.; Doevendans, Pieter A. F. M.; Bots, Michiel L.; Velthuis, Birgitta K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular screening may benefit middle-aged sportsmen, as coronary artery disease (CAD) is the main cause of exercise-related sudden cardiac death. Arterial stiffness, as measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV), may help identify sportsmen with subclinical CAD. We examined the additional value of PWV measurements to traditional CAD risk factors for identifying CAD. Methods From the Measuring Athlete’s Risk of Cardiovascular events (MARC) cohort of asymptomatic, middle-aged sportsmen who underwent low-dose Cardiac CT (CCT) after routine sports medical examination (SME), 193 consecutive sportsmen (aged 55±6.6 years) were included with additional PWV measurements before CCT. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of PWV values (>8.3 and >7.5m/s) assessed by Arteriograph were used to identify CAD (coronary artery calcium scoring ≥100 Agatston Units or coronary CT angiography luminal stenosis ≥50%) and to assess the additional diagnostic value of PWV to established cardiovascular risk factors. Results Forty-seven sportsmen (24%) had CAD on CCT. They were older (58.9 vs. 53.8 years, p<0.001), had more hypertension (17 vs. 4%, p=0.003), higher cholesterol levels (5.7 vs. 5.4mmol/l) p=0.048), and more often were (ever) smokers (55 vs. 34%, p=0.008). Mean PWV was higher in those with CAD (8.9 vs. 8.0 m/s, p=0.017). For PWV >8.3m/s respectively >7.5m/s sensitivity to detect CAD on CT was 43% and 74%, specificity 69% and 45%, positive predictive value 31% and 30%, and negative predictive value 79% and 84%. Adding PWV to traditional risk factor models did not change the area under the curve (from 0.78 (95% CI = 0.709-0.848)) to AUC 0.78 (95% CI 0.710-0.848, p = 0.99)) for prediction of CAD on CCT. Conclusions Limited additional value was found for PWV on top of established risk factors to identify CAD. PWV might still have a role to identify CAD in middle-aged sportsmen if risk factors such as cholesterol are unknown. PMID:26147752

  17. Isolated Systolic Hypertension in Young and Middle-Aged Adults and 31-Year Risk for Cardiovascular Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Yano, Yuichiro; Stamler, Jeremiah; Garside, Daniel B.; Daviglus, Martha L.; Franklin, Stanley S.; Carnethon, Mercedes R.; Liu, Kiang; Greenland, Philip; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Isolated systolic hypertension (ISH), defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥140 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) <90 mm Hg, in younger and middle-aged adults is increasing in prevalence. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to assess the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) with ISH in younger and middle-aged adults. METHODS CVD risks were explored in 15,868 men and 11,213 women 18 to 49 years of age (mean age 34 years) at baseline, 85% non-Hispanic white, free of coronary heart disease (CHD) and antihypertensive therapy, from the Chicago Heart Association Detection Project in Industry study. Participant classifications were as follows: 1) optimal-normal blood pressure (BP) (SBP <130 mm Hg and DBP <85 mm Hg); 2) high-normal BP (130 to 139/85 to 89 mm Hg); 3) ISH; 4) isolated diastolic hypertension (SBP <140 mm Hg and DBP ≥90 mm Hg); and 5) systolic diastolic hypertension (SBP ≥140 mm Hg and DBP ≥90 mm Hg). RESULTS During a 31-year average follow-up period (842,600 person-years), there were 1,728 deaths from CVD, 1,168 from CHD, and 223 from stroke. Cox proportional hazards models were adjusted for age, race, education, body mass index, current smoking, total cholesterol, and diabetes. In men, with optimal-normal BP as the reference stratum, hazard ratios for CVD and CHD mortality risk for those with ISH were 1.23 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03 to 1.46) and 1.28 (95% CI: 1.04 to 1.58), respectively. ISH risks were similar to those with high-normal BP and less than those associated with isolated diastolic hypertension and systolic diastolic hypertension. In women with ISH, hazard ratios for CVD and CHD mortality risk were 1.55 (95% CI: 1.18 to 2.05) and 2.12 (95% CI: 1.49 to 3.01), respectively. ISH risks were higher than in those with high-normal BP or isolated diastolic hypertension and less than those associated with systolic diastolic hypertension. CONCLUSIONS Over long-term follow-up, younger and middle-aged adults with ISH

  18. Correlations of Metabolic Components with Prostate Volume in Middle-Aged Men Receiving Health Check-Up

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hung-Ju; Chang, Hong-Chiang; Hsieh, Ju-Ton; Huang, Kuo-How

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the impact of metabolic components and body composition indices on prostate volume (PV) in a population of middle-aged men receiving health check-ups. Methods Six hundred and sixteen men receiving health assessments were stratified to large and small prostates based on the cut-off of median PV. Their demographic data, health history, and international prostate symptoms scores (IPSS) were collected. Metabolic components and body composition indices were compared between subjects with large and small prostates. Moreover, the correlations between these parameters and PV were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression. Results The median PV was 27 mL and mean age was 54.8 years. Subjects with large PV were older (56.5 vs. 52.7 years) and had higher serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) level (1.73 vs. 0.96 ng/mL), higher IPSS score (8.37 vs. 6.16), and higher body fat, body mass, and waist circumference (all p<0.05). In multivariate analysis, age (OR, 2.45; 95%CI, 1.74–3.45), serum PSA (OR, 2.75; 95%CI, 1.96–3.86), waist circumference (OR, 1.45; 95%CI, 1.02–2.07), fatness (OR, 1.47; 95%CI, 1.04–2.09), and body fat mass (OR, 1.43; 95%CI, 1.00–2.03) were significantly correlated with PV of study subjects. In subgroup analysis, raised waist circumference (OR, 1.89; 95%CI, 1.00–3.59) was the independent predictor of PV in subjects with bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms. Conclusions Several metabolic components and body composition indices are significantly associated with PV of middle-aged men, including raised waist circumference, fatness, and body fat mass. Raised waist circumference is the only independent predictor of PV in middle-aged men with bothersome LUTS. PMID:26731481

  19. High Prevalence of Superior Labral Tears Diagnosed by MRI in Middle-Aged Patients With Asymptomatic Shoulders

    PubMed Central

    Schwartzberg, Randy; Reuss, Bryan L.; Burkhart, Bradd G.; Butterfield, Matt; Wu, James Y.; McLean, Kevin W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The incidence of superior labral surgery has increased in the past decade in the United States, and a contributing factor could be an increased rate of superior labral tears diagnosed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Prior MRI studies of the asymptomatic shoulder have focused on rotator cuff pathology or pathology in a narrow and specific group of athletes. Labral abnormalities have not previously been thoroughly evaluated in asymptomatic middle-aged individuals. Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence of superior labral tears diagnosed by MRI in the asymptomatic shoulders of middle-aged people (age range, 45-60 years). Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A total of 53 asymptomatic adults (age range, 45-60 years) with no history of surgery or injury to either shoulder were included in the study. Physical examinations of all shoulders were performed. Noncontrast MRI (1.5 T) was performed in 1 randomly determined shoulder of each subject. Two fellowship-trained musculoskeletal radiologists who were blinded to the purpose of the study and ages of the subjects evaluated each MRI. Results: Radiologists interpreted the MRIs as consistent with superior labral tears in 55% and 72% of the cohort. Comparison of the radiological evaluations of the superior labra were moderate (κ = 0.410, P = .033). There were no differences in readings for superior labral tear regarding age (P = .87), sex (P = .41), whether the dominant shoulder underwent MRI (P = .99), whether the subject worked a physical job (P = .08), or whether the subject participated in overhead sports for a period of 1 year (P = .62). Conclusion: Superior labral tears are diagnosed with high frequency using MRI in 45- to 60-year-old individuals with asymptomatic shoulders. These shoulder MRI findings in middle-aged populations emphasize the need for supporting clinical judgment when making treatment decisions for this patient population. Clinical Relevance: To avoid

  20. Functional Disability Among Late Middle-Aged and Older Adults Admitted to a Safety-Net Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Rebecca T.; Pierluissi, Edgar; Guzman, David; Kessell, Eric R.; Goldman, L. Elizabeth; Sarkar, Urmimala; Schneidermann, Michelle; Critchfield, Jeffrey M.; Kushel, Margot B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although individuals with lower socioeconomic status may develop functional disability at younger ages, little is known about the prevalence and correlates of functional disability among late middle-aged and older patients admitted to safety-net hospitals. Objectives To determine the prevalence of pre-admission functional disability among late middle-aged and older safety-net inpatients, and to identify characteristics associated with functional disability by age. Design Cross-sectional analysis. Setting Safety-net hospital in San Francisco, California. Participants English, Spanish, and Chinese-speaking community-dwelling patients aged 55 and older admitted to a safety-net hospital with anticipated return to the community (N = 699). Measurements At hospital admission, patients reported their need for help performing 5 activities of daily living (ADLs) and 7 instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) 2 weeks before admission. ADL disability was defined as needing help performing 1 or more ADLs and IADL disability as needing help performing 2 or more IADLs. Participant characteristics were assessed, including sociodemographics, health status, health-related behaviors, and health-seeking behaviors. Results Overall, 28.3% of participants reported that they had an ADL disability 2 weeks prior to admission and 40.4% reported an IADL disability. The prevalence of pre-admission ADL disability was 28.9% among those 55-59 years, 20.7% among those 60-69 years, and 41.2% among those aged 70 and older (P<.001). The prevalence of IADL disability had a similar distribution. The characteristics associated with functional disability differed by age: among adults aged 55-59, African Americans had a higher odds of ADL and/or IADL disability, while among participants aged 60-69 and aged 70 and older, inadequate health literacy was associated with functional disability. Conclusion Pre-admission functional disability is common among patients aged 55 and older admitted

  1. Long-Term Estrogen Receptor Beta Agonist Treatment Modifies the Hippocampal Transcriptome in Middle-Aged Ovariectomized Rats.

    PubMed

    Sárvári, Miklós; Kalló, Imre; Hrabovszky, Erik; Solymosi, Norbert; Rodolosse, Annie; Liposits, Zsolt

    2016-01-01

    Estradiol (E2) robustly activates transcription of a broad array of genes in the hippocampal formation of middle-aged ovariectomized rats via estrogen receptors (ERα, ERβ, and G protein-coupled ER). Selective ERβ agonists also influence hippocampal functions, although their downstream molecular targets and mechanisms are not known. In this study, we explored the effects of long-term treatment with ERβ agonist diarylpropionitrile (DPN, 0.05 mg/kg/day, sc.) on the hippocampal transcriptome in ovariectomized, middle-aged (13 month) rats. Isolated hippocampal formations were analyzed by Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarray and quantitative real-time PCR. Four hundred ninety-seven genes fulfilled the absolute fold change higher than 2 (FC > 2) selection criterion. Among them 370 genes were activated. Pathway analysis identified terms including glutamatergic and cholinergic synapse, RNA transport, endocytosis, thyroid hormone signaling, RNA degradation, retrograde endocannabinoid signaling, and mRNA surveillance. PCR studies showed transcriptional regulation of 58 genes encoding growth factors (Igf2, Igfb2, Igf1r, Fgf1, Mdk, Ntf3, Bdnf), transcription factors (Otx2, Msx1), potassium channels (Kcne2), neuropeptides (Cck, Pdyn), peptide receptors (Crhr2, Oprm1, Gnrhr, Galr2, Sstr1, Sstr3), neurotransmitter receptors (Htr1a, Htr2c, Htr2a, Gria2, Gria3, Grm5, Gabra1, Chrm5, Adrb1), and vesicular neurotransmitter transporters (Slc32a1, Slc17a7). Protein-protein interaction analysis revealed networking of clusters associated with the regulation of growth/troph factor signaling, transcription, translation, neurotransmitter and neurohormone signaling mechanisms and potassium channels. Collectively, the results reveal the contribution of ERβ-mediated processes to the regulation of transcription, translation, neurogenesis, neuromodulation, and neuroprotection in the hippocampal formation of ovariectomized, middle-aged rats and elucidate regulatory channels responsible for

  2. Intelligence and Disability Pension in Swedish Men and Women Followed from Childhood to Late Middle Age

    PubMed Central

    Lundin, Andreas; Sörberg Wallin, Alma; Falkstedt, Daniel; Allebeck, Peter; Hemmingsson, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between intelligence and disability pension due to mental, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and substance-use disorders among men and women, and to assess the role of childhood social factors and adulthood work characteristics. Methods Two random samples of men and women born 1948 and 1953 (n = 10 563 and 9 434), and tested for general intelligence at age 13, were followed in registers for disability pension until 2009. Physical and psychological strains in adulthood were assessed using job exposure matrices. Associations were examined using Cox proportional hazard regression models, with increases in rates reported as hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) per decrease in stanine intelligence. Results In both men and women increased risks were found for disability pension due to all causes, musculoskeletal disorder, mental disorder other than substance use, and cardiovascular disease as intelligence decreased. Increased risk was also found for substance use disorder in men. In multivariate models, HRs were attenuated after controlling for pre-school plans in adolescence, and low job control and high physical strain in adulthood. In the fully adjusted model, increased HRs remained for all causes (male HR 1.11, 95%CI 1.07–1.15, female HR 1.06, 95%CI 1.02–1.09) and musculoskeletal disorder (male HR 1.16, 95%CI 1.09–1.24, female HR 1.08, 95%CI 1.03–1.14) during 1986 to 2009. Conclusion Relatively low childhood intelligence is associated with increased risk of disability pension due to musculoskeletal disorder in both men and women, even after adjustment for risk factors for disability pension measured over the life course. PMID:26062026

  3. Prevalence of Clinical Anxiety, Clinical Depression and Associated Risk Factors in Chinese Young and Middle-Aged Patients with Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head

    PubMed Central

    Gao, You-Shui; He, Hai-Yan; Jin, Dong-Xu; Zhang, Chang-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of clinical anxiety and clinical depression in Chinese young and mid-aged patients with osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) and to analyze their potential risk factors. Methods Two hundred and sixteen Chinese patients with ONFH were consecutively enrolled in this cross-sectional study from January 2010 to December 2010. The Zung self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) and the Zung self-rating depression scale (SDS) were used to assess the prevalence of clinical anxiety and clinical depression. An additional questionnaire containing seventeen items of potential risk factors was completed by all patients. Binary logistic regression analysis was employed to reveal potential risk factors of anxiety and depression. Results The prevalence of clinical anxiety and clinical depression was 20.4% and 21.8% in Chinese young and middle-aged patients with ONFH, respectively. Binary regression analysis showed that independent risk factors correlated with high incidence of clinical anxiety included involved femoral head (OR = 3.168, 95% CI: 1.496 - 6.708) and stages of ONFH (ORIV-V / II = 5.383, 95% CI: 1.664-17.416). Independent risk factors correlated with high incidence of depression included gender (OR = 2.853, 95% CI: 1.467-5.778), comorbid diseases (OR = 4.243, 95% CI: 1.940-9.278) and stages of the disease (OR IV-V/II = 16.963, 95% CI: 4.404-65.331). Conclusions Patients with bilateral ONFH are inclined to have clinical anxiety, while female patients and patients with comorbid diseases might tend to get clinical depression. Advanced stages of ONFH are independent risk factors for both clinical anxiety and clinical depression. PMID:25789850

  4. Associations Between Body Mass Index and Foot Joint Pain in Middle-Aged and Older Women: A Longitudinal Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Gay, Anita; Culliford, David; Leyland, Kirsten; Arden, Nigel K; Bowen, Catherine J

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and foot joint pain (FJP) over a 5-year period in a community-based cohort. Methods We examined a subset of women from the Chingford Women's Study, a community cohort followed up for 20 years. From a baseline of 1,003 female participants, we reviewed data from 639 women (64%) for whom complete data sets for FJP and BMI were obtained over a 5-year period between year 10 (Y10) and year 15 (Y15). Descriptive statistics, binary regression modeling, and odds ratios (ORs) were used to examine the longitudinal relationship between BMI and FJP. Results For Y10 and Y15, the median age was 61 years (interquartile range [IQR] 57–67) and 66 years (IQR 62–72), respectively, and the mean ± SD BMI was 26.7 ± 4.6 kg/m2 and 27.2 ± 4.8 kg/m2, respectively. FJP prevalence was 21.6% at Y10 and 26.6% at Y15. Longitudinal analyses showed that both BMI and FJP increased significantly from Y10 to Y15 (P < 0.001). The odds of having FJP after a 5-year period increased by 4.9% for each BMI unit increase 5 years earlier (OR 1.049 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.011–1.089], P = 0.012). This remained significant when adjusted for age, diabetes mellitus, and rheumatoid arthritis (OR 1.051 [95% CI 1.011–1.091], P = 0.012). Conclusion This is the first large longitudinal cohort study demonstrating that, in middle-aged women, a high BMI precedes and is predictive of FJP independent of age. Evidence from our findings can be used to identify those individuals at risk of developing FJP. PMID:25047683

  5. The Post-Ovariectomy Interval Affects the Antidepressant-Like Action of Citalopram Combined with Ethynyl-Estradiol in the Forced Swim Test in Middle Aged Rats.

    PubMed

    Vega Rivera, Nelly M; Gallardo Tenorio, Alfredo; Fernández-Guasti, Alonso; Estrada Camarena, Erika

    2016-01-01

    The use of a combined therapy with low doses of estrogens plus antidepressants to treat depression associated to perimenopause could be advantageous. However the use of these combinations is controversial due to several factors, including the time of intervention in relation to menopause onset. This paper analyzes whether time post-OVX influences the antidepressant-like action of a combination of ethynyl-estradiol (EE₂) and citalopram (CIT) in the forced swim test (FST). Middle-aged (15 months old) female Wistar rats were ovariectomized and after one or three weeks treated with EE₂ (1.25, 2.5 or 5.0 µg/rat, s.c.; -48 h) or CIT (1.25, 2.5, 5.0 or 10 mg/kg, i.p./3 injections in 24 h) and tested in the FST. In a second experiment, after one or three weeks of OVX, rats received a combination of an ineffective dose of EE₂ (1.25 µg/rat, s.c., -48 h) plus CIT (2.5 mg/kg, i.p./3 injections in 24 h) and subjected to the FST. Finally, the uteri were removed and weighted to obtain an index of the peripheral effects of EE₂ administration. EE₂ (2.5 or 5.0 µg/rat) reduced immobility after one but not three weeks of OVX. In contrast, no CIT dose reduced immobility at one or three weeks after OVX. When EE₂ (1.25 µg/rat) was combined with CIT (2.5 mg/kg) an antidepressant-like effect was observed at one but not three weeks post-OVX. The weight of the uteri augmented when EE₂ was administrated three weeks after OVX. The data suggest that the time post-OVX is a crucial factor that contributes to observe the antidepressant-like effect of EE₂ alone or in combination with CIT. PMID:27153072

  6. Experience of Late–Middle-Aged Women who Reside in Small and Medium-Sized Cities in Becoming Psychologically Mature Women

    PubMed Central

    Park, Euna; Kim, Haeok

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study is to search the inner world of postmenopausal women in late-middle age who are facing senescence and live in small and medium-sized cities. Methods The methods of the study were the investigation and classification of answers to questions according to a declarative ethnography analysis. The questions asked to late–middle-aged women living in small and medium-sized cities were “How do you interpret and recognize the changes in the body after menopause?” and “Which methods do you choose and practice to maintain your health in relation to aging during middle age?”. Results Four positive topics and two negative topics were drawn from the study. The four positive themes were: ambition; completion of a great mission; life with a sense of affection; and gratitude for maintaining health. The negative themes were: undulating emotion; and filling the emptiness. Conclusion The recognition of changes in the body after menopause in late–middle-aged women in small and medium-sized cities can affect their preparation processes towards senescence. It is critical to find the means to manage emergency health cases from early adulthood to middle age, based on the outcomes of the study. The study also emphasizes the importance of the woman's family's alternative strategies and supportive systems, which can fit into the cultural context of the community. PMID:26430612

  7. Psychiatric Co-occurring Symptoms and Disorders in Young, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Lever, Anne G; Geurts, Hilde M

    2016-06-01

    Although psychiatric problems are less prevalent in old age within the general population, it is largely unknown whether this extends to individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We examined psychiatric symptoms and disorders in young, middle-aged, and older adults with and without ASD (Nmax = 344, age 19-79 years, IQ > 80). Albeit comparable to other psychiatric patients, levels of symptoms and psychological distress were high over the adult lifespan; 79 % met criteria for a psychiatric disorder at least once in their lives. Depression and anxiety were most common. However, older adults less often met criteria for any psychiatric diagnosis and, specifically, social phobia than younger adults. Hence, despite marked psychological distress, psychiatric problems are also less prevalent in older aged individuals with ASD. PMID:26861713

  8. Developing Occupation-Based Preventive Programs for Late-Middle-Aged Latino Patients in Safety-Net Health Systems

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Mike; Martínez, Jenny; Guzmán, Laura; Mahajan, Anish; Clark, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Latino adults between ages 50 and 60 yr are at high risk for developing chronic conditions that can lead to early disability. We conducted a qualitative pilot study with 11 Latinos in this demographic group to develop a foundational schema for the design of health promotion programs that could be implemented by occupational therapy practitioners in primary care settings for this population. One-on-one interviews addressing routines and activities, health management, and health care utilization were conducted, audiotaped, and transcribed. Results of a content analysis of the qualitative data revealed the following six domains of most concern: Weight Management; Disease Management; Mental Health and Well-Being; Personal Finances; Family, Friends, and Community; and Stress Management. A typology of perceived health-actualizing strategies was derived for each domain. This schema can be used by occupational therapy practitioners to inform the development of health-promotion lifestyle interventions designed specifically for late-middle-aged Latinos. PMID:26565102

  9. The benefit of amplification on auditory working memory function in middle-aged and young-older hearing impaired adults.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Karen A; Desjardins, Jamie L

    2015-01-01

    Untreated hearing loss can interfere with an individual's cognitive abilities and intellectual function. Specifically, hearing loss has been shown to negatively impact working memory function, which is important for speech understanding, especially in difficult or noisy listening conditions. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of hearing aid use on auditory working memory function in middle-aged and young-older adults with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss. Participants completed two objective measures of auditory working memory in aided and unaided listening conditions. An aged matched control group followed the same experimental protocol except they were not fit with hearing aids. All participants' aided scores on the auditory working memory tests were significantly improved while wearing hearing aids. Thus, hearing aids worn during the early stages of an age-related hearing loss can improve a person's performance on auditory working memory tests. PMID:26097461

  10. Developing Occupation-Based Preventive Programs for Late-Middle-Aged Latino Patients in Safety-Net Health Systems.

    PubMed

    Schepens Niemiec, Stacey L; Carlson, Mike; Martínez, Jenny; Guzmán, Laura; Mahajan, Anish; Clark, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Latino adults between ages 50 and 60 yr are at high risk for developing chronic conditions that can lead to early disability. We conducted a qualitative pilot study with 11 Latinos in this demographic group to develop a foundational schema for the design of health promotion programs that could be implemented by occupational therapy practitioners in primary care settings for this population. One-on-one interviews addressing routines and activities, health management, and health care utilization were conducted, audiotaped, and transcribed. Results of a content analysis of the qualitative data revealed the following six domains of most concern: Weight Management; Disease Management; Mental Health and Well-Being; Personal Finances; Family, Friends, and Community; and Stress Management. A typology of perceived health-actualizing strategies was derived for each domain. This schema can be used by occupational therapy practitioners to inform the development of health-promotion lifestyle interventions designed specifically for late-middle-aged Latinos. PMID:26565102

  11. TWO-STEP ACCELERATION MODEL OF COSMIC RAYS AT MIDDLE-AGED SUPERNOVA REMNANTS: UNIVERSALITY IN SECONDARY SHOCKS

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Yamazaki, Ryo; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro

    2010-11-01

    Recent gamma-ray observations of middle-aged supernova remnants revealed a mysterious broken power-law spectrum. Using three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations, we show that the interaction between a supernova blast wave and interstellar clouds formed by thermal instability generates multiple reflected shocks. The typical Mach numbers of the reflected shocks are shown to be M{approx_equal} 2 depending on the density contrast between the diffuse intercloud gas and clouds. These secondary shocks can further energize cosmic-ray particles originally accelerated at the blast-wave shock. This 'two-step' acceleration scenario reproduces the observed gamma-ray spectrum and predicts the high-energy spectral index ranging approximately from 3 to 4.

  12. The benefit of amplification on auditory working memory function in middle-aged and young-older hearing impaired adults

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Karen A.; Desjardins, Jamie L.

    2015-01-01

    Untreated hearing loss can interfere with an individual’s cognitive abilities and intellectual function. Specifically, hearing loss has been shown to negatively impact working memory function, which is important for speech understanding, especially in difficult or noisy listening conditions. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of hearing aid use on auditory working memory function in middle-aged and young-older adults with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss. Participants completed two objective measures of auditory working memory in aided and unaided listening conditions. An aged matched control group followed the same experimental protocol except they were not fit with hearing aids. All participants’ aided scores on the auditory working memory tests were significantly improved while wearing hearing aids. Thus, hearing aids worn during the early stages of an age-related hearing loss can improve a person’s performance on auditory working memory tests. PMID:26097461

  13. Two-step Acceleration Model of Cosmic Rays at Middle-aged Supernova Remnants: Universality in Secondary Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Yamazaki, Ryo; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro

    2010-11-01

    Recent gamma-ray observations of middle-aged supernova remnants revealed a mysterious broken power-law spectrum. Using three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations, we show that the interaction between a supernova blast wave and interstellar clouds formed by thermal instability generates multiple reflected shocks. The typical Mach numbers of the reflected shocks are shown to be Msime 2 depending on the density contrast between the diffuse intercloud gas and clouds. These secondary shocks can further energize cosmic-ray particles originally accelerated at the blast-wave shock. This "two-step" acceleration scenario reproduces the observed gamma-ray spectrum and predicts the high-energy spectral index ranging approximately from 3 to 4.

  14. Peripheral Nerve Dysfunction in Middle-Aged Subjects Born with Thalidomide Embryopathy

    PubMed Central

    Nicotra, Alessia; Newman, Claus; Johnson, Martin; Eremin, Oleg; Friede, Tim; Malik, Omar; Nicholas, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Background Phocomelia is an extremely rare congenital malformation that emerged as one extreme of a range of defects resulting from in utero exposure to thalidomide. Individuals with thalidomide embryopathy (TE) have reported developing symptoms suggestive of peripheral nervous system dysfunction in the mal-developed limbs in later life. Methods Case control study comparing TE subjects with upper limb anomalies and neuropathic symptoms with healthy controls using standard neurophysiological testing. Other causes of a peripheral neuropathy were excluded prior to assessment. Results Clinical examination of 17 subjects with TE (aged 50.4±1.3 [mean±standard deviation] years, 10 females) and 17 controls (37.9±9.0 years; 8 females) demonstrated features of upper limb compressive neuropathy in three-quarters of subjects. Additionally there were examination findings suggestive of mild sensory neuropathy in the lower limbs (n = 1), L5 radiculopathic sensory impairment (n = 1) and cervical myelopathy (n = 1). In TE there were electrophysiological changes consistent with a median large fibre neuropathic abnormality (mean compound muscle action potential difference -6.3 mV ([-9.3, -3.3], p = 0.0002) ([95% CI], p-value)) and reduced sympathetic skin response amplitudes (-0.8 mV ([-1.5, -0.2], p = 0.0089)) in the affected upper limbs. In the lower limbs there was evidence of sural nerve dysfunction (sensory nerve action potential -5.8 μV ([-10.7, -0.8], p = 0.0232)) and impaired warm perception thresholds (+3.0°C ([0.6, 5.4], p = 0.0169)). Conclusions We found a range of clinical features relevant to individuals with TE beyond upper limb compressive neuropathies supporting the need for a detailed neurological examination to exclude other treatable pathologies. The electrophysiological evidence of large and small fibre axonal nerve dysfunction in symptomatic and asymptomatic limbs may be a result of the original insult and merits further investigation. PMID:27100829

  15. Body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, and metabolic syndrome as predictors of middle-aged men's health

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung Hyun; Cho, In-Chang; Kim, Yoo Seok; Kim, Soon Ki; Min, Seung Ki

    2015-01-01

    Purpose There is no reported evidence for an anthropometric index that might link obesity to men's sexual health. We evaluated the ability of an anthropometric index and the symptom scores of five widely used questionnaires to detect men's health problems. We determined the predictive abilities of two obesity indexes and other clinical parameters for screening for lower urinary tract symptoms and sexual dysfunction in middle-aged men. Materials and Methods A total of 1,910 middle-aged men were included in the study. Participants underwent a detailed clinical evaluation that included recording the symptom scores of five widely used questionnaires. The participants' body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio were determined. Serum prostate-specific antigen, urinalysis, testosterone, estimated glomerular filtration rate, evaluation of metabolic syndrome, and transrectal ultrasonography were assessed. Results By use of logistic regression analysis, age and total prostate volume were independent predictors of lower urinary tract symptoms. Metabolic syndrome was the only significant negative predictive factor for chronic prostatitis symptoms. Age and metabolic syndrome were independent predictive factors for erectile dysfunction. Waist-to-hip ratio had a statistically significant value for predicting erectile dysfunction. Conclusions Our data showed that total prostate volume is a significant predictor of lower urinary tract symptoms, and central obesity has predictive ability for erectile dysfunction. Metabolic syndrome was the only significant negative predictive factor for chronic prostatitis-like symptoms. The management of correctable factors such as waist-to-hip ratio and metabolic syndrome may be considered preventive modalities against the development of men's health problems. PMID:25964840

  16. Sexual Experience Changes Sex Hormones But Not Hypothalamic Steroid Hormone Receptor Expression in Young and Middle-aged Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Di; Gore, Andrea C.

    2009-01-01

    Testosterone is well known to regulate sexual behavior in males, but this is dependent upon prior sexual experience. Aging is associated with decreased libido and changes in testosterone, but the role of experience in these age-related processes has not been systematically studied. We examined effects of age and sexual experience on serum hormones (total testosterone, free testosterone, estradiol, LH) and on numbers of androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptor α (ERα) immunoreactive cells in the hypothalamus. Extensive sexual experience was given to male rats at 4 months of age. Rats were euthanized at either 4 months (young) or 12 months (middle-aged (MA)). Comparable sexually naïve male rats were handled and placed into the testing arena but did not receive any sexual experience. Thus, we had four groups: young-naïve, young-experienced, MA-naïve and MA-experienced. Serum hormone levels were assayed, and numbers of AR and ERα cells were quantified stereologically in the medial preoptic nucleus (MPN) and the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV). Sexually experienced males had significantly elevated serum testosterone and free testosterone in both age groups. Both total and free testosterone were higher, and estradiol lower, in middle-aged than young rats. Experience did not alter either AR or ERα expression in the preoptic brain regions studied. Aging was associated with increased expression of AR, but no change in ERα. These results show that sexual experience can induce short-term and long-term alterations in serum hormones but these effects are not manifested upon their receptors in the hypothalamus. PMID:19559704

  17. Mediterranean diet, healthy eating index 2005, and cognitive function in middle-aged and older Puerto Rican adults.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xingwang; Scott, Tammy; Gao, Xiang; Maras, Janice E; Bakun, Peter J; Tucker, Katherine L

    2013-02-01

    Adherence to a Mediterranean diet has recently been shown to protect against cognitive decline and dementia. It remains unclear, however, whether such protection extends to different ethnic groups and middle-aged individuals and how it might compare with adherence to the US Department of Agriculture's 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (measured with Healthy Eating Index 2005 [HEI 2005]). This study examined associations between diet quality, as assessed by the Mediterranean diet and HEI 2005, and cognitive performance in a sample of 1,269 Puerto Rican adults aged 45 to 75 years and living in the Greater Boston area of Massachusetts. Dietary intake was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire specifically designed for and validated with this population. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed with a 0- to 9-point scale, and the HEI 2005 score was calculated with a maximum score of 100. Cognitive performance was measured with a battery of seven tests and the Mini Mental State Examination was used for global cognitive function. Greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with higher Mini Mental State Examination score (P trend=0.012) and lower likelihood (odds ratio=0.87 for each additional point; 95% CI 0.80 to 0.94; P<0.001) of cognitive impairment, after adjustment for confounders. Similarly, individuals with higher HEI 2005 score had higher Mini Mental State Examination score (P trend=0.011) and lower odds of cognitive impairment (odds ratio=0.86 for each 10 points; 95% CI 0.74 to 0.99; P=0.033). In conclusion, high adherence to either the Mediterranean diet or the diet recommended by the US Department of Agriculture 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans can protect cognitive function in middle-aged and older adults. PMID:23351632

  18. BRACHIAL-ANKLE PULSE WAVE VELOCITY IS ASSOCIATED WITH CORONARY CALCIFICATION AMONG 1,131 HEALTHY MIDDLE-AGED MEN

    PubMed Central

    Vishnu, Abhishek; Choo, Jina; Wilcox, Bradley; Hisamatsu, Takashi; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma J M; Fujiyoshi, Akira; Mackey, Rachel H; Kadota, Aya; Ahuja, Vasudha; Kadowaki, Takashi; Edmundowicz, Daniel; Miura, Katsuyuki; Rodriguez, Beatriz L; Kuller, Lewis H; Shin, Chol; Masaki, Kamal; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Sekikawa, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Background Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) is a simple and reproducible measure of arterial stiffness and is extensively used to assess cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in eastern Asia. We examined whether baPWV is associated with coronary atherosclerosis in an international study of healthy middle-aged men. Methods A population-based sample of 1,131 men aged 40–49 years was recruited– 257 Whites and 75 Blacks in Pittsburgh, US, 228 Japanese-Americans in Honolulu, US, 292 Japanese in Otsu, Japan, and 279 Koreans in Ansan, Korea. baPWV was measured with an automated waveform analyzer (VP2000, Omron) and atherosclerosis was examined as coronary artery calcification (CAC) by computed-tomography (GE-Imatron EBT scanner). Association of the presence of CAC (defined as ≥10 Agatston unit) was examined with continuous measure as well as with increasing quartiles of baPWV. Results As compared to the lowest quartile of baPWV, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence-interval [CI]) for presence of CAC in the combined sample was 1.70 (0.98, 2.94) for 2nd quartile, 1.88 (1.08, 3.28) for 3rd quartile, and 2.16 (1.19, 3.94) for 4th quartile (p-trend = 0.01). The odds for CAC increased by 19% per 100 cm/s increase (p<0.01), or by 36% per standard-deviation increase (p<0.01) in baPWV. Similar effect-sizes were observed in individual races, and were significant among Whites, Blacks and Koreans. Conclusion baPWV is cross-sectionally associated with CAC among healthy middle-aged men. The association was significant in Whites and Blacks in the US, and among Koreans. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine its CVD predictive ability. PMID:25885874

  19. Changes in cardiovascular health score and atherosclerosis progression in middle-aged and older persons in China: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jingsheng; Bao, Minghui; Liu, Yan; Shi, Jihong; Huang, Zhe; Xing, Aijun; Wang, Yang; An, Shasha; Cai, Jun; Wu, Shouling; Yang, Xinchun

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The American Heart Association (AHA) proposed a definition of 4 cardiovascular health behaviours and 3 health factors. On the basis of the 7 metrics, the cardiovascular health score (CHS) was used to estimate individual-level changes in cardiovascular health status. The aim of this study was to investigate whether changes in CHS (⊿CHS) at different time-points are associated with atherosclerosis progression in middle-aged and older persons. Design Prospective cohort study in China. Settings We defined 8 groups (≤−4, −3, −2, −1, 0, 1, 2 and ≥3) according to ⊿CHS. The impact of ⊿CHS on the change of brachial–ankle pulse wave velocity (⊿baPWV) and atherosclerosis progression was analysed. Participants A total of 3951 individuals met the inclusion criteria (≥40 years old; no history of stroke, transient ischaemic attack or myocardial infarction) and had complete information. Results ⊿baPWV decreased gradually (126.46±355.91, 78.4±343.81, 69.6±316.27, 49.59±287.57, 57.07±261.17, 40.45±264.27, 37.45±283.26 and 21.66±264.17 cm/s, respectively) with increasing ⊿CHS (p for trend<0.05). Multivariate linear regression analysis suggested a negative relationship between these 2 variables, which persisted after adjustment for other risk factors. Each increase in CHS was associated with a reduced baPWV for 15.22 cm/s (B value −15.22, p<0.001). Conclusions ⊿CHS were negatively related to ⊿baPWV, which proved to be an independent predictor of the progression of atherosclerosis in middle-aged and older persons. Trial registration number Kailuan study (ChiCTR-TNC-11001489). PMID:26310397

  20. A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Surgery for Middle-Aged Men with Severe Obstructive Sleep Apnea Intolerant of CPAP

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Kelvin B.; Toh, Song Tar; Guilleminault, Christian; Holty, Jon-Erik C.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Conventional OSA therapy necessitates indefinite continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Although CPAP is an effective treatment modality, up to 50% of OSA patients are intolerant of CPAP. We explore whether surgical modalities developed for those intolerant of CPAP are cost-effective. Methods: We construct a lifetime semi-Markov model of OSA that accounts for observed increased risks of stroke, cardiovascular disease, and motor vehicle collisions for a 50-year-old male with untreated severe OSA. Using this model, we compare the cost-effectiveness of (1) no treatment, (2) CPAP only, and (3) CPAP followed by surgery (either palatopharyngeal reconstructive surgery [PPRS] or multilevel surgery [MLS]) for those intolerant to CPAP. Results: Compared with the CPAP only strategy, CPAP followed by PPRS (CPAP-PPRS) adds 0.265 quality adjusted life years (QALYs) for an increase of $2,767 (discounted 2010 dollars) and is highly cost effective with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $10,421/QALY for a 50-year-old male with severe OSA. Compared to a CPAP-PPRS strategy, the CPAP-MLS strategy adds 0.07 QALYs at an increase of $6,213 for an ICER of $84,199/QALY. The CPAP-PPRS strategy appears cost-effective over a wide range of parameter estimates. Conclusions: Palatopharyngeal reconstructive surgery appears cost-effective in middle-aged men with severe OSA intolerant of CPAP. Further research is warranted to better define surgical candidacy as well as short-term and long-term surgical outcomes. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 509. Citation: Tan KB, Toh ST, Guilleminault C, Holty JE. A cost-effectiveness analysis of surgery for middle-aged men with severe obstructive sleep apnea intolerant of CPAP. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(5):525–535. PMID:25700871

  1. The Efficacy of Mirodenafil for Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome in Middle-Aged Males

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Do Hoon; Yun, Chang Jin; Park, Nam Cheol

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of mirodenafil in middle-aged male patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS). Materials and Methods Eighty-eight males with CP/CPPS were randomized to receive either levofloxacin (500 mg/d) (group L, 40 patients) or levofloxacin (500 mg/d) and mirodenafil (50 mg/d) (group ML, 48 patients) for six weeks. The International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI), and erectile function (EF) domain scores of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire were used to grade symptoms at baseline and 6 weeks after treatment. Results The mean change in total IPSS from baseline was higher in group ML than that in group L (group L, -1.1 vs. group ML, -4.3; p<0.05). Significant improvements were also seen in the IPSS voiding subscore (group L, -0.7 vs. group ML, -3.0; p<0.05). Changes observed in the NIH-CPSI of group ML at six weeks were greater than those at baseline (group L, -3.2 vs. group ML, -7.2; p<0.05). Significant improvements were seen in the NIH-CPSI voiding (group L, -0.5 vs. group ML, -1.7; p<0.05) and quality of life domains (group L, -1.0 vs. group ML, -1.8; p<0.05). Group ML showed a significantly greater increase in the IIEF-EF score than did group ML (group L, +0.2 vs. group ML, +7.8; p<0.05). Conclusions Mirodenafil (50 mg once daily) was well tolerated and resulted in significant symptomatic improvement in middle-aged males with CP/CPPS. PMID:25606563

  2. Vascular effects and safety of supplementation with shark liver oil in middle-aged and elderly males

    PubMed Central

    HAMADATE, NAOBUMI; MATSUMOTO, YOSHIYUKI; SETO, KAYOKO; YAMAMOTO, TETSURO; YAMAGUCHI, HIDEYO; NAKAGAWA, TAKASHI; YAMAMOTO, ETSUSHI; FUKAGAWA, MITSUHIKO; YAZAWA, KAZUNAGA

    2015-01-01

    Shark liver oil (SLO) has long been used as a traditional health food, with a particular benefit for vascular health, in Japan. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of dietary supplementation with SLO on arterial stiffness and peripheral microvascular function in otherwise healthy middle-aged and older males with slightly increased arterial stiffness. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel study design was used to assign 41 healthy males with a mean age of 59.0±4.0 years (range, 45–69 years) to either SLO (n=21) or placebo (n=20) treatment for eight weeks. The effects on arterial stiffness and peripheral microvascular function were assessed by the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) and by measurement of hand blood flow to cutaneous tissues using a laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI) technique, respectively. Although the magnitude of the changes in the CAVI value during the eight-week intervention for the SLO group did not significantly differ from that for the placebo group, the changes in the CAVI value for the former group were significantly associated (r=0.575, P<0.01) with age. It was also found that the LDPI values at week 8 were significantly lowered (P<0.05) compared with the baseline values in the placebo group, while no change was observed in the SLO group, resulting in a significant difference in the changes between the two groups (P=0.002). Neither SLO supplementation-related adverse side-effects nor any abnormal changes in routine laboratory tests, including lipid profiles and anthropometric and haemodynamic parameters, were observed throughout the intervention. SLO may have the potential to safely improve vascular health in middle-aged and elderly males. PMID:26622368

  3. Association between Plasma PFOA and PFOS Levels and Total Cholesterol in a Middle-Aged Danish Population

    PubMed Central

    Eriksen, Kirsten T.; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; McLaughlin, Joseph K.; Lipworth, Loren; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Sørensen, Mette

    2013-01-01

    Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are used in a variety of consumer products and have been detected worldwide in human blood. Recent studies mainly of highly exposed populations have indicated that PFOA and PFOS may affect serum cholesterol levels, but the magnitude of the effect may be inconsistent across exposure levels. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between plasma PFOA and PFOS and total cholesterol in a general, middle-aged Danish population. The study population comprised 753 individuals (663 men and 90 women), 50–65 years of age, nested within a Danish cohort of 57,053 participants. Blood samples were taken from all cohort members at enrolment (1993–1997) and stored in a biobank at -150°C. Plasma levels of PFOA and PFOS and serum levels of total cholesterol were measured. The associations between plasma PFOA and PFOS levels and total cholesterol levels were analysed by generalized linear models, both crude and adjusted for potential confounders. We observed statistically significant positive associations between both perfluorinated compounds and total cholesterol, e.g. a 4.4 [95% CI  =  1.1–7.8] higher concentration of total cholesterol (mg/dL) per interquartile range of PFOA plasma level. Sex and prevalent diabetes appeared to modify the association between PFOA and PFOS, respectively, and cholesterol. In conclusion, this study indicated positive associations between plasma PFOA and PFOS levels and total cholesterol in a middle-aged Danish population, although whether the observed pattern of results reflects a causal association is unclear. PMID:23441227

  4. Speech Recognition in Real-Life Background Noise by Young and Middle-Aged Adults with Normal Hearing

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin Tae; Heo, Hye Jeong; Choi, Chul-Hee; Choi, Seong Hee; Lee, Kyungjae

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives People usually converse in real-life background noise. They experience more difficulty understanding speech in noise than in a quiet environment. The present study investigated how speech recognition in real-life background noise is affected by the type of noise, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and age. Subjects and Methods Eighteen young adults and fifteen middle-aged adults with normal hearing participated in the present study. Three types of noise [subway noise, vacuum noise, and multi-talker babble (MTB)] were presented via a loudspeaker at three SNRs of 5 dB, 0 dB, and -5 dB. Speech recognition was analyzed using the word recognition score. Results 1) Speech recognition in subway noise was the greatest in comparison to vacuum noise and MTB, 2) at the SNR of -5 dB, speech recognition was greater in subway noise than vacuum noise and in vacuum noise than MTB while at the SNRs of 0 and 5 dB, it was greater in subway noise than both vacuum noise and MTB and there was no difference between vacuum noise and MTB, 3) speech recognition decreased as the SNR decreased, and 4) young adults showed better speech recognition performance in all types of noises at all SNRs than middle-aged adults. Conclusions Speech recognition in real-life background noise was affected by the type of noise, SNR, and age. The results suggest that the frequency distribution, amplitude fluctuation, informational masking, and cognition may be important underlying factors determining speech recognition performance in noise. PMID:26185790

  5. Molecular and metabolomic effects of voluntary running wheel activity on skeletal muscle in late middle-aged rats

    PubMed Central

    Garvey, Sean M; Russ, David W; Skelding, Mary B; Dugle, Janis E; Edens, Neile K

    2015-01-01

    We examined the molecular and metabolomic effects of voluntary running wheel activity in late middle-aged male Sprague Dawley rats (16–17 months). Rats were assigned either continuous voluntary running wheel access for 8 weeks (RW+) or cage-matched without running wheel access (RW−). The 9 RW+ rats averaged 83 m/day (range: 8–163 m), yet exhibited both 84% reduced individual body weight gain (4.3 g vs. 26.3 g, P = 0.02) and 6.5% reduced individual average daily food intake (20.6 g vs. 22.0 g, P = 0.09) over the 8 weeks. Hindlimb muscles were harvested following an overnight fast. Muscle weights and myofiber cross-sectional area showed no difference between groups. Western blots of gastrocnemius muscle lysates with a panel of antibodies suggest that running wheel activity improved oxidative metabolism (53% increase in PGC1α, P = 0.03), increased autophagy (36% increase in LC3B-II/-I ratio, P = 0.03), and modulated growth signaling (26% increase in myostatin, P = 0.04). RW+ muscle also showed 43% increased glycogen phosphorylase expression (P = 0.04) and 45% increased glycogen content (P = 0.04). Metabolomic profiling of plantaris and soleus muscles indicated that even low-volume voluntary running wheel activity is associated with decreases in many long-chain fatty acids (e.g., palmitoleate, myristoleate, and eicosatrienoate) relative to RW− rats. Relative increases in acylcarnitines and acyl glycerophospholipids were also observed in RW+ plantaris. These data establish that even modest amounts of physical activity during late middle-age promote extensive metabolic remodeling of skeletal muscle. PMID:25716928

  6. Age-related changes in neural activity during source memory encoding in young, middle-aged and elderly adults.

    PubMed

    Cansino, Selene; Trejo-Morales, Patricia; Hernández-Ramos, Evelia

    2010-07-01

    Source memory, the ability to remember contextual information present at the moment an event occurs, declines gradually during normal aging. The present study addressed whether source memory decline is related to changes in neural activity during encoding across age. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in three groups of 14 subjects each: young (21-26 years), middle-aged (50-55 years) and older adults (70-77 years). ERPs were recorded while the subjects performed a natural/artificial judgment on images of common objects that were presented randomly in one of the quadrants of the screen (encoding phase). At retrieval, old images mixed with new ones were presented at the center of the screen and the subjects judged whether each image was new or old and, if old, were asked to indicate at which position of the screen the image was presented in the encoding session. The neurophysiological activity recorded during encoding was segregated for the study items according to whether their context was correctly retrieved or not, so as to search for subsequent memory effects (SME). These effects, which consisted of larger amplitude for items subsequently attracting a correct source judgment than an incorrect one, were observed in the three groups, but their onset was delayed across the age groups. The amplitude of the SME was similar across age groups at the frontal and central electrode sites, but was manifested more at the posterior sites in middle-aged and older adults, suggesting that source memory decline may be related to less efficient encoding mechanisms. PMID:20441775

  7. N-Acetylmannosamine improves sleep-wake quality in middle-aged mice: relevance to autonomic nervous function.

    PubMed

    Kuwahara, Masayoshi; Ito, Koichi; Hayakawa, Koji; Yagi, Shintaro; Shiota, Kunio

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with a variety of physiological changes originating peripherally and centrally, including within the autonomic nervous system. Sleep-wake disturbances constitute reliable hallmarks of aging in several animal species and humans. Recent studies have been interested in N-acetylmannosamine (ManNAc) a potential therapeutic agent for improving quality of life, as well as preventing age-related cognitive decline. In this study, ManNAc (5.0 mg/ml) was administered in the drinking water of middle-aged male C57BL/6J mice (55 weeks old) for 7 days. Mice were housed under a 12:12 h light:dark cycle at 23-24 °C. We evaluated bio-behavioral activity using electrocardiogram, body temperature and locomotor activity recorded by an implanted telemetry transmitter. To estimate sleep-wake profile, surface electroencephalogram and electromyogram leads connected to a telemetry transmitter were also implanted in mice. Autonomic nervous activity was evaluated using power spectral analysis of heart rate variability. ManNAc-treated mice spent more time in a wakeful state and less time in slow wave sleep during the dark phase. Parasympathetic nervous activity was increased following ManNAc treatment, then the sympatho-vagal balance was shifted predominance of parasympathetic nervous system. Furthermore, improvement in sleep-wake pattern was associated with increased parasympathetic nervous activity. These results suggest that ManNAc treatment can improve bio-behavioral activity and sleep-wake quality in middle-aged mice. This may have implications for improving sleep patterns in elderly humans. PMID:25443216

  8. Utilization of bar and izakaya-pub establishments among middle-aged and elderly Japanese men to mitigate stress

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Japanese suicide rate is one of the highest among industrialized nations, especially following the economic crisis of the 1990s, with more than 30000 suicides every year since 1998. Previous studies have pointed out to relationships between overwork and/or job stress, and death and other health risks, and suggested several possible avenues for releasing stress and emotional burden, including suicidal ideation, through talking with intimate friends, family, and specialists, such as counselors and physicians. The present study was performed to explore the potential role of owners and managers of bars and izakaya-pub establishments in mitigating stress of middle-aged and elderly Japanese men by having informal conversations with them. A self-administered questionnaire was posted to all bars and izakaya-pubs registered in Ohmura-city, Nagasaki prefecture, in December 2009. Among 260 bars and izakaya-pubs, a total of 103 owners and managers completed the questionnaire. More than half of the respondents experienced engaging in conversations with their customers regarding customers’ various personal and private issues. The most frequently talked about problem was that regarding work (56.3%). Regardless of sex and age of the respondents, those with longer working experience in bar and izakaya-pub establishments were more likely to have had customers confiding in them financial problems including debts/loans (adjusted odds ratio: 5.48, p = 0.033). Owners and managers of bars and izakaya-pubs may be in a position to act as “listeners”, to whom middle-aged and elderly men can talk about their personal problems casually and without having to worry about conflict of interests, and direct those in need to professional counseling. PMID:22708695

  9. Interaction between Helicobacter pylori and Latent Toxoplasmosis and Demographic Variables on Cognitive Function in Young to Middle-Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gale, Shawn D.; Erickson, Lance D.; Brown, Bruce L.; Hedges, Dawson W.

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis are widespread diseases that have been associated with cognitive deficits and Alzheimer’s disease. We sought to determine whether interactions between Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis, age, race-ethnicity, educational attainment, economic status, and general health predict cognitive function in young and middle-aged adults. To do so, we used multivariable regression and multivariate models to analyze data obtained from the United States’ National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which can be weighted to represent the US population. In this sample, we found that 31.6 percent of women and 36.2 percent of men of the overall sample had IgG Antibodies against Helicobacter pylori, although the seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori varied with sociodemographic variables. There were no main effects for Helicobacter pylori or latent toxoplasmosis for any of the cognitive measures in models adjusting for age, sex, race-ethnicity, educational attainment, economic standing, and self-rated health predicting cognitive function. However, interactions between Helicobacter pylori and race-ethnicity, educational attainment, latent toxoplasmosis in the fully adjusted models predicted cognitive function. People seropositive for both Helicobacter pylori and latent toxoplasmosis – both of which appear to be common in the general population – appear to be more susceptible to cognitive deficits than are people seropositive for either Helicobacter pylori and or latent toxoplasmosis alone, suggesting a synergistic effect between these two infectious diseases on cognition in young to middle-aged adults. PMID:25590622

  10. Soft tissue aneurysmal bone cyst: a rare case in a middle aged patient

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Kevin S; Gould, Elaine S; Patel, Hiten B; Hwang, Sonya J

    2015-01-01

    Soft tissue aneurysmal bone cyst is a rare entity, with about 20 cases reported in literature, only 3 of which are in patients over 40 years of age. We present a case of a 41 year old Latin American female who presented for evaluation of atraumatic chest pain with radiation to the left shoulder. Her initial workup was negative, including radiographic imaging of the chest and left shoulder. 4 months later, she presented to her orthopedic surgeon with a palpable mass and mild left shoulder pain. Radiographs acquired at that time demonstrated a 7.0 × 5.5 × 6.7 cm mass with rim calcification in the region of the upper triceps muscle. Subsequent CT imaging showed central areas of hypodensity and thin septations, a few of which were calcified. MR evaluation showed hemorrhagic cystic spaces with multiple fluid-fluid levels and enhancing septations. Surgical biopsy was performed and pathology was preliminarily interpreted as cystic myositis ossificans, however on final review the diagnosis of soft tissue aneurysmal bone cyst was made. The lesion was then surgically excised and no evidence of recurrence was seen on a 3 year post-op radiograph. Following description of our case, we conduct a literature review of the imaging characteristics, diagnosis, and treatment of soft tissue aneurysmal bone cyst. PMID:25926918

  11. Hearing in middle age: a population snapshot of 40–69 year olds in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Dawes, Piers; Fortnum, Heather; Moore, David R.; Emsley, Richard; Norman, Paul; Cruickshanks, Karen; Davis, Adrian; Edmondson-Jones, Mark; McCormack, Abby; Lutman, Mark; Munro, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Objective To report population-based prevalence of hearing impairment based on speech recognition in noise testing in a large and inclusive sample of UK adults aged 40 to 69 years. The present study is the first to report such data. Prevalence of tinnitus and use of hearing aids is also reported. Design The research was conducted using the UK Biobank resource. The better-ear unaided speech reception threshold was measured adaptively using the Digit Triplet Test (n = 164,770). Self-report data on tinnitus, hearing aid use, noise exposure as well as demographic variables were collected. Results Overall, 10.7% of adults (95%CI 10.5–10.9%) had significant hearing impairment. Prevalence of tinnitus was 16.9% (95%CI 16.6–17.1%) and hearing aid use was 2.0% (95%CI 1.9–2.1%). Odds of hearing impairment increased with age, with a history of work- and music-related noise exposure, for lower socioeconomic background and for ethnic minority backgrounds. Males were at no higher risk of hearing impairment than females. Conclusion Around 1 in 10 adults aged 40 to 69 years have substantial hearing impairment. The reasons for excess risk of hearing impairment particularly for those from low socioeconomic and ethnic minority backgrounds require identification, as this represents a serious health inequality. The underutilization of hearing aids has altered little since the 1980s, and is a major cause for concern. PMID:24518430

  12. The stories we keep: autobiographical memory in American and Chinese middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Conway, Martin A

    2004-10-01

    One hundred and eight European American and Chinese adults, aged between 38 and 60, participated in this questionnaire study. They each recalled 20 memories from any period of their lives. Memory content was analyzed as a function of culture (U.S. and China), life period (childhood, youth, early midlife, and peak midlife), and gender (female and male). Across the four life periods, Americans provided more memories of individual experiences and unique, one-time events and focused on their own roles and emotions. In contrast, Chinese were more inclined to recall memories of social and historical events and placed a great emphasis on social interactions and significant others in their memory narratives. Chinese also more frequently drew upon past events to convey moral messages than did Americans. In addition, memory content evidenced age-related increases in both autonomous and social orientations. Findings are discussed in light of the self-definitional and directive functions of Autobiographical memory in the context of culture. PMID:15335332

  13. Acute exposure to Buenos Aires air particles (UAP-BA) induces local and systemic inflammatory response in middle-aged mice: A time course study.

    PubMed

    Orona, Nadia S; Ferraro, Sebastián A; Astort, Francisco; Morales, Celina; Brites, Fernando; Boero, Laura; Tiscornia, Gisela; Maglione, Guillermo A; Saldiva, Paulo H N; Yakisich, Sebastian; Tasat, Deborah R

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to air particulate matter (PM) is associated with increased cardiovascular morbimortality. However, PM doesn't affect equally to all people, being the old cohort the most susceptible and studied. We hypothesized that another specific life phase, the middle-aged subpopulation, may be negatively affected. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze in vivo the acute biological impact of two environmental particles, Urban Air Particles from Buenos Aires and Residual Oil Fly Ash, on the cardiorespiratory system of middle-aged mice, evaluating oxidative metabolism and inflammation. Both PM provoked a local and systemic inflammatory response, leading to a reduced alveolar area in the lung, an epicard inflammation in the heart, an increment of IL-6, and a reduction on PON 1 activity in serum of middle-aged animals. The positive correlation of local parameters with systemic markers of oxidative stress and inflammation could be responsible for associations of cardiovascular morbimortality in this subpopulation. PMID:26255684

  14. A bit serial sequential circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, S.; Whitaker, S.

    1990-01-01

    Normally a sequential circuit with n state variables consists of n unique hardware realizations, one for each state variable. All variables are processed in parallel. This paper introduces a new sequential circuit architecture that allows the state variables to be realized in a serial manner using only one next state logic circuit. The action of processing the state variables in a serial manner has never been addressed before. This paper presents a general design procedure for circuit construction and initialization. Utilizing pass transistors to form the combinational next state forming logic in synchronous sequential machines, a bit serial state machine can be realized with a single NMOS pass transistor network connected to shift registers. The bit serial state machine occupies less area than other realizations which perform parallel operations. Moreover, the logical circuit of the bit serial state machine can be modified by simply changing the circuit input matrix to develop an adaptive state machine.

  15. Psychosocial work environment and emotional exhaustion among middle-aged employees

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This study examined the associations of job control, organizational justice and bullying at the workplace with emotional exhaustion. This was done by adjusting firstly for age and occupational class, secondly physical work factors, thirdly mutually adjusting for the three psychosocial factors and fourthly adjusting for all studied variables simultaneously. Data were derived from the Helsinki Health Study baseline surveys conducted in 2001 and 2002, including 40-60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki (n = 5819, response rate 66%). Exhaustion was measured with a six-item subscale from Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). Psychosocial factors included Karasek's job control, organizational justice and bullying at the workplace. Logistic regression analysis was used. Results Among women 23% and among men 20% reported symptoms of emotional exhaustion. Among women all psychosocial factors were associated with exhaustion when adjusted for age and occupational class as confounders. When physical work factors were additionally adjusted for, the associations slightly attenuated but remained. When psychosocial work factors were simultaneously adjusted for each other, their associations with exhaustion attenuated but remained. Among men all psychosocial factors were associated with exhaustion when adjusted for confounders only. When adjusted for physical work factors the associations slightly attenuated. When psychosocial factors were simultaneously adjusted for each other, associations of organizational justice and bullying with exhaustion attenuated but remained whereas job control lost its association. Conclusions Identifying risk factors for emotional exhaustion is vital for preventing subsequent processes leading to burnout. Psychosocial factors are likely to contribute to exhaustion among female as well as male employees. Thus management and occupational health care should devote more attention to the psychosocial work environment in order to be able to

  16. The effect of ladder-climbing exercise on atrophy/hypertrophy-related myokine expression in middle-aged male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Jung, Suryun; Ahn, Nayoung; Kim, Sanghyun; Byun, Jayoung; Joo, Youngsik; Kim, Sungwook; Jung, Yeunho; Park, Solee; Hwang, Ilseon; Kim, Kijin

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the change in myokine expression related to hypertrophy (IL-4, IL-6, IL-10) and atrophy (TNF-α, NFκB, IL-1β) in middle-aged rats after resistance exercise with ladder climbing. 50- and 10-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to two groups: the sedentary and exercise groups. The exercise groups underwent a ladder-climbing exercise for 8 weeks. While the tibialis anterior muscle mass in the young group significantly increased after the ladder-climbing exercise, the middle-aged group did not show any changes after undergoing the same exercise. To understand the molecular mechanism causing this difference, we analyzed the change in hypertrophy- and atrophy-related myokine levels from the tibialis anterior muscle. After 8 weeks of ladder-climbing exercise, the IL-4 and IL-10 protein levels did not change. However, the IL-6 level significantly increased after exercise training, but the amount of increase in the young training group was higher than in the middle-aged training group. IL-1β and TNF-α as well as NFκB protein levels were significantly higher in the middle-aged group than in the young group. Except for TNF-α, exercise training did not affect IL-1β and NFκB protein levels. The TNF-α level significantly decreased in the middle-aged exercise training group. AMPK and PGC-1α levels also significantly increased after exercise training, but there was no difference between age-related groups. Therefore, 8-week high-intensity exercise training using ladder climbing downregulates the skeletal muscle production of myokine involved in atrophy and upregulates hypertrophic myokine. However, the extent of these responses was lower in the middle-aged than young group. PMID:26223833

  17. Effect of acute DHEA administration on free testosterone in middle-aged and young men following high-intensity interval training.

    PubMed

    Liu, Te-Chih; Lin, Che-Hung; Huang, Chih-Yang; Ivy, John L; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2013-07-01

    With advancing age, plasma testosterone levels decline, with free testosterone levels declining more significantly than total testosterone. This fall is thought to underlie the development of physical and mental weakness that occurs with advancing age. In addition, vigorous exercise can also lower total and free testosterone levels with the decline greatest in physically untrained men. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of oral DHEA supplementation, a testosterone precursor, on free testosterone in sedentary middle-aged men during recovery from a high-intensity interval training (HIIT) bout of exercise. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study was conducted for 8 middle-aged participants (aged 49.3 ± 2.4 years) and an additional 8 young control participants (aged 21.4 ± 0.3 years). Each participant received DHEA (50 mg) and placebo on separate occasions one night (12 h) before a 5-session, 2-min cycling exercise (100% VO₂max). While no significant age difference in total testosterone was found, middle-aged participants exhibited significantly lower free testosterone and greater luteinizing hormone (LH) levels than the young control group. Oral DHEA supplementation increased circulating DHEA-S and free testosterone levels well above baseline in the middle-aged group, with no significant effect on total testosterone levels. Total testosterone and DHEA-S dropped significantly until 24 h after HIIT for both age groups, while free testosterone of DHEA-supplemented middle-aged men remained unaffected. These results demonstrate acute oral DHEA supplementation can elevate free testosterone levels in middle-aged men and prevent it from declining during HIIT. Therefore, DHEA supplementation may have significant benefits related to HIIT adaptation. PMID:23417481

  18. Prevalence and knowledge of hepatitis C in a middle-aged population, Dunedin, New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Vermunt, Jane; Fraser, Margaret; Herbison, Peter; Wiles, Anna; Schlup, Martin; Schultz, Michael

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the prevalence of infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) in those most at risk of advanced liver disease and to identify gaps in knowledge of HCV. METHODS: Questionnaires were mailed to randomly selected residents aged 40-59 to assess the extent of their general knowledge about HCV. The questionnaire assessed demographics, the extent of general knowledge about viral hepatitis, potential risks for infection and the prevalence of risk factors associated with increased progression of liver fibrosis. Anonymised residual laboratory blood samples from 40-59 years old people from Dunedin taken in hospital or in the community, were tested for HCV antibodies and alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT). Linear regression was performed to examine whether the demographics sex, age, socio-economic status, qualification level and occupation sector (categorical variables) were predictors of level of general knowledge about hepatitis. For the demographics that were found to be significant predictors of score outcome, multiple regression analysis was used to determine independent effects. χ2 tests were used to compare our selected sample and our responder population demographics, to the demographics of the entire 40-59 years old population in Dunedin using the 2006 NZ census data. Exact confidence intervals for the proportion positive for HCV and HBV were calculated using the binomial distribution. RESULTS: The response rate to the mailed questionnaire was 431/1400 (30.8%). On average 59.4% questions were answered correctly. Predictors for higher scores, indicating greater knowledge about symptoms and transmission included sex (female, P < 0.01), higher level of qualification (P < 0.000) and occupation sector (P < 0.000). Sharing intravenous drug utensils was a known risk factor for disease transmission (94.4%), but the sharing of common household items such as a toothbrush was not. 93% of the population were

  19. An Analysis of Sex Role Stereotyping in Daytime Television Serials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finz, Sherry D.; Waters, Judith

    The verbal behavior of the characters of three daytime serials was analyzed over a period of two weeks of continual viewing, and coded into 19 previously developed categories. It was found that despite the recent introduction of new and controversial subject matter into the plot lines of these programs, male and female characters were responding…

  20. Information processing becomes slower and predominantly serial in aging: Characterization of response-related brain potentials in an auditory-visual distraction-attention task.

    PubMed

    Cid-Fernández, Susana; Lindín, Mónica; Díaz, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aging and attentional capture provoked by novel auditory stimuli on behavior (reaction time [RT], hits) and on response-related brain potentials (preRFP, CRN, postRFP, parietalRP) to target visual stimuli. Twenty-two young, 27 middle-aged, and 24 old adults performed an auditory-visual distraction-attention task. The RTs and latencies of preRFP, postRFP and parietalRT were longer in old and middle-aged than in young participants, reflecting the well-established age-related slowing of processing and performance. The inter-peak latencies (P3b-preRFP, preRFP-parietalRP, parietalRP-postRFP) were also longer in old and middle-aged than in young participants, further indicating an age-related tendency to increased predominance of serial (rather than parallel) processing of information, and that preRFP, CRN, postRFP, and parietalRP represent different cognitive processes from those indexed by the stimulus-related P3b. Finally, a distraction effect in performance (all three groups) and in postRFP latency (only middle-aged group) was also observed. PMID:26589359

  1. Serial Network Flow Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Julie A.; Tate-Brown, Judy M.

    2009-01-01

    Using a commercial software CD and minimal up-mass, SNFM monitors the Payload local area network (LAN) to analyze and troubleshoot LAN data traffic. Validating LAN traffic models may allow for faster and more reliable computer networks to sustain systems and science on future space missions. Research Summary: This experiment studies the function of the computer network onboard the ISS. On-orbit packet statistics are captured and used to validate ground based medium rate data link models and enhance the way that the local area network (LAN) is monitored. This information will allow monitoring and improvement in the data transfer capabilities of on-orbit computer networks. The Serial Network Flow Monitor (SNFM) experiment attempts to characterize the network equivalent of traffic jams on board ISS. The SNFM team is able to specifically target historical problem areas including the SAMS (Space Acceleration Measurement System) communication issues, data transmissions from the ISS to the ground teams, and multiple users on the network at the same time. By looking at how various users interact with each other on the network, conflicts can be identified and work can begin on solutions. SNFM is comprised of a commercial off the shelf software package that monitors packet traffic through the payload Ethernet LANs (local area networks) on board ISS.

  2. General fluid-type intelligence is related to indices of white matter structure in middle-aged and old adults.

    PubMed

    Haász, Judit; Westlye, Erling T; Fjær, Sveinung; Espeseth, Thomas; Lundervold, Arvid; Lundervold, Astri J

    2013-12-01

    General fluid-type intelligence (gF) reflects abstract reasoning and problem solving abilities, and is an important predictor for lifetime trajectories of cognition, and physical and mental health. Structural and functional neuroimaging studies have demonstrated the role of parieto-frontal gray matter, but the white matter (WM) underpinnings of gF and the contribution of individual gF components to gF-WM relationship still need to be explored. The aim of this study was to characterize, in a sample of 100 healthy middle-aged and old subjects (mean=63.8 years), the relationship between gF and indices of WM structure obtained from diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) (fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity (AD)). gF was estimated by principal component analysis including measures of episodic memory, reasoning, and processing speed. Tract-based spatial statistics and permutation-based inference statistics were used to test the association between gF and WM indices, while controlling for the effect of age and sex. We hypothesized a positive relationship between gF and WM structure. Based on previous studies, we further hypothesized that this relationship was heavily influenced by the processing speed component of gF. We found a robust relationship between gF and DT-MRI measures of FA, RD and MD in all major WM tracts. Higher gF score was related to higher degree of WM integrity, in middle-aged as well as old individuals. Thus, the distributed relationship between gF and indices of WM microstructure is consistent with the notion that gF reflects efficient signaling between cortical areas. Furthermore, analysis of relationships between WM measures and gF components revealed an association with information processing speed and reasoning ability, but not with episodic memory. Thus, although all subcomponents loaded high on gF factor, the speed-related components were most strongly associated with DT

  3. Mechanical Versus Bioprosthetic Aortic Valve Replacement in Middle-Aged Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dong Fang; Seco, Michael; Wu, James J; Edelman, James B; Wilson, Michael K; Vallely, Michael P; Byrom, Michael J; Bannon, Paul G

    2016-07-01

    The choice of a bioprosthetic valve (BV) or mechanical valve (MV) in middle-aged adults undergoing aortic valve replacement is a complex decision that must account for numerous prosthesis and patient factors. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to compare long-term survival, major adverse prosthesis-related events, anticoagulant-related events, major bleeding, reoperation, and structural valve degeneration in middle-aged patients receiving a BV or MV. A comprehensive search from six electronic databases was performed from their inception to February 2016. Results from patients aged less than 70 years undergoing aortic valve replacement with a BV or MV were included. There were 12 studies involving 8,661 patients. Baseline characteristics were similar. There was no significant difference in long-term survival among patients aged 50 to 70 or 60 to 70 years. Compared with MVs, BVs had significantly fewer long-term anticoagulant-related events (hazard ratio [HR] 0.54, p = 0.006) and bleeding (HR 0.48, p < 0.00001) but significantly greater major adverse prosthesis-related events (HR 1.82, p = 0.02), including reoperation (HR 2.19, p < 0.00001). The present meta-analysis found no significant difference in survival between BVs and MVs in patients aged 50 to 70 or 60 to 70 years. Compared with MVs, BVs have reduced risk of major bleeding and anticoagulant-related events but increased risk of structural valve degeneration and reoperation. However, the mortality consequences of reoperation appear lower than that of major bleeding, and recent advances may further lower the reoperation rate for BV. Therefore, this review supports the current trend of using BVs in patients more than 60 years of age. PMID:26794881

  4. Interactions of hearing loss and diabetes mellitus in the middle age CBA/CaJ mouse model of presbycusis.

    PubMed

    Vasilyeva, Olga N; Frisina, Susan T; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Walton, Joseph P; Frisina, Robert D

    2009-03-01

    Recently, we characterized the more severe nature of hearing loss in aged Type 2 diabetic human subjects [Frisina, S.T., Mapes, F., Kim, S., Frisina, D.R., Frisina, R.D., 2006. Characterization of hearing loss in aged type II diabetics. Hear. Res. 211, 103-113]. The current study prospectively assessed hearing abilities in middle age CBA/CaJ mice with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) (STZ injection) or Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (high fat diet), for a period of 6 months. Blood glucose, body weight and auditory tests (Auditory Brainstem Response-ABR, Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions-DPOAE) were evaluated at baseline and every 2 months. Tone and broad-band noise-burst responses in the inferior colliculus were obtained at 6 months. Body weights of controls did not change over 6 months (approximately 32 g), but there was a significant (approximately 5 g) decline in the T1DM, while T2DM exhibited approximately 10 g weight gain. Blood glucose levels significantly increased: 3-fold for T1DM, 1.3-fold for T2DM; with no significant changes in controls. ABR threshold elevations were found for both types of diabetes, but were most pronounced in the T2DM, starting as early as 2 months after induction of diabetes. A decline of mean DPOAE amplitudes was observed in both diabetic groups at high frequencies, and for the T2DM at low frequencies. In contrast to ABR thresholds, tone and noise thresholds in the inferior colliculus were lower for both diabetic groups. Induction of diabetes in middle-aged CBA/CaJ mice promotes amplification of age-related peripheral hearing loss which makes it a suitable model for studying the interaction of age-related hearing loss and diabetes. On the other hand, initial results of effects from very high blood glucose level (T1DM) on the auditory midbrain showed disruption of central inhibition, increased response synchrony or enhanced excitation in the inferior colliculus. PMID:19271313

  5. The obesity epidemic slows among the middle-aged population in Sweden while the socioeconomic gap widens

    PubMed Central

    Norberg, Margareta; Lindvall, Kristina; Stenlund, Hans; Lindahl, Bernt

    2010-01-01

    Background Obesity prevalence has continuously increased in Northern Sweden as elsewhere. A cohort effect has been shown and an increasing proportion of the middle-aged population is maintaining body weight. Objective To test the hypothesis that the obesity epidemic continues but at different speeds that are dependent on socioeconomic status. Design Cross-sectional (103,940 adults) and longitudinal (26,872 adults) data from the Västerbotten Intervention Program 1990–2007 were included. All adults in Västerbotten County are invited to a health examination at the ages of 40, 50, and 60 years. Body mass index (BMI) and socioeconomic status, assessed by residence location, marital status, and education were evaluated. Results BMI increased in all groups but was greater among men. During 1990–1995 and 2002–2007, mean BMIs were 25.9 and 26.8 among men and 25.2 and 25.9 among women. The trend of increasing BMI slowed around the year 2000 (p<0.001), but this was only observed among the highly educated adults in the most urbanized area. The difference between educational groups increased throughout the study period (men p=0.014, women p=0.002). Longitudinal data for both sexes showed a twofold higher baseline prevalence of obesity among individuals with basic compared to high education and it nearly doubled in all groups during the 10-year follow-up. Low education, living in a rural environment, and living alone were independent predictors of obesity development. The overall cumulative 10-year incidence was 9.4% in men, 9.1% in women, and twofold higher among those with basic and mid-level education who live in rural areas compared to those with high education who live in cities. Conclusion The trend of increasing obesity has slowed in this middle-aged Northern Sweden population, but this trend shift occurred primarily among those with high education who live in an urban environment. Greater efforts to combat obesogenic environments are needed and should take

  6. Optical-Ultraviolet Spectrum and Proper Motion of the Middle-aged Pulsar B1055-52

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignani, R. P.; Pavlov, G. G.; Kargaltsev, O.

    2010-09-01

    PSR B1055-52 is a middle-aged (τ = 535 kyr) radio, X-ray, and γ-ray pulsar showing X-ray thermal emission from the neutron star (NS) surface. A candidate optical counterpart to PSR B1055-52 was proposed by Mignani and coworkers based on Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations performed in 1996, in one spectral band only. We report on HST observations of this field carried out in 2008, in four spectral bands. The astrometric and photometric analyses of these data confirm the identification of the proposed candidate as the pulsar's optical counterpart. Similar to other middle-aged pulsars, its optical-UV spectrum can be described by the sum of a power-law (PLO) component (F_{ν} ∝ ν^{-α_O}), presumably emitted from the pulsar magnetosphere, and a Rayleigh-Jeans (RJ) component emitted from the NS surface. The spectral index of the PLO component, αO = 1.05 ± 0.34, is larger than for other pulsars with optical counterparts. The RJ component, with a brightness temperature T O = (0.66 ± 0.10) d 2 350 R -2 O,13 MK (where d 350 and R O,13 are the distance to the pulsar in units of 350 pc and the radius of the emitting area in units of 13 km, respectively), shows a factor of 4 excess with respect to the extrapolation of the X-ray thermal component into the UV-optical. This hints that the RJ component is emitted from a larger, colder area, and suggests that the distance to the pulsar is smaller than previously thought. From absolute astrometry of the HST images, we measured the pulsar coordinates with a position accuracy of 0farcs15. From comparison with previous observations, we measured the pulsar proper motion, μ = 42 ± 5 mas yr-1, which corresponds to a transverse velocity Vt = (70 ± 8) d 350 km s-1. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under contract No. NAS 5-26555. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory (ESO), La

  7. Impact of N-acetylcysteine and sesame oil on lipid metabolism and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis homeostasis in middle-aged hypercholesterolemic mice

    PubMed Central

    Korou, Laskarina-Maria; Agrogiannis, George; Koros, Christos; Kitraki, Efthimia; Vlachos, Ioannis S.; Tzanetakou, Irene; Karatzas, Theodore; Pergialiotis, Vasilios; Dimitroulis, Dimitrios; Perrea, Despina N.

    2014-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia and stress are important factors affecting cardiovascular health in middle-aged individuals. We investigated the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and sesame oil on the lipidemic status, liver architecture and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis of middle-aged mice fed a cholesterol-enriched diet. We randomized 36 middle-aged C57bl/6 mice into 6 groups: a control group, a cholesterol/cholic acid diet group, a cholesterol/cholic acid diet group with NAC supplementation, a cholesterol/cholic acid diet enriched with 10% sesame oil and two groups receiving a control diet enriched with NAC or sesame oil. NAC administration prevented the onset of the disturbed lipid profile, exhibiting decreased lipid peroxidation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels, restored nitric oxide bioavailability and reduced hepatic damage, compared to non-supplemented groups. High-cholesterol feeding resulted in increased hypothalamic glucocorticoid receptors (GR) levels, while NAC supplementation prevented this effect. NAC supplementation presented significant antioxidant capacity by means of preventing serum lipid status alterations, hepatic damage, and HPA axis disturbance due to high-cholesterol feeding in middle-aged mice. These findings suggest a beneficial preventive action of plant-derived antioxidants, such as NAC, on lipid metabolism and on the HPA axis. PMID:25348324

  8. Cancelled Careers; The Impact of Reduction-in-Force Policies on Middle-Aged Federal Employees. A Report to the Special Committee on Aging, United States Senate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heidbreder, Elizabeth M.

    A study, requested by Senate Special Committee on Aging, to investigate reports that middle-aged Federal employees were currently being forced out of Government and to determine the need for immediate reassessment of personnel policies, particularly early retirement policies, is presented. Availability of statistical data on retirements and…

  9. Media Exposure, Body Dissatisfaction, and Disordered Eating in Middle-Aged Women: A Test of the Sociocultural Model of Disordered Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slevec, Julie; Tiggemann, Marika

    2011-01-01

    The primary aim of our study was to examine the influence of media exposure on body dissatisfaction and disordered eating in middle-aged women. A sample of 101 women, aged between 35 and 55 years, completed questionnaire measures of media exposure, thin-ideal internalization, social comparison, appearance investment, aging anxiety, body…

  10. Age-Related Differences in Attentional Networks of Alerting and Executive Control in Young, Middle-Aged, and Older Chinese Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Shan-shan; Fan, Jin; Lee, Tatia M. C.; Wang, Chang-qing; Wang, Kai

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that aging is associated with impairment of attention. However, it is not known whether this represents a global attentional deficit or relates to a specific attentional network. We used the attention network test to examine three groups of younger, middle-aged, and older participants with respect to the efficiency of…

  11. In the Age of the Web: Strategies for Building a Collection of Primary Sources for European History from the Middle Ages to the Eighteenth Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saenger, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Describes efforts by the Newberry Library (Chicago) to obtain original source materials for studying the literature and history of western Europe from the Middle Ages to the eighteenth century. Discusses joint acquisitions with higher education institutions; acquisition of rare book collections from religious colleges and seminaries; and…

  12. So You Think You Look Young? Matching Older Adults' Subjective Ages with Age Estimations Provided by Younger, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotter-Gruhn, Dana; Hess, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    Perceived age plays an important role in the context of age identity and social interactions. To examine how accurate individuals are in estimating how old they look and how old others are, younger, middle-aged, and older adults rated photographs of older target persons (for whom we had information about objective and subjective age) in terms of…

  13. The Mediating Effects of Lifestyle Factors on the Relationship between Socioeconomic Status and Self-Rated Health among Middle-Aged and Older Adults in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jinhyun

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about how different lifestyle factors mediate the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and health among middle-aged and older adults in Korea. Using data from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging, this study examined the direct effects of SES on self-rated health and how lifestyle factors mediate the relationships…

  14. Development of a field test for evaluating aerobic fitness in middle-aged adults: validity of a 15-m incremental shuttle walk and run test.

    PubMed

    Mikawa, Kotaro; Senjyu, Hideaki

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a standardized and externally paced field test (15-m Incremental Shuttle Walk and Run Test [15mISWRT]), incorporating an incremental and progressive structure, to assess aerobic fitness in middle-aged adults. 68 middle-aged men performed three tests in random order between one to two week intervals: 15-m ISWRT, cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPX), and 1500-m fast walk. Variables evaluated were 15-m ISWRT performance (distance completed), VO2max measured by CPX, 1500-m fast walk performance (walking time), and HR response in 15-m ISWRT and 1500-m fast walk. Validity of the 15-m ISWRT was tested by comparing the associations among the 15-m ISWRT performance, VO2max and the 1500-m fast walk performance. Changes in HR response during the 15-m ISWRT and the 1500-m fast walk were also compared. Correlations between each variable were as follows: the correlation between 15- m ISWRT performance and VO2max was very high, r = 0.86 (p < 0.01), the correlation between the 1500-m fast walk and VO2max was r = -0.51 (p < 0.01). HR response during the 15-m ISWRT gently increased initially, whereas HR response during the 1500-m fast walk rapidly increased from the start. In conclusion, our findings indicate that the 15-m ISWRT is valid and safe for evaluating VO2max in middle-aged adults. Key pointsThe 15-m ISWRT is valid and safe for evaluating VO2max in middle-aged adults.In comparison with the 1500-m fast walk, the 15-m ISWRT may be a more favourable field-based assessment of aerobic fitness in the middle-aged adults.The 15-m ISWRT could become a valid means for evaluating aerobic fitness as an alternative to CPX in institutions and situations where CPX is difficult to implement. PMID:24149563

  15. Adenosine A1 Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis of AMPA Receptors Contributes to Impairments in Long-Term Potentiation (LTP) in the Middle-Aged Rat Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhicheng; Stockwell, Jocelyn; Cayabyab, Francisco S

    2016-05-01

    Aging causes multiple changes in the mammalian brain, including changes in synaptic signaling. Previous reports have shown increased extracellular adenosine in the aging brain, and we recently reported that activation of adenosine A1 receptors (A1Rs) induces AMPA receptor (AMPAR) internalization in rat hippocampus. This study investigated whether aging-related changes in the rat hippocampus include altered surface expression of adenosine A1 and A2A receptors, and whether these changes correspond to changes in AMPAR surface expression and altered synaptic plasticity. We found reduced A1R surface expression in middle-aged rat hippocampus, and also reduced GluA1 and GluA2 AMPAR subunit surface expression. Using a chemically-induced LTP (cLTP) experimental protocol, we recorded fEPSPs in young (1 month old) and middle-aged (7-12 month old) rat hippocampal slices. There were significant impairments in cLTP in middle-aged slices, suggesting impaired synaptic plasticity. Since we previously showed that the A1R agonist N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) reduced both A1Rs and GluA2/GluA1 AMPARs, we hypothesized that the observed impaired synaptic plasticity in middle-aged brains is regulated by A1R-mediated AMPAR internalization by clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Following cLTP, we found a significant increase in GluA1 and GluA2 surface expression in young rats, which was blunted in middle-aged brains or in young brains pretreated with CPA. Blocking A1Rs with 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine or AMPAR endocytosis with either Tat-GluA2-3Y peptide or dynasore (dynamin inhibitor) similarly enhanced AMPAR surface expression following cLTP. These data suggest that age-dependent alteration in adenosine receptor expression contributes to increased AMPAR endocytosis and impaired synaptic plasticity in aged brains. PMID:26700433

  16. Weaker error signals do not reduce the effectiveness of post-error adjustments: comparing error processing in young and middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Strozyk, Jessica Vanessa; Jentzsch, Ines

    2012-06-15

    In this study we investigated age-related differences in error processing, comparing performance measures and physiological indicators of error processing of middle-aged (41-59years) and young (18-31years) adults using a version of the Eriksen flanker task. Although middle-aged participants were overall slower, both groups showed a comparable decrease in reaction time on error trials as well as slower and more accurate post-error performance. Despite the preserved error speeding and post-error slowing effects, we found an amplitude reduction in the Ne/ERN, contradicting the existence of a direct relationship between the amplitude of this component and post-error adjustments. This was further supported by the lack of significant correlations between the single-trial Ne/ERN amplitude and error-related reaction times. The single-trial Ne/ERN distribution showed a reduced variance for middle-aged compared to young participants, suggesting that weaker overall error signals rather than lapses in error detection are responsible for the observed Ne/ERN amplitude reductions. However, we argue that the signal still reached the necessary threshold to trigger normal post-error adjustments. Finally, the early Pe showed a reduction in amplitude and an increase in latency for middle-aged compared to young adults. Together, the findings suggest clear signs of a physiological decline in error processing at an earlier age than previously known, but these changes do not yet affect implementation of adaptive behavioral changes in middle-aged participants. PMID:22578713

  17. Serial Input Output

    SciTech Connect

    Waite, Anthony; /SLAC

    2011-09-07

    Serial Input/Output (SIO) is designed to be a long term storage format of a sophistication somewhere between simple ASCII files and the techniques provided by inter alia Objectivity and Root. The former tend to be low density, information lossy (floating point numbers lose precision) and inflexible. The latter require abstract descriptions of the data with all that that implies in terms of extra complexity. The basic building blocks of SIO are streams, records and blocks. Streams provide the connections between the program and files. The user can define an arbitrary list of streams as required. A given stream must be opened for either reading or writing. SIO does not support read/write streams. If a stream is closed during the execution of a program, it can be reopened in either read or write mode to the same or a different file. Records represent a coherent grouping of data. Records consist of a collection of blocks (see next paragraph). The user can define a variety of records (headers, events, error logs, etc.) and request that any of them be written to any stream. When SIO reads a file, it first decodes the record name and if that record has been defined and unpacking has been requested for it, SIO proceeds to unpack the blocks. Blocks are user provided objects which do the real work of reading/writing the data. The user is responsible for writing the code for these blocks and for identifying these blocks to SIO at run time. To write a collection of blocks, the user must first connect them to a record. The record can then be written to a stream as described above. Note that the same block can be connected to many different records. When SIO reads a record, it scans through the blocks written and calls the corresponding block object (if it has been defined) to decode it. Undefined blocks are skipped. Each of these categories (streams, records and blocks) have some characteristics in common. Every stream, record and block has a name with the condition that each

  18. Juveniles and the elderly defend, the middle-aged escape: division of labour in a social aphid.

    PubMed

    Uematsu, Keigo; Shimada, Masakazu; Shibao, Harunobu

    2013-04-23

    In colonies of social insects, non-random spatial positioning within the colonies may reflect division of labour and improve colony efficiency. Here, we describe a novel defence system in the colony of a gall-forming social aphid, Quadrartus yoshinomiyai (Nipponaphidini), where young and old defensive aphids move towards the dangerous area typically associated with a higher risk of predation, whereas the middle-aged reproductive individuals move away. Younger nymphs and post-reproductive adults of Q. yoshinomiyai concurrently defend against predators that intrude after their galls open. In natural open galls, both types of defenders were preferentially located around the open area vulnerable to invasion by predators, whereas reproductive individuals remained in the safer areas. In addition, when a hole was artificially made in closed galls, these morphs located themselves in similar spatial positions to the natural open galls within 12 hours. The defensive system led by oldest and youngest individuals may reflect the possibility of future reproduction for these insects, thereby optimizing colony efficiency in a seasonally changing environment, according to the reproductive values of colony members. PMID:23325734

  19. Chronic Pyruvate Supplementation Increases Exploratory Activity and Brain Energy Reserves in Young and Middle-Aged Mice

    PubMed Central

    Koivisto, Hennariikka; Leinonen, Henri; Puurula, Mari; Hafez, Hani Sayed; Barrera, Glenda Alquicer; Stridh, Malin H.; Waagepetersen, Helle S.; Tiainen, Mika; Soininen, Pasi; Zilberter, Yuri; Tanila, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported neuroprotective effects of pyruvate when given in systemic injections. Impaired glucose uptake and metabolism are found in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and in AD mouse models. We tested whether dietary pyruvate supplementation is able to provide added energy supply to brain and thereby attenuate aging- or AD-related cognitive impairment. Mice received ~800 mg/kg/day Na-pyruvate in their chow for 2–6 months. In middle-aged wild-type mice and in 6.5-month-old APP/PS1 mice, pyruvate facilitated spatial learning and increased exploration of a novel odor. However, in passive avoidance task for fear memory, the treatment group was clearly impaired. Independent of age, long-term pyruvate increased explorative behavior, which likely explains the paradoxical impairment in passive avoidance. We also assessed pyruvate effects on body weight, muscle force, and endurance, and found no effects. Metabolic postmortem assays revealed increased energy compounds in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as well as increased brain glycogen storages in the pyruvate group. Pyruvate supplementation may counteract aging-related behavioral impairment, but its beneficial effect seems related to increased explorative activity rather than direct memory enhancement. PMID:27014054

  20. Higher intraocular pressure is associated with leukoaraiosis among middle-aged and elderly Koreans without glaucoma or dementia

    PubMed Central

    Park, B-J; Kim, J-K; Lee, Y-J

    2014-01-01

    Aim Leukoaraiosis and high intraocular pressure are strongly associated with cardiovascular disease, vascular angiopathy, and geriatric syndrome. Until now, little is known about the relationship between intraocular pressure and leukoaraiosis in its preclinical stage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between intraocular pressure and leukoaraiosis among middle-aged and elderly Koreans without glaucoma or dementia. Methods We examined the relationship of intraocular pressure with leukoaraiosis at a preclinical stage in 753 Korean adults (474 men, 279 women; mean age 57.8±6.6 years). A multiple logistic regression analysis was performed in order to determine whether intraocular pressure is an independent determinant for leukoaraiosis. Results The overall prevalence of leukoaraiosis was 7.3%. Mean ocular pressure (±SD) was significantly higher in the leukoaraiosis group than the control group (14.3±2.9 and 13.5±2.9, respectively; P=0.028). In multiple logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio for leukoaraiosis was 1.18 (95% confidence interval: 1.06–1.31) for each 1 mm Hg increase in intraocular pressure. Conclusion Intraocular pressure was found to be independently and positively associated with leukoaraiosis. This finding indicates that higher intraocular pressure may be a useful additional measure in assessing the risk of leukoaraiosis in the clinical setting. PMID:24675583

  1. A multivariate twin study of hippocampal volume, self-esteem and well-being in middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Kubarych, T S; Prom-Wormley, E C; Franz, C E; Panizzon, M S; Dale, A M; Fischl, B; Eyler, L T; Fennema-Notestine, C; Grant, M D; Hauger, R L; Hellhammer, D H; Jak, A J; Jernigan, T L; Lupien, S J; Lyons, M J; Mendoza, S P; Neale, M C; Seidman, L J; Tsuang, M T; Kremen, W S

    2012-07-01

    Self-esteem and well-being are important for successful aging, and some evidence suggests that self-esteem and well-being are associated with hippocampal volume, cognition and stress responsivity. Whereas most of this evidence is based on studies on older adults, we investigated self-esteem, well-being and hippocampal volume in 474 male middle-aged twins. Self-esteem was significantly positively correlated with hippocampal volume (0.09, P = 0.03 for left hippocampus, 0.10, P = 0.04 for right). Correlations for well-being were not significant (Ps > 0.05). There were strong phenotypic correlations between self-esteem and well-being (0.72, P < 0.001) and between left and right hippocampal volume (0.72, P < 0.001). In multivariate genetic analyses, a two-factor additive genetic and unique environmental (AE) model with well-being and self-esteem on one factor and left and right hippocampal volumes on the other factor fits the data better than Cholesky, independent pathway or common pathway models. The correlation between the two genetic factors was 0.12 (P = 0.03); the correlation between the environmental factors was 0.09 (P > 0.05). Our results indicate that largely different genetic and environmental factors underlie self-esteem and well-being on one hand and hippocampal volume on the other. PMID:22471516

  2. Frequency-effect of playing screen golf on body composition and golf performance in middle-aged men

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Jung-Hoon; Jee, Yong-Seok; Oh, Hye-Won

    2014-01-01

    There are many studies showing that physical training improves body composition including bone mineral density (BMD) in almost all subjects. However, the frequency-dependent effect of playing golf on body composition is still not clearly comprehended. Moreover, the effect of screen golf in relations with exercise-frequency on body composition and golf performance has not been documented. Forty year old men participated and were classified into 4 groups: Control group (n= 10), BMD1 group (n= 10) played screen golf less than 1 day per a week, BMD2–3 group (n= 10) played screen golf 2–3 days per a week, and BMD5 group (n= 10) played screen golf 5 days per week. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was performed on 30 male recreational golfers and 10 sedentary individuals. The data gained through DXA were fat mass, lean mass, regional (head, rib, arm, leg, pelvis, spine and trunk) BMD level, and total BMD level summed by regional scores. The club speeds were measured using the Golfzon Vision machine and the handicap points were measured using a simple questionnaire. The present results suggest that the long-frequency of playing screen golf does not improve bone mineral density, lean mass, and handicap point yet improves fat mass and club speed in the middle-aged men. PMID:25426463

  3. Religious motivation and cardiovascular reactivity among middle aged adults: is being pro-religious really that good for you?

    PubMed

    Masters, Kevin S; Knestel, Andrea

    2011-12-01

    Religiousness has been observed to have a beneficial relationship with blood pressure, however, specific aspects of religiousness that interact with physiological mechanisms to influence this relationship are not known. This study explored laboratory cardiovascular reactivity (blood pressure, heart rate) to psychological stress among middle aged community dwelling individuals grouped by religious motivation (Intrinsic, Pro-religious, Non-religious). Measures of personality, cynical hostility, aggression, sense of coherence, and compassion were administered. Results indicated that the Pro-religious group demonstrated dampened reactivity compared to the other research groups. However, the Pro-religious also demonstrated a less positive psychological profile (e.g., greater cynicism, aggression, and neuroticism; less compassion and sense of coherence) and poorer self-reported health compared with the Intrinsic group and behavioral observations demonstrated that the Pro-religious were unreliable in keeping appointments and appeared rushed during the experiment. These findings indicate a complicated interface between personality, coping, and religious motivation in response to stressors and emphasize the need for naturalistic and longitudinal investigations of individuals who vary in terms of religious motivation. PMID:21604184

  4. The Relationship between Alcohol Consumption and Incidence of Glycometabolic Abnormality in Middle-Aged and Elderly Chinese Men.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Siwen; Liu, Yujia; Wang, Gang; Xiao, Xianchao; Gang, Xiaokun; Li, Fei; Sun, Chenglin; Gao, Ying; Wang, Guixia

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The relationship between alcohol consumption and glycometabolic abnormality is controversial, especially in different ethnic population. In this study, a cross-sectional survey was carried out to examine the relationship between alcohol consumption and glycometabolic abnormality in middle-aged and elderly Chinese men. Methods. Using cluster random sampling, Chinese men aged more than 40 years from Changchun, China, were given standardized questionnaires. In total, 1996 individuals, for whom complete data was available, were recruited into the study. We calculated the incidence of prediabetes and newly diagnosed diabetes by three levels of alcohol consumption: light, moderate, and heavy. Multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for socioeconomic variables and diabetes-related risk factors were used to analyze the association between alcohol consumption and the onset of prediabetes and diabetes. Results. The univariate analysis revealed higher incidence of prediabetes among drinkers (32.8%) compared with nondrinkers (28.6%), particularly in heavy alcohol consumers. The logistic regression analysis showed that alcohol consumption, especially heavy consumption, was an independent risk factor for prediabetes. Conclusions. Alcohol consumption, heavy consumption in particular, is an independent risk factor for the development of prediabetes, but not for diabetes. PMID:26981121

  5. Effects of Alcohol- and Cigarette-Use Disorders on Global and Specific Measures of Cognition in Middle-Age Adults*

    PubMed Central

    Caspers, Kristin; Arndt, Stephan; Yucuis, Rebecca; McKirgan, Lowell; Spinks, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the effects of alcohol-and tobacco-use disorders on global and specific cognitive abilities in middle age. Method: The sample consisted of 118 men and 169 women ranging in age from 31 to 60 years (M [SD] = 43.59 [6.58]). Lifetime diagnoses were determined from a semistructured interview. Information about current levels of alcohol and cigarette use was also collected. A comprehensive neurocognitive assessment measuring global cognition, memory, and executive-functioning abilities was administered. Baseline cognition was estimated from average composite scores of the Iowa Test of Basic Skills school-achievement tests administered from third through eighth grade. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used. Covariates comprised baseline cognition, current depression symptoms, and medication use. Results: Lifetime alcohol- and tobacco-use disorders were not associated with cognition among men. Women having a diagnosis of tobacco dependence (according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition [DSM-IV]) performed less well on measures of global cognition and executive functioning. A lifetime diagnosis of DSM-IV alcohol abuse or dependence was associated with higher working memory among women only. Conclusions: These results demonstrate few negative effects of alcohol-use disorders on midlife cognition, especially if current consumption is light. Differential susceptibility to the effects of cigarette use on cognition was found with women showing greater deficits in visuospatial abilities, processing speed, and executive-functioning abilities. PMID:20230716

  6. Preceding infection as an important risk factor for ischaemic brain infarction in young and middle aged patients

    PubMed Central

    Syrjänen, Jaana; Valtonen, Ville V; Iivanainen, Matti; Kaste, Markku; Huttunen, Jussi K

    1988-01-01

    The role of preceding infection as a risk factor for ischaemic stroke was investigated in a case-control study of 54 consecutive patients under 50 years of age with brain infarction and 54 randomly selected controls from the community matched for sex and age. Information about previous illnesses, smoking, consumption of alcohol, and use of drugs was taken. A blood sample was analysed for standard biochemical variables and serum cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, and fasting blood glucose concentrations determined. Titres of antimicrobial antibodies against various bacteria, including Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Yersinia, and Salmonella and several viruses were determined. Febrile infection was found in patients during the month before the brain infarction significantly more often than in controls one month before their examination (19 patients v three controls; estimated relative risk 9·0 (95% confidence interval 2·2 to 80·0)). The most common preceding febrile infection was respiratory infection (80%). Infections preceding brain infarction were mostly of bacterial origin based on cultural, serological, and clinical data. In conditional logistic regression analysis for matched pairs the effect of preceding febrile infection remained significant (estimated relative risk 14·5 (95% confidence interval 1·9 to 112·3)) when tested with triglyceride concentration, hypertension, smoking, and preceding intoxication with alcohol. Although causality cannot be inferred from these data and plausible underlying mechanisms remain undetermined, preceding febrile infection may play an important part in the development of brain infarction in young and middle aged patients. PMID:3132245

  7. Small Molecule Kaempferol Promotes Insulin Sensitivity and Preserved Pancreatic β-Cell Mass in Middle-Aged Obese Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Alkhalidy, Hana; Moore, William; Zhang, Yanling; Wang, Aihua; Ali, Mostafa; Suh, Kyung-Shin; Zhen, Wei; Cheng, Zhiyong; Jia, Zhenquan; Hulver, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance and a progressive decline in functional β-cell mass are hallmarks of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D). Thus, searching for natural, low-cost compounds to target these two defects could be a promising strategy to prevent the pathogenesis of T2D. Here, we show that dietary intake of flavonol kaempferol (0.05% in the diet) significantly ameliorated hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and circulating lipid profile, which were associated with the improved peripheral insulin sensitivity in middle-aged obese mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet. Kaempferol treatment reversed HF diet impaired glucose transport-4 (Glut4) and AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK) expression in both muscle and adipose tissues from obese mice. In vitro, kaempferol increased lipolysis and prevented high fatty acid-impaired glucose uptake, glycogen synthesis, AMPK activity, and Glut4 expression in skeletal muscle cells. Using another mouse model of T2D generated by HF diet feeding and low doses of streptozotocin injection, we found that kaempferol treatment significantly improved hyperglycemia, glucose tolerance, and blood insulin levels in obese diabetic mice, which are associated with the improved islet β-cell mass. These results demonstrate that kaempferol may be a naturally occurring anti-diabetic agent by improving peripheral insulin sensitivity and protecting against pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. PMID:26064984

  8. The Relationship between Alcohol Consumption and Incidence of Glycometabolic Abnormality in Middle-Aged and Elderly Chinese Men

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Siwen; Liu, Yujia; Wang, Gang; Xiao, Xianchao; Gang, Xiaokun; Li, Fei; Sun, Chenglin; Gao, Ying; Wang, Guixia

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The relationship between alcohol consumption and glycometabolic abnormality is controversial, especially in different ethnic population. In this study, a cross-sectional survey was carried out to examine the relationship between alcohol consumption and glycometabolic abnormality in middle-aged and elderly Chinese men. Methods. Using cluster random sampling, Chinese men aged more than 40 years from Changchun, China, were given standardized questionnaires. In total, 1996 individuals, for whom complete data was available, were recruited into the study. We calculated the incidence of prediabetes and newly diagnosed diabetes by three levels of alcohol consumption: light, moderate, and heavy. Multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for socioeconomic variables and diabetes-related risk factors were used to analyze the association between alcohol consumption and the onset of prediabetes and diabetes. Results. The univariate analysis revealed higher incidence of prediabetes among drinkers (32.8%) compared with nondrinkers (28.6%), particularly in heavy alcohol consumers. The logistic regression analysis showed that alcohol consumption, especially heavy consumption, was an independent risk factor for prediabetes. Conclusions. Alcohol consumption, heavy consumption in particular, is an independent risk factor for the development of prediabetes, but not for diabetes. PMID:26981121

  9. An Unusual Case of Nonhealing Granulomatous Keratitis Caused by Mycobacterium chelonae in a Healthy Middle Aged Adult

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Vipul; Sriganesh; Relekar, Kirti

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To report a rare presentation of culture positive Mycobacterium chelonae (M. chelonae) corneal ulcer and its management. Case Report. We report a rare case with history of chronic pain and blurriness of vision. Examination revealed chronic nonhealing paracentral corneal ulcer inferiorly at 5 to 7 o'clock meridian with anterior chamber cells 1+ unresponsive to routine antibiotic and antifungal medications with Mantoux test (MT) positivity in a middle aged nondiabetic patient with no prior obvious history of trauma, ocular surgery, and contact lens usage. Discussion. Ziehl Neelsen (ZN) staining in nonhealing ulcer revealed acid fast bacilli typical of M. chelonae with subsequent culture positivity in Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) medium. Subsequent treatment with topical fortified amikacin and tobramycin resulted in rapid healing of corneal ulcer. Conclusion. M. chelonae presenting as a chronic nonhealing corneal ulcer spontaneously occurring in a healthy young adult with no predisposing factor draws the need to have a good index of suspicion by performing ZN stain and culture and its subsequent successful management with topical fortified amikacin and tobramycin. PMID:26798534

  10. Effects of flooring on required coefficient of friction: Elderly adult vs. middle-aged adult barefoot gait.

    PubMed

    Rozin Kleiner, Ana Francisca; Galli, Manuela; Araujo do Carmo, Aline; Barros, Ricardo M L

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of flooring on barefoot gait according to age and gender. Two groups of healthy subjects were analyzed: the elderly adult group (EA; 10 healthy subjects) and the middle-aged group (MA; 10 healthy subjects). Each participant was asked to walk at his or her preferred speed over two force plates on the following surfaces: 1) homogeneous vinyl (HOV), 2) carpet, 3) heterogeneous vinyl (HTV) and 4) mixed (in which the first half of the pathway was covered by HOV and the second by HTV). Two force plates (Kistler 9286BA) embedded in the data collection room floor measured the ground reaction forces and friction. The required coefficient of friction (RCOF) was analyzed. For the statistical analysis, a linear mixed-effects model for repeated measures was performed. During barefoot gait, there were differences in the RCOF among the flooring types during the heel contact and toe-off phases. Due to better plantar proprioception during barefoot gait, the EA and MA subjects were able to distinguish differences among the flooring types. Moreover, when the EA were compared with the MA subjects, differences could be observed in the RCOF during the toe-off phase, and gender differences in the RCOF could also be observed during the heel contact phase in barefoot gait. PMID:25959329

  11. The genetic basis for cognitive ability, memory, and depression symptomatology in middle-aged and elderly chinese twins.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chunsheng; Sun, Jianping; Ji, Fuling; Tian, Xiaocao; Duan, Haiping; Zhai, Yaoming; Wang, Shaojie; Pang, Zengchang; Zhang, Dongfeng; Zhao, Zhongtang; Li, Shuxia; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Christensen, Kaare; Tan, Qihua

    2015-02-01

    The genetic influences on aging-related phenotypes, including cognition and depression, have been well confirmed in the Western populations. We performed the first twin-based analysis on cognitive performance, memory and depression status in middle-aged and elderly Chinese twins, representing the world's largest and most rapidly aging population. The sample consisted of 384 twin pairs with a median age of 50 years. Cognitive function was measured using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scale; memory was assessed using the revised Wechsler Adult Intelligence scale; depression symptomatology was evaluated by the self-reported 30-item Geriatric Depression (GDS-30)scale. Both univariate and multivariate twin models were fitted to the three phenotypes with full and nested models and compared to select the best fitting models. Univariate analysis showed moderate-to-high genetic influences with heritability 0.44 for cognition and 0.56 for memory. Multivariate analysis by the reduced Cholesky model estimated significant genetic (rG = 0.69) and unique environmental (rE = 0.25) correlation between cognitive ability and memory. The model also estimated weak but significant inverse genetic correlation for depression with cognition (-0.31) and memory (-0.28). No significant unique environmental correlation was found for depression with other two phenotypes. In conclusion, there can be a common genetic architecture for cognitive ability and memory that weakly correlates with depression symptomatology, but in the opposite direction. PMID:25586092

  12. Regional Differences in Correlates of Daily Walking among Middle Age and Older Australian Rural Adults: Implications for Health Promotion.

    PubMed

    Dollman, James; Hull, Melissa; Lewis, Nicole; Carroll, Suzanne; Zarnowiecki, Dorota

    2016-01-01

    Rural Australians are less physically active than their metropolitan counterparts, and yet very little is known of the candidate intervention targets for promoting physical activity in rural populations. As rural regions are economically, socially and environmentally diverse, drivers of regular physical activity are likely to vary between regions. This study explored the region-specific correlates of daily walking among middle age and older adults in rural regions with contrasting dominant primary industries. Participants were recruited through print and electronic media, primary care settings and community organisations. Pedometers were worn by 153 adults for at least four days, including a weekend day. A questionnaire identified potential intra-personal, social and environmental correlates of physical activity, according to a social ecological framework. Regression modelling identified independent correlates of daily walking separately in the two study regions. In one region, there were independent correlates of walking from all levels of the social ecological framework. In the other region, significant correlates of daily walking were almost all demographic (age, education and marital status). Participants living alone were less likely to be physically active regardless of region. This study highlights the importance of considering region-specific factors when designing strategies for promoting regular walking among rural adults. PMID:26761020

  13. The effect of language on functional capacity assessment in middle-aged and older US Latinos with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Bengoetxea, Eneritz; Burton, Cynthia Z.; Mausbach, Brent T.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Twamley, Elizabeth W.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Latino population is steadily increasing, prompting a need for cross-cultural outcome measures in schizophrenia research. This study examined the contribution of language to functional assessment in middle-aged Latino patients with schizophrenia by comparing 29 monolingual Spanish-speakers, 29 Latino English-speakers, and 29 non-Latino English-speakers who were matched on relevant demographic variables and who completed cognitive and functional assessments in their native language. There were no statistically significant differences between groups on the four everyday functioning variables (UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment [UPSA], Social Skills Performance Assessment [SSPA], Medication Management Ability Assessment [MMAA], and the Global Assessment of Functioning [GAF]). The results support the cross-linguistic and cross-cultural acceptability of these functional assessment instruments. It appears that demographic variables other than language (e.g., age, education) better explain differences in functional assessment among ethnically diverse subpopulations. Considering the influence of these other factors in addition to language on functional assessments will help ensure that measures can be appropriately interpreted among the diverse residents of the United States. PMID:24751379

  14. Regional Differences in Correlates of Daily Walking among Middle Age and Older Australian Rural Adults: Implications for Health Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Dollman, James; Hull, Melissa; Lewis, Nicole; Carroll, Suzanne; Zarnowiecki, Dorota

    2016-01-01

    Rural Australians are less physically active than their metropolitan counterparts, and yet very little is known of the candidate intervention targets for promoting physical activity in rural populations. As rural regions are economically, socially and environmentally diverse, drivers of regular physical activity are likely to vary between regions. This study explored the region-specific correlates of daily walking among middle age and older adults in rural regions with contrasting dominant primary industries. Participants were recruited through print and electronic media, primary care settings and community organisations. Pedometers were worn by 153 adults for at least four days, including a weekend day. A questionnaire identified potential intra-personal, social and environmental correlates of physical activity, according to a social ecological framework. Regression modelling identified independent correlates of daily walking separately in the two study regions. In one region, there were independent correlates of walking from all levels of the social ecological framework. In the other region, significant correlates of daily walking were almost all demographic (age, education and marital status). Participants living alone were less likely to be physically active regardless of region. This study highlights the importance of considering region-specific factors when designing strategies for promoting regular walking among rural adults. PMID:26761020

  15. A Multivariate Twin Study of Hippocampal Volume, Self-Esteem and Well-Being in Middle Aged Men

    PubMed Central

    Kubarych, Thomas S.; Prom-Wormley, Elizabeth C.; Franz, Carol E.; Panizzon, Matthew S.; Dale, Anders M.; Fischl, Bruce; Eyler, Lisa T.; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Grant, Michael D.; Hauger, Richard L.; Hellhammer, Dirk H.; Jak, Amy J.; Jernigan, Terry L.; Lupien, Sonia J.; Lyons, Michael J.; Mendoza, Sally P.; Neale, Michael C.; Seidman, Larry J.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Kremen, William S.

    2012-01-01

    Self-esteem and well-being are important for successful aging, and some evidence suggests that self-esteem and well-being are associated with hippocampal volume, cognition, and stress responsivity. Whereas most of this evidence is based on studies of older adults, we investigated self-esteem, well-being and hippocampal volume in 474 male middle-age twins. Self-esteem was significantly positively correlated with hippocampal volume (.09, p=.03 for left hippocampus, .10, p=.04 for right). Correlations for well-being were not significant (ps ≫.05). There were strong phenotypic correlations between self-esteem and well-being (.72, p<.001) and between left and right hippocampal volume (.72, p<.001). In multivariate genetic analyses, a 2-factor AE model with well-being and self-esteem on one factor and left and right hippocampal volumes on the other factor fit the data better than Cholesky, independent pathway or common pathway models. The correlation between the two genetic factors was .12 (p=.03); the correlation between the environmental factors was .09 (p>05). Our results indicate that largely different genetic and environmental factors underlie self-esteem and well-being on the one hand and hippocampal volume on the other. PMID:22471516

  16. Predictors of improvement following speed of processing training in middle-aged and older adults with HIV: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Jaspreet; Dodson, Joan E; Steadman, Laura; Vance, David E

    2014-02-01

    Speed of processing training has been shown to improve cognitive functioning in normal older adults. A recent study demonstrated that middle-aged and older adults with HIV also improved on a measure of speed of processing and a measure of everyday functioning after such training. The primary objective was to examine what predicts the speed of processing training gains observed in the previous study. Participants were administered an extensive battery of demographic, psychosocial, and neuropsychological measures at baseline. They were randomized either to the speed of processing training group (n = 22) or to a no-contact control group (n = 24). Participants received approximately 10 hours of computerized speed of processing training. Predictors of training gains on the Useful Field of View (UFOV) Test and the Timed Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (TIADL) Test were examined through correlational analyses. In general, those who performed worse on the UFOV and TIADL at baseline demonstrated significantly more training gains. Also, higher HIV viral load, poorer medication adherence, a higher number of years diagnosed with HIV, and lower baseline scores on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (an executive functioning measure) were correlated with better TIADL training gains. TIADL performance improved in those with higher HIV viral load, poorer medication adherence, and poor executive functioning. Speed of processing training may be a way to improve everyday functioning and therefore quality of life in more medically and cognitively vulnerable adults with HIV. PMID:24399164

  17. Prospective Change in Health-Related Quality of Life and Subsequent Mortality Among Middle-Aged and Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Kroenke, Candyce H.; Kubzansky, Laura D.; Adler, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine prospective changes in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measures and subsequent mortality in middle-aged and older women. Methods. We obtained data from 40 337 healthy women from the Nurses’ Health Study aged 46 to 71 years in 1992. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to evaluate associations of changes in self-assessed physical and mental component summary (PCS and MCS) scores from the Short Form 36 Health Survey between 1992 and 1996 and between 1996 and 2000, with all-cause mortality through 2004. Results. Women with low HRQoL (PCS and MCS scores) and the greatest HRQoL declines had higher mortality than did women with stable scores. Change in PCS score predicted mortality across the range of 4-year change: severe decline (relative risk [RR] = 3.32; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.45, 4.50), moderate decline (RR = 1.44; 95% CI = 1.16, 1.79), slight decline (RR = 1.35; 95% CI = 1.12, 1.63), no change (reference category), improvement (RR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.56, 0.91; continuous P < .001). MCS score results were similar. Score increases were associated with lifestyle improvements, especially increased physical activity. Conclusions. Observed associations demonstrate the predictive validity of changes in self-assessed HRQoL for subsequent mortality in healthy populations. Future research should examine determinants of patterns of change. PMID:18511734

  18. Association between Dietary Vitamin C Intake and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study among Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jie; Lei, Guang-hua; Fu, Lei; Zeng, Chao; Yang, Tuo; Peng, Shi-fang

    2016-01-01

    Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become one of the most prevalent chronic liver disease all over the world. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between dietary vitamin C intake and NAFLD. Method Subjects were diagnosed with NAFLD by abdominal ultrasound examination and the consumption of alcohol was less than 40g/day for men or less than 20g/day for women. Vitamin C intake was classified into four categories according to the quartile distribution in the study population: ≤74.80 mg/day, 74.81–110.15 mg/day, 110.16–146.06 mg/day, and ≥146.07 mg/day. The energy and multi-variable adjusted odds ratio (OR), as well as their corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI), were used to determine the relationship between dietary vitamin C intake and NAFLD through logistic regression. Result The present cross-sectional study included 3471 subjects. A significant inverse association between dietary vitamin C intake and NAFLD was observed in the energy-adjusted and the multivariable model. The multivariable adjusted ORs (95%CI) for NAFLD were 0.69 (95%CI: 0.54–0.89), 0.93 (95%CI: 0.72–1.20), and 0.71 (95%CI: 0.53–0.95) in the second, third and fourth dietary vitamin C intake quartiles, respectively, compared with the lowest (first) quartile. The relative odds of NAFLD was decreased by 0.71 times in the fourth quartile of dietary vitamin C intake compared with the lowest quartile. After stratifying data by sex or the status of obesity, the inverse association remained valid in the male population or non-obesity population, but not in the female population or obesity population. Conclusion There might be a moderate inverse association between dietary vitamin C intake and NAFLD in middle-aged and older adults, especially for the male population and non-obesity population. PMID:26824361

  19. The Post-Ovariectomy Interval Affects the Antidepressant-Like Action of Citalopram Combined with Ethynyl-Estradiol in the Forced Swim Test in Middle Aged Rats

    PubMed Central

    Vega Rivera, Nelly M.; Gallardo Tenorio, Alfredo; Fernández-Guasti, Alonso; Estrada Camarena, Erika

    2016-01-01

    The use of a combined therapy with low doses of estrogens plus antidepressants to treat depression associated to perimenopause could be advantageous. However the use of these combinations is controversial due to several factors, including the time of intervention in relation to menopause onset. This paper analyzes whether time post-OVX influences the antidepressant-like action of a combination of ethynyl-estradiol (EE2) and citalopram (CIT) in the forced swim test (FST). Middle-aged (15 months old) female Wistar rats were ovariectomized and after one or three weeks treated with EE2 (1.25, 2.5 or 5.0 µg/rat, s.c.; −48 h) or CIT (1.25, 2.5, 5.0 or 10 mg/kg, i.p./3 injections in 24 h) and tested in the FST. In a second experiment, after one or three weeks of OVX, rats received a combination of an ineffective dose of EE2 (1.25 µg/rat, s.c., −48 h) plus CIT (2.5 mg/kg, i.p./3 injections in 24 h) and subjected to the FST. Finally, the uteri were removed and weighted to obtain an index of the peripheral effects of EE2 administration. EE2 (2.5 or 5.0 µg/rat) reduced immobility after one but not three weeks of OVX. In contrast, no CIT dose reduced immobility at one or three weeks after OVX. When EE2 (1.25 µg/rat) was combined with CIT (2.5 mg/kg) an antidepressant-like effect was observed at one but not three weeks post-OVX. The weight of the uteri augmented when EE2 was administrated three weeks after OVX. The data suggest that the time post-OVX is a crucial factor that contributes to observe the antidepressant-like effect of EE2 alone or in combination with CIT. PMID:27153072

  20. Middle-Aged Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Charles W.

    1998-01-01

    Examines renovation issues involving 30- and 40-year-old school facilities. Explores ways a school district can renovate old buildings to first-class cost-effective facilities while avoiding excessive transition costs. Discussions include installation of new technology and the resulting wiring demands, and developing more energy-efficient heating…

  1. Serial Item Contribution Identifier: New SISAC Code.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Computers in Libraries, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of the Serial Item Contribution Identifier (SICI) standard for serials handling. Developed by the Serials Industry Systems Advisory Committee (SISAC), SICI applications through the use of a SISAC barcode are expected to benefit shipping, ordering, serials processing and claiming, document delivery, and information exchange.…

  2. A Prospective Study of Stressful Events, Coping Motives for Drinking, and Alcohol Use Among Middle-Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Windle, Michael; Windle, Rebecca C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This prospective study investigated moderator variable models of the interrelationships among stressful events, coping motives for drinking, and current alcohol use on subsequent alcohol use across a 5-year window with middle-aged adults. Method: Data from women (n = 716; Mage = 55.29 years at baseline) and men (n = 505; Mage = 57.57 years at baseline) were used to examine theory-guided hypotheses that current levels of alcohol use would interact with stressful events and coping motives for drinking to predict higher levels of alcohol use across time. Analyses were conducted separately for men and women. Results: After we controlled for several potentially important covariates (i.e., age, educational level, family income, and marital status), prospective regression analyses supported moderator effects for current alcohol use and stressful events as predictors of changes in alcohol use, and a somewhat weaker consistency of moderator effects for current alcohol use and coping motives for drinking as predictors of changes in alcohol use. For example, higher levels of baseline alcohol involvement in conjunction with higher levels of stress predicted higher levels of alcohol use and alcohol problems 5 years later. Similarly, higher levels of coping motives and higher levels of heavy episodic drinking predicted higher levels of heavy episodic drinking among women 5 years later. Conclusions: The findings were discussed from an alcohol–stress vulnerability model of affect regulation and a positive regulatory feedback loop perspective wherein conditional relationships among baseline alcohol use indicators, stressful events, and coping drinking motives predicted greater alcohol involvement, especially problematic use, across time. PMID:25978834

  3. [The effect of a health promotion program at the worksite--an approach to hyperlipoproteinemia in workers before middle age].

    PubMed

    Takata, Yasumitsu; Nakanishi, Rieko; Isoda, Chika; Niino, Mayumi; Maeda, Yuki

    2003-03-01

    A one-year educational program at the worksite was designed to reassess individual physical activities and acquire knowledge of hyperlipoproteinemia in workers aged 30, 35 and 40 who had increased serum cholesterol (CHO) or triglyceride (TG). A total of 420 subjects were selected in 8 yr. The mean percentage of attendance for the program consisting of measuring maximum oxygen uptake, a lecture on a healthy life, an eating-experience class and measuring serum lipid was 86, 59, 35 and 61%, respectively. The male subjects (214 subjects for 1 yr and 125 subjects for 5 yr) who had measured maximum oxygen uptake before the program and serum lipids before and after the program were studied. They were divided into three groups according to their lipoprotein phenotypes to compare the effect of the education on their blood lipid levels. In the type IIa group, the CHO value and low density lipoprotein (LDL)-CHO had decreased about 10 mg/dl at 1 yr (n = 117) and the latter remained decreased at 5 yr (n = 69). The CHO value had decreased in the type IIb group (n = 44) both at 1 (n = 44) and 5 yr (n = 25) although the TG value was decreased only at 1 yr. The average HDL value was significantly increased in the type IV group (n = 53) although the TG value was not improved in 5 yr (n = 32). The type IIb group showed an increase in BMI, increased % fat and decreased estimated maximum oxygen uptake value compared to those in the type IIa group. The number of smokers was the greatest in the type IV group. We observed different effects of the education on the blood lipid values and also different physique and life-habits among groups of three lipoprotein phenotypes in the workers before the middle age. It might be necessary to evaluate the effects of the educational program for ameliorating serum lipids in regard to the individual lipoprotein-phenotypes. PMID:12718096

  4. Contribution of Chronic Conditions to the Disability Burden across Smoking Categories in Middle-Aged Adults, Belgium

    PubMed Central

    Yokota, Renata Tiene de Carvalho; Nusselder, Wilma Johanna; Robine, Jean-Marie; Tafforeau, Jean; Deboosere, Patrick; Van Oyen, Herman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Smoking is considered the single most important preventable cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, contributing to increased incidence and severity of disabling conditions. The aim of this study was to assess the contribution of chronic conditions to the disability burden across smoking categories in middle-aged adults in Belgium. Methods Data from 10,224 individuals aged 40 to 60 years who participated in the 1997, 2001, 2004, or 2008 Health Interview Surveys in Belgium were used. Smoking status was defined as never, former (cessation ≥2 years), former (cessation <2 years), occasional light (<20 cigarettes/day), daily light, and daily heavy (≥20 cigarettes/day). To attribute disability to chronic conditions, binomial additive hazards models were fitted separately for each smoking category adjusted for gender, except for former (cessation <2 years) and occasional light smokers due to the small sample size. Results An increasing trend in the disability prevalence was observed across smoking categories in men (never = 4.8%, former (cessation ≥2 years) = 5.8%, daily light = 7.8%, daily heavy = 10.7%) and women (never = 7.6%, former (cessation ≥2 years) = 8.0%, daily light = 10.2%, daily heavy = 12.0%). Musculoskeletal conditions showed a substantial contribution to the disability burden in men and women across all smoking categories. Other important contributors were depression and cardiovascular diseases in never smokers; depression, chronic respiratory diseases, and diabetes in former smokers (cessation ≥2 years); chronic respiratory diseases, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases in daily light smokers; cardiovascular diseases and chronic respiratory diseases in men and depression and diabetes in women daily heavy smokers. Conclusions Beyond the well-known effect of smoking on mortality, our findings showed an increasing trend of the disability prevalence and different contributors to the disability burden across smoking categories. This

  5. Kinematics and Ground Reaction Force Determination: A Demonstration Quantifying Locomotor Abilities of Young Adult, Middle-aged, and Geriatric Rats

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Aubrey A.; Kerr, Brendan; Neville, Tanya; Ngan, Sybil; Assem, Hisham

    2011-01-01

    Behavior, in its broadest definition, can be defined as the motor manifestation of physiologic processes. As such, all behaviors manifest through the motor system. In the fields of neuroscience and orthopedics, locomotion is a commonly evaluated behavior for a variety of disease models. For example, locomotor recovery after traumatic injury to the nervous system is one of the most commonly evaluated behaviors 1-3. Though locomotion can be evaluated using a variety of endpoint measurements (e.g. time taken to complete a locomotor task, etc), semiquantitative kinematic measures (e.g. ordinal rating scales (e.g. Basso Beattie and Bresnahan locomotor (BBB) rating scale, etc)) and surrogate measures of behaviour (e.g. muscle force, nerve conduction velocity, etc), only kinetics (force measurements) and kinematics (measurements of body segments in space) provide a detailed description of the strategy by which an animal is able to locomote 1. Though not new, kinematic and kinetic measurements of locomoting rodents is now more readily accessible due to the availability of commercially available equipment designed for this purpose. Importantly, however, experimenters need to be very familiar with theory of biomechanical analyses and understand the benefits and limitations of these forms of analyses prior to embarking on what will become a relatively labor-intensive study. The present paper aims to describe a method for collecting kinematic and ground reaction force data using commercially available equipment. Details of equipment and apparatus set-up, pre-training of animals, inclusion and exclusion criteria of acceptable runs, and methods for collecting the data are described. We illustrate the utility of this behavioral analysis technique by describing the kinematics and kinetics of strain-matched young adult, middle-aged, and geriatric rats. PMID:21403621

  6. A survey of cancer and occupation in young and middle aged men. II. Non-respiratory cancers.

    PubMed Central

    Coggon, D; Pannett, B; Osmond, C; Acheson, E D

    1986-01-01

    In a search for clues to previously unrecognised industrial carcinogens the occupational and smoking histories of young and middle aged men with different types of cancer have been compared. The study population comprised men aged 18-54 and resident in the counties of Cleveland, Humberside, and Cheshire (including the Wirral). Within this population 2942 patients in whom cancers were first diagnosed during the period 1975-80 were identified retrospectively from hospital and cancer registration records. Lifetime occupational and smoking histories were then sought from these subjects (or if they had died by proxy from their next of kin), using a postal questionnaire. The overall response rate was 52.1%. Analysis of limited occupational data obtained from the hospital notes of 89% of the patients suggests that no serious bias arose from the incomplete response to the questionnaire. The present paper describes the findings for non-respiratory cancers. Some tumours did not occur with sufficient frequency to warrant formal statistical analysis. Nevertheless, examination of the histories of patients with these cancers showed several interesting occupational clusters. In particular, five out of 29 patients with acute myeloid leukaemia had worked in electrical trades. The more common cancers were studied by statistical techniques. A large number of possible occupational associations were examined, and some will probably have achieved conventional levels of statistical significance by chance. The results should therefore be interpreted with caution, taking into account evidence from other studies and the biological plausibility of suggested hazards. Among the more interesting findings were an excess of bladder cancer in lorry drivers (RR=1.6, CI 1.0-2.4) and in men employed in the manufacture of vegetable and animal oils and fats (RR = 4.8, CI 1.8-12.9). PMID:3718882

  7. Associations between dietary patterns, physical activity (leisure-time and occupational) and television viewing in middle-aged French adults.

    PubMed

    Charreire, Hélène; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Bertrais, Sandrine; Simon, Chantal; Chaix, Basile; Weber, Christiane; Touvier, Mathilde; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Oppert, Jean-Michel

    2011-03-01

    Diet and physical activity are considered to be major components of a healthy lifestyle. However, few studies have examined in detail the relationships between specific types of physical activity, sedentary behaviour and diet in adults. The objective of the present study was to assess differential relationships between dietary patterns, leisure-time and occupational physical activities and time spent watching television (TV), as an indicator of sedentary behaviour, in middle-aged French subjects. We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from 1359 participants in the SUpplémentation en VItamines et Minéraux AntioXydants study, who completed a detailed physical activity questionnaire and at least six 24 h dietary records. Sex-specific dietary patterns were derived using factor analysis; their relationships with leisure-time and occupational physical activities and TV viewing were assessed using ANCOVA, after adjustment for age, educational level and smoking status. Three dietary patterns were identified in each sex. After adjustment for potential confounders, leisure-time physical activity was positively associated with a 'healthy' food pattern in both men (P for trend < 0·01) and women (P for trend < 0·03) and negatively associated with an 'alcohol/meat' pattern in men (P for trend < 0·01). TV viewing was positively associated with a 'convenience' pattern in men and with a 'alcohol-appetiser' pattern in women. In conclusion, identification of relationships between dietary patterns, physical activity and sedentary behaviour can enable identification of different types of lifestyle and should help to target at-risk groups in nutrition prevention programmes. PMID:21251337

  8. High serum adiponectin levels predict incident falls among middle-aged and older adults: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cong; Momma, Haruki; Niu, Kaijun; Chujo, Masahiko; Otomo, Atsushi; Cui, Yufei; Nagatomi, Ryoichi

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective: adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived hormone with anti-obesity and anti-diabetic properties. However, higher circulating adiponectin levels are related to poor muscle function and physical disability, which suggests a potential link between adiponectin and risk of falls. Nevertheless, no direct association between circulating adiponectin levels and incident fall risk has been reported. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between serum adiponectin levels and incident falls in a population of middle-aged and older adults. Design: a prospective cohort study. Setting: Oroshisho Center in Sendai City, Japan. Subjects: Japanese adults who were ≥45 years old (n = 430). Measurements: serum adiponectin levels were measured at baseline, and the subjects were divided into sex-specific tertiles. Data regarding a history of falls were collected via participant recall using a self-reported questionnaire. Incident falls were defined as falls that were experienced by people without a history of falls at baseline. Results: during the 2-year follow-up, 15.6% (67/430) of the subjects experienced an incident fall. In the univariate logistic regression analysis, incident falls were significantly more frequent across the increasing sex-specific serum adiponectin tertiles (P for trend = 0.008). Adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for incident falls were 2.31 (1.07–4.98) in the middle tertile and 3.61 (1.63–7.99) in the highest tertile; this risk was significantly higher than that for the lowest adiponectin tertile (P for trend = 0.002). Conclusions: the findings of this prospective cohort study indicate that higher serum adiponectin levels may be a predictor of incident falls. PMID:27013505

  9. Reduced Nrf2 expression mediates the decline in neural stem cell function during a critical middle-age period.

    PubMed

    Corenblum, Mandi J; Ray, Sneha; Remley, Quentin W; Long, Min; Harder, Bryan; Zhang, Donna D; Barnes, Carol A; Madhavan, Lalitha

    2016-08-01

    Although it is known that the regenerative function of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) declines with age, causal mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are not understood. Here, we systematically analyze subventricular zone (SVZ) NSPCs, in various groups of rats across the aging spectrum, using in vitro and in vivo histological and behavioral techniques. These studies indicate that although NSPC function continuously declines with advancing age, there is a critical time period during middle age (13-15 months) when a striking reduction in NSPC survival and regeneration (proliferation and neuronal differentiation) occurs. The studies also indicate that this specific temporal pattern of NSPC deterioration is functionally relevant at a behavioral level and correlates with the decreasing expression of the redox-sensitive transcription factor, Nrf2, in the NSPCs. When Nrf2 expression was suppressed in 'young' NSPCs, using short interfering RNAs, the survival and regeneration of the NSPCs was significantly compromised and mirrored 'old' NSPCs. Conversely, Nrf2 overexpression in 'old' NSPCs rendered them similar to 'young' NSPCs, and they showed increased survival and regeneration. Furthermore, examination of newborn Nrf2 knockout (Nrf2 -/-) mice revealed a lower number of SVZ NSPCs in these animals, when compared to wild-type controls. In addition, the proliferative and neurogenic potential of the NSPCs was also compromised in the Nrf2-/- mice. These results identify a novel regulatory role for Nrf2 in NSPC function during aging and have important implications for developing NSPC-based strategies to support healthy aging and to treat age-related neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:27095375

  10. Validation of the FFM PD count technique for screening personality pathology in later middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Van den Broeck, Joke; Rossi, Gina; De Clercq, Barbara; Dierckx, Eva; Bastiaansen, Leen

    2013-01-01

    Research on the applicability of the five factor model (FFM) to capture personality pathology coincided with the development of a FFM personality disorder (PD) count technique, which has been validated in adolescent, young, and middle-aged samples. This study extends the literature by validating this technique in an older sample. Five alternative FFM PD counts based upon the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) are computed and evaluated in terms of both convergent and divergent validity with the Assessment of DSM-IV Personality Disorders Questionnaire (shortly ADP-IV; DSM-IV, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - Fourth edition). For the best working count for each PD normative data are presented, from which cut-off scores are derived. The validity of these cut-offs and their usefulness as a screening tool is tested against both a categorical (i.e., the DSM-IV - Text Revision), and a dimensional (i.e., the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology; DAPP) measure of personality pathology. All but the Antisocial and Obsessive-Compulsive counts exhibited adequate convergent and divergent validity, supporting the use of this method in older adults. Using the ADP-IV and the DAPP - Short Form as validation criteria, results corroborate the use of the FFM PD count technique to screen for PDs in older adults, in particular for the Paranoid, Borderline, Histrionic, Avoidant, and Dependent PDs. Given the age-neutrality of the NEO PI-R and the considerable lack of valid personality assessment tools, current findings appear to be promising for the assessment of pathology in older adults. PMID:22913535

  11. A survey of cancer and occupation in young and middle aged men. I. Cancers of the respiratory tract.

    PubMed Central

    Coggon, D; Pannett, B; Osmond, C; Acheson, E D

    1986-01-01

    In a search for clues to previously industrial carcinogens the occupational and smoking histories of young and middle aged men with different types of cancer were compared. The study population comprised men aged 18-54 and resident in the counties of Cleveland, Humberside, and Cheshire (including the Wirral). From hospital and cancer registration records 2942 members of the study population in whom cancers were diagnosed during the period 1975-80 were identified retrospectively. The occupational and smoking histories of these patients were sought by a postal questionnaire addressed either to the patients themselves or, if they had died, to their next of kin. The overall response rate to the questionnaire was 52.1%. Additionally, limited occupational information was obtained for 89% of cases from their hospital notes. Analysis of these data suggests that no serious bias arose as a consequence of the incomplete response to the questionnaire. This paper concentrates on the results for cancers of the respiratory tract and mesothelioma. Mesothelioma was found to cluster in laggers, electricians, and shipyard workers, and nasal carcinoma in woodworkers. Carcinomas of the larynx and of the bronchus were examined by formal statistical techniques, each being compared with a control group made up of all other cancers combined. Several interesting occupational and industrial associations were shown, in particular, an excess of bronchial carcinoma in the leather industry (RR = 2.6, CI 1.2-6.0), in building labourers (RR = 1.7, CI 1.0-2.9) and other construction workers (RR = 1.8, CI 1.0-3.0), in bakers and pastry cooks (RR = 3.6, CI 1.3-10.4). and in cooks (RR = 2.5, CI 1.2-5.1). In addition, a small cluster of lung tumours was observed in men who had worked as dental mechanics. PMID:3707871

  12. Anthropometric measures and cognition in middle-aged HIV-infected and uninfected women. The Women's Interagency HIV Study

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, Deborah R.; Mielke, Michelle M.; Tien, Phyllis C.; Valcour, Victor; Cohen, Mardge; Anastos, Kathryn; Liu, Chenglong; Pearce, Leigh; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Minkoff, Howard; Crystal, Howard A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) with cognition in women with (HIV+) and without HIV (HIV-) infection. Design/Methods 1690 participants (1196 HIV+, 494 HIV-) in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) with data available on anthropometric measures comprise the analytical sample. Cross-sectional analyses using linear regression models estimated the relationship between anthropometric variables and Trails A, Trails B, Stroop interference time, Stroop word recall, Stroop color naming and reading, and Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) with consideration for age, HIV infection status, Wide Range Achievement Test score, CD4 count, insulin resistance, drug use, and race/ethnicity. Results Among HIV+ women, BMI < 18.5 kg/m2 was associated with poorer cognitive performance evidenced by longer Trails A and Trails B and shorter SDMT completion times. An obese BMI (30 kg/m2 or higher) was related to better performance on Trails B and worse performance on the Stroop Interference test. Among HIV- women, an obese BMI was related to worse performance on the Stroop – Color naming test. Few and inconsistent associations were observed between WC, WHR and cognition. Conclusion Among women at mid-life with chronic (at least 10 years) HIV infection, common anthropometric measures, primarily BMI, were differentially related to cognitive test performance by cognitive domain. Higher levels of BMI were associated with better cognitive function. In this era of antiretroviral therapies, restoration of health evidenced as higher BMI due to effective antiretroviral therapies, may improve cognitive function in middle-aged HIV infected women. PMID:24338243

  13. Self-assessed health of young-to-middle-aged adults in an English-speaking Caribbean nation

    PubMed Central

    Bourne, Paul A; South-Bourne, Neva

    2010-01-01

    Background: Gender differences in self-assessed health in young-to-middle-aged adults are understudied in the English-speaking Caribbean nations. Aims: The aims of the current research are to (1) provide demographic characteristics of young adults, (2) examine the self-assessed health of young adults, (3) identify social determinants that explain good health status for young adults, (4) determine the magnitude of each social determinant, and (5) reveal gender differences in self-assessed health. Materials and methods: This study extracted a subsample of 3,024 respondents from a larger nationally cross-sectional survey of 6,782 Jamaicans. Statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS v 16.0. Descriptive statistics were used to provide demographic information on the sample. Chi-square was used to examine the association between nonmetric variables, and an independent sample t-test was used to test the relationships between metric and dichotomous categorical variables. Logistic regression examined the relationship between the dependent variable and some predisposed independent variables. Results: One percent of the sample claimed injury and 8% illness. Self-reported diagnosed illnesses were influenza (12.7%), diarrhea (2.9%), respiratory disease (14.1%), diabetes mellitus (7.8%), hypertension (7.8%), arthritis (2.9%), and unspecified conditions (41.2%). The mean length of illness was 26 days (SD = 98.9). Nine social determinants and biological conditions explained 19.2% of the variability of self-assessed health. Biological conditions accounted for 78.1% of the explanatory model. Conclusion: Injury accounts for a miniscule percentage of illness and so using it to formulate intervention policies would lack the necessary depth to effectively address the health of this cohort. PMID:22915959

  14. Lung Transfer Factor in Middle Aged Asymptomatic Male Smokers of a City from West India: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Gadhavi, Bhakti P.; Mehta, Hemant B.; Shah, Chinmay J.; Gokhale, Pradnya A.; Makwana, Amit H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Smoking is an increasingly popular indulgence in India. Assessment by routine spirometry falls short of direct functional parameter like Diffusion Lung Capacity (DLC), also known as lung transfer factor (LTF). Aim To measure LTF amongst middle aged male smokers and to study various correlates for it. Materials and Methods Total of 45 asymptomatic male current smokers were enrolled for this cross-sectional study conducted at pulmonary function testing lab of Physiology Department of our college. Smoking history was evaluated and smoking index was defined by product of number smoked per day and years smoked. We used instrument Ultima PFX of Medgraphic Company. After pre syringe calibration LTF was measured by Methane mixture using protocols of ATS. Parameters measured were Dlco-uncorrected, corrected and normalized to VA (alveolar volume). Results were compared for statistical significance and significance was set as p <0.05. Results In case group of 45(25 bidi and 20 cigarette smokers) mean age was 30 years, mean duration was 8 years, mean smoking index was 60. We found small insignificant decline in actual LTF values than predicted which was not significantly different between bidi and cigarette smokers. Duration, age and intensity of smoking were negatively and significantly correlated with LTF value while anthropometric parameters were not. Conclusion Smoking adversely affects LTF in young asymptomatic current male smoker that further declines with severity of smoking and with duration regardless of type of smoking. With years to come, these alterations can largely be prevented by smoking cessation, at least theoretically. PMID:27134864

  15. Physically active vs. inactive lifestyle, muscle properties, and glucose homeostasis in middle-aged and older twins.

    PubMed

    Leskinen, T; Sipilä, S; Kaprio, J; Kainulainen, H; Alen, M; Kujala, U M

    2013-10-01

    Exercise-induced positive changes in skeletal muscle properties and metabolism decrease the risk for disability, cardiometabolic diseases and mortality. Here, we studied muscle properties and glucose homeostasis in a non-exercise stage in twin pairs with co-twins discordant for physical activity habits for at least 32 years of their adult lives. Isometric knee extension force, MR imaging of midthigh tissue composition and muscle volume, and fasting blood samples were acquired from 16 same-sex (seven monozygotic, nine dizygotic) middle-aged and older twin pairs. The consistently active twins had 20 % higher knee extension forces than their inactive co-twins (p = 0.006) although the active twins had only 4 % higher midthigh muscle cross-sectional areas (p = 0.072). These results were similar in intrapair analysis in which only the seven identical twin pairs were included. The ratio between the area of midthigh fat and muscle tissues was significantly lower among the active twins (0.65 vs. 0.48, p = 0.006). The active twins had also lower fasting plasma glucose levels (5.1 vs 5.6 mmol/l, p = 0.041). The area of midthigh intramuscular (extramyocellular) fat was associated with the markers of glucose homeostasis, especially with glycated hemoglobin, and these associations were emphasized by the diabetic and inactive twins. Regular exercise throughout the adult life retains muscle strength and quality but not necessarily mass. The regular use of muscles also prevents from the accumulation of intramuscular fat which might be related to maintained glucose metabolism and, thus, prevention of metabolic disorders. PMID:23124702

  16. Intermittent fasting favored the resolution of Salmonella typhimurium infection in middle-aged BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Campos-Rodríguez, Rafael; Godínez-Victoria, Marycarmen; Reyna-Garfias, Humberto; Arciniega-Martínez, Ivonne Maciel; Reséndiz-Albor, Aldo Arturo; Abarca-Rojano, Edgar; Cruz-Hernández, Teresita Rocío; Drago-Serrano, Maria Elisa

    2016-02-01

    Intermittent fasting (IF) reportedly increases resistance and intestinal IgA response to Salmonella typhimurium infection in mature mice. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of aging on the aforementioned improved immune response found with IF. Middle-aged male BALB/c mice were submitted to IF or ad libitum (AL) feeding for 40 weeks and then orally infected with S. typhimurium. Thereafter, infected animals were all fed AL (to maximize their viability) until sacrifice on day 7 or 14 post-infection. We evaluated body weight, bacterial load (in feces, Peyer's patches, spleen and liver), total and specific intestinal IgA, lamina propria IgA+ plasma cells, plasma corticosterone, and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of α-chain, J-chain, and the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) in liver and intestinal mucosa. In comparison with the infected AL counterpart, the infected IF group (long-term IF followed by post-infection AL feeding) generally had lower intestinal and systemic bacterial loads as well as higher total IgA on both post-infection days. Both infected groups showed no differences in corticosterone levels, body weight, or food and caloric intake. The increase in intestinal IgA was associated with enhanced pIgR mRNA expression in the intestine (day 7) and liver. Thus, to maintain body weight and caloric intake, IF elicited metabolic signals that possibly induced the increased hepatic and intestinal pIgR mRNA expression found. The increase in IgA probably resulted from intestinal IgA transcytosis via pIgR. This IgA response along with phagocyte-induced killing of bacteria in systemic organs (not measured) may explain the resolution of the S. typhimurium infection. PMID:26798034

  17. Associations of disordered sleep with body fat distribution, physical activity and diet among overweight middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiao; Alén, Markku; Cheng, Shu Mei; Mikkola, Tuija M; Tenhunen, Jarkko; Lyytikäinen, Arja; Wiklund, Petri; Cong, Fengyu; Saarinen, Antti; Tarkka, Ina; Partinen, Markku; Cheng, Sulin

    2015-08-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate whether body fat distribution, physical activity levels and dietary intakes are associated with insomnia and/or obstructive sleep apnea among overweight middle-aged men. Participants were 211 Finnish men aged 30-65 years. Among the 163 overweight or obese participants, 40 had insomnia only, 23 had obstructive sleep apnea only, 24 had comorbid insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea and 76 were without sleep disorder. The remaining 48 participants had normal weight without sleep disorder. Fat mass, levels of physical activity and diet were assessed by dual-energy X-ray densitometry, physical activity questionnaire an