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1

Promoted oxidation of phenol in aqueous solution using molecular oxygen at mild conditions  

SciTech Connect

Wet oxidation with molecular oxygen at mild conditions (temperature < 200 C, pressure {le} 2 MPa) is an economically attractive pretreatment step for non-biodegradable aqueous waste streams. In order to overcome the low reactivity of molecular oxygen towards organic molecules at these mild process conditions, an initiator was used in combination with ferrous ions in the acidic range. The promoted oxidation of phenol in aqueous solution was investigated in a 4 liters stirred autoclave. It was possible to degrade the phenol at temperatures as low as 100 C without observing an induction time. The remaining solution contained mainly acetic and formic acid and was well biodegradable. The oxidative behavior of the oxygen/phenol system could be explained using the well-known autoxidation mechanism for aliphatic molecules. 4-hydroperoxy-phenol is suggested as a key intermediate. Measured products are p-benzoquinone, hydroquinone, catechol, maleic, oxalic, pyruvic, formic, and acetic acid. Dimers could also be identified in sample extracts. A global pathway including all identified products is presented.

Vogel, F.; Harf, J.; Hug, A.; Rohr, P.R. von [Swiss Federal Inst. of Tech., Zuerich (Switzerland). Inst. of Process Engineering

1999-05-01

2

Kinetics of organic transformations under mild aqueous conditions: implications for the origin of life and its metabolism.  

PubMed

The rates of thermal transformation of organic molecules containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen were systematically examined in order to identify the kinetic constraints that governed origin-of-life organic chemistry under mild aqueous conditions. Arrhenius plots of the kinetic data were used to estimate the reaction of half-lifes at 50 degrees C. This survey showed that hydrocarbons and organic substances containing a single oxygenated group were kinetically the most stable; whereas organic substances containing two oxygenated groups in which one group was an alpha- or beta-positioned carbonyl group were the most reactive. Compounds with an alpha- or beta-positioned carbonyl group (aldehyde or ketone) had rates of reaction that were up to 10(24)-times faster than rates of similar molecules lacking the carbonyl group. This survey of organic reactivity, together with estimates of the molecular containment properties of lipid vesicles and liquid spherules, indicates that an origins process in a small domain that used C,H,O-intermediates had to be catalytic and use the most reactive organic molecules to prevent escape of its reaction intermediates. PMID:15573498

Weber, Arthur L

2004-10-01

3

Chemical Constraints Governing the Origin of Metabolism: The Thermodynamic Landscape of Carbon Group Transformations under Mild Aqueous Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermodynamics of organic chemistry under mild aqueous conditions was examined in order to begin to understand its influence on the structure and operation of metabolism and its antecedents. Free energies (?G) were estimated for four types of reactions of biochemical importance - carbon-carbon bond cleavage and synthesis, hydrogen transfer between carbon groups, dehydration of alcohol groups, and aldo-keto isomerization. The energies were calculated for mainly aliphatic groups composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The energy values showed (1) that generally when carbon-carbon bond cleavage involves groups from different functional group classes (i.e., carboxylic acids, carbonyl groups, alcohols, and hydrocarbons), the transfer of the shared electron-pair to the more reduced carbon group is energetically favored over transfer to the more oxidized carbon group, and (2) that the energy of carbon-carbon bond transformation is primarily determined by the functional group class of the group that changes oxidation state in the reaction (i.e., the functional group class of the group that donates the shared electron-pair during cleavage, or that accepts the incipient shared electron-pair during synthesis). In contrast, the energy of hydrogen transfer between carbon groups is determined by the functional group class of both the hydrogen-donor group and the hydrogen-acceptor group. From these and other observations we concluded that the chemistry involved in the origin of metabolism (and to a lesser degree modern metabolism) was strongly constrained by (1) the limited redox-based transformation energy of organic substrates that is readily dissipated in a few energetically favorable irreversible reactions; (2) the energy dominance of a few transformation half-reactions that determines whether carbon-carbon bond transformation (cleavage or synthesis) is energetically favorable (?G < -3.5 kcal/mol), reversible (?G between +/-3.5 kcal/mol), or unfavorable (?G > +3.5 kcal/mol); and (3) the dependence of carbon group transformation energy on the functional group class (i.e., oxidation state) of participating groups that in turn is contingent on prior reactions and precursors in the synthetic pathway.

Weber, Arthur L.

2002-08-01

4

Chemical constraints governing the origin of metabolism: the thermodynamic landscape of carbon group transformations under mild aqueous conditions.  

PubMed

The thermodynamics of organic chemistry under mild aqueous conditions was examined in order to begin to understand its influence on the structure and operation of metabolism and its antecedents. Free energies (deltaG) were estimated for four types of reactions of biochemical importance carbon-carbon bond cleavage and synthesis, hydrogen transfer between carbon groups, dehydration of alcohol groups, and aldo-keto isomerization. The energies were calculated for mainly aliphatic groups composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The energy values showed (1) that generally when carbon-carbon bond cleavage involves groups from different functional group classes (i.e., carboxylic acids, carbonyl groups, alcohols, and hydrocarbons), the transfer of the shared electron-pair to the more reduced carbon group is energetically favored over transfer to the more oxidized carbon group, and (2) that the energy of carbon-carbon bond transformation is primarily determined by the functional group class of the group that changes oxidation state in the reaction (i.e., the functional group class of the group that donates the shared electron-pair during cleavage, or that accepts the incipient shared electron-pair during synthesis). In contrast, the energy of hydrogen transfer between carbon groups is determined by the functional group class of both the hydrogen-donor group and the hydrogen-acceptor group. From these and other observations we concluded that the chemistry involved in the origin of metabolism (and to a lesser degree modern metabolism) was strongly constrained by (1) the limited redox-based transformation energy of organic substrates that is readily dissipated in a few energetically favorable irreversible reactions; (2) the energy dominance of a few transformation half-reactions that determines whether carbon-carbon bond transformation (cleavage or synthesis) is energetically favorable (deltaG < -3.5 kcal/mol), reversible (deltaG between +/-3.5 kcal/mol), or unfavorable (deltaG > +3.5 kcal/mol); and (3) the dependence of carbon group transformation energy on the functional group class (i.e., oxidation state) of participating groups that in turn is contingent on prior reactions and precursors in the synthetic pathway. PMID:12458737

Weber, Arthur L

2002-08-01

5

Improved preparation of anhydrous lanthanide chlorides under mild conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxides or carbonates of lanthanides (Ln) are converted under mild conditions into the corresponding solvated anhydrous chlorides LnCl3(ether)n by hydrogen chloride produced in situ from thionyl chloride and water in the presence of 1,l2-dimethoxyethane under mild conditions.

Daniela Belli Dell'Amico; Fausto Calderazzo; Cinzia della Porta; Alessandra Merigo; Paolo Biagini; Gabriele Lugli; Trixie Wagner

1995-01-01

6

Solvolytic liquefaction of wood under mild conditions  

SciTech Connect

Conversion of wood to liquid products requires cleavage of bonds which crosslink the wood structure. This study examines a low-severity wood solubilization process utilizing a solvent medium consisting of a small amount of sulfuric acid and a potentially wood-derivable alcohol. In one half hour of reaction time at 250/sup 0/C under 15 psia starting nitrogen pressure, over 95% of the wood (maf) was rendered acetone-soluble. The product is a soft, black, bitumen-like solid at room temperature but readily softens at 140/sup 0/C. Between 25 and 50% of the original wood oxygen, depending on alcohol used, was removed as water. Approximately 2 to 17% of the alcohols were retained in the product. Gel permeation chromatography showed that the product's median molecular weight is around 300. Based on experimental and literature results, a mechanism for wood solubilization is proposed. This involves protonation of the etheric oxygen atoms, leading to subsequent bond scission to form carbonium ions which are stabilized by solvent alkoxylation. At severe conditions, polymerization and condensation reactions result in acetone-insoluble materials.

Yu, S.M.

1982-04-01

7

Chronoamperometric Study of Mild Steel Pitting in Sodium Sulfide Aqueous Solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mild steel samples were studied by chronoamperometry in sodium sulfide (Na[sub 2]S) aqueous solution. Pit nucleation and growth also were monitored by optical microscopy. The influence of variables such as temperature, polarization potential, surface roughness, the presence of electrochemically generated oxide layers, and the simultaneous presence of potassium hydroxide (KOH) was studied. The influence of each parameter on pit shape

T. F. Otero; C. F. Achucarro

1994-01-01

8

Corrosion inhibition of mild steel in neutral aqueous solution by new triazole derivatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selected triazole derivatives have been synthesised and evaluated as corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in natural aqueous environment by weight loss, potentiodynamic polarisation and ac impedance methods. All the condensed products showed good inhibition efficiency (IE). The effect of changing functional groups of some triazole derivatives on their inhibition efficiency was also reported using weight loss and potentiodynamic technique. 3-Salicylalidene

S Ramesh; S Rajeswari

2004-01-01

9

Inhibition of Mild Steel Corrosion under Hydrodynamic Conditions  

SciTech Connect

The inhibition of mild steel corrosion by 4-amino-5-phenyl-4H-1, 2, 4-trizole-3-thiol (APTT) in 2.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution and the effect of hydrodynamic condition on inhibition process were studied. The hydrodynamic condition experiments are simulated by rotating cylinder electrode (RCE). Change of open circuit potential (OCP) with immersion time and potentiodynamic polarization were used to study the effect of hydrodynamic conditions on the inhibition process. Results obtained from changes of open circuit potential (OCP) with immersion time, and potentiodynamic polarization are in good agreement and indicated that the inhibition process was flow velocity dependence.

Musa, Ahmed Y.; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Mohamad, Abu Bakar; Takriff, Mohd Sobri; Kamarudin, Siti Kartom [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, 43600, Selangor (Malaysia); Daud, Abdul Razak [School of Applied Physics, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, 43600, Selangor (Malaysia)

2010-07-07

10

Enabling antibacterial coating via bioinspired mineralization of nanostructured ZnO on fabrics under mild conditions.  

PubMed

Herein, we present an environmentally benign method capable of mineralization and deposition of nanomaterials to introduce antibacterial functionalities into cotton fabrics under mild conditions. Similar to the way in which many naturally occurring biominerals evolve around the living organism under ambient conditions, this technique enables flexible substrates like the cotton fabric to be coated with inorganic-based functional materials. Specifically, our strategy involves the use of long-chain polyamines known to be responsible in certain biomineralization processes, to nucleate, organize, and deposit nanostructured ZnO on cotton bandage in an aqueous solution under mild conditions of room temperature and neutral pH. The ZnO-coated cotton bandages as characterized by SEM, confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy, XRD, UV-DRS, and fluorescence microscopy demonstrate the importance of polyamine in generating a stable and uniform coating of spindle-shaped ZnO particles on individual threads of the fabric. As the coating process requires only mild conditions, it avoids any adverse effect on the thermal and mechanical properties of the substrate. Furthermore, the ZnO particles on cotton fabric show efficient antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negetive bacteria. Therefore, the developed polyamine mediated bioinspired coating method provides not only a facile and "green" synthesis for coating on flexible substrate but also the fabrication of antibacterial enabled materials for healthcare applications. PMID:23607588

Manna, Joydeb; Begum, Gousia; Kumar, K Pranay; Misra, Sunil; Rana, Rohit K

2013-05-06

11

An Iron Catalyst for Ketone Hydrogenations Under Mild Conditions  

SciTech Connect

Casey and Guan reported a homogeneous catalyst for ketone hydrogenation that does not require a precious metal, but instead is based on iron. Excellent yields and chemoselectivity for hydrogenation are found under mild conditions (25 °C, 3 atm H2). An ionic hydrogenation mechanism allows the delivery of a proton from the OH and a hydride from the metal. RMB gratefully acknowledges funding from the Division of Chemical Sciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, US Department of Energy, and from a grant from the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy.

Bullock, R. Morris

2007-10-01

12

Process for obtaining dry extracts under mild conditions  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The invention concerns a method for obtaining dry plant extracts under mild conditions, in which a liquid plant extract is introduced into a vacuum drying equipment having a multi-shaft stirrer extending through a cylindrical mixing and drying chamber and with its own drive, together with a chopper rotating through a stator, and the liquid plant extract is dried at a vessel shell temperature of 20.degree. C. to 50.degree. C., a product temperature between 20.degree. C. and 40.degree. C., a pressure between 0.5 and 1,000 mbar, a stirrer rotation speed of greater than 0 to 10 rpm and a chopper rotation speed of 200 to 800 rpm, characterized in that the liquid plant extract is sprayed into the mixing and drying chamber through at least one nozzle above the liquid level in the latter, at a pressure differential of >100 mbar between the drying chamber and the reservoir, whereby the nozzle(s) each create(s) a droplet spray cone of .gtoreq.30.degree. in at least one spatial direction, the average droplet size of the liquid plant extract sprayed in is .ltoreq.300 .mu.m and the discharge capacity of the nozzle(s) is smaller than or equal to the evaporator capacity the drying equipment.

2006-02-14

13

An efficient and recyclable water-soluble cyclopalladated complex for aqueous Suzuki reactions under aerial conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several water-soluble cyclopalladated complexes with five- or six-membered rings have been prepared as air-stable solids from Schiff base ligands bearing an N-phenyl sulfonate groups. Cyclopalladated complexes with six-membered rings show high catalytic efficiency for the Suzuki reactions of aryl bromides with phenylboronic acid in aqueous solvents under mild conditions. Palladium complex 1 can be used for five reaction cycles in

Jin Zhou; Xiaoyan Li; Hongjian Sun

2010-01-01

14

Prevention of mildly overweight children from development of more overweight condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. A follow-up study has reported that not only highly obese but also mildly obese children are becoming heavier during the elementary school children. Then we determined the effect of programs for the screening and treatment of overweight elementary school children whether the programs prevented mildly overweight children from development of more overweight condition.Methods. Subjects were 40 overweight children who

Masao Yoshinaga; Koji Sameshima; Koichiro Miyata; Jun Hashiguchi; Masato Imamura

2004-01-01

15

Coupling of activated esters to gramines in the presence of ethyl propiolate under mild conditions.  

PubMed

The coupling of activated esters to gramine derivatives is described using ethyl propiolate. A series of substrates have been prepared using these mild conditions to provide a scope and limitations for this methodology. PMID:18438458

Jones, David T; Artman, Gerald D; Williams, Robert M

2007-02-12

16

Coupling of activated esters to gramines in the presence of ethyl propiolate under mild conditions  

PubMed Central

The coupling of activated esters to gramine derivatives is described using ethyl propiolate. A series of substrates have been prepared using these mild conditions to provide a scope and limitations for this methodology.

Jones, David T.; Artman, Gerald D.; Williams, Robert M.

2007-01-01

17

Tellurium-mediated cycloaromatization of acyclic enediynes under mild conditions.  

PubMed

The cycloaromatization of acyclic enediynes typically requires very high temperatures (>160 degrees C) and dilute conditions to proceed in a synthetically useful yield. These conditions hinder reaction throughput, inhibiting the use of this reaction for the large-scale production of materials. The reaction of sodium telluride with acyclic arenediynes yields the corresponding tellurepine, which under gentle heating extrudes Te degrees to yield the cycloaromatization product. We have developed conditions that form sodium telluride from inexpensive tellurium metal in situ, and that also perform the desilylation of silylated arenediynes in the same process. Under our conditions, we are able to perform desilylation and cycloaromatization at temperatures as low as 40 degrees C and on a scale as large as 5 g in standard laboratory glassware. PMID:14759181

Landis, Chad A; Payne, Marcia M; Eaton, David L; Anthony, John E

2004-02-11

18

Preparation and Characterization of Colloidal Silica Particles under Mild Conditions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A microscale laboratory experiment for the preparation and characterization of silica particles at neutral pH and ambient temperature conditions is described. Students first employ experimental fabrication methods to make spherical submicrometer silica particles via the condensation of an alkoxysilane and polyethyleneimine, which act to catalyze…

Neville, Frances; Zin, Azrinawati Mohd.; Jameson, Graeme J.; Wanless, Erica J.

2012-01-01

19

Preparation and Characterization of Colloidal Silica Particles under Mild Conditions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A microscale laboratory experiment for the preparation and characterization of silica particles at neutral pH and ambient temperature conditions is described. Students first employ experimental fabrication methods to make spherical submicrometer silica particles via the condensation of an alkoxysilane and polyethyleneimine, which act to catalyze…

Neville, Frances; Zin, Azrinawati Mohd.; Jameson, Graeme J.; Wanless, Erica J.

2012-01-01

20

Determination of chlorine, bromine and iodine in plant samples by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry after leaching with tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide under a mild temperature condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple determination method for halogens (Cl, Br, and I) in plant samples using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was developed. In order to extract these halogens into aqueous solution, a leaching step with tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) under mild conditions was carried out, i.e. a 0.1-g dried sample was left overnight (ca. 12h) in contact with 1mL of 25%

K. Tagami; S. Uchida; I. Hirai; H. Tsukada; H. Takeda

2006-01-01

21

Mild Transient Hypercapnia as a Novel Fear Conditioning Stimulus Allowing Re-Exposure during Sleep  

PubMed Central

Introduction Studies suggest that sleep plays a role in traumatic memories and that treatment of sleep disorders may help alleviate symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. Fear-conditioning paradigms in rodents are used to investigate causal mechanisms of fear acquisition and the relationship between sleep and posttraumatic behaviors. We developed a novel conditioning stimulus (CS) that evoked fear and was subsequently used to study re-exposure to the CS during sleep. Methods Experiment 1 assessed physiological responses to a conditioned stimulus (mild transient hypercapnia, mtHC; 3.0% CO2; n?=?17)+footshock for the purpose of establishing a novel CS in male FVB/J mice. Responses to the novel CS were compared to tone+footshock (n?=?18) and control groups of tone alone (n?=?17) and mild transient hypercapnia alone (n?=?10). A second proof of principle experiment re-exposed animals during sleep to mild transient hypercapnia or air (control) to study sleep processes related to the CS. Results Footshock elicited a response of acute tachycardia (30–40 bpm) and increased plasma epinephrine. When tone predicted footshock it elicited mild hypertension (1–2 mmHg) and a three-fold increase in plasma epinephrine. When mtHC predicted footshock it also induced mild hypertension, but additionally elicited a conditioned bradycardia and a smaller increase in plasma epinephrine. The overall mean 24 hour sleep–wake profile was unaffected immediately after fear conditioning. Discussion Our study demonstrates the efficacy of mtHC as a conditioning stimulus that is perceptible but innocuous (relative to tone) and applicable during sleep. This novel model will allow future studies to explore sleep-dependent mechanisms underlying maladaptive fear responses, as well as elucidate the moderators of the relationship between fear responses and sleep.

Balbir, Alex; Germain, Anne; O'Donnell, Christopher P.

2013-01-01

22

The Formation of Fe/Mg Smectite Under Mildly Acidic Conditions on Early Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detection of Fe/Mg smectites and carbonate in Noachian and early Hesperian terrain of Mars has been used to suggest that neutral to mildly alkaline conditions prevailed during the early history of Mars. However, if early Mars was neutral to moderately alkaline with a denser CO2 atmosphere than today, then "large" carbonates deposits should be more widely detected in Noachian terrain. The critical question is: Why have so few carbonate deposits been detected compared to Fe/Mg smectites? We suggest that Fe/Mg smectites on early Mars formed under mildly acidic conditions, which would inhibit the extensive formation of carbonate deposits. The goal of this work is to evaluate the formation of Fe/Mg smectites under mildly acidic conditions. The stability of smectites under mildly acidic conditions is attributed to elevated Fe/Mg activities that inhibit smectite dissolution. Beidelite and saponite have been shown to form from hydrothermal alteration of basaltic glass at pH 3.5-4.0 in seawater solutions. Nontronite is also known to be stable in mildly acidic systems associated with mafic and ultramafic rock. Nontronite was shown to form in acid sulfate soils in the Bangkok Plain, Thailand due to oxidation of Fe-sulfides that transformed saponite to nontronite. Smectite is known to transform to kaolinite in naturally acid soils due to selective leaching of Mg. However, if Mg removal is limited, then based on equilibrium relationships, the dissolution of smectite should be minimized. If Fe and Mg solution activities are sufficiently high, such as might be found in a low water/rock ratio system that is poorly drained, smectite could form and remain stable under mildly acidic conditions on Mars. The sources of mild acidity on early Mars includes elevated atmospheric CO2 levels, Fe-hydrolysis reactions, and the presence of volcanic SO2 aerosols. Equilibrium calculations dictate that water equilibrated with an early Mars CO2 atmosphere at 1 to 4 bar yields a pH of 3.6 to 3.9. Fe hydrolysis reactions on Mars is another source of protons that would have contributed to acidity. The presence of SO2 from volcanic processes could also have contributed to geochemical acidification. These sources of acidity competed with base-forming cations that resulted in mildly acidic solutions that were not favorable for carbonate formation but may have allowed for Fe/Mg smectite formation. Noachian to early Hesperian Mars could have been mildly acidic, allowing Fe/Mg smectite formation but preventing widespread carbonate deposition. This paradigm shift from an early Mars that was neutral-alkaline to mildly acidic may possibly explain why there is a disparity between the occurrence of carbonate and Fe/Mg smectites. Potential microbiological activity would not be eliminated under a mildly acidic Mars; however, there could be tighter constraints as to the type and species of microbiology that could exist.

Sutter, B.; Golden, D. C.; Ming, D.; Niles, P. B.

2011-12-01

23

Corrosion inhibition of mild steel by schiff base compounds in various aqueous solutions: part 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corrosion inhibition by Schiff base compounds derived from diamines and o-hydroxy, o-methoxy aromatic aldehydes was investigated by weight loss, electrochemical measurements and surface analysis of SS 400 in various aqueous solutions such as tap water (LC), concentrated tap water (HC) and HCl solutions. The maximum inhibition efficiency (?) of N,N?-bis (salicylaldehyde)-1,12-diaminododecane (Saldn) for SS 400 in HCl solution approached

H Shokry; M Yuasa; I Sekine; R. M Issa; H. Y El-baradie; G. K Gomma

1998-01-01

24

PEG 400 promoted nucleophilic substitution reaction of halides into organic azides under mild conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400) has been demonstrated as an efficient and eco-friendly reaction medium for the preparation of organic azides from structurally diverse halides by nucleophilic substitution reaction with NaN3 under mild conditions. The advantages of this protocol are: operational simplicity, environmental safety, broad substrate scope, excellent functional group tolerance, and short reaction time. The PEG 400 can be

Hongyao Zeng; Qiang Tian; Huawu Shao

2011-01-01

25

Heterogeneous Palladium Catalysts for Decarbonylation of Biomass-Derived Molecules under Mild Conditions.  

PubMed

Workin' 6 to 5: A highly active heterogeneous catalyst, Pd/SBA-15(DP), promotes the selective decarbonylation of biomass-derived HMF to furfural alcohol with a high yield, up to 96?%, in mild conditions. The route offers a simple and effective method of linking C6 and C5 molecules in the biomass conversion value chain. In addition to HMF the catalyst is effective towards the decarbonylation of other biomass-derived aldehydes, also. PMID:23821488

Huang, Yao-Bing; Yang, Zhen; Chen, Meng-Yuan; Dai, Jian-Jun; Guo, Qing-Xiang; Fu, Yao

2013-07-02

26

Catalytic conjugate additions of carbonyl anions under neutral aqueous conditions.  

PubMed

The conjugate addition of carbonyl anions catalyzed by thiazolium salts that is fully operative under neutral aqueous conditions has been accomplished. The combination of alpha-keto carboxylates and thiazolium-derived zwitterions produces reactive carbonyl anions in a buffered protic environment that readily undergo conjugate additions to substituted alpha,beta-unsaturated 2-acyl imidazoles. The scope of the reaction has been examined and found to accommodate various alpha-keto carboxylates and beta-aryl substituted unsaturated 2-acyl imidazoles. The optimal precatalyst for this process is the commercially available thiazolium salt 5, a simple analogue of thiamin diphosphate. In this process, no benzoin products from carbonyl anion dimerization are observed. The corresponding 1,4-dicarbonyl compounds can be efficiently converted into esters and amides by way of activation of the N-methylimidazole ring via alkylation. PMID:16231921

Myers, Michael C; Bharadwaj, Ashwin R; Milgram, Benjamin C; Scheidt, Karl A

2005-10-26

27

Self-assembled monolayers of flufenaminate anions on mild steel surface formed in aqueous solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adsorption of derivative of phenylanthranilic acid - flufenamic acid (FFA) on the "oxide-free" and oxidized surface of mild steel in neutral borate buffer solution was studied by ellipsometry and XPS. Anodic polarization curves reveal that complete suppression of the anodic dissolution of iron is achieved at FFA concentration Cin = 3.8 mM. Besides, adding FFA substantially shifts the pitting potential from 0.06 V to 0.67 V. Ellipsometric studies have shown that at the applied potential -0.65 V, when the surface is free from the oxide layer, FFA forms monomolecular layer. To characterize the surface layers formed after exposing the sample in 5 mM FFA solution the XPS was used to assess the composition and the thickness of the layers. Using the intensities of the Fe 2p, Fe 3p, N 1s, F 1s, O 1s and C 1s and analyzing the angle resolved XPS data the FFA molecules have been shown to form monomolecular layer in which FFA is (vertically or slightly inclined) anchored by iron cations through oxygen atoms of carboxyl group to the surface and the fluorine atoms of CF 3 groups form the utmost layer. Similar orientation is also assumed for FFA molecules adsorbed on the oxidized iron surface. It seems that the layer formed by FFA or similar molecules may serve a robust interface for grafting other substances on such a functionalized surface.

Kazansky, Leonid P.; Kuznetsov, Yuri I.; Andreeva, Nina P.; Bober, Yana G.

2010-12-01

28

An animal model of anhedonia: attenuation of sucrose consumption and place preference conditioning by chronic unpredictable mild stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic exposure to very mild unpredictable stress has previously been found to depress the consumption of, and preference for, highly palatable sweet solutions. The present study used the place conditioning procedure to investigate whether these effects result from a decreased sensitivity to reward. Rats were subjected to chronic mild unpredictable stress for a total of 4 weeks. During weeks 3

Mariusz Papp; Paul Willner; Richard Muscat

1991-01-01

29

Heat-moisture treatment under mildly acidic conditions alters potato starch physicochemical properties and digestibility.  

PubMed

Potato starch was subjected to heat-moisture treatment (HMT; 120°C, 3h) under mildly acidic conditions (pH 5, 6, or 6.5 [control]) at moisture levels of 15, 20 or 25%. HMT starches exhibited significantly delayed pasting times and reduced overall paste viscosities, amylose leaching, and granular swelling characteristics relative to native starch, as well as enhanced levels of thermo-stable resistant starch (?24%). HMT appeared to alter/enhance short-range chain associations (FT-IR) within amorphous and/or crystalline regions of starch granules. However, the extent of physicochemical change and RS enhancement during HMT was most facilitated by a mildly acidic condition (pH 6) at higher treatment moisture levels (20 or 25%). These conditions promoted limited hydrolysis of amylopectin molecules, primarily at ?-(1?6) branch points, likely enhancing mobility and interaction of starch chains during HMT. Thus, a slightly acidic pH might reduce conditions and/or timeframe needed to impart physicochemical changes and reduced digestibility to potato starch. PMID:24053800

Kim, Jong-Yea; Huber, Kerry C

2013-07-13

30

Existence of mild solutions for fractional evolution equations with mixed monotone nonlocal conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we are concerned with nonlocal problem for fractional evolution equations with mixed monotone nonlocal term of the form ^CDq_tu(t) + Au(t) = f(t, u(t), u(t)),quad t in J = [0, a],u(0) = g(u, u),. where E is an infinite-dimensional Banach space, {^CDq_t} is the Caputo fractional derivative of order {qin (0, 1)}, A : D(A) ? E ? E is a closed linear operator and -A generates a uniformly bounded C 0-semigroup T(t) (t ? 0) in E, {f in C(J× E × E, E)}, and g is appropriate continuous function so that it constitutes a nonlocal condition. Under a new concept of coupled lower and upper mild L-quasi-solutions, we construct a new monotone iterative method for nonlocal problem of fractional evolution equations with mixed monotone nonlocal term and obtain the existence of coupled extremal mild L-quasi-solutions and the mild solution between them. The results obtained generalize the recent conclusions on this topic. Finally, we present two applications to illustrate the feasibility of our abstract results.

Chen, Pengyu; Li, Yongxiang

2013-08-01

31

Differential response in downstream processing of CHO cells grown under mild hypothermic conditions.  

PubMed

The manufacture of complex therapeutic proteins using mammalian cells is well established, with several strategies developed to improve productivity. The application of sustained mild hypothermic conditions during culture has been associated with increases in product titre and improved product quality. However, despite associated cell physiological effects, very few studies have investigated the impact on downstream processing (DSP). Characterisation of cells grown under mild hypothermic conditions demonstrated that the stationary phase was prolonged by delaying the onset of apoptosis. This enabled cells to maintain viability for extended periods of time and increase volumetric productivity from 0.74 g L(-1) to 1.02 g L(-1) . However, host cell proteins, measured by ELISA, increased by ~50%, attributed to the extended time course and higher peak and harvest cell densities. The individual components making up this impurity, as determined by SELDI-TOF MS and 2D-PAGE, were shown to be largely comparable. Under mild hypothermic conditions cells were less shear sensitive than those maintained at 37°C, enhancing the preliminary primary recovery step. Adaptive changes in membrane fluidity were further investigated by adopting a pronounced temperature shift immediately prior to primary recovery and the improvement observed suggests that such a strategy may be implementable when shear sensitivity is of concern. Early and late apoptotic cells were particularly susceptible to shear, at either temperature, even under the lowest shear rate investigated. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering the impact of cell culture strategies and cell physiology on DSP, by implementing a range of experimental methods for process characterisation. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2013. PMID:23509041

Tait, A S; Tarrant, R D R; Velez-Suberbie, M L; Spencer, D I R; Bracewell, D G

2013-03-19

32

Differential response in downstream processing of CHO cells grown under mild hypothermic conditions.  

PubMed

The manufacture of complex therapeutic proteins using mammalian cells is well established, with several strategies developed to improve productivity. The application of sustained mild hypothermic conditions during culture has been associated with increases in product titer and improved product quality. However, despite associated cell physiological effects, very few studies have investigated the impact on downstream processing (DSP). Characterization of cells grown under mild hypothermic conditions demonstrated that the stationary phase was prolonged by delaying the onset of apoptosis. This enabled cells to maintain viability for extended periods and increase volumetric productivity from 0.74 to 1.02 g L(-1) . However, host cell proteins, measured by ELISA, increased by ?50%, attributed to the extended time course and higher peak and harvest cell densities. The individual components making up this impurity, as determined by SELDI-TOF MS and 2D-PAGE, were shown to be largely comparable. Under mild hypothermic conditions, cells were less shear sensitive than those maintained at 37°C, enhancing the preliminary primary recovery step. Adaptive changes in membrane fluidity were further investigated by adopting a pronounced temperature shift immediately prior to primary recovery and the improvement observed suggests that such a strategy may be implementable when shear sensitivity is of concern. Early and late apoptotic cells were particularly susceptible to shear, at either temperature, even under the lowest shear rate investigated. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering the impact of cell culture strategies and cell physiology on DSP, by implementing a range of experimental methods for process characterization. PMID:23636936

Tait, Andrew S; Tarrant, Richard D R; Velez-Suberbie, M Lourdes; Spencer, Daniel I R; Bracewell, Daniel G

2013-05-02

33

Efficient and selective conversion of sucrose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural promoted by ammonium halides under mild conditions.  

PubMed

The highly efficient and selective production of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) from sucrose has been achieved in the presence of metal chlorides and ammonium halides under mild conditions. Notably, an 87% yield of HMF from sucrose was obtained with a catalyst system composed of CrCl(3) and NH(4)Br at 100°C for 1.0 h in N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc) solvent. The effect of the reaction temperature and time was investigated in detail, and a possible mechanism for this catalytic process has been proposed. In addition, NH(4)Br is an effective promoter in the conversion of glucose and fructose to HMF. PMID:22154494

Wang, Chao; Fu, Litang; Tong, Xinli; Yang, Qiwu; Zhang, Wenqin

2011-11-19

34

Degradation of textile dyes using immobilized lignin peroxidase-like metalloporphines under mild experimental conditions  

PubMed Central

Background Synthetic dyes represent a broad and heterogeneous class of durable pollutants, that are released in large amounts by the textile industry. The ability of two immobilized metalloporphines (structurally emulating the ligninolytic peroxidases) to bleach six chosen dyes (alizarin red S, phenosafranine, xylenol orange, methylene blue, methyl green, and methyl orange) was compared to enzymatic catalysts. To achieve a green and sustainable process, very mild conditions were chosen. Results IPS/MnTSPP was the most promising biomimetic catalyst as it was able to effectively and quickly bleach all tested dyes. Biomimetic catalysis was fully characterized: maximum activity was centered at neutral pH, in the absence of any organic solvent, using hydrogen peroxide as the oxidant. The immobilized metalloporphine kept a large part of its activity during multi-cycle use; however, well-known redox mediators were not able to increase its catalytic activity. IPS/MnTSPP was also more promising for use in industrial applications than its enzymatic counterparts (lignin peroxidase, laccase, manganese peroxidase, and horseradish peroxidase). Conclusions On the whole, the conditions were very mild (standard pressure, room temperature and neutral pH, using no organic solvents, and the most environmental-friendly oxidant) and a significant bleaching and partial mineralization of the dyes was achieved in approximately 1 h. Therefore, the process was consistent with large-scale applications. The biomimetic catalyst also had more promising features than the enzymatic catalysts.

2012-01-01

35

Analysis of saccharification in Brachypodium distachyon stems under mild conditions of hydrolysis  

PubMed Central

Background Brachypodium distachyon constitutes an excellent model species for grasses. It is a small, easily propagated, temperate grass with a rapid life cycle and a small genome. It is a self-fertile plant that can be transformed with high efficiency using Agrobacteria and callus derived from immature embryos. In addition, considerable genetic and genomic resources are becoming available for this species in the form of mapping populations, large expressed sequence tag collections, T-DNA insertion lines and, in the near future, the complete genome sequence. The development of Brachypodium as a model species is of particular value in the areas of cell wall and biomass research, where differences between dicots and grasses are greatest. Here we explore the effect of mild conditions of pretreatment and hydrolysis in Brachypodium stem segments as a contribution for the establishment of sensitive screening of the saccharification properties in different genetic materials. Results The non-cellulosic monosaccharide composition of Brachypodium is closely related to grasses of agricultural importance and significantly different from the dicot model Arabidopsis thaliana. Diluted acid pretreatment of stem segments produced significant release of sugars and negatively affected the amount of sugars obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis. Monosaccharide and oligosaccharide analysis showed that the hemicellulose fraction is the main target of the enzymatic activity under the modest hydrolytic conditions used in our assays. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of the treated materials showed progressive exposure of fibrils in the stem segments. Conclusion Results presented here indicate that under mild conditions cellulose and hemicellulose are hydrolysed to differing extents, with hemicellulose hydrolysis predominating. We anticipate that the sub-optimal conditions for hydrolysis identified here will provide a sensitive assay to detect variations in saccharification among Brachypodium plants, providing a useful analytical tool for identifying plants with alterations in this trait.

Gomez, Leonardo D; Bristow, Jennifer K; Statham, Emily R; McQueen-Mason, Simon J

2008-01-01

36

Pharmaceutical modulation of diffusion potentials at aqueous-aqueous boundaries under laminar flow conditions.  

PubMed

In this work, the modulation of the diffusion potential formed at the microfluidic aqueous-aqueous boundary by a pharmaceutical substance is presented. Co-flowing aqueous streams in a microchannel were used to form the stable boundary between the streams. Measurement of the open circuit potential between two silver/silver chloride electrodes enabled the diffusion potential at the boundary to be determined, which is concentration dependent. Experimental results for protonated propranolol as well as tetrapropylammonium are presented. This concept may be useful as a strategy for the detection of drug substances. PMID:21437916

Collins, Courtney J; Strutwolf, Jörg; Arrigan, Damien W M

2011-03-16

37

Osmium(0) nanoclusters stabilized by zeolite framework; highly active catalyst in the aerobic oxidation of alcohols under mild conditions.  

PubMed

Osmium(0) nanoclusters stabilized by zeolite-Y framework were reproducibly prepared by a simple two step procedure involving the incorporation of osmium(III) cations into the zeolite matrix by ion-exchange, followed by their reduction within the cavities of zeolite with sodium borohydride in aqueous solution all at room temperature. The composition and morphology of osmium(0) nanoclusters stabilized by zeolite framework, as well as the integrity and crystallinity of the host material were investigated by using ICP-OES, XRD, XPS, SEM, TEM, HRTEM, TEM/EDX, mid-IR, far-IR spectroscopies, and N(2)-adsorption/desorption technique. The results of the multiprong analysis reveal the formation of osmium(0) nanoclusters within the cavities of zeolite-Y without causing alteration in the framework lattice, formation of mesopores, or loss in the crystallinity of the host material. More importantly, far-IR studies showed that after the reduction of Os(3+) cations by sodium borohydride the Na(+) cations reoccupy their authentic cation sites restoring the integrity of zeolite-Y. The catalytic activity of osmium(0) nanoclusters stabilized by zeolite framework was tested in the aerobic oxidation of activated, unactivated and heteroatom containing alcohols to carbonyl compounds and was found to provide high activity and selectivity even under mild conditions (80 degrees C and 1 atm O(2) or air). Moreover, they were found to be stable enough to be isolated and bottled as solid material, which can be reused as active catalyst under the identical conditions of the first run. PMID:20614055

Zahmakiran, Mehmet; Akbayrak, Serdar; Kodaira, Tetsuya; Ozkar, Saim

2010-07-07

38

Self-template route to Ni3Bi2S2 (parkerite) nanoribbons at mild condition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ni3Bi2S2 nanoribbons were synthesized via self-template method at mild condition, using Bi2S3 nanoribbons, NiCl2·6H2O, NaOH, ethylenediamine and ethylene glycol as starting materials. Here Bi2S3 nanoribbons are served both as raw materials and templates. The samples were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image reveal that the morphology of the sample is ribbon-shape structure. The length of the individual nanoribbon is up to several micrometers and the width of the nanoribbons is about 90 nm. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectrum confirms the composition of the as-prepared products. A self-template mechanism was proposed. This material with nanoribbon structure has not been reported before. As the method is very convenient and simple, it may be employed in the preparation of other complicated materials.

Qian, Guixiang; Shao, Mingwang; Tong, Yanhua; Ni, Youbao

2005-11-01

39

Facile Cu(I)-catalyzed oxidative coupling of anilines to azo compounds and hydrazines with diaziridinone under mild conditions.  

PubMed

A mild and highly efficient Cu(I)-catalyzed oxidative coupling of anilines is described. Various primary and secondary anilines can be efficiently coupled under mild conditions to the corresponding azo compounds and hydrazines in high yields. This method provides a direct and practical access to these compounds and is also amenable to gram scale with no special precautions to exclude air or moisture. PMID:23545123

Zhu, Yingguang; Shi, Yian

2013-04-01

40

On the convergence of Newton-type methods under mild differentiability conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce the new idea of recurrent functions to provide a new semilocal convergence analysis for Newton-type methods, under mild differentiability conditions. It turns out that our sufficient convergence conditions are weaker, and the error bounds are tighter than in earlier studies in some interesting cases (Chen, Ann Inst Stat Math 42:387-401, 1990; Chen, Numer Funct Anal Optim 10:37-48, 1989; Cianciaruso, Numer Funct Anal Optim 24:713-723, 2003; Cianciaruso, Nonlinear Funct Anal Appl 2009; Dennis 1971; Deuflhard 2004; Deuflhard, SIAM J Numer Anal 16:1-10, 1979; Gutiérrez, J Comput Appl Math 79:131-145, 1997; Hernández, J Optim Theory Appl 109:631-648, 2001; Hernández, J Comput Appl Math 115:245-254, 2000; Huang, J Comput Appl Math 47:211-217, 1993; Kantorovich 1982; Miel, Numer Math 33:391-396, 1979; Miel, Math Comput 34:185-202, 1980; Moret, Computing 33:65-73, 1984; Potra, Libertas Mathematica 5:71-84, 1985; Rheinboldt, SIAM J Numer Anal 5:42-63, 1968; Yamamoto, Numer Math 51: 545-557, 1987; Zabrejko, Numer Funct Anal Optim 9:671-684, 1987; Zinc?ko 1963). Applications and numerical examples, involving a nonlinear integral equation of Chandrasekhar-type, and a differential equation are also provided in this study.

Argyros, Ioannis; Hilout, Saïd

2009-12-01

41

Efficient recyclable CuI-nanoparticle-catalyzed S-arylation of thiols with aryl halides on water under mild conditions.  

PubMed

CuI nanoparticles efficiently catalyzed the C-S cross coupling of aryl and alkyl thiols with aryl halides in the absence of ligands on water under mild conditions. A wide range of diaryl sulfides and aryl alkyl sulfides are synthesized in good to excellent yields utilizing this protocol. This procedure is particularly noteworthy given its mild conditions, avoiding the undesired formation of disulfides through oxidation of thiols. The recovery and successful reutilization of the catalyst is described. Furthermore, the directed synthesis of bisarylated product is presented. PMID:22354412

Xu, Hua-Jian; Liang, Yu-Feng; Zhou, Xin-Feng; Feng, Yi-Si

2012-02-21

42

Structural transformation of Miscanthus × giganteus lignin fractionated under mild formosolv, basic organosolv, and cellulolytic enzyme conditions.  

PubMed

Detailed chemical structural elucidation of lignin fractions from Miscanthus × giganteus was performed by several analytical techniques. Mild formosolv, basic organosolv, and cellulolytic enzyme treatments were applied to isolate three lignin fractions (AL, BL, and CL, respectively), and their structural characterization was comparatively evaluated. Both non-destructive techniques [e.g., Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), and two-dimensional (2D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)] and degradation methods [e.g., acidic hydrolysis, derivatization followed by reductive cleavage (DFRC), and thioacidolysis] were used. The analysis revealed that a certain amount of carbohydrates (12.8%) was associated with CL and partially led to its increased molecular weight determined by SEC before acetylation. ?-O-4 linkages were determined to be the predominant interunits (82%), but also, extensively acylated structures were observed. Alkaline organosolv treatment significantly improved the purity of the lignin fraction (carbohydrate content of 1.0%) and basically kept the original structure of the lignin macromolecule. Under acidic conditions, not only the portion of aryl alkyl ether bonds were cleaved but also new carbon-carbon bonds were formed by condensation reactions, resulting in an increment of the lignin molecular weights. Guaiacyl units were more reactive toward condensation than syringyl units, which was evidenced by an increasing S/G ratio from 0.7 (CL) to 1.7 (AL). PMID:22129169

Wang, Kun; Bauer, Stefan; Sun, Run-cang

2011-12-20

43

Enzymatic Formulation Capable of Degrading Scrapie Prion under Mild Digestion Conditions  

PubMed Central

The prion agent is notoriously resistant to common proteases and conventional sterilisation procedures. The current methods known to destroy prion infectivity such as incineration, alkaline and thermal hydrolysis are harsh, destructive, environmentally polluting and potentially hazardous, thus limit their applications for decontamination of delicate medical and laboratory devices, remediation of prion contaminated environment and for processing animal by-products including specified risk materials and carcases. Therefore, an environmentally friendly, non-destructive enzymatic degradation approach is highly desirable. A feather-degrading Bacillus licheniformis N22 keratinase has been isolated which degraded scrapie prion to undetectable level of PrPSc signals as determined by Western Blot analysis. Prion infectivity was verified by ex vivo cell-based assay. An enzymatic formulation combining N22 keratinase and biosurfactant derived from Pseudomonas aeruginosa degraded PrPSc at 65°C in 10 min to undetectable level -. A time-course degradation analysis carried out at 50°C over 2 h revealed the progressive attenuation of PrPSc intensity. Test of residual infectivity by standard cell culture assay confirmed that the enzymatic formulation reduced PrPSc infectivity to undetectable levels as compared to cells challenged with untreated standard scrapie sheep prion (SSBP/1) (p-value?=?0.008 at 95% confidence interval). This novel enzymatic formulation has significant potential application for prion decontamination in various environmentally friendly systems under mild treatment conditions.

Okoroma, Emeka A.; Purchase, Diane; Garelick, Hemda; Morris, Roger; Neale, Michael H.; Windl, Otto; Abiola, Oduola O.

2013-01-01

44

Promising hydrogen storage properties and potential applications of Mg-Al-Pd trilayer films under mild conditions.  

PubMed

We prepared a series of nano-sized Mg-Al-Pd trilayer films and investigated their hydrogen storage properties under mild conditions. Results showed that Al 1 nm sample had the best absorption kinetics and excellent optical properties at room temperature, making it a promising candidate for hydrogen sensors and smart windows. PMID:22692459

Xin, Gongbiao; Yang, Junzhi; Zhang, Guoqing; Zheng, Jie; Li, Xingguo

2012-06-12

45

Electrochemical studies of anodic dissolution of mild steel in a carbonate-bicarbonate buffer under erosion-corrosion conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Rotating Cylinder Electrode (RCE) system has been used to determine the corrosion kinetics of mild steel in the active dissolution potential range under erosion-corrosion conditions. The hydrodynamics of the rotating cylinder electrode were characterized by the mass transfer controlled oxygen reduction reaction on a copper electrode. The anodic dissolution current was measured at various potentials and velocities in de-aerated

S. Zhou; M. M. Stack; R. C. Newman

1996-01-01

46

Mechanics and mechanisms of surface damage in Al-Si alloys under ultra-mild wear conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Al-Si alloys intended for use in engine components must operate under ultra-mild wear (UMW) conditions to fit an acceptable amount of wear during a typical vehicle life. This study simulated surface damage in a UMW regime on five chemically etched Al-Si alloy surfaces using a pin-on-disc tribometer at low loads (0.5-2.0 N) under boundary lubricated conditions. The five alloys contained

Ming Chen

2008-01-01

47

A Novel Glycinate-based Body Wash: Clinical Investigation Into Ultra-mildness, Effective Conditioning, and Improved Consumer Benefits.  

PubMed

Objective: To assess the properties of a novel body wash containing the mild surfactant glycinate. Design: Biochemical and clinical assays. Setting: Research laboratories and clinical sites in the United States and Canada. Participants: Women 18 to 65 years of age (cleansing efficacy); male and female subjects 26 to 63 years of age with mild or moderate dryness and erythema (leg-controlled application test); subjects 5 to 65 years of age with mild-to-moderate eczema (eczema compatibility); and women 18 to 64 years of age (home use). Measurements: Assessments across studies included colorimetric dye exclusion to assess skin damage potential (corneosurfametry), efficacy of cosmetic product removal from skin, change from baseline in visual dryness, change from baseline in Eczema Area and Severity Index, and self-perceived eczema attributes and self-reported product preference. Results: The glycinate-based cleanser demonstrated mildness to skin components when evaluated in a corneosurfametry assay. Short-term use under exaggerated wash conditions in subjects with dryness scores <3 and erythema scores <2 (both on a 0-6 scale) indicated an initial reduction in visual dryness. In subjects with eczema, normal use resulted in significant improvements (p<0.05) at Week 4 compared with baseline in skin dryness (change from baseline = -0.73), rash (-0.56), itch (-0.927), tightness (-0.585), and all eczema (-0.756). The glycinate-based body wash removed 56 percent of a long-lasting cosmetic foundation from skin compared with less than 30 percent removed by two competitive products tested. The glycinate-based body wash was preferred over a competitive mild cleansing product overall. Conclusion: The patented glycinate-containing body wash demonstrated better product mildness and patient-preferred attributes and clinical benefits. PMID:23882306

Regan, Jamie; Mollica, Leonel-Maximo; Ananthapadmanabhan, K P

2013-06-01

48

Incidence of Postconcussion Symptoms in Psychiatric Diagnostic Groups, Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, and Comorbid Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The constellation of physical, cognitive, and emotional symptoms, collectively known as postconcussion syndrome (PCS), is not uniquely associated with concussion, making the etiology of chronic postconcussion symptoms controversial. The current study compared percentages of individuals meeting symptom-based criteria for PCS in a population-based sample of veterans composed of subgroups with various psychiatric diagnoses, a history of mild traumatic brain injury

Alison J. Donnell; Michelle S. Kim; Marc A. Silva; Rodney D. Vanderploeg

2012-01-01

49

Assessment and Diagnosis of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Other Polytrauma Conditions: Burden of Adversity Hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective\\/Method: Military personnel returning from Iraq and Afghanistan have been exposed to physical and emotional trauma. Challenges related to assessment and intervention for those with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and\\/or history of mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) with sequelae are discussed, with an emphasis on complicating factors if conditions are co-occurring. Existing literature regarding cumulative disadvantage is offered as a

Lisa A. Brenner; Rodney D. Vanderploeg; Heidi Terrio

2009-01-01

50

Single step signal group-imidazole labeling of organic phosphate groups under aqueous conditions  

DOEpatents

Compounds and methods for single step, covalent labeling of the phosphate group of an organic substance under aqueous conditions are described. The labeling compound includes any kind of detectable signal group covalently bound to an imidazole moiety, which can be imidazole or a substituted imidazole. A preferred labeling compound has the formula shown in the accompanying diagram. 4 figs.

Giese, R.W.; Wang, P.

1996-04-30

51

Single step signal group-imidazole labeling of organic phosphate groups under aqueous conditions  

DOEpatents

Compounds and methods for single step, covalent labeling of the phosphate group of an organic substance under aqueous conditions are described. The labeling compound includes any kind of detectable signal group covalently bound to an imidazole moiety, which can be imidazole or a substituted imidazole. A preferred labeling compound has the formula ##STR1##

Giese, Roger W. (Quincy, MA); Wang, Poguang (Medford, MA)

1996-01-01

52

Incidence of postconcussion symptoms in psychiatric diagnostic groups, mild traumatic brain injury, and comorbid conditions.  

PubMed

The constellation of physical, cognitive, and emotional symptoms, collectively known as postconcussion syndrome (PCS), is not uniquely associated with concussion, making the etiology of chronic postconcussion symptoms controversial. The current study compared percentages of individuals meeting symptom-based criteria for PCS in a population-based sample of veterans composed of subgroups with various psychiatric diagnoses, a history of mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI), and healthy controls. Participants were identified from 4462 randomly sampled male U.S. Army veterans who served during the Vietnam era. Only 32% of veterans with a history of MTBI met DSM-IV symptom criteria for PCS as compared to 40% of those diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 50% with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), 57% with major depressive disorder (MDD), and 91% with somatization disorder. Results were consistent with existing literature showing that the PCS symptoms are not unique to concussion, and also provide important base-rate information for neuropsychologists practicing in both clinical and personal injury forensic settings. PMID:22935025

Donnell, Alison J; Kim, Michelle S; Silva, Marc A; Vanderploeg, Rodney D

2012-08-30

53

Sweating responses and the muscle metaboreflex under mildly hyperthermic conditions in sprinters and distance runners.  

PubMed

To investigate the effects of different training methods on nonthermal sweating during activation of the muscle metaboreflex, we compared sweating responses during postexercise muscle occlusion in endurance runners, sprinters, and untrained men under mild hyperthermia (ambient temperature, 35°C; relative humidity, 50%). Ten endurance runners, nine sprinters, and ten untrained men (maximal oxygen uptakes: 57.5 ± 1.5, 49.3 ± 1.5, and 36.6 ± 1.6 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1), respectively; P < 0.05) performed an isometric handgrip exercise at 40% maximal voluntary contraction for 2 min, and then a pressure of 280 mmHg was applied to the forearm to occlude blood circulation for 2 min. The ? change in mean arterial blood pressure between the resting level and the occlusion was significantly higher in sprinters than in untrained men (32.2 ± 4.4 vs. 17.3 ± 2.6 mmHg, respectively; P < 0.05); however, no difference was observed between distance runners and untrained men. The ? mean sweating rate (averaged value of the forehead, chest, forearm, and thigh) during the occlusion was significantly higher in distance runners than in sprinters and untrained men (0.38 ± 0.07, 0.19 ± 0.03, and 0.11 ± 0.04 mg·cm(-2)·min(-1), respectively; P < 0.05) and did not differ between sprinters and untrained men. Our results suggest that the specificity of training modalities influences the sweating response during activation of the muscle metaboreflex. In addition, these results imply that a greater activation of the muscle metaboreflex does not cause a greater sweating response in sprinters. PMID:21659489

Amano, Tatsuro; Ichinose, Masashi; Koga, Shunsaku; Inoue, Yoshimitsu; Nishiyasu, Takeshi; Kondo, Narihiko

2011-06-09

54

Synthesis of graphene-based Pt nanoparticles by a one-step in situ plasma approach under mild conditions  

SciTech Connect

Herein, a one-step in situ plasma approach to synthesize the highly dispersed Pt nanoparticles on graphene under mild conditions is reported. The graphene oxide (GO) was transformed into graphene and H{sub 2}PtCl{sub 6} was simultaneously transformed into Pt nanoparticles under argon plasma conditions. The synthesized graphene-based Pt nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The analysis showed that the Pt nanoparticles were deposited on graphene as a form of face-centered cubical structure and the oxygen groups on graphene oxide were partially removed. The results of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis further confirmed the results.

Wang Qi; Song Mingming; Chen Changlun; Wei Yu; Zuo Xiao; Wang Xiangke [Key Laboratory of Novel Thin Film Solar Cells, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei 230031 (China)

2012-07-16

55

Adsorption behavior of aqueous europium on kaolinite under various disposal conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work investigated the adsorption behavior of europium on kaolinite under various disposal conditions. Batch-wise adsorption\\u000a and precipitation experiments and equilibrium model calculations were performed over a pH range of 4–10 and CO2 concentration range of 0%, 0.03%, and 10%. Experimental precipitation behaviors are in agreement with the results of equilibrium\\u000a model calculations using the geochemical code MINTEQA2. Aqueous species

Mun Ja Kang; Pil Soo Hahn

2004-01-01

56

Zero-Valent Iron Removal Rates of Aqueous Cr(VI) Measured Under Flow Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rates of Cr(VI) removal from the aqueous phase by zero-valent iron, Fe(0), was measured under flow conditions. The intent\\u000a of this work was to generate removal rate coefficients that would be applicable to the Reactive Well Technology, a groundwater\\u000a remediation technology that replaces the sand in a filter pack of a conventional well with a reactive material, such as

Daniel I. Kaplan; Tyler J. Gilmore

2004-01-01

57

Removal Rates of Aqueous Cr(VI) by Zero-Valent Iron Measured Under Flow Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were undertaken to measure the rate of Cr(VI) removal from the aqueous phase by zero-valent iron, Fe(0), under flow conditions. The intent of this work was to generate removal rate coefficients that would be applicable to the Reactive Well Technology, a groundwater remediation technology that replaces the sand in a filter pack of a conventional well with a reactive

2002-01-01

58

Integrated production of wine grapes grown under mild and warm conditions in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weeds in vineyards are traditionally controlled by cultivation in combination with herbicides. Long-term cultivation and herbicide use can degrade a vineyard as an ecosystem. Integrated production (IP) aims to avoid that and to improve biodiversity, soil fertility and optimal growing conditions. Reduced or zero herbicide use, however, also can lead to an increased sward competition with vines for water and

Dejan Tesic; Ron Hutton; Melanie Weckert; Andrew Loch; Loothfar Rahman; Michel Meunier; Deirdre Lemerle

59

Establishing and maintaining specific pathogen free (SPF) conditions in aqueous solutions using ozone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper discusses the use of ozone in space applications for the elimination of pathogens, and the enhancement of the oxidation potential of ozone using hydrogen peroxide and ultraviolet radiation. These combinations will be possible to set up in space conditions. The sterilizing effect versus free radical generation is an important equilibrium to establish when specific pathogen free conditions are wanted in aqueous solutions containing organic matter. In situ sterilization of plant roots in hydroponic systems, as well as the oxidation of root exudates, will be discussed. The paper will contain examples of the chemical interaction of ozone with some of the other compounds found in hydroponic systems.

Vestergård, B.

1994-11-01

60

Synthesis of boron suboxide from boron and boric acid under mild pressure and temperature conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boron suboxide (B6O) was synthesized by reacting boron and boric acid (H3BO3) at pressures between 1 and 10GPa, and at temperatures between 1300 and 1400°C. The B6O samples prepared were icosahedral with diameters ranging from 20 to 300nm. Well-crystallized and icosahedral crystals with an average size of ?100nm can be obtained at milder reaction conditions (1GPa and 1300°C for 2h)

Xiaopeng Jiao; Hua Jin; Zhanhui Ding; Bin Yang; Fengguo Lu; Xudong Zhao; Xiaoyang Liu; Liping Peng

2011-01-01

61

Cu(II)-catalyzed selective aerobic oxidation of alcohols under mild conditions.  

PubMed

Aerobic Alcohol Oxidation. An efficient four-component system consisting of acetamido-TEMPO/Cu(ClO4)2/TMDP/DABCO in DMSO has been developed for room-temperature aerobic alcohol oxidation. Under the optimal conditions, various alcohols could be converted into their corresponding aldehydes or ketones in good to excellent yields. The newly developed catalytic system could also be recycled and reused for three runs without any significant loss of catalytic activity. PMID:16930071

Jiang, Nan; Ragauskas, Arthur J

2006-09-01

62

A New Biarylphosphine Ligand for the Pd-Catalyzed Synthesis of Diaryl Ethers Under Mild Conditions  

PubMed Central

A new bulky biarylphosphine ligand (L8) has been developed that allows the Pd-catalyzed C–O cross-coupling of a wide range of aryl halides and phenols under milder conditions than previously possible. A direct correlation between the size of the ligand substituents in the 2?, 4? and 6? positions of the non-phosphine containing ring and the reactivity of the derived catalyst system was observed. Specifically, the rate of coupling increased with the size of these substituents.

Salvi, Luca; Davis, Nicole R.; Ali, Siraj Z.; Buchwald, Stephen L.

2011-01-01

63

Rapid and effective oxidative pretreatment of woody biomass at mild reaction conditions and low oxidant loadings  

PubMed Central

Background One route for producing cellulosic biofuels is by the fermentation of lignocellulose-derived sugars generated from a pretreatment that can be effectively coupled with an enzymatic hydrolysis of the plant cell wall. While woody biomass exhibits a number of positive agronomic and logistical attributes, these feedstocks are significantly more recalcitrant to chemical pretreatments than herbaceous feedstocks, requiring higher chemical and energy inputs to achieve high sugar yields from enzymatic hydrolysis. We previously discovered that alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP) pretreatment catalyzed by copper(II) 2,2?-bipyridine complexes significantly improves subsequent enzymatic glucose and xylose release from hybrid poplar heartwood and sapwood relative to uncatalyzed AHP pretreatment at modest reaction conditions (room temperature and atmospheric pressure). In the present work, the reaction conditions for this catalyzed AHP pretreatment were investigated in more detail with the aim of better characterizing the relationship between pretreatment conditions and subsequent enzymatic sugar release. Results We found that for a wide range of pretreatment conditions, the catalyzed pretreatment resulted in significantly higher glucose and xylose enzymatic hydrolysis yields (as high as 80% for both glucose and xylose) relative to uncatalyzed pretreatment (up to 40% for glucose and 50% for xylose). We identified that the extent of improvement in glucan and xylan yield using this catalyzed pretreatment approach was a function of pretreatment conditions that included H2O2 loading on biomass, catalyst concentration, solids concentration, and pretreatment duration. Based on these results, several important improvements in pretreatment and hydrolysis conditions were identified that may have a positive economic impact for a process employing a catalyzed oxidative pretreatment. These improvements include identifying that: (1) substantially lower H2O2 loadings can be used that may result in up to a 50-65% decrease in H2O2 application (from 100 mg H2O2/g biomass to 35–50 mg/g) with only minor losses in glucose and xylose yield, (2) a 60% decrease in the catalyst concentration from 5.0 mM to 2.0 mM (corresponding to a catalyst loading of 25 ?mol/g biomass to 10 ?mol/g biomass) can be achieved without a subsequent loss in glucose yield, (3) an order of magnitude improvement in the time required for pretreatment (minutes versus hours or days) can be realized using the catalyzed pretreatment approach, and (4) enzyme dosage can be reduced to less than 30 mg protein/g glucan and potentially further with only minor losses in glucose and xylose yields. In addition, we established that the reaction rate is improved in both catalyzed and uncatalyzed AHP pretreatment by increased solids concentrations. Conclusions This work explored the relationship between reaction conditions impacting a catalyzed oxidative pretreatment of woody biomass and identified that significant decreases in the H2O2, catalyst, and enzyme loading on the biomass as well as decreases in the pretreatment time could be realized with only minor losses in the subsequent sugar released enzymatically. Together these changes would have positive implications for the economics of a process based on this pretreatment approach.

2013-01-01

64

Reversible hydrogen storage using CO2 and a proton-switchable iridium catalyst in aqueous media under mild temperatures and pressures.  

PubMed

Green plants convert CO(2) to sugar for energy storage via photosynthesis. We report a novel catalyst that uses CO(2) and hydrogen to store energy in formic acid. Using a homogeneous iridium catalyst with a proton-responsive ligand, we show the first reversible and recyclable hydrogen storage system that operates under mild conditions using CO(2), formate and formic acid. This system is energy-efficient and green because it operates near ambient conditions, uses water as a solvent, produces high-pressure CO-free hydrogen, and uses pH to control hydrogen production or consumption. The extraordinary and switchable catalytic activity is attributed to the multifunctional ligand, which acts as a proton-relay and strong ?-donor, and is rationalized by theoretical and experimental studies. PMID:22522258

Hull, Jonathan F; Himeda, Yuichiro; Wang, Wan-Hui; Hashiguchi, Brian; Periana, Roy; Szalda, David J; Muckerman, James T; Fujita, Etsuko

2012-03-18

65

Reversible hydrogen storage using CO2 and a proton-switchable iridium catalyst in aqueous media under mild temperatures and pressures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Green plants convert CO2 to sugar for energy storage via photosynthesis. We report a novel catalyst that uses CO2 and hydrogen to store energy in formic acid. Using a homogeneous iridium catalyst with a proton-responsive ligand, we show the first reversible and recyclable hydrogen storage system that operates under mild conditions using CO2, formate and formic acid. This system is energy-efficient and green because it operates near ambient conditions, uses water as a solvent, produces high-pressure CO-free hydrogen, and uses pH to control hydrogen production or consumption. The extraordinary and switchable catalytic activity is attributed to the multifunctional ligand, which acts as a proton-relay and strong ?-donor, and is rationalized by theoretical and experimental studies.

Hull, Jonathan F.; Himeda, Yuichiro; Wang, Wan-Hui; Hashiguchi, Brian; Periana, Roy; Szalda, David J.; Muckerman, James T.; Fujita, Etsuko

2012-05-01

66

Reversible Hydrogen Storage using CO2 and a Proton-Switchable Iridium Catalyst in Aqueous Media under Mild Temperatures and Pressures  

SciTech Connect

Green plants convert CO{sub 2} to sugar for energy storage via photosynthesis. We report a novel catalyst that uses CO{sub 2} and hydrogen to store energy in formic acid. Using a homogeneous iridium catalyst with a proton-responsive ligand, we show the first reversible and recyclable hydrogen storage system that operates under mild conditions using CO{sub 2}, formate and formic acid. This system is energy-efficient and green because it operates near ambient conditions, uses water as a solvent, produces high-pressure CO-free hydrogen, and uses pH to control hydrogen production or consumption. The extraordinary and switchable catalytic activity is attributed to the multifunctional ligand, which acts as a proton-relay and strong {pi}-donor, and is rationalized by theoretical and experimental studies.

Hull J. F.; Himeda, Y.; Wang, W.-H.; Hashiguchi, B.; Szalda, D.J.; Muckerman, J.T.; Fujita, E.

2012-05-01

67

Cannabinoid modulation of chronic mild stress-induced selective enhancement of trace fear conditioning in adolescent rats.  

PubMed

History of stress is considered a major risk factor for the development of major depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Elucidating the neurobiological mechanisms of Pavlovian fear conditioning may provide insight into the etiology of PTSD. In the current study, adolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 3 weeks of a chronic-mild-unpredictable stress (CMS) protocol. Immediately following the CMS, the animals were subjected to hippocampal-dependent (trace and contextual) and hippocampal-independent (delay) fear conditioning. CMS exposure enhanced trace freezing behavior compared to non-stress controls. This effect was not observed in contextual or delay conditioned animals. Given that the endocannabinoid system is negatively affected by CMS procedures, separate groups of stressed rats were administered the CB1 receptor agonist, ACEA (0.1 mg/kg), prior to trace fear conditioning or a memory-recall test. Regardless of administration time, ACEA significantly reduced freezing behavior in stressed animals. Furthermore, when administered during the first memory recall test, ACEA enhanced long-term extinction in both stress and non-stress groups. The results demonstrate that chronic unpredictable stress selectively enhances hippocampal-dependent episodic fear memories. Pathologies of the episodic memory and fear response may increase the susceptibility of developing PTSD. Reduction in fear responses via exogenous activation of the CB1 receptor suggests that a deficiency in the endocannabinoid system contributes to this pathology. PMID:23926242

Reich, Christian G; Iskander, Anthony N; Weiss, Michael S

2013-08-07

68

?-Chymotrypsin stability in aqueous-acetonitrile mixtures: is the native enzyme thermodynamically or kinetically stable under low water conditions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Like many proteins, ?-chymotrypsin is denatured in 50% volume aqueous-acetonitrile mixtures. However, it also shows high catalytic activity in 70% or more acetonitrile. Good activity in two different aqueous organic composition ranges has been described for several other enzymes. The stability of the native protein under low water conditions is generally believed to be a kinetic phenomenon, though there are

Johann Partridge; Barry D Moore; Peter J Halling

1999-01-01

69

Enhanced dissolution of manganese oxide in ice compared to aqueous phase under illuminated and dark conditions.  

PubMed

Manganese is one of the common elements in the Earth's crust and an essential micronutrient for all living things. The reductive dissolution of particulate manganese oxide is a dominant process to enhance mobility and bioavailability of manganese for the use of living organisms. In this work, we investigated the reductive dissolution of manganese oxides trapped in ice (at -20 °C) under dark and light irradiation (visible: ? > 400 nm and UV: ? > 300 nm) in comparison with their counterparts in aqueous solution (at 25 °C). The reductive dissolution of synthetic MnO?, which took place slowly in aqueous solution, was significantly accelerated in ice phase both in the presence and absence of light: about 5 times more dissolution in ice phase than in liquid water after 6 h UV irradiation in the presence of formic acid. The enhanced dissolution in ice was observed under both UV and visible irradiation although the rate was much slower in the latter condition. The reductive dissolution rate of Mn(II)(aq) (under both irradiation and dark conditions) gradually increased with decreasing pH below 6 in both aqueous and ice phases, and the dissolution rates were consistently faster in ice under all tested conditions. The enhanced generation of Mn(II)(aq) in ice can be mainly explained in terms of freeze concentration of electron donors, protons, and MnO? in liquid-like ice grain boundaries. The outdoor solar experiment conducted in Arctic region (Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, 78°55'N) also showed that the photoreductive dissolution of manganese oxide is enhanced in ice. The present results imply that the dissolution of natural minerals like manganese oxides can be enhanced in icy environments such as polar region, upper atmosphere, and frozen soil. PMID:23153016

Kim, Kitae; Yoon, Ho-Il; Choi, Wonyong

2012-12-04

70

A general and facile one-pot process of isothiocyanates from amines under aqueous conditions  

PubMed Central

Summary A general and facile one-pot protocol for the preparation of a broad range of alkyl and aryl isothiocyanates has been developed from their corresponding primary amines under aqueous conditions. This synthetic process involves an in situ generation of a dithiocarbamate salt from the amine substrate by reacting with CS2 followed by elimination to form the isothiocyanate product with cyanuric acid as the desulfurylation reagent. The choice of solvent is of decisive importance for the successful formation of the dithiocarbamate salt particularly for highly electron-deficient substrates. This novel and economical method is suitable for scale-up activities.

Sun, Nan; Li, Bin; Shao, Jianping; Hu, Baoxiang; Shen, Zhenlu

2012-01-01

71

Synthesis of a Rotaxane Cu(I) Triazolide under Aqueous Conditions.  

PubMed

We describe the serendipitous isolation of a stable, neutral, monomeric mechanically interlocked Cu(I) triazolide under aqueous conditions. This "trapped" intermediate of the CuAAC catalytic cycle is sterically protected from reprotonation by the rotaxane architecture, which renders the Cu(I)-C bond stable toward moisture and air-even carboxylic acids protonate the Cu(I)-C bond only slowly. The isolation of this remarkably stable Cu(I) organometallic points toward potential applications of mechanical bonding in the study of reactive intermediates. PMID:23971866

Winn, Joby; Pinczewska, Aleksandra; Goldup, Stephen M

2013-08-28

72

Conditions of aqueous alteration of 9 CM chondrites estimated from mineralogy and compositional variations of matrix  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CM chondrites have undergone prevailed aqueous alteration in the parent asteroids and the alteration changed mineralogical and isotope signatures of water-bearing C-type asteroids.[1,2] In the previous studies, classification schemes of CM chondrites by the alteration degree were proposed by )[3,4] In the present study, we have performed a mineralogical study of 9 CM chondrites found in Antarctica in order to estimatie the nature and extents of aqueous alteration reactions. At first, small pieces (200 microns in size) of matrix were picked up and analyzed by synchroton radiation X-ray diffraction to identify minerals and relative abundances. The results of the X-ray diffraction analysis and SEM observations indicate that serpentine is present in the matrix of all samples as a major phase, suggesting that all samples have undergone aqueous alteration and have not been heated to temperature enough to dehydrate serpentine. Two out of 9 samples (LEW85311 and LAP03178 hereafter GroupA) contain Fe-Ni metal grains in both chondrule and matrix and anhydrous silicates (olivine and pyroxene) in matrix. Five of 9 samples (GRA06172, MET01072, LEW87022, LAP02269 and GRO95566 hereafter GroupB) contain fine-grained PCPs and anhydrous silicates but no metallic phases in matrix. In addition their chondrules are altered only in glassy parts and in limited parts of anhydrous silicates. The rest two of 9 samples (LAP031166 and MAC88100 hereafter GroupC) don't contain Fe-Ni metal and PCPs and contain little anhydrous silicates in matrix. In addition chondrules are almost completely altered. Since metallic phases are more susceptible to aqueous alteration than anhydrous silicates, the results suggest that the alteration degree is in the order of GroupA< GrouB< GroupC. The EPMA analysis indicates that most data of matrix composition fall within the triangle area defined by [1]: the area is enclosed by the composition of PCPs and two serpentines (the serpentin compositions are defined by those from Murry and Nogoya meteorites) in a Mg-Fe-Si ternary diagram. Nine samples have different compositional trends and PCP/(PCP+serpentine) ratios, suggesting that these 9 samples have suffered various extents of aqueous alteration. The matrix compositions reflect the conditions of aqueous alteration, because of its fine-grained nature. Therefore, it is expected that, for instance, GroupA samples show compositional trends similar within the Group, but different from other Groups. However, GroupA sample (LAP03178) has the same trend as GroupB sample (GRO95566), and GroupB sample (MET01072) has the same trend as GroupC sample (MAC88100).This suggests that aqueous alteration process is very complex: the starting matrix compositions are variable, and the resultant matrix compositions are also different. This indicates that matrix chemical composition alone is not enough to define the alteration degree. [1]McSween (1986), GCA 51, 2469-2477 [2]Clayton and Mayeda (1984) Earth and Planetary Science Letters 67, 151-161 [3]Zolensky et.al (1997) GCA 61, 5099-5115 [4]Rubin et al. (2007) GCA 71, 2361-2382

Yoshioka, K.; Nakamura, T.; Fujimaki, H.

2011-12-01

73

Gold Nanoclusters Confined in a Supercage of Y Zeolite for Aerobic Oxidation of HMF under Mild Conditions.  

PubMed

Au nanoclusters with an average size of approximately 1?nm size supported on HY zeolite exhibit a superior catalytic performance for the selective oxidation of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (HMF) into 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA). It achieved >99?% yield of 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid in water under mild conditions (60?°C, 0.3?MPa oxygen), which is much higher than that of Au supported on metal oxides/hydroxide (TiO2 , CeO2 , and Mg(OH)2 ) and channel-type zeolites (ZSM-5 and H-MOR). Detailed characterizations, such as X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, N2 -physisorption, and H2 -temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), revealed that the Au nanoclusters are well encapsulated in the HY zeolite supercage, which is considered to restrict and avoid further growing of the Au nanoclusters into large particles. The acidic hydroxyl groups of the supercage were proven to be responsible for the formation and stabilization of the gold nanoclusters. Moreover, the interaction between the hydroxyl groups in the supercage and the Au nanoclusters leads to electronic modification of the Au nanoparticles, which is supposed to contribute to the high efficiency in the catalytic oxidation of HMF to FDCA. PMID:23999985

Cai, Jiaying; Ma, Hong; Zhang, Junjie; Song, Qi; Du, Zhongtian; Huang, Yizheng; Xu, Jie

2013-09-02

74

A mild pulsed electric field condition that improves acid tolerance, growth, and protease activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-K and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus LB-12.  

PubMed

Pulsed electric field (PEF) processing involves the application of pulses of voltage for less than 1 s to fluid products placed between 2 electrodes. The effect of mild PEF on beneficial characteristics of probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus is not clearly understood. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of mild PEF conditions on acid tolerance, growth, and protease activity of Lb. acidophilus LA-K and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus LB-12. A pilot plant PEF system (OSU-4M; The Ohio State University, Columbus) was used. The PEF treatments were positive square unipolar pulse width of 3 µs, pulse period of 0.5s, electric field strength of 1 kV/cm, delay time of 20 µs, flow rate of 60 mL/min, and 40.5°C PEF treatment temperature. Both Lb. acidophilus LA-K and Lb. bulgaricus LB-12 subjected to mild PEF conditions were acid tolerant until the end of the 120 min of incubation, unlike the Lb. bulgaricus control, which was not acid tolerant after 30 min. The mild PEF-treated Lb. acidophilus LA-K and Lb. bulgaricus LB-12 reached the logarithmic phase of growth an hour earlier than the control. Mild PEF conditions studied significantly improved acid tolerance, exponential growth, and protease activity of both Lb. acidophilus LA-K and Lb. bulgaricus LB-12 compared with the control. The mild PEF conditions studied can be recommended for pretreating cultures to enhance these desirable attributes. PMID:23587394

Najim, N; Aryana, Kayanush J

2013-04-12

75

Tandem decarboxylative hydroformylation-hydrogenation reaction of ?,?-unsaturated carboxylic acids toward aliphatic alcohols under mild conditions employing a supramolecular catalyst system.  

PubMed

A new atom economic catalytic method for a highly chemoselective reduction of ?,?-unsaturated carboxylic acids to the corresponding saturated alcohols under mild reaction conditions, compatible with a wide range reactive functional groups, is reported. The new methodology consists of a novel tandem decarboxylative hydroformylation/aldehyde reduction sequence employing a unique supramolecular catalyst system. PMID:24022335

Diab, Lisa; Gellrich, Urs; Breit, Bernhard

2013-09-26

76

Structure of a Novel Enzyme That Catalyzes Acyl Transfer to Alcohols in Aqueous Conditions  

SciTech Connect

The unusual architecture of the enzyme (MsAcT) isolated from Mycobacterium smegmatis forms the mechanistic basis for favoring alcoholysis over hydrolysis in water. Unlike hydrolases that perform alcoholysis only under anhydrous conditions, MsAcT demonstrates alcoholysis in substantially aqueous media and, in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, has a perhydrolysis:hydrolysis ratio 50-fold greater than that of the best lipase tested. The crystal structures of the apoenzyme and an inhibitor-bound form have been determined to 1.5 {angstrom} resolution. MsAcT is an octamer in the asymmetric unit and forms a tightly associated aggregate in solution. Relative to other structurally similar monomers, MsAcT contains several insertions that contribute to the oligomerization and greatly restrict the shape of the active site, thereby limiting its accessibility. These properties create an environment by which MsAcT can catalyze transesterification reactions in an aqueous medium and suggests how a serine hydrolase can be engineered to be an efficient acyltransferase.

Mathews, I.; Soltis, M.; Saldajeno, M.; Ganshaw, G.; Sala, R.; Weyler, W.; Cervin, M.A.; Whited, G.; Bott, R.

2009-06-03

77

Aqueous Dissolution of Silver Iodide and Associated Iodine Release Under Reducing Conditions with Sulfide  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous dissolution tests of silver iodide (AgI) were performed in Na{sub 2}S solutions in order to evaluate, empirically, dissolution of AgI to release iodine under reducing conditions with sulfide. The results indicated that AgI dissolves to release iodine being controlled by mainly precipitation of Ag{sub 2}S. However, the dissolution of AgI can be depressed to proceed, and the thermodynamic equilibrium cannot be attained easily. Solid phase analysis for the reacted AgI suggested that a thin layer of solid silver forming at AgI surface may evolve to be protective against transportation of reactant species, which can lead to the depression in the dissolution of AgI. (authors)

Yaohiro Inagaki; Toshitaka Imamura; Kazuya Idemitsu; Tatsumi Arima [Kyushu University, Fukuoka, 819-0395 (Japan); Osamu Kato [Kobe Steel Inc., Kobe, 657-0845 (Japan); Hidekazu Asano; Tsutomu Nishimura [RWMC, Tokyo, 105-0001 (Japan)

2007-07-01

78

Mechanics and mechanisms of surface damage in Al-Si alloys under ultra-mild wear conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Al-Si alloys intended for use in engine components must operate under ultra-mild wear (UMW) conditions to fit an acceptable amount of wear during a typical vehicle life. This study simulated surface damage in a UMW regime on five chemically etched Al-Si alloy surfaces using a pin-on-disc tribometer at low loads (0.5-2.0 N) under boundary lubricated conditions. The five alloys contained 11 to 25 wt.% Si and differed in matrix hardness, silicon particle morphology, and size. The mechanisms leading to the UMW damage and the role that the matrix hardness and microstructure play on said mechanisms were studied. Quantitative measurement methods based on statistical analysis of particle height changes and material loss from elevated aluminum using a profilometer technique were developed and used to assess UMW. The Greenwood and Tripp's numerical model was adapted to analyze the contact that occurred between Al-Si alloys with silicon particles protruding above the aluminum and steel balls. The estimation of the real contact pressure applied to the silicon particles was used to rationalize the damage mechanisms. The UMW mechanisms consisted of (i) abrasive wear on the top of the silicon particle surfaces; (ii) sinking-in of the silicon particles; (iii) piling-up of the aluminium around sunken-in particles and (vi) wear of the aluminium by the counterface, which eventually led to the initiation of UMW-II. Increasing the size or areal density of silicon particles with small aspect ratios delayed the onset of UMW-II by providing resistance against the silicon particles sinking-in and the aluminum piling-up. The UMW wear rates, however, began to decrease after long sliding cycles once an oil residue layer supported by hardened ultra-fine subsurface grains formed on the deformed aluminium matrix. The layer formation depended on the microstructure and applied load. Overall experimental observations suggested that Al-11% Si with small silicon particles exhibited optimal long-term wear performance.

Chen, Ming

79

[BPy]HSO4 Acidic Ionic Liquid as a Novel, Efficient, and Environmentally Benign Catalyst for Synthesis of 1,5?Benzodiazepines under Mild Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel and simple ionic liquid methodology for the synthesis of 1,5?benzodiazepines is described. 1?Butylpyridinium hydrogen sulphate ([BPy]HSO4), an acidic room?temperature ionic liquid, as a novel and efficient catalyst, was synthesized and used in the preparation of a series of 1,5?benzodiazepine derivatives by the reaction of o?phenylenediamine with chalcones under mild conditions. This method is easy, efficient, environmentally friendly, economical,

Yuying Du; Fuli Tian; Wenzhi Zhao

2006-01-01

80

Concentration of ginseng extracts aqueous solution by vacuum membrane distillation 2. Theory analysis of critical operating conditions and experimental confirmation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membrane fouling mechanism in the vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) was studied both theoretically and experimentally by using ginseng crude extract aqueous solution as a model concentrate system. The concept of critical fouling operating conditions in VMD within which fouling is difficult to occur was introduced for the first time. By analyzing the forces acting on solute particles (microaggregates of biomacromolecules

Zhi-Ping Zhao; Chun-Yan Zhu; Dian-Zhong Liu; Wen-Fang Liu

2011-01-01

81

Polyelectrolyte multilayer membranes for desalination of aqueous salt solutions and seawater under reverse osmosis conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrathin, multilayered membranes of polyvinylamine (PVA) and polyvinylsulfate (PVS) were electrostatically adsorbed on a porous polymer (polyacrylonitrile/polyethylene terephthalate) support. Their use for desalination of aqueous salt solutions, diluted and non-diluted artificial seawater was investigated under reverse osmosis conditions. Using 60 layer pairs of PVA/PVS as separating membrane, it was possible to completely reject MgCl 2 and MgSO 4 from feed solutions of 1 and 10 mM concentration independently from the operative pressure applied. The rejection of NaCl and Na 2SO 4 increased from 84 and 96% at 5 bar to 93.5 and 98.5% at 40 bar, respectively. From diluted seawater (1:10; 1:100; 1:1000), 99 ± 1% of Mg 2+, 97.0 ± 1% of Ca 2+, and 92.5 ± 1% of Na + were rejected at 40 bar, and from non-diluted seawater, 98 ± 1% of Mg 2+, 96.4 ± 1% of Ca 2+, and 74.5 ± 0.8% of Na + were rejected at 40 bar. The permeation flux J increased linearly with the pressure applied. For a membrane of 60 PVA/PVS layer pairs, a flux value of 4 ± 0.2 L m -2 h -1 was found at 40 bar. The influence of the number of deposited layer pairs on R and J was also investigated.

Toutianoush, Ali; Jin, Wanqin; Deligöz, Hüseyin; Tieke, Bernd

2005-06-01

82

Chemical fixation of carbon dioxide to cyclic carbonates under extremely mild conditions with highly active bifunctional catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical fixation of carbon dioxide to cyclic carbonates proceeds effectively under extremely mild temperature and pressure by using a bifunctional nucleophile–electrophile catalyst system of tetradentate Schiff-base aluminum complexes ((Salen)AlX) in conjunction with a quaternary ammonium salt (n-Bu4NY) in the absence of any organic solvent. Electrophilicity of central Al3+ ion and the steric factor of substituent groups on the aromatic rings

Xiao-Bing Lu; Ying-Ju Zhang; Bin Liang; Xiao Li; Hui Wang

2004-01-01

83

Mild Cognitive Impairment  

MedlinePLUS

Some forgetfulness can be a normal part of aging. However, some people have more memory problems than other people their age. This condition is called mild cognitive impairment, or MCI. People with ...

84

Experimental reduction of aqueous sulphate by hydrogen under hydrothermal conditions: Implication for the nuclear waste storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulphate reduction by hydrogen, likely to occur in deep geological nuclear waste storage sites, was studied experimentally in a two-phase system (water + gas) at 250-300 °C and under 4-16 bars H 2 partial pressure in hydrothermal-vessels. The calculated activation energy is 131 kJ/mol and the half-life of aqueous sulphate in the presence of hydrogen and elemental sulphur ranges from 210,000 to 2.7 × 10 9 years at respective temperatures of 90 °C, the thermal peak in the site and 25 °C, the ambient temperature far from the site. The features and rate of the sulphate reduction by H 2 are close to those established for TSR in oil fields. The experiments also show that the rate of sulphate reduction is not significantly affected in the H 2 pressure range of 4-16 bars and in the pH range of 2-5, whereas a strong increase is measured at pH below 2. We suggest that the condition for the reaction to occur is the speciation of sulphate dominated by non symmetric species ( HSO4- at low pH), and we propose a three steps reaction, one for each intermediate-valence sulphur species, the first one requiring H 2S as electron donor rather than H 2. We distinguish two possible reaction pathways for the first step, depending on pH: reduction of sulphate into sulphur dioxide below pH 2 or into thiosulphate or sulphite + elemental sulphur in the pH range 2-5.

Truche, Laurent; Berger, Gilles; Destrigneville, Christine; Pages, Alain; Guillaume, Damien; Giffaut, Eric; Jacquot, Emmanuel

2009-08-01

85

Asian dust particles converted into aqueous droplets under remote marine atmospheric conditions  

PubMed Central

The chemical history of dust particles in the atmosphere is crucial for assessing their impact on both the Earth’s climate and ecosystem. So far, a number of studies have shown that, in the vicinity of strong anthropogenic emission sources, Ca-rich dust particles can be converted into aqueous droplets mainly by the reaction with gaseous HNO3 to form Ca(NO3)2. Here we show that other similar processes have the potential to be activated under typical remote marine atmospheric conditions. Based on field measurements at several sites in East Asia and thermodynamic predictions, we examined the possibility for the formation of two highly soluble calcium salts, Ca(NO3)2 and CaCl2, which can deliquesce at low relative humidity. According to the results, the conversion of insoluble CaCO3 to Ca(NO3)2 tends to be dominated over urban and industrialized areas of the Asian continent, where the concentrations of HNO3 exceed those of HCl ([HNO3/HCl] >  ? 1). In this regime, CaCl2 is hardly detected from dust particles. However, the generation of CaCl2 becomes detectable around the Japan Islands, where the concentrations of HCl are much higher than those of HNO3 ([HNO3/HCl] <  ? 0.3). We suggest that elevated concentrations of HCl in the remote marine boundary layer are sufficient to modify Ca-rich particles in dust storms and can play a more important role in forming a deliquescent layer on the particle surfaces as they are transported toward remote ocean regions.

Tobo, Yutaka; Zhang, Daizhou; Matsuki, Atsushi; Iwasaka, Yasunobu

2010-01-01

86

Direct extraction of oil from sunflower seeds by twin-screw extruder according to an aqueous extraction process: Feasibility study and influence of operating conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of an aqueous process to extract sunflower seed oil using a co-rotating twin-screw extruder. Aqueous extraction was carried out using whole seeds and the influence of the operating conditions on oil yield was examined. Operating conditions included screw profile, screw rotation speed, and input flow rates of sunflower seeds and

Ph. Evon; V. Vandenbossche; P. Y. Pontalier; L. Rigal

2007-01-01

87

Mild Combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mild Combustion is characterized by both an elevated temperature of reactants and low temperature increase in the combustion process. These features are the results of several technological demands coming from different application fields. This review paper aims to collect information which could be useful in understanding the fundamentals and applications of Mild Combustion. The information in this field are

Antonio Cavaliere; Mara de Joannon

2004-01-01

88

Equilibrium hydrate formation conditions for hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and ethane in aqueous solutions of ethylene glycol and sodium chloride  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas components such as hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and ethane form gas hydrates of structure I under suitable temperature and pressure conditions. Information on such conditions is vital to the oil and gas industry in order to design and operate processing equipment and pipelines so that hydrate formation is avoided. Incipient equilibrium hydrate formation conditions for hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and ethane in aqueous solutions of ethylene glycol and sodium chloride were experimentally obtained in the temperature range 264--290 K and the pressure range 0.23--3.18 MPa. A variable-volume sapphire cell was used for the measurements.

Majumdar, A.; Mahmoodaghdam, E.; Bishnoi, P.R.

2000-02-01

89

CHEMICAL TRANSFORMATIONS USING NON-TRADITIONAL APPROACHES: MICROWAVE-ASSISTED GREENER SYNTHESES IN AQUEOUS MEDIA OR UNDER SOLVENT-FREE CONDITIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Microwave (MW) irradiation in conjunction with water as reaction media has proven to be a 'greener' chemical approach for expeditious N -alkylation reactions of amines and hydrazines wherein the reactions under mildly basic conditions afford tertiary amines and double N...

90

Mercury Bioaccumulation and Trophic Transfer in the Cache Creek Watershed, California, in Relation to Diverse Aqueous Mercury Exposure Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Water and biota were sampled,throughout the Cache Creek watershed during a 20 month period between,January 2000 and August 2001. A range of mercury,(Hg) exposure conditions were investigated in relation to several mining and natural Hg point sources in the watershed. The study was conducted,to provide foundational,information,and baseline monitoring,data for future point source,remediation,efforts and TMDL regulation. Seasonal aqueous,sampling,was conducted in

Darell G. Slotton; Shaun M. Ayers; Thomas H. Suchanek; Ronald D. Weyand; Anne M. Liston

2003-01-01

91

Hydrodefluorination of fluorobenzene and 1,2-difluorobenzene under mild conditions over rhodium pyridylphosphine and bipyridyl complexes tethered on a silica-supported palladium catalyst  

SciTech Connect

The C-F bond, which is the strongest bond that carbon can form, is extremely reluctant to coordinate to metal centers and is resistant to chemical attack. Although this lack of fluorocarbon reactivity has frequently been exploited in technological and medical applications, this chemical inertness also translates into environmental persistence since these compounds are quite difficult to degrade. Fluorobenzene and 1,2-difluorobenzene are defluorinated under very mild conditions by H{sub 2}(4 atm) at 70 C in the presence of NaOAc. The heterogeneous catalysts for these reactions contain the rhodium pyridylphosphine and bipyridyl complexes tethered to heterogeneous Pd-SiO{sub 2}.

Yang, H.; Gao, H.; Angelici, R.J. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Ames Lab.

1999-06-07

92

Access to 2'-substituted binaphthyl monoalcohols via complementary nickel-catalyzed Kumada coupling reactions under mild conditions: key role of a P,O ligand.  

PubMed

Two complementary Kumada coupling methods for the conversion of monotriflated 1,1'-binaphthalene-2,2'-diol (BINOL) into 2'-substituted binaphthyl monoalcohols under mild conditions are reported. A protocol using NiCl2(dppe), in combination with an improved preparation of the monotriflate, is effective for 1,1'-binaphthalene-2-ols containing unsubstituted or electron-poor aryl or benzyl 2'-substituents. An alternative procedure, using a potentially hemilabile-bidentate phosphinan-4-ol ligand, is superior for products containing neopentyl or electron-rich aryl 2'-substituents. The obtained binaphthyl alcohols represent potentially useful synthons for chiral ligands and auxiliaries. PMID:23672533

Handa, Sachin; Mathota Arachchige, Yohan L N; Slaughter, LeGrande M

2013-05-23

93

Effect of condensation agents and minerals for oligopeptide formation under mild and hydrothermal conditions in related to chemical evolution of proteins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of condensation agents and minerals for oligopeptide formation was inspected to see whether minerals possess catalytic activity under mild and hydrothermal conditions. Under mild conditions, oligopeptide formation from negatively charged amino acids (Asp and Glu) using different minerals and the elongation of alanine oligopeptides ((Ala) 2-(Ala) 5) were attempted using apatite minerals. Oligo(Asp) up to 10 amino acid units from Asp were observed in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl carbodiimide (EDC). Notable influence of minerals was not detected for the oligo(Asp) formation. Oligo(Asp) was gradually degraded by the further incubation in the presence of EDC in both the absence and presence of minerals. The formation of oligo(Glu) was less efficient in the presence of carbonyldiimidazole. The elongation from (Ala) 3, (Ala) 4, and (Ala) 5 and the formation of diketopiperazine from (Ala) 2 proceeded immediately in the presence of EDC in the meantime of the sample preparations. In addition, it was unexpected that the disappearance of the products and the reformation of the reactants occurred by the further incubation for 24 h; for instance, (Ala) 5 decreased but (Ala) 4 increased with increasing the reaction time in the reaction of (Ala) 4 with EDC. These facts suggest that the activation of the reactant amino acids or peptides immediately occurs. Under the simulated hydrothermal conditions, EDC did not enhance the formation of oligopeptides from Asp, Glu or Ala nor the spontaneous formation of (Ala) 5 from (Ala) 4.

Kawamura, Kunio; Takeya, Hitoshi; Kushibe, Takao

2009-07-01

94

New aerobic oxidation of benzylic compounds: efficient catalysis by N-hydroxy-3,4,5,6-tetraphenylphthalimide (NHTPPI)/CuCl under mild conditions and low catalyst loading.  

PubMed

Efficient aerobic oxidation of benzylic compounds using NHTPPI, a new NHPI analogue, as a key catalyst combined with CuCl, have been achieved under mild conditions and using as little as 1 mol% catalyst. PMID:15216350

Nechab, Malek; Einhorn, Cathy; Einhorn, Jacques

2004-05-28

95

Urchinlike nanostructure of single-crystalline nanorods of Sb2S3 formed at mild reaction condition.  

PubMed

Urchinlike nanostructure of well-defined Sb(2)S(3) crystals of 3-4 ?m in length and 30-150 nm in diameter oriented along [001] direction have been produced at a mild reaction temperature of 90 °C from SbCl(3) and S-methyl 3-phenyldithiocarbazate [C(6)H(5)NHNHC(S)SMe] in ethylene glycol medium. During the reaction, the amorphous Sb(2)S(3) spheres of 1.4 ?m in diameter were formed at early reaction stage and then crystalline nanorods were continuously grown at the surface of Sb(2)S(3) spheres while transforming their morphology into urchinlike structure. The urchinlike Sb(2)S(3) was composed of single-crystalline Sb(2)S(3) nanorods, belong to the orthorhombic phase with cell parameters a = 11.307 Å, b = 11.278 Å, c = 3.847 Å and absorbed the light up to 750 nm-wavelength region. The urchinlike Sb(2)S(3) architecture was applied to the photoelectrochemical cell. PMID:22869461

Maiti, Nilkamal; Im, Sang Hyuk; Lee, Yong Hui; Seok, Sang Il

2012-08-21

96

Dissolution of Columbia River Basalt Under Mildly Acidic Conditions as a Function of Temperature: Experimental Results Relevant to the Geological Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide  

SciTech Connect

Increasing attention is being focused on the rapid rise of carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere, which many believe to be the major contributing factor to global climate change. Sequestering CO2 in deep geological formations has been proposed as a long-term solution to help stabilize CO2 levels. However, before such technology can be developed and implemented, a basic understanding of H2O-CO2 systems and the chemical interactions of these fluids with the host formation must be obtained. Important issues concerning mineral stability, reaction rates, and carbonate formation are all controlled or at least significantly impacted by the kinetics of rock-water reactions in mildly acidic, CO2-saturated solutions. Basalt has recently been identified as a potentially important host formation for geological sequestration. Dissolution kinetics of the Columbia River Basalt (CRB) were measured for a range of temperatures (25° to 90°C) under mildly acidic to neutral pH conditions using the single-pass flow-through test method. Under anaerobic conditions, the normalized dissolution rates for CRB decrease with increasing pH (3?pH?7) with a slope, ?, of -0.12 ± 0.02. An activation energy, Ea, has been estimated at 30.3 ± 2.4 kJ mol-1. Dissolution kinetics measurements like these are essential for modeling the rate at which the CO2 reacts with basalt and ultimately converted to carbonate minerals in situ.

Schaef, Herbert T.; McGrail, B. Peter

2009-05-01

97

HCL solubility and liquid diffusion in aqueous sulfuric acid under stratospheric conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solubility of HCl in cold H2SO4/H2O solutions is central to an assessment of the role of stratospheric aerosol in polar ozone destruction. The interpretation of laboratory measurements of HCl uptake by aqueous H2SO4 requires a knowledge of (1) HCl solubility and (2) the HCl liquid phase diffusion coefficient. Neither quantity is easily determined because of the high H2SO4 concentration and low temperature of the solutions, making experimental data difficult to evaluate and to apply to the real stratospheric situation. To avoid these difficulties, we have used a new thermodynamic model for an improved estimate of HCl solubility, and a viscosity-based cubic cell model to obtain the diffusion coefficient. The calculated HCl solubility in aqueous H2SO4 below 200 K is up to three orders of magnitude greater than previously thought. This might promote chlorine activation particularly during volcanically perturbed periods with an enhanced stratospheric aerosol loading.

Luo, B. P.; Clegg, S. L.; Peter, Th.; Müller, R.; Crutzen, P. J.

1994-01-01

98

Complexes of earth-abundant metals for catalytic electrochemical hydrogen generation under aqueous conditions.  

PubMed

Growing global energy demands and climate change motivate the development of new renewable energy technologies. In this context, water splitting using sustainable energy sources has emerged as an attractive process for carbon-neutral fuel cycles. A key scientific challenge to achieving this overall goal is the invention of new catalysts for the reductive and oxidative conversions of water to hydrogen and oxygen, respectively. This review article will highlight progress in molecular electrochemical approaches for catalytic reduction of protons to hydrogen, focusing on complexes of earth-abundant metals that can function in pure aqueous or mixed aqueous-organic media. The use of water as a reaction medium has dual benefits of maintaining high substrate concentration as well as minimizing the environmental impact from organic additives and by-products. PMID:23034627

Thoi, V Sara; Sun, Yujie; Long, Jeffrey R; Chang, Christopher J

2012-10-04

99

Interfacial properties of methane\\/aqueous VC713 solution under hydrate formation conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interfacial tensions between methane and aqueous solutions of different contents of VC-713 (a terpolymer of N-vinylpyrrolidone, N-vinylcaprolactam, and dimethylamino-ethyl-methacrylate) were measured at different temperatures and pressures in the hydrate formation region. The surface adsorption free energies of methane were calculated accordingly in order to investigate the effect of this kinetic inhibitor on the nucleation of hydrate. The results show

Bao-Zi Peng; Chang-Yu Sun; Peng Liu; Yan-Tao Liu; Jun Chen; Guang-Jin Chen

2009-01-01

100

Rivastigmine as treatment for patients with mild to moderately severe Alzheimer disease under normal clinical practice conditions. The ENTERPRISE study.  

PubMed

INTRODUCTION: Alzheimer disease (AD) causes progressive cognitive decline leading to loss of independence for activities of daily living; rivastigmine is one of the drugs used for symptomatic management. OBJECTIVE: To assess the therapeutic use of different pharmaceutical forms of rivastigmine in patients with AD in normal clinical practice. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional, observational, multi-centre study conducted on patients with mild to moderate AD treated with rivastigmine in Spanish outpatient clinics specialising in Geriatrics, Psychiatry, and Neurology. Data regarding use of oral (OR) and transdermal (TDR) rivastigmine, compliance (degree of adherence), and caregiver satisfaction with treatment were evaluated. RESULTS: In total, 2252 patients with a mean age of 77.2 years were included; 60.2% were women. AD was moderate to moderately severe in 58.4%. Rivastigmine treatment was started orally in 54.4% of the patients and transdermally in 45.6%; 35.6% of those who started treatment by the OR route switched to TDR. A single dose adjustment was sufficient for 77.5% of patients on TDR treatment vs 11.8% of patients receiving OR treatment. More patients on TDR treatment (80.8% vs. 57.1% on OR treatment) reached the maximum therapeutic dose of rivastigmine and did so in a shorter period of time (51.6 vs 205.8 days). Compliance rates (60.5% vs 47.2%) and caregivers' satisfaction with treatment (89.4% vs 81.9%) were also higher for TDR. CONCLUSIONS: In normal clinical practice, using the TDR route of administration improves dose titration and drug compliance, allowing more patients to reach the maximum recommended dose of rivastigmine in a shorter time period. PMID:23582372

Cruz Jentoft, A J; Hernández, B

2013-04-10

101

Abrasion of mild steel in wet and dry conditions with the rubber and steel wheel abrasion apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abrasion behaviour with a rotating wheel-type apparatus has been examined with angular alumina and rounded silica abrasives as a function of test conditions, namely wheel-type (rubber wheel or steel wheel) and environment (dry or wet conditions). Water tends to lubricate the contact between the particles and the testpiece, especially with small and\\/or rounded particles and thus the wear rate is

S. Wirojanupatump; P. H. Shipway

2000-01-01

102

Heat transfer and critical heat fluxes in the boiling of aqueous solutions of polyethylene oxide at reduced pressures under natural-convection conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental data are presented on heat transfer and critical heat fluxes in the boiling of aqueous solutions of polyethylene oxide of different concentrations under conditions of natural convection at atmospheric and reduced temperatures.

B. P. Avksentyuk; Z. S. Mesarkishvili

1984-01-01

103

Keski-Euroopan Olosuhteisiin Suunniteltujen Kitkarenkaiden Yleisyys Suomessa. (Frequency of Tyres for Mild Winter Conditions in Finland).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim of this study was to estimate to what extent unstudded winter tires specifically designed for winter conditions in central Europe are used on passenger cars in Finland. The good performance of these tires is considered beneficial, but Nordic condi...

J. Luoma

2011-01-01

104

Robust cyclometallated Ir(III) catalysts for the homogeneous hydrogenation of N-heterocycles under mild conditions.  

PubMed

Cyclometallated Cp*Ir(N^C)Cl complexes derived from N-aryl ketimines are highly active catalysts for the reduction of N-heterocycles under ambient conditions and 1 atm H2 pressure. The reaction tolerates a broad range of other potentially reducible functionalities and does not require the use of specialised equipment, additives or purified solvent. PMID:23812043

Wu, Jianjun; Barnard, Jonathan H; Zhang, Yi; Talwar, Dinesh; Robertson, Craig M; Xiao, Jianliang

2013-08-14

105

The effect of precipitation conditions and aging upon characteristics of particles precipitated from aqueous solutions  

SciTech Connect

Precipitation of a dissolved species from aqueous solutions is one of the techniques used to grow particles with certain size or composition characteristics. Various factors affecting the particle properties for sparingly soluble substances are briefly discussed here, including homogeneous versus heterogeneous nucleation, the effect of relative supersaturation on the number of nuclei and their relative size, particle growth by way of Ostwald Ripening, the Ostwald Step Rule and nucleation of metastable phases, diffusion-controlled versus surface reaction-controlled growth, incorporation of dopants into the precipitate, and dendritic growth. 13 refs.

Rard, J.A.

1989-10-01

106

Depolymerization of oak wood lignin under mild conditions using the acidic ionic liquid 1-H-3-methylimidazolium chloride as both solvent and catalyst.  

PubMed

Oak wood lignin, which was separated from the wood using dissolution in the ionic liquid 1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium acetate and subsequent precipitation, was successfully depolymerized in the acidic ionic liquid 1-H-3-methylimidazolium chloride under mild conditions (110-150 °C). Based on gel permeation chromatography results, an increase in temperature from 110 to 150 °C increased the rate of reaction, but did not significantly change the final size of the lignin fragments. Nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopy were utilized to demonstrate that the depolymerization proceeded via a hydrolysis reaction that cleaved the alkyl-aryl ether linkages. Coupling of the lignin fragments was also shown to occur in the reaction mixture. These hydrolysis results are consistent with the literature on acid catalyzed depolymerization of lignin in conventional solvents and with recent model compound studies involving guaiacylglycerol-?-guaiacyl ether and veratrylglycerol-?-guaiacyl ether done in acidic ionic liquids. PMID:22698446

Cox, Blair J; Ekerdt, John G

2012-05-11

107

Growth of La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4} nanofibers under a mild condition by using single walled carbon nanotubes as templates  

SciTech Connect

La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4} nanofibers (ca. 30 nm in diameter and 3 {mu}m in length) have been grown in situ by using single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs; ca. 2 nm in inner diameter; made via cracking CH{sub 4} over the catalyst of Mg{sub 0.8}Mo{sub 0.05}Ni{sub 0.10}Co{sub 0.05}O {sub x} at 800 deg. C) as templates under mild hydrothermal conditions and a temperature around 60 deg. C. During synthesis, the surfactant poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(propylene glycol)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} were added to disperse SWNTs and oxidize the reactants, respectively. The structure of La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4} nanofibers was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and their morphologies were observed with field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) at the hydrothermal synthesis lasting for 5, 20 and 40 h, respectively. The La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4} crystals grew from needle-like (5 h) through stick-like (20 h) and finally to plate-like (40 h) fibers. Twenty hours is an optimum reaction time to obtain regular crystal fibers. The La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4} nanofibers are probably cubic rather than round and may capsulate SWNTs. - Graphical abstract: La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4} nanofibers have been grown in situ by using single walled carbon nanotubes as templates under mild hydrothermal conditions and a temperature around 60 deg. C. The La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4} crystals grew from needle-like (5 h) through stick-like (20 h) and finally to plate-like (40 h) fibers. The La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4} nanofibers are probably cubic rather than round and may capsulate SWNTs.

Gao Lizhen [School of Mechanical Engineering M050, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley WA 6009 (Australia)]. E-mail: lizhen@mech.uwa.edu.au; Wang Xiaolin [School of Mechanical Engineering M050, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley WA 6009 (Australia); Chua, H.T. [School of Mechanical Engineering M050, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley WA 6009 (Australia); Kawi, Sibudjing [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 4, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

2006-07-15

108

Oxidation of 1,4-dichloro-2-butene by aqueous sodium hypochlorite under phase transfer conditions  

SciTech Connect

In the industrial process for the production of chloroprene from butadiene, the problem of reducing the organic impurities in the waste water to 2000 mg/liter has not yet been solved. A method has been patented for the oxidation of organic compounds by sodium hypochlorite at high temperatures and high pressure but this method is limited by the oxidation of soluble organic compounds. The oxidation of 1,4-dichloro-2-butene by aqueous sodium hypochlorite was studied. A sharp increase in the reaction rate was found in the presence of phase transfer catalysts and surfactants. The involvement of oxygen as a cooxiant and the effect of surfactants on the absorption of atmospheric oxygen by the reaction system were demonstrated.

Grigoryan, G.S.; Karoyan, I.L.; Malkhasyan, A.Ts.; Martirosyan, G.T.; Artamkina, G.A.; Beletskaya, I.P.

1987-11-10

109

Diffusion behavior of lysozyme in aqueous ammonium sulfate solutions under varying solution conditions as determined by dynamic light scattering  

SciTech Connect

As proteins gain significance in commercial applications such as pharmaceuticals, detergents, organic waste management and cosmetics, efficient and economical recovery of these valuable biomolecules is of increasing importance. the salting-out process has found widespread application in the area of protein separations. To date, salt-induced precipitation of proteins from complex aqueous solutions remains largely an empirical process; no comprehensive model exists to predict salting-out phase equilibria in protein solutions. Rational predictive models for salt-induced precipitation will therefore be of great value in protein purification, both on the preparative and the analytical scale. Any attempt to model theoretically salt-induced protein precipitation must include the known physics of protein interactions in aqueous solution. With this in mind, it is crucial to acknowledge that protein precipitation is fundamentally an aggregation process. In order to incorporate aggregation effects into ongoing efforts to model salting out of proteins, it is necessary to quantify the degree of aggregation as a function of solution conditions. Therefore, dynamic light scattering measurements were performed with a well-studied protein, hen-egg-white lysozyme, under several solution conditions.

Fornefeld, U.M.; Kuehner, D.E.; Blanch, H.W.; Prausnitz, J.M. (Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Chemical Sciences Div.)

1994-12-01

110

Stereoselective synthesis of unsaturated and functionalized L-NHBoc amino acids, using Wittig reaction under mild phase-transfer conditions.  

PubMed

The stereoselective synthesis of a new amino acid phosphonium salt was described by quaternization of melting triphenylphosphine with the ?-iodo NHBoc-amino ester, derived from L-aspartic acid. The deprotection of the carboxylic acid function to afford the phosphonium salt with a free carboxylic acid group was achieved by a palladium-catalyzed desallylation reaction. This phosphonium salt was used in the Wittig reaction with aromatic or aliphatic aldehydes and trifluoroacetophenone, under solid-liquid phase-transfer conditions in chlorobenzene and in the presence of K(3)PO(4) as weak base, to afford the corresponding unsaturated amino acids without racemization. Thus, the reaction with substituted aldehydes allows to graft various functionalized groups on the lateral chain of the amino acid, such as trifluoromethyl, cyano, nitro, ferrocenyl, boronato, or azido. In addition, the reaction of the amino acid Wittig reagent with ?,?-unsaturated aldehydes leads to amino acids bearing a diene on the lateral chain. Finally, this amino acid phosphonium salt appears to be a new powerful tool for the preparation of unsaturated and non-proteinogenic ?-amino acids, directly usable for the synthesis of customized peptides. PMID:22870957

Rémond, Emmanuelle; Bayardon, Jérôme; Ondel-Eymin, Marie-Joëlle; Jugé, Sylvain

2012-08-23

111

Photochemical processing of aldrin and dieldrin in frozen aqueous solutions under arctic field conditions.  

PubMed

Organochlorine (OC) contaminants are transported to the Polar Regions, where they have the potential to bioaccumulate, presenting a threat to the health of wildlife and indigenous communities. They deposit onto snowpack during winter, and accumulate until spring, when they experience prolonged solar irradiation until snowmelt occurs. Photochemical degradation rates for aldrin and dieldrin, in frozen aqueous solution made from MilliQ water, 500 ?M hydrogen peroxide solution or locally-collected melted snow were measured in a field campaign near Barrow, AK, during spring-summer 2008. Significant photoprocessing of both pesticides occurs; the reactions depend on temperature, depth within the snowpack and whether the predominant phase is ice or liquid water. The effect of species present in natural snowpack is comparable to 500 ?M hydrogen peroxide, pointing to the potential significance of snowpack-mediated reactions. Aldrin samples frozen at near 0 °C were more reactive than comparable liquid samples, implying that the microenvironments experienced on frozen ice surfaces are an important consideration. PMID:21396757

Rowland, Glenn A; Bausch, Alexandra R; Grannas, Amanda M

2011-03-10

112

Experimental chlorine partitioning between forsterite, enstatite and aqueous fluid at upper mantle conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cl partition coefficients between forsterite, enstatite and coexisting Cl-bearing aqueous fluids were determined in a series of high pressure and temperature piston cylinder experiments at 2 GPa between 900 and 1300 °C in the system MgO-SiO2-H2O-NaCl-BaO-C±CaCl2±TiO2±Al2O3±F. Diamond aggregates were added to the experimental capsule set-up in order to separate the fluid from the solid residue and enable in situ analysis of the quenched solute by LA-ICP-MS. The chlorine content of forsterite and enstatite was measured by electron microprobe, and the nature of hydrous defects was investigated by infrared spectroscopy. Partition coefficients show similar incompatibility for Cl in forsterite and enstatite, with DClfo/fl = 0.0012 ± 0.0006, DClen/fl = 0.0018 ± 0.0008 and DClfo/en = 1.43 ± 0.71. The values determined for mineral/fluid partitioning are very similar to previously determined values for mineral/melt. Applying the new mineral/fluid partition coefficients to fluids in subduction zones, a contribution between 0.15% and 20% of the total chlorine from the nominally anhydrous minerals is estimated.

Fabbrizio, Alessandro; Stalder, Roland; Hametner, Kathrin; Günther, Detlef

2013-11-01

113

Characterizing stability of ``click'' modified glass surfaces to common microfabrication conditions and aqueous electrolyte solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microfluidic and nanofluidic systems are dominated by fluid-wall interactions due to enormous surface-area-to-volume ratios in these devices. Therefore, strategies to control wall properties in a reliable and repeatable manner can be important for device operation. Chemical modification of surfaces provides one such method. However, the stability of the surface adhered layers under fabrication and likely device operating conditions have not been evaluated in depth. This paper presents the stability analysis of three surface layers used in the `click' chemistry methodology for surface modification. The three surface layers have bromo, amine, and methyl termination on glass surfaces. All three surface groups are exposed to various wet and dry conditions including acid, base, solvent, electrolyte buffer solutions, oxidative plasmas, UV light, and thermal processing conditions. Contact angle measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy were used to quantify the stability of the adhered surface layers. The data show that the brominated surface was stable to most test conditions, while both the amine and methyl surface layers were stable to a narrower set of test conditions.Microfluidic and nanofluidic systems are dominated by fluid-wall interactions due to enormous surface-area-to-volume ratios in these devices. Therefore, strategies to control wall properties in a reliable and repeatable manner can be important for device operation. Chemical modification of surfaces provides one such method. However, the stability of the surface adhered layers under fabrication and likely device operating conditions have not been evaluated in depth. This paper presents the stability analysis of three surface layers used in the `click' chemistry methodology for surface modification. The three surface layers have bromo, amine, and methyl termination on glass surfaces. All three surface groups are exposed to various wet and dry conditions including acid, base, solvent, electrolyte buffer solutions, oxidative plasmas, UV light, and thermal processing conditions. Contact angle measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy were used to quantify the stability of the adhered surface layers. The data show that the brominated surface was stable to most test conditions, while both the amine and methyl surface layers were stable to a narrower set of test conditions. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c1nr10261c

Prakash, Shaurya; Karacor, Mehmet B.

2011-08-01

114

Diffusion and perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of focal cerebral ischemia and cortical spreading depression under conditions of mild hypothermia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a model of experimental stroke, we characterize the effects of mild hypothermia, an effective neuroprotectant, on fluid shifts, cerebral perfusion and spreading depression (SD) using diffusion- (DWI) and perfusion-weighted MRI (PWI). Twenty-two rats underwent 2 h of middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion and were either kept normothermic or rendered mildly hypothermic shortly after MCA occlusion for 2 h. DWI

Midori A. Yenari; David Onley; Maj Hedehus; Alexander deCrespigny; Guo Hua Sun; Michael E. Moseley; Gary K. Steinberg

2000-01-01

115

Aldehyde-alcohol reactions catalyzed under mild conditions by chromium(III) terephthalate metal organic framework (MIL-101) and phosphotungstic acid composites.  

PubMed

Porous materials based on chromium(III) terephthalate metal organic frameworks (MIL-101) and their composites with phosphotungstic acid (PTA) were studied as heterogeneous acid catalysts in aldehyde-alcohol reactions exemplified by acetaldehyde-phenol (A-P) condensation and dimethylacetal formation from benzaldehyde and methanol (B-M reaction). The MIL-101 was synthesized solvothermically in water, and the MIL101/PTA composite materials were obtained by either impregnation of the already prepared MIL-101 porous matrix with phosphotungstic acid solution or by solvothermic treatment of aqueous mixtures of Cr(NO(3))(3), and terephthalic and phosphotungstic acids. The MIL101/PTA materials appeared to be effective catalysts for both A-P and B-M reactions occurring at room temperature, with half-lives ranging from 0.5 h (A-P) to 1.5-2 h (B-M) and turnover numbers over 600 for A-P and over 2900 for the B-M reaction, respectively. A synergistic effect of the strong acidic moieties (PTA) addition to mildly acidic Brønsted and Lewis acid cites of the MIL-101 was observed with the MIL101/PTA composites. The ability of the PTA and MIL101/PTA materials to strongly absorb and condense acetaldehyde vapors was discovered, with the MIL101/PTA absorbing over 10-fold its dry weight of acetaldehyde condensate at room temperature. The acetaldehyde was converted rapidly to crotonaldehyde and higher-molecular-weight compounds while in contact with MIL-101 and MIL101/PTA materials. The stability of the MIL-101 and MIL101/PTA catalysts was assessed within four cycles of the 1-day alcohol-aldehyde reactions in terms of the overall catalyst recovery, PTA or Cr content, and reaction rate constants in each cycle. The loss of the catalyst over 4 cycles was approximately 10 wt % for all tested catalysts due to the incomplete recovery and minute dissolution of the components. The reaction rates in all cycles remained unchanged and the catalyst losses stopped after the third cycle. The developed MIL101/PTA composites appear to be feasible for industrial catalytic applications. PMID:22091761

Bromberg, Lev; Hatton, T Alan

2011-12-05

116

Prediction of gas hydrate formation conditions in aqueous solutions containing electrolytes and (electrolytes + methanol)  

SciTech Connect

The prediction of gas hydrate formation conditions in solutions containing single electrolyte and mixed electrolytes and solutions containing both electrolytes and methanol has been performed using the modified Zuo-Gommesen-Guo hydrate model proposed by the authors. The results show that agreement between experimental and calculated values is satisfactory.

Liao, J.; Mei, D.H.; Yang, J.T.; Guo, T.M. [Univ. of Petroleum, Beijing (China). High-Pressure Fluid Phase Behavior and Property Research Lab.

1999-04-01

117

Effects of Carrier Gas Conditions on Concentration of Alcohol Aqueous Solution by Ultrasonic Atomization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of carrier gas conditions on the concentration of ethanol by ultrasonic atomization are examined. With increasing height from vessel bottom to gas inlet and outlet, the ethanol content in the accompanied liquid increases and the flow rate of alcohol decreases. The ethanol content in the accompanied liquid becomes lower as the gas velocity becomes higher. The attachment of

Keiji Yasuda; Naofumi Tanaka; Lei Rong; Masaaki Nakamura; Li Li; Akiyoshi Oda; Yasuhito Kawase

2003-01-01

118

Determination of the optimum conditions for boric acid extraction with carbon dioxide gas in aqueous media from colemanite containing arsenic  

SciTech Connect

The Taguchi method was used to determine optimum conditions for the boric acid extraction from colemanite ore containing As in aqueous media saturated by CO{sub 2} gas. After the parameters were determined to be efficient on the extraction efficiency, the experimental series with two steps were carried out. The chosen experimental parameters for the first series of experiments and their ranges were as follows: (1) reaction temperature, 25--70 C; (2) solid-to-liquid ratio (by weight), 0.091 to 0.333; (3) gas flow rate (in mL/min), 66.70--711; (4) mean particle size, {minus}100 to {minus}10 mesh; (5) stirring speed, 200--600 rpm; (6) reaction time, 10--90 min. The optimum conditions were found to be as follows: reaction temperature, 70 C; solid-to-liquid ratio, 0.091; gas flow rate, 711 (in mL/min); particle size, {minus}100 mesh; stirring speed, 500 rpm; reaction time, 90 min. Under these optimum conditions, the boric acid extraction efficiency from the colemanite containing As was approximately 54%. Chosen experimental parameters for the second series of experiments and their ranges were as follows: (1) reaction temperature, 60--80 C; (2) solid-to-liquid ratio (by weight), 0.1000 to 0.167; (3) gas pressure (in atm), 1.5; 2.7; (4) reaction time, 45--120 min. The optimum conditions were found to be as follows: reaction temperature, 70 C; solid-to-liquid ratio, 0.1; gas pressure, 2.7 atm; reaction time, 120 min. Under these optimum conditions the boric acid extraction efficiency from the colemanite ore was approximately 75%. Under these optimum conditions, the boric acid extraction efficiency from calcined colemanite ore was approximately 99.55%.

Ata, O.N.; Colak, S.; Copur, M.; Celik, C.

2000-02-01

119

Solubility of AmOHCO{sub 3} in aqueous solution under atmospheric conditions  

SciTech Connect

Modeling calculations on the solubility of americium have indicated that basic americium carbonate, and not americium trihydroxide, is the solubility-controlling solid in the pH range from 6 to 10 under the influence of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The solubility of crystalline {sup 243}AmOHCO{sup 3} has been investigated in batch experiments in near-neutral and basic solutions as a function of dissolution time in 0.1 M NaClO{sup 4} at room temperature under oxic conditions. After the solutions reached steady-state conditions, the influence of dissolved solids on the americium concentration in the supernatant solution was studied by utilizing several experimental methods to separate the solution phase from the solid. The solids were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction analysis.

Nitsche, H.

1987-12-01

120

Solubility of AmOHCO sub 3 in aqueous solution under atmospheric conditions  

SciTech Connect

Modeling calculations on the solubility of americium have indicated that basic americium carbonate, and not americium trihydroxide, is the solubility-controlling solid in the pH range from 6 to 10 under the influence of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The solubility of crystalline {sup 243}AmOHCO{sup 3} has been investigated in batch experiments in near-neutral and basic solutions as a function of dissolution time in 0.1 M NaClO{sup 4} at room temperature under oxic conditions. After the solutions reached steady-state conditions, the influence of dissolved solids on the americium concentration in the supernatant solution was studied by utilizing several experimental methods to separate the solution phase from the solid. The solids were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction analysis.

Nitsche, H.

1987-12-01

121

Effects of Carrier Gas Conditions on Concentration of Alcohol Aqueous Solution by Ultrasonic Atomization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of carrier gas conditions on the concentration of ethanol by ultrasonic atomization are examined. With increasing height from vessel bottom to gas inlet and outlet, the ethanol content in the accompanied liquid increases and the flow rate of alcohol decreases. The ethanol content in the accompanied liquid becomes lower as the gas velocity becomes higher. The attachment of a demister is effective for the increase of the content in the accompanied liquid.

Yasuda, Keiji; Tanaka, Naofumi; Rong, Lei; Nakamura, Masaaki; Li, Li; Oda, Akiyoshi; Kawase, Yasuhito

2003-05-01

122

Formation of P-C bonds under unexpectedly mild conditions. Phosphoryl migration and metal coordination of diphenylphosphinomethyl-oxazolines and -thiazolines.  

PubMed

The heterocycles 2-methyl-2-oxazoline (mox) and 2-methyl-2-thiazoline (mth) react with Ph2PCl under mild conditions, in the presence of NEt3 which promotes their phosphorylation by stabilization of their enamino tautomers mox(e) and mth(e), respectively, and which also behaves as HCl scavenger. Depending on the reaction conditions, three different phosphine ligands were obtained in good yields from mox: the monophosphine Ph2PCH2C=NCH2CH2O (1ox) and the isomeric diphosphines Ph2PCH=COCH2CH2NPPh2 (2ox) (X-ray structure) and (Ph2P)2CHC=NCH2CH2O (3ox). The formation of these ligands involves phosphoryl migration reactions, which were studied by NMR spectroscopy. The synthesis and the X-ray structures of the corresponding diphenylphosphinothiazolines Ph2PCH2C=NCH2CH2S (1th) and Ph2CH=CSCH2CH2NPPh2 (2th) are also reported but the thiazoline analog of the geminal diphosphine 3ox was not observed. The metal complexes [Pt(3ox-H)2] x 4 CH2Cl2 (4 x 4 CH2Cl2), [Pt(Me)I(1ox)] (5), [Pt(Me)2(1ox)] (7), [Pd(dmba-C,N)(1th)]OTf x 0.25 Et2O (8 x 0.25 Et2O), [Pd(dmba-C,N)(1th-H)] (9), and [9 x {Pd(dmba-C,N)Cl}] x 2.5 C6H6 (10 x 2.5 C6H6) have been prepared and structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction. PMID:18831547

Pattacini, Roberto; Margraf, Günter; Messaoudi, Abdelatif; Oberbeckmann-Winter, Nicola; Braunstein, Pierre

2008-10-03

123

Influence of extreme thermodynamic conditions and pyrite surfaces on peptide synthesis in aqueous media.  

PubMed

Free energy landscapes and reaction mechanisms underlying the synthesis of diglycine in water were studied computationally. It was found that amino acid activation by carbonyl sulfide, leading to the formation of a cyclic alpha-amino acid N-carboxyanhydride (NCA, or Leuchs anhydride), preferentially follows an indirect pathway that involves an isocyanate intermediate. Extreme temperature and pressure conditions accelerate peptidization greatly compared to the ambient bulk water environment and are shown to favor, in general, concerted versus stepwise mechanisms. Finally, a pyrite surface, FeS2 (001), is found to lower reaction barriers further by decreasing fluctuations and by assisting the preformation of the cyclic five-membered NCA ring due to scaffolding. PMID:18254630

Schreiner, Eduard; Nair, Nisanth N; Marx, Dominik

2008-02-07

124

Flow and morphological conditions associated with the directional solidification of aqueous ammonium chloride  

SciTech Connect

Using 27% aq. NH[sub 4]Cl solutions as transparent analog, shadowgraphy and dye injection were used to observe flow and morphology in unidirectional solidification (UDS) from below. Dendritic crystals that form at the cold surface reject lighter, solute-deficient fluid, and instability is shown by finger-type double-diffusive convection. As the mushy two-phase region grows, perturbations at the liquidus interface cause localized remelting and downward development of channels. Solsutal plumes emanate from the channels, and in time, double-diffusive convection layers also form in the melt. When the solution is chilled at the sides as well as at the bottom, conditions are influenced by detachment and settling of crystals from the sidewall and by plumes from slanted channels. When a slow, oscillatory rocking motion is imposed on UDS, the freckle-type segregates in the final cast is suppressed. Within the melt, plumes and double-diffusive convection are eliminated. Inertially induced convection mixes the melt and produces a dense slurry. Although channels are eliminated from the bottom mushy region, overall heat transfer and macrosegregation in the cavity are unaffected by the slow rocking. Numerical simulations qualitatively predict trends in the field variables and provide insights on interdendritic flows and macrosegregation (freckle-, A-type segregates), although its quantitative predictions are hampered by simplifying assumptions.

Magirl, C.S.; Incropera, F.P.

1993-01-01

125

Flow and morphological conditions associated with the directional solidification of aqueous ammonium chloride. Annual performance report  

SciTech Connect

Using 27% aq. NH{sub 4}Cl solutions as transparent analog, shadowgraphy and dye injection were used to observe flow and morphology in unidirectional solidification (UDS) from below. Dendritic crystals that form at the cold surface reject lighter, solute-deficient fluid, and instability is shown by finger-type double-diffusive convection. As the mushy two-phase region grows, perturbations at the liquidus interface cause localized remelting and downward development of channels. Solsutal plumes emanate from the channels, and in time, double-diffusive convection layers also form in the melt. When the solution is chilled at the sides as well as at the bottom, conditions are influenced by detachment and settling of crystals from the sidewall and by plumes from slanted channels. When a slow, oscillatory rocking motion is imposed on UDS, the freckle-type segregates in the final cast is suppressed. Within the melt, plumes and double-diffusive convection are eliminated. Inertially induced convection mixes the melt and produces a dense slurry. Although channels are eliminated from the bottom mushy region, overall heat transfer and macrosegregation in the cavity are unaffected by the slow rocking. Numerical simulations qualitatively predict trends in the field variables and provide insights on interdendritic flows and macrosegregation (freckle-, A-type segregates), although its quantitative predictions are hampered by simplifying assumptions.

Magirl, C.S.; Incropera, F.P.

1993-01-01

126

Solubility of aqueous methane under metastable conditions: implications for gas hydrate nucleation.  

PubMed

To understand the prenucleation stage of methane hydrate formation, we measured methane solubility under metastable conditions using molecular dynamics simulations. Three factors that influence solubility are considered: temperature, pressure, and the strength of the modeled van der Waals attraction between methane and water. Moreover, the naturally formed water cages and methane clusters in the methane solutions are analyzed. We find that both lowering the temperature and increasing the pressure increase methane solubility, but lowering the temperature is more effective than increasing the pressure in promoting hydrate nucleation because the former induces more water cages to form while the latter makes them less prevalent. With an increase in methane solubility, the chance of forming large methane clusters increases, with the distribution of cluster sizes being exponential. The critical solubility, beyond which the metastable solutions spontaneously form hydrate, is estimated to be ~0.05 mole fraction in this work, corresponding to the concentration of 1.7 methane molecules/nm(3). This value agrees well with the cage adsorption hypothesis of hydrate nucleation. PMID:23639139

Guo, Guang-Jun; Rodger, P Mark

2013-05-14

127

The influence of pH and temperature on the aqueous geochemistry of neodymium in near surface conditions.  

PubMed

Geochemical calculations were employed for the solubility and speciation of neodymium in a model soil solution as a function of pH. The calculations were based on the recently determined stability constants for Nd and solubility product for the Nd end-member of mineral monazite (NdPO(4)). Simulations were carried out at near neutral pH (pH 6.0 to pH 7.5) and 25 degrees C at the atmospheric CO(2) partial pressure. Additional calculations were also performed to assess Nd mobility at the extreme temperature conditions (300 degrees C) at neutral pH. Our results suggest that relatively dilute (Ionic Strength, I = 0.1), low-temperature waters may transport very small quantities of rare earth elements and actinides to the surficial environment at near neutral pH conditions. Evidently, higher temperature or extreme fluid composition may have a greater potential for mobilization of these elements. The results are pertinent to researchers interested in engineering applications for the precipitation of Nd and surrogate actinides from aqueous nuclear wastes. PMID:18463986

Cetiner, Ziya S

2008-05-08

128

Hydrogenation of arenes under mild conditions using rhodium pyridylphosphine and bipyridyl complexes tethered to a silica-supported palladium heterogeneous catalyst  

SciTech Connect

The rhodium complexes [Rh(COD)(1)]BF{sub 4} (RH(N-P)) and [Rh(COD)(2)]BF{sub 4} (Rh(N-N)), containing the new pyridylphosphine and bipyridyl ligands (1 and 2) with alkoxysilane groups, were tethered on the silica-supported palladium heterogeneous catalyst Pd-SiO{sub 2} to give the TCSM (tethered complex on supported metal) catalysts Rh(N-P)/Pd-SiO{sub 2} and Rh(N-N)/Pd-SiO{sub 2}. Under the mild conditions of 70 C and 4 atm of H{sub 2}, the two TCSM catalysts are very active for the hydrogenation of arenes (PhCO{sub 2}Me, PhOH, toluene, PhOCH{sub 3}, PhCO{sub 2}Et, 4-CH{sub 3}C{sub 6}H{sub 4}CO{sub 2}Et, dimethyl terephthalate) to cyclohexanes; the activities are higher than those of the separate homogeneous Rh(N-P) and Rh(N-N) complex catalysts, the silica-supported palladium catalyst Pd-SiO{sub 2}, or the rhodium complex catalysts tethered on just SiO{sub 2}. The catalysts are easily separated from the reaction mixtures and can be recycled several times without losing activity. Of the two TCSM catalysts, the higher activity for the hydrogenation of anisole to methyl cyclohexyl ether was observed for Rh(N-N)/Pd-SiO{sub 2}, which gives a TOF value of 3060 mol of substrate converted/((mol of Rh)h) and a TO value of 14500 mol of substrate converted/(mol of Rh) in 6 h. Reactions of acetophenone lead to hydrogenation of the arene ring, the carbonyl group, or both, depending on the catalyst (Rh(N-P)/Pd-SiO{sub 2} or Rh(N-N)/Pd-SiO{sub 2}) and the solvent (heptane or ethanol).

Yang, H.; Gao, H.; Angelici, R.J.

2000-02-21

129

Particulate erosion–corrosion of Al in aqueous conditions: some perspectives on pH effects on the erosion–corrosion map  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the nomenclature to describe erosion–corrosion behaviour in aqueous conditions, there has been considerable confusion in relation to the terminology used to describe the various interactions. One such description has been to separate the effects into two main divisions, the effects (”synergistic”) of corrosion on the erosion rate (i.e. the change in mechanical response of the material due to corrosion)

M. M. Stack; N. Pungwiwat

2002-01-01

130

Peptide synthesis in aqueous environments: the role of extreme conditions and pyrite mineral surfaces on formation and hydrolysis of peptides.  

PubMed

A comprehensive study of free energy landscapes and mechanisms of COS-mediated polymerization of glycine via N-carboxy anhydrides (NCAs, "Leuchs anhydrides") and peptide hydrolysis at the water-pyrite interface at extreme thermodynamic conditions is presented. Particular emphasis is set on the catalytic effects of the mineral surface including the putative role of the ubiquitous sulfur vacancy defects. It is found that the mere presence of a surface is able to change the free energetics of the elementary reaction steps. This effect can be understood in terms of a reduction of entropic contributions to the reactant state by immobilizing the reactants and/or screening them from bulk water in a purely geometric ("steric") sense. Additionally, the pyrite directly participates chemically in some of the reaction steps, thus changing the reaction mechanism qualitatively compared to the situation in bulk water. First, the adsorption of reactants on the surface can preform a product-like structure due to immobilizing and scaffolding them appropriately. Second, pyrite can act as a proton acceptor, thus replacing water in this role. Third, sulfur vacancies are found to increase the reactivity of the surface. The finding that the presence of pyrite speeds up the rate-determining step in the formation of peptides with respect to the situation in bulk solvent while stabilizing the produced peptide against hydrolysis is of particular interest to the hypothesis of prebiotic peptide formation at hydrothermal aqueous conditions. Apart from these implications, the generality of the studied organic reactions are of immediate relevance to many fields such as (bio)geochemistry, biomineralization, and environmental chemistry. PMID:21561111

Schreiner, Eduard; Nair, Nisanth N; Wittekindt, Carsten; Marx, Dominik

2011-05-11

131

Unprecedented Selective Oxidation of Styrene Derivatives using a Supported Iron Oxide Nanocatalyst in Aqueous Medium  

EPA Science Inventory

Iron oxide nanoparticles supported on mesoporous silica-type materials have been successfully utilized in the aqueous selective oxidation of alkenes under mild conditions using hydrogen peroxide as a green oxidant. Catalysts could be easily recovered after completion of the reac...

132

Structure of Regenerated Cellulose Films from Cellulose\\/Aqueous NaOH Solution as a Function of Coagulation Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure of regenerated cellulose films from cellulose\\/aqueous sodium hydroxide solution, prepared by coagulation of aqueous sulfuric acid, was investigated by X-ray diffraction and viscoelastic measurements. The X-ray crystallinity Xc and apparent crystal size decreased monotonically with increasing sulfuric acid concentration Csa and an abrupt decrease was seen at Csa?60 wt %. In the viscoelastic measurements, four kinds of dynamic

Guang Yang; Hitomi Miyamoto; Chihiro Yamane; Kunihiko Okajima

2007-01-01

133

Conductive polymer coatings for anodes in aqueous electrowinning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article discusses the potential application of electrically conductive polymers as protective coatings for permanent lead anodes employed in aqueous electrowinning processes. Also presented are results from a preliminary study of the performance of two intrinsically conductive polymers (polyaniline and poly 3,4,5-trifluorophenylthiophene [TFPT]) under mild copper electrowinning conditions as conductive and protective coatings on anodic surfaces. The laboratory results indicated that using lead alloy anodes coated with TFPT merits continued research.

Alfantazi, A. M.; Moskalyk, R. R.

2003-07-01

134

Reverse micellar extraction of antibiotics from aqueous solutions.  

PubMed

Several antibiotics such as erythromycin, oxytetracyclin, benzylpenicillin, and actidione were extracted from aqueous buffers into reverse micellar solution of bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate sodium salt (AOT) in isooctane and recovered with high efficiency under mild conditions. Preliminary experiments with oxytetracycline dissolved in a fermentation broth indicate that the antibiotic can be selectively extracted from the broth and recovered efficiently without serious loss of potency. PMID:9265783

Fadnavis, N W; Satyavathi, B; Deshpande, A A

135

Kinetics of OH-initiated oxidation of some oxygenated organic compounds in the aqueous phase under tropospheric conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interest for multiphase interactions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in the troposphere has increased for a few years. Inside the clouds water droplets, soluble VOCs can be oxidized by free radicals thus modifying the droplet composition. This reactivity has an impact on the tropospheric oxidizing capacity as well as the aerosols' properties. In the present work, we measured aqueous

L. Poulain; S. Grubert; S. François; A. Monod; H. Wortham

2003-01-01

136

Chemical Behavior of Iodine in Aqueous Solutions Up to 150C. I. An Experimental Study of Nonredox Conditions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The chemical behavior of iodine, I2, in (pH = 6 to 10) aqueous solutions containing 2500 ppm boron as H3BO3 (0.231 M) was studied at temperatures up to 150C. Absorption spectrophotometry was used to identify and monitor the iodine species present. Three o...

K. D. Pannell L. M. Toth O. L. Kirkland

1984-01-01

137

Hydrothermal diamond anvil cell for XAFS studies of first-row transition elements in aqueous solution up to supercritical conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hydrothermal diamond anvil cell (HDAC) has been modified by drilling holes with a laser to within 150 ?m of the anvil face to minimize the loss of X-rays due to absorption and scatter by diamond. This modification enables acquisition of K-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectra from first-row transition metal ions in aqueous solutions at temperatures ranging from

William A Bassett; Alan J Anderson; Robert A Mayanovic; I.-Ming Chou

2000-01-01

138

Laccase-catalyzed carbon–carbon bond formation: oxidative dimerization of salicylic esters by air in aqueous solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The laccase catalyzed oxidative dimerization of salicylic esters, a rare example of a laccase-catalyzed carbon–carbon bond formation, was studied. This reaction allows the use of air as stoichiometric oxidant and proceeds in aqueous solution. The preparative scope and the mechanism of the method, which provides a new and convenient access to functionalized biaryls under mild conditions, were investigated.

Sabine Ciecholewski; Elke Hammer; Katrin Manda; Gopal Bose; Van T. H. Nguyen; Peter Langer; Frieder Schauer

2005-01-01

139

Synthesis of lanthanide-doped NaYF4@TiO2 core-shell composites with highly crystalline and tunable TiO2 shells under mild conditions and their upconversion-based photocatalysis.  

PubMed

NaYF4:Yb,Tm@TiO2 core-shell composites were synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method. The highly crystalline TiO2 shell can be uniformly coated onto lanthanide-doped NaYF4 microrods and nanorods under mild conditions without calcination. The thickness of the TiO2 shell can be tuned by varying the ratio of fluoride rods and Ti precursors. The microcomposite with a moderate TiO2 shell shows excellent photocatalytic activity under near-infrared irradiation. PMID:23955272

Zhang, Yuewei; Hong, Zhanglian

2013-08-19

140

Structure-Sensitive Catalytic Dehydrogenation of Hydrogen Donors over Iron Sulfides: New Methods for Increasing Coal Depolymerization under Mild Conditions. Final Report, July 1, 1983-December 31, 1984.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives of this project were to examine the mechanisms of hydrogen sulfides in order to explore the conditions for enhancement of in situ hydrogen sulfide production in coal and to study the conditions for stabilizing iron sulfide structures under ...

G. V. Smith J. B. Phillips

1985-01-01

141

Optimization of solar photocatalytic degradation conditions of Reactive Yellow 14 azo dye in aqueous TiO 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photocatalytic decolourisation and degradation of an azo dye Reactive Yellow 14 (RY14) in aqueous solution with TiO2-P25 (Degussa) as photocatalyst in slurry form have been investigated using solar light. The study on the effect of various photocatalysts on the decolourisation and degradation reveals the following order of reactivity: ZnO>TiO2-P25>TiO2 (anatase). CdS, Fe2O3 and SnO2 have negligible activity on RY14

M. Muruganandham; N. Shobana; M. Swaminathan

2006-01-01

142

Steady-state ?-radiolysis of aqueous methyl ethyl ketone (2-butanone) under postulated nuclear reactor accident conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The steady-state ?-radiolysis of aqueous solutions containing 1x10-3 mol dm-3 methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) has been studied at a dose rate of 0.12 Gy s-1, 25 degC and an initial pH of 10. Experiments were conducted in air-, Ar- or N2O-purged aqueous solutions, or in Ar-purged solutions with added tert-butanol. MEK, its radiolytic products, and the change in pH resulting from MEK decomposition were analysed as a function of time (or total absorbed dose). The main initial step for the radiolytic decomposition of MEK is the H abstraction from MEK by OH, produced by ?-radiolysis of water, to form MEK radical. In the absence of O, the main decay path of the MEK radical appears to be dimerization to form 3,4-dimethyl-2,5-hexanedione. In the presence of oxygen, the MEK radical reacts primarily with O to form the MEK peroxyl radical. This radical ultimately results in a series of progressively smaller oxidation products. The formation of organic acids, and eventually CO2, reduces the pH of the solution. This paper presents the experimental data and proposes the MEK decay kinetics and mechanism.

Driver, P.; Glowa, G.; Wren, J. C.

2000-01-01

143

Growth Condition of CeO2 Thin Films Grown on Glass Substrate from Aqueous Solution and Their Optical Property  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cerium dioxide (CeO2) thin film is an attractive material with multiple applications. In this study CeO2 precursor thin films were deposited onto glass substrates at a room temperature from an aqueous solution by applying constant electrical field and their optical properties were investigated. The precursor was an aqueous solution of Ce(NO3)3-6H2O, Y(NO3)3-6H2O, and NH3(aq). The thin film was deposited on the glass substrate of the minus electrode side. By applying the electrical field of 2.6-3.6 V, the Y-Ce(OH)3 thin film was effectively deposited on glass substrates for 20-60 min at room temperature. The as-deposited film was amorphous, and a crystalline phase of Y-CeO2 with a transparent and smooth surface can be obtained after annealing at 823 K for 5 h in air. Spectral transmission curves of visible to ultraviolet light region through Y-CeO2 films were measured and about 10 to 30 % absorption peaks were observed around 310 to 330 nm.

Saiki, A.; Kawai, C.; Hashizume, T.; Terayama, K.

2011-10-01

144

Synthesis of lanthanide-doped NaYF4@TiO2 core-shell composites with highly crystalline and tunable TiO2 shells under mild conditions and their upconversion-based photocatalysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NaYF4:Yb,Tm@TiO2 core-shell composites were synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method. The highly crystalline TiO2 shell can be uniformly coated onto lanthanide-doped NaYF4 microrods and nanorods under mild conditions without calcination. The thickness of the TiO2 shell can be tuned by varying the ratio of fluoride rods and Ti precursors. The microcomposite with a moderate TiO2 shell shows excellent photocatalytic activity under near-infrared irradiation.NaYF4:Yb,Tm@TiO2 core-shell composites were synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method. The highly crystalline TiO2 shell can be uniformly coated onto lanthanide-doped NaYF4 microrods and nanorods under mild conditions without calcination. The thickness of the TiO2 shell can be tuned by varying the ratio of fluoride rods and Ti precursors. The microcomposite with a moderate TiO2 shell shows excellent photocatalytic activity under near-infrared irradiation. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, size distribution, EDX analysis, other related TEM images, PL dynamic curves, optical images, etc. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr03051b

Zhang, Yuewei; Hong, Zhanglian

2013-09-01

145

One-pot synthesis of 2-substituted 4H-3,1-benzoxazin-4-one derivatives under mild conditions using iminium cation from cyanuric chloride/dimethylformamide as a cyclizing agent  

PubMed Central

Background The derivatives of 2-substituted 4H-3,1-benzoxazin-4-one belong to a significant category of heterocyclic compounds, which have shown a wide spectrum of medical and industrial applications. Results A new and effective one-pot method for the synthesis of 2-substituted 4H-3,1-benzoxazin-4-one derivatives is described in this paper. By using the iminium cation from a mixture of cyanuric chloride and dimethylformamide as a cyclizing agent, a series of 2-substituted 4H-3,1-benzoxazin-4-one derivatives was synthesized in high yield under mild conditions and simple workup. Conclusions The iminium cation from a mixture of cyanuric chloride and N,N-dimethylformamide is an effective cyclizing agent for the room temperature one-pot synthesis of 2-substituted 4H-3,1-benzoxazin-4-one derivatives in high yields through a cyclodehydration reaction. Furthermore, the method was performed under mild conditions characterized by simplified pathways and workup, minimized energy, and fewer reaction steps, compared with the previous methods. The proposed method, which is a simpler alternative than the published methods, is applicable for the synthesis of other 2-substituted 4H-3,1-benzoxazin-4-one derivatives.

2013-01-01

146

Efficient batch and continuous flow Suzuki cross-coupling reactions under mild conditions, catalysed by polyurea-encapsulated palladium (II) acetate and tetra-n-butylammonium salts.  

PubMed

Suzuki cross-coupling reactions are effected in both conventional organic solvents, under continuous flow conditions at 70 degree C, and in batch mode in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2), at temperatures as low as 40 degrees C in the presence of palladium(II) acetate microencapsulated in polyurea [PdEnCat] and tetra-n-butylammonium salts. PMID:15846438

Lee, Connie K Y; Holmes, Andrew B; Ley, Steven V; McConvey, Ian F; Al-Duri, Bushra; Leeke, Gary A; Santos, Regina C D; Seville, Jonathan P K

2005-03-09

147

Sample size re-assessment leading to a raised sample size does not inflate type I error rate under mild conditions  

PubMed Central

Background One major concern with adaptive designs, such as the sample size adjustable designs, has been the fear of inflating the type I error rate. In (Stat Med 23:1023-1038, 2004) it is however proven that when observations follow a normal distribution and the interim result show promise, meaning that the conditional power exceeds 50%, type I error rate is protected. This bound and the distributional assumptions may seem to impose undesirable restrictions on the use of these designs. In (Stat Med 30:3267-3284, 2011) the possibility of going below 50% is explored and a region that permits an increased sample size without inflation is defined in terms of the conditional power at the interim. Methods A criterion which is implicit in (Stat Med 30:3267-3284, 2011) is derived by elementary methods and expressed in terms of the test statistic at the interim to simplify practical use. Mathematical and computational details concerning this criterion are exhibited. Results Under very general conditions the type I error rate is preserved under sample size adjustable schemes that permit a raise. The main result states that for normally distributed observations raising the sample size when the result looks promising, where the definition of promising depends on the amount of knowledge gathered so far, guarantees the protection of the type I error rate. Also, in the many situations where the test statistic approximately follows a normal law, the deviation from the main result remains negligible. This article provides details regarding the Weibull and binomial distributions and indicates how one may approach these distributions within the current setting. Conclusions There is thus reason to consider such designs more often, since they offer a means of adjusting an important design feature at little or no cost in terms of error rate.

2013-01-01

148

Properties of aqueous solutions of lithium and calcium chlorides: formulations for use in air conditioning equipment design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dehydration of air, for air conditioning purposes, either for human comfort or for industrial processes, is done most of the times by making it contact a surface at a temperature below its dew point. In this process not only is it necessary to cool that surface continuously, but also the air is cooled beyond the temperature necessary to the

Manuel R. Conde

2004-01-01

149

Multianalyte determination of 24 cytostatics and metabolites by liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry and study of their stability and optimum storage conditions in aqueous solution.  

PubMed

A multianalyte liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method for determination of 19 cytostatics and 5 metabolites, from 6 different therapeutic families, has been developed, and the structures of the main characteristic fragment ions have been proposed. Instrumental limits of detection and quantification are in the range 0.1-10.3 and 1.0-34.3ngmL(-1), respectively. Moreover, the stability of the compounds in aqueous solution was investigated in order to establish the best conditions for preparation and storage of both calibration standards and water samples. Dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) was selected as solvent for preparation of the stock solutions. At room temperature (25°C), 11 of the 24 target compounds were shown to be unstable in water (percentage of organic solvent 4%), with concentration losses greater than 20% in less than 24h. At 4°C (typical storage temperature for water samples) all compounds, except MTIC and chlorambucil, were stable for 24h, but the number of stable compounds decreased to 10 after 9 days. Freezing of the aqueous solutions improved considerably the stability of various compounds: after 3 months of storage at -20°C, 10 compounds, namely, 5-fluorouracil, carboplatin, gemcitabine, temozolomide, vincristine, vinorelbine, ifosfamide, cyclophosphamide, etoposide, and capecitabine, remained stable (in contrast to only carboplatin and capecitabine at 4°C). The addition of acid improved the stability of methotrexate and its metabolite hydroxy-methotrexate but not that of the rest of compounds. The addition of organic solvent (50% methanol or DMSO) prevented the degradation at 4°C of the otherwise unstable compounds oxaliplatin, methotrexate, erlotinib, doxorubicin, tamoxifen, and paclitaxel. To the authors' knowledge, five of the analytes investigated have never been searched for in the aquatic environment (imatinib, 6?-hydroxypaclitaxel, endoxifen, (Z)4-hydroxytamoxifen, and temozolomide), and for many of them the stability data provided, and even the analytical LC-MS/MS conditions, are the first ever published. PMID:24148406

Negreira, Noelia; Mastroianni, Nicola; López de Alda, Miren; Barceló, Damià

2013-05-24

150

Degradation of Sucrose, Glucose and Fructose in Concentrated Aqueous Solutions Under Constant pH Conditions at Elevated Temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degradation of sucrose can decrease sucrose yield, reduce the efficiency of sugar factory and refinery processes, and effect end product quality. Characterization of sucrose degradation under modeled industrial processing conditions will underpin further technological improvements. Effects of constant reaction pH on sucrose degradation were investigated using simulated industrial model systems (100 °C; 65 °Brix [% dissolved solids]; N2; 0.05-3

G. Eggleston; J. R. Vercellotti

2000-01-01

151

Murine anti-third-party central-memory CD8(+) T cells promote hematopoietic chimerism under mild conditioning: lymph-node sequestration and deletion of anti-donor T cells.  

PubMed

Transplantation of T cell-depleted BM (TDBM) under mild conditioning, associated with minimal toxicity and reduced risk of GVHD, offers an attractive therapeutic option for patients with nonmalignant hematologic disorders and can mediate immune tolerance to subsequent organ transplantation. However, overcoming TDBM rejection after reduced conditioning remains a challenge. Here, we address this barrier using donorderived central memory CD8(+) T cells (Tcms), directed against third-party antigens. Our results show that fully allogeneic or (hostXdonor)F1-Tcm, support donor chimerism (> 6 months) in sublethally irradiated (5.5Gy) mice, without GVHD symptoms. Chimerism under yet lower irradiation (4.5Gy) was achieved by combining Tcm with short-term administration of low-dose Rapamycin. Importantly, this chimerism resulted in successful donor skin acceptance, whereas third-party skin was rejected. Tracking of host anti-donor T cells (HADTCs), that mediate TDBMT rejection, in a novel bioluminescence-imaging model revealed that Tcms both induce accumulation and eradicate HADTCs in the LNs,concomitant with their elimination from other organs, including the BM. Further analysis with 2-photon microcopy revealed that Tcms form conjugates with HADTCs, resulting in decelerated and confined movement of HADTCs within the LNs in an antigen-specific manner. Thus, anti-third-party Tcms support TDBMT engraftment under reduced-conditioning through lymph-node sequestration and deletion of HADTCs, offering a novel and potentially safe approach for attaining stable hematopoietic chimerism. PMID:23223359

Ophir, Eran; Or-Geva, Noga; Gurevich, Irina; Tal, Orna; Eidelstein, Yaki; Shezen, Elias; Margalit, Raanan; Lask, Assaf; Shakhar, Guy; Hagin, David; Bachar-Lustig, Esther; Reich-Zeliger, Shlomit; Beilhack, Andreas; Negrin, Robert; Reisner, Yair

2012-12-05

152

Effect of surfactant pluronic F-68 on CHO cell growth, metabolism, production, and glycosylation of human recombinant IFN-? in mild operating conditions.  

PubMed

The control of glycosylation to satisfy regulatory requirements and quality consistency of recombinant proteins produced by different processes has become an important issue. With two N-glycosylation sites, ?-interferon (IFN-?) can be seen as a prototype of a recombinant therapeutic glycoprotein for this purpose. The effect of the nonionic surfactant Pluronic F-68 (PF-68) on cell growth and death was investigated, as well as production and glycosylation of recombinant IFN-? produced by a CHO cell line that was maintained in a rich protein-free medium in the absence or presence of low agitation. Under these conditions, a dose-dependent effect of PF-68 (0-0.1%) was shown not only to significantly enhance growth but also to reduce cell lysis. Interestingly, supplementing the culture medium with PF-68 led to increased IFN-? production as a result of both higher cell densities and a higher specific production rate of IFN-?. If cells were grown with agitation, lack of PF-68 in the culture medium decreased the fraction of the fully glycosylated IFN-? glycoform (2N) from 80% to 65-70% during the initial period. This effect appeared to be due to a lag phase in cell growth observed during this period. Finally, a global kinetic study of CHO cell metabolism indicated higher efficiency in the utilization of the two major carbon substrates when cultures were supplemented with PF-68. Therefore, these results highlight the importance of understanding how media surfactant can affect cell growth as well as cell death and the product quality of a recombinant glycoprotein expressed in CHO cell cultures. PMID:21312365

Clincke, Marie-Françoise; Guedon, Emmanuel; Yen, Frances T; Ogier, Virginie; Roitel, Olivier; Goergen, Jean-Louis

2010-11-09

153

Basalt and olivine dissolution under cold, salty, and acidic conditions: What can we learn about recent aqueous weathering on Mars?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To test which variables may be important for weathering on Mars, the effects of temperature (22°C, 6°C, and -19°C), high ionic strength, and oxygen concentrations were investigated in batch dissolution experiments containing forsterite, fayalite, and basalt glass. CaCl2-NaCl-H2O brine can remain liquid to temperatures of -55°C and thus may be liquid in the cold, dry climate that currently characterizes Mars. To understand weathering under such conditions, dissolution rates were measured in experiments in distilled water with and without CaCl2 and NaCl. As observed by others, dissolution rates increased with temperature, and only fayalite dissolution was significantly affected by the presence or absence of oxygen. Enhanced fayalite dissolution under anoxic conditions suggests that Fe-rich olivine would dissolve more rapidly than Mg-rich olivine on Mars. Dissolution in the two most dilute experimental solutions (deionized water and CaCl2-NaCl-H2O solution of ionic strength = 0.7 m) were the same within uncertainty, but apparent dissolution rate constants in CaCl2-NaCl-H2O brines were significantly slower. Steady silica concentrations are decreased in the brines, consistent with other work, and precipitation rates of silica decrease with decreasing temperatures. These results suggest that enhanced silica precipitation could be an indicator of high ionic strength solutions on Mars. Consistent with these observations, weathering of basalt has been observed to sometimes be accompanied by precipitated layers of silica in cold, dry environments on Earth. If dissolution on Mars occurs or occurred under conditions similar to our experiments, cation leaching would be expected to be accompanied by silica precipitates on weathering surfaces.

Hausrath, E. M.; Brantley, S. L.

2010-12-01

154

Initial results from dissolution rate testing of N-Reactor spent fuel over a range of potential geologic repository aqueous conditions  

SciTech Connect

Hanford N-Reactor spent nuclear fuel (HSNF) may ultimately be placed in a geologic repository for permanent disposal. To determine whether the engineered barrier system that will be designed for emplacement of light-water-reactor (LWR) spent fuel will also suffice for HSNF, aqueous dissolution rate measurements were conducted on the HSNF. The purpose of these tests was to determine whether HSNF dissolves faster or slower than LWR spent fuel under some limited repository-relevant water chemistry conditions. The tests were conducted using a flowthrough method that allows the dissolution rate of the uranium matrix to be measured without interference by secondary precipitation reactions that would confuse interpretation of the results. Similar tests had been conducted earlier with LWR spent fuel, thereby allowing direct comparisons. Two distinct corrosion modes were observed during the course of these 12 tests. The first, Stage 1, involved no visible corrosion of the test specimen and produced no undissolved corrosion products. The second, Stage 2, resulted in both visible corrosion of the test specimen and left behind undissolved corrosion products. During Stage 1, the rate of dissolution could be readily determined because the dissolved uranium and associated fission products remained in solution where they could be quantitatively analyzed. The measured rates were much faster than has been observed for LWR spent fuel under all conditions tested to date when normalized to the exposed test specimen surface areas. Application of these results to repository conditions, however, requires some comparison of the physical conditions of the different fuels. The surface area of LWR fuel that could potentially be exposed to repository groundwater is estimated to be approximately 100 times greater than HSNF. Therefore, when compared on the basis of mass, which is more relevant to repository conditions, the HSNF and LWR spent fuel dissolve at similar rates.

Gray, W.J.; Einziger, R.E.

1998-04-01

155

Mild Traumatic Brain Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Mild traumatic brain injuries (MTBI) are heterogeneous. This injury falls on a broad spectrum, from very mild neurometabolic\\u000a changes in the brain with rapid recovery to permanent problems due to structural brain damage. It is incorrect to assume that\\u000a MTBIs cannot cause permanent brain damage and it is incorrect to assume that MTBIs typically cause permanent brain damage. This is

Grant L. Iverson; Rael T. Lange

156

Process for mild hydrocracking of hydrocarbon feeds  

SciTech Connect

A process for mild hydrocracking of hydrocarbon feeds comprising contacting the feed with hydrogen under mild hydrocracking conditions in the presence of a catalytic composition comprising an active metallic component comprising at least one metal having hydrogenation activity and at least one oxygenated phosphorus component, and a support component comprising at least one non-zeolitic, porous refractory inorganic oxide matrix component and at least one shape selective crystalline molecular sieve zeolite component.

Nevitt, T.D.; Hopkins, P.D.; Tait, A.M.

1984-02-14

157

Ion hydration and structural properties of water in aqueous solutions at normal and supercooled conditions: a test of the structure making and breaking concept.  

PubMed

We study with the method of molecular dynamics simulation the structural properties of aqueous solutions of NaCl, KCl and KF salts at ambient conditions and upon supercooling at constant pressure. The calculations are performed at increasing concentration of the salt starting from c = 0.67 mol kg(-1) up to 3.96 mol kg(-1). We investigate the modifications of the hydration shells and the changes in the water structure induced by the presence of the ions. The oxygen-oxygen structure is strongly dependent on the ionic concentration while it is almost independent from the cation. The hydrogen bonding is preserved at all concentrations and temperatures. The main effect of increasing the ionic concentration is the tendency of the water structure to assume the high density liquid form predicted for pure water upon supercooling. An important consequence of our analysis is that the concept of an ion as a structure maker or a structure breaker must be revisited to take into account the other ionic species, the ionic concentration and more generally the thermodynamic conditions of the solutions. PMID:22009186

Gallo, P; Corradini, D; Rovere, M

2011-10-19

158

On the formation and structure of rare-earth element complexes in aqueous solutions under hydrothermal conditions with new data on gadolinium aqua and chloro complexes  

SciTech Connect

Synchrotron X-ray spectroscopy experiments were made on the Gd(III) aqua and chloro complexes in low pH aqueous solutions at temperatures ranging from 25 to 500 C and at pressures up to 480 MPa using a hydrothermal diamond anvil cell. Analysis of fluorescence Gd L{sub 3}-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectra measured from a 0.006m Gd/0.16m HNO{sub 3} aqueous solution at temperatures up to 500 C and at pressures up to 260 MPa shows that the Gd-O distance of the Gd{sup 3+} aqua ion decreases steadily at a rate of {approx} 0.007 {angstrom}/100 C whereas the number of coordinated H{sub 2}O molecules decreases from 9.0 {+-} 0.5 to 7.0 {+-} 0.4. The loss of water molecules in the Gd{sup 3+} aqua ion inner hydration shell over this temperature range (a 22% reduction) is smaller than exhibited by the Yb{sup 3+} aqua ion (42% reduction) indicating that the former is significantly more stable than the later. We conjecture that the anomalous enrichment of Gd reported from measurement of REE concentrations in ocean waters may be attributed to the enhanced stability of the Gd{sup 3+} aqua ion relative to other REEs. Gd L{sub 3}-edge XAFS measurements of 0.006m and 0.1m GdCl{sub 3} aqueous solutions at temperatures up to 500 C and pressures up to 480 MPa reveal that the onset of significant Gd{sup 3+}-Cl{sup -} association occurs around 300 C. Partially-hydrated stepwise inner-sphere complexes most likely of the type Gd(H{sub 2}O){sub {delta}-n}Cl{sub n}{sup +3-n} occur in the chloride solutions at higher temperatures, where {delta} {approx} 8 at 300 C decreasing slightly to an intermediate value between 7 and 8 upon approaching 500 C. This is the first direct evidence for the occurrence of partially-hydrated REE Gd (this study) and Yb [Mayanovic, R.A., Jayanetti, S., Anderson, A.J., Bassett, W.A., Chou, I-M., 2002a. The structure of Yb{sup 3+} aquo ion and chloro complexes in aqueous solutions at up to 500 C and 270 MPa. J. Phys. Chem. A 106, 6591-6599.] chloro complexes in hydrothermal solutions. The number of chlorides (n) of the partially-hydrated Gd(III) chloro complexes increases steadily with temperature from 0.4 {+-} 0.2 to 1.7 {+-} 0.3 in the 0.006m chloride solution and from 0.9 {+-} 0.7 to 1.8 {+-} 0.7 in the 0.1m GdCl3 aqueous solution in the 300-500 C range. Conversely, the number of H{sub 2}O ligands of Gd(H{sub 2}O){sub {delta}-n}Cl{sub n}{sup +3-n} complexes decreases steadily from 8.9 {+-} 0.4 to 5.8 {+-} 0.7 in the 0.006m GdCl{sub 3} aqueous solution and from 9.0 {+-} 0.5 to 5.3 {+-} 1.0 in the 0.1m GdCl{sub 3} aqueous solution at temperatures from 25 to 500 C. Analysis of our results shows that the chloride ions partially displace the inner-shell water molecules during Gd(III) complex formation under hydrothermal conditions. The Gd-OH{sub 2} bond of the partially-hydrated Gd(III) chloro complexes exhibits slightly smaller rates of length contraction ({approx} 0.005 {angstrom}/100 C) for both solutions. The structural aspects of chloride speciation of Gd(III) as measured from this study and of Yb(III) as measured from our previous experiments are consistent with the solubility of these and other REE in deep-sea hydrothermal fluids.

Mayanovic, Robert A.; Anderson, Alan J.; Bassett, William A.; Chou, I-Ming (SMSU); (Cornell); (SFX); (USGS)

2008-09-25

159

The MILD procedure.  

PubMed

We are following with great interest the increasing generally favorable impressions of the long-term results of the MILD (minimally invasive lumbar decompression) procedure for treating spinal stenosis due to hypertrophied ligamentum flavum (LF). We are also influenced by the cautionary surgical observations and opinions of Tumialan et al and publications about the lack of efficacy or placebo effect. The impression indeed has been virtual safety of the MILD procedure, but Tumialan et al describe some major complications resulting from the procedure. An algorithm for clinical use is needed. PMID:23517504

Racz, Gabor B; Heavner, James E; Bosscher, Hemmo; Helm, Standiford

2013-03-20

160

Kool Milds Creative Evaluation  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... "7ust looking at the ad they ie saying,'We have Mild . Remember today ii s ... "What I see is youth. Good looking people who are in my age range . We ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

161

Mild Cognitive Impairment Research  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... alz.org alz.org >> Video & Resources >> Videos and Media Text Size Videos and Media Virtual Library Brain Tour Perspectives in Science Facts & Figures Spotlight on Researchers Web Links Videos and Media Mild Cognitive Impairment Research (approx. 20 min.) Alzheimer's ...

162

007 Mild cognitive impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a syndromic label for people with informant-corroborated memory problems and evidence of memory impairment on formal testing in the absence of more pervasive deficits in cognition and functional abilities. It is often described as a “risk factor” for dementia though this is misleading; patients with the first signs of Alzheimer's disease (AD) will meet

P J Nestor

2010-01-01

163

Methane hydrate phase equilibrium in the presence of salt (NaCl, KCl, or CaCl 2) + ethylene glycol or salt (NaCl, KCl, or CaCl 2) + methanol aqueous solution: Experimental determination of dissociation condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this communication, we report dissociation conditions of methane hydrates in the presence of salt (NaCl, KCl, or CaCl2)+ethylene glycol or salt (NaCl, KCl, or CaCl2)+methanol aqueous solutions at different temperatures. The equilibrium data were generated using an isochoric pressure-search method. These data are compared with some selected experimental data from the literature on dissociation conditions of methane hydrates in

Amir H. Mohammadi; Dominique Richon

2009-01-01

164

Selective dechlorination of chlorinated phenoxy herbicides in aqueous medium by electrocatalytic reduction over palladium-loaded carbon felt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The highly selective dechlorinations of phenoxy herbicides (2,4-D and 2,4,5-T) and other chlorinated phenoxyacetic acids in aqueous solution with MeOH, trifluoroacetic acid and tetraalkylammonium salt were achieved under very mild experimental conditions by electrocatalytic reduction with the solution permeable cathodes made of Pd-loaded carbon felt. The chlorinated phenoxyacetic acids tested in this work were wholly dechlorinated to phenoxyacetic acid with

Andrey I. Tsyganok; Kiyoshi Otsuka

1999-01-01

165

Corrosion inhibition of mild steel by plant extract in dilute HCl medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inhibition effect of Zenthoxylum alatum plant extract on the corrosion of mild steel in 5% and 15% aqueous hydrochloric acid solution has been investigated by weight loss and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The corrosion inhibition efficiency increases on increasing plant extract concentration till 2400ppm. The effect of temperature on the corrosion behaviour of mild steel in 5% and 15%

L. R. Chauhan; G. Gunasekaran

2007-01-01

166

conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real-time scheduling is both based on a broad theoretical background and available through a multitude of tools and infrastructures. The central input parameters to this discipline are the demand for execution time and the real- time conditions given as deadlines or periods. The former has attracted a lot of research efforts, mainly in the scope of worst case execution time

Dieter Z

167

Physiatric Management of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is a common condition, afflicting as many as 1.5 million Americans yearly. Most individuals sustain MTBI as a result of motor vehicle collisions, but it may also occur as a result of falls, physical assault or sporting accidents. Problems related to MTBI include various pain syndromes, cognitive impairments, disorders of affect, cranial nerve dysfunction, and

STEVEN FLANAGAN

1999-01-01

168

Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A shallow, RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine)- contaminated aquifer at Naval Submarine Base Bangor has been characterized as predominantly manganese-reducing, anoxic with local pockets of oxic conditions. The potential contribution of microbial RDX degradation to localized decreases observed in aquifer RDX concentrations was assessed in sediment microcosms amended with (U- 14 C) RDX. Greater than 85% mineralization of 14 C-RDX to 14 CO2

Paul M. Bradley; Richard S. Dinicola

169

Upgrading of heavy oil from the San Joaquin Valley of California by aqueous pyrolysis  

SciTech Connect

Midway Sunset crude oil and well-head oil were treated at elevated temperatures in a closed system with the presence of water. Mild to moderate upgrading, as measured by increase in API gravity, was observed at 400{degrees}C or above. Reduced pressure operation exhibited upgrading activity comparable to upgrading under normal aqueous pyrolysis conditions. Reduced pressure operation was obtained by the use of specific blending methods, a surfactant, and the proper amount of water. The use of additives provided additional upgrading. The best of the minimum set tested was Co(II) 2-ethylhexanoate. Fe(III) 2-ethylhexanoate also showed some activity under certain conditions.

Reynolds, J.G.; Murray, A.M.; Nuxoll, E.V.; Fox, G.A.

1995-10-01

170

Metal-free activation of H 2 O 2 by synergic effect of ionic liquid and microwave: chemoselective oxidation of benzylic alcohols to carbonyls and unexpected formation of anthraquinone in aqueous condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

H2O2 mediated oxidation of alcohols in ionic liquid is revisited, wherein, ionic liquids under the influence of microwave irradiation\\u000a have been found to facilitate activation of H2O2 without any metal catalyst in aqueous condition. The method utilizes a neutral ionic liquid [hmim]Br both as catalyst and\\u000a solvent for efficient and chemoselective oxidation of benzyl alcohol derivatives on aromatic (?, ?)

Rakesh Kumar; Nandini Sharma; Naina Sharma; Abhishek Sharma; Arun K. Sinha

171

Stress corrosion cracking of mild steels in nitrate solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work on stress corrosion cracking of mild steels in nitrate solutions was prompted by the cracking of several mild steel tanks at the Savannah River plant. All pilot-scale weldments tested were found to be susceptible to stress corrosion cracking in nitrate solutions when in the as-welded condition regardless of base metal composition or the type of filler metal used

Maness

1963-01-01

172

Optimization of plasma arc cutting of mild steel thin plates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given: Plasma arc cutting (PAC) is a widely used industrial process for the cutting of different types of metals in several operating conditions. PAC is considered a challenging technology compared to its main competitors: oxy-fuel and laser cutting, in particular for cutting of mild steel in the thickness range 8-40 mm. PAC of mild steel thin plates

V. Colombo; A. Concetti; E. Ghedini; S. Dallavalle; R. Fazzioli; M. Vancini

2008-01-01

173

Sustainability of mild combustion of hydrogen-containing hybrid fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays a process of sensitization on the fundamental problems related to energetic sources and their environmental impact is observed. In this context, the so-called flameless or mild combustion technology offers great advantages in terms of thermal efficiency and pollution emissions with respect to conventional burner-stabilized firing. The achievement of mild conditions requires to heat up the combustion chamber above a

Marco Derudi; Alessandro Villani; Renato Rota

2007-01-01

174

Pharmacotherapy of mild cognitive impairment  

PubMed Central

Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) can be considered as a state with a high risk of developing Alzheimer's disease within 5 years, or as a prodromal stage of this condition. Randomized clinical trials comparing the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor donepezil with placebo have shown some symptomatic benefit on (i) cognition in one short-term (6-month) study; and (ii)conversion to dementia in one long-term (3-year) study, but not for the full duration of the study, except in subjects with the apolipoprotein E4 (APOE-4) mutation, in whoom the benefit was sustained throughout the 3 years. Results from studies on galantamine are still being analyzed; and a rivastigmine study will close in the fall of 2004. It is premature to recommend that acetylcholinesterase inhibitors be used systematically in amnestic MCI. However, important lessons have been learned from studies in this prodromal stage of AD, allowing the testing of hypotheses for disease modification.

Gauthier, Serge

2004-01-01

175

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI): a historical perspective.  

PubMed

Descriptions of dementia can be traced to antiquity. Prichard (1837) described four dementia stages and Kral (1962) described a "benign senescent forgetfulness" condition. The American Psychiatric Association's DSM-III (1980) identified an early dementia stage. In 1982, the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) and the Global Deterioration Scale (GDS) were published, which identified dementia antecedents. The CDR 0.5 "questionable dementia" stage encompasses both mild dementia and earlier antecedents. GDS stage 3 described a predementia condition termed "mild cognitive decline" or, alternatively, beginning in 1988, "mild cognitive impairment" (MCI). This GDS stage 3 MCI condition is differentiated from both a preceding GDS stage 2, "subjective cognitive impairment" (SCI) stage and a subsequent GDS 4 stage of mild dementia.GDS stage 3 MCI has been well characterized. For example, specific clinical concomitants, mental status and psychological assessment score ranges, behavioral and emotional changes, neuroimaging concomitants, neurological reflex changes, electrophysiological changes, motor and coordination changes, and changes in activities, accompanying GDS stage 3 MCI have been described.Petersen and associates proposed a definition of MCI in 2001 which has been widely used (hereafter referred to as "Petersen's MCI"). Important differences between GDS stage 3 MCI and Petersen's MCI are that, because of denial, GDS stage 3 MCI does not require memory complaints. Also, GDS stage 3 MCI recognizes the occurrence of executive level functional deficits, which Petersen's MCI did not. Nevertheless, longitudinal and other studies indicate essential compatibility between GDS stage 3 MCI and Petersen's MCI duration and outcomes. PMID:18031593

Reisberg, Barry; Ferris, Steven H; Kluger, Alan; Franssen, Emile; Wegiel, Jerzy; de Leon, Mony J

2007-11-22

176

Prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle response in mild cognitive impairment and mild dementia of Alzheimer type.  

PubMed

Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) describes the condition of memory-impaired individuals who otherwise function well and do not meet the clinical criteria for dementia. Such individuals are considered to represent a transitional stage between normal aging and dementia of Alzheimer type (DAT). Neurobiologic changes in amnestic MCI, and their significance for psychophysiologic function, are poorly understood. In this study, the authors compared acoustic prepulse inhibition (PPI) between subjects with amnestic MCI and mild DAT to characterize sensorimotor gating. The acoustic startle reflex, which the authors measured using an accelerometer and electromyogram, involves whole-body movement and eye blink in response to a sudden loud noise (115 dB). PPI is inhibition of this reflex by a softer noise (prepulse; 85 dB) preceding the startle stimulus by 30 ms. PPI was examined in 30 controls, 20 subjects with amnestic MCI, and 20 subjects with mild DAT. Neither amnestic MCI nor mild DAT affected startle movement amplitude. Subjects with amnestic MCI showed significantly enhanced PPI (gating facilitation), while subjects with mild DAT exhibited significantly less PPI than controls (gating deficit). This pattern of PPI changes suggests that neuropathologic changes in the limbic cortex, mainly the entorhinal cortex, at the earliest stage of DAT might be responsible for PPI abnormalities via disturbed regulation of the limbic cortico-striato-pallido-pontine circuitry. Startle PPI changes could be used as a biologic marker for amnestic MCI and mild DAT. PMID:16472359

Ueki, Akinori; Goto, Kyoko; Sato, Noriko; Iso, Hiroyuki; Morita, Yoshio

2006-02-01

177

Mild gasification of coal  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this initial year's mission-oriented multi-year program is to develop a process chemistry data base for the mild gasification of coal with emphasis on eastern bituminous coal. One important objective of this program was to obtain the trends in product formation from different coals as a function of several process variables which included temperature, pressure, coal particle residence time, coal flow rate, type of additives such as lime, limestone, silica flour and ash in a short period of time. This was achieved by a careful development of a test matrix using a fractional factorial statistical design. The equipment used was the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) combination stirred moving-bed, entrained-tubular reactor which is capable of processing 2 to 3 pounds of coal per hour. A Wellmore Kentucky No. 8 bituminous coal, a Pittsburgh No. 8 bituminous coal and a Mississippi lignite with particles having a size of 150 {mu}m or less were selected for this study. The mild gasification experiments were conducted at temperatures from 550{degree} to 650{degree}C at nitrogen sweep gas pressures of 15 to 50 psi and residence times of 0.1 to 2 min. The coal flow rate was 0. 4 to 1.0 lb/hr and the concentration of the lime additives was 0 to 10% by weight of the dry coal feed. All variables were tested at two different levels, low and high, corresponding to the above ranges of the variables. A rapid calculation of the main effects and interactions was made using Yate's algorithm and the significance of the effects was determined from the normal probability plots. 10 refs., 26 figs., 11 tabs.

Sundaram, M.S.; Fallon, P.T.; Steinberg, M.

1989-01-01

178

Hydrothermal alteration experiments of enstatite: Implications for aqueous alteration of carbonaceous chondrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Enstatite is one of the major constituent minerals in carbonaceous chondrites. Hydrothermal alteration experiments (26 in total) of enstatite were carried out at pH 0, 6, 7, 12, 13, and 14, at temperatures of 100, 200, and 300 °C, and for run durations of 24, 72, 168, and 336 h in order to provide constraints on the aqueous-alteration conditions of the meteorites. The recovered samples were studied in detail by using powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).Under acidic and mildly acidic conditions (pH 0, 6), no significant alteration occurred, whereas under neutral to alkaline conditions (pH 7-14), serpentine and saponite formed in various proportions by replacing enstatite. At 300 °C for 168 h, serpentine formed under neutral to moderately alkaline conditions (pH 7, 12), and serpentine and saponite formed as unit cell-scale coherent intergrowths under highly alkaline conditions (pH 13, 14). The amounts of phyllosilicates have a tendency to increase with increasing pH, temperature, and run duration. There is also a tendency for saponite to form at higher pH and temperature and under longer run-durations than serpentine.The results indicate that alteration of enstatite is strongly dependent on the experimental conditions, especially pH. They suggest that CM chondrites experienced aqueous alteration under neutral to alkaline conditions, whereas CV and CI chondrites experienced aqueous alteration under more alkaline conditions. The results also suggest that aqueous alteration in CI chondrites occurred at higher temperatures than in CM chondrites, and aqueous alteration in CV chondrites occurred at even higher temperatures than in CI chondrites.

Ohnishi, Ichiro; Tomeoka, Kazushige

2007-08-01

179

Characteristics and antioxidative activity of the acetone-soluble and -insoluble fractions of a defatted rice bran extract obtained by using an aqueous organic solvent under subcritical conditions.  

PubMed

The defatted rice bran extracts obtained by being treated with various subcritical aqueous fluids at 230 °C for 5 min were further subjected to an acetone-solubilization treatment. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity depended on the total phenolic content of a sample, the acetone-soluble fraction of the extract obtained with 40% (v/v) aqueous acetone showing the highest activity. Based on the UV spectrometric and HPLC analyses, the substances with higher absorbance around 280 nm and higher hydrophobicity were found solubilizing out from the extracts into the acetone during fractionation. A gel permeation chromatographic analysis suggested that the extracts comprised monomeric or oligomeric substances. The antioxidative activity was evaluated by a DPPH radical scavenging activity analysis, rancidity test, and autoxidation analysis, revealing that it would be most likely to exert a radical scavenging effect more effectively during the initial stage of lipid oxidation than during the propagation stage. PMID:23470769

Chiou, Tai-Ying; Kobayashi, Takashi; Adachi, Shuji

2013-03-07

180

Highly dispersed pd catalyst locked in knitting aryl network polymers for Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reactions of aryl chlorides in aqueous media.  

PubMed

Highly dispersed palladium chloride catalysts locked in triphenylphosphine-functionalized knitting aryl network polymers (KAPs) are developed and exhibit excellent activity under mild conditions in the Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reactions of aryl chlorides in aqueous media. This work highlights that the microporous polymers not only play the role of support materials, but also protect the Pd species from aggregation and precipitation, hence, positively effect the catalysis activity. PMID:22674537

Li, Buyi; Guan, Zhenhong; Wang, Wei; Yang, Xinjia; Hu, Jianglin; Tan, Bien; Li, Tao

2012-06-04

181

Europium redox equilibria in aqueous solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermochemical data and recent advances in theoretical aqueous solution chemistry enable prediction of the relative stabilities of aqueous Eu2+ and Eu3+ over a wide range of temperatures and pressures. At low temperatures, near earth surface conditions, the aqueous geochemistry of europium should be dominated by the trivalent state, except possibly in the most reducing, alkaline pore waters of anoxic marine

Dimitri A. Sverjensky

1984-01-01

182

Partitioning of trace elements between olivine and aqueous fluids at high PT conditions: implications for the effect of fluid composition on trace-element transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate the effect of fluid composition on trace-element transport at high pressure and temperature, olivine\\/fluid partition coefficients (D) were measured in experiments involving aqueous carbonate-, chlorine- and NaOH- bearing fluids at 1.0 GPa and 1000°C. Radiotracers of Ce, Gd, Yb, Ba, Sr, Cs, and Na were used to monitor trace-element levels. D values were calculated by mass

James M. Brenan; E. Bruce Watson

1991-01-01

183

Reversible mild cognitive impairment - a case report.  

PubMed

With an increased general practitioner and public awareness, patients are being referred on to Memory Clinics earlier and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is often a conclusion of the assessment. The function of memory clinics is to facilitate early and accurate diagnosis of dementia and its management. Mild Cognitive Impairment is an organic condition which in significant proportion of cases, progresses to Dementia. In Bedfordshire and Luton, patients with MCI are followed up at nine months to yearly intervals and detailed neuropsychological assessments are carried out to monitor cognitive functions in order to detect dementia early and plan care at an early stage in line with the NICE guidance CG42. An interesting patient presented to the Memory Clinic. He suffered from bipolar disorder with age of onset after 50 years. He was successfully treated with a combination of antidepressants, antipsychotics and lithium carbonate. He started complaining of memory difficulties and the initial memory assessment concluded that he had MCI. He was followed up by the clinical psychologist at memory assessment services at yearly intervals. There were no active cognitive interventions done by the psychologist. In the meanwhile the patient developed Parkinson's disease and was treated successfully with levodopa. Following this, neuropsychological tests demonstrated a significant improvement in cognitive functions. The patient was assessed as having recovered from mild cognitive disorder. In this article the authors discuss the possible differential diagnosis and causative factors for the presentation of MCI in this patient. Furthermore the possible reasons for recovery are explored. This also raised interesting questions as to the pharmacological management of mild cognitive disorder secondary to neurological conditions and as to how the course of mild cognitive disorders could be modified by effective interventions. PMID:23995209

Seshadri, Madhavan; Mazi-Kotwal, Nadeem; Aguis, Mark

2013-09-01

184

[Mild cognitive impairment].  

PubMed

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a syndrome that spans the area between normal ageing and dementia. It is classified into amnestic and non-amnestic types, both with two subtypes: single domain and multiple domains. Prevalence of MCI depends on criteria and population and can vary from 0.1 to 42% persons of older age. In contrast to dementia, cognitive deterioration is less severe and activities of daily living are preserved. Most impaired higher cognitive functions in MCI are memory, executive functions, language, visuospatial functions, attention etc. Also there are depression, apathy or psychomotor agitation, and signs of psychosis. Aetiology of MCI is multiple, mostly neurodegenerative, vascular, psychiatric, internistic, neurological, traumatic and iatrogenic. Persons with amnestic MCI are at a higher risk of converting to Alzheimer's disease, while those with a single non-memory domain are at risk of developing frontotemporal dementia. Some MCI patients also progress to other dementia types, vascular among others. In contrast, some patients have a stationary course, some improve, while others even normalize. Every suspicion of MCI warrants a detailed clinical exploration to discover underlying aetiology, laboratory analyses, neuroimaging methods and some cases require a detailed neuropsychological assessment. At the present time there is no efficacious therapy for cognitive decline in MCI or the one that could postpone conversion to dementia. The treatment of curable causes, application of preventive measures and risk factor control are reasonable measures in the absence of specific therapy. PMID:19764601

Pavlovi?, Dragan M; Pavlovi?, Aleksandra M

185

Measurement of relative cerebral blood volume using BOLD contrast and mild hypoxic hypoxia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relative cerebral blood volume (CBV) was estimated using a mild hypoxic challenge in humans, combined with BOLD contrast gradient-echo imaging at 3 T. Subjects breathed 16% inspired oxygen, eliciting mild arterial desaturation. The fractional BOLD signal change induced by mild hypoxia is expected to be proportional to CBV under conditions in which there are negligible changes in cerebral perfusion. By

Richard G. Wise; Kyle T. S. Pattinson; Daniel P. Bulte; Richard Rogers; Irene Tracey; Paul M. Matthews; Peter Jezzard

2010-01-01

186

In situ study of mass transfer in aqueous solutions under high pressures via Raman spectroscopy: A new method for the determination of diffusion coefficients of methane in water near hydrate formation conditions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A new method was developed for in situ study of the diffusive transfer of methane in aqueous solution under high pressures near hydrate formation conditions within an optical capillary cell. Time-dependent Raman spectra of the solution at several different spots along the one-dimensional diffusion path were collected and thus the varying composition profile of the solution was monitored. Diffusion coefficients were estimated by the least squares method based on the variations in methane concentration data in space and time in the cell. The measured diffusion coefficients of methane in water at the liquid (L)-vapor (V) stable region and L-V metastable region are close to previously reported values determined at lower pressure and similar temperature. This in situ monitoring method was demonstrated to be suitable for the study of mass transfer in aqueous solution under high pressure and at various temperature conditions and will be applied to the study of nucleation and dissolution kinetics of methane hydrate in a hydrate-water system where the interaction of methane and water would be more complicated than that presented here for the L-V metastable condition. ?? 2006 Society for Applied Spectroscopy.

Lu, W. J.; Chou, I. M.; Burruss, R. C.; Yang, M. Z.

2006-01-01

187

Irradiation of MEK - II: A detailed kinetic model for the degradation of 2-butanone in aerated aqueous solutions under steady-state ?-radiolysis conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radiolytic decomposition of aqueous phase 2-butanone (methyl ethyl ketone (MEK)) has been studied extensively to gain a detailed mechanistic understanding of the effects of organic impurities on the behaviour of iodine in containment following a nuclear reactor accident. Based on the experimental results reported previously, a detailed reaction kinetic model for the steady-state ?-radiolysis of aerated aqueous solutions containing MEK has been developed. The model consists of about 130 radiolytic decomposition reactions in addition to about 25 water radiolysis reactions. The model reproduces the observed dose profiles of MEK and its subsequent decomposition products (3-hydroxy-2-butanone, acetaldehyde, acetic acid and formaldehyde) very well. The worst case was formaldehyde, a tertiary molecular product from MEK decomposition, which was still reproduced to within 50%. The model also reproduces the observed dose profile of pH reasonably well. The key reactions controlling the behaviour (or dose profiles) of MEK and its decomposition products and the sensitivity of their behaviour to the rates of these reactions are discussed.

Glowa, G.; Driver, P.; Wren, J. C.

2000-03-01

188

Is vanadate reduced by thiols under biological conditions? Changing the redox potential of V(V)/V(IV) by complexation in aqueous solution.  

PubMed

Although dogma states that vanadate is readily reduced by glutathione, cysteine, and other thiols, there are several examples documenting that vanadium(V)-sulfur complexes can form and be observed. This conundrum has impacted life scientists for more than two decades. Investigation of this problem requires an understanding of both the complexes that form from vanadium(IV) and (V) and a representative thiol in aqueous solution. The reactions of vanadate and hydrated vanadyl cation with 2-mercaptoethanol have been investigated using multinuclear NMR, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and UV-vis spectroscopy. Vanadate forms a stable complex of 2:2 stoichiometry with 2-mercaptoethanol at neutral and alkaline pH. In contrast, vanadate can oxidize 2-mercaptoethanol; this process is favored at low pH and high solute concentrations. The complex that forms between aqueous vanadium(IV) and 2-mercaptoethanol has a 1:2 stoichiometry and can be observed at high pH and high 2-mercaptoethanol concentration. The solution structures have been deduced based on coordination induced chemical shifts and speciation diagrams prepared. This work demonstrates that both vanadium(IV) and (V)-thiol complexes form and that redox chemistry also takes place. Whether reduction of vanadate takes place is governed by a combination of parameters: pH, solute- and vanadate-concentrations and the presence of other complexing ligands. On the basis of these results it is now possible to understand the distribution of vanadium in oxidation states (IV) and (V) in the presence of glutathione, cysteine, and other thiols and begin to evaluate the forms of the vanadium compounds that exert a particular biological effect including the insulin-enhancing agents, antiamoebic agents, and interactions with vanadium binding proteins. PMID:20359175

Crans, Debbie C; Zhang, Boyan; Gaidamauskas, Ernestas; Keramidas, Anastasios D; Willsky, Gail R; Roberts, Chris R

2010-05-01

189

Is Vanadate Reduced by Thiols under Biological Conditions?: Changing The Redox Potential of V(V)/V(IV) by Complexation in Aqueous solution  

PubMed Central

Although dogma states that vanadate is readily reduced by glutathione, cysteine and other thiols, there are several examples documenting that vanadium(V)-sulfur complexes can form and be observed. This conundrum has impacted life scientists for more than two decades. Investigation of this problem requires an understanding of both the complexes that form from vanadium(IV) and (V) and a representative thiol in aqueous solution. The reactions of vanadate and hydrated vanadyl cation with 2-mercaptoethanol have been investigated using multinuclear NMR, EPR and UV-vis spectroscopy. Vanadate forms a stable complex of 2:2 stoichiometry with 2-mercaptoethanol at neutral and alkaline pH. In contrast, vanadate can oxidize 2-mercaptoethanol; this process is favored at low pH and high solute concentrations. The complex that forms between aqueous vanadium(IV) and 2-mercaptoethanol has a 1:2 stoichiometry and can be observed at high pH and high 2-mercaptoethanol concentration. The solution structures have been deduced and speciation diagrams prepared. This work demonstrates that both vanadium(IV) and (V)-thiol complexes form and that redox chemistry also takes place. Whether reduction of vanadate takes place is governed by a combination of parameters: pH, solute- and vanadate-concentrations and the presence of other complexing ligands. Based on these results it is now possible to understand the distribution of vanadium in oxidation states (IV) and (V) in the presence of glutathione, cysteine and other thiols and begin to evaluate the forms of the vanadium compounds that exert a particular biological effect including the insulin-enhancing agents, anti-amoebic agents and interactions with vanadium binding proteins.

Crans, Debbie C.; Zhang, Boyan; Gaidamauskas, Ernestas; Keramidas, Anastasios D.; Willsky, Gail R.; Roberts, Chris R.

2010-01-01

190

Shellac-coated iron oxide nanoparticles for removal of cadmium(II) ions from aqueous solution.  

PubMed

This study describes a new effective adsorbent for cadmium removal from aqueous solution synthesized by coating a shellac layer, a natural biodegradable and renewable resin with abundant hydroxyl and carboxylic groups, on the surface of iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) imaging showed shellac-coated magnetic nanoparticle (SCMN) adsorbents had a core-shell structure with a core of 20 nm and shell of 5 nm. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic analysis suggested the occurrence of reaction between carboxyl groups on the SCMN adsorbent surface and cadmium ions in aqueous solution. Kinetic data were well described by pseudo second-order model and adsorption isotherms were fitted with both Langmuir and Freundlich models with maximum adsorption capacity of 18.80 mg/g. SCMN adsorbents provided a favorable adsorption capacity under high salinity conditions, and cadmium could easily be desorbed using mild organic acid solutions at low concentration. PMID:23513435

Gong, Jilai; Chen, Long; Zeng, Guangming; Long, Fei; Deng, Jiuhua; Niu, Qiuya; He, Xun

2012-01-01

191

Squeeze cast aluminium reinforced with mild steel inserts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bonding of a mild steel insert to an Al-7Si alloy during squeeze casting has been studied for a range of processing conditions. Assessment of the mild steel\\/Al-7Si alloy interface shear strength has been made with a push-out test, and the results have been correlated with microstructural observations and residual stress calculations. Uncoated inserts do not exhibit any significant reaction

G. Durrant; M. Gallerneault; B. Cantor

1996-01-01

192

A mild and Selective Method of Ester Hydrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carboxylic esters, when refluxed in an aqueous suspension of Dowex-50, furnish the corresponding carboxylic acids in excellent yields. Tertiary ester and nitriles remain unaffected under this condition and ?-keto esters undergo smooth decarboxylations.

Manas K. Basu; Dipak C. Sarkar; Brindaban C. Ranu

1989-01-01

193

Standard partial molar volumes of some aqueous alkanolamines and alkoxyamines at temperatures up to 325 degrees C: functional group additivity in polar organic solutes under hydrothermal conditions.  

PubMed

Apparent molar volumes of dilute aqueous solutions of monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), triethanolamine (TEA), N,N-dimethylethanolamine (DMEA), ethylethanolamine (EAE), 2-diethylethanolamine (2-DEEA), and 3-methoxypropylamine (3-MPA) and their salts were measured at temperatures from 150 to 325 degrees C and pressures as high as 15 MPa. The results were corrected for the ionization and used to obtain the standard partial molar volumes, Vo2. A three-parameter equation of state was used to describe the temperature and pressure dependence of the standard partial molar volumes. The fitting parameters were successfully divided into functional group contributions at all temperatures to obtain the standard partial molar volume contributions. Including literature results for alcohols, carboxylic acids, and hydroxycarboxylic acids yielded the standard partial molar volume contributions of the functional groups >CH-, >CH2, -CH3, -OH, -COOH, -O-, -->N, >NH, -NH2, -COO-Na+, -NH3+Cl-, >NH2+Cl-, and -->NH+Cl- over the range (150 degrees C aqueous organic solutes composed of these groups at temperatures up to approximately 310 degrees C and pressures of 10-20 MPa to within a precision of +/-5 cm3 x mol(-1). The model could not be extended to higher temperatures because of uncertainties caused by thermal decomposition. At temperatures above approximately 250 degrees C, the order of the group contributions to Vo2 changes from that observed at 25 degrees C, to become increasingly consistent with the polarity of each functional group. The effect of the dipole moment of each molecule on the contribution to Vo2 from long-range solvent polarization was calculated from the multipole expansion of the Born equation using dipole moments estimated from restricted Hartree-Fock calculations with Gaussian 03 (Gaussian, Inc., Wallingford, CT) and the Onsager reaction-field approximation for solvent effects. Below 325 degrees C, the dipole contribution was found to be less than 2 cm3 x mol(-1) for all the solute molecules studied. At higher temperatures and pressures near steam saturation, the effect is much larger and may explain anomalies in functional group additivity observed in small, very polar solutes. PMID:18412415

Bulemela, E; Tremaine, Peter R

2008-04-16

194

Zn(II)-cyclam based chromogenic sensors for recognition of ATP in aqueous solution under physiological conditions and their application as viable staining agents for microorganism.  

PubMed

Two chromogenic complexes, L.Zn (where L is (E)-4-((4-(1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecan-1-ylsulfonyl)phenyl)diazenyl)-N,N-dimethylaniline) and its [2]pseudorotaxane form (?-CD.L.Zn), were found to bind preferentially to adenosine triphosphate (ATP), among all other common anions and biologically important phosphate (AMP, ADP, pyrophosphate, and phosphate) ions in aqueous HEPES buffer medium of pH 7.2. Studies with live cell cultures of prokaryotic microbes revealed that binding of these two reagents to intercellular ATP, produced in situ, could be used in delineating the gram-positive and the gram-negative bacteria. More importantly, these dyes were found to be nontoxic to living microbes (eukaryotes and prokaryotes) and could be used for studying the cell growth dynamics. Binding to these two viable staining agents to intercellular ATP was also confirmed by spectroscopic studies on cell growth in the presence of different respiratory inhibitors that influence the intercellular ATP generation. PMID:21449545

Mahato, Prasenjit; Ghosh, Amrita; Mishra, Sanjiv K; Shrivastav, Anupama; Mishra, Sandhya; Das, Amitava

2011-03-30

195

Catalytic wet-air oxidation of aqueous solutions of formic acid, acetic acid and phenol in a continuous-flow trickle-bed reactor over Ru\\/TiO 2 catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catalytic wet-air oxidation of aqueous solutions of formic acid, acetic acid and phenol was carried out in a trickle-bed reactor at T=328–523K and total pressures up to 50bar over various Ru\\/TiO2 catalysts. Complete oxidation of formic acid was obtained at mild operating conditions, and no catalyst deactivation occurred that could be attributed to the dissolution of active ingredient material. It

Albin Pintar; Jurka Batista; Tatjana Tišler

2008-01-01

196

Hematite spherules in basaltic tephra altered under aqueous, acid-sulfate conditions on Mauna Kea volcano, Hawaii: Possible clues for the occurrence of hematite-rich spherules in the Burns formation at Meridiani Planum, Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iron-rich spherules (> 90% Fe 2O 3 from electron microprobe analyses) ˜10-100 ?m in diameter are found within sulfate-rich rocks formed by aqueous, acid-sulfate alteration of basaltic tephra on Mauna Kea volcano, Hawaii. Although some spherules are nearly pure Fe, most have two concentric compositional zones, with the core having a higher Fe / Al ratio than the rim. Oxide totals less than 100% (93-99%) suggest structural H 2O and/or OH - 1 . The transmission Mössbauer spectrum of a spherule-rich separate is dominated by a hematite (?-Fe 2O 3) sextet whose peaks are skewed toward zero velocity. Skewing is consistent with Al 3+ for Fe 3+ substitution and structural H 2O and/or OH - 1 . The grey color of the spherules implies specular hematite. Whole-rock powder X-ray diffraction spectra are dominated by peaks from smectite and the hydroxy sulfate mineral natroalunite as alteration products and plagioclase feldspar that was present in the precursor basaltic tephra. Whether spherule formation proceeded directly from basaltic material in one event (dissolution of basaltic material and precipitation of hematite spherules) or whether spherule formation required more than one event (formation of Fe-bearing sulfate rock and subsequent hydrolysis to hematite) is not currently constrained. By analogy, a formation pathway for the hematite spherules in sulfate-rich outcrops at Meridiani Planum on Mars (the Burns formation) is aqueous alteration of basaltic precursor material under acid-sulfate conditions. Although hydrothermal conditions are present on Mauna Kea, such conditions may not be required for spherule formation on Mars if the time interval for hydrolysis at lower temperatures is sufficiently long.

Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.; Graff, T. G.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bell, J. F.; Squyres, S. W.; Mertzman, S. A.; Gruener, J. E.; Golden, D. C.; Le, L.; Robinson, G. A.

2005-11-01

197

Degradation of the biocide 4-chloro-3,5-dimethylphenol in aqueous medium with ozone in combination with ultraviolet irradiation: operating conditions influence and mechanism.  

PubMed

Biocides usually persist during municipal sewage treatment and are subsequently distributed into aquatic environments. To explore the capability of advanced oxidation processes for the rapid removal of biocides, we examined the total organic carbon (TOC) reduction of 4-chloro-3,5-dimethylphenol (PCMX) with a combination of UV/O(3). Moreover, the related important parameters, including the mass transfer coefficient and light utilization efficiency, in PCMX degradation were determined. The UV/O(3) experimental results showed a pronounced synergistic effect, leading to the nearly complete elimination of TOC within 75 min. Thus, the effect of operating variables was investigated as a function of pH, ozone dosage, bulk temperature and the initial concentration of PCMX. The efficiency of PCMX mineralization increased with an increase in ozone dose up to 3.1 gh(-1), and a decrease in the initial concentration from 250 to 100mg L(-1). The optimal pH value was 4.0, and the preferred bulk temperature was 20 degrees C on the basis of the influence of temperature on reaction rate and ozone solubility. The major aromatic intermediates identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry were 2,6-dimethylbenzene-1,4-diol, 2,6-dimethylbenzo-1,4-quinone, 2,6-bis(hydroxymethyl)benzo-1,4-quinone, and 2,6-dimethylbenzo-1,4-aldehyde. Quantitative determination of related carboxylic acid and inorganic anions was done by ion chromatography. On the basis of the identified reaction products, a possible degradation pathway for the UV/O(3) oxidation of PCMX in aqueous media is proposed. PMID:19818989

Song, Shuang; Liu, Zhiwu; He, Zhiqiao; Li, Yu; Chen, Jianmeng; Li, Chaolin

2009-10-09

198

Neuropsychological function in mild hyperphenylalaninemia.  

PubMed

Whether specific cognitive deficits related to frontal-lobe dysfunction that have been reported in individuals with phenylketonuria (PKU) are also characteristic of mild hyperphenylalaninemia (MHP) was investigated. Tests of executive function and control tasks not assessing executive function were administered to a group of individuals with MHP and a group without MHP, similar in age, gender, and IQ. Tests of academic skills and behavior-rating questionnaires were also administered to the group with MHP. No group differences were found for any measure, suggesting that the mild elevations of phenylalanine in individuals with MHP are not sufficient to produce behavioral and cognitive impairments characteristic of PKU. PMID:10755172

Smith, M L; Saltzman, J; Klim, P; Hanley, W B; Feigenbaum, A; Clarke, J T

2000-03-01

199

Aqueous humour lactic dehydrogenase isoenzymes in retinoblastoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

LDH activity was determined in aqueous humour samples from 11 eyes (of 10 children), four of which contained retinoblastoma. Simultaneous serum LDH levels were also determined in eight of the children. There was no correlation between serum and aqueous humour LDH activity. Total aqueous humour LDH activity ranged from 0 to 99 i.u\\/l. in the seven eyes with non-neoplastic conditions.

J. Kabak; P. E. Romano

1975-01-01

200

Coordination Modes of Multidentate Ligands in fac-[Re(CO)3(polyaminocarboxylate)] Analogues of 99mTc Radiopharmaceuticals. Dependence on Aqueous Solution Reaction Conditions  

PubMed Central

We study Re analogues of 99mTc renal agents to interpret previous results at the 99mTc tracer level. The relative propensities of amine donors vs. carboxylate oxygen donors of four L = polyaminocarboxylate ligands to coordinate in fac-[ReI(CO)3L]n complexes were assessed by examining the reaction of fac-[ReI(CO)3(H2O)3]+ under conditions differing in acidity and temperature. All four L [N,N-bis-(2-aminoethyl)glycine (DTGH), N,N-ethylenediaminediacetic acid, diethylenetriamine-N-malonic acid, and diethylenetriamine-N-acetic acid] can coordinate as tridentate ligands while creating a dangling chain terminated in a carboxyl group. Dangling carboxyl groups facilitate renal clearance in fac-[99mTcI(CO)3L]n agents. Under neutral conditions, the four ligands each gave two fac-[ReI(CO)3L]n products with HPLC traces correlating well with known traces of the fac-[99mTcI(CO)3L]n mixtures. Such mixtures are common in renal agents because the needed dangling carboxyl group can compete for a coordination site. However, the HPLC separations needed to assess the biodistribution of a single tracer are impractical in a clinical setting. One goal in investigating this Re chemistry is to identify conditions for avoiding this problem of mixtures in preparations of fac-[99mTcI(CO)3L]n renal tracers. After separation and isolation of the fac-[ReI(CO)3L]n products, NMR analysis of all products and single crystal X-ray crystallographic analysis of both DTGH products as well as one product each from the other L allowed us to establish coordination mode unambiguously. The product favored in acidic conditions has a dangling amine chain and more bound oxygen. The product favored in basic conditions has a dangling carboxyl chain and more bound nitrogen. At the elevated temperatures used for simulating tracer preparation, equilibration was facile (ca. one hour or less), allowing selective formation of one product by utilizing acidic or basic conditions. The results of this fundamental study offer protocols and guidance useful for the design and preparation of fac-[99mTcI(CO)3L]n agents consisting of a single tracer.

Lipowska, Malgorzata; He, Haiyang; Xu, Xiaolong; Taylor, Andrew T.; Marzilli, Patricia A.; Marzilli, Luigi G.

2010-01-01

201

Some fatty acid oxadiazoles for corrosion inhibition of mild steel in HCl  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inhibition effect of some fatty acid oxadiazoles on the corrosion of mild steel (MS) in aqueous solution containing 1 N HCl was investigated by weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization technique, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The adsorption of these compounds was found to obey Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Various thermodynamic parameters were calculated to investigate the mechanism of corrosion inhibition.

M Z A Rafiquee; Nidhi Saxena; Sadaf Khan; M A Quraishi

202

Effect of aqueous LiBr solutions on the corrosion resistance and galvanic corrosion of an austenitic stainless steel in its welded and non-welded condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corrosion resistance and galvanic behaviour of a highly alloyed austenitic stainless steel (UNS N08031) and a nickel–base alloy (UNS N06059) in its welded (GTAW) and non-welded condition were analysed in LiBr solutions by means of electrochemical measurements. Samples microstructure was studied by SEM and EDX analysis. The alloys considered showed passive behaviour and they were able to repassivate after

E. Blasco-Tamarit; A. Igual-Muñoz; J. García Antón; D. García-García

2006-01-01

203

Memory activation enhances EEG abnormality in mild cognitive impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This exploratory study investigated EEG power changes during memory activation in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Twelve MCI patients and 16 age-matched controls underwent EEG registration during two conventional EEG conditions (‘eyes closed’ and ‘eyes open’) and three memory conditions (‘word memory’, ‘picture memory’ and ‘animal fluency’). For all conditions, EEG power in the theta (4–8Hz), lower alpha

K. van der Hiele; A. A. Vein; C. G. S. Kramer; R. H. A. M. Reijntjes; M. A. van Buchem; R. G. J. Westendorp; E. L. E. M. Bollen; J. G. van Dijk; H. A. M. Middelkoop

2007-01-01

204

Development of mild gasification process  

SciTech Connect

Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. DE-AC21-84MC21108, UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) built and tested a 1500 lb/day Mild Gasification Process Development Unit (MGU). The MGU, as tested under the previous contract, is shown in Figure 1. Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and good quality char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU is not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project are to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of char for several commercial applications. The program consists of four tasks; Task 1-Test Plan; Task 2-Optimization of Mild Gasification Process; Task 3-Evaluation of Char and Char/Coal Blends as a Boiler/Blast Furnace Fuel; and Task 4-Analysis of Data and Preparation of Final Report. Task 1 has been completed while work continued on Task 2.

Chu, C.I.C.; Gillespie, B.L.

1988-02-01

205

Development of mild gasification process  

SciTech Connect

Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. AC21-84MC21108, UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) built and tested a 1500 lb/day Mild Gasification Process Development Unit (MGU). The MGU, as tested under the previous contract, is shown in Figure 1. Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and good quality char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU is not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project are to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of char for several commercial applications. The program consists of four tasks; Task 1 -- Test Plan; Task 2 -- Optimization of Mild Gasification Process; Task 3 -- Evaluation of Char and Char/Coal Blends as a Boiler/Blast Furnace Fuel; and Task 4 -- Analysis of Data and Preparation of Final Report. Task 1 has been completed while work continued on Task 2.

Chu, C.I.C.; Gillespie, B.L.

1987-11-01

206

Development of mild gasification process  

SciTech Connect

Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. AC21-84MC21108, UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) built and tested a 1500 lb/day Mild Gasification Process Development Unit (MGU). The MGU, as tested under the previous contract, is shown in Figure 1. Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and good quality char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU is not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project are to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of char for several commercial applications. The program consists of four tasks; Task 1 -- Test Plan; Task 2 -- Optimization of Mild Gasification Process; Task 3 -- Evaluation of Char and Char/Coal Blends as a Boiler/Blast Furnace Fuel; and Task 4 -- Analysis of Data and Preparation of Final Report. Task 1 has been completed while work continued on Task 2.

Chu, C.I.C.; Derting, T.M.

1988-07-01

207

Development of mild gasification process  

SciTech Connect

Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. AC21-84MC21108, UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) built and tested a 1500 lb/day Mild Gasification Process Development Unit (MGU). The MGU, as tested under the previous contract, is shown in Figure 1. Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and good quality char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU is not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project are to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of char for several commercial applications. The program consists of four tasks; Task 1 -- Test Plan; Task 2 -- Optimization of Mild Gasification Process; Task 3 -- Evaluation of Char and Char/Coal Blends as a Boiler/Blast Furnace Fuel; and Task 4 -- Analysis of Data and Preparation of Final Report. Task 1 has been completed while work continued on Task 2.

Chu, C.I.C.; Williams, S.W.

1989-01-01

208

Mild coal gasification: Product separation  

SciTech Connect

Our general objective is to further the development of efficient continuous mild coal gasification processes. The research this year has been focused on product separation problems and particularly the problem of separating entrained ultra-fine particles from the chemically reactive environment of the product gas stream. Specifically, the objective of the present work has been to study candidate barrier filters for application to mild coal gasification processes. Our approach has been to select the most promising existing designs, to develop a design of our own and to test the designs in our bench-scale gasification apparatus. As a first step towards selection of the most promising barrier filter we have determined coking rates on several candidate filter media.

Wallman, P.H.; Singleton, M.F.

1992-08-04

209

Synthesis and applications of SnO nanosheets: parallel control of oxidation state and nanostructure through an aqueous solution route.  

PubMed

Tin monoxide (SnO) nanosheets 5 nm in thickness are generated on substrates through an aqueous solution process under mild conditions. Parallel control of the oxidation state and morphology is achieved by a urea-mediated approach in aqueous solution. The SnO nanosheets form a porous thin film on substrates such as indium tin oxide and carbon nanofiber (CNF). The porous thin film of SnO nanosheets shows cathodic photocurrent generation upon irradiation by UV and visible light. In contrast, the photocurrent is not observed in the bulk SnO microcrystals. Composites of the SnO nanosheets and CNF perform as the anode material of lithium-ion batteries with improved charge-discharge reversible stability. PMID:20183815

Sakaushi, Ken; Oaki, Yuya; Uchiyama, Hiroaki; Hosono, Eiji; Zhou, Haoshen; Imai, Hiroaki

2010-03-22

210

Aqueous foam toxicology evaluation and hazard review  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous foams are aggregates of bubbles mechanically generated by passing air or other gases through a net, screen, or other porous medium that is wetted by an aqueous solution of surface-active foaming agents (surfactants). Aqueous foams are important in modem fire-fighting technology, as well as for military uses for area denial and riot or crowd control. An aqueous foam is currently being developed and evaluated by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as a Less-Than-Lethal Weapon for the National Institute of Justice (NIJ). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the toxicity of the aqueous foam developed for the NIJ and to determine whether there are any significant adverse health effects associated with completely immersing individuals without protective equipment in the foam. The toxicity of the aqueous foam formulation developed for NIJ is determined by evaluating the toxicity of the individual components of the foam. The foam is made from a 2--5% solution of Steol CA-330 surfactant in water generated at expansion ratios ranging from 500:1 to 1000:1. SteoI CA-330 is a 35% ammonium laureth sulfate in water and is produced by Stepan Chemical Company and containing trace amounts (<0.1%) of 1,4-dioxane. The results of this study indicate that Steol CA-330 is a non-toxic, mildly irritating, surfactant that is used extensively in the cosmetics industry for hair care and bath products. Inhalation or dermal exposure to this material in aqueous foam is not expected to produce significant irritation or systemic toxicity to exposed individuals, even after prolonged exposure. The amount of 1,4-dioxane in the surfactant, and subsequently in the foam, is negligible and therefore, the toxicity associated with dioxane exposure is not significant. In general, immersion in similar aqueous foams has not resulted in acute, immediately life-threatening effects, or chronic, long-term, non-reversible effects following exposure.

Archuleta, M.M.

1995-10-01

211

Stress Loops Effect in Ductile Failure of Mild Steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simulation study of effect of stress on mild steel microstructure has revealed stress loops at areas of stress application which are believed to be the root cause of the ductile failure morphology (cup and cone) in ductile alloys under plane strain conditions. The areas of concentration of these stress loops were observed to be that of subsequent instability (or

O. O. Oluwole

212

The changing topography of corroding mild steel surfaces in seawater  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corrosion of mild steel exposed to marine immersion conditions typically is not uniform although it is often idealized as such. Anodic regions and micro-pits develop very quickly after first exposure and eventually there is the development of shallow broad pits. This transition of the surface topography and the processes involved are still not completely understood. The present paper presents

Robert Jeffrey; Robert E. Melchers

2007-01-01

213

Mild uncatalyzed hydroamination of an electrophilic alkyne, ethynylcobalticinium.  

PubMed

Primary and secondary amines react with ethynylcobalticinium under mild conditions in the absence of a catalyst and an additional solvent to give quantitative yields of dark-red microcrystalline cobalticinium trans-enamines that show a remarkable push-pull electronic structure. PMID:23703549

Wang, Yanlan; Rapakousiou, Amalia; Latouche, Camille; Daran, Jean-Claude; Singh, Anu; Ledoux-Rak, Isabelle; Ruiz, Jaime; Saillard, Jean-Yves; Astruc, Didier

2013-05-24

214

Music Enhances Autobiographical Memory in Mild Alzheimer's Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Studies have shown that the "Four Seasons" music may enhance the autobiographical performance of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. We used a repeated measures design in which autobiographical recall of 12 mild AD patients was assessed using a free narrative method under three conditions: (a) in "Silence," (b) after being exposed to the opus…

El Haj, Mohamad; Postal, Virginie; Allain, Philippe

2012-01-01

215

Cholinergic Enhancement of Frontal Lobe Activity in Mild Cognitive Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Cholinesterase inhibitors positively affect cognition in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other conditions, but no controlled functional MRI studies have examined where their effects occur in the brain. We examined the effects of donepezil hydrochloride (Aricept[Registered sign]) on cognition and brain activity in patients with amnestic mild

Saykin, Andrew J.; Wishart, Heather A.; Rabin, Laura A.; Flashman, Laura A.; McHugh, Tara L.; Mamourian, Alexander C.; Santulli, Robert B.

2004-01-01

216

Fractional Separation of Hemicelluloses and Lignin in High Yield and Purity from Mild Ball-Milled Periploca sepium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel three-step procedure for separation of hemicelluloses and lignin with high yield and purity was proposed in this study, where wood is mildly milled and successively extracted to produce three hemicellulosic and lignin fractions representing the total hemicelluloses and lignin in wood. The sequential treatments of the mild ball-milled Periploca sepium with 80% aqueous dioxane containing 0.05 M HCl at

Feng Xu; Run-Cang Sun; Mei-Zhi Zhai; Jin-Xia Sun; Diao She; Zhen-Chao Geng; Qi Lu

2008-01-01

217

Mild Head Injury in Children and Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although mild head injury is the most prevalent type of head injury in children and adolescents, only a relatively small number of studies on this kind of head injury have been reported. This article summarizes a review of studies examining cognitive, academic, and psychosocial outcomes in children who sustained mild head injuries. Despite earlier claims of mild head injury being

Paul Satz

2001-01-01

218

Removal of aqueous rinsable flux residues in a batch spray dishwater  

SciTech Connect

An alkaline detergent solution used in an industrial dishwasher was evaluated to remove aqueous rinsable flux residues on printed wiring boards (PWBs) after hot air solder leveling and hot oil solder dip and leveling. The dishwasher, a batch cleaning process, was compared to an existing conveyorized aqueous cleaning process. The aqueous soluble flux residues from both soldering processes were removed with a solution of a mild alkaline detergent dissolved in hot deionized (DI) water.

Slanina, J.T.

1992-02-01

219

A new family of nucleophiles for photoinduced, copper-catalyzed cross-couplings via single-electron transfer: reactions of thiols with aryl halides under mild conditions (O °C).  

PubMed

Building on the known photophysical properties of well-defined copper-carbazolide complexes, we have recently described photoinduced, copper-catalyzed N-arylations and N-alkylations of carbazoles. Until now, there have been no examples of the use of other families of heteroatom nucleophiles in such photoinduced processes. Herein, we report a versatile photoinduced, copper-catalyzed method for coupling aryl thiols with aryl halides, wherein a single set of reaction conditions, using inexpensive CuI as a precatalyst without the need for an added ligand, is effective for a wide range of coupling partners. As far as we are aware, copper-catalyzed C-S cross-couplings at 0 °C have not previously been achieved, which renders our observation of efficient reaction of an unactivated aryl iodide at -40 °C especially striking. Mechanistic investigations are consistent with these photoinduced C-S cross-couplings following a SET/radical pathway for C-X bond cleavage (via a Cu(I)-thiolate), which contrasts with nonphotoinduced, copper-catalyzed processes wherein a concerted mechanism is believed to occur. PMID:23697882

Uyeda, Christopher; Tan, Yichen; Fu, Gregory C; Peters, Jonas C

2013-06-13

220

Mild Conditions for Pd-Catalyzed Carboamination of N-Protected Hex-4-enylamines and 1-, 3-, and 4-Substituted Pent-4-enylamines. Scope, Limitations, and Mechanism of Pyrrolidine Formation.  

PubMed Central

The use of the weak base Cs2CO3 in Pd-catalyzed carboamination reactions of N-protected ?aminoalkenes with aryl bromides leads to greatly increased tolerance of functional groups and alkene substitution. Substrates derived from (E)- or (Z)-hex-4-enylamines are stereospecifically converted to 2,1?-disubstituted pyrrolidine products that result from suprafacial addition of the nitrogen atom and the aryl group across the alkene. Transformations of 4-substituted pent-4-enylamine derivatives proceed in high yield to afford 2,2-disubstituted products, and cis-2,5- or trans-2,3-disubstituted pyrrolidines are generated in good yield with excellent diastereoselectivity from N-protected pent-4-enylamines bearing substituents at C1 or C3. The reactions tolerate a broad array of functional groups, including esters, nitro groups, and enolizable ketones. The scope and limitations of these transformations are described in detail, along with models that account for the observed product stereochemistry. In addition, deuterium labeling experiments, which indicate these reactions proceed via syn-aminopalladation of intermediate palladium(aryl)(amido)complexes regardless of degree of alkene substitution or reaction conditions, are also discussed.

Bertrand, Myra Beaudoin; Neukom, Joshua D.; Wolfe, John P.

2009-01-01

221

The behavior of cellulose molecules in aqueous environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular motions of cellulose chains in aqueous environments were investigated by comparison with those in non-aqueous environments using molecular simulation techniques. The cellulose chains under non-aqueous conditions approached each other closely and then made tight aggregates that were formed by direct hydrogen bonding. Those in aqueous environments, such as in a bio-system, were separated from each other by water molecules

Fumio Tanaka; Noriko Fukui

2004-01-01

222

Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of coproducts  

SciTech Connect

This report is a final brief summary of development of a mild-gasification and char conversion process. Morgantown Energy Technology Center developed a concept called mild gasification. In this concept, devolatilization of coal under nonoxidizing and relatively mild temperature and pressure conditions can yield three marketable products: (1) a high-heating-value gas, (2) a high-aromatic coal liquid, and (3) a high-carbon char. The objective of this program is to develop an advanced, continuous, mild-gasification process to produce products that will make the concept economically and environmentally viable. (VC)

Merriam, N.W.; Jha, M.C.

1991-11-01

223

Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of coproducts. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report is a final brief summary of development of a mild-gasification and char conversion process. Morgantown Energy Technology Center developed a concept called mild gasification. In this concept, devolatilization of coal under nonoxidizing and relatively mild temperature and pressure conditions can yield three marketable products: (1) a high-heating-value gas, (2) a high-aromatic coal liquid, and (3) a high-carbon char. The objective of this program is to develop an advanced, continuous, mild-gasification process to produce products that will make the concept economically and environmentally viable. (VC)

Merriam, N.W.; Jha, M.C.

1991-11-01

224

Procedures for Increasing Sustained Attention in Adults with Mild Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This research compared the effects of several factors on sustained attention in four participants with mild or mild-to-moderate intellectual disabilities. In each session, each participant received an extended number of conditional discriminations that required a differential response to infrequently occurring target stimuli. We assessed…

Doughty, Adam H.; Williams, Dean C.

2013-01-01

225

ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Project  

SciTech Connect

ENCOAL Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Shell Mining Company, is constructing a mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company's Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology developed by Shell and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin Coal to produce two new fuels, Process Derived Fuel (PDF) and Coal Derived Liquids (CDL). The products, as alternative fuels sources, are expected to significantly reduce current sulfur emissions at industrial and utility boiler sites throughout the nation, thereby reducing pollutants causing acid rain.

Not Available

1992-02-01

226

Lithium Ion Aqueous Cells.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lithium ion aqueous cells were investigated using lithium intercalating compounds as anodes and cathodes. The aqueous electrolyte consisted of 4 to 5 molar solutions of either lithium perchlorate or lithium nitrate which contained lithium hydroxide in mil...

E. J. Plichta W. K. Behl

1995-01-01

227

Mild cognitive impairment: The dilemma.  

PubMed

Memory complaints are ubiquitous in our aging population. Many older adults fear that today's forgetfulness will usher in tomorrow's dementia. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is considered by many as an intermediary stage for dementia. Though the nomenclature has been varied and extensive, the criteria by the American Academy of Neurology and the EADC have been helpful. Prevalence rates varying from 3% to as high as 59% with a conversion rate to dementia varying from 8 to 15% only increases the need for diagnostic tests and markers which are in the form of neuropsychological tests, neuroimaging and other biological markers.Medications indicated for treatment of mild to severe Alzheimer's Disease (AD) are offered to persons with MCI with a varying type of response which does not hold in the long run to newer strategies of exploring disease modifying drugs which hold a better promise. This benefit with management of risk factors like hypertension and diabetes coupled with non-pharmacological approaches like exercise and social networking has thrust upon us the necessity for coordinating our efforts to improve detection and management of MCI. PMID:21416016

Pinto, Charles; Subramanyam, Alka A

2009-01-01

228

Mild cognitive impairment: The dilemma  

PubMed Central

Memory complaints are ubiquitous in our aging population. Many older adults fear that today’s forgetfulness will usher in tomorrow’s dementia. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is considered by many as an intermediary stage for dementia. Though the nomenclature has been varied and extensive, the criteria by the American Academy of Neurology and the EADC have been helpful. Prevalence rates varying from 3% to as high as 59% with a conversion rate to dementia varying from 8 to 15% only increases the need for diagnostic tests and markers which are in the form of neuropsychological tests, neuroimaging and other biological markers. Medications indicated for treatment of mild to severe Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) are offered to persons with MCI with a varying type of response which does not hold in the long run to newer strategies of exploring disease modifying drugs which hold a better promise. This benefit with management of risk factors like hypertension and diabetes coupled with non-pharmacological approaches like exercise and social networking has thrust upon us the necessity for coordinating our efforts to improve detection and management of MCI.

Pinto, Charles; Subramanyam, Alka A.

2009-01-01

229

Consumer preferences for mild cheddar cheese flavors.  

PubMed

Flavor is an important factor in consumer selection of cheeses. Mild Cheddar cheese is the classification used to describe Cheddar cheese that is not aged extensively and has a "mild" flavor. However, there is no legal definition or age limit for Cheddar cheese to be labeled mild, medium, or sharp, nor are the flavor profiles or flavor expectations of these cheeses specifically defined. The objectives of this study were to document the distinct flavor profiles among commercially labeled mild Cheddar cheeses, and to characterize if consumer preferences existed for specific mild Cheddar cheese flavors or flavor profiles. Flavor descriptive sensory profiles of a representative array of commercial Cheddar cheeses labeled as mild (n= 22) were determined using a trained sensory panel and an established cheese flavor sensory language. Nine representative Cheddar cheeses were selected for consumer testing. Consumers (n= 215) assessed the cheeses for overall liking and other consumer liking attributes. Internal preference mapping, cluster analysis, and discriminant analysis were conducted. Mild Cheddar cheeses were diverse in flavor with many displaying flavors typically associated with more age. Four distinct consumer clusters were identified. The key drivers of liking for mild Cheddar cheese were: color, cooked/milky, whey and brothy flavors, and sour taste. Consumers have distinct flavor and color preferences for mild Cheddar cheese. These results can help manufacturers understand consumer preferences for mild Cheddar cheese. PMID:19021820

Drake, S L; Gerard, P D; Drake, M A

2008-11-01

230

Si-BEZA--catalytic pyridinium triflate: a mild and powerful agent for the silylation of alcohols.  

PubMed

A highly efficient method of silylation using a novel agent, Si-BEZA (silylbenzamide), together with a pyridinium triflate catalyst was developed, wherein a variety of silyl groups can be introduced into sterically crowded alcohols under mild conditions. PMID:12240023

Misaki, T; Kurihara, M; Tanabe, Y

2001-12-01

231

Slowing down after a mild traumatic brain injury: a strategy to improve cognitive task performance?  

PubMed

Long-term persistent attention and memory difficulties following a mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) often go undetected on standard neuropsychological tests, despite complaints by mild TBI individuals. We conducted a visual Repetition Detection working memory task to digits, in which we manipulated task difficulty by increasing cognitive load, to identify subtle deficits long after a mild TBI. Twenty-six undergraduate students with a self-report of one mild TBI, which occurred at least 6 months prior, and 31 non-head-injured controls took part in the study. Participants were not informed until study completion that the study's purpose was to examine cognitive changes following a mild TBI, to reduce the influence of "diagnosis threat" on performance. Neuropsychological tasks did not differentiate the groups, though mild TBI participants reported higher state anxiety levels. On our working memory task, the mild TBI group took significantly longer to accurately detect repeated targets on our task, suggesting that slowed information processing is a long-term consequence of mild TBI. Accuracy was comparable in the low-load condition and, unexpectedly, mild TBI performance surpassed that of controls in the high-load condition. Temporal analysis of target identification suggested a strategy difference between groups: mild TBI participants made a significantly greater number of accurate responses following the target's offset, and significantly fewer erroneous distracter responses prior to target onset, compared with controls. Results suggest that long after a mild TBI, high-functioning young adults invoke a strategy of delaying their identification of targets in order to maintain, and facilitate, accuracy on cognitively demanding tasks. PMID:22068441

Ozen, Lana J; Fernandes, Myra A

2011-11-07

232

Corrosion performance of chemically synthesized poly(aniline- co - o -toluidine) copolymer coating on mild steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A soluble copolymer from aniline and o-toluidine [poly(aniline-co-o-toluidine)] was synthesized by chemical oxidative copolymerization using ammonium persulphate as an oxidant in hydrochloride\\u000a aqueous medium. The resultant copolymer was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and chemically\\u000a deposited on mild steel specimens using N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) as solvent via solution evaporation method. The anticorrosive properties of copolymer coating\\u000a was investigated in

M. Mobin; N. Tanveer

233

Influence of 2,3-Dihydroxyflavanone on Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel in Acidic Medium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inhibition effect of 2,3-dihydroxyflavone on the corrosion of mild steel in 100-600 ppm aqueous hydrochloric acid solution has been investigated by weight loss and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The corrosion inhibition efficiency increases with increasing concentration and time. The effect of temperature on the corrosion behavior of mild steel in 1 M HCl with addition of inhibitor was studied at the temperature range of 300-330 K. UV-Vis, FTIR, and surface analysis (SEM) was also carried out to establish the corrosion inhibitive property of this inhibitor in HCl solution. The adsorption of this inhibitor on the mild steel surface obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Electrochemical studies reveal that the inhibitor is a cathodic type.

Gopiraman, M.; Sathya, C.; Vivekananthan, S.; Kesavan, D.; Sulochana, N.

2012-02-01

234

Cognitive Bibliotherapy for Mild and Moderate Adolescent Depressive Symptomatology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of cognitive bibliotherapy for adolescents experiencing mild and moderate depressive symptomatology was examined with a group of 22 community-dwelling adolescents. Cognitive bibliotherapy was determined to be superior to a delayed-treatment control condition. The treatment produced both statistically and clinically significant improvements in depressive symptoms. Treatment gains were maintained at 1-month follow-up. A significant decrease in dysfunctional thoughts, but

Joseph Ackerson; Forrest Scogin; Nancy McKendree-Smith; Robert D. Lyman

1998-01-01

235

Current treatment options for depression after mild traumatic brain injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is the most common neurologic condition in the United States; about 503 of every 100,000\\u000a persons visiting the emergency department have this diagnosis. A complex cluster of neurologic signs and symptoms are associated\\u000a with an acceleration-deceleration mechanism of injury. Unfortunately, many persons do not seek treatment for MTBI. Depression\\u000a following MTBI adds to the

Esther Bay

2009-01-01

236

Mission Connect Mild TBI Translational Research Consortium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), particularly mild blast injuries due to improvised exploding devices, result in long term impairment of cognition and behavior. Our hypothesis is that there are inflammatory consequences to mTBI that persist over time a...

C. E. Hulsebosch D. S. DeWitt J. R. Perez-Polo R. J. Grill

2012-01-01

237

The blind side of mild fear  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to improve our understanding of social workers' fear, highlighting when and why mild fear might be helpful in social work practice, by drawing data from the author's own experience as a social worker and senior practitioner in the United Kingdom. The findings demonstrate that mild fear helps the social worker to better empathise with the child and

Paula Br?escu

2011-01-01

238

Early Intervention for Preschoolers with Mild Disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a pilot project on an early intervention program for 40 preschoolers with mild disabilities. Its main objective was to ascertain the feasibility of integrating children with mild disabilities into mainstream preschool centers in Singapore. Professional staff including psychologists, occupational therapists, speech and physio?therapists intervened through the provision of services and consultations to the teachers and parents and

Marilyn Mayling Quah

1998-01-01

239

Outpatient Diverticulitis: Mild or Myth?  

PubMed Central

Background Diverticulitis is considered common in the outpatient population, with mild variants of described diagnostic criteria: left lower quadrant pain, fever, and leukocytosis. Here, expected criteria utilization among outpatients with a possible diagnosis of diverticulitis is assessed. Study Design Primary care acute clinic visits in 2008 for diverticulitis (ICD-9 562.11/562.13) or left lower quadrant pain (789.04) were identified among patients ?40 years old. Encounters were reviewed through structured manual chart abstraction, and evaluated for diagnostic accuracy compared to expected criteria. Analysis included inter-rater reliability (kappa tests) and descriptive frequencies by diagnosis code and diverticulitis rating (?2-tests). Results 376 acute visits were identified with codes for diverticulitis (n=97) or left lower quadrant pain (n=279). High inter-rater reliability was demonstrated for key clinical variables (kappa=0.84–1.0). Left lower quadrant pain was reported in >75% of patients, while temperature and white blood cell count data were frequently unavailable. Lack of these expected criteria resulted in low diagnostic accuracy ratings ("No/Unlikely" – 53.6% diverticulitis, 88.2% left lower quadrant pain, p<0.001). Conclusions This investigation raises concern for low accuracy in the outpatient diagnosis of diverticulitis due to inconsistent use of expected criteria, suggesting a smaller population with true diverticulitis than previously anticipated, or lack of criteria applicability in this setting.

O'Connor, Erin S.; Smith, Maureen A.; Heise, Charles P.

2013-01-01

240

[Mild cognitive impairment: imaging data].  

PubMed

The diagnosis of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) as defined by Petersen et al. (1997), is based uniquely on clinical observations. Cerebral imaging, both morphological and functional, may in fact facilitate diagnosis, particularly with regard to the differentiation of sub-types of MCI and the identification of prodromal AD (MCI-AD). Volumetric Magnetic Resonance Imagery (MRI) examination of structures affected early in AD such as entorhinal cortex, the temporal lobe and, above all, the hippocampus, are especially useful. Hypoactivity within these regions, especially of the temporal lobe and posterior cingulate gyrus by Positon Emission Tomography, and more recently monophotonic emission tomoscintigraphy, also appears to have diagnostic utility. Studies of cholinergic system activity by functional imaging may also be of future value in MCI-AD diagnosis. MRI used in conjunction with other techniques may be of significant value, in particular the use of spectro-MRI and functional MRI. This latter technique, leading to the development of cognitive activation paradigms, is particularly promising. PMID:12529582

Touchon, J; Portet, F

2002-01-01

241

Ions in Aqueous Solution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 11-page PDF document is part of an environmental geochemistry course taught by Dr. David Sherman at the University of Bristol. Topics include the aqueous behavior of ions based on their size and charge, the meaning of activity of ions in aqueous solution, the equilibrium constant, complexation of ions and hydrolysis of cations. Also included are informative illustrations, diagrams and equations.

Sherman, David M.; Bristol, University O.

242

Cerebrovascular pathophysiology following mild traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) or sport-induced concussion has recently become a prominent concern not only in the athletic setting (i.e. sports venue) but also in the general population. The majority of research to date has aimed at understanding the neurological and neuropsychological outcomes of injury as well as return-to-play guidelines. Remaining relatively unexamined has been the pathophysiological aspect of mTBI. Recent technological advances including transcranial Doppler ultrasound and near infrared spectroscopy have allowed researchers to examine the systemic effects of mTBI from rest to exercise, and during both asymptomatic and symptomatic conditions. In this review, we focus on the current research available from both human and experimental (animal) studies surrounding the pathophysiology of mTBI. First, the quest for a unified definition of mTBI, its historical development and implications for future research is discussed. Finally, the impact of mTBI on the control and regulation of cerebral blood flow, cerebrovascular reactivity, cerebral oxygenation and neuroautonomic cardiovascular regulation, all of which may be compromised with mTBI, is discussed. PMID:21078064

Len, T K; Neary, J P

2010-11-15

243

Mild cognitive impairment: believe it or not?  

PubMed

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) was previously defined as a transitional state that can precede dementia, but the condition and the rates of conversion remain controversial. MCI is now the focus of natural history studies, along with Alzheimer's disease (AD) prevention. The objective of our review will be to consider the question of whether MCI is a well enough established entity that it can be a diagnosis in medical practice and a valid target of Alzheimer's prevention therapy. MCI was originally defined by Petersen et al. (1999) as progressive memory loss, prodrome of Alzheimer's disease. More recently MCI has been expanded to other cognitive domains with other potential causes like normal aging, fronto-temporal dementia, and vascular dementia. Despite many consensus conferences, experts cannot agree on critical aspects of the MCI, particularly with respect to its clinical utility. Based on neuropsychological studies, a hippocampal memory profile has been proposed for MCI as prodromal AD. Further research is needed to advance these criteria. We have no doubt, however, that in the future, the diagnosis of AD as disease (not only a dementia syndrome) will be made in the early pre-dementia stage and will be drawn from a combination of neuropsychological, neuro-imaging and CSF biomarkers. PMID:18925484

Allegri, Ricardo F; Glaser, Frank B; Taragano, Fernando E; Buschke, Herman

2008-08-01

244

Evaluation of aqueous-foam surfactants for geothermal drilling fluids  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous foams are potentially useful drilling and cleanout fluids for geothermal applications. Successful use of foams requires surfactants (foaming agents) that can survive in the high-temperature geothermal environment. In this study, solutions of aqueous-foam-forming surfactants have been exposed to 260/sup 0/C (500/sup 0/F) and 310/sup 0/C (590/sup 0/F) in various chemical environments to determine if they can survive and make foams after exposure. Comparison of foams before and after exposure and the change in solution pH were used to evaluate their performance. Controlled liquid-volume-fraction foams, made in a packed-bed foam generator, were used for all tests. These tests have shown that many commercially available surfactants can survive short high-temperature cycles in mild acids, mild bases, and salt solutions as evidenced by their ability to make foams after exposure to high temperatures.

Rand, P.B.; Montoya, O.J.

1983-07-01

245

Comparative Efficacy of Cognitive and Behavioral Bibliotherapy for Mildly and Moderately Depressed Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of bibliotherapy for mildly and moderately depressed older adults was examined. Cognitive bibliotherapy and behavioral bibliotherapy were compared with a delayed-treatment control condition. Results indicate that the two experimental conditions were superior to the control condition, but that the cognitive and behavioral bibliotherapies were nondifferentially efficacious. Sixty-six percent of the subjects demonstrated clinically significant change. There were no

Forrest Scogin; Christine Jamison; Kimberly Gochneaur

1989-01-01

246

A simple aqueous metathesis reaction yields new lanthanide monothiophosphates  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the synthesis and characterization of two, new rare earth monothiophosphate materials, LaPO{sub 3}S.xH{sub 2}O and NdPO{sub 3}S.yH{sub 2}O, and their properties in comparison to the corresponding orthophosphates prepared by a similar aqueous metathesis reaction. Each of these new materials was found to exist in an amorphous phase similar to a corresponding orthophosphate mineral. The new rhabdophane-type oxythiophosphates were found to display reversible dehydration and rehydration under mild conditions. The materials were found to be thermally unstable. Disproportionation was found to occur at less than 450 deg. C under vacuum. Sulfur is lost during heating in air between 450 and 650 deg. C, according to thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) experiments, yielding the orthophosphate. The monothiophosphate hydrates display broad photoluminescence in the visible under excitation by a 325 nm laser. The compounds were also analyzed using differential thermal analysis, FT-IR and UV/vis/NIR spectroscopy. - Graphical abstract: This paper describes the synthesis and characterization of two, new rare earth monothiophosphate materials, LaPO{sub 3}S.xH{sub 2}O and NdPO{sub 3}S.yH{sub 2}O. Each of these was found to exist in a phase similar to the orthophosphate mineral, rhabdophane. The monothiophosphate hydrates displayed broad photoluminescence in the visible under excitation by a 325 nm laser.

Takas, Nathan J.; Slomka, Lauren E. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA 15282 (United States); Yang Xiaocheng; Giles, Nancy [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Aitken, Jennifer A. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA 15282 (United States)], E-mail: Aitkenj@duq.edu

2008-11-15

247

Microfluidic synthesis of monodisperse Cu nanoparticles in aqueous solution.  

PubMed

The continuous production of Cu nanoparticles with a particle size of 2-5 nm was conducted by sodium borohydride reduction of copper sulfate in aqueous solution in a tube-in-tube microchannel reactor (TMR), which consists of an inner tube and an outer tube with the reaction performed in the annular microchannel between these two tubes. The as-prepared Cu nanoparticles were compared with those obtained by a conventional batch synthesis process by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-vis spectroscopy. Due to the highly intensified micromixing effects in the TMR, Cu nanoparticles prepared by this route exhibits a smaller particle size, narrower size distribution and better stability in air. The TMR shows an excellent ability of preparing high-quality Cu nanoparticles in mild conditions. In addition, with the unique microchannel structure, the throughput capability of the TMR for the production of Cu nanoparticles is up to several liters per minute. PMID:21770158

Ke, Te; Zeng, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Jie-Xin; Le, Yuan; Chu, Guang-Wen; Chen, Jian-Feng; Shao, Lei

2011-06-01

248

MILD system: Maskless implantation for local doping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SEN Corporation has developed a very flexible dose pattern modulation system called ``MIND+''. This system can be used for yield enhancement by compensating for variation induced by other processes. In this paper, another important feature of SEN's single-wafer implanters is introduced. The system is called the ``MILD'' system, standing for ``Maskless Implantation for Local Doping.'' MILD provides the capability to implant dopants at any positions on a wafer without hard masks or photo-resist patterns. In this paper, MILD system operation and results will be described.

Ninomiya, Shiro; Okamoto, Yasuharu; Ochi, Akihiro; Yumiyama, Toshio; Matsugi, Hidekazu; Taroura, Hajime; Ookita, Yoshiaki; Tsukihara, Mitsukuni; Fuse, Genshu; Ueno, Kazuyoshi

2012-11-01

249

Toxicity studies of mild gasification products  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project are: (1) to perform mutagenicity studies with the Ames Salmonella/microsomal assay system on coal liquids produced by mild gasification from different coals and/or processing conditions, (2) to determine whether coal liquids which are mutagenic to bacteria are also genotoxic to mammalian cells, (3) to establish correlations between mutagenicity, aromaticity, and boiling point range of coal liquids, and (4) to identify the chemical classes which are likely to be responsible for the mutagenic activity of gasification products. Four of the seven samples tested so far failed to demonstrate any mutagenic activity under any conditions tested. Those samples were SHELL[number sign]830331, MG-122IBP-420[degree]F, MG-122 420--720[degree]F, and MG-122 720[degree]F+. Table 1 summarizes the results from all samples tested in DMSO and Tween 80. When solvated in DMSO, MG-119 and MG-120 composite materials displayed slight, but ultimately insignificant, genotoxic activity on TA98 and TA1OO in the presence of S9. When Tween 80 was used as the solvent, MG-119 and MG-120 displayed slight, but significant, geno-toxic activity on TA98 with S9 (Figure 4). CTC[number sign]11 in DMSO displayed significant genotoxic activity on both TA98 and TA1OO with and without S9. The activity was higher on TA98 than TA100, and higher with S9 than without, primarily indicating the presence of indirect-acting frameshift mutagen. The results of the testing on CTC[number sign]11 were similar for both solvents, DMSO and Tween 80 (Table 2).

Ong, T.M.; Whong, W.Z.; Ma, J.; Zhong, B.Z.; Bryant, D.

1992-01-01

250

Toxicity studies of mild gasification products  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project are: (1) to perform mutagenicity studies with the Ames Salmonella/microsomal assay system on coal liquids produced by mild gasification from different coals and/or processing conditions, (2) to determine whether coal liquids which are mutagenic to bacteria are also genotoxic to mammalian cells, (3) to establish correlations between mutagenicity, aromaticity, and boiling point range of coal liquids, and (4) to identify the chemical classes which are likely to be responsible for the mutagenic activity of gasification products. Four of the seven samples tested so far failed to demonstrate any mutagenic activity under any conditions tested. Those samples were SHELL{number_sign}830331, MG-122IBP-420{degree}F, MG-122 420--720{degree}F, and MG-122 720{degree}F+. Table 1 summarizes the results from all samples tested in DMSO and Tween 80. When solvated in DMSO, MG-119 and MG-120 composite materials displayed slight, but ultimately insignificant, genotoxic activity on TA98 and TA1OO in the presence of S9. When Tween 80 was used as the solvent, MG-119 and MG-120 displayed slight, but significant, geno-toxic activity on TA98 with S9 (Figure 4). CTC{number_sign}11 in DMSO displayed significant genotoxic activity on both TA98 and TA1OO with and without S9. The activity was higher on TA98 than TA100, and higher with S9 than without, primarily indicating the presence of indirect-acting frameshift mutagen. The results of the testing on CTC{number_sign}11 were similar for both solvents, DMSO and Tween 80 (Table 2).

Ong, T.M.; Whong, W.Z.; Ma, J.; Zhong, B.Z.; Bryant, D.

1992-11-01

251

Effect of electrolyte and monomer concentration on anticorrosive properties of poly( N-methylaniline) and poly( N-ethylaniline) coated mild steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrosynthesis of poly(N-methylaniline) (PNMA) and poly(N-ethylaniline) (PNEA) coatings on mild steel in aqueous oxalic acid solutions was carried out by potentiodynamic synthesis technique. The effects of monomer and electrolyte concentrations on electrochemical growth of PNMA and PNEA coatings on mild steel substrates were investigated. Repassivation peak did not appear during electrosynthesis of PNMA and PNEA coatings from solutions containing

Aziz Ya?an; Nuran Özçiçek Pekmez; Attila Y?ld?z

2006-01-01

252

Inhibition by phosphates of mild steel and cast iron in cooling water  

SciTech Connect

The effectiveness of corrosion inhibition of mild steel and cast iron in cooling water systems by phosphonates has been studied by electrochemical techniques and weight-loss tests. The following phosphonates were investigated: aminotrimethylene phosphonate (AMP), 1-hydroxyethylene 1,1-diphosphonate (HEDP), and 2-phosphonobutane 1,2,4-tricarboxylic acid (PBTA). It was shown that corrosion inhibition of mild steel can be achieved with lower concentrations of phosphonates as compared to corrosion inhibition of cast iron. BC-80, a new inhibitor that protects mild steel, cast iron, and copper alloys in cooling water systems, was developed and tested in laboratory and field conditions.

Starostina, M.; Smorodin, A.; Gal-Or, L. (Israel Inst. of Metals (Israel))

1999-03-01

253

Mission Connect Mild TBI Translational Research Consortium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report outlines the overall activities of the Mission Connect Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) Translational Research Consortium during the time period of August 1, 2009 through July 31, 2010. Dr. John Holcomb serves as the Initiating Investigator a...

J. B. Holcomb

2010-01-01

254

Carotid dissection causing stroke in a 13-year-old boy with mild hyperhomocysteinemia: case report.  

PubMed

The author describes a 13-year-old Thai boy who developed stroke caused by carotid dissection and found mild elevation of plasma homocysteine (tHcy). The patient improved after anticoagulation therapy and his plasma tHcy decreased after vitamin supplement. With long-term follow-up, he is having normal neurological condition. This case proposes that the pathogenesis of carotid dissection may associate with mild hyperhomocysteinemia. PMID:21675455

Lusawat, Apasri

2011-05-01

255

Subsensitivity to rewarding and locomotor stimulant effects of a dopamine agonist following chronic mild stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic exposure to very mild unpredictable stress has previously been found to reduce or abolish the acquisition of place preference conditioning. In the present study, chronic mild stress was found to abolish the acquisition of preferences for a distinctive environment paired with systemic administration of amphetamine (0.5 mg\\/kg) or quinpirole (100–400 µg\\/kg) or with quinpirole (0.75 µg) administered bilaterally within

Mariusz Papp; Richard Muscat; Paul Willner

1993-01-01

256

Mild hyperuricemia induces vasoconstriction and maintains glomerular hypertension in normal and remnant kidney rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mild hyperuricemia induces vasoconstriction and maintains glomerular hypertension in normal and remnant kidney rats.BackgroundHyperuricemia has been associated with renal disease. Because glomerular hemodynamic alterations critically contribute to initiation and progression of renal disease, we evaluated the effect of mild hyperuricemia in glomerular microcirculatory changes in rats under normal conditions and with renal injury induced by subtotal renal ablation (RK).MethodsHyperuricemia was

Laura G. Sanchez-Lozada; EDILIA TAPIA; JOSÉ SANTAMARÍA; CARMEN AVILA-CASADO; VIRGILIA SOTO; TOMÁS NEPOMUCENO; BERNARDO RODRÍGUEZ-ITURBE; Richard J. Johnson; JAIME HERRERA-ACOSTA

2005-01-01

257

Size and shape-controlled synthesis of colloidal gold through autoreduction of the auric cation by poly(ethylene oxide) poly(propylene oxide) block copolymers in aqueous solutions at ambient conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gold nanoparticles with an average diameter in the range 5-20 nm have been synthesized from hydrogen tetrachloroaureate (III) hydrate (HAuCl4·3H2O) in air-saturated aqueous PEO-PPO-PEO block copolymer solutions at ambient temperature in the absence of any other reducing agent (PEO: poly(ethylene oxide), PPO: poly(propylene oxide)). The particle size was controlled by the block copolymer concentration and PEO and PPO block lengths.

Toshio Sakai; Paschalis Alexandridis

2005-01-01

258

Gas hydrates of methane, ethane, propane, and carbon dioxide in the presence of single NaCl, KCl, and CaCl 2 aqueous solutions: Experimental measurements and predictions of dissociation conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental dissociation data for methane, ethane, propane, and carbon dioxide simple hydrates in the presence of NaCl, KCl, and CaCl2 aqueous solutions with different concentrations of single salt are reported in this communication. The experimental data were generated using a reliable isochoric technique. Some of the experimental hydrate dissociation data measured in this study are compared with some selected experimental

Amir H. Mohammadi; Waheed Afzal; Dominique Richon

2008-01-01

259

Some Loop Experiments in NRX Reactor to Study The Corrosion of Mild Steel by Flowing Water at 90 deg F  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work was undertaken to find the water conditions necessary for minimum corrosion in the mild steel thermal shield recirculating systems in NRX and NRU. This report contains the chemical and corrosion results obtained by operating three mild steel loops in which water at 85-95 deg F was recirculated through test sections located in J-rod positions in the NRX reactor.

Allison

1956-01-01

260

Reaction pathways and product yields in mild thermal cracking of vacuum residues: A multi-lump kinetic model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mild thermal cracking of vacuum residue is used in an oil refinery for ‘bottom of the barrel’ upgradation in the form of visbreaking. Lab scale studies were conducted in a batch reactor to study the cracking behavior of vacuum residues at mild severity conditions in terms of lumping of distillate fractions. Four residual feedstocks of Indian and Middle East origin,

Jasvinder Singh; M. M. Kumar; Alok K. Saxena; Surendra Kumar

2005-01-01

261

Mild traumatic brain injury in translation.  

PubMed

This Introduction to a Special Issue on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI) highlights the methodological challenges in outcome studies and clinical trials involving patients who sustain mTBI. Recent advances in brain imaging and portable, computerized cognitive tasks have contributed to protocols that are sensitive to the effects of mTBI and efficient in time for completion. Investigation of civilian mTBI has been extended to single and repeated injuries in athletes and blast-related mTBI in service members and veterans. Despite differences in mechanism of injury, there is evidence for similar effects of acceleration-deceleration and blast mechanisms of mTBI on cognition. Investigation of repetitive mTBI suggests that the effects may be cumulative and that repeated mTBI and repeated subconcussive head trauma may lead to neurodegenerative conditions. Although animal models of mTBI using cortical impact and fluid percussion injury in rodents have been able to reproduce some of the cognitive deficits frequently exhibited by patients after mTBI, modeling post-concussion symptoms is difficult. Recent use of closed head and blast injury animal models may more closely approximate clinical mTBI. Translation of interventions that are developed in animal models to patients with mTBI is a priority for the research agenda. This Special Issue on mTBI integrates basic neuroscience studies using animal models with studies of human mTBI, including the cognitive sequelae, persisting symptoms, brain imaging, and host factors that facilitate recovery. PMID:23046349

Levin, Harvey S; Robertson, Claudia S

2013-03-14

262

Removal of copper from aqueous solutions by phosphate rock  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was carried out to examine the removal of copper from an aqueous solution by phosphate rock (PR). The adsorption method was applied and optimum conditions for adsorption were evaluated by changing various parameters; effects of pH, adsorbent concentration, initial metal concentration and contact time were investigated. The study shows that copper removal from an aqueous solution increases with

M. Sarioglu; Ü. A. Atay; Y. Cebeci

2005-01-01

263

Sensory Profiles of Sweeteners in Aqueous Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

ŠEDIVÁ A., PANOVSK Á Z., POKORN Ý J. (2006): Sensory profiles of sweeteners in aqueous solutions. Czech J. Food Sci., 24: 283-287. Sensory profiles of saccharin, acesulfame K, aspartame, and neotame were compared with that of sucrose in three different types of water (tap water, commerical Crystalis water, and distilled water) under the conditions of the respec- tive ISO standards.

JAN POKORNÝ

264

Treatment of mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

PubMed Central

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an epidemic in many parts of the world. Most patients with COPD demonstrate mild disease. The cornerstone of management of mild disease is smoking cessation, which is the only proven intervention to relieve symptoms, modify its natural history and reduce mortality. For asymptomatic patients, it is the only required therapy. Short-acting bronchodilators can be added on an as needed basis for those with intermittent symptoms and regularly for those with persistent symptoms. Long-acting bronchodilators can be substituted for those who remain symptomatic despite regular use of short-acting bronchodilators. Inhaled corticosteroids do not modify the natural history of COPD and as such cannot be recommended as standalone therapy for mild COPD. However, for patients with refractory and intractable symptoms, they may be used in combination with long-acting beta-2 agonists. Influenza and pneumococcal vaccination and pulmonary rehabilitation are other therapies that may be considered for select patients with mild disease. In this paper, we summarize the current standard of care for patients with mild COPD.

Chee, Alex; Sin, Don D

2008-01-01

265

Mild hypothermia in neurologic emergency: an update.  

PubMed

Induced hypothermia to treat various neurologic emergencies, which had initially been introduced into clinical practice in the 1940s and 1950s, had become obsolete by the 1980s. In the early 1990s, however, it made a comeback in the treatment of severe traumatic brain injury. The success of mild hypothermia led to the broadening of its application to many other neurologic emergencies. We sought to summarize recent developments in mild hypothermia, as well as its therapeutic potential and limitations. Mild hypothermia has been applied with varying degrees of success in many neurologic emergencies, including traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, ischemic stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage, out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest, hepatic encephalopathy, perinatal asphyxia (hypoxic-anoxic encephalopathy), and infantile viral encephalopathy. At present, the efficacy and safety of mild hypothermia remain unproved. Although the preliminary clinical studies have shown that mild hypothermia can be a feasible and relatively safe treatment, multicenter randomized, controlled trials are warranted to define the indications for induced hypothermia in an evidence-based fashion. PMID:12140503

Inamasu, Joji; Ichikizaki, Kiyoshi

2002-08-01

266

Science instruction for the mildly handicapped: Direct instruction versus discovery teaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors' purpose in this study was to compare the effectiveness of two instructional approaches on mildly handicapped and nonhandicapped students' science achievement. Students were assigned at random to one of two conditions: (a) direct instruction, and (b) discovery teaching. The content of the lessons remained constant across conditions and focused on such concepts as displacement, flotation, variable, controlled experimentation,

Mary Bay; John R. Staver; Tanis Bryan; James B. Hale

1992-01-01

267

Cognitive and emotional dysfunction in mild cognitive impairment.  

PubMed

Although mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a widely accepted construct both clinically and in the research literature, it remains a heterogeneous condition that varies in presentation and prognosis. This article first reviews the evolution of the diagnosis of MCI, followed by examination of pros and cons of cognitive assessments commonly used to assess for MCI. Emotional changes commonly seen in MCI are also reviewed. Finally, the relation between cognitive and emotional dysfunction is examined, including a discussion of specific psychological symptoms seen in subtypes of MCI, and how the presence of neuropsychiatric symptoms may affect the risk for progression to dementia. PMID:24094296

Penna, Suzanne

2013-11-01

268

Mild Conversion of ?-Diketones and ?-Ketoesters to Carboxylic Acids  

PubMed Central

A mild protocol for the conversion of ?-ketoesters and ?-diketones to carboxylic acids using CAN in CH3CN is described. The method is compatible with a number of functional groups, and can generate carboxylic acids under neutral conditions at room temperature. The reaction is fast and general, providing an alternative method to the commonly used malonic ester acid preparation. Initial mechanistic studies show that initial oxidation of the enol form of the ?-dicarbonyl initiates the reaction. The presence of nitrate as an oxidant ligand or as an additive is critical for success of the reaction.

Zhang, Yang; Jiao, Jingliang

2013-01-01

269

Impaired social cognition in mild Alzheimer disease.  

PubMed

Abnormal decoding of social information has been associated with the conversion from prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD) to dementia. Since the distributed neural networks involved in face processing are differentially affected in prodromal and dementia states of AD and in Fronto-Temporal Dementia (FTD), we hypothesized a differential impairment in face processing in these populations. Facial expression, gender and gaze direction decoding abilities were examined in patients with probable amnesic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI, N=10) fulfilling criteria for prodromal AD, in patients with mild and moderate AD (N=10) as well as in FTD patients (N=10) and in a group of age- and sex-matched healthy comparison subjects (N=10). Gender recognition was preserved in all groups. Compared to controls, patients with mild or moderate AD were impaired in expression recognition and FTD patients were impaired in expression and gaze direction determination, whereas MCI patients were not impaired at all. PMID:19321881

Bediou, Benoit; Ryff, Ilham; Mercier, Bernadette; Milliery, Maud; Hénaff, Marie-Anne; D'Amato, Thierry; Bonnefoy, Marc; Vighetto, Alain; Krolak-Salmon, Pierre

2009-03-25

270

The extent of aqueous alteration in C-class asteroids, and the survival of presolar isotopic signatures in chondrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several sample return missions are being planned by different space agencies for in situ sampling of undifferentiated bodies. Such missions wish to bring back to Earth pristine samples from C-class asteroids and comets to obtain clues on solar system formation conditions. A careful selection of targeted areas is required as many C-class asteroids and periodic comets have been subjected to collisional and space weathering processing since their formation. Their surfaces have been reworked by impacts as pointed out by the brecciated nature of many chondrites arrived to Earth, exhibiting different levels of thermal and aqueous alteration. It is not surprising that pristine chondrites can be considered quite rare in meteorite collections because they were naturally sampled in collisions, but several groups of carbonaceous chondrites contain a few members with promising unaltered properties. The CI and CM groups suffered extensive aqueous alteration [1], but for the most part escaped thermal metamorphism (only a few CMs evidence heating temperature over several hundred K). Both chondrite groups are water-rich, containing secondary minerals as consequence of the pervasive alteration of their primary mineral phases [2]. CO, CV, and CR chondrite groups suffered much less severe aqueous alteration, but some CRs are moderately aqueously altered. All five groups are good candidates to find unequilibrated materials between samples unaffected by aqueous alteration or metamorphism. The water was incorporated during accretion, and was released as consequence of shock after impact compaction, and/or by mild radiogenic heating. Primary minerals were transformed by water into secondary ones. Water soaking the bodies participated in chemical homogenization of the different components [1]. Hydrothermal alteration and collisional metamorphism changed the abundances of isotopically distinguishable presolar silicates [3]. Additional instruments in the landers to identify aqueous alteration signatures could help to get samples unbiased by parent body processes. Future work in this regard could be essential to successfully getting back to Earth samples to unveil the conditions in which the solar system formed. REF: [1] Trigo-Rodriguez J.M. & Blum J. 2009. Plan. Space Sci.57,243; [2] Rubin et al. (2007) GCA 71,2361; [3] Trigo-Rodriguez J.M. & Blum J. (2009). Pub.Ast.Soc.Aust.26,289

Trigo-Rodriguez, J. M.

2011-05-01

271

Corrosion inhibitor for aqueous ammonia absorption system  

DOEpatents

A method of inhibiting corrosion and the formation of hydrogen and thus improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption refrigeration, air conditioning or heat pump system by maintaining the hydroxyl ion concentration of the aqueous ammonia working fluid within a selected range under anaerobic conditions at temperatures up to 425.degree. F. This hydroxyl ion concentration is maintained by introducing to the aqueous ammonia working fluid an inhibitor in an amount effective to produce a hydroxyl ion concentration corresponding to a normality of the inhibitor relative to the water content ranging from about 0.015 N to about 0.2 N at 25.degree. C. Also, working fluids for inhibiting the corrosion of carbon steel and resulting hydrogen formation and improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption system under anaerobic conditions at up to 425.degree. F. The working fluids may be aqueous solutions of ammonia and a strong base or aqueous solutions of ammonia, a strong base, and a specified buffer.

Phillips, Benjamin A. (Benton Harbor, MI); Whitlow, Eugene P. (St. Joseph, MI)

1998-09-22

272

Corrosion inhibitor for aqueous ammonia absorption system  

DOEpatents

A method is described for inhibiting corrosion and the formation of hydrogen and thus improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption refrigeration, air conditioning or heat pump system by maintaining the hydroxyl ion concentration of the aqueous ammonia working fluid within a selected range under anaerobic conditions at temperatures up to 425 F. This hydroxyl ion concentration is maintained by introducing to the aqueous ammonia working fluid an inhibitor in an amount effective to produce a hydroxyl ion concentration corresponding to a normality of the inhibitor relative to the water content ranging from about 0.015 N to about 0.2 N at 25 C. Also, working fluids for inhibiting the corrosion of carbon steel and resulting hydrogen formation and improving absorption in an ammonia/water absorption system under anaerobic conditions at up to 425 F. The working fluids may be aqueous solutions of ammonia and a strong base or aqueous solutions of ammonia, a strong base, and a specified buffer. 5 figs.

Phillips, B.A.; Whitlow, E.P.

1998-09-22

273

Prognosis for mild traumatic brain injury: results of the who collaborating centre task force on mild traumatic brain injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

We searched the literature on the epidemiology, diagnosis, prognosis, treatment and costs of mild traumatic brain injury. Of 428 studies related to prognosis after mild traumatic brain injury, 120 (28%) were accepted after critical review. These comprise our best-evidence synthesis on prognosis after mild traumatic brain injury. There was consistent and methodologically sound evidence that chil- dren's prognosis after mild

Linda J Carroll; J. David Cassidy; Paul M. Peloso; Jörgen Borg; Hans von Holst; Lena Holm; Chris Paniak; Michel Pépin

2004-01-01

274

Aqueous carbonaceous slurries  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous carbonaceous slurries having reduced viscosity, a stabilized network of coal in water and improved pumpability are obtained by having present a salt of naphthalenesulfonic acid formaldehyde condensate and at least one water soluble polymer selected from the group consisting of gum karaya, mixtures of gum karaya and polyacrylamide and polysaccaride modified with polyacrylate. For example, a mixture of 61.5% by weight of ammonium naphthalenesulfonic acid formaldehyde condensate and 38.5% by weight of gum karaya can be added to an aqueous coal slurry in an amount of 0.13% by weight of the slurry.

Schick, M.J.; Knitter, K.A.

1983-11-15

275

Biothanol production from barley hull using SAA (Soaking in aqueous ammonia) pretreatment  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Barley hull, a type of lignocellulosic biomass, was pretreated using aqueous ammonia to improve its enzymatic saccharification. Barley hull was soaked in 15-30 wt.% aqueous ammonia (SAA method) at 30-75'C for 1 day-11 weeks using a batch reactor. Under these conditions, SAA (soaking in aqueous ammon...

276

One-Pot Oxidation of Alanine and Its Ethyl Ester with a Mild Oxidant 4?-Methylazobenzene-2-sulfenyl Bromide  

Microsoft Academic Search

One-pot oxidation of alanine and its ethyl ester with a mild oxidant 4?-methylazobenzene-2-sulfenyl bromide is described. Using a nonreactively water-soluble electrophilic species, 4?-methylazobenzene-2-sulfenyl bromide, with L-alanine and its ethyl ester (in 3:1 molar proportions) in aqueous solution at room temperature, the corresponding sulfenimines are prepared. On hydrolysis in acidic medium at room temperature, these sulfenimines give ethanal and pyruvic acid

Pranjit Barman; Saibal Kanti Bhattacharjee; Tirtha Bhattacharjee

2011-01-01

277

Electrochemical synthesis and characterization of poly(5-amino-1-naphthol) on mild steel electrodes for corrosion protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrodeposition of poly(5-amino-1-naphthol) films on mild steel from aqueous perchloric acid is reported. The polymer films are very adherent to the surface and present the same structure as in the case of Pt electrode. The test for corrosion protection of the polymer-coated iron samples was done in acidic solutions (0.4M NaCl+0.1M HCl).

Meneguzzi A; C. A. Ferreira; M. C. Pham; M. Delamar; P. C. Lacaze

1999-01-01

278

Size- and shape-controlled synthesis of colloidal gold through autoreduction of the auric cation by poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide) block copolymers in aqueous solutions at ambient conditions.  

PubMed

Gold nanoparticles with an average diameter in the range 5-20 nm have been synthesized from hydrogen tetrachloroaureate (III) hydrate (HAuCl(4)·3H(2)O) in air-saturated aqueous PEO-PPO-PEO block copolymer solutions at ambient temperature in the absence of any other reducing agent (PEO: poly(ethylene oxide), PPO: poly(propylene oxide)). The particle size was controlled by the block copolymer concentration and PEO and PPO block lengths. Our findings indicate that longer PEO blocks lead to an increase in particle size because of an increase in reaction activity. Adsorption of PO segments on gold nanoparticles seems to prevent particle growth from aggregation, and results in small particle size and high colloidal stability. An increase of the HAuCl(4) concentration causes a change in the particle shape from spherical to triangular or hexagonal nanoplates. PMID:21727451

Sakai, Toshio; Alexandridis, Paschalis

2005-04-15

279

Size- and shape-controlled synthesis of colloidal gold through autoreduction of the auric cation by poly(ethylene oxide) poly(propylene oxide) block copolymers in aqueous solutions at ambient conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gold nanoparticles with an average diameter in the range 5-20 nm have been synthesized from hydrogen tetrachloroaureate (III) hydrate (HAuCl4·3H2O) in air-saturated aqueous PEO-PPO-PEO block copolymer solutions at ambient temperature in the absence of any other reducing agent (PEO: poly(ethylene oxide), PPO: poly(propylene oxide)). The particle size was controlled by the block copolymer concentration and PEO and PPO block lengths. Our findings indicate that longer PEO blocks lead to an increase in particle size because of an increase in reaction activity. Adsorption of PO segments on gold nanoparticles seems to prevent particle growth from aggregation, and results in small particle size and high colloidal stability. An increase of the HAuCl4 concentration causes a change in the particle shape from spherical to triangular or hexagonal nanoplates.

Sakai, Toshio; Alexandridis, Paschalis

2005-07-01

280

Development of an Aqueous Thermodynamic Model for the Tc(IV)-Na{sup +}-OH{sup -}-H{sub 2}O-Gluconate System Under Basic Conditions: Implications for HLW Pretreatment at the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

The solubility of TcO{sub 2} {center_dot} nH{sub 2}O(am) was measured over the pH range of 3 to 2M NaOH and in the absence and in the presence of 0.01 to 0.5 M gluconate. The presence of 0.01 M gluconate results in increased solution concentrations of reduced Tc species of nearly two orders of magnitude relative to measured Tc concentrations in the absence of gluconate throughout the pH range investigated. An aqueous thermodynamic model for the Tc(IV) - Na+ - OH- - H{sub 2}O - gluconate system is developed based on these solubility experiments, spectrophotometric measurements, and XRD data. These experimental results are compared to the Th(IV) - Na+ - OH- - NO{sub 3} - H{sub 2}O - gluconate system and the possible implications for pretreatment strategies of HLW at the Hanford Site is discussed.

Hess, Nancy J.; Xia, Y.X.; Felmy, Andrew R.

2003-09-11

281

Atomistic insights into aqueous corrosion of copper.  

PubMed

Corrosion is a fundamental problem in electrochemistry and represents a mode of failure of technologically important materials. Understanding the basic mechanism of aqueous corrosion of metals such as Cu in presence of halide ions is hence essential. Using molecular dynamics simulations incorporating reactive force-field (ReaxFF), the interaction of copper substrates and chlorine under aqueous conditions has been investigated. These simulations incorporate effects of proton transfer in the aqueous media and are suitable for modeling the bond formation and bond breakage phenomenon that is associated with complex aqueous corrosion phenomena. Systematic investigation of the corrosion process has been carried out by simulating different chlorine concentration and solution states. The structural and morphological differences associated with metal dissolution in the presence of chloride ions are evaluated using dynamical correlation functions. The simulated atomic trajectories are used to analyze the charged states, molecular structure and ion density distribution which are utilized to understand the atomic scale mechanism of corrosion of copper substrates under aqueous conditions. Increased concentration of chlorine and higher ambient temperature were found to expedite the corrosion of copper. In order to study the effect of solution states on the corrosion resistance of Cu, partial fractions of proton or hydroxide in water were configured, and higher corrosion rate at partial fraction hydroxide environment was observed. When the Cl(-) concentration is low, oxygen or hydroxide ion adsorption onto Cu surface has been confirmed in partial fraction hydroxide environment. Our study provides new atomic scale insights into the early stages of aqueous corrosion of metals such as copper. PMID:21702575

Jeon, Byoungseon; Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian K R S; van Duin, Adri C T; Ramanathan, Shriram

2011-06-21

282

Atomistic insights into aqueous corrosion of copper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Corrosion is a fundamental problem in electrochemistry and represents a mode of failure of technologically important materials. Understanding the basic mechanism of aqueous corrosion of metals such as Cu in presence of halide ions is hence essential. Using molecular dynamics simulations incorporating reactive force-field (ReaxFF), the interaction of copper substrates and chlorine under aqueous conditions has been investigated. These simulations incorporate effects of proton transfer in the aqueous media and are suitable for modeling the bond formation and bond breakage phenomenon that is associated with complex aqueous corrosion phenomena. Systematic investigation of the corrosion process has been carried out by simulating different chlorine concentration and solution states. The structural and morphological differences associated with metal dissolution in the presence of chloride ions are evaluated using dynamical correlation functions. The simulated atomic trajectories are used to analyze the charged states, molecular structure and ion density distribution which are utilized to understand the atomic scale mechanism of corrosion of copper substrates under aqueous conditions. Increased concentration of chlorine and higher ambient temperature were found to expedite the corrosion of copper. In order to study the effect of solution states on the corrosion resistance of Cu, partial fractions of proton or hydroxide in water were configured, and higher corrosion rate at partial fraction hydroxide environment was observed. When the Cl- concentration is low, oxygen or hydroxide ion adsorption onto Cu surface has been confirmed in partial fraction hydroxide environment. Our study provides new atomic scale insights into the early stages of aqueous corrosion of metals such as copper.

Jeon, Byoungseon; Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian K. R. S.; van Duin, Adri C. T.; Ramanathan, Shriram

2011-06-01

283

Atomistic insights into aqueous corrosion of copper.  

SciTech Connect

Corrosion is a fundamental problem in electrochemistry and represents a mode of failure of technologically important materials. Understanding the basic mechanism of aqueous corrosion of metals such as Cu in presence of halide ions is hence essential. Using molecular dynamics simulations incorporating reactive force-field (ReaxFF), the interaction of copper substrates and chlorine under aqueous conditions has been investigated. These simulations incorporate effects of proton transfer in the aqueous media and are suitable for modeling the bond formation and bond breakage phenomenon that is associated with complex aqueous corrosion phenomena. Systematic investigation of the corrosion process has been carried out by simulating different chlorine concentration and solution states. The structural and morphological differences associated with metal dissolution in the presence of chloride ions are evaluated using dynamical correlation functions. The simulated atomic trajectories are used to analyze the charged states, molecular structure and ion density distribution which are utilized to understand the atomic scale mechanism of corrosion of copper substrates under aqueous conditions. Increased concentration of chlorine and higher ambient temperature were found to expedite the corrosion of copper. In order to study the effect of solution states on the corrosion resistance of Cu, partial fractions of proton or hydroxide in water were configured, and higher corrosion rate at partial fraction hydroxide environment was observed. When the Cl{sup -} concentration is low, oxygen or hydroxide ion adsorption onto Cu surface has been confirmed in partial fraction hydroxide environment. Our study provides new atomic scale insights into the early stages of aqueous corrosion of metals such as copper.

Jeon, B.; Sankaranarayanan, S. K. R. S.; van Duin, A. C. T.; Ramanathan, S. (Center for Nanoscale Materials); (Harvard Univ.); (Penn State Univ.)

2011-06-21

284

Spread of yield with mild steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tests conducted on mild steel after various heat treatments are reported. Conclusions are drawn on the significance of upper\\u000a yield point and yield-point extension on the shape of yield-zone development. A model is postulated to explain the observations.

R. I. Mair; E. E. Banks

1973-01-01

285

Concussion and Mild Traumatic Brain Injury  

MedlinePLUS

... and Resources Severe TBI Follow us on Facebook Concussion and Mild TBI What is a Concussion? A concussion is a type of traumatic brain ... Find Support and Additional Resources? “Heads Up” on Concussion CDC has created two free online courses – one ...

286

Computer assessment of mild cognitive impairment.  

PubMed

Many older individuals experience cognitive decline with aging. The causes of cognitive dysfunction range from the devastating effects of Alzheimer's disease (AD) to treatable causes of dysfunction and the normal mild forgetfulness described by many older individuals. Even mild cognitive dysfunction can impact medication adherence, impair decision making, and affect the ability to drive or work. However, primary care physicians do not routinely screen for cognitive difficulties and many older patients do not report cognitive problems. Identifying cognitive impairment at an office visit would permit earlier referral for diagnostic work-up and treatment. The Computer Assessment of Mild Cognitive Impairment (CAMCI) is a self-administered, user-friendly computer test that scores automatically and can be completed independently in a quiet space, such as a doctor's examination room. The goal of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of the CAMCI and the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) to identify mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in 524 nondemented individuals > 60 years old who completed a comprehensive neuropsychological and clinical assessment together with the CAMCI and MMSE. We hypothesized that the CAMCI would exhibit good sensitivity and specificity and would be superior compared with the MMSE in these measures. The results indicated that the MMSE was relatively insensitive to MCI. In contrast, the CAMCI was highly sensitive (86%) and specific (94%) for the identification of MCI in a population of community-dwelling nondemented elderly individuals. PMID:19332976

Saxton, Judith; Morrow, Lisa; Eschman, Amy; Archer, Gretchen; Luther, James; Zuccolotto, Anthony

2009-03-01

287

Mission Connect Mild TBI Translational Research Consortium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report outlines Dr. Levin s participation in the Mission Connect Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) Translational Research Consortium during the time period of August 1, 2008 through July 31, 2009. The first year of work on this project has involved s...

H. S. Levin

2009-01-01

288

Perinatal Risk Factors for Mild Motor Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The aetiology of mild motor disability (MMD) is a complex issue and as yet is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of perinatal risk factors in a cohort of 10-year-old boys and girls with (n = 362) and without (n = 1193) MMD. Among the males with MMD there was a higher prevalence of postpartum haemorrhage,…

Hands, Beth; Kendall, Garth; Larkin, Dawne; Parker, Helen

2009-01-01

289

MILD METHYLENETETRAHYDROFOLATE DEFICIENCY AND FOLATE STATUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mild methylenetyetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency can result from a missense mutation, a cytosine-to-thymidine transition at base pair 677 of the MTHFR gene (677C'T). This mutation results in an MTHFR enzyme with reduced specific activity and higher in vitro thermolability. The complex re...

290

Parental representations, cognitive distortions, and mild depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past research has identified several possible diatheses to depression, including dysfunctional attitudes, depressotypic attributional style, and poor parental rearing. The present study examined the relations among these proposed vulnerability factors and their ability to uniquely explain the occurrence of mild depression. Results from 150 undergraduates indicate that lower parental care during childhood was associated with higher current depressive symptoms, and

Mark A. Whisman; Paul Kwon

1992-01-01

291

Structural correlates of mild cognitive impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structural correlates of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) were examined in 105 elderly subjects whose cognitive function ranged from intact to demented, including 38 subjects with MCI. Hippocampal volumes (left and right HcV), brain volume (BV), and grey matter volume (GMV) and white matter volume (WMV) were segmented from high resolution magnetic resonance data sets and normalised to intracranial volume

Henrike Wolf; Anke Hensel; Frithjof Kruggel; Steffi G. Riedel-Heller; Thomas Arendt; Lars-Olof Wahlund; Hermann-Josef Gertz

2004-01-01

292

Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Educational Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The awareness of mild traumatic brain injury as a health concern has increased across a multitude of athletic settings due to a plethora of research and clinical findings that indicate the serious threat concussions pose, particularly to young athletes. The need to provide risk reduction and health promotion education to athletes and parents necessitates an innovative approach. This study explores

Katherine R Racanelli; Folse

2012-01-01

293

Mild hypothermia in neurologic emergency: An update  

Microsoft Academic Search

Induced hypothermia to treat various neurologic emergencies, which had initially been introduced into clinical practice in the 1940s and 1950s, had become obsolete by the 1980s. In the early 1990s, however, it made a comeback in the treatment of severe traumatic brain injury. The success of mild hypothermia led to the broadening of its application to many other neurologic emergencies.

Joji Inamasu; Kiyoshi Ichikizaki

2002-01-01

294

Corrosion of Bare and Galvanized Mild Steel in Arabian Gulf Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Corrosion performance of bare and galvanized mild steel in atmospheric, soil and splash zone exposure conditions was evaluated at a Khaleej Mardumah test station (KMTS) in Jubail Industrial City (JIC) located at Arabian Gulf coast. The samples were exposed for a period of 15 months. During the exposure, the environmental conditions were periodically monitored by analysis of air, soil, groundwater, and seawater samples. The corroded mild steel and galvanized steel samples were examined by SEM, XRD and XRF to identify the corrosion products and study their surface morphology. Weight loss method was employed to determine the corrosion rates. The experimental results showed that intense temperature and humidity variations as well as high chloride and sulfate concentrations in the region result in severe corrosion of bare mild steel especially under the splash zone conditions. A comparison with the corrosion data for other parts of the world shows that atmospheric and soil environments at the selected test site are significantly corrosive to mild steel. The splash zone, on the other hand, is much more corrosive to mild and galvanized steel than the other parts of the world.

Saricimen, H.; Ahmad, A.; Quddus, A.; Aksakal, A.; Ul-Hamid, A.; Siddique, T. A.

2010-10-01

295

Mild cognitive impairment in clinical care  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess how neurologists view mild cognitive impairment (MCI) as a clinical diagnosis and how they treat patients with mild cognitive symptoms. Methods: Members of the American Academy of Neurology with an aging, dementia, or behavioral neurology practice focus were surveyed by self-administered questionnaire. Results: Survey respondents were 420 providers (response rate 48%), and 88% reported at least monthly encounters with patients experiencing mild cognitive symptoms. Most respondents recognize MCI as a clinical diagnosis (90%) and use its diagnostic code for billing purposes (70%). When seeing these patients, most respondents routinely provide counseling on physical (78%) and mental exercise (75%) and communicate about dementia risk (63%); fewer provide information on support services (27%) or a written summary of findings (15%). Most (70%) prescribe cholinesterase inhibitors at least sometimes for this population, with memantine (39%) and other agents (e.g., vitamin E) prescribed less frequently. Respondents endorsed several benefits of a diagnosis of MCI: 1) involving the patient in planning for the future (87%); 2) motivating risk reduction activities (85%); 3) helping with financial planning (72%); and 4) prescribing medications (65%). Some respondents noted drawbacks, including 1) too difficult to diagnose (23%); 2) better described as early Alzheimer disease (21%); and 3) diagnosis can cause unnecessary worry (20%). Conclusions: Patients with mild cognitive symptoms are commonly seen by neurologists, who view MCI as a useful diagnostic category. Information and treatments provided to patients with MCI vary significantly, suggesting a need for practice guidelines and further research on clinical decision-making with this population. GLOSSARY AAMI = age-associated memory impairment; AAN = American Academy of Neurology; AD = Alzheimer disease; CIND = cognitive impairment, no dementia; DSM-V = Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition; MCI = mild cognitive impairment; NOS = not otherwise specified.

Roberts, J.S.; Karlawish, J.H.; Uhlmann, W.R.; Petersen, R.C.; Green, R.C.

2010-01-01

296

Polymeric aqueous coating compositions  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An aqueous coating composition comprising a crosslinkable water-dispersible oligomer(s), a dispersed polymer(s) and optionally a non-crosslinkable water-dispersible oligomer wherein the crosslinkable oligomer(s) and non-crosslinkable oligomer(s) comply with Equation 1 as follows: .times.<.times..times..times..times.<.times. ##EQU00001##

Buckmann; Alfred Jean Paul (Holland, NL); Martin; Emilio (Holland, NL); Overbeek; Gerardus Cornelis (Holland, NL); Van Hilst; Johannes Ludovicus Martinus (Holland, NL); Scheerder; Jurgen (Holland, NL); Steenwinkel; Pablo (Holland, NL); Tennebroek; Ronald (Holland, NL)

2007-05-15

297

Non-Aqueous Primary Cell.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This patent application relates to electrochemical cells and especially to high-energy, liquid cathode, non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cells free from highly toxic materials. A non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell is described which includes a ha...

S. D. James P. H. Smith K. M. O'Neill M. H. Wilson

1986-01-01

298

Steam conditioning of coal for synfuels production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conditioning of coal in steam is being explored for the purpose of improving the yields and quality of condensable product obtainable in the mild gasification of coal. Construction of the fluidized bed mild gasification test facility was completed and shakedown runs immediately commenced using Illinois No. 6 coal. Excellent performance was obtained from the fluid bed and no difficulties with

R. A. Graff; Peizheng. Zhou

1988-01-01

299

Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop a continuous mild gasification process to convert highly caking coals to coal liquids, char and coke for near term commercial application. Task 3, Bench-Scale Char Upgrading Study, has been underway since September 1989. In char upgrading studies, ``green`` uncured char briquettes have been prepared and calcined in 20-pound batches to evaluate the effects of char, binders, and heating conditions on final coke properties. A total of 150. formulations have been tested thus far in this work. Work on Task 4, Process Development Unit (PDU) Mild Gasification Study, has been in progress since February 1991, with the completion of a Continuous Mild Gasification Unit (CMGU) with a design rate of 1000 lb./hr. Since start-up of the CMGU, there have been 72 runs with a variety of operating conditions and coal types.

Wolfe, R.A.; Wright, R.E.; Im, C.J.; Henkelman, M.R.; O`Neal, G.W.

1992-11-01

300

Fixed points and exponential stability of mild solutions of stochastic partial differential equations with delays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fixed-point theory is first used to consider the stability for stochastic partial differential equations with delays. Some conditions for the exponential stability in pth mean as well as in sample path of mild solutions are given. These conditions do not require the monotone decreasing behavior of the delays, which is necessary in [T. Caraballo, K. Liu, Exponential stability of mild solutions of stochastic partial differential equations with delays, Stoch. Anal. Appl. 17 (1999) 743-763; Ruhollan Jahanipur, Stability of stochastic delay evolution equations with monotone nonlinearity, Stoch. Anal. Appl. 21 (2003) 161-181]. Even in this special case, our results also improve the results in [T. Caraballo, K. Liu, Exponential stability of mild solutions of stochastic partial differential equations with delays, Stoch. Anal. Appl. 17 (1999) 743-763].

Luo, Jiaowan

2008-06-01

301

Untreated classical galactosemia patient with mild phenotype.  

PubMed

Despite life-long galactose restriction, long-term complications generally occur in classical galactosemia. We report an adult male with classical galactosemia (Q188R homozygosity, severely reduced erythrocyte galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase activity) who has a surprisingly mild phenotype despite genotype and enzyme activity associated with severe phenotype. Moreover he has a normal galactose intake from the age of 3 years. This case is probably an example of the important role of yet unknown susceptibility and or modifier genes. PMID:16621642

Panis, Bianca; Bakker, Jaap A; Sels, Jean-Pierre J E; Spaapen, Leo J M; van Loon, Luc J C; Rubio-Gozalbo, M Estela

2006-04-18

302

Hopes and facts about mild ovarian stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last two decades, easier and less expensive stimulation treatments have been largely replaced by more complex and more demanding protocols. Since the mid-nineties, long-term gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist stimulation protocols have been widely used. Such lengthy expensive regimens are not free from short- and long-term risks and complications. Mild stimulation protocols reduce the mean number of days of stimulation,

F Ubaldi; L Rienzi; E Baroni; S Ferrero; M Iacobelli; MG Minasi; F Sapienza; S Romano; A Colasante; K Litwicka; E Greco

2007-01-01

303

Electroencephalography and Mild Traumatic Brain Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter is a review and analysis of quantitative EEG (qEEG) for the evaluation of the locations and extent of injury\\u000a to the brain following rapid acceleration\\/deceleration trauma, especially in mild traumatic brain injury (TBI). The earliest\\u000a use of qEEG was by Hans Berger in 1932 and since this time over 1,600 peer reviewed journal articles have been published in

Robert W. Thatcher

304

Forensic Neuropsychology and Mild Traumatic Brain Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last 20 years, the Courts and the legal community have increasingly relied on neuropsychologists to provide opinions,\\u000a guidance, and expertise in the area of brain–behavior relationships. The purpose of this article is to review issues neuropsychologists\\u000a commonly face when asked to evaluate cases with suspected mild traumatic brain injuries (TBI) in the civil or criminal legal\\u000a context. In particular,

Ronald M. Ruff; Christina Weyer Jamora

2008-01-01

305

Mild cognitive impairment with subcortical vascular features  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Objectives: To identify non-demented individuals with cognitive impairment due to a cerebrovascular etiology among those coming to observation\\u000a of a memory clinic and to describe their clinical features and outcome. Methods: Patients were enrolled in a prospective study on early cognitive impairment carried out in a Memory Clinic. Mild cognitive\\u000a impairment of the vascular type (MCI-V) was defined based

Giovanni B. Frisoni; Samantha Galluzzi; Lorena Bresciani; Orazio Zanetti; Cristina Geroldi

2002-01-01

306

Mortality in Individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study aimed to investigate whether mortality is higher for individuals suffering from Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). Methods: A community sample of 1,045 dementia-free individuals aged 75 years and over was examined using neuropsychological tests over a 4.5-year period. Data were analyzed with the Cox proportional hazards model after having been adjusted for age, gender, and incident dementia. Results:

Uta Guehne; Tobias Luck; Anja Busse; Matthias C. Angermeyer; Steffi G. Riedel-Heller

2007-01-01

307

Tunable Aqueous Virtual Micropore  

PubMed Central

A charged micro-particle can be trapped in an aqueous environment by forming a narrow virtual pore – a cylindrical space region in which the particle motion in the radial direction is limited by forces emerging from dynamical interactions of the particle charge and dipole moment with external radio-frequency quadrupole electric field. If the particle satisfies the trap stability criteria its mean motion is reduced exponentially with time due to the viscosity of the aqueous environment. Thereafter the long-time motion of particle is subject only to random, Brownian fluctuations, whose magnitude, influenced by the electrophoretic and dielectrophoretic effects and added to the particle size, determines the radius of the virtual pore, which we demonstrate by comparison of computer simulations and experiment. The measured size of the virtual nanopore could be utilized to estimate the charge of a trapped micro-object.

Park, Jae Hyun; Guan, Weihua; Reed, Mark A.; Krstic, Predrag S.

2012-01-01

308

Aqueous chemistry of iodine  

SciTech Connect

The chemistry of iodine has been examined in aqueous solutions of pH 6 to 10 containing 2500 ppM boron as H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/ at temperatures up to 150/sup 0/C using absorption spectrophotometry to identify and monitor the iodine species present. Kinetic rate constants for the disproportionation of the HOI intermediate, 3HOI= IO/sub 3//sup -/ + 2I/sup -/ + 3H/sup +/, have been measured as a function of pH even though no direct spectral evidence for HOI itself has been observed. An HOI partition coefficient >10/sup 4/ has been estimated; results of ionic strength tests are consistent with HOI being present as an uncharged triatomic species in solution. Redox and radiation effects on the aqueous iodine chemistry have also been described. 11 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Toth, L.M.; Pannell, K.D.; Kirkland, O.L.

1984-01-01

309

Continuous aqueous tritium monitor  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for a selective on-line determination of aqueous tritium concentration is disclosed. A moist air stream of the liquid solution being analyzed is passed through a permeation dryer where the tritium and moisture are selectively removed to a purge air stream. The purge air stream is then analyzed for tritium concentration, humidity, and temperature, which allows computation of liquid tritium concentration. 2 figs.

McManus, G.J.; Weesner, F.J.

1987-10-19

310

Splenectomy in children with "mild" hereditary spherocytosis.  

PubMed

Splenectomy is considered the treatment of choice for patients with "symptomatic" hereditary spherocytosis (HS). Published guidelines offering recommendations for splenectomy in HS categorize patients primarily based on hemoglobin concentration. We performed a retrospective review of 64 children having splenectomy for HS at Children's Medical Center Dallas. On the basis of hemoglobin concentration alone, 16 children (25%) had mild, 38 (59%) moderate, and 10 (16%) severe HS. However, when reticulocyte count was used to categorize disease severity, only 3 patients (5%) having splenectomy would be considered mild, 17 (27%) moderate, and 42 (66%) severe. Despite otherwise having "mild" disease defined by near-normal hemoglobin levels, many children with nontraditional or subjective signs and symptoms related to hemolytic rate received a splenectomy, and, therefore, reticulocyte count might be a more reliable laboratory marker suggesting consideration of splenectomy. A validated assessment tool incorporating quality of life indicators in addition to the traditional medical indications for splenectomy in HS would be valuable in assessing indications for the procedure. PMID:23823113

Roy, Sani M; Buchanan, George R; Crary, Shelley E

2013-08-01

311

Steam Conditioning of Coal for Synfuels Production: Fifth Quarterly Report, January 1-March 31, 1988.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Conditioning of coal in steam is being explored for the purpose of improving the yields and quality of condensable product obtainable in the mild gasification of coal. Construction of the fluidized bed mild gasification test facility was completed and sha...

R. A. Graff P. Zhou

1988-01-01

312

Serum C-reactive protein and thioredoxin levels in subjects with mildly reduced glomerular filtration rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a newly recognized high-risk condition for cardiovascular disease (CVD), and previous studies reported the changes in inflammation and oxidative stress in advanced stages of CKD. We compared the levels of serum biomarkers for inflammation and oxidative stress between subjects with normal and mildly reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR). METHODS: The subjects were 182 participants

Shoko Tsuchikura; Tetsuo Shoji; Naoko Shimomura; Ryusuke Kakiya; Masanori Emoto; Hidenori Koyama; Eiji Ishimura; Masaaki Inaba; Yoshiki Nishizawa

2010-01-01

313

People with Mild to Moderate Intellectual Disability Talking about Their Diabetes and How They Manage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The prevalence of diabetes is relatively high in people with intellectual disability (ID). However, little is known about how people with ID experience having diabetes and how they manage the condition. Method: Seventeen people with mild to moderate ID who have diabetes were interviewed. A framework on illness perceptions having an…

Cardol, M.; Rijken, M.; van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, H.

2012-01-01

314

Relationship between critical tensile stress and fracture toughness in mild steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY AN ANALYSIS is presented which relates the critical value of tensile stress (a,) for unstable cleavage fracture to the fracture toughness (K,,) for a high-nitrogen mild steel under plane strain conditions. The correlation is based on (i) the model for cleavage cracking developed by E. Smith and (ii) accurate plastic*lastic solutions for the stress distributions ahead of a sharp

R. O. Ritchie; J. F. Knott; J. R. Rice

1973-01-01

315

People with Mild to Moderate Intellectual Disability Talking about Their Diabetes and How They Manage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: The prevalence of diabetes is relatively high in people with intellectual disability (ID). However, little is known about how people with ID experience having diabetes and how they manage the condition. Method: Seventeen people with mild to moderate ID who have diabetes were interviewed. A framework on illness perceptions having an…

Cardol, M.; Rijken, M.; van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, H.

2012-01-01

316

Mild variable Noonan syndrome in a family with a novel PTPN11 mutation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noonan syndrome (OMIM 163950) is a common genetic condition with variable clinical expression and genetic heterogeneity. About half of the cases can be accounted to activating mutations in the PTPN11 gene encoding SHP-2. We report on a family with mild, variable expression of Noonan syndrome in five individuals. Clinical manifestations included short stature, craniofacial anomalies and thorax deformity, but none

Martin Zenker; Egbert Voss; André Reis

2007-01-01

317

Adults with Mild Intellectual Disabilities: Can Their Reading Comprehension Ability Be Improved?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Adults with a mild intellectual disability (ID) often show poor decoding and reading comprehension skills. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of teaching text comprehension strategies to these adults. Specific research goals were to determine (1) the effects of two instruction conditions, i.e. strategy instruction…

van den Bos, K. P.; Nakken, H.; Nicolay, P. G.; van Houten, E. J.

2007-01-01

318

Understanding failure of visual paired associate learning in amnestic mild cognitive impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impairment in visual paired associate learning occurs often in with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), a condition considered to be an early stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To date, studies of aMCI have characterized impaired visual paired associate learning only in terms of summary scores such as total errors or total trials to criterion. The aim of this study was

Jade ODonnell; Robert H. Pietrzak; Kathryn C. Ellis; Peter J. Snyder; Paul Maruff

2011-01-01

319

Effects of a Mindfulness-Based Smoking Cessation Program for an Adult with Mild Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Smoking is a major risk factor for a number of health conditions and many smokers find it difficult to quit smoking without specific interventions. We developed and used a mindfulness-based smoking cessation program with a 31-year-old man with mild intellectual disabilities who had been a smoker for 17 years. The mindfulness-based smoking…

Singh, Nirbhay N.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Winton, Alan S. W.; Singh, Ashvind N. A.; Singh, Judy; Singh, Angela D. A.

2011-01-01

320

A study of mechanical properties of friction welded mild steel to stainless steel joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work is to study mechanical property variation under different friction welding conditions for mild steel stainless steel joints. Yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, percentage elongation of the welded joints and hardness variations across the weld interface have been reported. The integrity of the joints have been investigated using optical microcopy and scanning electron microscopy.

D. Ananthapadmanaban; V. Seshagiri Rao; Nikhil Abraham; K. Prasad Rao

2009-01-01

321

Multiple Cognitive Deficits in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine if more widespread cognitive deficits are present in a narrowly defined group of patients with the amnestic form of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods From a larger sample of patients clinically diagnosed as meeting the criteria of Petersen et al. for amnestic MCI, we selected 22 subjects who had Clinical Dementia Rating scores of zero on all domains besides memory and orientation. These MCI subjects with presumably isolated memory impairments were compared to 35 age-matched normal controls and 33 very mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients on a battery of neuropsychological tests. Result In addition to the expected deficits in episodic memory, the amnestic MCI group performed less well than the controls but better than the AD group on design fluency, category fluency, a set shifting task and the Stroop interference condition. Over half the amnestic MCI group (vs. none of the normal controls) scored at least 1 standard deviation below control means on 4 or more of the nonmemory cognitive tasks. Conclusions Isolated memory impairment may be fairly uncommon in clinically diagnosed amnestic MCI patients, even when the criteria for amnestic MCI are fairly narrow. Additional cognitive impairments are likely to include fluency and executive functioning. These more diffuse deficits argue for comprehensive cognitive assessments, even when the patient and family are reporting only memory decline, and are consistent with the increase in attention paid to the heterogeneity of MCI.

Kramer, Joel H.; Nelson, Adam; Johnson, Julene K.; Yaffe, Kristine; Glenn, Shenly; Rosen, Howard J.; Miller, Bruce L.

2009-01-01

322

Impaired Object Manipulation in Mildly Involved Individuals With Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

We investigated hand function in mildly involved Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients (N = 16; EDSS 1?5, 9-hole peg test 14?32 s) during static and dynamic manipulation tasks using an instrumented device. When compared with healthy controls (N = 16), the patients revealed impaired task performance regarding their ability to exert prescribed patterns of load force (L; force acting tangentially at the digits-object surface). Regarding the coordination of grip force (G; normal component) and L, the data only revealed elevated G/L ratio, although both the G and L coupling (maximum correlation coefficients and the time lags between them), and G modulation (gain and offset of G with respect to L) remained comparable in the two groups. Finally, most of the data suggested no MS-specific effects of switching from uni- to bimanual tasks, from available visual feedback to deprived feedback conditions. We conclude that the deterioration in the ability for precise control of external forces and overgripping could precede the decoupling of G and L and decreased G modulation in early phases of the disease. The results also suggest that the applied methodology could be sensitive enough to detect mild levels of impairment of hand function in MS and, possibly, other neurological diseases.

Krishnan, Vennila; de Freitas, Paulo Barbosa; Jaric, Slobodan

2008-01-01

323

The photochemistry of aqueous nitrate ion revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous nitrate solutions were photolysed at 254 nm in the absence of oxidizable additives, in the presence of methanol or propan-2-ol and oxygen and in the presence of cyclopentane under anaerobic conditions. The main nitrogen-containing products are nitrite and peroxynitrite. The quantum yields depend on the pH, nitrate concentration, nature of the additive and the light intensity. The intrinsic nitrite

Gertraud Mark; Hans-Gert Korth; Heinz-Peter Schuchmann; Clemens von Sonntag

1996-01-01

324

Photochemical Decomposition of Aqueous Permanganate Ion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantum yields for the photochemical decomposition of aqueous MnO4— have been measured under a variety of conditions using a sensitive method for measuring O2 production, first developed by Pringsheim and co-workers. The quantum yield was found to depend strongly on the wavelength of the light, slightly on temperature at the longer wavelengths, and not at all on the composition of

George Zimmerman

1955-01-01

325

The Relationship of Mild Depression to Stress and Coping.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated relationship of mild depression, stress, and coping based on Lazarus's model of stress and coping. Examined two coping styles (problem and emotion focused), two measures of stress, and mild depression in college students (N=227). Found mildly depressed persons relied more on emotion-focused coping and experience more stress than did…

Kolenc, Koleen M.; And Others

1990-01-01

326

Is Mortality Increased in Mildly Cognitively Impaired Individuals?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous studies have focused on the effect of mild cognitive impairment in elderly people. However, the impact of mild cognitive impairment on mortality has rarely been considered so far. This paper reviews recent work on mild cognitive impairment and its mortality risk. Relevant articles were identified by a systematic search of the literature published since 1990 using the databases PubMed,

Uta Guehne; Matthias C. Angermeyer; Steffi Riedel-Heller

2006-01-01

327

An update of corrosion inhibitors for mild steel exposed to 32-0-0 UAN solution  

SciTech Connect

This is a continuation of corrosion studies on the effectiveness of commercial and newly-developed corrosion inhibitors for use with mild steel exposed to urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN) solution. This paper provides updated information on five newly-developed corrosion inhibitors. Tests were conducted with mild steel exposed to 32-0-0 UAN solution containing each corrosion inhibitor at ambient temperature and under static conditions. Real-time corrosion of the test specimens was monitored using AC impedance techniques. Corrosion performance of the inhibitors was evaluated based on comparison of the corrosion rate of specimens exposed to 32-0-0 UAN solution with and without a corrosion inhibitor.

Nguyen, D.T.; Nichols, D.E. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Muscle Shoals, AL (United States); Lohry, E.J. [Nutra-Flo Co., Sioux City, IA (United States)

1994-10-01

328

Comparison of SNOMED CT versus Medcin Terminology Concept Coverage for Mild Traumatic Brain Injury  

PubMed Central

Background: Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a “signature” injury of the current wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Structured electronic data regarding TBI findings is important for research, population health and other secondary uses but requires appropriate underlying standard terminologies to ensure interoperability and reuse. Currently the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) uses the terminology SNOMED CT and the Department of Defense (DOD) uses Medcin. Methods: We developed a comprehensive case definition of mild TBI composed of 68 clinical terms. Using automated and manual techniques, we evaluated how well the mild TBI case definition terms could be represented by SNOMED CT and Medcin, and compared the results. We performed additional analysis stratified by whether the concepts were rated by a TBI expert panel as having High, Medium, or Low importance to the definition of mild TBI. Results: SNOMED CT sensitivity (recall) was 90% overall for coverage of mild TBI concepts, and Medcin sensitivity was 49%, p < 0.001 (using McNemar’s chi square). Positive predictive value (precision) for each was 100%. SNOMED CT outperformed Medcin for concept coverage independent of import rating by our TBI experts. Discussion: SNOMED CT was significantly better able to represent mild TBI concepts than Medcin. This finding may inform data gathering, management and sharing, and data exchange strategies between the VA and DOD for active duty soldiers and veterans with mild TBI. Since mild TBI is an important condition in the civilian population as well, the current study results may be useful also for the general medical setting.

Montella, Diane; Brown, Steven H.; Elkin, Peter L.; Jackson, James C.; Rosenbloom, S. Trent; Wahner-Roedler, Dietlind; Welsh, Gail; Cotton, Bryan; Guillamondegui, Oscar D.; Lew, Henry; Taber, Katherine H.; Tupler, Larry A.; Vanderploeg, Rodney; Speroff, Theodore

2011-01-01

329

DEGRADATION OF ISOXABEN IN SOILS AND AN AQUEOUS SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degradation of isoxaben {N-[3-(1-ethyl-1-methylpropyl)-5-isoxazolyl]-2,6-dimethoxybenzamide} was studied in soil and in an aqueous system. Soil studies were conducted in Erlenmeyer flasks (treated with 1 ?g\\/g isoxaben) and mineralization studies in Biometer flasks (treated with 1 ?g\\/g unlabeled and C-isoxaben) incubated at 23 C. Degradation in the aqueous system was performed in Erlenmeyer flasks under aerobic and anaerobic conditions incubated at

N. Dwight Camper; Jung-Ho Kim; Melissa B. Riley

2001-01-01

330

Carbon dioxide absorption with aqueous potassium carbonate promoted by piperazine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many commercial processes for the removal of carbon dioxide from high-pressure gases use aqueous potassium carbonate systems promoted by secondary amines. This paper presents thermodynamic and kinetic data for aqueous potassium carbonate promoted by piperazine. Research has been performed at typical absorber conditions for the removal of CO2 from flue gas.Piperazine, used as an additive in 20–30wt% potassium carbonate, was

J. Tim Cullinane; Gary T. Rochelle

2004-01-01

331

Uptake of gas-phase formaldehyde by aqueous acid surfaces  

SciTech Connect

The uptake of gas-phase formaldehyde, CH{sub 2}O, by aqueous sulfuric and nitric acid droplets has been measured as a function of temperature, acid concentration, and gas-droplet contact time. The results are interpreted in terms of the mass accommodation coefficient for formaldehyde on aqueous surfaces, the Henry`s law constant for formaldehyde in aqueous acid solutions, and the liquid-phase formation kinetics of methylenediol, CH{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}, and protonated formaldehyde, CH{sub 3}O{sup +}. Time-dependent uptake studies under mildly acid solutions where CH{sub 2}(OH){sub 2} and CH{sub 3}O{sup +} formation is slow reveal the existence of a chemisorbed surface complex for CH{sub 2}O at the gas-liquid interface. Uptake studies on nitric acid and mixed sulfuric acid/nitric acid solutions show slightly enhanced uptake relative to sulfuric acid only solutions. This observation has been attributed to variation of formaldehyde solubility (expressed as Setchenow coefficients) and CH{sub 3}O{sup +} equilibrium constant in nitric and sulfuric acid solutions. The implications of these measurements for the aqueous acid chemistry of formaldehyde and its role in atmospheric chemistry are discussed. 46 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Jayne, J.T.; Worsnop, D.R.; Kolb, C.E. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Swartz, E.; Davidovits, P. [Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (United States)

1996-05-09

332

Solubilization of native integral membrane proteins in aqueous buffer by noncovalent chelation with monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG) polymers.  

PubMed

Highly hydrophobic integral membrane proteins (IMPs)are typically purified in excess detergent media, often resulting in rapid inactivation and denaturation of the protein. One promising approach to solve this problem is to couple hydrophilic polymers, such as monomethoxypolyethylene glycol (mPEG) to IMPs under mild conditions in place of detergents. However, the broad application of this approach is hampered by poor reaction efficiencies, low tolerance of detergent stabilized membrane proteins to reaction conditions, and a lack of proper site-specific reversible approaches. Here, we have developed a straightforward, efficient, and mild approach to site-specific noncovalent binding of long-chain polymers to recombinant IMPs. This method uses the hexa-histidine tag (His-Tag) often used for purification of recombinant proteins as an attachment site for mPEGs. Solubility studies performed using five different IMPs confirmed that all tested mPEG-bound IMPs were completely soluble and stable in detergent free aqueous buffer compared to their precipitated native proteins under the identical circumstances. Activity assays and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy confirmed the structural integrity of modified IMPs. PMID:21740061

Janaratne, Thamara K; Okach, Linda; Brock, Ansgar; Lesley, Scott A

2011-07-21

333

Subclinical cerebrovascular disease in mild cognitive impairment  

PubMed Central

Background: Cerebrovascular disease (CVD) may contribute to mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We sought to determine the relation of white matter hyperintensity (WMH) volume and infarcts in brain MRI to MCI in a community-based sample. Methods: A total of 679 elderly persons without dementia underwent brain MRI. WMH and infarcts were quantified using research methods. WMH was adjusted for total cranial volume. The Petersen criteria were used to define MCI. MCI was further subclassified into amnestic and non-amnestic. We used logistic regression to relate WMH and infarcts to prevalent MCI. Results: WMH were associated with amnestic MCI (odds ratio [OR] = 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1, 3.4) but not non-amnestic MCI (OR = 1.2; 95% CI 0.4, 1.6) after adjusting for age, gender, ethnic group, education, and APOE-?4. Infarcts were more strongly associated with non-amnestic MCI (OR = 2.7; 95% CI 1.5, 4.8) than amnestic MCI (OR = 1.4; 95% CI 0.9, 2.3). In secondary analyses using continuous cognitive scores as outcomes, WMH, but not infarcts, were related to memory, while infarcts were more strongly related with non-amnestic domains. Conclusion: White matter hyperintensity (WMH) is more strongly related to amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Infarcts are more strongly related to non-amnestic MCI. The nature of WMH in amnestic MCI requires further study. GLOSSARY AD = Alzheimer disease; BDAE = Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination; BVRT = Benton Visual Retention Test; CAA = cerebral amyloid angiopathy; CI = confidence interval; CVD = cerebrovascular disease; FLAIR = fluid-attenuated inverse recovery; MCI = mild cognitive impairment; OR = odds ratio; SRT = Selective Reminding Test; WAIS-R = Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale–Revised; WHICAP = Washington/Hamilton Heights–Inwood Columbia Aging Project; WMH = white matter hyperintensity.

Luchsinger, J A.; Brickman, A M.; Reitz, C; Cho, S J.; Schupf, N; Manly, J J.; Tang, M X.; Small, S A.; Mayeux, R; DeCarli, C; Brown, T R.

2009-01-01

334

Development of microbands in mild steel during cross loading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mild steel specimens are submitted to a complex strain path (tension-shear sequence). The stress decrease recorded at the beginning of the second path is associated at the grain scale with a localization of the deformation in microbands. These microbands are associated with a single crystallographic slip system and carry the main part of the imposed strain. The prediction of the active slip systems during both the prestrain and the second path with the Taylor and static models leads to a necessary condition for the development of microbands: the slip system having the maximum Schmid factor must have been latent during the prestrain. At high strain level, the material resumes strain hardening and the dislocation structure is then composed of sheets parallel and/or perpendicular to the shear direction. The origin of the flow localization and the transition between the two types of structures, i.e. microbands and dislocation sheets, are then discussed.

Thuillier, S.; Rauch, E. F.

1994-06-01

335

Selective production of 4-ethylphenolics from lignin via mild hydrogenolysis.  

PubMed

Selective production of 4-ethylphenolics from lignin via mild hydrogenolysis was reported in this short communication. The hydrogenolysis of lignin was carried out in an autoclave with 65 vol.% ethanol/water as solvent, with 5% Ru/C, Pd/C and Pt/C as catalysts. The influences of catalysts, lignin species, and reaction conditions including reaction temperature, reaction time, and initial H(2) pressure on yield of target compounds were investigated. 3.1% 4-Ethylphenol and 1.3% 4-ethylguaiacol based on lignin could be obtained simultaneously from hydrogenolysis of corn stalk lignin, which is approximate to the yield obtained from petrochemical route. The results of this work showed that this novel method is a quite promising technique for the substitution of petrochemical route. PMID:22717604

Ye, Yueyuan; Zhang, Yu; Fan, Juan; Chang, Jie

2012-06-01

336

Current management decisions in mild cognitive impairment.  

PubMed

Efforts toward early detection of Alzheimer disease (AD) have focused on refinement and identification of diagnostic markers, with the goal of preventing or delaying disease progression. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) has emerged as a potential precursor to dementia. Though not without controversy, MCI has been associated with an increased risk for conversion to AD. In this article, with emphasis on meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials, and extant literature reviews, considerations and recommendations for optimal clinical management of MCI are offered. Given the substantial heterogeneity of this patient population and inconsistent research methodologies, the need for informed, clinical judgment is critical. PMID:24094300

Bensadon, Benjamin A; Odenheimer, Germaine L

2013-11-01

337

Serial position effects in mild cognitive impairment  

PubMed Central

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is often associated with the preclinical phase of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Special scoring of word-list recall data for serial position has been suggested to improve discrimination of normal aging from dementia. We examined serial position effects in word-list recall for MCI participants compared to Alzheimer patients and controls. Individuals with MCI, like Alzheimer patients, had a diminished primacy effect in recalling words from a list. No alternative scoring system was better than standard scoring of word list recall in distinguishing MCI patients from controls. Retention weighted scoring improved the discrimination of MCI and AD groups.

Howieson, Diane B.; Mattek, Nora; Seeyle, Adriana M.; Dodge, Hiroko H.; Wasserman, Dara; Zitzelberger, Tracy; Kaye, Jeffrey A.

2010-01-01

338

The induction of equine laminitis with an aqueous extract of the heartwood of black walnut (Juglans nigra).  

PubMed

An aqueous extract of the heartwood of black walnut (Juglans nigra) was given via stomach tube to 10 horses. Eight developed Obel grade 3 or 4 laminitis within 12 hr. Limb edema and mild sedation were the only other clinical signs observed. One horse was euthanized due to severe signs. The other 7 recovered within 6 days. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of aqueous extracts of heartwood, bark and nuts of black walnut identified juglone in the bark and nuts, but not in the heartwood. It was concluded that the aqueous extract of heartwood is laminogenic to horses, but the active ingredient is not juglone. PMID:3604042

Minnick, P D; Brown, C M; Braselton, W E; Meerdink, G L; Slanker, M R

1987-06-01

339

Brief Treatment of Mild-to-Moderate Child Depression Using Primary and Secondary Control Enhancement Training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elementary school children with mild-to-moderate depressive symptoms were randomly assigned to a control group or an 8-session Primary and Secondary Control Enhancement Training program. The program focused on (a) primary control (changing objective conditions to fit one's wishes; e.g., through activity selection and goal attainment) and (b) secondary control (changing oneself to buffer the impact of objective conditions; e.g., altering

John R. Weisz; Christopher A. Thurber; Lynne Sweeney; Valerie D. Proffitt; Gerald L. LeGagnoux

1997-01-01

340

Forensic applications of cerebral single photon emission computed tomography in mild traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a substantial source of mortality and morbidity world wide. Although most such injuries are relatively mild, accurate diagnosis and prognostication after mild TBI are challenging. These problems are complicated further when considered in medicolegal contexts, particularly civil litigation. Cerebral single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) may contribute to the evaluation and treatment of persons with mild TBI. Cerebral SPECT is relatively sensitive to the metabolic changes produced by TBI. However, such changes are not specific to this condition, and their presence on cerebral SPECT imaging does not confirm a diagnosis of mild TBI. Conversely, the absence of abnormalities on cerebral SPECT imaging does not exclude a diagnosis of mild TBI, although such findings may be of prognostic value. The literature does not demonstrate consistent relationships between SPECT images and neuropsychological testing or neuropsychiatric symptoms. Using the rules of evidence shaped by Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc., and its progeny to analyze the suitability of SPECT for forensic purposes, we suggest that expert testimony regarding SPECT findings should be admissible only as evidence to support clinical history, neuropsychological test results, and structural brain imaging findings and not as stand-alone diagnostic data. PMID:18802178

Wortzel, Hal S; Filley, Christopher M; Anderson, C Alan; Oster, Timothy; Arciniegas, David B

2008-01-01

341

[Subsidized project of hearing aid purchase for mild-moderate hearing impaired children in Akita prefecture].  

PubMed

The dissemination of newborn hearing screening has detected children with mild-moderate hearing impairment at an early age. However, there is no nation-wide welfare system for children with mild-moderate hearing impairment in Japan. Under these kinds of social conditions, a subsidized project of hearing aid purchase for mild-moderate hearing impaired children has come into force from April 2010 in Akita prefecture. All 18 candidates who applied for this project were subsidized in Akita prefecture. Eighteen children purchased their hearing aids using this subsidy. The feature of this project was that every child could have access to subsidies as long as their doctor recognized the effectiveness of hearing aids because children with hearing impairment need to learn language. They contacted the hospital, prefectural government and institutes related to hearing loss before this project come into force. We recognized parents who are raising a child with mild-moderate hearing impairment have high interest in this project. Hearing aids can represent a considerable expense for young parents who are raising a child. We encountered some children who had to give up the idea of hearing aids due to their parents' economic circumstances before this project become effective. These situations were completely avoided after this project came into being. This administrative purpose was of demonstrated value in children with mild-moderate hearing impairment. PMID:23865298

Sato, Teruyuki; Nakazawa, Misao; Takahashi, Shin; Ishikawa, Kazuo

2013-06-01

342

Sonoelectrochemical degradation of phenol in aqueous solutions.  

PubMed

The sonoelectrochemical degradation of phenol in aqueous solutions with stainless steel electrodes and high-frequency ultrasound (850kHz) was investigated. A 60% synergetic effect was obtained in the combined reaction system. High concentration of electrolyte (sodium sulfate) and a high electrical voltage are favorable conditions for the degradation of phenol. A nearly complete degradation of phenol was achieved with 4.26g/L Na(2)SO(4) and 30V electrical voltages at 25°C in 1h. The degradation of phenol follows pseudo-first order kinetics. Considering costs and application, the energy efficiency of the reaction system with different reaction conditions was evaluated. PMID:23084791

Ren, Yan-Ze; Wu, Zhi-Lin; Franke, Marcus; Braeutigam, Patrick; Ondruschka, Bernd; Comeskey, Daniel J; King, Patrick M

2012-09-24

343

Aqueous biphasic extraction  

SciTech Connect

The aqueous biphasic separation (ABS) process, which involves the selective partitioning of ultrafine particles or solutes between two immiscible aqueous phases, is being evaluated for removing uranium from contaminated clay soils. Goal is to remove ultrafine U from the soil, leaving residues below regulatory cleanup limits. Tests were made using U-contaminated soil near the Fernald waste incinerator; over 80% of the soil is <45 {mu}m. All the biphasic systems used polyethylene glycol in combination with inorganic salt phase. Results: U was reduced from 500--600 mg/kg to about 90 mg/kg, and in some cases even down to 15 mg/kg. However, a soil sample from the Fernald storage pad area did not give encouraging results. Selective flocculation of soil particles and dissolution of U in the salt phase occurred but were not troublesome. Scaleup tests using uncontaminated clay mineral feed were successful. Operating costs for soil remediation using ABS is estimated to be $25--50 per ton. A pilot-scale column is being installed at ANL.

Chaiko, D.J.

1994-02-01

344

Activities and vapor pressures of aqueous sulfuric acid solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quantitative interpretation of the conditions leading to the formation of sulfuric acid in whatever system requires the knowledge of the thermodynamic properties of aqueous sulfuric acid solutions under the conditions of temperature and partial pressures at which the liquid phase is likely to nucleate. Surprisingly, in the light of the importance of sulfuric acid in industrial technology, such data

Bolsaitis

1986-01-01

345

Sorption kinetics of arsenic on laterite soil in aqueous medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency of a locally available laterite soil in removing both arsenite and arsenate from aqueous medium by adsorption was evaluated. It was observed that in batch experiment conducted at 0.5 mg\\/L initial concentration of arsenic, laterite soil could remove up to 98% of arsenite and 95% of arsenate under optimized conditions. The kinetic profiles under various conditions were developed.

Sanjoy K. Maji; Anjali Pal; Tarasankar Pal; Asok Adak

2007-01-01

346

Mild pyrolysis of selectively oxidized coals  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this study is to investigate the removal organic sulfur from selectively oxidized Illinois coals using mild thermal/chemical processes. Work completed this quarter includes the investigation of the mild pyrolysis of unoxidized coals plus a selection of selectively oxidized coals. In addition the effect of particle size and extent of oxidation on pyrolysis was investigated. Some preliminary data concerning pyrolysis under vacuum and ambient pressure was also obtained. Work completed this quarter supports the following conclusions: (1) Desulfurization of unoxidized coals increases with increasing pyrolysis temperature and correlates with the loss of volatile matter. (2) Particle size did not influence the extent of desulfurization significantly. (3) Removing pyrite prior to pyrolysis helps to achieve a lower sulfur product beyond that expected from the removal of pyrite alone. (4) The extent of selective oxidation in teh pretreatment step did not effect the level of desulfurization obtained by pyrolysis alone. However this factor was important in the desulfurization obtained with supercritical methanol (SCM)/base. (5) Up to 84% of the sulfur has been removed from the IBC 101 coal by combining selective oxidation and SCM/base reactions. (6) Evidence for regressive reactions between volatilized sulfur compounds and partially desulfurized products was obtained by studying how changes in pyrolysis pressure effected the product sulfur content.

Hippo, E.J.

1991-01-01

347

ENCOAL mild coal gasification project. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

This document is the combination of the fourth quarter report (July--September 1993) and the 1993 annual report for the ENCOAL project. The following pages include the background and process description for the project, brief summaries of the accomplishments for the first three quarters, and a detailed fourth quarter report. Its purpose is to convey the accomplishments and current progress of the project. ENCOAL Corporation, has completed the construction of a mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company`s Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology developed by SMC and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin coal to produce two new fuels, Process Derived Fuel (PDF) and Coal Derived Liquids (CDL). ENCOAL submitted an application to the US Department of Energy (DOE) in August 1989, soliciting joint funding of the project in the third round of the Clean Coal Technology Program. The project was selected by DOE in December, 1989 and the Cooperative Agreement approved in September, 1990. Construction, commissioning, and start-up of the ENCOAL mild coal gasification facility was completed in June of 1992, and the project is currently in the operations phase. Some plant modifications have been required and are discussed in this report.

Not Available

1993-10-01

348

Mild behavioral impairment and risk of dementia  

PubMed Central

Background Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a transitional state between normal ageing and dementia, at least for some patients. Behavioral symptoms in MCI are associated with a higher risk of dementia, but their association with dementia risk in patients without MCI is unknown. Mild Behavioral Impairment (MBI) refers to a late life syndrome with prominent psychiatric and related behavioral symptoms in the absence of prominent cognitive symptoms, which may also be a dementia prodrome. Objective To compare MCI and MBI patients and to estimate the risk of dementia development in these two groups. Method A consecutive series of 358 patients (239 with MCI; and 119 with MBI) presenting to an outpatient general hospital specialty clinic were followed for up to 5 years until conversion to dementia or censoring. Results 34% of MCI patients and over 70% of patients with MBI developed dementia (Logrank p=0.011). MBI patients without cognitive symptoms were more likely to develop dementia (Logrank p<0.001). MBI patients were more likely to develop dementia due to frontotemporal degeneration (FTD) as opposed to Alzheimer’s dementia (AD). Conclusion MBI appears to be a transitional state between normal ageing and dementia. MBI (specifically those without cognitive symptoms) may confer a higher risk for dementia than MCI and is likely an FTD prodrome in many cases. These findings have implications for the early detection, prevention, and treatment of patients with dementia in late life, by focusing on the emergence of new behavioral symptoms.

Taragano, FE; Allegri, RF; Krupitzki, H; Sarasola, D; Serrano, CM; Lon, L; Lyketsos, CG

2009-01-01

349

Aqueous polymer compositions  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Aqueous polymer composition suitable for coating which comprises the following components dispersed in water: (1) a combination of an acrylic polymer(s) A and an acrylic polymer(s) B where polymer(s) A has a Tg of not more than 30.degree. C. and polymer(s) B has a Tg of at least 35.degree. C., more preferably at least 45.degree. C., which is at least 25.degree. C. higher than the Tg of polymer(s) A, and wherein one or both of polymers A and B bear crosslinker functional groups capable of imparting ambient-temperature crosslinkability to component (1) in a coating formed from the composition via the formation of non-radically-formed covalent bonds; and (2) a self-dispersible, ionically stabilised polymer having olefinically unsaturated bond functionality capable of imparting radiation-curability (preferably uv-radiation curability) thereto in a coating formed from the composition.

Overbeek; Gerardus Cornelis (Waalwijk, NL); Steenwinkel; Pablo (Waalwijk, NL); Tennebroek; Ronald (Waalwijk, NL); Nabuurs; Tijs (Waalwijk, NL)

2004-05-04

350

A Multicenter, Randomized Trial of Treatment for Mild Gestational Diabetes  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND It is uncertain whether treatment of mild gestational diabetes mellitus improves pregnancy outcomes. METHODS Women who were in the 24th to 31st week of gestation and who met the criteria for mild gestational diabetes mellitus (i.e., an abnormal result on an oral glucose-tolerance test but a fasting glucose level below 95 mg per deciliter [5.3 mmol per liter]) were randomly assigned to usual prenatal care (control group) or dietary intervention, self-monitoring of blood glucose, and insulin therapy, if necessary (treatment group). The primary outcome was a composite of stillbirth or perinatal death and neonatal complications, including hyperbilirubinemia, hypoglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and birth trauma. RESULTS A total of 958 women were randomly assigned to a study group — 485 to the treatment group and 473 to the control group. We observed no significant difference between groups in the frequency of the composite outcome (32.4% and 37.0% in the treatment and control groups, respectively; P = 0.14). There were no perinatal deaths. However, there were significant reductions with treatment as compared with usual care in several prespecified secondary outcomes, including mean birth weight (3302 vs. 3408 g), neonatal fat mass (427 vs. 464 g), the frequency of large-for-gestational-age infants (7.1% vs. 14.5%), birth weight greater than 4000 g (5.9% vs. 14.3%), shoulder dystocia (1.5% vs. 4.0%), and cesarean delivery (26.9% vs. 33.8%). Treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus, as compared with usual care, was also associated with reduced rates of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension (combined rates for the two conditions, 8.6% vs. 13.6%; P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS Although treatment of mild gestational diabetes mellitus did not significantly reduce the frequency of a composite outcome that included stillbirth or perinatal death and several neonatal complications, it did reduce the risks of fetal overgrowth, shoulder dystocia, cesarean delivery, and hypertensive disorders.

Landon, Mark B.; Spong, Catherine Y.; Thom, Elizabeth; Carpenter, Marshall W.; Ramin, Susan M.; Casey, Brian; Wapner, Ronald J.; Varner, Michael W.; Rouse, Dwight J.; Thorp, John M.; Sciscione, Anthony; Catalano, Patrick; Harper, Margaret; Saade, George; Lain, Kristine Y.; Sorokin, Yoram; Peaceman, Alan M.; Tolosa, Jorge E.; Anderson, Garland B.

2009-01-01

351

Anaerobic mixed-culture fermentation of aqueous ammonia-treated sugarcane bagasse in consolidated bioprocessing.  

PubMed

The MixAlco process is an example of consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) in which anaerobic mixed-culture fermentation biochemically converts any biodegradable feedstock into carboxylate salts. Downstream processing thermochemically transforms the resulting salts into mixed alcohol fuels or gasoline. To enhance digestibility, sugarcane bagasse was treated under mild conditions (55 degrees C, 24 h, and 30% aqueous ammonia solution with a loading of 10 mL/g dry biomass). Using NH(4)HCO(3) buffer, the feedstock (80% ammonia-treated sugarcane bagasse/20% chicken manure) was anaerobically fermented by a mixed culture of marine microorganisms at 55 degrees C. Four-stage countercurrent fermentations were performed at various volatile solids loading rates (VSLRs) and liquid residence times (LRTs). The highest acid productivity (1.14 g/(L day)) occurred at a total acid concentration of 29.8 g/L. The highest conversion (65%) occurred at a total acid concentration of 27.6 g/L. The continuum particle distribution model (CPDM) predicted the experimental total acid concentrations and conversions within 4.98% and 10.41%, respectively. When using NH(4)HCO(3) buffer, ammonia pretreatment is an attractive option. The CPDM "map" shows that both high volatile solid conversions (78.8%) and high acid concentrations (32.6 g/L) are possible with 300 g/(L liquid) substrate concentration, 30 days LRT, 2 g/(L day) solid loading rate and NH(4)HCO(3) buffer. PMID:20091732

Fu, Zhihong; Holtzapple, Mark T

2010-06-01

352

Characterization of synergistic effects between erosion and corrosion in an aqueous environment using electrochemical techniques  

SciTech Connect

Synergistic effects between erosion and corrosion processes on mild steel (MS) in an aqueous carbonate-bicarbonate solution were studied using electrochemical measurements from a rotating cylinder electrode (RCE) system. A rigorous basis for definition and measurement of the pure erosion rate and corrosion rate was adopted so that so-called synergism could be analyzed precisely. The total erosion-corrosion rate and the corrosion rate in the presence and absence of erosion were measured for a range of electrode potentials and rotation velocities. The corrosion rate increased significantly with the introduction of erodent because of the effect of erosion on corrosion kinetics. The total erosion-corrosion rate under active dissolution and passivation conditions essentially was the sum of the pure erosion rate and the measured (enhanced) corrosion rate, suggesting there was no significant effect of corrosion on the erosion process. However, in the active-to-passive transition regime, some synergistic effects ascribed to erosion were observed (i.e., mechanical damage was enhanced by corrosion).

Zhou, S.; Stack, M.M.; Newman, R.C. [UMIST, Manchester (United Kingdom). Corrosion and Protection Centre

1996-12-01

353

Atmospheric corrosion of mild steel in Oman  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A systematic study has been made of the initial corrosion products which form on mild steel capons exposed near the coastal region of Oman and at some industrial areas. The phases and compositions of the products formed at different periods of exposure were examined by using Mössbauer spectroscopy (295 and 78 K) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The results show that lepidocorcite and maghemite are early corrosion products and goethite starts to form after 2 months of metal exposure to the atmosphere. Akaganeite is an early corrosion product but it forms in marine environments only, which reflects the role of chlorine effect in the atmosphere. The 12 months coupons showed the presence of goethite, lepidocorcite and maghemite, but no akaganeite being seen in the products of one of the studied areas.

Gismelseed, Abbasher; Al-Harthi, S. H.; Elzain, M.; Al-Rawas, A. D.; Yousif, A.; Al-Saadi, S.; Al-Omari, I.; Widatallah, H.; Bouziane, K.

2006-01-01

354

Atmospheric corrosion of mild steel in Oman  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A systematic study has been made of the initial corrosion products which form on mild steel capons exposed near the coastal region of Oman and at some industrial areas. The phases and compositions of the products formed at different periods of exposure were examined by using Mossbauer spectroscopy (295 and 78 K) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The results show that lepidocorcite and maghemite are early corrosion products and goethite starts to form after 2 months of metal exposure to the atmosphere. Akaganeite is an early corrosion product but it forms in marine environments only, which reflects the role of chlorine effect in the atmosphere. The 12 months coupons showed the presence of goethite, lepidocorcite and maghemite, but no akaganeite being seen in the products of one of the studied areas.

Gismelseed, Abbasher; Al-Harthi, S. H.; Elzain, M.; Al-Rawas, A. D.; Yousif, A.; Al-Saadi, S.; Al-Omari, I.; Widatallah, H.; Bouziane, K.

355

Chronic mild stress for modeling anhedonia.  

PubMed

Major depressive disorder is a complex disease implicating many brain circuitries. The clinical symptomatology is inconsistent and heterogenous and the pathogenesis is a complicated interplay of genetic and environmental factors. The episodic and recurrent nature of the disease, as well as the fact that several symptoms are only verbally expressed, make it challenging to establish valid and legitimate animal models of this disease. The purpose of this review is to provide some background knowledge and overview of valid rodent models of depression with an emphasis on our own experience with a chronic mild stress model in modeling of anhedonia and cognitive impairments associated with depression. In a final concluding remark, a 'dying-forward' hypothesis, for development of depression, is suggested on the basis of mainly our own data on a hippocampal pathology. PMID:23801433

Wiborg, Ove

2013-06-26

356

Mild route to generate gaseous metal anions.  

PubMed

Gaseous metal anions such as Na(-), K(-), Cs(-), and Ag(-) can be generated at ambient temperatures by the collision-induced dissociation of the anions of several dicarboxylic acid salts, including oxalate, maleate, fumarate, succinate, and glutamate salts. The formation of gaseous metal anions in this way is unprecedented because the metal is initially present in its cationic form. The mild process described here could facilitate novel applications of metal anions as selective reagents for gas-phase ion-molecule and ion-ion reactions. Ab initio calculations were used to describe the dissociation process for anions of the oxalate salts. The formation of alkalides occurs via production of a metal-carbon dioxide anion intermediate with a bidentate three-center two-electron bond to the metal. The metal atom acquires a partial negative charge in the intermediate structure. PMID:21337628

Attygalle, Athula B; Axe, Frank U; Weisbecker, Carl S

2011-03-30

357

Soldering of mild steels: functional joints  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, adhesive joints have replaced numerous soldered joints, especially in applications where electrical conductivity is not required from the members of the joint. Nevertheless, soldered joints are still used in applications ranging from electronics to high-technology components. The present work seeks to demonstrate that soldered joints, which can be considered as functional joints, have very good mechanical properties and can provide more than acceptable levels of leak tightness. Hence, microstructural characterisation studies have been carried out on the filler metals used to solder mild steel, the surface preparation required to achieve the best final properties has been assessed, the joints characterised by means of radiography and the mechanical properties of the joints determined. The results obtained for soldered joints have been compared with those obtained from adhesive and hybrid joints. Finally, scanning electron microscopy has been performed on the fracture surfaces of the soldered joint.

Molleda, F.; Mora, J.; Molleda, F.J.; Carillo, E.; Mellor, B.G

2003-12-15

358

The small chill: mild hypothermia for cardioprotection?  

PubMed Central

Reducing the heart's temperature by 2–5°C is a potent cardioprotective treatment in animal models of coronary artery occlusion. The anti-infarct benefit depends upon the target temperature and the time at which cooling is instituted. Protection primarily results from cooling during the ischaemic period, whereas cooling during reperfusion or beyond offers little protection. In animal studies, protection is proportional to both the depth and duration of cooling. An optimal cooling protocol must appreciably shorten the normothermic ischaemic time to effectively salvage myocardium. Patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction could be candidates for mild hypothermia since the current door-to-balloon time is typically 90 min. But they would have to be cooled quickly shortly after their arrival. Several strategies have been proposed for ultra-fast cooling, but most like liquid ventilation and pericardial perfusion are too invasive. More feasible strategies might include cutaneous cooling, peritoneal lavage with cold solutions, and endovascular cooling with intravenous thermodes. This last option has been investigated clinically, but the results have been disappointing possibly because the devices lacked capacity to cool the patient quickly or cooling was not implemented soon enough. The mechanism of hypothermia's protection has been assumed to be energy conservation. However, whereas deep hypothermia clearly preserves ATP, mild hypothermia has only a modest effect on ATP depletion during ischaemia. Some evidence suggests that intracellular signalling pathways might be responsible for the protection. It is unknown how cooling could trigger these pathways, but, if true, then it might be possible to duplicate cooling's protection pharmacologically.

Tissier, Renaud; Chenoune, Mourad; Ghaleh, Bijan; Cohen, Michael V.; Downey, James M.; Berdeaux, Alain

2010-01-01

359

Mild dehydration impairs cognitive performance and mood of men.  

PubMed

The present study assessed the effects of mild dehydration on cognitive performance and mood of young males. A total of twenty-six men (age 20·0 (sd 0·3) years) participated in three randomised, single-blind, repeated-measures trials: exercise-induced dehydration plus a diuretic (DD; 40 mg furosemide); exercise-induced dehydration plus placebo containing no diuretic (DN); exercise while maintaining euhydration plus placebo (EU; control condition). Each trial included three 40 min treadmill walks at 5·6 km/h, 5 % grade in a 27·7°C environment. A comprehensive computerised six-task cognitive test battery, the profile of mood states questionnaire and the symptom questionnaire (headache, concentration and task difficulty) were administered during each trial. Paired t tests compared the DD and DN trials resulting in >1 % body mass loss (mean 1·59 (sd 0·42) %) with the volunteer's EU trial (0·01 (sd 0·03) %). Dehydration degraded specific aspects of cognitive performance: errors increased on visual vigilance (P = 0·048) and visual working memory response latency slowed (P = 0·021). Fatigue and tension/anxiety increased due to dehydration at rest (P = 0·040 and 0·029) and fatigue during exercise (P = 0·026). Plasma osmolality increased due to dehydration (P < 0·001) but resting gastrointestinal temperature was not altered (P = 0·238). In conclusion, mild dehydration without hyperthermia in men induced adverse changes in vigilance and working memory, and increased tension/anxiety and fatigue. PMID:21736786

Ganio, Matthew S; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Casa, Douglas J; McDermott, Brendon P; Lee, Elaine C; Yamamoto, Linda M; Marzano, Stefania; Lopez, Rebecca M; Jimenez, Liliana; Le Bellego, Laurent; Chevillotte, Emmanuel; Lieberman, Harris R

2011-06-07

360

Thermal conductivity of aqueous foam  

SciTech Connect

Thermal conductivity plays an important part in the response of aqueous foams used as geothermal drilling fluids. The thermal conductivity of these foams was measured at ambient conditions using the thermal conductivity probe technique. Foam densities studied were from 0.03 to 0.2 g/cm/sup 3/, corresponding to liquid volume fractions of the same magnitude. Microscopy of the foams indicated bubble sizes in the range 50 to 300 ..mu..m for nitrogen foams, and 30 to 150 ..mu..m for helium foams. Bubble shapes were observed to be polyhedral at low foam densities and spherical at the higher densities. The measured conductivity values ranged from 0.05 to 0.12 W/m-K for the foams studied. The predicted behavior in foam conductivity caused by a change in the conductivity of the discontinuous gas phase was observed using nitrogen or helium gas in the foams. Analysis of the probe response data required an interpretation using the full intergral solution to the heat conduction equation, since the thermal capacity of the foam was small relative to the thermal mass of the probe. The measurements of the thermal conductivity of the foams were influenced by experimental effects such as the probe input power, foam drainage, and the orientation of the probe and test cell. For nitrogen foams, the thermal conductivity vs liquid volume fraction was observed to fall between predictions based on the parallel ordering and Russell models for thermal conduction in heterogeneous materials.

Drotning, W.D.; Ortega, A.; Havey, P.E.

1982-05-01

361

Salt Effect Model for Aqueous Solubility of TBP in a 5 to 100% TBP\\/n-Dodecane-Nitric Acid-Water Biphasic System at 298.2 K  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solubilities of nonelectrolytes in aqueous electrolyte solutions have traditionally been modeled by using the Setschenow equation for salt effect. The aqueous solubility of tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) during operating conditions of the Purex process is an important parameter for safety considerations. Use of the Setschenow equation for aqueous solubility of TBP under limited conditions has been reported in the literature.

Shekhar Kumar; Sudhir Babu Koganti

2000-01-01

362

Human capabilities, mild autism, deafness and the morality of embryo selection.  

PubMed

A preimplantation genetic test to discriminate between severe and mild autism spectrum disorder might be developed in the foreseeable future. Recently, the philosophers Julian Savulescu and Guy Kahane claimed that there are strong reasons for prospective parents to make use of such a test to prevent the birth of children who are disposed to autism or Asperger's disorder. In this paper we will criticize this claim. We will discuss the morality of selection for mild autism in embryo selection in a hypothetical in vitro fertilization (IVF) situation where preimplantation genetic diagnosis is performed and compare this with a similar selection for congenital deafness. To do this we first discuss relevant human differences. We then introduce the principle of human capabilities (PC) and compare this principle with the principle of procreative beneficence (PB) introduced by Savulescu and Kahane. We apply the two principles to selection for mild autism and selection for congenital deafness. We argue that PC allows for the selection for mild autism but rules out selection for congenital deafness. PB will not give clear answers; the ruling of PB depends to a large extent on expected social, cultural and political developments. We will argue that PC is preferable to PB. We will discuss arguments for the value of mild autism for individuals who have this condition and argue that they are able to lead a life with human dignity provided autism-friendly social circumstances are present. Neither PC nor PB yields strong reasons for prospective parents to seek to prevent the birth of children who are disposed to mild autism spectrum disorder. PMID:23334404

Jaarsma, Pier; Welin, Stellan

2013-01-20

363

Long-term consequences of mild traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

A debate has ensued about the long-term consequences of mild traumatic brain injury, the 'signature injury' of the Iraq and Afghanistan Wars. Most epidemiological studies have found that mild traumatic brain injury is unrelated to unspecific post-concussion symptoms based on self-reported symptoms. A longitudinal study, in this issue of the Journal, using objective tests has demonstrated that mild traumatic brain injury has limited lasting neuropsychological consequences. PMID:22945923

Rona, Roberto J

2012-09-01

364

Characterization of Synergistic Effects Between Erosion and Corrosion in an Aqueous Environment Using Electrochemical Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synergistic effects between erosion and corrosion processes on mild steel (MS) in an aqueous carbonate-bicarbonate solution were studied using electrochemical measurements from a rotating cylinder electrode (RCE) system. A rigorous basis for definition and measurement of the pure erosion rate and corrosion rate was adopted so that so-called synergism could be analyzed precisely. The total erosion-corrosion rate and the corrosion

S. Zhou; M. M. Stack; R. C. Newman

1996-01-01

365

Electrochemical polarization and passive film analysis of austenitic Fe–Mn–Al steels in aqueous solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corrosion behaviour of the Fe–25Mn–5Al–0.15C alloy in different aqueous solutions of pH ?0.8 to 15.3 and the corrosion protection mechanism induced by the presence of Al have been investigated by electrochemical measurements and AES\\/XPS analysis. The corrosion behaviour of Fe–25Mn–5Al steel has been compared with that of mild steel, cryogenic 9% Ni steel and 1Cr13 stainless steel. The addition

Y. S Zhang; X. M Zhu

1999-01-01

366

Photolysis of oxyfluorfen in aqueous methanol.  

PubMed

Photolysis of oxyfluorfen, an herbicide of the nitrodiphenyl ether class, was studied in aqueous methanol under UV and sunlight. UV irradiation was carried out in a borosilicate glass photoreactor (containing 250 ppm oxyfluorfen in 50% aqueous methanol) equipped with a quartz filter and 125 watt mercury lamp (maximum output 254 nm) at 25 ± 1°C. Sunlight irradiation was conducted at 28 ± 1°C in borosilicate Erlenmeyer flasks containing 250 ppm oxyfluorfen in 50% aqueous methanol. The samples from both the irradiated conditions were withdrawn at a definite time interval and extracted to measure oxyfluorfen content by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector for rate study. The half-life values were 20 hours and 2.7 days under UV and sunlight exposure, respectively. Photolysis of oxyfluorfen yielded 13 photoproducts of which three were characterized by infrared spectrophotometer and (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The rest of the photoproducts were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and thin layer chromatography (TLC). An ionization potential 70 eV was used for electron impact-mass spectrometry (EI-MS) and methane was used as reagent gas for chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (CI-MS). Two of the photoproducts were also synthesized for comparison. The main phototransformation pathways of oxyfluorfen involved nitro reduction, dechlorination, and hydrolysis as well as nucleophiles displacement reaction. PMID:23998303

Chakraborty, Subhasish K; Chakraborty, Savitri; Bhattacharyya, Anjan; Chowdhury, Ashim

2013-01-01

367

Bentonite for ciprofloxacin removal from aqueous solution.  

PubMed

Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CIP) is the second generation of fluoroquinolone antibiotics whose residues are found in wastewater and surface water. CIP has high aqueous solubility under different pH conditions and high stability in the soil system. In this study, bentonite was used as a potential sorbent for the removal of CIP from aqueous solutions using batch experiments. The effects of various parameters such as contact time, pH, adsorbent dosage, agitation speed, ionic strength and initial concentration of CIP in aqueous solution on the adsorption capacity were investigated. The optimum contact time, pH, agitation speed and adsorbent dosage were found to be 30 min, 4.5 pH, 150 rpm and 2.5 g L(-1), respectively. When the ionic strength was increased from 5 to 50 mM, the adsorption of CIP decreased from 97.8 to 93.4%. The isotherm adsorption data fitted well with the Langmuir model, Kl and qe were found to be 0.27 L mg(-1) and 147.06 mg g(-1), and the data fitted well with the pseudo-second order kinetics, whereby k was found to be 2.19 g mg(-1) h(-1). PMID:23985515

Genç, Nevim; Can Dogan, Esra; Yurtsever, Meral

2013-01-01

368

Critical Heat Flux of Butanol Aqueous Solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is known that the addition of small amount of alcohol such as butanol to water enhances the CHF. Such aqueous solution is actively applied to heat transfer devices such as heat pipes and microchannel cooling systems, however, the fundamental characters of boiling have not been fully understood. In the present research, the experiment of boiling heat transfer is performed on a heated wire by employing butanol aqueous solution as a typical test solution and by changing concentration 1-butanol and subcooling in a wide range. Bubbling aspects were observed using high-speed video camera. It is found from the experiment that CHF is 2 to 3 times higher than that of pure water and generating bubbles are tiny even at the saturated condition. The dependence of CHF on subcooling is found to be curious showing that CHF decreases first, takes a minimum, and then increases with increasing subcooling. These results suggest that the butanol aqueous solution is a promising liquid for the application of boiling to a small-scaled cooling device.

Nishiguchi, Shotaro; Shoji, Masahiro

369

Mild hyperthermia worsens the neuropathological damage associated with mild traumatic brain injury in rats.  

PubMed

The effects of slight variations in brain temperature on the pathophysiological consequences of acute brain injury have been extensively described in models of moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). In contrast, limited information is available regarding the potential consequences of temperature elevations on outcome following mild TBI (mTBI) or concussions. One potential confounding variable with mTBI is the presence of elevated body temperature that occurs in the civilian or military populations due to hot environments combined with exercise or other forms of physical exertion. We therefore determined the histopathological effects of pre- and post-traumatic hyperthermia (39°C) on mTBI. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups: pre/post-traumatic hyperthermia, post-traumatic hyperthermia alone for 2 h, and normothermia (37°C). The pre/post-hyperthermia group was treated with hyperthermia starting 15?min before mild parasagittal fluid-percussion brain injury (1.4-1.6 atm), with the temperature elevation extending for 2?h after trauma. At 72?h after mTBI, the rats were perfusion-fixed for quantitative histopathological evaluation. Contusion areas and volumes were significantly larger in the pre/post-hyperthermia treatment group compared to the post-hyperthermia and normothermic groups. In addition, pre/post-traumatic hyperthermia caused the most severe loss of NeuN-positive cells in the dentate hilus compared to normothermia. These neuropathological results demonstrate that relatively mild elevations in temperature associated with peri-traumatic events may affect the long-term functional consequences of mTBI. Because individuals exhibiting mildly elevated core temperatures may be predisposed to aggravated brain damage after mTBI or concussion, precautions should be introduced to target this important physiological variable. PMID:22026555

Sakurai, Atsushi; Atkins, Coleen M; Alonso, Ofelia F; Bramlett, Helen M; Dietrich, W Dalton

2012-01-20

370

Mild Hyperthermia Worsens the Neuropathological Damage Associated with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats  

PubMed Central

Abstract The effects of slight variations in brain temperature on the pathophysiological consequences of acute brain injury have been extensively described in models of moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). In contrast, limited information is available regarding the potential consequences of temperature elevations on outcome following mild TBI (mTBI) or concussions. One potential confounding variable with mTBI is the presence of elevated body temperature that occurs in the civilian or military populations due to hot environments combined with exercise or other forms of physical exertion. We therefore determined the histopathological effects of pre- and post-traumatic hyperthermia (39°C) on mTBI. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups: pre/post-traumatic hyperthermia, post-traumatic hyperthermia alone for 2?h, and normothermia (37°C). The pre/post-hyperthermia group was treated with hyperthermia starting 15?min before mild parasagittal fluid-percussion brain injury (1.4–1.6 atm), with the temperature elevation extending for 2?h after trauma. At 72?h after mTBI, the rats were perfusion-fixed for quantitative histopathological evaluation. Contusion areas and volumes were significantly larger in the pre/post-hyperthermia treatment group compared to the post-hyperthermia and normothermic groups. In addition, pre/post-traumatic hyperthermia caused the most severe loss of NeuN-positive cells in the dentate hilus compared to normothermia. These neuropathological results demonstrate that relatively mild elevations in temperature associated with peri-traumatic events may affect the long-term functional consequences of mTBI. Because individuals exhibiting mildly elevated core temperatures may be predisposed to aggravated brain damage after mTBI or concussion, precautions should be introduced to target this important physiological variable.

Sakurai, Atsushi; Atkins, Coleen M.; Alonso, Ofelia F.; Bramlett, Helen M.

2012-01-01

371

Characterization of the corrosion products formed on mild steel in acidic medium with N-octadecylpyridinium bromide as corrosion inhibitor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characterization of the corrosion products formed on mild steel SAE 1018 after 2 months exposure in aqueous sulfuric acid with and without corrosion inhibitor N-octadecylpyridinium bromide has been carried out by means of transmission 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The major constituent of the rust formed in this environment without corrosion inhibitor is goethite ( ?-FeOOH). The samples with N-octadecylpyridinium bromide contain rozenite and large amounts of melanterite in the corrosion layers.

Nava, N.; Likhanova, N. V.; Olivares-Xometl, O.; Flores, E. A.; Lijanova, I. V.

2011-11-01

372

Aqueous photolysis of niclosamide  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The photodegradation of [14C]niclosamide was studied in sterile, pH 5, 7, and 9 buffered aqueous solutions under artificial sunlight at 25.0 A? 1.0 A?C. Photolysis in pH 5 buffer is 4.3 times faster than in pH 9 buffer and 1.5 times faster than in pH 7 buffer. In the dark controls, niclosamide degraded only in the pH 5 buffer. After 360 h of continuous irradiation in pH 9 buffer, the chromatographic pattern of the degradates was the same regardless of which ring contained the radiolabel. An HPLC method was developed that confirmed these degradates to be carbon dioxide and two- and four-carbon aliphatic acids formed by cleavage of both aromatic rings. Carbon dioxide was the major degradate, comprising 40% of the initial radioactivity in the 360 h samples from both labels. The other degradates formed were oxalic acid, maleic acid, glyoxylic acid, and glyoxal. In addition, in the chloronitroaniline-labeled irradiated test solution, 2-chloro-4-nitroaniline was observed and identified after 48 h of irradiation but was not detected thereafter. No other aromatic compounds were isolated or observed in either labeled test system.

Graebing, P. W.; Chib, J. S.; Hubert, T. D.; Gingerich, W. H.

2004-01-01

373

Aqueous photolysis of niclosamide.  

PubMed

The photodegradation of [(14)C]niclosamide was studied in sterile, pH 5, 7, and 9 buffered aqueous solutions under artificial sunlight at 25.0 +/- 1.0 degrees C. Photolysis in pH 5 buffer is 4.3 times faster than in pH 9 buffer and 1.5 times faster than in pH 7 buffer. In the dark controls, niclosamide degraded only in the pH 5 buffer. After 360 h of continuous irradiation in pH 9 buffer, the chromatographic pattern of the degradates was the same regardless of which ring contained the radiolabel. An HPLC method was developed that confirmed these degradates to be carbon dioxide and two- and four-carbon aliphatic acids formed by cleavage of both aromatic rings. Carbon dioxide was the major degradate, comprising approximately 40% of the initial radioactivity in the 360 h samples from both labels. The other degradates formed were oxalic acid, maleic acid, glyoxylic acid, and glyoxal. In addition, in the chloronitroaniline-labeled irradiated test solution, 2-chloro-4-nitroaniline was observed and identified after 48 h of irradiation but was not detected thereafter. No other aromatic compounds were isolated or observed in either labeled test system. PMID:14969544

Graebing, Phillip W; Chib, J S; Hubert, Terrance D; Gingerich, William H

2004-02-25

374

Synthesis of Polyoxovanadates from Aqueous Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyoxovanadates have been synthesized from aqueous solutions of VV in the presence of inorganic Na+ and organic [N(CH3)4]+ cations. Decavanadate crystals are precipitated at room temperature around pH 7, whereas layered compounds Na[V3O8].H2O and N(CH3)4[V4O10] are formed at the same pH under hydrothermal conditions. In situ51V NMR experiments show that upon heating solute decavanadate species are progressively transformed into cyclic

L. Bouhedja; N. Steunou; J. Maquet; J. Livage

2001-01-01

375

Effective catalysts for decomposition of aqueous ozone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activities of a series of oxide supports and dozens of supported metal catalysts toward the decomposition of aqueous ozone have been investigated. Under reaction conditions, active carbon (AC) showed comparatively high activity, while zeolite (HY and mordenite), Al2O3, SiO2, SiO2·Al2O3 and TiO2 showed no or negligible activity. Noble metals showed high activity. Among four kinds (Al2O3, SiO2, SiO2·Al2O3 and TiO2)

Jianjun Lin; Akimasa Kawai; Tsuyoshi Nakajima

2002-01-01

376

No Effect of PTSD and Other Psychiatric Disorders on Cognitive Functioning in Veterans With Mild TBI  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been speculation that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) superimposed on mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) may have synergistic, negative effects on cognitive functioning. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in processing speed, executive functioning, and memory of 82 veterans with mTBI and PTSD, mTBI, and another psychiatric condition, or mTBI alone. It was hypothesized that there

Shalanda N. Gordon; Pamela J. Fitzpatrick; Robin C. Hilsabeck

2011-01-01

377

Mild Hypoxia Induces Hypertrophy of Cultured Neonatal Rat Cardiomyocytes: A Possible Endogenous Endothelin1-mediated Mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypoxic or ischemic stresses on cardiomyocytes may cause a variety of compensatory responses including cell hypertrophy. In this study, we examined whether hypoxia induces hypertrophy of cardiomyocytesin vitroand whether hypoxia-induced hypertrophy is inhibited by an endothelin A receptor antagonist (BQ123). Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were cultured in 10% O2\\/85% N2\\/5% CO2or 95% N2\\/5% CO2to produce a mild or severe hypoxic condition,

Hiroshi Ito; Susumu Adachi; Mimi Tamamori; Hiroyuki Fujisaki; Masato Tanaka; Meihong Lin; Hajime Akimoto; Fumiaki Marumo; Michiaki Hiroe

1996-01-01

378

Abdominal Fat, Adipose-Derived Hormones and Mild Cognitive Impairment: The J-SHIPP Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aim: Lower body weight in later life has been shown to be associated with dementia. However, abdominal fat distribution under conditions of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and the possible involvement of leptin and adiponectin in MCI have not been fully investigated. Methods: We analyzed 517 middle-aged-to-elderly community-dwelling persons. Abdominal subcutaneous fat and visceral fat areas were determined using computed tomography,

Kenji Kamogawa; Katsuhiko Kohara; Yasuharu Tabara; Eri Uetani; Tokihisa Nagai; Miyuki Yamamoto; Michiya Igase; Tetsuro Miki

2010-01-01

379

Numerical study of influence of molecular diffusion in the Mild combustion regime  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the importance of molecular diffusion versus turbulent transport in the moderate or intense low-oxygen dilution (Mild) combustion mode has been numerically studied. The experimental conditions of Dally et al. [Proc. Combust. Inst. 29 (2002) 1147–1154] were used for modelling. The EDC model was used to describe the turbulence–chemistry interaction. The DRM-22 reduced mechanism and the GRI 2.11

Amir Mardani; Sadegh Tabejamaat; Mohsen Ghamari

2010-01-01

380

Numerical study of the effect of turbulence on rate of reactions in the MILD combustion regime  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the importance of fluctuations in flow field parameters is studied under MILD combustion conditions. In this way, a turbulent non-premixed CH4+H2 jet flame issuing into a hot and deficient co-flow air is modeled using the RANS Axisymmetric equations. The modeling is carried out using the EDC model to describe the turbulence-chemistry interaction. The DRM-22 reduced mechanism and

Amir Mardani; Sadegh Tabejamaat; Mohammadreza Baig Mohammadi

2011-01-01

381

Effects of mild heat exposure on sleep stages and body temperature in older men  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of mild heat exposure on sleep stages and body temperature in older men. Ten healthy male volunteers with a mean age of 69.2 ± 1.35 years served as subjects. The experiments were carried out under two different sets of conditions: 26 °C 50% relative humidity (RH) and 32 °C 50% RH. The subjects

K. Okamoto-Mizuno; K. Tsuzuki; K. Mizuno

2004-01-01

382

[Toxicity studies of mild gasification products]. [Quarterly report, October 1, 1992--December 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

Mild gasification of coal is a technology being developed by the United States Department of Energy and private industry with the hope that a cleaner method of coal use can help meet future energy needs. As the technology develops and its commercial use becomes a more viable possibility, efforts are being made to study the safety or possible toxicity of the mild gasification products. DOE and the National Institute for occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) are cooperating through an interagency agreement to examine some of these products for their genotoxic potential. NIOSH has studied the mutagenicity of several mild gasification product samples using the Ames Salmonella/microsomal assay. As reported earlier PSIS{number_sign}830331 failed to demonstrate genotoxic activity in the Ames assay under all conditions tested. Since the mild gasification products are complex mixtures, interactions between various components are likely to occur. Such interactions between various components of complex mixtures may increase or decrease genotoxic activity in short-term assays like the Ames test. Although all synergistic interactions may not be detailed, the separate analysis of those components in several classes provides a more accurate view of the genotoxicity of each component and better allows for chemical characterization of the possible mutagens in the mixture. NIOSH has performed mutagenicity studies on the subfractions of PSIS{number_sign}830331. The results of those studies are detailed in this report.

Not Available

1992-12-31

383

Dynamic changes in neural circuit topology following mild mechanical injury in vitro.  

PubMed

Despite its enormous incidence, mild traumatic brain injury is not well understood. One aspect that needs more definition is how the mechanical energy during injury affects neural circuit function. Recent developments in cellular imaging probes provide an opportunity to assess the dynamic state of neural networks with single-cell resolution. In this article, we developed imaging methods to assess the state of dissociated cortical networks exposed to mild injury. We estimated the imaging conditions needed to achieve accurate measures of network properties, and applied these methodologies to evaluate if mild mechanical injury to cortical neurons produces graded changes to either spontaneous network activity or altered network topology. We found that modest injury produced a transient increase in calcium activity that dissipated within 1 h after injury. Alternatively, moderate mechanical injury produced immediate disruption in network synchrony, loss in excitatory tone, and increased modular topology. A calcium-activated neutral protease (calpain) was a key intermediary in these changes; blocking calpain activation restored the network nearly completely to its pre-injury state. Together, these findings show a more complex change in neural circuit behavior than previously reported for mild mechanical injury, and highlight at least one important early mechanism responsible for these changes. PMID:21994056

Patel, Tapan P; Ventre, Scott C; Meaney, David F

2011-10-13

384

Aqueous Acrylamide Gel Duplicating Material.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An aqueous acrylamide gel duplicating material was developed by modification of a commercially available acrylamide material. A synthetic calcium silicate was added for purposes of lowering the per cent strain from 35 to 24 per cent. A potassium alignate ...

E. R. Dootz R. G. Craig F. A. Peyton

1967-01-01

385

Assisting Elders with Mild Dementia Staying at Home  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elders with mild Dementia exhibit impairments of memory, thought and reasoning. It has been recognized that pervasive computing technologies can assist those suffering from mild Dementia to improve their level of independence and quality of life through cognitive reinforcement. In this paper, we present a user-centred design approach, which is based on the iterative process of user study, prototyping, user

Daqing Zhang; Mossaab Hariz; Mounir Mokhtari

2008-01-01

386

Fuel consumption and emission reduction of a mild hybrid vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a control strategy for a mild hybrid vehicle equipped with integrated starter alternator (ISA). The ISA provides the torque augmentation and regenerative braking as well as the start\\/stop capability for the vehicle. continuously variable transmission (CVT) is utilized to achieve the full benefits of the mild hybrid drive train. The validity of the proposed CVT control unit,

S. A. Fayazi; S. Farhangi; B. Asaei

2008-01-01

387

Separation of products from mild coal gasification processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary mild coal gasification product mixture containing noncondensible gas, high-boiling hydrocarbon vapors and entrained fines is difficult to process into the desired pure products: gas, liquids, and dry solids. This challenge for mild coal gasification process development has been studied by surveying the technical literature for suitable separations processes and for similar issues in related processes. The choice for

Wallman

1991-01-01

388

Mild Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome Should Not Be Treated  

Microsoft Academic Search

he diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) generally re- quires a presenting symptom or symptoms and the demon- stration of apneas and\\/or hypopneas per hour of sleep (AHI) on a formal sleep study. The diagnosis of mild OSA is not well defined but in a 1999 report of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM), definitions of mild OSA by

Michael R. Littner

2007-01-01

389

Mild Aphasia: Is This the Place for an Argument?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: Individuals with mild aphasia often report significant disruption to their communication despite seemingly minor impairment. This study explored this phenomenon through examining conversations of a person with mild aphasia engaging in argumentation--a skill she felt had significantly deteriorated after her stroke. Method: A person with…

Armstrong, Elizabeth; Fox, Sarah; Wilkinson, Ray

2013-01-01

390

Outcome in children with fetal mild ventriculomegaly: a case series  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mild enlargement of the lateral ventricles is associated with schizophrenia and other neurodevelopmental disorders. While it has been hypothesized that ventricle abnormalities associated with neurodevelopmental disorders arise during fetal brain development, there is little direct evidence to support this hypothesis. Using ultrasound, it is possible to image the fetal ventricles in utero. Fetal mild ventriculomegaly (MVM) has been associated with

John H Gilmore; Julia J van Tol; Hellen Lewis Streicher; Kwanna Williamson; Sherry B Cohen; Robert S Greenwood; H. Cecil Charles; Mark A Kliewer; J. Kenneth Whitt; Susan G Silva; Barbara S Hertzberg; Nancy C Chescheir

2001-01-01

391

Early and Differential Diagnosis of Dementia and Mild Cognitive Impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The German Dementia Competence Network (DCN) has established procedures for standardized multicenter acquisition of clinical, biological and imaging data, for centralized data management, and for the evaluation of new treatments. Methods: A longitudinal cohort study was set up for patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), patients with mild dementia and control subjects. The aims were to establish the diagnostic,

Johannes Kornhuber; Klaus Schmidtke; Lutz Frölich; Robert Perneczky; Stefanie Wolf; Harald Hampel; Frank Jessen; Isabella Heuser; Oliver Peters; Markus Weih; Holger Jahn; Christian Luckhaus; Michael Hüll; Hermann-Josef Gertz; Johannes Schröder; Johannes Pantel; Otto Rienhoff; Susanne A. Seuchter; Eckart Rüther; Fritz Henn; Wolfgang Maier; Jens Wiltfang

2009-01-01

392

Impaired Verb Fluency: A Sign of Mild Cognitive Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We assessed verb fluency vs. noun and letter-based fluency in 199 subjects referred for cognitive complaints including Subjective Cognitive Impairment, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer's disease. ANCOVAs and factor analyses identified verb, noun, and letter-based fluency as distinct tasks. Verb fluency performance in Mild Cognitive…

Ostberg, Per; Fernaeus, Sven-Erik; Hellstrom, Ake; Bogdanovic, Nenad; Wahlund, Lars Olof

2005-01-01

393

A mouse model of human repetitive mild traumatic brain injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel method for the study of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI) that models the most common form of head injury in humans is presented. Existing animal models of TBI impart focal, severe damage unlike that seen in repeated and mild concussive injuries, and few are configured for repetitive application. Our model is a modification of the Marmarou weight

Michael J. Kane; Mariana Angoa-Pérez; Denise I. Briggs; David C. Viano; Christian W. Kreipke; Donald M. Kuhn

394

Get Well Care: Guidelines for Programs Serving Mildly Ill Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although child care programs for mildly ill children are proliferating around the country, very few states have developed regulations for these types of programs, and no states have developed standards or guidelines. Based upon this concern, a group of medical and early childhood professionals, parents, and directors of programs for mildly ill…

Montanari, Ellen Orton, Ed.

395

Mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease (PD) has initially been described as a clinical syndrome, although its exact definition has changed over the past centuries. The identification of the pathological changes added another level of complexity, with Lewy bodies, synuclein deposits and neuronal loss in the substantia nigra being used alternatively as criteria. A third level of complexity was added with the recognition of genetic mutations resulting in Parkinsonism, sometimes with and sometimes without Lewy bodies or synuclein deposition. Lastly, frequent additional important pre-motor manifestations, particularly depression, anosmia and sleep-associated phenomena have been described. These different points of view on the definition of PD have important implications on the study of the etiology and even the therapy of PD. Cognitive impairment is also an important feature of PD, while the spectrum of deficits ranges from none to severe dementia. The no-man land in-between normal cognition and dementia has been termed mild cognitive impairment in PD. At present, this term lacks heuristic value or clinical utility, and remains a target for scientific research. PMID:23508527

Korczyn, Amos D

2013-03-19

396

Bacterial Phosphating of Mild (Unalloyed) Steel  

PubMed Central

Mild (unalloyed) steel electrodes were incubated in phosphate-buffered cultures of aerobic, biofilm-forming Rhodococcus sp. strain C125 and Pseudomonas putida mt2. A resulting surface reaction leading to the formation of a corrosion-inhibiting vivianite layer was accompanied by a characteristic electrochemical potential (E) curve. First, E increased slightly due to the interaction of phosphate with the iron oxides covering the steel surface. Subsequently, E decreased rapidly and after 1 day reached ?510 mV, the potential of free iron, indicating the removal of the iron oxides. At this point, only scattered patches of bacteria covered the surface. A surface reaction, in which iron was released and vivianite precipitated, started. E remained at ?510 mV for about 2 days, during which the vivianite layer grew steadily. Thereafter, E increased markedly to the initial value, and the release of iron stopped. Changes in E and formation of vivianite were results of bacterial activity, with oxygen consumption by the biofilm being the driving force. These findings indicate that biofilms may protect steel surfaces and might be used as an alternative method to combat corrosion.

Volkland, Hans-Peter; Harms, Hauke; Muller, Beat; Repphun, Gernot; Wanner, Oskar; Zehnder, Alexander J. B.

2000-01-01

397

Bacterial phosphating of mild (unalloyed) steel.  

PubMed

Mild (unalloyed) steel electrodes were incubated in phosphate-buffered cultures of aerobic, biofilm-forming Rhodococcus sp. strain C125 and Pseudomonas putida mt2. A resulting surface reaction leading to the formation of a corrosion-inhibiting vivianite layer was accompanied by a characteristic electrochemical potential (E) curve. First, E increased slightly due to the interaction of phosphate with the iron oxides covering the steel surface. Subsequently, E decreased rapidly and after 1 day reached -510 mV, the potential of free iron, indicating the removal of the iron oxides. At this point, only scattered patches of bacteria covered the surface. A surface reaction, in which iron was released and vivianite precipitated, started. E remained at -510 mV for about 2 days, during which the vivianite layer grew steadily. Thereafter, E increased markedly to the initial value, and the release of iron stopped. Changes in E and formation of vivianite were results of bacterial activity, with oxygen consumption by the biofilm being the driving force. These findings indicate that biofilms may protect steel surfaces and might be used as an alternative method to combat corrosion. PMID:11010888

Volkland, H P; Harms, H; Müller, B; Repphun, G; Wanner, O; Zehnder, A J

2000-10-01

398

Treatment of mild cognitive impairment (MCI).  

PubMed

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI), an intermediate stage between normalcy and dementia, is characterized by fewer symptoms and less functional decline than dementia with less established biological disease processes and is an attractive target for both symptomatic and disease progression therapies. It is always desirable to treat symptoms or slow disease at a stage where the individual is still largely functional. Therapeutic studies in MCI have either been symptomatic, usually of shorter duration or of longer multiyear terms to demonstrate whether disease progression is delayed. Symptomatic agents tested to date include donepezil, SGS-742, and Piracetam. No symptomatic drug study has demonstrated clinically convincing differences between placebo and the study medication. Disease progression trials in MCI investigations of 2 to 4 year durations have included donepezil, vitamin E, rivastigmine, galantamine and rofecoxib. None have demonstrated convincing effects in delaying longer term disease progression or conversion to dementia. Problems that may have undermined these trials; i) disease heterogeneity, ii) slow early progression of the disease, and iii) insensitive cognitive and functional instruments. Future MCI studies may benefit from the use of biomarkers such as apolipoprotein E (APOE4), cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-beta1-42 and Tau levels and PIB positivity on brain PET scans as well as more sensitive neuropsychological test measures may also more accurately reflect clinical changes related to drug effects. PMID:19689235

Farlow, M R

2009-08-01

399

Neuropsychological rehabilitation of mild traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

A significant minority of patients who have sustained a mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) may exhibit persistent disability. There have been few attempts to describe and evaluate the effectiveness of neurorehabilitation for these patients. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the results of a neuropsychological rehabilitation programme for 20 patients with MTBI. Based upon the ability to resume productive functioning after treatment, 10 patients were determined to exhibit a good outcome and 10 patients were considered to exhibit a poor outcome. Patients with good outcome exhibited significant pre-post-treatment improvements on both neuropsychological measures of cognitive functioning and self-reported post-concussive symptoms. Patients with poor outcome demonstrated little improvement in either area, and in some cases showed a decline in functioning. The results are consistent with the view that there may be significant variability in recovery and response to treatment after MTBI. There is a continued need to identify which patients may benefit from neurorehabilitation, develop specially tailored interventions, and conduct controlled, prospective studies in this area. PMID:9044693

Cicerone, K D; Smith, L C; Ellmo, W; Mangel, H R; Nelson, P; Chase, R F; Kalmar, K

1996-04-01

400

Oxidatively Modified RNA in Mild Cognitive Impairment  

PubMed Central

Studies show increased oxidative damage in the brains of subjects with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). To determine if RNA oxidation occurs in MCI, sections of hippocampus/parahippocampal gyrus (HPG) from 5 MCI, 5 late stage AD (LAD) and 5 age-matched normal control (NC) subjects were subjected to immunohistochemistry using antibodies against 8-hydroxyguanine (8-OHG) and 1-N2-propanodeoxyguanosine (NPrG). Confocal microscopy showed 8-OHG and NPrG immunostaining was significantly (p < 0.05) elevated in MCI and LAD HPG compared with NC subjects and was predominately associated with neurons identified using the MC-1 antibody that recognizes conformational alterations of tau, which are associated with early neurofibrillary tangle formation. Pretreating sections with RNase or DNase-I showed immunostaining for both adducts was primarily associated with RNA. In addition, levels of both adducts in MCI were comparable to those measured in LAD, suggesting RNA oxidation may be an early event in the pathogenesis of neuron degeneration in AD.

Lovell, Mark A.; Markesbery, William R.

2009-01-01

401

Aqueous flare in retinitis pigmentosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

· Background: The purpose of this study was to quantify blood-ocular barrier impairment by measuring aqueous flare in retinitis\\u000a pigmentosa (RP) and to search for clinical correlations. · Methods: Forty-nine patients (94 eyes) with RP and 85 normal controls\\u000a were examined. Aqueous flare was quantified with the noninvasive laser flare-cell meter (FC-1000, Kowa, Japan). Degrees of\\u000a cystoid macular edema (CME),

M. Küchle; Nhung X. Nguyen; Peter Martus; K. Freissler; Rainer Schalnus

1998-01-01

402

NonAqueous Battery Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium and sodium are light and highly electronegative elements which form the basis of anodes for high-energy-density battery systems. Their high chemical reactivity requires the use of ionic conductors based on non-aqueous solvents, polymers, solid electrolytes or fused salts. An associated range of cathode materials enables cells to be fabricated with open-circuit voltages from 1.5 to 4.0 V. Practical non-aqueous

Colin A. Vincent

1996-01-01

403

Aqueous synthesis of CdTe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots and their optical and chemical properties.  

PubMed

In this paper, we described a strategy for synthesis of thiol-coated CdTe/CdS/ZnS (core-shell-shell) quantum dots (QDs) via aqueous synthesis approach. The synthesis conditions were systematically optimized, which included the size of CdTe core, the refluxing time and the number of monolayers and the ligands, and then the chemical and optical properties of the as-prepared products were investigated. We found that the mercaptopropionic acid (MPA)-coated CdTe/CdS/ZnS QDs presented highly photoluminescent quantum yields (PL QYs), good photostability and chemical stability, good salt tolerance and pH tolerance and favorable biocompatibility. The characterization of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) showed that the CdTe/CdS/ZnS QDs had good monodispersity and crystal structure. The fluorescence life time spectra demonstrated that CdTe/CdS/ZnS QDs had a longer lifetime in contrast to fluorescent dyes and CdTe QDs. Furthermore, the MPA-stabilized CdTe/CdS/ZnS QDs were applied for the imaging of cells. Compared with current synthesis methods, our synthesis approach was reproducible and simple, and the reaction conditions were mild. More importantly, our method was cost-effective, and was very suitable for large-scale synthesis of CdTe/CdS/ZnS QDs for future applications. PMID:20878652

Li, Zhong; Dong, Chaoqing; Tang, Lichuan; Zhu, Xin; Chen, Hongjin; Ren, Jicun

2010-09-27

404

Treatment of aqueous and simulated wastewater of Luganil blue N dye – a new electrochemical approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of aqueous solution containing Luganil blue N (LBN) azo dye was performed by an electrochemical method under galvanostatic conditions using an undivided cell with platinum electrodes as working and auxiliary electrodes and standard calomel as the reference electrode. The aqueous solution of NaCl was used as the supporting electrolyte. Preliminary voltammetric studies were performed to establish the mode of

Sarala Puttappa; Venkatesha Thimmappa Venkatarangaiah

2011-01-01

405

Killing of Bacillus Spores by Aqueous Dissolved Oxygen, Ascorbic Acid, and Copper Ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach to decontamination of biological endospores is discussed. Specifically, the performance of an aqueous modified Fenton reagent is examined. A modified Fenton reagent formulation of cupric chloride, ascorbic acid, and sodium chloride is shown to be an effective sporicide under aerobic conditions. The traditional Fenton reaction involves the conversion of hydrogen peroxide to hydroxyl radical by aqueous ionic catalysts

J. B. Cross; R. P. Currier; D. J. Torraco; L. A. Vanderberg; G. L. Wagner; P. D. Gladen

2003-01-01

406

Intramolecular carbon isotopic analysis of acetic acid by direct injection of aqueous solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report an improved method for determining the intramolecular carbon isotopic composition of acetate using direct injection of aqueous samples. The system builds upon prior work that established pyrolytic conditions for online analysis and represents a significant advance in that it requires minimal preparation for samples containing as little as 1mM sodium acetate in aqueous solution. The technique is applicable

Burt Thomas; Katherine H. Freeman; Michael A. Arthur

2009-01-01

407

Polyelectrolyte brushes: a novel stable lubrication system in aqueous conditions.  

PubMed

Surface-initiated controlled radical copolymerizations of 2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA), 2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC), 2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyltrimethylammonium chloride) (MTAC), and 3-sulfopropyl methacrylate potassium salt (SPMK) were carried out on a silicon wafer and glass ball to prepare polyelectrolyte brushes with excellent water wettability. The frictional coefficient of the polymer brushes was recorded on a ball-on-plate type tribometer by linear reciprocating motion of the brush specimen at a selected velocity of 1.5 x 10(-3) m s-1 under a normal load of 0.49 N applied to the stationary glass ball (d = 10 mm) at 298 K. The poly(DMAEMA-co-MPC) brush partially cross-linked by bis(2-iodoethoxy)ethane maintained a relatively low friction coefficient around 0.13 under humid air (RH > 75%) even after 200 friction cycles. The poly(SPMK) brush revealed an extremely low friction coefficient around 0.01 even after 450 friction cycles. We supposed that the abrasion of the brush was prevented owing to the good affinity of the poly(SPMK) brush for water forming a water lubrication layer, and electrostatic repulsive interactions among the brushes bearing sulfonic acid groups. Furthermore, the poly(SPMK-co-MTAC) brush with a chemically cross-linked structure showed a stable low friction coefficient in water even after 1400 friction cycles under a normal load of 139 MPa, indicating that the cross-linking structure improved the wear resistance of the brush layer. PMID:23285641

Kobayashi, Motoyasu; Terada, Masami; Takahara, Atsushi

2012-01-01

408

Lung cancer in mild steel welders.  

PubMed

To investigate lung cancer risk, the authors conducted a historical cohort mortality study of 4,459 mild steel welders who had been employed at three midwestern plants which manufactured heavy equipment. Follow-up began in the mid-1950s and extended through 1988. All welders had at least 2 years welding experience (average duration, 8.5 years). This cohort had no occupational exposure to asbestos or stainless steel fumes (containing nickel and chromium), two potential confounders in previous welders studies. A comparison population of 4,286 nonwelders, all with at least 2 years employment at the same plants, was also studied. Nonwelders had never been welders and were allowed to have no more than 90 days employment as a painter, foundryman, or machinist. Sampling data collected from 1974-1987 indicated that welders were exposed to 6-7 mg/m3 of total particulate and 3-4 mg/m3 of iron oxide, while nonwelders had negligible exposures to welding fumes. When compared with the United States population, both welders and nonwelders had elevated rates for lung cancer (standardized mortality ratios (SMRs): welders, SMR = 1.07; nonwelders, SMR = 1.17), but neither SMR was significantly elevated. Limited smoking data based on a 1985 survey indicated that both welders and nonwelders smoked more than the United States population, possibly accounting for part of their elevated lung cancer rates. There was no trend of increased risk for welders with increased duration of exposure. The only other cause of death significantly elevated was emphysema among welders. Nonmalignant respiratory disease was not elevated for welders (SMR = 0.96). When welders were compared with nonwelders directly for lung cancer, the rate ratio was 0.90. PMID:2000839

Steenland, K; Beaumont, J; Elliot, L

1991-02-01

409

Behavioral characterization of mild cognitive impairment.  

PubMed

Results from recent investigations of behavioral and genetic outcomes in older people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have been inconsistent. These conflicting results may be attributed to between-study differences in the diagnostic systems employed, as well as the use of unreliable neuropsychological measures. We investigated behavioral and genetic outcomes in older people classified as having MCI according to novel criterion that required evidence of cognitive impairment on three consecutive neurological/neuropsychological assessments. One hundred and seventy four healthy older people were evaluated semi-annually for 12 months. Of these, 23 subjects were rated as having MCI on three consecutive assessments and were compared to 23 matched control subjects. Subjects rated as impaired on one or two of the three semi-annual assessments were also identified. MCI and matched control groups were compared on a range of behavioral measures. The prevalence of the Apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) allele was determined in all groups, and estimates of anxiety and depressive symptomatology were obtained. Subjective cognitive complaints were also assessed. Many subjects were classified as impaired on one or two assessments, however relatively few (n = 23) recorded consistent cognitive deficits. The most severe impairment observed in MCI subjects was on a test of pattern-location associative learning, however MCI subjects did not have insight into this impairment. The prevalence of the ApoE4 allele was not different between matched control and MCI groups. These results indicate that individuals with MCI can be differentiated from healthy older people and older people with transient cognitive impairments, but that such differentiation requires serial assessment of cognitive function. PMID:12424647

Collie, Alexander; Maruff, Paul; Currie, Jon

2002-09-01

410

Functional impairment in elderly patients with mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease  

PubMed Central

CONTEXT The original mild cognitive impairment (MCI) criteria exclude substantial functional deficits, but recent reports suggest otherwise. Identifying the extent, severity, type, and correlates of functional deficits that occur in MCI and mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD) can aid in early detection of incipient dementia and identify potential mechanistic pathways to disrupted instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs). OBJECTIVES To examine the number, type, and severity of functional impairments and identify the clinical characteristics associated with functional impairment across individuals with amnestic MCI (aMCI) and those with mild AD. DESIGN The study uses baseline data from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. SETTING Data from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative was collected at multiple research sites in the US and Canada. PATIENTS The samples included 229 controls, 394 aMCI, and 193 AD patients. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE The 10-item Pfeffer Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ) assessed function. RESULTS Informant-reported FAQ deficits were common in patients with aMCI (72.3%) and AD (97.4%) but were rarely self-reported by controls (7.9%). The average severity per FAQ deficit did not differ between patients with aMCI and controls; both were less impaired than patients with AD (P < .001). Two FAQ items (remembering appointments, family occasions, holidays, and medications; assembling tax records, business affairs, or other papers) were specific (0.95) in differentiating controls from the combined aMCI and AD groups (only 34.0% of patients with aMCI and 3.6% of patients with AD had no difficulty with these 2 items). The severity of FAQ deficits in the combined aMCI and AD group was associated with worse Trailmaking Test A scores and smaller hippocampal volumes (P < .001). Within the aMCI group, functionally intact individuals had greater hippocampal volumes and better Auditory Verbal Learning Test 30-minute delay and Trailmaking Test A (P < .001) scores compared with those with moderate or severe FAQ deficits. Patients with a high number of deficits were more likely to express the APOE ?4 allele (63.8%) compared with patients with no (46.8%) or few (48.4%) functional deficits. CONCLUSIONS Mild IADL deficits are common in individuals with aMCI and should be considered in MCI criteria. Two IADLs, remembering appointments, family occasions, holidays, and medications and assembling tax records, business affairs, or other papers, appear to be characteristic of clinically significant cognitive impairment. In patients with aMCI, impairment in memory and processing speed and greater medial temporal atrophy were associated with greater IADL deficits

Brown, Patrick J.; Devanand, D.P.; Liu, Xinhua; Caccappolo, Elise

2013-01-01

411

Adsorption of cobalt from aqueous solutions onto sepiolite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adsorption of Co(II) ions from aqueous sepiolite suspensions has been systematically investigated as a function of several variables including activation conditions, solid to liquid ratio, pH and temperature. The results are analyzed to identify the mechanism of cobalt uptake by sepiolite. Both abstraction and real adsorption isotherms were constructed to isolate the precipitation of cobalt from the real adsorption. Also,

M Kara; H Yuzer; E Sabah; M. S Celik

2003-01-01

412

Electroreduction in aqueous media, saturation of polycyclic aromatics. [Tetrabutylammonium hydroxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preparative cathodic reduction of anthracene and phenanthrene was investigated aiming at obtaining Birch-type products in aqueous solutions. Following previous reports, reductions were carried out using mercury pool cathodes and tetrabutylammonium electrolytes. Optimum conditions were found to involve tetrabutylammonium hydroxide as the electrolyte and water as the sole solvent. Reactions were carried out in a simple cell, using constant-current and

E. Kariv-Miller; R. I. Pacut

1986-01-01

413

Destruction of cyanide in aqueous waste by electrochemical oxidation.  

PubMed

A laboratory study was carried out by electrochemical oxidation to destroy cyanide in aqueous waste. The electrode used in this study was a triple oxide coated titanium based mesh type anode and a carbon cathode. Direct and indirect methods were both carried out at alkaline conditions and indirect oxidation method in the presence of chloride was found to be more efficient. PMID:14672374

Priya, Nisha; Palanivelu, Kandasamy

414

Nanofibrous architecture of silk fibroin scaffolds prepared with a mild self-assembly process.  

PubMed

Besides excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability, a useful tissue engineering scaffold should provide suitable macropores and nanofibrous structure, similar to extracellular matrix (ECM), to induce desired cellular activities and to guide tissue regeneration. In the present study, a mild process to prepare porous and nanofibrous silk-based scaffolds from aqueous solution is described. Using collagen to control the self-assembly of silk, nanofibrous silk scaffolds were firstly achieved through lyophilization. Water annealing was used to generate insolubility in the silk-based scaffolds, thereby avoiding the use of organic solvents. The nano-fibrils formed in the silk-collagen scaffolds had diameters of 20-100 nm, similar with native collagen in ECM. The silk-collagen scaffolds dissolved slowly in PBS solution, with about a 28% mass lost after 4 weeks. Following the dissolution or degradation, the nanofibrous structure inside the macropore walls emerged and interacted with cells directly. During in vitro cell culture, the nanofibrous silk-collagen scaffolds containing 7.4% collagen demonstrated significantly improved cell compatibility when compared with salt-leached silk scaffolds and silk-collagen scaffolds containing 20% collagen that emerged less nano-fibrils. Therefore, this new process provides useful scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. Furthermore, the process involves all-aqueous, room temperature and pressure processing without the use of toxic chemicals or solvents, offering new green chemistry approaches, as well as options to load bioactive drugs or growth factors into process. PMID:20970185

Lu, Qiang; Wang, Xiuli; Lu, Shenzhou; Li, Mingzhong; Kaplan, David L; Zhu, Hesun

2010-10-20

415

Mild pyrolysis of selectively oxidized coals. [Quarterly] technical report, March 1, 1992--May 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this study is to investigate the removal organic sulfur from selectively oxidized Illinois coals using mild thermal/chemical processes. Work completed this quarter primarily concerned the investigation of the desulfurization of the selectively oxidized coals using aqueous or alcoholic base mixtures. Model compound studies were initiated. Results were: Levels of desulfurization obtained in this study are at, or very close to, the 90% removal levels required for these coals to be in compliance with the Clean Air Act legislation; Up to 89.4% of the sulfur in the IBC 101 coal and 88.9% of the sulfur in the IBC 106 coal has been removed by combining selective oxidation and alcoholic/base reactions; Overall, selective oxidation pretreatment always led to a lower sulfur product than the untreated sample; Substantial enhancement in the reactivity of the sulfur in the coal has been achieved by the selective oxidation pretreatment; The highest levels of desulfurization obtained so far all involve bases as additives; The water/Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} combination, was superior than any of the aqueous hydroxide bases. Possible synergistic interactions between the alcohol and the base are suspected. Over 70% of the sulfur in the IBC 101 coal can be removed by performing vacuum pyrolysis on the selectively oxidized coal. Lower sulfur contents are obtained by lowing the pyrolysis pressure.

Hippo, E.J.; Palmer, S.R.

1992-10-01

416

Neurobehavioral aspects of postconcussive symptoms after mild head injury.  

PubMed

The sequelae of severe closed head injury have received much attention in the literature, but the effects of mild closed head injury (MHI) are less well established. There is a subgroup of patients who complain of persisting postconcussive symptoms (PCS) beyond the first weeks of recovery. Although the symptoms generally develop in the absence of clear neurological abnormalities, the condition of PCS can be chronic and disabling. It has been assumed that PCS result from an interaction between organic and psychological factors. Differentiating between the effect of primary neurological injury and secondary psychosocial problems is often difficult for clinicians and engenders controversy. Neuropsychological, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging measures can be helpful in selecting patients at risk of developing PCS. Assessment of the level of cognitive functioning, individual susceptibility to stress, and environmental demands may be beneficial in treating symptomatic patients. It is true that the vague and aspecific nature of the postconcussion syndrome may have given rise to the controversy over this entity, but the many methodological inconsistencies in the experimental approaches to the syndrome have certainly enhanced the confusion about this issue. The ensuing controversy surrounding research on the outcome of MHI and the postconcussion syndrome reflects ambiguities in definition, inconsistencies in criteria for patient selection, variation in procedures for neurobehavioral assessment, and difficulty in obtaining follow-up data. PMID:1431820

Bohnen, N; Jolles, J

1992-11-01

417

Organic acids enhance halogen activation on mildly acidic water surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iodine species of marine origin are ubiquitous in the marine boundary layer (MBL). They are found over the open ocean (even in the absence of biogenic sources), the Antarctic coast, in rain, aerosols, ice, and snow, and participate in HOx/NOx cycles in the MBL. Surface-active organic acids coating the surface marine microlayer (SML) and marine aerosols could affect their chemical/physical properties. Recent field measurements show that organic acids represent ˜50% of the mass of fog waters collected in the US Gulf Coast. Here we report that I2(g) emissions from the heterogeneous reactions of O3(g) with I- (aq) are dramatically enhanced in the presence of surface-active organic acids under mildly acidic condition that are typical of fine marine aerosols. The amphiphilic weak carboxylic acids appear to promote I2(g) emissions by donating the interfacial protons more efficiently than water itself. We infer that the organic acids coating aerosol particles ejected from ocean's surface films could enhance I2(g) production in the MBL.

Hayase, S.; Enami, S.; Yabushita, A.; Kawasaki, M.; Hoffmann, M. R.; Colussi, A. J.

2011-12-01

418

Neuropsychological features of mild cognitive impairment and preclinical Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Detectable cognitive decline occurs in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) well before the clinical diagnosis can be made with any certainty. Studies examining this preclinical period identify decline in episodic memory as the earliest manifestation of the disease (i.e., a condition of amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment). The episodic memory impairment is characterized by deficits in a number of processes including delayed recall, the recollective aspect of recognition memory, associative memory necessary for "binding" representations of two or more stimuli, pattern separation necessary to distinguish between two similar memory representations, prospective memory required to remember a delayed intention to act at a certain time in the future, and autobiographical memory for specific episodes that occurred in one's past. A growing body of evidence suggests that cognitive changes in preclinical AD may be more global in nature. Deterioration of semantic knowledge is evident on demanding naming and category fluency tasks, and "executive" dysfunction is apparent on tasks that require concurrent mental manipulation of information (e.g., working memory) or cue-directed behavior (e.g., set-shifting). Asymmetric cognitive test performance may also be apparent prior to significant decline in cognitive ability. The pattern and progression of these neuropsychological changes fit well with the proposed distribution and spread of AD pathology and serve as important cognitive markers of early disease. PMID:22042707

Salmon, David P

2012-01-01

419

Zwitterionic salts as mild organocatalysts for transesterification.  

PubMed

The exothermic reaction of 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl or 4-nitrophenyl isothiocyanate with 4-pyrrolidinopyridine (PPY) gave the corresponding arylaminothiocarbonylpyridinium salts in quantitative yields. These novel zwitterionic salts were effective as organocatalysts for the transesterification reaction of an equimolar mixture of methyl carboxylates and alcohols in hydrocarbons such as heptane and octane under azeotropic reflux conditions with the removal of methanol. In sharp contrast, PPY was inert as a catalyst under the same reaction conditions. PMID:18442240

Ishihara, Kazuaki; Niwa, Masatoshi; Kosugi, Yuji

2008-04-29

420

Neuropsychological outcome from uncomplicated mild, complicated mild, and moderate traumatic brain injury in US military personnel.  

PubMed

This study compared the neuropsychological outcome in military personnel following mild-to-moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI). Participants were 83 service members divided into three injury severity groups: uncomplicated mild TBI (MTBI; n = 24), complicated MTBI (n = 17), and moderate TBI (n = 42). Participants were evaluated within 6 months following injury (73% within 3 months) using neurocognitive testing and the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI). There were no significant differences between the three groups on the majority of neurocognitive measures. Similarly, there were no significant differences between the three groups on the majority of PAI clinical scales (all p > .05), with the exception of two scales. The uncomplicated MTBI group had significantly higher scores on the Anxiety-Related Disorders and Aggression scales compared with the complicated MTBI group, but not the moderate TBI group. Overall, these results suggest that within the first 6 months post injury, there were few detectable differences in the neuropsychological outcome following uncomplicated MTBI, complicated MTBI, or moderate TBI in this military sample. PMID:22766317

Lange, Rael T; Brickell, Tracey A; French, Louis M; Merritt, Victoria C; Bhagwat, Aditya; Pancholi, Sonal; Iverson, Grant L

2012-07-05

421

Two types of metal fume fever: Mild vs. serious  

SciTech Connect

Some physicians recognize the mild form of Metal Fume Fever (MFF); few recognize MFF's serious form. Mild MFF is self-limited and is caused by inhaling metal oxide fumes. Serious MFF may be life-threatening and is caused by inhalation of military smoke. Initial manifestations of the two forms are similar but their pathophysiologies and managements are different. Mild MFF patients recover within 48 hours and rarely require hospitalization. Serious MFF symptoms remit but may relapse 24 to 48 hours later with significant morbidity and mortality. Serious MFF patients require admission for observation. Military physicians need to differentiate these forms of MFF.26 references.

Blount, B.W. (Madigan Army Medical Center, Tacoma, WA (USA))

1990-08-01

422

The efficacy of biobehavioral and compliance interventions in the adjunctive treatment of mild pregnancy-induced hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation assessed the efficacy of a biobehavioral intervention in the adjunctive treatment of mild pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), a potentially serious complication of pregnancy in which normotensive women develop hypertension, proteinuria, and edema of unknown etiology late in gestation. Forty-five women with symptoms of PIH were randomly assigned to one of three treatment conditions: bed rest alone (the most common

Peter J. Somers; Richard N. Gevirtz; Susan E. Jasin; Homer G. Chin

1989-01-01

423

DABCO-triggered mild cascade reaction of electron-deficient cyclopentadienone: facile and efficient synthesis of condensed carbocycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

2,5-Bis(methoxycarbonyl)-3,4-diphenylcyclopentadienone (1) reacts with 4-phenylbut-3-yn-2-one (2b) in the presence of DABCO to give the bicyclic carbocycles (6b) and the tetracyclic carbocycle (7b) under extremely mild reaction conditions.

Koki Yamguchi; Masashi Eto; Kenta Higashi; Yasuyuki Yoshitake; Kazunobu Harano

2011-01-01

424

[Extraction of alpha-cypermethrin from aqueous methanol solutions].  

PubMed

Alpha cypermethrin was extracted from aqueous methanol solutions using hydrophobic organic solvents. The efficiency of extraction was shown to depend on the chemical nature of the solvent, the water to methanol ratio, and saturation of the aqueous methanol layer with an electrolyte. Optimal extraction of alpha-cypermethrin was achieved using toluene as the solvent under desalinization conditions. The extraction factor for the removal of the sought amount of alpha-cypermethrin from the water-methanol solution (4:1) using various solvents was calculated. PMID:20734789

Shormanov, V K; Chigareva, E N; Belousova, O V

425

Converting sugars to sugar alcohols by aqueous phase catalytic hydrogenation  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a method of converting sugars to their corresponding sugar alcohols by catalytic hydrogenation in the aqueous phase. It has been found that surprisingly superior results can be obtained by utilizing a relatively low temperature (less than 120.degree. C.), selected hydrogenation conditions, and a hydrothermally stable catalyst. These results include excellent sugar conversion to the desired sugar alcohol, in combination with long life under hydrothermal conditions.

Elliott, Douglas C. (Richland, WA); Werpy, Todd A. (West Richland, WA); Wang, Yong (Richland, WA); Frye, Jr., John G. (Richland, WA)

2003-05-27

426

EEG and postural correlates of mild traumatic brain injury in athletes.  

PubMed

Mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI), or concussion, is one of the least understood injuries facing the neuroscience and sports medicine community today. The notion of transient dysfunction and rapid symptom resolution is misleading since symptom resolution is not indicative of injury resolution. Our working hypothesis is that there are residual postural and EEG abnormalities in concussed individuals that could be reliably assessed using appropriate research methodology. This paper presents combined postural and electroencephalographic (EEG) findings suggesting the persistent functional deficits in athletes suffering from MTBI. Twelve concussed athletes and twelve normal controls participated in the study. There was a decrease in EEG power in all bandwidths studied in concussed subjects, especially in standing postures. This was accompanied by sustained postural instability especially under the no vision testing condition. Overall, this study demonstrated the presence of long-term functional abnormalities in individuals suffering from mild traumatic brain injury. PMID:15755518

Thompson, James; Sebastianelli, Wayne; Slobounov, Semyon

2004-12-22

427

Mild intellectual disability associated with a progeny of father-daughter incest: genetic and environmental considerations.  

PubMed

We report the case of a 34-year-old female resulting from a father-daughter sexual abuse and presenting a phenotype of mild intellectual disability with minor dysmorphic features. Karyotyping showed a normal 46, XX constitution. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) revealed a heterozygote 320kb 6p22.3 microdeletion in the proband, encompassing only one known gene, and therefore unlikely to be the cause of the phenotype. However, the role of other genetic factors, such as a recessive condition, could not be ruled out as a putative cause for the phenotype. On the other hand, the role played by a heavily detrimental familial situation on the development and outcome, and possibly leading or contributing to a mild intellectual disability, should be taken into account. PMID:20509080

Ansermet, Francois; Lespinasse, James; Gimelli, Stefania; Béna, Frédérique; Paoloni-Giacobino, Ariane

2010-05-01

428

Lithium intercalation from aqueous solutions  

SciTech Connect

Lithium can be intercalated into a wide variety of materials using nonaqueous electrochemical cells. The use of aqueous methods is less common because of the reactivity of many lithium intercalation compounds with water. Here the authors show that lithium can be intercalated into host compounds from aqueous LiOH solution, provided the chemical potential of the intercalated lithium is sufficiently lower than the chemical potential of lithium in lithium metal. Using LiMn[sub 2]O[sub 4] as the host, the authors formed Li[sub 2]Mn[sub 2]O[sub 4] by intercalating Li from LiOH solution in an aqueous cell. This method may prove to be an economical way of preparing lithium transition metal oxides with high lithium contents for lithium-ion cell cathodes.

Li, W.; Dahn, J.R. (Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada). Dept. of Physics); McKinnon, W.R. (National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Inst. of Microstructural Sciences)

1994-09-01

429

QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF AQUEOUS SPECIES USING RAMAN SPECTROMETRY AND EQUILIBRIUM MODEL CALCULATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

An analytical approach of quantifying various chemical species, using Raman spectrometry in conjunction with equilibrium modeling, has been tested on aqueous solutions containing Nd, Cu, and dipicolinic acid. Equilibrium modeling was used to select optimum conditions in simple so...

430

Electrolytic Deposition of Molybdenum Oxide from Aqueous Solutions at Room Temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conditions of electrolytic deposition of molybdenum oxide from aqueous solutions at room temperature were studied and the optimal parameters of electrolysis, which provide deposits with necessary physical and structural characteristics, were chosen.

V. M. Nagirnyi; R. D. Apostolova; A. S. Baskevich

2004-01-01

431

Intramolecular Heck-type reactions in aqueous medium. Dramatic change in regioselectivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficient intramolecular Heck-type cyclizations were carried out in aqueous medium using water-soluble Pd\\/TPPTS catalysts. Under these conditions, the generally observed exo process was reversed in favor of the regioselective formation of endo cyclized compounds.

Sandrine Lemaire-Audoire; Monique Savignac; Christophe Dupuis; Jean-Pierre Genêt

1996-01-01

432

Cyclopentadienyl-silsesquioxane titanium complexes: highly active catalysts for epoxidation of alkenes with aqueous hydrogen peroxide.  

PubMed

Titanium complexes bearing an unprecedented tridentate cyclopentadienyl-silsesquioxanate ligand provide a new class of efficient and selective catalysts for epoxidation of olefins with aqueous hydrogen peroxide under homogeneous conditions. PMID:22594950

Ventura, María; Mosquera, Marta E G; Cuenca, Tomás; Royo, Beatriz; Jiménez, Gerardo

2012-05-17

433

The Deformation and Fracture of Mild Steel Charpy Specimens.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A qualitative analysis of the deformation mechanism of mild steel Charpy specimens in slow three-point bending is deduced from observations of plastic strain patterns revealed by Fry's reagent, and also geometrical changes in shape. The plastic strains ar...

T. R. Wilshaw

1966-01-01

434

Galvanic Corrosion of Mild Steel When Coupled to Other Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Corrosion rates of mild steel when coupled to each of 31 other metals and alloys were determined. Environments studied include industrial, rural and marine atmospheres, natural water and sea water. Rank orders of corrosion rates for each environment were ...

K. E. Johnson J. S. Abbott

1973-01-01

435

ADHD Symptoms in Children With Mild Intellectual Disability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:To determine whether the nature and correlates of attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms are different in subjects with mild intellectual disability (ID) compared to subjects with average ability.

EMILY SIMONOFF; ANDREW PICKLES; NICKY WOOD; PAUL GRINGRAS; OLIVER CHADWICK

2007-01-01

436

ENCOAL mild coal gasification project public design and construction report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Public Design Report describes the 1000 ton per day ENCOAL mild coal gasification demonstration plant now in operation at the Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The objective of the project is to demonstrate that the proprietary Liquids From Coal ...

1994-01-01

437

Characterizing and modeling combustion of mild-gasification chars in pressurized fluidized beds  

SciTech Connect

Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is supported by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the Department of Energy (DOE) under FWP-FEAA310 to characterize the fuel properties of liquid and char coproducts from the mild gasification of coal, Because most of the energy content of coals subjected to mild gasification is retained in the byproduct char, efficient and cost-effective utilization of the char is essential in insuring that candidate gasification processes are commercially viable. One potential use for char of particular interest to DOE is pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC). PFBC is of particular interest because it has the potential for 10 to 30 percent greater overall energy efficiency than atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC), While bench-scale tools and analytical procedures for characterizing fuels for AFBC have been recently demonstrated, no such tools have been reliably demonstrated for PFBC. This report summarizes the results of joint research collaboration between ORNL and B&W that has been directed at modifying the previously developed AFBC fuel characterization procedures to be applicable for mild-gasification chars and PFBC conditions. The specific objectives were to: (1) characterize the combustion reactivity of a selected set of candidate mild- gasification chars at PFB conditions; (2) compare the measured char characteristics with those of more conventional PFBC fuels; (3) modify an AFBC computer code previously developed by B&W and ORNL for the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to predict PFBC performance; and (4) apply the modified code and measured char combustion characteristics to make performance predictions for the candidate chars relative to more conventional fuels.

Daw, C.S.

1995-10-01

438

Aqueous Solutions and their Interfaces  

SciTech Connect

Preface of the special issue of the Journal of Physical Chemistry in conjunction with the international workshop "Aqueous Solutions and their Interfaces". The topics include the structure of liquid water, the analysis of X-ray and neutron scattering experimental data, the vibrational spectroscopy of liquid water, the structure and spectroscopy of aqueous interfaces and the development of theoretical approaches to model the structure and spectra of liquid water and interfaces. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Chemical Sciences program. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for DOE.

Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Voth, Gregory A.

2009-04-02

439

Polypyrrole films from aqueous electrolytes  

SciTech Connect

Thick, 3-14 mil, free-standing polypyrrole films incorporating a large variety of anion ''dopants'' were anodically deposited from aqueous electrolytes. Four-point probe conductivity and x-ray diffraction measurements were made and compared. Aromatic and very large amphiphilic sulfonate dopants provided the highest conductivities (up to 120 S cm/sup -1/), stabilities, mechanical properties, and apparent order. The dodecylbenesulfonate system was the most stable, being unaffected by even concentrated aqueous ammonia. A qualitative voltammetric technique which probes the relative order in as-deposited thin films is introduced.

Warren, L.F.; Anderson, D.P.

1987-01-01

440

Non-aqueous primary cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This patent application relates to electrochemical cells and especially to high-energy, liquid cathode, non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cells free from highly toxic materials. A non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell is described which includes a halocarbon cathode depolarizer which is 1,2-dichloroethane, 1.1,2-trichloroethane, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, 1,2-dichloro-1,1-difluoroethane or mixtures thereof and a cathode catalyst which is copper, rhodium, palladium, cobalt phthalocyanine, nickel phthalocyanine, iron phthalocyanine, a cobalt tetraaza-(14)-annulene, a nickel tetraaza-(14)-annulene, a iron tetraaza-(14)-annulene, a cobalt porphyrin, a nickel porphyrin, a iron porphyrin, or a mixture thereof.

James, S. D.; Smith, P. H.; Oneill, K. M.; Wilson, M. H.

1986-05-01

441

Aqueous slurries of carbonaceous materials  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous carbonaceous slurries having reduced viscosity, a stabilized network of carbonaceous material in water and improved pumpability are obtained by having present a salt of naphthalenesulfonic acid formaldehyde condensate and at least one water soluble polymer selected from the group consisting of sodium alginate, guar gum, locust bean gum, carboxymethylhydroxypropyl guar gum, hydroxypropyl guar gum and guarpak guar gum. For example, a mixture of 96.8% by weight of ammonium naphthalenesulfonic acid formaldehyde condensate and 3.2% by weight of sodium alginate can be added to an aqueous coal slurry in an amount of 0.31% by weight of the slurry.

Schick, M.J.; Knitter, K.A.

1984-03-13

442

NMR Studies on the Aqueous Phase Photochemical Degradation of TNT  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous phase photochemical degradation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) is an important pathway in several environments, including washout lagoon soils, impact craters from partially detonated munitions that fill with rain or groundwater, and shallow marine environments containing unexploded munitions that have corroded. Knowledge of the degradation products is necessary for compliance issues on military firing ranges and formerly used defense sites. Previous laboratory studies have indicated that UV irradiation of aqueous TNT solutions results in a multicomponent product mixture, including polymerization compounds, that has been only partially resolved by mass spectrometric analyses. This study illustrates how a combination of solid and liquid state 1H, 13C, and 15N NMR spectroscopy, including two dimensional analyses, provides complementary information on the total product mixture from aqueous photolysis of TNT, and the effect of reaction conditions. Among the degradation products detected were amine, amide, azoxy, azo, and carboxylic acid compounds.

Thorn, Kevin A.; Cox, Larry G.

2008-04-06

443

Aqueous Corrosion Rates for Waste Package Materials  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this analysis, as directed by ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]), is to compile applicable corrosion data from the literature (journal articles, engineering documents, materials handbooks, or standards, and national laboratory reports), evaluate the quality of these data, and use these to perform statistical analyses and distributions for aqueous corrosion rates of waste package materials. The purpose of this report is not to describe the performance of engineered barriers for the TSPA-LA. Instead, the analysis provides simple statistics on aqueous corrosion rates of steels and alloys. These rates are limited by various aqueous parameters such as temperature (up to 100 C), water type (i.e., fresh versus saline), and pH. Corrosion data of materials at pH extremes (below 4 and above 9) are not included in this analysis, as materials commonly display different corrosion behaviors under these conditions. The exception is highly corrosion-resistant materials (Inconel Alloys) for which rate data from corrosion tests at a pH of approximately 3 were included. The waste package materials investigated are those from the long and short 5-DHLW waste packages, 2-MCO/2-DHLW waste package, and the 21-PWR commercial waste package. This analysis also contains rate data for some of the materials present inside the fuel canisters for the following fuel types: U-Mo (Fermi U-10%Mo), MOX (FFTF), Thorium Carbide and Th/U Carbide (Fort Saint Vrain [FSVR]), Th/U Oxide (Shippingport LWBR), U-metal (N Reactor), Intact U-Oxide (Shippingport PWR, Commercial), aluminum-based, and U-Zr-H (TRIGA). Analysis of corrosion rates for Alloy 22, spent nuclear fuel, defense high level waste (DHLW) glass, and Titanium Grade 7 can be found in other analysis or model reports.

S. Arthur

2004-10-08

444

Apolipoprotein E Polymorphism and Brain Morphology in Mild Cognitive Impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotype has been confirmed as the major genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD). How the ApoE genotype and brain morphology relate to each other is only partly understood, particularly in mild cognitive impairment, the assumed prestage of AD. Methods: A total of 83 subjects with mild cognitive impairment (aging-associated cognitive decline criteria) were

Philipp A. Thomann; Ann-Sophie Roth; Vasco Dos Santos; Pablo Toro; Marco Essig; Johannes Schröder

2008-01-01

445

Conversational Competence and Peer Response to Mildly Retarded Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the relationship between mildly retarded children’s conversational competence and their acceptance by regular education students. Ninety-four elementary school students watched videotapes in which mildly retarded children displayed either skill or lack of skill at conversational management. Half of the students were told the retarded children’s special education placement; half were not. Students responded more positively when the

Lowry Hemphill; Gary N. Siperstein

1990-01-01

446

Slight\\/Mild Sensorineural Hearing Loss in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE.The goal was to determine the prevalence and effects of slight\\/mild bilateral sensorineural hearing loss among children in elementary school. METHODS.A cross-sectional, cluster-sample survey of 6581 children (response: 85%; grade 1: n 3367; grade 5: n 3214) in 89 schools in Melbourne, Australia, was performed. Slight\\/mild bilateral sensorineural hearing loss was defined as a low- frequency pure-tone average across 0.5,

Melissa Wake; Sherryn Tobin; Barbara Cone-Wesson; Hans-Henrik Dahl; Lynn Gillam; Lisa McCormick; Zeffie Poulakis; Field W. Rickards; Kerryn Saunders; Obioha C. Ukoumunne; Joanne Williams

2010-01-01

447

[The electrocardiogram of patients with mild craniocerebral trauma].  

PubMed

The authors analyze 236 electrocardiograms in 1343 patients of young and middle age with mild head injuries. The Minnesota code was used in the analysis of the electrocardiograms. It was found that mild craniocerebral trauma causes diffuse changes in the cardiac muscle. The character and degree of these changes are not homogeneous. The dynamics of the number of coded signs and their ratios were used to evaluate the functional state of the vegetative nervous system. PMID:2629287

Polishchuk, N E; Nasalik, B G; Skliar, A A

1989-12-01

448

Johnson - Cook Strength Models for Mild and DP 590 Steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automotive steels, Mild and Dual Phase590 (DP590) are characterized in tension at room temperature, using the quasi-static and split Hopkinson bar techniques at various strain rates ranging from ~10-3\\/s to ~1800\\/s. Tension stress-strain data for both the steels are analyzed to determine the Johnson-Cook Strength model constants, J-C strength model constants for mild steel are A=217 MPa, B = 234

K. Vedantam; D. Bajaj; N. S. Brar; S. Hill

2006-01-01

449

Corrosion inhibition of mild steel by natural product compound  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corrosion inhibition of mild steel in H3PO4 containing chloride or sulphate ions have been studied using different electrochemical techniques. The corrosion and hydrogen evolution of mild steel alloy in 2M H3PO4 acid containing 0.5M NaCl can be effectively inhibited by addition of natural product compound, Thymol (IPMP), of different concentrations. However, in 2M H3PO4 containing 0.5M Na2SO4 corrosion cannot be

M. A. Ameer; A. M. Fekry

2011-01-01

450

Utility of the UFOV test with mild traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

Driving skills are socially important, easily disrupted by brain injury, and potentially risky and difficult to evaluate afterward. The Useful Field of View test has seen successful use with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), but its use with mild TBI victims has not been examined. This study shows its ecological insensitivity among persons with mild TBI or no impairment and suggests its use be limited to more severely impaired persons. PMID:16131340

Schneider, Jeffrey J; Gouvier, Wm Drew