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...: Grounds Maintenance, Air Force Research Laboratory Stockbridge Test Facility, 5251 Burleson Road, Oneida... INFORMATION: Additions On 8/19/2011 (76 FR 51955-51956) and 8/26/2011 (76 FR 53419-53420), the Committee for..., FA8751 AFRL RIKO, Rome, NY. Patricia Briscoe, Deputy Director, Business Operations, Pricing...
Sun, Raphael C.; Choi, Pamela M.; Guo, Jun; Erwin, Christopher R.; Warner, Brad W.
Purpose Enhanced structural features of resection-induced intestinal adaptation have been demonstrated following the administration of multiple different growth factors and peptides. Among these, the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system has been considered to be significant. In this study, we employ mutant mouse strains to directly test the contribution of IGF2 and its enterocyte receptor (IGF1R) toward the adaptation response to massive small bowel resection (SBR). Methods IGF2-knockout (IGF2-KO) (n=8) and intestine specific IGF1R-knockout mice (IGF1R-IKO) (n=9) and their wild type (WT) littermates (n=5, n=7, respectively) underwent 50% proximal SBR. At post-operative day 7, structural adaptation was measured as crypt depth and villus height. Rates of enterocyte proliferation and apoptosis were also recorded. Results The successful deletion of IGF2 and IGF1R expression in the enterocytes was confirmed by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. Normal adaptation occurred in both IGF2-KO and IGF1R-IKO mice after 50% SBR. Post-operative rates of proliferation and apoptosis in both IGF2-KO and IGF1R-IKO mice were no different than their respective controls. Conclusion IGF2 and functional IGF1R signaling in enterocytes are both dispensable for resection-induced adaptation responses. The mechanism for IGF-stimulation of intestinal adaptation may involve other ligands or cellular compartments within the intestine. PMID:24888844
Sun, Raphael C.; Diaz-Miron, Jose L.; Choi, Pamela M.; Sommovilla, Joshua; Guo, Jun; Erwin, Christopher R.; Warner, Brad W.
Purpose Intestinal adaptation structurally represents increases in crypt depth and villus height in response to small bowel resection (SBR). Previously, we found that neither epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) nor insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) function was individually required for normal adaptation. In this study, we sought to determine the effect of disrupting both EGFR and IGF1R expression on resection-induced adaptation. Methods Intestinal-specific EGFR and IGF1R double knockout mice (EGFR/IGF1R-IKO) (n=6) and wild-type (WT) control mice (n=7) underwent 50% proximal SBR. On postoperative day (POD) 7, structural adaptation was scored by measuring crypt depth and villus height. Rates of crypt cell proliferation, apoptosis, and submucosal capillary density were also compared. Results After 50% SBR, normal adaptation occurred in both WT and EGFR/IGF1R-IKO. Rates of proliferation and apoptosis were no different between the two groups. The angiogenic response was less in the EGFR/IGF1R-IKO compared to WT mice. Conclusion Disrupted expression of EGFR and IGF1R in the intestinal epithelial cells does not affect resection-induced structural adaptation but attenuates angiogenesis after SBR. These findings suggest that villus growth is driven by receptors and pathways that occur outside the epithelial cell component, while angiogenic responses may be influenced by epithelial-endothelial crosstalk. PMID:25818318
Public money is used to finance the protection of human life, material assets and the environment against natural hazards. This limited resource should be used in a way that it achieves the maximum possible effect by minimizing as many risks as possible. Hence, decision-makers are facing the question which mitigation measures should be prioritised. Benefit-Cost-Analysis (BCA) is a recognized method for determining the economic efficiency of investments in mitigation measures. In Switzerland, the Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN) judges the benefit-cost-ratio of mitigation projects on the base of the results of the calculation tool "EconoMe" . The check of the economic efficiency of mitigation projects with an investment of more than 1 million CHF (800,000 EUR) by using "EconoMe" is mandatory since 2008 in Switzerland. Within "EconoMe", most calculation parameters cannot be changed by the user allowing for comparable results. Based on the risk guideline "RIKO"  an extended version of the operational version of "EconoMe", called "EconoMe-Develop" was developed. "EconoMe-Develop" is able to deal with various natural hazard processes and thus allows multi-risk assessments, since all restrictions of the operational version of "EconoMe" like e.g. the number of scenarios and expositions, vulnerability, spatial probability of processes and probability of presence of objects, are not existing. Additionally, the influences of uncertainty of calculation factors, like e.g. vulnerability, on the final results can be determined. "EconoMe-Develop" offers import and export of data, e.g. results of GIS-analysis. The possibility for adapting the tool to user specific requirements makes EconoMe-Develop an easy-to-use tool for risk assessment and assessment of economic efficiency of mitigation projects for risk experts. In the paper we will present the most important features of the tool and we will illustrate the application by a practical example.
Trotta, C.; Papale, D.
, J. H. Gove, M. Heimann, D. Hui, A. J. Jarvis, J. Kattge, A. Noormets, and V. J. Stauch. 2007. Comprehensive comparison of gap-filling techniques for eddy covariance net carbon fluxes. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 147:209-232.
Meldrum, J.; Averyt, K.; Caldwell, P.; Sun, G.; Huber-lee, A. T.; McNulty, S.
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Lebedeva-Ivanova, Nina; Gaina, Carmen; Minakov, Alexander; Kashubin, Sergey
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