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Hydrodefluorination and hydrogenation of fluorobenzene under mild aqueous conditions.  


Fluorinated organic compounds are increasingly used in many applications, and their release to the environment is expected. It is therefore important to find suitable methods for degradation of fluorinated compounds under environmentally relevant conditions. In this study, a simple heterogeneous rhodium-based catalytic system (Rh/Al(2)O(3) and H(2)) for hydrodefluorination and hydrogenation of fluorobenzene under mild aqueous conditions (1 atm of H(2), ambient temperature) was developed and the underlying reaction mechanism was investigated. Fluorobenzene degraded rapidly (t(1/2) ? 0.2 h) to form cyclohexane and fluoride (F(-)) as the stable end products, with benzene and cyclohexene observed as intermediates. Cyclohexadiene intermediates were not observed but were expected to form during the hydrogenation of benzene. Three postulated but unobserved fluorinated intermediates were subjected to the catalytic reaction conditions, and it was concluded that they most likely do not form during the fluorobenzene degradation reaction. Isotope labeling experiments showed that the unsaturated intermediates undergo rapid and reversible hydrogenation/dehydrogenation under the reaction conditions and also that fully saturated compounds are unreactive in the catalytic system. Both molecular hydrogen and water were sources of hydrogen in the final cyclohexane product. Kinetic fitting indicated that sorption/desorption of fluorobenzene onto the catalyst surface plays an important role in the mechanism. PMID:22871102

Baumgartner, Rebekka; McNeill, Kristopher



Stieglitz rearrangement of N,N-dichloro-beta,beta-disubstituted taurines under mild aqueous conditions.  


New topical anti-infectives comprised of N,N-dichloro-beta,beta-disubstituted taurines [Tetrahedron Lett.2008, 49, 2193; Biorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2009, 19, 196] have been examined for structure-stability relationships (SSR) based upon various alkyl, heteroalkyl and cycloalkyl beta-substitutions. These substitutions affect order-of-magnitude changes in the aqueous stability of these N,N-dichloroamines which can undergo Stieglitz rearrangement of alkyl groups under extremely mild conditions (H(2)O, pH 4-7, 0-20 mM acetate or phosphate buffer, 20-40 degrees C). This process produces beta-ketosulfonic acids which function as substrates for chlorination by the N-chlorotaurines which leads to their further degradation. PMID:19167221

Shiau, Timothy P; Houchin, Ashley; Nair, Satheesh; Xu, Ping; Low, Eddy; Najafi, Ramin Ron; Jain, Rakesh



Isolation of fibronectin under mild conditions.  


Fibronectin was isolated from human blood plasma by affinity chromatography on immobilized Physiogel, a plasma expander made by chemical degradation of gelatin. Binding of fibronectin to Physiogel is weaker than to gelatin; elution could therefore be performed under rather mild conditions: at pH 6.5 and 30 degrees C. Loading of the sample at low temperature increases the capacity of the affinity column. PMID:6741031

Morgenthaler, J J; Baillod, P; Friedli, H



Selective hydrogen production from methanol with a defined iron pincer catalyst under mild conditions.  


Molecularly well-defined iron pincer complexes promote the aqueous-phase reforming of methanol to carbon dioxide and hydrogen, which is of interest in the context of a methanol and hydrogen economy. For the first time, the use of earth-abundant iron complexes under mild conditions for efficient hydrogen generation from alcohols is demonstrated. PMID:24339396

Alberico, Elisabetta; Sponholz, Peter; Cordes, Christoph; Nielsen, Martin; Drexler, Hans-Joachim; Baumann, Wolfgang; Junge, Henrik; Beller, Matthias



Hospital-acquired malnutrition in children with mild clinical conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveLittle is known about the incidence and risk factors of hospital-acquired malnutrition in children with mild illness (grade 1 clinical conditions) and its timing of occurrence. The aim of this study was to recognize any early stage of denutrition and possible risk factors leading to nutritional deterioration in children hospitalized due to mild clinical conditions.

Angelo Campanozzi; Massimo Russo; Alessandra Catucci; Irene Rutigliano; Gennaro Canestrino; Ida Giardino; Arturo Romondia; Massimo Pettoello-Mantovani



Solvolytic liquefaction of wood under mild conditions  

SciTech Connect

Conversion of wood to liquid products requires cleavage of bonds which crosslink the wood structure. This study examines a low-severity wood solubilization process utilizing a solvent medium consisting of a small amount of sulfuric acid and a potentially wood-derivable alcohol. In one half hour of reaction time at 250/sup 0/C under 15 psia starting nitrogen pressure, over 95% of the wood (maf) was rendered acetone-soluble. The product is a soft, black, bitumen-like solid at room temperature but readily softens at 140/sup 0/C. Between 25 and 50% of the original wood oxygen, depending on alcohol used, was removed as water. Approximately 2 to 17% of the alcohols were retained in the product. Gel permeation chromatography showed that the product's median molecular weight is around 300. Based on experimental and literature results, a mechanism for wood solubilization is proposed. This involves protonation of the etheric oxygen atoms, leading to subsequent bond scission to form carbonium ions which are stabilized by solvent alkoxylation. At severe conditions, polymerization and condensation reactions result in acetone-insoluble materials.

Yu, S.M.



Inhibition of Mild Steel Corrosion under Hydrodynamic Conditions  

SciTech Connect

The inhibition of mild steel corrosion by 4-amino-5-phenyl-4H-1, 2, 4-trizole-3-thiol (APTT) in 2.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution and the effect of hydrodynamic condition on inhibition process were studied. The hydrodynamic condition experiments are simulated by rotating cylinder electrode (RCE). Change of open circuit potential (OCP) with immersion time and potentiodynamic polarization were used to study the effect of hydrodynamic conditions on the inhibition process. Results obtained from changes of open circuit potential (OCP) with immersion time, and potentiodynamic polarization are in good agreement and indicated that the inhibition process was flow velocity dependence.

Musa, Ahmed Y.; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Mohamad, Abu Bakar; Takriff, Mohd Sobri; Kamarudin, Siti Kartom [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, 43600, Selangor (Malaysia); Daud, Abdul Razak [School of Applied Physics, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, 43600, Selangor (Malaysia)



Thermal and catalytic cracking of polyethylene under mild conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal and catalytic cracking of both high and low-density polyethylene (HDPE and LDPE, respectively) under mild conditions have been investigated in order to study the properties of the solid waxy product so obtained. The catalysts employed were n-HZSM-5 and HY zeolites, amorphous silica–alumina, activated carbon, Pd charcoal powder and mesoporous aluminosilicate materials (MCM-41), with and without impregnated Pd. The best

R van Grieken; D. P Serrano; J Aguado; R Garc??a; C Rojo



An Iron Catalyst for Ketone Hydrogenations Under Mild Conditions  

SciTech Connect

Casey and Guan reported a homogeneous catalyst for ketone hydrogenation that does not require a precious metal, but instead is based on iron. Excellent yields and chemoselectivity for hydrogenation are found under mild conditions (25 °C, 3 atm H2). An ionic hydrogenation mechanism allows the delivery of a proton from the OH and a hydride from the metal. RMB gratefully acknowledges funding from the Division of Chemical Sciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, US Department of Energy, and from a grant from the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy.

Bullock, R. Morris



Uranium dioxide dissolution under acidic aqueous conditions  

SciTech Connect

Understanding of the long-term dissolution of waste forms in groundwater is required for the safe disposal of high level nuclear waste in a geologic repository, because waste-form radionuclides could be released by dissolution and transported in groundwater. The dissolution of the uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}) matrix in spent nuclear fuel is considered the rate-limiting step for release of radioactive fission products. The intrinsic UO{sub 2} dissolution rate sets an upper limit on the aqueous radionuclide release rate. Unsaturated spent fuel tests have shown that pH`s of leachates have decreased to a range of 4 to 6, presumably due to air radiolysis that oxidizes nitrogen, producing nitric acid. Dissolution rates under such acidic conditions may be different than those previously reported for alkaline groundwater conditions. No dissolution rate measurements of UO{sub 2} or spent fuel have been reported for acidic conditions possibly relevant to a geologic repository. The purpose of our work has been to measure the intrinsic dissolution rates of uranium dioxide under acidic conditions that are relevant to a repository and allow for modeling. Experiments have been completed at room-temperature and 75 C, pH`s of 4 and 6, and air and oxygen saturated aqueous solutions. These are compared with earlier work on spent fuel and UO{sub 2} using alkaline solutions.

Steward, S.A.; Mones, E.T.



Pd-Catalyzed Synthesis of Ar-SCF3 Compounds under Mild Conditions  

E-print Network

Good to excellent yields of aryl trifluoromethyl sulfides, which are an important class of compounds in both the pharmaceutical and agrochemical areas, can be achieved under mild conditions by the Pd-catalyzed reaction of ...

Teverovskiy, Georgiy


Explosivity Conditions of Aqueous Solutions and L. Mercury2  

E-print Network

1 Explosivity Conditions of Aqueous Solutions R. Thiéry1 and L. Mercury2 Revised version February of explosive boiling and gas exsolution of aqueous solutions from a thermodynamic point of view. Indeed, the kinetic nature of these processes, hence their explosivity, can be assessed by considering their relation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Thermal Synthesis of Nucleoside H-Phosphonates Under Mild Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nucleosides react rapidly with ammonium phosphite ((NH4)2HPO3) at 60 °C to produce good yields of nucleoside-5’-phosphite monoesters within 24 h. Under the same conditions, ammonium phosphate is unreactive, producing low yields of nucleotide only after extended reactions. These results confirm earlier suggestions that nucleoside H-phosphonates and their possible condensation products may have been produced on the primitive earth more easily than nucleotides.

de Graaf, R. M.; Schwartz, Alan W.



Mild Transient Hypercapnia as a Novel Fear Conditioning Stimulus Allowing Re-Exposure during Sleep  

PubMed Central

Introduction Studies suggest that sleep plays a role in traumatic memories and that treatment of sleep disorders may help alleviate symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. Fear-conditioning paradigms in rodents are used to investigate causal mechanisms of fear acquisition and the relationship between sleep and posttraumatic behaviors. We developed a novel conditioning stimulus (CS) that evoked fear and was subsequently used to study re-exposure to the CS during sleep. Methods Experiment 1 assessed physiological responses to a conditioned stimulus (mild transient hypercapnia, mtHC; 3.0% CO2; n?=?17)+footshock for the purpose of establishing a novel CS in male FVB/J mice. Responses to the novel CS were compared to tone+footshock (n?=?18) and control groups of tone alone (n?=?17) and mild transient hypercapnia alone (n?=?10). A second proof of principle experiment re-exposed animals during sleep to mild transient hypercapnia or air (control) to study sleep processes related to the CS. Results Footshock elicited a response of acute tachycardia (30–40 bpm) and increased plasma epinephrine. When tone predicted footshock it elicited mild hypertension (1–2 mmHg) and a three-fold increase in plasma epinephrine. When mtHC predicted footshock it also induced mild hypertension, but additionally elicited a conditioned bradycardia and a smaller increase in plasma epinephrine. The overall mean 24 hour sleep–wake profile was unaffected immediately after fear conditioning. Discussion Our study demonstrates the efficacy of mtHC as a conditioning stimulus that is perceptible but innocuous (relative to tone) and applicable during sleep. This novel model will allow future studies to explore sleep-dependent mechanisms underlying maladaptive fear responses, as well as elucidate the moderators of the relationship between fear responses and sleep. PMID:23840700

Balbir, Alex; Germain, Anne; O'Donnell, Christopher P.



Rhodium(iii)-catalyzed C-H alkynylation of azomethine ylides under mild conditions.  


Rh(iii)-catalyzed efficient C-H alkynylation of azomethine imines with alkynylated hypervalent iodine is developed under mild conditions. A broad scope of azomethine imines and alkyne substrates is established. The azomethine acts as a masked aldehyde and circumvents its poor directing effect. PMID:25325793

Zhang, Xueyun; Qi, Zisong; Gao, Jian; Li, Xingwei



Existence of mild solutions for fractional evolution equations with mixed monotone nonlocal conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we are concerned with nonlocal problem for fractional evolution equations with mixed monotone nonlocal term of the form where E is an infinite-dimensional Banach space, is the Caputo fractional derivative of order , A : D( A) ? E ? E is a closed linear operator and - A generates a uniformly bounded C 0-semigroup T( t) ( t ? 0) in E, , and g is appropriate continuous function so that it constitutes a nonlocal condition. Under a new concept of coupled lower and upper mild L-quasi-solutions, we construct a new monotone iterative method for nonlocal problem of fractional evolution equations with mixed monotone nonlocal term and obtain the existence of coupled extremal mild L-quasi-solutions and the mild solution between them. The results obtained generalize the recent conclusions on this topic. Finally, we present two applications to illustrate the feasibility of our abstract results.

Chen, Pengyu; Li, Yongxiang



Mild conditions for the synthesis of functionalized pyrrolidines via Pd-catalyzed carboamination reactions.  


[reaction: see text] The palladium-catalyzed carboamination of N-protected gamma-aminoalkenes with aryl bromides and triflates has been achieved under new, mild reaction conditions using the weak base Cs(2)CO(3) in dioxane solvent. These reactions tolerate a wide variety of functional groups, including enolizable ketones, nitro groups, methyl esters, and acetates, which are not compatible with previously described conditions. PMID:17249786

Bertrand, Myra Beaudoin; Leathen, Matthew L; Wolfe, John P



The Formation of Fe/Mg Smectite Under Mildly Acidic Conditions on Early Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detection of Fe/Mg smectites and carbonate in Noachian and early Hesperian terrain of Mars has been used to suggest that neutral to mildly alkaline conditions prevailed during the early history of Mars. However, if early Mars was neutral to moderately alkaline with a denser CO2 atmosphere than today, then "large" carbonates deposits should be more widely detected in Noachian terrain. The critical question is: Why have so few carbonate deposits been detected compared to Fe/Mg smectites? We suggest that Fe/Mg smectites on early Mars formed under mildly acidic conditions, which would inhibit the extensive formation of carbonate deposits. The goal of this work is to evaluate the formation of Fe/Mg smectites under mildly acidic conditions. The stability of smectites under mildly acidic conditions is attributed to elevated Fe/Mg activities that inhibit smectite dissolution. Beidelite and saponite have been shown to form from hydrothermal alteration of basaltic glass at pH 3.5-4.0 in seawater solutions. Nontronite is also known to be stable in mildly acidic systems associated with mafic and ultramafic rock. Nontronite was shown to form in acid sulfate soils in the Bangkok Plain, Thailand due to oxidation of Fe-sulfides that transformed saponite to nontronite. Smectite is known to transform to kaolinite in naturally acid soils due to selective leaching of Mg. However, if Mg removal is limited, then based on equilibrium relationships, the dissolution of smectite should be minimized. If Fe and Mg solution activities are sufficiently high, such as might be found in a low water/rock ratio system that is poorly drained, smectite could form and remain stable under mildly acidic conditions on Mars. The sources of mild acidity on early Mars includes elevated atmospheric CO2 levels, Fe-hydrolysis reactions, and the presence of volcanic SO2 aerosols. Equilibrium calculations dictate that water equilibrated with an early Mars CO2 atmosphere at 1 to 4 bar yields a pH of 3.6 to 3.9. Fe hydrolysis reactions on Mars is another source of protons that would have contributed to acidity. The presence of SO2 from volcanic processes could also have contributed to geochemical acidification. These sources of acidity competed with base-forming cations that resulted in mildly acidic solutions that were not favorable for carbonate formation but may have allowed for Fe/Mg smectite formation. Noachian to early Hesperian Mars could have been mildly acidic, allowing Fe/Mg smectite formation but preventing widespread carbonate deposition. This paradigm shift from an early Mars that was neutral-alkaline to mildly acidic may possibly explain why there is a disparity between the occurrence of carbonate and Fe/Mg smectites. Potential microbiological activity would not be eliminated under a mildly acidic Mars; however, there could be tighter constraints as to the type and species of microbiology that could exist.

Sutter, B.; Golden, D. C.; Ming, D.; Niles, P. B.



Hydrogenation of sulfoxides to sulfides under mild conditions using ruthenium nanoparticle catalysts.  


The first demonstration of the hydrogenation of sulfoxides under atmospheric H2 pressure is reported. The highly efficient reaction is facilitated by a heterogeneous Ru nanoparticle catalyst. The mild reaction conditions enable the selective hydrogenation of a wide range of functionalized sulfoxides to the corresponding sulfides. The high redox ability of RuO(x) nanoparticles plays a key role in the hydrogenation. PMID:25087622

Mitsudome, Takato; Takahashi, Yusuke; Mizugaki, Tomoo; Jitsukawa, Koichiro; Kaneda, Kiyotomi



Copper-catalyzed C-H azidation of anilines under mild conditions.  


A novel and efficient copper-catalyzed azidation reaction of anilines via C-H activation has been developed. This method, in which the primary amine acts as a directing group by coordinating to the metal center, provides ortho azidation products regioselectively under mild conditions. This effective route for the synthesis of aryl azides is of great significance in view of the versatile reactivity of the azide products. PMID:23130869

Tang, Conghui; Jiao, Ning



Fabrication of porous scaffolds by three-dimensional plotting of a pasty calcium phosphate bone cement under mild conditions.  


The major advantage of hydroxyapatite (HA)-forming calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) used as bone replacement materials is their setting under physiological conditions without the necessity for thermal treatment that allows the incorporation of biological factors. In the present study, we have combined the biocompatible consolidation of CPCs with the potential of rapid prototyping (RP) techniques to generate calcium phosphate-based scaffolds with defined inner and outer morphology. We demonstrate the application of the RP technique three-dimensional (3D) plotting for the fabrication of HA cement scaffolds. This was realized by utilizing a paste-like CPC (P-CPC) which is stable as a malleable paste and whose setting reaction is initiated only after contact with aqueous solutions. The P-CPC showed good processability in the 3D plotting process and allowed the fabrication of stable?3D structures of different geometries with adequate mechanical stability and compressive strength. The cytocompatibility of the plotted P-CPC scaffolds was demonstrated in a cell culture experiment with human mesenchymal stem cells. The mild conditions during 3D plotting and post-processing and the realization of the whole procedure under sterile conditions make this approach highly attractive for fabrication of individualized implants with respect to patient-specific requirements by simultaneous plotting of biological components. PMID:22933381

Lode, Anja; Meissner, Katrin; Luo, Yongxiang; Sonntag, Frank; Glorius, Stefan; Nies, Berthold; Vater, Corina; Despang, Florian; Hanke, Thomas; Gelinsky, Michael



Efficient Functionalization of Aromatic C-H Bonds Catalyzed by Gold(III) under Mild and Solvent-Free Conditions  

E-print Network

. The reactions are catalyzed by gold(III) complexes under mild and even solvent-free conditions at ambientEfficient Functionalization of Aromatic C-H Bonds Catalyzed by Gold(III) under Mild and Solvent Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60637 Received February 13, 2004 A gold

He, Chuan


Organic cation transporter inhibition increases medial hypothalamic serotonin under basal conditions and during mild restraint.  


The dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) has been implicated in the coordination of stress responses. Restraint stress or systemic corticosterone (CORT) treatment induces a rapid increase in tissue concentrations of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) in the DMH. Although the mechanism for rapid changes in 5-HT concentrations in the DMH is not clear, earlier results suggest that stress-induced increases in CORT may inhibit 5-HT transport from the extracellular fluid by acting on corticosterone-sensitive organic cation transporters (OCTs). We tested the hypothesis that perfusion of the medial hypothalamus (MH), which includes the DMH, with the OCT blocker decynium 22 (D-22) would potentiate the effects of mild restraint on extracellular 5-HT. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, implanted with a microdialysis probe into the MH, were treated with reverse-dialysis of D-22 (20 microM; 40 min) or vehicle and subjected to either 40 min mild restraint or undisturbed control conditions. Perfusates collected from a separate group of rats were evaluated for the effect of restraint on extracellular CORT concentrations in the MH. Reverse-dialysis of D-22 induced an increase (200%) in extracellular 5-HT concentrations in the MH in undisturbed control rats. Restraint in the absence of D-22 did not significantly affect MH CORT or 5-HT concentrations. However, perfusion of the MH with D-22 during restraint led to an increased magnitude and duration of extracellular 5-HT concentrations, relative to D-22 by itself. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that OCTs in the DMH contribute to the clearance of 5-HT from the extracellular fluid under both baseline conditions and mild restraint. PMID:20171957

Feng, Na; Lowry, Christopher A; Lukkes, Jodi L; Orchinik, Miles; Forster, Gina L; Renner, Kenneth J



A Facile Cu(I)-Catalyzed Oxidative Coupling of Anilines to Azo Compounds and Hydrazines with Diaziridinone under Mild Conditions  

PubMed Central

A mild and highly efficient Cu(I)-catalyzed oxidative coupling of anilines is described. Various primary and secondary anilines can be efficiently coupled under mild conditions to the corresponding azo compounds and hydrazines in high yields. This method provides a direct and practical access to these compounds, and is also amenable to gram scale with no special precautions to exclude air or moisture. PMID:23545123

Zhu, Yingguang; Shi, Yian



Feasibility of infectious prion digestion using mild conditions and commercial subtilisin.  


Two serine protease enzymes, subtilisin 309 and subtilisin 309-v, were used to digest brain homogenates containing high levels of prion infectivity using mildly alkaline conditions to investigate prion decontamination methods. To establish that PrP(res) infectivity was eliminated, we utilized the Rocky Mountain Laboratory (RML) mouse-adapted scrapie model system for bioassay. Only one digestion condition (subtilisin 309 at 138mAU/ml, 55 degrees C and 14h digestion time pH 7.9) was considered to be highly relevant statistically (P<0.001) compared to control, with 52% of challenged mice surviving until the end of the study period. In contrast, treatment of PrP(res) by autoclaving at 134 degrees C or treatment with hypochlorite at a concentration of 20,000 ppm completely protected mice from prionosis. Further, in vitro assays suggest that potential proteolytic based PrP(res) decontamination methods must use high enzyme concentration, pH values >9.0, and elevated temperatures to be a safely efficacious, thereby limiting applicability on delicate surgical instruments and use in the environment. PMID:19467265

Pilon, John L; Nash, Paul B; Arver, Terry; Hoglund, Don; Vercauteren, Kurt C



Synthesis of boron suboxide from boron and boric acid under mild pressure and temperature conditions  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: Well-crystallized and icosahedral B{sub 6}O crystals were prepared by reacting boron and boric acid at milder reaction conditions (1 GPa and 1300 {sup o}C for 2 h) as compared to previous work.. Research highlights: {yields} Well-crystallized icosahedral B{sub 6}O was synthesized by reacting boric acid and boron. {yields} The synthesis conditions (1 GPa and 1300 {sup o}C for 2 h) are milder in comparison with previous work. {yields} The more practical synthesis method may make B{sub 6}O as a potential substitute for diamond in industry. -- Abstract: Boron suboxide (B{sub 6}O) was synthesized by reacting boron and boric acid (H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}) at pressures between 1 and 10 GPa, and at temperatures between 1300 and 1400 {sup o}C. The B{sub 6}O samples prepared were icosahedral with diameters ranging from 20 to 300 nm. Well-crystallized and icosahedral crystals with an average size of {approx}100 nm can be obtained at milder reaction conditions (1 GPa and 1300 {sup o}C for 2 h) as compared to previous work. The bulk B{sub 6}O sample was stable in air at 600 {sup o}C and then slowly oxidized up to 1000 {sup o}C. The relatively mild synthetic conditions developed in this study provide a more practical synthesis of B{sub 6}O, which may potentially be used as a substitute for diamond in industry as a new superhard material.

Jiao, Xiaopeng; Jin, Hua; Ding, Zhanhui; Yang, Bin; Lu, Fengguo; Zhao, Xudong [State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China); Liu, Xiaoyang, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China); Peng, Liping, E-mail: [The 1st Norman Bethune Hospital, Jilin University, 71 Xinmin Street, Changchun 130021 (China)] [The 1st Norman Bethune Hospital, Jilin University, 71 Xinmin Street, Changchun 130021 (China)



Complete hydrodehalogenation of polyfluorinated and other polyhalogenated benzenes under mild catalytic conditions.  


Polyfluorinated arenes are increasingly used in industry and can be considered emerging contaminants. Environmentally applicable degradation methods leading to full defluorination are not reported in the literature. In this study, it is demonstrated that the heterogeneous catalyst Rh/Al2O3 is capable of fully defluorinating and hydrogenating polyfluorinated benzenes in water under mild conditions (1 atm H2, ambient temperature) with degradation half-lives between 11 and 42 min. Analysis of the degradation rates of the 12 fluorobenzene congeners showed two trends: slower degradation with increasing number of fluorine substituents and increasing degradation rates with increasing number of adjacent fluorine substituents. The observed fluorinated intermediates indicated that adjacent fluorine substituents are preferably removed. Besides defluorination and hydrogenation, the scope of the catalyst includes dehalogenation of polychlorinated benzenes, bromobenzene, iodobenzene, and selected mixed dihalobenzenes. Polychlorobenzene degradation rates, like their fluorinated counterparts, decreased with increasing halogen substitution. In contrast to the polyfluorobenzenes though, removal of chlorine substituents was sterically driven. All monohalobenzenes were degraded at similar rates; however, when two carbon-halogen bonds were in direct intramolecular competition, the weaker bond was broken first. Differences in sorption affinities of the substrates are suggested to play a major role in determining the relative rates of transformation of halobenzenes by Rh/Al2O3 and H2. PMID:23663092

Baumgartner, Rebekka; Stieger, Greta K; McNeill, Kristopher



Mechanics and mechanisms of surface damage in Al-Si alloys under ultra-mild wear conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Al-Si alloys intended for use in engine components must operate under ultra-mild wear (UMW) conditions to fit an acceptable amount of wear during a typical vehicle life. This study simulated surface damage in a UMW regime on five chemically etched Al-Si alloy surfaces using a pin-on-disc tribometer at low loads (0.5-2.0 N) under boundary lubricated conditions. The five alloys contained

Ming Chen



TOPEX/El Nino Watch - Mild La Nina Conditions Developing, November 12, 1999  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Unusually warm ocean temperatures off Asia and cool waters in the eastern and equatorial Pacific are signaling La Nina's mild return, according to the latest sea-surface heights observed by the joint NASA-French space agency's TOPEX/Poseidon satellite.

Lower than normal sea-surface heights in the eastern North Pacific and abnormally high sea-surface heights in the western and mid-latitude Pacific are expected to drive storms coming out of the Pacific this winter, the mission data indicate. Those conditions will most likely steer storms north into the Pacific Northwest and keep the southwestern United States dryer than normal.

The latest measurements, processed after a 10-day data cycle November 4-13 at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, are available at . Sea-surface height is shown relative to normal (green) and reveals cooler water(blue and purple) measuring between 8 and 24 centimeters (3 to 9 inches) lower than average in the eastern North Pacific, from the Gulf of Alaska to central Alaska, and along the equator.

Unusual conditions persist in the western and mid-latitude Pacific Ocean as well, with higher than average sea-surface heights(red and white) of between 8 and 24 centimeters (3 to 9 inches). These areas of increased sea-surface height and unusually warm water were present last year, but the increase in height has surpassed last year's measurements.

The TOPEX/Poseidon satellite's measurements over the last seven and a half years have provided scientists with a comprehensive record of the 1997-1999 El Nino/La Nina climate pattern by measuring changing sea-surface heights to within 4centimeters (1.5 inches) precision.

The U.S./French mission is managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Earth Sciences Enterprise, Washington, DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

For more information, please visit the TOPEX/Poseidon project web page at



Incidence of Postconcussion Symptoms in Psychiatric Diagnostic Groups, Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, and Comorbid Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The constellation of physical, cognitive, and emotional symptoms, collectively known as postconcussion syndrome (PCS), is not uniquely associated with concussion, making the etiology of chronic postconcussion symptoms controversial. The current study compared percentages of individuals meeting symptom-based criteria for PCS in a population-based sample of veterans composed of subgroups with various psychiatric diagnoses, a history of mild traumatic brain injury

Alison J. Donnell; Michelle S. Kim; Marc A. Silva; Rodney D. Vanderploeg



Corrosion of mild steel exposed to inhibited urea--ammonium nitrate solution at ambient temperature under static conditions  

SciTech Connect

A series of corrosion tests was performed with mild steel exposed to 32-0-0 UAN solution at ambient temperature, under static conditions, and at pHs of 6.8 to 7.2 to evaluate the effectiveness of several new corrosion inhibitors. Results of the tests revealed that the pH of 32-0-0 UAN in the neutral range does not significantly affect the corrosion rate of mild steel after prolonged exposure. The corrosion rate of mild steel was 60 to 70 mpy. Results of tests with inhibitors showed that 100 ppm of Surtech 143 from Surface Chemists of Florida, Inc., provided excellent corrosion resistance (approximately 1 mpy after long-term exposure). With a 5-minute surface treatment, Rust Resistor from Nutra-Flo Co., provided excellent corrosion resistance (corrosion rates less than 1 mpy). Corblok at 100 ppM provided excellent corrosion resistance up to 14 days (corrosion rate of approximately 2 mpy); the corrosion rate increased slightly when exposed for 28 days. Surtech 145 and Surtech 433 provided only limited protection.

Nguyen, D.T.; Nichols, D.E.; Boles, J.L. (National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center, Muscle Shoals, AL (United States)); Lohry, E.J. (Nutra-Flo Co., Sioux City, IA (United States))



Corrosion of mild steel exposed to inhibited urea--ammonium nitrate solution at ambient temperature under static conditions  

SciTech Connect

A series of corrosion tests was performed with mild steel exposed to 32-0-0 UAN solution at ambient temperature, under static conditions, and at pHs of 6.8 to 7.2 to evaluate the effectiveness of several new corrosion inhibitors. Results of the tests revealed that the pH of 32-0-0 UAN in the neutral range does not significantly affect the corrosion rate of mild steel after prolonged exposure. The corrosion rate of mild steel was 60 to 70 mpy. Results of tests with inhibitors showed that 100 ppm of Surtech 143 from Surface Chemists of Florida, Inc., provided excellent corrosion resistance (approximately 1 mpy after long-term exposure). With a 5-minute surface treatment, Rust Resistor from Nutra-Flo Co., provided excellent corrosion resistance (corrosion rates less than 1 mpy). Corblok at 100 ppM provided excellent corrosion resistance up to 14 days (corrosion rate of approximately 2 mpy); the corrosion rate increased slightly when exposed for 28 days. Surtech 145 and Surtech 433 provided only limited protection.

Nguyen, D.T.; Nichols, D.E.; Boles, J.L. [National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center, Muscle Shoals, AL (United States); Lohry, E.J. [Nutra-Flo Co., Sioux City, IA (United States)



Investigation of acyl migration in mono- and dicaffeoylquinic acids under aqueous basic, aqueous acidic, and dry roasting conditions.  


Acyl migration in chlorogenic acids describes the process of migration of cinnamoyl moieties from one quinic acid alcohol group to another, thus interconverting chlorogenic acid regioisomers. It therefore constitutes a special case of transesterification reaction. Acyl migration constitutes an important reaction pathway in both coffee roasting and brewing, altering the structure of chlorogenic acid initially present in the green coffee bean. In this contribution we describe detailed and comprehensive mechanistic studies comparing inter- and intramolecular acyl migration involving the seven most common chlorogenic acids in coffee. We employe aqueous acidic and basic conditions mimicking the brewing of coffee along with dry roasting conditions. We show that under aqueous basic conditions intramolecular acyl migration is fully reversible with basic hydrolysis competing with acyl migration. 3-Caffeoylquinic acid was shown to be most labile to basic hydrolysis. We additionally show that the acyl migration process is strongly pH dependent with increased transesterification taking place at basic pH. Under dry roasting conditions acyl migration competes with dehydration to form lactones. We argue that acyl migration precedes lactonization, with 3-caffeoylquinic acid lactone being the predominant product. PMID:25116442

Deshpande, Sagar; Jaiswal, Rakesh; Matei, Marius Febi; Kuhnert, Nikolai



Pd/C as a catalyst for completely regioselective C-H functionalization of thiophenes under mild conditions.  


The completely C3-selective arylation of thiophenes and benzo[b]thiophenes was achieved by using Pd/C as a heterogeneous catalyst without ligands or additives under mild reaction conditions. The practicability of this transformation is demonstrated by notable functional group tolerance and the insensitivity of the reaction to H2 O and air. This method is also applicable to nitrogen- and oxygen-containing heterocycles, yielding the corresponding C2-arylated products. Three-phase tests along with Hg-poisoning and hot-filtration tests suggest that the catalytically active species is heterogeneous in nature. PMID:24505001

Tang, Dan-Tam D; Collins, Karl D; Ernst, Johannes B; Glorius, Frank



4Phenyl1,2,4-triazole-3,5-dione as a novel and reusable reagent for the aromatization of 1,4-dihydropyridines under mild conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

4-Substituted 1,3,4-triazole-3,5-diones were used as effective and recyclable oxidizing agents for the oxidation of 1,4-dihydropyridines to the corresponding pyridine derivatives under mild conditions with good to excellent yields.

Mohammad Ali Zolfigol; Arash Ghorbani Choghamarani; Mozhgan Shahamirian; Maliheh Safaiee; Iraj Mohammadpoor-Baltork; Shadpour Mallakpour; Mohammad Abdollahi-Alibeik




Microsoft Academic Search

Supplemental winter food plots are a common management tool used to enhance the over-winter survival and condition (body and lipid masses) of ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus). However, beneficial effects on winter condition are not well documented in wild populations. We examined the effects of prior winter condition and access to winter corn food plots on spring condition levels of ring-necked

Jon R. Purvis; Andy E. Gabbert; Lester D. Flake; Anthony P. Leif


Aqueous alteration of VHTR fuels particles under simulated geological conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) fuels consist of the bistructural-isotropic (BISO) or tristructural-isotropic (TRISO)-coated particles embedded in a graphite matrix. Management of the spent fuel generated during VHTR operation would most likely be through deep geological disposal. In this framework we investigated the alteration of BISO (with pyrolytic carbon) and TRISO (with SiC) particles under geological conditions simulated by temperatures of 50 and 90 °C and in the presence of synthetic groundwater. Solid state (scanning electron microscopy (SEM), micro-Raman spectroscopy, electron probe microanalyses (EPMA) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)) and solution analyses (ICP-MS, ionique chromatography (IC)) showed oxidation of both pyrolytic carbon and SiC at 90 °C. Under air this led to the formation of SiO2 and a clay-like Mg-silicate, while under reducing conditions (H2/N2 atmosphere) SiC and pyrolytic carbon were highly stable after a few months of alteration. At 50 °C, in the presence and absence of air, the alteration of the coatings was minor. In conclusion, due to their high stability in reducing conditions, HTR fuel disposal in reducing deep geological environments may constitute a viable solution for their long-term management.

Ait Chaou, Abdelouahed; Abdelouas, Abdesselam; Karakurt, Gökhan; Grambow, Bernd



Efficient conversion of brown grease produced by municipal wastewater treatment plant into biofuel using aluminium chloride hexahydrate under very mild conditions.  


Wastes produced by oil/water separation at the wastewater treatment plant of Bari West (Southern Italy) were taken, characterized and converted. About 12% of this material was composed of greases, mainly made of free fatty acids (50%) and soaps (34%), and was easily separable by the aqueous phase through a hot centrifugation. After chemical activation of this fatty fraction, a direct esterification was carried out under very mild conditions (320K and atmospheric pressure), converting more than 90% of the original free fatty acids into the respective methyl esters in less than 4h, by using AlCl3·6H2O. The activation energy correlated to the use of this catalyst was also calculated (Eaest=43.9kJmol(-1)). The very low cost of the biodiesel produced (0.45€L(-1)) and the associated relevant specific energy (5.02MJ kgFAMEs(-1)) make such a process a really sustainable and effective example of valorization of a waste. PMID:24434702

Pastore, Carlo; Lopez, Antonio; Mascolo, Giuseppe



Single-step delamination of a MWW borosilicate layered zeolite precursor under mild conditions without surfactant and sonication.  


Layered borosilicate zeolite precursor ERB-1P (Si/B = 11) is delaminated via isomorphous substitution of Al for B using a simple aqueous Al(NO3)3 treatment. Characterization by PXRD shows loss of long-range order, and TEM demonstrates transformation of rectilinear layers in the precursor to single and curved layers in the delaminated material. N2 physisorption and base titration confirm the expected decrease of micropore volume and increase in external surface area for delaminated materials relative to their calcined 3D zeolite counterpart, whereas FTIR and multinuclear NMR spectroscopies demonstrate synthesis of Brønsted acid sites upon delamination. Comparative synthetic studies demonstrate that this new delamination method requires (i) a borosilicate layered zeolite precursor, in which boron atoms can be isomorphously substituted by aluminum, (ii) neutral amine pore fillers instead of rigid and large quaternary amine SDAs, and (iii) careful temperature control, with the preferred temperature window being around 135 °C for ERB-1P delamination. Acylation of 2-methoxynaphthalene was used as a model reaction to investigate the catalytic benefits of delamination. A partially dealuminated delaminated material displays a 2.3-fold enhancement in its initial rate of catalysis relative to the 3D calcined material, which is nearly equal to its 2.5-fold measured increase in external surface area. This simple, surfactant- and sonication-free, mild delamination method is expected to find broad implementation for the synthesis of delaminated zeolite catalysts. PMID:24345282

Ouyang, Xiaoying; Hwang, Son-Jong; Runnebaum, Ron C; Xie, Dan; Wanglee, Ying-Jen; Rea, Thomas; Zones, Stacey I; Katz, Alexander



Synthesis of graphene-based Pt nanoparticles by a one-step in situ plasma approach under mild conditions  

SciTech Connect

Herein, a one-step in situ plasma approach to synthesize the highly dispersed Pt nanoparticles on graphene under mild conditions is reported. The graphene oxide (GO) was transformed into graphene and H{sub 2}PtCl{sub 6} was simultaneously transformed into Pt nanoparticles under argon plasma conditions. The synthesized graphene-based Pt nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The analysis showed that the Pt nanoparticles were deposited on graphene as a form of face-centered cubical structure and the oxygen groups on graphene oxide were partially removed. The results of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis further confirmed the results.

Wang Qi; Song Mingming; Chen Changlun; Wei Yu; Zuo Xiao; Wang Xiangke [Key Laboratory of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei 230031 (China)



A New Biarylphosphine Ligand for the Pd-Catalyzed Synthesis of Diaryl Ethers under Mild Conditions  

E-print Network

A new bulky biarylphosphine ligand (L8) has been developed that allows the Pd-catalyzed C–O cross-coupling of a wide range of aryl halides and phenols under milder conditions than previously possible. A direct correlation ...

Salvi, Luca


Highly enantioselective Mukaiyama aldol reaction in aqueous conditions using a chiral iron(II) bipyridine catalyst.  


A highly enantioselective method for the catalytic Mukaiyama aldol reaction of silyl enol ethers with aldehydes in aqueous conditions was developed. The desired aldol products were obtained in excellent yields, diastereo- and enantioselectivities. Structural evidence of the pre-catalyst revealed an unprecedented heptadentate Fe(II) complex with the chiral bipyridine ligand. PMID:22080154

Ollevier, Thierry; Plancq, Baptiste



Single step signal group-imidazole labeling of organic phosphate groups under aqueous conditions  


Compounds and methods for single step, covalent labeling of the phosphate group of an organic substance under aqueous conditions are described. The labeling compound includes any kind of detectable signal group covalently bound to an imidazole moiety, which can be imidazole or a substituted imidazole. A preferred labeling compound has the formula shown in the accompanying diagram. 4 figs.

Giese, R.W.; Wang, P.



Efficient microwave-assisted solid phase coupling of nucleosides, small library generation and mild conditions for release of nucleoside derivatives  

PubMed Central

Nucleosides are essential bio-molecules that participate in a wide array of biological processes involved in maintaining physiologic homeostasis. Recent efforts geared towards the synthesis of nucleoside analogues and development of nucleoside combinatorial libraries using solid phase synthesis has contributed invaluable information towards drug design and development. These studies have provided information concerning the structural requirements of substrate binding pockets of enzymes and evaluation of enzyme kinetics. However, the synthesis of nucleosides and its corresponding analogues remains a challenging and time consuming process. Herein, we report an efficient, microwave assisted solid phase coupling of nucleosides, combinatorial chemistry on the coupled nucleosides to generate small library and mild cleavage conditions to release nucleoside derivatives from its solid support. We anticipate these findings will accelerate the development of synthetic methods or combinatorial library design of nucleoside analogues in similar settings. PMID:23794759

Paritala, Hanumantharao; Suzuki, Yuta; Carroll, Kate S.



Effects of mild TBI from repeated blast overpressure on the expression and extinction of conditioned fear in rats.  


Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are pressing medical issues for the Warfighter. Symptoms of mTBI can overlap with those of PTSD, suggesting the possibility of a causal or mediating role of mTBI in PTSD. To address whether mTBI can exacerbate the neurobiological processes associated with traumatic stress, we evaluated the impact of mTBI from a blast overpressure (BOP) on the expression of a conditioned fear. In the rat, conditioned fear models are used to evaluate the emotional conditioning processes that are known to become dysfunctional in PTSD. Rats were first trained on a variable interval (VI), food maintained, operant conditioning task that established a general measure of performance. Inescapable electric shock (IES) was paired with an audio-visual conditioned stimulus (CS) and followed 1day later by three daily exposures to BOP (75kPa). Subsequently, the CS alone was presented once every 7days for 2months, beginning 4days following the last BOP. The CS was presented during the VI sessions allowing a concurrent measure of performance. Treatment groups (n=10, each group) received IES+BOP, IES+sham-BOP, sham-IES+BOP or sham-IES+sham-BOP. As expected, pairing the CS with IES produced a robust conditioned fear that was quantified by a suppression of responding on the VI. BOP significantly decreased the expression of the conditioned fear. No systematic short- or long-term performance deficits were observed on the VI from BOP. These results show that mTBI from BOP can affect the expression of a conditioned fear and suggests that BOP caused a decrease in inhibitory behavioral control. Continued presentation of the CS produced progressively less response suppression in both fear conditioned treatments, consistent with extinction of the conditioned fear. Taken together, these results show that mTBI from BOP can affect the expression of a conditioned fear but not necessarily in a manner that increases the conditioned fear or extends the extinction process. PMID:24056195

Genovese, R F; Simmons, L P; Ahlers, S T; Maudlin-Jeronimo, E; Dave, J R; Boutte, A M



Corrosion detection of mild steel in a two phase hydrocarbon-electrolyte system under flow conditions using electrochemical noise  

SciTech Connect

Electrochemical current noise (ECN) measurements were carried out in mixtures of 3% NaCl electrolyte in diesel under stirred conditions (0 to 2,000 rpm) using a Rotating Electrodes System (RES) which includes three mild steel concentric electrodes embedded in activated polyester resin. Chemical activation of the resin allowed electrochemical measurements in the water in oil emulsion system. A 0.2 to 15% in volume range of 3% NaCl electrolyte additions was studied. Three distinctive noise patterns were obtained from electrochemical current noise (ECN) time-series: (a) a low noise baseline for diesel in absence of electrolyte, diesel with small additions of electrolyte and/or low flow rates, (b) a low noise signal with current bursts superimposed obtained from relatively small additions of electrolyte and high rotation rates and (c) a high amplitude signal for high rotation rates and relatively high additions of electrolyte. For case b, the number and intensity of current bursts is indicative of proximity to cases a or c. These results contrast with experiments carried out with a conventional non-activated resin which is insensitive to the range of electrolyte additions or to stirring conditions. This method can be implemented for water in oil systems where early corrosion detection is desirable.

Male, J.M.; Uruchurtu, J.; Coron, O. [Inst. de Investigaciones Electrical, Morelos (Mexico)



Stability of Lysozyme in Aqueous Extremolyte Solutions during Heat Shock and Accelerated Thermal Conditions  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to investigate the stability of lysozyme in aqueous solutions in the presence of various extremolytes (betaine, hydroxyectoine, trehalose, ectoine, and firoin) under different stress conditions. The stability of lysozyme was determined by Nile red Fluorescence Spectroscopy and a bioactivity assay. During heat shock (10 min at 70°C), betaine, trehalose, ectoin and firoin protected lysozyme against inactivation while hydroxyectoine, did not have a significant effect. During accelerated thermal conditions (4 weeks at 55°C), firoin also acted as a stabilizer. In contrast, betaine, hydroxyectoine, trehalose and ectoine destabilized lysozyme under this condition. These findings surprisingly indicate that some extremolytes can stabilize a protein under certain stress conditions but destabilize the same protein under other stress conditions. Therefore it is suggested that for the screening extremolytes to be used for protein stabilization, an appropriate storage conditions should also be taken into account. PMID:24465983

van Streun, Erwin L. P.; Frijlink, Henderik W.; Hinrichs, Wouter L. J.



Establishing and maintaining specific pathogen free (SPF) conditions in aqueous solutions using ozone.  


The paper discusses the use of ozone in space applications for the elimination of pathogens, and the enhancement of the oxidation potential of ozone using hydrogen peroxide and ultraviolet radiation. These combinations will be possible to set up in space conditions. The sterilizing effect versus free radical generation is an important equilibrium to establish when specific pathogen free conditions are wanted in aqueous solutions containing organic matter. In situ sterilization of plant roots in hydroponic systems, as well as the oxidation of root exudates, will be discussed. The paper will contain examples of the chemical interaction of ozone with some of the other compounds found in hydroponic systems. PMID:11540210

Vestergard, B



Solubility of platinum in aqueous solutions at 25C and pHs 4 to 10 under oxidizing conditions  

E-print Network

Solubility of platinum in aqueous solutions at 25°C and pHs 4 to 10 under oxidizing conditions to those found in such environments. The solubility of platinum metal was measured at 25°C in several strength of the aqueous solutions did not exceed 0.30 (molal scale). The interpretation of the solubility

Boyer, Edmond


N-Nitrosation of Secondary Amines Using p-TSA-NaNO2 as a Novel Nitrosating Agent Under Mild Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combination of p-toluenesulfonic acid (p-TSA) and sodium nitrite was used as a novel effective nitrosating agent for the N-nitrosation of secondary amines to their corresponding nitroso derivatives under mild and heterogeneous conditions in moderate to excellent yields.

Sanjay P. Borikar; Vincent Paul



Homogeneous ice freezing temperatures and ice nucleation rates of aqueous ammonium sulfate and aqueous levoglucosan particles for relevant atmospheric conditions.  


Homogeneous ice nucleation from micrometre-sized aqueous (NH4)2SO4 and aqueous levoglucosan particles is studied employing the optical microscope technique. A new experimental method is introduced that allows us to control the initial water activity of the aqueous droplets. Homogeneous ice freezing temperatures and ice melting temperatures of these aqueous solution droplets, 10 to 80 microm in diameter, are determined. Homogeneous ice nucleation from aqueous (NH4)2SO4 particles 5-39 wt% in concentration and aqueous levoglucosan particles with initial water activities of 0.85-0.99 yield upper limits of the homogeneous ice nucleation rate coefficients of up to 1x10(10) cm(-3) s(-1). The experimentally derived homogeneous ice freezing temperatures and upper limits of the homogeneous ice nucleation rate coefficients are compared with corresponding predictions of the water-activity-based ice nucleation theory [T. Koop, B. P. Luo, A. Tsias and T. Peter, Nature, 2000, 406, 611]. It is found that the water-activity-based ice nucleation theory can capture the experimentally derived ice freezing temperatures and homogeneous ice nucleation rate coefficients of the aqueous (NH4)2SO4 and aqueous levoglucosan particles. However, the level of agreement between experimentally derived and predicted values, in particular for homogeneous ice nucleation rate coefficients, crucially depends on the extrapolation method to obtain water activities at corresponding freezing temperatures. It is suggested that the combination of experimentally derived ice freezing temperatures and homogeneous ice nucleation rate coefficients can serve as a better validation of the water-activity-based ice nucleation theory than when compared to the observation of homogeneous ice freezing temperatures alone. The atmospheric implications with regard to the application of the water-activity-based ice nucleation theory and derivation of maximum ice particle production rates are briefly discussed. PMID:19727513

Knopf, Daniel Alexander; Lopez, Miguel David



Non-heme manganese catalysts for on-demand production of chlorine dioxide in water and under mild conditions.  


Two non-heme manganese complexes are used in the catalytic formation of chlorine dioxide from chlorite under ambient temperature at pH 5.00. The catalysts afford up to 1000 turnovers per hour and remain highly active in subsequent additions of chlorite. Kinetic and spectroscopic studies revealed a Mn(III)(OH) species as the dominant form under catalytic conditions. A Mn(III)(?-O)Mn(IV) dinuclear species was observed by EPR spectroscopy, supporting the involvement of a putative Mn(IV)(O) species. First-order kinetic dependence on the manganese catalyst precludes the dinuclear species as the active form of the catalyst. Quantitative kinetic modeling enabled the deduction of a mechanism that accounts for all experimental observations. The chlorine dioxide producing cycle involves formation of a putative Mn(IV)(O), which undergoes PCET (proton coupled electron-transfer) reaction with chlorite to afford chlorine dioxide. The ClO2 product can be efficiently removed from the aqueous reaction mixture via purging with an inert gas, allowing for the preparation of pure chlorine dioxide for on-site use and further production of chlorine dioxide. PMID:24498903

Hicks, Scott D; Kim, Doyeon; Xiong, Silei; Medvedev, Grigori A; Caruthers, James; Hong, Seungwoo; Nam, Wonwoo; Abu-Omar, Mahdi M



N-Methylation of amine and nitro compounds with CO2/H2 catalyzed by Pd/CuZrO(x) under mild reaction conditions.  


An active Pd/ZrCuOx catalyst was prepared for the reductive amination of CO2. The N-methylation of amines and nitro compounds with CO2/H2 can be realized with up to 97% yield under relatively mild reaction conditions. N-Formylation becomes the main reaction if the reaction was performed under milder conditions or using Pd/ZnZrOx as the catalyst. PMID:25238630

Cui, Xinjiang; Zhang, Yan; Deng, Youquan; Shi, Feng



Theoretical study of the dimerization of calcium carbonate in aqueous solution under natural water conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

First principles calculations have been used to investigate the condensation reactions of hydrated calcium bicarbonate monomers in a simulated aqueous environment. The reaction pathway for the calcium bicarbonate dimerization process has been computed at the density functional theory-PBE level with the COSMO dielectric continuum model to simulate the hydrated environment. The results indicate that calcium bicarbonate dimers form via an associative mechanism: the first step involves a sevenfold calcium bicarbonate intermediate followed by the loss of one water molecule from the first coordination shell of calcium. Both steps are characterised by a low energy barrier of approximately 2 kcal mol -1, suggesting that the dimerization process is not kinetically hindered in aqueous solution. However, the Gibbs free energies for the condensation reactions to form the calcium bicarbonate dimers and the species Ca(HCO 3) 2(H 2O) 4, Ca(HCO 3) 3(H 2O) 3- and Ca 2(HCO 3)(H 2O) 103+, computed using the PBE and mPW1B95 density functional theory levels for the gas-phase component and the UAHF-CPCM solvation model for the hydration contribution, are all positive, which indicates that the formation of these early calcium bicarbonate clusters is thermodynamically unfavourable in aqueous solutions. Our calculations therefore suggest that the oligomerization of calcium carbonate is not spontaneous in water, at the conditions considered in our simulations, i.e. T = 298 K and neutral pH, which indicates that the nucleation of calcium carbonate cannot occur through a homogeneous process when calcium-bicarbonate ion pairs are the major source of CaCO 3 in the aqueous environment.

Di Tommaso, Devis; de Leeuw, Nora H.



CO2 carbonation under aqueous conditions using petroleum coke combustion fly ash.  


Fly ash from petroleum coke combustion was evaluated for CO2 capture in aqueous medium. Moreover the carbonation efficiency based on different methodologies and the kinetic parameters of the process were determined. The results show that petroleum coke fly ash achieved a CO2 capture yield of 21% at the experimental conditions of 12gL(-1), 363°K without stirring. The carbonation efficiency by petroleum coke fly ash based on reactive calcium species was within carbonation efficiencies reported by several authors. In addition, carbonation by petroleum coke fly ash follows a pseudo-second order kinetic model. PMID:25000300

González, A; Moreno, N; Navia, R



Carbon dioxide hydrate equilibrium conditions in aqueous solutions containing electrolytes and methanol using a new apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A knowledge of the gas hydrate formation conditions, i.e. pressure, temperature, and compositions, of the coexisting phases at equilibrium, is required in formulating processes to avoid their formation in natural gas transmission lines or processing equipment. Additives like methanol and electrolytes are often used to inhibit hydrate formation in industrial operations. Computation of the inhibition effects of these additives is necessary for the design of such operations. Development of thermodynamic methods to calculate the hydrate equilibria conditions requires accurate experimental data. In the present work experimental three-phase (aqueous liquid solution, vapor, and incipient hydrate) equilibrium conditions of CO{sub 2} hydrate formation in aqueous solutions of electrolytes and methanol are measured in the temperature range of 263--279 K and pressure range of 0.9--3.0 MPa. A new full view sapphire tube equilibrium cell and the associated equipment are designed, fabricated, and used for the measurements. The equipment details and the measured data are also reported here.

Dholabhai, P.D.; Parent, J.S.; Bishnoi, P.R. [Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering] [Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering



Mechanics and mechanisms of surface damage in Al-Si alloys under ultra-mild wear conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Al-Si alloys intended for use in engine components must operate under ultra-mild wear (UMW) conditions to fit an acceptable amount of wear during a typical vehicle life. This study simulated surface damage in a UMW regime on five chemically etched Al-Si alloy surfaces using a pin-on-disc tribometer at low loads (0.5-2.0 N) under boundary lubricated conditions. The five alloys contained 11 to 25 wt.% Si and differed in matrix hardness, silicon particle morphology, and size. The mechanisms leading to the UMW damage and the role that the matrix hardness and microstructure play on said mechanisms were studied. Quantitative measurement methods based on statistical analysis of particle height changes and material loss from elevated aluminum using a profilometer technique were developed and used to assess UMW. The Greenwood and Tripp's numerical model was adapted to analyze the contact that occurred between Al-Si alloys with silicon particles protruding above the aluminum and steel balls. The estimation of the real contact pressure applied to the silicon particles was used to rationalize the damage mechanisms. The UMW mechanisms consisted of (i) abrasive wear on the top of the silicon particle surfaces; (ii) sinking-in of the silicon particles; (iii) piling-up of the aluminium around sunken-in particles and (vi) wear of the aluminium by the counterface, which eventually led to the initiation of UMW-II. Increasing the size or areal density of silicon particles with small aspect ratios delayed the onset of UMW-II by providing resistance against the silicon particles sinking-in and the aluminum piling-up. The UMW wear rates, however, began to decrease after long sliding cycles once an oil residue layer supported by hardened ultra-fine subsurface grains formed on the deformed aluminium matrix. The layer formation depended on the microstructure and applied load. Overall experimental observations suggested that Al-11% Si with small silicon particles exhibited optimal long-term wear performance.

Chen, Ming


Mild Cognitive Impairment  


... other people their age. This condition is called mild cognitive impairment, or MCI. People with MCI can take care of themselves and do their normal activities. MCI memory problems may include Losing things often Forgetting ...


Folding Study of Venus Reveals a Strong Ion Dependence of Its Yellow Fluorescence under Mildly Acidic Conditions*S  

E-print Network

Folding Study of Venus Reveals a Strong Ion Dependence of Its Yellow Fluorescence under Mildly- cencethatisrelativelyinsensitivetochangesinpHandionconcen- trations. Here, we present a detailed study of the stability and fold- ing of Venus. By following hydrogen-deuterium exchange of 15 N-labeled Venus using NMR spectroscopy over 13 months, residue

Jackson, Sophie


Retention and generalization of spelling words acquired using a peer-mediated instructional procedure by children with mild handicapping conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A peer-mediated instructional procedure termed Classwide Peer Tutoring (CWPT) has been shown to increase the rates and accuracy of student responses to academic tasks and to improve student performance on weekly spelling tests. In addition to replicating previous research, the present investigation evaluated the retention and generalization of words learned using CWPT. Students classified as mildly handicapped participated in daily

Gregory F. Harper; Barbara Mallette; Larry Maheady; Victoria Parkes; Jill Moore



Conditions of aqueous alteration of 9 CM chondrites estimated from mineralogy and compositional variations of matrix  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CM chondrites have undergone prevailed aqueous alteration in the parent asteroids and the alteration changed mineralogical and isotope signatures of water-bearing C-type asteroids.[1,2] In the previous studies, classification schemes of CM chondrites by the alteration degree were proposed by )[3,4] In the present study, we have performed a mineralogical study of 9 CM chondrites found in Antarctica in order to estimatie the nature and extents of aqueous alteration reactions. At first, small pieces (200 microns in size) of matrix were picked up and analyzed by synchroton radiation X-ray diffraction to identify minerals and relative abundances. The results of the X-ray diffraction analysis and SEM observations indicate that serpentine is present in the matrix of all samples as a major phase, suggesting that all samples have undergone aqueous alteration and have not been heated to temperature enough to dehydrate serpentine. Two out of 9 samples (LEW85311 and LAP03178 hereafter GroupA) contain Fe-Ni metal grains in both chondrule and matrix and anhydrous silicates (olivine and pyroxene) in matrix. Five of 9 samples (GRA06172, MET01072, LEW87022, LAP02269 and GRO95566 hereafter GroupB) contain fine-grained PCPs and anhydrous silicates but no metallic phases in matrix. In addition their chondrules are altered only in glassy parts and in limited parts of anhydrous silicates. The rest two of 9 samples (LAP031166 and MAC88100 hereafter GroupC) don't contain Fe-Ni metal and PCPs and contain little anhydrous silicates in matrix. In addition chondrules are almost completely altered. Since metallic phases are more susceptible to aqueous alteration than anhydrous silicates, the results suggest that the alteration degree is in the order of GroupA< GrouB< GroupC. The EPMA analysis indicates that most data of matrix composition fall within the triangle area defined by [1]: the area is enclosed by the composition of PCPs and two serpentines (the serpentin compositions are defined by those from Murry and Nogoya meteorites) in a Mg-Fe-Si ternary diagram. Nine samples have different compositional trends and PCP/(PCP+serpentine) ratios, suggesting that these 9 samples have suffered various extents of aqueous alteration. The matrix compositions reflect the conditions of aqueous alteration, because of its fine-grained nature. Therefore, it is expected that, for instance, GroupA samples show compositional trends similar within the Group, but different from other Groups. However, GroupA sample (LAP03178) has the same trend as GroupB sample (GRO95566), and GroupB sample (MET01072) has the same trend as GroupC sample (MAC88100).This suggests that aqueous alteration process is very complex: the starting matrix compositions are variable, and the resultant matrix compositions are also different. This indicates that matrix chemical composition alone is not enough to define the alteration degree. [1]McSween (1986), GCA 51, 2469-2477 [2]Clayton and Mayeda (1984) Earth and Planetary Science Letters 67, 151-161 [3]Zolensky (1997) GCA 61, 5099-5115 [4]Rubin et al. (2007) GCA 71, 2361-2382

Yoshioka, K.; Nakamura, T.; Fujimaki, H.



Semiconducting Polymer Encapsulated Mesoporous Silica Particles with Conjugated Europium Complexes: Toward Enhanced Luminescence under Aqueous Conditions.  


Immobilization of lanthanide organic complexes in meso-organized hybrid materials for luminescence applications have attracted immense interest due to the possibility of controlled segregation at the nanoscopic level for novel optical properties. Aimed at enhancing the luminescence intensity and stability of the hybrid materials in aqueous media, we developed polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) stabilized, semiconducting polymer (poly(9-vinylcarbazole), PVK) encapsulated mesoporous silica hybrid particles grafted with Europium(III) complexes. Monosilylated ?-diketonate ligands (1-(2-naphthoyl)-3,3,3-trifluoroacetonate, NTA) were first co-condensed in the mesoporous silica particles as pendent groups for bridging and anchoring the lanthanide complexes, resulting in particles with an mean diameter of ?450 nm and a bimodal pore size distribution centered at 3.5 and 5.3 nm. PVK was encapsulated on the resulted particles by a solvent-induced surface precipitation process, in order to seal the mesopores and protect Europium ions from luminescence quenching by producing a hydrophobic environment. The obtained polymer encapsulated MSN-EuLC@PVK-PVP particles exhibit significantly higher intrinsic quantum yield (?Ln = 39%) and longer lifetime (?obs = 0.51 ms), as compared with those without polymer encapsulation. Most importantly, a high luminescence stability was realized when MSN-EuLC@PVK-PVP particles were dispersed in various aqueous media, showing no noticeable quenching effect. The beneficial features and positive attributes of both mesoporous silica and semiconducting polymers as lanthanide-complex host were merged in a single hybrid carrier, opening up the possibility of using these hybrid luminescent materials under complex aqueous conditions such as biological/physiological environments. PMID:25289897

Zhang, Jixi; Prabhakar, Neeraj; Näreoja, Tuomas; Rosenholm, Jessica M



[BPy]HSO4 Acidic Ionic Liquid as a Novel, Efficient, and Environmentally Benign Catalyst for Synthesis of 1,5?Benzodiazepines under Mild Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel and simple ionic liquid methodology for the synthesis of 1,5?benzodiazepines is described. 1?Butylpyridinium hydrogen sulphate ([BPy]HSO4), an acidic room?temperature ionic liquid, as a novel and efficient catalyst, was synthesized and used in the preparation of a series of 1,5?benzodiazepine derivatives by the reaction of o?phenylenediamine with chalcones under mild conditions. This method is easy, efficient, environmentally friendly, economical,

Yuying Du; Fuli Tian; Wenzhi Zhao



Palladium-Catalyzed C-H Arylation Using Aryltrifluoroborates in Conjunction with a MnIII Oxidant under Mild Conditions  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the development of a mild Pd-catalyzed C–H arylation reaction using potassium aryltrifluoroborates in conjunction with Mn(OAc)3 as the oxidant. The scope of this transformation is explored with a variety of different aryltrifluoroborates and arylpyridine substrates. Preliminary mechanistic studies suggest that the reaction proceeds via a high-valent Pd mechanism with C–H activation occurring at or before the rate determining step. PMID:23888087

Seigerman, Cydney K.; Micyus, Tiffiny M.; Neufeldt, Sharon R.; Sanford, Melanie S.



Iodine in aqueous micellar environment: a mild effective ecofriendly catalytic system for expedient synthesis of bis(indolyl)methanes and 3-substituted indolyl ketones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The three-component condensation reaction of indoles with carbonyl compounds to yield bis(indolyl)methanes has been accomplished with a catalytic amount of iodine (2 mol%) in the presence of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) in aqueous solution above its critical micellar concentration (cmc). The surfactant-aided water-compatible Lewis acid catalyst has been found to be efficient for a wide range of carbonyl compounds including aromatic

Nemai C. Ganguly; Pallab Mondal; Sujoy Kumar Barik



Iodine in aqueous micellar environment: a mild effective ecofriendly catalytic system for expedient synthesis of bis(indolyl)methanes and 3-substituted indolyl ketones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The three-component condensation reaction of indoles with carbonyl compounds to yield bis(indolyl)methanes has been accomplished with a catalytic amount of iodine (2 mol%) in the presence of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) in aqueous solution above its critical micellar concentration (cmc). The surfactant-aided water-compatible Lewis acid catalyst has been found to be efficient for a wide range of carbonyl compounds including aromatic

Nemai C. Ganguly; Pallab Mondal; Sujoy Kumar Barik



Iron-promoted C-C bond cleavage of 1,3-diketones: a route to 1,2-diketones under mild reaction conditions.  


A conceptual method for the preparation of 1,2-diketones is reported. The selective C-C bond cleavage of 1,3-diketones affords the 1,2-diketones in high yields under mild reaction conditions in air by the use of FeCl(3) as the catalyst and tert-butyl nitrite (TBN) as the oxidant without the use of solvent. The possible reaction mechanism is discussed. This protocol provides an expeditious route to the useful 1,2-diketones. PMID:21627329

Huang, Lehao; Cheng, Kai; Yao, Bangben; Xie, Yongju; Zhang, Yuhong



Effect of condensation agents and minerals for oligopeptide formation under mild and hydrothermal conditions in related to chemical evolution of proteins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of condensation agents and minerals for oligopeptide formation was inspected to see whether minerals possess catalytic activity under mild and hydrothermal conditions. Under mild conditions, oligopeptide formation from negatively charged amino acids (Asp and Glu) using different minerals and the elongation of alanine oligopeptides ((Ala) 2-(Ala) 5) were attempted using apatite minerals. Oligo(Asp) up to 10 amino acid units from Asp were observed in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl carbodiimide (EDC). Notable influence of minerals was not detected for the oligo(Asp) formation. Oligo(Asp) was gradually degraded by the further incubation in the presence of EDC in both the absence and presence of minerals. The formation of oligo(Glu) was less efficient in the presence of carbonyldiimidazole. The elongation from (Ala) 3, (Ala) 4, and (Ala) 5 and the formation of diketopiperazine from (Ala) 2 proceeded immediately in the presence of EDC in the meantime of the sample preparations. In addition, it was unexpected that the disappearance of the products and the reformation of the reactants occurred by the further incubation for 24 h; for instance, (Ala) 5 decreased but (Ala) 4 increased with increasing the reaction time in the reaction of (Ala) 4 with EDC. These facts suggest that the activation of the reactant amino acids or peptides immediately occurs. Under the simulated hydrothermal conditions, EDC did not enhance the formation of oligopeptides from Asp, Glu or Ala nor the spontaneous formation of (Ala) 5 from (Ala) 4.

Kawamura, Kunio; Takeya, Hitoshi; Kushibe, Takao



Mild, Efficient, and Greener Dethioacetalization Protocol Using 30% Hydrogen Peroxide in Catalytic Combination with Ammonium Iodide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple, mild, efficient, and expedient greener dethioacetalization protocol employing a catalytic amount of nontoxic ammonium iodide (10 mol%) in combination with 30% hydrogen peroxide as terminal oxidizer is revealed. The reagent accomplished facile deprotection of 1,3-dithianes and dithiolanes of activated aromatic substrates in an aqueous medium in the presence of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) at room temperature under virtually neutral conditions.

Nemai C. Ganguly; Pallab Mondal



Heteroepitaxial nucleation and oriented growth of manganese oxide islands on carbonate minerals under aqueous conditions.  


Manganese redox cycling and the accompanying dissolution and precipitation reactions are important processes in natural waters. In the present study, Mn2+ (aq) is reacted with O2(aq) at circumneutral pH to form manganese oxide islands on the (1014) surface of MnCO3. The islands grow heteroepitaxially. The effects of the substrate surface morphology, the substrate atomic structure, and the aqueous concentration of Mn2+ are investigated. On terraces, rhombohedral oxide islands form with 90 degrees rotation relative to the crystallographic axis of the underlying carbonate substrate. Although the island heights self-limit between 2 and 3 nm depending on reaction conditions, the islands grow laterally to several square microns before separate islands collide and coalesce. The islands do not grow over substrate steps or down dissolution-pit edges. Comparison studies done with MgCO3 and CaCO3 show that the former also promotes heteroepitaxial growth whereas the latter does not. This difference is explained by the relative bond length mismatch between the structures of the carbonate substrates and the atomic structures of manganese oxides. A free energy model is also presented to explain why the heights of the manganese oxide islands self-limit. Our results provide an improved basis both for the development of predictive models of contaminant fate and transport and for the modeling of hydraulic flow through carbonate aquifers. PMID:15787362

Jun, Young-Shin; Kendall, Treavor A; Martin, Scot T; Friend, Cynthia M; Vlassak, Joost J



Radiolysis of pyridoxine (vitamin B 6) in aqueous solution under different conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aqueous solutions of pyridoxine (1 mM) without or with additive of K 3[Fe(CN) 6] (2.5 mM) were gamma-irradiated at different doses and dose rate of 2.16 kGy/h in the absence of air, in the presence of air or by their saturation with N 2O. The radiolytic products were analyzed with HPLC, mass spectrometry and UV spectroscopy. 2,4,5-Trihydroxymethyl-3-pyridinol, pyridoxal, isopyridoxal and 6-hydroxypyridoxine were formed by radiolysis in the absence of K 3[Fe(CN) 6], and their concentrations were much higher in samples saturated with N 2O. Pyridoxi-3,6-quinone was found by radiolysis under all the above-mentioned conditions but only in the presence of K 3[Fe(CN) 6]. Besides, the pyridoxal formation increased in the presence of this oxidizing agent. G values of pyridoxal formation and pyridoxine degradation were quantified. Some details of the radiolytic product formation were discussed.

Albarrán, Guadalupe; Ramírez-Cahero, Fernando; Aliev, Roustam



Mild Salt Stress Conditions Induce Different Responses in Root Hydraulic Conductivity of Phaseolus vulgaris Over-Time  

PubMed Central

Plants respond to salinity by altering their physiological parameters in order to maintain their water balance. The reduction in root hydraulic conductivity is one of the first responses of plants to the presence of salt in order to minimize water stress. Although its regulation has been commonly attributed to aquaporins activity, osmotic adjustment and the toxic effect of Na+ and Cl? have also a main role in the whole process. We studied the effects of 30 mM NaCl on Phaseolus vulgaris plants after 9 days and found different responses in root hydraulic conductivity over-time. An initial and final reduction of root hydraulic conductivity, stomatal conductance, and leaf water potential in response to NaCl was attributed to an initial osmotic shock after 1 day of treatment, and to the initial symptoms of salt accumulation within the plant tissues after 9 days of treatment. After 6 days of NaCl treatment, the increase in root hydraulic conductivity to the levels of control plants was accompanied by an increase in root fructose content, and with the intracellular localization of root plasma membrane aquaporins (PIP) to cortex cells close to the epidermis and to cells surrounding xylem vessels. Thus, the different responses of bean plants to mild salt stress over time may be connected with root fructose accumulation, and intracellular localization of PIP aquaporins. PMID:24595059

Calvo-Polanco, Monica; Sanchez-Romera, Beatriz; Aroca, Ricardo



Highly chemoselective reduction of amides (primary, secondary, tertiary) to alcohols using SmI2/amine/H2O under mild conditions.  


Highly chemoselective direct reduction of primary, secondary, and tertiary amides to alcohols using SmI2/amine/H2O is reported. The reaction proceeds with C-N bond cleavage in the carbinolamine intermediate, shows excellent functional group tolerance, and delivers the alcohol products in very high yields. The expected C-O cleavage products are not formed under the reaction conditions. The observed reactivity is opposite to the electrophilicity of polar carbonyl groups resulting from the n(X) ? ?*(C?O) (X = O, N) conjugation. Mechanistic studies suggest that coordination of Sm to the carbonyl and then to Lewis basic nitrogen in the tetrahedral intermediate facilitate electron transfer and control the selectivity of the C-N/C-O cleavage. Notably, the method provides direct access to acyl-type radicals from unactivated amides under mild electron transfer conditions. PMID:24460078

Szostak, Michal; Spain, Malcolm; Eberhart, Andrew J; Procter, David J




EPA Science Inventory

Microwave (MW) irradiation in conjunction with water as reaction media has proven to be a 'greener' chemical approach for expeditious N -alkylation reactions of amines and hydrazines wherein the reactions under mildly basic conditions afford tertiary amines and double N...


Experimental reduction of aqueous sulphate by hydrogen under hydrothermal conditions: Implication for the nuclear waste storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulphate reduction by hydrogen, likely to occur in deep geological nuclear waste storage sites, was studied experimentally in a two-phase system (water + gas) at 250-300 °C and under 4-16 bars H 2 partial pressure in hydrothermal-vessels. The calculated activation energy is 131 kJ/mol and the half-life of aqueous sulphate in the presence of hydrogen and elemental sulphur ranges from 210,000 to 2.7 × 10 9 years at respective temperatures of 90 °C, the thermal peak in the site and 25 °C, the ambient temperature far from the site. The features and rate of the sulphate reduction by H 2 are close to those established for TSR in oil fields. The experiments also show that the rate of sulphate reduction is not significantly affected in the H 2 pressure range of 4-16 bars and in the pH range of 2-5, whereas a strong increase is measured at pH below 2. We suggest that the condition for the reaction to occur is the speciation of sulphate dominated by non symmetric species ( HSO4- at low pH), and we propose a three steps reaction, one for each intermediate-valence sulphur species, the first one requiring H 2S as electron donor rather than H 2. We distinguish two possible reaction pathways for the first step, depending on pH: reduction of sulphate into sulphur dioxide below pH 2 or into thiosulphate or sulphite + elemental sulphur in the pH range 2-5.

Truche, Laurent; Berger, Gilles; Destrigneville, Christine; Pages, Alain; Guillaume, Damien; Giffaut, Eric; Jacquot, Emmanuel



The Aqueous Complexation of Thorium with Citrate under Neutral to Basic Conditions  

SciTech Connect

The aqueous complexation of thorium with citrate was investigated under neutral to basic conditions and over a broad range of ionic strengths. The solubility data for ThO2(am) as a function of citrate concentration indicate the presence of stable species with citrate-to-metal ratios of between two to three. The dependence of the ThO2(am) solubilities on hydrogen ion concentration can also be readily explained by the classical assumption of hydrolysis of the central Th(IV) ion to form mixed thorium-hydroxide-citrate complexes. 13C NMR spectra of the species in solution confirm that the citrate-to-metal ratio of the species in solution is between two and three and show that the citrate attaches to the metal in a bidentate fashion through oxygens on the ?-carboxylate and ?-alkoxyl groups, rather than through the carboxylate groups. The 13C NMR spectra, as well as a density functional theory (DFT) electronic structure study of the presumptive complexes, suggests that the associated ?-hydroxyl proton can be displaced during complex formation. These findings indicate an alternative explanation for the observed changes in solubility as a function of hydrogen ion concentration, the displacement of protons from the citrate alkoxyl groups via metal binding. Removal of protons from the alkoxyl groups or hydrolysis of the central Th(IV) cannot be distinguished by thermodynamic measurements, however the species with the ?-hydroxyl proton removed (i.e., ThOH(Cit)25- and Th(Cit)38-) would appear to better represent the microscopic binding. Apparent equilibrium constants for the solution phase reactions of these species and the hydrous thorium oxide have been calculated as a function of ionic strength.

Felmy, Andrew R.; Cho, Herman M.; Dixon, David A.; Xia, Yuanxian; Hess, Nancy J.; Wang, Zheming



Asian dust particles converted into aqueous droplets under remote marine atmospheric conditions  

PubMed Central

The chemical history of dust particles in the atmosphere is crucial for assessing their impact on both the Earth’s climate and ecosystem. So far, a number of studies have shown that, in the vicinity of strong anthropogenic emission sources, Ca-rich dust particles can be converted into aqueous droplets mainly by the reaction with gaseous HNO3 to form Ca(NO3)2. Here we show that other similar processes have the potential to be activated under typical remote marine atmospheric conditions. Based on field measurements at several sites in East Asia and thermodynamic predictions, we examined the possibility for the formation of two highly soluble calcium salts, Ca(NO3)2 and CaCl2, which can deliquesce at low relative humidity. According to the results, the conversion of insoluble CaCO3 to Ca(NO3)2 tends to be dominated over urban and industrialized areas of the Asian continent, where the concentrations of HNO3 exceed those of HCl ([HNO3/HCl] >  ? 1). In this regime, CaCl2 is hardly detected from dust particles. However, the generation of CaCl2 becomes detectable around the Japan Islands, where the concentrations of HCl are much higher than those of HNO3 ([HNO3/HCl] <  ? 0.3). We suggest that elevated concentrations of HCl in the remote marine boundary layer are sufficient to modify Ca-rich particles in dust storms and can play a more important role in forming a deliquescent layer on the particle surfaces as they are transported toward remote ocean regions. PMID:20921372

Tobo, Yutaka; Zhang, Daizhou; Matsuki, Atsushi; Iwasaka, Yasunobu



Transdermal drug delivery using microemulsion and aqueous systems: influence of skin storage conditions on the in vitro permeability of diclofenac from aqueous vehicle systems.  


The objective of this study was to evaluate the transdermal delivery potential of diclofenac-containing microemulsion system in vivo and in vitro. It was found that the transdermal administration of the microemulsion to rats resulted in 8-fold higher drug plasma levels than those obtained after application of Voltaren Emulgel. After s.c. administration (3.5 mg/kg), the plasma levels of diclofenac reached a peak of 0.94 microg/ml at t=1 h and decreased rapidly to 0.19 microg/ml at t=6 h, while transdermal administration of the drug in microemulsion maintained constant levels of 0.7-0.9 microg/ml for at least 8 h. The transdermal fluxes of diclofenac were measured in vitro using skin excised from different animal species. In three rodent species, penetration fluxes of 53.35+/-8.19 (furry mouse), 31.70+/-3.83 (hairless mouse), 31.66+/-4.45 (rat), and 22.89+/-6.23 microg/cm(2)/h (hairless guinea pig) were obtained following the application of the microemulsion. These fluxes were significantly higher than those obtained by application of the drug in aqueous solution. In contrast to these results, a 'flip-flop' phenomenon was observed when frozen porcine skin (but not fresh skin) was significantly more permeable to diclofenac-in-water than to the drug-in-microemulsion. In fact, the drug penetration from the microemulsion was not affected by the skin storage conditions, but it was increased when an aqueous solution was applied. However, this unusual phenomenon observed in non-freshly used porcine skin places a question mark on its relevancy for in vitro penetration studies involving aqueous vehicle systems. PMID:16431047

Sintov, Amnon C; Botner, Shafir



Equilibrium hydrate formation conditions for hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and ethane in aqueous solutions of ethylene glycol and sodium chloride  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas components such as hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and ethane form gas hydrates of structure I under suitable temperature and pressure conditions. Information on such conditions is vital to the oil and gas industry in order to design and operate processing equipment and pipelines so that hydrate formation is avoided. Incipient equilibrium hydrate formation conditions for hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and ethane in aqueous solutions of ethylene glycol and sodium chloride were experimentally obtained in the temperature range 264--290 K and the pressure range 0.23--3.18 MPa. A variable-volume sapphire cell was used for the measurements.

Majumdar, A.; Mahmoodaghdam, E.; Bishnoi, P.R.



The characterisation of PbO 2-coated electrodes prepared from aqueous methanesulfonic acid under controlled deposition conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of PbO2 coatings on planar carbon substrates has been prepared by anodic deposition in aqueous methanesulfonic acid (MSA) under galvanostatic conditions. The effect of four experimental parameters, i.e., lead(II) methanesulfonate and MSA concentrations, current density, and temperature was analysed. Surface characterisation by XRD, SEM-EDX, and AFM has provided information about the structural (phase distribution, degree of crystallinity, and

I. Sirés; C. T. J. Low; C. Ponce-de-León; F. C. Walsh



Cumene Liquid Oxidation to Cumene Hydroperoxide over CuO Nanoparticle with Molecular Oxygen under Mild Condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

CuO nanoparticle was synthesized via wet chemical method and was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption-desorption, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Catalytic oxidation of cumene with molecular oxygen was studied over CuO nanoparticle. The catalysts showed markedly higher activities as compared to CuO prepared by conventional method, CuO\\/Al2O3,orhomogeneous copper catalyst under comparable reaction conditions. The cumene conversion, cumene hydroperoxide

Meiying Zhang; Lefu Wang; Hongbing Ji; Bing Wu; Xiaoping Zeng



Growth of La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4} nanofibers under a mild condition by using single walled carbon nanotubes as templates  

SciTech Connect

La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4} nanofibers (ca. 30 nm in diameter and 3 {mu}m in length) have been grown in situ by using single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs; ca. 2 nm in inner diameter; made via cracking CH{sub 4} over the catalyst of Mg{sub 0.8}Mo{sub 0.05}Ni{sub 0.10}Co{sub 0.05}O {sub x} at 800 deg. C) as templates under mild hydrothermal conditions and a temperature around 60 deg. C. During synthesis, the surfactant poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(propylene glycol)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} were added to disperse SWNTs and oxidize the reactants, respectively. The structure of La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4} nanofibers was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and their morphologies were observed with field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) at the hydrothermal synthesis lasting for 5, 20 and 40 h, respectively. The La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4} crystals grew from needle-like (5 h) through stick-like (20 h) and finally to plate-like (40 h) fibers. Twenty hours is an optimum reaction time to obtain regular crystal fibers. The La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4} nanofibers are probably cubic rather than round and may capsulate SWNTs. - Graphical abstract: La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4} nanofibers have been grown in situ by using single walled carbon nanotubes as templates under mild hydrothermal conditions and a temperature around 60 deg. C. The La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4} crystals grew from needle-like (5 h) through stick-like (20 h) and finally to plate-like (40 h) fibers. The La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4} nanofibers are probably cubic rather than round and may capsulate SWNTs.

Gao Lizhen [School of Mechanical Engineering M050, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley WA 6009 (Australia)]. E-mail:; Wang Xiaolin [School of Mechanical Engineering M050, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley WA 6009 (Australia); Chua, H.T. [School of Mechanical Engineering M050, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley WA 6009 (Australia); Kawi, Sibudjing [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 4, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)



Experimental aqueous alteration of the Allende meteorite under oxidizing conditions: Constraints on asteroidal alteration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have performed an experimental study of the aqueous alteration of the Allende CV3 carbonaceous chondrite under highly oxidizing conditions, in order to examine the alteration behavior of Allende's anhydrous mineralogy. The experiments were carried out at temperatures of 100, 150, and 200 °C, for time periods between 7 and 180 days, with water/rock ratios ranging from 1:1 to 9:1. Uncrushed cubes of Allende were used so that the spatial relationships between reactant and product phases could be examined in detail. Scanning electron microscope studies show that in all the experiments, even those of short duration (7 days), soluble salts of Ca and Mg (CaSO 4, CaCO 3, and MgSO 4) precipitated on the sample surface, indicating that these elements are rapidly mobilized during alteration. In addition, iron oxides and hydroxides formed on the sample surfaces. The sulfates, carbonates, and the majority of the iron-bearing secondary minerals are randomly distributed over the surface of samples. In some instances the iron oxides and hydroxides are constrained to the boundaries of altering mineral grains. Transmission electron microscope studies show that the FeO-rich olivine in the interior of the samples has altered to form interlayered serpentine/saponite and Fe-oxyhydroxides. The degree of alteration increases significantly with increasing water/rock ratio, and to a lesser extent with increasing duration of heating. The serpentine/saponite forms both by direct replacement of the olivine in crystallographically oriented intergrowths, and by recrystallization of an amorphous Si-rich phase that precipitates in pore space between the olivine grains. The alteration assemblage bears many similarities to those found in altered carbonaceous chondrites, although in detail there are important differences, which we attribute to (a) the relatively high temperatures of our experiments and (b) comparatively short reaction times compared with the natural examples. In terms of mineral assemblage, our experiments most closely resemble alteration in the CI chondrites, although the degree of alteration of our experiments is much lower. CI chondrites contain serpentine/saponite intergrowths and veins of Ca-sulfate and Ca-carbonate as well as the Fe-oxyhydroxide, ferrihydrite. However, the phyllosilicate phases formed in our experiments are somewhat coarser-grained than the finest phyllosilicate fraction present in CI chondrites, suggesting that alteration of the CI chondrites occurred at lower temperatures. In terms of mineral assemblage, our experiments also appear to come close to matching CR chondrites, although we infer that CR alteration probably occurred at temperatures <100 °C, based on the very fine-grained size of phyllosilicates in CR matrices.

Jones, Catherine L.; Brearley, Adrian J.



Thermodynamics of carbon dioxide in aqueous piperazine/potassium carbonate systems at stripper conditions  

E-print Network

GHGT-8 1 Thermodynamics of carbon dioxide in aqueous piperazine/potassium carbonate systems thermodynamic models. The range in CO2 solubility measured from 100 � 120 o C for K+ /PZ mixtures was from (0 and Technology to expand the thermodynamic data of for potassium carbonate/piperazine/CO2 with measurements of CO

Rochelle, Gary T.


Corrosion Mechanisms of Mild Steel in Aqueous CO2 SolutionsThu Tran Institute for Corrosion and Multiphase Technology, Ohio University  

E-print Network

and Multiphase Technology, Ohio University Parameters Conditions Equipment Glass cell Device RCE* Material SS304 concentrations of HAc can be achieved in the glass cell at atmospheric pressure. Material Stainless steel (SS304) was used to study the cathodic reaction. By using SS304, the charge transfer current can be seen clearly

Botte, Gerardine G.


Complexes of earth-abundant metals for catalytic electrochemical hydrogen generation under aqueous conditions.  


Growing global energy demands and climate change motivate the development of new renewable energy technologies. In this context, water splitting using sustainable energy sources has emerged as an attractive process for carbon-neutral fuel cycles. A key scientific challenge to achieving this overall goal is the invention of new catalysts for the reductive and oxidative conversions of water to hydrogen and oxygen, respectively. This review article will highlight progress in molecular electrochemical approaches for catalytic reduction of protons to hydrogen, focusing on complexes of earth-abundant metals that can function in pure aqueous or mixed aqueous-organic media. The use of water as a reaction medium has dual benefits of maintaining high substrate concentration as well as minimizing the environmental impact from organic additives and by-products. PMID:23034627

Thoi, V Sara; Sun, Yujie; Long, Jeffrey R; Chang, Christopher J



The direct catalytic asymmetric aldol reaction of ?-substituted nitroacetates with aqueous formaldehyde under base-free neutral phase-transfer conditions.  


Enantioselective direct aldol reaction of ?-substituted nitroacetates with aqueous formaldehyde for the synthesis of ?-alkyl serines has been achieved under base-free neutral phase-transfer conditions with a bifunctional chiral phase-transfer catalyst. PMID:22349720

Shirakawa, Seiji; Ota, Kensuke; Terao, Shogo J; Maruoka, Keiji



The effect of precipitation conditions and aging upon characteristics of particles precipitated from aqueous solutions  

SciTech Connect

Precipitation of a dissolved species from aqueous solutions is one of the techniques used to grow particles with certain size or composition characteristics. Various factors affecting the particle properties for sparingly soluble substances are briefly discussed here, including homogeneous versus heterogeneous nucleation, the effect of relative supersaturation on the number of nuclei and their relative size, particle growth by way of Ostwald Ripening, the Ostwald Step Rule and nucleation of metastable phases, diffusion-controlled versus surface reaction-controlled growth, incorporation of dopants into the precipitate, and dendritic growth. 13 refs.

Rard, J.A.



ROS Initiated Oxidation of Dopamine under Oxidative Stress Conditions in Aqueous and Lipidic Environments  

PubMed Central

Dopamine is known to be an efficient antioxidant and to protect neurocytes from oxidative stress by scavenging free radicals. In this work, we have carried out a systematic quantum chemistry and computational kinetics study on the reactivity of dopamine toward hydroxyl (•OH) and hydroperoxyl (•OOH) free radicals in aqueous and lipidic simulated biological environments, within the density functional theory framework. Rate constants and branching ratios for the different paths contributing to the overall reaction, at 298 K, are reported. For the reactivity of dopamine toward hydroxyl radicals, in water at physiological pH, the main mechanism of the reaction is proposed to be the sequential electron proton transfer (SEPT), whereas in the lipidic environment, hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) and radical adduct formation (RAF) pathways contribute almost equally to the total reaction rate. In both environments, dopamine reacts with hydroxyl radicals at a rate that is diffusion-controlled. Reaction with the hydroperoxyl radical is much slower and occurs only by abstraction of any of the phenolic hydrogens. The overall rate coefficients are predicted to be 2.23 × 105 and 8.16 × 105 M–1 s–1, in aqueous and lipidic environment, respectively, which makes dopamine a very good •OOH, and presumably •OOR, radical scavenger. PMID:21919526



Stimuli-sensitive hydrogel based on N-isopropylacrylamide and itaconic acid for entrapment and controlled release of candida rugosa lipase under mild conditions.  


Stimuli responsive pH- and temperature-sensitive hydrogel drug delivery systems, as those based on N-isopropylacrylamide (NiPAAm) and itaconic acid (IA), have been attracting much of the attention of the scientific community nowadays, especially in the field of drug release. By adjusting comonomer composition, the matrix is enabled to protect the incorporated protein in the highly acidic environment of upper gastrointestinal tract and deliver it in the neutral or slightly basic region of the lower intestine. The protein/poly(NiPAAm-co-IA) hydrogels were synthetized by free radical crosslinking copolymerization and were characterized concerning their swelling capability, mechanical properties, and morphology. The pore structure and sizes up to 1.90?nm allowed good entrapment of lipase molecules. Model protein, lipase from Candida rugosa, was entrapped within hydrogels upon mild conditions that provided its protection from harmful environmental influences. The efficiency of the lipase entrapment reached 96.7%, and was dependent on the initial concentration of lipase solution. The swelling of the obtained hydrogels in simulated pH and temperature of gastrointestinal tract, the lipase entrapment efficiency, and its release profiles from hydrogels were investigated as well. PMID:24982870

Milašinovi?, Nikola; Kneževi?-Jugovi?, Zorica; Milosavljevi?, Nedeljko; Lu?i? Škori?, Marija; Filipovi?, Jovanka; Kalagasidis Kruši?, Melina



Diffusion behavior of lysozyme in aqueous ammonium sulfate solutions under varying solution conditions as determined by dynamic light scattering  

SciTech Connect

As proteins gain significance in commercial applications such as pharmaceuticals, detergents, organic waste management and cosmetics, efficient and economical recovery of these valuable biomolecules is of increasing importance. the salting-out process has found widespread application in the area of protein separations. To date, salt-induced precipitation of proteins from complex aqueous solutions remains largely an empirical process; no comprehensive model exists to predict salting-out phase equilibria in protein solutions. Rational predictive models for salt-induced precipitation will therefore be of great value in protein purification, both on the preparative and the analytical scale. Any attempt to model theoretically salt-induced protein precipitation must include the known physics of protein interactions in aqueous solution. With this in mind, it is crucial to acknowledge that protein precipitation is fundamentally an aggregation process. In order to incorporate aggregation effects into ongoing efforts to model salting out of proteins, it is necessary to quantify the degree of aggregation as a function of solution conditions. Therefore, dynamic light scattering measurements were performed with a well-studied protein, hen-egg-white lysozyme, under several solution conditions.

Fornefeld, U.M.; Kuehner, D.E.; Blanch, H.W.; Prausnitz, J.M. (Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Chemical Sciences Div.)



4-( p-Chloro)phenyl-1,2,4-triazole-3,5-dione as a novel and reusable reagent for the oxidation of 1,3,5-trisubstituted pyrazolines under mild conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

4-(p-Chloro)phenyl-1,3,4-triazole-3,5-dione is used as an effective oxidizing agent for the oxidation of 1,3,5-trisubstituted pyrazolines to their corresponding pyrazoles under mild conditions with moderate to good yields at room temperature.

Mohammad Ali Zolfigol; Davood Azarifar; Shadpour Mallakpour; Iraj Mohammadpoor-Baltork; Ali Forghaniha; Behrooz Maleki; Mohammad Abdollahi-Alibeik



Novelties of microwave assisted liquid–liquid phase transfer catalysis in enhancement of rates and selectivities in alkylation of phenols under mild conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of phenolic ethers is accelerated remarkably upon microwave irradiation under the mild power input of 40 W using liquid–liquid phase transfer catalysis. It also leads to improved selectivities.

Ganapati D Yadav; Priyal M Bisht



Oligo-Glycine Synthesis in an Aqueous Solution of Glycine Under Oxidative Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Di-and tri-glycine were synthesized in 1M aqueous solution of glycine by bubbling for 90 hr with oxygen discharged in the path from an oxygen cylinder. The peptides were also produced by an incubation at 37°C of 2M glycine solution prepared with 75% hydrogen peroxide, and the yields were traced for 200 days. The final yields were about 0.25% and 0.01% for di-and tri-glycine, respectively. The solution at 166 days of incubation was applied to a Sephadex G 10 column, and the fractions around the top of the chromatogram were found to increase the intensity of ninhydrin color about 4˜5 times after hydrolysis, indicating an existence of oligo-glycine. The solutions of 1M glycine and 0.5M diglycine prepared with 30% hydrogen peroxide were incubated at 37°C for 38 days, and di-and tetra-glycine were detected in the yields of 0.12% and 0.33%, respectively.

Yamagata, Yukio; Yamashita, Atsunori; Inomata, Katsuhiko



Towards a clinically useful diagnosis for mild-to-moderate conditions of medically unexplained symptoms in general practice: a mixed methods study  

PubMed Central

Background Symptoms that cannot be attributed to any known conventionally defined disease are highly prevalent in general practice. Yet, only severe cases are captured by the current diagnostic classifications of medically unexplained symptoms (MUS). This study explores the clinical usefulness of a proposed new diagnostic category for mild-to-moderate conditions of MUS labelled ‘multiple symptoms’. Methods A mixed methods approach was used. For two weeks, 20 general practitioners (GPs) classified symptoms presented in consecutive consultations according to the International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC) supplemented with the new diagnostic category ‘multiple symptoms’. The GPs’ experiences were subsequently explored by focus group interviews. Interview data were analysed according to ethnographic principles. Results In 33% of patients, GPs classified symptoms as medically unexplained, but applied the category of ‘multiple symptoms’ only in 2.8%. The category was described as a useful tool for promoting communication and creating better awareness of patients with MUS; as such, the category was perceived to reduce the risk of unnecessary tests and referrals of these patients. Three main themes were found to affect the clinical usefulness of the diagnostic category of ‘multiple symptoms’: 1) lack of consensus on categorisation practices, 2) high complexity of patient cases and 3) relational continuity (i.e. continuity in the doctor-patient relationship over time). The first two were seen as barriers to usefulness, the latter as a prerequisite for application. The GPs’ diagnostic classifications were found to be informed by the GPs’ subjective pre-formed concepts of patients with MUS, which reflected more severe conditions than actually intended by the new category of ‘multiple symptoms’. Conclusions The study demonstrated possible clinical benefits of the category of ‘multiple symptoms’, such as GPs’ increased awareness and informational continuity in partnership practices. The use of the category was challenged by the GPs’ conceptual understanding of MUS and was applied only to a minority of patients. The study demonstrates a need for addressing these issues if sub-threshold categories for MUS are to be applied in routine care. The category of ‘multiple symptoms’ may profitably be used in the future as a risk indicator rather than a diagnostic category. PMID:24924564



Determination of the optimum conditions for boric acid extraction with carbon dioxide gas in aqueous media from colemanite containing arsenic  

SciTech Connect

The Taguchi method was used to determine optimum conditions for the boric acid extraction from colemanite ore containing As in aqueous media saturated by CO{sub 2} gas. After the parameters were determined to be efficient on the extraction efficiency, the experimental series with two steps were carried out. The chosen experimental parameters for the first series of experiments and their ranges were as follows: (1) reaction temperature, 25--70 C; (2) solid-to-liquid ratio (by weight), 0.091 to 0.333; (3) gas flow rate (in mL/min), 66.70--711; (4) mean particle size, {minus}100 to {minus}10 mesh; (5) stirring speed, 200--600 rpm; (6) reaction time, 10--90 min. The optimum conditions were found to be as follows: reaction temperature, 70 C; solid-to-liquid ratio, 0.091; gas flow rate, 711 (in mL/min); particle size, {minus}100 mesh; stirring speed, 500 rpm; reaction time, 90 min. Under these optimum conditions, the boric acid extraction efficiency from the colemanite containing As was approximately 54%. Chosen experimental parameters for the second series of experiments and their ranges were as follows: (1) reaction temperature, 60--80 C; (2) solid-to-liquid ratio (by weight), 0.1000 to 0.167; (3) gas pressure (in atm), 1.5; 2.7; (4) reaction time, 45--120 min. The optimum conditions were found to be as follows: reaction temperature, 70 C; solid-to-liquid ratio, 0.1; gas pressure, 2.7 atm; reaction time, 120 min. Under these optimum conditions the boric acid extraction efficiency from the colemanite ore was approximately 75%. Under these optimum conditions, the boric acid extraction efficiency from calcined colemanite ore was approximately 99.55%.

Ata, O.N.; Colak, S.; Copur, M.; Celik, C.



Inhibitory Effect of Berberis vulgaris Aqueous Extract on Acquisition and Reinstatement Effects of Morphine in Conditioned Place Preferences (CPP) in Mice  

PubMed Central

Background: It has been elucidated that Berberis vulgaris (barberry) can alleviate morphine withdrawal syndrome. Also it has been reported that aqueous extract of barberry possibly have inhibitory effect on NMDA receptors. Objectives: In this study, we decided to evaluate the effects of aqueous extract of B. vulgaris fruit on morphine tendency in mice using conditioned place preference (CPP) method. Materials and Methods: In experiment 1 (acquisition phase), mice underwent morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) training with injections of morphine (40 mg/kg). In experiment 2 (extinction and reinstatement phases), mice underwent the same CPP training as in experiment 1 and subsequent extinction training on day 16th a reinstatement by CPP was done by injection of reminding 10 mg/kg morphine. Results: The administration of morphine (40 mg/kg for four days) produced place preference. In the first method, the aqueous extract of barberry (200 mg/kg) prevented morphine tendency to white cell in CPP method. In the second method, after inter-peritoneal injection of aqueous extracts of barberry at 100 and 200 mg/kg, the animals tendency toward the white cells of CPP chamber on the sixteenth day (after a reminder injection of morphine 10 mg/kg) was significantly reduced. Conclusions: These results show that aqueous extract of barberry can reduce the acquisition and reinstatement of morphine-induced conditioned place preference.

Imenshahidi, Mohsen; Qaredashi, Reza; Hashemzaei, Mahmoud; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein



Unprecedented Selective Oxidation of Styrene Derivatives using a Supported Iron Oxide Nanocatalyst in Aqueous Medium  

EPA Science Inventory

Iron oxide nanoparticles supported on mesoporous silica-type materials have been successfully utilized in the aqueous selective oxidation of alkenes under mild conditions using hydrogen peroxide as a green oxidant. Catalysts could be easily recovered after completion of the reac...


Corrosion phenomena on alloy 625 in aqueous solutions containing hydrochloric acid and oxygen under subcritical and supercritical conditions  

SciTech Connect

Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWO) is a very effective process to destroy hazardous aqueous wastes containing organic contaminants. The main target applications in the USA are the destruction of DOD and DOE wastes such as rocket fuels and explosives, warfare agents and organics present in low level radioactive liquid wastes. Alloy 625 is frequently used as reactor material for Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWO) applications. This is due to the favorable combination of mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, price and availability. Nevertheless, the corrosion of alloy 625 like the corrosion of other Ni-base alloys during oxidation of hazardous organic waste containing chloride proceeds too fast and is a major problem in SCWO applications. In these experiments high pressure, high-temperature resistant tube reactors made of alloy 625 were used as specimens. They were exposed to SCWO conditions, without organics, at temperatures up to 500 C and pressures up to 37 MPa for up to 150 h. Simultaneously, coupons also made from alloy 625 are exposed inside the test tubes. The most important corrosion problem for alloy 625 is pitting and intercrystalline corrosion at temperatures near the critical temperature, i.e. in the preheater and cooling sections of the test tubes. Under certain conditions, stress corrosion cracking appears and leads to premature failure of the test reactors. The corrosion products were insoluble in supercritical water and formed thick layers in the supercritical part of the reactor. Under these layers only minor corrosion occurred. 33 refs.

Boukis, N.; Kritzer, P. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany)



Flow and morphological conditions associated with the directional solidification of aqueous ammonium chloride  

SciTech Connect

Using 27% aq. NH[sub 4]Cl solutions as transparent analog, shadowgraphy and dye injection were used to observe flow and morphology in unidirectional solidification (UDS) from below. Dendritic crystals that form at the cold surface reject lighter, solute-deficient fluid, and instability is shown by finger-type double-diffusive convection. As the mushy two-phase region grows, perturbations at the liquidus interface cause localized remelting and downward development of channels. Solsutal plumes emanate from the channels, and in time, double-diffusive convection layers also form in the melt. When the solution is chilled at the sides as well as at the bottom, conditions are influenced by detachment and settling of crystals from the sidewall and by plumes from slanted channels. When a slow, oscillatory rocking motion is imposed on UDS, the freckle-type segregates in the final cast is suppressed. Within the melt, plumes and double-diffusive convection are eliminated. Inertially induced convection mixes the melt and produces a dense slurry. Although channels are eliminated from the bottom mushy region, overall heat transfer and macrosegregation in the cavity are unaffected by the slow rocking. Numerical simulations qualitatively predict trends in the field variables and provide insights on interdendritic flows and macrosegregation (freckle-, A-type segregates), although its quantitative predictions are hampered by simplifying assumptions.

Magirl, C.S.; Incropera, F.P.



Flow and morphological conditions associated with the directional solidification of aqueous ammonium chloride. Annual performance report  

SciTech Connect

Using 27% aq. NH{sub 4}Cl solutions as transparent analog, shadowgraphy and dye injection were used to observe flow and morphology in unidirectional solidification (UDS) from below. Dendritic crystals that form at the cold surface reject lighter, solute-deficient fluid, and instability is shown by finger-type double-diffusive convection. As the mushy two-phase region grows, perturbations at the liquidus interface cause localized remelting and downward development of channels. Solsutal plumes emanate from the channels, and in time, double-diffusive convection layers also form in the melt. When the solution is chilled at the sides as well as at the bottom, conditions are influenced by detachment and settling of crystals from the sidewall and by plumes from slanted channels. When a slow, oscillatory rocking motion is imposed on UDS, the freckle-type segregates in the final cast is suppressed. Within the melt, plumes and double-diffusive convection are eliminated. Inertially induced convection mixes the melt and produces a dense slurry. Although channels are eliminated from the bottom mushy region, overall heat transfer and macrosegregation in the cavity are unaffected by the slow rocking. Numerical simulations qualitatively predict trends in the field variables and provide insights on interdendritic flows and macrosegregation (freckle-, A-type segregates), although its quantitative predictions are hampered by simplifying assumptions.

Magirl, C.S.; Incropera, F.P.



Radiofluorination of diaryliodonium tosylates under aqueous-organic and cryptand-free conditions  

PubMed Central

Positron emission tomography (PET) has growing importance as a molecular imaging technique for clinical research and drug development. Methods for producing PET radiotracers utilizing cyclotron-produced [18F]fluoride ion (t1/2 = 109.7 min) without the need for complete removal of irradiated target [18O]water and addition of cryptand are keenly sought for practical convenience and efficiency. Several structurally diverse diaryliodonium tosylates, XArI+Ar?Y TsO? (X = H or p-MeO), were investigated in a microfluidic apparatus for their reactivity towards radiofluorination with high specific activity (no-carrier-added) [18F]fluoride ion in mixtures of DMF and irradiated target [18O]water in the absence of cryptand. Salts bearing a para or ortho electron-withdrawing group Y (e.g., Y = p-CN) reacted rapidly (~ 3 min) to give the expected major [18F]fluoroarene product, [18F]ArY, in useful moderate radiochemical yields even when the solvent had [18O]water content up to 28%. Salts bearing electron-withdrawing groups in meta position (e.g., Y = m-NO2), or an electron-donating substituent (Y = p-OMe), gave low radiochemical yields under the same conditions. PMID:23804017

Chun, Joong-Hyun; Telu, Sanjay; Pike, Victor W.



Mild Traumatic Brain Injury  


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A new method of reconstituting the P-T conditions of fluid circulation in an accretionary prism (Shimanto, Japan) from microthermometry of methane-bearing aqueous inclusions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In paleo-accretionary prisms and the shallow metamorphic domains of orogens, circulating fluids trapped in inclusions are commonly composed of a mixture of salt water and methane, producing two types of fluid inclusions: methane-bearing aqueous and methane-rich gaseous fluid inclusions. In such geological settings, where multiple stages of deformation, veining and fluid influx are prevalent, textural relationships between aqueous and gaseous inclusions are often ambiguous, preventing the microthermometric determination of fluid trapping pressure and temperature conditions. To assess the P-T conditions of deep circulating fluids from the Hyuga unit of the Shimanto paleo-accretionary prism on Kyushu, Japan, we have developed a new computational code, applicable to the H2O-CH4-NaCl system, which allows the characterization of CH4-bearing aqueous inclusions using only the temperatures of their phase transitions estimated by microthermometry: Tmi, the melting temperature of ice; Thyd, the melting temperature of gas hydrate and Th,aq, homogenization temperature. This thermodynamic modeling calculates the bulk density and composition of aqueous inclusions, as well as their P-T isochoric paths in a P-T diagram with an estimated precision of approximatively 10%. We use this computational tool to reconstruct the entrapment P-T conditions of aqueous inclusions in the Hyuga unit, and we show that these aqueous inclusions cannot be cogenetic with methane gaseous inclusions present in the same rocks. As a result, we propose that pulses of a high-pressure, methane-rich fluid transiently percolated through a rock wetted by a lower-pressure aqueous fluid. By coupling microthermometric results with petrological data, we infer that the exhumation of the Hyuga unit from the peak metamorphic conditions was nearly isothermal and ended up under a very hot geothermal gradient. In subduction or collision zones, modeling aqueous fluid inclusions in the ternary H2O-CH4-NaCl system and not simply in the binary H2O-NaCl is necessary, as the addition of even a small amount of methane to the water raises significantly the isochores to higher pressures. Our new code provides therefore the possibility to estimate precisely the pressure conditions of fluids circulating at depth.

Raimbourg, Hugues; Thiéry, Régis; Vacelet, Maxime; Ramboz, Claire; Cluzel, Nicolas; Le Trong, Emmanuel; Yamaguchi, Asuka; Kimura, Gaku



The direct agglutination test for diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis under field conditions in Sudan: comparison of aqueous and freeze-dried antigens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of the direct agglutination test (DAT) was evaluated under field conditions in an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis in eastern Sudan, using aqueous (Aq) antigen which has to be kept refrigerated and a newly developed freeze-dried (FD) antigen which is stable at ambient temperature. Both antigens compared well, with 92–98% of readings being identical or only with one

E. E. Zijlstra; O. F. Osman; H. W. Chr. Hofland; L. Oskam; H. W. Ghalib; A. M. El-Hassan; P. A. Kager; S. E. O. Meredith



Conductive polymer coatings for anodes in aqueous electrowinning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article discusses the potential application of electrically conductive polymers as protective coatings for permanent lead anodes employed in aqueous electrowinning processes. Also presented are results from a preliminary study of the performance of two intrinsically conductive polymers (polyaniline and poly 3,4,5-trifluorophenylthiophene [TFPT]) under mild copper electrowinning conditions as conductive and protective coatings on anodic surfaces. The laboratory results indicated that using lead alloy anodes coated with TFPT merits continued research.

Alfantazi, A. M.; Moskalyk, R. R.



XAFS measurements on zinc chloride aqueous solutions from ambient to supercritical conditions using the diamond anvil cell  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The structure and bonding properties of metal complexes in subcritical and supercritical fluids are still largely unknown. Conventional high pressure and temperature cell designs impose considerable limitations on the pressure, temperature, and concentration of metal salts required for measurements on solutions under supercritical conditions. In this study, we demonstrate the first application of the diamond anvil cell, specially designed for x-ray absorption studies of first-row transition metal ions in supercritical fluids. Zn K-edge XAFS spectra were measured from aqueous solutions of 1-2m ZnCl2 and up to 6m NaCl, at temperatures ranging from 25-660 ??C and pressures up to 800 MPa. Our results indicate that the ZnCl42- complex is predominant in the 1m ZnCl2/6m NaCl solution, while ZnCl2(H2O)2 is similarly predominant in the 2m ZnCl2 solution, at all temperatures and pressures. The Zn-Cl bond length of both types of chlorozinc(II) complexes was found to decrease at a rate of about 0.01 A??/100 ??C.

Mayanovic, R. A.; Anderson, A. J.; Bassett, W. A.; Chou, I. -M.



Rare-earth metal oxide doped transparent mesoporous silica plates under non-aqueous condition as a potential UV sensor.  


Transparent mesoporous silica plates doped with rare-earth metal oxide were prepared using solvent-evaporation method based on the self-organization between structure-directing agent and silicate in a non-aqueous solvent. A triblock copolymer, Pluronic (F127 or P123), was used as the structure-directing agent, while tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) was used as a silica source. The pore diameter and the surface area of the mesoporous silica plate prepared with the optimized conditions were ca 40 A and 600 m2 g(-1), respectively, for both structure-directing agent. Rare-earth metal oxides (Eu, Tb, Tm oxide) in mesochannel were formed via one-step synthetic route based on the preparation method of a silica plate. Optical properties of rare-earth metal oxide-doped mesoporous silica plates were investigated by UV irradiation and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Under the exitation wavelength of 254 nm, the doped mesoporous silica plates emitted red, green and blue for Eu, Tb and Tm oxides, respectively. Rare-earth metal oxide-doped mesoporous silica plates showed enhanced PL intensity compared to that of the bulk rare-earth metal oxide. PMID:24245274

Lee, Sang-Joon; Park, Sung Soo; Lee, Sang Hyun; Hong, Sang-Hyun; Ha, Chang-Sik



Conditions for defect-free solidification of aqueous ammonium chloride in a quasi two-dimensional directional solidification facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental and theoretical approaches to the problem of the solidification of a binary melt are presented. We describe a series of experiments in which aqueous solutions of ammonium chloride of above eutectic composition are cooled from below in a Hele-Shaw cell that is translated downwards at a constant rate. A mushy layer of solid dendrites bathed in a salt-depleted interstitial fluid is formed. For certain combinations of initial concentration and translation speed, convection in the mush gives rise to chimneys which result in defects in the solidified material. Our experiments demonstrate that using a higher temperature gradient for solidification increases the range of conditions for which a mushy layer forms that is free from both chimneys and secondary nucleation. We present a mathematical model of the system, to which we derive an approximate analytical solution. Predictions of the height of the mushy layer given by this approximate solution are found to be in excellent agreement with full numerical predictions when the height is small. Both numerical and analytical predictions are a better match to experimental data when the temperature gradient is low.

Whiteoak, S. H.; Huppert, Herbert E.; Worster, M. Grae



NaNO2-mediated transformation of aliphatic secondary nitroalkanes into ketones or oximes under neutral, aqueous conditions: how the nitro derivative catalyzes its own transformation.  


The nitrosation of secondary nitro derivatives into ketones or oximes depending on the nitro substituents has been reinvestigated. The reaction efficiently takes place under neutral conditions, thus allowing acid-sensitive substrates to be converted in very good yields. The generation of nitrosating species under such mild conditions is unprecedented. Mechanistic investigations strongly suggest that they result from the nucleophilic attack of the nitrite anion on the aci-nitro(nate) form of the secondary nitroalkane. The latter acts in turn as an autocatalyst for its own transformation by means of the nitrosating species generated in situ from it. PMID:15609931

Gissot, Arnaud; N'Gouela, Silvere; Matt, Christophe; Wagner, Alain; Mioskowski, Charles



Fabrication of core-shell structured nanoparticle layer substrate for excitation of localized surface plasmon resonance and its optical response for DNA in aqueous conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

LSPR from nanostructured noble metals such as gold and silver offers great potential for biosensing applications. In this study, a core-shell structured nanoparticle layer substrate was fabricated and the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) optical characteristics were investigated for DNA in aqueous conditions. Factors such as DNA length dependence, concentration dependence, and the monitoring of DNA aspects (ssDNA or dsDNA)

Tatsuro Endo; Daisuke Ikeda; Yukari Kawakami; Yasuko Yanagida; Takeshi Hatsuzawa



Oxalic acid mediated synthesis of WO{sub 3}.H{sub 2}O nanoplates and self-assembled nanoflowers under mild conditions  

SciTech Connect

Tungsten oxide hydrate (WO{sub 3}.H{sub 2}O) nanoplates and flower-like assemblies were successfully synthesized via a simple aqueous method. The effects of reaction parameters in solution on the preparation were studied. Nanoplates and nanoflowers can be selectively prepared by changing the amount of H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}. In-situ assembly of nanoplates to nanoflowers was also proposed for the formation of assembled nanostructures. In addition, the reaction time and temperature have important effects on the sizes of the as-obtained samples. Crystal structure, morphology, and composition of final nanostructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Optical properties of the synthesized samples and the growth mechanism were studied by UV-vis detection. Degradation experiments of Rhodamine B (RhB) were also performed on samples of nanoplates and nanoflowers under visible light illumination. Nanoflower sample exhibited preferable photocatalytic property to nanoplate sample. - Graphical abstract: The oxalic acid has a key role for the structure of WO{sub 3}.H{sub 2}O evolution from plates to flowers and the dehydration process of WO{sub 3}.2H{sub 2}O to WO{sub 3}.H{sub 2}O. Highlights: > Tungsten oxides hydrate was synthesized via a simple aqueous method. > The size of WO{sub 3}.H{sub 2}O was controlled by the reaction time and temperature. > The assembly of WO{sub 3}.H{sub 2}O nanoplates to nanoflowers was achieved with higher H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}/Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4} ratio. > Oxalic acid has a key role in the dehydration process of WO{sub 3}.2H{sub 2}O to WO{sub 3}.H{sub 2}O.

Li Linzhi [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Zhao Jingzhe, E-mail: [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Wang Yi [Department of Regenerative Medicine, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Li Yunling [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun, 130012 (China); Ma Dechong [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Zhao Yan [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun, 130012 (China); Hou Shengnan; Hao Xinli [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)



Caustic Stress Corrosion Cracking of Mild Steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of cold worked mild steel in hot, aqueous, 33 pct NaOH solutions was studied\\u000a with prefatigue cracked double cantilever beam specimens. SCC kinetics were studied under freely corroding potentials (E\\u000a corr ? ?1.00 VSHE) and potentiostatic potentials of ?0.76 VSHE near the active-passive transition. The pH of the liquid within the crack was determined

Douglas Singbeil; Desmond Tromans



One-pot synthesis of 2-substituted 4H-3,1-benzoxazin-4-one derivatives under mild conditions using iminium cation from cyanuric chloride/dimethylformamide as a cyclizing agent  

PubMed Central

Background The derivatives of 2-substituted 4H-3,1-benzoxazin-4-one belong to a significant category of heterocyclic compounds, which have shown a wide spectrum of medical and industrial applications. Results A new and effective one-pot method for the synthesis of 2-substituted 4H-3,1-benzoxazin-4-one derivatives is described in this paper. By using the iminium cation from a mixture of cyanuric chloride and dimethylformamide as a cyclizing agent, a series of 2-substituted 4H-3,1-benzoxazin-4-one derivatives was synthesized in high yield under mild conditions and simple workup. Conclusions The iminium cation from a mixture of cyanuric chloride and N,N-dimethylformamide is an effective cyclizing agent for the room temperature one-pot synthesis of 2-substituted 4H-3,1-benzoxazin-4-one derivatives in high yields through a cyclodehydration reaction. Furthermore, the method was performed under mild conditions characterized by simplified pathways and workup, minimized energy, and fewer reaction steps, compared with the previous methods. The proposed method, which is a simpler alternative than the published methods, is applicable for the synthesis of other 2-substituted 4H-3,1-benzoxazin-4-one derivatives. PMID:23537478



Conditions for defect-free solidification of aqueous ammonium chloride in a quasi two-dimensional directional solidification facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental and theoretical approaches to the problem of the solidification of a binary melt are presented. We describe a series of experiments in which aqueous solutions of ammonium chloride of above eutectic composition are cooled from below in a Hele–Shaw cell that is translated downwards at a constant rate. A mushy layer of solid dendrites bathed in a salt-depleted interstitial

S. H. Whiteoak; Herbert E. Huppert; M. Grae Worster



Transition metal-free oxidative esterification of benzylic alcohols in aqueous medium.  


Oxidative esterification of benzylic alcohols with a catalytic amount of HBr-H2O2 in aqueous medium under mild conditions is reported with a wide range of substrate scope for both benzylic and aliphatic alcohols. The conditions are also suitable for selective mono-esterification of ethylene glycol and glycerol. With catalytic amounts of HBr (20 mol%) and H2O2, the generation of reactive intermediate species BrOH has been ascertained by UV-visible spectra. PMID:25325738

Samanta, Supravat; Pappula, Venkatanarayana; Dinda, Milan; Adimurthy, Subbarayappa



Photocatalytic oxidation of aromatic alcohols to aldehydes in aqueous suspension of home-prepared titanium dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxygenated aqueous suspensions of home-prepared (HP) and commercial TiO2 catalysts were used in a batch photoreactor for carrying out the oxidation of benzyl alcohol (BA) and 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol (MBA) under different operative conditions. HP catalysts were synthesized from TiCl4 and underwent a hydrolysis treatment of different times under mild conditions. The textural characterization of catalysts was carried out with XRD,

Vincenzo Augugliaro; Horst Kisch; Vittorio Loddo; María José López-Muñoz; Carlos Márquez-Álvarez; Giovanni Palmisano; Leonardo Palmisano; Francesco Parrino; Sedat Yurdakal



Solubilization and desorption of PAHs in soil-aqueous system by biosurfactants produced from Pseudomonas aeruginosa P-CG3 under thermophilic condition.  


Surface-active agents (surfactants) can enhance bioremediation of soils contaminated with PAHs by reducing sorption of PAHs or increasing desorption rates. The effectiveness of nonionic surfactant (Tween 80) and biosurfactants to enhance the solubilization and desorption of phenanthrene (Phe) and pyrene (Pyr) in soil-aqueous systems under thermophilic conditions was investigated using batch studies. Tween 80 and biosurfactants produced from Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain, ATCC 9027 and a strain isolated in our laboratory, P-CG3 were tested in this study. The results showed that all the surfactants could effectively enhance the solubility of both Phe and Pyr under thermophilic condition (55 degrees C), which was linearly proportional to the concentrations of surfactants at concentrations above their respective critical micelle concentration (CMC). When the surfactants' concentrations in aqueous phase were above their respective CMCs, substantial amounts of PAHs were desorbed from soil into the aqueous phase. Among the three surfactants used, the biosurfactant produced from our own isolate, P-CG3 was more effective in enhancing the solubilization and desorption of PAHs, implying that it might have the potential to be further applied in the bioremediation of PAH contaminated soils. PMID:15551830

Cheng, K Y; Zhao, Z Y; Wong, J W C



Universal reaction mechanism of boronic acids with diols in aqueous solution: kinetics and the basic concept of a conditional formation constant.  


To establish a detailed reaction mechanism for the condensation between a boronic acid, RB(OH)2, and a diol, H2L, in aqueous solution, the acid dissociation constants (Ka(BL)) of boronic acid diol esters (HBLs) were determined based on the well-established concept of conditional formation constants of metal complexes. The pKa values of HBLs were 2.30, 2.77, and 2.00 for the reaction systems, 2,4-difluorophenylboronic acid and chromotropic acid, 3-nitrophenylboronic acid and alizarin red?S, and phenylboronic acid and alizarin red?S, respectively. A general and precise reaction mechanism of RB(OH)2 with H2L in aqueous solution, which can serve as a universal reaction mechanism for RB(OH)2 and H2L, was proposed on the basis of (a)?the relative kinetic reactivities of the RB(OH)2 and its conjugate base, that is, the boronate ion, toward H2L, and (b)?the determined pKa values of HBLs. The use of the conditional formation constant, K', based on the main reaction: RB(OH)2 + H2L (K1)? RB(L)(OH)(-) + H3O(+) instead of the binding constant has been proposed for the general reaction of uncomplexed boronic acid species (B') with uncomplexed diol species (L') to form boronic acid diol complex species (esters, BL') in aqueous solution at pH?5-11: B' + L' (K')? BL'. The proposed reaction mechanism explains perfectly the formation of boronic acid diol ester in aqueous solution. PMID:25169423

Furikado, Yuki; Nagahata, Tomomi; Okamoto, Takuya; Sugaya, Tomoaki; Iwatsuki, Satoshi; Inamo, Masahiko; Takagi, Hideo D; Odani, Akira; Ishihara, Koji



Use of pervaporation to separate butanol from dilute aqueous solutions: Effects of operating conditions and concentration polarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study deals with the separation of n-butanol from aqueous solutions by pervaporation. The effects of feed concentration, temperature, and membrane thickness on the separation performance were investigated. Over the low feed butanol concentration range (0.03–0.4wt%) studied, the butanol flux was shown to increase proportionally with an increase in the feed butanol concentration, whereas the water flux was relatively constant.

Elsayed A. Fouad; Xianshe Feng



Relationship of fatigue-crack growth rate in an aqueous corrosive medium to the electrochemical conditions at the crack tip  

Microsoft Academic Search

p of this data with the fatiguecrack growth rate in samples of 40Kh13 steel in an aqueous solution with pH 8 was studied. The electrochemical investigations and cyclic crack resistance tests were made on i0  20  150 mm beam samples of rectangular cross section of 40Kh13 steel, the chemical composition, heat-treat cycles, and mechanical properties of which were

V. V. Panasyuk; L. V. Ratych; I. N. Dmytrakh



Efficient batch and continuous flow Suzuki cross-coupling reactions under mild conditions, catalysed by polyurea-encapsulated palladium (II) acetate and tetra-n-butylammonium salts.  


Suzuki cross-coupling reactions are effected in both conventional organic solvents, under continuous flow conditions at 70 degree C, and in batch mode in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2), at temperatures as low as 40 degrees C in the presence of palladium(II) acetate microencapsulated in polyurea [PdEnCat] and tetra-n-butylammonium salts. PMID:15846438

Lee, Connie K Y; Holmes, Andrew B; Ley, Steven V; McConvey, Ian F; Al-Duri, Bushra; Leeke, Gary A; Santos, Regina C D; Seville, Jonathan P K



New insights into highly efficient reduction of CO2 to formic acid by using zinc under mild hydrothermal conditions: a joint experimental and theoretical study.  


We report here a theoretical study with quantum chemical calculations based on experimental results to understand highly efficient reduction of CO2 to formic acid by using zinc under hydrothermal conditions. Results showed that zinc hydride (Zn-H) is a key intermediate species in the reduction of CO2 to formic acid, which demonstrates that the formation of formic acid is through an SN2-like mechanism. PMID:25127425

Zeng, Xu; Hatakeyama, Makoto; Ogata, Koji; Liu, Jianke; Wang, Yuanqing; Gao, Qi; Fujii, Katsushi; Fujihira, Masamichi; Jin, Fangming; Nakamura, Shinichiro



Relaxation of the structure of simple metal ion complexes in aqueous solutions at up to supercritical conditions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recently x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) studies of various ions in aqueous solutions showed a variation of cation-ligand bond lengths, often coupled with other structure changes, with increasing temperatures. Thus, the variations of the structure of several metal ion complexes with temperature based on observations from the X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) studies in the hope that it will stimulate the development of either first- principles theory or molecular dynamics simulations that might adequately describes these results are discussed.

Mayanovic, R.A.; Jayanetti, S.; Anderson, A.J.; Bassett, W.A.; Chou, I.-M.



Direct boronation of allyl alcohols with diboronic acid using palladium pincer-complex catalysis. A remarkably facile allylic displacement of the hydroxy group under mild reaction conditions.  


Allyl alcohols were converted to allyl boronic acids and subsequently to trifluoro(allyl)borates with tetrahydroxy diboron using palladium pincer-complex catalysis. These reactions are regio- and stereoselective proceeding with high isolated yields. Competitive boronation experiments indicate that under the applied reaction conditions the allylic displacement of a hydroxy group is faster than the displacement of an acetate leaving group. It is assumed that the hydroxy group of the allyl alcohol is converted to a diboronic acid ester functionality, which can easily be substituted. PMID:16594692

Olsson, Vilhelm J; Sebelius, Sara; Selander, Nicklas; Szabó, Kalman J



Mild and Efficient Synthesis of Benzoxazoles, Benzothiazoles, Benzimidazoles, and Oxazolo[4,5- b ]pyridines Catalyzed by Bi(III) Salts Under Solvent-Free Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  A series of benzoxazoles, benzothiazoles, benzimidazoles, and oxazolo[4,5-b]pyridines was efficiently synthesized from the reactions of o-aminophenols, o-aminothiophenol, o-phenylenediamines, and 2-amino-3-hydroxypyridine with orthoesters in the presence of catalytic amounts of Bi(III) salts,\\u000a such as Bi(TFA)3, Bi(OTf)3, and BiOClO4 xH2O under solvent-free conditions. The remarkable features of this new protocol are high conversion, very short reaction times,\\u000a cleaner reaction profiles under solvent-free

Iraj Mohammadpoor-Baltork; Ahmad R. Khosropour; Seyedeh F. Hojati



Engineered protein A ligands, derived from a histidine-scanning library, facilitate the affinity purification of IgG under mild acidic conditions  

PubMed Central

Background In antibody purification processes, the acidic buffer commonly used to elute the bound antibodies during conventional affinity chromatograph, can damage the antibody. Herein we describe the development of several types of affinity ligands which enable the purification of antibodies under much milder conditions. Results Staphylococcal protein A variants were engineered by using both structure-based design and combinatorial screening methods. The frequency of amino acid residue substitutions was statistically analyzed using the sequences isolated from a histidine-scanning library screening. The positions where the frequency of occurrence of a histidine residue was more than 70% were thought to be effective histidine-mutation sites. Consequently, we identified PAB variants with a D36H mutation whose binding of IgG was highly sensitive to pH change. Conclusion The affinity column elution chromatograms demonstrated that antibodies could be eluted at a higher pH (?pH**?2.0) than ever reported (?pH?=?1.4) when the Staphylococcal protein A variants developed in this study were used as affinity ligands. The interactions between Staphylococcal protein A and IgG-Fab were shown to be important for the behavior of IgG bound on a SpA affinity column, and alterations in the affinity of the ligands for IgG-Fab clearly affected the conditions for eluting the bound IgG. Thus, a histidine-scanning library combined with a structure-based design was shown to be effective in engineering novel pH-sensitive proteins. PMID:25057290



Ruthenium(0) nanoclusters stabilized by a Nanozeolite framework: isolable, reusable, and green catalyst for the hydrogenation of neat aromatics under mild conditions with the unprecedented catalytic activity and lifetime.  


The hydrogenation of aromatics is a ubiquitous chemical transformation used in both the petrochemical and specialty industry and is important for the generation of clean diesel fuels. Reported herein is the discovery of a superior heterogeneous catalyst, superior in terms of catalytic activity, selectivity, and lifetime in the hydrogenation of aromatics in the solvent-free system under mild conditions (at 25 degrees C and 42 +/- 1 psig initial H(2) pressure). Ruthenium(0) nanoclusters stabilized by a nanozeolite framework as a new catalytic material is reproducibly prepared from the borohydride reduction of a colloidal solution of ruthenium(III)-exchanged nanozeolites at room temperature and characterized by using ICP-OES, XRD, XPS, DLS, TEM, HRTEM, TEM/EDX, mid-IR, far-IR, and Raman spectroscopy. The resultant ruthenium(0) nanoclusters hydrogenate neat benzene to cyclohexane with 100% conversion under mild conditions (at 25 degrees C and 42 +/- 1 psig initial H(2) pressure) with record catalytic activity (initial TOF = 5430 h(-1)) and lifetime (TTO = 177 200). They provide exceptional catalytic activity not only in the hydrogenation of neat benzene but also in the solvent-free hydrogenation of methyl substituted aromatics such as toluene, o-xylene, and mesitylene under otherwise identical conditions. Moreover, they are an isolable, bottleable, and reusable catalyst in the hydrogenation of neat aromatics. When the isolated ruthenium(0) nanoclusters are reused, they retain 92% of their initial catalytic activity even for the third run in the hydrogenation of neat benzene under the same conditions as those of the first run. The work reported here also includes (i) far-infrared spectroscopic investigation of nanozeolite, ruthenium(III)-exchanged-nanozeolite, and ruthenium(0) nanoclusters stabilized by a nanozeolite framework, indicating that the host framework remains intact after the formation of a nanozeolite framework stabilized ruthenium(0) nanoclusters; (ii) the poisoning experiments performed by using tricyclohexylphosphine (P(C(6)H(11))(3)) and 4-ethyl-2,6,7-trioxa-1-phosphabicyclo[2.2.2]octane PC(6)H(11)O(3) to examine whether the ruthenium(0) nanoclusters are encapsulated in the cages or supported on the external surface of nanozeolite; (iii) a summary section detailing the main findings for the "green chemistry"; and (iv) a review of the extensive literature of benzene hydrogenation, which is also tabulated as part of the Supporting Information . PMID:20405831

Zahmakiran, Mehmet; Tonbul, Yalçin; Ozkar, Saim



Molecular engineering of a cobalt-based electrocatalytic nanomaterial for H2 evolution under fully aqueous conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The viability of a hydrogen economy depends on the design of efficient catalytic systems based on earth-abundant elements. Innovative breakthroughs for hydrogen evolution based on molecular tetraimine cobalt compounds have appeared in the past decade. Here we show that such a diimine-dioxime cobalt catalyst can be grafted to the surface of a carbon nanotube electrode. The resulting electrocatalytic cathode material mediates H2 generation (55,000 turnovers in seven hours) from fully aqueous solutions at low-to-medium overpotentials. This material is remarkably stable, which allows extensive cycling with preservation of the grafted molecular complex, as shown by electrochemical studies, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. This clearly indicates that grafting provides an increased stability to these cobalt catalysts, and suggests the possible application of these materials in the development of technological devices.

Andreiadis, Eugen S.; Jacques, Pierre-André; Tran, Phong D.; Leyris, Adeline; Chavarot-Kerlidou, Murielle; Jousselme, Bruno; Matheron, Muriel; Pécaut, Jacques; Palacin, Serge; Fontecave, Marc; Artero, Vincent



Corrosion phenomena of alloy 625 in aqueous solutions containing sulfuric acid and oxygen under subcritical and supercritical conditions  

SciTech Connect

Corrosion phenomena of alloy 625 pressure tubes were investigated in aqueous solutions containing up to 0.2 mol/kg sulfuric acid and up to 1.44 mol/kg oxygen. Applied maximum temperatures and pressures were 500 C, and 38 MPa, respectively. Corrosion started at temperatures around 150 C with intergranular attack. Above 250 C, the whole surface of the alloy was attacked, shallow pits and deep intergranular attack appeared. This behavior can be explained by transpassive dissolution of the protecting Cr(III) oxide layer and leads to severe material loss. The upper temperature limit of severe corrosion at an experimental pressure of 24 MPa was about 390 C. As temperature was increased further and the density of the solution dropped to low values, only slight corrosion was detected.

Kritzer, P.; Boukis, N.; Dinjus, E. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany)



Polyamine-substituted epoxy-grafted silica for aqueous metal recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glycidoxypropyltriethoxysilane (GPS) was used as a reactive silane to graft metal- complexing ligands onto silica gel in aqueous\\u000a media under mild conditions. The synthesis entailed the reaction of GPS with silica gel, followed by grafting polyamine onto\\u000a the epoxy functional group. GPS was added to silica gel in ethanol with 5 vol. % water and the mixture was air-dried for

Madjid Hadioui; Med Oimar Mecherri; Rastislav Šípoš; Yan Yvon; Patrick Sharrock


On the formation and structure of rare-earth element complexes in aqueous solutions under hydrothermal conditions with new data on gadolinium aqua and chloro complexes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Synchrotron X-ray spectroscopy experiments were made on the Gd(III) aqua and chloro complexes in low pH aqueous solutions at temperatures ranging from 25 to 500????C and at pressures up to 480??MPa using a hydrothermal diamond anvil cell. Analysis of fluorescence Gd L3-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectra measured from a 0.006m Gd/0.16m HNO3 aqueous solution at temperatures up to 500????C and at pressures up to 260??MPa shows that the Gd-O distance of the Gd3+ aqua ion decreases steadily at a rate of ??? 0.007??A??/100????C whereas the number of coordinated H2O molecules decreases from 9.0 ?? 0.5 to 7.0 ?? 0.4. The loss of water molecules in the Gd3+ aqua ion inner hydration shell over this temperature range (a 22% reduction) is smaller than exhibited by the Yb3+ aqua ion (42% reduction) indicating that the former is significantly more stable than the later. We conjecture that the anomalous enrichment of Gd reported from measurement of REE concentrations in ocean waters may be attributed to the enhanced stability of the Gd3+ aqua ion relative to other REEs. Gd L3-edge XAFS measurements of 0.006m and 0.1m GdCl3 aqueous solutions at temperatures up to 500????C and pressures up to 480??MPa reveal that the onset of significant Gd3+-Cl- association occurs around 300????C. Partially-hydrated stepwise inner-sphere complexes most likely of the type Gd(H2O)??-nCln+3-n occur in the chloride solutions at higher temperatures, where ?? ??? 8 at 300????C decreasing slightly to an intermediate value between 7 and 8 upon approaching 500????C. This is the first direct evidence for the occurrence of partially-hydrated REE Gd (this study) and Yb [Mayanovic, R.A., Jayanetti, S., Anderson, A.J., Bassett, W.A., Chou, I-M., 2002a. The structure of Yb3+ aquo ion and chloro complexes in aqueous solutions at up to 500 ??C and 270 MPa. J. Phys. Chem. A 106, 6591-6599.] chloro complexes in hydrothermal solutions. The number of chlorides (n) of the partially-hydrated Gd(III) chloro complexes increases steadily with temperature from 0.4 ?? 0.2 to 1.7 ?? 0.3 in the 0.006m chloride solution and from 0.9 ?? 0.7 to 1.8 ?? 0.7 in the 0.1m GdCl3 aqueous solution in the 300-500????C range. Conversely, the number of H2O ligands of Gd(H2O)??-nCln+3-n complexes decreases steadily from 8.9 ?? 0.4 to 5.8 ?? 0.7 in the 0.006m GdCl3 aqueous solution and from 9.0 ?? 0.5 to 5.3 ?? 1.0 in the 0.1m GdCl3 aqueous solution at temperatures from 25 to 500????C. Analysis of our results shows that the chloride ions partially displace the inner-shell water molecules during Gd(III) complex formation under hydrothermal conditions. The Gd-OH2 bond of the partially-hydrated Gd(III) chloro complexes exhibits slightly smaller rates of length contraction (??? 0.005??A??/100????C) for both solutions. The structural aspects of chloride speciation of Gd(III) as measured from this study and of Yb(III) as measured from our previous experiments are consistent with the solubility of these and other REE in deep-sea hydrothermal fluids. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Mayanovic, R.A.; Anderson, A.J.; Bassett, W.A.; Chou, I.-M.



Adsorption of Trace Levels of Arsenic from Aqueous Solutions by Conditioned Layered Double Hydroxides: Batch and Flow  

E-print Network

calcined layered double hydroxide (LDH) adsorbents. Conditioning the adsorbent significantly reduced the dissolution observed with uncalcined and calcined LDH3. The adsorption rates and isotherms have been invariant with particle size4. The removal of As(V) on conditioned, calcined LDH adsorbents was also

Southern California, University of


Mass spectrometric elucidation of triacylglycerol content of Brevoortia tyrannus (menhaden) oil using non-aqueous reversed-phase liquid chromatography under ultra high pressure conditions.  


A non-aqueous reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography method was developed, and optimized for triacylglycerol analysis in a Brevoortia tyrannus (menhaden) oil sample. Four columns were serially coupled to tackle such a task, for a total length of 60 cm of shell-packed stationary phase, and operated under ultra high pressure conditions. As detection, positive-ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry was used to attain identification of the analyzed sample components. A number of 137 triacylglycerols containing up to 19 fatty acids, with 14-22 carbon atom alkyl chain length and 0-6 double bonds, were positively identified in the complex lipidic sample. This is the first work that reports an extensive characterization of the triacylglycerol fraction of menhaden oil. PMID:22503927

Dugo, Paola; Beccaria, Marco; Fawzy, Nermeen; Donato, Paola; Cacciola, Francesco; Mondello, Luigi



Solubility of platinum in aqueous solutions at 25°C and pHs 4 to 10 under oxidizing conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Platinum has been found to be mobile under supergene conditions, including placers and weathering profiles. To elucidate the nature of Pt mobility in supergene environments, the dissolution of platinum metal was investigated under physicochemical conditions similar to those found in such environments. The solubility of platinum metal was measured at 25°C in several systems: Pt-K-HC8H4O4-H2O (pH 4.02), Pt-Na-HCO3-Cl-H2O (pH 6.40),

Mohamed Azaroual; Bruno Romand; Philippe Freyssinet; Jean-Robert Disnar



Homocystinuria: what about mild hyperhomocysteinaemia?  

PubMed Central

Hyperhomocysteinaemia is associated with an increased risk of atherosclerotic vascular disease and thromboembolism, in both men and women. A variety of conditions can lead to elevated homocysteine levels, but the relation between high levels and vascular disease is present regardless of the underlying cause. Pooled data from a large number of studies demonstrate that mild hyperhomocysteinaemia after a standard methionine load is present in 21% of young patients with coronary artery disease, in 24% of patients with cerebrovascular disease, and in 32% of patients with peripheral vascular disease. From such data an odds ratio of 13.0 (95% confidence interval 5.9 to 28.1), as an estimate of the relative risk of vascular disease at a young age, can be calculated in subjects with an abnormal response to methionine loading. Furthermore, mild hyperhomo-cysteinaemia can lead to a two- or three-fold increase in the risk of recurrent venous thrombosis. Elevated homocysteine levels can be reduced to normal in virtually all cases by simple and safe treatment with vitamin B6, folic acid, and betaine, each of which is involved in methionine metabolism. A clinically beneficial effect of such an intervention, currently under investigation, would make large-scale screening for this risk factor mandatory. Images Figure 2 PMID:8949585

van den Berg, M.; Boers, G. H.



Physiatric Management of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is a common condition, afflicting as many as 1.5 million Americans yearly. Most individuals sustain MTBI as a result of motor vehicle collisions, but it may also occur as a result of falls, physical assault or sporting accidents. Problems related to MTBI include various pain syndromes, cognitive impairments, disorders of affect, cranial nerve dysfunction, and




Molecular Characterization of Corn Starch Using an Aqueous HPSEC-MALLS-RI System Under Various Dissolution and Analytical Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 77(3):303-308 Molecular characteristics based on absolute weight-average molecular weight (Mw) and z-average radius of gyration ( Rg) of normal corn starch were analyzed by high-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) attached to multiangle laser-light scattering (MALLS) and refractive index (RI) detectors under different starch dissolution and ana- lytical conditions. Autoclaving (121°C, 20 min) or microwave heating (35 sec) provided better

SangGuan You; Seung-Taik Lim



A 60-year-old woman with mild memory impairment: review of mild cognitive impairment.  


Many older individuals experience or demonstrate cognitive impairment that is significantly abnormal for their age and education yet beneath the threshold for a diagnosis of dementia. This mild cognitive impairment causes minimal functional impairment and is often overlooked in clinical settings, yet affected individuals are at heightened risk for a range of adverse outcomes including conversion to dementia. The case of Ms E, a 60-year-old woman with mild memory impairment and white matter lesions on magnetic resonance imaging, provides an opportunity to consider the questions that face patient, family, and clinicians when mild cognitive symptoms prompt a search for diagnosis and management options. Discussion of her case reviews mild cognitive impairment with emphasis on an evidence-based approach to evaluation and treatment, including management of comorbid medical conditions, lifestyle changes, and pharmacotherapy. PMID:18768403

Ellison, James M



Application of zero-valent iron nanoparticles for the removal of aqueous zinc ions under various experimental conditions.  


Application of zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI) for Zn²? removal and its mechanism were discussed. It demonstrated that the uptake of Zn²? by nZVI was efficient. With the solids concentration of 1 g/L nZVI, more than 85% of Zn²? could be removed within 2 h. The pH value and dissolved oxygen (DO) were the important factors of Zn²? removal by nZVI. The DO enhanced the removal efficiency of Zn²?. Under the oxygen-contained condition, oxygen corrosion gave the nZVI surface a shell of iron (oxy)hydroxide, which could show high adsorption affinity. The removal efficiency of Zn²? increased with the increasing of the pH. Acidic condition reduced the removal efficiency of Zn²? by nZVI because the existing H? inhibited the formation of iron (oxy)hydroxide. Adsorption and co-precipitation were the most likely mechanism of Zn²? removal by nZVI. The FeOOH-shell could enhance the adsorption efficiency of nZVI. The removal efficiency and selectivity of nZVI particles for Zn²? were higher than Cd²?. Furthermore, a continuous flow reactor for engineering application of nZVI was designed and exhibited high removal efficiency for Zn²?. PMID:24416439

Liang, Wen; Dai, Chaomeng; Zhou, Xuefei; Zhang, Yalei



Application of Zero-Valent Iron Nanoparticles for the Removal of Aqueous Zinc Ions under Various Experimental Conditions  

PubMed Central

Application of zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI) for Zn2+ removal and its mechanism were discussed. It demonstrated that the uptake of Zn2+ by nZVI was efficient. With the solids concentration of 1 g/L nZVI, more than 85% of Zn2+ could be removed within 2 h. The pH value and dissolved oxygen (DO) were the important factors of Zn2+ removal by nZVI. The DO enhanced the removal efficiency of Zn2+. Under the oxygen-contained condition, oxygen corrosion gave the nZVI surface a shell of iron (oxy)hydroxide, which could show high adsorption affinity. The removal efficiency of Zn2+ increased with the increasing of the pH. Acidic condition reduced the removal efficiency of Zn2+ by nZVI because the existing H+ inhibited the formation of iron (oxy)hydroxide. Adsorption and co-precipitation were the most likely mechanism of Zn2+ removal by nZVI. The FeOOH-shell could enhance the adsorption efficiency of nZVI. The removal efficiency and selectivity of nZVI particles for Zn2+ were higher than Cd2+. Furthermore, a continuous flow reactor for engineering application of nZVI was designed and exhibited high removal efficiency for Zn2+. PMID:24416439

Liang, Wen; Dai, Chaomeng; Zhou, Xuefei; Zhang, Yalei



MILD combustion for hydrogen and syngas at elevated pressures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As gas recirculation constitutes a fundamental condition for the realization of MILD combustion, it is necessary to determine gas recirculation ratio before designing MILD combustor. MILD combustion model with gas recirculation was used in this simulation work to evaluate the effect of fuel type and pressure on threshold gas recirculation ratio of MILD mode. Ignition delay time is also an important design parameter for gas turbine combustor, this parameter is kinetically studied to analyze the effect of pressure on MILD mixture ignition. Threshold gas recirculation ratio of hydrogen MILD combustion changes slightly and is nearly equal to that of 10 MJ/Nm3 syngas in the pressure range of 1-19 atm, under the conditions of 298 K fresh reactant temperature and 1373 K exhaust gas temperature, indicating that MILD regime is fuel flexible. Ignition delay calculation results show that pressure has a negative effect on ignition delay time of 10 MJ/Nm3 syngas MILD mixture, because OH mole fraction in MILD mixture drops down as pressure increases, resulting in the delay of the oxidation process.

Huang, Mingming; Zhang, Zhedian; Shao, Weiwei; Xiong, Yan; Lei, Fulin; Xiao, Yunhan



[Neuropathology of mild cognitive impairment].  


The concept of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is clinical condition between normal cognition and dementia. Annual rate of conversion from MCI to dementia is estimated as 10-15%. It must be emphasized that all MCI will not be potential patients of dementing illness. Most studies have been focused on amnestic-MCI as preclinical condition of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Along with the increase number of analyses, MCI is divided in four categories according to clinical presentation such as amnestic-MCI, amnestic-MCI with multiple domains, non amnestic-MCI with single domain and non amnestic-MCI with multiple domains. In general, the underlying disease of amnestic-MCI with multiple domains may be AD, cerebrovascular disorders (CVDs), metabolic disease or depression. Non amnestic-MCI may be frontotemporal dementia, dementia with Lewy body, CVDs and metabolic disorders. In fact, neuropathologic evidence of MCI revealed the presence of various types of pathologic change. Those pathologic changes include an accumulation of tau, amyloid beta, ?-synuclein, TDP-43 and FUS protein with various degrees. It is not unusual condition that several different types of pathology are observed in a single individual. Besides neurodegenerative pathology, CVDs and hippocampus sclerosis significantly contribute the cognitive condition of MCI. To realize the complexity of neuropathologic alterations of MCI is important for early intervention of dementia indivisuals. PMID:23196441

Takao, Masaki



Childhood Forearm Breaks Resulting from Mild Trauma May Indicate Bone Deficits  


... Forearm Breaks Resulting from Mild Trauma May Indicate Bone Deficits Children who break their forearm after just a mild trauma may have underlying bone health conditions, according to recent research funded in ...


Experimental investigation and planetary implications of the stability of clathrate hydrates in aqueous solution at icy satellite conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clathrate hydrates consist of hydrogen-bonded water molecules forming cages in which gas molecules are trapped individually. They are among the favored volatile reservoirs in solar system bodies, and are expected to play an important role in many processes: accretion of volatiles in planetesimals, outgassing on Titan, Enceladus, and comets. Their insulating thermal properties and high mechanical strength also bear important implications for understanding the evolution of icy satellites like Europa. However, the conditions allowing for their formation and/or their dissociation and the release of volatiles to the atmosphere (Titan) or the plumes (Enceladus) are still poorly understood. This is mainly because of a lack of knowledge on the stability of mixed clathrate hydrates in presence of anti-freeze agents such as ammonia. We have developed a high-pressure cryogenic calorimeter to address this deficiency in the literature. This liquid nitrogen - cooled Setaram BT2.15 calorimeter is located at the JPL Ice Physics Laboratory. The temperature range achievable with this instrument is 77-473 K. This calorimeter uses Calvet elements (3D arrays of thermocouples) to measure the heat flow required to follow a predefined heating rate within a sample and a reference cell with a resolution of 0.1 ?W. A gas handling system has been designed and fabricated in house to reach pressures up to 100 bars, corresponding to several km depth in icy satellites. The thermodynamic properties of CO2 and CH4 clathrates with ammonia are under investigation, and the results will be used to constrain a statistical thermodynamic model of clathrates for applications to planetary environments. Preliminary results will be shown at the meeting. This work has been conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract to NASA. Support from the Minnesota Space Grant Consortium, the NASA Outer Planets Research program, and government sponsorship are gratefully acknowledged.

Dunham, M.; Choukroun, M.; Barmatz, M.; Hodyss, R. P.; Smythe, W. D.



Mild gasification of coal  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this initial year's mission-oriented multi-year program is to develop a process chemistry data base for the mild gasification of coal with emphasis on eastern bituminous coal. One important objective of this program was to obtain the trends in product formation from different coals as a function of several process variables which included temperature, pressure, coal particle residence time, coal flow rate, type of additives such as lime, limestone, silica flour and ash in a short period of time. This was achieved by a careful development of a test matrix using a fractional factorial statistical design. The equipment used was the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) combination stirred moving-bed, entrained-tubular reactor which is capable of processing 2 to 3 pounds of coal per hour. A Wellmore Kentucky No. 8 bituminous coal, a Pittsburgh No. 8 bituminous coal and a Mississippi lignite with particles having a size of 150 {mu}m or less were selected for this study. The mild gasification experiments were conducted at temperatures from 550{degree} to 650{degree}C at nitrogen sweep gas pressures of 15 to 50 psi and residence times of 0.1 to 2 min. The coal flow rate was 0. 4 to 1.0 lb/hr and the concentration of the lime additives was 0 to 10% by weight of the dry coal feed. All variables were tested at two different levels, low and high, corresponding to the above ranges of the variables. A rapid calculation of the main effects and interactions was made using Yate's algorithm and the significance of the effects was determined from the normal probability plots. 10 refs., 26 figs., 11 tabs.

Sundaram, M.S.; Fallon, P.T.; Steinberg, M.



Mild cognitive impairment und Schlaf.  

E-print Network

??Hintergrund: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) bezeichnet kognitive Defizite, die vom normalen Alterungsprozess abweichen, jedoch noch keiner Demenz entsprechen. Personen, die davon betroffen sind, weisen ein… (more)

Schadenhofer, Claudia



Cognitive Processing in Mild Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research regarding the cognitive processing of students with learning disabilities, mild mental handicap, and emotional handicap is reviewed. In considering cognitive processing for students with mild mental handicap, research attention has been directed to the issues of memory and learning, acquisition and retrieval deficits, inefficient…

Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.; Poteet, James A.


[Mild cognitive impairment].  


Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a syndrome that spans the area between normal ageing and dementia. It is classified into amnestic and non-amnestic types, both with two subtypes: single domain and multiple domains. Prevalence of MCI depends on criteria and population and can vary from 0.1 to 42% persons of older age. In contrast to dementia, cognitive deterioration is less severe and activities of daily living are preserved. Most impaired higher cognitive functions in MCI are memory, executive functions, language, visuospatial functions, attention etc. Also there are depression, apathy or psychomotor agitation, and signs of psychosis. Aetiology of MCI is multiple, mostly neurodegenerative, vascular, psychiatric, internistic, neurological, traumatic and iatrogenic. Persons with amnestic MCI are at a higher risk of converting to Alzheimer's disease, while those with a single non-memory domain are at risk of developing frontotemporal dementia. Some MCI patients also progress to other dementia types, vascular among others. In contrast, some patients have a stationary course, some improve, while others even normalize. Every suspicion of MCI warrants a detailed clinical exploration to discover underlying aetiology, laboratory analyses, neuroimaging methods and some cases require a detailed neuropsychological assessment. At the present time there is no efficacious therapy for cognitive decline in MCI or the one that could postpone conversion to dementia. The treatment of curable causes, application of preventive measures and risk factor control are reasonable measures in the absence of specific therapy. PMID:19764601

Pavlovi?, Dragan M; Pavlovi?, Aleksandra M



Highly dispersed pd catalyst locked in knitting aryl network polymers for Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reactions of aryl chlorides in aqueous media.  


Highly dispersed palladium chloride catalysts locked in triphenylphosphine-functionalized knitting aryl network polymers (KAPs) are developed and exhibit excellent activity under mild conditions in the Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reactions of aryl chlorides in aqueous media. This work highlights that the microporous polymers not only play the role of support materials, but also protect the Pd species from aggregation and precipitation, hence, positively effect the catalysis activity. PMID:22674537

Li, Buyi; Guan, Zhenhong; Wang, Wei; Yang, Xinjia; Hu, Jianglin; Tan, Bien; Li, Tao



Staudinger ligation towards cyclodextrin dimers in aqueous/organic media. Synthesis, conformations and guest-encapsulation ability  

PubMed Central

Summary ?-Cyclodextrin (?-CD) dimers have been prepared using the bioorthogonal Staudinger ligation for the first time. In addition to a known linker, methyl 2-(diphenylphosphanyl)terephthalate, a doubly active linker was specifically developed that enabled connection of two ?-CD units in a single step and in aqueous/organic media, under mild conditions and with good yields. A three-carbon spacer between the ?-CD torus and the azido group was required for facile dimer formation. The products, as studied by NMR spectroscopy, were found to adopt closed conformations by intramolecular self-inclusion. On the other hand, association via intermolecular binding was also observed in aqueous solution, confirmed by DOSY NMR experiments. Despite self-inclusion, the ?-CD cavities were capable of guest encapsulation, as shown by titration experiments: the binding constant with 1-adamantylamine was similar to that of natural ?-CD. Theoretical calculations for isolated molecules (PM3 level of theory) and in the presence of solvent [water, PM3(COSMO)] as well as DFT calculations suggested that the compounds prefer to adopt conformations which bring the phenyl groups either inside the ?-CD cavity (inclusion) or over its narrow side (vicinal). Thus, Staudinger ligation could be the method of choice for linking CDs exhibiting (i) ease of preparation in aqueous media, in short steps, under mild conditions and in good yields, (ii) satisfactory aqueous solubility and independent binding capacity of the cavities. PMID:24778732

Manouilidou, Malamatenia D; Lazarou, Yannis G; Mavridis, Irene M



Staudinger ligation towards cyclodextrin dimers in aqueous/organic media. Synthesis, conformations and guest-encapsulation ability.  


?-Cyclodextrin (?-CD) dimers have been prepared using the bioorthogonal Staudinger ligation for the first time. In addition to a known linker, methyl 2-(diphenylphosphanyl)terephthalate, a doubly active linker was specifically developed that enabled connection of two ?-CD units in a single step and in aqueous/organic media, under mild conditions and with good yields. A three-carbon spacer between the ?-CD torus and the azido group was required for facile dimer formation. The products, as studied by NMR spectroscopy, were found to adopt closed conformations by intramolecular self-inclusion. On the other hand, association via intermolecular binding was also observed in aqueous solution, confirmed by DOSY NMR experiments. Despite self-inclusion, the ?-CD cavities were capable of guest encapsulation, as shown by titration experiments: the binding constant with 1-adamantylamine was similar to that of natural ?-CD. Theoretical calculations for isolated molecules (PM3 level of theory) and in the presence of solvent [water, PM3(COSMO)] as well as DFT calculations suggested that the compounds prefer to adopt conformations which bring the phenyl groups either inside the ?-CD cavity (inclusion) or over its narrow side (vicinal). Thus, Staudinger ligation could be the method of choice for linking CDs exhibiting (i) ease of preparation in aqueous media, in short steps, under mild conditions and in good yields, (ii) satisfactory aqueous solubility and independent binding capacity of the cavities. PMID:24778732

Manouilidou, Malamatenia D; Lazarou, Yannis G; Mavridis, Irene M; Yannakopoulou, Konstantina



Metal-free activation of H 2 O 2 by synergic effect of ionic liquid and microwave: chemoselective oxidation of benzylic alcohols to carbonyls and unexpected formation of anthraquinone in aqueous condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

H2O2 mediated oxidation of alcohols in ionic liquid is revisited, wherein, ionic liquids under the influence of microwave irradiation\\u000a have been found to facilitate activation of H2O2 without any metal catalyst in aqueous condition. The method utilizes a neutral ionic liquid [hmim]Br both as catalyst and\\u000a solvent for efficient and chemoselective oxidation of benzyl alcohol derivatives on aromatic (?, ?)

Rakesh Kumar; Nandini Sharma; Naina Sharma; Abhishek Sharma; Arun K. Sinha


Mortality associated with mild, untreated xerophthalmia.  

PubMed Central

The high mortality rate among children with severe corneal xerophthalmia is well recognized. The present study investigates, for the first time, mortality among the very much larger number of otherwise healthy free-living children with mild xerophthalmia (night blindness and Bitot's spots). An average of 3481 children (under 6 years of age) living in six Indonesian villages were reexamined by an ophthalmologist, pediatrician, and nutritionist every 3 months for 18 months. The overall prevalence of mild xerophthalmia was 4.9%. During the 18 months of observation, 132 children died. Of these, 24 had mild xerophthalmia and 108 had normal eyes at the 3-monthly examination preceding their death. Mortality rates were calculated for each 3-month interval by classifying all children by their ocular status at the start of the interval, and then dividing the number of deaths within the interval by the number of children of the same ocular status followed up for that interval. Mortality rates for the six 3-month intervals were then added together, and the results expressed as deaths per 1000 "child-intervals" of follow-up. Overall mortality rates for children with mild xerophthalmia and for children with normal eyes were 23.3 and 5.3, respectively, a ratio of 4 to 1. Excess mortality among the mildly xerophthalmic children increased with the severity of their xerophthalmia. Mortality rates for children with night blindness, with Bitot's spots, and with the two conditions concurrently were 2.7, 6.6, and 8.6 times the mortality rate of non-xerophthalmic children. This direct, almost linear relation between mortality and the severity of mild xerophthalmia was still present after standardizing for age and for the presence or absence of respiratory infection and protein-energy malnutrition. In the population studied, 16% of all deaths in children 1 to 6 years of age were directly related to vitamin A deficiency identified by the presence of mild xerophthalmia. These results suggest: that the existence of mild vitamin A deficiency in a community justifies initiation of vigorous intervention measures to reduce mortality, as much as to prevent the rarer cases of blindness; that night blindness and Bitot's spots should be accorded the same respect as is low "weight for height" in identifying those children in urgent need of medical attention; that ocular criteria used for determining the existence and severity of a vitamin A problem be reevaluated; and that the ophthalmic community, which has long been responsible for managing xerophthalmia, must now re-alert nutritionists, pediatricians, and public health workers to the serious systemic consequences accompanying even mild Images FIGURE 1 A FIGURE 1 B FIGURE 2 A FIGURE 2 B FIGURE 3 A FIGURE 3 B FIGURE 4 A C FIGURE 4 B D PMID:6610243

Sommer, A



Nucleophilic trapping nitrilimine generated by photolysis of diaryltetrazole in aqueous phase.  


Nitrilimine generated by photolysis of diaryltetrazole in aqueous phase under mild conditions was trapped by nucleophiles including amines and thioalcohols. The representative products were characterized, while products with all 20 natural amino acids and a peptide were observed by MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy. Competitive studies showed that this reaction also occurred in the presence of acrylamide. These results provided new information for understanding the potential side reactions when tetrazole-alkene pairs were used as a bioorthogonal reaction in labeling proteins and related studies in buffered systems. PMID:24378969

Zhang, Yixin; Liu, Wujun; Zhao, Zongbao K



Hydrodechlorination of 1,2-dichloroethane by rhodium catalysts under water gas shift reaction conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homogeneous catalysts prepared from rhodium trichloride in aqueous aromatic amines have been shown to reduce C–Cl bonds under mild water gas shift conditions (T=100°C, PCO=1.0 atm). In a 4-picoline\\/water solvent mixture, 1,2-dichloroethane is reduced to ethylene and ethane in yields compatible with the consumption of the reducing agent CO and with the formation of CO2. Variation of the catalyst solutions

Elizeu Trabuco; Peter C. Ford



A review of catalytic issues and process conditions for renewable hydrogen and alkanes by aqueous-phase reforming of oxygenated hydrocarbons over supported metal catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have recently developed a single-step, low-temperature process for the catalytic production of fuels, such as hydrogen and\\/or alkanes, from renewable biomass-derived oxygenated hydrocarbons. This paper reviews our work in the development of this aqueous-phase reforming (APR) process to produce hydrogen or alkanes in high yields. First, the thermodynamic and kinetic considerations that form the basis of the process are

R. R. Davda; J. W. Shabaker; G. W. Huber; R. D. Cortright; J. A. Dumesic



Low temperature nanostructured zinc titanate by an aqueous particulate sol–gel route: Optimisation of heat treatment condition based on Zn:Ti molar ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanocrystalline zinc titanate (ZnTiO3) thin films and powders with purity of 94% were produced at the low sintering temperature of 500°C and the short sintering time of 1h by a straightforward aqueous particulate sol–gel route. The effect of Zn:Ti molar ratio was studied on the crystallisation behaviour of zinc titanates. The prepared sols showed a narrow particle size distribution in

M. R. Mohammadi; D. J. Fray



Mildly Handicapped: Reading, Secondary Level.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Selected from the National Instructional Materials Information System (NIMIS)--a computer based on-line interactive retrieval system on special education materials--the bibliography covers 107 materials for teaching reading, with emphasis on reading comprehension skills and high interest low vocabulary formats, to mildly handicapped (learning…

National Center on Educational Media and Materials for the Handicapped, Columbus, OH.


Educating Students with Mild Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The book contains 19 papers from the journal, "Focus on Exceptional Children," that discuss new perspectives and practices in educating students with mild disabilities. The first half of the book is titled "New Perspectives" and includes the following articles: "Beyond the Regular Education Initiative/Inclusion and the Resource Room Controversy"…

Meyen, Edward L., Ed.; And Others


"White Privilege": A Mild Critique  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

White privilege analysis has been influential in philosophy of education. I offer some mild criticisms of this largely salutary direction--its inadequate exploration of its own normative foundations, and failure to distinguish between "spared injustice", "unjust enrichment" and "non-injustice-related" privileges; its inadequate exploration of the…

Blum, Lawrence



An effective method to prepare imines from aldehyde, bromide/epoxide, and aqueous ammonia.  


A three-component reaction of aldehydes, alkyl bromides, and ammonia to form imines was studied. Aqueous ammonia was applied as the nitrogen source and solvent in the reaction. For the aromatic aldehyde, the product yields are good to excellent and the reaction conditions are mild to be compatible with a range of functional groups. The reaction of aldehydes and aqueous ammonia with epoxides was also studied and imines bearing a vicinal hydroxyl group can be obtained efficiently and regioselectively. And studies showed that this method allows the synthesis of primary amines and especially 1,2-amino alcohol selectively in high yield. It is proposed that the reaction pathway might involve a key intermediate of hydrobenzamide. PMID:21428424

Huang, Jing-Mei; Zhang, Jue-Fei; Dong, Yi; Gong, Wen



Eco friendly inhibitor for corrosion inhibition of mild steel in phosphoric acid medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inhibition effect of Zenthoxylum alatum plant extract on the corrosion of mild steel in 20, 50 and 88% aqueous orthophosphoric acid has been investigated by weight loss and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Plant extract is able to reduce the corrosion of steel more effectively in 88% phosphoric acid than in 20% phosphoric acid. The effect of temperature on the

G Gunasekaran; L. R Chauhan



In situ study of mass transfer in aqueous solutions under high pressures via Raman spectroscopy: A new method for the determination of diffusion coefficients of methane in water near hydrate formation conditions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A new method was developed for in situ study of the diffusive transfer of methane in aqueous solution under high pressures near hydrate formation conditions within an optical capillary cell. Time-dependent Raman spectra of the solution at several different spots along the one-dimensional diffusion path were collected and thus the varying composition profile of the solution was monitored. Diffusion coefficients were estimated by the least squares method based on the variations in methane concentration data in space and time in the cell. The measured diffusion coefficients of methane in water at the liquid (L)-vapor (V) stable region and L-V metastable region are close to previously reported values determined at lower pressure and similar temperature. This in situ monitoring method was demonstrated to be suitable for the study of mass transfer in aqueous solution under high pressure and at various temperature conditions and will be applied to the study of nucleation and dissolution kinetics of methane hydrate in a hydrate-water system where the interaction of methane and water would be more complicated than that presented here for the L-V metastable condition. ?? 2006 Society for Applied Spectroscopy.

Lu, W. J.; Chou, I. M.; Burruss, R. C.; Yang, M. Z.



Influence of Aqueous-Salt Conditions on the Structure and Dynamics of the Monomeric and Novel Dimeric forms of the Alzheimer s ABeta21-30 protein fragment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The behavior of the Alzheimer's related peptide Abeta is the subject of much study. In typical computational studies the environment local to the peptide is assumed to be pure water; however, in vivo the peptide is found in the extracellular space near the plasma membrane which is rich in ionic species. In this thesis, the hypothesis that the presence of group I/IIA salts will result in increased sampling of disordered structures as well as modify the dynamics of meta-stable structural motifs in the small folding nucleus of the Abeta peptide (Abeta21-30) is examined under a variety of ionic environments and was shown that of the tested salts, CaCl2 (and MgCl2, to a much lesser degree) did increase the propensity for disordered states; while, the group IA salts, KCl and NaCl, had little effect on the secondary structure of the peptide. Further, study of three familial mutations of this peptide region is also performed under aqueous salt-environments to elucidate further mechanistic details of how aqueous salts modify the region's behavior. Finally, as experimental results have highlighted that aggregation rates of the full-length peptide are modified by the presence of CaCl2, this work examines novel dimers states of Abeta21-30 and their stabilities when exposed to CaCl2.

Smith, Micholas Dean


Tannin bark Melalauca cajuputi powell (gelam) as green corrosion inhibitor of mild steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tannin was extracted from gelam bark and used to produce corrosion inhibitor for mild steel. Tannin was extracted from gelam bark using 70% aqueous acetone for 6 hour. Tannin powder was characterization using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to analyse chemical component in tannin and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) for tannin physical structure. The tannin effect on the corrosion inhibition of mild steel has been investigated in 1Mol HCl solution for 6 hour followed ASTM. The weight loss method were applied to study the mild steel corrosion behavior in the present and absend of different concentration of tannin (250, 300, 350)ppm. Tannin act good inhibitor as corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in acid medium. Surface morphology of carbon steel with and without inhibitor was investigated by scanning electron microscopy.

Talib, Nur Atiqah Abu; Zakaria, Sarani; Hua, Chia Chin; Othman, Norinsan Kamil



Copper-catalyzed mild nitration of protected anilines.  


A practical copper-catalyzed direct nitration of protected anilines, by using one equivalent of nitric acid as the nitrating agent, has been developed. This procedure features mild reaction conditions, wide structural scope (with regard to both N-protecting group and arene substitution), and high functional-group tolerance. Dinitration with two equivalents of nitric acid is also feasible. PMID:25213167

Hernando, Elier; Castillo, Rafael R; Rodríguez, Nuria; Gómez Arrayás, Ramón; Carretero, Juan C



Standard partial molar volumes of some aqueous alkanolamines and alkoxyamines at temperatures up to 325 degrees C: functional group additivity in polar organic solutes under hydrothermal conditions.  


Apparent molar volumes of dilute aqueous solutions of monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), triethanolamine (TEA), N,N-dimethylethanolamine (DMEA), ethylethanolamine (EAE), 2-diethylethanolamine (2-DEEA), and 3-methoxypropylamine (3-MPA) and their salts were measured at temperatures from 150 to 325 degrees C and pressures as high as 15 MPa. The results were corrected for the ionization and used to obtain the standard partial molar volumes, Vo2. A three-parameter equation of state was used to describe the temperature and pressure dependence of the standard partial molar volumes. The fitting parameters were successfully divided into functional group contributions at all temperatures to obtain the standard partial molar volume contributions. Including literature results for alcohols, carboxylic acids, and hydroxycarboxylic acids yielded the standard partial molar volume contributions of the functional groups >CH-, >CH2, -CH3, -OH, -COOH, -O-, -->N, >NH, -NH2, -COO-Na+, -NH3+Cl-, >NH2+Cl-, and -->NH+Cl- over the range (150 degrees C aqueous organic solutes composed of these groups at temperatures up to approximately 310 degrees C and pressures of 10-20 MPa to within a precision of +/-5 cm3 x mol(-1). The model could not be extended to higher temperatures because of uncertainties caused by thermal decomposition. At temperatures above approximately 250 degrees C, the order of the group contributions to Vo2 changes from that observed at 25 degrees C, to become increasingly consistent with the polarity of each functional group. The effect of the dipole moment of each molecule on the contribution to Vo2 from long-range solvent polarization was calculated from the multipole expansion of the Born equation using dipole moments estimated from restricted Hartree-Fock calculations with Gaussian 03 (Gaussian, Inc., Wallingford, CT) and the Onsager reaction-field approximation for solvent effects. Below 325 degrees C, the dipole contribution was found to be less than 2 cm3 x mol(-1) for all the solute molecules studied. At higher temperatures and pressures near steam saturation, the effect is much larger and may explain anomalies in functional group additivity observed in small, very polar solutes. PMID:18412415

Bulemela, E; Tremaine, Peter R



Molecular basis of mild hyperphenylalaninaemia in Poland.  

PubMed Central

The major cause of the different forms of hyperphenylalaninaemia (HPA) is mutations in the gene encoding phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH). The aim of this study was to determine the mutations responsible for mild forms of HPA and to relate different clinical phenotypes of HPA patients to their PAH genotypes. Four "mild" mutations, including the most frequent A403V and R297H mutations, occurred exclusively in mild hyperphenylalaninaemia (MHP). Mutations A104D, R243Q, R241H, and Y414C were detected in patients with mild phenylketonuria (mild PKU) only. These results may be useful in establishing a molecular differential diagnosis for PAH deficiency in Poland. PMID:9429153

Zekanowski, C; Nowacka, M; Cabalska, B; Bal, J



Effect of the water content on the retention and enantioselectivity of albendazole and fenbendazole sulfoxides using amylose-based chiral stationary phases in organic-aqueous conditions.  


Four commercially available immobilized amylose-derived CSPs (Chiralpak IA-3, Chiralpak ID-3, Chiralpak IE-3 and Chiralpak IF-3) were used in the HPLC analysis of the chiral sulfoxides albendazole (ABZ-SO) and fenbendazole (FBZ-SO) and their in vivo sulfide precursor (ABZ and FBZ) and sulfone metabolite (ABZ-SO2 and FBZ-SO2) under organic-aqueous mode. U-shape retention maps, established by varying the water content in the acetonitrile- and ethanol-water mobile phases, were indicative of two retention mechanisms operating on the same CSP. The dual retention behavior of polysaccharide-based CSPs was exploited to design greener enantioselective and chemoselective separations in a short time frame. The enantiomers of ABZ-SO and FBZ-SO were baseline resolved with water-rich mobile phases (with the main component usually being 50-65% water in acetonitrile) on the IF-3 CSP and ethanol-water 100:5 mixture on the IA-3 and IE-3 CSPs. A simultaneous separation of ABZ (or FBZ), enantiomers of the corresponding sulfoxide and sulfone was achieved on the IA-3 using ethanol-water 100:60 (acetonitrile-water 100:100 for FBZ) as a mobile phase. PMID:24411094

Materazzo, Sabrina; Carradori, Simone; Ferretti, Rosella; Gallinella, Bruno; Secci, Daniela; Cirilli, Roberto



The corrosion performance of polyaniline on nickel plated mild steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrochemical synthesis of polyaniline (PANI) was achieved on Ni plated (1 ?m) mild steel (MS/Ni) and unplated mild steel (MS). The synthesis was carried out under cyclic voltammetric conditions from 0.1 M aniline containing oxalic acid solution. AC impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and anodic polarization curves were used to evaluate the corrosion performance of PANI coated and uncoated electrodes in 3.5% NaCl. It was observed that Ni plating reduced drastically the corrosion rate of mild steel and exhibited an efficient barrier property on MS. However, the porosity of nickel plating increased for longer periods. It was found that polymer film decreased the porosity of Ni coating by catalyzing the passivation of this layer with time and that PANI top coat could provide significant protection efficiency to MS/Ni electrode. While PANI coated mild steel (MS/PANI) showed a protection property against the attack of corrosive products. Its lifetime was limited for extended periods. It was found out that corrosion resistance of Ni plating with PANI top coat (MS/Ni/PANI) was higher for much longer periods with respect to the one observed for mild steel.

Özy?lmaz, A. T.; Karda?, G.; Erbil, M.; Yaz?c?, B.



Synchrotron emissivity from mildly relativistic particles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Approximate analytic expressions are presented for evaluation of the frequency and angular dependence of synchrotron emissivity from mildly relativistic particles with arbitrary energy spectrum and pitch angle distribution in a given magnetic field. Results agree with previous expressions for a nonrelativistic Maxwellian particle distribution, and when extrapolated to nonrelativistic and extreme relativistic regimes, they also agree with the previous expressions obtained under those limiting conditions. The results from the analytic expression are compared with results from detailed numerical evaluations. Excellent agreement is found not only at frequencies large compared to the gyro-frequency but also at lower frequencies, in fact, all the way down to the gyro-frequency, where the analytic approximations are expected to be less accurate.

Petrosian, V.



Procedures for Increasing Sustained Attention in Adults with Mild Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research compared the effects of several factors on sustained attention in four participants with mild or mild-to-moderate intellectual disabilities. In each session, each participant received an extended number of conditional discriminations that required a differential response to infrequently occurring target stimuli. We assessed sustained…

Doughty, Adam H.; Williams, Dean C.



Mild cognitive impairment: The dilemma  

PubMed Central

Memory complaints are ubiquitous in our aging population. Many older adults fear that today’s forgetfulness will usher in tomorrow’s dementia. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is considered by many as an intermediary stage for dementia. Though the nomenclature has been varied and extensive, the criteria by the American Academy of Neurology and the EADC have been helpful. Prevalence rates varying from 3% to as high as 59% with a conversion rate to dementia varying from 8 to 15% only increases the need for diagnostic tests and markers which are in the form of neuropsychological tests, neuroimaging and other biological markers. Medications indicated for treatment of mild to severe Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) are offered to persons with MCI with a varying type of response which does not hold in the long run to newer strategies of exploring disease modifying drugs which hold a better promise. This benefit with management of risk factors like hypertension and diabetes coupled with non-pharmacological approaches like exercise and social networking has thrust upon us the necessity for coordinating our efforts to improve detection and management of MCI. PMID:21416016

Pinto, Charles; Subramanyam, Alka A.



Benign convulsion with mild gastroenteritis  

PubMed Central

Benign convulsion with mild gastroenteritis (CwG) is a type of afebrile seizure that occurs in children. CwG is defined as a convulsion in a previously healthy child with no known central nervous system infection or encephalopathy, accompanying mild diarrhea without fever, electrolyte imbalance, or moderate to severe dehydration. Convulsions in CwG are characterized by multiple brief episodes of generalized or focal seizures. Although the etiology and pathophysiology have yet to be fully explained, many pathogenic mechanisms have been proposed including the possibility of direct invasion of the central nervous system by a gastrointestinal virus such as rotavirus or the possibility of indirect influence by the production and effects of certain mediators. The electroencephalogram findings are benign and long-term antiepileptic treatment is typically not required. Long-term prognosis has been favorable with normal psychomotor development. This review provides a general overview of CwG with the goal of allowing physicians practicing in the field of pediatrics to better recognize this unique entity and, ultimately, to minimize unnecessary evaluation and treatment. PMID:25114690

Kang, Ben



Synthesis and applications of SnO nanosheets: parallel control of oxidation state and nanostructure through an aqueous solution route.  


Tin monoxide (SnO) nanosheets 5 nm in thickness are generated on substrates through an aqueous solution process under mild conditions. Parallel control of the oxidation state and morphology is achieved by a urea-mediated approach in aqueous solution. The SnO nanosheets form a porous thin film on substrates such as indium tin oxide and carbon nanofiber (CNF). The porous thin film of SnO nanosheets shows cathodic photocurrent generation upon irradiation by UV and visible light. In contrast, the photocurrent is not observed in the bulk SnO microcrystals. Composites of the SnO nanosheets and CNF perform as the anode material of lithium-ion batteries with improved charge-discharge reversible stability. PMID:20183815

Sakaushi, Ken; Oaki, Yuya; Uchiyama, Hiroaki; Hosono, Eiji; Zhou, Haoshen; Imai, Hiroaki



Energy recovery via mild gasification  

SciTech Connect

A mild gasification research process unit capable of processing up to one ton of coal per day has been constructed at UCC Research Corporation, Bristol, Virginia. The unit is very flexible utilizing coal preparation waste, bituminous, and subbituminous coal as feedstocks. The results, to date, have been encouraging, in that a high quality condensable hydrocarbon has been produced and a char produced which would be a desirable feed for a number of applications. The condensable hydrocarbons have applications as an additive for diesel and gasoline fuels, and either a boiler or turbine fuel. The char has a number of applications, such as in pulverized and/or fluidized-bed industrial and utility boilers, blast furnaces and foundary coke blending systems, and smokeless fuel systems. The facility became operational in November, 1985. The process description and data obtained, to date are described in this paper.

Wolfe, R.A.; Im, C.J.; Gillespie, B.L.; Ghate, M.R.



Effect of aqueous LiBr solutions on the corrosion resistance and galvanic corrosion of an austenitic stainless steel in its welded and non-welded condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corrosion resistance and galvanic behaviour of a highly alloyed austenitic stainless steel (UNS N08031) and a nickel–base alloy (UNS N06059) in its welded (GTAW) and non-welded condition were analysed in LiBr solutions by means of electrochemical measurements. Samples microstructure was studied by SEM and EDX analysis. The alloys considered showed passive behaviour and they were able to repassivate after

E. Blasco-Tamarit; A. Igual-Muñoz; J. García Antón; D. García-García



Rapid, clean, and mild O-acetylation of alcohols and carbohydrates in an ionic liquid.  


Archetypal O-acetylation reactions of alcohols and carbohydrates proceed rapidly in high yield under mild conditions in a dicyanamide based ionic liquid, that is not only an effective solvent but also an active base catalyst. PMID:12119687

Forsyth, Stewart A; MacFarlane, Douglas R; Thomson, Robin J; von Itzstein, Mark



Clay supported ammonium nitrate “Clayan”: A mild and eco-friendly reagent for dethioacetalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of thioacetals and dithianes are deprotected into their carbonyl compounds in mild conditions using clay supported ammonium nitrate. The fertilizing nature of ammonium nitrate makes the procedure environmentally safe.

H. M. Meshram; Gondi Sudershan Reddy; J. S. Yadav



Reaction mechanism for the aqueous-phase mineral carbonation of heat-activated serpentine at low temperatures and pressures in flue gas conditions.  


Mineral carbonation is known as one of the safest ways to sequester CO2. Nevertheless, the slow kinetics and low carbonation rates constitute a major barrier for any possible industrial application. To date, no studies have focused on reacting serpentinite with a relatively low partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) close to flue gas conditions. In this work, finely ground and heat-treated serpentinite [Mg3Si2O5(OH)4] extracted from mining residues was reacted with a 18.2 vol % CO2 gas stream at moderate global pressures to investigate the effect on CO2 solubility and Mg leaching. Serpentinite dissolution rates were also measured to define the rate-limiting step. Successive batches of gas were contacted with the same serpentinite to identify surface-limiting factors using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. Investigation of the serpentinite carbonation reaction mechanisms under conditions close to a direct flue gas treatment showed that increased dissolution rates could be achieved relative to prior work, with an average Mg dissolution rate of 3.55 × 10(-11) mol cm(-2) s(-1). This study provides another perspective of the feasibility of applying a mineral carbonation process to reduce industrial greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from large emission sources. PMID:24669999

Pasquier, Louis-César; Mercier, Guy; Blais, Jean-François; Cecchi, Emmanuelle; Kentish, Sandra



Poly(o-anisidine) films on mild steel: electrochemical synthesis and biosensor application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poly(o-anisidine) (POA) films were synthesized on mild steel from an aqueous oxalic acid solution by electrochemical polymerization of o-anisidine using cyclic voltammetry. These films were characterized by cyclic voltammetry, UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The enzyme glucose oxidase (GOx) was entrapped into the POA film by a physical adsorption method. The resulting

Dewyani Patil; A. B. Gaikwad; Pradip Patil



Corrosion performance of chemically synthesized poly(aniline- co - o -toluidine) copolymer coating on mild steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A soluble copolymer from aniline and o-toluidine [poly(aniline-co-o-toluidine)] was synthesized by chemical oxidative copolymerization using ammonium persulphate as an oxidant in hydrochloride\\u000a aqueous medium. The resultant copolymer was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and chemically\\u000a deposited on mild steel specimens using N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) as solvent via solution evaporation method. The anticorrosive properties of copolymer coating\\u000a was investigated in

M. Mobin; N. Tanveer


Effect of Mild Acid on Gene Expression in Staphylococcus aureus  

PubMed Central

During staphylococcal growth in glucose-supplemented medium, the pH of a culture starting near neutrality typically decreases by about 2 units due to the fermentation of glucose. Many species can comfortably tolerate the resulting mildly acidic conditions (pH, ?5.5) by mounting a cellular response, which serves to defend the intracellular pH and, in principle, to modify gene expression for optimal performance in a mildly acidic infection site. In this report, we show that changes in staphylococcal gene expression formerly thought to represent a glucose effect are largely the result of declining pH. We examine the cellular response to mild acid by microarray analysis and define the affected gene set as the mild acid stimulon. Many of the genes encoding extracellular virulence factors are affected, as are genes involved in regulation of virulence factor gene expression, transport of sugars and peptides, intermediary metabolism, and pH homeostasis. Key results are verified by gene fusion and Northern blot hybridization analyses. The results point to, but do not define, possible regulatory pathways by which the organism senses and responds to a pH stimulus. PMID:15576791

Weinrick, Brian; Dunman, Paul M.; McAleese, Fionnuala; Murphy, Ellen; Projan, Steven J.; Fang, Yuan; Novick, Richard P.



Effect of Mild Acid on Gene Expression in Staphylococcus aureus  

Microsoft Academic Search

During staphylococcal growth in glucose-supplemented medium, the pH of a culture starting near neutrality typically decreases by about 2 units due to the fermentation of glucose. Many species can comfortably tolerate the resulting mildly acidic conditions (pH, 5.5) by mounting a cellular response, which serves to defend the intracellular pH and, in principle, to modify gene expression for optimal performance

Brian Weinrick; Paul M. Dunman; Fionnuala McAleese; Ellen Murphy; Steven J. Projan; Yuan Fang; Richard P. Novick



Tunable gold catalysts for selective hydrocarbon oxidation under mild conditions.  


Oxidation is an important method for the synthesis of chemical intermediates in the manufacture of high-tonnage commodities, high-value fine chemicals, agrochemicals and pharmaceuticals: but oxidations are often inefficient. The introduction of catalytic systems using oxygen from air is preferred for 'green' processing. Gold catalysis is now showing potential in selective redox processes, particularly for alcohol oxidation and the direct synthesis of hydrogen peroxide. However, a major challenge that persists is the synthesis of an epoxide by the direct electrophilic addition of oxygen to an alkene. Although ethene is epoxidized efficiently using molecular oxygen with silver catalysts in a large-scale industrial process, this is unique because higher alkenes can only be effectively epoxidized using hydrogen peroxide, hydroperoxides or stoichiometric oxygen donors. Here we show that nanocrystalline gold catalysts can provide tunable active catalysts for the oxidation of alkenes using air, with exceptionally high selectivity to partial oxidation products ( approximately 98%) and significant conversions. Our finding significantly extends the discovery by Haruta that nanocrystalline gold can epoxidize alkenes when hydrogen is used to activate the molecular oxygen; in our case, no sacrificial reductant is needed. We anticipate that our finding will initiate attempts to understand more fully the mechanism of oxygen activation at gold surfaces, which might lead to commercial exploitation of the high redox activity of gold nanocrystals. PMID:16237439

Hughes, Mathew D; Xu, Yi-Jun; Jenkins, Patrick; McMorn, Paul; Landon, Philip; Enache, Dan I; Carley, Albert F; Attard, Gary A; Hutchings, Graham J; King, Frank; Stitt, E Hugh; Johnston, Peter; Griffin, Ken; Kiely, Christopher J



QD-antibody conjugates via carbodiimide-mediated coupling: a detailed study of the variables involved and a possible new mechanism for the coupling reaction under basic aqueous conditions.  


A detailed study into the optimization of carbodiimide-mediated coupling of antibodies (Ab) and quantum dots (QD) for use in cellular imaging has been undertaken. This involved the grafting of commercially available carboxyl-modified QDs (Evident Technologies "Lake Placid Blue" Evitag and eBioscience's eflour nanocrystals) with anti-Cdc8 Abs to produce conjugates with specific affinity for fission yeast tropomyosin Cdc8 protein. The water-soluble carbodiimide 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide (EDC) was used to activate the QDs prior to their incubation with antibody, and a range of QD-carboxyl/EDC/Ab mole ratios were used in the experiments in attempts to optimize fluorescence and bioaffinity of the conjugate products (EDC to QD-carboxyl-600 nmol/15 pmol to 0.12 nmol/15 pmol and QD to Ab 120 pmol/24 pmol to 120 pmol/1.2 pmol). It was observed that a specific "optimum" ratio of the three reactants was required to produce the most fluorescent and biologically active product and that it was generated at alkaline pH 10.8. Increasing the ratio of Ab to QD produced conjugate which was less fluorescent while reducing the ratio of EDC to QD in the activation step led to increased fluorescence of product. Conjugates were tested for their possession of antibody by measurement of their absorption at OD(280 nm) and for their fluorescence by assay ?(max(em)) at 495 nm. A quantitative assay of the bioactivity of the conjugates was developed whereby a standardized amount of Cdc8 antigen was spotted onto nylon membranes and reacted with products from conjugation reactions in a sandwich-type colormetric assay The "best" conjugate was used in intracellular imaging of yeast Cdc8 protein and produced brighter, higher definition images of fixed yeast cell actin structure than a fluorescein-Ab conjugate routinely produced in our laboratory. The QD-Ab conjugate was also significantly more resistant to photobleaching than the fluorescein-Ab conjugate. Results from other experiments involving EDC, the water-soluble carbodiimide 1-cyclohexyl-3-(2-morpholinoethyl)carbodiimide metho-p-toluenesulphonate (CMC), and EDC.HCl have suggested a new reaction mechanism for EDC coupling under basic aqueous conditions. In summary, a robust understanding of commercial QD-COOH surface chemistry and the variables involved in the materials' efficient conjugation with a bioligand using carbidiimide has been obtained along with an optimized approach for Ab-QD conjugate production. A novel assay has been developed for bioassay of QD-Ab conjugates and a new mechanism for EDC coupling under basic aqueous conditions is proposed. PMID:21970592

East, Daniel A; Mulvihill, Daniel P; Todd, Michael; Bruce, Ian J



Higher incidence of mild cognitive impairment in familial hypercholesterolemia  

PubMed Central

Objective Hypercholesterolemia is an early risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease. Low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors may be involved in this disorder. Our objective was to determine the risk of mild cognitive impairment in a population of patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia, a condition involving LDL receptors dysfunction and life long hypercholesterolemia. Methods Using a cohort study design, patients with (N=47) meeting inclusion criteria and comparison patients without familial hypercholesterolemia (N=70) were consecutively selected from academic specialty and primary care clinics respectively. All patients were older than 50 years. Those with disorders which could impact cognition, including history of stroke or transient ischemic attacks, were excluded from both groups. Thirteen standardized neuropsychological tests were performed in all subjects. Mutational analysis was performed in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia and brain imaging was obtained in those with familial hypercholesterolemia and mild cognitive impairment. Results Patients with familial hypercholesterolemia showed a very high incidence of mild cognitive impairment compared to those without familial hypercholesterolemia (21.3% vs. 2.9%; p = 0.00). This diagnosis was unrelated to structural pathology or white matter disease. There were significant differences between the familial hypercholesterolemia and the no-familial hypercholesterolemia groups in several cognitive measures, all in the direction of worse performance for familial hypercholesterolemia patients, independent of apoE4 or apoE2 status. Conclusions Because prior studies have shown that older patients with sporadic hypercholesterolemia do not show higher incidence of mild cognitive impairment, the findings presented here suggest that early exposure to elevated cholesterol or LDL receptors dysfunction may be risk factors for mild cognitive impairment. PMID:20193836

Zambon, D.; Quintana, M.; Mata, P.; Alonso, R.; Benavent, J.; Cruz-Sanchez, F.; Gich, J.; Pocovi, M.; Civeira, F.; Capurro, S.; Bachman, D.; Sambamurti, K.; Nicholas, J.; Pappolla, M. A.



Separation of products from mild coal gasification processes  

SciTech Connect

The primary mild coal gasification product mixture containing noncondensible gas, high-boiling hydrocarbon vapors and entrained fines is difficult to process into the desired pure products: gas, liquids, and dry solids. This challenge for mild coal gasification process development has been studied by surveying the technical literature for suitable separations processes and for similar issues in related processes. The choice for a first-stage solids separation step is standard cyclones, arranged in parallel trains for large-volume applications in order to take advantage of the higher separation efficiency of smaller cyclones. However, mild gasification pilot-plant data show entrainment of ultrafine particles for which standard cyclones have poor separation efficiency. A hot secondary solids separation step is needed for the ultrafine entrainment in order to protect the liquid product from excessive amounts of contaminating solids. The secondary solids separation step is similar to many high-temperature flue-gas applications with an important complicating condition: Mild gasifier vapors form coke on surfaces in contact with the vapors. Plugging of the filter medium by coke deposition is concluded to be the main product separation problem for mild gasification. Three approaches to solution of this problem are discussed in the order of preference: (1) a barrier filter medium made of a perforated foil that is easy to regenerate, (2) a high-efficiency cyclone coupled with recycle of a solids-containing tar fraction for coking/cracking in the gasifier, and (3) a granular moving bed filter with regeneration of the bed material. The condensation of oil vapors diluted by noncondensible gas is analyzed thermodynamically, and the conclusion is that existing commercial oil fractionator designs are adequate as long as the vapor stream does not contain excessive amounts of solids. 34 refs., 4 figs.

Wallman, P.H.



Preparation conditions and optical properties of rare earth ion (Er{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+})-doped alumina films by the aqueous sol{endash}gel method  

SciTech Connect

Transparent alumina and rare earth ion (Er{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+}) highly doped alumina films (15 mol%) were prepared by the aqueous sol{endash}gel method, in order to examine the effects of various preparation conditions on the structure and optical properties of doped films. The results showed that when the gel was heat treated, it lost free and bound water and was converted into the oxide by way of a series of intermediate phases although the oxide as a whole remained structureless. The thermogravimetric analysis curve showed a marked weight loss in the temperature range of 100{endash}500{degree}C and the slow loss continuing at higher temperature of 800{degree}C. High doping may reflect noncrystalline structure of alumina. The fluorescence of Eu{sup 3+} sensitive of microstructure increased especially corresponding to this weight loss with treatment. The {Omega}{sub 2} indicative of the asymmetric environment of Er{sup 3+} showed a similar increase. Concentration quenching for doped films treated at 800{degree}C was not significant in this concentration range. Lifetimes increased with increasing treatment temperature, similar to above increase. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

Ishizaka, T.; Kurokawa, Y.



Mukaiyama Aldol Reactions in Aqueous Media  

PubMed Central

Mukaiyama aldol reactions in aqueous media have been surveyed. While the original Mukaiyama aldol reactions entailed stoichiometric use of Lewis acids in organic solvents under strictly anhydrous conditions, Mukaiyama aldol reactions in aqueous media are not only suitable for green sustainable chemistry but are found to produce singular phenomena. These findings led to the discovery of a series of water-compatible Lewis acids such as lanthanide triflates in 1991. Our understanding on these beneficial effects in the presence of water will be deepened through the brilliant examples collected in this review. 1 Introduction 2 Rate Enhancement by Water in the Mukaiyama Aldol Reaction 3 Lewis Acid Catalysis in Aqueous or Organic Solvents 3.1 Water-Compatible Lewis Acids 4 Lewis-Base Catalysis in Aqueous or Organic Solvents 5 The Mukaiyama Aldol Reactions in 100% Water 6 Asymmetric Catalysts in Aqueous Media and Water 7 Conclusions and Perspective PMID:24971045

Kitanosono, Taku; Kobayashi, Shu



Treatment Alternatives Following Mild Head Injury.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses treatment alternatives which may alleviate problems in recovery following mild head injury, including providing education, cognitive stimulation, stress management training, individual counseling, group discussion, and physical activity in a day treatment setting. (Author/ABL)

Novack, Thomas A.; And Others



Submerged arc fillet welds between mild steel and stainless steel  

SciTech Connect

Submerged arc fillet welds between mild steel and Type 304 stainless steel, made with ER309L wire, may contain no ferrite and be at risk of hot cracking, or they may be sufficiently diluted that they transform to martensite with both hot cracking risk and low ductility. This situation is most prevalent when direct current electrode positive (DCEP) polarity is used and when the flange is the mild steel part of the T-joint. A flux that adds chromium to the weld can somewhat alleviate this tendency. Direct current electrode negative (DCEN) polarity greatly reduces this tendency by limiting dilution. Fillet weld compositions and dilutions are obtained for a number of welding conditions and fluxes.

Kotecki, D.J.; Rajan, V.B. [Lincoln Electric Co., Cleveland, OH (United States)



Chemical reactions at aqueous interfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interfaces or phase boundaries are a unique chemical environment relative to individual gas, liquid, or solid phases. Interfacial reaction mechanisms and kinetics are often at variance with homogeneous chemistry due to mass transfer, molecular orientation, and catalytic effects. Aqueous interfaces are a common subject of environmental science and engineering research, and three environmentally relevant aqueous interfaces are investigated in this thesis: 1) fluorochemical sonochemistry (bubble-water), 2) aqueous aerosol ozonation (gas-water droplet), and 3) electrolytic hydrogen production and simultaneous organic oxidation (water-metal/semiconductor). Direct interfacial analysis under environmentally relevant conditions is difficult, since most surface-specific techniques require relatively `extreme' conditions. Thus, the experimental investigations here focus on the development of chemical reactors and analytical techniques for the completion of time/concentration-dependent measurements of reactants and their products. Kinetic modeling, estimations, and/or correlations were used to extract information on interfacially relevant processes. We found that interfacial chemistry was determined to be the rate-limiting step to a subsequent series of relatively fast homogeneous reactions, for example: 1) Pyrolytic cleavage of the ionic headgroup of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) adsorbed to cavitating bubble-water interfaces during sonolysis was the rate-determining step in transformation to their inorganic constituents carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and fluoride; 2) ozone oxidation of aqueous iodide to hypoiodous acid at the aerosol-gas interface is the rate-determining step in the oxidation of bromide and chloride to dihalogens; 3) Electrolytic oxidation of anodic titanol surface groups is rate-limiting for the overall oxidation of organics by the dichloride radical. We also found chemistry unique to the interface, for example: 1) Adsorption of dilute PFOS(aq) and PFOA(aq) to acoustically cavitating bubble interfaces was greater than equilibrium expectations due to high-velocity bubble radial oscillations; 2) Relative ozone oxidation kinetics of aqueous iodide, sulfite, and thiosulfate were at variance with previously reported bulk aqueous kinetics; 3) Organics that directly chelated with the anode surface were oxidized by direct electron transfer, resulting in immediate carbon dioxide production but slower overall oxidation kinetics. Chemical reactions at aqueous interfaces can be the rate-limiting step of a reaction network and often display novel mechanisms and kinetics as compared to homogeneous chemistry.

Vecitis, Chad David


Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Translation  

PubMed Central

Abstract This Introduction to a Special Issue on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI) highlights the methodological challenges in outcome studies and clinical trials involving patients who sustain mTBI. Recent advances in brain imaging and portable, computerized cognitive tasks have contributed to protocols that are sensitive to the effects of mTBI and efficient in time for completion. Investigation of civilian mTBI has been extended to single and repeated injuries in athletes and blast-related mTBI in service members and veterans. Despite differences in mechanism of injury, there is evidence for similar effects of acceleration-deceleration and blast mechanisms of mTBI on cognition. Investigation of repetitive mTBI suggests that the effects may be cumulative and that repeated mTBI and repeated subconcussive head trauma may lead to neurodegenerative conditions. Although animal models of mTBI using cortical impact and fluid percussion injury in rodents have been able to reproduce some of the cognitive deficits frequently exhibited by patients after mTBI, modeling post-concussion symptoms is difficult. Recent use of closed head and blast injury animal models may more closely approximate clinical mTBI. Translation of interventions that are developed in animal models to patients with mTBI is a priority for the research agenda. This Special Issue on mTBI integrates basic neuroscience studies using animal models with studies of human mTBI, including the cognitive sequelae, persisting symptoms, brain imaging, and host factors that facilitate recovery. PMID:23046349

Robertson, Claudia S.



Treatment of mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.  


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an epidemic in many parts of the world. Most patients with COPD demonstrate mild disease. The cornerstone of management of mild disease is smoking cessation, which is the only proven intervention to relieve symptoms, modify its natural history and reduce mortality. For asymptomatic patients, it is the only required therapy. Short-acting bronchodilators can be added on an as needed basis for those with intermittent symptoms and regularly for those with persistent symptoms. Long-acting bronchodilators can be substituted for those who remain symptomatic despite regular use of short-acting bronchodilators. Inhaled corticosteroids do not modify the natural history of COPD and as such cannot be recommended as standalone therapy for mild COPD. However, for patients with refractory and intractable symptoms, they may be used in combination with long-acting beta-2 agonists. Influenza and pneumococcal vaccination and pulmonary rehabilitation are other therapies that may be considered for select patients with mild disease. In this paper, we summarize the current standard of care for patients with mild COPD. PMID:19281074

Chee, Alex; Sin, Don D



[Characteristics of mild hypertension in elderly patients].  


Prevalence of mild hypertension is approximately 40% in 70 years or older. Stratification of risk for evaluation of the prognosis indicates that the risk for cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases increases with accumulation of risk factors even in moderate hypertensive patients. Elderly patients already have one of risk factor, that is, age. Therefore, complication of more than one of risk factors such as smoking, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, obesity, microalbuminuria, and family history of premature cardiovascular diseases indicates that cardiovascular risk is moderate or high risk even though their category of blood pressure is mild level. Although number of current smoker and obesity decreases in elderly subjects, prevalence of these risks is still 30%. Prevalence of obesity and diabetes mellitus is similar between mild hypertension and moderate hypertension. HYVET (hypertension in the very elderly) indicates that moderate and severe hypertension should be aggressively treated even those patients are 80 years or older, but evidence of antihypertensive treatment has not been clarified. PMID:18700547

Rakugi, Hiromi



Neuropsychological function following mild exposure to pentaborane  

SciTech Connect

Neuropsychological tests and self-report personality inventories were administered to 14 workers and rescue squad personnel approximately 2 months following mild exposure to pentaborane, a highly toxic volatile liquid boron hydride. Performance decrements were evident on 5 of 11 neuropsychological tests, including Block Design and measures of sustained attention and recent memory. Neuropsychological deficits were not related to emotional changes reported on the Hopkins Symptom Checklist nor to the presence of CT scan abnormality. These results indicate mild residual brain dysfunction following pentaborane intoxication, including possible dysfunction in subcortical regions mediating memory processes and in cortical areas mediating visuo-spatial abilities.

Hart, R.P.; Silverman, J.J.; Garrettson, L.K.; Schulz, C.; Hamer, R.M.



Laboratory studies of the aqueous-phase oxidation of polyols: submicron particles vs. bulk aqueous solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxidation in the atmospheric aqueous phase (cloud droplets and deliquesced particles) has received recent attention as a potential pathway for the formation of highly oxidized organic aerosol. Most laboratory studies of aqueous-phase oxidation, however, are carried out in bulk solutions rather than aqueous droplets. Here we describe experiments in which aqueous oxidation of polyols (water-soluble species with chemical formula CnH2n+2On) is carried out within submicron particles in an environmental chamber, allowing for significant gas-particle partitioning of reactants, intermediates, and products. Dark Fenton chemistry is used as a source of hydroxyl radicals, and oxidation is monitored using a high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). Aqueous oxidation is rapid, and results in the formation of particulate oxalate; this is accompanied by substantial loss of carbon to the gas phase, indicating the formation of volatile products. Results are compared to those from analogous oxidation reactions carried out in bulk solution. The bulk-phase chemistry is similar to that in the particles, but with substantially less carbon loss. This is likely due to differences in partitioning of early-generation products, which evaporate out of the aqueous phase under chamber conditions (in which liquid water content is low), but remain in solution for further aqueous processing in the bulk phase. This work suggests that the product distributions from oxidation in aqueous aerosol may be substantially different from those in bulk oxidation experiments. This highlights the need for aqueous oxidation studies to be carried out under atmospherically relevant partitioning conditions, with liquid water contents mimicking those of cloud droplets or aqueous aerosol.

Daumit, K. E.; Carrasquillo, A. J.; Hunter, J. F.; Kroll, J. H.



Laboratory studies of the aqueous-phase oxidation of polyols: submicron particles vs. bulk aqueous solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxidation in the atmospheric aqueous phase (cloud droplets and deliquesced particles) has received recent attention as a potential pathway for the formation of highly oxidized organic aerosol. Most laboratory studies of aqueous-phase oxidation, however, are carried out in bulk solutions rather than aqueous droplets. Here we describe experiments in which aqueous oxidation of polyols (water-soluble species with chemical formula CnH2n+2On) is carried out within submicron particles in an environmental chamber, allowing for significant gas-particle partitioning of reactants, intermediates, and products. Dark Fenton chemistry is used as a source of hydroxyl radicals, and oxidation is monitored using a high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). Aqueous oxidation is rapid, and results in the formation of particulate oxalate; this is accompanied by substantial loss of carbon to the gas phase, indicating the formation of volatile products. Results are compared to those from analogous oxidation reactions carried out in bulk solution. The bulk-phase chemistry is similar to that in the particles, but with substantially less carbon loss. This is likely due to differences in partitioning of early-generation products, which evaporate out of the aqueous phase under chamber conditions (in which liquid water content is low), but remain in solution for further aqueous processing in the bulk phase. This work suggests that the product distributions from oxidation in aqueous aerosol may be substantially different from those in bulk oxidation experiments. This highlights the need for aqueous oxidation studies to be carried out under atmospherically relevant partitioning conditions, with liquid water contents mimicking those of cloud droplets or aqueous aerosol.

Daumit, K. E.; Carrasquillo, A. J.; Hunter, J. F.; Kroll, J. H.



Alumina-supported potassium permanganate: A mild, inexpensive and efficient reagent for solvent-free deprotection of thioacetals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alumina-supported potassium permanganate was found to be an efficient and mild reagent for the dethioacetalization of thioacetals 1 to the corresponding carbonyl compounds 2 under solvent-free conditions.

Abdol Hajipour; Shadpour Mallakpour; Iraj Mohammadpoor-Baltork; Hadi Adibi; Arnold Ruoho



Mildly Handicapped: Consumer Education, Secondary Level.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Selected from the National Instructional Materials Information System (NIMIS)--a computer based on-line interactive retrieval system on specil education materials--the bibliography covers 82 materials for teaching consumer education to mildly handicapped (learning disabled, emotionally disturbed, or educable mentally handicapped) students at the…

National Center on Educational Media and Materials for the Handicapped, Columbus, OH.


Educating Students with Mild Mental Retardation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the history of educating students with mild mental retardation and includes discussion of general demographic trends, contextual factors that influenced this process, assessment and instructional practices, and teacher roles and preparation. It then examines these same features currently and offers recommendations for…

Patton, James R.; Polloway, Edward A.; Smith, Tom E. C.



Mild Cognitive Impairment: Clinical Characterization and Outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results: The primary distinction between control sub- jects and subjects with MCI was in the area of memory, while other cognitive functions were comparable. How- ever, when the subjects with MCI were compared with the patients with very mild AD, memory performance was similar, but patients with AD were more impaired in other cognitive domains as well. Longitudinal performance dem-

Ronald C. Petersen; Glenn E. Smith; Stephen C. Waring; Robert J. Ivnik; Eric G. Tangalos; Emre Kokmen



Mildly Retarded Adults: Their Attitudes Toward Retardation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Responses to a 40-item questionnaire distributed to 50 mildly mentally retarded (MR) adults indicate that the majority possess accurate information about MR, hold realistic attitudes toward their own needs and abilities, and advocate community integration of the retarded. (Author/JG)

Gan, Jennifer; And Others



Neuropathologic Substrate of Mild Cognitive Impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To define the neuropathologic findings in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early Alz- heimer disease (EAD). Methods: The mean numbers of diffuse plaques, neu- ritic plaques (NPs), and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in 4 neocortical regions and 4 ventromedial temporal lobe regions were counted in 10 patients with amnestic MCI and compared with the mean numbers in 23 normal

William R. Markesbery; Frederick A. Schmitt; Richard J. Kryscio; Daron G. Davis; Charles D. Smith; David R. Wekstein



Perinatal Risk Factors for Mild Motor Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aetiology of mild motor disability (MMD) is a complex issue and as yet is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of perinatal risk factors in a cohort of 10-year-old boys and girls with (n = 362) and without (n = 1193) MMD. Among the males with MMD there was a higher prevalence of postpartum haemorrhage,…

Hands, Beth; Kendall, Garth; Larkin, Dawne; Parker, Helen



Accommodation Strategies for Mildly Handicapped Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reference handbook is the product of an Iowa Department of Education, Bureau of Special Education project entitled "Accommodation Strategies." The project attempted to: facilitate mildly handicapped students in regular education through the development and utilization of unique educational strategies; enhance cooperative endeavors between…

Keystone Area Education, Elkader, IA.


Potentiodynamic deposition of poly ( o-anisidine-co-metanilic acid) on mild steel and its application as corrosion inhibitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the first time, poly (o-anisidine-co-metanilic acid) (PASM) was deposited on mild steel substrate by electrochemical polymerization of o-anisidine and metanilic acid monomers in aqueous solution of 0.1M H2SO4. The electrochemical polymerization of o-anisidine takes place in the presence of metanilic acid monomer and uniform, strongly adherent coating was obtained on the substrate. The electroactivity of copolymer was studied by

P. Raja Kumar; D. Kalpana; N. G. Renganathan; S. Pitchumani



Effect of possible interferences on the extraction of 1-butanol from aqueous solution by the ethyl esters of soybean oil fatty acids  

SciTech Connect

The methyl, ethyl, propyl and butyl esters of vegetable and tree oils are effective solvent extractants for 1-butanol from aqueous solution. Early applications of this process will probably involve bacterial mixed solvent fermentations of relatively impure waste and low-valued carbohydrates. Two types of materials, salts and solvents, could be expected to affect the extraction of 1-butanol from such industrial fermentation systems. The effect of four salts, three alcohols, and a ketone were evaluated using factorial experiments. Variations in NaCl, Na2SO4, Na2SO3, and KHPO4 from 0 to 0.15 M on the extraction of 0.1 to 4.1% 1-butanol from aqueous solutions at 25, 40, and 55 C gave small changes in distribution coefficient. Mild in creases occurred with increasing temperature and increasing NaCl, Na2SO4, and KH2PO4. Mild decreases in 1-butanol extraction occurred with increasing Na2SO3. Variations in acetone, ethanol, and 2-propanol concentrations ranging between 0 and 4% w/v at 25, 40 and 55 C gave small changes in distribution coefficient at 1-butanol concentrations ranging between 0.1 and 4.1% w/v had little effect. A slight increase in 1-butanol extraction was observed with increasing 1-pentanol under similar conditions.

Compere, A.L.; Googin, J.M.; Griffith, W.L.



Selective extraction of metal ions from aqueous phase to ionic liquids: a novel thermodynamic approach to separations.  


The selective extraction of metals from aqueous mixtures has generally relied on the use of selective ionophores. We present an alternative strategy that exploits a recently developed approach to extraction into an ionic liquid phase, and show that a high degree of control over selectivity can be obtained by tuning the relative concentrations of extraction agents. A thermodynamic model for the approach is presented, and an experimental separation of strontium and potassium ions is performed. It is shown that tuning the concentrations of the species involved can shift the ratio of potassium to strontium in the ionic liquid phase from 4:1 to 3:4. This extraction is performed under mild conditions with relatively common reagents. The result is a proof-of-concept for a novel separations scheme that could have great importance in a wide range of technological applications. PMID:25155578

Janssen, Camiel H C; Sánchez, Antonio; Kobrak, Mark N



Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop a continuous mild gasification process to convert highly caking coals to coal liquids, char and coke for near term commercial application. Task 3, Bench-Scale Char Upgrading Study, has been underway since September 1989. In char upgrading studies, ``green`` uncured char briquettes have been prepared and calcined in 20-pound batches to evaluate the effects of char, binders, and heating conditions on final coke properties. A total of 150. formulations have been tested thus far in this work. Work on Task 4, Process Development Unit (PDU) Mild Gasification Study, has been in progress since February 1991, with the completion of a Continuous Mild Gasification Unit (CMGU) with a design rate of 1000 lb./hr. Since start-up of the CMGU, there have been 72 runs with a variety of operating conditions and coal types.

Wolfe, R.A.; Wright, R.E.; Im, C.J.; Henkelman, M.R.; O`Neal, G.W.



Reflectance of aqueous solutions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The optical properties and optical constants of water and aqueous solutions were studied to develop an accurate tabulation of graphical representations of the optical constants through a broad spectrum. Manuscripts of articles are presented concerning extinction coefficients, relative specular reflectance, and temperature effect on the water spectrum. Graphs of absolute reflectance, phase shifts, index of refraction, and extinction coefficients for water, heavy water and aqueous solutions are included.

Querry, M. R.



New aqueous magnetic fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

New aqueous magnetic fluids constituted of nickel-zinc ferrite particles are synthesized using a soft chemical approach. Ferrofluids and solid particles are characterized using several techniques : chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and magnetization measurements.The stability of the aqueous magnetic fluids is studied as a function of pH and their magnetization is measured as a function of

D. Zins; V. Cabuil; R. Massart



The ENCOAL Mild Gasification Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

The DOE plans to enter into a Cooperative Agreement with ENCOAL Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Shell Mining Company, for the cost-shared design, construction and operation of a mild gasification facility based on Liquids-from-Coal (LFC) technology. The facility is planned to be located at the Triton Coal Company's Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The mild gasification process to be demonstrated will produce two new, low-sulfur fuel forms (a solid and a liquid) from subbituminous coal. The new fuel forms would be suitable for combustion in commercial, industrial, and utility boilers. This environmental assessment has been prepared by the DOE to comply with the requirements of the NEPA. Pollutant emissions, land use, water, and waste management are briefly discussed. 3 figs., 5 tabs.

Not Available



Mild traumatic brain injury in children.  


Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) in childhood, especially those related to participation in sports and recreation activities, are receiving increased public awareness. Research is beginning to show that even mild TBIs (mTBIs) may not be mild at all, and could have serious long-term effects on the health, behavior, and cognitive abilities of children. With the development of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's TBI tools for professionals, a more evidenced and systematic way is available to help recognize and manage mTBI. New research on predictor values showing that symptoms may not be the best way to assess the severity of mTBI will help to change how mTBIs are managed in the future. PMID:24640311

Mason, Christine Narad



Electroencephalography and Mild Traumatic Brain Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter is a review and analysis of quantitative EEG (qEEG) for the evaluation of the locations and extent of injury\\u000a to the brain following rapid acceleration\\/deceleration trauma, especially in mild traumatic brain injury (TBI). The earliest\\u000a use of qEEG was by Hans Berger in 1932 and since this time over 1,600 peer reviewed journal articles have been published in

Robert W. Thatcher


A compliant tower design for mild environments  

SciTech Connect

The compliant tower type of offshore platform is a bottom-fixed structure that is basically the same as the traditional steel ``Fixed Platform.`` However, the compliant tower is intended for deepwater application and is configured to be very much more compliant. It can thereby greatly reduce the effect of waveloads. Consequently, it can provide an economical platform in much deeper water-depths than the traditional fixed platform. Over at least the past two decades, numerous variations based on the principle of compliance have been developed to greater or lesser detail. This paper describes a particular design for mild environments as typified by offshore West Africa, for example. Relative to the designs deemed appropriate for somewhat more severe environments such as the Gulf of Mexico, the structure is significantly simplified, and can achieve substantial reductions in materials. Some performance data for the mild environment design is described and discussed, with some comparisons to other environments and the conventional fixed platform. For mild environments, the compliant tower appears particularly attractive in that it can offer the safety and reliability of a fixed platform operation, combined with very significant savings in materials and construction.

Reusswig, G.H.; Nair, V.V. [Mobil Research and Development Corp., Dallas, TX (United States). Dallas E and P Engineering



Mild Cognitive Impairment and Progession to Dementia: New Findings  


... Breitner findings Mild cognitive impairment and progression to dementia: New This information is current as of January ... C.S. Breitner Mild cognitive impairment and progression to dementia: New findings This information is current as of ...


The evolution of mild parkinsonian signs in aging.  


The progression of mild parkinsonian signs in the absence of idiopathic Parkinson's disease in aging is unclear. This study aims to identify predictors of the evolution of mild parkinsonian signs in non-demented older adults. Two hundred ten participants (76.25 ± 7.10 years, 57 % women) were assessed at baseline and 1-year follow-up. Mild parkinsonian signs were defined as the presence of bradykinesia, rigidity and/or rest tremor. Depending upon the presence of these features at baseline and follow-up, participants were divided into one of four groups (no, transient, persistent or new-onset mild parkinsonian signs). Physical function was assessed using gait velocity. Ninety-five participants presented with mild parkinsonian signs at baseline. At 1-year follow-up, 59 demonstrated persistent mild parkinsonian signs, while 36 recovered (i.e., transient). Participants with persistent mild parkinsonian signs were older (79.66 ± 7.15 vs. 75.81 ± 7.37 years, p = 0.01) and evidenced slower gait velocity (90.41 ± 21.46 vs. 109.92 ± 24.32 cm/s, p < 0.01) compared to those with transient mild parkinsonian signs. Gait velocity predicted persistence of mild parkinsonian signs, even after adjustments (OR: 0.96, 95 % CI: 0.94-0.98). Fifty-five participants demonstrated new-onset of mild parkinsonian signs. In comparison to participants without mild parkinsonian signs, presence of cardiovascular but not cerebrovascular disease at baseline was associated with new-onset mild parkinsonian signs. Our study reveals that gait velocity was the main predictor of persistent mild parkinsonian signs, whereas cardiovascular disease was associated with new-onset mild parkinsonian signs. These findings suggest a vascular mechanism for the onset of mild parkinsonian signs and a different mechanism, possibly neurodegenerative, for the persistence of mild parkinsonian signs. PMID:25047763

Mahoney, Jeannette R; Verghese, Joe; Holtzer, Roee; Allali, Gilles



The new DSM-5 diagnosis of mild neurocognitive disorder and its relation to research in mild cognitive impairment.  


The Diagnostic Statistical Manual-5 (DSM-5) has included a category named the neurocognitive disorder which was formally known in DSM-IV as 'dementia, delirium, amnestic, and other cognitive disorders'. The DSM-5 distinguishes between 'mild' and 'major' neurocognitive disorders. Major neurocognitive disorder replaces the DSM-IV's term 'dementia or other debilitating conditions'. A pivotal addition is 'mild neurocognitive disorder (mNCD)' defined by a noticeable decrement in cognitive functioning that goes beyond normal changes seen in aging. It is a disorder that may progress to dementia - importantly, it may not. Presently, our understanding of mNCD is derived from research on mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Whereas there is currently no clear treatment for mNCD, many experimental therapies now and into the future will focus upon secondary prevention, namely decreasing the risk of progression to major NCD. In this article, we will focus on mNCD by reviewing the relevant literature on MCI. We will review the research on the incidence and prevalence of MCI, conversion rates from MCI to dementia, risk factors for conversion of MCI to dementia, comorbidity of MCI with other neuropsychiatric disorders (NPS), and the development of treatment strategies for neuropsychiatric disorders in MCI. The presence of NPS is common among individuals with MCI and is an important risk for progression to dementia. However, there has been little research on effective treatments for NPS in MCI. Clinicians and investigators must determine if the treatment of the NPS in mNCD will improve quality of life and help reduce the progression of the cognitive impairment. PMID:24914889

Sachs-Ericsson, Natalie; Blazer, Dan G



Sensory Profiles of Sweeteners in Aqueous Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

ŠEDIVÁ A., PANOVSK Á Z., POKORN Ý J. (2006): Sensory profiles of sweeteners in aqueous solutions. Czech J. Food Sci., 24: 283-287. Sensory profiles of saccharin, acesulfame K, aspartame, and neotame were compared with that of sucrose in three different types of water (tap water, commerical Crystalis water, and distilled water) under the conditions of the respec- tive ISO standards.



The Relationship of Mild Depression to Stress and Coping.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated relationship of mild depression, stress, and coping based on Lazarus's model of stress and coping. Examined two coping styles (problem and emotion focused), two measures of stress, and mild depression in college students (N=227). Found mildly depressed persons relied more on emotion-focused coping and experience more stress than did…

Kolenc, Koleen M.; And Others



Alexander disease with mild dorsal brainstem atrophy and infantile spasms.  


We present the case of a Japanese male infant with Alexander disease who developed infantile spasms at 8 months of age. The patient had a cluster of partial seizures at 4 months of age. He presented with mild general hypotonia and developmental delay. Macrocephaly was not observed. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings fulfilled all MRI-based criteria for the diagnosis of Alexander disease and revealed mild atrophy of the dorsal pons and medulla oblongata with abnormal intensities. DNA analysis disclosed a novel heterozygous missense mutation (c.1154 C>T, p.S385F) in the glial fibrillary acidic protein gene. At 8 months of age, tonic spasms occurred, and electroencephalography (EEG) revealed hypsarrhythmia. Lamotrigine effectively controlled the infantile spasms and improved the abnormal EEG findings. Although most patients with infantile Alexander disease have epilepsy, infantile spasms are rare. This comorbid condition may be associated with the distribution of the brain lesions and the age at onset of Alexander disease. PMID:22818990

Torisu, Hiroyuki; Yoshikawa, Yoko; Yamaguchi-Takada, Yui; Yano, Tamami; Sanefuji, Masafumi; Ishizaki, Yoshito; Sawaishi, Yukio; Hara, Toshiro



The extent of aqueous alteration in C-class asteroids, and the survival of presolar isotopic signatures in chondrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several sample return missions are being planned by different space agencies for in situ sampling of undifferentiated bodies. Such missions wish to bring back to Earth pristine samples from C-class asteroids and comets to obtain clues on solar system formation conditions. A careful selection of targeted areas is required as many C-class asteroids and periodic comets have been subjected to collisional and space weathering processing since their formation. Their surfaces have been reworked by impacts as pointed out by the brecciated nature of many chondrites arrived to Earth, exhibiting different levels of thermal and aqueous alteration. It is not surprising that pristine chondrites can be considered quite rare in meteorite collections because they were naturally sampled in collisions, but several groups of carbonaceous chondrites contain a few members with promising unaltered properties. The CI and CM groups suffered extensive aqueous alteration [1], but for the most part escaped thermal metamorphism (only a few CMs evidence heating temperature over several hundred K). Both chondrite groups are water-rich, containing secondary minerals as consequence of the pervasive alteration of their primary mineral phases [2]. CO, CV, and CR chondrite groups suffered much less severe aqueous alteration, but some CRs are moderately aqueously altered. All five groups are good candidates to find unequilibrated materials between samples unaffected by aqueous alteration or metamorphism. The water was incorporated during accretion, and was released as consequence of shock after impact compaction, and/or by mild radiogenic heating. Primary minerals were transformed by water into secondary ones. Water soaking the bodies participated in chemical homogenization of the different components [1]. Hydrothermal alteration and collisional metamorphism changed the abundances of isotopically distinguishable presolar silicates [3]. Additional instruments in the landers to identify aqueous alteration signatures could help to get samples unbiased by parent body processes. Future work in this regard could be essential to successfully getting back to Earth samples to unveil the conditions in which the solar system formed. REF: [1] Trigo-Rodriguez J.M. & Blum J. 2009. Plan. Space Sci.57,243; [2] Rubin et al. (2007) GCA 71,2361; [3] Trigo-Rodriguez J.M. & Blum J. (2009). Pub.Ast.Soc.Aust.26,289

Trigo-Rodriguez, J. M.



Increasing the Probability of Stimulus Equivalence with Adults with Mild Mental Retardation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Experiment 1, 6 adults with mild mental retardation were taught 3 overlapping conditional discriminations in a linear series structure, establishing the possibility of the emergence of 2 stimulus equivalence classes of 4 stimuli per class. Training employed balanced trial types in which the discriminative stimuli were presented in fixed pairs…

Saunders, Richard R.; McEntee, Julie, E.



Neuropsychiatric Manifestations in Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Systematic Review of the Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an etiologically heterogeneous condition that is characterized by cognitive changes without impairment of activities of daily living and insufficient to represent dementia. MCI is an important risk state for dementia. Neuropsychiatric symptoms may be present in MCI. Methods: We executed a PubMed search for articles on the neuropsychiatric manifestations in MCI and reviewed their

Liana G. Apostolova; Jeffrey L. Cummings



Organoselenium-catalyzed mild dehydration of aldoximes: an unexpected practical method for organonitrile synthesis.  


Areneselenenic acids (ArSeOH), readily generated from diaryl diselenides and H2O2 by in situ oxidation, were found to be effective and reusable catalysts for dehydration of aldoximes, leading to a practical and scalable preparation of useful organonitriles under mild conditions. PMID:24564392

Yu, Lei; Li, Hongyan; Zhang, Xu; Ye, Jianqing; Liu, Jianping; Xu, Qing; Lautens, Mark



Effects of a Mindfulness-Based Smoking Cessation Program for an Adult with Mild Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Smoking is a major risk factor for a number of health conditions and many smokers find it difficult to quit smoking without specific interventions. We developed and used a mindfulness-based smoking cessation program with a 31-year-old man with mild intellectual disabilities who had been a smoker for 17 years. The mindfulness-based smoking…

Singh, Nirbhay N.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Winton, Alan S. W.; Singh, Ashvind N. A.; Singh, Judy; Singh, Angela D. A.



Solvent engineering as a tool in enzymatic indicator development for mild high pressure pasteurization processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

When developing an indicator to detect temperature heterogeneities in a high pressure (HP) vessel, the temperature sensitivity and the broadness of the application window have to be weighed against each other. In this study, the potential of a Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ?-amylase (BAA)-based indicator for mild pasteurization conditions was evaluated. Solvent engineering was successfully used to reach two objectives: (i) to

Tara Grauwet; Iesel Van der Plancken; Liesbeth Vervoort; Marc E. Hendrickx; Ann Van Loey



Ultra-mild wear of a hypereutectic Al–18.5 wt.% Si alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Material removal rate from an automotive engine bore surface should not exceed a few nanometers per running hour. This corresponds to the ultra-mild wear (UMW) conditions. Understanding the role of the microstructure on the wear mechanisms in the UMW regime is essential for the development of lightweight automotive engines. In this work, sliding wear tests were performed on a hypereutectic

M. Chen; A. T. Alpas



Morphological and structural evolution of alpha-MnO{sub 2} nanorods synthesized via an aqueous route through MnO{sub 4}{sup -}/Mn{sup 2+} reaction  

SciTech Connect

An aqueous route through MnO{sub 4}{sup -}/Mn{sup 2+} reaction under mild conditions was used to synthesize alpha-MnO{sub 2} nanorods. The morphological and structural evolution of alpha-MnO{sub 2} nanorods during their growth were tracked by Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and BET analysis. The crystallization of alpha-MnO{sub 2} nanorods was found to proceed through three steps: (1) Amorphous or poorly ordered nuclei formed first. (2) Then hollow nanoshperes consisting of gamma-MnO{sub 2} nanorods formed via the Ostwald ripening process. (3) The hollow nanospheres broke down and the gamma-MnO{sub 2} nanorods finally transformed into the alpha-MnO{sub 2} nanorods with increasing temperature or reaction time. The phase transformation from gamma-MnO{sub 2} to alpha-MnO{sub 2} nanorods was accomplished by a short-range rearrangement of MnO{sub 6} octahedra. In addition, the performance of the MnO{sub 2} materials as a catalyst was evaluated in the aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol, showing that their catalytic activities were mainly dependent on their BET surface areas. - Graphical abstract: alpha-MnO{sub 2} nanorods were synthesized via an aqueous route through MnO{sub 4}{sup -}/Mn{sup 2+} reaction under mild conditions.

Fu Xiaobo [Nano and Advanced Materials Institute Limited, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Feng Jiyun, E-mail: kejyfeng@ust.h [Nano and Advanced Materials Institute Limited, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Wang Huan; Ng, Ka Ming [Nano and Advanced Materials Institute Limited, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)



Anomalous origin of left coronary artery from the pulmonary trunk in a mildly symptomatic adult female.  


Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary trunk, also known as Garland-Bland-White syndrome, is an extremely rare but potentially fatal congenital cardiovascular anomaly, and it often exists as an isolated condition. We hereby report an adult female who was admitted for mild chest discomfort and was accidentally diagnosed to have anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary trunk. This anomaly was simply repaired by using a bovine pericardial patch to obliterate the anomalous opening in the pulmonary trunk and a single coronary artery bypass graft. This report highlights the characteristic events of the anomaly in an adult with only mild symptoms. PMID:24224108

Tseng, Kevin Fan-Ying



Anomalous Origin of Left Coronary Artery from the Pulmonary Trunk in a Mildly Symptomatic Adult Female  

PubMed Central

Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary trunk, also known as Garland-Bland-White syndrome, is an extremely rare but potentially fatal congenital cardiovascular anomaly, and it often exists as an isolated condition. We hereby report an adult female who was admitted for mild chest discomfort and was accidentally diagnosed to have anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary trunk. This anomaly was simply repaired by using a bovine pericardial patch to obliterate the anomalous opening in the pulmonary trunk and a single coronary artery bypass graft. This report highlights the characteristic events of the anomaly in an adult with only mild symptoms. PMID:24224108

Tseng, Kevin Fan-Ying



An update of corrosion inhibitors for mild steel exposed to 32-0-0 UAN solution  

SciTech Connect

This is a continuation of corrosion studies on the effectiveness of commercial and newly-developed corrosion inhibitors for use with mild steel exposed to urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN) solution. This paper provides updated information on five newly-developed corrosion inhibitors. Tests were conducted with mild steel exposed to 32-0-0 UAN solution containing each corrosion inhibitor at ambient temperature and under static conditions. Real-time corrosion of the test specimens was monitored using AC impedance techniques. Corrosion performance of the inhibitors was evaluated based on comparison of the corrosion rate of specimens exposed to 32-0-0 UAN solution with and without a corrosion inhibitor.

Nguyen, D.T.; Nichols, D.E. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Muscle Shoals, AL (United States); Lohry, E.J. [Nutra-Flo Co., Sioux City, IA (United States)



Inorganic nitrogen reduction and stability under simulated hydrothermal conditions.  


Availability of reduced nitrogen is considered a prerequisite for the genesis of life from prebiotic precursors. Most atmospheric and oceanic models for the Hadean Earth predict a mildly oxidizing environment that is conducive to the formation and stability of only oxidized forms of nitrogen. A possible environment where reduction of oxidized nitrogen to ammonium has been speculated to occur is aqueous hydrothermal systems. We examined a suite of transition metal oxides and sulfides for their ability to reduce nitrate and nitrite, as well as oxidize ammonia, under hot (300 degrees C) high-pressure (50-500 MPa) aqueous conditions. In general, iron sulfides exhibited the most rapid and complete conversion noted, followed by nickel and copper sulfides to a much lower degree. Of the oxides examined, only magnetite exhibited any ability to reduce NO(3)(-) or NO(2)(-). Ammonium was stable or exhibited small losses (<20%) in contact with all the mineral phases and conditions tested. The results support the idea that hydrothermal systems could have provided significant amounts of reduced nitrogen to their immediate environments. The enhanced availability of reduced nitrogen in hydrothermal systems also has important implications for prebiotic metabolic pathways where nitrogen availability is critical to the production of amino acids and other nitrogenous compounds. PMID:19191539

Brandes, Jay A; Hazen, Robert M; Yoder, Hatten S



Corrosion inhibitor for aqueous ammonia absorption system  


A method is described for inhibiting corrosion and the formation of hydrogen and thus improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption refrigeration, air conditioning or heat pump system by maintaining the hydroxyl ion concentration of the aqueous ammonia working fluid within a selected range under anaerobic conditions at temperatures up to 425 F. This hydroxyl ion concentration is maintained by introducing to the aqueous ammonia working fluid an inhibitor in an amount effective to produce a hydroxyl ion concentration corresponding to a normality of the inhibitor relative to the water content ranging from about 0.015 N to about 0.2 N at 25 C. Also, working fluids for inhibiting the corrosion of carbon steel and resulting hydrogen formation and improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption system under anaerobic conditions at up to 425 F. The working fluids may be aqueous solutions of ammonia and a strong base or aqueous solutions of ammonia, a strong base, and a specified buffer. 5 figs.

Phillips, B.A.; Whitlow, E.P.



HClO 4–SiO 2 and PPA–SiO 2 catalyzed efficient one-pot Knoevenagel condensation, Michael addition and cyclo-dehydration of dimedone and aldehydes in acetonitrile, aqueous and solvent free conditions: Scope and limitations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficient one-pot Knoevenagel condensation, Michael addition and cyclodehydration of dimedone with various aldehydes in acetonitrile and solvent free conditions using PPA–SiO2 catalyst gave 1,8-dioxo-octahydroxanthenes 3 in excellent yields; whereas in the presence of HClO4–SiO2 catalyst the reaction is limited to give only 2,2?-arylmethylene bis(3-hydroxy-5,5-dimethyl-2-cyclohexene-1-one) 4 in very good yields. In aqueous medium both HClO4–SiO2 and PPA–SiO2 catalysts yielded only 4

Srinivas Kantevari; Rajashaker Bantu; Lingaiah Nagarapu



[Subsidized project of hearing aid purchase for mild-moderate hearing impaired children in Akita prefecture].  


The dissemination of newborn hearing screening has detected children with mild-moderate hearing impairment at an early age. However, there is no nation-wide welfare system for children with mild-moderate hearing impairment in Japan. Under these kinds of social conditions, a subsidized project of hearing aid purchase for mild-moderate hearing impaired children has come into force from April 2010 in Akita prefecture. All 18 candidates who applied for this project were subsidized in Akita prefecture. Eighteen children purchased their hearing aids using this subsidy. The feature of this project was that every child could have access to subsidies as long as their doctor recognized the effectiveness of hearing aids because children with hearing impairment need to learn language. They contacted the hospital, prefectural government and institutes related to hearing loss before this project come into force. We recognized parents who are raising a child with mild-moderate hearing impairment have high interest in this project. Hearing aids can represent a considerable expense for young parents who are raising a child. We encountered some children who had to give up the idea of hearing aids due to their parents' economic circumstances before this project become effective. These situations were completely avoided after this project came into being. This administrative purpose was of demonstrated value in children with mild-moderate hearing impairment. PMID:23865298

Sato, Teruyuki; Nakazawa, Misao; Takahashi, Shin; Ishikawa, Kazuo



Underdiagnosis of mild congenital disorders of glycosylation type Ia.  


Congenital disorders of glycosylation-Ia are the most frequent type of congenital disorders of glycosylation. This condition affects the nervous system as well as other organs. The estimated incidence of congenital disorders of glycosylation-Ia is higher than the number of identified cases, therefore underdiagnosis of this heterogeneous disorder is probable. Neurologic and biologic signs are hallmarks for the identification of patients with congenital disorders of glycosylation-Ia. This report describes two children with congenital disorders of glycosylation-Ia syndrome confirmed by phosphomannomutase gene mutations with normal development and absence of biologic anomalies such as elevated transaminases and altered hemostasis. In conclusion, congenital disorders of glycosylation should be considered in cases of unexplained behavioral symptoms such as hyperactivity and concentration difficulties and mild neurologic signs. Intellectual retardation is often overestimated because of dysarthria and motor difficulties. Psychomotor reeducation might improve quality of life. PMID:15664773

Giurgea, Irina; Michel, Anne; Le Merrer, Martine; Seta, Nathalie; de Lonlay, Pascale



Atomistic insights into aqueous corrosion of copper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Corrosion is a fundamental problem in electrochemistry and represents a mode of failure of technologically important materials. Understanding the basic mechanism of aqueous corrosion of metals such as Cu in presence of halide ions is hence essential. Using molecular dynamics simulations incorporating reactive force-field (ReaxFF), the interaction of copper substrates and chlorine under aqueous conditions has been investigated. These simulations incorporate effects of proton transfer in the aqueous media and are suitable for modeling the bond formation and bond breakage phenomenon that is associated with complex aqueous corrosion phenomena. Systematic investigation of the corrosion process has been carried out by simulating different chlorine concentration and solution states. The structural and morphological differences associated with metal dissolution in the presence of chloride ions are evaluated using dynamical correlation functions. The simulated atomic trajectories are used to analyze the charged states, molecular structure and ion density distribution which are utilized to understand the atomic scale mechanism of corrosion of copper substrates under aqueous conditions. Increased concentration of chlorine and higher ambient temperature were found to expedite the corrosion of copper. In order to study the effect of solution states on the corrosion resistance of Cu, partial fractions of proton or hydroxide in water were configured, and higher corrosion rate at partial fraction hydroxide environment was observed. When the Cl- concentration is low, oxygen or hydroxide ion adsorption onto Cu surface has been confirmed in partial fraction hydroxide environment. Our study provides new atomic scale insights into the early stages of aqueous corrosion of metals such as copper.

Jeon, Byoungseon; Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian K. R. S.; van Duin, Adri C. T.; Ramanathan, Shriram



Atomistic insights into aqueous corrosion of copper.  


Corrosion is a fundamental problem in electrochemistry and represents a mode of failure of technologically important materials. Understanding the basic mechanism of aqueous corrosion of metals such as Cu in presence of halide ions is hence essential. Using molecular dynamics simulations incorporating reactive force-field (ReaxFF), the interaction of copper substrates and chlorine under aqueous conditions has been investigated. These simulations incorporate effects of proton transfer in the aqueous media and are suitable for modeling the bond formation and bond breakage phenomenon that is associated with complex aqueous corrosion phenomena. Systematic investigation of the corrosion process has been carried out by simulating different chlorine concentration and solution states. The structural and morphological differences associated with metal dissolution in the presence of chloride ions are evaluated using dynamical correlation functions. The simulated atomic trajectories are used to analyze the charged states, molecular structure and ion density distribution which are utilized to understand the atomic scale mechanism of corrosion of copper substrates under aqueous conditions. Increased concentration of chlorine and higher ambient temperature were found to expedite the corrosion of copper. In order to study the effect of solution states on the corrosion resistance of Cu, partial fractions of proton or hydroxide in water were configured, and higher corrosion rate at partial fraction hydroxide environment was observed. When the Cl(-) concentration is low, oxygen or hydroxide ion adsorption onto Cu surface has been confirmed in partial fraction hydroxide environment. Our study provides new atomic scale insights into the early stages of aqueous corrosion of metals such as copper. PMID:21702575

Jeon, Byoungseon; Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian K R S; van Duin, Adri C T; Ramanathan, Shriram



Atomistic insights into aqueous corrosion of copper.  

SciTech Connect

Corrosion is a fundamental problem in electrochemistry and represents a mode of failure of technologically important materials. Understanding the basic mechanism of aqueous corrosion of metals such as Cu in presence of halide ions is hence essential. Using molecular dynamics simulations incorporating reactive force-field (ReaxFF), the interaction of copper substrates and chlorine under aqueous conditions has been investigated. These simulations incorporate effects of proton transfer in the aqueous media and are suitable for modeling the bond formation and bond breakage phenomenon that is associated with complex aqueous corrosion phenomena. Systematic investigation of the corrosion process has been carried out by simulating different chlorine concentration and solution states. The structural and morphological differences associated with metal dissolution in the presence of chloride ions are evaluated using dynamical correlation functions. The simulated atomic trajectories are used to analyze the charged states, molecular structure and ion density distribution which are utilized to understand the atomic scale mechanism of corrosion of copper substrates under aqueous conditions. Increased concentration of chlorine and higher ambient temperature were found to expedite the corrosion of copper. In order to study the effect of solution states on the corrosion resistance of Cu, partial fractions of proton or hydroxide in water were configured, and higher corrosion rate at partial fraction hydroxide environment was observed. When the Cl{sup -} concentration is low, oxygen or hydroxide ion adsorption onto Cu surface has been confirmed in partial fraction hydroxide environment. Our study provides new atomic scale insights into the early stages of aqueous corrosion of metals such as copper.

Jeon, B.; Sankaranarayanan, S. K. R. S.; van Duin, A. C. T.; Ramanathan, S. (Center for Nanoscale Materials); (Harvard Univ.); (Penn State Univ.)



ENCOAL mild coal gasification project. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

This document is the combination of the fourth quarter report (July--September 1993) and the 1993 annual report for the ENCOAL project. The following pages include the background and process description for the project, brief summaries of the accomplishments for the first three quarters, and a detailed fourth quarter report. Its purpose is to convey the accomplishments and current progress of the project. ENCOAL Corporation, has completed the construction of a mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company`s Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology developed by SMC and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin coal to produce two new fuels, Process Derived Fuel (PDF) and Coal Derived Liquids (CDL). ENCOAL submitted an application to the US Department of Energy (DOE) in August 1989, soliciting joint funding of the project in the third round of the Clean Coal Technology Program. The project was selected by DOE in December, 1989 and the Cooperative Agreement approved in September, 1990. Construction, commissioning, and start-up of the ENCOAL mild coal gasification facility was completed in June of 1992, and the project is currently in the operations phase. Some plant modifications have been required and are discussed in this report.

Not Available



Recognition memory deficits in mild cognitive impairment.  


There is no agreement on the pattern of recognition memory deficits characteristic of patients diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Whereas lower performance in recollection is the hallmark of MCI, there is a strong controversy about possible deficits in familiarity estimates when using recognition memory tasks. The aim of this research is to shed light on the pattern of responding in recollection and familiarity in MCI. Five groups of participants were tested. The main participant samples were those formed by two MCI groups differing in age and an Alzheimer's disease group (AD), which were compared with two control groups. Whereas one of the control groups served to assess the performance of the MCI and AD people, the other one, composed of young healthy participants, served the purpose of evaluating the adequacy of the experimental tasks used in the evaluation of the different components of recognition memory. We used an associative recognition task as a direct index of recollection and a choice task on a pair of stimuli, one of which was perceptually similar to those studied in the associative recognition phase, as an index of familiarity. Our results indicate that recollection decreases with age and neurological status, and familiarity remains stable in the elderly control sample but it is deficient in MCI. This research shows that a unique encoding situation generated deficits in recollective and familiarity mechanisms in mild cognitive impaired individuals, providing evidence for the existence of deficits in both retrieval processes in recognition memory in a MCI stage. PMID:22247955

Algarabel, Salvador; Fuentes, Manuel; Escudero, Joaquín; Pitarque, Alfonso; Peset, Vicente; Mazón, José-Francisco; Meléndez, Juan-Carlos



Fatigue strength evaluation of cross-tension spot weld joints of cold rolled mild steel sheet  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, cross-tension type specimens of cold rolled mild steel sheet were prepared varying the welding conditions in order to investigate the effect of welding time and current on the tensile strength and fatigue life. A decrease of 2kA from the normal current condition of 10kA caused a large amount of reduction in both the static joining strength and

Doo-Hwan Kim; Ho-Kyung Kim



Novel PTRF mutation in a child with mild myopathy and very mild congenital lipodystrophy  

PubMed Central

Background Mutations in the PTRF gene, coding for cavin-1, cause congenital generalized lipodystrophy type 4 (CGL4) associated with myopathy. In CGL4, symptoms are variable comprising, in addition to myopathy, smooth and skeletal muscle hypertrophy, cardiac arrhythmias, and skeletal abnormalities. Secondary features are atlantoaxial instability, acanthosis nigricans, hepatomegaly, umbilical prominence and metabolic abnormalities related to insulin resistance, such as diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis. Case presentation We describe a 3 year-old child of Moroccan origin with mild muscle phenotype, mainly characterized by mounding, muscle pain, hyperCKemia and mild caveolin 3 reduction on muscle biopsy. No CAV3 gene mutation was detected; instead we found a novel mutation, a homozygous single base pair deletion, in the PTRF gene. Only after detection of this mutation a mild generalized loss of subcutaneous fat, at first underestimated, was noticed and the diagnosis of lipodystrophy inferred. Conclusions The PTRF gene should be investigated in patients with hyperCKemia, mild myopathy associated with spontaneous or percussion-induced muscle contractions like rippling or mounding, and no CAV3 mutation. The analysis should be performed even if cardiac or metabolic alterations are absent, particularly in young patients in whom lipodystrophy may be difficult to ascertain. PMID:24024685



Continuous aqueous tritium monitor  


An apparatus for a selective on-line determination of aqueous tritium concentration is disclosed. A moist air stream of the liquid solution being analyzed is passed through a permeation dryer where the tritium and moisture and selectively removed to a purge air stream. The purge air stream is then analyzed for tritium concentration, humidity, and temperature, which allows computation of liquid tritium concentration.

McManus, Gary J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Weesner, Forrest J. (Idaho Falls, ID)



Aqueous Electrolyte Batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the growing interest in advanced lithium batteries, the overwhelming majority of batteries manufactured today are still based on aqueous electrolytes, mostly sulphuric acid or potassium hydroxide solution. The ubiquitous lead-acid battery is, after 150 years, still being improved as regards its design and materials of construction. Rechargeable batteries based on potassium hydroxide electrolyte have nickel oxide or silver oxide

R. M. dell



A novel method of non-violent dissolution of sodium metal in a concentrated aqueous solution of Epsom salt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new technique of non-violent and fast dissolution of sodium metal in a concentrated aqueous solution of Epsom salt (MgSO 4.7H 2O) at room temperature (RT) has been developed. The dissolution process is mildly exothermic but could be carried out even in a glass beaker in air under swift stirring condition. The reaction products consist of mixed salts of MgSO 4 and Na 2SO 4 as well as Mg(OH) 2 which are only mildly alkaline and hence are non-corrosive and non-hazardous unlike NaOH. A 50 mL solution having Epsom salt concentration of 2 M was found to give the optimal composition for disposal of 1 g of sodium. Supersaturated (>2.7 M), as well as dilute (<1.1 M) solutions, however, cause violent reactions and hence should be avoided. Repeated sodium dissolution in Epsom solution produced a solid waste of 4.7 g per g of sodium dissolved which is comparable with the waste (4 g) produced in 8 M NaOH solution. A 1.4 M Epsom solution sprayed with a high-pressure jet cleaner at RT in air easily removed the sodium blocked inside a metal pipe made of mild steel. The above jet also dissolved peacefully residual sodium collected on the metal tray after a sodium fire experiment. No sodium fire or explosion was observed during this campaign. The Epsom solution spray effectively neutralized the minor quantity of sodium aerosol produced during this campaign. This novel technique would hence be quite useful for draining sodium from fast breeder reactor components and bulk processing of sodium as well as for sodium fire fighting.

Lakshmanan, A. R.; Prasad, M. V. R.; Ponraju, D.; Krishnan, H.




PubMed Central

Human connectomes constructed via neuroimaging data offer a comprehensive description of the macro-scale structural connectivity within the brain. Thus quantitative assessment of connectome-scale structural and functional connectivities will not only fundamentally advance our understanding of normal brain organization and function, but also have significant importance to systematically and comprehensively characterize many devastating brain conditions. In recognition of the importance of connectome and connectomics, in this paper, we develop and evaluate a novel computational framework to construct structural connectomes from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data and assess connectome-scale functional connectivity alterations in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and schizophrenia (SZ) from concurrent resting state fMRI (R-fMRI) data, in comparison with their healthy controls. By applying effective feature selection approaches, we discovered informative and robust functional connectomics signatures that can distinctively characterize and successfully differentiate the two brain conditions of MCI and SZ from their healthy controls (classification accuracies are 96% and 100%, respectively). Our results suggest that connectomics signatures could be a general, powerful methodology for characterization and classification of many brain conditions in the future.

Zhu, Dajiang; Shen, Dinggang; Jiang, Xi; Liu, Tianming



Weld pool oscillation during GTA welding of mild steel  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the results are reported of a study dealing with the oscillation behavior of weld pools in the case of GTA bead-on-plate welding of mild steel, Fe 360. During welding, the weld pool was brought into oscillation by applying short current pulses, and the oscillation frequency and amplitude were measured by monitoring the arc voltage. It was found that the oscillation of the partially penetrated weld pool is dominated by one of two different oscillation modes (Mode 1 and Mode 2) depending on the welding conditions, whereas the oscillation of the fully penetrated weld pool is characterized by a third oscillation mode (Mode 3). It is possible to maintain partially penetrated weld pool oscillation in Mode 1 by choosing appropriate welding conditions. Under these conditions, an abrupt decrease in oscillation frequency occurs when the weld pool transfers from partial penetration to full penetration. Thus, weld penetration can be in-process controlled by monitoring the oscillation frequency during welding.

Xiao, Y.H.; Ouden, G. den (Delft Univ. of Tech., Delft (Netherlands). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)



Mild coal pretreatment to improve liquefaction reactivity  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work completed during the fourth quarter of a three year project to study the effects of mild chemical pretreatment on coal dissolution reactivity during low severity liquefaction or coal/oil coprocessing. The overall objective of this research is to elucidate changes in the chemical and physical structure of coal by pretreating with methanol or other simple organic solvent and a trace amount of hydrochloric acid and measure the influence of these changes on coal dissolution reactivity. This work is part of a larger effort to develop a new coal liquefaction or coal/oil coprocessing scheme consisting of three main process steps: (1) mile pretreatment of the feed coal to enhance dissolution reactivity and dry the coal, (2) low severity thermal dissolution of the pretreated coal to obtain a very reactive coal-derived residual material amenable to upgrading, and (3) catalytic upgrading of the residual products to distillate liquids.

Miller, R.L.



Proton MRS in Mild Cognitive Impairment  

PubMed Central

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a clinical syndrome operationalized for early diagnosis and treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Many individuals with MCI are at the prodromal stage of AD or other dementia. Various quantitative MR techniques that measure the anatomic, biochemical, microstructural, functional, and blood-flow changes are being evaluated as possible surrogate measures for early diagnosis and disease progression in AD. The pathology underlying MCI heterogenous, dominated by AD, cerebrovascular disease, Lewy body disease, or a mixture of these pathologies in community-based autopsy cohorts. Proton MRS metabolite markers may help identify and track etiologies that typically underlie MCI in the elderly. The role of proton MRS will especially be critical for pathophysiological processes for which a reliable biomarker does not exist such as glial and microglial activation in neurodegenerative dementia. PMID:23526756

Kantarci, Kejal



A Multicenter, Randomized Trial of Treatment for Mild Gestational Diabetes  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND It is uncertain whether treatment of mild gestational diabetes mellitus improves pregnancy outcomes. METHODS Women who were in the 24th to 31st week of gestation and who met the criteria for mild gestational diabetes mellitus (i.e., an abnormal result on an oral glucose-tolerance test but a fasting glucose level below 95 mg per deciliter [5.3 mmol per liter]) were randomly assigned to usual prenatal care (control group) or dietary intervention, self-monitoring of blood glucose, and insulin therapy, if necessary (treatment group). The primary outcome was a composite of stillbirth or perinatal death and neonatal complications, including hyperbilirubinemia, hypoglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and birth trauma. RESULTS A total of 958 women were randomly assigned to a study group — 485 to the treatment group and 473 to the control group. We observed no significant difference between groups in the frequency of the composite outcome (32.4% and 37.0% in the treatment and control groups, respectively; P = 0.14). There were no perinatal deaths. However, there were significant reductions with treatment as compared with usual care in several prespecified secondary outcomes, including mean birth weight (3302 vs. 3408 g), neonatal fat mass (427 vs. 464 g), the frequency of large-for-gestational-age infants (7.1% vs. 14.5%), birth weight greater than 4000 g (5.9% vs. 14.3%), shoulder dystocia (1.5% vs. 4.0%), and cesarean delivery (26.9% vs. 33.8%). Treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus, as compared with usual care, was also associated with reduced rates of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension (combined rates for the two conditions, 8.6% vs. 13.6%; P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS Although treatment of mild gestational diabetes mellitus did not significantly reduce the frequency of a composite outcome that included stillbirth or perinatal death and several neonatal complications, it did reduce the risks of fetal overgrowth, shoulder dystocia, cesarean delivery, and hypertensive disorders. PMID:19797280

Landon, Mark B.; Spong, Catherine Y.; Thom, Elizabeth; Carpenter, Marshall W.; Ramin, Susan M.; Casey, Brian; Wapner, Ronald J.; Varner, Michael W.; Rouse, Dwight J.; Thorp, John M.; Sciscione, Anthony; Catalano, Patrick; Harper, Margaret; Saade, George; Lain, Kristine Y.; Sorokin, Yoram; Peaceman, Alan M.; Tolosa, Jorge E.; Anderson, Garland B.



Bench-scale development of mild gasification char desulfurization. Technical report, 1 March--31 May 1994  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project is to scale up a process, developed under a previous ICCI grant, for desulfurization of mild gasification char by treatment with hydrogen-rich process-derived fuel gas at 650--760 C and 7--15 atm. The char can be converted into a low-sulfur metallurgical form coke. In the prior study, IBC-105 coal with 4.0 wt% sulfur was converted to chars with less than 1.0 wt% sulfur in a laboratory-scale batch reactor. The susceptibility of the char to desulfurization was correlated with physicochemical char properties and mild gasification conditions. Acid pretreatment of the coal prior to mild gasification was also shown to significantly enhance subsequent sulfur removal. In this study, IGT is conducting continuous bench-scale tests in a 1-lb/h fluidized-bed reactor to determine the preferred process conditions and obtain steady-state data necessary for process design and scale-up. The desulfurized chars are to be used to produce low-sulfur form coke, which will be evaluated for density, reactivity, and strength properties relevant to utilization in blast furnaces. This quarter, 2,500 g of mild gasification char was produced from untreated IBC-105 coal in the bench-scale reactor. Half of this char will be subjected to sulfuric acid treatment to enhance subsequent desulfurization. Char-producing runs were also initiated with acid-pretreated coal, which will produce about 1,250 g of char.

Knight, R.A. [Inst. of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)



Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and Diffuse Axonal Injury in Swine  

PubMed Central

Abstract Until recently, mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) or “concussion” was generally ignored as a major health issue. However, emerging evidence suggests that this injury is by no means mild, considering it induces persisting neurocognitive dysfunction in many individuals. Although little is known about the pathophysiological aspects of mTBI, there is growing opinion that diffuse axonal injury (DAI) may play a key role. To explore this possibility, we adapted a model of head rotational acceleration in swine to produce mTBI by scaling the mechanical loading conditions based on available biomechanical data on concussion thresholds in humans. Using these input parameters, head rotational acceleration was induced in either the axial plane (transverse to the brainstem; n=3), causing a 10- to 35-min loss of consciousness, or coronal plane (circumferential to the brainstem; n=2), which did not produce a sustained loss of consciousness. Seven days following injury, immunohistochemical analyses of the brains revealed that both planes of head rotation induced extensive axonal pathology throughout the white matter, characterized as swollen axonal bulbs or varicosities that were immunoreactive for accumulating neurofilament protein. However, the distribution of the axonal pathology was different between planes of head rotation. In particular, more swollen axonal profiles were observed in the brainstems of animals injured in the axial plane, suggesting an anatomic substrate for prolonged loss of consciousness in mTBI. Overall, these data support DAI as an important pathological feature of mTBI, and demonstrate that surprisingly overt axonal pathology may be present, even in cases without a sustained loss of consciousness. PMID:21740133

Browne, Kevin D.; Chen, Xiao-Han; Meaney, David F.



In Vitro Analyses of Mild Heat Stress in Combination with Antifungal Agents against Aspergillus fumigatus Biofilm  

PubMed Central

Aspergillus fumigatus biofilms still present a challenge for effective treatment in clinical settings. While mild heat stress has been introduced as a treatment for infectious diseases, the effectiveness of mild heat stress on A. fumigatus biofilm formation and antifungal susceptibility is still unknown. In the present study, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to image and quantify Aspergillus fumigatus biofilm formation under three different regimens of continuous mild heat stress: at 37, 39, and 41°C. Furthermore, fungal growth has been investigated under the above conditions in combination with antifungal drugs (amphotericin B [AMB], micafungin [MCF], and voriconazole [VOC]) at early and late stages. CLSM analysis showed that higher temperatures induce earlier germination and greater hyphal elongation but poorer polar growth and reduced biofilm thickness. In the early stage of biofilm formation, the combination of treatment at 39 or 41°C with MCF or VOC produced no visible difference in biomass formation from similar treatments at 37°C with the same drug. Interestingly, AMB treatment at 37°C inhibited early stage biofilm formation to a much greater extent than at 39 and 41°C. At the late stage of biofilm formation, the mild heat treatments at 39 and 41°C with AMB, MCF, and VOC inhibited biomass formation compared to that at 37°C. The present data show that mild heat stress has a negative regulatory effect on biofilm formation in vitro, and antifungal drug improvement with mild heat treatment at late-stage biofilm formation provides useful indications of possible effective strategies for clinical management of aspergillosis. PMID:24342649

Zeng, Rong; Li, Min; Chen, Qing; Wang, Le; Zhan, Ping; Wang, Chong; Lv, Guixia; Shen, Yongnian



Dilatant aqueous polymer solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dilatant aqueous solution of minor amounts of a high molecular weight polymer of ethylene oxide and petroleum sulfonate is useful in enhanced oil recovery. The polymer, having an average molecular weight of about 600,000 or greater, is employed with a concentration between about 0.02 and 1.5 percent by weight. A molecular weight in the range of about 400 to




Continuous aqueous tritium monitor  


An apparatus for a selective on-line determination of aqueous tritium concentration is disclosed. A moist air stream of the liquid solution being analyzed is passed through a permeation dryer where the tritium and moisture are selectively removed to a purge air stream. The purge air stream is then analyzed for tritium concentration, humidity, and temperature, which allows computation of liquid tritium concentration. 2 figs.

McManus, G.J.; Weesner, F.J.



Purification of aqueous effluents  

SciTech Connect

Raw synthesis gases produced by the gasification of coal are treated to remove tars and oils by direct and indirect cooling to produce condensate streams which are treated under high pressure viz 5 to 150 bar to rapidly separate out aqueous and organic phases. Elevated temperatures may then be used to further minimize residence time. The invention is further characterized in that the size of the separation vessels is of several orders of magnitude smaller than used in conventional ambient pressure separation procedures.

Wild, K.R.



Adsorption of dyestuff from aqueous solutions through oxalic acid-modified swede rape straw: adsorption process and disposal methodology of depleted bioadsorbents.  


Swede rape straw (Brassica napus L.) was modified by oxalic acid under mild conditions producing an efficient dye adsorbent (SRSOA). This low-cost and environmental friendly bioadsorbent was characterized by various techniques and then applied to purify dye-contaminated aqueous solutions. Equilibrium study showed that the Langmuir model demonstrated the best fit to the equilibrium data and the methylene blue (MB) adsorption capacity calculated by this model was 432mgg(-1). The adsorption process and mechanism is also discussed. To properly deal with the dye-loaded bioadsorbents, the disposal methodology is discussed and a biochar based on depleted bioadsorbents was for the first time produced and examined. This method both solved the disposal problem of contaminant-loaded bioadsorbents and produced an useful adsorbent thereafter. The study indicates that SRSOA is a promising substitute for ACs in purifying dye-contaminated wastewater and that producing biochars from contaminant-loaded bioadsorbents maybe a feasible disposal method. PMID:23612179

Feng, Yanfang; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; Wu, Yonghong; Zhou, Hui; Xue, Lihong; He, Shiying; Yang, Linzhang



Increased proNGF levels in subjects with mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer disease.  


Nerve growth factor (NGF) is critical for the regulation, differentiation, and survival of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons that degenerate in the late stage of Alzheimer disease (AD). The precursor of NGF (proNGF) is the predominant form of NGF in brain and is increased in end stage AD. To determine whether this increase in proNGF is an early or late change during the progression of cognitive decline, we used Western blotting to measure the relative amounts of proNGF protein in the parietal cortex from subjects clinically classified with no cognitive impairment (NCI; n = 20), mild cognitive impairment (MCI; n = 20), or mild to moderate AD (n = 19). We found that proNGF increased during the prodromal stage of AD. The amount of proNGF protein was 1.4-fold greater in the MCI group as compared to NCI, and was 1.6-fold greater in mild-moderate AD as compared to NCI, similar to our previous findings of a 2-fold increase in end stage AD. There was a negative correlation between proNGF levels and Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) score, demonstrating that the accumulation of proNGF is correlated with loss of cognitive function. These findings demonstrate that proNGF levels increase during the preclinical stage of AD and may reflect an early biological marker for the onset of AD. PMID:15217092

Peng, Shiyong; Wuu, Joanne; Mufson, Elliott J; Fahnestock, Margaret



A mild and efficient method for cleavage of C?N using Mg(HSO 4) 2 in the presence of wet SiO 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mg(HSO4)2 in the presence of wet SiO2 was reacted with oximes, hydrazones and semicarbazones and converts them to the corresponding carbonyl compounds in good to high yields under mild and heterogeneous conditions.

F. Shirini; M. A. Zolfigol; B. Mallakpour; S. E. Mallakpour; A. R. Hajipour; I. M. Baltork



Aqueous precursors for electrochromic tungsten oxide hydrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tungsten oxide hydrates WO3 · nH2O are formed upon the acidification of tungstate aqueous solutions. Different amorphous or crystalline phases can be obtained depending on the experimental conditions (pH, concentration, temperature). The chemical mechanisms for the formation of these hydrates are discussed and the electrochromic properties of thin films deposited from these solutions are described. Hydrogen peroxide H2O2 reacts with

J. Livage; G. Guzman



Chemical treatment of aqueous plutonium wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical precipitation processes have been used for the removal of microconcentrations of Pu (approx. 4 nM to 4 since the late 1940's; however, previous experiments have been empirically oriented. In order to provide a rational approach to the chemical treatment, aqueous Pu chemistry was reviewed to determine the species most likely to be present in alkaline conditions where chemical




Mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson disease  

PubMed Central

Background: In studies of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in Parkinson disease (PD), patients without dementia have reported variable prevalences and profiles of MCI, likely to be due to methodologic differences between the studies. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine frequency and the profile of MCI in a large, multicenter cohort of well-defined patients with PD using a standardized analytic method and a common definition of MCI. Methods: A total of 1,346 patients with PD from 8 different cohorts were included. Standardized analysis of verbal memory, visuospatial, and attentional/executive abilities was performed. Subjects were classified as having MCI if their age- and education-corrected z score on one or more cognitive domains was at least 1.5 standard deviations below the mean of either control subjects or normative data. Results: A total of 25.8% of subjects (95% confidence interval [CI] 23.5–28.2) were classified as having MCI. Memory impairment was most common (13.3%; 11.6–15.3), followed by visuospatial (11.0%; 9.4–13.0) and attention/executive ability impairment (10.1%; 8.6–11.9). Regarding cognitive profiles, 11.3% (9.7–13.1) were classified as nonamnestic single-domain MCI, 8.9% (7.0–9.9) as amnestic single-domain, 4.8% (3.8–6.1) as amnestic multiple-domain, and 1.3% (0.9–2.1) as nonamnestic multiple-domain MCI. Having MCI was associated with older age at assessment and at disease onset, male gender, depression, more severe motor symptoms, and advanced disease stage. Conclusions: MCI is common in patients with PD without dementia, affecting a range of cognitive domains, including memory, visual-spatial, and attention/executive abilities. Future studies of patients with PD with MCI need to determine risk factors for ongoing cognitive decline and assess interventions at a predementia stage. GLOSSARY aMCI-MD = amnestic multiple-domain MCI; aMCI-SD = amnestic single-domain MCI; CI = confidence interval; DSM-IV = Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition; MCI = mild cognitive impairment; MMSE = Mini-Mental State Examination; naMCI-MD = nonamnestic multiple-domain MCI; naMCI-SD = nonamnestic single-domain MCI; PD = Parkinson disease; PD-CRS = Parkinson's Disease Cognitive Rating Scale; UPDRS = Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale. PMID:20855849

Aarsland, D.; Bronnick, K.; Williams-Gray, C.; Weintraub, D.; Marder, K.; Kulisevsky, J.; Burn, D.; Barone, P.; Pagonabarraga, J.; Allcock, L.; Santangelo, G.; Foltynie, T.; Janvin, C.; Larsen, J.P.; Barker, R.A.; Emre, M.



Amine extraction of chromium(VI) from aqueous acidic solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extraction of chromium (Cr(VI)) from the aqueous acidic solution into a co-existing organic phase containing Alamine 336 (C8?C10 tertiary amine mixture) and diluent (xylene) was studied at isothermal condition (298.2 K). The distribution ratio was measured for two initial aqueous concentrations of Cr(VI), i.e. 0.019 mol\\/dm3 (1 mg\\/ml) and 0.192 mol\\/dm3 (10 mg\\/ml) against various molarities of the aqueous phase

Aynur Senol



Crystalline mesoporous K(2-x)Mn?O?? and ?-MnO? by mild transformations of amorphous mesoporous manganese oxides and their enhanced redox properties.  


Synthesis of crystalline mesoporous K(2-x)Mn8O16 (Meso-OMS-2), and ?-MnO2 (Meso-?-MnO2) is reported. The synthesis is based on the transformation of amorphous mesoporous manganese oxide (Meso-Mn-A) under mild conditions: aqueous acidic solutions (0.5 M H(+) and 0.5 M K(+)), at low temperatures (70 °C), and short times (2 h). Meso-OMS-2 and Meso-?-MnO2 maintain regular mesoporosity (4.8-5.6 nm) and high surface areas (as high as 277 m(2)/g). The synthesized mesoporous manganese oxides demonstrated enhanced redox (H2-TPR) and catalytic performances (CO oxidation) compared to nonporous analogues. The order of reducibility and enhanced catalytic performance of the samples is Commercial-Mn2O3 < nonporous-OMS-2 < Meso-Mn2O3 < Meso-OMS-2 < Meso-?-MnO2 < Meso-Mn-A. PMID:24971574

Poyraz, Altug S; Song, Wenqiao; Kriz, David; Kuo, Chung-Hao; Seraji, Mohammad S; Suib, Steven L



Electrochemical preparation and characterization of nickel and zinc-modified poly-2-aminothiazole films on mild steel surface and their corrosion inhibition performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poly-2-aminothiazole (pAT) was electrochemically synthesized on a mild steel (MS) specimen from 0.3M aqueous ammonium oxalate solution containing 0.01M 2-aminothiazole (2-AT) using cyclic voltammetry technique. The synthesized polymer film was then modified by electrodeposition of 100?gcm?2 Ni (MS\\/pAT–Ni) and Zn (MS\\/pAT–Zn) on top of the polymer surface. The surface morphologies of the polymer films were examined by scanning electron microscopy

Ramazan Solmaz; Ece Altunba? ?ahin; Gülfeza Karda?



Outcome in children with fetal mild ventriculomegaly: a case series  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mild enlargement of the lateral ventricles is associated with schizophrenia and other neurodevelopmental disorders. While it has been hypothesized that ventricle abnormalities associated with neurodevelopmental disorders arise during fetal brain development, there is little direct evidence to support this hypothesis. Using ultrasound, it is possible to image the fetal ventricles in utero. Fetal mild ventriculomegaly (MVM) has been associated with

John H Gilmore; Julia J van Tol; Hellen Lewis Streicher; Kwanna Williamson; Sherry B Cohen; Robert S Greenwood; H. Cecil Charles; Mark A Kliewer; J. Kenneth Whitt; Susan G Silva; Barbara S Hertzberg; Nancy C Chescheir



Get Well Care: Guidelines for Programs Serving Mildly Ill Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although child care programs for mildly ill children are proliferating around the country, very few states have developed regulations for these types of programs, and no states have developed standards or guidelines. Based upon this concern, a group of medical and early childhood professionals, parents, and directors of programs for mildly ill…

Montanari, Ellen Orton, Ed.


Differential Patterns of Hypoperfusion in Subtypes of Mild Cognitive Impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) pattern of three Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) sub- types was measured with SPECT in 60 patients (nineteen with an amnestic deficit, sixteen with disexecutive deficits, and twenty five with mild multidomain deficits) and compared with that of 15 healthy matched older adults. The amnestic MCI subgroup showed significant hypoperfusion in the

Paolo Caffarra; Caterina Ghetti; Letizia Concari; Annalena Venneri



A sibship with a mild variant of Zellweger syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A mild variant of Zellweger (cerebro-hepato-renal) syndrome was diagnosed in male and female siblings aged 7 and 2 years. They had mild facial dysmorphia, moderate psychomotor retardation, tapetoretinal degeneration, sensorineural deafness and hepatomegaly. Ultrastructural examination of a liver biopsy in the younger patient revealed the absence of recognizable peroxisomes. In both patients plasma levels of pipecolic acid, phytanic acid,

P. G. Barth; R. B. H. Schutgens; R. J. A. Wanders; H. S. A. Heymans; A. E. Moser; H. W. Moser; E. M. Bleeker-Wagemakers; K. Jansonius-Schultheiss; M. Derix; G. F. Nelck



Early and Differential Diagnosis of Dementia and Mild Cognitive Impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The German Dementia Competence Network (DCN) has established procedures for standardized multicenter acquisition of clinical, biological and imaging data, for centralized data management, and for the evaluation of new treatments. Methods: A longitudinal cohort study was set up for patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), patients with mild dementia and control subjects. The aims were to establish the diagnostic,

Johannes Kornhuber; Klaus Schmidtke; Lutz Frölich; Robert Perneczky; Stefanie Wolf; Harald Hampel; Frank Jessen; Isabella Heuser; Oliver Peters; Markus Weih; Holger Jahn; Christian Luckhaus; Michael Hüll; Hermann-Josef Gertz; Johannes Schröder; Johannes Pantel; Otto Rienhoff; Susanne A. Seuchter; Eckart Rüther; Fritz Henn; Wolfgang Maier; Jens Wiltfang



Threat Perception in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Early Dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia affect many aspects of emotion processing. Even though the ability to detect threat is a particularly important aspect of emotion processing, no study to date has assessed threat perception in either of these groups. The purpose of the present study was to test whether individuals with MCI (n = 38) and mild dementia (n

Julie D. Henry; Claire Thompson; Ted Ruffman; Felicity Leslie; Adrienne Withall; Perminder Sachdev; Henry Brodaty



Oxidation resistance of plasma coated and laser treated mild steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stainless steel powder was coated on mild steel substrate using plasma coating. The porous coating thus obtained was modified using laser irradiation. The oxidation behaviour of the plasma coated as well as laser treated material was studied in air at 1073 K. There was con- siderable decrease in oxidation rate of mild steel after plasma coating as expected. In addition

A. S. Khanna; R. K. Singh; Indira Gandhi



ERIC Educational Resources Information Center


Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry, Inc., New York, NY.


Cationic polymerization of vinyl monomers in aqueous media: from monofunctional oligomers to long-lived polymer chains.  


Polymer latexes are easily prepared on a multimillion ton scale in industry using free radical initiated emulsion and suspension polymerizations in water, a cheap, nonviscous, heat-controlling, and environmentally benign solvent. Until recently, researchers had done little investigation into ionic polymerization because even a small amount of water would easily deactivate the conventional catalysts used in these processes. In the last decade, however, cationic polymerization in aqueous media has emerged as a new and attractive method for controlling the polymerization reactions using mild experimental conditions. This Account reviews the current science of and future outlook for cationic polymerization of vinyl monomers in aqueous media. We particularly emphasize the design and evolution of catalytic systems and the precision synthesis of functional polymers. Early work to tailor the suspension and emulsion cationic polymerizations of reactive monomers such as p-methoxystyrene and vinyl ethers used long-chain strong acids, called INISURF for their dual roles as initiators and surfactants, and lanthanide triflates. These polymerization processes shared two main features: (i) all reactions (initiation, propagation, and termination) occurred at the particle interface; (ii) synthesized polymers have limits on their molecular weight, attributed to the "critical DP" effect, related to the entry of oligomers inside the particles as they become increasingly hydrophobic. The next generation of catalysts, named "Lewis acid-surfactant combined catalysts" (LASC), shifted the polymerization locus from the interface to the inside of the monomer droplets, allowing for the production of long polymer chains. Recently, catalytic systems based on boranes, (BF(3)OEt(2), B(C(6)F(5))(3), (C(6)F(4)-1,2-[B(C(6)F(5))(2)]), and (C(6)F(4)-1,2-[B(C(12)F(8))](2))), have shown great potential in controlling the cationic polymerization in "wet" solution, containing an excess of water relative to Lewis acid, or aqueous media of such industrially important monomers as styrene, cyclopentadiene, and even isobutylene. PMID:19957949

Kostjuk, Sergei V; Ganachaud, Francois



Cough, airway inflammation, and mild asthma exacerbation  

PubMed Central

Background: Prospective data on the temporal relation between cough, asthma symptoms, and airway inflammation in childhood asthma is unavailable. Aims and methods: Using several clinical (diary, quality of life), lung function (FEV1, FEV1 variability, airway hyperresponsiveness), cough (diary, cough receptor sensitivity (CRS)), and inflammatory markers (sputum interleukin 8, eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP), myeloperoxidase; and serum ECP) of asthma severity, we prospectively described the course of these markers in children with asthma during a non-acute, acute, and resolution phase. A total of 21 children with asthma underwent these baseline tests; 11 were retested during days 1, 3, 7, and 28 of an exacerbation. Results: Asthma exacerbations were characterised by increased asthma and cough symptoms and eosinophilic inflammation. Sputum ECP showed the largest increase and peaked later than clinical scores. Asthma scores consistently related to cough score only early in the exacerbation. Neither CRS nor cough scores related to any inflammatory marker. Conclusion: In mild asthma exacerbations, eosinophilic inflammation is dominant. In asthmatic children who cough as a dominant symptom, cough heralds the onset of an exacerbation and increased eosinophilic inflammation, but cough scores and CRS do not reflect eosinophilic airway inflammation. PMID:11919102

Chang, A; Harrhy, V; Simpson, J; Masters, I; Gibson, P



Mild coal pretreatment to improve liquefaction reactivity  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work completed during the fifth quarter of a three year project to study the effects of mild chemical pretreatment on coal dissolution reactivity during low severity liquefaction or coal/oil coprocessing. The overall objective of this research is to elucidate changes in the chemical and physical structure of coal by pretreating with methanol or other simple organic solvent and a trace amount of hydrochloric acid and measure the influence of these changes on coal dissolution reactivity. Work this quarter focused on analytical characterization of untreated and treated Wyodak subbituminous coal and Illinois {number sign}6 bituminous coal. Mossbauer spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction techniques were used to study the effect of methanol/HCl pretreatment on the composition of each coal's inorganic phase. Results from these studies indicated that calcite is largely removed during pretreatment, but that other mineral species such as pyrite are unaffected. This finding is significant, since calcite removal appears to directly correlate with low severity liquefaction enhancement. Further work will be performed to study this phenomenon in more detail.

Miller, R.L.



Mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease.  


The concept of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in the general population has received increased attention over recent years, and is associated with risk of progression to Alzheimer's disease. Within Parkinson's disease (PD), MCI (PD-MCI) is also now recognised to be relatively common, with certain subtypes predicting progression to Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD). Recently, criteria to better characterise PD-MCI and its subtypes have been produced by the Movement Disorder Society. In contrast to the population as a whole, where amnestic MCI is the most common subtype, non-amnestic PD-MCI dominates, with prominent executive and attention dysfunction. Although the pathophysiology of PD-MCI is poorly understood and encompasses both PD and non-PD pathology, it is most likely the result of a complex interaction between neurotransmitter dysfunction, synaptic pathology, protein aggregation and neuronal damage. Determining the factors that influence the progression of these pathologies in PD and the individuals at risk of ultimately developing PDD is critical for targeted intervention and drug discovery studies. Further work is required, however, to determine the significance of PD-MCI and also to validate the diagnostic criteria. This would be best delivered in the form of longitudinal studies in homogenous cohorts of PD participants, to allow prognostication and generalisation among the PD population. At the present time, no drug therapies are available for PD-MCI. Management includes screening for the disorder, excluding treatable causes of cognitive decline and cautious use of dopamine agonists and medications such as anticholinergics. PMID:23868092

Yarnall, Alison Jane; Rochester, Lynn; Burn, David John



Thermal Comptonization in Mildly Relativistic Pair Plasmas  

E-print Network

We use a Monte Carlo simulation to calculate the spectra of mildly relativistic thermal plasmas in pair balance. We use the exact integral expression for the electron-positron thermal annihilation spectrum, and provide accurate expressions for the Gaunt factors of electron-ion, electron-electron, and electron-positron thermal bremsstrahlung in the transrelativistic temperature regime. The particles are assumed to be uniformly distributed throughout a sphere, and the pair opacity is self-consistently calculated from the energy and angular distribution of scattered photons. The resultant photon spectra are compared with the nonrelativistic diffusion treatment of Sunyaev and Titarchuk, the bridging formulas of Zdziarski, and the relativistic corrections proposed by Titarchuk. We calculate allowed pair-balanced states of thermal plasmas with no pair escape which include bremsstrahlung and internal soft photons. The results are presented in the spectral index/compactness plane, and can be directly compared with observations of spectra from AGNs and Galactic black hole candidates. By comparing with X-ray spectral indices of Seyfert AGNs and compactnesses inferred from X-ray variability data, we find that the allowed solutions for pair equilibrium plasma imply that the temperatures of Seyfert galaxies are $\\lesssim 300$ keV. This prediction can be tested with more sensitive gamma-ray observations of Seyfert galaxies. We find that if the X-ray variability time scale gives an accurate measure of the compactness, pair-dominated solutions are inconsistent with the data.

J. G. Skibo; C. D. Dermer; R. Ramaty; J. M. McKinley



Sleep habits in mild cognitive impairment.  


We explored the relationship between sleep disturbances and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in community-dwelling seniors. Recent evidence suggests that sleep habits are differentially compromised in different subtypes of MCI, but the relationship between sleep disruption and MCI remains poorly understood. We gathered daily objective measures of sleep disturbance from 45 seniors, including 16 with MCI (mean age, 86.9±4.3 y), over a 6-month period. We also collected self-report measures of sleep disturbance. Although there were no differences between groups in any of our self-report measures, we found that amnestic MCI (aMCI) volunteers had less disturbed sleep than both nonamnestic MCI (naMCI) and cognitively intact volunteers, as measured objectively by movement in bed at night (F2,1078=4.30, P=0.05), wake after sleep onset (F2,1078=41.6, P<0.001), and number of times up at night (F2,1078=26.7, P<0.001). The groups did not differ in total sleep time. In addition, the aMCI group had less day-to-day variability in these measures than the intact and naMCI volunteers. In general, the naMCI volunteers showed a level of disturbed sleep that was intermediate to that of aMCI and intact volunteers. These differences in sleep disruption between aMCI and naMCI may be related to differences in the pathology underlying these MCI subtypes. PMID:24145694

Hayes, Tamara L; Riley, Thomas; Mattek, Nora; Pavel, Misha; Kaye, Jeffrey A



Characterization of the corrosion products formed on mild steel in acidic medium with N-octadecylpyridinium bromide as corrosion inhibitor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characterization of the corrosion products formed on mild steel SAE 1018 after 2 months exposure in aqueous sulfuric acid with and without corrosion inhibitor N-octadecylpyridinium bromide has been carried out by means of transmission 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The major constituent of the rust formed in this environment without corrosion inhibitor is goethite ( ?-FeOOH). The samples with N-octadecylpyridinium bromide contain rozenite and large amounts of melanterite in the corrosion layers.

Nava, N.; Likhanova, N. V.; Olivares-Xometl, O.; Flores, E. A.; Lijanova, I. V.



[Toxicity studies of mild gasification products]. [Quarterly report, October 1, 1992--December 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

Mild gasification of coal is a technology being developed by the United States Department of Energy and private industry with the hope that a cleaner method of coal use can help meet future energy needs. As the technology develops and its commercial use becomes a more viable possibility, efforts are being made to study the safety or possible toxicity of the mild gasification products. DOE and the National Institute for occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) are cooperating through an interagency agreement to examine some of these products for their genotoxic potential. NIOSH has studied the mutagenicity of several mild gasification product samples using the Ames Salmonella/microsomal assay. As reported earlier PSIS{number_sign}830331 failed to demonstrate genotoxic activity in the Ames assay under all conditions tested. Since the mild gasification products are complex mixtures, interactions between various components are likely to occur. Such interactions between various components of complex mixtures may increase or decrease genotoxic activity in short-term assays like the Ames test. Although all synergistic interactions may not be detailed, the separate analysis of those components in several classes provides a more accurate view of the genotoxicity of each component and better allows for chemical characterization of the possible mutagens in the mixture. NIOSH has performed mutagenicity studies on the subfractions of PSIS{number_sign}830331. The results of those studies are detailed in this report.

Not Available



Microscale investigations of the metal-dusting corrosion mechanism on mild steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The internal and external products from metal-dusting corrosion of a mild steel specimen have been investigated, with the\\u000a intention of further exploring the corrosion reaction mechanism. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron\\u000a microscopy (TEM) have been employed. A section of a steel tube, which had been subjected to heavily corrosive attack under\\u000a controlled conditions, was studied. Electron-transparent TEM samples

Bernd Schmid; Rolf Ødegård; John Charles Walmsley; Øystein Grong



Interleukin-2 concentration in hypothalamic structures of rats receiving peptides during mild stress.  


The number of hypothalamic IL-2-containing cells changed in rats receiving Vilon and Epithalon during mild stress (handling). The number of IL-2-positive cells in hypothalamic structures decreased 24 h after intramuscular injection of Epithalon and 2 h after intranasal administration of the test peptides. Adaptation of animals to experimental conditions prevented the decrease in the number of IL-2-positive cells in the supraoptic nucleus after intranasal administration of Epithalon. PMID:17152351

Barabanova, S V; Artyukhina, Z E; Kazakova, T B; Khavinson, V Kh; Malinin, V V; Korneva, E A



Mild copper-TBAF-catalyzed N-arylation of sulfoximines with aryl siloxanes.  


An efficient copper-TBAF-catalyzed C-N bond formation of sulfoximines with arylsiloxanes in dichloromethane at room temperature, affording the desired N-aryl sulfoximines in good to excellent yields under an oxygen atmosphere, is reported. This method complements the existing synthetic approaches due to some advantageous properties of arylsiloxanes such as availability, low toxicity, ease of handling, high stability, and environmental benignity under mild reaction conditions, thus opening a new approach to practical C-N bond formation. PMID:25142135

Kim, Jaeeun; Ok, Jinpyo; Kim, Sanghyuck; Choi, Wonseok; Lee, Phil Ho



Aqueous Foam Field Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

, don can be achimed oirh am-covered Apol?.cthyleneplastic film-covaed, wa bcna* indadon lays of ~els. The n~~rj~d~tr)'~es~ ~hi(e hmp-supported row me1 (lx2 x 0.8 aqueous foam we^ measurd to plastic 61m covcred CUMC~ geenhouscs m (3.3 6.6 x 2.6 ft, length x width x bee the &&cness of foam as to protect its nunen. stock from harsh height) was instded

Christopher Y. Choi


Wechsler Memory Scale–III Faces test performance in patients with mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the sensitivity of the Wechsler Memory Scale–Third Edition (WMS-III) Faces subtest to memory impairment associated with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In this study, Faces performance was examined in 24 MCI patients, 46 mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, and 98 elderly controls. We hypothesized that participants with diagnoses of MCI or AD would be impaired relative to

Adriana M. Seelye; Diane B. Howieson; Katherine V. Wild; Mindy Milar Moore; Jeffrey A. Kaye



Aqueous PUREX Solidification in Saltstone  

SciTech Connect

Saltstone samples prepared with simulated aqueous PUREX blended with salt solution hold tank solution meet the processing (gel time, set time, and bleed water) and compressive strength requirements for Z-Area treatment and disposal. New solvent storage tanks contain approximately 900 gallons and 10,800 gallons of the aqueous PUREX waste, respectively. The Solid Waste Division identified stabilization in Saltstone as the preferred treatment for the aqueous fraction of the PUREX waste stored.

Cozzi, A.D.



Trail making test B and brain perfusion imaging in mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease.  


The trail making test (TMT) has long been used to investigate deficits in cognitive processing speed and executive function in humans. However, there are few studies that elucidate the neural substrates of the TMT. The aim of the present study was to identify the brain regional perfusion patterns associated with performance on TMT part B (TMT-B) in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) or mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). Twenty-one patients with good TMT-B scores and 21 age- and sex-matched patients with poor TMT-B scores were selected. All 42 subjects underwent brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and the SPECT images were analyzed by statistical parametric mapping. No significant differences between good- and poor-scoring groups were found with respect to years of education, Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination scores, and scores on TMT-A. Compared to patients with good scores on TMT-B, patients with poor scores showed significant hypoperfusion in the bilateral anterior cingulate extending to the posterior region on the right side, bilateral caudate nucleus and putamen, and bilateral thalamus. Analysis of 63 AD or aMCI subjects revealed significant correlation a between regional cerebral blood flow in the right cingulate cortex and TMT-B scores. Our results suggest that functional activity of the anterior cingulate, striatum and thalamus is closely related to performance time on TMT-B. The performance time on the TMT-B score might be a promising index of dysfunction of the anterior cingulate, striatum, and thalamus among patients with aMCI or mild AD. PMID:23830931

Terada, Seishi; Sato, Shuhei; Nagao, Shigeto; Ikeda, Chikako; Shindo, Aki; Hayashi, Satoshi; Oshima, Etsuko; Yokota, Osamu; Uchitomi, Yosuke



Radio frequency radiation-induced hyperthermia using Si nanoparticle-based sensitizers for mild cancer therapy.  


Offering mild, non-invasive and deep cancer therapy modality, radio frequency (RF) radiation-induced hyperthermia lacks for efficient biodegradable RF sensitizers to selectively target cancer cells and thus avoid side effects. Here, we assess crystalline silicon (Si) based nanomaterials as sensitizers for the RF-induced therapy. Using nanoparticles produced by mechanical grinding of porous silicon and ultraclean laser-ablative synthesis, we report efficient RF-induced heating of aqueous suspensions of the nanoparticles to temperatures above 45-50°C under relatively low nanoparticle concentrations (<1?mg/mL) and RF radiation intensities (1-5?W/cm(2)). For both types of nanoparticles the heating rate was linearly dependent on nanoparticle concentration, while laser-ablated nanoparticles demonstrated a remarkably higher heating rate than porous silicon-based ones for the whole range of the used concentrations from 0.01 to 0.4?mg/mL. The observed effect is explained by the Joule heating due to the generation of electrical currents at the nanoparticle/water interface. Profiting from the nanoparticle-based hyperthermia, we demonstrate an efficient treatment of Lewis lung carcinoma in vivo. Combined with the possibility of involvement of parallel imaging and treatment channels based on unique optical properties of Si-based nanomaterials, the proposed method promises a new landmark in the development of new modalities for mild cancer therapy. PMID:25391603

Tamarov, Konstantin P; Osminkina, Liubov A; Zinovyev, Sergey V; Maximova, Ksenia A; Kargina, Julia V; Gongalsky, Maxim B; Ryabchikov, Yury; Al-Kattan, Ahmed; Sviridov, Andrey P; Sentis, Marc; Ivanov, Andrey V; Nikiforov, Vladimir N; Kabashin, Andrei V; Timoshenko, Victor Yu



Inverse Compton Scattering in Mildly Relativistic Plasma  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We investigated the effect of inverse Compton scattering in mildly relativistic static and moving plasmas with low optical depth using Monte Carlo simulations, and calculated the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect in the cosmic background radiation. Our semi-analytic method is based on a separation of photon diffusion in frequency and real space. We use Monte Carlo simulation to derive the intensity and frequency of the scattered photons for a monochromatic incoming radiation. The outgoing spectrum is determined by integrating over the spectrum of the incoming radiation using the intensity to determine the correct weight. This method makes it possible to study the emerging radiation as a function of frequency and direction. As a first application we have studied the effects of finite optical depth and gas infall on the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (not possible with the extended Kompaneets equation) and discuss the parameter range in which the Boltzmann equation and its expansions can be used. For high temperature clusters (k(sub B)T(sub e) greater than or approximately equal to 15 keV) relativistic corrections based on a fifth order expansion of the extended Kompaneets equation seriously underestimate the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect at high frequencies. The contribution from plasma infall is less important for reasonable velocities. We give a convenient analytical expression for the dependence of the cross-over frequency on temperature, optical depth, and gas infall speed. Optical depth effects are often more important than relativistic corrections, and should be taken into account for high-precision work, but are smaller than the typical kinematic effect from cluster radial velocities.

Molnar, S. M.; Birkinshaw, M.



Aqueous cleaning design presentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The phase-out of CFC's and other ozone depleting chemicals has prompted industries to re-evaluate their present methods of cleaning. It has become necessary to find effective substitutes for their processes as well as to meet the new cleaning challenges of improved levels of cleanliness and to satisfy concerns about environmental impact of any alternative selected. One of the most popular alternatives being selected is aqueous cleaning. This method offers an alternative for removal of flux, grease/oil, buffing compound, particulates and other soils while minimizing environmental impact. What I will show are methods that can be employed in an aqueous cleaning system that will make it environmentally friendly, relatively simple to maintain and capable of yielding an even higher quality of cleanliness than previously obtained. I will also explore several drying techniques available for these systems and other alternatives along with recent improvements made in this technology. When considering any type of cleaning system, a number of variables should be determined before selecting the basic configuration. Some of these variables are: (1) Soil or contaminants being removed from your parts; (2) The level of cleanliness required; (3) The environmental considerations of your area; (4) Maintenance requirements; and (5) Operating costs.

Maltby, Peter F.



Direct extraction of oil from sunflower seeds by twin-screw extruder according to an aqueous extraction process: Feasibility  

E-print Network

Direct extraction of oil from sunflower seeds by twin-screw extruder according to an aqueous the feasibility of an aqueous process to extract sunflower seed oil using a co-rotating twin-screw extruder. Aqueous extraction was carried out using whole seeds and the influence of the operating conditions on oil

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Preconditioning to mild oxidative stress mediates astroglial neuroprotection in an IL-10-dependent manner.  


Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of various brain insults, including stroke. Astroglia are the main glial cells that play a fundamental role in maintaining the homeostasis of the CNS. They are important for protection from injury and aid the brain in functional recovery after injuries. It has been shown that the brain can be prepared to withstand an oxidative stress insult by a process known as preconditioning. We used primary astroglial cell culture to investigate whether preconditioning to mild oxidative stress and glucose deprivation (OSGD) can increase both astroglia survival and neuroprotective features. We found that preconditioning astroglia to mild OSGD increases astroglial survival of a second insult through activation of the NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf-2) pathway. Moreover, we found that Nrf-2 is highly expressed in adult brain astroglia and that preconditioning to OSGD in vivo, such as in a murine model of ischemic stroke, leads to a significant increase in astroglial Nrf-2 expression. Furthermore, we discovered an increase in neuroprotection, as measured by increased neuronal cell survival, following OSGD in the presence of medium from astroglia exposed to a mild OSGD condition. Interestingly, we discovered a significant increase in astroglial secretion of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 vs. the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1? in mild vs. severe oxidative stress, respectively. We demonstrated that preconditioning astroglia to mild oxidative stress increases neuroprotection in an IL-10-dependent manner. By using tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ), a known specific activator of Nrf-2, we found that Nrf-2 can enhance IL-10 expression. Further studies of Nrf-2-mediated cellular pathways in astroglia through IL-10 may provide useful insights into the development of therapeutic interventions following oxidative stress insults such as ischemic stroke. PMID:23313057

Segev-Amzaleg, Niva; Trudler, Dorit; Frenkel, Dan



Effects of Chronic Stress on Memory Decline in Cognitively Normal and Mildly Impaired Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Objective The literature provides evidence of a strong relationship between greater stress and memory loss, but few studies have examined this relationship with both variables measured over time. The authors sought to determine the prospective association between subjective and objective measures of chronic stress and rate of memory decline in cognitively normal and mildly impaired older adults. Method This longitudinal study was conducted at a university research center and included 61 cognitively normal subjects and 41 subjects with mild cognitive impairment (ages 65–97). Fifty-two subjects were followed for up to 3 years (mean=2 years) and received repeated stress and cognitive assessments. Exclusion criteria were dementia, significant medical or psychiatric conditions, and medication use (e.g., corticosteroids) that might affect cortisol level or cognitive functioning. The main outcome measure was a regression-based slope reflecting performance change on tests of global cognition and episodic memory as a function of baseline diagnosis, recent life events, and salivary cortisol. Examiners were blind to stress ratings and cortisol levels at the time of cognitive testing. Results Higher event-based stress ratings collected over the follow-up period were associated with faster cognitive decline in subjects with mild cognitive impairment but not in cognitively normal subjects. In contrast, higher cortisol levels were associated with slower cognitive decline in subjects with mild cognitive impairment but not in cognitively normal subjects. Conclusions Chronic stress affects cognitive functioning differently in cognitively normal subjects and those with mild cognitive impairment. Cortisol, while likely to have neurotoxic effects over time, may enhance cognitive functioning in older adults compromised by existing cognitive deficits. PMID:19755573

Peavy, Guerry M.; Salmon, David P.; Jacobson, Mark W.; Hervey, Aaron; Gamst, Anthony C.; Wolfson, Tanya; Patterson, Thomas L.; Goldman, Sherry; Mills, Paul J.; Khandrika, Srikrishna; Galasko, Douglas



Study on the genotoxicity of 13 mild coal gasification products  

SciTech Connect

Mild gasification of coal is a technology being developed by the United States Department of Energy and private industry with the hope that a cleaner use of coal can help meet future energy needs. The mutagenicity of 13 gasification product samples from various coal mine sources, with different processing conditions and boiling point ranges, was studied using bacteria. The results show that 9 of the 13 composite samples displayed mutagenic activity in the Ames assay. Six mutagenic samples were further fractionated into basic, acidic nonpolar and polar neutral subfractions. All samples displayed mutagenic activity in the Ames assay with S9 in the nonpolar neutral subfraction. Five mutagenic samples were also tested for genotoxicity in three mammalian cell assays. None of the samples tested caused gene mutations in Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79) cells in the HGPRT assay system. However, all five samples were found to induce micronuclei and sister chromatid exchange in V79 cells. Chemical characterization of the subfractions indicates that the nonpolar neutral subfractions contain aromatic hydrocarbons. These compounds may be responsible for the genotoxic activity of samples.

Zhong, B.Z.; Robbins, S.; Bryant, D.; Ong, T. [National Institute for Occupational and Health, Morgantown, WV (United States); Ma, J. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)



Organic acids enhance halogen activation on mildly acidic water surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iodine species of marine origin are ubiquitous in the marine boundary layer (MBL). They are found over the open ocean (even in the absence of biogenic sources), the Antarctic coast, in rain, aerosols, ice, and snow, and participate in HOx/NOx cycles in the MBL. Surface-active organic acids coating the surface marine microlayer (SML) and marine aerosols could affect their chemical/physical properties. Recent field measurements show that organic acids represent ˜50% of the mass of fog waters collected in the US Gulf Coast. Here we report that I2(g) emissions from the heterogeneous reactions of O3(g) with I- (aq) are dramatically enhanced in the presence of surface-active organic acids under mildly acidic condition that are typical of fine marine aerosols. The amphiphilic weak carboxylic acids appear to promote I2(g) emissions by donating the interfacial protons more efficiently than water itself. We infer that the organic acids coating aerosol particles ejected from ocean's surface films could enhance I2(g) production in the MBL.

Hayase, S.; Enami, S.; Yabushita, A.; Kawasaki, M.; Hoffmann, M. R.; Colussi, A. J.



Mild cognitive impairment: advantages of a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment.  


Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) could be an auspicious candidate for an early marker of a beginning dementia. However, although MCI is accepted as a heterogeneous condition by now, performance testing or diagnosis is often based on a limited number of cognitive tests. Furthermore, there is still disagreement about the necessity to include subjective cognitive complaints as a diagnostic criterion. The current study intends to examine the character of MCI when diagnosis is based upon multiple cognitive domains and does not require the presence of subjective complaints. 130 subjects from the HelMA (Helmholtz Alliance for Mental Health in an Ageing Society) longitudinal study completed a comprehensive neuropsychological test-battery and were diagnosed as either normally-ageing controls or patients with MCI. The prevalence rate of MCI was as high as 46.2%, hereby exceeding most estimates of other studies. Patients with MCI performed worse than controls in each of the 29 administered tests with memory being the predominant impaired cognitive domain. Surprisingly, there was no single patient with a purely non-amnestic impairment, considerably contradicting hitherto existing studies. The rather different distribution of impairment and prevalence rate emphasizes the demand of testbatteries including all cognitive domains so that inferences about MCI are as all-encompassing as possible. PMID:22746244

Drexler, E I; Voss, B; Amunts, K; Schneider, F; Habel, U



Tract-Based Spatial Statistics: Application to Mild Cognitive Impairment  

PubMed Central

Rationale and Objectives. The primary objective of the current investigation was to characterize white matter integrity in different subtypes of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) using tract-based spatial statistics of diffusion tensor imaging. Materials and Methods. The study participants were divided into 4 groups of 30 subjects each as follows: cognitively healthy controls, amnestic MCI, dysexecutive MCI, and Alzheimer's disease (AD). All subjects underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment, apolipoprotein E genotyping, and 3-tesla MRI. The diffusion tensor was reconstructed and then analyzed using tract-based spatial statistics. The changes in brain white matter tracts were also examined according to the apolipoprotein E ?4 status. Results. Compared with controls, amnestic MCI patients showed significant differences in the cerebral white matter, where changes were consistently detectable in the frontal and parietal lobes. We found a moderate impact of the apolipoprotein E ?4 status on the extent of white matter disruption in the amnestic MCI group. Patients with AD exhibited similar but more extensive alterations, while no significant changes were observed in dysexecutive MCI patients. Conclusion. The results from this study indicate that amnestic MCI is the most likely precursor to AD as both conditions share significant white matter damage. By contrast, dysexecutive MCI seems to be characterized by a distinct pathogenesis. PMID:24900978

Wai, Yau-Yau; Hsu, Wen-Chuin; Fung, Hon-Chung; Lee, Jiann-Der; Chan, Hsiao-Lung; Tsai, Ming-Lun; Lin, Yu-Chun; Wu, Yih-Ru; Ying, Leslie; Wang, Jiun-Jie



Mild cognitive impairment in adult: A neuropsychological review  

PubMed Central

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is associated with an increased risk of developing dementia. This is clinically relevant overt dementia can be prevented if treatment strategies are devised for MCI. Neuropsychological deficits in this condition are very common and are important clinically for treatment and outcomes. We aimed to review various neuropsychological deficits in MCI. Further, we have presented the current evidence for nosological status, neuroanatomical basis, and clinical outcome of this heterogeneous construct. All published papers on the topic of neuropsychological deficits in MCI on Medline and other databases were reviewed. A wide range of memory and executive function deficits are common in MCI patients. However, several studies are limited by either improper designs or inadequate sample sizes. Several neuropsychological impairments like memory function and executive functions can be diagnosed in MCI. The evidence base for the exact neuroanatomical basis of MCI is not robust yet. However, given the wide range of outcomes, controversies and debates exist regarding the nosological significance of the deficits. Hence, more studies are needed to specifically locate the impairments and further delineate the construct of MCI. PMID:24101808

Yanhong, Ouyang; Chandra, Mina; Venkatesh, D.



Progression to vascular dementia of patients with mild cognitive impairment: relevance of mild parkinsonian signs.  


Mild parkinsonian signs (MPS) may be found among patients presenting with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), but few data are available about the relation of these signs with the prospective risk for dementia. Our retrospective investigation considered a case-series of 119 MCI subjects followed over a three-year period: their baseline clinical picture has been analyzed in search of correlation between the cognito-motor profile and the final diagnosis. The population included 66 patients with amnesic MCI and 53 with an involvement of other cognitive areas (nonamnesic MCI). MPS were detected in 22 subjects (18.5%). At the first observation, MPS cases showed an higher frequency of nonamnesic MCI and more pronounced deficits at the Trail Making Test (p < 0.05). After a three-year follow-up, 48 patients had converted to dementia. The presence of MPS at the baseline evaluation was significantly related to the development of a vascular-type dementia. The study investigates the association between MPS and MCI and might indicate for these cases a greater risk for an involvement of executive functions and the subsequent development of vascular dementia. PMID:19337467

Mauri, Marco; Corbetta, Simona; Pianezzola, Cristina; Ambrosoni, Elena; Riboldazzi, Giulio; Bono, Giorgio



Progression to vascular dementia of patients with mild cognitive impairment: relevance of mild parkinsonian signs  

PubMed Central

Mild parkinsonian signs (MPS) may be found among patients presenting with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), but few data are available about the relation of these signs with the prospective risk for dementia. Our retrospective investigation considered a case-series of 119 MCI subjects followed over a three-year period: their baseline clinical picture has been analyzed in search of correlation between the cognito-motor profile and the final diagnosis. The population included 66 patients with amnesic MCI and 53 with an involvement of other cognitive areas (nonamnesic MCI). MPS were detected in 22 subjects (18.5%). At the first observation, MPS cases showed an higher frequency of nonamnesic MCI and more pronounced deficits at the Trail Making Test (p < 0.05). After a three-year follow-up, 48 patients had converted to dementia. The presence of MPS at the baseline evaluation was significantly related to the development of a vascular-type dementia. The study investigates the association between MPS and MCI and might indicate for these cases a greater risk for an involvement of executive functions and the subsequent development of vascular dementia. PMID:19337467

Mauri, Marco; Corbetta, Simona; Pianezzola, Cristina; Ambrosoni, Elena; Riboldazzi, Giulio; Bono, Giorgio



Reduction of antitumour mitosenes in non-aqueous and aqueous environment. An electron spin resonance and cyclic voltammetry study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical reduction of mitosenes under aerobic conditions in DMSO showed characteristic ESR signals of the mitosene derived semiquinone free radicals. However, these signals diminished strongly upon addition of water to the reaction mixture, indicating a short lifetime of the mitosene semiquinone free radicals under aqueous conditions. In addition, enzymatic one-electron reduction of these mitosenes with either xanthine oxidase or purified

Marc Maliepaard; Mol de Nico J; Lambert H. M. Janssen; Arnold R. Goeptar; Johan M. Te Koppele; Nico P. E. Vermeulen; Willem Verboom; David N. Reinhoudt



Mild pyrolysis of selectively oxidized coals. [Quarterly] technical report, March 1, 1992--May 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this study is to investigate the removal organic sulfur from selectively oxidized Illinois coals using mild thermal/chemical processes. Work completed this quarter primarily concerned the investigation of the desulfurization of the selectively oxidized coals using aqueous or alcoholic base mixtures. Model compound studies were initiated. Results were: Levels of desulfurization obtained in this study are at, or very close to, the 90% removal levels required for these coals to be in compliance with the Clean Air Act legislation; Up to 89.4% of the sulfur in the IBC 101 coal and 88.9% of the sulfur in the IBC 106 coal has been removed by combining selective oxidation and alcoholic/base reactions; Overall, selective oxidation pretreatment always led to a lower sulfur product than the untreated sample; Substantial enhancement in the reactivity of the sulfur in the coal has been achieved by the selective oxidation pretreatment; The highest levels of desulfurization obtained so far all involve bases as additives; The water/Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} combination, was superior than any of the aqueous hydroxide bases. Possible synergistic interactions between the alcohol and the base are suspected. Over 70% of the sulfur in the IBC 101 coal can be removed by performing vacuum pyrolysis on the selectively oxidized coal. Lower sulfur contents are obtained by lowing the pyrolysis pressure.

Hippo, E.J.; Palmer, S.R.



Non-aqueous electrochemical cell  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a non-aqueous electrochemical cell. It comprises: an anode, a cathode and a non-aqueous electrolyte, the anode comprising a substrate having a mixture of at lease two elements selected from the group consisting of sodium, potassium, cesium and rubidium, and the anode having a skin or coating of an alkali metal.

Cipriano, R.A.



Stability of an aqueous quadrupole micro-trap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recently demonstrated functionality of an aqueous quadrupole micro- or nano-trap opens a new avenue for applications of Paul traps, like confinement of a charged biomolecule which requires a water environment for its chemical stability. Besides the strong viscosity forces, the motion of a charged particle in the aqueous trap is subject to dielectrophoretic and electrophoretic forces. In this study, we describe the general conditions for stability of a charged particle in an aqueous quadrupole trap. We find that for typical micro-trap parameters, the effects of both dielectrophoresis and electrophoresis significantly influence the trap stability. In particular, an aqueous quadrupole trap could play the role of a synthetic virtual nanopore for the third generation of DNA sequencing technology.

Park, Jae Hyun; Krsti?, Predrag S.



Plasmon-driven sequential chemical reactions in an aqueous environment  

PubMed Central

Plasmon-driven sequential chemical reactions were successfully realized in an aqueous environment. In an electrochemical environment, sequential chemical reactions were driven by an applied potential and laser irradiation. Furthermore, the rate of the chemical reaction was controlled via pH, which provides indirect evidence that the hot electrons generated from plasmon decay play an important role in plasmon-driven chemical reactions. In acidic conditions, the hot electrons were captured by the abundant H+ in the aqueous environment, which prevented the chemical reaction. The developed plasmon-driven chemical reactions in an aqueous environment will significantly expand the applications of plasmon chemistry and may provide a promising avenue for green chemistry using plasmon catalysis in aqueous environments under irradiation by sunlight. PMID:24958029

Zhang, Xin; Wang, Peijie; Zhang, Zhenglong; Fang, Yurui; Sun, Mengtao



Chronic mild stress eliminates the neuroprotective effect of Copaxone after CNS injury  

PubMed Central

Copolymer (Cop)-1, also known as glatiramer acetate, is an active compound of Copaxone, a drug widely used by patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Copaxone functions in MS through two mechanisms of action, namely immunomodulation and neuroprotection. Because the immune system is suppressed or altered in depressed individuals, and since depression is often associated with neurological conditions, we were interested in examining whether the neuroprotective effect of Copaxone persists under conditions of stress-induced depressive behavior. We exposed mice to unpredictable chronic mild stress for 4 weeks and then treated them with three doses of Copaxone at 3-day intervals, with the last dose given immediately before the mice underwent a crush injury to the optic nerve. Whereas nonstressed mice exhibited a strong neuroprotective response after Copaxone treatment, this effect was completely absent in mice that underwent chronic mild stress. Interestingly, when Copaxone was combined with Prozac, the neuroprotective effect of Copaxone was regained, suggesting that chronic mild stress interferes with the neuroprotective effect of Copaxone. These results may shed a light on mechanism of action of Copaxone and lead to new combined therapies for neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory disorders. PMID:23295266

Smirnov, Igor; Walsh, James T.; Kipnis, Jonathan



Clinical and radiological assessment of a family with mild brachydactyly type A1: the usefulness of metacarpophalangeal profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The brachydactylies are a group of conditions in which various subtypes have been defined based upon the specific pattern of digital bones involved. Type A1 brachydactyly is principally characterised by maximal involvement of the middle phalanges. We report an extended family with a mild brachydactyly A1 which was, except for some short stature, not associated with any of the additional

C M Armour; D E Bulman; A G W Hunter



Mild and General Palladium-Catalyzed Synthesis of Methyl Aryl Ethers Enabled by the Use of a Palladacycle Precatalyst  

PubMed Central

A general method for the Pd-catalyzed coupling of methanol with (hetero)aryl halides is described. The reactions proceed under mild conditions with a wide range of aryl and heteroaryl halides to give methyl aryl ethers in high yield. PMID:23883393

Cheung, Chi Wai; Buchwald, Stephen L.



A mild and efficient method for preparation of azides from alcohols using acidic ionic liquid [H-NMP]HSO 4  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report here an efficient method for the synthesis and characterization of [H-NMP]HSO4 and its application as an efficient catalyst and solvent for preparation of azides from corresponding alcohols under mild conditions. This processor showed high chemoselectivity for conversion of various alcohols to their corresponding azides.

Abdol R. Hajipour; Asiyeh Rajaei; Arnold E. Ruoho



Mild and general palladium-catalyzed synthesis of methyl aryl ethers enabled by the use of a palladacycle precatalyst.  


A general method for the Pd-catalyzed coupling of methanol with (hetero)aryl halides is described. The reactions proceed under mild conditions with a wide range of aryl and heteroaryl halides to give methyl aryl ethers in high yield. PMID:23883393

Cheung, Chi Wai; Buchwald, Stephen L



Effects of Concept Mapping Instruction on the Vocabulary Acquisition Skills of Seventh-Graders with Mild Disabilities: A Replication Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present investigation replicates and extends an earlier study comparing 2 conditions, a dictionary approach versus a concept mapping model, on the learning of vocabulary words among 4 students with mild disabilities (i.e., emotional and/or behavioral disorders and other health impairments) attending a middle school. An A-B-A-B design was used…

Palmer, Jessica; Boon, Richard T.; Spencer, Vicky G.



Pink Eye: Usually Mild and Easy to Treat  


... Submit What's this? Submit Button CDC Features Pink Eye: Usually Mild and Easy to Treat Language: English ... reddish color. What Are the Symptoms of Pink Eye? The signs and symptoms of pink eye may ...


ADHD Symptoms in Children With Mild Intellectual Disability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:To determine whether the nature and correlates of attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms are different in subjects with mild intellectual disability (ID) compared to subjects with average ability.




Late Postpartum HELLP Syndrome 60 Hours after Delivery Associated with Mild Pre-eclampsia  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this report is to present a case of mild Pre-eclampsia which was complicated with postpartum HELLP syndrome. A 25-years-old pregnant woman with mild Pre-eclampsia at 36 weeks of gestation was admitted to our clinic with uterine contractions. A caesarean section was performed, due to her previous caesarean section history. Postpartum period was uneventful until the 2nd day after the caesarean section. Epigastric pain, nausea and vomiting appeared two days after her delivery. In evaluation of the case, laboratory findings which were associated with HELLP syndrome were found to include haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet counts. The general condition and laboratory findings of the case returned to normal with supportive and steroid treatment after 3 days. It should be noted that HELLP syndrome can develop in the postpartum period. Therefore, caution should be exercised in patients with pre-eclampsia, for the development of the postpartum HELLP syndrome. PMID:24551706

Cakmak, Bulent; Toprak, Muhammet; Nacar, Mehmet Can; Karatas, Ahmet



A Nationwide Survey of Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia, Including Very Mild Dementia, in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

An increasing population of dementia patients produces substantial societal impacts. We assessed the prevalence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and all-cause dementia, including very mild dementia (VMD), in Taiwan. In a nationwide population-based cross-sectional survey, participants were selected by computerized random sampling from all 19 Taiwan counties and were enrolled between December 2011 and March 2013. Cases were identified through in-person interviews based on the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer’s Association clinical criteria. Demographic data and histories involving mental status and function in daily living were collected. The principal objective assessments were the Taiwanese Mental Status Examination and Clinical Dementia Rating. In all, 10,432 people aged 65 years or older (mean age 76.2±6.7, 52.3% women) were interviewed. The age-adjusted prevalence of all-cause dementia was 8.04% (95% CI 7.47–8.61), including a 3.25% (95% CI 2.89–3.61) prevalence of VMD; that of MCI was 18.76% (95% CI 17.91–19.61). Women had a higher prevalence than men of both all-cause dementia (9.71% vs. 6.36%) and MCI (21.63% vs. 15.57%). MCI affects a considerable portion of the population aged 65 and above in Taiwan. The inclusion of VMD yields dementia prevalence rates higher than those previously reported from Taiwan. Old age, female gender, and a low educational level are significant associated factors. PMID:24940604

Sun, Yu; Lee, Huey-Jane; Yang, Shu-Chien; Chen, Ta-Fu; Lin, Ker-Neng; Lin, Chung-Chih; Wang, Pei-Ning; Tang, Li-Yu; Chiu, Ming-Jang



Aqueous solution synthesis of Pt-M (M = Fe, Co, Ni) bimetallic nanoparticles and their catalysis for the hydrolytic dehydrogenation of ammonia borane.  


Platinum-based bimetallic nanocatalysts have attracted much attention due to their high-efficiency catalytic performance in energy-related applications such as fuel cell and hydrogen storage, for example, the hydrolytic dehydrogenation of ammonia borane (AB). In this work, a simple and green method has been demonstrated to successfully prepare Pt-M (M = Fe, Co, Ni) NPs with tunable composition (nominal Pt/M atomic ratios of 4:1, 1:1, and 1:4) in aqueous solution under mild conditions. All Pt-M NPs with a small size of 3-5 nm show a Pt fcc structure, suggesting the bimetallic formation (alloy and/or partial core-shell), examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analysis. The catalytic activities of Pt-M NPs in the hydrolytic dehydrogenation of AB reveal that Pt-Ni NPs with a ratio of 4:1 show the best catalytic activity and even better than that of pure Pt NPs when normalized to Pt molar amount. The Ni oxidation state in Pt-Ni NPs has been suggested to be responsible for the corresponding catalytic activity for hydrolytic dehydrogenation of AB by XAFS study. This strategy for the synthesis of Pt-M NPs is simple and environmentally benign in aqueous solution with the potential for scale-up preparation and the in situ catalytic reaction. PMID:25058566

Wang, Shuai; Zhang, Duo; Ma, Yanyun; Zhang, Hui; Gao, Jing; Nie, Yuting; Sun, Xuhui



Photolysis of oxyfluorfen in aqueous methanol.  


Photolysis of oxyfluorfen, an herbicide of the nitrodiphenyl ether class, was studied in aqueous methanol under UV and sunlight. UV irradiation was carried out in a borosilicate glass photoreactor (containing 250 ppm oxyfluorfen in 50% aqueous methanol) equipped with a quartz filter and 125 watt mercury lamp (maximum output 254 nm) at 25 ± 1°C. Sunlight irradiation was conducted at 28 ± 1°C in borosilicate Erlenmeyer flasks containing 250 ppm oxyfluorfen in 50% aqueous methanol. The samples from both the irradiated conditions were withdrawn at a definite time interval and extracted to measure oxyfluorfen content by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector for rate study. The half-life values were 20 hours and 2.7 days under UV and sunlight exposure, respectively. Photolysis of oxyfluorfen yielded 13 photoproducts of which three were characterized by infrared spectrophotometer and (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The rest of the photoproducts were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and thin layer chromatography (TLC). An ionization potential 70 eV was used for electron impact-mass spectrometry (EI-MS) and methane was used as reagent gas for chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (CI-MS). Two of the photoproducts were also synthesized for comparison. The main phototransformation pathways of oxyfluorfen involved nitro reduction, dechlorination, and hydrolysis as well as nucleophiles displacement reaction. PMID:23998303

Chakraborty, Subhasish K; Chakraborty, Savitri; Bhattacharyya, Anjan; Chowdhury, Ashim



Recent results on aqueous electrolyte cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The improved safety of aqueous electrolytes makes aqueous lithium-ion batteries an attractive alternative to commercial cells utilizing flammable and expensive organic electrolytes. Two important issues relating to their use have been addressed in this work. One is the extension of the usable voltage range by the incorporation of lithium salts, and the other is the investigation of a useful negative electrode reactant, LiTi2(PO4)3. The electrochemical stability of aqueous lithium salt solutions containing two lithium salts, LiNO3 and Li2SO4, has been characterized using a constant current technique. In both cases, concentrated solutions had effective electrolyte stability windows substantially greater than that of pure water under standard conditions. At an electrolyte leakage current of 10 ?A cm-2 between two platinum electrodes in 5 M LiNO3 the cell voltage can reach 2.0 V, whereas with a leakage current of 50 ?A cm-2 it can reach 2.3 V. LiTi2(PO4)3 was synthesized using a Pechini method and cycled in pH-neutral Li2SO4. At a reaction potential near the lower limit of electrolyte stability, an initial discharge capacity of 118 mAh g-1 was measured at a C/5 rate, while about 90% of this discharge capacity was retained after 100 cycles. This work demonstrates that it is possible to have useful aqueous electrolyte lithium-ion batteries using the LiTi2(PO4)3 anode with cell voltages of 2 V and above.

Wessells, Colin; Huggins, Robert A.; Cui, Yi



Aqueous chemical wash compositions  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an aqueous, substantially unfoamed chemical wash composition having properties making it suitable for use as a pre-flush in well cementing operations and/or for removal of drilling mud from a borehole at a temperature of from about 150/sup 0/F to about 270/sup 0/F, the wash a. being predominantly composed of water, b. containing an active surfactant component comprising a combination of (1) from about 0.1 to about 1.5 weight percent (total weight basis) of a water soluble anionic surfactant; (2) from about 0.1 to about 1.5 weight percent (total weight basis) of a nonionic surfactant; and (3) from about 0.05 to about 0.54 weight percent (total weight basis) of at least one water soluble amphoteric surfactant, and c. having dispersed therein a heterogeneous mixture of distinct particles comprising both a first particulate oil soluble resin which is friable and a second particulate oil soluble resin which is pliable and where the size of the friable resin particles ranges from about 0.5 to about 300 microns and the size of the pliable resin particles ranges from about 0.05 to about 30 microns. The amount of the friable-pliable resin mixture is sufficient to impart effective fluid loss control to the chemical wash composition.

Bannister, C.E.



Apoptotic and behavioral sequelae of mild brain trauma in mice.  


Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a not uncommon event in adolescents and young adults. Although it does not result in clear morphological brain defects, it is associated with long-term cognitive, emotional, and behavioral problems. Herein, we characterized the biochemical and behavioral changes associated with experimental mTBI in mice that may act as either targets or surrogate markers for interventional therapy. Specifically, mTBI was induced by 30-g and 50-g weight drop, and at 8 and 72 hr thereafter markers of cellular apoptosis-caspase-3, Bax, apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), and cytochrome-c (Cyt-c)-were quantified by Western blot analysis in hippocampus ipsilateral to the impact. Levels of amyloid-beta precursor protein (APP) were also measured, and specific behavioral tests-passive avoidance, open field, and forced swimming (Porsolt) paradigms-were undertaken to assess learning, emotionality, and emotional memory. In the absence of hemorrhage or infarcts, as assessed by triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining, procaspase-3 and Bax levels were markedly altered following mTBI at both times. No cleaved caspase-3 was detected, and levels of AIF and Cyt-c, but not APP, were significantly changed at 72 hr. Mice subjected to mTBI were indistinguishable from controls by neurological examination at 1 and 24 hr, and by passive avoidance/open field at 72 hr, but could be differentiated in the forced swimming paradigm. In general, this model mimics the diffuse effects of mTBI on brain function associated with the human condition and highlights specific apoptotic proteins and a behavioral paradigm as potential markers for prospective interventional strategies. PMID:17243171

Tweedie, David; Milman, Anat; Holloway, Harold W; Li, Yazhou; Harvey, Brandon K; Shen, Hui; Pistell, Paul J; Lahiri, Debomoy K; Hoffer, Barry J; Wang, Yun; Pick, Chaim G; Greig, Nigel H



Hydrodynamics of aqueous humor outflow  

E-print Network

Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is a leading cause of irreversible blindness resulting from elevated intraocular pressure caused by a pathologic increase in the resistance to aqueous humor outflow from the eye. Currently, ...

Overby, Darryl Ray, 1974-



Experimental study of the effect of gas nature on plasma arc cutting of mild steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is devoted to the experimental investigation of arc cutting of mild steel using plasmas generated in gas and liquid media. Due to different chemical compositions, the examined media have different thermophysical properties, which affect the properties of the generated plasma and cutting performance. The experiments are performed on 15 mm mild steel plates using commercial equipment at 60 A to approach real operation conditions in application areas. The studied gases are chosen according to recommendations of the world's leading manufacturers of arc cutting equipment for mild steel. Specific differences between plasma gases are discussed from the point of view of properties of the gas and the generated plasma, amount of removed material, kerf shape and overall energy balance of the cutting process. The paper describes the role of exothermic reaction of iron oxidation for oxygen cutting and explains its neglect for liquid cutting. This paper explains the potential of facilitating the cutting process by modification of the plasma gas chemical composition and flow rate.

Kavka, T.; Mašláni, A.; Hrabovský, M.; K?enek, P.; Stehrer, T.; Pauser, H.



Industrial market assessment of the products of mild gasification: Final report  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this study is to determine the best available conditions, in terms of market volumes and prices, for the products from a mild gasification facility. A process feasibility study will then have to determine the cost of building and operating a facility to make those products. The study is presented as a summary of the options available to a coal producer for creating added product value. For this reason, three specific coal mines owned by AMAX Inc. were chosen, and the options were analyzed from the viewpoint of increasing the total revenue derived from those coals. No specific mild gasification, or mild devolatilization technology was assumed during the assessment. The analysis considers only product prices, volumes, and specifications. It does not assign any intangible value or national benefit to substituting coal for oil or to producing a cleaner fuel. Although it would be desirable to conceive of a product slate which would be immune from energy price fluctuations, such a goal is probably unattainable and no particular emphasis was placed on it. 76 figs., 75 tabs.

Sinor, J.E.



ATP induces mild hypothermia in rats but has a strikingly detrimental impact on focal cerebral ischemia.  


Ischemic stroke is a devastating condition lacking effective therapies. A promising approach to attenuate ischemic injury is mild hypothermia. Recent studies show that adenosine nucleotides can induce hypothermia in mice. The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) induces mild hypothermia in rats and reduces ischemic brain injury. We found that intraperitoneal injections of ATP decreased core body temperature in a dose-dependent manner; the dose appropriate for mild hypothermia was 2 g/kg. When ATP-induced hypothermia was applied to stroke induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion, however, a neuroprotective effect was not observed. Instead, the infarct volume grew even larger in ATP-treated rats. This was accompanied by an increased rate of seizure events, hemorrhagic transformation, and higher mortality. Continuous monitoring of physiologic parameters revealed that ATP reduced heartbeat rate and blood pressure. ATP also increased blood glucose, accompanied by severe acidosis and hypocalcemia. Western blotting showed that ATP decreased levels of both phospho-Akt and total-Akt in the cortex. Our results reveal that, despite inducing hypothermia, ATP is not appropriate for protecting the brain against stroke. Instead, we show for the first time that ATP treatment is associated with exaggerated ischemic outcomes and dangerous systemic side effects. PMID:23072747

Zhang, Meijuan; Li, Wenjin; Niu, Guangming; Leak, Rehana K; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Feng



Patients with mild to moderate body dysmorphic disorder may benefit from rhinoplasty.  


Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is one of the most common psychiatric conditions found in patients seeking cosmetic surgery. BDD is also a challenge for plastic surgeons because it is still an underdiagnosed mental disorder. The aims of this study were to prospectively investigate whether patients with mild to moderate BDD are suitable for rhinoplasty, and to assess BDD severity and patient satisfaction with the surgical outcome 1 year after the intervention. All women (n = 116) seeking rhinoplasty at a university hospital between September 2009 and August 2010 were recruited for the study and assessed for BDD. The final sample consisted of 31 patients aged 32 (standard deviation (SD), 10) years with mild to moderate BDD who underwent rhinoplasty. The participants were assessed preoperatively (baseline) and 1 year postoperatively with the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Examination (BDDE). Most patients (22/31, 71%) were of African descent. Socio-demographic variables and the extent of the nasal deformities had no effect on the severity of BDD symptoms and patient satisfaction with surgery outcome. At the 1-year postoperative follow-up, there was a significant decrease from baseline in BDDE scores and time spent by patients worrying about their appearance; 25 (25/31, 81%) patients experienced complete remission from BDD and 28 (28/31, 90%) were satisfied with the results of surgery. Rhinoplasty may be indicated in the treatment of female patients with mild to moderate BDD. PMID:24508222

Felix, Gabriel Almeida Arruda; de Brito, Maria José Azevedo; Nahas, Fabio Xerfan; Tavares, Hermano; Cordás, Táki Athanássios; Dini, Gal Moreira; Ferreira, Lydia Masako



Real-time PCR: Benefits for Detection of Mild and Asymptomatic Giardia Infections  

PubMed Central

The majority of Giardia infections are transmitted by the fecal-oral route and cause giardiasis. Children who live in crowded conditions or low socio-economic areas are the risk group for Giardia infection. Interestingly, most of them are asymptomatic or only mildly infected and can shed the Giardia cysts in the environment. Thus, the diagnosis of Giardia infection in asymptomatic or mild infection plays an important role in achieving control of Giardia duodenalis transmission. The objective of this study was to examine parasitic infections using microscopy and to develop a real-time PCR method for detection of Giardia infection in the stool samples of children living on the Thai-Myanmar border. Both species-specific primers and fluorescent labeled G. duodenalis probe were designed using small-subunit ribosomal RNA (ssrRNA). The results showed that 10 (7.69%) and 40 (30.77%) of 130 stool samples were positive for G. duodenalis by microscopy and real-time PCR respectively. Only 3 out of 9 liquid stools revealed G. duodenalis positive using microscopy, but all of them were G. duodenalis-positive using real-time PCR. The detection limit of real-time PCR for G. duodenalis was 0.1 pg/25 µl reaction. It can detect both mild and asymptomatic Giardia infections in children living on the Thai-Myanmar border. PMID:23097617

Prasertbun, Rapeepun; Sukthana, Yaowalark; Popruk, Supaluk



ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Demonstration Project. Annual report, October 1993--September 1994  

SciTech Connect

ENCOAL Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of SMC Mining Company (formerly Shell Mining Company, now owned by Zeigler Coal Holding Company), has completed the construction and start-up of a mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company`s Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology developed by SMC and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin coal to produce two new fuels, Process Derived Fuel (PDF) and Coal Derived Liquids (CDL). The LFC technology uses a mild pyrolysis or mild gasification process which involves heating the coal under carefully controlled conditions. The process causes chemical changes in the feed coal in contrast to conventional drying, which leads only to physical changes. Wet subbituminous coal contains considerable water, and conventional drying processes physically remove some of this moisture, causing the heating value to increase. The deeper the coal is physically dried, the higher the heating value and the more the pore structure permanently collapses, preventing resorption of moisture. However, deeply dried Powder River Basin coals exhibit significant stability problems when dried by conventional thermal processes. The LFC process overcomes these stability problems by thermally altering the solid to create PDF and CDL. Several of the major objectives of the ENCOAL Project have now been achieved. The LFC Technology has been essentially demonstrated. Significant quantities of specification CDL have been produced from Buckskin coal. Plant operation in a production mode with respectable availability (approaching 90%) has been demonstrated.




Scale-up of mild gasification to a process development unit  

SciTech Connect

The work performed during the second quarterly reporting period (February 21 through May 20, 1992) on the research program, Scale-Up of Mild Gasification to a Process Development Unit'' is presented in this report. The overall objective of this project is to develop the IGT Mild-Gasification (MILDGAS) process for near-term commercialization. The specific objectives of the program are to: (1) design, construct, and operate a 24-tons/day adiabatic process development unit (PDU) to obtain process performance data suitable for further design scaleup. (2) obtain large batches of coal-derived co-products for industrial evaluation. (3) prepare a detailed design of a demonstration unit. (4) develop technical and economic plans for commercialization of the MILDGAS process. The MILDGAS process is a continuous closed system for producing liquid and solid (char) co-products at mild operating conditions up to 50 psig and 1300[degrees]F. It is capable of processing a wide range of both eastern caking and western noncaking coals. The PDU to be constructed is comprised of a 2.5-ft ID adiabatic gasifier for the production of char, coal liquids, and gases; a thermal cracker for upgrading of the coal liquids; and a hot briquetting unit for the production of form coke and smokeless fuel briquettes. The facility will also incorporate support equipment for environmentally acceptable disposal of process waste.

Campbell, J.A.L.; Carty, R.H.; Saladin, N.; Foster, H.



Coal desulfurization by aqueous chlorination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of desulfurizing coal is described in which chlorine gas is bubbled through an aqueous slurry of coal at low temperature below 130 degrees C., and at ambient pressure. Chlorinolysis converts both inorganic and organic sulfur components of coal into water soluble compounds which enter the aqueous suspending media. The media is separated after chlorinolysis and the coal dechlorinated at a temperature of from 300 C to 500 C to form a non-caking, low-sulfur coal product.

Kalvinskas, J. J.; Vasilakos, N.; Corcoran, W. H.; Grohmann, K.; Rohatgi, N. K. (inventors)



Photochemistry of aqueous pyruvic acid  

PubMed Central

The study of organic chemistry in atmospheric aerosols and cloud formation is of interest in predictions of air quality and climate change. It is now known that aqueous phase chemistry is important in the formation of secondary organic aerosols. Here, the photoreactivity of pyruvic acid (PA; CH3COCOOH) is investigated in aqueous environments characteristic of atmospheric aerosols. PA is currently used as a proxy for ?-dicarbonyls in atmospheric models and is abundant in both the gas phase and the aqueous phase (atmospheric aerosols, fog, and clouds) in the atmosphere. The photoreactivity of PA in these phases, however, is very different, thus prompting the need for a mechanistic understanding of its reactivity in different environments. Although the decarboxylation of aqueous phase PA through UV excitation has been studied for many years, its mechanism and products remain controversial. In this work, photolysis of aqueous PA is shown to produce acetoin (CH3CHOHCOCH3), lactic acid (CH3CHOHCOOH), acetic acid (CH3COOH), and oligomers, illustrating the progression from a three-carbon molecule to four-carbon and even six-carbon molecules through direct photolysis. These products are detected using vibrational and electronic spectroscopy, NMR, and MS, and a reaction mechanism is presented accounting for all products detected. The relevance of sunlight-initiated PA chemistry in aqueous environments is then discussed in the context of processes occurring on atmospheric aerosols. PMID:23821751

Griffith, Elizabeth C.; Carpenter, Barry K.; Shoemaker, Richard K.; Vaida, Veronica



All-aqueous multiphase microfluidics  

PubMed Central

Immiscible aqueous phases, formed by dissolving incompatible solutes in water, have been used in green chemical synthesis, molecular extraction and mimicking of cellular cytoplasm. Recently, a microfluidic approach has been introduced to generate all-aqueous emulsions and jets based on these immiscible aqueous phases; due to their biocompatibility, these all-aqueous structures have shown great promises as templates for fabricating biomaterials. The physico-chemical nature of interfaces between two immiscible aqueous phases leads to unique interfacial properties, such as an ultra-low interfacial tension. Strategies to manipulate components and direct their assembly at these interfaces needs to be explored. In this paper, we review progress on the topic over the past few years, with a focus on the fabrication and stabilization of all-aqueous structures in a multiphase microfluidic platform. We also discuss future efforts needed from the perspectives of fluidic physics, materials engineering, and biology for fulfilling potential applications ranging from materials fabrication to biomedical engineering. PMID:24454609

Song, Yang; Sauret, Alban; Cheung Shum, Ho



Could mild hypoxia impair pilot decision making in emergencies?  


The decreased pressure in the cabin of a pressurised aircraft (typically equivalent to ~8000 ft) reduces the oxygen level so that the blood oxygen saturation of all occupants falls from >97% (normoxia) at sea-level to below 92% (mild hypoxia). Although exposure to mild hypoxia does not affect well-learned cognitive and motor performance of aircrew, it has been proposed that it can affect the performance of some complex cognitive performance tasks involving multiple demands typical of emergency tasks that may have to be performed by pilots. In order to simulate some of these complex cognitive demands, 25 student volunteers participated in an experiment which assessed performance of complex logical reasoning and and multiple memory tasks before and after 2 hours of exposure to normoxia and mild hypoxia. Performance for the more difficult components of the complex reasoning task, especially involving conflict decisions, were marginally significantly degraded by mild hypoxia. Since the effects were only marginally significant future studies should investigate the effects of mild hypoxia on more subtle complex decision-making tasks. PMID:22316722

Legg, Stephen; Hill, Stephen; Mundel, Toby; Gilbey, Andrew; Schlader, Zac; Raman, Aaron



Environmental Conditions Environmental Conditions  

E-print Network

, developed complex life histories through time that responded to the subbasin's considerable variation in this habitat. Loss of grassland habitat greatly reduced such populations. Today subbasin habitat conditions/optimal) conditions in the year 2050, and examines what future conditions might be expected if no additional future


Killing of Bacillus Spores by Aqueous Dissolved Oxygen, Ascorbic Acid, and Copper Ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach to decontamination of biological endospores is discussed. Specifically, the performance of an aqueous modified Fenton reagent is examined. A modified Fenton reagent formulation of cupric chloride, ascorbic acid, and sodium chloride is shown to be an effective sporicide under aerobic conditions. The traditional Fenton reaction involves the conversion of hydrogen peroxide to hydroxyl radical by aqueous ionic catalysts

J. B. Cross; R. P. Currier; D. J. Torraco; L. A. Vanderberg; G. L. Wagner; P. D. Gladen



Functional disorganization of small-world brain networks in mild Alzheimer's Disease and amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: an EEG study using Relative Wavelet Entropy (RWE)  

PubMed Central

Previous neuroscientific findings have linked Alzheimer's Disease (AD) with less efficient information processing and brain network disorganization. However, pathological alterations of the brain networks during the preclinical phase of amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI) remain largely unknown. The present study aimed at comparing patterns of the detection of functional disorganization in MCI relative to Mild Dementia (MD). Participants consisted of 23 cognitively healthy adults, 17 aMCI and 24 mild AD patients who underwent electroencephalographic (EEG) data acquisition during a resting-state condition. Synchronization analysis through the Orthogonal Discrete Wavelet Transform (ODWT), and directional brain network analysis were applied on the EEG data. This computational model was performed for networks that have the same number of edges (N = 500, 600, 700, 800 edges) across all participants and groups (fixed density values). All groups exhibited a small-world (SW) brain architecture. However, we found a significant reduction in the SW brain architecture in both aMCI and MD patients relative to the group of Healthy controls. This functional disorganization was also correlated with the participant's generic cognitive status. The deterioration of the network's organization was caused mainly by deficient local information processing as quantified by the mean cluster coefficient value. Functional hubs were identified through the normalized betweenness centrality metric. Analysis of the local characteristics showed relative hub preservation even with statistically significant reduced strength. Compensatory phenomena were also evident through the formation of additional hubs on left frontal and parietal regions. Our results indicate a declined functional network organization even during the prodromal phase. Degeneration is evident even in the preclinical phase and coexists with transient network reorganization due to compensation.

Frantzidis, Christos A.; Vivas, Ana B.; Tsolaki, Anthoula; Klados, Manousos A.; Tsolaki, Magda; Bamidis, Panagiotis D.



Fenton chemistry at aqueous interfaces  

PubMed Central

In a fundamental process throughout nature, reduced iron unleashes the oxidative power of hydrogen peroxide into reactive intermediates. However, notwithstanding much work, the mechanism by which Fe2+ catalyzes H2O2 oxidations and the identity of the participating intermediates remain controversial. Here we report the prompt formation of O=FeIVCl3? and chloride-bridged di-iron O=FeIV·Cl·FeIICl4? and O=FeIV·Cl·FeIIICl5? ferryl species, in addition to FeIIICl4?, on the surface of aqueous FeCl2 microjets exposed to gaseous H2O2 or O3 beams for <50 ?s. The unambiguous identification of such species in situ via online electrospray mass spectrometry let us investigate their individual dependences on Fe2+, H2O2, O3, and H+ concentrations, and their responses to tert-butanol (an ·OH scavenger) and DMSO (an O-atom acceptor) cosolutes. We found that (i) mass spectra are not affected by excess tert-butanol, i.e., the detected species are primary products whose formation does not involve ·OH radicals, and (ii) the di-iron ferryls, but not O=FeIVCl3?, can be fully quenched by DMSO under present conditions. We infer that interfacial Fe(H2O)n2+ ions react with H2O2 and O3 >103 times faster than Fe(H2O)62+ in bulk water via a process that favors inner-sphere two-electron O-atom over outer-sphere one-electron transfers. The higher reactivity of di-iron ferryls vs. O=FeIVCl3? as O-atom donors implicates the electronic coupling of mixed-valence iron centers in the weakening of the FeIV–O bond in poly-iron ferryl species. PMID:24379389

Enami, Shinichi; Sakamoto, Yosuke; Colussi, Agustin J.



Mild nasal clefting may be predictive for ALX4 heterozygotes.  


Heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in ALX4 are responsible for enlarged parietal foramina, whereas patients with biallelic ALX4 mutations display a phenotypic spectrum of clinical findings, from mild to severe alopecia, cranium bifidum, hypertelorism, microphthalmia, with alar clefting being the pivotal sign in all affecteds. We report on four affected individuals in a three-generation family, displaying a phenotypic spectrum ranging from mild nasal clefting and broad columella to subtle changes in nasal configuration in addition to parietal foramina, caused by a novel ALX4 mutation (c.646C>G, p.Arg216Gly). This is the second report of a family showing vertical transmission of a dominant ALX4 mutation with facial involvement in addition to parietal foramina, mimicking mild recessive ALX4 phenotype. We discuss possible pathological mechanisms that may have lead to phenotypic variation in the family and challenges in genetic counseling. PMID:24764194

Altunoglu, Umut; Satk?n, Bilge; Uyguner, Zehra Oya; Kayserili, Hülya



Effects of Caprylic Triglyceride on Cognitive Performance and Cerebral Glucose Metabolism in Mild Alzheimer's Disease: A Single-Case Observation  

PubMed Central

Objective: To examine the effect of 109?days of caprylic triglyceride (CT) in a 70-year-old male with mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Background: Cerebral metabolism is limited to glucose under most conditions, and diminished cerebral glucose metabolism is a characteristic feature of AD. Another substrate available for cerebral metabolism is ketone bodies. Ketone bodies (KB) are normally derived from fat stores under conditions of low glucose availability as an alternative energy substrate to glucose. KB can also be produced by oral administration of CT. Prior studies suggest that the alternative energy source of CT may improve cognitive function due to mild to moderate AD, by circumventing the diminished glucose metabolism. Method: The effect of CT was analyzed in a single-case of mild AD with cognitive alterations in an open label study. Study outcomes included the Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA), mini mental state exam (MMSE), and 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F) positron emission tomography (FDG PET) scans. Results: After 109?days of CT, MoCA scores changed from a baseline value of 24–28, and MMSE scores changed from 23 to 28. No changes were observed on FDG PET scans. Conclusion: The results suggest that, in a case of mild AD, CT may have affected cognitive function, assessed by means of MMSE and MoCA, although glucose uptake and metabolism remained unchanged. PMID:25076901

Farah, Brian Andrew



Adsorption of lead ions from aqueous solution by okra wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Okra wastes from food canning processes were used as a potential adsorption of lead removal from various aqueous solutions was performed. Parameters such as pH, temperature of the solution, particle size of okra wastes and the concentrations of adsorbent and adsorbate were studied to optimize the conditions to be utilized on a commercial scale for the decontamination of effluents using

Mohsen A. Hashem


P300 Evoked Potential in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment  

PubMed Central

CONFLICT OF INTEREST: NONE DECLARED Aim The aim of this study is to present differences of amplitude and latency of P300 wave between examinees with mild cognitive impairment and examinees from the control group. Methods A cross-section study was performed between April 1st and July 10th 2012, with the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment as the main criterion for inclusion. In the twenty-two examinees who participated in the research, mild cognitive impairment was confirmed by neuropsychological testing, following which they were subjected to the examination of auditory evoked potentials. The control group consisting of 22 examinees, for which the lack of the same diagnosis was previously ascertained, was also subjected to the examination of auditory evoked potentials. The main findings were the differences in the latency and amplitude size of P300 wave targeted and non-targeted stimuli. Results The latency of P300 wave targeted stimuli in patients with mild cognitive impairment has, in statistical terms, proven to be significantly longer when compared to the control group. The average latency length in those with MCI amounted to 306.18 ms, whereas the latency in the control group came to 295.95 ms. Similarly, the latency length of non-targeted stimuli turned out to be statistically higher, with the length of 320.00 ms in the former group, and 301.36 ms in the latter. Amplitudes in patients with mild cognitive impairment were lower in comparison to the control group, with extremely low amplitudes recorded in 36.36% of patients. Conclusion In patients with mild cognitive impairment extended latency and lower amplitude of P300 wave are recorded. PMID:24039332

Medvidovic, Stipe; Titlic, Marina; Maras-Simunic, Marina



Mild cognitive impairment: a systematic review.  


MCI is a nosological entity proposed as an intermediate state between normal aging and dementia. The syndrome can be divided into two broad subtypes: amnestic MCI (aMCI) characterized by reduced memory, and non-amnestic MCI (naMCI) in which other cognitive functions rather than memory are mostly impaired. aMCI seems to represent an early stage of AD, while the outcomes of the naMCI subtypes appear more heterogeneous--including vascular dementia, frontotemporal dementia or dementia with Lewy bodies--but this aspect is still under debate. MCI in fact represents a condition with multiple sources of heterogeneity, including clinical presentation, etiology, and prognosis. To improve classification and prognosis, there is a need for more sensitive instruments specifically developed for MCI as well as for more reliable methods to determine its progression or improvement. Current clinical criteria for MCI should be updated to include restriction in complex ADL; also the diagnostic and prognostic role of behavioral symptoms and motor dysfunctions should be better defined. A multidisciplinary diagnostic approach including biological and neuroimaging techniques may probably represent the best option to predict the conversion from MCI to dementia. In this review we discuss the most recent aspects related to the epidemiological, clinical, neuropathological, neuroimaging, biochemical and therapeutic aspects of MCI, with specific attention to possible markers of conversion to dementia. PMID:17851192

Mariani, Elena; Monastero, Roberto; Mecocci, Patrizia



Recent Analysis of UCAPs in Mild Hybrids (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the analysis of ultracapacitors for mild/moderate hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) performance. The objectives of this report are to: (1) review the fuel economy improvement trends of today's HEVs with respect to degree of hybridization; (2) perform analysis to see the extent of fuel economy improvement possible with various strategies in mild/moderate HEVs, with no engine downsizing, using either batteries or ultracapacitors; (3) identify energy requirements of various driving events/functions--what matches a limited ucap's energy; and (4) discuss potential roles for high-voltage ultracapacitors in HEVs, if any.

Pesaran, A.; Gonder, J.



Almost automorphic mild solutions to fractional differential equations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce the concept of ?-resolvent families to prove the existence of almost automorphic mild solutions to the differential equation Dt?u(t)=Au(t)+tnf(t),1???2,n?Z+ considered in a Banach space X, where f:R?X is almost automorphic. We also prove the existence and uniqueness of an almost automorphic mild solution of the semilinear equation Dt?u(t)=Au(t)+f(t,u(t)),1???2 assuming f(t,x) is almost automorphic in t for each x?X,

Daniela Araya; Carlos Lizama



The effect of stress on the magnetization of mild steel at moderate field strengths  

SciTech Connect

Measurements are presented of the magnetization of mild steel, at field strengths between 100 A/m and 1200 A/m, for hysteretic and anhysteretic conditions. Magnetization was parallel or perpendicular to an applied uniaxial stress. The experimental results showed that tension parallel to the field or compression perpendicular to the field had relatively little effect on the flux density, but parallel compression or perpendicular tension reduced the flux density considerably. The theory presented predicts this symmetry, but it cannot account for other features of the measurements.

Langman, R.



Abrasive wear behavior of cast iron coatings plasma-sprayed at different mild steel substrate temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three kinds of cast iron coatings were prepared by atmospheric plasma spraying. During the spraying, the mild steel substrate temperature was controlled to be averagely 50, 180, and 240°C, respectively. Abrasive wear tests were conducted on the coatings under a dry friction condition. It is found that the abrasive wear resistance is enhanced with the substrate temperature increasing. SEM observations show that the wear losses of the coatings during the wear tests mainly result from the spalling of the splats. Furthermore, the improved wear resistance of the coatings mainly owes to the formation of oxides and the enhancement in the mechanical properties with the substrate temperature increasing.

Xing, Ya-zhe; Wei, Qiu-lan; Jiang, Chao-ping; Hao, Jian-min



A mild, ferrocene-catalyzed C-H imidation of (hetero)arenes.  


A simple method for direct C-H imidation is reported using a new perester-based self-immolating reagent and a base-metal catalyst. The succinimide products obtained can be easily deprotected in situ (if desired) to reveal the corresponding anilines directly. The scope of the reaction is broad, the conditions are extremely mild, and the reaction is tolerant of oxidizable and acid-labile functionality, multiple heteroatoms, and aryl iodides. Mechanistic studies indicate that ferrocene (Cp2Fe) plays the role of an electron shuttle in the decomposition of the perester reagent, delivering a succinimidyl radical ready to add to an aromatic system. PMID:24654983

Foo, Klement; Sella, Eran; Thomé, Isabelle; Eastgate, Martin D; Baran, Phil S



Mild and modular surface modification of cellulose via hetero Diels-Alder (HDA) cycloaddition.  


A combination of reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization and hetero Diels-Alder (HDA) cycloaddition was used to effect, under mild (T ? 20 °C), fast, and modular conditions, the grafting of poly(isobornyl acrylate) (M(n) = 9800 g mol(-1), PDI = 1.19) onto a solid cellulose substrate. The active hydroxyl groups expressed on the cellulose fibers were converted to tosylate leaving groups, which were subsequently substituted by a highly reactive cyclopentadienyl functionality (Cp). By employing the reactive Cp-functionality as a diene, thiocarbonyl thio-capped poly(isobornyl acrylate) synthesized via RAFT polymerization (mediated by benzyl pyridine-2-yldithioformiate (BPDF)) was attached to the surface under ambient conditions by an HDA cycloaddition (reaction time: 15 h). The surface-modified cellulose samples were analyzed in-depth by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy as well as Fourier transform infrared microscopy employing a focal plane array detector for imaging purposes. The analytical results provide strong evidence that the reaction of suitable dienophiles with Cp-functional cellulose proceeds under mild reaction conditions (T ? 20 °C) in an efficient fashion. In particular, the visualization of individual modified cellulose fibers via high-resolution FT-IR microscopy corroborates the homogeneous distribution of the polymer film on the cellulose fibers. PMID:21366268

Goldmann, Anja S; Tischer, Thomas; Barner, Leonie; Bruns, Michael; Barner-Kowollik, Christopher




SciTech Connect

Mineral carbonation is a promising concept for permanent CO{sub 2} sequestration due to the vast natural abundance of the raw minerals, the permanent storage of CO{sub 2} in solid form as carbonates, and the overall reaction being exothermic. However, the primary drawback to mineral carbonation is the reaction kinetics. To accelerate the reaction, aqueous carbonation processes are preferred, where the minerals are firstly dissolved in solution. In aqueous carbonation, the key step is the dissolution rate of the mineral, where the mineral dissolution reaction is likely to be surface controlled. In order to accelerate the dissolution process, the serpentine can be ground to very fine particle size (<37 {micro}m), but this is a very energy intensive process. Alternatively, magnesium could be chemically extracted in aqueous solution. Phase I showed that chemical surface activation helps to dissolve the magnesium from the serpentine minerals (particle size {approx}100 {micro}m), and furthermore, the carbonation reaction can be conducted under mild conditions (20 C and 650 psig) compared to previous studies that required >185 C, >1850 psig and <37 {micro}m particle size. Phase I also showed that over 70% of the magnesium can be extracted at ambient temperature leaving amorphous SiO{sub 2} with surface areas {approx} 330m{sup 2}/g. The overall objective of Phase 2 of this research program is to optimize the active carbonation process developed in Phase I in order to design an integrated CO{sub 2} sequestration module. During the current reporting period, Task 1 ''Mineral activation'' was initiated and focused on a parametric study to optimize the operation conditions for the mineral activation, where serpentine and sulfuric acid were reacted, as following the results from Phase 1. Several experimental factors were outlined as having a potential influence on the mineral activation. This study has focused to date on the effects of varying the acid concentration, particle size, and the reaction time. The reaction yields and the characterization of the reaction products by ICP/AES, TGA, and BET analyses were used to describe the influence of each of the experimental variables. The reaction yield was as high as 48% with a 5M acid concentration, with lower values directly corresponding to lower acid concentrations. ICP/AES results are indicative of the selective dissolution of magnesium with reaction yields. Significant improvements in the removal of moisture, as observed from TGA studies, as well as in the dissolution can be realized with the comminution of particles to a D{sub 50} less than 125 {micro}m. A minimum threshold value of 3M concentration of sulfuric acid was determined to exist in terms of the removal of moisture from serpentine. Contrary to expected, the reaction time, within this design of experiments, has been shown to be insignificant. Potentially coupled with this unexpected result are low BET surface areas of the treated serpentine. These results are issues of further consideration to be addressed under the carbonation studies. The remaining results are as expected, including the dissolution of magnesium, which is to be utilized within the carbonation unit. Phase 1 studies have shown that carbonation reactions could be carried out under a milder regime through the implementation of NaOH titration with the magnesium solution. The optimization of acid concentration, particle size, and reaction temperature will ultimately be determined according to the carbonation efficiencies. Therefore and according to the planned project schedule, research efforts are moving into Task 2 ''Aqueous carbonation'' as the redesign of the reactor unit is nearly completed.

M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; John M. Andresen; George Alexander



Desorption of cesium from granite under various aqueous conditions.  


In this work the desorption of cesium ions from crushed granite in synthetic groundwater (GW) and seawater (SW) was investigated. Results were compared with those obtained in deionized water (DW) and in two kinds of extraction solutions, namely: MgCl(2) and NaOAc (sodium acetate). In general, the desorption rate of Cs from crushed granite increased proportionally with initial Cs loadings. Also, amounts of desorbed Cs ions followed the tendency in the order SW>GW>NaOAc approximately equal MgCl(2)>DW solutions. This indicated that the utilization of extraction reagents for ion exchange will underestimate the Cs desorption behavior. Fitting these experimental data by Langmuir model showed that these extraction reagents have reduced Cs uptake by more than 90%, while only less than 1% of adsorbed Cs ions are still observed in GW and SW solutions in comparison to those in DW. Further SEM/EDS mapping studies clearly demonstrate that these remaining adsorbed Cs ions are at the fracture areas of biotite. PMID:20656497

Wang, Tsing-Hai; Li, Ming-Hsu; Wei, Yuan-Yaw; Teng, Shi-Ping



Synergistic effect of mixed cationic and anionic surfactants on the corrosion inhibitor behavior of mild steel in 3.5% NaCl  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The corrosion inhibition characteristics of cation-rich and anion-rich catanionic mixtures of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), as corrosion inhibitor of mild steel (MS), in aqueous solution of 3.5% NaCl were investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potentiodynamic polarization and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Solutions of CTAB/SDS mixtures showed more appropriate inhibition properties compared to the solutions of the individual surfactants, due to strong adsorption on the metal surface and formation of a protective film. Potentiodynamic polarization investigations indicated that the inhibitors studied were mixed type inhibitors. Adsorption of the inhibitors on the mild steel surface obeyed the Flory-Huggins adsorption isotherm. Furthermore, the values of the adsorption free energy (?G°ads) in both mixtures decreased compared with a single surfactant which is attributed to stronger interactions in mixtures.

Javadian, Soheila; Yousefi, Ali; Neshati, Jaber



Heat transfer of aqueous suspensions of carbon nanotubes (CNT nanofluids)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is mainly concerned about the heat transfer behaviour of aqueous suspensions of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT nanofluids) flowing through a horizontal tube. Significant enhancement of the convective heat transfer is observed and the enhancement depends on the flow conditions (Reynolds number, Re), CNT concentration and the pH, with the effect of pH smallest. Given other conditions, the enhancement

Yulong Ding; Hajar Alias; Dongsheng Wen; Richard A. Williams



Converting sugars to sugar alcohols by aqueous phase catalytic hydrogenation  


The present invention provides a method of converting sugars to their corresponding sugar alcohols by catalytic hydrogenation in the aqueous phase. It has been found that surprisingly superior results can be obtained by utilizing a relatively low temperature (less than C.), selected hydrogenation conditions, and a hydrothermally stable catalyst. These results include excellent sugar conversion to the desired sugar alcohol, in combination with long life under hydrothermal conditions.

Elliott, Douglas C. (Richland, WA); Werpy, Todd A. (West Richland, WA); Wang, Yong (Richland, WA); Frye, Jr., John G. (Richland, WA)



Aqueous Alteration of Basalts: Earth, Moon, and Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The geologic processes responsible for aqueous alteration of basaltic materials on Mars are modeled beginning with our knowledge of analog processes on Earth, i.e., characterization of elemental and mineralogical compositions of terrestrial environments where the alteration and weathering pathways related to aqueous activity are better understood. A key ingredient to successful modeling of aqueous processes on Mars is identification of phases that have formed by those processes. The purpose of this paper is to describe what is known about the elemental and mineralogical composition of aqueous alteration products of basaltic materials on Mars and their implications for specific aqueous environments based upon our knowledge of terrestrial systems. Although aqueous alteration has not occurred on the Moon, it is crucial to understand the behaviors of basaltic materials exposed to aqueous environments in support of human exploration to the Moon over the next two decades. Several methods or indices have been used to evaluate the extent of basalt alteration/weathering based upon measurements made at Mars by the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Moessbauer and Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometers. The Mineralogical Alteration Index (MAI) is based upon the percentage of total Fe (Fe(sub T)) present as Fe(3+) in alteration products (Morris et al., 2006). A second method is the evaluation of compositional trends to determine the extent to which elements have been removed from the host rock and the likely formation of secondary phases (Nesbitt and Young, 1992; Ming et al., 2007). Most of the basalts that have been altered by aqueous processes at the two MER landing sites in Gusev crater and on Meridiani Planum have not undergone extensive leaching in an open hydrolytic system with the exception of an outcrop in the Columbia Hills. The extent of aqueous alteration however ranges from relatively unaltered to pervasively altered materials. Several experimental studies have focused upon the aqueous alteration of lunar materials and simulants (e.g., Keller and Huang, 1971; Eick et al., 1996). Lunar basalts are void of water and highly reduced, hence, these materials are initially very reactive when exposed to water under oxidizing conditions.

Ming, Douglas W.



Lithium intercalation from aqueous solutions  

SciTech Connect

Lithium can be intercalated into a wide variety of materials using nonaqueous electrochemical cells. The use of aqueous methods is less common because of the reactivity of many lithium intercalation compounds with water. Here the authors show that lithium can be intercalated into host compounds from aqueous LiOH solution, provided the chemical potential of the intercalated lithium is sufficiently lower than the chemical potential of lithium in lithium metal. Using LiMn[sub 2]O[sub 4] as the host, the authors formed Li[sub 2]Mn[sub 2]O[sub 4] by intercalating Li from LiOH solution in an aqueous cell. This method may prove to be an economical way of preparing lithium transition metal oxides with high lithium contents for lithium-ion cell cathodes.

Li, W.; Dahn, J.R. (Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada). Dept. of Physics); McKinnon, W.R. (National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Inst. of Microstructural Sciences)



Non-Aqueous Capillary Electrophoresis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis and capillary electrochromatography are special variants of these techniques. Here, organic solvents or their mixtures with or without dissolved electrolytes are used as separation buffer or mobile phase, respectively. The most important features of non-aqueous systems are: better solubility of more hydrophobic ionic substances (many natural products) than in water, much less current and Joule heating allows for using highly concentrated buffers and/or larger capillary internal diameters, polar interactions are enhanced in organic solvents which is often highly advantageous in chiral separation systems. This chapter presents most frequently used solvents, their properties, as well as shows pH* scale which is often used in non-aqueous systems.

Szumski, Micha?; Buszewski, Bogus?aw


Grain boundary relaxation of hydrogen precharged mild and Cr steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internal friction was applied to trace the formation and propagation of the hydrogen-induced degradation of commercial mild and 5% Cr steels. Hydrogen charged and then degassed specimens were subjected to internal friction measurements at the grain boundary relaxation temperature range and the irreversible effects of hydrogen precharging on the grain and phase boundary relaxation processes were studied. From the comparison

Ellina Lunarska; Yu. Jagodzinki; K. Nikiforow



Reaction Time and Mild Mental Retardation: High Speed Scanning Reexamined.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reexamination of three studies was undertaken to investigate factors involved in reaction time of mildly retarded Ss in high speed scanning. It was suggested that specification of processing stages where efficiency varies across populations may not be possible based on results from high speed scanning tasks. (CL)

Silverman, Wayne; Harris, Gilbert



Mild Cognitive Impairment: What’s in a Name?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Nowadays the term mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is used to fill the gap between cognitive changes associated with normal ageing and those associated with dementia. Despite some agreement in general definitions, MCI is still a heterogeneous clinical syndrome for which no DSM-IV criteria have yet been established. Criteria by Petersen et al. are presently the most applied in clinical

E. Dierckx; S. Engelborghs; R. De Raedt; P. P. De Deyn; I. Ponjaert-Kristoffersen



Mild traumatic brain injury: a risk factor for neurodegeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Recently, it has become clear that head trauma can lead to a progressive neurodegeneration known as chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Although the medical literature also implicates head trauma as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease, these findings are predominantly based on clinical diagnostic criteria that lack specificity. The dementia that follows head injuries or repetitive mild trauma may be caused

Brandon E Gavett; Robert A Stern; Robert C Cantu; Christopher J Nowinski; Ann C McKee



Attention and memory dysfunctions in mild multiple sclerosis.  


This study investigated the relationship between clinical symptoms and cognitive dysfunction in multiple sclerosis. Cognitive dysfunction and visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were studied in patients free of physical disability and mildly to moderately disabled patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Disability-free patients (EDSS < or = 1.5; n = 13), mildly to moderately disabled patients (EDSS ranging from 2 to 6; n = 13) and a healthy matched control group (n = 16) were examined with respect to attention, verbal and nonverbal memory and early visual processing (VEPs). Disability-free patients showed mild impairments on phasic alertness and divided attention. Deficits were more pronounced in mildly to moderately disabled patients who were additionally impaired with respect to non-verbal memory. Despite adequate visual acuity, one half of all patients showed abnormal VEP latencies for both eyes at the same time. The findings suggest that cognitive deficits are already present in multiple sclerosis even in the absence of physical disability. Even with normal visual acuity, perceptual impairments should be considered as part of the CNS affection. PMID:15645161

Tinnefeld, Michael; Treitz, Friederike H; Haase, Claus G; Wilhelm, Hans; Daum, Irene; Faustmann, Pedro M



ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTION Mediterranean Diet and Mild Cognitive Impairment  

E-print Network

Background: Higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MeDi) may protect from Alzheimer disease (ADORIGINAL CONTRIBUTION Mediterranean Diet and Mild Cognitive Impairment Nikolaos Scarmeas, MD the association between the MeDi and MCI. Design, Setting, and Patients: In a multiethnic com- munity study in New


Everyday Memory Impairment of Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated everyday memory impairment in 24 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) with the Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test (RBMT) and compared the scores with those of 48 age-, sex- and education-matched normal controls (NC) and 48 age-, sex- and education-matched Alzheimer disease (AD) patients. Overall everyday memory was impaired in MCI patients but the severity was milder than that

Hiroaki Kazui; Akemi Matsuda; Nobutsugu Hirono; Etsuro Mori; Noriko Miyoshi; Atsushi Ogino; Hiromasa Tokunaga; Yoshitaka Ikejiri; Masatoshi Takeda



Influence of Mild Cognitive Impairment on Visual Word Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the effects of normal aging and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) on visual word recognition. Madden et al. (1999) reported evidence of general slowing of cognitive processes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients relative to younger adults and healthy older adults using a lexical decision task. It was of interest to determine whether similar effects would be observed

Aryn L. H. Bush; Philip A. Allen; Kevin P. Kaut; Paula K. Ogrocki



Deformation of the Human Brain Induced by Mild Acceleration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid deformation of brain matter caused by skull acceleration is most likely the cause of concus- sion, as well as more severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). The inability to measure deformation di- rectly has led to disagreement and confusion about the biomechanics of concussion and TBI. In the present study, brain deformation in human volunteers was measured directly during mild,

P. V. Bayly; T. S. Cohen; E. P. Leister; D. Ajo; E. C. Leuthardt; G. M. Genin




E-print Network

METHOD PARAFAC Decomposition of Spectral-Spatial Characteristics of EEG Time Series Charles of the disease, might render the study difficult when undertaken subject-by- subject. In that case, a multiChapter 1 EEG CLASSIFICATION OF MILD AND SEVERE ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE USING PARALLEL FACTOR ANALYSIS

Vialatte, François


Working Memory in Mild Alzheimer's Disease and Early Parkinson's Disease  

E-print Network

Working Memory in Mild Alzheimer's Disease and Early Parkinson's Disease Elizabeth A. Kensinger of Technology Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) impair working memory (WM). It is unclear an expanding interest in how neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD

Corkin, Suzanne


Beginning Primary Teachers and Children with Mild Learning Difficulties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is about examining beginning teachers' needs in relation to helping primary school children with mild learning difficulties. Both pre-service and in-service teachers were approached to assess their experience and needs in this area. In common with previous work in Ireland and internationally, beginning teachers were found to have…

Gash, Hugh



Submerged arc fillet welds between mild steel and stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Submerged arc fillet welds between mild steel and Type 304 stainless steel, made with ER309L wire, may contain no ferrite and be at risk of hot cracking, or they may be sufficiently diluted that they transform to martensite with both hot cracking risk and low ductility. This situation is most prevalent when direct current electrode positive (DCEP) polarity is used

D. J. Kotecki; V. B. Rajan



Human Capability, Mild Perfectionism and Thickened Educational Praxis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper argues for a mild perfectionism in applying Amartya Sen's capability approach for an education transformative of student agency and well-being. Key to the paper is the significance of education as a process of being and becoming in the future, and education's fundamental objective of a positively changed human being. The capability…

Walker, Melanie



Factors influencing outcome following mild traumatic brain injury in adults.  


This study aimed to investigate outcome in adults with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) at 1 week and 3 months postinjury and to identify factors associated with persisting problems. A total of 84 adults with mild TBI were compared with 53 adults with other minor injuries as controls in terms of postconcussional symptomatology, behavior, and cognitive performance at 1 week and 3 months postinjury. At 1 week postinjury, adults with mild TBI were reporting symptoms, particularly headaches, dizziness, fatigue, visual disturbance, and memory difficulties. They exhibited slowing of information processing on neuropsychological measures, namely the WAIS-R Digit Symbol subtest and the Speed of Comprehension Test. By 3 months postinjury, the symptoms reported at 1 week had largely resolved, and no impairments were evident on neuropsychological measures. However, there was a subgroup of 24% of participants who were still suffering many symptoms, who were highly distressed, and whose lives were still significantly disrupted. These individuals did not have longer posttraumatic amnesia (PTA) duration. They were more likely to have a history of previous head injury, neurological or psychiatric problems, to be students, females, and to have been injured in a motor vehicle accident. The majority were showing significant levels of psychopathology. A range of factors, other than those directly reflecting the severity of injury, appear to be associated with outcome following mild TBI. PMID:10932476

Ponsford, J; Willmott, C; Rothwell, A; Cameron, P; Kelly, A M; Nelms, R; Curran, C; Ng, K



Corrosion protection of mild steel by electroactive polyaniline coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of polyaniline (PANi) to act as a protective coating for mild steel corrosion in saline and acid was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The impedance behaviour is best explained by a mediated redox reaction in which PANi passivates the metal surface and reoxidizes itself by dissolved oxygen. The effectiveness of such a process, which also provides the repassivation

P Li; T. C Tan; J. Y Lee



Different mechanisms of episodic memory failure in mild cognitive impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI), defined as episodic memory impairment beyond what is expected in normal aging, is often associated with hippocampal atrophy (HA) and may represent incipient Alzheimer's disease. However, recent studies suggest that MCI is very heterogeneous and multiple etiologies likely exist. One possibility is small vessel cerebrovascular disease (CVD). Specifically, we hypothesized that white matter hyperintensities (WMH), an

Christine Wu Nordahl; Charan Ranganath; Andrew P. Yonelinas; Charles DeCarli; Bruce R. Reed; William J. Jagust



Atlas-Based Hippocampus Segmentation In Alzheimer's Disease and Mild  

E-print Network

subjects with Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods. Struc- tural MR images with MCI were collected at the University of Pitts- burgh Alzheimer's Disease Research Center. Hippocampi- tions than those of the left. Automated-manual agreement was significantly lower in AD brains than MCI


Non-cognitive symptoms in mild cognitive impairment subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is used to identify individuals with worse cognitive performance than those with normal aging, and who are at risk of dementia, especially Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Although the MCI concept is based on the presence of specific cognitive deficits, several studies have shown that these subjects can develop depression, disruptive behaviors (e.g., agitation, aggression), and

Oscar L. Lopez; James T. Becker; Robert A. Sweet



Methylene Blue Is Neuroprotective against Mild Traumatic Brain Injury  

E-print Network

Methylene Blue Is Neuroprotective against Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Lora Talley Watts,1 of death and disability worldwide. Methylene blue (MB) has known energy-enhancing and antioxidant injury. As such, mitochondria have become an important target for neuroprotection in TBI.2,3 Methylene

Duong, Timothy Q.


ADHD Symptoms in Children with Mild Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To determine whether the nature and correlates of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms are different in subjects with mild intellectual disability (ID) compared to subjects with average ability. Method: From a general population sample of 2,726 12- to 15-year-olds, a stratified subsample was selected to enrich for…

Simonoff, Emily; Pickles, Andrew; Wood, Nicky; Gringras, Paul; Chadwick, Oliver



Care Partner Responses to the Onset of Mild Cognitive Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: We examined characteristics, responses, and psychological well-being of care partners who support and assist older adults recently diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Design and Methods: Based on a sample of 106 care partners of community residents diagnosed with MCI at memory clinics, we conducted face-to-face interviews…

Blieszner, Rosemary; Roberto, Karen A.



Prognostic factors in unintentional mild carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To identify early predictors of recovery from mild carbon monoxide poisoning, and to search for qualitative interactions between subsets of patients and treatment effects. Design and setting: Inception cohort study from a 4-year, randomised, controlled trial, which compared normobaric oxygen therapy to the combination of normobaric plus hyperbaric oxygen therapy in 307 patients. Study was conducted at a hyperbaric

Djillali Annane; Sylvie Chevret; Marie Jars-Guincestre; Patrick Chillet; David Elkharrat; Philippe Gajdos; Jean Raphael



Everyday Cognition among Mildly Mentally Retarded Adults: An Ethnographic Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of participant-observation techniques used to study the everyday cognition and problem-solving process in marketing tasks defined and organized by mildly mentally retarded adults, revealed five "composites" of strategic behavior. An association between composite and early life experiences was also shown. (Author/CL)

Levine, Harold G.; Langness, L. L.



Depressive Symptoms Predict Slow Cognitive Decline in Mild Dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depression may be a prognostic marker of subsequent cognitive decline in patients with dementia. Earlier investigations did not find support for this hypothesis, but these considered mainly syndromal depression. In this prospective study, 32 subjects with mild dementia were followed up for 12 months. The effects of GMS-AGECAT syndromal depression, subsyndromal depression and dimensions of depressive symptoms were studied. Higher

J. G. E. Janzing; P. Naarding; P. A. T. M. Eling



Promoting Relational Thinking: Elaborative Interrogation for Students with Mild Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated the effectiveness of promoting relational thinking, using "elaborative interrogation" techniques, to facilitate the content acquisition of 36 elementary school students with mild disabilities. Results indicated that students coached in relational thinking who generated their own explanations outperformed students who were…

Scruggs, Thomas E.; And Others



Inefficient response inhibition in individuals with mild cognitive impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) show primary deficits in memory and are at increased risk for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). In light of recent evidence that executive cognitive deficits are common in AD and may be detectable in individuals diagnosed with MCI, we extend these findings to the investigation of response inhibition, an essential aspect of executive cognitive

S. A. Wylie; K. R. Ridderinkhof; M. K. Eckerle; C. A. Manning



Secondary Inclusion Programs for Students with Mild Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses barriers to the development of inclusive school programs for secondary students with mild disabilities, and the implementation of an inclusive program in a 9th-grade general math class and an 11th-grade English class. Describes the development of partnerships between general and special education teachers. (CR)

Cole, Cassandra McCrory; McLeskey, James



Stressful Social Interactions Experienced by Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adults with intellectual disability are vulnerable to stressful social interactions. We determined frequency and severity of various stressful social interactions, identified the social partners in these interactions, and examined the specific interpersonal skill difficulties of 114 adults with mild intellectual disability. Participants'…

Hartley, Sigan L.; MacLean, William E., Jr.



Functional Abilities in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A classification scheme and general set of criteria for diagnosing mild cognitive impairment (MCI) were recently proposed by a multidisciplinary group of experts who met at an international symposium on MCI. One of the proposed criteria included preserved basic activities of daily living and minimal impairment in complex instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs). Objective: To investigate whether older

Catherine L. Burton; Esther Strauss; David Bunce; Michael A. Hunter; David F. Hultsch



A voxel based morphometry study on mild cognitive impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is the most widely used concept in classifying cognitive impairment in the elderly who do not fulfil the criteria for dementia. MCI is considered to confer an increased risk of progressing to dementia and most often Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Various approaches such as imaging of the brain have been applied to predict the conversion of

C Pennanen; C Testa; M P Laakso; M Hallikainen; E-L Helkala; T Ha?nninen; M Kivipelto; M Ko?no?nen; A Nissinen; S Tervo; M Vanhanen; R Vanninen; G B Frisoni; H Soininen



Mild Cognitive Impairment Should Be Considered for DSM-V  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mild cognitive impairment is a topic of great activity from both clinical and research perspectives. It represents a transitional state between the cognitive changes of aging and the earliest clinical manifestations of dementia. We present a case for its inclusion in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed; DSM-V) based on clinical, outcome, epidemiological, neuroimaging, and pathophysiological

Ronald C. Petersen; John O’Brien



Mild hypothermia after near drowning in twin toddlers  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: We report a case of twin toddlers who both suffered near drowning but with different post-trauma treatment and course, and different neurological outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two twin toddlers (a boy and girl, aged 2 years and 3 months) suffered hypothermic near drowning with protracted cardiac arrest and aspiration. The girl was treated with mild hypothermia for 72 hours

Ortrud Vargas Hein; Andreas Triltsch; Christoph von Buch; Wolfgang J Kox; Claudia Spies



Limiting Your Legal Liability--Caring for Mildly Ill Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies some of the major issues associated with liability and exposure in caring for mildly ill children and highlights some recommended strategies for minimizing liability. Examines issues related to preventing the spread of disease, administering medications, emergency medical authorization, and confidentiality. (KB)

Cohen, Abby J.



“Good Old Days” Bias Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small percentage of people with a mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) report persistent symptoms and problems many months or even years following injury. Preliminary research suggests that people who sustain an injury often underestimate past problems (i.e., “good old days” bias), which can impact their perceived level of current problems and recovery. The purpose of this study was to

Grant L. Iverson; Rael T. Lange; Brian L. Brooks; V. Lynn Ashton Rennison



Effectiveness of Nonpharmacological Approaches in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients are at increased risk of developing dementia. There is a conflict if cognitive interventions can improve cognitive and functional performances in order to delay the development of dementia. Objectives: This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of a holistic cognitive rehabilitation program on patients with MCI. Methods: The participants, 176 MCI patients with Mini-Mental

Magda Tsolaki; Fotini Kounti; Christina Agogiatou; Eleni Poptsi; Evangelia Bakoglidou; Myrto Zafeiropoulou; Aikaterini Soumbourou; Evdokia Nikolaidou; Georgia Batsila; Aikaterini Siambani; Stella Nakou; Christos Mouzakidis; Anna Tsiakiri; Stavros Zafeiropoulos; Konstantina Karagiozi; Chaido Messini; Alexandra Diamantidou; Maria Vasiloglou



Miller Range MIL07687: A Unique Carbonaceous Chondrite with a Complex Record of Partial Aqueous Alteration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MIL 07687 matrix shows evidence of complex and variable aqueous alteration. FeO-rich regions of the matrix have been altered to form fibrous, nanocrystalline Fe oxyhydroxide, suggesting unique oxidizing conditions of alteration.

Brearley, A. J.




EPA Science Inventory

An analytical approach of quantifying various chemical species, using Raman spectrometry in conjunction with equilibrium modeling, has been tested on aqueous solutions containing Nd, Cu, and dipicolinic acid. Equilibrium modeling was used to select optimum conditions in simple so...


NMR Studies on the Aqueous Phase Photochemical Degradation of TNT  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous phase photochemical degradation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) is an important pathway in several environments, including washout lagoon soils, impact craters from partially detonated munitions that fill with rain or groundwater, and shallow marine environments containing unexploded munitions that have corroded. Knowledge of the degradation products is necessary for compliance issues on military firing ranges and formerly used defense sites. Previous laboratory studies have indicated that UV irradiation of aqueous TNT solutions results in a multicomponent product mixture, including polymerization compounds, that has been only partially resolved by mass spectrometric analyses. This study illustrates how a combination of solid and liquid state 1H, 13C, and 15N NMR spectroscopy, including two dimensional analyses, provides complementary information on the total product mixture from aqueous photolysis of TNT, and the effect of reaction conditions. Among the degradation products detected were amine, amide, azoxy, azo, and carboxylic acid compounds.

Thorn, Kevin A.; Cox, Larry G.



Analysis of functional pathways altered after mild traumatic brain injury.  


Concussive injury (or mild traumatic brain injury; mTBI) can exhibit features of focal or diffuse injury patterns. We compared and contrasted the cellular and molecular responses after mild controlled cortical impact (mCCI; a focal injury) or fluid percussion injury (FPI; a diffuse injury) in rats. The rationale for this comparative analysis was to investigate the brain's response to mild diffuse versus mild focal injury to identify common molecular changes triggered by these injury modalities and to determine the functional pathways altered after injury that may provide novel targets for therapeutic intervention. Microarrays containing probes against 21,792 unique messenger RNAs (mRNAs) were used to investigate the changes in cortical mRNA expression levels at 3 and 24?h postinjury. Of the 354 mRNAs with significantly altered expression levels after mCCI, over 89% (316 mRNAs) were also contained within the mild FPI (mFPI) data set. However, mFPI initiated a more widespread molecular response, with over 2300 mRNAs differentially expressed. Bioinformatic analysis of annotated gene ontology molecular function and biological pathway terms showed a significant overrepresentation of genes belonging to inflammation, stress, and signaling categories in both data sets. We therefore examined changes in the protein levels of a panel of 23 cytokines and chemokines in cortical extracts using a Luminex-based bead immunoassay and detected significant increases in macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1? (CCL3), GRO-KC (CXCL1), interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-1?, and IL-6. Immunohistochemical localization of MIP-1? and IL-1? showed marked increases at 3?h postinjury in the cortical vasculature and microglia, respectively, that were largely resolved by 24?h postinjury. Our findings demonstrate that both focal and diffuse mTBI trigger many shared pathobiological processes (e.g., inflammatory responses) that could be targeted for mechanism-based therapeutic interventions. PMID:22913729

Redell, John B; Moore, Anthony N; Grill, Raymond J; Johnson, Daniel; Zhao, Jing; Liu, Yin; Dash, Pramod K



Aqueous Corrosion Rates for Waste Package Materials  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this analysis, as directed by ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]), is to compile applicable corrosion data from the literature (journal articles, engineering documents, materials handbooks, or standards, and national laboratory reports), evaluate the quality of these data, and use these to perform statistical analyses and distributions for aqueous corrosion rates of waste package materials. The purpose of this report is not to describe the performance of engineered barriers for the TSPA-LA. Instead, the analysis provides simple statistics on aqueous corrosion rates of steels and alloys. These rates are limited by various aqueous parameters such as temperature (up to 100 C), water type (i.e., fresh versus saline), and pH. Corrosion data of materials at pH extremes (below 4 and above 9) are not included in this analysis, as materials commonly display different corrosion behaviors under these conditions. The exception is highly corrosion-resistant materials (Inconel Alloys) for which rate data from corrosion tests at a pH of approximately 3 were included. The waste package materials investigated are those from the long and short 5-DHLW waste packages, 2-MCO/2-DHLW waste package, and the 21-PWR commercial waste package. This analysis also contains rate data for some of the materials present inside the fuel canisters for the following fuel types: U-Mo (Fermi U-10%Mo), MOX (FFTF), Thorium Carbide and Th/U Carbide (Fort Saint Vrain [FSVR]), Th/U Oxide (Shippingport LWBR), U-metal (N Reactor), Intact U-Oxide (Shippingport PWR, Commercial), aluminum-based, and U-Zr-H (TRIGA). Analysis of corrosion rates for Alloy 22, spent nuclear fuel, defense high level waste (DHLW) glass, and Titanium Grade 7 can be found in other analysis or model reports.

S. Arthur



The influence of tremor on handwriting performance under conditions of low and intermediate physical stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study used a temporally sensitive technique (coherency analysis) to examine individual differences in handwriting dynamics of people with and without tremor, under conditions of low and mild physical stress. Participants with tremor maintained their axial pen pressure (APP), while those without tremor increased their pressure in conditions of mild stress. Both groups wrote at a similar speed with a

Mitchell G Longstaff; Richard A Heath



Diagnostic procedures in mild traumatic brain injury: results of the who collaborating centre task force on mild traumatic brain injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined diagnostic procedures in mild traumatic brain injury by a systematic literature search. After screening 38,806 abstracts, we critically reviewed 228 diagnostic studies and accepted 73 (32%). The estimated prevalence of intracranial CT scan abnormalities is 5% in patients presenting to hospital with a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 15 and 30% or higher in patients presenting with a

Jörgen Borg; Lena Holm; J. David Cassidy; Paul M. Peloso; Linda J. Carroll; Hans von Holst; Kaj Ericson



Retrospective case studies of the efficacy of caprylic triglyceride in mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease  

PubMed Central

Under normal conditions, the adult human brain is fueled primarily by glucose. A prominent feature of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is region-specific decreases in cerebral glucose metabolism. Ketone bodies are a group of compounds produced from fat stores during periods of low glucose availability that can provide an alternative to glucose for brain metabolism. Consumption of sufficient quantities of caprylic triglyceride (CT) increases plasma concentrations of ketone bodies and may be beneficial in conditions of compromised glucose metabolism, such as AD. The present study describes the use of CT in mild-to-moderate AD in routine clinical practice. Case records from eight patients with extensive monitoring of cognitive function using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and who had received CT for ?6 months were reviewed. All were outpatients aged ?50 years, cared for in standard practice, had a diagnosis of probable AD of mild-to-moderate severity (MMSE 14–24), and had received CT for at least 6 months in addition to other approved pharmacotherapy for AD. Response to CT administration as measured by MMSE scores varied by patient. However, the rate of decline in MMSE scores appeared slower than previously published reports for patients treated with pharmacotherapy alone. Profiling of individual patients may provide insight regarding those most likely to benefit from addition of CT to currently approved AD pharmacotherapy. PMID:24187498

Maynard, Steven Douglas; Gelblum, Jeff



Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products  

SciTech Connect

Research continued on the production of co-products from mild gasification. This quarter, 10 mild gasification tests were conducted in the 8-inch-I.D. process research unit (PRU). Modifications to the PRU were made during this period to improve mixing and to overcome the caking tendency of the Illinois No. 6 coal. Six of the tests resulted in satisfactory operation at steady conditions for 2.25 to 3.25 hours. Samples of char, gas, water, and organic condensables were collected over a one-hour period from each of these successful tests and analyzed. The effects of process temperature over the range of 1025{degree} to 1390{degree} was studied during this quarter. Compositional effects on the oils and tars observed with increased temperature are increased light oil content, decreased pitch content, decreased oxygen content, increased nitrogen and sulfur content, and increasing aromaticity. Char upgrading studies continued during the quarter. Briquettes made in a laboratory press, using either a pitch binder or Illinois No. 6 coal to provide an in-situ binder, were calcined and tested for diametral compression strength. Char was also subjected to steam activation at a variety of conditions to determine the potential for use as a low-cost absorbent for water treatment. 2 refs., 15 figs., 11 tabs.

Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.; Onischak, M.; Kline, S.; Babu, S.P.



Poly(o-anisidine) films on mild steel: electrochemical synthesis and biosensor application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Poly(o-anisidine) (POA) films were synthesized on mild steel from an aqueous oxalic acid solution by electrochemical polymerization of o-anisidine using cyclic voltammetry. These films were characterized by cyclic voltammetry, UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The enzyme glucose oxidase (GOx) was entrapped into the POA film by a physical adsorption method. The resulting POA-GOx films were characterized by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, FTIR and SEM. The amperometric response of the POA-GOx films was measured as a function of glucose concentration in phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.3). The POA-GOx films exhibited a fast amperometric response (1-5 s) and a linear response in the range of 2-20 mM glucose. The maximum current density and Michaelis-Menten constant of POA/GOx films were found to be ~406 µA cm-2 and 1.03 mM, respectively. The shelf stability, operational stability and thermal stability of these films were also investigated.

Patil, Dewyani; Gaikwad, A. B.; Patil, Pradip



Mild pyrolysis of selectively oxidized coals. [Quarterly] technical report, December 1, 1991--February 29, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this study is to investigate the removal organic sulfur from selectively oxidized Illinois coals using mild thermal/chemical processes. Work completed this quarter primarily concerned establishing the level of selective oxidation required for successful desulfurization in subsequent treatments. Many desulfurization reactions were performed on pretreated as well as unoxidized coal. The results obtained support the following new conclusions: (1) The extent of selective oxidation in the pretreatment step does not effect the level of desulfurization obtained by pyrolysis alone. However this factor was important in the desulfurization obtained with supercritical methanol (SCM)/base. (2) Up to 84% of the sulfur in the IBC 106 coal and 86% of the sulfur in the IBC 106 coal has been removed by combining selective oxidation and SCM/base reactions. (3) Most desulfurizations at 250{degree}C did not produce significant levels of desulfurization. However as the temperature was increased levels of desulfurization increased considerably. (4) Although aqueous base was successful in removing sulfur from both pretreated and untreated samples, the most pronounced desulfurizations were obtained for the untreated samples. This is explained primarily by the dissolution of pyrite in the untreated samples. (5) The best desulfurizations involved SCM and base. Possible synergistic interactions between the methanol and the base are suspected. (6) Overall, selective oxidation pretreatment always led to a lower sulfur product. The severity of desulfurization is reduced by selective oxidation pretreatment.

Hippo, E.J.; Palmer, S.R.



Aqueous Solubility of CL-20.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Energetics and Warheads Division of the U.S. Army Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center has been involved in the development of CL-20. An aqueous solubility study was performed to better understand the fate and transport of CL-20 throu...

P. Karakaya, M. Sidhoum, C. Christodoulatos, W. Balas, S. Nicolich



Aqueous Processing Material Accountability Instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

Increased use of nuclear power will require new facilities. The U.S. has not built a new spent nuclear fuel reprocessing facility for decades. Reprocessing facilities must maintain accountability of their nuclear fuel. This survey report on the techniques used in current aqueous reprocessing facilities, and provides references to source materials to assist facility design efforts.

Robert Bean



Aqueous alteration of kamacite in CM chondrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of aqueous alteration of kamacite in CM chondrites provides insight on the conditions, products, and relative timing of aqueous alteration. We studied unaltered, partially altered, and fully altered kamacite grains from Murray, Murchison, Cold Bokkeveld, and Nogoya using optical microscopy, electron microprobe analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. From textual evidence and chemical analysis, we established three separate microchemical environments. 1) In a microchemical environment with a high S activity, kamacite alters to form tochilinite, P-bearing sulfides, eskolaite, and schreibersite. Mass balance calculations show that 81% of the Fe in kamacite is removed from the alteration region, making it available for the formation of other minerals or Fe-rich aureoles. The release of Fe can alter the mesostasis of type-I chondrules forming cronstedtite. 2) In a microchemical environment with a high Si activity and a low S activity, kamacite alters to form cronstedtite with small accessory sulfide inclusions. 3) A microchemical environment with limited S and Si activity results in kamacite alteration forming magnetite. The resulting magnetite retains associated Ni that can distinguish it from precipitated magnetite. In addition, the accessory phases of pentlandite and apatite can be formed if S or Ca are present. Finally, we note that small tochilinite grains in the matrix lack typical Ni, P, and Co levels, suggesting that they did not form from kamacite but possibly by sulfidization of magnetite.

Palmer, Eric E.; Lauretta, Dante S.



Aqueous alteration of the Nakhla meteorite  

SciTech Connect

Interior samples of three different Nakhla specimens contain an iron-rich silicate 'rust' (which includes a tentatively identified smectite), Ca-carbonate (probably calcite), Ca-sulfate (possibly gypsum or bassanite), Mg-sulfate (possibly epsomite or kieserite), and NaCl (halite); the total abundance of these phases is estimated as less than 0.01 weight percent of the bulk meteorite. Rust veins are truncated and decrepitated by fusion crust and are preserved as faulted segments in partially healed olivine crystals, indicating that the rust is preterrestrial in origin. Because Ca-carbonate and Ca-sulfate are intergrown with the rust, they are also indicated to be of preterrestrial origin. Similar textural evidence regarding origins of the NaCl and Mg-sulfate is lacking. Impure and poorly crystallized sulfates and halides on the fusion crust of the meteorite suggest leaching of interior (preterrestrial) salts from the interior after Makhla arrived on earth, but coincidental addition of these same salts by terrestrial contamination cannot be exluded. At least the clay-like silicate 'rust', Ca-carbonate, and Ca-sulfate were formed by precipitation from water-based solutions on the Nakhla parent planet, although temperature and pressure conditions of aqueous precipitation are unconstrained by currently available data. It is possible that aqueous alteration on the parent body was responsible for the previously observed disturbance of the Rb-Sr geochronometer in Nakhla at or near 1.3 Ga. 21 refs.

Gooding, J.L.; Zolensky, M.E.; Wentworth, S.J. (NASA, Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX (USA) Lockheed Engineering and Sciences Co., Houston, TX (USA))



Aqueous alteration of the Nakhla meteorite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interior samples of three different Nakhla specimens contain an iron-rich silicate 'rust' (which includes a tentatively identified smectite), Ca-carbonate (probably calcite), Ca-sulfate (possibly gypsum or bassanite), Mg-sulfate (possibly epsomite or kieserite), and NaCl (halite); the total abundance of these phases is estimated as less than 0.01 weight percent of the bulk meteorite. Rust veins are truncated and decrepitated by fusion crust and are preserved as faulted segments in partially healed olivine crystals, indicating that the rust is preterrestrial in origin. Because Ca-carbonate and Ca-sulfate are intergrown with the rust, they are also indicated to be of preterrestrial origin. Similar textural evidence regarding origins of the NaCl and Mg-sulfate is lacking. Impure and poorly crystallized sulfates and halides on the fusion crust of the meteorite suggest leaching of interior (preterrestrial) salts from the interior after Makhla arrived on earth, but coincidental addition of these same salts by terrestrial contamination cannot be exluded. At least the clay-like silicate 'rust', Ca-carbonate, and Ca-sulfate were formed by precipitation from water-based solutions on the Nakhla parent planet, although temperature and pressure conditions of aqueous precipitation are unconstrained by currently available data. It is possible that aqueous alteration on the parent body was responsible for the previously observed disturbance of the Rb-Sr geochronometer in Nakhla at or near 1.3 Ga.

Gooding, James L.; Zolensky, Michael E.; Wentworth, Susan J.



Corrosion problems with aqueous coolants, final report  

SciTech Connect

The results of a one year program to characterize corrosion of solar collector alloys in aqueous heat-transfer media are summarized. The program involved a literature review and a laboratory investigation of corrosion in uninhibited solutions. It consisted of three separate tasks, as follows: review of the state-of-the-art of solar collector corrosion processes; study of corrosion in multimetallic systems; and determination of interaction between different waters and chemical antifreeze additives. Task 1 involved a comprehensive review of published literature concerning corrosion under solar collector operating conditions. The reivew also incorporated data from related technologies, specifically, from research performed on automotive cooling systems, cooling towers, and heat exchangers. Task 2 consisted of determining the corrosion behavior of candidate alloys of construction for solar collectors in different types of aqueous coolants containing various concentrations of corrosive ionic species. Task 3 involved measuring the degradation rates of glycol-based heat-transfer media, and also evaluating the effects of degradation on the corrosion behavior of metallic collector materials.

Diegle, R B; Beavers, J A; Clifford, J E



Pretreatment of rapeseed straw by soaking in aqueous ammonia.  


Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass has gained attention for production of biofuels. In this study, pretreatment by soaking in aqueous ammonia was adopted for pretreatment of biomass for ethanol production. A central composite design of response surface methodology was used for optimization of the pretreatment condition of rapeseed straw, with respect to catalyst concentration, pretreatment time, and pretreatment temperature. The most optimal condition for pretreatment of rapeseed straw by soaking in aqueous ammonia was 19.8% of ammonia water, 14.2 h of pretreatment time, and a pretreatment temperature of 69.0 °C. Using these optimal factor values under experimental conditions, 60.7% of theoretical glucose was obtained, and this value was well within the range predicted by the model. SEM results showed that SAA pretreatment of rapeseed straw resulted in increased surface area and pore size, as well as enhanced enzymatic digestibility. PMID:21918838

Kang, Kyeong Eop; Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Sunwoo, Changshin; Park, Don-Hee



Silica-supported antimony(III) chloride as a mild and reusable catalyst for the Paal–Knorr pyrrole synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heterogeneous catalysts are used for control of environmental pollution. Heterogeneous catalysts are easily separated from\\u000a the reaction mixture, thus allowing their recovery and re-use. There is a need for catalysts that are efficient under mild\\u000a conditions. Here, we show that silica-supported antimony(III) chloride (SbCl3\\/SiO2) acts as a highly efficient heterogeneous Lewis acid catalyst for the Paal–Knorr pyrrole synthesis at room

Hossein Reza Darabi; Mohammad Reza Poorheravi; Kioumars Aghapoor; Asyeh Mirzaee; Farshid Mohsenzadeh; Nazafarin Asadollahnejad; Hossein Taherzadeh; Yadollah Balavar


Mild silver-mediated geminal difluorination of styrenes using an air- and moisture-stable fluoroiodane reagent.  


An air- and moisture-stable fluoroiodane in the presence of AgBF4 is suitable for selective geminal difluorination of styrenes under mild reaction conditions. One of the C?F bonds is formed by transfer of electrophilic fluorine from the hypervalent iodine reagent, while the other one arises from the tetrafluoroborate counterion of silver. Deuterium-isotope-labelling experiments and rearrangement of methyl styrene substrates suggest that the reaction proceeds through a phenonium ion intermediate. PMID:25335468

Ilchenko, Nadia O; Tasch, Boris O A; Szabó, Kálmán J



Halogen production from aqueous tropospheric particles.  


Box model studies have been performed to study the role of aqueous phase chemistry with regard to halogen activation for marine and urban clouds and the marine aerosol as well. Different chemical pathways leading to halogen activation in diluted cloud droplets and highly concentrated sea salt aerosol particles are investigated. The concentration of halides in cloud droplets is significantly smaller than in sea-salt particles, and hence different reaction sequences control the overall chemical conversions. In diluted droplets radical chemistry involving OH, NO(3), Cl/Cl(2)(-)/ClOH(-), and Br/Br(2)(-)/BrOH(-) gains in importance and pH independent pathways lead to the release of halogens from the particle phase whereas the chemistry in aerosol particles with high electrolyte concentrations is controlled by non-radical reactions at high ionic strengths and relatively low pH values. For the simulation of halogen activation in tropospheric clouds and aqueous aerosol particles in different environments a halogen module was developed including both gas and aqueous phase processes of halogen containing species. This module is coupled to a base mechanism consisting of RACM (Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Mechanism) and the Chemical Aqueous Phase Radical Mechanism CAPRAM 2.4 (MODAC-mechanism). Phase exchange is described by the resistance model by Chemistry of Multiphase Atmospheric Systems, NATO ASI Series, 1986. It can be shown that under cloud conditions the bromine atom is mainly produced by OH initiated reactions, i.e. its concentration maximum is reached at noon. In contrast, the concentration level of chlorine atoms is linked to NO(3) radical chemistry leading to a smaller amplitude between day and night time concentrations. The contribution of radical processes to halogen atom formation in the particle phase is evident, e.g. by halogen atoms which undergo direct phase transfer. Furthermore, the application of the multiphase model for initial concentrations for sea-salt aerosols shows that the particle phase can act as a main source of halogen containing molecules (Cl(2), BrCl, Br(2)) which are photolysed in the gas phase to yield halogen atoms (about 70% of all Cl sources and more than 99% for Br). PMID:12738274

Herrmann, H; Majdik, Z; Ervens, B; Weise, D




EPA Science Inventory

Pilot-plant runs using plant samples have demonstrated the feasibility of a novel extraction process for caprolactam recovery from dilute aqueous solutions. Following extraction, aqueous effluent caprolactam concentrations as low as 30 ppm were obtained. Further effluent treatmen...


Characterizing Fullerene Nanoparticles in Aqueous Suspensions  

EPA Science Inventory

Studies have indicated that fullerenes can form stable colloidal suspensions in water when introduced to the aqueous phase through solvent exchange, sonication, or extended mixing. The colloidal suspensions created using these techniques have effective aqueous phase concentratio...


Pyrrolidine as a cogwheel-like scaffold for the deployment of diverse functionality through cycloaddition reactions of metallo-1,3-dipoles in aqueous media.  


The reaction of glycinatocopper complexes with cinnamaldehydes under mildy basic aqueous conditions, affords polysubstituted prolines, which can be systematically modified in a number of chemoselective transformations. PMID:10743941

Hanessian, S; Bayrakdarian, M



Sporostatic and sporocidal properties of aqueous formaldehyde.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aqueous formaldehyde is shown to exert both sporostatic and sporocidal effects on Bacillus subtilis spores. The sporostatic effect is a result of the reversible inhibition of spore germination occasioned by aqueous formaldehyde; the sporocidal effect is due to the temperature-dependent inactivation of these spores in aqueous formaldehyde. The physicochemical state of formaldehyde in solution provides a framework with which to interpret both the sporostatic and sporocidal properties of aqueous formaldehyde.

Trujillo, R.; David, T. J.



Equimolar carbon absorption by potassium phthalimide and in situ catalytic conversion under mild conditions.  


Potassium phthalimide, with weak basicity, is an excellent absorbent for rapid carbon dioxide capture with almost equimolar absorption. This process is assumed to proceed through the potassium carbamate formation pathway, as supported by NMR spectroscopy, an in situ FTIR study, and computational calculations. Both the basicity and nucleophilicity of phthalimide salts have a crucial effect on the capture process. Furthermore, the captured carbon dioxide could more easily be converted in situ into value-added chemicals and fuel-related products through carbon capture and utilization, rather than going through a desorption process. PMID:24677616

Zhang, Shuai; Li, Yu-Nong; Zhang, Ya-Wei; He, Liang-Nian; Yu, Bing; Song, Qing-Wen; Lang, Xian-Dong



Controlled Synthesis of Porous Coordination-Polymer Microcrystals with Definite Morphologies and Sizes under Mild Conditions.  


Herein, we report a facile and convenient method for the synthesis of the porous coordination polymer MOF-14 [Cu3 (BTB)2 ] (H3 BTB=4,4',4''-benzene-1,3,5-triyl-tribenzoic acid) as microcrystals with definite shapes and crystal facets controlled by the reaction medium at room temperature. The amount of sodium acetate added to the reaction system plays a crucial role in the shape evolution of MOF-14 from rhombic dodecahedrons to truncated rhombic dodecahedrons and cubes with truncated edges and then to cubes. The addition of a base could accelerate the formation rate of crystal growth and increase the supersaturation of crystal growth, thus resulting in the formation of MOF-14 cube crystals with high-energy crystal facets. The morphological evolution was also observed for HKUST-1 [Cu3 (BTC)2 ] (H3 BTC=1,3,5-benzenetricarbocylic acid) from octahedrons to cubes, thus verifying the probable mechanism of the morphological transformation. The gas-adsorption properties of MOF-14 with different shapes were studied and reveal that the porous coordination-polymer microcrystals display excellent and morphology-dependent sorption properties. PMID:25224902

Liu, Qing; Yang, Ji-Min; Jin, Li-Na; Sun, Wei-Yin



Dechlorination/detoxification of aromatic chlorides using fly ash under mild conditions.  


An efficient dechlorination/detroxification method for p-nitrochlorobenzene, p-chloroanisole and 1-chloronaphthalene on municipal waste incinerator fly ash in presence of reducing agents with water/alcohol mixtures was developed. Dechlorination% was higher in water/isopropanol mixture at temperature <100 degrees C. Metal contents of fly ash played a vital role in enhancing dechlorination at low temperature. Moreover, the fly ash particles provided the surface to accomplish reduction and substitution reactions by adsorbing the chlorinated aromatic compound, hydrogen and hydroxyl ions. The mechanism of dechlorination was envisaged. PMID:19740644

Ghaffar, Abdul; Tabata, Masaaki



Adaptable hetero Diels-Alder networks for fast self-healing under mild conditions.  


A novel adaptable network based on the reversible hetero Diels-Alder reaction of a cyanodithioester and cyclopentadiene is presented. Reversible between 50-120 °C, the adjustable and self-healing features of the network are evidenced via temperature dependent rheology experiments and repetitive tensile tests whereas the network's chemical structure is explored by temperature dependent (1) H MAS-NMR spectroscopy. PMID:24659414

Oehlenschlaeger, Kim K; Mueller, Jan O; Brandt, Josef; Hilf, Stefan; Lederer, Albena; Wilhelm, Manfred; Graf, Robert; Coote, Michelle L; Schmidt, Friedrich G; Barner-Kowollik, Christopher



Base-catalyzed synthesis of substituted indazoles under mild, transition-metal-free conditions.  


Back to basics: A transition-metal-free method developed for the synthesis of indazoles involves an inexpensive catalytic system composed of a diamine and K2CO3. Various (Z)-2-bromoacetophenone tosylhydrazones were converted into indazoles at room temperature in excellent yields (see example; Ts = p-toluenesulfonyl). The yield was improved by photoisomerization with UV light when E/Z isomeric mixtures of the starting material were used. PMID:23740864

Thomé, Isabelle; Besson, Claire; Kleine, Tillmann; Bolm, Carsten



Application and properties of sub-monomolecular layers of silicon dioxide deposited under mild conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultra-thin layers of silicon dioxide (< 1 nm) can be applied via the UVO3CVD method whereby a gas mixture of O3/O2 and TMOS/N2 (TMOS = tetramethyl orthosilicate) is decomposed with UV light (254 nm) to form silicon dioxide at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. A reaction chamber is designed and the parameters that influence the deposition rate are optimized. The deposition rate is independent of the TMOS concentration, but depends on the ozone concentration. Probably, the reaction kinetics is pseudo-first-order in the ozone concentration. With increased distance between the UV lamp and the substrate the deposited silicon dioxide contains more organic groups. Silicon dioxide layers deposited on metal substrates are analyzed with static-SIMS, XPS, RBS, SEM, and glancing incidence asymmetric Bragg diffraction (GIABD). Both with XPS and with RBS the maximum deposition rate of the present equipment is determined to be 1 Å/min. According to the XPS measurements the O/Si ratio in the deposit is 2.2 and the carbon content is near zero. With static-SIMS characteristic fragment ions of silicon dioxide and the metal substrate are detected. The relative peak intensities of these fragments linearly relate with the silicon dioxide layer thickness when the layer thickness is smaller than 2 nm. With SEm ultra-thin silicon-dioxide layers can be visualized, because the secondary electron emission of a coated and an uncoated metal surface is different. This is probably attributable to a difference in surface potential. With GIABD a 29 nm thick layer was found to be crystalline, but no known diffraction pattern of SiO x fitted the measured pattern. Metals can be coated with ultra-thin silicon dioxide. It was found that these ultra-thin layers inhibit metal corrosion. A metal surface coated with ultra-thin silicon dioxide can be further modified with known coupling agents, such as silanes, as if the metal was silicon dioxide.

Knotter, D. Martin



Palladium-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling of Unactivated Aryl Sulfides with Arylzinc Reagents under Mild Conditions.  


Cross-coupling of general aryl alkyl sulfides with arylzinc reagents proceeds smoothly, even at room temperature or below, with a palladium-N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) catalyst. When combined with reactions that are unique to organosulfurs, that is, the SN Ar sulfanylation or Pummerer reaction, the cross-coupling offers interesting transformations that are otherwise difficult to achieve. An alkylsulfanyl group is preferentially converted whilst leaving the tosyloxy and chloro intact, which expands the variety of orthogonal cross-coupling. PMID:25168477

Otsuka, Shinya; Fujino, Daishi; Murakami, Kei; Yorimitsu, Hideki; Osuka, Atsuhiro



An effective approach to prepare uniform protein Zn2+ nanoparticles under mild conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a novel yet simple method to prepare nanometre-sized dense and spherical protein-Zn2+ particles, a system useful for delivery of structurally delicate protein therapeutics. To demonstrate the preparation method, a model protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and zinc acetate were added to a solution of polyethylene glycol, followed by freeze-drying. Protein-Zn2+ particles were harvested by washing the lyophilized powder using dichloromethane or acetonitrile to remove PEG. By varying formulation parameters, such as molecular weight and concentration of PEG, particles of desired diameters can easily be obtained in the range of 30-350 nm. This particulate system was characterized using electron microscopy, laser scattering, x-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) for morphology, particle sizes, crystalline structure and thermal properties, respectively. The results proved that the said protein-Zn2+ particles are spherical, glassy and uniform in size. For the mechanism of how the PEG continuous phase facilitates the formation of spherical protein-Zn2+ particles (which are irregular in shape when formed by spray-drying), we hypothesize that freezing-induced phase separation occurred during the freezing process, during which the BSA-Zn2+ complex was 'squeezed' into each dispersed particle. For structural integrity, the protein reconstituted from the particles showed the same SEC-HPLC charts as the original samples, suggesting the particle forming process did not induce protein aggregation.

Yuan, Weien; Wu, Fei; Geng, Yan; Xu, Songlin; Jin, Tuo



Mild Developmental Hypothyroidism and Trace Fear Conditioning: Role of Gender and Shock Duration.  

EPA Science Inventory

Rodent models of developmental thyroid hormone (TH) deficiency aptly reflect the deleterious effects of severe TH deficiencies on brain structure and function in humans. However, the impact of moderate TH insufficiencies on neurodevelopmental outcomes has proven more difficult to...


Rhodium-Catalyzed Ketone Methylation Using Methanol Under Mild Conditions: Formation of ?-Branched Products**  

PubMed Central

The rhodium-catalyzed methylation of ketones has been accomplished using methanol as the methylating agent and the hydrogen-borrowing method. The sequence is notable for the relatively low temperatures that are required and for the ability of the reaction system to form ?-branched products with ease. Doubly alkylated ketones can be prepared from methyl ketones and two different alcohols by using a sequential one-pot iridium- and rhodium-catalyzed process. PMID:24288297

Chan, Louis K M; Poole, Darren L; Shen, Di; Healy, Mark P; Donohoe, Timothy J



Structural comparison between non-aqueous and aqueous microemulsions from multicomponent self-diffusion measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microemulsions are known to be formed also with non-aqueous solvents like glycerol, formamide and its derivatives. The isotropic region is fairly large and is often lar- ger than for the corresponding aqueous system. Although some structural information of aqueous microemulsions is available in literature, there is currently still no information on the structure of these non-aqueous microemulsions. From a comparison

K. Das; A. Ceglie; B. Lindman


Respiratory status of stainless steel and mild steel welders.  


Eighty-three full-time stainless steel and 29 mild steel welders from one shipyard were examined clinically, and their lung function was measured. The stainless steel welders had used both tungsten inert-gas (low-fume concentration) and manual metal-arc (MMA) (high-fume concentration) welding methods. The individual exposure of the welders was estimated based on the time spent doing MMA welding, the amount of retained contaminants in the lungs (magnetopulmography), and urinary chromium excretion. The results suggest that there is a greater prevalence of small airway disease among shipyard mild steel MMA welders than among stainless steel welders. Among the stainless steel welders the impairment of lung function parameters was associated with the MMA welding method. The type of welding, then, is important when the health hazards of welders are studied, and welders cannot be regarded as a single, homogeneous group. PMID:7100838

Kalliomäki, P L; Kalliomäki, K; Korhonen, O; Nordman, H; Rahkonen, E; Vaaranen, V



The Potential for DHA to Mitigate Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.  


Scientific knowledge of omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) has grown in the last decade to a greater understanding of their mechanisms of action and their potential therapeutic effects. Omega-3 FAs have shown therapeutic potential with respect to hyperlipidemia, depression, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and mild cognitive impairment. Laboratory evidence and clinical interest have grown such that omega-3 FAs have now assumed a role in concussion management. This has coincided with recent research that has also helped to increase the scientific understanding of cerebral concussion; although concussion or mild traumatic brain injury was assumed to be a malfunctioning brain without anatomical damage, we now know that there is the potential for damage and dysfunction at the cellular and microstructural levels. Specifically, with concussion abnormal metabolism of glucose may occur and intracellular mitochondrial dysfunction can persist for several days. In this article, we discuss the role of omega-3 FAs, particularly docosahexaenoic acid, in concussion management. PMID:25373094

Bailes, Julian E; Patel, Vimal



Mild acute ischaemic stroke--the case for thrombolytic therapy.  


The incidence of acute ischaemic stroke with mild neurological deficits (called mild ischaemic stroke [MIS]) is increasing, and studies show that a large percentage of untreated patients have poor long-term outcomes. Many physicians do not, however, routinely treat patients with MIS with intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA)--the only thrombolytic therapy currently approved by the FDA. Here, we discuss the reasons why physicians do not treat patients with MIS and we review the studies published to date regarding the potential risks and benefits of administering rtPA in this patient population. We then provide our perspective on why patients with MIS should be treated with intravenous rtPA and we highlight the need for a randomized clinical trial to address treatment of MIS. PMID:23979526

Guerrero, Waldo R; Savitz, Sean I



The beneficial effect of mild hypothermia in a rat model of repeated thromboembolic insults.  


The post-thrombotic brain has recently been reported to have an enhanced vulnerability to a second embolic insult. Although postischemic hypothermia is neuroprotective in global and focal ischemia models, the effect of mild hypothermia on outcome after thromboembolic insults has not been evaluated. This study therefore determined whether brain hypothermia (33 degrees C) was neuroprotective against repeated thromboembolic insults. Photochemically induced non-occlusive common carotid artery thrombosis (CCAT) leading to platelet embolization to the brain was induced in anesthetized rats ( n=35). Thirty minutes after CCAT, brain temperature was maintained at normothermic (37 degrees C) or hypothermic (33 degrees C) levels for 4 h followed by a slow rewarming period (1.5 h). Three days later, rats underwent a secondary CCAT insult under normothermic conditions and were allowed to survive for an additional 3 days prior to perfusion fixation and quantitative histopathological assessment. Compared to normothermic animals, mild hypothermia after the first embolic insult produced a significant reduction ( P>0.05) in overall infarct volume. Hypothermia reduced total infarct volume from 7.55+/-2.32 mm(3) (mean +/- SEM) in normothermic rats to 2.56+/-0.88 mm(3) in hypothermic animals undergoing repeated insults. Histopathological analysis also demonstrated less evidence for focal hemorrhage in the cooled groups. These data demonstrate that mild hypothermia is protective in a thromboembolic stroke model. In addition, post-thrombotic hypothermia decreases the histopathological vulnerability of the post-thrombotic brain to secondary embolic insults. These findings may be important in the prevention of stroke in patients at risk. PMID:14963724

Urrea, Carlos; Danton, Gary H; Bramlett, Helen M; Dietrich, W Dalton



Acute Minocycline Treatment Mitigates the Symptoms of Mild Blast-Induced Traumatic Brain Injury  

PubMed Central

Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) represents a significant challenge for the civilian and military health care systems due to its high prevalence and overall complexity. Our earlier works showed evidence of neuroinflammation, a late onset of neurobehavioral changes, and lasting memory impairment in a rat model of mild blast-induced TBI (mbTBI). The aim of our present study was to determine whether acute treatment with the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug minocycline (Minocin®) can mitigate the neurobehavi